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Sample records for eu brain drain

  1. Plumbing the brain drain.

    PubMed

    Saravia, Nancy Gore; Miranda, Juan Francisco

    2004-08-01

    Opportunity is the driving force of migration. Unsatisfied demands for higher education and skills, which have been created by the knowledge-based global economy, have generated unprecedented opportunities in knowledge-intensive service industries. These multi-trillion dollar industries include information, communication, finance, business, education and health. The leading industrialized nations are also the focal points of knowledge-intensive service industries and as such constitute centres of research and development activity that proactively draw in talented individuals worldwide through selective immigration policies, employment opportunities and targeted recruitment. Higher education is another major conduit of talent from less-developed countries to the centres of the knowledge-based global economy. Together career and educational opportunities drive "brain drain and recirculation". The departure of a large proportion of the most competent and innovative individuals from developing nations slows the achievement of the critical mass needed to generate the enabling context in which knowledge creation occurs. To favourably modify the asymmetric movement and distribution of global talent, developing countries must implement bold and creative strategies that are backed by national policies to: provide world-class educational opportunities, construct knowledge-based research and development industries, and sustainably finance the required investment for these strategies. Brazil, China and India have moved in this direction, offering world-class education in areas crucial to national development, such as biotechnology and information technology, paralleled by investments in research and development. As a result, only a small proportion of the most highly educated individuals migrate from these countries, and research and development opportunities employ national talent and even attract immigrants.

  2. Plumbing the brain drain.

    PubMed Central

    Saravia, Nancy Gore; Miranda, Juan Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Opportunity is the driving force of migration. Unsatisfied demands for higher education and skills, which have been created by the knowledge-based global economy, have generated unprecedented opportunities in knowledge-intensive service industries. These multi-trillion dollar industries include information, communication, finance, business, education and health. The leading industrialized nations are also the focal points of knowledge-intensive service industries and as such constitute centres of research and development activity that proactively draw in talented individuals worldwide through selective immigration policies, employment opportunities and targeted recruitment. Higher education is another major conduit of talent from less-developed countries to the centres of the knowledge-based global economy. Together career and educational opportunities drive "brain drain and recirculation". The departure of a large proportion of the most competent and innovative individuals from developing nations slows the achievement of the critical mass needed to generate the enabling context in which knowledge creation occurs. To favourably modify the asymmetric movement and distribution of global talent, developing countries must implement bold and creative strategies that are backed by national policies to: provide world-class educational opportunities, construct knowledge-based research and development industries, and sustainably finance the required investment for these strategies. Brazil, China and India have moved in this direction, offering world-class education in areas crucial to national development, such as biotechnology and information technology, paralleled by investments in research and development. As a result, only a small proportion of the most highly educated individuals migrate from these countries, and research and development opportunities employ national talent and even attract immigrants. PMID:15375451

  3. Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty. Poverty Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damron, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty," released in March 2015 and prepared by intern Neil Damron, explores the brain's basic anatomy and recent research findings suggesting that poverty affects the brain development of infants and young children and the potential lifelong effects of the changes. The sheet draws from a variety of…

  4. Roundtable. Strategies to discourage brain drain.

    PubMed Central

    Kupfer, Linda; Hofman, Karen; Jarawan, Raya; McDermott, Jeanne; Bridbord, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Building health research expertise in developing countries often requires personnel to receive training beyond national borders. For research funding agencies that sponsor this type of training, a major goal is to ensure that trainees return to their country of origin: attaining this objective requires the use of proactive strategies. The strategies described were developed under the extramural acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) International Training and Research Program (AITRP) funded by the Fogarty International Center (FIC) at the National Institutes of Health, United States. This programme supports universities in the United States that provide research training to scientists from developing countries to enable them to address the global epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS and the related tuberculosis (TB) epidemic. This paper describes the strategies employed to discourage brain drain by the principle investigators (PIs) of five of the longest-funded AITRPs (funded for 15 years). Long-term trainees in these programmes spent from 11 to 96 months (an average of 26 months) studying. Using scientific, political and economic strategies that address brain drain issues, PIs working in AITRPs have attained an average rate of return home for their trainees of 80%. PMID:15375452

  5. Rethinking "Brain Drain" in the Era of Globalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Fazal

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses a range of issues concerning the idea of "brain drain" within the context of recent thinking on transnational mobility. It argues that the traditional analyses of brain drain are not sufficient, and that we can usefully approach the topic from a postcolonial perspective concerned with issues of identity, national…

  6. Slowing the brain drain: FAIMER education programs.

    PubMed

    Burdick, William P; Morahan, Page S; Norcini, John J

    2006-11-01

    Migration of physicians has produced serious shortages in many developing countries. The Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research (FAIMER) is attempting to show this international brain drain through creation of faculty development programs for medical school faculty from developing countries in order to strengthen medical education and help build a sustainable discipline of medical education. The goals of these programs are to allow Fellows to acquire basic skills in medical education, skills in leadership and management, and build a strong community of practice. Acquisition of these skills will improve medical education in their home country, stimulate growth of the field of medical education, and improve opportunities for professional advancement. Three programs currently exist: the FAIMER Institute, a two year fellowship with residential and distance learning components; International Fellowships in Medical Education, which funds selected Institute alumni to obtain masters degrees in medical education; and FAIMER regional institutes, which use the principles and structure embedded in the FAIMER Institute to build faculty development programs overseas. Evaluation of FAIMER programs indicates approximately one-third of Fellows have been promoted, and that a community of medical educators is being created in many developing countries which may promote retention of these physicians.

  7. Ethics and policy of medical brain drain: a review.

    PubMed

    Kollar, Eszter; Buyx, Alena

    2013-10-25

    Health-worker migration, commonly called "medical brain drain", refers to the mass migration of trained and skilled health professionals (doctors, nurses, midwives) from low-income to high-income countries. This is currently leaving a significant number of poor countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, with critical staff shortages in the healthcare sector. A broad consensus exists that, where medical brain drain exacerbates such shortages, it is unethical, and this review presents the main arguments underpinning this view. Notwithstanding the general agreement, which policies are justifiable on ethical grounds to tackle brain drain and how best to go about implementing them remains controversial. The review offers a discussion of the specific ethical issues that have to be taken into account when deciding which policy measures to prioritise and suggests a strategy of policy implementation to address medical brain drain as a matter of urgency.

  8. Anomie and the "Brain Drain": A Sociological Explanation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    The concept of anomie is proposed as one sociological variable that may explain the "brain drain" phenomenon (i.e., the movement of highly qualified personnel from their country of origin to another, most often a more developed, technologically advanced country). It is hypothesized that the higher the level of anomie found among…

  9. Brain Drain in Higher Education: Lost Hope or Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odhiambo, George

    2012-01-01

    The flight of human capital is a phenomenon that has been of concern to academics and development practitioners for decades but unfortunately, there is no systematic record of the number of skilled professionals that many African countries have continued to lose to the developed world. Termed the "brain drain", it represents the loss of…

  10. Does State Merit-Based Aid Stem Brain Drain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liang; Ness, Erik C.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors use college enrollment and migration data to test the brain drain hypothesis. Their results suggest that state merit scholarship programs do indeed stanch the migration of "best and brightest" students to other states. In the aggregate and on average, the implementation of state merit aid programs increases the…

  11. Diasporic and Discursive Eruptions in the New Zealand Brain Drain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Human and social capital discourses attempt to explain New Zealand's brain drain. Solutions related to each discourse involve offering incentives for returning or creating links so that expatriates can contribute to their homeland from abroad. Establishing such "diaspora networks" might be the role of adult education. (Contains 43…

  12. Stemming the Impact of Health Professional Brain Drain from Africa: A Systemic Review of Policy Options

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Africa has been losing professionally trained health workers who are the core of the health system of this continent for many years. Faced with an increased burden of disease and coupled by a massive exodus of the health workforce, the health systems of many African nations are risking complete paralysis. Several studies have suggested policy options to reduce brain drain from Africa. The purpose of this paper is to review possible policies, which can stem the impact of health professional brain drain from Africa. A systemic literature review was conducted. Cinahl, Science Direct and PubMed databases were searched with the following terms: health professional brain drain from Africa and policies for reducing impact of brain drain from Africa. References were also browsed for relevant articles. A total of 425 articles were available for the study but only 23 articles met the inclusion criteria. The review identified nine policy options, which were being implemented in Africa, but the most common was task shifting which had success in several African countries. This review has demonstrated that there is considerable consensus on task shifting as the most appropriate and sustainable policy option for reducing the impact of health professional brain drain from Africa.

  13. Is there any solution to the "brain drain" of health professionals and knowledge from Africa?

    PubMed

    Muula, Adamson S

    2005-02-01

    African public health care systems suffer from significant "brain drain" of its health care professionals and knowledge as health workers migrate to wealthier countries such as Australia, Canada, USA, and the United Kingdom. Knowledge generated on the continent is not readily accessible to potential users on the continent. In this paper, the brain drain is defined as both a loss of health workers (hard brain drain) and unavailability of research results to users in Africa (soft brain drain). The "pull" factors of "hard brain drain" include better remuneration and working conditions, possible job satisfaction, and prospects for further education, whereas the "push" factors include a lack of better working conditions including promotion opportunities and career advancement. There is also a lack of essential equipment and non-availability or limited availability of specialist training programs on the continent. The causes of "soft brain drain" include lack of visibility of research results in African journals, better prospects for promotion in academic medicine when a publication has occurred in a northern high impact journal, and probably a cultural limitation because many things of foreign origin are considered superior. Advocates are increasingly discussing not just the pull factors but also the "grab" factors emanating from the developed nations. In order to control or manage the outflow of vital human resources from the developing nations to the developed ones, various possible solutions have been discussed. The moral regard to this issue cannot be under-recognized. However, the dilemma is how to balance personal autonomy, right to economic prosperity, right to personal professional development, and the expectations of the public in relation to adequate public health care services in the developing nations.

  14. Academic Brain Drain: Impact and Implications for Public Higher Education Quality in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odhiambo, George O.

    2013-01-01

    The flight of human capital is a phenomenon that has been of concern to academics and development practitioners for decades. Unfortunately, there is no systematic record of the number of skilled professionals that many African countries have continued to lose to the developed world. Termed the "brain drain", it represents the loss of…

  15. Stopping the Brain Drain of Skilled Veteran Teachers: Retaining and Valuing Their Hard-Won Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fibkins, William L.

