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Sample records for eu brain drain

  1. A cycle of brain gain, waste and drain - a qualitative study of non-EU migrant doctors in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ireland is heavily reliant on non-EU migrant health workers to staff its health system. Shortages of locally trained health workers and policies which facilitate health worker migration have contributed to this trend. This paper provides insight into the experiences of non-EU migrant doctors in the Irish health workforce. Method In-depth interviews were conducted with 37 non-EU migrant doctors in Ireland in 2011/2012. Results Respondents believed they had been recruited to fill junior hospital doctor ‘service’ posts. These posts are unpopular with locally trained doctors due to the limited career progression they provide. Respondents felt that their hopes for career progression and postgraduate training in Ireland had gone unrealised and that they were becoming de-skilled. As a result, most respondents were actively considering onward migration from Ireland. Discussion & conclusions Failure to align the expectations of non-EU migrant doctors with the requirements of the health system has resulted in considerable frustration and a cycle of brain gain, waste and drain. The underlying reasons for high mobility into and out of the Irish medical workforce must be addressed if this cycle is to be broken. The heavy reliance on non-EU migrant doctors to staff the medical workforce has distracted from the underlying workforce challenges facing the Irish medical workforce. PMID:24321432

  2. Plumbing the brain drain.

    PubMed Central

    Saravia, Nancy Gore; Miranda, Juan Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Opportunity is the driving force of migration. Unsatisfied demands for higher education and skills, which have been created by the knowledge-based global economy, have generated unprecedented opportunities in knowledge-intensive service industries. These multi-trillion dollar industries include information, communication, finance, business, education and health. The leading industrialized nations are also the focal points of knowledge-intensive service industries and as such constitute centres of research and development activity that proactively draw in talented individuals worldwide through selective immigration policies, employment opportunities and targeted recruitment. Higher education is another major conduit of talent from less-developed countries to the centres of the knowledge-based global economy. Together career and educational opportunities drive "brain drain and recirculation". The departure of a large proportion of the most competent and innovative individuals from developing nations slows the achievement of the critical mass needed to generate the enabling context in which knowledge creation occurs. To favourably modify the asymmetric movement and distribution of global talent, developing countries must implement bold and creative strategies that are backed by national policies to: provide world-class educational opportunities, construct knowledge-based research and development industries, and sustainably finance the required investment for these strategies. Brazil, China and India have moved in this direction, offering world-class education in areas crucial to national development, such as biotechnology and information technology, paralleled by investments in research and development. As a result, only a small proportion of the most highly educated individuals migrate from these countries, and research and development opportunities employ national talent and even attract immigrants. PMID:15375451

  3. Brain Drain--A Great Historical Asset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punke, Harold H.

    1969-01-01

    The most fruitful place for a creative person to work is where he has the most helpful equipment, most stimulating associates, and most general satisfaction. Hence, brain power mobility must be fostered, not restricted. Mobility and drain into fertile locations are key elements in the development of world brain power. (Author/AP)

  4. Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty. Poverty Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damron, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty," released in March 2015 and prepared by intern Neil Damron, explores the brain's basic anatomy and recent research findings suggesting that poverty affects the brain development of infants and young children and the potential lifelong effects of the changes. The sheet draws from a variety of…

  5. China's Response to the Brain Drain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broaded, C. Montgomery

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the determinants of international migration by college students and scholars from developing nations and the responses of various governments to the "brain drain." Examines how the Chinese government is using mass media to encourage Chinese students and scholars abroad to "complete their studies and return home." (SV)

  6. The Brain Drain: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chathaparampil, Joseph

    1970-01-01

    Examined are some available statistics on the problem of the brain drain from developing nations to the United States, the result of interviews with seven urban educated Indian students at American universities, and some possible steps that could halt the trend. (Author/CJ)

  7. Roundtable. Strategies to discourage brain drain.

    PubMed Central

    Kupfer, Linda; Hofman, Karen; Jarawan, Raya; McDermott, Jeanne; Bridbord, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Building health research expertise in developing countries often requires personnel to receive training beyond national borders. For research funding agencies that sponsor this type of training, a major goal is to ensure that trainees return to their country of origin: attaining this objective requires the use of proactive strategies. The strategies described were developed under the extramural acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) International Training and Research Program (AITRP) funded by the Fogarty International Center (FIC) at the National Institutes of Health, United States. This programme supports universities in the United States that provide research training to scientists from developing countries to enable them to address the global epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS and the related tuberculosis (TB) epidemic. This paper describes the strategies employed to discourage brain drain by the principle investigators (PIs) of five of the longest-funded AITRPs (funded for 15 years). Long-term trainees in these programmes spent from 11 to 96 months (an average of 26 months) studying. Using scientific, political and economic strategies that address brain drain issues, PIs working in AITRPs have attained an average rate of return home for their trainees of 80%. PMID:15375452

  8. Anomie and the "Brain Drain": A Sociological Explanation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    The concept of anomie is proposed as one sociological variable that may explain the "brain drain" phenomenon (i.e., the movement of highly qualified personnel from their country of origin to another, most often a more developed, technologically advanced country). It is hypothesized that the higher the level of anomie found among professionally…

  9. Moving Policy Forward: "Brain Drain" as a Wicked Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    The mobility of scientists and the concerns surrounding "brain drain" are not new. Even in the Ptolemic dynasty, the first king set out to attract and influence the movements of scholars to shift the centre of learning from Athens to Alexandria. Yet after all this time, there is still much policy discourse and debate focused on attempting to…

  10. Diasporic and Discursive Eruptions in the New Zealand Brain Drain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Human and social capital discourses attempt to explain New Zealand's brain drain. Solutions related to each discourse involve offering incentives for returning or creating links so that expatriates can contribute to their homeland from abroad. Establishing such "diaspora networks" might be the role of adult education. (Contains 43 references.) (SK)

  11. Report of the WPA Task Force on Brain Drain

    PubMed Central

    GUREJE, OYE; HOLLINS, SHEILA; BOTBOL, MICHEL; JAVED, AFZAL; JORGE, MIGUE; OKECH, VIOLET; RIBA, MICHELLE; TRIVEDI, JITENDRA; SARTORIUS, NORMAN; JENKINS, RACHEL

    2009-01-01

    The brain drain of health professionals is an issue of continuing interest and debate. The WPA set up a Task Force to examine the phenomenon as it relates specifically to mental health professionals. This report provides a description of the work of the Task Force and its recommendations in regard to how the WPA might act to help address the issue PMID:19516936

  12. Does State Merit-Based Aid Stem Brain Drain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liang; Ness, Erik C.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors use college enrollment and migration data to test the brain drain hypothesis. Their results suggest that state merit scholarship programs do indeed stanch the migration of "best and brightest" students to other states. In the aggregate and on average, the implementation of state merit aid programs increases the total…

  13. An economic perspective on Malawi's medical "brain drain"

    PubMed Central

    Record, Richard; Mohiddin, Abdu

    2006-01-01

    Background The medical "brain drain" has been described as rich countries "looting" doctors and nurses from developing countries undermining their health systems and public health. However this "brain-drain" might also be seen as a success in the training and "export" of health professionals and the benefits this provides. This paper illustrates the arguments and possible policy options by focusing on the situation in one of the poorest countries in the world, Malawi. Discussion Many see this "brain drain" of medical staff as wrong with developed countries exploiting poorer ones. The effects are considerable with Malawi facing high vacancy rates in its public health system, and with migration threatening to outstrip training despite efforts to improve pay and conditions. This shortage of staff has made it more challenging for Malawi to deliver on its Essential Health Package and to absorb new international health funding. Yet, without any policy effort Malawi has been able to demonstrate its global competitiveness in the training ("production") of skilled health professionals. Remittances from migration are a large and growing source of foreign exchange for poor countries and tend to go directly to households. Whilst the data for Malawi is limited, studies from other poor countries demonstrate the power of remittances in significantly reducing poverty. Malawi can benefit from the export of health professionals provided there is a resolution of the situation whereby the state pays for training and the benefits are gained by the individual professional working abroad. Solutions include migrating staff paying back training costs, or rich host governments remitting part of a tax (e.g. income or national insurance) to the Malawi government. These schemes would allow Malawi to scale up training of health professionals for local needs and to work abroad. Summary There is concern about the negative impacts of the medical "brain-drain". However a closer look at the evidence

  14. India: 'brain drain' or the migration of talent?

    PubMed

    Oommen, T K

    1989-09-01

    2 views on "brain drain" exist: 1) LDCs lose their enormous investments on higher education when skilled people migrate to other countries and 2) LDCs are exaggerating the problem and only a few skilled people migrate at 1 time. India does not completely lose its investment in education when professionals migrate, since the migrants still contribute to knowledge and also send remittances to relatives in India. Unemployed educated people would cause a greater drain on India's resources than educated migrants. The author prefers the phrase migration of talent to brain drain, since the former indicates a 2-way movement. Most migrants from LDCs are students. About 11,000 university graduates leave India every year for advanced study and/or work. A conservative estimate is that 2500 will remain abroad permanently. Most professionals who migrate go to the US and Canada. Factors promoting migration include 1) unemployment, 2) immigration rules, 3) colonial links, 4) financial incentives and material benefits, 5) pursuit of higher education, 6) improvement of working conditions and facilities, 7) avoidance of excessive bureaucratic procedures, and 8) compensation for the mismatch between Indian education and employment. Reasons for returning to India include 1) deference to wives who were unable to adjust to a foreign way of life, 2) contributing to Indian development, and 3) racial discrimination. It will probably not be possible to lure back migrants who left for material reasons. Attractive job offers could entice back those who left for advanced training. To encourage the return of those who left to pursue high quality research, India must 1) increase expenditure on research and development, possibly through the private industrial sector, 2) promote travel to other countries for professional enrichment, and 3) improve conditions of research work. The article concludes with an analysis of migration of talent from 3 perspectives: 1) the individual, 2) the nation

  15. Reverse brain drain in South Korea: state-led model.

    PubMed

    Yoon, B L

    1992-01-01

    Korea's reverse brain drain (RBD) has been an organized government effort, rather than a spontaneous social phenomenon, in that various policies and the political support of President Park, Chung-Hee were instrumental in laying the groundwork for its success. Particular features of Korea's RBD policies are the creation of a conducive domestic environment (i.e., government-sponsored strategic R & D institution-building, legal, and administrative reforms), and importantly, the empowerment of returnees (via, i.e., exceptionally good maternal benefits, guarantees of research autonomy). President Park played the cardinal role in empowering repatriates at the expense of his own civil bureaucracy, and his capacity for such patronage derived from Korea's bureaucratic-authoritarian political system. Returning scientists and engineers directly benefitted from this political system as well as Park's personal guardianship. For Park, empowerment of returning "brains" was necessary to accomplish his national industrialization plan, thereby enhancing his political legitimacy in domestic politics. An alliance with the R & D cadre was functionally necessary to successfully consolidate strong presidential power, and politically nonthreatening due to the particular form of "pact of domination" in Korea's power structure. RBD in Korea will continue in the near future given Korea's drive for high technology, and the remarkable expansion of local industrial and educational sectors. Korea's future RBD, however, needs to pay closer attention to the following 4 problems: research autonomy; equality issues; skill-based repatriation of technicians and engineers rather than Ph.Ds; and subsidies to small and medium industry for RBD. PMID:12285392

  16. The New China Syndrome: Delayed Return as a Viable Alternative to the "Brain Drain" Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Paul

    This paper examines the "brain drain" phenomenon particularly in the context of Chinese students studying in the United States and the People's Republic of China's attempts to respond. An opening section critiques the "brain drain" notion arguing that it is an inadequate construct for the actual flow of personnel and ideas between industrialized…

  17. Beyond Brain Drain: The Dynamics of Geographic Mobility and Educational Attainment of B.C. Young Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andres, Lesley; Licker, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, the topic of "brain drain" has gained considerable attention, both in public and intellectual spheres. Despite the media frenzy, few data sets and related studies exist to examine the nature and extent to which brain drain occurs. The purpose of this study is to extend the scope of the way we think about "brain drain," both…

  18. The cost of health professionals' brain drain in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kirigia, Joses Muthuri; Gbary, Akpa Raphael; Muthuri, Lenity Kainyu; Nyoni, Jennifer; Seddoh, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Background Past attempts to estimate the cost of migration were limited to education costs only and did not include the lost returns from investment. The objectives of this study were: (i) to estimate the financial cost of emigration of Kenyan doctors to the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States of America (USA); (ii) to estimate the financial cost of emigration of nurses to seven OECD countries (Canada, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Portugal, UK, USA); and (iii) to describe other losses from brain drain. Methods The costs of primary, secondary, medical and nursing schools were estimated in 2005. The cost information used in this study was obtained from one non-profit primary and secondary school and one public university in Kenya. The cost estimates represent unsubsidized cost. The loss incurred by Kenya through emigration was obtained by compounding the cost of educating a medical doctor and a nurse over the period between the average age of emigration (30 years) and the age of retirement (62 years) in recipient countries. Results The total cost of educating a single medical doctor from primary school to university is US$ 65,997; and for every doctor who emigrates, a country loses about US$ 517,931 worth of returns from investment. The total cost of educating one nurse from primary school to college of health sciences is US$ 43,180; and for every nurse that emigrates, a country loses about US$ 338,868 worth of returns from investment. Conclusion Developed countries continue to deprive Kenya of millions of dollars worth of investments embodied in her human resources for health. If the current trend of poaching of scarce human resources for health (and other professionals) from Kenya is not curtailed, the chances of achieving the Millennium Development Goals would remain bleak. Such continued plunder of investments embodied in human resources contributes to further underdevelopment of Kenya and to keeping a majority of her people in the vicious circle of ill

  19. Reverse Brain Drain of South Asian IT Professionals: A Quantitative Repatriation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppiah, Nithiyananthan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present quantitative correlational study was to examine if a relationship existed between the RBD phenomenon and cultural, economic, or political factors of the native countries of South Asian IT professionals living in the United States. The study on reverse brain drain was conducted to explore a growing phenomenon in the…

  20. Quality Education Improvement: Yemen and the Problem of the "Brain Drain"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthanna, Abdulghani

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the problems that hinder improvement of the quality of education in Yemen, with a particular focus on higher education institutions. It discusses in particular the problem of the brain drain and why this phenomenon is occurring in Yemen. Semi-structured interviews with three professors at higher education…

  1. The Brain Drain in Mexico--A Subject for Research...or Agenda?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aupetit, Sylvie Didou

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyse the present state of the discussion and data regarding the brain drain in Mexico. From current data, recent trends show certain peculiarities in the national picture, pointing to an increase in the number of free movers, and a decrease in the number of young people who obtain Mexican government…

  2. Academic Brain Drain: Impact and Implications for Public Higher Education Quality in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odhiambo, George O.

    2013-01-01

    The flight of human capital is a phenomenon that has been of concern to academics and development practitioners for decades. Unfortunately, there is no systematic record of the number of skilled professionals that many African countries have continued to lose to the developed world. Termed the "brain drain", it represents the loss of…

  3. Restructuring brain drain: strengthening governance and financing for health worker migration

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Tim K.; Liang, Bryan A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Health worker migration from resource-poor countries to developed countries, also known as ‘‘brain drain’’, represents a serious global health crisis and a significant barrier to achieving global health equity. Resource-poor countries are unable to recruit and retain health workers for domestic health systems, resulting in inadequate health infrastructure and millions of dollars in healthcare investment losses. Methods Using acceptable methods of policy analysis, we first assess current strategies aimed at alleviating brain drain and then propose our own global health policy based solution to address current policy limitations. Results Although governments and private organizations have tried to address this policy challenge, brain drain continues to destabilise public health systems and their populations globally. Most importantly, lack of adequate financing and binding governance solutions continue to fail to prevent health worker brain drain. Conclusions In response to these challenges, the establishment of a Global Health Resource Fund in conjunction with an international framework for health worker migration could create global governance for stable funding mechanisms encourage equitable migration pathways, and provide data collection that is desperately needed. PMID:23336617

  4. Physicians' brain drain in Greece: a perspective on the reasons why and how to address it.

    PubMed

    Ifanti, Amalia A; Argyriou, Andreas A; Kalofonou, Foteini H; Kalofonos, Haralabos P

    2014-08-01

    This review study explores the "brain drain" currently evident amongst physicians in Greece, which is closely linked to the country's severe financial woes. In particular, it shows that the Greek healthcare labour market offers few opportunities and thus physicians are forsaking their homeland to seek jobs abroad. The main causes generating or greatly inflating the brain drain of Greek physicians are unemployment, job insecurity, income reduction, over-taxation, together with limited budgets for research institutes. It is argued that, to stop the evolving mass exodus of skilled medical staff, policy-makers should implement fiscal and human-centred approaches, thoroughly safeguarding both the right of skilled Greek physicians to work in their homeland with motivation and dignity, but also of Greek citizens to continue receiving high-quality healthcare by skilled physicians at times when this is mostly needed.

  5. Can a brain drain be good for growth in the source economy?

    PubMed

    Mountford, A

    1997-08-01

    "This paper analyzes the interaction between income distribution, human capital accumulation and migration. It shows that when migration is not a certainty, a brain drain may increase average productivity and equality in the source economy even though average productivity is a positive function of past average levels of human capital in an economy. It is also shown how the temporary possibility of emigration may permanently increase the average level of productivity of an economy."

  6. Managing health worker migration: a qualitative study of the Philippine response to nurse brain drain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The emigration of skilled nurses from the Philippines is an ongoing phenomenon that has impacted the quality and quantity of the nursing workforce, while strengthening the domestic economy through remittances. This study examines how the development of brain drain-responsive policies is driven by the effects of nurse migration and how such efforts aim to achieve mind-shifts among nurses, governing and regulatory bodies, and public and private institutions in the Philippines and worldwide. Methods Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted to elicit exploratory perspectives on the policy response to nurse brain drain. Interviews with key informants from the nursing, labour and immigration sectors explored key themes behind the development of policies and programmes that respond to nurse migration. Focus group discussions were held with practising nurses to understand policy recipients’ perspectives on nurse migration and policy. Results Using the qualitative data, a thematic framework was created to conceptualize participants’ perceptions of how nurse migration has driven the policy development process. The framework demonstrates that policymakers have recognised the complexity of the brain drain phenomenon and are crafting dynamic policies and programmes that work to shift domestic and global mindsets on nurse training, employment and recruitment. Conclusions Development of responsive policy to Filipino nurse brain drain offers a glimpse into a domestic response to an increasingly prominent global issue. As a major source of professionals migrating abroad for employment, the Philippines has formalised efforts to manage nurse migration. Accordingly, the Philippine paradigm, summarised by the thematic framework presented in this paper, may act as an example for other countries that are experiencing similar shifts in healthcare worker employment due to migration. PMID:23249411

  7. Health workforce imbalances in times of globalization: brain drain or professional mobility?

    PubMed

    Marchal, Bruno; Kegels, Guy

    2003-01-01

    The health workforce is of strategic importance to the performance of national health systems as well as of international disease control initiatives. The brain drain from rural to urban areas, and from developing to industrialized countries is a long-standing phenomenon in the health professions but has in recent years taken extreme proportions, particularly in Africa. Adopting the wider perspective of health workforce balances, this paper presents an analysis of the underlying mechanisms of health professional migration and possible strategies to reduce its negative impact on health services. The opening up of international borders for goods and labour, a key strategy in the current liberal global economy, is accompanied by a linguistic shift from 'human capital flight' and 'brain drain' to 'professional mobility' or 'brain circulation'. In reality, this mobility is very asymmetrical, to the detriment of less developed countries, which lose not only much-needed human resources, but also considerable investments in education and fiscal income. It is argued that low professional satisfaction and the decreasing social valuation of the health professionals are important determinants of the decreasing attraction of the health professions, which underlies both the push from the exporting countries, as well as the pull from the recipient countries. Solutions should therefore be based on this wider perspective, interrelating health workforce imbalances between, but also within developing and developed countries. PMID:14661944

  8. A dural lymphatic vascular system that drains brain interstitial fluid and macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Aspelund, Aleksanteri; Antila, Salli; Proulx, Steven T; Karlsen, Tine Veronica; Karaman, Sinem; Detmar, Michael; Wiig, Helge; Alitalo, Kari

    2015-06-29

    The central nervous system (CNS) is considered an organ devoid of lymphatic vasculature. Yet, part of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains into the cervical lymph nodes (LNs). The mechanism of CSF entry into the LNs has been unclear. Here we report the surprising finding of a lymphatic vessel network in the dura mater of the mouse brain. We show that dural lymphatic vessels absorb CSF from the adjacent subarachnoid space and brain interstitial fluid (ISF) via the glymphatic system. Dural lymphatic vessels transport fluid into deep cervical LNs (dcLNs) via foramina at the base of the skull. In a transgenic mouse model expressing a VEGF-C/D trap and displaying complete aplasia of the dural lymphatic vessels, macromolecule clearance from the brain was attenuated and transport from the subarachnoid space into dcLNs was abrogated. Surprisingly, brain ISF pressure and water content were unaffected. Overall, these findings indicate that the mechanism of CSF flow into the dcLNs is directly via an adjacent dural lymphatic network, which may be important for the clearance of macromolecules from the brain. Importantly, these results call for a reexamination of the role of the lymphatic system in CNS physiology and disease.

  9. A dural lymphatic vascular system that drains brain interstitial fluid and macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Aspelund, Aleksanteri; Antila, Salli; Proulx, Steven T.; Karlsen, Tine Veronica; Karaman, Sinem; Detmar, Michael; Wiig, Helge

    2015-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is considered an organ devoid of lymphatic vasculature. Yet, part of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains into the cervical lymph nodes (LNs). The mechanism of CSF entry into the LNs has been unclear. Here we report the surprising finding of a lymphatic vessel network in the dura mater of the mouse brain. We show that dural lymphatic vessels absorb CSF from the adjacent subarachnoid space and brain interstitial fluid (ISF) via the glymphatic system. Dural lymphatic vessels transport fluid into deep cervical LNs (dcLNs) via foramina at the base of the skull. In a transgenic mouse model expressing a VEGF-C/D trap and displaying complete aplasia of the dural lymphatic vessels, macromolecule clearance from the brain was attenuated and transport from the subarachnoid space into dcLNs was abrogated. Surprisingly, brain ISF pressure and water content were unaffected. Overall, these findings indicate that the mechanism of CSF flow into the dcLNs is directly via an adjacent dural lymphatic network, which may be important for the clearance of macromolecules from the brain. Importantly, these results call for a reexamination of the role of the lymphatic system in CNS physiology and disease. PMID:26077718

  10. More Than the Brain's Drain: Does Cerebrospinal Fluid Help the Brain Convey Messages?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, John

    1999-01-01

    Examines the role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a clear, colorless liquid that constantly bathes the brain and spinal cord. Scientists argue that cerebrospinal fluid carries important signals for sleep, appetite, and sex. Evaluates past and current research documenting the purpose of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain. (CCM)

  11. Return of talent programs: rationale and evaluation criteria for programs to ameliorate a 'brain drain'.

    PubMed

    Keely, C B

    1986-03-01

    The term, brain drain, describes the loss of skilled professionals and the nonreturn of students from advanced study abroad. It is now used almost exclusively in reference to mobility from less developed countries to more developed countries. Controversy centers on whether needed skills are being drawn off unfairly at subsidized rates from developing to developed countries or whether excess capability is being utilized in developed countries rather than underemployed or wasted at home. Some causes of high level personnel migration include: 1) wage differentials between sending and receiving countries; 2) absence of opportunities for career development or mobility for reasons other than merit or accomplishment; 3) lack of high quality facilities, equipment, time, and other costly supports in developing countries; 4) employer's lack of knowledge of employee work and the resulting wages; and 5) political disagreement or persecution. Prospects for closing wage gaps and upgrading working conditions on a large scale in developing countries are dim. Growth of the labor force coupled with national needs that are not congruent with professions requiring costly facilities, supplies, and equipment make this a slim possibility. Increasing career mobility possibilities seems to be a more promising route to reducing brain drain. One form of preventive measure is offering study abroad which requires service at the end of the study period; a variation is to guarantee employment for university graduates or for certain sectors, such as scientists. Restructuring decisions on hiring and promotion would have a positive effect, as would developing a better evaluation of expected productivity by type of training. Successful return of talent programs will be relatively modest in terms of the number of people returning and should be thought of as a part of human capital investment. Programs that are concerned with filling positions rather than with luring talent home are more likely to be

  12. Return of talent programs: rationale and evaluation criteria for programs to ameliorate a 'brain drain'.

    PubMed

    Keely, C B

    1986-03-01

    The term, brain drain, describes the loss of skilled professionals and the nonreturn of students from advanced study abroad. It is now used almost exclusively in reference to mobility from less developed countries to more developed countries. Controversy centers on whether needed skills are being drawn off unfairly at subsidized rates from developing to developed countries or whether excess capability is being utilized in developed countries rather than underemployed or wasted at home. Some causes of high level personnel migration include: 1) wage differentials between sending and receiving countries; 2) absence of opportunities for career development or mobility for reasons other than merit or accomplishment; 3) lack of high quality facilities, equipment, time, and other costly supports in developing countries; 4) employer's lack of knowledge of employee work and the resulting wages; and 5) political disagreement or persecution. Prospects for closing wage gaps and upgrading working conditions on a large scale in developing countries are dim. Growth of the labor force coupled with national needs that are not congruent with professions requiring costly facilities, supplies, and equipment make this a slim possibility. Increasing career mobility possibilities seems to be a more promising route to reducing brain drain. One form of preventive measure is offering study abroad which requires service at the end of the study period; a variation is to guarantee employment for university graduates or for certain sectors, such as scientists. Restructuring decisions on hiring and promotion would have a positive effect, as would developing a better evaluation of expected productivity by type of training. Successful return of talent programs will be relatively modest in terms of the number of people returning and should be thought of as a part of human capital investment. Programs that are concerned with filling positions rather than with luring talent home are more likely to be

  13. Rebalancing brain drain: exploring resource reallocation to address health worker migration and promote global health.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Timothy Ken; Liang, Bryan Albert

    2012-09-01

    Global public health is threatened by an imbalance in health worker migration from resource-poor countries to developed countries. This "brain drain" results in health workforce shortages, health system weakening, and economic loss and waste, threatening the well-being of vulnerable populations and effectiveness of global health interventions. Current structural imbalances in resource allocation and global incentive structures have resulted in 57 countries identified by WHO as having a "critical shortage" of health workers. Yet current efforts to strengthen domestic health systems have fallen short in addressing this issue. Instead, global solutions should focus on sustainable forms of equitable resource sharing. This can be accomplished by adoption of mandatory global resource and staff-sharing programs in conjunction with implementation of state-based health services corps.

  14. Medical "Brain Drain" and Health Care Worker Shortages: How Should International Training Programs Respond?

    PubMed

    Karan, Abraar; DeUgarte, Daniel; Barry, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The movement of health care workers from countries with resource scarcity and immense need ("source" countries) to areas of resource abundance and greater personal opportunity ("destination" countries) presents a complex set of decisions and relationships that affect the development of international health care systems. We explore the extent to which ethical quandaries arising from this movement are the responsibility of the said actors and the implications of these ethical quandaries for patients, governments, and physicians through the case of Dr. R, a surgeon from Nigeria who is considering working in the United States, where he is being trained to help develop surgical capacity in his country. We suggest how Dr. R, the United States, and Nigeria all contribute to "brain drain" in different but complementary ways. PMID:27437816

  15. Why are you draining your brain? Factors underlying decisions of graduating Lebanese medical students to migrate.

    PubMed

    Akl, Elie A; Maroun, Nancy; Major, Stella; Afif, Claude; Chahoud, Bechara; Choucair, Jacques; Sakr, Mazen; Schünemann, Holger J

    2007-03-01

    In the context of a worldwide physician brain drain phenomenon, Lebanon has the highest emigration factor in the Middle East and North Africa. In this manuscript we aim to identify and develop a conceptual framework for the factors underlying the decisions of graduating Lebanese medical students to train abroad. We conducted two focus groups and seven semi-structured individual interviews with 23 students. In the deductive analysis (based on the push-pull theory), students reported push factors in Lebanon and pull factors abroad related to five dimensions. They focused predominantly on how training abroad provides them with a competitive advantage in an oversaturated Lebanese job market. An inductive analysis revealed the following emerging concepts: repel factors abroad and retain factors locally; societal expectations that students should train abroad; marketing of abroad training; and an established culture of migration. The marketing of abroad training and the culture of migration are prevalent in the academic institutions.

  16. The Impact of Baby Boomer Retirement and Reverse Migration That Results in Corporate Brain Drain in Corporation in Developed Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner-Parker, Bobbie J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to identify whether the corporate brain drain that results as baby boomers retire and highly educated skilled immigrants return to their nations of origin, or to other developing nations, impact corporations in developed countries; and identify effective solutions firms are using to address the void of…

  17. Factors contributing to the brain drain in speech-language pathology: a New Zealand example.

    PubMed

    Tillard, Gina D A

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this research was to determine what attracts students to speech-language pathology (SLP), and the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on two types of "brain drain" in SLP: emigration and career shift. Fifty undergraduate students and 13 recent graduates completed a questionnaire that tapped three main areas, level of student debt, intentions to emigrate, and career intentions. Ninety-seven per cent of respondents were female, with a median age of 25 years. Most SLP students and graduates had high levels of debt on graduation. Debt contributed to levels of worry and the ability to participate in education. However, debt alone did not influence career choice or long-term career planning. Over half of the respondents intended to leave New Zealand within 2 years of graduation, citing salary, travel, and training opportunities as factors. Incentives to remain in the profession included increased salary, more training opportunities, and student debt repayment. SLP students' career decisions were mainly influenced by interest in the profession. The conclusion was that three main factors need to be explored in an effort to increase the likelihood that SLPs remain in New Zealand: salary levels, increased training opportunities, and contributions to reduce student debt. PMID:21793778

  18. Higher Education and Global Talent Flows: Brain Drain, Overseas Chinese Intellectuals, and Diasporic Knowledge Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Anthony R.; Zhen, Zhang

    2008-01-01

    In the global era, transnational flows of highly skilled individuals are increasing. In the much-touted global knowledge economy, the contribution of such diasporic individuals and the knowledge networks that they sustain are recognized as being of increasing importance. Brain circulation is of critical importance to the "giant periphery" of…

  19. Brain Abscess Associated with Isolated Left Superior Vena Cava Draining into the Left Atrium in the Absence of Coronary Sinus and Atrial Septal Defect

    SciTech Connect

    Erol, Ilknur Cetin, I. Ilker; Alehan, Fuesun; Varan, Birguel; Ozkan, Sueleyman; Agildere, A. Muhtesem; Tokel, Kursad

    2006-06-15

    A previously healthy 12-year-old girl presented with severe headache for 2 weeks. On physical examination, there was finger clubbing without apparent cyanosis. Neurological examination revealed only papiledema without focal neurologic signs. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging showed the characteristic features of brain abscess in the left frontal lobe. Cardiologic workup to exclude a right-to-left shunt showed an abnormality of the systemic venous drainage: presence of isolated left superior vena cava draining into the left atrium in the absence of coronary sinus and atrial septal defect. This anomaly is rare, because only a few other cases have been reported.

  20. From the Skin to the Brain: Pathophysiology of Colonization and Infection of External Ventricular Drain, a Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Fabrice; Martin, Mathieu; Attias, Arie; Aït-Mamar, Bouziane; Gabriel, Inanna; Bekaert, Olivier; Bardon, Jean; Nebbad, Biba; Plaud, Benoît; Dhonneur, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Ventriculostomy-related infection (VRI) is a serious complication of external ventricular drain (EVD) but its natural history is poorly studied. We prospectively tracked the bacteria pathways from skin towards ventricles to identify the infectious process resulting in ventriculostomy-related colonization (VRC), and VRI. We systematically sampled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on a daily basis and collected swabs from both the skin and stopcock every 3.0 days for microbiological analysis including in 101 neurosurgical patient. Risk factors for positive event defined as either VRC or VRI were recorded and related to our microbiological findings. A total of 1261 CSF samples, 473 skin swabs, and 450 stopcock swabs were collected. Skin site was more frequently colonized than stopcock (70 (60%) vs 34 (29%), p = 0.023), and earlier (14 ±1.4 vs 24 ±1.5 days, p<0.0001). Sixty-one (52%) and 32 (27%) skin and stopcock sites were colonized with commensal bacteria, 1 (1%) and 1 (1%) with pathogens, 8 (7%) and 1 (1%) with combined pathogens and commensal bacteria, respectively. Sixteen positive events were diagnosed; a cutaneous origin was identified in 69% of cases. The presence of a pathogen at skin site (6/16 vs 4/85, OR: 11.8, [2.5–56.8], p = 0.002) and CSF leakage (7/16 vs 6/85, OR 10 [2.4–41.2], p = 0.001)) were the two independent significant risk factors statistically linked to positive events occurrence. Our results suggest that VRC and VRI mainly results from an extra-luminal progression of pathogens initially colonizing the skin site where CSF leaks. PMID:26555597

  1. Brain Drain and Foreign Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Lakshmana G.

    The effect of foreign students on the host country, and the benefits to their own developing countries are studied in this book. Data from a survey of foreign students in Australia conducted from 1973-1975 by the Education Research Unit of the Australian National University are compared with data obtained from similar surveys in the United States,…

  2. The Draining Cylinder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James Graham-Eagle

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the time it takes for a liquid to drain from a cylindrical container through a hole in the bottom. Using dimensional analysis and some thought experiments this time is determined and Torricelli's law derived as a consequence. Finally, the effect of pouring liquid into the container as it drains is considered.

  3. Solar actuated drain system

    SciTech Connect

    Sarver, G. E.; Worstell, B. W.

    1985-04-30

    A temperature actuated drain system is provided that comprises a siphon that has an inlet end for immersing in a pool of water to be drained from a roof surface and a discharge end communicating with a pressure-responsive one-way valve. A solar actuated enclosed chamber that contains a solar heat energy collector is located on the roof surface and is in open communication with the siphon by means of a tubular member that has its inlet end positioned closely adjacent the bottom of the interior of the chamber. The arrangement causes any appreciable amounts of water that accumulate within the chamber to be discharged from the chamber during the pumping action created by the heating and cooling of air within the chamber.

  4. Pavement base drain evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, G. L.

    1981-06-01

    Portions of a highway drainage system design was revised. Essentially, the longitudinal drainage trench was moved closer to the pavement/shoulder joint, and the fine concrete sand layer was eliminated as a trench backfill material. The specified backfill material is a coarser crushed aggregate (pea gravel). An evaluation of the effects of these changes on pavement performance is given and the new pavement base drain system is compared to the older pipe foundation underdrain system at the same site.

  5. Quality Assurance Program and Brain Drain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Donald

    2008-01-01

    The number of colleges and universities in most developing countries has increased drastically over the past decades. The quality variation of these institutions is an alarming concern. Quality assurance programs are proposed and implemented. This paper evaluates the effects of quality assurance on the demand for college education, study abroad,…

  6. An Inevitable Moment: US Brain Drain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppola, Brian P.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Brian Coppola begins by discussing the 2007 National Academies of Sciences (NAS) publication, "Rising Above the Gathering Storm" which called for for reprioritizing investments because "the world is changing rapidly, and our advantages are no longer unique. Without a renewed effort to bolster the foundations of our…

  7. Optimal shapes for best draining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, J. D.

    2009-11-01

    The container shape that minimizes the volume of draining fluid remaining on the walls of the container after it has been emptied from its base is determined. The film of draining fluid is assumed to wet the walls of the container, and is sufficiently thin so that its curvature may be neglected. Surface tension is ignored. The initial value problem for the thickness of a film of Newtonian fluid is studied, and is shown to lead asymptotically to a similarity solution. From this, and from equivalent solutions for power-law fluids, the volume of the residual film is determined. The optimal container shape is not far from hemispherical, to minimize the surface area, but has a conical base to promote draining. The optimal shape for an axisymmetric mixing vessel, with a hole at the center of its base for draining, is also optimal when inverted in the manner of a washed wine glass inverted and left to drain.

  8. Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  9. The Brain Rotation and Brain Diffusion Strategies of Small Islanders: Considering "Movement" in Lieu of "Place"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldacchino, Godfrey

    2006-01-01

    The "brain drain" phenomenon is typically seen as a zero-sum game, where one party's gain is presumed to be another's drain. This corresponds to deep-seated assumptions about what is "home" and what is "away". This article challenges the view, driven by much "brain drain" literature, that the dynamic is an epi-phenomenon of the relationship…

  10. 21 CFR 884.3200 - Cervical drain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cervical drain. 884.3200 Section 884.3200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... drain. (a) Identification. A cervical drain is a device designed to provide an exit channel for...

  11. 21 CFR 884.3200 - Cervical drain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cervical drain. 884.3200 Section 884.3200 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Prosthetic Devices § 884.3200 Cervical drain. (a) Identification. A cervical drain is a device designed to provide an exit channel for...

  12. 21 CFR 884.3200 - Cervical drain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cervical drain. 884.3200 Section 884.3200 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Prosthetic Devices § 884.3200 Cervical drain. (a) Identification. A cervical drain is a device designed to provide an exit channel for...

  13. 21 CFR 884.3200 - Cervical drain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cervical drain. 884.3200 Section 884.3200 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Prosthetic Devices § 884.3200 Cervical drain. (a) Identification. A cervical drain is a device designed to provide an exit channel for...

  14. 21 CFR 884.3200 - Cervical drain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cervical drain. 884.3200 Section 884.3200 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Prosthetic Devices § 884.3200 Cervical drain. (a) Identification. A cervical drain is a device designed to provide an exit channel for...

  15. Safety drain system for fluid reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Cronise, Raymond J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A safety drain system includes a plurality of drain sections, each of which defines distinct fluid flow paths. At least a portion of the fluid flow paths commence at a side of the drain section that is in fluid communication with a reservoir's fluid. Each fluid flow path at the side communicating with the reservoir's fluid defines an opening having a smallest dimension not to exceed approximately one centimeter. The drain sections are distributed over at least one surface of the reservoir. A manifold is coupled to the drain sections.

  16. Cardiovascular collapse with attempted pericardial drain withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Molly B; Spitznagel, Rachel A; Kugler, Jane A

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac tamponade is a rare but serious emergency condition in the pediatric population. As treatment, a pericardial drain is often placed to evacuate the fluid. We present a case of a 4-year-old girl with cardiac tamponade secondary to renal failure. After the tamponade resolved, she suffered cardiovascular collapse upon attempted drain withdrawal. This case highlights an unusual cause for cardiovascular collapse, which occurred on blind removal of a pericardial drain. PMID:27625522

  17. Cardiovascular collapse with attempted pericardial drain withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Molly B; Spitznagel, Rachel A; Kugler, Jane A

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac tamponade is a rare but serious emergency condition in the pediatric population. As treatment, a pericardial drain is often placed to evacuate the fluid. We present a case of a 4-year-old girl with cardiac tamponade secondary to renal failure. After the tamponade resolved, she suffered cardiovascular collapse upon attempted drain withdrawal. This case highlights an unusual cause for cardiovascular collapse, which occurred on blind removal of a pericardial drain.

  18. Cardiovascular collapse with attempted pericardial drain withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Molly B; Spitznagel, Rachel A; Kugler, Jane A

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac tamponade is a rare but serious emergency condition in the pediatric population. As treatment, a pericardial drain is often placed to evacuate the fluid. We present a case of a 4-year-old girl with cardiac tamponade secondary to renal failure. After the tamponade resolved, she suffered cardiovascular collapse upon attempted drain withdrawal. This case highlights an unusual cause for cardiovascular collapse, which occurred on blind removal of a pericardial drain. PMID:27625522

  19. 14 CFR 29.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 29.1021 Section 29.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 25.1021 Section 25.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  1. 14 CFR 27.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 27.1021 Section 27.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be accessible; and...

  2. 14 CFR 27.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 27.1021 Section 27.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be accessible; and...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 25.1021 Section 25.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 25.1021 Section 25.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  5. 14 CFR 29.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 29.1021 Section 29.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  6. 14 CFR 27.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 27.1021 Section 27.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be accessible; and...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  8. Might digital drains speed up the time to thoracic drain removal?

    PubMed

    Afoke, Jonathan; Tan, Carol; Hunt, Ian; Zakkar, Mustafa

    2014-07-01

    A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: might digital drains speed up the time to thoracic drain removal in terms of time till chest drain removal, hospital stay and overall cost? A total of 296 papers were identified as a result of the search as described below. Of these, five papers provided the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of the papers are tabulated. A literature search revealed that several single-centre prospective randomized studies have shown significantly earlier removal of chest drains with digital drains ranging between 0.8 and 2.1 days sooner. However, there was heterogeneity in studies in the management protocol of chest drains in terms of the use of suction, number of drains and assessment for drain removal. Some protocols such as routinely keeping drains irrespective of the presence of air leak or drain output may have skewed results. Differences in exclusion criteria and protocols for discharging home with portable devices may have biased results. Due to heterogeneity in the management protocol of chest drains, there is conflicting evidence regarding hospital stay. The limited data on cost suggest that there may be significantly lower postoperative costs in the digital drain group. All the studies were single-centre series generally including patients with good preoperative lung function tests. Further larger studies with more robust chest drain management protocols are required especially to assess length of hospital stay, cost and whether the results are applicable to a larger patient population.

  9. Might digital drains speed up the time to thoracic drain removal?

    PubMed

    Afoke, Jonathan; Tan, Carol; Hunt, Ian; Zakkar, Mustafa

    2014-07-01

    A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: might digital drains speed up the time to thoracic drain removal in terms of time till chest drain removal, hospital stay and overall cost? A total of 296 papers were identified as a result of the search as described below. Of these, five papers provided the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of the papers are tabulated. A literature search revealed that several single-centre prospective randomized studies have shown significantly earlier removal of chest drains with digital drains ranging between 0.8 and 2.1 days sooner. However, there was heterogeneity in studies in the management protocol of chest drains in terms of the use of suction, number of drains and assessment for drain removal. Some protocols such as routinely keeping drains irrespective of the presence of air leak or drain output may have skewed results. Differences in exclusion criteria and protocols for discharging home with portable devices may have biased results. Due to heterogeneity in the management protocol of chest drains, there is conflicting evidence regarding hospital stay. The limited data on cost suggest that there may be significantly lower postoperative costs in the digital drain group. All the studies were single-centre series generally including patients with good preoperative lung function tests. Further larger studies with more robust chest drain management protocols are required especially to assess length of hospital stay, cost and whether the results are applicable to a larger patient population. PMID:24722516

  10. Ectopic ureter draining into the uterus

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Bastab; Shridhar, Kartik; Pal, Dilip Kumar; Banerjee, Manju

    2016-01-01

    We report a rare case of a 13-year-old female child with a right-sided duplex system with the upper moiety draining into the uterus. Only one such case has been reported in scientific literature in English, of ectopic ureter draining into the uterus has been reported in literature. The patient was managed with laparoscopic end-to-side ureteroureterostomy into the normal ureter of the lower moiety. PMID:26834415

  11. Urban drain layout optimization using PBIL algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Shanshan; Hao, Ying; Qiu, Dongwei; Zhao, Xu

    2008-10-01

    Strengthen the environmental protection is one of the basic national policies in China. The optimization of urban drain layout plays an important role to the protection of water ecosystem and urban environment. The paper puts forward a method to properly locate urban drain using population based incremental learning (PBIL) algorithm. The main factors such as regional containing sewage capacity, sewage disposal capacity quantity limit of drains within specific area are considered as constraint conditions. Analytic hierarchy process is used to obtain weight of each factor, and spatial analysis of environmental influencing factors is carried on Based on GIS. Penalty function method is put forward to model the problem and object function is to guarantee economy benefit. The algorithm is applied to the drain layout engineering of Nansha District, Guangzhou City, China. The drain layout obtained though PBIL algorithm excels traditional method and it can protect the urban environment more efficiently and ensure the healthy development of water ecosystem more successfully. The result has also proved that PBIL algorithm is a good method in solving this question because of its robust performance and stability which supplied strong technologic support to the sustainable development of environment.

  12. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  13. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  14. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  15. 3. DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING, REINFORCED CONCRETE MUSHROOM COLUMNS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING, REINFORCED CONCRETE MUSHROOM COLUMNS WITH DROP PANELS SUPPORTING DRAINING BINS (IRON VALVES OF DRAINING BINS ARE EMBEDDED IN THE CEILING), VIEW LOOKING WEST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand Draining & Drying Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  16. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each...

  17. 14 CFR 125.159 - Vent and drain lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vent and drain lines. 125.159 Section 125... Requirements § 125.159 Vent and drain lines. All vent and drain lines, and their fittings, that are located in... Administrator finds that the rupture or breakage of any vent or drain line may result in a fire hazard....

  18. 7 CFR 52.3755 - Minimum drained weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3755 Minimum drained weights. (a... drained weight of canned ripe olives is determined by emptying the contents of the container upon a U.S... allow to drain for 2 minutes. The weight of drained olives is the weight of the sieve and product...

  19. 7 CFR 52.3755 - Minimum drained weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3755 Minimum drained weights. (a... drained weight of canned ripe olives is determined by emptying the contents of the container upon a U.S... allow to drain for 2 minutes. The weight of drained olives is the weight of the sieve and product...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each...

  3. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  4. Perfect drain for the Maxwell fish eye lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Juan C.; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C.

    2011-02-01

    Perfect imaging of electromagnetic waves using the Maxwell fish eye (MFE) requires a new concept: a point called the perfect drain that we shall call the perfect point drain. From the mathematical point of view, a perfect point drain is just like an ideal point source, except that it drains power from the electromagnetic field instead of generating it. We introduce here the perfect drain for the MFE as a dissipative region of non-zero size that completely drains the power from the point source. To accomplish this goal, the region must have a precise complex permittivity that depends on its size as well as on the frequency. The perfect point drain is obtained when the diameter of the perfect drain tends to zero. This interpretation of the perfect point drain is connected well with common concepts of electromagnetic theory, opening up both modeling in computer simulations and experimental verification of setups containing a perfect point drain.

  5. Reverse draining of a magnetic soap film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulton, D. E.; Pelesko, J. A.

    2010-04-01

    We investigate the draining of a vertical magnetic soap film in the presence of a strong, nonuniform magnetic field. A colloidal suspension of magnetic nanoparticles in a regular soap solution yields a magnetic soap solution, from which a soap film is formed across an isolated frame. Experiments demonstrate that with a strong magnet placed above the frame, the film may be made to flow upward against gravity. The amount of film draining upward is altered by varying the distance between the frame and magnet. A first mathematical model is developed for the evolution of the film. Simulations demonstrate qualitative agreement with the experiment.

  6. The Iraqi medical brain drain: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Al-Khalisi, Nabil

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explore the independent predictors of physicians' emigration from Iraq and the emigration temporal trends of Iraqi doctors. We used a convenience sample of Iraqi physicians, extracting their e-mail addresses from public records of Iraqi Medical Association websites and asking them to complete an online survey. Of the 1,395 Iraqi physicians contacted, 599 responded and 567 were eligible for inclusion. Of these, 202 reside in Iraq and the rest live abroad. Doctors abroad describe better work atmospheres, job satisfaction, and training quality. The majority live in English-speaking countries. Of these, 60 percent left Iraq for security reasons, 99 percent left when they were juniors, and 66 percent of those completed their specialty training and settled abroad forever. Of doctors abroad, 17 percent want to return to Iraq, while 50 percent of doctors in Iraq want to leave. Iraqi doctors' rate of emigration peaked in 2006; these figures have since declined, but remain relatively high. Iraq has lost many of its doctors, and emigration is ongoing. The predictors of emigration shifted from financial issues during the 1990s to security and training concerns after 2003. The mass exodus will impact the health care system in the long term. PMID:23821910

  7. Tendencies of International Career of Romanian Researchers: Brain Drain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popescu, Dan; Patrasca, Mihaela; Chivu, Iulia

    2006-01-01

    Recent economic and technological developments have led to a growing international demand for highly skilled human resources. The increased competition for human capital has determined numerous OECD countries to take special measures for attracting and retaining human capital in such fields as: information technology, biotechnology,…

  8. Minority Brain Drain in Human Communication Sciences and Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Lorraine

    In the last decade there has been a noticeable decrease in the number of minorities recruited and retained in graduate professional education programs for human communication sciences and disorders and in the number of minority members of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). A number of causes have contributed to the decline,…

  9. Marketing Educational Improvements via International Partnerships under Brain Drain Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Weslynne; Wagman, Liad

    2015-01-01

    We study the dynamics in an educational partnership between a university and a developing region. We examine how the university achieves its goals to improve and advertise its offerings while recruiting a cohort of students from the developing region and maintaining a sustainable relationship with the region and its students. We show that mutually…

  10. Drain Current Modulation of a Single Drain MOSFET by Lorentz Force for Magnetic Sensing Application.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Prasenjit; Chow, Hwang-Cherng; Feng, Wu-Shiung

    2016-08-30

    This paper reports a detailed analysis of the drain current modulation of a single-drain normal-gate n channel metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (n-MOSFET) under an on-chip magnetic field. A single-drain n-MOSFET has been fabricated and placed in the center of a square-shaped metal loop which generates the on-chip magnetic field. The proposed device designed is much smaller in size with respect to the metal loop, which ensures that the generated magnetic field is approximately uniform. The change of drain current and change of bulk current per micron device width has been measured. The result shows that the difference drain current is about 145 µA for the maximum applied magnetic field. Such changes occur from the applied Lorentz force to push out the carriers from the channel. Based on the drain current difference, the change in effective mobility has been detected up to 4.227%. Furthermore, a detailed investigation reveals that the device behavior is quite different in subthreshold and saturation region. A change of 50.24 µA bulk current has also been measured. Finally, the device has been verified for use as a magnetic sensor with sensitivity 4.084% (29.6 T(-1)), which is very effective as compared to other previously reported works for a single device.