    2011-01-01

    Veteran educators are being encouraged to take early retirement in order to create jobs for less-experienced, lower-paid novices. Veteran educators are not alone: early retirement promotions have become the norm for aging workers in America. Consequently, there is a brain-drain of skilled workers at the national, state, and local levels. The early…

  16. Quality Education Improvement: Yemen and the Problem of the "Brain Drain"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthanna, Abdulghani

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the problems that hinder improvement of the quality of education in Yemen, with a particular focus on higher education institutions. It discusses in particular the problem of the brain drain and why this phenomenon is occurring in Yemen. Semi-structured interviews with three professors at higher education…

  17. Reverse Brain Drain of South Asian IT Professionals: A Quantitative Repatriation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppiah, Nithiyananthan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present quantitative correlational study was to examine if a relationship existed between the RBD phenomenon and cultural, economic, or political factors of the native countries of South Asian IT professionals living in the United States. The study on reverse brain drain was conducted to explore a growing phenomenon in the…

  18. The Brain Drain in Mexico--A Subject for Research...or Agenda?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aupetit, Sylvie Didou

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyse the present state of the discussion and data regarding the brain drain in Mexico. From current data, recent trends show certain peculiarities in the national picture, pointing to an increase in the number of free movers, and a decrease in the number of young people who obtain Mexican government…

  19. Beyond Brain Drain: The Dynamics of Geographic Mobility and Educational Attainment of B.C. Young Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andres, Lesley; Licker, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, the topic of "brain drain" has gained considerable attention, both in public and intellectual spheres. Despite the media frenzy, few data sets and related studies exist to examine the nature and extent to which brain drain occurs. The purpose of this study is to extend the scope of the way we think about "brain…

  20. Brain-drain and health care delivery in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Misau, Yusuf Abdu; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Gerei, Adamu Bakari

    2010-01-01

    Migration of health workers ‘Brain drain’ is defined as the movement of health personnel in search of a better standard of living and life quality, higher salaries, access to advanced technology and more stable political conditions in different places worldwide. The debate about migration of health workers from the developing to the developed world has remained pertinent for decades now. Regardless of the push and pull factors, migration of health care workers from developing countries to developed ones, have done more harm than good on the health care deliveries in the developing countries. This article reviews the literature on the effects of cross-border migration of health care professionals. PMID:28299040

  1. Restructuring brain drain: strengthening governance and financing for health worker migration

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Tim K.; Liang, Bryan A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Health worker migration from resource-poor countries to developed countries, also known as ‘‘brain drain’’, represents a serious global health crisis and a significant barrier to achieving global health equity. Resource-poor countries are unable to recruit and retain health workers for domestic health systems, resulting in inadequate health infrastructure and millions of dollars in healthcare investment losses. Methods Using acceptable methods of policy analysis, we first assess current strategies aimed at alleviating brain drain and then propose our own global health policy based solution to address current policy limitations. Results Although governments and private organizations have tried to address this policy challenge, brain drain continues to destabilise public health systems and their populations globally. Most importantly, lack of adequate financing and binding governance solutions continue to fail to prevent health worker brain drain. Conclusions In response to these challenges, the establishment of a Global Health Resource Fund in conjunction with an international framework for health worker migration could create global governance for stable funding mechanisms encourage equitable migration pathways, and provide data collection that is desperately needed. PMID:23336617

  2. Can a brain drain be good for growth in the source economy?

    PubMed

    Mountford, A

    1997-08-01

    "This paper analyzes the interaction between income distribution, human capital accumulation and migration. It shows that when migration is not a certainty, a brain drain may increase average productivity and equality in the source economy even though average productivity is a positive function of past average levels of human capital in an economy. It is also shown how the temporary possibility of emigration may permanently increase the average level of productivity of an economy."

  3. The "brain drain" of health care workers: causes, solutions and the example of Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Lofters, Aisha K

    2012-07-18

    Despite much media attention being given to the physician shortage in Canada in recent years, this shortage pales in comparison to that seen in many middle- and low-income countries. A major cause of the shortage in these countries is the migration of health care workers from developing to developed nations, a phenomenon known as the "brain drain". The loss of these workers is having devastating impacts globally, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean. Causes of the "brain drain" are numerous and include poor working conditions in poorer countries and active recruitment by richer countries. Jamaica has been one of the countries in the Caribbean hardest hit by mass migration of health care workers. The multiple dimensions of Jamaica's health worker "brain drain" illustrate both the complexity of the issues reviewed in this commentary, and the net loss for low- and middle-income countries. Creative and sustainable solutions to the problem are actively being sought globally, but will require commitment and support from all nations as well as from international funding bodies if meaningful impacts on health are to be realized.

  4. [The brain drain, internal migration, and management of human resources in China].

    PubMed

    Ardittis, S

    1990-06-01

    "A major impediment to Third World development, the brain drain in the People's Republic of China originates from a variety of factors which, to a notable extent, differ from more traditional causes identified in most other developing countries. In addition to political management of human resources, the organization itself of the educational system and the regularisation of internal migration are basic causes of China's massive brain emigration. Through various relations maintained by the Chinese Government with its expatriate communities, and in order to promote (and finance) the economic and technological process engaged in the early 1980s, a number of measures and incentives to integrate more rationally the resident professionals and to promote the return of expatriate brains have been adopted.... Uncertainties today impede any clear assessment of the...viability of China's official policy of recognition and integration of national professionals." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  5. Health workforce imbalances in times of globalization: brain drain or professional mobility?

    PubMed

    Marchal, Bruno; Kegels, Guy

    2003-01-01

    The health workforce is of strategic importance to the performance of national health systems as well as of international disease control initiatives. The brain drain from rural to urban areas, and from developing to industrialized countries is a long-standing phenomenon in the health professions but has in recent years taken extreme proportions, particularly in Africa. Adopting the wider perspective of health workforce balances, this paper presents an analysis of the underlying mechanisms of health professional migration and possible strategies to reduce its negative impact on health services. The opening up of international borders for goods and labour, a key strategy in the current liberal global economy, is accompanied by a linguistic shift from 'human capital flight' and 'brain drain' to 'professional mobility' or 'brain circulation'. In reality, this mobility is very asymmetrical, to the detriment of less developed countries, which lose not only much-needed human resources, but also considerable investments in education and fiscal income. It is argued that low professional satisfaction and the decreasing social valuation of the health professionals are important determinants of the decreasing attraction of the health professions, which underlies both the push from the exporting countries, as well as the pull from the recipient countries. Solutions should therefore be based on this wider perspective, interrelating health workforce imbalances between, but also within developing and developed countries.

  6. Immigrant health workers in Chile: is there a Latin American "brain drain"?

    PubMed

    Cabieses, Baltica; Tunstall, Helena

    2012-08-01

    Most research on the phenomenon of "brain drain" (one-way flow of highly skilled/educated individuals) has focused on movement between the least developed and most highly developed countries. Therefore, the significance of patterns of migration to middle-income countries such as those in Latin America is less clear. The aim of this study was to outline key features of international health worker "brain drain" to Chile to promote discussion and further research on this phenomenon as it pertains to the Latin American region. The study compared immigrant health workers living in Chile to both Chilean-born health workers and other immigrants living in Chile using a qualitative nationwide dataset (the results of Chile's 2009 National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey). Demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables were included in the analyses, which were weighted by population to obtain nationally representative estimates. In 2009, immigrant health workers represented 2.2% of all health personnel and 2.6% of all resident immigrants in the country. While most immigrant health workers had a universitylevel education, about 25% had only a high school-level education or less. There was no statistically significant difference between the distribution of immigrant health workers' household income and that of Chilean-born health workers. A significantly higher proportion of the immigrant group reported no entitlement to health care provision. While the results of this study do not indicate a significant international health worker "brain drain" to Chile, they do suggest distinctive patterns of migration within the Latin American region. Future studies in Chile could confirm the validity of these results, using a larger sample of immigrant health workers.

  7. Developing Science: Scientific Performance and Brain Drains in the Developing World

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Bruce A.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing a strong scientific community is important as countries develop, which requires both producing and retaining of important scientists. We show that developing countries produce a sizeable number of important scientists, but that they experience a tremendous brain drain. Education levels, population, and per capita GDP are positively related to the number of important scientists born in and staying in a country. Our analysis indicates that democracy and urbanization are associated with the production of more important scientists although democracy is associated with more out-migration. PMID:27152061

  8. Developing Science: Scientific Performance and Brain Drains in the Developing World.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Bruce A

    2011-05-01

    Establishing a strong scientific community is important as countries develop, which requires both producing and retaining of important scientists. We show that developing countries produce a sizeable number of important scientists, but that they experience a tremendous brain drain. Education levels, population, and per capita GDP are positively related to the number of important scientists born in and staying in a country. Our analysis indicates that democracy and urbanization are associated with the production of more important scientists although democracy is associated with more out-migration.

  9. A dural lymphatic vascular system that drains brain interstitial fluid and macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Aspelund, Aleksanteri; Antila, Salli; Proulx, Steven T.; Karlsen, Tine Veronica; Karaman, Sinem; Detmar, Michael; Wiig, Helge

    2015-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is considered an organ devoid of lymphatic vasculature. Yet, part of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains into the cervical lymph nodes (LNs). The mechanism of CSF entry into the LNs has been unclear. Here we report the surprising finding of a lymphatic vessel network in the dura mater of the mouse brain. We show that dural lymphatic vessels absorb CSF from the adjacent subarachnoid space and brain interstitial fluid (ISF) via the glymphatic system. Dural lymphatic vessels transport fluid into deep cervical LNs (dcLNs) via foramina at the base of the skull. In a transgenic mouse model expressing a VEGF-C/D trap and displaying complete aplasia of the dural lymphatic vessels, macromolecule clearance from the brain was attenuated and transport from the subarachnoid space into dcLNs was abrogated. Surprisingly, brain ISF pressure and water content were unaffected. Overall, these findings indicate that the mechanism of CSF flow into the dcLNs is directly via an adjacent dural lymphatic network, which may be important for the clearance of macromolecules from the brain. Importantly, these results call for a reexamination of the role of the lymphatic system in CNS physiology and disease. PMID:26077718

  10. Return of talent programs: rationale and evaluation criteria for programs to ameliorate a 'brain drain'.

    PubMed

    Keely, C B

    1986-03-01

    The term, brain drain, describes the loss of skilled professionals and the nonreturn of students from advanced study abroad. It is now used almost exclusively in reference to mobility from less developed countries to more developed countries. Controversy centers on whether needed skills are being drawn off unfairly at subsidized rates from developing to developed countries or whether excess capability is being utilized in developed countries rather than underemployed or wasted at home. Some causes of high level personnel migration include: 1) wage differentials between sending and receiving countries; 2) absence of opportunities for career development or mobility for reasons other than merit or accomplishment; 3) lack of high quality facilities, equipment, time, and other costly supports in developing countries; 4) employer's lack of knowledge of employee work and the resulting wages; and 5) political disagreement or persecution. Prospects for closing wage gaps and upgrading working conditions on a large scale in developing countries are dim. Growth of the labor force coupled with national needs that are not congruent with professions requiring costly facilities, supplies, and equipment make this a slim possibility. Increasing career mobility possibilities seems to be a more promising route to reducing brain drain. One form of preventive measure is offering study abroad which requires service at the end of the study period; a variation is to guarantee employment for university graduates or for certain sectors, such as scientists. Restructuring decisions on hiring and promotion would have a positive effect, as would developing a better evaluation of expected productivity by type of training. Successful return of talent programs will be relatively modest in terms of the number of people returning and should be thought of as a part of human capital investment. Programs that are concerned with filling positions rather than with luring talent home are more likely to be

  11. More Than the Brain's Drain: Does Cerebrospinal Fluid Help the Brain Convey Messages?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, John

    1999-01-01

    Examines the role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a clear, colorless liquid that constantly bathes the brain and spinal cord. Scientists argue that cerebrospinal fluid carries important signals for sleep, appetite, and sex. Evaluates past and current research documenting the purpose of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain. (CCM)

  12. Brain train to combat brain drain; focus on exercise strategies that optimise neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Burley, Claire V; Bailey, Damian M; Marley, Christopher J; Lucas, Samuel J E

    2016-07-22

    The prevalence of cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. stroke and dementia) is increasing. Numerous studies show that regular exercise has beneficial effects on brain health in clinical and non-clinical populations, yet adherence to public health exercise guidelines is notoriously poor. Recently, novel exercise strategies have been investigated to allow for more individualised and prescriptive approaches that target the key mechanistic pathways that allow exercise to mediate adaptation. This work exploring alternative approaches to the traditional model of exercise training has demonstrated exciting potential for positive health-related adaptations (especially for metabolic, muscle and cardiovascular function). However, few studies to date have focused on brain adaptations. The aim of this review is to summarise new and innovative interventions that have the potential to optimise exercise for improved brain health (i.e., brain structure and function). First, we will briefly summarise current understanding of the nature whereby positive effects of exercise deliver their influence on the brain (i.e., underlying mechanisms and factors affecting its delivery). We will then introduce the effects of exercise training on cognition and give examples of studies showing the beneficial effects of exercise in clinical populations. Finally, we will explore the adaptive roles of individual stressors that may induce greater health-related adaptations in the brain than exercise alone, including environmental stressors (hydrostatic stress, thermal stress and hypoxia), nutritional supplementation and cognitive loading. In summary, optimised interventions that target key mechanistic pathways linked to improved brain structure and function could ultimately protect against and/or ameliorate cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Wisconsin's Shrinking Educational Advantage: The Internal "Brain Drain" Reexamined. Wisconsin Policy Research Institute Report, Volume 2, No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durden, William G.

    A one-year follow-up study of a 1988 report on Wisconsin's internal "brain drain" indicates that the state's historic educational advantage is shrinking. Assessment of performance on the American College Testing Program (ACT), the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT), and the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) reveals that scores are…

  14. The Impact of Baby Boomer Retirement and Reverse Migration That Results in Corporate Brain Drain in Corporation in Developed Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner-Parker, Bobbie J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to identify whether the corporate brain drain that results as baby boomers retire and highly educated skilled immigrants return to their nations of origin, or to other developing nations, impact corporations in developed countries; and identify effective solutions firms are using to address the void of…

  15. Refugee flow or brain-drain? The humanitarian policy and post-Tiananmen mainland Chinese immigration to Canada.

    PubMed

    Liu X-f

    1997-03-01

    "The humanitarian policy that the Canadian government implemented in response to the 1989 Tiananmen Square crackdown changed a migration system primarily based on personal networks into a brain drain. Post-Tiananmen mainland Chinese immigrants (MCIs) were better educated than those arriving in Canada previously. Among the post-Tiananmen MCIs, those who landed under the policy were better educated than those landing in other categories. The analysis suggests that post-Tiananmen MCIs represented a brain-drain rather than a refugee flow, that the humanitarian policy implicitly contained ideological and human capital concerns in addition to humanitarian concerns, and that Canada benefited from the policy by obtaining human capital as well as satisfying its humanitarian obligations and ideological aspirations."

  16. The 'Brain Drain' of physicians: historical antecedents to an ethical debate, c. 1960–79

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David; Flis, Nathan; Gupta, Mona

    2008-01-01

    Many western industrialized countries are currently suffering from a crisis in health human resources, one that involves a debate over the recruitment and licensing of foreign-trained doctors and nurses. The intense public policy interest in foreign-trained medical personnel, however, is not new. During the 1960s, western countries revised their immigration policies to focus on highly-trained professionals. During the following decade, hundreds of thousands of health care practitioners migrated from poorer jurisdictions to western industrialized countries to solve what were then deemed to be national doctor and nursing 'shortages' in the developed world. Migration plummeted in the 1980s and 1990s only to re-emerge in the last decade as an important debate in global health care policy and ethics. This paper will examine the historical antecedents to this ethical debate. It will trace the early articulation of the idea of a 'brain drain', one that emerged from the loss of NHS doctors to other western jurisdictions in the 1950s and 1960s. Only over time did the discussion turn to the 'manpower' losses of 'third world countries', but the inability to track physician migration, amongst other variables, muted any concerted ethical debate. By contrast, the last decade's literature has witnessed a dramatically different ethical framework, informed by globalization, the rise of South Africa as a source donor country, and the ongoing catastrophe of the AIDS epidemic. Unlike the literature of the early 1970s, recent scholarship has focussed on a new framework of global ethics. PMID:19000306

  17. B cells populating the multiple sclerosis brain mature in the draining cervical lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Joel N. H.; Yaari, Gur; Vander Heiden, Jason A.; Church, George; Donahue, William F.; Hintzen, Rogier Q.; Huttner, Anita J.; Laman, Jon D.; Nagra, Rashed M.; Nylander, Alyssa; Pitt, David; Ramanan, Sriram; Siddiqui, Bilal A.; Vigneault, Francois; Kleinstein, Steven H.; Hafler, David A.; O’Connor, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by autoimmune mediated demyelination and neurodegeneration. The CNS of patients with MS harbors expanded clones of antigen-experienced B cells that reside in distinct compartments including the meninges, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and parenchyma. It is not understood whether this immune infiltrate initiates its development in the CNS or in peripheral tissues. B cells in the CSF can exchange with those in peripheral blood, implying that CNS B cells may have access to lymphoid tissue that may be the specific compartment(s) in which CNS resident B cells encounter antigen and experience affinity maturation. In this study, paired tissues were used to determine whether the B cells that populate the CNS mature in the draining cervical lymph nodes (CLNs). High-throughput sequencing of the antibody repertoire demonstrated that clonally expanded B cells were present in both compartments. Founding members of clonal families were more often found in the draining CLNs. More mature clonal family members derived from these founders were observed in the draining CLNs and also in the CNS, including lesions. These data provide new evidence that B cells traffic freely across the tissue barrier with the majority of B cell maturation occurring outside of the CNS in the secondary lymphoid tissue. Our study may aid in further defining the mechanisms of immunomodulatory therapies that either deplete circulating B cells or impact the intrathecal B cell compartment by inhibiting lymphocyte transmigration into the CNS. PMID:25100741

  18. Higher Education and Global Talent Flows: Brain Drain, Overseas Chinese Intellectuals, and Diasporic Knowledge Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Anthony R.; Zhen, Zhang

    2008-01-01

    In the global era, transnational flows of highly skilled individuals are increasing. In the much-touted global knowledge economy, the contribution of such diasporic individuals and the knowledge networks that they sustain are recognized as being of increasing importance. Brain circulation is of critical importance to the "giant…

  19. Brain drain: the cost of neglected responsibilities in evaluating cumulative effects of environmental chemicals.

    PubMed

    Maffini, Maricel V; Neltner, Thomas G

    2015-05-01

    Developmental disabilities affect millions of people and have a great impact on their lives, their families and the societies where they live. The prevalence of disorders such as autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as well as subclinical decrements in brain function cannot be explained solely as genetic diseases. Exposures to environmental chemicals, especially during prenatal and early postnatal life, are one likely explanation for some of the decrements. The current chemical risk assessment approach is typically based on the toxicity caused by a single chemical on a variety of organs without acknowledging additional exposures to other chemicals also affecting the same organ or system. We identified more than 300 chemicals allowed in food that may have potential harmful effects on the developing brain. Each individual chemical may or may not have a harmful effect if it were the only one present, but we know next to nothing about their cumulative biological effects on the brain. An expanded cumulative risk assessment approach is needed, and it should focus on health outcomes, like developmental disabilities, arising from the accumulation of effects of multiple chemicals on the brain. The laws regulating the safety of additives already require that regulators in Europe and the USA consider cumulative effects; so far, they seem to have neglected the mandate. We must move beyond treating chemical exposures as isolated incidents and look at their cumulative biological effects on organs and their role in the onset of chronic diseases. The time has come to overhaul chemical risk assessment.

  20. Brain Abscess Associated with Isolated Left Superior Vena Cava Draining into the Left Atrium in the Absence of Coronary Sinus and Atrial Septal Defect

    SciTech Connect

    Erol, Ilknur Cetin, I. Ilker; Alehan, Fuesun; Varan, Birguel; Ozkan, Sueleyman; Agildere, A. Muhtesem; Tokel, Kursad

    2006-06-15

    A previously healthy 12-year-old girl presented with severe headache for 2 weeks. On physical examination, there was finger clubbing without apparent cyanosis. Neurological examination revealed only papiledema without focal neurologic signs. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging showed the characteristic features of brain abscess in the left frontal lobe. Cardiologic workup to exclude a right-to-left shunt showed an abnormality of the systemic venous drainage: presence of isolated left superior vena cava draining into the left atrium in the absence of coronary sinus and atrial septal defect. This anomaly is rare, because only a few other cases have been reported.

  1. From the Skin to the Brain: Pathophysiology of Colonization and Infection of External Ventricular Drain, a Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Fabrice; Martin, Mathieu; Attias, Arie; Aït-Mamar, Bouziane; Gabriel, Inanna; Bekaert, Olivier; Bardon, Jean; Nebbad, Biba; Plaud, Benoît; Dhonneur, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Ventriculostomy-related infection (VRI) is a serious complication of external ventricular drain (EVD) but its natural history is poorly studied. We prospectively tracked the bacteria pathways from skin towards ventricles to identify the infectious process resulting in ventriculostomy-related colonization (VRC), and VRI. We systematically sampled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on a daily basis and collected swabs from both the skin and stopcock every 3.0 days for microbiological analysis including in 101 neurosurgical patient. Risk factors for positive event defined as either VRC or VRI were recorded and related to our microbiological findings. A total of 1261 CSF samples, 473 skin swabs, and 450 stopcock swabs were collected. Skin site was more frequently colonized than stopcock (70 (60%) vs 34 (29%), p = 0.023), and earlier (14 ±1.4 vs 24 ±1.5 days, p<0.0001). Sixty-one (52%) and 32 (27%) skin and stopcock sites were colonized with commensal bacteria, 1 (1%) and 1 (1%) with pathogens, 8 (7%) and 1 (1%) with combined pathogens and commensal bacteria, respectively. Sixteen positive events were diagnosed; a cutaneous origin was identified in 69% of cases. The presence of a pathogen at skin site (6/16 vs 4/85, OR: 11.8, [2.5–56.8], p = 0.002) and CSF leakage (7/16 vs 6/85, OR 10 [2.4–41.2], p = 0.001)) were the two independent significant risk factors statistically linked to positive events occurrence. Our results suggest that VRC and VRI mainly results from an extra-luminal progression of pathogens initially colonizing the skin site where CSF leaks. PMID:26555597