  11. Drain Current Modulation of a Single Drain MOSFET by Lorentz Force for Magnetic Sensing Application

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Prasenjit; Chow, Hwang-Cherng; Feng, Wu-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a detailed analysis of the drain current modulation of a single-drain normal-gate n channel metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (n-MOSFET) under an on-chip magnetic field. A single-drain n-MOSFET has been fabricated and placed in the center of a square-shaped metal loop which generates the on-chip magnetic field. The proposed device designed is much smaller in size with respect to the metal loop, which ensures that the generated magnetic field is approximately uniform. The change of drain current and change of bulk current per micron device width has been measured. The result shows that the difference drain current is about 145 µA for the maximum applied magnetic field. Such changes occur from the applied Lorentz force to push out the carriers from the channel. Based on the drain current difference, the change in effective mobility has been detected up to 4.227%. Furthermore, a detailed investigation reveals that the device behavior is quite different in subthreshold and saturation region. A change of 50.24 µA bulk current has also been measured. Finally, the device has been verified for use as a magnetic sensor with sensitivity 4.084% (29.6 T−1), which is very effective as compared to other previously reported works for a single device. PMID:27589747

  12. Drain Current Modulation of a Single Drain MOSFET by Lorentz Force for Magnetic Sensing Application.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Prasenjit; Chow, Hwang-Cherng; Feng, Wu-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a detailed analysis of the drain current modulation of a single-drain normal-gate n channel metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (n-MOSFET) under an on-chip magnetic field. A single-drain n-MOSFET has been fabricated and placed in the center of a square-shaped metal loop which generates the on-chip magnetic field. The proposed device designed is much smaller in size with respect to the metal loop, which ensures that the generated magnetic field is approximately uniform. The change of drain current and change of bulk current per micron device width has been measured. The result shows that the difference drain current is about 145 µA for the maximum applied magnetic field. Such changes occur from the applied Lorentz force to push out the carriers from the channel. Based on the drain current difference, the change in effective mobility has been detected up to 4.227%. Furthermore, a detailed investigation reveals that the device behavior is quite different in subthreshold and saturation region. A change of 50.24 µA bulk current has also been measured. Finally, the device has been verified for use as a magnetic sensor with sensitivity 4.084% (29.6 T(-1)), which is very effective as compared to other previously reported works for a single device. PMID:27589747

  13. Climate mitigation scenarios of drained peat soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimir Klemedtsson, Åsa; Coria, Jessica; He, Hongxing; Liu, Xiangping; Nordén, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The national inventory reports (NIR) submitted to the UNFCCC show Sweden - which as many other countries has wetlands where parts have been drained for agriculture and forestry purposes, - to annually emit 12 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalents, which is more GHG'es than industrial energy use release in Sweden. Similar conditions can be found in other northern countries, having cool and wet conditions, naturally promoting peat accumulation, and where land use management over the last centuries have promoted draining activities. These drained peatland, though covering only 2% of the land area, have emissions corresponding to 20% of the total reported NIR emissions. This substantial emission contribution, however, is hidden within the Land Use Land Use Change and Forestry sector (LULUCF) where the forest Carbon uptake is even larger, which causes the peat soil emissions become invisible. The only drained soil emission accounted in the Swedish Kyoto reporting is the N2O emission from agricultural drained organic soils of the size 0.5 million tonnes CO2e yr-1. This lack of visibility has made incentives for land use change and management neither implemented nor suggested, however with large potential. Rewetting has the potential to decrease soil mineralization, why CO2 and N2O emissions are mitigated. However if the soil becomes very wet CH4 emission will increase together with hampered plant growth. By ecological modeling, using the CoupModel the climate change mitigation potential have been estimated for four different land use scenarios; 1, Drained peat soil with Spruce (business as usual scenario), 2, raised ground water level to 20 cm depth and Willow plantation, 3, raised ground water level to 10 cm depth and Reed Canary Grass, and 4, rewetting to an average water level in the soil surface with recolonizing wetland plants and mosses. We calculate the volume of biomass production per year, peat decomposition, N2O emission together with nitrate and DOC

  14. Using Smoke Injection in Drains to Identify Potential Preferential Pathways in a Drained Arable Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, M. H.; Petersen, C. T.; Hansen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Macropores forming a continuous pathway between the soil surface and subsurface drains favour the transport of many contaminants from agricultural fields to surface waters. The smoke injection method presented by Shipitalo and Gibbs (2000) used for demonstrating and quantifying such pathways has been further developed and used on a drained Danish sandy loam. In order to identify the preferential pathways to drains, smoke was injected in three 1.15 m deep tile drains (total drain length 93 m), and smoke emitting macropores (SEMP) at the soil surface were counted and characterized as producing either strong or weak plumes compared to reference plumes from 3 and 6 mm wide tubes. In the two situations investigated in the present study - an early spring and an autumn situation, smoke only penetrated the soil surface layer via earthworm burrows located in a 1.0 m wide belt directly above the drain lines. However, it is known from previous studies that desiccation fractures in a dry summer situation also can contribute to the smoke pattern. The distance between SEMP measured along the drain lines was on average 0.46 m whereas the average spacing between SEMP with strong plumes was 2.3 m. Ponded water was applied in 6 cm wide rings placed above 52 burrows including 17 reference burrows which did not emit smoke. Thirteen pathways in the soil were examined using dye tracer and profile excavation. SEMP with strong plumes marked the entrance of highly efficient transport pathways conducting surface applied water and dye tracer into the drain. However, no single burrow was traced all the way from the surface into the drain, the dye patterns branched off in a network of other macropores. Water infiltration rates were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in SEMP with strong plumes (average rate: 247 mL min-1 n = 19) compared to SEMP with weak plumes (average rate: 87 mL min-1 n = 16) and no plumes (average rate: 56 mL min-1 n = 17). The results suggest that the smoke injection method

  15. 33 CFR 155.770 - Draining into bilges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Transfer Personnel, Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.770 Draining into bilges. No person may intentionally drain oil...

  16. 1. VIEW NORTHWEST, GENERAL VIEW OF GATE, DRAIN CHANNEL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW NORTHWEST, GENERAL VIEW OF GATE, DRAIN CHANNEL AND BUILDING SHELTERING GATE OPERATING MECHANISM - Norwich Water Power Company, Canal Drain Gate, West bank of Shetucket River opposite Twelfth Street, Greenville section, Norwich, New London County, CT

  17. 2. INTERIOR OF SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING WITH DRYING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR OF SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING WITH DRYING BINS TO THE RIGHT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand Draining & Drying Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  18. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  19. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  20. Cake kidney drained by single ureter.

    PubMed

    Calado, Adriano A; Macedo, Antonio; Srougi, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    Cake kidney is a rare congenital anomaly of the urogenital tract, with a few more than 20 cases described in the literature. It can be diagnosed at any age range. Normally, drainage is achieved by 2 ureters, and there are only 5 reports in the literature of cake kidney drained by a single ureter. The authors describe one more case of this rare malformation of the urinary tract.

  1. DNA Persistence in a Sink Drain Environment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Winder, Eric M.; Bonheyo, George T.

    2015-07-31

    Biofilms are organized structures composed mainly of cells and extracellular polymeric substances produced by the constituent microorganisms. Ubiquitous in nature, biofilms have an innate ability to capture and retain passing material and may therefore act as natural collectors of contaminants or signatures of upstream activities. To determine the persistence and detectability of DNA passing through a sink drain environment, Bacillus anthracis strain Ames35 was cultured (6.35 x 107 CFU/mL), sterilized, and disposed of by addition to a sink drain apparatus with an established biofilm. The sink drain apparatus was sampled before and for several days after the addition of themore » sterilized B. anthracis culture to detect the presence of B. anthracis DNA. Multiple PCR primer pairs were used to screen for chromosomal and plasmid DNA with primers targeting shorter sequences showing greater amplification efficiency and success. PCR amplification and detection of target sequences indicate persistence of chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA in the biofilm for 5 or more and 14 or more days, respectively.« less

  2. DNA Persistence in a Sink Drain Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Winder, Eric M.; Bonheyo, George T.

    2015-07-31

    Biofilms are organized structures composed mainly of cells and extracellular polymeric substances produced by the constituent microorganisms. Ubiquitous in nature, biofilms have an innate ability to capture and retain passing material and may therefore act as natural collectors of contaminants or signatures of upstream activities. To determine the persistence and detectability of DNA passing through a sink drain environment, Bacillus anthracis strain Ames35 was cultured (6.35 x 107 CFU/mL), sterilized, and disposed of by addition to a sink drain apparatus with an established biofilm. The sink drain apparatus was sampled before and for several days after the addition of the sterilized B. anthracis culture to detect the presence of B. anthracis DNA. Multiple PCR primer pairs were used to screen for chromosomal and plasmid DNA with primers targeting shorter sequences showing greater amplification efficiency and success. PCR amplification and detection of target sequences indicate persistence of chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA in the biofilm for 5 or more and 14 or more days, respectively.

  3. Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to retained lumbar drain.

    PubMed

    Guppy, Kern H; Silverthorn, James W; Akins, Paul T

    2011-12-01

    Intrathecal spinal catheters (lumbar drains) are indicated for several medical and surgical conditions. In neurosurgical procedures, they are used to reduce intracranial and intrathecal pressures by diverting CSF. They have also been placed for therapeutic access to administer drugs, and more recently, vascular surgeons have used them to improve spinal cord perfusion during the treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms. Insertion of these lumbar drains is not without attendant complications. One complication is the shearing of the distal end of the catheter with a resultant retained fragment. The authors report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to the migration of a retained lumbar drain that sheared off during its removal. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of rostral migration of a retained intrathecal catheter causing subarachnoid hemorrhage. The authors review the literature on retained intrathecal spinal catheters, and their findings support either early removal of easily accessible catheters or close monitoring with serial imaging.

  4. DNA Persistence in a Sink Drain Environment

    PubMed Central

    Winder, Eric M.; Bonheyo, George T.

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms are organized structures composed mainly of cells and extracellular polymeric substances produced by the constituent microorganisms. Ubiquitous in nature, biofilms have an innate ability to capture and retain passing material and may therefore act as natural collectors of contaminants or signatures of upstream activities. To determine the persistence and detectability of DNA passing through a sink drain environment, Bacillus anthracis strain Ames35 was cultured (6.35 x 107 CFU/mL), sterilized, and disposed of by addition to a sink drain apparatus with an established biofilm. The sink drain apparatus was sampled before and for several days after the addition of the sterilized B. anthracis culture to detect the presence of B. anthracis DNA. Multiple PCR primer pairs were used to screen for chromosomal and plasmid DNA with primers targeting shorter sequences showing greater amplification efficiency and success. PCR amplification and detection of target sequences indicate persistence of chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA in the biofilm for 5 or more and 14 or more days, respectively. PMID:26230525

  5. Bed drain cover assembly for a fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Comparato, Joseph R.; Jacobs, Martin

    1982-01-01

    A loose fitting movable cover plate (36), suitable for the severe service encountered in a fluidized bed combustor (10), restricts the flow of solids into the combustor drain lines (30) during shutdown of the bed. This cover makes it possible to empty spent solids from the bed drain lines which would otherwise plug the piping between the drain and the downstream metering device. This enables use of multiple drain lines each with a separate metering device for the control of solids flow rate.

  6. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from...

  7. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from...

  8. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from...

  9. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from...

  10. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from...

  11. 1. SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (RIGHT), COVERED INCLINE CONVEYOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (RIGHT), COVERED INCLINE CONVEYOR (LOWER RIGHT) THAT EXTENDS TO THE SAND-SORTING BUILDING, AND REMAINS OF ORIGINAL (1917) WASHING, DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (LEFT), VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM TOP OF SAND-SORTING BUILDING - Mill "C" Complex, Sand Draining & Drying Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  12. 14 CFR 125.139 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 125.139 Section 125.139....139 Oil system drains. Accessible drains incorporating either a manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  13. 14 CFR 121.261 - Vent and drain lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vent and drain lines. 121.261 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.261 Vent and drain lines. All vent and drain lines and their fittings, that are located in a designated fire...

  14. 14 CFR 125.139 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 125.139 Section 125.139....139 Oil system drains. Accessible drains incorporating either a manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  15. 14 CFR 125.139 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 125.139 Section 125.139....139 Oil system drains. Accessible drains incorporating either a manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  16. 14 CFR 125.139 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 125.139 Section 125.139....139 Oil system drains. Accessible drains incorporating either a manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  17. 14 CFR 125.139 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oil system drains. 125.139 Section 125.139....139 Oil system drains. Accessible drains incorporating either a manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  18. 14 CFR 23.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 23.999 Section 23.999... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 23.999 Fuel system drains. (a) There must be at least one drain to allow safe drainage of the...

  19. 14 CFR 25.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 25.999 Section 25.999... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.999 Fuel system drains. (a) Drainage of the fuel system must be accomplished by the use of fuel strainer and fuel tank sump drains....

  20. Is Drain Tip Culture Prognostic of Surgical Site Infection? Results of 1380 Drain Tip Cultures in Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Takada, Ryohei; Jinno, Tetsuya; Koga, Daisuke; Hirao, Masanobu; Muneta, Takeshi; Okawa, Atsushi

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a prognostic value of drain tip culture for surgical site infection (SSI) after total hip arthroplasty. A total of 1380 closed suction drain tips cultured after removal in primary total hip arthroplasty were included in this study. Drains were removed in 12-72 hours after surgery. Drain tip cultures were positive in 11 cases (0.8%). SSI was found in 4 cases (0.3%), where the drain tip cultures were all negative. The sensitivity of drain tip culture for infection after surgery was 0%, and the specificity was 99.7%. We concluded that, drain tip culture cannot be prognostic for SSI after total hip arthroplasty. Routine use of drain tip culture is not supported.

  1. Bacterial diversity of floor drain biofilms and drain waters in a Listeria monocytogenes contaminated food processing environment.

    PubMed

    Dzieciol, Monika; Schornsteiner, Elisa; Muhterem-Uyar, Meryem; Stessl, Beatrix; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2016-04-16

    Sanitation protocols are applied on a daily basis in food processing facilities to prevent the risk of cross-contamination with spoilage organisms. Floor drain water serves along with product-associated samples (slicer dust, brine or cheese smear) as an important hygiene indicator in monitoring Listeria monocytogenes in food processing facilities. Microbial communities of floor drains are representative for each processing area and are influenced to a large degree by food residues, liquid effluents and washing water. The microbial communities of drain water are steadily changing, whereas drain biofilms provide more stable niches. Bacterial communities of four floor drains were characterized using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to better understand the composition and exchange of drain water and drain biofilm communities. Furthermore, the L. monocytogenes contamination status of each floor drain was determined by applying cultivation-independent real-time PCR quantification and cultivation-dependent detection according to ISO11290-1. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes of drain water and drain biofilm bacterial communities yielded 50,611 reads, which were clustered into 641 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), affiliated to 16 phyla dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. The most abundant OTUs represented either product- (Lactococcus lactis) or fermentation- and food spoilage-associated phylotypes (Pseudomonas mucidolens, Pseudomonas fragi, Leuconostoc citreum, and Acetobacter tropicalis). The microbial communities in DW and DB samples were distinct in each sample type and throughout the whole processing plant, indicating the presence of indigenous specific microbial communities in each processing compartment. The microbiota of drain biofilms was largely different from the microbiota of the drain water. A sampling approach based on drain water alone may thus only provide reliable information on planktonic bacterial cells but might not allow conclusions

  2. Bacterial diversity of floor drain biofilms and drain waters in a Listeria monocytogenes contaminated food processing environment.

    PubMed

    Dzieciol, Monika; Schornsteiner, Elisa; Muhterem-Uyar, Meryem; Stessl, Beatrix; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2016-04-16

    Sanitation protocols are applied on a daily basis in food processing facilities to prevent the risk of cross-contamination with spoilage organisms. Floor drain water serves along with product-associated samples (slicer dust, brine or cheese smear) as an important hygiene indicator in monitoring Listeria monocytogenes in food processing facilities. Microbial communities of floor drains are representative for each processing area and are influenced to a large degree by food residues, liquid effluents and washing water. The microbial communities of drain water are steadily changing, whereas drain biofilms provide more stable niches. Bacterial communities of four floor drains were characterized using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to better understand the composition and exchange of drain water and drain biofilm communities. Furthermore, the L. monocytogenes contamination status of each floor drain was determined by applying cultivation-independent real-time PCR quantification and cultivation-dependent detection according to ISO11290-1. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes of drain water and drain biofilm bacterial communities yielded 50,611 reads, which were clustered into 641 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), affiliated to 16 phyla dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. The most abundant OTUs represented either product- (Lactococcus lactis) or fermentation- and food spoilage-associated phylotypes (Pseudomonas mucidolens, Pseudomonas fragi, Leuconostoc citreum, and Acetobacter tropicalis). The microbial communities in DW and DB samples were distinct in each sample type and throughout the whole processing plant, indicating the presence of indigenous specific microbial communities in each processing compartment. The microbiota of drain biofilms was largely different from the microbiota of the drain water. A sampling approach based on drain water alone may thus only provide reliable information on planktonic bacterial cells but might not allow conclusions

  3. Atmospheric loading effects on free-draining lysimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munk, J.; Schnabel, W. E.; Barnes, D.; Lee, W.

    2011-05-01

    Temporal atmospheric pressure variations introduce an artifact into percolation measurements in free-draining lysimeters. This anomaly is associated with transient pressure gradients that occur as fluid and gas pressures within the lysimeter equilibrate with atmospheric pressure changes at the drain. On the basis of harmonic (Fourier) analysis of a large (20 m × 10 m × 1.8 m) free-draining lysimeter, hourly percolation was maximally affected by pressure variations of ˜2 cycles per day, with the effect decreasing with decreasing frequency. Compared to the calculated pressure differences at the drain, the measured phase delay between percolation and the atmospheric pressure was less by ˜45°, which we attribute to an additional phase lag existing between the percolation and pressure difference at the drain. These pressure-induced changes in percolation rate can influence the outcome of water balances conducted via free-draining lysimeters.

  4. Thermokarst lakes, drainage, and drained basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grosse, G.; Jones, B.; Arp, C.; Shroder, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Thermokarst lakes and drained lake basins are widespread in Arctic and sub-Arctic permafrost lowlands with ice-rich sediments. Thermokarst lake formation is a dominant mode of permafrost degradation and is linked to surface disturbance, subsequent melting of ground ice, surface subsidence, water impoundment, and positive feedbacks between lake growth and permafrost thaw, whereas lake drainage generally results in local permafrost aggradation. Thermokarst lakes characteristically have unique limnological, morphological, and biogeochemical characteristics that are closely tied to cold-climate conditions and permafrost properties. Thermokarst lakes also have a tendency toward complete or partial drainage through permafrost degradation and erosion. Thermokarst lake dynamics strongly affect the development of landscape geomorphology, hydrology, and the habitat characteristic of permafrost lowlands.

  5. Geochemistry of laboratory anoxic limestone drains

    SciTech Connect

    Sterner, P.; Skousen, J.; Donovan, J.

    1998-12-31

    An anoxic limestone drain (ALD) is a passive treatment system for treating acid mine drainage (AMD). Historically it has been thought that AMD containing Fe{sup 3+} and Al{sup 3+} severely inhibits or stops limestone dissolution due to coating of limestone surfaces by precipitates generated during the neutralization process. Limestone dissolution in field ALDs is difficult to quantify because sampling of the water in ALDs at various locations is not possible, and fluctuations in flow and water chemistry affect limestone dissolution rates. Laboratory experiments were developed to determine the effects of Fe{sup 3+} and Al{sup 3+} precipitation on limestone dissolution and the controlling precipitation reactions. Synthetic AMD containing Fe{sup 3+} or Al{sup 3+} with and without sulfate was pumped through limestone-packed columns constructed with three sampling ports at equidistant intervals along the column. Water and sediments were periodically extracted for analysis at all sampling ports over a 12-hr period. Results show the majority of limestone dissolution occurred within the first 1.2 hrs of water-limestone contact. Limestone dissolution rate decreased with time and distance along the flow path. Higher concentrations of Fe{sup 3+} and Al{sup 3+} (increased in mineral acidity and ionic strength) enhanced limestone dissolution. Geochemical modeling predicted that solutions were nearest equilibrium with respect to the amorphic metal hydroxide phases. Although solutions were periodically oversaturated with respect to sulfate containing minerals, but no x-ray identifiable sulfate minerals were found in the solid phase. The data suggest that smaller anoxic limestone drains may be used when the goal is to neutralize mineral acidity, thus reducing spatial requirements. However, if the goal is to treat AMD to NPDES limits, ALDs may not be a viable long term treatment alternative.

  6. Nitrate leaching to subsurface drains as affected by drain spacing and changes in crop production system.

    PubMed

    Kladivko, E J; Frankenberger, J R; Jaynes, D B; Meek, D W; Jenkinson, B J; Fausey, N R

    2004-01-01

    Subsurface drainage is a beneficial water management practice in poorly drained soils but may also contribute substantial nitrate N loads to surface waters. This paper summarizes results from a 15-yr drainage study in Indiana that includes three drain spacings (5, 10, and 20 m) managed for 10 yr with chisel tillage in monoculture corn (Zea mays L.) and currently managed under a no-till corn-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation. In general, drainflow and nitrate N losses per unit area were greater for narrower drain spacings. Drainflow removed between 8 and 26% of annual rainfall, depending on year and drain spacing. Nitrate N concentrations in drainflow did not vary with spacing, but concentrations have significantly decreased from the beginning to the end of the experiment. Flow-weighted mean concentrations decreased from 28 mg L(-1) in the 1986-1988 period to 8 mg L(-1) in the 1997-1999 period. The reduction in concentration was due to both a reduction in fertilizer N rates over the study period and to the addition of a winter cover crop as a "trap crop" after corn in the corn-soybean rotation. Annual nitrate N loads decreased from 38 kg ha(-1) in the 1986-1988 period to 15 kg ha(-1) in the 1997-1999 period. Most of the nitrate N losses occurred during the fallow season, when most of the drainage occurred. Results of this study underscore the necessity of long-term research on different soil types and in different climatic zones, to develop appropriate management strategies for both economic crop production and protection of environmental quality.

  7. Generation of airborne Listeria innocua from model floor drains.

    PubMed

    Berrang, Mark E; Frank, Joseph F

    2012-07-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can colonize floor drains in poultry processing and further processing facilities, remaining present even after cleaning and disinfection. Therefore, during wash down, workers exercise caution to avoid spraying hoses directly into drains in an effort to prevent the escape and transfer of drain microflora to food contact surfaces. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which an inadvertent water spray into a colonized floor drain can cause the spread of airborne Listeria. Listeria innocua was used to inoculate a polyvinyl chloride model floor drain, resulting in approximately 10(8) cells per ml of phosphate-buffered saline and 10(4) attached cells per square centimeter of inner surface. Each model drain was subjected to a 2-s spray of tap water at 68.9 kPa from a distance of 1 m. Drains were sprayed while filled and again after emptying. Airborne cells were collected by using sedimentation plates containing Listeria selective agar which were placed on the floor and walls of a contained room at incremental horizontal and vertical distances of 0.6, 1.2, 2.4, or 4.0 m from the drain. Sedimentation plates were exposed for 10 min. A mechanical sampler was used to also collect air by impaction on the surface of Listeria selective agar to determine the number of cells per liter of air. The experiment was conducted in triplicate rooms for each of four replications. L. innocua was detected on sedimentation plates on the floor as far as 4.0 m from the drain and on walls as high as 2.4 m above the floor and 4 m from the drain. A 2-s spray with a water hose into a contaminated drain can cause airborne spread of Listeria, resulting in the potential for cross-contamination of food contact surfaces, equipment, and exposed product.

  8. Generation of airborne Listeria innocua from model floor drains.

    PubMed

    Berrang, Mark E; Frank, Joseph F

    2012-07-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can colonize floor drains in poultry processing and further processing facilities, remaining present even after cleaning and disinfection. Therefore, during wash down, workers exercise caution to avoid spraying hoses directly into drains in an effort to prevent the escape and transfer of drain microflora to food contact surfaces. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which an inadvertent water spray into a colonized floor drain can cause the spread of airborne Listeria. Listeria innocua was used to inoculate a polyvinyl chloride model floor drain, resulting in approximately 10(8) cells per ml of phosphate-buffered saline and 10(4) attached cells per square centimeter of inner surface. Each model drain was subjected to a 2-s spray of tap water at 68.9 kPa from a distance of 1 m. Drains were sprayed while filled and again after emptying. Airborne cells were collected by using sedimentation plates containing Listeria selective agar which were placed on the floor and walls of a contained room at incremental horizontal and vertical distances of 0.6, 1.2, 2.4, or 4.0 m from the drain. Sedimentation plates were exposed for 10 min. A mechanical sampler was used to also collect air by impaction on the surface of Listeria selective agar to determine the number of cells per liter of air. The experiment was conducted in triplicate rooms for each of four replications. L. innocua was detected on sedimentation plates on the floor as far as 4.0 m from the drain and on walls as high as 2.4 m above the floor and 4 m from the drain. A 2-s spray with a water hose into a contaminated drain can cause airborne spread of Listeria, resulting in the potential for cross-contamination of food contact surfaces, equipment, and exposed product. PMID:22980019

  9. 14 CFR 27.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 27.999 Section 27.999 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 27.999 Fuel system drains. (a) There must be at least one...

  10. 14 CFR 29.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 29.999 Section 29.999 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 29.999 Fuel system drains. (a) There must be at least...

  11. 14 CFR 25.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 25.999 Section 25.999 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.999 Fuel system drains. (a) Drainage of the fuel system must...

  12. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Each drain shall be equipped with water seal controls. (2) Each drain in active service shall be checked by visual or physical inspection initially and monthly thereafter for indications of low water levels or other conditions that would reduce the effectiveness of the water seal controls. (3) Except...

  13. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Each drain shall be equipped with water seal controls. (2) Each drain in active service shall be checked by visual or physical inspection initially and monthly thereafter for indications of low water levels or other conditions that would reduce the effectiveness of the water seal controls. (3) Except...

  14. 241-AY-102 Leak Detection Pit Drain Line Inspection Report

    SciTech Connect

    Boomer, Kayle D.; Engeman, Jason K.; Gunter, Jason R.; Joslyn, Cameron C.; Vazquez, Brandon J.; Venetz, Theodore J.; Garfield, John S.

    2014-01-20

    This document provides a description of the design components, operational approach, and results from the Tank AY-102 leak detection pit drain piping visual inspection. To perform this inspection a custom robotic crawler with a deployment device was designed, built, and operated by IHI Southwest Technologies, Inc. for WRPS to inspect the 6-inch leak detection pit drain line.

  15. Toxic-Waste Disposal by Drain-in-Furnace Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Houseman, J.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Compact furnace moved from site to site. Toxic industrial waste destroyed using furnace concept developed for disposal of toxic munitions. Toxic waste drained into furnace where incinerated immediately. In furnace toxic agent rapidly drained and destroyed in small combustion chamber between upper and lower layers of hot ceramic balls

  16. 14 CFR 121.241 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 121.241 Section 121.241..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.241 Oil system drains... position, must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  17. 14 CFR 121.241 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oil system drains. 121.241 Section 121.241..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.241 Oil system drains... position, must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  18. 14 CFR 121.241 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 121.241 Section 121.241..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.241 Oil system drains... position, must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  19. 14 CFR 121.241 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 121.241 Section 121.241..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.241 Oil system drains... position, must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  20. 14 CFR 121.241 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 121.241 Section 121.241..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.241 Oil system drains... position, must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  1. EU pharmaceutical expenditure forecast

    PubMed Central

    Urbinati, Duccio; Rémuzat, Cécile; Kornfeld, Åsa; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives With constant incentives for healthcare payers to contain their pharmaceutical budgets, forecasting has become critically important. Some countries have, for instance, developed pharmaceutical horizon scanning units. The objective of this project was to build a model to assess the net effect of the entrance of new patented medicinal products versus medicinal products going off-patent, with a defined forecast horizon, on selected European Union (EU) Member States’ pharmaceutical budgets. This model took into account population ageing, as well as current and future country-specific pricing, reimbursement, and market access policies (the project was performed for the European Commission; see http://ec.europa.eu/health/healthcare/key_documents/index_en.htm). Method In order to have a representative heterogeneity of EU Member States, the following countries were selected for the analysis: France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. A forecasting period of 5 years (2012–2016) was chosen to assess the net pharmaceutical budget impact. A model for generics and biosimilars was developed for each country. The model estimated a separate and combined effect of the direct and indirect impacts of the patent cliff. A second model, estimating the sales development and the risk of development failure, was developed for new drugs. New drugs were reviewed individually to assess their clinical potential and translate it into commercial potential. The forecast was carried out according to three perspectives (healthcare public payer, society, and manufacturer), and several types of distribution chains (retail, hospital, and combined retail and hospital). Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were carried out. Results According to the model, all countries experienced drug budget reductions except Poland (+€41 million). Savings were expected to be the highest in the United Kingdom (−€9,367 million), France

  2. Design criteria Drain Rerouting Project 93-OR-EW-2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This document contains the design criteria to be used by the architect-engineer (A--E) in the performance of Title I and II design for the Drain Rerouting Project. The Drain Rerouting project at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee will provide the Y-12 Plant with the capability to reroute particular drains within buildings 9202, 9203 and 9995. Process drains that are presently connected to the storm sewer shall be routed to the sanitary sewer to ensure that any objectionable material inadvertently discharged into process drains will not discharge to East Fork Popular Creek (EFPC) without treatment. The project will also facilitate compliance with the Y-12 Plant`s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) discharge permit and allow for future pretreatment of once-through coolant.

  3. Determination of LDD MOSFET drain resistance from device simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samudra, G. S.; Seah, B. P.; Ling, C. H.

    1996-05-01

    A simple, efficient and accurate technique for the determination of the drain resistance of LDD MOSFETs, using a two-dimensional device simulator, is presented. This method does not require the artificial introduction of constraints that would alter the normal operating conditions and geometry of the device. Comparison is made with a more elaborate technique, where the drain region is modelled as a network of resistances. For an appropriately chosen mesh size, good agreement to within 10% has been achieved for the two techniques. In terms of computational labour, the simple technique enjoys at least an order of magnitude advantage compared with the more elaborate model. The two techniques have also been used to study the dependence of the drain resistance on the gate and the drain bias, and to establish the accuracy over a broad bias range. An estimate is also made of the degradation of the drain resistance due to hot-carrier stress.

  4. Do junior doctors know where to insert chest drains safely?

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, J; Roberts, N

    2005-01-01

    Background: The safe insertion of a chest drain is a skill doctors across specialties require. Incorrect placement can lead to significant morbidity and even mortality. Methods: This audit surveyed junior doctors working in a teaching hospital about their specialty and level of experience with intercostal drains. They were then asked to mark on a photograph where they would insert a chest drain for a pneumothorax in a non-emergency situation. Results: Of the 55 junior doctors surveyed, 45% were outside the safe area of chest drain insertion as defined by the British Thoracic Society. The most common error was a choice of insertion site too low (24%). Conclusions: In this audit 45% of juniors surveyed would have placed a chest drain outside the safe triangle recommended by the British Thoracic Society. The common mistake of a choice of insertion site too low should be discussed in postgraduate teaching programmes. PMID:15998822

  5. Calculating drain delay in high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffie, R.

    2015-12-01

    An expression for the signal delay (drain delay) associated with electrons traveling through the gate-drain depletion region has been obtained for nonuniform electron velocity. Due to the presence of the gate metal, the signal delay through the gate-drain depletion region was shown to be larger than the signal delay in the base-collector depletion region of a bipolar transistor when equal depletion lengths and velocity profiles were assumed. Drain delay is also shown to be larger in transistors with field plates (independent of field plate connection) compared to transistors without field plates when equal depletion lengths and velocity profiles were assumed. For the case of constant velocity, two expressions for the proportionality constant relating drain delay and electron transit time across the depletion were obtained.

  6. Eu doping and reduction into barium orthophosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Ricardo D. S.; dos S. Rezende, Marcos V.

    2016-08-01

    We investigated Eu3+ and Eu2+ ion incorporation and the reduction of Eu3+ ions in a LiBaPO4 lattice using atomistic simulations based on lattice energy minimization. We predicted the most probable sites occupied by Eu3+ and Eu2+ ions, and the related charge-compensation mechanisms involved in these substitutions to the most provable reduction agent for Eu reduction. It was found that Eu3+and Eu2+ ions are the most energetically favorable for incorporation at Ba site. In the case of the Eu3+ ion, charge compensation by the LiBa‧ antisite is the most provable. Eu3+ reduction involving a H2 reduction atmosphere is the most favorable. Our results reveal that Eu3+ and Eu2+ position plays an important role in the luminescence characteristic and in the persistent luminescence mechanisms related to LiBaPO4.

  7. Shallow drain extension by angled ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Alvis, R.; Luning, S.; Griffin, P.

    1996-12-31

    In this work, we describe the construction and microstructural characterization of a simple spacerless metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistor with a self-aligned shallow drain extension. Transistor structures were fabricated at Stanford University`s Center for Integrated Systems using a single masking step to pattern the gate mask for the self-aligned structures. A 200{angstrom} gate oxide was grown and a 3000{angstrom} polysilicon blanket film was subsequently deposited on the wafer. The polysilicon was patterned into an array of 2.0{mu}m lines and 3.0{mu}m spaces. Arsenic was implanted at 120keV with a nominal dose of 1e15 ions/cm{sup 2} at 20{degrees} from normal incidence and rapid thermal annealed at 1000{degrees}C for 30 seconds. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (TEM, XAFM) samples were prepared using standard metallographic procedures with the doped regions delineated by chemical etching. A one-dimensionally calibrated process simulation was performed using Athena v2.0.13, a commercial derivative of SUPREM IV.

  8. Dual diaphragm tank with telltale drain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuthill, Wallace C., Jr. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A fluid storage and expulsion system comprising a tank with an internal flexible diaphragm assembly of dual diaphragms in back-to-back relationship, at least one of which is provided with a patterned surface having fine edges such that the diaphragms are in contact along said edges without mating contact of surface areas to thereby form fluid channels which extend outwardly to the peripheral edges of the diaphragms is described. The interior wall of the tank at the juncture of tank sections is formed with a circumferential annular recess comprising an outer annular recess portion which forms a fluid collection chamber and an inner annular recess portion which accommodates the peripheral edge portions of the diaphragms and a sealing ring in clamped sealing relation therebetween. The sealing ring is perforated with radially extending passages which allow any fluid leaking or diffusing past a diaphragm to flow through the fluid channels between the diaphragms to the fluid collection chamber. Ports connectable to pressure fittings are provided in the tank sections for admission of fluids to opposite sides of the diaphragm assembly. A drain passage through the tank wall to the fluid collection chamber permits detection, analysis and removal of fluids in the collection chamber.

  9. Using Drained Spacecraft Propellant Tanks for Habitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Andrew S. W.

    2009-01-01

    A document proposes that future spacecraft for planetary and space exploration be designed to enable reuse of drained propellant tanks for occupancy by humans. This proposal would enable utilization of volume and mass that would otherwise be unavailable and, in some cases, discarded. Such utilization could enable reductions in cost, initial launch mass, and number of launches needed to build up a habitable outpost in orbit about, or on the surface of, a planet or moon. According to the proposal, the large propellant tanks of a spacecraft would be configured to enable crews to gain access to their interiors. The spacecraft would incorporate hatchways, between a tank and the crew volume, that would remain sealed while the tank contained propellant and could be opened after the tank was purged by venting to outer space and then refilled with air. The interior of the tank would be pre-fitted with some habitation fixtures that were compatible with the propellant environment. Electrical feed-throughs, used originally for gauging propellants, could be reused to supply electric power to equipment installed in the newly occupied space. After a small amount of work, the tank would be ready for long-term use as a habitation module.

  10. Acute arsine posioning in two workers cleaning a clogged drain.

    PubMed

    Parish, G G; Glass, R; Kimbrough, R

    1979-01-01

    On February 6, 1978, two maintenance workers employed by a chemical company in Atlanta, Georgia, became ill after cleaning a clogged drain. Both were hospitalized with acute fulminant hemolytic anemia and renal failure. While the clinical picture suggested arsine or stibine poisoning, preliminary investigation of the plant revealed no obvious source of arsenic, antimony, or hydrogen gas. During the cleaning operation, the men drained a mixing tank that 5 yr before had been used to store arsenical herbicides. To unclog the drain, they added a standard drain cleaner containing sodium hydroxide and aluminum chips, a combination that reacted to release hydrogen gas. This gas combined with the arsenic residue to form toxic quantities of arsine gas (arsenic trihydride). Arsenic was found in the liquid and gas from the drain and in blood and urine of both patients, and of two other workers who worked in the vicinity of the drain. This investigation suggests that drain cleaners which react to release hydrogen should not be used in situations where arsenic or antimony may be present. Furthermore, maintenance men, who may be exposed to the chemicals used in a plant, should be educated, supervised, and screened so that their risk for occupational hazards may be reduced.

  11. Drain amylase aids detection of anastomotic leak after esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Erin H.; Hill, Joshua S.; Reames, Mark K.; Symanowski, James; Hurley, Susie C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Anastomotic leak following esophagectomy is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. As hospital length of stay decreases, the timely diagnosis of leak becomes more important. We evaluated CT esophagram, white blood count (WBC), and drain amylase levels in the early detection of anastomotic leak. Methods The diagnostic performance of CT esophagram, drain amylase >800 IU/L, and WBC >12,000/µL within the first 10 days after surgery in predicting leak at any time after esophagectomy was calculated. Results Anastomotic leak occurred in 13 patients (13%). CT esophagram performed within 10 days of surgery diagnosed six of these leaks with a sensitivity of 0.54. Elevation in drain amylase level within 10 days of surgery diagnosed anastomotic leak with a sensitivity of 0.38. When the CT esophagram and drain amylase were combined, the sensitivity rose to 0.69 with a specificity of 0.98. WBC elevation had a sensitivity of 0.92, with a specificity of 0.34. Among 30 patients with normal drain amylase and a normal WBC, one developed an anastomotic leak. Conclusions Drain amylase adds to the sensitivity of CT esophagram in the early detection of anastomotic leak. Selected patients with normal drain amylase levels and normal WBC may be able to safely forgo CT esophagram. PMID:27034784

  12. From "Brain Drain" to "Brain Bridging": Transnational Higher Education Development and Graduate Employment in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho; Han, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    In the past few decades, the internationalisation of higher education has become an increasingly popular trend across different parts of the globe. The fierce global competition and the aggravating unemployment rate, coupled with low teaching and research quality revealed by universities in mainland China, have inevitably compelled a growing…

  13. Advances in chest drain management in thoracic disease.

    PubMed

    George, Robert S; Papagiannopoulos, Kostas

    2016-02-01

    An adequate chest drainage system aims to drain fluid and air and restore the negative pleural pressure facilitating lung expansion. In thoracic surgery the post-operative use of the conventional underwater seal chest drainage system fulfills these requirements, however they allow great variability amongst practices. In addition they do not offer accurate data and they are often inconvenient to both patients and hospital staff. This article aims to simplify the myths surrounding the management of chest drains following chest surgery, review current experience and explore the advantages of modern digital chest drain systems and address their disease-specific use. PMID:26941971

  14. Advances in chest drain management in thoracic disease.

    PubMed

    George, Robert S; Papagiannopoulos, Kostas

    2016-02-01

    An adequate chest drainage system aims to drain fluid and air and restore the negative pleural pressure facilitating lung expansion. In thoracic surgery the post-operative use of the conventional underwater seal chest drainage system fulfills these requirements, however they allow great variability amongst practices. In addition they do not offer accurate data and they are often inconvenient to both patients and hospital staff. This article aims to simplify the myths surrounding the management of chest drains following chest surgery, review current experience and explore the advantages of modern digital chest drain systems and address their disease-specific use.

  15. 37. DETAIL OF CYANIDE LEACHING TANK DRAIN DOOR AND PIPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. DETAIL OF CYANIDE LEACHING TANK DRAIN DOOR AND PIPING SYSTEM. NOTE SPIGOT UNDER BOARD AT UPPER LEFT INSERTS INTO HOLE IN PIPE AT BOTTOM OF FRAME. CYANIDE SOLUTION WAS PUMPED INTO THE TANKS AND THE PREGNANT SOLUTION DRAINED OUT OF THE TANKS THROUGH THIS PIPE, AND BACK INTO A SEPARATE HOLDING TANK ON THE EAST SIDE OF THE MILL. TAILINGS WERE REMOVED FROM THE TANKS THROUGH THE ROUND DRAIN DOOR IN THE BOTTOM OF THE TANK (MISSING) SEEN AT TOP CENTER. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  16. Advances in chest drain management in thoracic disease

    PubMed Central

    George, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    An adequate chest drainage system aims to drain fluid and air and restore the negative pleural pressure facilitating lung expansion. In thoracic surgery the post-operative use of the conventional underwater seal chest drainage system fulfills these requirements, however they allow great variability amongst practices. In addition they do not offer accurate data and they are often inconvenient to both patients and hospital staff. This article aims to simplify the myths surrounding the management of chest drains following chest surgery, review current experience and explore the advantages of modern digital chest drain systems and address their disease-specific use. PMID:26941971

  17. 77 FR 30886 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable Drain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... regarding the revocation of the prior definition of ``unblockable drain.'' (76 FR 62605). The Federal... gravity drain system or the underlying drain is unblockable. Accordingly, if a pool operator installed...

  18. Biosimilar regulation in the EU.

    PubMed

    Kurki, Pekka; Ekman, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    In the EU, the EMA has been working with biosimilars since 1998. This experience is crystallized in the extensive set of guidelines, which range from basic principles to details of clinical trials. While the guidance may appear complicated, it has enabled the development of biosimilars, of which 21 have managed to get marketing authorization. Currently marketed biosimilars in the EU have a good track record in safety and traceability. No biosimilars have been withdrawn from the market because of safety concerns. The most controversial issues with biosimilars are immunogenicity and extrapolation of therapeutic indications. The available data for these topics do not raise concerns among EU regulators. Interchangeability and substitution are regulated by individual EU member states. PMID:26294076

  19. Y2O3:Eu nanocrystals as biomarkers prepared by a microwave hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaszewski, Jarosław; Godlewski, Michał M.; Witkowski, Bartłomiej S.; Słońska, Anna; Wolska-Kornio, Ewelina; Wachnicki, Łukasz; Przybylińska, Hanka; Kozankiewicz, Bolesław; Szal, Anna; Domino, Małgorzata A.; Mijowska, Ewa; Godlewski, Marek

    2016-09-01

    Microwave hydrothermal growth of Y2O3 crystallites results in needle-shaped aggregates of μm length. Thermal treatment has little influence on the material microstructure, but significant impact on the nanometric level. Nanoparticles doped with europium show an intense red luminescence, related to the 5D0 → 7F2 transition of Eu3+ ions. The luminescence intensity increases with the calcination temperature and is accompanied by increasing size of Y2O3:Eu crystallites. EPR studies show the absence of Eu2+ related signals in the material. Y2O3:Eu nanoparticles crystallized via a microwave hydrothermal method were employed as luminescent biomarkers in mice. The initial tests confirmed their applicability as biological markers. Persorption of the Y2O3:Eu nanoparticles after IG in the adult mouse duodenum, brain and liver is reported.

  20. 2. VIEW EAST OF HEADGATES AT SPOOL DAM; DRAIN GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW EAST OF HEADGATES AT SPOOL DAM; DRAIN GATE MECHANISM AND DAM EDGE AT RIGHT - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 1, Immediately West of South Main Street, North Bank of Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  1. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF COMPLEX LOOKING SOUTH, SAND DRAINING & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF COMPLEX LOOKING SOUTH, SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (right) AND SAND-SORTING BUILDING (left) - Mill "C" Complex, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  2. 21. CLOSEUP VIEW OF THE HEADGATES, FOLLOWING TEMPORARY DRAINING OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF THE HEADGATES, FOLLOWING TEMPORARY DRAINING OF THE CANAL IN JULY 1986. Photographer: Louise Taft Cawood, July 1986 - Alexander's Grist Mill, Lock 37 on Ohio & Erie Canal, South of Cleveland, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  3. 22. VIEW SHOWING THE PLACING OF POROUS CONCRETE AROUND DRAINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW SHOWING THE PLACING OF POROUS CONCRETE AROUND DRAINS IN SPILLWAY PAVING BLOCK ADJACENT TO THE GATE STRUCTURE AND THE LEFT WALL. November 9, 1938 - Bartlett Dam, Verde River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  4. Development of a 3D-printed external ventricular drain placement simulator: technical note.

    PubMed

    Tai, Bruce L; Rooney, Deborah; Stephenson, Francesca; Liao, Peng-Siang; Sagher, Oren; Shih, Albert J; Savastano, Luis E

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the authors present a physical model developed to simulate accurate external ventricular drain (EVD) placement with realistic haptic and visual feedbacks to serve as a platform for complete procedural training. Insertion of an EVD via ventriculostomy is a common neurosurgical procedure used to monitor intracranial pressures and/or drain CSF. Currently, realistic training tools are scarce and mainly limited to virtual reality simulation systems. The use of 3D printing technology enables the development of realistic anatomical structures and customized design for physical simulators. In this study, the authors used the advantages of 3D printing to directly build the model geometry from stealth head CT scans and build a phantom brain mold based on 3D scans of a plastinated human brain. The resultant simulator provides realistic haptic feedback during a procedure, with visualization of catheter trajectory and fluid drainage. A multiinstitutional survey was also used to prove content validity of the simulator. With minor refinement, this simulator is expected to be a cost-effective tool for training neurosurgical residents in EVD placement.

  5. Development of a 3D-printed external ventricular drain placement simulator: technical note.

    PubMed

    Tai, Bruce L; Rooney, Deborah; Stephenson, Francesca; Liao, Peng-Siang; Sagher, Oren; Shih, Albert J; Savastano, Luis E

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the authors present a physical model developed to simulate accurate external ventricular drain (EVD) placement with realistic haptic and visual feedbacks to serve as a platform for complete procedural training. Insertion of an EVD via ventriculostomy is a common neurosurgical procedure used to monitor intracranial pressures and/or drain CSF. Currently, realistic training tools are scarce and mainly limited to virtual reality simulation systems. The use of 3D printing technology enables the development of realistic anatomical structures and customized design for physical simulators. In this study, the authors used the advantages of 3D printing to directly build the model geometry from stealth head CT scans and build a phantom brain mold based on 3D scans of a plastinated human brain. The resultant simulator provides realistic haptic feedback during a procedure, with visualization of catheter trajectory and fluid drainage. A multiinstitutional survey was also used to prove content validity of the simulator. With minor refinement, this simulator is expected to be a cost-effective tool for training neurosurgical residents in EVD placement. PMID:26115472

  6. Dual-Diaphragm Tank With Leakage-Indicating Drain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuthill, Wallace C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed tank includes dual diaphragm with telltale drain to separate two fluids. If leak occurred in one diaphragm, other diaphragm prevents mixing of two fluids; meanwhile, leakage accumulates in drain and alerts inspector to need for repair. Conceived for bladder tanks for use in zero gravity, concept adaptable to such commercial uses as hydraulic accumulators in industrial hydraulic systems, hydraulic systems in aircraft, and water pressure tanks.

  7. Circuital model for the spherical geodesic waveguide perfect drain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Juan C.; Grabovičkić, Dejan; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C.

    2012-08-01

    The perfect drain for the Maxwell fish eye (MFE) is a non-magnetic dissipative region placed in the focal point to absorb all the incident radiation without reflection or scattering. The perfect drain was recently designed as a material with complex permittivity that depends on frequency. However, this material is only a theoretical material, so it cannot be used in practical devices. The perfect drain has been claimed as necessary for achieving super-resolution (Leonhardt 2009 New J. Phys. 11 093040), which has increased the interest in practical perfect drains suitable for manufacturing. Here, we present a practical perfect drain that is designed using a simple circuit (made of a resistance and a capacitor) connected to the coaxial line. Moreover, we analyze the super-resolution properties of a device equivalent to the MFE, known as a spherical geodesic waveguide, loaded with this perfect drain. The super-resolution analysis for this device is carried out using COMSOL Multiphysics. The results of simulations predict a super-resolution of up to λ/3000.

  8. Can Abdominal Wall Reconstruction Be Safely Performed Without Drains?

    PubMed

    Ramshaw, Bruce; Dean, Jonathan; Forman, Brandie; Heidel, Eric; Gamenthaler, Andrew; Fabian, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The use of closed suction drains in the abdominal wall is a common practice in abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR) operations. Drains can be a conduit for bacteria and can cause pain and discomfort for patients after surgery. A single hernia program has implemented the principles of clinical quality improvement in an attempt to improve outcomes for hernia patients. An attempt at a process improvement was implemented to eliminate the use of drains in AWR by adapting the technique. A total of 102 patients undergoing AWR were included between 8/11 and 9/15 (49 months). Compared with the group before the attempt at eliminating the use of abdominal wall drains (8/11-9/13), the group of patients after the implementation of the attempted process improvement (9/13-9/15) had less wound and pulmonary complications, a shorter hospital stay, less time in the postanesthesia care unit, and less opioid use in the postanesthesia care unit as well as for the entire hospital stay. In this group of AWR patients, an attempt at process improvement that eliminated the use of drains led to improved outcomes. Abdominal wall drains may be able to be safely eliminated with appropriate technique adaptation for AWR. PMID:27657586

  9. Draining mafic magma from conduits during Strombolian eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadsworth, F. B.; Kennedy, B.; Branney, M. J.; Vasseur, J.; von Aulock, F. W.; Lavallée, Y.; Kueppers, U.