  2. From the Skin to the Brain: Pathophysiology of Colonization and Infection of External Ventricular Drain, a Prospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Mounier, Roman; Lobo, David; Cook, Fabrice; Martin, Mathieu; Attias, Arie; Aït-Mamar, Bouziane; Gabriel, Inanna; Bekaert, Olivier; Bardon, Jean; Nebbad, Biba; Plaud, Benoît; Dhonneur, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Ventriculostomy-related infection (VRI) is a serious complication of external ventricular drain (EVD) but its natural history is poorly studied. We prospectively tracked the bacteria pathways from skin towards ventricles to identify the infectious process resulting in ventriculostomy-related colonization (VRC), and VRI. We systematically sampled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on a daily basis and collected swabs from both the skin and stopcock every 3.0 days for microbiological analysis including in 101 neurosurgical patient. Risk factors for positive event defined as either VRC or VRI were recorded and related to our microbiological findings. A total of 1261 CSF samples, 473 skin swabs, and 450 stopcock swabs were collected. Skin site was more frequently colonized than stopcock (70 (60%) vs 34 (29%), p = 0.023), and earlier (14 ±1.4 vs 24 ±1.5 days, p<0.0001). Sixty-one (52%) and 32 (27%) skin and stopcock sites were colonized with commensal bacteria, 1 (1%) and 1 (1%) with pathogens, 8 (7%) and 1 (1%) with combined pathogens and commensal bacteria, respectively. Sixteen positive events were diagnosed; a cutaneous origin was identified in 69% of cases. The presence of a pathogen at skin site (6/16 vs 4/85, OR: 11.8, [2.5-56.8], p = 0.002) and CSF leakage (7/16 vs 6/85, OR 10 [2.4-41.2], p = 0.001)) were the two independent significant risk factors statistically linked to positive events occurrence. Our results suggest that VRC and VRI mainly results from an extra-luminal progression of pathogens initially colonizing the skin site where CSF leaks.

  3. Drain vs No Drain After Colorectal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Tsujinaka, Shingo; Konishi, Fumio

    2011-03-01

    In colorectal surgery, drains are expected to prevent hematoma, fluid collection, or abscess formation, to act as an indicator of postoperative complication, or to minimize the severity of complication-related symptoms. Routine drainage has not been advocated by meta-analyses as they failed to demonstrate any benefit in reducing anastomotic leak rate, minimizing symptoms, or serving as a warning function. Moreover, some reports even showed that drain itself is an independent risk factor of anastomosis. The introduction of total mesorectal excision (TME) for rectal cancer surgery has given further concern to this controversial issue, that the use of drain decreased anastomotic failure rate and the need for surgical re-intervention. While controversy still remains, the choice of using drain is left to the individual surgeon's preference in daily practice. Therefore, surgeons should be well acquainted with purpose of drainage (prophylaxis, information, or treatment), characteristics (materials), clinical application of drain (type of drainage system, timing of removal), surgical outcomes after using drain (incidence of postoperative complication), and drain-related complications. If drains are used, careful observation with proper use is crucial for the management. It is important that the duration of drainage should not be inadequately extended. Any complications directly associated with the use of drain should be avoided. New concepts of drain have been proposed as diagnostic tool using biomarkers, and as preventive device against anastomotic leak. This article overviews the available, published data on the use of drain in colorectal surgery.

  4. Brain Drain and Foreign Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Lakshmana G.

    The effect of foreign students on the host country, and the benefits to their own developing countries are studied in this book. Data from a survey of foreign students in Australia conducted from 1973-1975 by the Education Research Unit of the Australian National University are compared with data obtained from similar surveys in the United States,…

  5. NEUROBID--an EU-funded project to study the developing brain barriers.

    PubMed

    Bueter, Wolfgang; Saunders, Norman R; Mallard, Carina; Bauer, Hans-Christian; Stolp, Helen B; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Dammann, Olaf

    2010-08-01

    Brain diseases are one of the most prevalent groups of diseases in Europe with estimated annual costs amounting to euro386 billion. Data collected by the WHO suggest that brain diseases are responsible for 35% of Europe's total disease burden. In the treatment of neurological disease, the blood brain barrier (BBB) still represents an obstacle for the delivery of drugs to the brain and thus a major challenge for the development of therapeutic regimens. Understanding the molecular basis and functioning of the BBB in health and disease, including transport mechanisms across the BBB, therefore holds significant potential for future strategies to prevent and ameliorate neurological disease. Recent research indicates that some neurological disorders have a developmental etiologic component. The major goal of the NEUROBID project is thus to understand the molecular mechanisms and function of the BBB in health and disease both in the developing brain and the adult central nervous system. With an interdisciplinary consortium from the fields of developmental neurobiology and BBB research, NEUROBID aims to (i) understand the involvement of normal and disturbed BBB function in normal and abnormal brain development and (ii) to develop novel strategies for drug delivery to the brain. Unique transport mechanisms across the BBB will be used to target potential therapeutic macromolecular and cellular agents specifically to the brain barriers and transport them into the brain. The main target disorders of NEUROBID are non-inherited neurodevelopmental disorders arising from perinatal adverse exposure, such as cerebral palsy, and classic adult neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis and stroke. In the long term, NEUROBID hopes to pave the way for new treatment strategies and thus reduce the economic and social burden of neurological disease.

  6. The Draining Cylinder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James Graham-Eagle

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the time it takes for a liquid to drain from a cylindrical container through a hole in the bottom. Using dimensional analysis and some thought experiments this time is determined and Torricelli's law derived as a consequence. Finally, the effect of pouring liquid into the container as it drains is considered.

  7. Pavement base drain evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, G. L.

    1981-06-01

    Portions of a highway drainage system design was revised. Essentially, the longitudinal drainage trench was moved closer to the pavement/shoulder joint, and the fine concrete sand layer was eliminated as a trench backfill material. The specified backfill material is a coarser crushed aggregate (pea gravel). An evaluation of the effects of these changes on pavement performance is given and the new pavement base drain system is compared to the older pipe foundation underdrain system at the same site.

  8. An Inevitable Moment: US Brain Drain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppola, Brian P.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Brian Coppola begins by discussing the 2007 National Academies of Sciences (NAS) publication, "Rising Above the Gathering Storm" which called for for reprioritizing investments because "the world is changing rapidly, and our advantages are no longer unique. Without a renewed effort to bolster the foundations of our…

  9. Brain drain threat to Australian science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Around half of all academics in Australia intend to retire, move to an overseas university or leave Australian higher education within the next 10 years, according to a survey of more than 5500 researchers based at 20 universities in the country.

  10. Brain Migration Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinokur, Annie

    2006-01-01

    The "brain drain/brain gain" debate has been going on for the past 40 years, with irresolvable theoretical disputes and unenforceable policy recommendations that economists commonly ascribe to the lack of reliable empirical data. The recent report of the World Bank, "International migration, remittances and the brain drain", documents the…

  11. Effect of heat stress on endotoxin flux across mesenteric-drained and portal-drained viscera of dairy goat.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Xue, B; Wang, K; Li, S; Li, Z

    2011-08-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of heat stress on endotoxin flux across mesenteric-drained and portal-drained viscera of dairy goats. Three Saanen first lactation dairy goats were surgically fitted with indwelling catheters in the portal vein, the mesenteric vein and carotid, and were kept in thermal-neutral and then heat stress environment, for examining the effect of heat stress on endotoxin absorption and redox status. Average net absorption of endotoxin (EU/h) across mesenteric-drained viscera (MDV) and portal-drained viscera (PDV) during the whole period of heat stress increased by 279.05% and 227.92% in relation to thermo-neutral period. Plasma concentration of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) in mesenteric and portal vein, and that of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in mesenteric vein, increased significantly during heat stress. Main conclusions were: (i) net absorption of endotoxin in portal vein is mainly from non-mesenteric tissues both in heat stress and in thermo-neutral condition; (ii) heat stress may lead to the significant decrease in plasma SOD, GSH-Px, CAT flux across PDV and MDV, and the significant increase in endotoxin flux across PDV and MDV; and (iii) the increase in gastrointestinal permeability in dairy goats during heat stress may not be induced by the increase in oxidative stress.

  12. No drain, autologous transfusion drain or suction drain? A randomised prospective study in total hip replacement surgery of 168 patients.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Graham; Carmont, Michael R; Bing, Andrew J F; Kuiper, Jan-Herman; Alcock, Robert J; Graham, Niall M

    2010-10-01

    We performed a prospective, randomised controlled trial to assess the differences in the use of a conventional suction drain, an Autologous Blood Transfusion (ABT) drain and no drain, in 168 patients. There was no significant difference between the drainage from ABT drains ( mean : 345 ml) and the suction drain (314 ml). Forty percent of patients receiving a suction drain had a haemoglobin level less than 10 g/dL at 24 hours, compared to 35% with no drain and 28% with an ABT drain. Patients that had no drains had wounds that were dry significantly sooner, mean 3.0 days compared to a mean of 3.9 days with an ABT drain and a mean of 4 days with a suction drain. Patients that did not have a drain inserted stayed in hospital a significantly shorter period of time, compared with drains. We feel the benefits of quicker drying wounds, shorter hospital stays and the economic savings justify the conclusion that no drain is required after hip replacement.

  13. 21 CFR 884.3200 - Cervical drain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cervical drain. 884.3200 Section 884.3200 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Prosthetic Devices § 884.3200 Cervical drain. (a) Identification. A cervical drain is a device designed to provide an exit channel for...

  14. Brain Drain, Brain Gain, and Mobility: Theories and Prospective Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalowiecki, Bohdan; Gorzelak, Grzegorz Jerzy

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents some theoretical and methodological considerations associated with the geographical and professional mobility of science professionals, including the conduct by the authors of a large scale survey questionnaire in Poland in 1994. It does not directly relate to research conducted elsewhere in the region, but does reflect…

  15. Safety drain system for fluid reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Cronise, Raymond J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A safety drain system includes a plurality of drain sections, each of which defines distinct fluid flow paths. At least a portion of the fluid flow paths commence at a side of the drain section that is in fluid communication with a reservoir's fluid. Each fluid flow path at the side communicating with the reservoir's fluid defines an opening having a smallest dimension not to exceed approximately one centimeter. The drain sections are distributed over at least one surface of the reservoir. A manifold is coupled to the drain sections.

  16. The Brain Rotation and Brain Diffusion Strategies of Small Islanders: Considering "Movement" in Lieu of "Place"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldacchino, Godfrey

    2006-01-01

    The "brain drain" phenomenon is typically seen as a zero-sum game, where one party's gain is presumed to be another's drain. This corresponds to deep-seated assumptions about what is "home" and what is "away". This article challenges the view, driven by much "brain drain" literature, that the dynamic is an…

  17. Americium/curium bushing melter drain tests

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.E.; Hardy, B.J.; Smith, M.E.

    1997-07-01

    Americium and curium were produced in the past at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for research, medical, and radiological applications. They have been stored in a nitric acid solution in an SRS reprocessing facility for a number of years. Vitrification of the americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution will allow the material to be safely stored or transported to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. Oak Ridge is responsible for marketing radionuclides for research and medical applications. The bushing melter technology being used in the Am/Cm vitrification research work is also under consideration for the stabilization of other actinides such as neptunium and plutonium. A series of melter drain tests were conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center to determine the relationship between the drain tube assembly operating variables and the resulting pour initiation times, glass flowrates, drain tube temperatures, and stop pour times. Performance criteria such as ability to start and stop pours in a controlled manner were also evaluated. The tests were also intended to provide support of oil modeling of drain tube performance predictions and thermal modeling of the drain tube and drain tube heater assembly. These drain tests were instrumental in the design of subsequent melter drain tube and drain tube heaters for the Am/Cm bushing melter, and therefore in the success of the Am/Cm vitrification and plutonium immobilization programs.

  18. 14 CFR 25.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 25.1021 Section 25.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 25.1021 Section 25.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  20. 14 CFR 27.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 27.1021 Section 27.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be accessible; and...

  1. 14 CFR 27.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 27.1021 Section 27.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be accessible; and...

  2. 14 CFR 29.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 29.1021 Section 29.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  3. 14 CFR 27.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 27.1021 Section 27.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be accessible; and...

  4. 14 CFR 27.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 27.1021 Section 27.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be accessible; and...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 25.1021 Section 25.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 25.1021 Section 25.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  7. 14 CFR 29.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 29.1021 Section 29.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  8. 14 CFR 29.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 29.1021 Section 29.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  9. Unsteady draining flows from a rectangular tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Lawrence K.; Hocking, Graeme C.

    2007-08-01

    Two-dimensional, unsteady flow of a two-layer fluid in a tank is considered. Each fluid is inviscid and flows irrotationally. The lower, denser fluid flows with constant speed out through a drain hole of finite width in the bottom of the tank. The upper, lighter fluid is recharged at the top of the tank, with an input volume flux that matches the outward flux through the drain. As a result, the interface between the two fluids moves uniformly downwards, and is eventually withdrawn through the drain hole. However, waves are present at the interface, and they have a strong effect on the time at which the interface is first drawn into the drain. A linearized theory valid for small extraction rates is presented. Fully nonlinear, unsteady solutions are computed by means of a novel numerical technique based on Fourier series. For impulsive start of the drain, the nonlinear results are found to agree with the linearized theory initially, but the two theories differ markedly as the interface approaches the drain and nonlinear effects dominate. For wide drains, curvature singularities appear to form at the interface within finite time.

  10. Might digital drains speed up the time to thoracic drain removal?

    PubMed

    Afoke, Jonathan; Tan, Carol; Hunt, Ian; Zakkar, Mustafa

    2014-07-01

    A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: might digital drains speed up the time to thoracic drain removal in terms of time till chest drain removal, hospital stay and overall cost? A total of 296 papers were identified as a result of the search as described below. Of these, five papers provided the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of the papers are tabulated. A literature search revealed that several single-centre prospective randomized studies have shown significantly earlier removal of chest drains with digital drains ranging between 0.8 and 2.1 days sooner. However, there was heterogeneity in studies in the management protocol of chest drains in terms of the use of suction, number of drains and assessment for drain removal. Some protocols such as routinely keeping drains irrespective of the presence of air leak or drain output may have skewed results. Differences in exclusion criteria and protocols for discharging home with portable devices may have biased results. Due to heterogeneity in the management protocol of chest drains, there is conflicting evidence regarding hospital stay. The limited data on cost suggest that there may be significantly lower postoperative costs in the digital drain group. All the studies were single-centre series generally including patients with good preoperative lung function tests. Further larger studies with more robust chest drain management protocols are required especially to assess length of hospital stay, cost and whether the results are applicable to a larger patient population.

  11. SEEPAGE, a new MODFLOW DRAIN package.

    PubMed

    Batelaan, O; De Smedt, F

    2004-01-01

    The prediction of the location of ground water discharge areas is a key aspect for the protection and (re)development of ground water-dependent wetlands. Ground water discharge areas can be simulated with MODFLOW using the DRAIN package by setting the drain level equal to the topography, while the conductance is mostly set to an arbitrary high value. However, conceptual and practical problems arise in the calculation of the ground water discharge by the DRAIN package as calculated water tables above the land surface, difficult parameterization of the conductance, and large water balance errors. To overcome these problems, a new SEEPAGE package for MODFLOW is proposed. The basic idea of this package is an adaptable constant head cell. It has a variable head, unless the ground water rises above the seepage level, in which case it has a constant head cell. The estimation of the ground water discharge location along a homogeneous, isotropic, linear sloping profile is used to verify the model and to compare it to the DRAIN solution. In an application to three basins in Belgium, it is shown that the SEEPAGE package can be used in combination with the DRAIN package in situations where an upper boundary for a free water table and additional resistance for drainage is required. It is clearly demonstrated that the identification and delineation of regional ground water discharge areas is more accurate using the SEEPAGE package.

  12. 3. DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING, REINFORCED CONCRETE MUSHROOM COLUMNS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING, REINFORCED CONCRETE MUSHROOM COLUMNS WITH DROP PANELS SUPPORTING DRAINING BINS (IRON VALVES OF DRAINING BINS ARE EMBEDDED IN THE CEILING), VIEW LOOKING WEST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand Draining & Drying Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  13. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each...

  17. 7 CFR 52.3755 - Minimum drained weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3755 Minimum drained weights. (a... drained weight of canned ripe olives is determined by emptying the contents of the container upon a U.S... allow to drain for 2 minutes. The weight of drained olives is the weight of the sieve and product...

  18. 7 CFR 52.3755 - Minimum drained weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3755 Minimum drained weights. (a... drained weight of canned ripe olives is determined by emptying the contents of the container upon a U.S... allow to drain for 2 minutes. The weight of drained olives is the weight of the sieve and product...

  19. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  20. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  1. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  2. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  3. Comparison of Postoperative Drain Insertion versus No Drain Insertion in Thyroidectomies

    PubMed Central

    Al-Habsi, Asma S.; Al-Sulaimani, Al-Anood K.; Taqi, Kadhim M.; Al-Qadhi, Hani A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives A thyroidectomy is a frequently performed surgical procedure which can result in life-threatening complications. The insertion of a drain after a thyroidectomy has been suggested to prevent such complications. This study aimed to evaluate the use of surgical drains following thyroidectomies in relation to postoperative complications and mass sizes. Methods This retrospective case-control study included all thyroidectomies conducted at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, from January 2011 to December 2013. Length of hospital stay, readmission, postoperative complications and mass size were evaluated. Results During the study period, 250 surgeries were carried out on 241 patients. The majority of patients were female (87.2%). Drains were inserted postoperatively after 202 surgeries (80.8%) compared to 48 surgeries (19.2%) without drains. A total of 32 surgeries (12.8%) were conducted on patients with thyroid masses <1 cm, 138 (55.2%) on those with masses between 1–4 cm and 80 (32.0%) on those with masses >4 cm. The association between drain use and mass size was not significant (P = 0.439). Although postoperative complications were more prevalent in patients with drains, the relationship between these factors was not significant (P >0.050). Length of hospital stay was significantly longer among patients with postoperative drains (P <0.010). Conclusion The routine insertion of drains after thyroid surgeries was found to result in longer hospital stays and did not reduce rates of post-thyroidectomy complications. Thyroid mass size should not be used as an indicator for the insertion of a drain after thyroidectomy. PMID:28003893

  4. Brain drain adds to AIDS crisis in developing world.

    PubMed

    Green, Stanley

    2006-01-01

    Thousands of desperately needed doctors and other medical professionals leave poor countries because no one there can pay them, or provide safe and effective working conditions. Many go to English-speaking countries that do not train enough medical professionals themselves--such as the U.S., where a quarter of the doctors are foreign trained.

  5. Marketing Educational Improvements via International Partnerships under Brain Drain Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Weslynne; Wagman, Liad

    2015-01-01

    We study the dynamics in an educational partnership between a university and a developing region. We examine how the university achieves its goals to improve and advertise its offerings while recruiting a cohort of students from the developing region and maintaining a sustainable relationship with the region and its students. We show that mutually…

  6. Strategic Brain Drain: Implications for Higher Education in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Barwani, Thuwayba; Chapman, David W.; Ameen, Hana

    2009-01-01

    Oman will soon be producing three times more college graduates than there are jobs available in the country each year, forcing graduates to seek employment outside of Oman. Their success in securing and holding employment will be based more on training and performance than might be the case if they were working in Oman. If graduates find that the…

  7. Emigration, Internationalization, and "Brain Drain": Propensities among British Academics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Jack H.

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 2,017 British university faculty found that over 40% were seriously considering moving abroad, with a substantial majority favoring the United States. Other variables examined include academic field, research versus teaching orientation, academic rank, age, gender, political identification, former polytechnic versus university…

  8. The new brain drain from Eastern to Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Ardittis, S

    1992-01-01

    "The purpose of this article is to review major issues associated with the flow of expertise from Eastern to Western Europe.... Four interrelated areas are explored: (i) the levels and factors of current East-West skilled migration; (ii) the needs for future policy-oriented research on labour market trends in the countries of origin, and on the skill profile of recent East European migrants; (iii) the organization of the voluntary return of selected expatriate professionals, including the reintegration with capital of potential investors and entrepreneurs; [and] (iv) measures, in the field of training and economic cooperation/international trade, to prevent future significant levels of skilled migration."