    2014-12-01

    During and following eruption, mafic magmas can readily drain downward in conduits, dykes and lakes producing complex and coincident up-flow and down-flow textures. This process can occur at the top of the plumbing system if the magma outgases as slugs or through porous foam, causing the uppermost magma surface to descend and the magma to densify. In this scenario the draining volume is limited by the gas volume outgassed. Additionally, magma can undergo wholesale backflow when the pressure at the base of the conduit or feeder dyke exceeds the driving pressure in the chamber beneath. This second scenario will continue until pressure equilibrium is established. These two scenarios may occur coincidently as local draining of uppermost conduit magma by outgassing can lead to wholesale backflow because the densification of magma is an effective way to modify the vertical pressure profile in a conduit. In the rare case where conduits are preserved in cross section, the textural record of draining is often complex and great care should be taken in interpreting bimodal kinematic trends in detail. Lateral cooling into country rock leads to lateral profiles of physical and flow properties and, ultimately, outgassing potential, and exploration of such profiles elucidates the complexity involved. We present evidence from Red Crater volcano, New Zealand, and La Palma, Canary Islands, where we show that at least one draining phase followed initial ascent and eruption. We provide a rheological model approach to understand gravitational draining velocities and therefore, the timescales of up- and down-flow cycles predicted. These timescales can be compared with observed geophysical signals at monitored mafic volcanoes worldwide. Finally, we discuss the implications of shallow magma draining for edifice stability, eruption longevity and magma-groundwater interaction.

  10. Determination of the 151Eu(n,γ)152Eu and 153Eu(n,γ)154Eu Reaction Cross Sections at Thermal Neutron Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basunia, M. S.; Firestone, R. B.; Révay, Zs.; Choi, H. D.; Belgya, T.; Escher, J. E.; Hurst, A. M.; Krtička, M.; Szentmiklósi, L.; Sleaford, B.; Summers, N. C.

    2014-05-01

    We have measured partial γ-ray cross sections following neutron capture in enriched 151Eu and 153Eu targets at the cold-neutron-beam facility of the Budapest Research Reactor. The cross sections were standardized using a stoichiometric natEuCl3 target with the well-known 1951-keV γ-ray cross section from the 35Cl(n,γ)36Cl reaction at the cold-neutron-beam facility of the Garching Research Reactor. The γ-ray cross sections were corrected for effective g-factors. These data were combined with the structural information of 152Eu and 154Eu given in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File to produce capture γ-ray level schemes. The total radiative capture cross sections of the 151Eu(n,γ)152Eu and 153Eu(n,γ)154Eu reactions were determined by summing the experimental transition intensities from known levels with simulated intensities of transitions from higher excitations to the ground- or metastable-state. The individual 151Eu(n,γ)152Eu and 151Eu(n,γ)152gEu reaction cross sections disagree with values in the literature. However, the total cross section of the 151Eu(n,γ)152Eu reaction does agree with those values. Also, our deduced cross section for the 153Eu(n,γ)154Eu reaction closely follows the data in the literature. These results are supported by an earlier standardization experiment done at the Budapest Research Reactor using a target of Eu2O3 solution in H2SO4.

  11. Leaching of dissolved phosphorus from tile-drained agricultural areas.

    PubMed

    Andersen, H E; Windolf, J; Kronvang, B

    2016-01-01

    We investigated leaching of dissolved phosphorus (P) from 45 tile-drains representing animal husbandry farms in all regions of Denmark. Leaching of P via tile-drains exhibits a high degree of spatial heterogeneity with a low concentration in the majority of tile-drains and few tile-drains (15% in our investigation) having high to very high concentration of dissolved P. The share of dissolved organic P (DOP) was high (up to 96%). Leaching of DOP has hitherto been a somewhat overlooked P loss pathway in Danish soils and the mechanisms of mobilization and transport of DOP needs more investigation. We found a high correlation between Olsen-P and water extractable P. Water extractable P is regarded as an indicator of risk of loss of dissolved P. Our findings indicate that Olsen-P, which is measured routinely in Danish agricultural soils, may be a useful proxy for the P leaching potential of soils. However, we found no straight-forward correlation between leaching potential of the top soil layer (expressed as either degree of P saturation, Olsen-P or water extractable P) and the measured concentration of dissolved P in the tile-drain. This underlines that not only the source of P but also the P loss pathway must be taken into account when evaluating the risk of P loss. PMID:27332841

  12. Groundwater flow and solute movement to drain laterals, western San Joaquin Valley, California. 1. Geochemical assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Deverel, S.J.; Fio, J.L. )

    1990-01-01

    A study was undertaken to quantitatively evaluate the hydrologic processes affecting the chemical and isotopic composition of drain lateral water from an agricultural field in the western San Joaquin Valley, California. Results from chemical and isotopic analysis of the samples, and analysis of hydraulic head data and drain lateral flow data, elucidate the process of mixing of deep and shallow groundwater entering the drain laterals. The deep groundwater was subject to partial evaporation prior to drainage system installation and has been displaced downward in the groundwater system. This groundwater is flowing toward the drain laterals. The percentage of deep, isotopically enriched groundwater entering the drain laterals varies with time and between drain laterals. The percentage of the total drain lateral flow, which is deep groundwater flow, is about 30% for the shallow drain lateral and 60% for the deep drain lateral. During irrigation, these percentages decrease to 0 and 30% for the shallow and deep drain laterals. Selenium loads in the drain laterals vary with time and between drain laterals. The selenium load for the shallow drain lateral during 1 year is 21% of the load for the deep drain lateral because it collects less deep, high selenium groundwater and does not flow continuously. Although selenium concentrations in the drain lateral water decreased during irrigation, selenium loads increased substantially during a preplant irrigation because of increased flow into the drain laterals. The selenium loads during 8 days of irrigation represented a substantial percentage of the total selenium load for 1 year.

  13. EU Space Awareness: Initial implemenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    EU Space Awareness uses the excitement of space to attract young people into science and technology and stimulate European and global citizenship. The project will show children and teenagers the opportunities offered by space science and engineering and inspire primary-school children when their curiosity is high and their value systems are being formed. EU Space Awareness, a 3-year project, has started in March 2015 with 10 partner organisations and 15 network nodes in 17 European countries and the IAU Office of Astronomy for Development. During this talk we will give a update about the intial implementation of the project and its relevant for astronomy for development.

  14. Angular momentum drain - A mechanism for despinning asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovolskis, A. R.; Burns, J. A.

    1984-03-01

    It is proposed that a new mechanism - angular momentum drain - helps account for the relatively slow rotation rates of intermediate-sized asteroids. Impact ejecta on a spinning body preferentially escape in the direction of rotation. This material systematically drains away spin angular momentum, leading to the counterintuitive result that collisions can reduce the spin of midsized objects. For an asteroid of mass M spinning at frequency ω, a mass loss δM corresponds to an average decrease in rotation rate δω ≈ ωδM/M. A. W. Harris' (1979) theory for the collisional evolution of asteroidal spins is significantly altered by the inclusion of this effect. While the modified theory is still somewhat artificial, comparison of its predictions with the data of S. F. Dermott et al. (1984) suggests that angular momentum drain is essential for understanding the statistics of asteroidal rotations.

  15. [An ectopic ureter which drained into the perianal area].

    PubMed

    Delgado Chanis, G

    1992-05-01

    The author reviews the clinical record of a 6-year-old boy, who had urinary incontinence with wetting of his underwear in the posterior part. IVP, Cystoscopy, Cystogram, Left Retrograde Pyelogram and Surgery showed a double distal ureter on the left side. The normal ureter drained in the bladder in the orthotopic ureteral orifice. The medial dilated ectopic ureter, in the form of an H, was connected to the normal ureter and drained in the perianal area. The incontinence stopped after the resection of the ectopic ureter. PMID:1620895

  16. State waste discharge permit application, 200-E chemical drain field

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect ground would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. This document presents the State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) application for the 200-E Chemical Drain Field. Waste water from the 272-E Building enters the process sewer line directly through a floor drain, while waste water from the 2703-E Building is collected in two floor drains, (north and south) that act as sumps and are discharged periodically. The 272-E and 2703-E Buildings constitute the only discharges to the process sewer line and the 200-E Chemical Drain Field.

  17. Are You Phrog Farming or Helping to Drain the Swamp?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Jerry B.

    1983-01-01

    The difference between phrogfessors and teachers is that phrogfessors train tadpoles in the way of the swamp (i.e., create likenesses of themselves) while teachers produce people and thereby help to drain the swamp. Phrogfessors take responsibility for what their students learn. They believe that if a student does badly, it is the phrogfessor's…

  18. Effect of Kima drain wastewaters on Nile river waters

    SciTech Connect

    Soltan, M.E.

    1995-09-01

    The influence of industrial and domestic wastewaters discharged from the Kima drain (Aswan, Egypt) on the quality of the Nile River waters is described by measuring the concentrations of inorganic nonmetals (free CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, OH{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SiO{sub 2}, COD, DO and pH value), metals (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Pb, and Zn), and the physical parameters (cond., T{degrees}C, SS, and DS). Kima drain wastewaters exhibit high concentrations of dissolved salts, particularly close to where the waste of the Kima factory enters, but decrease substantially near the end of the Kima drain. The reason is the dilution factor, aeration, sedimentation, oxidation reductions, and the biochemical effects. A slight increase of the dissolved solids (DS) in the Nile river water at the Kima drain does not effect the Nile river water quality, as the regeneration of the Nile water continuously (the Nile River receives 200 Mm{sup 3}/d of fresh water from the High Dam Lake) prevents the accretion of the concentrations of metals and anions. Statistical analysis of the database exhibits positive, good, and interesting correlation coefficient values. 28 refs., 2 figs.

  19. 7. DRAIN TUNNEL PORTAL. THE WATER FLOWS IN A DITCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DRAIN TUNNEL PORTAL. THE WATER FLOWS IN A DITCH BENEATH TIMBER LAGGING, WHICH SUPPORTS THE MINE CAR TRACKS. - Park Utah Mining Company: Keetley Mine Complex, 1 mile East of U.S. 40 at Keetley, Heber City, Wasatch County, UT

  20. At 750 Gallery, (sump level) view of drain to sump ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    At 750 Gallery, (sump level) view of drain to sump pumps, looking north. This level contains the "art gallery" which features graffiti from the 1940s-1990s. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  1. New SWAT tile drain equations: Modifications, Calibration, Validation, and Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface tile drainage is a commonly used agricultural practice to enhance crop yield in poorly drained but highly productive soils in many other regions of the world. However, the presence of subsurface tile drainage systems also expedites the transport of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and other chemi...

  2. 13. DETAIL WEST OF TURBINE PIT SHOWING PIT DRAINED AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL WEST OF TURBINE PIT SHOWING PIT DRAINED AND TURBINE EXPOSED. ORIGINAL WATER LEVEL SHOWN BY LINE JUST ABOVE ARCHED OPENING TO LEFT. WATER LINE AFTER 1982 INSTALLATION OF FLASH BOARDS REVEALED BY DARK STAIN. - Middle Creek Hydroelectric Dam, On Middle Creek, West of U.S. Route 15, 3 miles South of Selinsgrove, Selinsgrove, Snyder County, PA

  3. 14 CFR 25.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oil system drains. 25.1021 Section 25.1021 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS...; and (b) Have manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position....

  4. 14 CFR 25.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 25.1021 Section 25.1021 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS...; and (b) Have manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position....

  5. 14 CFR 27.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 27.1021 Section 27.1021 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS...) Have manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position....

  6. 14 CFR 29.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oil system drains. 29.1021 Section 29.1021 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS...; and (b) Have manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position....

  7. 14 CFR 29.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 29.1021 Section 29.1021 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS...; and (b) Have manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position....

  8. 14 CFR 27.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oil system drains. 27.1021 Section 27.1021 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS...) Have manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position....

  9. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS...-off means for positive locking in the closed position; and (c) Be located or protected to...

  10. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards: Individual drain systems. 60.692-2 Section 60.692-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...)(1) Junction boxes shall be equipped with a cover and may have an open vent pipe. The vent pipe...

  11. Modeling sewage leakage to surrounding groundwater and stormwater drains.

    PubMed

    Ly, Duy Khiem; Chui, Ting Fong May

    2012-01-01

    Underground sewage pipe systems deteriorate over time resulting in cracks and joint defects. Sewage thus leaks out and contaminates the surrounding groundwater and the surface water in stormwater drains. Many studies have investigated the problem of sewage leakage but no published studies, to the best knowledge of the authors, have examined the hydrologic interactions between leaky sewage pipes, groundwater and stormwater drains. This study numerically models such interactions using generic conditions in Singapore. It first develops accurate representations of weep holes and leaky sewage pipes, and further shows the long-term and short-term system responses to rainfall events. Some of the implications include: (1) quality of water seeping into the drains tends to be low in dry years; (2) complete contaminant attenuation after pipe rehabilitation takes several years; (3) responses to rainfall events at weep holes are immediate but the effects on sewage leakage might only show up a few days later. The simulation results allow us to better understand the local-scale migration of sewage leakage from a sewage pipe to nearby stormwater drains. With calibrations and verifications with local field data, the modeling framework would be applicable and beneficial to the sewage leakage monitoring and sewage pipe rehabilitation worldwide.

  12. 7 CFR 52.3755 - Minimum drained weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description... olives is determined by emptying the contents of the container upon a U.S. Standard No. 8 circular sieve.... The weight of drained olives is the weight of the sieve and product less the weight of the dry...

  13. 7 CFR 52.3755 - Minimum drained weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description... olives is determined by emptying the contents of the container upon a U.S. Standard No. 8 circular sieve.... The weight of drained olives is the weight of the sieve and product less the weight of the dry...

  14. Phosphorus modeling in tile drained agricultural systems using APEX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus losses through tile drained systems in agricultural landscapes may be causing the persistent eutrophication problems observed in surface water. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the state of the science in the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model related to surf...

  15. 1. LOOKING TOWARD PLANE 9 WEST. BASIN HAS BEEN DRAINED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING TOWARD PLANE 9 WEST. BASIN HAS BEEN DRAINED AND SLOPE OF PLANE 9 IS VISIBLE BETWEEN ROW OF TREES IN BACKGROUND. STONEWORK ON LEFT IS ABUTMENT TO BRIDGE THAT CROSSED OVER THE CANAL. - Morris Canal, Inclined Plane 9 West, Port Warren, Warren County, NJ

  16. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... is maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure, then paragraph (a)(1)(i)(B) of this....355(h); and (3) The pressure is monitored continuously to ensure that the pressure in the individual drain system remains below atmospheric pressure. (ii) The closed-vent system and control device shall...

  17. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... is maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure, then paragraph (a)(1)(i)(B) of this....355(h); and (3) The pressure is monitored continuously to ensure that the pressure in the individual drain system remains below atmospheric pressure. (ii) The closed-vent system and control device shall...

  18. JMU Refuses to Let Money Go down the Drain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinn, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    James Madison University (JMU) in Harrisonburg, Virginia has embarked on a rational means to reduce energy costs and provides a sustainable approach to student housing. The investment to install a Drain Water Heat Recovery system (DWHR) at Wayland Hall is estimated to pay for itself in less than three years but will provide dividends for over 40.…

  19. Chemical composition of dissolved organic matter draining permafrost soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Collin P.; Cory, Rose M.

    2015-10-01

    Northern circumpolar permafrost soils contain roughly twice the amount of carbon stored in the atmosphere today, but the majority of this soil organic carbon is perennially frozen. Climate warming in the arctic is thawing permafrost soils and mobilizing previously frozen dissolved organic matter (DOM) from deeper soil layers to nearby surface waters. Previous studies have reported that ancient DOM draining deeper layers of permafrost soils was more susceptible to degradation by aquatic bacteria compared to modern DOM draining the shallow active layer of permafrost soils, and have suggested that DOM chemical composition may be an important control for the lability of DOM to bacterial degradation. However, the compositional features that distinguish DOM drained from different depths in permafrost soils are poorly characterized. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize the chemical composition of DOM drained from different depths in permafrost soils, and relate these compositional differences to its susceptibility to biological degradation. DOM was leached from the shallow organic mat and the deeper permafrost layer of soils within the Imnavait Creek watershed on the North Slope of Alaska. DOM draining both soil layers was characterized in triplicate by coupling ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry, 13C solid-state NMR, and optical spectroscopy methods with multi-variate statistical analyses. Reproducibility of replicate mass spectra was high, and compositional differences resulting from interfering species or isolation effects were significantly smaller than differences between DOM drained from each soil layer. All analyses indicated that DOM leached from the shallower organic mat contained higher molecular weight, more oxidized, and more unsaturated aromatic species compared to DOM leached from the deeper permafrost layer. Bacterial production rates and bacterial efficiencies were significantly higher for permafrost compared to organic mat DOM

  20. Necessity of Surgical Site Closed Suction Drain for Pterional Craniotomy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Su Yong; Yoon, Sung Min; Yoo, Chan Jong; Kim, Young Bo; Kim, Woo Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the benefit of using a prophylactic surgical site closed suction drain in pterional craniotomy. Materials and Methods A retrospective review was conducted on 607 consecutive patients who underwent a pterional craniotomy for treatment of intracranial anterior circulation aneurysms over a 5-year period. Between January 2000 and December 2004, 607 patients were divided into two groups, those who had a prophylactic suction drain during closure of the surgical site (drain group, DG) and those who did not (non-drain group, NDG). Head computed tomography (CT) was taken routinely on postoperative day (POD) 1, 7, and 14. Patients' demographics, incidence of surgical site complications, and courses of surgical site healing which were evaluated radiologically by the thickness of the surgical site myocutaneous layer, were analyzed between DG and NDG. Results Patients' demographics and characteristics did not differ significantly between the two groups. The head CT showed that the degree of changes in the postoperative surgical site thickness was 148% at POD 1, 209% at POD 7, and 198% at POD 14 in DG, and 118% at POD 1, 152% at POD 7, and 158% at POD 14 in NDG compared to the preoperative value. Postoperative surgical site hematoma was 7.9% (22/274) in DG and 2.4% (8/333) in NDG. Conclusion Prophylactic use of an epidural and/or subgaleal closed suction drain does not appear to be necessary for prevention of postoperative surgical site hematoma as well as for promotion of surgical site healing in pterional craniotomy. PMID:26523255

  1. Surface Water and Groundwater Nitrogen Dynamics in a Well Drained Riparian Forest within a Poorly Drained Agricultural Landscape

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effectiveness of riparian zones in mitigating nutrients in ground and surface water depends on the climate, management and hydrogeomorphology of a site. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a well-drained, mixed-deciduous riparian forest to buffer a ri...

  2. Quantification and valuation of ecosystem services to optimize sustainable re-use for low-productive drained peatlands (LIFEPeatLandUse)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolvanen, Anne; Parviainen, Miia; Ojanen, Paavo

    2016-04-01

    More than half of the original peatlands have been drained in Finland to increase tree growth. However, 20% of the drained peatland area is low-productive, and does not produce enough timber to fulfill commercial purposes. At the same time, their biodiversity is degraded, they may continue environmental loading to watercourses, and act as greenhouse gas (GHG) sources. A key question concerning the use of peatlands in Finland is what to do with these low-productive drained peatlands that have been left aside from active forestry. These low-productive drained peatlands can be re-used in many different ways. The problem is that the impacts of different re-use options on biodiversity, environment and economy are not yet fully understood and thus it is hard to give proposals for re-use actions. The challenge is to develop mechanisms that can balance the conflicting demands on the use of peatlands and to ensure their sustainable use. Our 5-year EU funded LIFE+ project LIFEPeatLandUse (2013-2018, LIFE12/ENV/FI/150) consolidates the knowledge on the impacts of peatland re-use on ecosystem services. Under investigation, there are seven different peatland re-use options, representing the economic activity as well as measures related to the protection. The purpose is to evaluate and predict their potential impacts on the peatland landscapes, if they were applied in practice. The aim is to find cost-efficient re-use options to low-productive drained peatlands, which help to prevent or stop decline of biodiversity and environmental loading to watercourses, and improve capacity of peatlands to store greenhouse gases.

  3. Processes responding to restoration in forestry-drained peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarvainen, Oili; Laine, Anna; Tolvanen, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Almost one third, nearly 100 000 km2, of the total land area is covered by peatlands in Finland, which is a higher relative cover than in any other country in the world. Over a half of the peatland area has been drained for forestry, and many invaluable wetland habitat types are severely degraded. Restoration of forestry-drained peatlands is a relatively new measure, and long term results are still relatively scarce. Reinstating the ecological function with its feedback cycles can be a slow and gradual process. Nevertheless, since forestry-drained peatlands are not destroyed habitats in terms of their ecosystem functions, they can be expected to be reinstated through the returning of the crucial element, the high water-table level and its natural variability. To evaluate the development of peatland function and structure after restoration, indicators which respond at different speed to restoration are therefore useful. Vegetation indicators are commonly assessed to indicate restoration progress, but they can be slow to respond. Changes in the mineralization and decomposition rates may indicate sooner, if processes typical for undrained peatlands are initiating after restoration. However, despite the increasing amount of information on the vegetation structure after restoring forestry-drained peatlands, there is no sufficient information on the ecological processes, which may be reasons behind the existing difference between restored and pristine peatlands. Information on the ecological processes and the speed of their recovery helps to evaluate whether the restored peatlands have turned their development towards natural situation, despite that the structure does not yet show sufficient recovery. We studied how restoration affects the hydrology, peat forming processes, and vegetation in boreal fen type of peatlands. Fens drained for forestry 30 - 40 year earlier were restored in northern Finland in 2007 by harvesting trees and by damming and filling ditches. After

  4. Governance in EU illicit drugs policy.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Carel; Galla, Maurice

    2014-09-01

    This commentary represents the authors' views on EU governance in illicit drug policy, a field in which they were active for more than 10 years between them. EU drug policy has a narrow legal basis in the European Treaties and is mostly non-binding. The main policy instruments are 8-year EU Drug Strategies, underpinned by 4-year Action Plans which set out specific objectives at national, EU or international level. The approach that guides EU drug policy is known as the 'balanced approach'. It is remarkably restrained and reflects the reality that very few Member States have either the socio-political culture or the resources to consistently apply the punitive sanctions foreseen by the UN conventions. An important feature of EU governance in the field of drugs is the proactive support that is provided to non-governmental organisations both within the EU as well as in accession, associated or third countries. At a global level, the EU is a major financial aid donor also in this field. This position is not however reflected in corresponding political clout for the EU within the UN system. EU governance on drugs has made it possible for many of its Member States to accommodate the problem rather than to "solve" what by all the evidence from the last 100 years may well be insoluble, at least by means of criminalisation and prohibition. The big question is where EU drug policy is headed in the next few years. The EU has been promoting measures and practices that target real problems. It has done so without indulging too much in unhelpful rhetoric. However, like all successful formulae this one also has a sell-by date. EU governance in the field of drugs cannot afford to stand still. It needs to find a second wind.

  5. Thermal quenching of photoluminescence of Eu3+ ions in an Eu(fod)3 complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimova, V. I.; Zavorotnyi, Yu. S.; Rybaltovskii, A. O.; Taraeva, A. Yu.

    2006-05-01

    We have studied the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Eu3+ ions in the complex Eu(fod)3 (fod = 6,6,7,7,8,8,8-heptafluoro-2,2-dimethyl-3,5-octadione) and also in polymers doped with Eu(fod)3 with the help of supercritical carbon dioxide. We have established that in the temperature range 20°C 100°C, we observe thermal quenching of the photoluminescence of Eu3+ ions, and this quenching is most efficient in polycrystalline Eu(fod)3 powder and Eu(fod)3-doped polypropylene.

  6. An experimental study on recovering heat from domestic drain water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, Mohamad; Al Shaer, Ali; Haddad, Ahmad; Khaled, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    This paper concerns an experimental study on a system of heat recovery applied to domestic drain water pipes. The concept suggested consists of using the heat still present in the drain water as a preheating/heating source to the cold water supply of the building. To proceed, an appropriate experimental setup is developed and a coil heat exchanger is used as heat transfer device in the recovery system. Several scenarios are simulated and corresponding parameters are recorded and analyzed. It was shown that the suggested recovery concept can considerably preheat the cold water supply and then decrease the energy consumption. Particularly, up to 8.6 kW of heat were recovered when the cold water supply is initially at 3 °C.

  7. Laparoscopic retrieval of a missing pancreatic pseudocyst drain.

    PubMed

    Randall, Jonathan; Mee, Anthony; Jones, Adam

    2008-02-01

    A 20-year woman who presented with acute pancreatitis developed a pseudocyst that was successfully drained by endoscopic placement of a stent as a cystogastrostomy. The first stent used went fully into the cyst and was irretrievable. Two years later a computed tomography showed the stent lying anterior to the left kidney. The stent was later successfully retrieved using a retroperitoneal laparoscopic approach, with the help of an image intensifier. Although high technical success rates of endoscopic drainage of pseudocysts are reported complications have been described including hemorrhage, secondary infection, and stent migration. We believe this is the first case described where a pseudocyst drain has migrated into the retroperitoneum and then been retrieved laparoscopically.

  8. Results of the DWPF Melter Drain Canister, S00209

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, M.K.

    1998-09-18

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was requested by the Engineering Section of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to characterize the drain canister filled during the DWPF Proficiency Runs. Testing of this canister, along with testing of the glass samples taken from the canister, was performed as part of a continuing effort to demonstrate compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS)1 as outlined in the Waste Form Qualification Coordinating Plan (QCP).2. This report is a summary of the results of the canister filled with glass from the melter drain valve during the DWPF Proficiency Runs. This summary includes the results necessary for Waste Qualification, as well as results and observations from other SRTC tests.

  9. The Penrose drain: a safe, atraumatic colostomy bridge.

    PubMed

    Lafreniere, R; Ketcham, A S

    1985-02-01

    Because of the problems associated with the large, bulky bridges presently used for construction of loop ostomies, particularly complications of leaks and skin excoriation, we have studied the use of the Penrose drain as an alternative. This method has been time-tested on 45 patients and has been found to be safe, reliable, and inexpensive and has gained popularity among patients and ostomy nurses. The bulky colostomy bridge should no longer be accepted as a standard of care.

  10. Effects of drain doping concentration on switching characteristics of tunnel field-effect transistor inverters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Dae Woong; Kim, Jang Hyun; Park, Byung-Gook

    2016-11-01

    In order to investigate the effects of the modulation of drain doping concentration (N drain) on alternating current (AC) switching characteristics of a tunnel filed-effect transistor (TFET) inverter, the characteristics of TFETs with various N drains are analyzed rigorously through mixed-mode device and circuit TCAD simulations. As the N drain gets decreased, the drain current (I D) becomes reduced and the gate-to-drain capacitance (C GD) reflects the entire gate capacitance (C GG) at a lower gate voltage (V G), which leads to the degradation of falling/rising delay in TFET inverters. These phenomena are explained successfully by the change of quasi-Fermi energy in the drain (E F_drain) as a function of V G. The E F_drain rises dramatically from when tunneling current starts to flow from the source in the n-type TFET with low N drain. As a result, drain-side channel inversion occurs at a lower V G due to the reduction of the energy barrier between the E F_drain and the conduction band edge of the channel.

  11. 7 CFR 58.416 - Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables. 58.416 Section 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.416 Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables. (a) The vats, tanks and drain tables used for making cheese should be of metal construction with adequate jacket capacity...

  12. 7 CFR 58.416 - Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables. 58.416 Section 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.416 Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables. (a) The vats, tanks and drain tables used for making cheese should be of metal construction with adequate jacket capacity...

  13. 7 CFR 58.416 - Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables. 58.416 Section 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.416 Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables. (a) The vats, tanks and drain tables used for making cheese should be of metal construction with adequate jacket capacity...

  14. 7 CFR 58.416 - Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables. 58.416 Section 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.416 Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables. (a) The vats, tanks and drain tables used for making cheese should be of metal construction with adequate jacket capacity...

  15. 7 CFR 58.416 - Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables. 58.416 Section 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.416 Cheese vats, tanks and drain tables. (a) The vats, tanks and drain tables used for making cheese should be of metal construction with adequate jacket capacity...

  16. 46 CFR 153.1104 - Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. 153... Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. Before a cargo hose used in discharging an NLS from a ship's cargo tank is disconnected, the hose must be drained back to the transfer terminal unless...

  17. 46 CFR 153.1104 - Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. 153... Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. Before a cargo hose used in discharging an NLS from a ship's cargo tank is disconnected, the hose must be drained back to the transfer terminal unless...

  18. 46 CFR 153.1104 - Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. 153... Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. Before a cargo hose used in discharging an NLS from a ship's cargo tank is disconnected, the hose must be drained back to the transfer terminal unless...

  19. 46 CFR 153.1104 - Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. 153... Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. Before a cargo hose used in discharging an NLS from a ship's cargo tank is disconnected, the hose must be drained back to the transfer terminal unless...

  20. 46 CFR 153.1104 - Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. 153... Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. Before a cargo hose used in discharging an NLS from a ship's cargo tank is disconnected, the hose must be drained back to the transfer terminal unless...

  1. 33 CFR 149.145 - What are the requirements for curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs? 149.145 Section 149.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST..., drains, and reservoirs? Each pumping platform complex must have enough curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs to collect, in the reservoirs, all oil and contaminants not authorized for discharge into...

  2. 33 CFR 149.145 - What are the requirements for curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs? 149.145 Section 149.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST..., drains, and reservoirs? Each pumping platform complex must have enough curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs to collect, in the reservoirs, all oil and contaminants not authorized for discharge into...

  3. 33 CFR 149.145 - What are the requirements for curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs? 149.145 Section 149.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST..., drains, and reservoirs? Each pumping platform complex must have enough curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs to collect, in the reservoirs, all oil and contaminants not authorized for discharge into...

  4. Liquid draining shut-off induced geyser and slosh wave excitation at suction dip during draining in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Shyu, K. L.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of vapor ingestion, liquid residual at the incipience of suction dip, liquid hydrogen shut-off at the incipience of suction dip, and slosh wave excitation under normal and various reduced gravity environments and different flow rates of liquid during draining have been investigated. It shows that the liquid residual at the incipience of suction dip increases as the values of gravity environment decrease from normal gravity to lower reduced gravity, and also that the liquid residual increases as the flow rates of liquid increase during the courses of liquid hydrogen draining. It also shows that slosh waves accompanied by strong geyser are developed for surge-related flowfields at the moment of liquid hydrogen shut-off. Slosh wave excitation, during the liquid hydrogen shut-off, shift the fluid mass distribution in the container which imposes time-dependent variation in spacecraft moment of inertia.

  5. Tuning Mixed-Valent Eu(2+) /Eu(3+) in Strontium Formate Frameworks for Multichannel Photoluminescence.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Lijia; Wang, Yanlong; Chen, Lanhua; McLeod, John A; Yang, Linju; Zhao, Jia; Liu, Zhiyong; Diwu, Juan; Chai, Zhifang; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E; Liu, Guokui; Wang, Shuao

    2016-08-01

    Cooperative performance of mixed-valent Eu(2+) /Eu(3+) in single-compound phosphors offers significant advantages in color rendering and luminescence efficiency, but their synthesis is challenging because of Eu(2+) oxidation. Using the tunable nature of the metal-ion nodes in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), we present an in situ reduction and crystallization route for preparing MOFs and doping Eu(2+) /Eu(3+) with a controlled ratio. These materials exhibit rich photoluminescence, including intrinsic- and sensitized-emissions of Eu(2+) and Eu(3+) , and long-lived luminescence from charge transfer. Color rendering can be easily achieved by fine-tuning the valence states of Eu. A linear relation between temperature and the intensity ratio of Eu(2+) /Eu(3+) emissions provides outstanding properties for applications as self-calibrated luminescent thermometers with a wide working temperature range. Further incorporation of Tb(3+) into the MOFs results in white light, utilizing all Eu(2+) ,Tb(3+) , and Eu(3+) emissions in a single crystalline lattice. PMID:27305606

  6. Improvised external ventricular drain in neurosurgery: A Nigerian tertiary hospital experience

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, O. A.; Asha, M. A.; Bankole, O. B.; Kanu, O. O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most common type of hydrocephalus in developing countries is post infective hydrocephalus. Infected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) however cannot be shunted for the reason that it will block the chamber of the ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt due to its high protein content. In centers where standard external ventricular drain (EVD) sets are not available, improvised feeding tube can be used. Aim: The main focus of this study is to encourage the use of improvised feeding tube catheters for EVD when standard sets are not available to improve patients’ survival. Methodology: This was a prospective study. Consecutive patients with hydrocephalus that cannot be shunted immediately for high chances of shunt failure or signs of increasing intracranial pressure were recruited into the study. Other inclusion criteria were preoperative brain tumor with possibility of blocked CSF pathway and massive intraventricular hemorrhage necessitating ventricular drainage as a salvage procedure. Standard EVD set is not readily available and too expensive for most of the parents to afford. Improvised feeding tube is used to drain/divert CSF using the standard documented procedure for EVD insertion. Outcome is measured and recorded. Results: A total of 28 patients were recruited into the study over a time frame of 2 years. There were 19 (67.9%) male and 9 (32.1%) females with a ratio of about 2:1. Age ranges varied from as low as 7 days to 66 years. The median age of the study sample was 6.5 months while the mean was 173.8 months. Duration of EVD varied from 2 days to 11 days with a median of 7 while the average was 6 days. Eventual outcome following the procedure of EVD showed that 19 (67.9%) survived and were discharged either to go home or to have VP shunt afterwards while 8 (28.6%) of the patients died. Conclusions: External ventricular drain can and should be done when it is necessary. Potential mortalities could be reduced by the improvised drainage using a standard

  7. Evisceration of Appendix through the Drain Site: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ravishankaran, Praveen; Rajamani, A

    2013-06-01

    Placing a drain after surgery is a usual procedure in any emergency abdominal operation. The drain is removed as soon as its purpose of draining the intraabdominal collection in served. Evisceration of intraabdominal organs through the drain site is a rare occurance. This case report is about an 12 year old girl who was admitted with blunt trauma abdomen. After completion of emergency laparotomy a drain was placed in the right lower quadrant. When the drain was removed on the 6th post operative day, the appendix eviscerated out of the drain site. The wound was extended a little and an appendectomy was done. This case is presented for its rarity as only two similar instances have been reported in literature so far.

  8. Hydrology and hydraulics of treatment wetlands constructed on drained peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postila, Heini; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kløve, Bjørn

    2013-04-01

    Treatment wetlands are globally used for wastewater purification purposes. In Finland, these wetlands are commonly peatland-based and are used to treat runoff from peat extraction sites and peatland forestry. Wetlands are also used for polishing municipal wastewaters and mining waters. In peat extraction the structures are usually called overland flow areas (OFAs), which are traditionally established on pristine peatlands. However, nowadays establishing of new peat extraction sites is guided to drained peatland areas due to the Finnish Peat Use Strategy, which leads difficulties to find undisturbed peatland area for OFA. Therefore treatment wetlands have had to construct also on drained peatland areas. In drained areas peat physical properties have changed due to oxidation and subsidence and the water flow pathways differs from OFAs flow patterns, which maybe have effect on purification results. Thus in the present study we aim to clarify the hydrology and hydraulic properties of treatment wetlands constructed on drained peatland areas. For this purposes, 20 treatment wetlands on drained peatland areas across Finland were detailed measured for peat hydraulic conductivity. In selected areas, runoff was continuously monitored, flow distribution at treatment areas was studied and water residence times measured with tracer tests using potassium iodide (KI). Generally, in the study areas, the ditches had been completely blocked, partly blocked e.g with peat dams or not blocked at all. The ditches were located partly parallel to the flow direction and partly perpendicular to it. The distribution of water to the wetlands has been implemented in many different ways e.g. by distribution ditch or by perforated pipes. Based on the results, in majority of the wetlands, the peat drainage has clearly affected the hydraulic properties of wetlands, but not on all sites. In more than half of the wetlands (12), the median hydraulic conductivity of peat drastically decreased at the

  9. Characterization Plan for Soils Around Drain Line PLA-100115

    SciTech Connect

    D. Shanklin

    2006-05-24

    This Characterization Plan supports the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (HWMA/RCRA) closure of soils that may have been contaminated by releases from drain line PLA-100115, located within the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The requirements to address the closure of soils contaminated by a potential release from this line in a characterization plan was identified in the "HWMA/RCRA Less Than 90-day Generator Closure Report for the VES-SFE-126."

  10. Absorption of planar waves in a draining bathtub

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Ednilton S.; Dolan, Sam R.; Crispino, Luis C. B.

    2010-06-15

    We present an analysis of the absorption of acoustic waves by a black hole analogue in (2+1) dimensions generated by a fluid flow in a draining bathtub. We show that the low-frequency absorption length is equal to the acoustic hole circumference and that the high-frequency absorption length is 4 times the ergoregion radius. For intermediate values of the wave frequency, we compute the absorption length numerically and show that our results are in excellent agreement with the low- and high-frequency limits. We analyze the occurrence of superradiance, manifested as negative partial absorption lengths for corotating modes at low frequencies.

  11. How Do Meningeal Lymphatic Vessels Drain the CNS?

    PubMed

    Raper, Daniel; Louveau, Antoine; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    The many interactions between the nervous and the immune systems, which are active in both physiological and pathological states, have recently become more clearly delineated with the discovery of a meningeal lymphatic system capable of carrying fluid, immune cells, and macromolecules from the central nervous system (CNS) to the draining deep cervical lymph nodes. However, the exact localization of the meningeal lymphatic vasculature and the path of drainage from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to the lymphatics remain poorly understood. Here, we discuss the potential differences between peripheral and CNS lymphatic vessels and examine the purported mechanisms of CNS lymphatic drainage, along with how these may fit into established patterns of CSF flow.

  12. Fat Harvest Using a Closed-Suction Drain

    PubMed Central

    Zakeri, Roxana; Mallucci, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We propose a safe, simple, and novel method to harvest fat using a standard liposuction cannula and a Redivac or alternative closed-suction drain. The authors have used this technique for both 'dry' and 'wet' liposuction. This technique is both easy to perform and cost-effective whilst providing both a silent and relatively atraumatic fat harvest. The lower negative pressure compared with traditional harvesting systems likely preserves fat integrity for lipofilling. This method maximises resources already held within a hospital environment. PMID:27218029

  13. Brain herniation

    MedlinePlus

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  14. Distribution of 152Eu and 154Eu in the 'alluvial soil-rhizosphere-plant roots' system.

    PubMed

    Kropatcheva, Marya; Chuguevsky, Alexei; Melgunov, Mikhail

    2012-04-01

    Accumulation of (152)Eu and (15)(4)Eu isotopes in bulk soil and rhizosphere soil in the near-field zone of influence of the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine was studied. An uneven distribution of specific activity of Eu isotopes was observed, with the gross specific activities of the isotopes in the bulk soil exceeding those of the rhizosphere. In the most contaminated locations the fine and the coarse granulometric fractions are enriched with the isotopes. A laboratory experiment indicated potential removal of soluble Eu isotopes by river flood waters may amount to 3% of the total Eu in both bulk and rhizosphere soils. The root system of plants growing in the contaminated territory accumulates (152)Eu and (154)Eu, although the isotopes were not discovered in aboveground parts of plants. Root-hairs were found to be the most contaminated.

  15. Waves and null congruences in a draining bathtub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, David; Dolan, Sam R.

    2016-04-01

    We study wave propagation in a draining bathtub: a black hole analogue in fluid mechanics whose perturbations are governed by a Klein-Gordon equation on an effective Lorentzian geometry. Like the Kerr spacetime, the draining bathtub geometry possesses an (effective) horizon, an ergosphere and null circular orbits. We propose here that a ‘pulse’ disturbance may be used to map out the light-cone of the effective geometry. First, we apply the eikonal approximation to elucidate the link between wavefronts, null geodesic congruences and the Raychaudhuri equation. Next, we solve the wave equation numerically in the time domain using the method of lines. Starting with Gaussian initial data, we demonstrate that a pulse will propagate along a null congruence and thus trace out the light-cone of the effective geometry. Our new results reveal features, such as wavefront intersections, frame-dragging, winding and interference effects, that are closely associated with the presence of null circular orbits and the ergosphere.

  16. Device for Catheter Placement of External Ventricular Drain

    PubMed Central

    Ann, Jae-Min; Oh, Jae-Sang; Yoon, Seok-Mann

    2016-01-01

    To introduce a new device for catheter placement of an external ventricular drain (EVD) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This device was composed of three portions, T-shaped main body, rectangular pillar having a central hole to insert a catheter and an arm pointing the tragus. The main body has a role to direct a ventricular catheter toward the right or left inner canthus and has a shallow longitudinal opening to connect the rectangular pillar. The arm pointing the tragus is controlled by back and forth movement and turn of the pillar attached to the main body. Between April 2012 and December 2014, 57 emergency EVDs were performed in 52 patients using this device in the operating room. Catheter tip located in the frontal horn in 52 (91.2%), 3rd ventricle in 2 (3.5%) and in the wall of the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle in 3 EVDs (5.2%). Small hemorrhage along to catheter tract occurred in 1 EVD. CSF was well drained through the all EVD catheters. The accuracy of the catheter position and direction using this device were 91% and 100%, respectively. This device for EVD guides to provide an accurate position of catheter tip safely and easily. PMID:27226870

  17. Quantification of exposure to fecal contamination in open drains in four neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Gretsch, Stephanie R; Ampofo, Joseph A; Baker, Kelly K; Clennon, Julie; Null, Clair A; Peprah, Dorothy; Reese, Heather; Robb, Katharine; Teunis, Peter; Wellington, Nii; Yakubu, Habib; Moe, Christine L

    2016-04-01

    In low-income countries, rapid urbanization adds pressure to already stressed water and sanitation systems that are critical to the health of communities. Drainage networks, designed for stormwater but commonly used for disposing of waste, are rarely covered completely, allowing residents to easily come into contact with their contents. This study used spatial mapping, documentation of physical drain characteristics, microbiological analysis of drain samples, and behavioral observation to comprehensively examine drains as a route of exposure to fecal contamination in four low-income neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana. A stochastic model of six likely exposure scenarios was constructed to estimate children's exposure to drain water. Regardless of the age of the child, any exposure scenario considered resulted in exposure to a high level of fecal contamination. Fecal contamination levels in drains were high (Escherichia coli: geometric mean (GM), 8.60 cfu log(10)/100 mL; coliphage: GM, 5.56 pfu log(10)/100 mL), and did not differ by neighborhood or physical drain characteristics, indicating that frequency of contact with drains, and not drain type or location, drives exposure risk. To mitigate health risks associated with this exposure, drains should be covered, with priority given to large concrete and small to medium dirt-lined drains that children were most commonly observed entering. PMID:27105411

  18. Calibration of the EU Oxybarometer for Nakhlites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makishima, J.; McKay, G.; Le, L.; Miyamoto; Mikouchi, T.

    2006-01-01

    Martian meteorites have various characteristics, which are direct clues to understanding the petrogenesis of Mars rocks. The variation in oxidation state among the Martian meteorites must have important implications for redox conditions of the Martian crust/mantle and overall differentiation on Mars. Wadhwa [1] and Herd et al. [2] reported that Martian basalts were formed under a range of oxidation states, suggesting complex petrogenesis processes. The nakhlites, which have rather different characteristics from basaltic shergottites, may give us additional clues to Martian petrogenesis. The oxidation states of meteorites are usually described by the oxygen fugacity (fO2) under which the meteorites crystallized. One of the methods to estimate the oxygen fugacity is the depth of Eu anomaly. Eu(2+)/Eu(3+) is determined by the oxygen fugacity and partitioning is different for Eu(2+) and Eu(3+). Therefore, the depth of Eu anomaly in a mineral is a function of the oxygen fugacity and the Eu2+/Eu3+ in the melt from which the mineral crystallized. This method has some advantages over another major method, the two-oxide oxybarometer [3], which can more easily be affected by subsolidus processes. The Eu oxybarometer can analyze the cores of the earliest formed crystals in Martian meteorites, which means it can give us a better indication of the oxygen fugacity of the parent melt. The calibration of the Eu oxybarometer has been done with the basaltic shergottites before [4]. However, it has never been applied to nakhlites (Oe et al. [5] measured the depth of Eu anomaly in the synthetic pyroxene only at QFM). Partition coefficients are strongly affected by phase compositions, especially pyroxene Ca content and melt Al content [e.g., 5,6]. The composition of nakhlite pyroxene is rather different from basaltic shergottite pyroxene. Thus, there may be problems in applying the Eu oxybarometer calibration for the basaltic shergottites [7] to nakhlites. Thus, we report in this

  19. Study of Eu{sup 3+} → Eu{sup 2+} reduction in BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu prepared in different gas atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Rezende, Marcos V. dos S.; Valerio, Mário E.G.; Jackson, Robert A.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The effect of different gas atmospheres on the Eu reduction process was studied. • The Eu reduction was monitored analyzing XANES region at the Eu L{sub III}-edge. • Hydrogen reducing agent are the most appropriate gas for Eu{sup 2+} stabilization. • Only a part of the Eu ions can be stabilized in the divalent state. • A model of Eu reduction process is proposed. - Abstract: The effect of different gas atmospheres such as H{sub 2}(g), synthetic air, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) on the Eu{sup 3+} → Eu{sup 2+} reduction process during the synthesis of Eu-doped BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} was studied using synchrotron radiation. The Eu{sup 3+} → Eu{sup 2+} reduction was monitored analyzing XANES region when the sample are excited at the Eu L{sub III}-edge. The results show that the hydrogen reducing agent are the most appropriate gas for Eu{sup 2+} stabilization in BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and that only a part of the Eu ions can be stabilized in the divalent state. A model of Eu reduction process, based on the incorporation of charge compensation defects, is proposed.

  20. Magnetic and Fermi Surface Properties of Ferromagnets EuPd2 and EuPt2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Ai; Akamine, Hiromu; Ashitomi, Yousuke; Honda, Fuminori; Aoki, Dai; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Matsubayashi, Kazuyuki; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Tatetsu, Yasutomi; Maehira, Takahiro; Hedo, Masato; Nakama, Takao; Ōnuki, Yoshichika

    2016-08-01

    We succeeded in growing single crystals of the ferromagnets EuPd2 and EuPt2 with the Laves-type cubic structure by the Bridgman method, namely, heating constituting materials in a Mo crucible up to a high temperature of about 1500 °C. The ferromagnetic properties of EuPd2 and EuPt2 with Curie temperatures of 74 and 100 K, respectively, were confirmed from the results of electrical resistivity, specific heat, and magnetization measurements. The ordered moment is 7 μB/Eu, revealing the Eu-divalent ferromagnetism. The present Eu-divalent electronic state is found to be robust against high pressures of up to 8 GPa and is not changed into the Eu-trivalent state. We also carried out de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) experiments for EuPd2. The detected dHvA branches in EuPd2 are well explained by the relativistic linearized augmented plane wave (RLAPW) energy band calculations for SrPd2, revealing a closed hole Fermi surface and compensated four closed electron Fermi surfaces.

  1. Brain Drain? Recruitment and Retention of High Quality Teachers in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastekaasa, Arne

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines whether graduates of high academic quality (as measured by their university or university college Grade Point Average or GPA) are recruited to and remain in school jobs. Extensive data from Norwegian administrative registers are used. The analyses show that graduates from specialised and concurrent general teacher programmes go…

  2. La Vida Robot - High School Engineering Program Combats Engineering Brain Drain

    ScienceCinema

    Cameron, Allan; Fredi, Lajvardi

    2016-07-12

    Carl Hayden High School has built an impressive reputation with its robotics club. At a time when interest in science, math and engineering is declining, the Falcon Robotics club has young people fired up about engineering. Their program in underwater robots (MATE) and FIRST robotics is becoming a national model, not for building robots, but for building engineers. Teachers Fredi Lajvardi and Allan Cameron will present their story (How kids 'from the mean streets of Phoenix took on the best from M.I.T. in the national underwater bot championship' - Wired Magazine, April 2005) and how every student needs the opportunity to 'do real engineering.'

  3. APS 'Globalisation of Physics': The Brain Drain - America's Gain is Europe's Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfendale, Arnold

    2001-03-01

    With the collapse of Communism and easier migration from Central and Eastern Europe there is a danger that US recruitment of scientists will damage these countries irretrievably. The remedy is for finances to be transferred from the US (and from other wealthy countries) pro rata to the numbers of scientists so recruited. The funds should be channelled into the science bases of the countries affected. It will be argued that such a scheme is too difficult to organize. This is not a valid argument - all our science is 'difficult', but we do it.

  4. Brain Drain and the Disenchantment of Being a Higher Education Student in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerdeira, Luísa; Machado-Taylor, Maria de Lourdes; Cabrito, Belmiro; Patrocínio, Tomás; Brites, Rui; Gomes, Rui; Lopes, João Teixeira; Vaz, Henrique; Peixoto, Paulo; Magalhães, Dulce; Silva, Sílvia; Ganga, Rafaela

    2016-01-01

    The efforts made by most countries to accelerate economic development have included a significant investment in education. It has been argued that investment in education, particularly higher education, was itself a potential factor in economic development. Education has become a relatively easy means of improving access to the labour market.…

  5. Tacit Knowledge Capture and the Brain-Drain at Electrical Utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perjanik, Nicholas Steven

    As a consequence of an aging workforce, electric utilities are at risk of losing their most experienced and knowledgeable electrical engineers. In this research, the problem was a lack of understanding of what electric utilities were doing to capture the tacit knowledge or know-how of these engineers. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore the tacit knowledge capture strategies currently used in the industry by conducting a case study of 7 U.S. electrical utilities that have demonstrated an industry commitment to improving operational standards. The research question addressed the implemented strategies to capture the tacit knowledge of retiring electrical engineers and technical personnel. The research methodology involved a qualitative embedded case study. The theories used in this study included knowledge creation theory, resource-based theory, and organizational learning theory. Data were collected through one time interviews of a senior electrical engineer or technician within each utility and a workforce planning or training professional within 2 of the 7 utilities. The analysis included the use of triangulation and content analysis strategies. Ten tacit knowledge capture strategies were identified: (a) formal and informal on-boarding mentorship and apprenticeship programs, (b) formal and informal off-boarding mentorship programs, (c) formal and informal training programs, (d) using lessons learned during training sessions, (e) communities of practice, (f) technology enabled tools, (g) storytelling, (h) exit interviews, (i) rehiring of retirees as consultants, and (j) knowledge risk assessments. This research contributes to social change by offering strategies to capture the know-how needed to ensure operational continuity in the delivery of safe, reliable, and sustainable power.