  9. Drain Current Modulation of a Single Drain MOSFET by Lorentz Force for Magnetic Sensing Application

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Prasenjit; Chow, Hwang-Cherng; Feng, Wu-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a detailed analysis of the drain current modulation of a single-drain normal-gate n channel metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (n-MOSFET) under an on-chip magnetic field. A single-drain n-MOSFET has been fabricated and placed in the center of a square-shaped metal loop which generates the on-chip magnetic field. The proposed device designed is much smaller in size with respect to the metal loop, which ensures that the generated magnetic field is approximately uniform. The change of drain current and change of bulk current per micron device width has been measured. The result shows that the difference drain current is about 145 µA for the maximum applied magnetic field. Such changes occur from the applied Lorentz force to push out the carriers from the channel. Based on the drain current difference, the change in effective mobility has been detected up to 4.227%. Furthermore, a detailed investigation reveals that the device behavior is quite different in subthreshold and saturation region. A change of 50.24 µA bulk current has also been measured. Finally, the device has been verified for use as a magnetic sensor with sensitivity 4.084% (29.6 T−1), which is very effective as compared to other previously reported works for a single device. PMID:27589747

  10. Climate mitigation scenarios of drained peat soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimir Klemedtsson, Åsa; Coria, Jessica; He, Hongxing; Liu, Xiangping; Nordén, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The national inventory reports (NIR) submitted to the UNFCCC show Sweden - which as many other countries has wetlands where parts have been drained for agriculture and forestry purposes, - to annually emit 12 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalents, which is more GHG'es than industrial energy use release in Sweden. Similar conditions can be found in other northern countries, having cool and wet conditions, naturally promoting peat accumulation, and where land use management over the last centuries have promoted draining activities. These drained peatland, though covering only 2% of the land area, have emissions corresponding to 20% of the total reported NIR emissions. This substantial emission contribution, however, is hidden within the Land Use Land Use Change and Forestry sector (LULUCF) where the forest Carbon uptake is even larger, which causes the peat soil emissions become invisible. The only drained soil emission accounted in the Swedish Kyoto reporting is the N2O emission from agricultural drained organic soils of the size 0.5 million tonnes CO2e yr-1. This lack of visibility has made incentives for land use change and management neither implemented nor suggested, however with large potential. Rewetting has the potential to decrease soil mineralization, why CO2 and N2O emissions are mitigated. However if the soil becomes very wet CH4 emission will increase together with hampered plant growth. By ecological modeling, using the CoupModel the climate change mitigation potential have been estimated for four different land use scenarios; 1, Drained peat soil with Spruce (business as usual scenario), 2, raised ground water level to 20 cm depth and Willow plantation, 3, raised ground water level to 10 cm depth and Reed Canary Grass, and 4, rewetting to an average water level in the soil surface with recolonizing wetland plants and mosses. We calculate the volume of biomass production per year, peat decomposition, N2O emission together with nitrate and DOC

  11. Internally drained condenser for spacecraft thermal management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valenzuela, Javier A.; Drew, Brian C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained to date in a program to develop a high heat flux condenser for use in two-phase spacecraft thermal management loops. The objective is to obtain a several fold increase in condensation heat transfer coefficient over those which can be achieved with shear-controlled or capillary-wick condensers. The internally drained condenser relies on shaped fins to develop a capillary pressure gradient over the surface of the fins and drive the condensate toward narrow drainage grooves separating the fins. The condensate then flows through a drainage network embedded in the condenser walls. Heat transfer coefficients of up to 8 W/sq cm C were measured in steam, providing a heat transfer enhancement ratio greater than a factor of 8. In the paper the proof-of-concept experiments are described and simplified models to predict the performance of the internally drained condenser are presented.

  12. Denaturated proteins: Draining effect and molecular dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondos, A.

    2010-09-01

    Using equations derived from the synthetic macromolecules, we calculate the dimensions in solution of the denaturated proteins. For these calculations, we use a value for the Flory’s parameter Φ obtained from an equation established for the polymers presenting a draining effect, and which is lower than the value of 2.6×10 23 (cgs) generally used. The obtained values for the dimensions of the denaturated proteins (end to end distance, statistical segment length and relation from the end to end distance and the number of residue) using the method proposed here are in good agreement with the values obtained from Flory and co-workers. On the contrary, the values obtained in this work are different from the values proposed by other authors who do not take into account the draining effect and use a value for Φ equal to 2.6×10 23.

  13. Using Smoke Injection in Drains to Identify Potential Preferential Pathways in a Drained Arable Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, M. H.; Petersen, C. T.; Hansen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Macropores forming a continuous pathway between the soil surface and subsurface drains favour the transport of many contaminants from agricultural fields to surface waters. The smoke injection method presented by Shipitalo and Gibbs (2000) used for demonstrating and quantifying such pathways has been further developed and used on a drained Danish sandy loam. In order to identify the preferential pathways to drains, smoke was injected in three 1.15 m deep tile drains (total drain length 93 m), and smoke emitting macropores (SEMP) at the soil surface were counted and characterized as producing either strong or weak plumes compared to reference plumes from 3 and 6 mm wide tubes. In the two situations investigated in the present study - an early spring and an autumn situation, smoke only penetrated the soil surface layer via earthworm burrows located in a 1.0 m wide belt directly above the drain lines. However, it is known from previous studies that desiccation fractures in a dry summer situation also can contribute to the smoke pattern. The distance between SEMP measured along the drain lines was on average 0.46 m whereas the average spacing between SEMP with strong plumes was 2.3 m. Ponded water was applied in 6 cm wide rings placed above 52 burrows including 17 reference burrows which did not emit smoke. Thirteen pathways in the soil were examined using dye tracer and profile excavation. SEMP with strong plumes marked the entrance of highly efficient transport pathways conducting surface applied water and dye tracer into the drain. However, no single burrow was traced all the way from the surface into the drain, the dye patterns branched off in a network of other macropores. Water infiltration rates were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in SEMP with strong plumes (average rate: 247 mL min-1 n = 19) compared to SEMP with weak plumes (average rate: 87 mL min-1 n = 16) and no plumes (average rate: 56 mL min-1 n = 17). The results suggest that the smoke injection method

  14. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  15. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  16. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  17. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  18. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  19. Percutaneous Retrieval of a Retained Jackson-Pratt Drain Fragment

    SciTech Connect

    Namyslowski, Jan; Halin, Neil J.; Greenfield, Alan J.

    1996-11-15

    A retained intraabdominal Jackson-Pratt drain fragment was percutaneously retrieved using an inflated angioplasty balloon that had been maneuvered inside of the drain lumen over a hydrophilic-coated steerable guidewire.

  20. DNA Persistence in a Sink Drain Environment

    DOE PAGES

    Winder, Eric M.; Bonheyo, George T.

    2015-07-31

    Biofilms are organized structures composed mainly of cells and extracellular polymeric substances produced by the constituent microorganisms. Ubiquitous in nature, biofilms have an innate ability to capture and retain passing material and may therefore act as natural collectors of contaminants or signatures of upstream activities. To determine the persistence and detectability of DNA passing through a sink drain environment, Bacillus anthracis strain Ames35 was cultured (6.35 x 107 CFU/mL), sterilized, and disposed of by addition to a sink drain apparatus with an established biofilm. The sink drain apparatus was sampled before and for several days after the addition of themore » sterilized B. anthracis culture to detect the presence of B. anthracis DNA. Multiple PCR primer pairs were used to screen for chromosomal and plasmid DNA with primers targeting shorter sequences showing greater amplification efficiency and success. PCR amplification and detection of target sequences indicate persistence of chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA in the biofilm for 5 or more and 14 or more days, respectively.« less

  1. DNA Persistence in a Sink Drain Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Winder, Eric M.; Bonheyo, George T.

    2015-07-31

    Biofilms are organized structures composed mainly of cells and extracellular polymeric substances produced by the constituent microorganisms. Ubiquitous in nature, biofilms have an innate ability to capture and retain passing material and may therefore act as natural collectors of contaminants or signatures of upstream activities. To determine the persistence and detectability of DNA passing through a sink drain environment, Bacillus anthracis strain Ames35 was cultured (6.35 x 107 CFU/mL), sterilized, and disposed of by addition to a sink drain apparatus with an established biofilm. The sink drain apparatus was sampled before and for several days after the addition of the sterilized B. anthracis culture to detect the presence of B. anthracis DNA. Multiple PCR primer pairs were used to screen for chromosomal and plasmid DNA with primers targeting shorter sequences showing greater amplification efficiency and success. PCR amplification and detection of target sequences indicate persistence of chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA in the biofilm for 5 or more and 14 or more days, respectively.

  2. Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to retained lumbar drain.

    PubMed

    Guppy, Kern H; Silverthorn, James W; Akins, Paul T

    2011-12-01

    Intrathecal spinal catheters (lumbar drains) are indicated for several medical and surgical conditions. In neurosurgical procedures, they are used to reduce intracranial and intrathecal pressures by diverting CSF. They have also been placed for therapeutic access to administer drugs, and more recently, vascular surgeons have used them to improve spinal cord perfusion during the treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms. Insertion of these lumbar drains is not without attendant complications. One complication is the shearing of the distal end of the catheter with a resultant retained fragment. The authors report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to the migration of a retained lumbar drain that sheared off during its removal. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of rostral migration of a retained intrathecal catheter causing subarachnoid hemorrhage. The authors review the literature on retained intrathecal spinal catheters, and their findings support either early removal of easily accessible catheters or close monitoring with serial imaging.

  3. Bed drain cover assembly for a fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Comparato, Joseph R.; Jacobs, Martin

    1982-01-01

    A loose fitting movable cover plate (36), suitable for the severe service encountered in a fluidized bed combustor (10), restricts the flow of solids into the combustor drain lines (30) during shutdown of the bed. This cover makes it possible to empty spent solids from the bed drain lines which would otherwise plug the piping between the drain and the downstream metering device. This enables use of multiple drain lines each with a separate metering device for the control of solids flow rate.

  4. 14 CFR 23.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 23.999 Section 23.999... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 23.999 Fuel system drains. (a) There must be at least one drain to allow safe drainage of the...

  5. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from...

  6. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from...

  7. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from...

  8. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from...

  9. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a...

  11. 1. SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (RIGHT), COVERED INCLINE CONVEYOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (RIGHT), COVERED INCLINE CONVEYOR (LOWER RIGHT) THAT EXTENDS TO THE SAND-SORTING BUILDING, AND REMAINS OF ORIGINAL (1917) WASHING, DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (LEFT), VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM TOP OF SAND-SORTING BUILDING - Mill "C" Complex, Sand Draining & Drying Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  12. 14 CFR 23.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 23.999 Section 23.999... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 23.999 Fuel system drains. (a) There must be at least one drain to allow safe drainage of the...

  13. 14 CFR 25.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 25.999 Section 25.999... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.999 Fuel system drains. (a) Drainage of the fuel system must be accomplished by the use of fuel strainer and fuel tank sump drains....

  14. 14 CFR 125.139 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 125.139 Section 125.139....139 Oil system drains. Accessible drains incorporating either a manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  15. 14 CFR 125.139 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 125.139 Section 125.139....139 Oil system drains. Accessible drains incorporating either a manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  16. 14 CFR 125.139 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oil system drains. 125.139 Section 125.139....139 Oil system drains. Accessible drains incorporating either a manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  17. 14 CFR 125.139 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 125.139 Section 125.139....139 Oil system drains. Accessible drains incorporating either a manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  18. 14 CFR 125.139 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 125.139 Section 125.139....139 Oil system drains. Accessible drains incorporating either a manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  19. 14 CFR 27.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 27.999 Section 27.999... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 27.999 Fuel system drains. (a) There must be at least one accessible drain at the lowest point in each fuel system to completely...

  20. Is Drain Tip Culture Prognostic of Surgical Site Infection? Results of 1380 Drain Tip Cultures in Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Takada, Ryohei; Jinno, Tetsuya; Koga, Daisuke; Hirao, Masanobu; Muneta, Takeshi; Okawa, Atsushi

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a prognostic value of drain tip culture for surgical site infection (SSI) after total hip arthroplasty. A total of 1380 closed suction drain tips cultured after removal in primary total hip arthroplasty were included in this study. Drains were removed in 12-72 hours after surgery. Drain tip cultures were positive in 11 cases (0.8%). SSI was found in 4 cases (0.3%), where the drain tip cultures were all negative. The sensitivity of drain tip culture for infection after surgery was 0%, and the specificity was 99.7%. We concluded that, drain tip culture cannot be prognostic for SSI after total hip arthroplasty. Routine use of drain tip culture is not supported.