  6. Examining the Association between Hazardous Waste Facilities and Rural "Brain Drain"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Lori M.; Sutton, Jeannette

    2004-01-01

    Rural communities are increasingly being faced with the prospect of accepting facilities characterized as "opportunity-threat," such as facilities that generate, treat, store, or otherwise dispose of hazardous wastes. Such facilities may offer economic gains through jobs and tax revenue, although they may also act as environmental "disamenities."…

  7. La Vida Robot - High School Engineering Program Combats Engineering Brain Drain

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, Allan; Fredi, Lajvardi

    2006-03-15

    Carl Hayden High School has built an impressive reputation with its robotics club. At a time when interest in science, math and engineering is declining, the Falcon Robotics club has young people fired up about engineering. Their program in underwater robots (MATE) and FIRST robotics is becoming a national model, not for building robots, but for building engineers. Teachers Fredi Lajvardi and Allan Cameron will present their story (How kids 'from the mean streets of Phoenix took on the best from M.I.T. in the national underwater bot championship' - Wired Magazine, April 2005) and how every student needs the opportunity to 'do real engineering.'

  8. Brain drain: Do economic conditions "push" doctors out of developing countries?

    PubMed

    Okeke, Edward N

    2013-12-01

    Health worker migration is an issue of first order concern in global health policy circles and continues to be the subject of much policy debate. In this paper, we contribute to the discussion by studying the impact of economic conditions on the migration of physicians from developing countries. To our knowledge, this is one of the first papers to do so. A major contribution of this paper is the introduction of a new panel dataset on migration to the US and the UK from 31 sub-Saharan Africa countries. The data spans the period 1975-2004. Using this data, we estimate the impact of changes in economic conditions on physician migration. In our preferred specification that allows for country-specific time trends, we find that a temporary one percentage point decline in GDP per capita increases physician migration in the next period by approximately. 3 percent. In our IV models a one percentage point decline in GDP per capita increases physician migration in the next period by between 3.4 and 3.6 percent. Overall, our results suggest a significant effect of developing country economic conditions on physician migration.

  9. Emerging food safety issues: An EU perspective.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, John D G

    2016-05-01

    Safe food is the right of every citizen of the European Union (EU). A comprehensive and dynamic framework of food and feed safety legislation has been put in place and the EU's executive arm - the European Commission - is responsible for ensuring that the EU member states apply food law consistently. Similarly, the Commission plays an important role in ensuring that imported food meets the EU's stringent food safety standards. Consumer perceptions of unsafe food tend to focus on acute outbreaks of bacterial or viral origin. In recent years there have been a number of diverse food crises associated with fraudulent activity which may (e.g. melamine in dairy products in China) or may not (e.g. the horse meat scandal in the EU) represent a genuine food safety risk. Well publicized incidents of chronic exposure to chemical contamination in the EU (e.g. dioxins in meat and mycotoxins in nuts) have required robust coordinated policy responses from the Commission. Despite the decreasing incidence of non-compliant residues of veterinary medicinal products and banned substances in animal products, EU consumers are increasingly concerned about the use of such products in food-producing animals, including in the context of the build-up of antimicrobial resistance in animals and transfer to humans. The Commission plays a key role in coordination of the EU member states' responses to such incidents, in risk management, and in preparation for emerging issues. This paper focuses on how the EU as a whole has dealt with a number of food crises, and what can be learned from past incidents. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27443205

  10. Carbon balance of a drained forested bog in southern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkkinen, Kari; Penttilä, Timo; Ojanen, Paavo; Lohila, Annalea

    2016-04-01

    Carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG) dynamics of a drained forested peatland in southern Finland were measured over multiple years, including one with severe drought during growing season. Net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange (NEE) was measured with an eddy covariance method from a tower above the forest. Soil and forest floor CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes were measured from the strips and from ditches with closed chambers. Biomasses and litter production were sampled, and soil subsidence was measured by consequtive levelings of the peat surface. The data were used to estimate the ecosystem C pools and annual fluxes of carbon and GHGs of the peatland and to analyse the impact of periodical drought on the carbon fluxes. The drained peatland was a strong sink of carbon dioxide in all studied years. Soil CO2 balance was estimated by subtracting the carbon sink of the growing tree stand from NEE, and it showed that also the soil was a sink of carbon in all studied years. A drought period in one summer significantly decreased the sink through decreased GPP. Drought also decreased the ecosystem respiration, including soil respiration. Decreasing water table thus did not increase, but rather decreased CO2 efflux from the peat soil. The site was a small sink for CH4, even when emissions from ditches were included. N2O emissions were small from all surfaces. Despite of the continuous carbon sink, peat surface subsided slightly (1.4 mm a-1) during the 10-year measurement period, which is interpreted to mean mainly compaction, rather than oxidation of the peat. It is concluded that this drained peatland acts as a continuous soil C sink similarly to an undrained peatland. The reason may be the relatively small water-level drawdown compared to an undrained situation, the consequently rather small changes in plant community structure and the significantly improved tree stand growth and litter production. The consequences of continuing production forestry vs. restoration of the site on the

  11. Energy capability enhancement for isolated extended drain NMOS transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidong, Nie; Jin, Wu; Xiaohui, Ma; Zongguang, Yu

    2012-02-01

    Isolated extended drain NMOS (EDNMOS) transistors are widely used in power signal processing. The hole current induced by a high electric field can result in a serious reliability problem due to a parasitic NPN effect. By optimizing p-type epitaxial (p-epi) thickness, n-type buried layer (BLN) and nwell doping distribution, the peak electric field is decreased by 30% and the peak hole current is decreased by 60%, which obviously suppress the parasitic NPN effect. Measured I-V characteristics and transmission line pulsing (TLP) results show that the on-state breakdown voltage is increased from 28 to 37 V when 6 V Vgs is applied and the energy capability is improved by about 30%, while the on-state resistance remains unchanged.

  12. Wettable Ceramic-Based Drained Cathode Technology for Aluminum Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    J.N. Bruggeman; T.R. Alcorn; R. Jeltsch; T. Mroz

    2003-01-09

    The goal of the project was to develop the ceramic based materials, technology, and necessary engineering packages to retrofit existing aluminum reduction cells in order to reduce energy consumption required for making primary aluminum. The ceramic materials would be used in a drained cathode configuration which would provide a stable, molten aluminum wetted cathode surface, allowing the reduction of the anode-cathode distance, thereby reducing the energy consumption. This multi-tasked project was divided into three major tasks: (1) Manufacturing and laboratory scale testing/evaluation of the ceramic materials, (2) Pilot scale testing of qualified compositions from the first task, and (3) Designing, retrofitting, and testing the ceramic materials in industrial cells at Kaiser Mead plant in Spokane, Washington. Specific description of these major tasks can be found in Appendix A - Project Scope. Due to the power situation in the northwest, the Mead facility was closed, thus preventing the industrial cell testing.

  13. A complexity drain on cells in the evolution of multicellularity.

    PubMed

    McShea, Daniel W

    2002-03-01

    A hypothesis has been advanced recently predicting that, in evolution, as higher-level entities arise from associations of lower-level organisms, and as these entities acquire the ability to feed, reproduce, defend themselves, and so on, the lower-level organisms will tend to lose much of their internal complexity (McShea 2001a). In other words, in hierarchical transitions, there is a drain on numbers of part types at the lower level. One possible rationale is that the transfer of functional demands to the higher level renders many part types at the lower level useless, and thus their loss in evolution is favored by selection for economy. Here, a test is conducted at the cell level, comparing numbers of part types in free-living eukaryotic cells (protists) and the cells of metazoans and land plants. Differences are significant and consistent with the hypothesis, suggesting that tests at other hierarchical levels may be worthwhile.

  14. How Do Meningeal Lymphatic Vessels Drain the CNS?

    PubMed

    Raper, Daniel; Louveau, Antoine; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    The many interactions between the nervous and the immune systems, which are active in both physiological and pathological states, have recently become more clearly delineated with the discovery of a meningeal lymphatic system capable of carrying fluid, immune cells, and macromolecules from the central nervous system (CNS) to the draining deep cervical lymph nodes. However, the exact localization of the meningeal lymphatic vasculature and the path of drainage from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to the lymphatics remain poorly understood. Here, we discuss the potential differences between peripheral and CNS lymphatic vessels and examine the purported mechanisms of CNS lymphatic drainage, along with how these may fit into established patterns of CSF flow. PMID:27460561

  15. Decommissioning of Experimental Breeder Reactor - II Complex, Post Sodium Draining

    SciTech Connect

    J. A. Michelbacher; S. Paul Henslee; Collin J. Knight; Steven R. sherman

    2005-09-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor - II (EBR-II) was shutdown in September 1994 as mandated by the United States Department of Energy. This sodium-cooled reactor had been in service since 1964. The bulk sodium was drained from the primary and secondary systems and processed. Residual sodium remaining in the systems after draining was converted into sodium bicarbonate using humid carbon dioxide. This technique was tested at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois under controlled conditions, then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary cooling system, followed by the primary tank. This process, terminated in 2002, was used to place a layer of sodium bicarbonate over all exposed surfaces of sodium. Treatment of the remaining EBR-II sodium is governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality issued a RCRA Operating Permit in 2002, mandating that all hazardous materials be removed from EBR-II within a 10 year period, with the ability to extend the permit and treatment period for another 10 years. A preliminary plan has been formulated to remove the remaining sodium and NaK from the primary and secondary systems using moist carbon dioxide, steam and nitrogen, and a water flush. The moist carbon dioxide treatment was resumed in May 2004. As of August 2005, approximately 60% of the residual sodium within the EBR-II primary tank had been treated. This process will continue through the end of 2005, when it is forecast that the process will become increasingly ineffective. At that time, subsequent treatment processes will be planned and initiated. It should be noted that the processes and anticipated costs associated with these processes are preliminary. Detailed engineering has not been performed, and approval for these methods has not been obtained from the regulator or the sponsors.

  16. Preferential flow estimates to an agricultural tile drain with implications for glyphosate transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, W.W.; Wilson, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural subsurface drains, commonly referred to as tile drains, are potentially significant pathways for the movement of fertilizers and pesticides to streams and ditches in much of the Midwest. Preferential flow in the unsaturated zone provides a route for water and solutes to bypass the soil matrix and reach tile drains faster than predicted by traditional displacement theory. This paper uses chloride concentrations to estimate preferential flow contributions to a tile drain during two storms in May 2004. Chloride, a conservative anion, was selected as the tracer because of differences in chloride concentrations between the two sources of water to the tile drain, preferential and matrix flow. A strong correlation between specific conductance and chloride concentration provided a mechanism to estimate chloride concentrations in the tile drain throughout the storm hydrographs. A simple mixing analysis was used to identify the preferential flow component of the storm hydrograph. During two storms, preferential flow contributed 11 and 51% of total storm tile drain flow; the peak contributions, 40 and 81%, coincided with the peak tile drain flow. Positive relations between glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] concentrations and preferential flow for the two storms suggest that preferential flow is an important transport pathway to the tile drain. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  17. Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching

    DOEpatents

    Treat, R.L.; Gee, G.W.; Whyatt, G.A.

    1993-02-02

    The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

  18. Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching

    DOEpatents

    Treat, Russell L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

  19. CSER 94-011: Use of glovebags for demister draining operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, A.L.

    1994-12-12

    A criticality safety review is presented for the use of plastic-sheet glovebags for the operations of draining demisters on the 26-inch vacuum system headers. A criticality drain is required because of the possibility for spilling liquid of sufficient volume and fissile content for criticality. It is recommended that the glovebag design include a rigid, 2ft {times} 2ft floor with a central drain feeding a geometrically favorable spill-catch vessel, plus a screen grid above the bottom for drain protection.

  20. Synthesis and tunable luminescent properties of Eu-doped Ca2NaSiO4F - Coexistence of the Eu2+ and Eu3+ centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Mubiao; Li, Dongyu; Zhu, Guoxian; Pan, Rongkai; Fu, Xionghui

    Novel phosphors Ca2NaSiO4F:Eu were synthesized successfully by the conventional solid-state method in CO atmosphere, and their spectroscopic properties in UV-vis region were investigated. The photoluminescence properties show that Eu3+ ions were partially reduced to Eu2+ in Ca2NaSiO4F. As a result of radiation and re-absorption energy transfer from Eu2+ to Eu3+, both Eu2+ bluish-green emission at around 520 nm and Eu3+ red emission are observed in the emission spectra under the n-UV light excitation. Furthermore, the ratio between Eu2+ and Eu3+ emissions varies with increasing content of overall Eu. Because relative intensity of the red component from Eu3+ became systematically stronger, white light emission can be realized by combining the emission of Eu2+ and Eu3+ in a single host lattice under n-UV light excitation. These results indicate that the Ca2NaSiO4F:Eu phosphors have potential applications as a n-UV convertible phosphor for light-emitting diodes.

  1. Surface water and groundwater nitrogen dynamics in a well drained riparian forest within a poorly drained agricultural landscape.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jennifer H; Griffith, Stephen M; Wigington, Parker J

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of riparian zones in mitigating nutrient in ground and surface water depends on the climate, management, and hydrogeomorphology of a site. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a well drained, mixed-deciduous riparian forest to buffer a river from N originating from a poorly drained grass seed cropping system. The study site was adjacent to the Calapooia River in the Willamette Valley, Oregon. Water was found to move from the rapid drainage of swale surface water. During winter hydrological events, the riparian forest also received river water. Low nitrate (NO3-) concentrations (0.2-0.4 mg NO3- -NL(-1)) in the shallow groundwater of the cropping system were associated with low rates of mineralization and nitrification (33 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) and high grass seed crop uptake of N (155 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)). The riparian forest soil had higher rates of mineralization (117 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) that produced quantities of soil N that were within the range of literature values for plant uptake, leading to relatively low concentrations of shallow groundwater NO3 (0.6-1.8 mg NO3- -NL(-1)). The swale that dissected the cropping system and riparian area was found to have the highest rates of denitrification and to contribute dissolved organic C to the river. Given the dynamic nature of the hydrology of the Calapooia River study site, data suggest that the riparian forest plays a role not only in reducing export of NO3- from the cropping system to the river but also in processing nutrients from river water.

  2. Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  3. The management of vacuum neck drains in head and neck surgery and the comparison of two different practice protocols for drain removal.

    PubMed

    Kasbekar, A V; Davies, F; Upile, N; Ho, M W; Roland, N J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The management of vacuum neck drains in head and neck surgery is varied. We aimed to improve early drain removal and therefore patient discharge in a safe and effective manner. Methods The postoperative management of head and neck surgical patients with vacuum neck drains was reviewed retrospectively. A new policy was then implemented to measure drainage three times daily (midnight, 6am, midday). The decision for drain removal was based on the most recent drainage period (at <3ml per hour). A further patient cohort was subsequently assessed prospectively. The length of hospital stay was compared between the cohorts. Results The retrospective audit included 51 patients while the prospective audit included 47. The latter saw 16 patients (33%) discharged at least one day earlier than they would have been under the previous policy. No adverse effects were noted from earlier drain removal. Conclusions Measuring drainage volumes three times daily allows for more accurate assessment of wound drainage, and this can lead to earlier removal of neck drains and safe discharge.

  4. Liquefaction under drained condition, from the lab to reality ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, Cécile; Aharonov, Einat; Stojanova, Menka; Toussaint, Renaud

    2015-04-01

    Liquefaction constitutes a significant natural hazard in relation to earthquakes and landslides. This effect can cause buildings to tilt or sink into the soil, mud-volcanoes, floatation of buried objects, long-runout landslides, etc. In this work we present a new understanding regarding the mechanism by which buildings sink and tilt during liquefaction caused by earthquakes. Conventional understanding of liquefaction explains most observed cases as occurring in an undrained, under-compacted, layer of sandy soil saturated with water [1]: According to that understanding, the under compacted sandy layer has the tendency to compact when a load is applied. In our case the load comes from ground shaking during an earthquake. When the soil compacts, the fluid pore pressure rises. Because in undrained conditions the fluid cannot flow out, the pore pressure builds up. The weight of buildings is in this case transferred from the grains of the soil to the pore water. The soil loses its rigidity and it flows like a liquid. From this model scientists made theoretical and empirical laws for geotechnical use and buildings construction. Despite the success of this conventional model in many cases, liquefied soils were also observed under drained conditions, and in previously compacted soils, which doesn't agree with the assumption of the model quoted above. One of the famous liquefaction events is the Kobe port destruction during the 1995 earthquake. A simple calculation of the Deborah number following Goren et al ([2][3]) shows that the undrained constraint was not met below the Kobe port during the 1995 earthquake. We propose another model, of liquefaction in drained granular media. According to our model the mere presence of water in granular media is enough to cause liquefaction during an earthquake, provided that the water reaches close to the surface. Our computations are based on the buoyancy force, and we take into account the static fluid pressure only. For small

  5. Filling, storing and draining. Three key aspects of landslide hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogaard, Thom; Greco, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall-triggered landslides are among the most widespread hazards in the world. The hydrology in and around a landslide area is key to pore pressure build-up in the soil skeleton which reduces shear strength due to the buoyancy force exerted by water in a saturated soil and to soil suction in an unsaturated soil. Extraordinary precipitation events trigger most of the landslides, but, at the same time, the vast majority of slopes do not fail. The intriguing question is: 'When and where exactly can a slope become triggered to slide and flow downwards?' The objective of this article is to present and discuss landslide hydrology at three scales - pore, hillslope, and catchment - which, taken together, give an overview of this interdisciplinary science. In fact, for rainfall-triggered landslides to occur, an unfavourable hydrological interplay should exist between fast and/or prolonged infiltration, and a relatively 'slow' drainage. The competition of water storage, pressure build-up and the subsequently induced drainage contains the importance of the timing, which is indisputably one of the more delicate but relevant aspects of landslide modelling, the overlay of hydrological processes with different time scales. As slopes generally remain stable, we can argue that effective drainage mechanisms spontaneously develop, as the best for a slope to stay stable is getting rid of the overload of water (above field capacity), either vertically or laterally. So, landslide hydrology could be framed as 'Filling-Storing-Draining'. Obviously, 'Storing' is added to stress the importance of dynamic pressure build-up for slope stability. 'Draining' includes all removal of water from the system (vertical and lateral flow, evaporation and transpiration) and thus pore water pressure release. Furthermore, by addressing landslide hydrology from both earth sciences and soil mechanics perspectives, we aim to manifest the hydrological processes in hillslopes and their influence on behaviour

  6. 40 CFR 63.136 - Process wastewater provisions-individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.136 Process wastewater provisions—individual drain systems. (a) For each individual drain system... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Process wastewater...

  7. 40 CFR 63.136 - Process wastewater provisions-individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.136 Process wastewater provisions—individual drain systems. (a) For each individual drain system... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Process wastewater...

  8. 40 CFR 63.136 - Process wastewater provisions-individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.136 Process wastewater provisions—individual drain systems. (a) For each individual drain system... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Process wastewater...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1455 - Draining of fluids subject to freezing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Draining of fluids subject to freezing. 25.1455 Section 25.1455 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 25.1455 Draining of fluids subject to freezing. If fluids subject to freezing may be...

  10. 14 CFR 25.1455 - Draining of fluids subject to freezing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Draining of fluids subject to freezing. 25.1455 Section 25.1455 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 25.1455 Draining of fluids subject to freezing. If fluids subject to freezing may be...

  11. An Exact Solution to the Draining Reservoir Problem of the Incompressible and Non-Viscous Liquid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Seok-In

    2009-01-01

    The exact expressions for the drain time and the height, velocity and acceleration of the free surface are found for the draining reservoir problem of the incompressible and non-viscous liquid. Contrary to the conventional approximate results, they correctly describe the initial time dependence of the liquid velocity and acceleration. Torricelli's…

  12. The role of subgaleal suction drain placement in chronic subdural hematoma evacuation

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Yad Ram; Parihar, Vijay; Chourasia, Ishwar D.; Bajaj, Jitin; Namdev, Hemant

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: There is lack of uniformity about the preferred surgical treatment, role of drain, and type of drain among various surgeons in chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH). The present study is aimed to evaluate role of subgaleal drain. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study of 260 patients of CSDH treated surgically. Burr-hole irrigation with and without suction drain was done in 140 and 120 patients, respectively. Out of 120 patients without suction drain 60 each were managed by single and two burr holes. Pre- and postoperative GCS was recorded. Recurrent hematomas, CSDH secondary to tumor, due to intracranial hypotension, coagulopathy, children below 18 years, and patients treated by twist drill craniostomy or craniotomy were excluded. Subgaleal closed-system drainage with low negative pressure was used. Results: Age of the patients ranged from 18 to 75 years with mean age of 57 years. There were 9, 47, 204 patients in GCS of 3-8, 9-12, and 13-15, respectively. Both the groups were comparable in terms of age, etiology, gender, and neurological status. There was no difference in the mortality in both the group. The recurrence and postoperative pneumocephalus was significantly less in suction drain group as compared to without drain group. There was no infection or any other complication related to suction drainage. Conclusion: Subgaleal closed suction drainage was safe, simple, and effective in the management of CSDH. Recurrence rate was low in the suction drain group. PMID:27366247

  13. 14 CFR 25.1455 - Draining of fluids subject to freezing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Draining of fluids subject to freezing. 25.1455 Section 25.1455 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 25.1455 Draining of fluids subject to freezing. If fluids subject to freezing may be...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1455 - Draining of fluids subject to freezing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Draining of fluids subject to freezing. 25.1455 Section 25.1455 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 25.1455 Draining of fluids subject to freezing. If fluids subject to freezing may be...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1455 - Draining of fluids subject to freezing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Draining of fluids subject to freezing. 25.1455 Section 25.1455 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 25.1455 Draining of fluids subject to freezing. If fluids subject to freezing may be...

  16. Brain surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  17. Brain Malformations

    MedlinePlus

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  18. A mathematical model to optimize the drain phase in gravity-based peritoneal dialysis systems.

    PubMed

    Akonur, Alp; Lo, Ying-Cheng; Cizman, Borut

    2010-01-01

    Use of patient-specific drain-phase parameters has previously been suggested to improve peritoneal dialysis (PD) adequacy. Improving management of the drain period may also help to minimize intraperitoneal volume (IPV). A typical gravity-based drain profile consists of a relatively constant initial fast-flow period, followed by a transition period and a decaying slow-flow period. That profile was modeled using the equation VD(t) = (V(D0) - Q(MAX) x t) xphi + (V(D0) x e(-alphat)) x (1 - phi), where V(D)(t) is the time-dependent dialysate volume; V(D0), the dialysate volume at the start of the drain; Q(MAX), the maximum drain flow rate; alpha, the exponential drain constant; and phi, the unit step function with respect to the flow transition. We simulated the effects of the assumed patient-specific maximum drain flow (Q(MAX)) and transition volume (psi), and the peritoneal volume percentage when transition occurs,for fixed device-specific drain parameters. Average patient transport parameters were assumed during 5-exchange therapy with 10 L of PD solution. Changes in therapy performance strongly depended on the drain parameters. Comparing 400 mL/85% with 200 mL/65% (Q(MAX/psi), drain time (7.5 min vs. 13.5 min) and IPV (2769 mL vs. 2355 mL) increased when the initial drain flow was low and the transition quick. Ultrafiltration and solute clearances remained relatively similar. Such differences were augmented up to a drain time of 22 minutes and an IPV of more than 3 L when Q(MAX) was 100 mL/min. The ability to model individual drain conditions together with water and solute transport may help to prevent patient discomfort with gravity-based PD. However, it is essential to note that practical difficulties such as displaced catheters and obstructed flow paths cause variability in drain characteristics even for the same patient, limiting the clinical applicability of this model.

  19. Do supranational EU institutions make a difference? EU asylum law before and after ‘communitarization’

    PubMed Central

    Ripoll Servent, Ariadna; Trauner, Florian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article examines whether the empowerment of the European Union's (EU) supranational institutions has had an impact on the development of EU asylum. By systematically investigating EU asylum law before and after ‘communitarization’, it argues that its ‘policy core’ has maintained a high degree of continuity. An advocacy coalition under the leadership of the interior ministers managed to co-opt pivotal actors in the newly empowered European Commission and European Parliament. By contenting themselves with changes of secondary order, these EU institutions accepted and institutionalized the restrictive and weakly integrated core of EU asylum set by the Council in the first negotiation round. Their role and decisions were driven not only by the negotiation dynamics and political expediency, but also by new inter- and intra-institutional norms fostering consensual practices. PMID:26924934

  20. Perceived Distributive Fairness of EU Transfer Payments, Outcome Favorability, Identity, and EU-Tax Compliance.

    PubMed

    Hartner, Martina; Rechberger, Silvia; Kirchler, Erich; Wenzel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In a representative UK study (N = 1000) the link between distributive fairness perceptions, outcome favorability, identity, and tax compliance was researched in the context of European transfer payments. Results showed that both forms of tax compliance (i.e., individual and collective EU-tax compliance) were influenced by perceived distributive fairness judgments of EU transfer payments. Fairness itself was related to perceived outcome favorability (i.e., whether their own nation benefits from the EU in financial as well as socio-political terms). Additionally, national identifiers (i.e., people identifying with their own nation, but not with Europe) perceived EU membership as unbeneficial in financial as well as in socio-political terms and thus considered the transfer payments as less fair. Dual identifiers (i.e., people identifying with their own nation and with Europe) perceived the socio-political outcomes from EU membership as more beneficial and thus evaluated the transfer payments as fairer.

  1. Oculo-peritoneal shunt: draining aqueous humor to the peritoneum.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Junyent, Ana; Maldonado-Bas, Arturo; Gonzalez, Andrea; Pueyrredón, Francisco; Maldonado-Junyent, María; Maldonado-Junyent, Arturo; Rodriguez, Diego; Bulacio, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, there were estimated to be approximately 60.5 million people with glaucoma. This number is expected to increase to 79.6 million by 2020. In 2010, there were 8.4 million people with bilateral blindness caused by glaucoma, and this number is expected in increase to 11.2 million by 2020. Filtering implants are special devices that have been developed to reduce intraocular pressure in patients with refractory glaucoma. The success rate of these implants is relatively low, and they continue to fail over time. To avoid failure caused by the formation of scar tissue around the implants, attempts have been made to drain the aqueous humor to various sites, including the venous system, lacrimal sac, sinuses, and conjunctival fornix. Recently, a system to shunt aqueous humor from the anterior chamber to the peritoneum has been developed. The surgical technique involved in this system is a modification of the technique currently used by neurosurgeons for the treatment of hydrocephalus. We present the first case operated using this technique.

  2. Seasonal thaw settlement at drained thermokarst lake basins, Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Schaefer, K.; Gusmeroli, A.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Zhang, T.; Parsekian, A. D.; Zebker, H. A.

    2013-12-01

    Drained thermokarst lake basins (DTLBs) are ubiquitous landforms on arctic tundra lowlands, but their present-day dynamic states are seldom investigated. Here we report results based on high-resolution Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements using space-borne data for a study area located near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska where we focus on the seasonal thaw settlement within DTLBs, averaged between 2006 and 2010. The majority (14) of the 18 DTLBs in the study area analyzed exhibited seasonal thaw settlement of 3-4 cm. However, four of the DTLBs analyzed exceeded 4 cm of thaw settlement, with one basin experiencing up to 12 cm. Combining the InSAR observations with the in situ active layer thickness measured using ground penetrating radar and mechanical probing, we calculated thaw strain, an index of thaw settlement strength along a transect across the basin that underwent large thaw settlement. We found thaw strains of 10-35% at the basin center, suggesting the seasonal melting of ground ice as a possible mechanism for the large settlement. These findings emphasize the dynamic nature of permafrost landforms, demonstrate the capability of the InSAR technique to remotely monitor surface deformation of individual DTLBs, and illustrate the combination of ground-based and remote sensing observations to estimate thaw strain. Our study highlights the need for better description of the spatial heterogeneity of landscape-scale processes for regional assessment of surface dynamics on arctic coastal lowlands.

  3. Hydraulic Capacity of an ADA Compliant Street Drain Grate

    SciTech Connect

    Lottes, Steven A.; Bojanowski, Cezary

    2015-09-01

    Resurfacing of urban roads with concurrent repairs and replacement of sections of curb and sidewalk may require pedestrian ramps that are compliant with the American Disabilities Act (ADA), and when street drains are in close proximity to the walkway, ADA compliant street grates may also be required. The Minnesota Department of Transportation ADA Operations Unit identified a foundry with an available grate that meets ADA requirements. Argonne National Laboratory’s Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center used full scale three dimensional computational fluid dynamics to determine the performance of the ADA compliant grate and compared it to that of a standard vane grate. Analysis of a parametric set of cases was carried out, including variation in longitudinal, gutter, and cross street slopes and the water spread from the curb. The performance of the grates was characterized by the fraction of the total volume flow approaching the grate from the upstream that was captured by the grate and diverted into the catch basin. The fraction of the total flow entering over the grate from the side and the fraction of flow directly over a grate diverted into the catch basin were also quantities of interest that aid in understanding the differences in performance of the grates. The ADA compliant grate performance lagged that of the vane grate, increasingly so as upstream Reynolds number increased. The major factor leading to the performance difference between the two grates was the fraction of flow directly over the grates that is captured by the grates.

  4. Modelling bacterial water quality in streams draining pastoral land.

    PubMed

    Collins, Rob; Rutherford, Kit

    2004-02-01

    A model has been developed to predict concentrations of the faecal bacteria indicator E. coli in streams draining grazed hill-country in New Zealand. The long-term aim of the modelling is to assess effects of land management upon faecal contamination and, in the short term, to provide a framework for field-based research. A daily record of grazing livestock is used to estimate E. coli inputs to a catchment, and transport of bacteria to the stream network is simulated within surface and subsurface flows. Deposition of E. coli directly to streams is incorporated where cattle have access to them, and areas of permanent saturation ('seepage zones') are also represented. Bacteria are routed down the stream network and in-stream processes of deposition and entrainment are simulated. Die-off, both on land and in water, is simulated as a function of temperature and solar radiation. The model broadly reproduces observed E. coli concentrations in a hill-country catchment grazed by sheep and beef cattle, although uncertainty exists with a number of the processes represented. The model is sensitive to the distance over which surface runoff delivers bacteria to a stream and the amount of excretion direct to streams and onto seepage zones. Scenario analysis suggests that riparian buffer strips may improve bacterial water quality both by eliminating livestock defaecation in and near streams, and by trapping of bacteria by the riparian vegetation.

  5. Observations of magnetite dissolution in poorly drained soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimley, D.A.; Arruda, N.K.

    2007-01-01

    Dissolution of strongly magnetic minerals is a common and relatively rapid phenomenon in poorly drained soils of the central United States, resulting in low magnetic susceptibility (MS). Low Eh reducing conditions are primarily responsible for magnetic mineral dissolution; a process likely mediated by iron-reducing bacteria in the presence of soil organic matter. Based on transects across drainage sequences from nine sites, natural magnetic minerals (>5 ??m) extracted from surface soil consist of 54% ?? 18% magnetite, 21% ?? 11% titanomagnetite, and 17% ?? 14% ilmenite. Magnetite and titanomagnetite dissolution, assessed by scanning electron microscopy on a 0-to-3 scale, inversely correlates with surface soil MS (r = 0.53), a proxy for soil drainage at studied transects. Altered magnetite typically displays etch pits 5 ??m) include 26% ?? 18% anthropogenic fly ash that also exhibits greater dissolution in low MS soils (r = 0.38), indicating detectable alteration can occur within 150 years in low Eh soils. Laboratory induced reduction of magnetite, titanomagnetite, and magnetic fly ash, with a citrate-bicarbonate- dithionite solution, resulted in dissolution textures similar to those of in situ soil particles. Although experiments indicate that reductive dissolution of magnetite can occur abiotically under extreme conditions, bacteria likely play an important role in the natural environment. ?? 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  6. Assessment of soil organic matter fluxes at the EU level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne; Campling, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Soil has a complex relationship with climate change. Soil helps take carbon dioxide out of the air and as such it absorbs millions of tons each year, but with the Earth still warming micro-organisms grow faster, consume more soil organic matter and release carbon dioxide. The net result is a relative decline in soil organic carbon. With a growing population and higher bio-energy demands, more land is likely to be required for settlement, for commercial activity and for bio-energy production. Conversions from terrestrial ecosystems to urban and commercial activity will alter both the production and losses of organic matter, and have an indirect impact on potential SOM levels. Conversions between different terrestrial ecosystems have a direct impact on SOM levels. Net SOM losses are reported for several land conversions, e.g. from grassland to arable land, from wetlands to drained agricultural land, from crop rotations to monoculture, reforestation of agricultural land. In the context of looking for measures to support best practices to manage soil organic matter in Europe we propose a method to assess soil organic matter fluxes at the EU level. We adopt a parsimonious approach that is comparable to the nutrient balance approaches developed by the OECD and Eurostat. We describe the methodology and present the initial results of a European carbon balance indicator that uses existing European statistical and land use change databases. The carbon balance consists of the following components: organic matter production (I), organic matter losses (O), land use changes that effect both production and losses (E). These components are set against the (mostly legislative) boundary conditions that determine the maximum input potential (MIP) for soil organic matter. In order to budget SOM losses due to mineralisation, runs will be made with a multi-compartment SOM model that takes into account management practices, climate and different sources of organic matter.

  7. Effects of Eu concentration control on crystal growth and scintillation properties for Eu:LiSrAlF6 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, S.; Yokota, Y.; Yamaji, A.; Kurosawa, S.; Kamada, K.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2014-10-01

    Eu doped LiSrAlF6 (Eu:LiSAF) crystals with various Eu concentrations were grown by a micro-pulling-down (μ-PD) method and the effects of Eu concentration control on crystal growth and scintillation properties for Eu:LiSAF crystals were investigated as a neutron scintillator. As-grown Eu0.3%:LiSAF crystal had no visible inclusion while milky parts were observed in the crystals with higher Eu contents. The secondary phases with the chemical composition of EuF2 or EuF3 in the Eu:LiSAF matrix were observed for the crystals with high Eu contents while the secondary phase couldn’t be observed in the powder XRD patterns. In the radioluminescence spectra of Eu:LiSAF crystals under α-ray irradiation, emission peaks around 375 nm originated from 5d-4f transition of Eu2+ ion were observed. The light yields systematically increased with an increase of actual Eu contents in the crystals and the decay times were 1490-1620 ns.

  8. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy studies of Eu-Y and coexchanged EuFe-Y zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Ulla, M.A.; Millman, W.S. ); Aparicio, L.A.; Balse, V.R.; Dumesic, J.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was used to probe the oxidation state of europium and the location of divalent europium cations in Eu-Y and EuFe-Y zeolite samples. Europium was present as trivalent cations following treatment in O{sub 2} at 770 K. Treatments in H{sub 2} or CO at 770 K led to formation of divalent cations, and perhaps also caused some reduction to lower oxidation states. Three EPR signals were observed for Eu{sup 2+}, giving rise to effective g values of 3, 4.9, and 6. The first and last signals are interpreted as being due to Eu{sup 2+} cations at sites I and II, respectively, while the latter signal is due to Eu{sup 2+} cations at sites I{prime} and II{prime}. The majority of the Eu{sup 2+} cations are at site I, and the amount of Eu at this site can be increased by reducing the sample in H{sub 2}, compared with reduction in CO. The presence of europium in site I forces the Fe{sup 2+} cations to occupy sites of lower coordination in the sodalite unit (sites I{prime} and II{prime}) and in the supercages (sites II and III{prime}).

  9. Seasonal thaw settlement at drained thermokarst lake basins, Arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Lin; Schaefer, Kevin; Gusmeroli, Alessio; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M.; Zhang, Tinjun; Parsekian, Andrew; Zebker, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Drained thermokarst lake basins (DTLBs) are ubiquitous landforms on Arctic tundra lowland. Their dynamic states are seldom investigated, despite their importance for landscape stability, hydrology, nutrient fluxes, and carbon cycling. Here we report results based on high-resolution Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements using space-borne data for a study area located on the North Slope of Alaska near Prudhoe Bay, where we focus on the seasonal thaw settlement within DTLBs, averaged between 2006 and 2010. The majority (14) of the 18 DTLBs in the study area exhibited seasonal thaw settlement of 3–4 cm. However, four of the DTLBs examined exceeded 4 cm of thaw settlement, with one basin experiencing up to 12 cm. Combining the InSAR observations with the in situ active layer thickness measured using ground penetrating radar and mechanical probing, we calculated thaw strain, an index of thaw settlement strength along a transect across the basin that underwent large thaw settlement. We found thaw strains of 10–35% at the basin center, suggesting the seasonal melting of ground ice as a possible mechanism for the large settlement. These findings emphasize the dynamic nature of permafrost landforms, demonstrate the capability of the InSAR technique to remotely monitor surface deformation of individual DTLBs, and illustrate the combination of ground-based and remote sensing observations to estimate thaw strain. Our study highlights the need for better description of the spatial heterogeneity of landscape-scale processes for regional assessment of surface dynamics on Arctic coastal lowlands.

  10. Seasonal thaw settlement at drained thermokarst lake basins, Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Schaefer, K.; Gusmeroli, A.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Zhang, T.; Parsekian, A. D.; Zebker, H. A.

    2014-05-01

    Drained thermokarst lake basins (DTLBs) are ubiquitous landforms on Arctic tundra lowland. Their dynamic states are seldom investigated, despite their importance for landscape stability, hydrology, nutrient fluxes, and carbon cycling. Here we report results based on high-resolution Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements using space-borne data for a study area located on the North Slope of Alaska near Prudhoe Bay, where we focus on the seasonal thaw settlement within DTLBs, averaged between 2006 and 2010. The majority (14) of the 18 DTLBs in the study area exhibited seasonal thaw settlement of 3-4 cm. However, four of the DTLBs examined exceeded 4 cm of thaw settlement, with one basin experiencing up to 12 cm. Combining the InSAR observations with the in situ active layer thickness measured using ground penetrating radar and mechanical probing, we calculated thaw strain, an index of thaw settlement strength along a transect across the basin that underwent large thaw settlement. We found thaw strains of 10-35% at the basin center, suggesting the seasonal melting of ground ice as a possible mechanism for the large settlement. These findings emphasize the dynamic nature of permafrost landforms, demonstrate the capability of the InSAR technique to remotely monitor surface deformation of individual DTLBs, and illustrate the combination of ground-based and remote sensing observations to estimate thaw strain. Our study highlights the need for better description of the spatial heterogeneity of landscape-scale processes for regional assessment of surface dynamics on Arctic coastal lowlands.

  11. Variable carbon losses from recurrent fires in drained tropical peatlands.

    PubMed

    Konecny, Kristina; Ballhorn, Uwe; Navratil, Peter; Jubanski, Juilson; Page, Susan E; Tansey, Kevin; Hooijer, Aljosja; Vernimmen, Ronald; Siegert, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Tropical peatland fires play a significant role in the context of global warming through emissions of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. However, the state of knowledge on carbon loss from these fires is still poorly developed with few studies reporting the associated mass of peat consumed. Furthermore, spatial and temporal variations in burn depth have not been previously quantified. This study presents the first spatially explicit investigation of fire-driven tropical peat loss and its variability. An extensive airborne Light Detection and Ranging data set was used to develop a prefire peat surface modelling methodology, enabling the spatially differentiated quantification of burned area depth over the entire burned area. We observe a strong interdependence between burned area depth, fire frequency and distance to drainage canals. For the first time, we show that relative burned area depth decreases over the first four fire events and is constant thereafter. Based on our results, we revise existing peat and carbon loss estimates for recurrent fires in drained tropical peatlands. We suggest values for the dry mass of peat fuel consumed that are 206 t ha(-1) for initial fires, reducing to 115 t ha(-1) for second, 69 t ha(-1) for third and 23 t ha(-1) for successive fires, which are 58-7% of the current IPCC Tier 1 default value for all fires. In our study area, this results in carbon losses of 114, 64, 38 and 13 t C ha(-1) for first to fourth fires, respectively. Furthermore, we show that with increasing proximity to drainage canals both burned area depth and the probability of recurrent fires increase and present equations explaining burned area depth as a function of distance to drainage canal. This improved knowledge enables a more accurate approach to emissions accounting and will support IPCC Tier 2 reporting of fire emissions.

  12. Variable carbon losses from recurrent fires in drained tropical peatlands.

    PubMed

    Konecny, Kristina; Ballhorn, Uwe; Navratil, Peter; Jubanski, Juilson; Page, Susan E; Tansey, Kevin; Hooijer, Aljosja; Vernimmen, Ronald; Siegert, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Tropical peatland fires play a significant role in the context of global warming through emissions of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. However, the state of knowledge on carbon loss from these fires is still poorly developed with few studies reporting the associated mass of peat consumed. Furthermore, spatial and temporal variations in burn depth have not been previously quantified. This study presents the first spatially explicit investigation of fire-driven tropical peat loss and its variability. An extensive airborne Light Detection and Ranging data set was used to develop a prefire peat surface modelling methodology, enabling the spatially differentiated quantification of burned area depth over the entire burned area. We observe a strong interdependence between burned area depth, fire frequency and distance to drainage canals. For the first time, we show that relative burned area depth decreases over the first four fire events and is constant thereafter. Based on our results, we revise existing peat and carbon loss estimates for recurrent fires in drained tropical peatlands. We suggest values for the dry mass of peat fuel consumed that are 206 t ha(-1) for initial fires, reducing to 115 t ha(-1) for second, 69 t ha(-1) for third and 23 t ha(-1) for successive fires, which are 58-7% of the current IPCC Tier 1 default value for all fires. In our study area, this results in carbon losses of 114, 64, 38 and 13 t C ha(-1) for first to fourth fires, respectively. Furthermore, we show that with increasing proximity to drainage canals both burned area depth and the probability of recurrent fires increase and present equations explaining burned area depth as a function of distance to drainage canal. This improved knowledge enables a more accurate approach to emissions accounting and will support IPCC Tier 2 reporting of fire emissions. PMID:26661597

  13. Applicability of models to predict phosphorus losses in drained fields: a review.

    PubMed

    Radcliffe, David E; Reid, D Keith; Blombäck, Karin; Bolster, Carl H; Collick, Amy S; Easton, Zachary M; Francesconi, Wendy; Fuka, Daniel R; Johnsson, Holger; King, Kevin; Larsbo, Mats; Youssef, Mohamed A; Mulkey, Alisha S; Nelson, Nathan O; Persson, Kristian; Ramirez-Avila, John J; Schmieder, Frank; Smith, Douglas R

    2015-03-01

    Most phosphorus (P) modeling studies of water quality have focused on surface runoff loses. However, a growing number of experimental studies have shown that P losses can occur in drainage water from artificially drained fields. In this review, we assess the applicability of nine models to predict this type of P loss. A model of P movement in artificially drained systems will likely need to account for the partitioning of water and P into runoff, macropore flow, and matrix flow. Within the soil profile, sorption and desorption of dissolved P and filtering of particulate P will be important. Eight models are reviewed (ADAPT, APEX, DRAINMOD, HSPF, HYDRUS, ICECREAMDB, PLEASE, and SWAT) along with P Indexes. Few of the models are designed to address P loss in drainage waters. Although the SWAT model has been used extensively for modeling P loss in runoff and includes tile drain flow, P losses are not simulated in tile drain flow. ADAPT, HSPF, and most P Indexes do not simulate flow to tiles or drains. DRAINMOD simulates drains but does not simulate P. The ICECREAMDB model from Sweden is an exception in that it is designed specifically for P losses in drainage water. This model seems to be a promising, parsimonious approach in simulating critical processes, but it needs to be tested. Field experiments using a nested, paired research design are needed to improve P models for artificially drained fields. Regardless of the model used, it is imperative that uncertainty in model predictions be assessed.

  14. Effects of pond draining on biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds.

    PubMed

    Usio, Nisikawa; Imada, Miho; Nakagawa, Megumi; Akasaka, Munemitsu; Takamura, Noriko

    2013-12-01

    Farm ponds have high conservation value because they contribute significantly to regional biodiversity and ecosystem services. In Japan pond draining is a traditional management method that is widely believed to improve water quality and eradicate invasive fish. In addition, fishing by means of pond draining has significant cultural value for local people, serving as a social event. However, there is a widespread belief that pond draining reduces freshwater biodiversity through the extirpation of aquatic animals, but scientific evaluation of the effectiveness of pond draining is lacking. We conducted a large-scale field study to evaluate the effects of pond draining on invasive animal control, water quality, and aquatic biodiversity relative to different pond-management practices, pond physicochemistry, and surrounding land use. The results of boosted regression-tree models and analyses of similarity showed that pond draining had little effect on invasive fish control, water quality, or aquatic biodiversity. Draining even facilitated the colonization of farm ponds by invasive red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), which in turn may have detrimental effects on the biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds. Our results highlight the need for reconsidering current pond management and developing management plans with respect to multifunctionality of such ponds. Efectos del Drenado de Estanques sobre la Biodiversidad y la Calidad del Agua en Estanques de Cultivo.

  15. Effects of pond draining on biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds.

    PubMed

    Usio, Nisikawa; Imada, Miho; Nakagawa, Megumi; Akasaka, Munemitsu; Takamura, Noriko

    2013-12-01

    Farm ponds have high conservation value because they contribute significantly to regional biodiversity and ecosystem services. In Japan pond draining is a traditional management method that is widely believed to improve water quality and eradicate invasive fish. In addition, fishing by means of pond draining has significant cultural value for local people, serving as a social event. However, there is a widespread belief that pond draining reduces freshwater biodiversity through the extirpation of aquatic animals, but scientific evaluation of the effectiveness of pond draining is lacking. We conducted a large-scale field study to evaluate the effects of pond draining on invasive animal control, water quality, and aquatic biodiversity relative to different pond-management practices, pond physicochemistry, and surrounding land use. The results of boosted regression-tree models and analyses of similarity showed that pond draining had little effect on invasive fish control, water quality, or aquatic biodiversity. Draining even facilitated the colonization of farm ponds by invasive red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), which in turn may have detrimental effects on the biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds. Our results highlight the need for reconsidering current pond management and developing management plans with respect to multifunctionality of such ponds. Efectos del Drenado de Estanques sobre la Biodiversidad y la Calidad del Agua en Estanques de Cultivo. PMID:23869702

  16. Inverse problem in anisotropic poroelasticity: Drained constants from undrained ultrasound measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J.G.; Nakagawa, S.

    2009-11-20

    Poroelastic analysis has traditionally focused on the relationship between dry or drained constants which are assumed known and the saturated or undrained constants which are assumed unknown. However, there are many applications in this field of study for which the main measurements can only be made on the saturated/undrained system, and then it is uncertain what the eects of the uids were on the system, since the drained constants remain a mystery. The work presented here shows how to deduce drained constants from undrained constants for anisotropic systems having symmetries ranging from isotropic to orthotropic. Laboratory ultrasound data are then inverted for the drained constants in three granular packings: one of glass beads, and two others for distinct types of more or less angular sand grain packings. Experiments were performed under uniaxial stress, which resulted in hexagonal (transversely isotropic) symmetry of the poroelastic response. One important conclusion from the general analysis is that the drained constants are uniquely related to the undrained constants, assuming that porosity, grain bulk modulus, and pore uid bulk modulus are already known. Since the resulting system of equations for all the drained constants is linear, measurement error in undrained constants also propagates linearly into the computed drained constants.

  17. Sewage exfiltration as a source of storm drain contamination during dry weather in urban watersheds.

    PubMed

    Sercu, Bram; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie C; Murray, Jill L S; Holden, Patricia A

    2011-09-01

    Separating storm drains and sanitary sewers is expected to control sewage pollution, for example, from combined sewer overflows, and to reduce excessive stormwater flow to wastewater treatment plants. However, sewage contamination has been found in such separated storm drain systems in urban areas during dry-weather flow. To determine whether transmission of sewage is occurring from leaking sanitary sewers directly to leaking separated storm drains, field experiments were performed in three watersheds in Santa Barbara, CA. Areas with high and low risks for sewage exfiltration into storm drains were identified, and rhodamine WT (RWT) dye pulses were added to the sanitary sewers. RWT was monitored in nearby storm drain manholes using optical probes set up for unattended continuous monitoring. Above-background RWT peaks were detected in storm drains in high-risk areas, and multiple locations of sewage contamination were found. Sewage contamination during the field studies was confirmed using the human-specific Bacteroidales HF183 and Methanobrevibacter smithii nifH DNA markers. This study is the first to provide direct evidence that leaking sanitary sewers can directly contaminate nearby leaking storm drains with untreated sewage during dry weather and suggests that chronic sanitary sewer leakage contributes to downstream fecal contamination of coastal beaches.

  18. Stormwater Drains and Catch Basins as Sources for Production of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Arana-Guardia, Roger; Baak-Baak, Carlos M.; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Beaty, Barry J.; Eisen, Lars; García-Rejón, Julián E.