  1. Draining skin lesion from a desert poodle.

    PubMed

    Beaudin, Sylvie; Rich, Lon J; Meinkoth, James H; Cowell, Rick L

    2005-01-01

    A 16-month-old intact female Poodle in Arizona had a history of intermittent coughing of a few weeks duration. Coccidiomycosis antibody screening test results were negative for immunoglobulin (Ig) M, but were positive (1:64) for IgG. Fine needle aspiration specimens of a draining lesion on the right palmar front foot contained large numbers of neutrophils, many of which contained bacteria, and lower numbers of macrophages. A few small structures also were observed, 2-5 microm in diameter with thin, nonstaining capsules and small, round to oval densely aggregated, eccentric nuclei. Cytologic findings were consistent with septic pyogranulomatous inflammation with Coccidiodes immitis endospores. Fungal culture of a sample from the draining lesion yielded white growth with barrel-shaped arthroconidia. Identification of the organism as C immitis was confirmed by a commercial DNA probe test. Although coccidioidomycosis often is diagnosed by microscopic identification of C immitis spherules in cytologic specimens, in this case only endospores, which are released from mature spherules, were observed. In cases of suspected coccidiodomycosis, the unique morphology of endospores may be useful in making a cytologic diagnosis.

  2. Cryogenic Fuel Tank Draining Analysis Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Donald

    1999-01-01

    One of the technological challenges in designing advanced hypersonic aircraft and the next generation of spacecraft is developing reusable flight-weight cryogenic fuel tanks. As an aid in the design and analysis of these cryogenic tanks, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed specifically for the analysis of flow in a cryogenic fuel tank. This model employs the full set of Navier-Stokes equations, except that viscous dissipation is neglected in the energy equation. An explicit finite difference technique in two-dimensional generalized coordinates, approximated to second-order accuracy in both space and time is used. The stiffness resulting from the low Mach number is resolved by using artificial compressibility. The model simulates the transient, two-dimensional draining of a fuel tank cross section. To calculate the slosh wave dynamics the interface between the ullage gas and liquid fuel is modeled as a free surface. Then, experimental data for free convection inside a horizontal cylinder are compared with model results. Finally, cryogenic tank draining calculations are performed with three different wall heat fluxes to demonstrate the effect of wall heat flux on the internal tank flow field.

  3. Degradation of drained peat soils in Belarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambalov, N. N.

    2009-04-01

    According to Belarusian classification, the drained peat soils with peat layer less then 30 cm and containing organic substance less then 50% are degraded soils. Degraded peat soils made up 190.2 thousand hectares in 2001 from a total area of 1062,2 thousand hectares of drained peat soils for agriculture in Belarus, but the process of degradation is prolonging now and it is expected, that their area will be extended additionally on 12 % till 2020. The degradation of peat soils is most widespread in the region of Polesie, where the area of degraded soils makes up already several thousand hectares in some administrative districts. The degradation of peat soils takes place jet locally on the comparatively not big plots but on the very many places. There is the threat of joining up of the existing now spots of degraded soils in the near future, and the new spots of degraded soils will appear in a very big amount as well. The large tracts of land will appear in the nearest 20-30 years and may be earlier. The degradation of drained peat soils proceeds step by step, and three morphological groups of new soils are forming depending on degree of humification of organic matter, namely: raw humic, humus-fibrous and humus peat soils. The complicated soil complexes with many alternating soil plots containing organic substance both more than 50 % and from 2 till 50 % are forming within one field in result of degradation. For the reason given above a rather not uniform structure of soil cover with unsatisfactory micro relief, big differences of aquatic, thermal and nutritious regimes is forming on agricultural fields, that leads to the substantial decrease of their productivity. In this connection big expanses will require to the rearrangement of drainage systems and leveling of soil fertility within every such field. A fertility of drained peat soils with the depth of peat layer more then 1 m has been estimated as 69 points, with the depth of peat layer 0.3-0.5 m as 62 points

  4. Bacterial diversity of floor drain biofilms and drain waters in a Listeria monocytogenes contaminated food processing environment.

    PubMed

    Dzieciol, Monika; Schornsteiner, Elisa; Muhterem-Uyar, Meryem; Stessl, Beatrix; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2016-04-16

    Sanitation protocols are applied on a daily basis in food processing facilities to prevent the risk of cross-contamination with spoilage organisms. Floor drain water serves along with product-associated samples (slicer dust, brine or cheese smear) as an important hygiene indicator in monitoring Listeria monocytogenes in food processing facilities. Microbial communities of floor drains are representative for each processing area and are influenced to a large degree by food residues, liquid effluents and washing water. The microbial communities of drain water are steadily changing, whereas drain biofilms provide more stable niches. Bacterial communities of four floor drains were characterized using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to better understand the composition and exchange of drain water and drain biofilm communities. Furthermore, the L. monocytogenes contamination status of each floor drain was determined by applying cultivation-independent real-time PCR quantification and cultivation-dependent detection according to ISO11290-1. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes of drain water and drain biofilm bacterial communities yielded 50,611 reads, which were clustered into 641 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), affiliated to 16 phyla dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. The most abundant OTUs represented either product- (Lactococcus lactis) or fermentation- and food spoilage-associated phylotypes (Pseudomonas mucidolens, Pseudomonas fragi, Leuconostoc citreum, and Acetobacter tropicalis). The microbial communities in DW and DB samples were distinct in each sample type and throughout the whole processing plant, indicating the presence of indigenous specific microbial communities in each processing compartment. The microbiota of drain biofilms was largely different from the microbiota of the drain water. A sampling approach based on drain water alone may thus only provide reliable information on planktonic bacterial cells but might not allow conclusions

  5. Pesticide residues in agricultural drains, southeastern desert area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eccles, Lawrence A.

    1979-01-01

    A study is being made to determine the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in the agricultural drains for approximately 3/4 million irrigated acres in the southeastern desert area of California. This report describes the results of the first year of sampling and analyzing (1) water in the drains , (2) bed material in the drains, (3) water from field tile-drainage lines, and (4) irrigation tailwater and water in the drains directly exposed to drift from aerial application of pesticides. Residues of almost all the pesticides selected for monitoring were found in water in the drains. Examination of the data to determine the probable source of pesticides indicated generally slight concentrations from bed material in the drains, usually no detectable concentrations from field tile-drainage lines, and apparently large concentrations from irrigation tailwater and drift from aerial application. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Coronary Artery Fistula Draining into the Left Ventricle

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Jihyun; Jang, Jeong Yoon; Sun, Byung Joo; Kim, Dae-Hee; Kang, Duk-Hyun; Song, Jae-Kwan

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of 48-year-old male who presented with coronary artery fistula draining into left ventricle. Transthoracic echocardiography showed abnormal blood flow draining into left ventricle, with enlarged coronary arteries and multiple vascular structures around ventricular myocardium. Coronary computed tomography revealed dilatation of entire left coronary artery which was wrapping around left ventricle, and draining into the posterior side of left ventricle. He did not undergo any invasive treatment, because he was not symptomatic. PMID:24753806

  7. Thermokarst lakes, drainage, and drained basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grosse, G.; Jones, B.; Arp, C.; Shroder, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Thermokarst lakes and drained lake basins are widespread in Arctic and sub-Arctic permafrost lowlands with ice-rich sediments. Thermokarst lake formation is a dominant mode of permafrost degradation and is linked to surface disturbance, subsequent melting of ground ice, surface subsidence, water impoundment, and positive feedbacks between lake growth and permafrost thaw, whereas lake drainage generally results in local permafrost aggradation. Thermokarst lakes characteristically have unique limnological, morphological, and biogeochemical characteristics that are closely tied to cold-climate conditions and permafrost properties. Thermokarst lakes also have a tendency toward complete or partial drainage through permafrost degradation and erosion. Thermokarst lake dynamics strongly affect the development of landscape geomorphology, hydrology, and the habitat characteristic of permafrost lowlands.

  8. Acoustic metric of the compressible draining bathtub

    SciTech Connect

    Cherubini, C.; Filippi, S.

    2011-10-15

    The draining bathtub flow, a cornerstone in the theory of acoustic black holes, is here extended to the case of exact solutions for compressible nonviscous flows characterized by a polytropic equation of state. Investigating the analytical configurations obtained for selected values of the polytropic index, it is found that each of them becomes nonphysical at the so called limiting circle. By studying the null geodesics structure of the corresponding acoustic line elements, it is shown that such a geometrical locus coincides with the acoustic event horizon. This region is characterized also by an infinite value of space-time curvature, so the acoustic analogy breaks down there. Possible applications for artificial and natural vortices are finally discussed.

  9. Minimally invasive surgical technique for tethered surgical drains

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Shane R; Satpathy, Jibanananda; Waligora, Andrew C; Ugwu-Oju, Obinna

    2017-01-01

    A feared complication of temporary surgical drain placement is from the technical error of accidentally suturing the surgical drain into the wound. Postoperative discovery of a tethered drain can frequently necessitate return to the operating room if it cannot be successfully removed with nonoperative techniques. Formal wound exploration increases anesthesia and infection risk as well as cost and is best avoided if possible. We present a minimally invasive surgical technique that can avoid the morbidity associated with a full surgical wound exploration to remove a tethered drain when other nonoperative techniques fail.

  10. Generation of airborne Listeria innocua from model floor drains.

    PubMed

    Berrang, Mark E; Frank, Joseph F

    2012-07-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can colonize floor drains in poultry processing and further processing facilities, remaining present even after cleaning and disinfection. Therefore, during wash down, workers exercise caution to avoid spraying hoses directly into drains in an effort to prevent the escape and transfer of drain microflora to food contact surfaces. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which an inadvertent water spray into a colonized floor drain can cause the spread of airborne Listeria. Listeria innocua was used to inoculate a polyvinyl chloride model floor drain, resulting in approximately 10(8) cells per ml of phosphate-buffered saline and 10(4) attached cells per square centimeter of inner surface. Each model drain was subjected to a 2-s spray of tap water at 68.9 kPa from a distance of 1 m. Drains were sprayed while filled and again after emptying. Airborne cells were collected by using sedimentation plates containing Listeria selective agar which were placed on the floor and walls of a contained room at incremental horizontal and vertical distances of 0.6, 1.2, 2.4, or 4.0 m from the drain. Sedimentation plates were exposed for 10 min. A mechanical sampler was used to also collect air by impaction on the surface of Listeria selective agar to determine the number of cells per liter of air. The experiment was conducted in triplicate rooms for each of four replications. L. innocua was detected on sedimentation plates on the floor as far as 4.0 m from the drain and on walls as high as 2.4 m above the floor and 4 m from the drain. A 2-s spray with a water hose into a contaminated drain can cause airborne spread of Listeria, resulting in the potential for cross-contamination of food contact surfaces, equipment, and exposed product.