    2014-01-01

    We present data showing that structures serving as drains and catch basins for stormwater are important sources for production of the mosquito arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Mérida City, México. We examined 1,761 stormwater drains – located in 45 different neighborhoods spread across the city – over dry and wet seasons from March 2012–March 2013. Of the examined stormwater drains, 262 (14.9%) held water at the time they were examined and 123 yielded mosquito immatures. In total, we collected 64,560 immatures representing nine species. The most commonly encountered species were Cx. quinquefasciatus (n=39,269) and Ae. aegypti (n=23,313). Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were collected during all 11 months when we found water-filled stormwater drains, and both were found in stormwater drains located throughout Mérida City. We also present data for associations between structural characteristics of stormwater drains or water-related characteristics and the abundance of mosquito immatures. In conclusion, stormwater drains produce massive numbers of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus across Mérida City, both in the wet and dry seasons, and represent non-residential development sites that should be strongly considered for inclusion in the local mosquito surveillance and control program. PMID:24582840

  19. Stormwater drains and catch basins as sources for production of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Arana-Guardia, Roger; Baak-Baak, Carlos M; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Beaty, Barry J; Eisen, Lars; García-Rejón, Julián E

    2014-06-01

    We present data showing that structures serving as drains and catch basins for stormwater are important sources for production of the mosquito arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Mérida City, México. We examined 1761 stormwater drains - located in 45 different neighborhoods spread across the city - over dry and wet seasons from March 2012 to March 2013. Of the examined stormwater drains, 262 (14.9%) held water at the time they were examined and 123 yielded mosquito immatures. In total, we collected 64,560 immatures representing nine species. The most commonly encountered species were Cx. quinquefasciatus (n=39,269) and Ae. aegypti (n=23,313). Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were collected during all 11 months when we found water-filled stormwater drains, and both were found in stormwater drains located throughout Mérida City. We also present data for associations between structural characteristics of stormwater drains or water-related characteristics and the abundance of mosquito immatures. In conclusion, stormwater drains produce massive numbers of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus across Mérida City, both in the wet and dry seasons, and represent non-residential development sites that should be strongly considered for inclusion in the local mosquito surveillance and control program.

  20. Quantification of non-stormwater flow entries into storm drains using a water balance approach.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zuxin; Yin, Hailong; Li, Huaizheng

    2014-07-15

    To make decisions about correcting illicit or inappropriate connections to storm drains, quantification of non-stormwater entries into storm drains was performed using a water flow balance approach, based on data analysis from 2008 to 2011 in a separate storm drainage system in a Shanghai downtown area of 374 ha. The study revealed severe sewage connections to storm drains; meanwhile, misconnections between surface water and storm drains were found to drive frequent non-stormwater pumping discharges at the outfall, producing a much larger volume of outfall flows in a short period. This paper presented a methodology to estimate quantities of inappropriate sewage flow, groundwater infiltration and river water backflow into the storm drains. It was concluded that inappropriate sewage discharge and groundwater seepage into storm drains were approximately 17,860 m(3)/d (i.e., up to 51% of the total sewage flow in the catchment) and 3,624 m(3)/d, respectively, and surface water backflow was up to an average 28,593 m(3)/d. On the basis of this work, end-of-storm pipe interceptor sewers of 0.25 m(3)/s (i.e., 21,600 m(3)/d) would be effective to tackle the problem of sewage connections and groundwater seepage to storm drains. Under this circumstance, the follow-up non-stormwater outfall pumping events indicate misconnections between surface water and storm drains, featuring pumping discharge equivalent to surface water backflow; hence the misconnections should be repaired. The information provided here is helpful in estimating the magnitude of non-stormwater flow entries into storm drains and designing the necessary pollution control activities, as well as combating city floods in storm events.

  1. Theory of Maxwell's fish eye with mutually interacting sources and drains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Sahebdivan, Sahar

    2015-11-01

    Maxwell's fish eye is predicted to image with a resolution not limited by the wavelength of light. However, interactions between sources and drains may ruin the subwavelength imaging capabilities of this and similar absolute optical instruments. Nevertheless, as we show in this paper, at resonance frequencies of the device, an array of drains may resolve a single source, or alternatively, a single drain may scan an array of sources, no matter how narrowly spaced they are. It seems that near-field information can be obtained from far-field distances.

  2. Nitrogen and phosphorus loading from drained wetlands adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency lakes, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.; Morace, Jennifer L.

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, soil-coring activities were undertaken to ascertain the nature and extent of the organic soils in the drained and undrained wetlands. The present-day nutrient mass was calculated for each drained wetland using the nutrient content (concentration) and the present-day peat mass. The initial nutrient mass prior to drainage was estimated for each drained wetland by using the initial nutrient content (assumed to be equal to the nutrient content of the undrained wetlands) and the initial peat mass as determined using the amount of accumulated decom

  3. Reduction method of gate-to-drain capacitance by oxide spacer formation in tunnel field-effect transistor with elevated drain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Dae Woong; Kim, Jang Hyun; Park, Euyhwan; Lee, Junil; Park, Taehyung; Lee, Ryoongbin; Kim, Sihyun; Park, Byung-Gook

    2016-06-01

    A novel fabrication method is proposed to reduce large gate-to-drain capacitance (C GD) and to improve AC switching characteristics in tunnel field-effect transistor (TFETs) with elevated drain (TFETED). In the proposed method, gate oxide at drain region (GDOX) is selectively formed through oxide deposition and spacer-etch process. Furthermore, the thicknesses of the GDOX are simply controlled by the amount of the oxide deposition and etch. Mixed-mode device and circuit technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulations are performed to verify the effects of the GDOX thickness on DC and AC switching characteristics of a TFETED inverter. As a result, it is found that AC switching characteristics such as output voltage pre-shoot and falling/rising delay are improved with nearly unchanged DC characteristics by thicker GDOX. This improvement is explained successfully by reduced C GD and positive shifted gate voltage (V G) versus C GD curves with the thicker GDOX.

  4. What does Brexit mean for nursing and our EU staff?

    PubMed

    Flynn, Hannah; Kendall-Raynor, Petra; Longhurst, Chris

    2016-06-29

    Currently there is free movement of labour and mutual recognition of nurse training and qualifications between EU member states. This means UK hospitals can actively recruit nurses from across the EU to cover staff shortfalls. So what now? PMID:27353905

  5. What does Brexit mean for nursing and our EU staff?

    PubMed

    Flynn, Hannah; Kendall-Raynor, Petra; Longhurst, Chris

    2016-06-29

    Currently there is free movement of labour and mutual recognition of nurse training and qualifications between EU member states. This means UK hospitals can actively recruit nurses from across the EU to cover staff shortfalls. So what now?

  6. Lagrangian water quality dynamics in the San Luis Drain, California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkmar, E. C.; Dahlgren, R. A.; Stringfellow, W. T.; Henson, S. S.; Borglin, S. E.; Kendall, C.

    2007-12-01

    Integration of temporal changes in biological and water quality constituents during downstream transport is critical to understanding aquatic ecosystem and biogeochemical dynamics of rivers, estuaries, and the near- coastal waters into which rivers flow. Changes in chemical, physical, and biological water quality constituents during downstream transport can be evaluated by following a specific parcel of water, known as a Lagrangian study. The objective of this study was to differentiate changes in water quality constituents occurring within a parcel of water as it travels downstream to the changes observed at a fixed sampling location. We sampled a parcel of agricultural drainage water as it traveled downstream for 84 h in a concrete-lined channel (San Luis Drain in San Joaquin Valley) with no additional water inputs or outputs. The Lagrangian sampling occurred in August 2006 and June 2007. Data from the Lagrangian study was compared to data collected at a fixed point using an automatic pump sampler and water quality sonde. Fluorescence (a measure of algal pigments), dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, and conductivity were measured every 30 minutes, as well as collecting grab samples every 2 h for nutrient and suspended sediment analyses. Sinusoidal diel (24 h) patterns were observed for dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature within the parcel of water. Algal pigments, nutrients, suspended solids, and turbidity did not exhibit sinusoidal diel patterns, generally observed at a fixed sampling location. The diel patterns observed indicated changes that would occur during downstream transport. Algal pigments showed a rapid day time increase during the first 24 to 48 h followed by a plateau or decrease for the remainder of the study. Algal growth was apparent each day during the study, as measured by increasing dissolved oxygen concentrations, in spite of non-detectable phosphate concentrations (<5 ppb) and nearly complete consumption of soluble silica during the 2007

  7. Infectious complications following 72 consecutive enteric-drained pancreas transplants.

    PubMed

    Berger, N; Wirmsberger, R; Kafka, R; Margreiter, C; Ebenbichler, C; Stelzmueller, I; Margreiter, R; Steurer, W; Mark, W; Bonatti, H

    2006-07-01

    New immunosuppressive protocols and advanced surgical technique resulted in an improved outcome of pancreatic transplantation (PTx) with infection remaining the most common complication. Seventy-two enteric-drained whole PTxs performed at the Innsbruck University Hospital between September 2002 and October 2004 were retrospectively analyzed. Prophylactic immunosuppression consisted of either the standard protocol consisting of single bolus antithymocyteglobulin (ATG) (Thymoglobulin, Sangstat or ATG Fresenius) induction (9 mg/kg), tacrolimus (TAC), mycophenylate mofetil (MMF) and steroids (38 patients) or a 4-day course of ATG (4 mg/kg) tacrolimus and steroids with MMF (n = 19), or Sirolimus (n = 15). Perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis consisted of Piperacillin/Tazobactam (4.5 g q 8 h) in combination with ciprofloxacin (200 mg q 12 h) and fluconazole (400 mg daily). Ganciclovir was used for cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis if donor was positive and recipient-negative. Patient, pancreas, and kidney graft survival at 1 year were 97.2%, 88.8%, and 93%, respectively, with no difference between the groups. All retransplants (n = 8) and single transplants (n = 8) as well as all type II diabetics and nine of 11 patients older 55 years received standard immunosuppression (IS). The rejection rate was 14% and infection rate 46% with no difference in terms of incidence or type according to the three groups. Severe infectious complications included intra-abdominal infection (n = 12), wound infection (n = 7), sepsis (n = 13), respiratory tract infection (n = 4), urinary tract infection (n = 12), herpes simplex/human herpes virus 6 infection (n = 5), CMV infection/disease (n = 7), post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD, n = 3), invasive filamentous fungal infection (n = 4), Clostridial/Rotavirus colitis (n = 1), and endocarditis (n = 1). All four patients in this series died of infectious complications (invasive aspergillosis n = 2) (one with Candida glabrata

  8. Drain-Site Hernia Containing the Vermiform Appendix: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Zynamon, Anatol; von Flüe, Markus; Peterli, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    The herniated vermiform appendix has been described as content of every hernia orifice in the right lower quadrant. While the femoral and inguinal herniated vermiform appendix is frequent enough to result in an own designation, port-site or even drain-site hernias are less frequently described. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman who presented with right lower quadrant pain seven years after Roux-en-Y Cystojejunostomy for a pancreatic cyst. CT scan showed herniation of the vermiform appendix through a former drain-site. A diagnostic laparoscopy with appendectomy and direct closure of the abdominal wall defect combined with mesh reinforcement was performed. Despite the decreasing use of intraperitoneal drains over the recent years, a multitude of patients had intraperitoneal drainage in former times. These patients face nowadays the risk of drain-site hernias with sometimes even unexpected structures inside. PMID:23862093

  9. CCR7-dependent trafficking of RORγ+ ILCs creates a unique microenvironment within mucosal draining lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Mackley, Emma C.; Houston, Stephanie; Marriott, Clare L.; Halford, Emily E.; Lucas, Beth; Cerovic, Vuk; Filbey, Kara J.; Maizels, Rick M.; Hepworth, Matthew R.; Sonnenberg, Gregory F.; Milling, Simon; Withers, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Presentation of peptide:MHCII by RORγ-expressing group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s), which are enriched within gut tissue, is required for control of CD4 T-cell responses to commensal bacteria. It is not known whether ILC populations migrate from their mucosal and peripheral sites to local draining secondary lymphoid tissues. Here we demonstrate that ILC3s reside within the interfollicular areas of mucosal draining lymph nodes, forming a distinct microenvironment not observed in peripheral lymph nodes. By photoconverting intestinal cells in Kaede mice we reveal constitutive trafficking of ILCs from the intestine to the draining mesenteric lymph nodes, which specifically for the LTi-like ILC3s was CCR7-dependent. Thus, ILC populations traffic to draining lymph nodes using different mechanisms. PMID:25575242

  10. Endoscopic removal of a retained pelvic drain fragment with CO2 pneumoperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Arsanjani, Amir; Eshghi, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Retained drains are an infrequent and usually avoidable postsurgical complication. There are few reports in the contemporary literature regarding minimally invasive techniques to remove retained postsurgical drains. We present a novel technique for the removal of a retained deep pelvic Jackson-Pratt drain by means of a fluoroscopically guided transurethral endoscopic technique with minimal CO(2) pneumoperitoneum performed safely through a newly transected urethral stump under local anesthesia. The use of CO(2) pneumoperitoneum in place of saline irrigation is less likely to be associated with any untoward postoperative complications. This novel and effective technique will serve as a useful adjunct to the minimally invasive management of retained pelvic drains in postoperative patients who have undergone cystectomy and/or hysterectomy.

  11. Successful Removal of Malpositioned Chest Drain Within the Liver by Embolization of the Transhepatic Track

    SciTech Connect

    Tait, Paul; Waheed, Umeer; Bell, Suzanne

    2009-07-15

    The insertion of a chest drain catheter for the management of a pneumothorax in an 82-year-old woman resulted in the unusual complication of liver penetration. The position of the drain was assessed by contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scan. Because the patient was hemodynamically stable and no damage to major vessels was seen on computed tomographic scan, the patient was treated in a nonoperative manner. A procedure was performed under controlled conditions using techniques used during transhepatic liver biopsies but with the addition of a balloon catheter. Embolization of the liver track was performed during chest drain removal. The drain was successfully removed without the complication of bleeding in a patient unsuitable for a general anesthetic.

  12. Super natural killer cells that target metastases in the tumor draining lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Siddarth; Chan, Maxine F; Li, Jiahe; King, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Tumor draining lymph nodes are the first site of metastasis in most types of cancer. The extent of metastasis in the lymph nodes is often used in staging cancer progression. We previously showed that nanoscale TRAIL liposomes conjugated to human natural killer cells enhance their endogenous therapeutic potential in killing cancer cells cultured in engineered lymph node microenvironments. In this work, it is shown that liposomes decorated with apoptosis-inducing ligand TRAIL and an antibody against a mouse natural killer cell marker are carried to the tumor draining inguinal lymph nodes and prevent the lymphatic spread of a subcutaneous tumor in mice. It is shown that targeting natural killer cells with TRAIL liposomes enhances their retention time within the tumor draining lymph nodes to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. It is concluded that this approach can be used to kill cancer cells within the tumor draining lymph nodes to prevent the lymphatic spread of cancer.

  13. 40 CFR 63.136 - Process wastewater provisions-individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... restricts wind motion across the open area between the pipe and the drain) that encloses the space between...., there is no pump) or is operated with no more than slight fluctuations in the liquid level, the owner...

  14. The EU Dimension to Soil Science in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sue

    2012-01-01

    The EU as a context for science lessons may be given scant attention but EU decision-making is a vital factor in everyday life. Lessons on the emergence of soil science with Charles Darwin's simple scientific experiments can be linked with competence through action, inclusion and argumentations in science lessons. Decisions about an EU Soil…

  15. Hazard Assessment Report for Residual Uranium Concentrations in Storm Drains, Rapaport Building, Windsor, Connecticut

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy J. Vitkus; Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program , ORISE

    2000-04-19

    A hazard assessment was conducted in the parking area of the Rapaport Building in Windsor Connecticut. The site had been a processing plant for nuclear fuels for the Navy's nuclear fuel program. The subject of the study was a storm drain that showed signs of increased radiation from enriched uranium products that had been produced or used in the adjacent building. The conclusion of the assessment is that there is no public hazard from radiation from the drain.

  16. Chemical injury to the tongue following contact with sodium hydroxide drain cleaner.

    PubMed

    Yanturali, Sedat; Yaka, Elif; Ersoy, Gurkan

    2004-12-01

    Solid sodium hydroxide compounds are used to unclog drains. In Turkey, these agents are easily available and commonly used by housewives. They are sold in weak bags and usually stored within these bags. We present the case of an elderly woman with dementia who developed severe alkaline tongue burn and edema after unintentional short contact with solid sodium hydroxide drain cleaner. Official legislation for safety packing in Turkey will lead to reduction in the incidence of accidental caustic injuries.

  17. Explicit drain current model of junctionless double-gate field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesayan, Ashkhen; Prégaldiny, Fabien; Sallese, Jean-Michel

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents an explicit drain current model for the junctionless double-gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor. Analytical relationships for the channel charge densities and for the drain current are derived as explicit functions of applied terminal voltages and structural parameters. The model is validated with 2D numerical simulations for a large range of channel thicknesses and is found to be very accurate for doping densities exceeding 1018 cm-3, which are actually used for such devices.

  18. Method of making self-aligned lightly-doped-drain structure for MOS transistors

    DOEpatents

    Weiner, Kurt H.; Carey, Paul G.

    2001-01-01

    A process for fabricating lightly-doped-drains (LDD) for short-channel metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistors. The process utilizes a pulsed laser process to incorporate the dopants, thus eliminating the prior oxide deposition and etching steps. During the process, the silicon in the source/drain region is melted by the laser energy. Impurities from the gas phase diffuse into the molten silicon to appropriately dope the source/drain regions. By controlling the energy of the laser, a lightly-doped-drain can be formed in one processing step. This is accomplished by first using a single high energy laser pulse to melt the silicon to a significant depth and thus the amount of dopants incorporated into the silicon is small. Furthermore, the dopants incorporated during this step diffuse to the edge of the MOS transistor gate structure. Next, many low energy laser pulses are used to heavily dope the source/drain silicon only in a very shallow region. Because of two-dimensional heat transfer at the MOS transistor gate edge, the low energy pulses are inset from the region initially doped by the high energy pulse. By computer control of the laser energy, the single high energy laser pulse and the subsequent low energy laser pulses are carried out in a single operational step to produce a self-aligned lightly-doped-drain-structure.

  19. The relationship between drained angle and flow rate of size fractions of powder excipients.

    PubMed

    Sklubalová, Z; Zatloukal, Z

    2009-12-01

    The influence of powder size of chosen pharmaceutical powder excipients on drained angle as well as the correlation between drained angle and the mass flow rate of certain powder size fractions were investigated in this work. A method of the indirect estimation of the three-dimensional drained angle from the mass of the residual powder was used experimentally to study the influence of powder size fractions in range of 0.200-0.630 mm for sodium chloride, sodium citrate, potassium chloride, and potassium citrate. Failures of flow significantly increased the drained angles for powder size fraction of 0.200-0.250 mm. For the uniformly flowable powder size fraction of 0.400-0.500 mm, the faster the flow rate, the smaller drained angles were observed for excipients investigated. To estimate parameters of the flow equation, the measurement of material flow rates from the hopper of different orifice sizes is needed, while the estimation of drained angle is much easier needing only one hopper. Finally, the increase of the hopper wall angle of the standard conical hopper to 70 degrees could be recommended to achieve uniform mass flow and to reduce the adverse effect of powder gliding along the hopper walls.

  20. High Resolution Modeling of Tile-Drained Controls on Ecohydrologic Dynamics in Intensively Managed Landscapes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, D.; Le, P. V.; Kumar, P.; Woo, D.

    2015-12-01

    Tile drains are widely used in the Midwestern United States to improve the productivity of poorly drained agricultural fields. Since tile drain reduces vadose zone soil moisture by lowering the water table, and its outlets feed directly into streams and ditches, tile flow can affect various hydrologic, biotic and biogeochemical processes in the watershed. However, the effects of tile flow on ecohydrologic and nutrient dynamics at scales dominated by microtopographic variability, such as depression and roadside ditches, remain poorly understood. Here we present an explicit model of tile flow and incorporate into the integrated ecohydrologic-flow model, MLCan-GCSFlow, to investigate the impacts of tile drain on ecohydrologic and nutrient dynamics in intensively managed agricultural fields at lidar-resolution scales. Explicit coupling between subsurface and tile flow is obtained by modifications of variably saturated Richards equation to capture the impacts of tile drain on soil moisture. The coupling between subsurface and overland flow is obtained by prescribing a boundary condition switching approach at the top surface of the computational domain. Model results for study sites in Critical Zone Observatory for Intensively Managed Landscapes (IMLCZO) show the significance of tile drain flow on the vertical and spatial soil moisture distribution and coupled surface - sub-surface flow dynamics.

  1. Reverse blocking characteristics and mechanisms in Schottky-drain AlGaN/GaN HEMT with a drain field plate and floating field plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Mao; Wei-Bo, She; Cui, Yang; Jin-Feng, Zhang; Xue-Feng, Zheng; Chong, Wang; Yue, Hao

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel AlGaN/GaN HEMT with a Schottky drain and a compound field plate (SD-CFP HEMT) is presented for the purpose of better reverse blocking capability. The compound field plate (CFP) consists of a drain field plate (DFP) and several floating field plates (FFPs). The physical mechanisms of the CFP to improve the reverse breakdown voltage and to modulate the distributions of channel electric field and potential are investigated by two-dimensional numerical simulations with Silvaco-ATLAS. Compared with the HEMT with a Schottky drain (SD HEMT) and the HEMT with a Schottky drain and a DFP (SD-FP HEMT), the superiorities of SD-CFP HEMT lie in the continuous improvement of the reverse breakdown voltage by increasing the number of FFPs and in the same fabrication procedure as the SD-FP HEMT. Two useful optimization laws for the SD-CFP HEMTs are found and extracted from simulation results. The relationship between the number of the FFPs and the reverse breakdown voltage as well as the FP efficiency in SD-CFP HEMTs are discussed. The results in this paper demonstrate a great potential of CFP for enhancing the reverse blocking ability in AlGaN/GaN HEMT and may be of great value and significance in the design and actual manufacture of SD-CFP HEMTs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61204085, 61334002, 61306017, 61474091, 61574112, and 61574110).

  2. Groundwater flow and solute movement to drain laterals, western San Joaquin Valley, California: 2. Quantitative hydrologic assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fio, John L.; Deverel, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Groundwater flow modeling was used to quantitatively assess the hydrologic processes affecting ground water and solute movement to drain laterals. Modeling results were used to calculate the depth distribution of groundwater flowing into drain laterals at 1.8 m (drain lateral 1) and 2.7 m (drain lateral 2) below land surface. The simulations indicated that under nonirrigated conditions about 89% of the flow in drain lateral 2 was from groundwater originating from depths greater than 6 m below land surface. The deep groundwater has higher selenium concentrations than shallow groundwater. Simulation of irrigated conditions indicates that as recharge (deep percolation) increases, the proportional contribution of deep groundwater to drain lateral flow decreases. Groundwater flow paths and travel times estimated from the simulation results indicate that groundwater containing high concentrations of selenium (greater than 780 μg L−1) probably will continue to enter drain lateral 2 for decades.

  3. Brain Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Karl

    2002-01-01

    Reviews significant findings of recent brain research, including the concept of five minds: automatic, subconscious, practical, creative, and spiritual. Suggests approaches to training the brain that are related to this hierarchy of thinking. (JOW)

  4. Brain Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... have been linked to many mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain ... studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as they grow ...

  5. Brain components

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3 major components of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The cerebrum is divided into left and right hemispheres, each ... gray matter) is the outside portion of the cerebrum and provides us with functions associated with conscious ...

  6. Brain Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

  7. Brain abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Tunkel AR. Brain abscess. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 92. Tunkel AR, Scheld WM. Brain abscess. In: Winn HR, ed. ...

  8. Effect of Eu-citrate complex composition on its cementation

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, V.M.; Kornilov, A.S.; Yadovin, A.A.

    1995-03-01

    The dependence of Eu cementation by sodium amalgam in a semicountercurrent regime from citrate solutions on the Eu complex composition is studied. The purity of the {sup 153}Gd product from radioactive Eu can be increased during cementation by introducing correcting solutions of citric acid and stable Eu. The selected conditions are verified by processing irradiated targets. The content of radioactive Eu in the {sup 153}Gd product is reduced from 0.01 to 0.0005% with respect to {gamma}-activity.

  9. Brain Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Eu-Doped Cadmium Selenide Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Raola, O. E.

    2002-01-01

    Substitution of Cd(II) sites by Eu ions in 5.0 nm {+-} 0.25 nm CdSe, Cd{sub 1-x}Eu{sub x}Se (x=0.374), can be achieved by modification of a lyothermal, single source precursor method. The Eu guest ion occupies a tetrahedral lattice site as a Eu(III) defect ion based on analysis of the XPS and XAS data. XRD and XAS measurements show a linear contraction of the lattice parameters for increasing Eu(III) concentration consistent with statistical substitution at both core and surface sites in the lattice by a random ion displacement mechanism. On the basis of a Vegard's law analysis, the Eu(III) ion is substituted in the tetrahedral cationic lattice site without formation of vacancies or phase segregation of the Eu ion in the lattice.

  11. Brain Basics: Know Your Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... fact sheet is a basic introduction to the human brain. It may help you understand how the healthy ... largest and most highly developed part of the human brain: it consists primarily of the cerebrum ( 2 ) and ...

  12. The contribution of drained organic soils to the globally emitted greenhouse gases and emission hotspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthelmes, Alexandra; Couwenberg, John; Joosten, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Key words: organic soils, peatlands, drainage, emissions, globally Peatlands cover only 3% of the global land surface. Some 15% of these peatlands have been drained for agriculture, forestry and grazing, which leads to the release of huge amounts of carbon. The '2013 Supplement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Wetlands' (IPCC 2014) offers up-to-date default emission factors for different land use types on organic soil and thus enables proper reporting. For this, realistic area data of drained organic soils are needed at a national scale. We analysed the drained organic soil areas and related emissions as reported to the UNFCCC in 2014 for several Nordic-Baltic countries . The analysis revealed that the areas often seem to be underestimated and that several countries use outdated emission factors. The re-assessment of the drained area and the application of the IPCC (2014) default emission factors resulted in 5-10 x higher emissions from drained organic soils for some countries. Out of 9 Nordic-Baltic countries only 1 country seems to have overestimated the drainage related organic soil emissions. If adopting the default emission factors from IPCC (2014) globally, the emissions from drained and degrading organic soils (~ 1,600 Mt CO2-eq.) amount to almost double the amount of CO2 emissions from aviation, even when emissions from peat fires are not included . By far the top single emitter of drained peatland related greenhouse gases is Indonesia, followed by the European Union and Russia. 25 countries are together responsible for 95% of global emissions from peatland drainage, excluding fires. Fires raise the importance of particularly Indonesia and Russian Federation. In 25 countries emissions from peatland degradation are over 50% of the emissions from fossil fuels and cement production combined, hence peatland emissions are of national significance.

  13. Source-drain burnout mechanism of GaAs power MESFETS: Three terminal effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamiya, Saburo; Sonoda, Takuji; Yamanouchi, Masahide; Fujioka, Takashi; Kohno, Masaki

    1997-03-01

    Theoretical expressions for thermal and electrical feedback effects are derived. These limit the power capability of a power FET and lead a device to catastrophic breakdown (source-drain burnout) when the loop gain of the former reaches unity. Field emission of thermally excited electrons at the Schottky gate plays the key role in thermal feedback, while holes being impact ionized by the drain current play a similar role in the electrical feedback. Thermal feedback is dominant in a high temperature and low drain voltage area. Electrical feedback is dominant in a high drain voltage and low temperature area. In the first area, a high junction temperature is the main factor causing the thermal runaway of the device. In the second area, the electrcal feedback increases the drain current and the temperature and gives a trigger to the thermal feedback so that it reaches unity more easily. Both effects become significant in proportion to transconductance and gate bias resistance, and cause simultaneous runaway of the gate and drain currents. The expressions of the loop gains clearly indicate the safe operating conditions for a power FET. C-band 4 W (1 chip) and 16 W (4 chip) GaAs MESFETs were used as the experimental samples. With these devices the simultaneous runaway of the gate and the drain currents, apparent dependence of the three teminal breakdown voltage on the gate bias resistance in the region dominated by electrical feedback, the rapid increase of the field emitted current at the critical temperature and clear coincidence between the measured and calculated three terminal gate currents both in the thermal feedback dominant region, etc. are demonstrated. The theory explains the experimental results well.

  14. Overland flow and sediment transport in an agricultural lowland catchments: a focus on tile drain export

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandromme, Rosalie; Grangeon, Thomas; Cerdan, Olivier; Manière, Louis; Salvador Blanes, Sébastien; Foucher, Anthony; Chapalain, Marion; Evrard, Olivier; Le Gall, Marion

    2016-04-01

    Rural landscapes have been extensively modified by human activities in Western Europe since the beginning of the 20th century in order to intensify agricultural production. Cultivated areas often expanded at the expense of grassland and wetlands located in lowland areas (de Groot et al., 2002). Therefore, large modifications were made to the agricultural landscapes: stream redesign, land consolidation, removal of hedges, and installation of tile drainage networks to drain the hydromorphic soils. These changes modified sediment processes and resulted in large morphological alterations (e.g. channel bed incision, deposition of fine sediment, channel bank erosion). Accordingly, these alterations threaten water quality and prevent to meet the requirements of the European directives. Improving water quality requires a clear understanding of the hydrosedimentary dynamics in these lowland cultivated catchments. However, few studies were conducted in drained environments. To fill this research gap, a pilot study was started in cultivated catchment of the Loire River basin, France, where tile drain densities are very high (> 1.5 km/km²). Six hydro-sedimentary monitoring stations were installed in the Louroux catchment (24 km²). One of them was specifically dedicated to measuring water/sediment fluxes from tile drains. Water level and turbidity were continuously monitored and sediments were sampled during floods and low stage periods. Samples were measured for particle size distribution, and sediment tracing studies are currently being developed to quantify the contribution of potential sources (e.g. surface vs subsurface, lithologies) to river sediment. Hydro-sedimentary fluxes were quantified and modelled for some selected events. The catchment hydrosedimentary fluxes and their properties were shown to be impacted by tile drain sediment transport, especially regarding particle size distribution, with the dominant export of very fine particles (< 2 μm) from tile drains

  15. No-drain DIEP Flap Donor-site Closure Using Barbed Progressive Tension Sutures

    PubMed Central

    Nagarkar, Purushottam; Lakhiani, Chrisovalantis; Cheng, Angela; Lee, Michael; Teotia, Sumeet

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of progressive tension sutures has been shown to be comparable to the use of abdominal drains in abdominoplasty. However, the use of barbed progressive tension sutures (B-PTSs) in deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap donor-site closure has not been investigated. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on patients with DIEP flap reconstruction in a 3-year period at 2 institutions by 2 surgeons. Patients were compared by method of DIEP donor-site closure. Group 1 had barbed running progressive tension sutures without drain placement. Group 2 had interrupted progressive tension closure with abdominal drain placement (PTS-AD). Group 3 had closure with only abdominal drain placement (AD). Data collected included demographics, perioperative data, and postoperative outcomes. Results: Seventy-five patients underwent DIEP reconstruction (25 B-PTS, 25 PTS-AD, and 25 AD). Patient characteristics—age, body mass index, comorbidities, smoking status, and chemotherapy—were not significantly different between groups. Rate of seroma was 1.3% (B-PTS = 0%, PTS-AD = 4%, AD = 0%), wound dehiscence 16% (B-PTS = 8%, PTS-AD = 16%, AD = 24%), and umbilical necrosis 5.3% (B-PTS = 0%, PTS-AD = 0%, AD = 16%). No hematomas were observed in any patients. No statistically significant difference was found between complication rates across groups. Conclusions: Use of B-PTSs for abdominal closure after DIEP flap harvest can obviate the need for abdominal drains. Complication rates following this technique are not significantly different from closure using progressive tension suture and abdominal drain placement. This practice can prevent the use of abdominal drains, which can promote patient mobility, increase independence upon discharge, and contribute to patient satisfaction. PMID:27200234

  16. Impacts of drain blocking on the aquatic carbon export from a UK peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leith, Fraser; Dinsmore, Kerry; Carfrae, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Drainage ditches, which have historically been used across UK peatlands, provide a rapid pathway for carbon export between terrestrial and aquatic systems, potentially reducing or reversing the net uptake of carbon by peatlands. Currently, considerable investment is being made in Scotland to restore drained peatlands with the aim of raising water tables, restoring active vegetation cover, enhancing carbon uptake and reducing carbon losses via the aquatic pathway. However, monitoring of restoration and its impact is often restricted by a lack of pre-restoration data and typically does not cover the full range of fluvial carbon species. Drain blocking was carried out in March 2015 at the Auchencorth Moss peatland, SE Scotland, which has an extensive record of fluvial carbon measurements (from 2007 to present day). This study combines an intensive 12 month field monitoring campaign, during and after drain blocking works, with the long-term record to investigate the impacts of drain blocking on the dissolved and gaseous carbon export via the aquatic pathway. Post-restoration, concentrations and fluxes of all stream water dissolved and gaseous carbon species were in the range of values measured over the period 2007 to present; with no significant change in the 12 months post-restoration. The results from this study indicate that the drain blocking works did not have a significant impact on the concentration or speciation of carbon exported via the aquatic pathway which can be attributed to the largely overgrown nature of the drains and the large inter- and intra-annual variability in the system. This study raises questions on the suitability of some peatlands for drain blocking and the pre- and post-restoration monitoring required to accurately assess the impacts of peatland restoration activities.

  17. EuNiGe₃, an anisotropic antiferromagnet.

    PubMed

    Maurya, A; Bonville, P; Thamizhavel, A; Dhar, S K

    2014-05-28

    Single crystals of EuNiGe3, crystallizing in the non-centrosymmetric BaNiSn3-type structure, were grown using In flux, enabling us to explore the anisotropic magnetic properties, which was not possible with previously reported polycrystalline samples. The EuNiGe3 single crystalline sample is found to order antiferromagnetically at 13.2 K, as revealed from the magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity and electrical resistivity data. The low temperature magnetization M (H) is distinctly different for the field parallel to the ab-plane and c-axis; the ab-plane magnetization varies almost linearly with the field before the occurrence of an induced ferromagnetic (FM) phase (spin-flip) at 6.2 Tesla. On the other hand M (H) along the c-axis is accompanied by two metamagnetic transitions followed by a spin-flip at 4.1 T. A model including anisotropic exchange and dipole-dipole interactions reproduces the main features of magnetization plots but falls short of full representation. (H,T) phase diagrams have been constructed for the field applied along the principal directions. From the (151)Eu Mössbauer spectra, we determine that the 13.2 K transition leads to an incommensurate antiferromagnetic (AFM) intermediate phase followed by a transition near 10.5 K to a commensurate AFM configuration. PMID:24787717

  18. The blue-light emission enhancement mechanism of Eu 2+ in Eu, Dy: SiO 2 matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaoyun; Fan, Jun; Pan, Jing; Gao, Jianhua; Li, Ting; Zhang, Dekai; Zheng, Xinliang; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Enzhou

    2009-09-01

    A Eu, Dy co-doped SiO 2 matrix xerogel with blue emission was prepared by the sol-gel method. Strong blue emission located between 425 nm and 525 nm with a peak at 486 nm is observed under UV laser excitation at room temperature, which is related to a 4f → 5d energy transition of Eu 2+. Such techniques as FT-IR and TGA-DSC were used to measure the microstructure of the luminescent materials. The influence of Dy 3+ ions on the luminescent property of Eu 2+ was investigated. The emission intensity of Eu, Dy-codoped samples is stronger than that of Eu doped samples. The emission enhancement mechanism relating to Eu 2+ is attributed to an energy transfer involving Dy 3+ → Eu 2+. Using energy transition theory, we speculate that the mechanism may be one of the resonance transfers via multi-polar interactions, and present a possible energy transfer model. The Eu 2+ blue emission intensity reaches the maximum when the Dy 3+ concentration is 0.1 mol%. When the concentration of Dy 3+ is 0.3 mol%, a fluorescence quenching appears which might be related to the overlap part of Eu 2+ excitation and emission levels, and also suggests the existence of Eu 2+ → Eu 2+ energy transfer.

  19. On the Luminescence Enhancement of Mn2+ By Co-doping of Eu2+ in ZnS:Mn,Eu

    SciTech Connect

    Hossu, Marius; Schaeffer, Roger O.; Ma, Lun; Chen, Wei; Zhu, Yongbin; Sammynaiken, Ramaswami; Joly, Alan G.

    2013-06-01

    The photoluminescence and X-ray luminescence of ZnS:Mn, ZnS:Mn,Eu and ZnS:Eu were investigated and it was found that the luminescence intensity of Mn2+ in ZnS:Mn,Eu co-doped phosphors is highly dependent on the doping concentration of Eu2+. At the optimized Eu2+concentration (0.2%), the photoluminescence of Mn2+ shows about a 5.5 times enhancement and its X-ray luminescence is enhanced by a factor of 2.5. Both wurtzite and zinc blend phases are present in the samples with wurtzite phase dominant. Co-doping of Eu2+ into ZnS:Mn does not change appreciably the ratio of the two phases or the Mn2+ emission luminescence lifetime; however, the doping of Eu2+ into ZnS:Mn does change the phonon activity. Furthermore, it was found that the defect-related blue emission of ZnS:Eu overlaps with the excitation bands of Mn2+ in ZnS:Mn and there is likely energy transfer from these defect states to Mn2+ in ZnS:Mn,Eu. This energy transfer and the phonon modification are considered to be the two main reasons for the luminescence enhancement and the intensity dependence of Mn2+ emission on Eu2+ doping concentration in ZnS:Mn,Eu.

  20. Contribution of Eu ions on the precipitation of silver nanoparticles in Ag-Eu co-doped borate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Qing; Qiu, Jianbei; Zhou, Dacheng; Xu, Xuhui

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silver nanoparticles are precipitated from the borate glasses during the melting process without any further heat treatment. • The reduction of Eu{sup 3+} ions to Eu{sup 2+} ions is presented in this material. • The intensity of Ag{sup +} luminescence. • The introduction of Eu ions accelerated the reaction between Eu{sup 2+} ions and silver ions inducing the silver clusters formation. - Abstract: Ag{sup +} doped sodium borate glasses with different Eu ions concentration were prepared by the melt-quenching method. The absorption at about 410 nm which was caused by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) is promoted with increasing of Eu ions concentration. Meanwhile, the luminescent spectra showed that the emission intensity of Ag{sup +} decreased while that of the Ag aggregates increased simultaneously. The results indicated that the Ag ions intend to form the high-polymeric state such as Ag aggregates and nanoparticles with increasing of europium ions. Owing to the self-reduction of Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} in our glass system, it revealed that Ag{sup +} has been reduced by the neighboring Eu{sup 2+} which leads to the formation of Ag aggregates and the precipitation of Ag NPs in the matrix. In addition, energy transfer (ET) process from Ag{sup +}/Ag aggregates to the Eu{sup 3+} was investigated for the enhancement of Eu{sup 3+} luminescence.

  1. The Brains Behind the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Arcangelo, Marcia

    1998-01-01

    Interviews with five neuroscientists--Martin Diamond, Pat Wolfe, Robert Sylwester, Geoffrey Caine, and Eric Jensen--disclose brain-research findings of practical interest to educators. Topics include brain physiology, environmental enrichment, memorization, windows of learning opportunity, brain learning capacity, attention span, student interest,…

  2. Induced spin-polarization of EuS at room temperature in Ni/EuS multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Poulopoulos, P.; Goschew, A.; Straub, A.; Fumagalli, P.; Kapaklis, V.; Wolff, M.; Delimitis, A.; Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A.; Pappas, S. D.

    2014-03-17

    Ni/EuS multilayers with excellent multilayer sequencing are deposited via e-beam evaporation on the native oxide of Si(100) wafers at 4 × 10{sup −9} millibars. The samples have very small surface and interface roughness and show sharp interfaces. Ni layers are nanocrystalline 4–8 nm thick and EuS layers are 2–4 nm thick and are either amorphous or nanocrystalline. Unlike for Co/EuS multilayers, all Eu ions are in divalent (ferromagnetic) state. We show a direct antiferromagnetic coupling between EuS and Ni layers. At room temperature, the EuS layers are spin-polarized due to the proximity of Ni. Therefore, Ni/EuS is a candidate for room-temperature spintronics applications.

  3. Europium gallium garnet (Eu3Ga5O12) and Eu3GaO6: Synthesis and material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Kenji; Nakamura, Toshihiro; Adachi, Sadao

    2016-10-01

    Eu-Ga-O ternary compounds were synthesized from a mixture of cubic (c-) Eu2O3 and monoclinic Ga2O3 (β-Ga2O3) raw powders using the solid-state reaction method by calcination at Tc = 1200 °C. The structural and optical properties of the Eu-Ga-O ternary compounds were investigated using X-ray diffraction analysis, photoluminescence (PL) analysis, PL excitation (PLE) spectroscopy, and Raman scattering measurements. Stoichiometric compounds such as cubic Eu3Ga5O12 (EGG) and orthorhombic Eu3GaO6 were synthesized using molar ratios of x = 0.375 and 0.75 [x≡Eu2O3/(Eu2O3 + Ga2O3)], respectively, together with the end-point binary compounds β-Ga2O3 (x = 0) and monoclinic (m-) Eu2O3 (x = 1.0). The structural change from "cubic" to "monoclinic" in Eu2O3 is due to the structural phase transition occurring at Tc ≥ 1050 °C. In principle, the perovskite-type EuGaO3 and monoclinic Eu4Ga2O9 can also be synthesized at x = 0.5 and 0.667, respectively; however, such stoichiometric compounds could not be synthesized in this study. The PL and PLE properties of EGG and Eu3GaO6 were studied in detail. The temperature dependence of the PL spectra was observed through measurements carried out between T = 20 and 300 K and explained using a newly developed model. Raman scattering measurements were also performed on the Eu-Ga-O ternary systems over the entire composition range from x = 0 (β-Ga2O3) to 1.0 (m-Eu2O3).

  4. Posterior foss avenous angiomas with drainage through the brain stem

    SciTech Connect

    Damiano, T.R.; Truwit, C.L. ); Dowd, C.F. ); Symonds, D.L. )

    1994-04-01

    To describe 11 cases of posterior fossa venous angiomas with drainage through the brain stem. Eleven cases of posterior fossa venous angioma with drainage through the brain stem were evaluated using MR. Correlation with known routes of venous drainage for the cerebellum and brain stem is made. Six of the 11 venous angiomas were found in the cerebellum, four in the brain stem; one involved both the cerebellum and brain stem. The cerebellar venous angiomas drained to subependymal veins about the fourth ventricle and dorsal pons. These then connected with an enlarged transmesencephalic or transpontine vein, to drain anteriorly to the anterior pontine veins. The brain stem angiomas had variable drainage depending on location. Evidence of hemorrhage was seen in five cases. Cerebellar and brain stem venous angiomas have several potential routes of drainage, including an enlarged vein traversing the pons, midbrain, or medulla. A knowledge of the normal venous anatomy of this region helps to understand the occurrence of these uncommon routes of venous drainage. 15 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Dressings and drains in posterior spine surgery and their effect on wound complications.

    PubMed

    Andrew Glennie, R; Dea, Nicolas; Street, John T

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically search, critically appraise and summarize published randomized control trials (RCT) and non-RCT examining the effect of drains and dressings on wound healing rates and complications in posterior spine surgery. The use of post-operative drains and the type of post-operative dressing is at the discretion of the treating surgeon with no available clinical guidelines. Drains will theoretically decrease incidence of post-operative hematoma and therefore, potentially decrease the risk of neurologic compromise when the neural elements have been exposed. Occlusive dressings have more recently been advocated, potentially maintaining a sterile barrier for longer time periods post-operatively. A systematic review of databases from 1969-2013 was undertaken. All papers examining drains in spine surgery and dressings in primary healing of surgical wounds were included. Revman (version 5.2; The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK) was used to test for overall treatment effect, clinical heterogeneity and risk of bias. Of the papers identified, 1348 examined post-operative drains in spine surgery and 979 wound dressings for primary wound healing of all surgical wounds. Seven studies were included for analysis for post-operative drains and 10 studies were analyzed for primary wound healing. The use of a post-operative drain did not influence healing rates and had no effect secondarily on infection (odds ratio [OR] 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76-2.30). We were not able to establish whether surgical drains prevent hematomas causing neurologic compromise. There was a slight advantage to using occlusive dressings versus non-occlusive dressings in wound healing (OR 2.09; 95% CI 1.44-3.02). Incisional vacuum dressings as both an occlusive barrier and superficial drainage system have shown promise for wounds at risk of dehiscence. There is a relatively high risk of bias in the methodology of many of the

  6. Utilizing international medical graduates in health care delivery: brain drain, brain gain, or brain waste? A win-win approach at University of California, Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Patrick T; Bholat, Michelle Anne

    2012-12-01

    After identifying many unlicensed Hispanic international medical graduates (IMGs) legally residing in southern California, University of California, Los Angeles developed an innovative program to prepare these sidelined physicians to enter family medicine residency programs and become licensed physicians. On completion of a 3-year family medicine residency-training program, these IMGs have an obligation to practice in a federally designated underserved community in the state for 2 to 3 years. As the US health care system moves from physician-centered practices to patient-focused teams, with primary care serving as the foundation for building patient-centered medical homes, attention to educating IMGs in these concepts is crucial. PMID:23148957

  7. Utilizing international medical graduates in health care delivery: brain drain, brain gain, or brain waste? A win-win approach at University of California, Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Patrick T; Bholat, Michelle Anne

    2012-12-01

    After identifying many unlicensed Hispanic international medical graduates (IMGs) legally residing in southern California, University of California, Los Angeles developed an innovative program to prepare these sidelined physicians to enter family medicine residency programs and become licensed physicians. On completion of a 3-year family medicine residency-training program, these IMGs have an obligation to practice in a federally designated underserved community in the state for 2 to 3 years. As the US health care system moves from physician-centered practices to patient-focused teams, with primary care serving as the foundation for building patient-centered medical homes, attention to educating IMGs in these concepts is crucial.

  8. Cryogenic luminescence studies of Eu/sup 3 +/ in LiEuCl/sub 4/

    SciTech Connect

    Brittain, H.G.; Meyer, G.

    1985-09-01

    The luminescence associated with the Eu/sup 3 +/ ion in LiEuCl/sub 4/ has been studied at cryogenic temperatures under conditions of high resolution. Emission was observed to originate from both the /sup 5/D/sub 0/ an /sup 5/D/sub 1/ excited states, and transitions to the /sup 7/F/sub 0/, /sup 7/F/sub 1/, /sup 7/F/sub 2/, /sup 7/F/sub 3/, and /sup 7/F/sub 4/ ground levels were observed. The fine structure observed within these emission bands was found to be consistent with the existence of an effective D/sub 4/ site symmetry for the emitting Eu/sup 3 +/ species, even though the europium polyhedron was found to be that of a bisdisphenoid.

  9. Moessbauer effect in Eu and EuO to pressures of 31 GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    We report /sup 151/Eu Moessbauer Effect measurements on Eu metal in the range 4 < T < 300 K and P < 12.5 GPa and on EuO for P < 31 GPa. Hydrostatic pressures using argon as the pressurizing medium were obtained in a simple Merrill-Bassett-type diamond anvil cell. Pressures were measured by the ruby fluorescence method. The 160-mCi /sup 151/SmF/sub 3/ source and the absorbers were held at the same temperature. The small sample size (about 8 ..mu..g) and rather large source diameter necessitated counting times of about one day per datum. Raw f-values of about 15% near 100 K reflected the efficient collimation of the 90 Ta 10 W gasket used/1/. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Effects of groundwater pumping on agricultural drains in the Tule Lake subbasin, Oregon and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pischel, Esther M.; Gannett, Marshall W.

    2015-07-24

    To better define the effect of increased pumping on drain flow and on the water balance of the groundwater system, the annual water volume pumped from drains in three subareas of the Tule Lake subbasin was estimated and a fine-grid, local groundwater model of the Tule Lake subbasin was constructed. Results of the agricultural-drain flow analysis indicate that groundwater discharge to drains has decreased such that flows in 2012 were approximately 32,400 acre-ft less than the 1997–2000 average flow. This decrease was concentrated in the northern and southeastern parts of the subbasin, which corresponds with the areas of greatest groundwater pumping. Model simulation results of the Tule Lake subbasin groundwater model indicate that increased supplemental pumping is the dominant stress to the groundwater system in the subbasin. Simulated supplemental pumping and decreased recharge from irrigation between 2000 and 2010 totaled 323,573 acre-ft, 234,800 acre-ft (73 percent) of which was from supplemental pumping. The response of the groundwater system to this change in stress included about 180,500 acre-ft (56 percent) of decreased groundwater discharge to drains and a 126,000 acre-ft (39 percent) reduction in aquifer storage. The remaining 5 percent came from reduced groundwater flow to other model boundaries, including the Lost River, the Tule Lake sumps, and interbasin flow.

  11. DRAINING HAZARDOUS FLUIDS DURING BUILDING 221-1F DEACTIVATION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Musall, J.

    2010-05-11

    Several years ago, SRS completed a four year mission to decommission {approx}250 excess facilities. As part of that effort, SRS deactivated multiple facilities (e.g. Building 247-F, Naval Fuels Facility, and Building 211-F, Outside Facilities for F-Canyon) that contained extensive piping systems filled with hazardous material (e.g. nitric acid). Draining of hazardous materials from piping was successfully completed in all facilities without incident. In early 2009, the decommissioning program at SRS was restarted as a result of funding made available by the American Recovery & Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Under ARRA, draining of piping containing hazardous material was initiated in multiple facilities including Building 221-1F (or A-Line). This paper describes and reviews the draining of piping containing hazardous materials at A-Line, with emphasis on an incident involving the draining of nitric acid. The paper is intended to be a resource for engineers, planners, and project managers, who face similar draining challenges.

  12. Analytical solutions for flow fields near drain-and-gate reactive barriers.

    PubMed

    Klammler, Harald; Hatfield, Kirk; Kacimov, Anvar

    2010-01-01

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) are a popular technology for passive contaminant remediation in aquifers through installation of reactive materials in the pathway of a plume. Of fundamental importance are the degree of remediation inside the reactor (residence time) and the portion of groundwater intercepted by a PRB (capture width). Based on a two-dimensional conformal mapping approach (previously used in related work), the latter is studied in the present work for drain-and-gate (DG) PRBs, which may possess a collector and a distributor drain ("full" configuration) or a collector drain only ("simple" configuration). Inherent assumptions are a homogeneous unbounded aquifer with a uniform far field, in which highly permeable drains establish constant head boundaries. Solutions for aquifer flow fields in terms of the complex potential are derived, illustrated, and analyzed for doubly symmetric DG configurations and arbitrary reactor hydraulic resistance as well as ambient groundwater flow direction. A series of practitioner-friendly charts for capture width is given to assist in PRB design and optimization without requiring complex mathematics. DG PRBs are identified as more susceptible to flow divergence around the reactor than configurations using impermeable side structures (e.g., funnel-and-gate), and deployment of impermeable walls on drains is seen to mitigate this problem under certain circumstances.

  13. Biodegradation of wastewater of Najafgarh drain, Delhi using autochthonous microbial consortia : a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Garima; Mehra, N K; Kumar, Rita

    2002-10-01

    There are seventeen drains, which discharge their untreated urban and industrial wastewaters into the Delhi segment of river Yamuna. The Najafgarh drain is the first and the largest drain, and it alone contributes 1667.84 mld i.e. 60% of the total wastewater discharge into the river Yamuna and as such add 81.36 tons of BOD load per day. As per the available data approximately 95% of the wastewater of this drain is biodegradable. In the present study, an attempt has been made to reduce the BOD load and COD levels of wastewater of Najafgarh drain using autochthonous microbial consortium. During this study the raw wastewater samples were treated for 6 h time interval with different concentration of consortium. It was observed that by increasing the existing microbial population in the wastewater sample by 150-200% there is a significant decrease in BOD and COD levels. Finally, BOD/COD ratios before and after biotreatment have been analyzed to assess the efficacy of the natural consortium. PMID:12674375

  14. Water movement and isoproturon behaviour in a drained heavy clay soil: 1. Preferential flow processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haria, A. H.; Johnson, A. C.; Bell, J. P.; Batchelor, C. H.

    1994-12-01

    The processes and mechanisms that control pesticide transport from drained heavy clay catchments are being studied at Wytham Farm (Oxford University) in southern England. In the first field season field-drain water contained high concentrations of pesticide. Soil studies demonstrated that the main mechanism for pesticide translocation was by preferential flow processes, both over the soil surface and through the soil profile via a macropore system that effectively by-passed the soil matrix. This macropore system included worm holes, shrinkage cracks and cracks resulting from ploughing. Rainfall events in early winter rapidly created a layer of saturation in the A horizon perched above a B horizon of very low hydraulic conductivity. Drain flow was initiated when the saturated layer in the A horizon extended into the upper 0.06m of the soil profile; thereafter water moved down slope via horizontal macropores possibly through a band of incorporated straw residues. These horizontal pathways for water movement connected with the fracture system of the mole drains, thus feeding the drains. Overland flow occurred infrequently during the season.

  15. Microbial Characterization of Biofilms in Domestic Drains and the Establishment of Stable Biofilm Microcosms

    PubMed Central

    McBain, Andrew J.; Bartolo, Robert G.; Catrenich, Carl E.; Charbonneau, Duane; Ledder, Ruth G.; Rickard, Alexander H.; Symmons, Sharon A.; Gilbert, Peter

    2003-01-01

    We have used heterotrophic plate counts, together with live-dead direct staining and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), to characterize the eubacterial communities that had formed as biofilms within domestic sink drain outlets. Laboratory microcosms of these environments were established using excised biofilms from two separate drain biofilm samples to inoculate constant-depth film fermentors (CDFFs). Drain biofilms harbored 9.8 to 11.3 log10 cells of viable enteric species and pseudomonads/g, while CDFF-grown biofilms harbored 10.6 to 11.4 log10 cells/g. Since live-dead direct staining revealed various efficiencies of recovery by culture, samples were analyzed by DGGE, utilizing primers specific for the V2-V3 region of eubacterial 16S rDNA. These analyses showed that the major PCR amplicons from in situ material were represented in the microcosms and maintained there over extended periods. Sequencing of amplicons resolved by DGGE revealed that the biofilms were dominated by a small number of genera, which were also isolated by culture. One drain sample harbored the protozoan Colpoda maupasi, together with rhabtidid nematodes and bdelloid rotifers. The microcosm enables the maintenance of stable drain-type bacterial communities and represents a useful tool for the modeling of this ecosystem. PMID:12513993

  16. Effects of groundwater pumping on agricultural drains in the Tule Lake subbasin, Oregon and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pischel, Esther M.; Gannett, Marshall W.

    2015-01-01

    To better define the effect of increased pumping on drain flow and on the water balance of the groundwater system, the annual water volume pumped from drains in three subareas of the Tule Lake subbasin was estimated and a fine-grid, local groundwater model of the Tule Lake subbasin was constructed. Results of the agricultural-drain flow analysis indicate that groundwater discharge to drains has decreased such that flows in 2012 were approximately 32,400 acre-ft less than the 1997–2000 average flow. This decrease was concentrated in the northern and southeastern parts of the subbasin, which corresponds with the areas of greatest groundwater pumping. Model simulation results of the Tule Lake subbasin groundwater model indicate that increased supplemental pumping is the dominant stress to the groundwater system in the subbasin. Simulated supplemental pumping and decreased recharge from irrigation between 2000 and 2010 totaled 323,573 acre-ft, 234,800 acre-ft (73 percent) of which was from supplemental pumping. The response of the groundwater system to this change in stress included about 180,500 acre-ft (56 percent) of decreased groundwater discharge to drains and a 126,000 acre-ft (39 percent) reduction in aquifer storage. The remaining 5 percent came from reduced groundwater flow to other model boundaries, including the Lost River, the Tule Lake sumps, and interbasin flow.

  17. Biodegradation of wastewater of Najafgarh drain, Delhi using autochthonous microbial consortia : a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Garima; Mehra, N K; Kumar, Rita

    2002-10-01

    There are seventeen drains, which discharge their untreated urban and industrial wastewaters into the Delhi segment of river Yamuna. The Najafgarh drain is the first and the largest drain, and it alone contributes 1667.84 mld i.e. 60% of the total wastewater discharge into the river Yamuna and as such add 81.36 tons of BOD load per day. As per the available data approximately 95% of the wastewater of this drain is biodegradable. In the present study, an attempt has been made to reduce the BOD load and COD levels of wastewater of Najafgarh drain using autochthonous microbial consortium. During this study the raw wastewater samples were treated for 6 h time interval with different concentration of consortium. It was observed that by increasing the existing microbial population in the wastewater sample by 150-200% there is a significant decrease in BOD and COD levels. Finally, BOD/COD ratios before and after biotreatment have been analyzed to assess the efficacy of the natural consortium.

  18. Brain tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Black, K. L.; Mazziotta, J. C.; Becker, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in experimental tumor biology are being applied to critical clinical problems of primary brain tumors. The expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors, which are sparse in normal brain, is increased as much as 20-fold in brain tumors. Experimental studies show promise in using labeled ligands to these receptors to identify the outer margins of malignant brain tumors. Whereas positron emission tomography has improved the dynamic understanding of tumors, the labeled selective tumor receptors with positron emitters will enhance the ability to specifically diagnose and greatly aid in the pretreatment planning for tumors. Modulation of these receptors will also affect tumor growth and metabolism. Novel methods to deliver antitumor agents to the brain and new approaches using biologic response modifiers also hold promise to further improve the management of brain tumors. Images PMID:1848735

  19. Evidence of Eu{sup 2+} 4f electrons in the valence band spectra of EuTiO{sub 3} and EuZrO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Kolodiazhnyi, T.; Valant, M.; Williams, J. R.; Bugnet, M.; Botton, G. A.; Ohashi, N.; Sakka, Y.

    2012-10-15

    We report on optical band gap and valence electronic structure of two Eu{sup 2+}-based perovskites, EuTiO{sub 3} and EuZrO{sub 3} as revealed by diffuse optical scattering, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and valence-band x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The data show good agreement with the first-principles studies in which the top of the valence band structure is formed by the narrow Eu 4f{sup 7} electron band. The O 2p band shows the features similar to those of the Ba(Sr)TiO{sub 3} perovskites except that it is shifted to higher binding energies. Appearance of the Eu{sup 2+} 4f{sup 7} band is a reason for narrowing of the optical band gap in the title compounds as compared to their Sr-based analogues.

  20. Controlled synthesis of Eu2+ and Eu3+ doped ZnS quantum dots and their photovoltaic and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horoz, Sabit; Yakami, Baichhabi; Poudyal, Uma; Pikal, Jon M.; Wang, Wenyong; Tang, Jinke

    2016-04-01

    Eu-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) have been synthesized by wet-chemical method and found to form in zinc blende (cubic) structure. Both Eu2+ and Eu3+ doped ZnS can be controllably synthesized. The Eu2+ doped ZnS QDs show broad photoluminescence emission peak around 512 nm, which is from the Eu2+ intra-ion transition of 4f6d1 - 4f7, while the Eu3+ doped samples exhibit narrow emission lines characteristic of transitions between the 4f levels. The investigation of the magnetic properties shows that the Eu3+ doped samples exhibit signs of ferromagnetism, on the other hand, Eu2+ doped samples are paramagnetic of Curie-Weiss type. The incident photon to electron conversion efficiency is increased with the Eu doping, which suggests the QD solar cell efficiency can be enhanced by Eu doping due to widened absorption windows. This is an attractive approach to utilize benign and environmentally friendly wide band gap ZnS QDs in solar cell technology.

  1. Nitrogen and phosphorus loading from drained wetlands adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency lakes, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.; Morace, Jennifer L.

    1997-01-01

    The results of this study could be useful in helping to prioritize which drained wetlands may provide the greatest benefits with regard to reducing nutrient loads to the lake if restoration or land-use modifications are instituted. Recent acquisition and planned restoration of drained wetland areas at the Wood River and Williamson River North properties may produce significant reduction in the quantity of nutrients released by the decomposition of peat soils of these areas. If the water table rises to predrainage levels, the peats soils may become inundated most of the year, resulting in the continued long-term storage of nutrients within the peat soils by reducing aerobic decomposition. The maximum benefit, in terms of decreasing potential nutrient loss due to peat decomposition, could be the reduction of total nitrogen and total phosphorus loss to about one-half that of the 1994–95 annual loss estimated for all the drained wetlands sampled for this study.

  2. Novel Closing Method Using Subcutaneous Continuous Drain for Preventing Surgical Site Infections in Radical Cystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Yasuhiko; Ando, Ryosuke; Nakane, Akihiro; Etani, Toshiki; Iida, Keitaro; Akita, Hidetoshi; Okamura, Takehiko; Kohri, Kenjiro

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) after radical cystectomy, a new closing method using subcutaneous continuous aspiration drain was developed and compared to the conventional closing method. The new method involved (a) closed aspiration with an indwelling aspiration drain without suture of the subcutaneous fat and (b) covering with hydrocolloid wound dressing after suture of the dermis with 4-0 absorbable thread and reinforcement using strips. The incidence of SSI was significantly improved by using the new method. Furthermore, univariate and multivariate analysis associated with SSI revealed that the new closing method was statistically correlated with 85% reduction of SSI (odds ratio: 0.15, 95% confidence interval: 0.03–0.69).Our new method using continuous aspiration with subcutaneous drain is useful for preventing SSI through removal of effusions and reduction of dead space by apposition of the subcutaneous fat. PMID:24734201

  3. Characterization of septic and drain system releases at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, M.R.; Galloway, R.B. |

    1997-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is located in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The SNL/NM Environmental Restoration (ER) Project is tasked with performing the assessment and remediation of environmental releases resulting from the almost 50 years of engineering development and testing activities. Operable Unit 1295, Septic Tanks and Drainfields, includes inactive septic and drain systems at 23 separate ER sites that were listed as Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) in the SNL/NM Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) Module Permit. These sites were identified, based on process histories and interviews with facility personnel, as the subset of all SNL/NM septic and drain systems that had the highest potential for releases of hazardous and radioactive wastes into the environment. An additional 101 septic and drain systems not currently classified as SWMUs also have been identified as needing future characterization.

  4. Modeling the drain current and its equation parameters for lightly doped symmetrical double-gate MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhartia, Mini; Chatterjee, Arun Kumar

    2015-04-01

    A 2D model for the potential distribution in silicon film is derived for a symmetrical double gate MOSFET in weak inversion. This 2D potential distribution model is used to analytically derive an expression for the subthreshold slope and threshold voltage. A drain current model for lightly doped symmetrical DG MOSFETs is then presented by considering weak and strong inversion regions including short channel effects, series source to drain resistance and channel length modulation parameters. These derived models are compared with the simulation results of the SILVACO (Atlas) tool for different channel lengths and silicon film thicknesses. Lastly, the effect of the fixed oxide charge on the drain current model has been studied through simulation. It is observed that the obtained analytical models of symmetrical double gate MOSFETs are in good agreement with the simulated results for a channel length to silicon film thickness ratio greater than or equal to 2.

  5. Endoscopic placement of pancreatic stents and drains in the management of pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Kozarek, R A; Patterson, D J; Ball, T J; Traverso, L W

    1989-01-01

    Although widely used in the biliary tree, little data is available on endoscopic placement of stents or drains within the pancreas. This report describes 17 patients, nine with acute relapsing pancreatitis and eight with chronic pancreatitis, who had drain or stent placement for hypertensive pancreatic duct (PD) sphincter, dominant ductal stenosis, duct disruption, or pseudocyst. Two patients have subsequently undergone surgery, and six other patients continue long-term stent placement with marked reduction of chronic pain or attacks of recurrent pancreatitis. All six pseudocysts resolved, although one recurred and required surgery. It is concluded that pancreatic drains or stents may obviate the need for surgery, temporize before definitive therapy, or direct a subsequent surgical procedure. Images Figs. 1A and B. Figs. 2A-C. Figs. 2A-C. Fig. 3. Figs. 4A-D. Figs. 5A and B. PMID:2923512

  6. EFFECTS OF DRAIN ENVELOPE AND SLOPE ON PERFORMANCE OF A DRAINAGE-SUBIRRIGATION SYSTEM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davenport, Marjorie S.; Skaggs, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    A field study was conducted to determine the effect of fabric wrap envelope and drain slope on the performance of a combination drainage and subirrigation system. Data were analyzed by examining relationships between flow rate and midpoint water table elevations. An entry resistance was defined and its value for each pair of 9,100 data points for drain flow rate versus water table elevation midway between the drains. Analyses were conducted to determine if the entry resistance changed with time after the drainage system was installed. Results of the study showed that the effect of slope and envelope on drainage and subirrigation varied somewhat depending on field location. However, an analysis of the data led to conclusions that the paper discusses.

  7. Eu oxidation state in fluorozirconate-based glass ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Henke, B.; Paßlick, C.; Keil, P.; Johnson, J. A.; Schweizer, S.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of InF3 doping and remelting on Eu-doped fluorozirconate-based glass ceramics was investigated using near-edge x-ray absorption and optical spectroscopy. It was found that the addition of InF3 to the melt decreases the Eu2+∕Eu3+ mole ratio, while remelting leads to a significant change in the Eu2+∕Eu3+ ratio in favor of Eu2+. Photoluminescence spectroscopy shows that additional annealing steps lead to the formation of BaCl2 nanoparticles in the glass. In as-made glass ceramics containing InF3, a phase transition of the nanoparticles from hexagonal to orthorhombic structure is observed. This phase transition is not observed in the remelted glasses studied here. PMID:20057931

  8. Eu oxidation state in fluorozirconate-based glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Henke, B.; Passlick, C.; Keil, P.; Johnson, J. A.; Schweizer, S.

    2009-12-01

    The influence of InF{sub 3} doping and remelting on Eu-doped fluorozirconate-based glass ceramics was investigated using near-edge x-ray absorption and optical spectroscopy. It was found that the addition of InF{sub 3} to the melt decreases the Eu{sup 2+}/Eu{sup 3+} mole ratio, while remelting leads to a significant change in the Eu{sup 2+}/Eu{sup 3+} ratio in favor of Eu{sup 2+}. Photoluminescence spectroscopy shows that additional annealing steps lead to the formation of BaCl{sub 2} nanoparticles in the glass. In as-made glass ceramics containing InF{sub 3}, a phase transition of the nanoparticles from hexagonal to orthorhombic structure is observed. This phase transition is not observed in the remelted glasses studied here.

  9. Large magnetocaloric effect in sintered ferromagnetic EuS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koichi; Li, Liang; Hirai, Shinji; Nakamura, Eiji; Murayama, Daiki; Ura, Yutaro; Abe, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    We present magnetocaloric effect measurements of the ferromagnetic semiconductor EuS in the vicinity of its ordering temperature. Single phase EuS powder was synthesized by CS2 gas sulfurization of Eu2O3. A sintered compact with relative density over 95% was prepared by pulsed electric current sintering of the powder. Temperature and magnetic field dependence of the magnetization and specific heat were characteristic of a paramagnetic to ferromagnetic second order phase transition. The entropy change induced by an external magnetic field and the specific heat were both close to those of a single crystal. We obtained an entropy-temperature (S-T) diagram of the EuS sintered compact. Carnot cycle liquefaction of hydrogen using EuS was compared with several other materials, with results indicating that sintered EuS is an excellent magnetic refrigerant for hydrogen liquefaction.

  10. In-Situ Measurement of Vertical Bypass Flow Using a Drain Gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, W. L.; Brooks, E. S.; Sanchez-Murillo, R.

    2012-12-01

    With widespread technological advances in precision fertilizer application in agricultural production there is an increasing need to better understand the subsurface transport and vertical leaching of nitrate fertilizers. Optimizing fertilizer application reduces cost to the grower and improves downstream water supplies. In-situ measurement of nitrate flux is difficult and expensive. In this experiment nitrate transport was measured using a passive capillary drain gauge developed by Decagon Devices in Pullman, WA. The drain gauge measures water flux from a 30 cm diameter soil core 60 cm in length. In this study the drain gauge was installed 0.9 m to 1.5 m below the soil surface in a no-till field in cereal grain production. A potassium bromide tracer was applied using a rainfall simulator over a 5 day period to the drain gage roughly one year following installation of the drain gauge and approximately 3 months after being seeded to spring wheat. Bromide tracer movement was compared to measurements of stable oxygen/hydrogen isotopes, and nitrate in the leachate and from soil water extracted within the soil profile using suction lysimeters. Significant preferential flow occurred during the experiment. Vertical leaching initiated at the 1.5 m depth at a time when the wetting front had just reached the 0.3 cm depth. By the time the wetting front had reached a 1.5 m depth, 18 kg/ha of nitrogen fertilizer had leached beyond the root zone. Once the wetting front reached 1.5 m bromide and stable isotope data indicated that 60% of the total flow occurred through macropore flow. Stable isotope measurements responded similarly to the electrical conductivity and nitrate measurements suggesting their potential use as a groundwater tracer. The nitrate leaching observed in the drain gauge would not have been accounted for if soil moisture measurements alone were used to indicate potential nitrate transport.

  11. Surgical drain after open or laparoscopic splenectomy: is it needed or contraindicated?

    PubMed Central

    VECCHIO, R.; INTAGLIATA, E.; MARCHESE, S.; BATTAGLIA, S.; CACCIOLA, R.R.; CACCIOLA, E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Authors report their experience with the routine use of surgical drainage in a large series of splenectomies. Summary of background data Benefits and risks related to surgical drains have been always discussed, with some surgeons in favor of them and skeptic others considering not physiological their use. After splenectomy, their use is also largely debated, especially because of susceptibility of operated patients to infections. Patients and methods Two thousand nine cases have been reviewed. Indications for splenectomy, performed either by open or laparoscopic approach, included idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in 137 patients (65,4%), splenic lymphoma in 36 (17,2%), hereditary spherocytosis in 15 (7,4%), β-thalassemia in 8 (3,7%), other diseases in 13 (6,1%). Results “Active” or “passive” drains were placed in 80% and 20% of cases, respectively. Drains were removed 2–3 days after surgery in 90,2%, within 10 days in 4,3%, within 2 months in 0,4% of cases. In 2 cases a post-operative bleeding, detected through the drainage, required re-operation. One patient developed a subphrenic abscess, successfully treated by a percutaneous drainage. One case of pancreatic fistula was observed. Conclusions In Authors’ experience, the use of drains after splenectomy does not affect the risk of subsequent infectious complications, independently on the type of the drainage system used. Early removal of drains in this series might have played an important role in the very low incidence of abdominal infections reported. The use of surgical drains after splenectomy might play an important role to early detect post-operative bleeding, as it happened in 2 cases of this series. PMID:26188753

  12. Using MODFLOW drains to simulate groundwater flow in a karst environment

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, J.; Tomasko, D.; Glennon, M.A.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1998-07-01

    Modeling groundwater flow in a karst environment is both numerically challenging and highly uncertain because of potentially complex flowpaths and a lack of site-specific information. This study presents the results of MODFLOW numerical modeling in which drain cells in a finite-difference model are used as analogs for preferential flowpaths or conduits in karst environments. In this study, conduits in mixed-flow systems are simulated by assigning connected pathways of drain cells from the locations of tracer releases, sinkholes, or other karst features to outlet springs along inferred flowpaths. These paths are determined by the locations of losing stream segments, ephemeral stream beds, geophysical surveys, fracture lineaments, or other surficial characteristics, combined with the results of dye traces. The elevations of the drains at the discharge ends of the inferred flowpaths are estimated from field data and are adjusted when necessary during model calibration. To simulate flow in a free-flowing conduit, a high conductance is assigned to each drain to eliminate the need for drain-specific information that would be very difficult to obtain. Calculations were performed for a site near Hohenfels, Germany. The potentiometric surface produced by the simulations agreed well with field data. The head contours in the vicinity of the karst features behaved in a manner consistent with a flow system having both diffuse and conduit components, and the sum of the volumetric flow out of the drain cells agreed closely with spring discharges and stream flows. Because of the success of this approach, it is recommended for regional studies in which little site-specific information (e.g., location, number, size, and conductivity of fractures and conduits) is available, and general flow characteristics are desired.

  13. The hydrology of a drained topographical depression within an agricutlural field in north-central Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roth, Jason L.; Capel, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    North-central Iowa is an agriculturally intensive area comprising the southeastern portion of the Prairie Pothole Region, a landscape containing a high density of enclosed topographical depressions. Artificial drainage practices have been implemented throughout the area to facilitate agricultural production. Vertical surface drains are utilized to drain the topographical depressions that accumulate water. This study focuses on the hydrology of a drained topographical depression located in a 39.5 ha agricultural field. To assess the hydrology of the drained depression, a water balance was constructed for 11 ponding events during the 2008 growing season. Continuous pond and groundwater level data were obtained with pressure transducers. Flows into the vertical surface drain were calculated based on pond depth. Precipitation inflows and evaporative outflows of the ponds were calculated using climatic data. Groundwater levels were used to assess groundwater/pond interactions. Results of the water balances show distinct differences between the inflows to and outflows from the depression based on antecedent conditions. In wet conditions, groundwater inflow sustained the ponds. The ponds receded only after the groundwater level declined to below the land surface. In drier conditions, groundwater was not a source of water to the depression. During these drier conditions, infiltration comprised 30% of the outflows from the depression during declining pond stages. Over the entire study period, the surface drain, delivering water to the stream, was the largest outflow from the pond, accounting for 97% of the outflow, while evapotranspiration was just 2%. Precipitation onto the pond surface proved to be a minor component, accounting for 4% of the total inflows.

  14. The Structure of the EU Mediasphere

    PubMed Central

    Flaounas, Ilias; Turchi, Marco; Ali, Omar; Fyson, Nick; De Bie, Tijl; Mosdell, Nick; Lewis, Justin; Cristianini, Nello

    2010-01-01

    Background A trend towards automation of scientific research has recently resulted in what has been termed “data-driven inquiry” in various disciplines, including physics and biology. The automation of many tasks has been identified as a possible future also for the humanities and the social sciences, particularly in those disciplines concerned with the analysis of text, due to the recent availability of millions of books and news articles in digital format. In the social sciences, the analysis of news media is done largely by hand and in a hypothesis-driven fashion: the scholar needs to formulate a very specific assumption about the patterns that might be in the data, and then set out to verify if they are present or not. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we report what we think is the first large scale content-analysis of cross-linguistic text in the social sciences, by using various artificial intelligence techniques. We analyse 1.3 M news articles in 22 languages detecting a clear structure in the choice of stories covered by the various outlets. This is significantly affected by objective national, geographic, economic and cultural relations among outlets and countries, e.g., outlets from countries sharing strong economic ties are more likely to cover the same stories. We also show that the deviation from average content is significantly correlated with membership to the eurozone, as well as with the year of accession to the EU. Conclusions/Significance While independently making a multitude of small editorial decisions, the leading media of the 27 EU countries, over a period of six months, shaped the contents of the EU mediasphere in a way that reflects its deep geographic, economic and cultural relations. Detecting these subtle signals in a statistically rigorous way would be out of the reach of traditional methods. This analysis demonstrates the power of the available methods for significant automation of media content analysis. PMID

  15. A new drain current model for amorphous IGZO thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Lei; Yao, Ruo-He

    2015-04-01

    Based on the conduction mechanisms of amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin film transistors, generalized equations are derived which permit the determination of drain current characteristics. A geometry-independent definition for field effect mobility considering the ratio of free-to-trapped carriers is introduced, which conveys the properties of the active semiconducting layer. It is suggested that a drain current model that includes different charge transports gives a consistent and accurate description of the electrical behavior. The good agreement between measured and calculated results confirms the efficiency of this model for the design of integrated large-area thin-film circuits.

  16. Internal combuston engine having separated cylinder head oil drains and crankcase ventilation passages

    DOEpatents

    Boggs, David Lee; Baraszu, Daniel James; Foulkes, David Mark; Gomes, Enio Goyannes

    1998-01-01

    An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine's crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages.

  17. Liquid hydrogen suction dip and slosh wave excitation during draining under normal and reduced gravity environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Shyu, K. L.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the dynamical behavior of vapor ingestion, liquid residual at the incipience of suction dip, slosh wave excitation under normal and reduced gravity and different flow rates during liquid hydrogen draining. Liquid residuals at the incipience of suction dip increase as the values of gravity decrease. Also liquid residuals increase with the draining flow rates. Lower ratio of Bond number and Weber number are unable to excite slosh waves. Lower flow rates and higher gravity excites waves with lower frequencies and higher wave amplitude slosh waves.

  18. Internal combuston engine having separated cylinder head oil drains and crankcase ventilation passages

    DOEpatents

    Boggs, D.L.; Baraszu, D.J.; Foulkes, D.M.; Gomes, E.G.

    1998-12-29

    An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine`s crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages. 4 figs.

  19. Optical properties of Eu{sup 2+}/Eu{sup 3+} mixed valence, silicon nitride based materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kate, Otmar M. ten; Vranken, Thomas; Kolk, Erik van der; Jansen, Antonius P.J.; Hintzen, Hubertus T.

    2014-05-01

    Eu{sub 2}SiN{sub 3}, a mixed valence europium nitridosilicate, has been prepared via solid-state reaction synthesis and its oxidation behavior and optical properties have been determined. Furthermore, the stability of several isostructural compounds of the type M{sup 2+}L{sup 3+}SiN{sub 3} has been predicted by using the density functional theory calculations, and verified by the actual synthesis of CaLaSiN{sub 3}, CaEuSiN{sub 3} and EuLaSiN{sub 3}. The band gap of CaLaSiN{sub 3} was found around 3.2 eV giving the material its yellow color. Eu{sub 2}SiN{sub 3} on the other hand is black due to a combination of the 4f–5d absorption band of Eu{sup 2+} and the charge transfer band of Eu{sup 3+}. Thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopic study of Eu{sub 2}SiN{sub 3} revealed that oxidation of this compound in dry air takes place via a nitrogen retention complex. - Graphical abstract: Energy level scheme of Eu{sub 2}SiN{sub 3} showing the occupied N{sup 3−} 2p band (blue rectangle), unoccupied Eu{sup 2+} 5d band (white rectangle), occupied Eu{sup 2+} 4f ground states (filled red circles) and unoccupied Eu{sup 2+} ground states (open red circles). - Highlights: • Density functional theory calculations on the stability of M{sup 2+}L{sup 3+}SiN{sub 3} compounds. • Solid-state reaction synthesis of Eu{sub 2}SiN{sub 3}, CaLaSiN{sub 3}, EuLaSiN{sub 3} and CaEuSiN{sub 3}. • Determination of the Eu{sup 2+} 4f–5d and Eu{sup 3+} CT transitions in M{sup 2+}L{sup 3+}SiN{sub 3} compounds. • Oxidation of Eu{sub 2}SiN{sub 3} in dry air takes place via a nitrogen retention complex.

  20. The magnetic structure of EuCu2Sb2

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ryan, D. H.; Cadogan, J. M.; Anand, V. K.; Johnston, D. C.; Flacau, R.

    2015-05-06

    Antiferromagnetic ordering of EuCu2Sb2 which forms in the tetragonal CaBe2Ge2-type structure (space group P4/nmm #129) has been studied using neutron powder diffraction and 151Eu Mössbauer spectroscopy. The room temperature 151Eu isomer shift of –12.8(1) mm/s shows the Eu to be divalent, while the 151Eu hyperfine magnetic field (Bhf) reaches 28.7(2) T at 2.1 K, indicating a full Eu2+ magnetic moment. Bhf(T) follows a smoothmore » $$S=\\frac{7}{2}$$ Brillouin function and yields an ordering temperature of 5.1(1) K. Refinement of the neutron diffraction data reveals a collinear A-type antiferromagnetic arrangement with the Eu moments perpendicular to the tetragonal c-axis. As a result, the refined Eu magnetic moment at 0.4 K is 7.08(15) μB which is the full free-ion moment expected for the Eu2+ ion with $$S=\\frac{7}{2}$$ and a spectroscopic splitting factor of g = 2.« less

  1. Exploring growth conditions and Eu2+ concentration effects for KSr2I5:Eu scintillator crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stand, L.; Zhuravleva, M.; Camarda, G.; Lindsey, A.; Johnson, J.; Hobbs, C.; Melcher, C. L.

    2016-04-01

    Our current research is focused on understanding dopant optimization, growth rate, homogeneity and their impact on the overall performance of KSr2I5:Eu2+ single crystal scintillators. In this work we have investigated the effects of Eu2+ concentration in the potassium strontium iodide matrix, and we found that the concentration needed to maximize the light yield was 4 mol%. In order to assess the effects of the pulling rate, we grew single crystals at 12, 24 and 120 mm/day via the vertical Bridgman technique. For the sample sizes measured (5×5×5 mm3), we found that the crystal grown at the fastest rate of 120 mm/day showed a light yield within ~7% of the more slowly grown boules, and no significant change was observed in the energy resolution. Therefore, light yields from 88,000 to 96,000 ph/MeV and energy resolutions from 2.4 to 3.0% (at 662 keV) were measured for KSr2I5:Eu 4% over a relatively wide range of growth conditions. In order to assess the homogeneity of KSr2I5:Eu 4%, a newly developed micro-resolution X-ray technique was used to map the light yield as a function of excitation position. In the crystals that we studied, we did not observe any significant inhomogeneity other than a smooth gradient due to light collection and self absorption effects.

  2. Breakthrough of two pesticides into tile drain and shallow groundwater: comparison of tile drain reaction and soil profiles within a field scale irrigation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, Julian; Zehe, Erwin; Elsner, Martin; Palm, Juliane; Schneider, Dorothee; Schröder, Boris; Steinbeiss, Sibylle; West, Stephanie

    2010-05-01

    Preferential flow in macropores is a key process which strongly affects infiltration and may cause rapid transport of pesticides into depths of 80 to 150 cm. At these depths they experience a much slower degradation, may leach into shallow groundwater or enter a tile-drain and are transported into surface water bodies. Therefore, preferential transport might be an environmental problem, if the topsoil is bypassed, which has been originally thought to act as a filter to protect the subsoil and shallow groundwater. To investigate the behaviour of two pesticides with different chemical characteristics and to compare their transport behaviour in soil and into the tile drain an irrigation experiment was performed on a 400 m² field site. The experimental plot is located in the Weiherbach valley, south-west Germany, which basic geology consists of Loess and Keuper layers, the soil at the test site is a gleyic Colluvisol. The distance of the irrigation site to the Weiherbach brook is approximately 12 m, the field is drained with a tile-drain in about 1.2 m depth and shows discharge over the entire year. Three hours before the irrigation started, the farmer applied a pesticide solution consisting of Isoproturon (80 g) and Flufenacet (20 g) (IPU and FLU) according to conventional agricultural practice on the field plot. The irrigation took place in three time blocks (80 min, 60 min, 80 min) with in total 33.6 mm of precipitation. During the first block 1600 g of Bromide were mixed in the irrigation water. The drainage outlet was instrumented with a pressure probe. About 50 water samples ware taken during the experimental day, and several samples more the days after the experiment. They were analysed for the pesticides, bromide and water isotopes. In the two days after the experiment three soil profiles were excavated and soil samples were taken on a 10x10 cm² scheme. One week after the experiment two additional profiles were excavated. The soil was analysed for IPU, FLU

  3. EVALUATION OF FABRIC MEMBRANES FOR USE IN SALTSTONE DRAIN WATER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Pickenheim, B.; Miller, D.; Burket, P.

    2012-03-08

    Saltstone Disposal Unit 2 contains a sheet drain fabric intended to separate solids from drain water to be returned to the Salt Feed Tank. A similar system installed in Vault 4 appears to be ineffective in keeping solids out of the drain water return lines. Waste Solidification Engineering is considering installation of an additional fabric membrane to supplement the existing sheet drain in SDU 2. Amerdrain 200 is the product currently installed in SDU 2. This product is no longer available, so Sitedrain 94 was used as the replacement product in this testing. Fabrics with apparent opening sizes of 10, 25, 50 and 100 microns were evaluated. These fabrics were evaluated under three separate test conditions, a water flow test, a solids retention test and a grout pour test. A flow test with water showed that installation of an additional filter layer will predictably reduce the theoretical flux through the sheet drain. The manufacturer reports the flux for Sitedrain 94 as 150 gpm/ft{sup 2} by ASTM D-4491. This compares reasonably well with the 117 gpm/ft{sup 2} obtained in this testing. A combination of the 10 micron fabric with Sitedrain 94 could be expected to decrease flux by about 10 times as compared to Sitedrain 94 alone. The different media were used to filter a slag and fly ash mixture from water. Slag historically has the smallest nominal particle size of the premix components. Cement was omitted from the test because of its reactivity with water would prohibit accurately particle size measurements of the filtered samples. All four media sizes were able to remove greater than 95% of particles larger than 100 microns from the slurry. The smaller opening sizes were increasingly effective in removing more particles. The 10 micron filter captured 15% of the total amount of solids used in the test. This result implies that some insoluble particles may still be able to enter the drain water collection system, although the overall solids rejection is significantly

  4. DETERMINATION OF LIQUID FILM THICKNESS FOLLOWING DRAINING OF CONTACTORS, VESSELS, AND PIPES IN THE MCU PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M; Fernando Fondeur, F; Samuel Fink, S

    2006-06-06

    The Department of Energy (DOE) identified the caustic side solvent extraction (CSSX) process as the preferred technology to remove cesium from radioactive waste solutions at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As a result, Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) began designing and building a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) in the SRS tank farm to process liquid waste for an interim period until the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) begins operations. Both the solvent and the strip effluent streams could contain high concentrations of cesium which must be removed from the contactors, process tanks, and piping prior to performing contactor maintenance. When these vessels are drained, thin films or drops will remain on the equipment walls. Following draining, the vessels will be flushed with water and drained to remove the flush water. The draining reduces the cesium concentration in the vessels by reducing the volume of cesium-containing material. The flushing, and subsequent draining, reduces the cesium in the vessels by diluting the cesium that remains in the film or drops on the vessel walls. MCU personnel requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers conduct a literature search to identify models to calculate the thickness of the liquid films remaining in the contactors, process tanks, and piping following draining of salt solution, solvent, and strip solution. The conclusions from this work are: (1) The predicted film thickness of the strip effluent is 0.010 mm on vertical walls, 0.57 mm on horizontal walls and 0.081 mm in horizontal pipes. (2) The predicted film thickness of the salt solution is 0.015 mm on vertical walls, 0.74 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.106 mm in horizontal pipes. (3) The predicted film thickness of the solvent is 0.022 mm on vertical walls, 0.91 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.13 mm in horizontal pipes. (4) The calculated film volume following draining is: (a) Salt solution receipt tank--1.6 gallons; (b) Salt solution feed

  5. Luminescence properties of dual valence Eu doped nano-crystalline BaF2 embedded glass-ceramics and observation of Eu2+ → Eu3+ energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Kaushik; Sontakke, Atul D; Sen, R; Annapurna, K

    2012-03-01

    Europium doped glass-ceramics containing BaF(2) nano-crystals have been prepared by using the controlled crystallization of melt-quenched glasses. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy have confirmed the presence of cubic BaF(2) nano-crystalline phase in glass matrix in the ceramized samples. Incorporation of rare earth ions into the formed crystalline phase having low phonon energy of 346 cm(-1) has been demonstrated from the emission spectra of Eu(3+) ions showing the transitions from upper excitation states (5)D(J) (J = 1, 2, and 3) to ground states for the glass-ceramics samples. The presence of divalent europium ions in glass and glass-ceramics samples is confirmed from the dominant blue emission corresponding to its 5d-4f transition under an excitation of 300 nm. Increase in the reduction of trivalent europium (Eu(3+)) ions to divalent (Eu(2+)) with the extent of ceramization is explained by charge compensation model based on substitution defect mechanisms. Further, the phenomenon of energy transfer from Eu(2+) to Eu(3+) ion by radiative trapping or re-absorption is evidenced which increases with the degree of ceramization. For the first time, the reduction of Eu(3+) to Eu(2+) under normal air atmospheric condition has been observed in a BaF(2) containing oxyfluoride glass-ceramics system.

  6. [Brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Brennum, Jannick; Kosteljanetz, Michael; Roed, Henrik Michael H

    2002-07-01

    The incidence of symptomatic brain metastases in Denmark is about 3500. In the present review, the aetiology, symptomatology, and diagnostic procedures are described. The main topic is a review of current treatments and the evidence for their efficacy. Treatment of brain metastases rarely cures the patient, the goal is rather to improve the quality of life and prolong survival. Without treatment, the median survival following diagnosis of brain metastases is about one month, with steroid treatment two months, with whole brain irradiation four to six months, and after surgery or stereotactic radiosurgery 10-12 months. A relatively simple treatment scheme based on the number of brain metastases and the overall condition of the patient is provided.

  7. Brain peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Trompier, D; Vejux, A; Zarrouk, A; Gondcaille, C; Geillon, F; Nury, T; Savary, S; Lizard, G

    2014-03-01

    Peroxisomes are essential organelles in higher eukaryotes as they play a major role in numerous metabolic pathways and redox homeostasis. Some peroxisomal abnormalities, which are often not compatible with life or normal development, were identified in severe demyelinating and neurodegenerative brain diseases. The metabolic roles of peroxisomes, especially in the brain, are described and human brain peroxisomal disorders resulting from a peroxisome biogenesis or a single peroxisomal enzyme defect are listed. The brain abnormalities encountered in these disorders (demyelination, oxidative stress, inflammation, cell death, neuronal migration, differentiation) are described and their pathogenesis are discussed. Finally, the contribution of peroxisomal dysfunctions to the alterations of brain functions during aging and to the development of Alzheimer's disease is considered.

  8. Diabetes device reimbursement in the EU-5.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Elmar; Schnell, Gerald; Bobáková, Tamara

    2013-07-01

    The reimbursement landscape for new and innovative diabetes devices in Europe is very heterogeneous and nontransparent, with each country employing different mechanisms, pathways, and requirements. This article provides an overview of how diabetes device reimbursement works in the outpatient setting in the five major European Union markets (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom; the EU-5). It will be of particular interest to manufacturers of innovative devices. Markets are first categorized as either a centralized or a regionalized reimbursement decision-making system, and implications for device reimbursement are explored. In the second part, specific requirements and success factors for wide reimbursement in the EU-5 are analyzed in detail. Gaining early acceptance by the main influencers (key opinion leaders and payers) is the first step. Equally important is the provision of convincing evidence, be this clinical, health-economic (cost-effectiveness), or a demonstration of cost savings (budget impact). In some countries, local usage data may be a requirement as well. Lastly, as payers' willingness to pay stems directly from their perceived value of a device, a key success factor and a necessary precondition for manufacturers is to set the right price. PMID:23911192

  9. 7 CFR 58.425 - Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese. 58.425 Section 58.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... cheese. The conveyor shall be constructed so that it will not contaminate the cheese and be...

  10. 7 CFR 58.425 - Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese. 58.425 Section 58.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... cheese. The conveyor shall be constructed so that it will not contaminate the cheese and be...

  11. 7 CFR 58.425 - Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese. 58.425 Section 58.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... cheese. The conveyor shall be constructed so that it will not contaminate the cheese and be...

  12. 7 CFR 58.425 - Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese. 58.425 Section 58.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... cheese. The conveyor shall be constructed so that it will not contaminate the cheese and be...

  13. 7 CFR 58.425 - Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese. 58.425 Section 58.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... cheese. The conveyor shall be constructed so that it will not contaminate the cheese and be...

  14. Thermal-fluid analysis of the fill and drain operations of a cryrogenic fuel tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Craig A.; Hanna, Gregory J.; Gong, Leslie

    1993-01-01

    The Generic Research Cryogenic Tank was designed to establish techniques for testing and analyzing the behavior of reusable fuel tank structures subjected to cryogenic fuels and aerodynamic heating. The Generic Research Cryogenic Tank tests will consist of filling a pressure vessel to a prescribed fill level, waiting for steady-state conditions, then draining the liquid while heating the external surface to simulate the thermal environment associated with hypersonic flight. Initial tests of the Generic Research Cryogenic Tank will use liquid nitrogen with future tests requiring liquid hydrogen. Two-dimensional finite-difference thermal-fluid models were developed for analyzing the behavior of the Generic Research Cryogenic Tank during fill and drain operations. The development and results of the two-dimensional fill and drain models, using liquid nitrogen, are provided, along with results and discussion on extrapolating the model results to the operation of the full-size Generic Research Cryogenic Tank. These numerical models provided a means to predict the behavior of the Generic Research Cryogenic Tank during testing and to define the requirements for the Generic Research Cryogenic Tank support systems such as vent, drain, pressurization, and instrumentation systems. In addition, the fill model provided insight into the unexpected role of circumferential conduction in cooling the Generic Research Cryogenic Tank pressure vessel during fill operations.

  15. Genome sequence of Clostridium tunisiense TJ, isolated from drain sediment from a pesticide factory.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lili; Wang, Yu; Yu, Chunyan; Zhao, Yongqin; Gan, Yinbo

    2012-12-01

    Clostridium tunisiense is a Gram-positive, obligate anaerobe that was first isolated in an anaerobic environment under eutrophication. Here we report the first genome sequence of the Clostridium tunisiense TJ isolated from drain sediment of a pesticide factory in Tianjin, China. The genome is of great importance for both basic and application research. PMID:23209212

  16. An analysis of molten-corium-induced failure of drain pipes in BWR Mark 2 containments

    SciTech Connect

    Taleyarkhan, R.P. ); Podowski, M.Z. )

    1991-01-01

    This study has focused on mechanistic simulation and analysis of potential failure modes for inpedestal drywell drain pipes in the Limerick boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark 2 containment. Physical phenomena related to surface tension breakdown, heatup, melting, ablation, crust formation and failure, and core material relocation into drain pipes with simultaneous melting of pipe walls were modeled and analyzed. The results of analysis have been used to assess the possibility of drain pipe failure and the resultant loss of pressure-suppression capability. Estimates have been made for the timing and amount of molten corium released to the wetwell. The study has revealed that significantly different melt progression sequences can result depending upon the failure characteristics of the frozen metallic crust which forms over the drain cover during the initial stages of debris pour. Another important result is that it can take several days for the molten fuel to ablate the frozen metallic debris layer -- if the frozen layer has cooled below 1100 K before fuel attack. 10 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Strain relaxation in transistor channels with embedded epitaxial silicon germanium source/drain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. P.; Li, K.; Pandey, S. M.; Benistant, F. L.; See, A.; Zhou, M. S.; Hsia, L. C.; Schampers, Ruud; Klenov, Dmitri O.

    2008-12-01

    We report on the channel strain relaxation in transistors with embedded silicon germanium layer selectively grown in source and drain areas on recessed Si(001). Nanobeam electron diffraction is used to characterize the local strain in the device channel. Our results show that strain is reduced in the device channel regions after implantation and thermal anneal.

  18. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL PATTERNS OF METHANE EMISSIONS FROM A RESERVOIR DRAINING AN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHED (abstract)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used multiple approaches to characterize temporal and spatial patterns in methane (CH4) emissions from a mid-latitude reservoir (William H. Harsha Lake, Ohio, USA) draining an agricultural watershed. Weekly to monthly monitoring at six sites in the reservoir during a 13 month...

  19. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL PATTERNS OF METHANE EMISSIONS FROM A RESERVOIR DRAINING AN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used multiple approaches to characterize temporal and spatial patterns in methane (CH4) emissions from a mid-latitude reservoir (William H. Harsha Lake, Ohio, USA) draining an agricultural watershed. Weekly to monthly monitoring at six sites in the reservoir during a 13 month...

  20. Genome sequence of Clostridium tunisiense TJ, isolated from drain sediment from a pesticide factory.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lili; Wang, Yu; Yu, Chunyan; Zhao, Yongqin; Gan, Yinbo

    2012-12-01

    Clostridium tunisiense is a Gram-positive, obligate anaerobe that was first isolated in an anaerobic environment under eutrophication. Here we report the first genome sequence of the Clostridium tunisiense TJ isolated from drain sediment of a pesticide factory in Tianjin, China. The genome is of great importance for both basic and application research.

  1. Compositional and functional stability of aerobic methane consuming communities in drained and rewetted peat meadows.

    PubMed

    Krause, Sascha; Niklaus, Pascal A; Badwan Morcillo, Sara; Meima Franke, Marion; Lüke, Claudia; Reim, Andreas; Bodelier, Paul L E

    2015-11-01

    The restoration of peatlands is an important strategy to counteract subsidence and loss of biodiversity. However, responses of important microbial soil processes are poorly understood. We assessed functioning, diversity and spatial organization of methanotrophic communities in drained and rewetted peat meadows with different water table management and agricultural practice. Results show that the methanotrophic diversity was similar between drained and rewetted sites with a remarkable dominance of the genus Methylocystis. Enzyme kinetics depicted no major differences, indicating flexibility in the methane (CH4) concentrations that can be used by the methanotrophic community. Short-term flooding led to temporary elevated CH4 emission but to neither major changes in abundances of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) nor major changes in CH4 consumption kinetics in drained agriculturally used peat meadows. Radiolabeling and autoradiographic imaging of intact soil cores revealed a markedly different spatial arrangement of the CH4 consuming zone in cores exposed to near-atmospheric and elevated CH4. The observed spatial patterns of CH4 consumption in drained peat meadows with and without short-term flooding highlighted the spatial complexity and responsiveness of the CH4 consuming zone upon environmental change. The methanotrophic microbial community is not generally altered and harbors MOB that can cover a large range of CH4 concentrations offered due to water-table fluctuations, effectively mitigating CH4 emissions.

  2. Verifiable metamodels for nitrate losses to drains and groundwater in the corn belt, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metamodels (MMs) consisting of artificial neural networks were developed to simplify and upscale mechanistic fate and transport models for prediction of nitrate losses to drains and groundwater in the Corn Belt, USA. The two final MMs predicted nitrate concentration and flux, respectively, in the sh...

  3. Duodenal diversion of percutaneous biliary drain through a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Mohandas, K M; Swaroop, V S; Desai, D C; Nagral, A; Jagannath, P; Desouza, L J; Kamble, M

    1991-10-01

    Occasionally, percutaneous biliary drainage is the only possible form of treatment in a patient with a malignant obstruction at the porta hepatis. We report on a case of gallbladder carcinoma with a complete block at the porta hepatis, which was palliated with a percutaneous biliary drain. Enteral reinfusion of bile was accomplished through a duodenal tube placed through a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.

  4. Fontal Sinus Mucocele Manifests as Persistent Draining Abscess of Upper Eyelid.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, John D; Behrens, Alice; Salter, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Paranasal sinus mucocele and pyomucocele have a wide spectrum of symptomology and chronicity of clinical manifestations. We present a case of a 52-y/o previously healthy homeless male that presented with a 2-week history of a non-tender, persistently draining upper eyelid abscess, and 1-year history of nonspecific change of general appearance to his left eye.

  5. 76 FR 62605 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable Drain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... (76 FR 47436), we published a final rule to incorporate into our regulations ANSI/APSP-16 2011 as the... issued a final interpretive rule in the Federal Register (75 FR 21985) interpreting ``unblockable drain... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1450 Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of...

  6. 75 FR 21985 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable Drain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... a notice in the Federal Register (74 FR 54301) announcing that it would be conducting a public... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1450 Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable... ``unblockable drain'' as used in the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act (``VGB Act''). DATES:...

  7. Phosphorous and Greenhouse Gas Dynamics in Drained Calcareous Wetland Soils of Minnesota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A freshwater marsh, created about one hundred years ago by artificially draining a 105-ha shallow lake (Rice Lake), is a suspected source of phosphorus (P) to the Detroit Lake watershed, a major recreational destination for northwestern Minnesota. P loadings to the main drainage canal increase durin...

  8. 40 CFR 63.136 - Process wastewater provisions-individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-individual drain systems. 63.136 Section 63.136 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... indicating positive flow from a main to a branch water line supplying a trap or water being...

  9. Modeling the impact of nitrogen fertilizer application and tile drain configuration on nitrate leaching using SWAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was revised to improve the partitioning of runoff and tile drainage in poorly drained soils by modifying the algorithm for computing the soil moisture retention parameter. In this study, the revised SWAT model was used to evaluate the sensitivity a...

  10. Iatrogenic pseudoaneurysm of the middle meningeal artery after external ventricular drain placement.

    PubMed

    Grandhi, Ramesh; Zwagerman, Nathan T; Lee, Philip; Jovin, Tudor; Okonkwo, David O

    2015-01-01

    External ventricular drain (EVD) placement is often a routine but lifesaving neurosurgical procedure performed throughout the world. Misadventures involving the procedure are well documented throughout the literature. However, we present a unique case of middle meningeal artery pseudoaneurysm formation after EVD placement not before described and provide a review of the literature.

  11. Applicability of models to predict phosphorus losses in drained fields: A review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most phosphorus (P) modeling studies of water quality have focused on surface runoff loses. However, a growing number of experimental studies have shown that P loses can occur in drainage water from artificially drained fields. In this review paper, we assess the applicability of nine models to pred...

  12. State of science of phosphorus modeling in tile drained agricultural systems using APEX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus losses through tile drained systems in agricultural landscapes may be causing the persistent eutrophication problems observed in surface water. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the state of the science in the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model related to surf...

  13. A Physical Model for Shallow Groundwater Studies and the Simulation of Land Drain Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Robert; Reid, Ian

    1987-01-01

    Describes a two-dimensional sand-tank model that illustrates the influence of ground slope on tile drain discharge and the movement of groundwater in general. The model can be used to demonstrate the effect of topography on sub-surface water movement in agricultural catchments, thus it is a useful hydrological teaching aid. (Author/BSR)

  14. A Rare Cause of Jaundice Following Cholecystectomy: Compression by the Silicon Drain

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Fevzi; Yakan, Savas; Ustuner, Mehmet Akif; Senlikci, Abdullah; Ilhan, Enver

    2012-01-01

    Jaundice that develops following laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a troublesome experience for the surgeon which requires invasive management after a challenging diagnosis period. Jaundice is. We aimed to present our experience with a rare complication of jaundice in a patient that occurred due to the compression of an isolated drain without choledoc canal injury. A 63-year-old female patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to symptomatic gallstone. The patient developed post-operative jaundice which was detected by upper abdominal magnetic resonance (MR) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) to result from compression by the silicon drain on main hepatic canal. The patient was discharged upon removal of the silicon drain with recovery in biochemical and radiological parameters. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first to report jaundice developing due to extrahepatic bile duct obstruction caused by isolated drain compression. Although this rare complication can be diagnosed by radiological workup and managed by simple surgical intervention, we believe that it requires consideration among other possible complications during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  15. Flexible stainless steel hose liner used to rehab drain pipe for seal gates and outlet tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, S.J.; Monsanto, R. )

    1993-08-01

    Not unlike other dams, the Bureau of Reclamation's 6,500-MW Grand Coulee Dam in Washington State has a large amount of embedded piping, conduits, and drains. Typically, these features were constructed of ductile iron, cast iron, or carbon steel materials. Over the years, excessive internal corrosion of the drains for 102-inch ring seal gates and outlet tubes created leaks that required attention. Reclamation performed a number of temporary repairs before it became evident that the drain system must be rehabilitated. After considering several alternatives for rehabilitation, Reclamation selected stainless steel flexible hose liners for the job. Reclamation is satisfied with the performance of the stainless steel flexible hose liner. The total cost for installing the liners for nine drain lines (for three outlet tubes) was $15,000. Of that, materials cost $7,500, and labor and overhead cost $7,500. The inserts themselves cost from $640 for an 18-foot by 6-inch section. While this was not the least expensive option, it was the best choice for this job. The procedure will be repeated for other outlet tubes at Grand Coulee. Information used in this rehabilitation is being made available to other Reclamation projects.

  16. Corn stover harvest increases herbicide movement to subsurface drains – Root Zone Water Quality Model simulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Removal of crop residues for bioenergy production can alter soil hydrologic properties, but there is little information on its impact on transport of herbicides and their degradation products to subsurface drains. The Root Zone Water Quality Model, previously calibrated using measured fl...

  17. Effects of a legal drain clean-out on wetlands and waterbirds: a recent case history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, Gary L.

    1996-01-01

    Repairs to legal drains in the United States may be regulated to protect adjacent wetlands under Section 404 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, commonly known as the Clean Water Act (CWA). However, few studies have examined effects of legal drain clean-outs on adjacent wetlands and associated migratory waterbird populations. I compare water regimes, cover-to-open water ratios, and waterbird use on Bruns, Big, Meszaros, and Kraft sloughs (BBMK) in Sargent County, North Dakota before and after the clean-out of Crete-Cogswell Drain No. 11, and relate wetland habitat loss to observed disease-related mortality among staging waterfowl in fall 1990 and spring 1991. Water regimes of BBMK were exceptionally stable, with few records of drawdowns before 1984 when the clean-out began. After the clean-out (1987-90), BBM were dry by mid-summer in all years and open area declined by 96% by 1990, whereas Kraft Slough (a control area) had water throughout all years and percent open area did not change. Numerous species of waterbirds nested in BBMK before the clean-out, and mean ranks of waterbird density were similar. After the clean-out, waterbirds failed to breed successfully in all years at BBM, and use as major waterfowl staging areas and for waterfowl hunting also ended. At Kraft Slough, use by breeding and staging waterbirds continued in all years, as did waterfowl hunting. Reduced access to fresh water after the Drain No. 11 clean-out may have contributed to a dieoff of 487 lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens) from necrotic enteritis in Kraft Slough in November 1990. Loss of three major staging areas in Sargent County as a result of the drain clean-out has further concentrated migrant waterfowl, particularly during drought periods, increasing the magnitude of risk when epizootics occur in southeastern North Dakota. Ducks and geese banded in Sargent County have been recovered from 34 and 14 states, 7 and 6 provinces of Canada, and 13 and 1 other countries

  18. Drain Tank Information for Developing Design Basis of the Preliminary Design

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, Juan J

    2012-02-01

    Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) drain tanks (DTs) serve two functions: normal operation and safety operation. Normal DTs are used for regular maintenance operations when draining is necessary. Safety DTs are used to receive the water leaked into the Vacuum Vessel (VV) after an in-vessel loss of coolant accident (LOCA) event. The preliminary design of the DTs shall be based on the information provided by this document. The capacity of the normal DTs is estimated based on the internal volume of in-vessel components [e.g., First Wall/Blanket (FW/BLK) and Divertor (DIV)]; Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) components; and TCWS piping, heat exchangers, electric heaters, pump casing, pressurizers, and valves. Water volumes have been updated based on 2004-design information, changes adopted because of approved Project Change Requests (PCRs), and data verification by US ITER and AREVA Federal Services, the US ITER A and E Company. Two tanks will store water from normal draining operations of the FW/BLK and DIV Primary Heat Transfer Systems (PHTSs). One tank will store water from normal draining operations of the NBI PHTS. The capacity of the safety DTs is based on analysis of a design basis accident: a large leak from in-vessel components. There are two safety DTs that will receive water from a VV LOCA event and drainage from the VV, as needed. In addition, there is one sump tank for the DIV that will be used for collecting drain water from the draining and drying processes and specifically for draining the DIV system as the DIV cassette lines are at a lower elevation than the DT connection point. Information documented in this report must be refined and verified during the preliminary design of the DTs, and there are several aspects to be considered to complete the preliminary design. Input to these design considerations is discussed in this report and includes, but is not limited to, water inventory; operating procedures/maintenance; Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA

  19. Drain Tank Information for Developing Design Basis of the Preliminary Design - R00

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, Juan J

    2011-01-01

    Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) drain tanks (DTs) serve two functions: normal operation and safety operation. Normal DTs are used for regular maintenance operations when draining is necessary. Safety DTs are used to receive the water leaked into the Vacuum Vessel (VV) after an in-vessel loss of cooling accident (LOCA) event. The preliminary design of the DTs shall be based on the information provided by this document. The capacity of the normal DTs is estimated based on the internal volume of in-vessel components [e.g., First Wall/Blanket (FW/BLK) and Divertor (DIV)], Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) components, and TCWS piping, heat exchangers, electric heaters, pump casing, pressurizers, and valves. Water volumes have been updated based on 2004 design information, changes adopted because of approved Project Change Requests (PCRs), and data verification by U.S. ITER. Two tanks will store water from normal draining operations of the FW/BLK and DIV Primary Heat Transfer Systems (PHTSs). One tank will store water from normal draining operations of the NBI PHTS. The capacity of the safety DTs is based on analysis of a design-basis accident:1 a large leak from in-vessel components. There are two safety DTs that will receive water from a VV LOCA event and drainage from the VV, as needed. In addition, there is one sump tank for the DIV that will be used for collecting drain water from the draining and drying processes and specifically for draining the DIV system as the DIV cassettes lines are at a lower elevation than the DT connection point. Information documented in this report must be refined and verified during the preliminary design of the DTs, and there are several aspects to be considered to complete the preliminary design. Input to these design considerations is discussed in this report and includes, but is not limited to, water inventory; operating procedures/maintenance; Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA); tank layout anddimensions, including design

  20. Brain investigation and brain conceptualization

    PubMed Central

    Redolfi, Alberto; Bosco, Paolo; Manset, David; Frisoni, Giovanni B.

    Summary The brain of a patient with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) undergoes changes starting many years before the development of the first clinical symptoms. The recent availability of large prospective datasets makes it possible to create sophisticated brain models of healthy subjects and patients with AD, showing pathophysiological changes occurring over time. However, these models are still inadequate; representations are mainly single-scale and they do not account for the complexity and interdependence of brain changes. Brain changes in AD patients occur at different levels and for different reasons: at the molecular level, changes are due to amyloid deposition; at cellular level, to loss of neuron synapses, and at tissue level, to connectivity disruption. All cause extensive atrophy of the whole brain organ. Initiatives aiming to model the whole human brain have been launched in Europe and the US with the goal of reducing the burden of brain diseases. In this work, we describe a new approach to earlier diagnosis based on a multimodal and multiscale brain concept, built upon existing and well-characterized single modalities. PMID:24139654

  1. Transport modes and pathways of the strongly sorbing pesticides glyphosate and pendimethalin through structured drained soils.

    PubMed

    Kjær, Jeanne; Ernsten, Vibeke; Jacobsen, Ole H; Hansen, Nis; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen; Olsen, Preben

    2011-07-01

    Leaching of the strongly sorbing pesticides glyphosate and pendimethalin was evaluated in an 8-month field study focussing on preferential flow and particle-facilitated transport, both of which may enhance the leaching of such pesticides in structured soils. Glyphosate mainly sorbs to mineral sorption sites, while pendimethalin mainly sorbs to organic sorption sites. The two pesticides were applied in equal dosage to a structured, tile-drained soil, and the concentration of the pesticides was then measured in drainage water sampled flow-proportionally. The leaching pattern of glyphosate resembled that of pendimethalin, suggesting that the leaching potential of pesticides sorbed to either the inorganic or organic soil fractions is high in structured soils. Both glyphosate and pendimethalin leached from the root zone, with the average concentration in the drainage water being 3.5 and 2.7 μg L(-1), respectively. Particle-facilitated transport (particles >0.24 μm) accounted for only a small proportion of the observed leaching (13-16% for glyphosate and 16-31% for pendimethalin). Drain-connected macropores located above or in the vicinity of the drains facilitated very rapid transport of pesticide to the drains. That the concentration of glyphosate and pendimethalin in the drainage water remained high (>0.1 μg L(-1)) for up to 7d after a precipitation event indicates that macropores between the drains connected to underlying fractures were able to transport strongly sorbing pesticides in the dissolved phase. Lateral transport of dissolved pesticide via such discontinuities implies that strongly sorbing pesticides such as glyphosate and pendimethalin could potentially be present in high concentrations (>0.1 μg L(-1)) in both water originating from the drainage system and the shallow groundwater located at the depth of the drainage system. PMID:21481435

  2. Measurement and simulation of subsurface tracer migration to tile drains in low permeability, macroporous soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Joshua M.; Callaghan, Michael V.; Cey, Edwin E.; Bentley, Larry R.

    2015-06-01

    Multiyear monitoring and simulation of a conservative tracer was used in this study to investigate preferential flow and macropore-matrix interactions in low permeability, macroporous soil. 2,6-Difluorobenzoic acid (DFBA) tracer was applied to a 20 × 20 m drip irrigated test plot situated over two tile drains. Tracer movement over the 2009 and 2010 field seasons was monitored using tile drain effluent, suction lysimeters, monitoring wells, and soil cores. Despite similar volumes of water application to the plot in each season, 10 times more water and 14 times more DFBA were captured by the drains in 2010 due to wetter regional hydrologic conditions. The importance of preferential flow along macropores was shown by rapid DFBA breakthrough to the tile (<47 h), and DFBA detections in sand units below the tile drains. Preferential flow resulted in less than 8% of the DFBA mass being captured by the tiles over both years. With much of the DFBA mass (75%) retained in the upper 0.25 m of the soil at the end of 2009, numerical simulations were used to quantify the migration of this in situ tracer during the subsequent 2010 field season. Dual permeability and dual porosity models produced similar matches to measured tile drain flows and concentrations, but solute leaching was captured more effectively by the dual permeability formulation. The simulations highlighted limitations in current descriptions for small-scale mass transfer between matrix and macropore domains, which do not consider time-dependent transfer coefficients or nonuniform distributions of solute mass within soil matrix blocks.

  3. Reach-scale geomorphic differences between headwater streams draining mountaintop mined and unmined catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Kristin L.

    2015-05-01

    Mountaintop surface mining (MTM) is a controversial coal extraction method commonly practiced in the central and southern Appalachian Mountains, USA, that drastically reengineers previously steep, forested landscapes and alters sediment and water delivery processes to and along headwater channels draining mined areas. Although sediment delivery and hydrologic response from MTM operations remain highly variable and poorly resolved, the inherent close coupling between hillslopes and headwater channels is expected to result in geomorphic differences in stream channels draining MTM landscapes relative to unmined landscapes. Dedicated geomorphic studies are severely lacking in comparison to extensive research on water quality impacts of MTM. This study reports moderate geomorphic differences between headwater (catchment area <~ 6 km2) stream channels draining MTM and unmined catchments in tributaries of the Mud River in southern West Virginia. Univariate and multivariate analyses indicate that MTM streams are characterized by deeper maximum channel depths, smaller width-to-depth ratios, increased bedrock exposure along the streambed, and increased frequency of very fine silt and sand deposition relative to channels draining unmined catchments. Geomorphic differences are most pronounced for streams draining the smallest catchment areas (< 3.5 km2). Collectively, geomorphic differences provide evidence for relatively rapid channel adjustment of accelerated bedrock incision attributed to potential increased hydraulic driving forces and altered sediment regimes in MTM channels, notably sustained delivery of very fine sediment and potentially reduced coarse sediment delivery. More rapid delivery and transfer of water in addition to excess delivery of very fine sediments to and through headwater channels will have consequences to flooding and water quality in the short term and landscape evolution processes over longer time scales. Given the extent of MTM operations in this

  4. Rapid digestion of shredded MSW by sequentially flooding and draining small landfill cells.

    PubMed

    Clarke, William P; Xie, Sihuang; Patel, Miheka

    2016-09-01

    This paper compares the digestion of a packed bed of shredded municipal waste using a flood and drain regime against a control digestion of similarly prepared material using a trickle flow regime. All trials were performed on shallow (2m) beds of the sub-8cm fraction of shredded mixed MSW, encapsulated in a polyethylene bladder. The control cell (Cell 1) was loaded with 1974 tonnes shredded municipal waste and produced 76±9m(3) CH4dryt(-1) (45±2m(3) CH4 'as received't(-1)) over 200days in response to a daily recirculation of the leachate inventory which was maintained at 60m(3). The flood and drain operation was performed on two co-located cells (Cell 2 and Cell 3) that were loaded simultaneously with 1026 and 915 tonnes of the sub-8cm fraction of shredded mixed MSW, with a third empty cell used as a reservoir for 275m(3) of mature landfill leachate. Cell 2 was first digested in isolation by flooding and draining once per week to avoid excessive souring. Gas production from Cell 2 peaked and declined to a steady residual level in 150days. Cell 3 was flooded and drained for the first time 186days after the commencement of Cell 2, using the same inventory of leachate which was now exchanged between the cells, such that each cell was flooded and drained twice per week. Biogas production from Cell 3 commenced immediately with flooding, peaking and reducing to a residual level within 100days. The average CH4 yield from Cells 2 and 3 was 123±15m(3)dryt(-1) (92±2m(3) 'as received't(-1), equal to 95% of the long term (2month) BMP yield.

  5. Nitrate and Pesticide Transport From Tile-Drained Fields in the Willamette Valley, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, K. L.; Rupp, D. E.; Selker, J. S.; Dragila, M. I.; Peachey, R. E.

    2002-12-01

    Tile drainage affects the hydrology and thus the solute transport on agricultural fields by increasing the volume of water that drains from the subsurface. Previous NAWQA studies have shown elevated nitrate levels in wells and high detection frequencies for selected pesticides in Willamette Valley streams. As a substantial area of Willamette Valley agricultural land is tile-drained, it is important to determine the role of tile drains in surface water and ground water pollution. Four fields in the Willamette Valley were instrumented to monitor tile effluent for two winter seasons. On two fields, surface runoff was also monitored for the second season. Field areas ranged from 3 to 30 acres and were cropped in grass, corn, or a grass/corn rotation. Tile effluent nitrate concentrations frequently exceeded 10 ppm on some fields. Flow-weighted averages for each field were 0.87 ppm and 1.36 ppm for two established grass fields, and 8.1 ppm and 14.4 ppm for grass fields that had recently grown corn. Mass losses ranged from 1.15%-6.45% of the applied nitrate through the tile drains. Diuron, Metolachlor, and Chlorpyrifos were tested in selected surface runoff and tile effluent samples. On one field, Metolachlor concentrations were similar in the tile drains and surface runoff. Concentrations in both sources were 10 times lower than the drinking water advisory for Metolachlor. In a second field, Chlorpyrifos concentrations were two orders of magnitude lower than drinking water advisories in both sources. On the same field, Diuron concentrations were significantly higher in the surface runoff than in the tile effluent. Diuron concentrations were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher during the first precipitation events after application in the surface runoff. On a third field, Diuron was at least 10 times lower than drinking water advisories in the tile effluent, with the highest concentrations found in samples collected within 21 days of pesticide application.

  6. Transport modes and pathways of the strongly sorbing pesticides glyphosate and pendimethalin through structured drained soils.

    PubMed

    Kjær, Jeanne; Ernsten, Vibeke; Jacobsen, Ole H; Hansen, Nis; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen; Olsen, Preben

    2011-07-01

    Leaching of the strongly sorbing pesticides glyphosate and pendimethalin was evaluated in an 8-month field study focussing on preferential flow and particle-facilitated transport, both of which may enhance the leaching of such pesticides in structured soils. Glyphosate mainly sorbs to mineral sorption sites, while pendimethalin mainly sorbs to organic sorption sites. The two pesticides were applied in equal dosage to a structured, tile-drained soil, and the concentration of the pesticides was then measured in drainage water sampled flow-proportionally. The leaching pattern of glyphosate resembled that of pendimethalin, suggesting that the leaching potential of pesticides sorbed to either the inorganic or organic soil fractions is high in structured soils. Both glyphosate and pendimethalin leached from the root zone, with the average concentration in the drainage water being 3.5 and 2.7 μg L(-1), respectively. Particle-facilitated transport (particles >0.24 μm) accounted for only a small proportion of the observed leaching (13-16% for glyphosate and 16-31% for pendimethalin). Drain-connected macropores located above or in the vicinity of the drains facilitated very rapid transport of pesticide to the drains. That the concentration of glyphosate and pendimethalin in the drainage water remained high (>0.1 μg L(-1)) for up to 7d after a precipitation event indicates that macropores between the drains connected to underlying fractures were able to transport strongly sorbing pesticides in the dissolved phase. Lateral transport of dissolved pesticide via such discontinuities implies that strongly sorbing pesticides such as glyphosate and pendimethalin could potentially be present in high concentrations (>0.1 μg L(-1)) in both water originating from the drainage system and the shallow groundwater located at the depth of the drainage system.

  7. Infiltration measurements and modeling in a soil-vertical drain system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammecker, Claude; Siltecho, Siwaporn; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael; Lassabatere, Laurent; Robain, Henri; Winiarski, Thierry; Trelo-ges, Vidaya; Suvannang, Nopmanee

    2016-04-01

    Severe water logging problems occur in rubber tree plantations in NE Thailand during the rainy season and create adverse conditions for the development of the trees. Moreover this situation contributes to a waste of scarce rainfall and reduce it's efficiency, as 50% is lost by hypodermic water flow and superficial runoff. The presence of a clayey layer at 1m depth with low permeability, hindering the water infiltration that led to the occurrence of a perched water table. In order to drawdown the water level of the perched water table and to increase the efficiency of the rainfall by storing water in the underlying bedrock a vertical drainage system was developed. In order to test the feasibility of this solution we chose to use the numerical modelling of water flow in soil and to test different set-ups (size and spacing between the drains). The objective of this study was to characterise the hydraulic properties and of the soil-drain system in a rubber tree plantation. Therefore an experiment was set up in rubber tree plantation at Ban Non Tun, Khon Kaen Province (Northeast of Thailand). Infiltration experiments around the vertical drains with single ring of 1m diameter, were conducted in three different locations to measure infiltration rate. The infiltration experiments were also monitored with two complementary geophysical methods (ERT and GPR) to asses the progression ans at the geometry of the wetting front. The model Hydrus2D was used to adjust the computed infiltration curves and water level in the drain to the experimental data, by fitting effective unsaturated hydrodynamic parameters for the drain. These parameters were used to calibrate the model and to perform further predictive numerical simulations.

  8. Using stable isotope tracers to assess flow pathways for P transport in tile-drained landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. R.; King, K.; Ford, W. I., III; Buda, A. R.; Kennedy, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the Midwestern US and other poorly drained agricultural regions, phosphorus (P) transport in tile drainage is of increasing environmental concern. Significant P loads are often measured in subsurface drainage water despite the normally high P adsorption capacity of subsoils, which suggest that the high P loadings observed in tile drainage water during storm events are the result of P bypassing the soil matrix via macropore flow. The objectives of this study were to quantify event water delivery to tile drains via macropore flow paths during storm events and to determine the effect of tillage practices on event water and P delivery to tiles. Tile discharge, total dissolved P (DP) and total P (TP) concentrations, and stable oxygen and deuterium isotopic signatures were measured from two adjacent tile-drained fields in Ohio, USA during seven spring storms. Fertilizer was surface-applied to both fields and disk tillage was used to incorporate the fertilizer on one field while the other remained in no-till. Results showed that event water accounted for between 26 and 69% of total tile discharge from both fields, with tillage substantially reducing the maximum contributions of event water. Following fertilizer application, median DP concentration was significantly greater in the no-tilled fields (1.19 mg/L) compared to the tilled field (0.66 mg/L). Concentrations remained significantly greater in the no-tilled field compared to the tilled field for the five monitored storms (>1 month) after fertilizer application. Both DP and TP concentrations in the no-tilled fields were significantly related to event water contributions to tile discharge, while only TP concentration was significantly related to event water in the tilled field. Collectively, results suggest that macropore flow is an important flow pathway in tile-drained landscapes and that incorporating surface-applied fertilizers has the potential to substantially reduce the risk of P loss from tile-drained

  9. Rapid digestion of shredded MSW by sequentially flooding and draining small landfill cells.

    PubMed

    Clarke, William P; Xie, Sihuang; Patel, Miheka

    2016-09-01

    This paper compares the digestion of a packed bed of shredded municipal waste using a flood and drain regime against a control digestion of similarly prepared material using a trickle flow regime. All trials were performed on shallow (2m) beds of the sub-8cm fraction of shredded mixed MSW, encapsulated in a polyethylene bladder. The control cell (Cell 1) was loaded with 1974 tonnes shredded municipal waste and produced 76±9m(3) CH4dryt(-1) (45±2m(3) CH4 'as received't(-1)) over 200days in response to a daily recirculation of the leachate inventory which was maintained at 60m(3). The flood and drain operation was performed on two co-located cells (Cell 2 and Cell 3) that were loaded simultaneously with 1026 and 915 tonnes of the sub-8cm fraction of shredded mixed MSW, with a third empty cell used as a reservoir for 275m(3) of mature landfill leachate. Cell 2 was first digested in isolation by flooding and draining once per week to avoid excessive souring. Gas production from Cell 2 peaked and declined to a steady residual level in 150days. Cell 3 was flooded and drained for the first time 186days after the commencement of Cell 2, using the same inventory of leachate which was now exchanged between the cells, such that each cell was flooded and drained twice per week. Biogas production from Cell 3 commenced immediately with flooding, peaking and reducing to a residual level within 100days. The average CH4 yield from Cells 2 and 3 was 123±15m(3)dryt(-1) (92±2m(3) 'as received't(-1), equal to 95% of the long term (2month) BMP yield. PMID:26718389

  10. Evapotranspiration from drained wetlands with different hydrologic regimes: Drivers, modeling, and storage functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chin-Lung; Shukla, Sanjay; Shrestha, Niroj K.

    2016-07-01

    We tested whether the current understanding of insignificant effect of drainage on evapotranspiration (ET) in the temperate region wetlands applies to those in the subtropics. Hydro-climatic drivers causing the changes in drained wetlands were identified and used to develop a generic model to predict wetland ET. Eddy covariance (EC)-based ET measurements were made for two years at two differently drained but close by wetlands, a heavily drained wetland (SW) (97% reduced surface storage) and a more functional wetland (DW) (42% reduced storage). Annual ET for more intensively drained SW was 836 mm, 34% less than DW (1271 mm) and the difference was significant (p = 0.001). This difference was mainly due to drainage driven differences in inundation and associated effects on net radiation (Rn) and local relative humidity. Two generic daily ET models, a regression model (MSE = 0.44 mm2, R2 = 0.80) and a machine learning-based Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) model (MSE = 0.36 mm2, R2 = 0.84), were developed with the latter being more robust. The RVM model can predict changes in ET for different restoration scenarios; a 1.1 m rise in drainage level showed 7% increase ET (18 mm) at SW while the increase at DW was negligible. The additional ET, 28% of surface flow, can enhance water storage, flood protection, and climate mitigation services at SW compared to DW. More intensely drained wetlands at higher elevation should be targeted for restoration for enhanced storage through increased ET. The models developed can predict changes in ET for improved evaluation of basin-scale effects of restoration programs and climate change scenarios.

  11. Policy: EU data protection regulation--harming cancer research.

    PubMed

    Kerr, David J

    2014-10-01

    The cancer community is deeply concerned about the unintended consequences of the current wording of the European Union (EU) draft Regulation on Data Protection, which may challenge the survival of retrospective clinical research, biobanking, and population-based cancer registries in the EU. This directive could negatively affect Europe's competitiveness in cancer research.

  12. EU-US ABWG AgENCODE Workshop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As considerable progress has been made on producing draft quality genomic sequence for many food animal species, the next goal for genomics research is a greater understanding of gene regulation and expression. The EU-US Animal Biotechnology Working Group (ABWG), established by the EU-US Biotechnolo...

  13. Better understanding of the EU regulatory frameworks for cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Kirsten; Mech, Agnieszka

    2014-05-01

    This letter to the editor corrects some misunderstandings regarding the EU regulations covering cosmetic products stated in a recent publication by A. Sobek et al. "In the shadow of the cosmetics directive - Inconsistencies in EU environmental hazard classification requirements for UV-filters" published in Science of the Total Environment 461-462 (2013) 706-711.

  14. [Brain concussion].

    PubMed

    Pälvimäki, Esa-Pekka; Siironen, Jari; Pohjola, Juha; Hernesniemi, Juha

    2011-01-01

    Brain concussion is a common disturbance caused by external forces or acceleration affecting the head. It may be accompanied by transient loss of consciousness and amnesia. Typical symptoms include headache, nausea and dizziness; these may remain for a week or two. Some patients may experience transient loss of inability to create new memories or other brief impairment of mental functioning. Treatment is symptomatic. Some patients may suffer from prolonged symptoms, the connection of which with brain concession is difficult to show. Almost invariably the prognosis of brain concussion is good.

  15. Viscosity-dependent drain current noise of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor in polar liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J. Y.; Hsu, C. P.; Kang, Y. W.; Fang, K. C.; Kao, W. L.; Yao, D. J.; Chen, C. C.; Li, S. S.; Yeh, J. A.; Wang, Y. L.; Lee, G. Y.; Chyi, J. I.; Hsu, C. H.; Huang, Y. F.; Ren, F.

    2013-11-28

    The drain current fluctuation of ungated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) measured in different fluids at a drain-source voltage of 0.5 V was investigated. The HEMTs with metal on the gate region showed good current stability in deionized water, while a large fluctuation in drain current was observed for HEMTs without gate metal. The fluctuation in drain current for the HEMTs without gate metal was observed and calculated as standard deviation from a real-time measurement in air, deionized water, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylene glycol, 1,2-butanediol, and glycerol. At room temperature, the fluctuation in drain current for the HEMTs without gate metal was found to be relevant to the dipole moment and the viscosity of the liquids. A liquid with a larger viscosity showed a smaller fluctuation in drain current. The viscosity-dependent fluctuation of the drain current was ascribed to the Brownian motions of the liquid molecules, which induced a variation in the surface dipole of the gate region. This study uncovers the causes of the fluctuation in drain current of HEMTs in fluids. The results show that the AlGaN/GaN HEMTs may be used as sensors to measure the viscosity of liquids within a certain range of viscosity.

  16. Long-term tillage and drainage influences on greenhouse gas fluxes from a poorly-drained soil of central Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensive tillage practices and poorly-drained soils of Midwestern USA are the prime reasons for greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes from agriculture. The naturally poorly-drained soils prevalent in this region require subsurface drainage for improved aeration and improved crop productivity. Soil surface GH...

  17. Novel pod for chlorine dioxide generation and delivery to control aerobic bacteria on the inner surface of floor drains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Floor drains in poultry processing and further processing plants are a harborage site for bacteria both free swimming and in biofilms. This population can include Listeria monocytogenes which has been shown to have potential for airborne spreading from mishandled open drains. Chlorine dioxide (ClO...

  18. Brain Edema after Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for a Large Arteriovenous Malformation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Whan; Chung, Hyun-Tai; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Dong Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Brain edema due to venous thrombosis following stereotactic radiosurgery for a cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) has rarely been reported. We report a patient with a large AVM in the eloquent area, and brain edema developed in this area after repeat Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS). An 18-year-old female presented with a 4-year-history of persistent headache. Magnetic resonance imaging and transfemoral carotid angiogram revealed a high-flow large AVM in the left parieto-occipital area. Brain edema developed and aggravated patient's symptoms after time-staged GKRS. The cause of edema was thought to be the failure of the surrounding venous channels to drain the venous flow from the normal brain and the drainage was hampered by the persistent shunt flow from the AVM, which was due to the thrombosis of one huge draining vein of the AVM. The microsurgical resection of the AVM nidus eliminated shunt flow and completely normalized the brain edema. Microsurgical resection of the AVM nidus completely normalized the brain edema due to thrombosis of a draining vein of an AVM develops after SRS. PMID:27574486

  19. Brain Edema after Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for a Large Arteriovenous Malformation: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Whan; Chung, Hyun-Tai; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Dong Gyu; Paek, Sun Ha

    2016-08-01

    Brain edema due to venous thrombosis following stereotactic radiosurgery for a cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) has rarely been reported. We report a patient with a large AVM in the eloquent area, and brain edema developed in this area after repeat Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS). An 18-year-old female presented with a 4-year-history of persistent headache. Magnetic resonance imaging and transfemoral carotid angiogram revealed a high-flow large AVM in the left parieto-occipital area. Brain edema developed and aggravated patient's symptoms after time-staged GKRS. The cause of edema was thought to be the failure of the surrounding venous channels to drain the venous flow from the normal brain and the drainage was hampered by the persistent shunt flow from the AVM, which was due to the thrombosis of one huge draining vein of the AVM. The microsurgical resection of the AVM nidus eliminated shunt flow and completely normalized the brain edema. Microsurgical resection of the AVM nidus completely normalized the brain edema due to thrombosis of a draining vein of an AVM develops after SRS. PMID:27574486

  20. White emitting Ca2Tb8(SiO4)6O2:Eu2+/Eu3+ phosphors: Photoluminescence and efficient energy transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Che-Yuan; Das, Subrata; Som, Sudipta; Lu, Chung-Hsin

    2016-09-01

    Ca2Tb8(SiO4)6O2:Eu2+/Eu3+ phosphors were prepared via solid-state diffusion route in reducing ambience. The structural/elemental analyses indicate the formation of pure phase which accommodates both Eu2+/Eu3+ ions. The shift of Tb3+ excitation band from 238 to 295 nm and increase (1.3×) in excitation intensity with Eu concentration in Ca2Tb8(SiO4)6O2:Eu2+/Eu3+ phosphor is explained on the basis of Tb3+ to Eu3+ energy transfer. Upon various UV excitations (238-380 nm), Ca2Tb8(SiO4)6O2:Eu2+/Eu3+ showed tunable color emission including warm white light. Moreover, the emission intensity only decreased 15% after increasing the temperature to 200 °C, revealing that present phosphors can be suitable for UV-LEDs.

  1. Fabrication and optical properties of pyrene-Eu hybrid materials.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan-Xia; Xu, Bo; Ding, Xun-Lei; He, Sheng-Gui

    2013-02-01

    Lanthanide-containing organic-inorganic hybrid materials have drawn much attention in the research of materials with multifunctional and modulated optical properties. Here, large area pyrene-Eu hybrid nanostructures constructed of a large amount of nanowires are successfully fabricated through physical vapor codeposition method at low temperature (77 K). Further optical property characterizations indicate that the pyrene-Eu hybrid nanostructures exhibit enhanced green light emission under blue light excitation compared with other fabricated samples (pyrene nanostructures, Eu nanoparticles, and pyrene/Cu hybrid nanostructures). The results indicate the occurrence of an energy transfer process from the sensitizing pyrene nanostructures to Eu. Pyrene-Eu hybrid nanostructures with unique photoluminescence properties may have promising applications in phosphors, light-emitting device, and UV-vis photo sensor. The results also prove that the physical vapor codeposition method is an effective way for design of organic-inorganic hybrid materials with controllable and tunable optical properties.

  2. Search for linking transitions in {sup 143}Eu

    SciTech Connect

    Lerma, F.; LaFosse, D.R.; Devlin, M.

    1996-12-31

    Six SD bands were populated in {sup 143}Eu and {sup 144}Eu, two of which had not been previously observed. Sum spectra were generated to search for two step links from the yrast SD band in {sup 143}Eu. However, no two step links were found. A single link from the SD band in {sup 143}Eu was found at 3364 keV. The level where it feeds into has not been identified. Alpha-particle energy (E{sub {alpha}}) spectra leading to the SD band and to normal states in {sup 143}Eu were measured and a correlation was found between E{sub {alpha}} and the level spin of the residual nucleus.

  3. EuPathDB: a portal to eukaryotic pathogen databases.

    PubMed

    Aurrecoechea, Cristina; Brestelli, John; Brunk, Brian P; Fischer, Steve; Gajria, Bindu; Gao, Xin; Gingle, Alan; Grant, Greg; Harb, Omar S; Heiges, Mark; Innamorato, Frank; Iodice, John; Kissinger, Jessica C; Kraemer, Eileen T; Li, Wei; Miller, John A; Nayak, Vishal; Pennington, Cary; Pinney, Deborah F; Roos, David S; Ross, Chris; Srinivasamoorthy, Ganesh; Stoeckert, Christian J; Thibodeau, Ryan; Treatman, Charles; Wang, Haiming

    2010-01-01

    EuPathDB (http://EuPathDB.org; formerly ApiDB) is an integrated database covering the eukaryotic pathogens of the genera Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Leishmania, Neospora, Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Trichomonas and Trypanosoma. While each of these groups is supported by a taxon-specific database built upon the same infrastructure, the EuPathDB portal offers an entry point to all these resources, and the opportunity to leverage orthology for searches across genera. The most recent release of EuPathDB includes updates and changes affecting data content, infrastructure and the user interface, improving data access and enhancing the user experience. EuPathDB currently supports more than 80 searches and the recently-implemented 'search strategy' system enables users to construct complex multi-step searches via a graphical interface. Search results are dynamically displayed as the strategy is constructed or modified, and can be downloaded, saved, revised, or shared with other database users. PMID:19914931

  4. [Gd-doped natural thenardite: Eu photoluminescence properties of europium].

    PubMed

    Guzaliayi, Juman; Tuerxun, Aidilibike; Aizitiaili, Abulizi; Aierken, Sidike

    2012-06-01

    The authors prepared Na2SO4: Eu, Gd, and Na2Gd2 (SO4)4: Eu phosphors by heating, the mixed powder of GdF3, EuF3 and natural mirabilite with muffle furnace at 1 000 degrees C for 30 min and continually heating it with microwave at 750 degrees C for 10 min. With increasing the concentrations of Gd ion, the 610 nm emission intensity due to Eu3+ was strengthened. Gd3+ probably formed a bridge between substrate and the activator so that the energy is able to be transferred efficiently. The luminescence intensity, along with colorimetric purity, reaches the top with 21 mol% Gd3+ doping in the thenardite (Na2SO4: Eu) lattices, eventually coming up the quenching effects of concentration. PMID:22870627

  5. Low-lying electronic structure of EuH, EuOH, and EuO neutrals and anions determined by anion photoelectron spectroscopy and DFT calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kafader, Jared O.; Ray, Manisha; Jarrold, Caroline Chick

    2015-07-21

    The anion photoelectron (PE) spectra of EuH{sup −} and the PE spectrum of overlapping EuOH{sup −} and EuO{sup −} anions are presented and analyzed with supporting results from density functional theory calculations on the various anions and neutrals. Results point to ionically bound, high-spin species. EuH and EuOH anions and neutrals exhibit analogous electronic structures: Transitions from {sup 8}Σ{sup −} anion ground states arising from the 4f{sup 7}σ{sub 6s}{sup 2} superconfiguration to the close-lying neutral {sup 9}Σ{sup −} and {sup 7}Σ{sup −} states arising from the 4f{sup 7}σ{sub 6s} superconfiguration are observed spaced by an energy interval similar to the free Eu{sup +} [4f{sup 7}6s] {sup 9}S - {sup 7}S splitting. The electron affinities (EAs) of EuH and EuOH are determined to be 0.771 ± 0.009 eV and 0.700 ± 0.011 eV, respectively. Analysis of spectroscopic features attributed to EuO{sup −} photodetachment is complicated by the likely presence of two energetically competitive electronic states of EuO{sup −} populating the ion beam. However, based on the calculated relative energies of the close-lying anion states arising from the 4f{sup 7}σ{sub 6s} and 4f{sup 6}σ{sub 6s}{sup 2} configurations and the relative energies of the one-electron accessible 4f{sup 7} and 4f{sup 6}σ{sub 6s} neutral states based on ligand-field theory [M. Dulick, E. Murad, and R. F. Barrow, J. Chem. Phys. 85, 385 (1986)], the remaining features are consistent with the 4f{sup 6}σ{sub 6s}{sup 2}  {sup 7}Σ{sup −} and 4f{sup 7}σ{sub 6s}{sup 7}Σ{sup −} anion states lying very close in energy (the former was calculated to be 0.15 eV lower in energy than the latter), though the true anion ground state and neutral EA could not be established unambiguously. Calculations on the various EuO anion and neutral states suggest 4f-orbital overlap with 2p orbitals in species with 4f{sup 6} occupancy.

  6. Brain radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  7. Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Right Hemisphere Brain Damage [ en Español ] What is right hemisphere brain ... right hemisphere brain damage ? What is right hemisphere brain damage? Right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) is damage ...

  8. Brain Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... new neural connections every second. This growing brain development is influenced by many factors, including a child’s relationships, experiences and environment. Learn more about the crucial role you play ...

  9. Measurement of the magnetic behaviour of 147Eu and 149Eu in cerium and platinum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, M.; Zeitz, W.-D.; Weber, A.; Potzger, K.; Unterricker, S.; Schneider, F.; Samokhvalov, V.; Isolde Collaboration

    2005-07-01

    The local magnetism at europium in platinum and in cerium was studied using perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy. In platinum, europium shows the electronic properties of the trivalent status, which has a non-magnetic ground state ( J=0). As a consequence, the Van Vleck contributions from the complete multiplet-level system predominantly determine the magnetic behaviour. In cerium, the measured data are close to the predictions for divalent europium. Here, only the electronic ground state, the pure spin state ( J=5/2), has to be taken into account. The measurements were done utilising the isomeric 11/2 - nuclear levels in 147Eu and 149Eu at 625 and 496 keV, respectively, after the precursors had been produced at the ion beam laboratory ISL Berlin or the on-line mass separator ISOLDE in Geneva.

  10. A Strategy to enhance Eu3+ emission from LiYF4:Eu nanophosphors and green-to-orange multicolor tunable, transparent nanophosphor-polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Su Yeon; Won, Yu-Ho; Jang, Ho Seong

    2015-01-01

    LiYF4:Eu nanophosphors with a single tetragonal phase are synthesized, and various strategies to enhance the Eu3+ emission from the nanophosphors are investigated. The optimized Eu3+ concentration is 35 mol%, and the red emission peaks due to the 5D0 -->7FJ (J = 1 and 2) transitions of Eu3+ ions are further enhanced by energy transfer from a sensitizer pair of Ce3+ and Tb3+. The triple doping of Ce, Tb, and Eu into the LiYF4 host more effectively enhances the Eu3+ emission than the core/shell strategies of LiYF4:Eu(35%)/LiYF4:Ce(15%), Tb(15%) and LiYF4:Ce(15%), Tb(15%)/LiYF4:Eu(35%) architectures. Efficient energy transfer from Ce3+ to Eu3+ through Tb3+ results in three times higher Eu3+ emission intensity from LiYF4:Ce(15%), Tb(15%), Eu(1%) nanophosphors compared with LiYF4:Eu(35%), which contains the optimized Eu3+ concentration. Owing to the energy transfer of Ce3+ --> Tb3+ and Ce3+ --> Tb3+ --> Eu3+, intense green and red emission peaks are observed from LiYF4:Ce(13%), Tb(14%), Eu(1-5%) (LiYF4:Ce, Tb, Eu) nanophosphors, and the intensity ratio of green to red emission is controlled by adjusting the Eu3+ concentration. With increasing Eu3+ concentration, the LiYF4:Ce, Tb, Eu nanophosphors exhibit multicolor emission from green to orange. In addition, the successful incorporation of LiYF4:Ce, Tb, Eu nanophosphors into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) facilitates the preparation of highly transparent nanophosphor-PDMS composites that present excellent multicolor tunability.

  11. Direct evidence for significant spin-polarization of EuS in Co/EuS multilayers at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, S. D.; Poulopoulos, P.; Lewitz, B.; Straub, A.; Goschew, A.; Kapaklis, V.; Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A.; Fumagalli, P.

    2013-01-01

    The new era of spintronics promises the development of nanodevices, where the electron spin will be used to store information and charge currents will be replaced by spin currents. For this, ferromagnetic semiconductors at room temperature are needed. We report on significant room-temperature spin polarization of EuS in Co/EuS multilayers recorded by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). The films were found to contain a mixture of divalent and trivalent europium, but only Eu++ is responsible for the ferromagnetic behavior of EuS. The magnetic XMCD signal of Eu at room temperature could unambiguously be assigned to magnetic ordering of EuS and was found to be only one order of magnitude smaller than that at 2.5 K. The room temperature magnetic moment of EuS is as large as the one of bulk ferromagnetic Ni. Our findings pave the path for fabrication of room–temperature spintronic devices using spin polarized EuS layers. PMID:23434820

  12. Development, testing and application of DrainFlow: A fully distributed integrated surface-subsurface flow model for drainage study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokri, Ali; Bardsley, William Earl

    2016-06-01

    Hydrological and hydrogeological investigation of drained land is a complex and integrated procedure. The scale of drainage studies may vary from a high-resolution small scale project through to comprehensive catchment or regional scale investigations. This wide range of scales and integrated system behaviour poses a significant challenge for the development of suitable drainage models. Toward meeting these requirements, a fully distributed coupled surface-subsurface flow model titled DrainFlow has been developed and is described. DrainFlow includes both the diffusive wave equation for surface flow components (overland flow, open drain, tile drain) and Richard's equation for saturated/unsaturated zones. To overcome the non-linearity problem created from switching between wet and dry boundaries, a smooth transitioning technique is introduced to buffer the model at tile drains and at interfaces between surface and subsurface flow boundaries. This gives a continuous transition between Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. DrainFlow is tested against five well-known integrated surface-subsurface flow benchmarks. DrainFlow as applied to some synthetic drainage study examples is quite flexible for changing all or part of the model dimensions as required by problem complexity, problem scale, and data availability. This flexibility enables DrainFlow to be modified to allow for changes in both scale and boundary conditions, as often encountered in real-world drainage studies. Compared to existing drainage models, DrainFlow has the advantage of estimating actual infiltration directly from the partial differential form of Richard's equation rather than through analytical or empirical infiltration approaches like the Green and Ampt equation.

  13. Mechanisms of surface runoff genesis on a subsurface drained soil affected by surface crusting: A field investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augeard, Bénédicte; Kao, Cyril; Chaumont, Cédric; Vauclin, Michel

    Artificial drainage has been subject to widespread criticism because of its impact on water quality and because there is suspicion that it may have detrimental effects on flood genesis. The present work aims at a better understanding of the mechanisms controlling infiltration and surface runoff genesis, particularly in soils with artificial drainage and affected by surface crusting. A field experiment was conducted during one drainage season (November 2003-March 2004) in the Brie region (80 km east of Paris, France) on a subsurface drained silty soil. Water table elevation and surface runoff were monitored above the drain and at midpoint between drains. Soil water pressure head was measured at various depths and locations between the midpoint and the drain. Soil surface characteristics (microtopography and degree of structural and sedimentary crust development) were recorded regularly on the experimental site and on other plots of various drainage intensities. The results show that the first surface runoff events were induced by high water table. However, runoff was higher at midpoint between the drains because water table reached the soil surface at that point, thus considerably reducing infiltration capacity compared to that above the drain. Comparing different plots, the area with older drainage installation (1948) yielded the most surface runoff. Wider drain spacing, smaller drain depth and possible plugging may have led to a greater area of saturated soil between drains. During the winter period, the impact of raindrops induced the formation of a structural crust on the soil surface. Furthermore, the development of the sedimentary crust, which was favored by water actually flowing on the soil surface during the high water table periods could be correlated with surface runoff volume. The formation of this crust had a significant impact on runoff occurrence at the end of the winter. Therefore, poorly drained fields presented more favorable conditions for both

  14. Field experiments to evaluate nitrate-leaching from drained agriculturally used areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednorz, Denise; Tauchnitz, Nadine; Christen, Olaf; Rupp, Holger; Meissner, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural land use is one of the main sources for diffuse nitrogen (N) inputs into surface- and groundwater. To fulfill the objectives of the European water protection policy it is mandatory to optimize agricultural management and to adopt it to site specific conditions. N present in soil is dominated by organic N, and after mineralization inorganic plant available N, obtaining the components ammonia and nitrate (NO3-N). In the environment, NO3-N occurs as the negatively charged ion NO3- which is generally solved. Thus, NO3-N is the major N-species in waters, whereas its transport is directly influenced by the flow regime. In dependence of soil type and meteorological conditions, subsurface drainage was often installed to prevent water logged zones as a requirement for agricultural use. But drainage systems were often discussed as one of the main sources for NO3-N inputs into surface water due to temporary high discharge rates and short residence time of soil water resulting in limited conditions for NO3-N degradation via denitrification. In the study presented herein, two adjacent tile-drained agriculturally used areas with adjusted agronomic conditions but different soil properties were investigated regarding their flow regime and their N-kinetic from 11/1/2013 until 10/31/2015. Both fields obtained the same size and drainage network (drain depth 0.8 m, gab distance 10 m). Field I was influenced by confined groundwater conditions due to an alternating strata of sandy and loamy layers. Field II was impermeable from a depth of one meter, showing a backwater influenced flow regime. The temporal course of soil moisture (35, 60 and 85 cm depth), drain rate as well as ground- and backwater head was registered continuously at both sites. Furthermore NH4-N- and NO3-N-concentrations (cNO3-N) in each compartment were measured. The experimental results showed that field I revealed significantly lower discharged drain rates and NO3-N-loads (17.1 mm and 2.5 kg N

  15. Brain imaging and brain function

    SciTech Connect

    Sokoloff, L.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a survey of the applications of imaging studies of regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism to the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Contributors review imaging techniques and strategies for measuring regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism, for mapping functional neural systems, and for imaging normal brain functions. They then examine the applications of brain imaging techniques to the study of such neurological and psychiatric disorders as: cerebral ischemia; convulsive disorders; cerebral tumors; Huntington's disease; Alzheimer's disease; depression and other mood disorders. A state-of-the-art report on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and central nervous system rounds out the book's coverage.

  16. Antiferromagnetism in EuCu2As2 and EuCu1.82Sb2 single crystals

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Anand, V. K.; Johnston, D. C.

    2015-05-07

    Single crystals of EuCu2As2 and EuCu2Sb2 were grown from CuAs and CuSb self-flux, respectively. The crystallographic, magnetic, thermal, and electronic transport properties of the single crystals were investigated by room-temperature x-ray diffraction (XRD), magnetic susceptibility χ versus temperature T, isothermal magnetization M versus magnetic field H, specific heat Cp(T), and electrical resistivity ρ(T) measurements. EuCu2As2 crystallizes in the body-centered tetragonal ThCr2Si2-type structure (space group I4/mmm), whereas EuCu2Sb2 crystallizes in the related primitive tetragonal CaBe2Ge2-type structure (space group P4/nmm). The energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and XRD data for the EuCu2Sb2 crystals showed the presence of vacancies on the Cu sites, yielding themore » actual composition EuCu1.82Sb2. The ρ(T) and Cp(T) data reveal metallic character for both EuCu2As2 and EuCu1.82Sb2. Antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering is indicated from the χ(T),Cp(T), and ρ(T) data for both EuCu2As2 (TN = 17.5 K) and EuCu1.82Sb2 (TN = 5.1 K). In EuCu1.82Sb2, the ordered-state χ(T) and M(H) data suggest either a collinear A-type AFM ordering of Eu+2 spins S = 7/2 or a planar noncollinear AFM structure, with the ordered moments oriented in the tetragonal ab plane in either case. This ordered-moment orientation for the A-type AFM is consistent with calculations with magnetic dipole interactions. As a result, the anisotropic χ(T) and isothermal M(H) data for EuCu2As2, also containing Eu+2 spins S = 7/2, strongly deviate from the predictions of molecular field theory for collinear AFM ordering and the AFM structure appears to be both noncollinear and noncoplanar.« less

  17. Risk assessment of drain valve failure in the K-West basin south loadout pit

    SciTech Connect

    MORGAN, R.G.

    1999-06-23

    The drain valve located in the bottom of the K-West Basin South Loadout Pit (SLOP) could provide an additional leak path from the K Basins if the drain valve were damaged during construction, installation, or operation of the cask loading system. For the K-West Basin SLOP the immersion pail support structure (IPSS) has already been installed, but the immersion pail has not been installed in the IPSS. The objective of this analysis is to evaluate the risk of damaging the drain valve during the remaining installation activities or operation of the cask loading system. Valve damage, as used in this analysis, does not necessarily imply large amounts of the water will be released quickly from the basin, rather valve damage implies that the valve's integrity has been compromised. The analysis process is a risk-based uncertainty analysis where best engineering judgement is used to represent each variable in the analysis. The uncertainty associated with each variable is represented by a probability distribution. The uncertainty is propagated through the analysis by Monte Carlo convolution techniques. The corresponding results are developed as a probability distribution and the risk is expressed in terms of the corresponding complementary cumulative distribution function (''risk curve''). The total risk is the area under the ''risk curve''. The risk of potentially dropping a cask into or on the IPSS and damaging the drain valve is approximately 1 x 10{sup -4} to 2 x 10{sup -5} per year. The risk of objects falling behind the IPSS and damaging the valve is 3 x 10{sup -2} to 6 x 10{sup -3} per year. Both risks are expressed as drain value failure frequencies. The risk of objects falling behind the IPSS and damaging the valve can be significantly reduced by an impact limiter and/or installing a gating or plate over the area bounded by the back of the IPSS and the wall of the SLOP. With either of these actions there is a 90 percent confidence that the frequency of drain valve

  18. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) losses from nested artificially drained lowland catchments with contrasting soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Kahle, Petra; Lennartz, Bernd

    2010-05-01

    Artificial drainage is a common practice to improve moisture and aeration conditions of agricultural land. It shortens the residence time of water in the soil and may therefore contribute to the degradation of peatlands as well as to the still elevated level of diffuse pollution of surface water bodies, particularly if flow anomalies like preferential flow cause a further acceleration of water and solute fluxes. Especially in the case of nitrate, artificially drained sub-catchments are found to control the catchment-scale nitrate losses. However, it is frequently found that nitrate losses and nitrogen field balances do not match. At the same time, organic fertilizers are commonly applied and, especially in lowland catchments, organic soils have been drained for agricultural use. Thus, the question arises whether dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) forms an important component of the nitrogen losses from artificially drained catchments. However, in contrast to nitrate and even to dissolved organic carbon (DOC), this component is frequently overlooked, especially in nested catchment studies with different soil types and variable land use. Here, we will present data from a hierarchical water quantity and quality measurement programme in the federal state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (North-Eastern Germany). The monitoring programme in the pleistocene lowland catchment comprises automatic sampling stations at a collector drain outlet (4.2 ha catchment), at a ditch draining arable land on mineral soils (179 ha), at a ditch mainly draining grassland on organic soils (85 ha) and at a brook with a small rural catchment (15.5 km²) of mixed land use and soil types. At all sampling stations, daily to weekly composite samples were taken, while the discharge and the meteorological data were recorded continuously. Water samples were analyzed for nitrate-nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen and total nitrogen. We will compare two years: 2006/07 was a very wet year (P = 934 mm) with a high summer

  19. The Brain Drain and Development Planning. The Fundamentals of Educational Planning: Lecture-Discussion Series No. 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristensen, Thorkil

    This paper consists of two major sections, an address on development planning in developing nations and a discussion of the issues raised in the address by the speaker and individuals from several developing nations. The address was given by Dr. Thorkil Kristensen, Secretary General of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development and…

  20. Risk Information Management Resource (RIMR): modeling an approach to defending against military medical information assurance brain drain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Willie E.

    2003-05-01

    As Military Medical Information Assurance organizations face off with modern pressures to downsize and outsource, they battle with losing knowledgeable people who leave and take with them what they know. This knowledge is increasingly being recognized as an important resource and organizations are now taking steps to manage it. In addition, as the pressures for globalization (Castells, 1998) increase, collaboration and cooperation are becoming more distributed and international. Knowledge sharing in a distributed international environment is becoming an essential part of Knowledge Management. This is a major shortfall in the current approach to capturing and sharing knowledge in Military Medical Information Assurance. This paper addresses this challenge by exploring Risk Information Management Resource (RIMR) as a tool for sharing knowledge using the concept of Communities of Practice. RIMR is based no the framework of sharing and using knowledge. This concept is done through three major components - people, process and technology. The people aspect enables remote collaboration, support communities of practice, reward and recognize knowledge sharing while encouraging storytelling. The process aspect enhances knowledge capture and manages information. While the technology aspect enhance system integration and data mining, it also utilizes intelligent agents and exploits expert systems. These coupled with supporting activities of education and training, technology infrastructure and information security enables effective information assurance collaboration.

  1. Brain Drain in the Rust Belt: Can Educational Reform Help to Build Civic Capacity in Struggling Communities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Dana L.; Movit, Marcela; Frick, William

    2008-01-01

    City leaders increasingly have hoped that school reform can spark a renaissance in struggling communities. Using the lens of building civic capacity, this article examines efforts to revitalize "Milltown"--a small urban community that has been devastated by the loss of manufacturing jobs. Analysis of interview and written documents identifies…

  2. Policy Responses to Address Student "Brain Drain": An Assessment of Measures Intended to Reduce the Emigration of Singaporean International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziguras, Christopher; Gribble, Cate

    2015-01-01

    For several decades, Singapore has experienced a high rate of outbound degree mobility with around 1 in 10 higher education students currently studying outside the country according to UNESCO figures. Singapore's successful economic development strategy, which has seen it become a key Asian hub for knowledge-intensive industries for…

  3. Sending Off All Your Good Treasures: Rural Schools, Brain-Drain, and Community Survival in the Wake of Economic Collapse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Jennifer; Sage, Rayna

    2011-01-01

    Based in qualitative interviews and ethnographic research conducted in the remote rural town of "Golden Valley," California, this paper explores the roles of schools and education in structuring rural community life in the wake of economic devastation caused by the timber industry collapse in the region. We look in depth at the ways in which…

  4. [Immunologic significance of lymphatic drainage of the brain].

    PubMed

    Weller, R O; Phillips, M J; Kida, S; Zhang, E T

    1997-04-01

    Despite the evidence for immunological reactions in the human CNS, in viral encephalitis and in multiple sclerosis, connections between the brain and the immune system are poorly understood. In rodents, tracers injected into the interstitial fluid of the brain drain to the cervical lymph nodes by perivascular pathways in the brain and nasal lymphatics. Similar pathways could serve as lymphatics in the human brain. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that lymphatic drainage of the brain and cervical lymph nodes play a key role in T-cell mediated immunity of the brain. Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in Lewis rats by the injection of guinea pig spinal cord homogenate in complete Freund's adjuvant into the foot pads. This resulted in paralysis of the hind limbs and infiltration of lymphocytes and microglial activation centred mainly on the spinal cord; little inflammation was seen in the cerebrum. When a brain wound, in the form of cryolesion, was inflicted on one cerebral hemisphere, 8 days after the induction of EAE, there was a 6-fold enhancement of EAE lesions in the brain. This enhancement was reduced by 40% cervical lymphadenectomy at the time of the cryolesion. These results suggest that cervical lymph nodes play a pivotal role in cerebral EAE and may be a major source of brain-directed lymphocytes. If similar mechanisms apply in man, study of cervical lymphocytes and their manipulation could open new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

  5. Two measured completely different electron affinities for atomic Eu?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Msezane, A. Z.; Felfli, Z.

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the electron affinity (EA) of atomic Eu was measured to be 0.116?eV. This value is in outstanding agreement with the theoretically calculated values using the Regge pole and MCDF-RCI methods. Previously, the EA of Eu was measured to be 1.053 eV. In an attempt to resolve the discrepancy between the two measured values, we have adopted the complex angular momentum (CAM) method and investigated in the electron energy range 0.11 eV Eu as Regge resonances following Ref.. We find the value of 2.63 eV as the EA of Eu. This leads us to conclude that neither the claimed measured EA of Eu correspond to the actual EA of Eu. We conclude that the EA in corresponds to the BE of an excited (metastable) state of the Euanion and that in to a shape resonance. We have also investigated the EA of atomic Nd and found the value of 1.88 eV, consistent with the measurement. These significant EA values of Eu and Nd could be important in the use of their negative ions in catalyzing the oxidation of water to peroxide and of methane to methanol without CO2 emission. These new results call for immediate experimental and theoretical verification.

  6. Commercializing genetically modified crops under EU regulations: objectives and barriers.

    PubMed

    Raybould, Alan; Poppy, Guy M

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture faces serious problems in feeding 9 billion people by 2050: production must be increased and ecosystem services maintained under conditions for growing crops that are predicted to worsen in many parts of the world. A proposed solution is sustainable intensification of agriculture, whereby yields are increased on land that is currently cultivated, so sparing land to deliver other ecosystem services. Genetically modified (GM) crops are already contributing to sustainable intensification through higher yields and lower environmental impacts, and have potential to deliver further significant improvements. Despite their widespread successful use elsewhere, the European Union (EU) has been slow to introduce GM crops: decisions on applications to import GM commodities are lengthy, and decision-making on applications to cultivate GM crops has virtually ceased. Delayed import approvals result in economic losses, particularly in the EU itself as a result of higher commodity prices. Failure to grant cultivation approvals costs EU farmers opportunities to reduce inputs, and results in loss of agricultural research and development from the EU to countries such as the United States and China. Delayed decision-making in the EU ostensibly results from scientific uncertainty about the effects of using GM crops; however, scientific uncertainty may be a means to justify a political decision to restrict cultivation of GM crops in the EU. The problems associated with delayed decision-making will not improve until there is clarity about the EU's agricultural policy objectives, and whether the use of GM crops will be permitted to contribute to achieving those objectives.

  7. Hemovac drain

    MedlinePlus

    ... 6 cotton swabs Gauze pads Clean soapy water Plastic trash bag Surgical tape Waterproof pad or bath towel To ... old bandage. Throw the old bandage into a plastic trash bag. Inspect your skin where the drainage tube comes ...

  8. Numerical simulation of offset-drain amorphous oxide-based thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jaewook

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we analyzed the electrical characteristics of amorphous indium–gallium–zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an offset-drain structure by technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulation. When operating in a linear region, an enhancement-type TFT shows poor field-effect mobility because most conduction electrons are trapped in acceptor-like defects in an offset region when the offset length (L off) exceeds 0.5 µm, whereas a depletion-type TFT shows superior field-effect mobility owing to the high free electron density in the offset region compared with the trapped electron density. When operating in the saturation region, both types of TFTs show good field-effect mobility comparable to that of a reference TFT with a large gate overlap. The underlying physics of the depletion and enhancement types of offset-drain TFTs are systematically analyzed.

  9. Nitrous oxide emissions from drained and undrained loamy soils in Central France.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossel, Agnes; Nicoullaud, Bernard; Rochette, Philippe; Guimbaud, Christophe; Chartier, Michel; Hénault, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    Artificial drainage is extensively used in cropped areas to decrease soil hydromorphy. Soil drainage class is considered as a possible factor controlling nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions (Bouwman et al, 2002). Nevertheless, artificial drainage may have contrasting effects on N2O emissions depending on climatic conditions (Colbourn et al, 1987; Venterea et al, 2008). By decreasing anoxic periods in soils, artificial drainage could reduce N2O production by denitrification but it could also limit the reduction of N2O into N2. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of drainage on N2O emissions and to provide a better understanding of the control of emissions by soil factors in both situations. N2O emissions were measured in Central France on 4 tile-drained and 4 undrained loamy plots, all located in a rural area of 10 km2. 2 drained and 2 undrained plots were studied from December 2010 to June 2011 and 2 others drained and undrained plots were studied from November 2012 to June 2013. Fluxes were measured monthly before spring fertilizations and then weekly until the end of the measurement period. The closed chamber method (with 5 replicates per plot) was used and gas analysis was made by gas chromatography (ECD detector) during the first year and by the SPIRIT QCL spectrometer (Guimbaud et al., 2011) during the second year. Ancillary variables such as soil temperature, mineral nitrogen, water filled pore space (WFPS) in the top layer and groundwater table level were also measured. Undrained soils presented much larger emissions and higher soil water content than drained ones. WFPS ranged from 16 to 82.6% on drained plots and 14 to 100% on undrained plots. On average, WFPS was 9% smaller on drained soils. The mean daily N2O flux on drained soils (3.6 g N. N2O.ha-1.d-1) was significantly smaller (T test, p=0.003) than on undrained ones (29.1 g N. N2O.ha-1.d-1). Significant emissions were measured in nearly saturated conditions on undrained plots. The response

  10. Drain-extended MOS transistors capable for operation at 10 V and at radio frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Andreas; Rücker, Holger

    2011-11-01

    This work reports on the integration of n-type lateral-drain-extended MOS transistors (LDMOS) in a 0.13 μm SiGe BiCMOS technology. The transistors are realized with no additional process steps using the core dual-gate-oxide CMOS flow only. LDMOS drift regions are formed by compensating lightly-doped drain (LDD) implantations of NMOS and PMOS transistors of the baseline process. Stable operation with less than 10% parameter variations in 10 years is achieved up to operating voltages VDD,max of 10 V for devices with breakdown voltages BVDSS = 30 V and on-resistances RON = 7.3 Ω mm. Devices for different operating voltages VDD,max are realized by layout variations. Devices with VDD,max = 6 V demonstrate breakdown voltages BVDSS = 25 V, on-resistances RON = 4.9 Ω mm, and peak transit frequencies fT = 32 GHz.

  11. Comparison of multispectral remote-sensing techniques for monitoring subsurface drain conditions. [Imperial Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goettelman, R. C.; Grass, L. B.; Millard, J. P.; Nixon, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    The following multispectral remote-sensing techniques were compared to determine the most suitable method for routinely monitoring agricultural subsurface drain conditions: airborne scanning, covering the visible through thermal-infrared (IR) portions of the spectrum; color-IR photography; and natural-color photography. Color-IR photography was determined to be the best approach, from the standpoint of both cost and information content. Aerial monitoring of drain conditions for early warning of tile malfunction appears practical. With careful selection of season and rain-induced soil-moisture conditions, extensive regional surveys are possible. Certain locations, such as the Imperial Valley, Calif., are precluded from regional monitoring because of year-round crop rotations and soil stratification conditions. Here, farms with similar crops could time local coverage for bare-field and saturated-soil conditions.

  12. Temperature-dependent electrical characterization of high-voltage AlGaN/GaN-on-Si HEMTs with Schottky and ohmic drain contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taube, Andrzej; Kaczmarski, Jakub; Kruszka, Renata; Grochowski, Jakub; Kosiel, Kamil; Gołaszewska-Malec, Krystyna; Sochacki, Mariusz; Jung, Wojciech; Kamińska, Eliana; Piotrowska, Anna

    2015-09-01

    In this work we present results of electrical parameters characterization of high-voltage AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with ohmic and Schottky drain electrodes on silicon substrates. The use of Schottky-drain contacts improves breakdown voltage (VBR), which was VBR = 900 V for LGD = 20 μm in contrast to VBR = 505 V for ohmic-drain contacts. Both types of transistors exhibit drain current density of 500 mA/mm and leakage current of 10 μA/mm. Temperature-dependent characterization reveals a drain current density decrease with increasing temperature. The Schottky-drain HEMTs are characterized by lower increase of the Ron (ΔRon = 250% at 200 °C) in comparison to ohmic drain contacts (ΔRon = 340% at 200 °C) relative to the room temperature due to decrease of on-set voltage of Schottky-drain HEMTs.

  13. Carbon Dioxide Flux from Rice Paddy Soils in Central China: Effects of Intermittent Flooding and Draining Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Wan, Kai-yuan; Tao, Yong; Li, Zhi-guo; Zhang, Guo-shi; Li, Shuang-lai; Chen, Fang

    2013-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to (i) examine the diurnal and seasonal soil carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes pattern in rice paddy fields in central China and (ii) assess the role of floodwater in controlling the emissions of CO2 from soil and floodwater in intermittently draining rice paddy soil. The soil CO2 flux rates ranged from −0.45 to 8.62 µmol.m−2.s−1 during the rice-growing season. The net effluxes of CO2 from the paddy soil were lower when the paddy was flooded than when it was drained. The CO2 emissions for the drained conditions showed distinct diurnal variation with a maximum efflux observed in the afternoon. When the paddy was flooded, daytime soil CO2 fluxes reversed with a peak negative efflux just after midday. In draining/flooding alternating periods, a sudden pulse-like event of rapidly increasing CO2 efflux occured in response to re-flooding after draining. Correlation analysis showed a negative relation between soil CO2 flux and temperature under flooded conditions, but a positive relation was found under drained conditions. The results showed that draining and flooding cycles play a vital role in controlling CO2 emissions from paddy soils. PMID:23437170

  14. Optimizing the performance of advanced nonvolatile memories using differentiated cell source and drain implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Martin; Pansana, P.

    1995-09-01

    In order to satisfy the twin requirements of increased performance at low cost, a novel architecture that allows the differentiation of the source and drain implants of an EPROM cell without any additional processing steps has been developed. This cell is more immune to electrical stress than a standard cell during both programming and read cycles. In addition, this cell is inherently electrically shorter and therefore can be used to reduce die size in advanced EPROM devices.

  15. Suspended sediment yield of New Jersey coastal plain streams draining into the Delaware estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mansue, Lawrence J.

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize sediment data collected at selected stream-sampling sites in southern New Jersey. Computations of excepted average annual yields at each sampling site were made and utilized to estimate the annual yield at ungaged sites. Similar data currently are being compiled for streams draining Pennsylvania and Delaware. It is planned to report on the combined information at a later date in the Geological Survey's Water-Supply Paper series.

  16. Lateral carbon fluxes and CO2 outgassing from a tropical peat-draining river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, D.; Warneke, T.; Rixen, T.; Müller, M.; Jamahari, S.; Denis, N.; Mujahid, A.; Notholt, J.

    2015-10-01

    Tropical peatlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle due to their immense carbon storage capacity. However, pristine peat swamp forests are vanishing due to deforestation and peatland degradation, especially in Southeast Asia. CO2 emissions associated with this land use change might not only come from the peat soil directly but also from peat-draining rivers. So far, though, this has been mere speculation, since there has been no data from undisturbed reference sites. We present the first combined assessment of lateral organic carbon fluxes and CO2 outgassing from an undisturbed tropical peat-draining river. Two sampling campaigns were undertaken on the Maludam River in Sarawak, Malaysia. The river catchment is covered by protected peat swamp forest, offering a unique opportunity to study a peat-draining river in its natural state, without any influence from tributaries with different characteristics. The two campaigns yielded consistent results. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations ranged between 3222 and 6218 μmol L-1 and accounted for more than 99 % of the total organic carbon (TOC). Radiocarbon dating revealed that the riverine DOC was of recent origin, suggesting that it derives from the top soil layers and surface runoff. We observed strong oxygen depletion, implying high rates of organic matter decomposition and consequently CO2 production. The measured median pCO2 was 7795 and 8400 μatm during the first and second campaign, respectively. Overall, we found that only 32 ± 19 % of the carbon was exported by CO2 evasion, while the rest was exported by discharge. CO2 outgassing seemed to be moderated by the short water residence time. Since most Southeast Asian peatlands are located at the coast, this is probably an important limiting factor for CO2 outgassing from most of its peat-draining rivers.

  17. Selenium Concentrations in Irrigation Drain Inflows to the Salton Sea, California, October 2006 and January 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Mike W.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents raw data on selenium concentrations in samples of water, sediment, detritus, and selected food-chain matrices collected from selected agricultural drains in the southern portion of the Salton Sea during October 2006 and January 2007. Total selenium and selenium species were determined in water samples, whereas total selenium was determined in sediment, detritus, algae, plankton, midge larvae (Family Chironomidae), and two fish species (western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, and sailfin molly, Poecilia latipinna).

  18. Tests of oil scraper piston ring and piston fitted with oil drain holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdewell, H S

    1922-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine whether or not a properly located and properly designed oil scraper piston ring, installed on a piston provided with oil drain holes of sufficient area, would prevent the excessive oiling of the Liberty engine, particularly with the engine running at idling speed with full oil pressure. Results showed that excessive oiling was in fact prevented. It is strongly recommended that scraper rings and pistons be adopted for aircraft engines.

  19. Characterizing traps causing random telegraph noise during trap-assisted tunneling gate-induced drain leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Sung-Won; Shin, Joonha; Seo, Youngsoo; Kim, Hyunsuk; Jeon, Sangbin; Kim, Hyunsoo; Shin, Hyungcheol

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis of traps causing random telegraph noise (RTN) in trap-assisted tunneling (TAT) gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) current. RTN was shown for the first time to occur as a result of electron trapping rather than hole trapping. In addition, the proper effective permittivity of two different materials is used to accurately determine the distance between two traps causing RTN in TAT GIDL in an oxide.

  20. Synthesis YPO4:Eu3+ Nanophosphor from Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, George D

    2010-01-01

    Live fungi (zygo and asco) were cultivated and grown in an agar solution with a 2000 ppm concentration of Y3+ from YNO3 and a 20 ppm concentration of Eu3+ from EuNO3. When the fungi were grown to a good amount, they were collected, dried, and burnt at 1000 C for 2 h in air. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and optical spectroscopy experiments revealed that the product was nanophosphor YPO4:Eu3+ with a size of 100 200 nm.

  1. Optical Probing of metamagnetic phases in epitaxial EuSe

    SciTech Connect

    Galgano, G. D.; Henriques, A. B.; Bauer, G.; Springholz, G.

    2011-12-23

    EuSe is a wide gap magnetic semiconductors with a potential for applications in proof-of-concept spintronic devices. When the temperature is lowered, EuSe goes through sharp transitions between a variety of magnetic phases and is thus described as metamagnetic. The purpose of the present investigation is to correlate the magnetic order to the sharp dichroic doublet, discovered recently in high quality thin epitaxial layers of EuSe, grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We report detailed measurements of the doublet positions and intensities as a function of magnetic field in low temperatures, covering several magnetic phases.

  2. Remote sensing for assessing the zone of benefit where deep drains improve productivity of land affected by shallow saline groundwater.

    PubMed

    Kobryn, H T; Lantzke, R; Bell, R; Admiraal, R

    2015-03-01

    The installation of deep drains is an engineering approach to remediate land salinised by the influence of shallow groundwater. It is a costly treatment and its economic viability is, in part, dependent on the lateral extent to which the drain increases biological productivity by lowering water tables and soil salinity (referred to as the drains' zone of benefit). Such zones may be determined by assessing the biological productivity response of adjacent vegetation over time. We tested a multi-temporal satellite remote sensing method to analyse temporal and spatial changes in vegetation condition surrounding deep drainage sites at five locations in the Western Australian wheatbelt affected by dryland salinity-Morawa, Pithara, Beacon, Narembeen and Dumbleyung. Vegetation condition as a surrogate for biological productivity was assessed by Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) during the peak growing season. Analysis was at the site scale within a 1000 m buffer zone from the drains. There was clear evidence of NDVI increasing with elevation, slope and distance from the drain. After accounting for elevation, slope and distance from the drain, there was a significant increase in NDVI across the five locations after installation of deep drains. Changes in NDVI after drainage were broadly consistent with measured changes at each site in groundwater levels after installation of the deep drains. However, this study assessed the lateral extent of benefit for biological productivity and gave a measure of the area of benefit along the entire length of the drain. The method demonstrated the utility of spring NDVI images for rapid and relatively simple assessment of the change in site condition after implementation of drainage, but approaches for further improvement of the procedure were identified.

  3. Simulation of Sub-Drains Performance Using Visual MODFLOW for Slope Water Seepage Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baharuddin, M. F. T.; Tajudin, S. A. A.; Abidin, M. H. Z.; Yusoff, N. A.

    2016-07-01

    Numerical simulation technique was used for investigating water seepage problem at the Botanic Park Kuala Lumpur. A proposed sub-drains installation in problematic site location was simulated using Modular Three-Dimensional Finite Difference Groundwater Flow (MODFLOW) software. The results of simulation heads during transient condition showed that heads in between 43 m (water seepage occurred at level 2) until 45 m (water seepage occurred at level 4) which heads measurement are referred to mean sea level. However, elevations measurements for level 2 showed the values between 41 to 42 m from mean sea level and elevations for level 4 between 42 to 45 m from mean sea level. These results indicated an increase in heads for level 2 and level 4 between 1 to 2 m when compared to elevations slope at the level 2 and level 4. The head increases surpass the elevation level of the slope area that causing water seepage at level 2 and level 4. In order to overcome this problems, the heads level need to be decrease to 1 until 2 m by using two options of sub-drain dimension size. Sub-drain with the dimension of 0.0750 m (diameter), 0.10 m (length) and using 4.90 m spacing was the best method to use as it was able to decrease the heads to the required levels of 1 to 2 m.

  4. Internally Drained Supraglacial River Catchments on the Southwest Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, K.; Smith, L. C.; Chu, V. W.; Pitcher, L. H.; Gleason, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Internally drained catchments are the hydrologic units on the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) surface that collect and drain meltwater into moulins or supraglacial lakes without out flows. Understanding the spatial pattern of these internal catchments is critical, which can provide key information about how supraglacial meltwater is transported and released on the ice surface. This study proposed an automatic approach to detect supraglacial hydrologic features (rivers, lakes, moulins, and internal catchments) located at southwest GrIS from Landsat-8 OLI panchromatic imagery. A total of 800 internal catchments are delineated and the average catchment size (river network length) is found to increase with elevations. In addition, moulins are the prime way to drain internal catchments and the average moulin densities decrease with elevations. Adaptive depression area thresholds are calculated to achieve optimal match between DEM-modeled and image-detected internal catchment patterns. The pattern of these image-detected internal catchments also indicates that: 1) not all the DEM-modeled topographic depressions act as meltwater sinks; 2) moulin distribution greatly impacts the internal catchment patterns; and 3) topographic depressions can be connected downstream without being fully filled, changing the fragmentary of the internal catchments.

  5. Novel source follower transistor structure without lightly doped drain for high performance CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hyeong-Sub; Kwon, Sung-Kyu; Jeon, So-Ra; Oh, Dong-Jun; Lee, Ga-Won; Lee, Hi-Deok

    2016-08-01

    To realize high-resolution pixels in the CMOS image sensor, it is necessary to reduce low-frequency noise, particularly random telegraph signal (RTS) noise of the source-follower transistor (SFT). To achieve less relative variation of drain noise current, ΔI D/I D, a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor structure without the lightly doped drain (LDD) for the SFT transistor is proposed. Then, a comparison of RTS noise characteristics between the proposed SFT structure without LDD and the conventional SFT structure with LDD was conducted. Although the RTS noise occurrence probability of the proposed SFT structure without LDD is somewhat greater than that of the conventional SFT structure with LDD, the amplitude of relative variation of drain noise current of the proposed SFT structure is significantly less than that of the conventional SFT. Despite changes in several factors in the proposed SFT, such as effective channel length, trap depth profile in gate oxide, and random dopant fluctuation (RDF), it is believed that the change of trap depth profile is a primary factor for the improved RTS characteristic. Therefore, the proposed SFT is highly desirable for the high-resolution CMOS image sensor.

  6. Widespread occurrence of diverse human pathogenic types of the fungus Fusarium detected in plumbing drains.

    PubMed

    Short, Dylan P G; O'Donnell, Kerry; Zhang, Ning; Juba, Jean H; Geiser, David M

    2011-12-01

    It has been proposed that plumbing systems might serve as a significant environmental reservoir of human-pathogenic isolates of Fusarium. We tested this hypothesis by performing the first extensive multilocus sequence typing (MLST) survey of plumbing drain-associated Fusarium isolates and comparing the diversity observed to the known diversity of clinical Fusarium isolates. We sampled 471 drains, mostly in bathroom sinks, from 131 buildings in the United States using a swabbing method. We found that 66% of sinks and 80% of buildings surveyed yielded at least one Fusarium culture. A total of 297 isolates of Fusarium collected were subjected to MLST to identify the phylogenetic species and sequence types (STs) of these isolates. Our survey revealed that the six most common STs in sinks were identical to the six most frequently associated with human infections. We speculate that the most prevalent STs, by virtue of their ability to form and grow in biofilms, are well adapted to plumbing systems. Six major Fusarium STs were frequently isolated from plumbing drains within a broad geographic area and were identical to STs frequently associated with human infections. PMID:21976755

  7. Slosh wave and geyser excitations due to liquid hydrogen shut-off during draining in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Shyu, K. L.

    1995-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of liquid hydrogen shut-off during draining, and shut-off at the moment of the incipience of a suction dip have been investigated. It shows that a large amplitude surge is observed for liquid in the container at the moment of liquid hydrogen shut-off in reduced gravity. It also shows that slosh waves accompanied by a strong geyser are developed for surge-related flow fields induced by liquid hydrogen shut-off at the incipience of a suction dip. In the slosh wave excitation, both a lower gravity environment and higher flow rate before the shut-off of liquid draining are resonsible for the initiation of greater amplitude slosh waves. Slosh wave excitation, due to shut-off during liquid hydrogen draining, shift the fluid mass distribution in the container which imposes time-dependent variation in the spacecraft moment of inertia. This provides important information necessary for on-orbit guidance and attitude control of spacecraft.

  8. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in vertical peat profiles of natural and drained boreal peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nykänen, Hannu; Mpamah, Promise; Rissanen, Antti; Pitkänen, Aki; Turunen, Jukka; Simola, Heikki

    2015-04-01

    Peatlands form a significant carbon pool in the global carbon cycle. Change in peat hydrology, due to global warming is projected to change microbiological processes and peat carbon pool. We tested if bulk stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes serve as indicators of severe long term drying in peatlands drained for forestry. Depth profile analysis of peat, for their carbon and nitrogen content as well as their carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures, were conducted for peatlands in southern and eastern Finland, having ombrotrophic and minerotrophic natural and corresponding drained pairs or separate drained sites. The selection of sites allowed us to compare changes due to different fertility and changes due to long term artificial drying. Drainage lasting over 40 years has led to changes in hydrology, vegetation, nutrient mineralization and respiration. Furthermore, increased nutrient uptake and possible recycling of peat nitrogen and carbon trough vegetation back to the peat surface, also possibly has an effect on the stable isotopic composition of peat carbon and nitrogen. We think that drainage induced changes somehow correspond to those caused by changed hydrology due to climate change. We will present data from these measurements and discuss their implications for carbon and nitrogen flows in peatlands.

  9. Antimony retention and release from drained and waterlogged shooting range soil under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Hockmann, Kerstin; Tandy, Susan; Lenz, Markus; Reiser, René; Conesa, Héctor M; Keller, Martin; Studer, Björn; Schulin, Rainer

    2015-09-01

    Many soils polluted by antimony (Sb) are subject to fluctuating waterlogging conditions; yet, little is known about how these affect the mobility of this toxic element under field conditions. Here, we compared Sb leaching from a calcareous shooting range soil under drained and waterlogged conditions using four large outdoor lysimeters. After monitoring the leachate samples taken at bi-weekly intervals for >1.5 years under drained conditions, two of the lysimeters were subjected to waterlogging with a water table fluctuating according to natural rainfall water infiltration. Antimony leachate concentrations under drained conditions showed a strong seasonal fluctuation between 110 μg L(-1) in summer and <40 μg L(-1) in winter, which closely correlated with fluctuations in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. With the development of anaerobic conditions upon waterlogging, Sb in leachate decreased to 2-5 μg L(-1) Sb and remained stable at this level. Antimony speciation measurements in soil solution indicated that this decrease in Sb(V) concentrations was attributable to the reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) and the stronger sorption affinity of the latter to iron (Fe) (hydr)oxide phases. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering seasonal and waterlogging effects in the assessment of the risks from Sb-contaminated sites.

  10. Novel source follower transistor structure without lightly doped drain for high performance CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hyeong-Sub; Kwon, Sung-Kyu; Jeon, So-Ra; Oh, Dong-Jun; Lee, Ga-Won; Lee, Hi-Deok

    2016-08-01

    To realize high-resolution pixels in the CMOS image sensor, it is necessary to reduce low-frequency noise, particularly random telegraph signal (RTS) noise of the source-follower transistor (SFT). To achieve less relative variation of drain noise current, ΔI D/I D, a metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor structure without the lightly doped drain (LDD) for the SFT transistor is proposed. Then, a comparison of RTS noise characteristics between the proposed SFT structure without LDD and the conventional SFT structure with LDD was conducted. Although the RTS noise occurrence probability of the proposed SFT structure without LDD is somewhat greater than that of the conventional SFT structure with LDD, the amplitude of relative variation of drain noise current of the proposed SFT structure is significantly less than that of the conventional SFT. Despite changes in several factors in the proposed SFT, such as effective channel length, trap depth profile in gate oxide, and random dopant fluctuation (RDF), it is believed that the change of trap depth profile is a primary factor for the improved RTS characteristic. Therefore, the proposed SFT is highly desirable for the high-resolution CMOS image sensor.

  11. Spontaneous cholecystocutaneous fistula draining from an abdominal scar from previous surgical drainage.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Orestis; Paraskevas, George; Kotronis, Anastasios; Chatzopoulos, Stavros; Konstantara, Athina; Papadimitriou, Nikolaos; Makrantonakis, Apostolos; Kakoutis, Emmanouil

    2012-01-01

    We present a rare case of cholecystocutaneous fistula draining from an old surgical scar in the right upper abdominal quadrant following chronic calculous cholecystitis. A 71 year old male presented to the emergency department with a persistent bilious drainage from an old surgical scare, from surgical drainage, of the right upper abdominal quadrant for about a week. Cultures from the draining fluid grew Staphylococcus hominis, Escherichia coli and Klebsilla pneumoniae and tigecycline 50 mg twice a day was administrated intravenously to the patient according to sensitivity results. An abdominal US revealed the presence the gallbladder with calculi in a superficial position and the fistulogram revealed a cholecystocytaneous fistula arising from the fundus of the gallbladder. At laparotomy a fistula track was found connecting the gallbladder fundus to the skin, which was dissected and a cholecystectomy was performed. Spontaneous cholecystocutaneous fistula is rarely observed today, mostly as a complication of chronic calculous cholecystitis. Most often it arises from the gallbladder fundus and the clinical presentation is that of a painless draining sinus tract in the right upper quadrant. Diagnosis is aided by abdominal CT scan and ultrasound and treatment is with elective cholecystectomy and excision of the fistula. PMID:22352221

  12. Rice pesticide concentrations in the Colusa Basin Drain and the Sacramento River, California, 1990-1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crepeau, K.L.; Kuivila, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    The pesticides molinate, thiobencarb, and carbofuran are applied to rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields in the Sacramento Valley, California, each year during April through June. These pesticides are of concern because of their adverse effects on water quality and their potential adverse effects on aquatic life. Therefore, the California Regional Water Quality Control Board (CRWQCB) mandated the holding of irrigation-return water in rice fields to increase pesticide degradation and dissipation before the water is released to the Sacramento River. The CRWQCB also established performance goals to maintain drinking Water quality for the city of Sacramento and to protect the habitat for aquatic life. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of increased irrigation-return water holding times on rice pesticide concentrations and loads in the Colusa Basin Drain and the Sacramento River. Dissolved pesticide concentrations were measured in water samples collected in May through July during 1990-1993 at the Colusa Basin Drain at Road 99E near Knights Landing (Colusa Basin Drain) and at the Sacramento River at Sacramento. Pesticide concentrations and loads at both sites showed a decrease from 1990-1992 and an increase in 1993. This trend cannot be explained by the yearly holding time regulations but can be explained by the amount of yearly emergency releases. The yearly changes in pesticide concentration detected demonstrate that continued monitoring and management of pesticides is necessary to maintain water quality.

  13. Trace Metal Concentrations and Macroinvertebrate Assemblages in Black Shale-Draining Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogendi, G. M.

    2005-05-01

    Natural and anthropogenic release of metals into surface waters and sediments may alter benthic community structure. To better understand the effect of trace metals on aquatic communities of black shale-draining streams in Arkansas, we collected water, sediment and macroinvertebrates at 12 sites on black shale-draining streams (BLS) and four sites on a limestone-draining stream (LMS). Trace metal analysis of streamwater and sediments and rapid bioassessment of the macroinvertebrate communities followed US EPA methods and protocols. Concentrations of zinc, cadmium, copper, lead and nickel in BLS water and sediments were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in LMS water and sediments. Concentrations of copper, cadmium, arsenic and nickel in the BLS water exceeded slightly the acute aquatic-life standards. Similarly, concentrations of cadmium, arsenic, lead, zinc, and mercury in BLS sediments exceeded the Effect Range-Low values of the sediment quality guidelines. Total abundance, taxa richness, and percent EPT taxa, were significantly (p< 0.05) lower in the BLS than the LMS. The absence of pollution-sensitive Heptageniidae and Chloroperlidae in the BLS samples was associated with elevated metal concentrations in these sites, but not apart from observed hydrologic and habitat differences. Biological condition scores for BLS and LMS sites categorized the streams as slightly impaired and unimpaired, respectively. This study shows that trace metals released from natural sources such as black shales can cause structural alterations to benthic communities.

  14. Treatment of rayon grade pulp drain effluent by upflow anaerobic fixed packed bed reactor (UAFPBR).

    PubMed

    Satyawali, Yamini; Pant, Deepak; Singh, Anoop; Srivastava, R K

    2009-09-01

    The Rayon grade pulp (RGP) drain effluent of pulp and paper mill was studied to find out pollutant loading and its control measures by low cost and efficient treatment method. Upflow anaerobic fixed packed bed reactor (UAFPBR) with brick ballasts as packing material was used for this purpose. This was compared with conventional anaerobic treatment method. The digested slurry was taken as inoculum from the active cow dung biogas plant. After stabilization of the reactors the reduction in pollutant loading was found to be higher in UAFPBR than conventional anaerobic reactor (CAR). Hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12 hr was optimum for the treatment of effluent when 74.5% COD and 81% BOD reduction was obtained. 30% inoculum concentration was best for the anaerobic treatment of RGP colour drain effluent. The maximum biogas production (1.37 l l(-1) of effluent) was when the effluent was inoculated with 30% seeding material. Thus, UAFPBR system was very efficient in terms of BOD, COD, TSS and TDS removal from RGP drain of paper mills in ambient environmental conditions.

  15. Eu{sup 3+} luminescence enhancement by intercalation of benzenepolycarboxylic guests into Eu{sup 3+}-doped layered gadolinium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Qingyang; Pan, Guohua; Ma, Teng; Huang, Gailing; Sun, Genban; Ma, Shulan; Yang, Xiaojing

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: Two benzenepolycarboxylic sensitizers, 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid (BTA) and 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid (BA), were intercalated into NO{sub 3}–LGdH:Eu, in which different structures of the compounds resulted in varied arrangement in the gallery. The two organic compounds especially BA markedly enhanced the red luminescence of Eu{sup 3+} due to efficient energy transfer between the organic guests and Eu{sup 3+} centers. - Highlights: • We report the intercalation of benzenepolycarboxylic organic sensitizers into LRH. • We study the intercalation structure and the arrangement of the interlayer guests. • The two organic compounds can markedly enhance the luminescence of Eu{sup 3+}. • There exists efficient energy transfer between organic guests and Eu{sup 3+} centers. • This material opens a route for fabricating new multifunctional luminescent materials. - Abstract: Two benzenepolycarboxylic organic sensitizers, 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid (BTA) and 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid (BA), were intercalated into the gallery of NO{sub 3}{sup −} type Eu{sup 3+}-doped layered gadolinium hydroxide (NO{sub 3}–LGdH:Eu). CHN analysis, FTIR, and SEM were employed to characterize the intercalation structures of the as-prepared organic/inorganic hybrids. The area per unit charge (S{sub charge}) was used to explain the intercalation structure and the arrangement of the interlayer guests. Different structures of the two organic compounds resulted in varied arrangement of guests. Photoluminescence studies indicated that both of the two organic compounds especially BA markedly enhanced the red luminescence of Eu{sup 3+} due to efficient energy transfer between the organic guests and Eu{sup 3+} centers.

  16. High-Precision Measurement of Eu/Eu* in Geological Glasses via LA-ICP-MS Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Ming; McDonough, William F.; Arevalo, Ricardo, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Elemental fractionation during laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis has been historically documented between refractory and volatile elements. In this work, however, we observed fractionation between light rare earth elements (LREEs) and heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) when using ablation strategies involving large spot sizes (greater than 100 millimeters) and line scanning mode. In addition: (1) ion yields decrease when using spot sizes above 100 millimeters; (2) (Eu/Eu*)(sub raw) (i.e. Europium anomaly) positively correlates with carrier gas (He) flow rate, which provides control over the particle size distribution of the aerosol reaching the ICP; (3) (Eu/Eu*)(sub raw) shows a positive correlation with spot size, and (4) the changes in REE signal intensity, induced by the He flow rate change, roughly correlate with REE condensation temperatures. The REE fractionation is likely driven by the slight but significant difference in their condensation temperatures. Large particles may not be completely dissociated in the ICP and result in preferential evaporation of the less refractory LREEs and thus non-stoichiometric particle-ion conversion. This mechanism may also be responsible for Sm-Eu-Gd fractionation as Eu is less refractory than Sm and Gd. The extent of fractionation depends upon the particle size distribution of the aerosol, which in turn is influenced by the laser parameters and matrix. Ablation pits and lines defined by low aspect ratios produce a higher proportion of large particles than high aspect ratio ablation, as confirmed by measurements of particle size distribution in the laser induced aerosol. Therefore, low aspect ratio ablation introduces particles that cannot be decomposed and/or atomized by the ICP and thus results in exacerbated elemental fractionation. Accurate quantification of REE concentrations and Eu/Eu* requires reduction of large particle production during laser ablation. For the reference

  17. The Multiplex Network of EU Lobby Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, An; Battiston, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The practice of lobbying in the interest of economic or social groups plays an important role in the policy making process of most economies. While no data is available at this stage to examine the success of lobbies in exerting influence on specific policy issues, we perform a first systematic multi-layer network analysis of a large lobby registry. Here we focus on the domains of finance and climate and we combine information on affiliation and client relations from the EU transparency register with information about shareholding and interlocking directorates of firms. We find that the network centrality of lobby organizations has no simple relation with their lobbying budget. Moreover, different layers of the multiplex network provide complementary information to characterize organizations’ potential influence. At the aggregate level, it appears that while the domains of finance and climate are separated on the layer of affiliation relations, they become intertwined when economic relations are considered. Because groups of interest differ not only in their budget and network centrality but also in terms of their internal cohesiveness, drawing a map of both connections across and within groups is a precondition to better understand the dynamics of influence on policy making and the forces at play. PMID:27792734

  18. Can a bog drained for forestry be a stronger carbon sink than a natural bog forest?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommeltenberg, J.; Schmid, H. P.; Drösler, M.; Werle, P.

    2014-07-01

    This study compares the CO2 exchange of a natural bog forest, and of a bog drained for forestry in the pre-Alpine region of southern Germany. The sites are separated by only 10 km, they share the same soil formation history and are exposed to the same climate and weather conditions. In contrast, they differ in land use history: at the Schechenfilz site a natural bog-pine forest (Pinus mugo ssp. rotundata) grows on an undisturbed, about 5 m thick peat layer; at Mooseurach a planted spruce forest (Picea abies) grows on drained and degraded peat (3.4 m). The net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) at both sites has been investigated for 2 years (July 2010-June 2012), using the eddy covariance technique. Our results indicate that the drained, forested bog at Mooseurach is a much stronger carbon dioxide sink (-130 ± 31 and -300 ± 66 g C m-2 a-1 in the first and second year, respectively) than the natural bog forest at Schechenfilz (-53 ± 28 and -73 ± 38 g C m-2 a-1). The strong net CO2 uptake can be explained by the high gross primary productivity of the 44-year old spruces that over-compensates the two-times stronger ecosystem respiration at the drained site. The larger productivity of the spruces can be clearly attributed to the larger plant area index (PAI) of the spruce site. However, even though current flux measurements indicate strong CO2 uptake of the drained spruce forest, the site is a strong net CO2 source when the whole life-cycle since forest planting is considered. It is important to access this result in terms of the long-term biome balance. To do so, we used historical data to estimate the difference between carbon fixation by the spruces and the carbon loss from the peat due to drainage since forest planting. This rough estimate indicates a strong carbon release of +134 t C ha-1 within the last 44 years. Thus, the spruces would need to grow for another 100 years at about the current rate, to compensate the potential peat loss of the former years. In

  19. Can a bog drained for forestry be a stronger carbon sink than a natural bog forest?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommeltenberg, J.; Schmid, H. P.; Droesler, M.; Werle, P.

    2014-02-01

    This study compares the CO2 exchange of a natural bog forest, and of a bog drained for forestry in the pre-alpine region of southern Germany. The sites are separated by only ten kilometers, they share the same formation history and are exposed to the same climate and weather conditions. In contrast, they differ in land use history: at the Schechenfilz site a natural bog-pine forest (Pinus mugo rotundata) grows on an undisturbed, about 5 m thick peat layer; at Mooseurach a planted spruce forest (Picea abies) grows on drained and degraded peat (3.4 m). The net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) at both sites has been investigated for two years (July 2010 to June 2012), using the eddy covariance technique. Our results indicate that the drained, forested bog at Mooseurach is a much stronger carbon dioxide sink (-130 ± 31 and -300 ± 66 g C m-2 a-1 in the first and second year respectively) than the natural bog forest at Schechenfilz (-53 ± 28 and -73±38 g C m-2 a-1). The strong net CO2 uptake can be explained by the high gross primary productivity of the spruces that over-compensates the two times stronger ecosystem respiration at the drained site. The larger productivity of the spruces can be clearly attributed to the larger LAI of the spruce site. However, even though current flux measurements indicate strong CO2 uptake of the drained spruce forest, the site is a strong net CO2 source, if the whole life-cycle, since forest planting is considered. We determined the difference between carbon fixation by the spruces and the carbon loss from the peat due to drainage since forest planting. The estimate resulted in a strong carbon release of +156 t C ha-1 within the last 44 yr, means the spruces would need to grow for another 100 yr, at the current rate, to compensate the peat loss of the former years. In contrast, the natural bog-pine ecosystem has likely been a small but consistent carbon sink for decades, which our results suggest is very robust regarding short

  20. Preservation of labile organic matter in soils of drained thaw lakes in Northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Carsten W.; Rethemeyer, Janet; Kao-Kniffin, Jenny; Löppmann, Sebastian; Hinkel, Kenneth; Bockheim, James

    2014-05-01

    A large number of studies predict changing organic matter (OM) dynamics in arctic soils due to global warming. In contrast to rather slowly altering bulk soil properties, single soil organic matter (SOM) fractions can provide a more detailed picture of the dynamics of differently preserved SOM pools in climate sensitive arctic regions. By the study of the chemical composition of such distinctive SOM fractions using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) together with radiocarbon analyses it is possible to evaluate the stability of the major OM pools. Approximately 50-75% of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain is covered with thaw lakes and drained thaw lakes that follow a 5,000 yr cycle of development (between creation and final drainage), thus forming a natural soil chronosequence. The drained thaw lakes offer the possibility to study SOM dynamics affected by permafrost processes over millennial timescales. In April 2010 we sampled 16 soil cores (including the active and permanent layer) reaching from young drained lakes (0-50 years since drainage) to ancient drained lakes (3000-5500 years since drainage). Air dried soil samples from soil horizons of the active and permanent layer were subjected to density fractionation in order to differentiate particulate OM and mineral associated OM. The chemical composition of the SOM fractions was analyzed by 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy. For a soil core of a young and an ancient drained thaw lake basin we also analyzed the 14C content. For the studied soils we can show that up to over 25 kg OC per square meter are stored mostly as labile, easily degradable organic matter rich in carbohydrates. In contrast only 10 kg OC per square meter were sequestered as presumably more stable mineral associated OC dominated by aliphatic compounds. Comparable to soils of temperate regions, we found small POM (< 20 µm) occluded in aggregated soil structures which differed in the chemical composition from larger organic particles. This was