  11. Toxic-Waste Disposal by Drain-in-Furnace Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Houseman, J.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Compact furnace moved from site to site. Toxic industrial waste destroyed using furnace concept developed for disposal of toxic munitions. Toxic waste drained into furnace where incinerated immediately. In furnace toxic agent rapidly drained and destroyed in small combustion chamber between upper and lower layers of hot ceramic balls

  12. 14 CFR 121.241 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 121.241 Section 121.241..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.241 Oil system drains... position, must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  13. 14 CFR 121.241 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 121.241 Section 121.241..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.241 Oil system drains... position, must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  14. 14 CFR 121.241 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oil system drains. 121.241 Section 121.241..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.241 Oil system drains... position, must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  15. 14 CFR 121.241 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 121.241 Section 121.241..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.241 Oil system drains... position, must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  16. 14 CFR 121.241 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 121.241 Section 121.241..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.241 Oil system drains... position, must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  17. 241-AY-102 Leak Detection Pit Drain Line Inspection Report

    SciTech Connect

    Boomer, Kayle D.; Engeman, Jason K.; Gunter, Jason R.; Joslyn, Cameron C.; Vazquez, Brandon J.; Venetz, Theodore J.; Garfield, John S.

    2014-01-20

    This document provides a description of the design components, operational approach, and results from the Tank AY-102 leak detection pit drain piping visual inspection. To perform this inspection a custom robotic crawler with a deployment device was designed, built, and operated by IHI Southwest Technologies, Inc. for WRPS to inspect the 6-inch leak detection pit drain line.

  18. 14 CFR 29.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 29.999 Section 29.999 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 29.999 Fuel system drains....

  19. 14 CFR 29.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 29.999 Section 29.999 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 29.999 Fuel system drains....

  20. 14 CFR 29.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 29.999 Section 29.999 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 29.999 Fuel system drains....

  1. 14 CFR 29.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 29.999 Section 29.999 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 29.999 Fuel system drains....

  2. 14 CFR 25.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 25.999 Section 25.999 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.999 Fuel system drains....

  3. 14 CFR 25.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 25.999 Section 25.999 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.999 Fuel system drains....

  4. 14 CFR 25.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 25.999 Section 25.999 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.999 Fuel system drains....

  5. 14 CFR 25.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 25.999 Section 25.999 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.999 Fuel system drains....

  6. 14 CFR 29.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 29.999 Section 29.999 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 29.999 Fuel system drains....

  7. Design criteria Drain Rerouting Project 93-OR-EW-2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This document contains the design criteria to be used by the architect-engineer (A--E) in the performance of Title I and II design for the Drain Rerouting Project. The Drain Rerouting project at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee will provide the Y-12 Plant with the capability to reroute particular drains within buildings 9202, 9203 and 9995. Process drains that are presently connected to the storm sewer shall be routed to the sanitary sewer to ensure that any objectionable material inadvertently discharged into process drains will not discharge to East Fork Popular Creek (EFPC) without treatment. The project will also facilitate compliance with the Y-12 Plant`s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) discharge permit and allow for future pretreatment of once-through coolant.

  8. App-assisted external ventricular drain insertion.

    PubMed

    Eftekhar, Behzad

    2016-09-01

    The freehand technique for insertion of an external ventricular drain (EVD) is based on fixed anatomical landmarks and does not take individual variations into consideration. A patient-tailored approach based on augmented-reality techniques using devices such as smartphones can address this shortcoming. The Sina neurosurgical assist (Sina) is an Android mobile device application (app) that was designed and developed to be used as a simple intraoperative neurosurgical planning aid. It overlaps the patient's images from previously performed CT or MRI studies on the image seen through the device camera. The device is held by an assistant who aligns the images and provides information about the relative position of the target and EVD to the surgeon who is performing EVD insertion. This app can be used to provide guidance and continuous monitoring during EVD placement. The author describes the technique of Sina-assisted EVD insertion into the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle and reports on its clinical application in 5 cases as well as the results of ex vivo studies of ease of use and precision. The technique has potential for further development and use with other augmented-reality devices.

  9. Thermophoresis of polymers: nondraining vs draining coil.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Konstantin I; Köhler, Werner

    2014-06-10

    Present theories for the thermophoretic mobility of polymers in dilute solution without long-ranged electrostatic interaction are based on a draining coil model with short-ranged segment-solvent interaction. We show that the characteristic thermophoretic interaction decays as r(-2) with the distance from the chain segment, which is of much longer range than the underlying rapidly decaying binary van der Waals interaction (∝ r(-6)). As a consequence, thermophoresis on the monomer level is governed by volume forces, resulting in hydrodynamic coupling between the chain segments. The inner parts of the nondraining coil do not actively participate in thermophoresis. The flow lines penetrate only into a thin surface layer of the coil and cause tangential stresses along the surface of the entire coil, not the individual segments. This model is motivated by recent experimental findings for thermoresponsive polymers and core-shell particles, and it explains the well-known molar mass independent thermophoretic mobility of polymers in dilute solution.

  10. Dual diaphragm tank with telltale drain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuthill, Wallace C., Jr. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A fluid storage and expulsion system comprising a tank with an internal flexible diaphragm assembly of dual diaphragms in back-to-back relationship, at least one of which is provided with a patterned surface having fine edges such that the diaphragms are in contact along said edges without mating contact of surface areas to thereby form fluid channels which extend outwardly to the peripheral edges of the diaphragms is described. The interior wall of the tank at the juncture of tank sections is formed with a circumferential annular recess comprising an outer annular recess portion which forms a fluid collection chamber and an inner annular recess portion which accommodates the peripheral edge portions of the diaphragms and a sealing ring in clamped sealing relation therebetween. The sealing ring is perforated with radially extending passages which allow any fluid leaking or diffusing past a diaphragm to flow through the fluid channels between the diaphragms to the fluid collection chamber. Ports connectable to pressure fittings are provided in the tank sections for admission of fluids to opposite sides of the diaphragm assembly. A drain passage through the tank wall to the fluid collection chamber permits detection, analysis and removal of fluids in the collection chamber.

  11. Using Drained Spacecraft Propellant Tanks for Habitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Andrew S. W.

    2009-01-01

    A document proposes that future spacecraft for planetary and space exploration be designed to enable reuse of drained propellant tanks for occupancy by humans. This proposal would enable utilization of volume and mass that would otherwise be unavailable and, in some cases, discarded. Such utilization could enable reductions in cost, initial launch mass, and number of launches needed to build up a habitable outpost in orbit about, or on the surface of, a planet or moon. According to the proposal, the large propellant tanks of a spacecraft would be configured to enable crews to gain access to their interiors. The spacecraft would incorporate hatchways, between a tank and the crew volume, that would remain sealed while the tank contained propellant and could be opened after the tank was purged by venting to outer space and then refilled with air. The interior of the tank would be pre-fitted with some habitation fixtures that were compatible with the propellant environment. Electrical feed-throughs, used originally for gauging propellants, could be reused to supply electric power to equipment installed in the newly occupied space. After a small amount of work, the tank would be ready for long-term use as a habitation module.

  12. EU pharmaceutical expenditure forecast

    PubMed Central

    Urbinati, Duccio; Rémuzat, Cécile; Kornfeld, Åsa; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives With constant incentives for healthcare payers to contain their pharmaceutical budgets, forecasting has become critically important. Some countries have, for instance, developed pharmaceutical horizon scanning units. The objective of this project was to build a model to assess the net effect of the entrance of new patented medicinal products versus medicinal products going off-patent, with a defined forecast horizon, on selected European Union (EU) Member States’ pharmaceutical budgets. This model took into account population ageing, as well as current and future country-specific pricing, reimbursement, and market access policies (the project was performed for the European Commission; see http://ec.europa.eu/health/healthcare/key_documents/index_en.htm). Method In order to have a representative heterogeneity of EU Member States, the following countries were selected for the analysis: France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. A forecasting period of 5 years (2012–2016) was chosen to assess the net pharmaceutical budget impact. A model for generics and biosimilars was developed for each country. The model estimated a separate and combined effect of the direct and indirect impacts of the patent cliff. A second model, estimating the sales development and the risk of development failure, was developed for new drugs. New drugs were reviewed individually to assess their clinical potential and translate it into commercial potential. The forecast was carried out according to three perspectives (healthcare public payer, society, and manufacturer), and several types of distribution chains (retail, hospital, and combined retail and hospital). Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were carried out. Results According to the model, all countries experienced drug budget reductions except Poland (+€41 million). Savings were expected to be the highest in the United Kingdom (−€9,367 million), France

  13. Misconnections in the Critically Ill: Injection of High-Dose Gadolinium into an External Ventricular Drain.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sumit; Rejai, Sepehr; Antongiorgi, Zarah; Gonzalez, Nestor; Stelzner, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    We report an unfortunate case of accidental administration of intrathecal gadolinium through an external ventricular drain in a postcraniotomy patient during magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. The incident occurred after the venous contrast line was connected mistakenly to the ventricular drainage catheter. The patient subsequently developed confusion, aphasia, and right facial droop with new computed tomography evidence of diffuse cerebral edema and stroke. Review of the magnetic resonance image revealed the inappropriate presence of subarachnoid gadolinium. Despite all interventions, the patient developed irreversible neurologic disability. We address the clinical sequelae, management strategies, and factors contributing to the catheter misconnection that led to this event.

  14. EU Cadzie project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naaim, M.

    2009-04-01

    The CADZIE project received nearly € 700,000 funding under the energy, environment and sustainable development section of the Fifth Framework Programme (FP5). Several scientists from France, Italy, Norway, Austria, Iceland and Switzerland were involved in this initiative, under the co-ordination of the Cemagref institute in Grenoble, France. The initiative was created in response to the extreme avalanche winter of 1999, during which 83 people were killed across Europe. Avalanche protection relies on two key processes: structural measures such as building defence structures to stop and / or contain the avalanche flow and non structural measures such as zoning the exposed areas. The consortium investigated these two areas in order to improve overall protection methods. This EU-funded collaboration has led to the development of more accurate methods for mapping and protection design.

  15. 37. DETAIL OF CYANIDE LEACHING TANK DRAIN DOOR AND PIPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. DETAIL OF CYANIDE LEACHING TANK DRAIN DOOR AND PIPING SYSTEM. NOTE SPIGOT UNDER BOARD AT UPPER LEFT INSERTS INTO HOLE IN PIPE AT BOTTOM OF FRAME. CYANIDE SOLUTION WAS PUMPED INTO THE TANKS AND THE PREGNANT SOLUTION DRAINED OUT OF THE TANKS THROUGH THIS PIPE, AND BACK INTO A SEPARATE HOLDING TANK ON THE EAST SIDE OF THE MILL. TAILINGS WERE REMOVED FROM THE TANKS THROUGH THE ROUND DRAIN DOOR IN THE BOTTOM OF THE TANK (MISSING) SEEN AT TOP CENTER. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  16. Advances in chest drain management in thoracic disease

    PubMed Central

    George, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    An adequate chest drainage system aims to drain fluid and air and restore the negative pleural pressure facilitating lung expansion. In thoracic surgery the post-operative use of the conventional underwater seal chest drainage system fulfills these requirements, however they allow great variability amongst practices. In addition they do not offer accurate data and they are often inconvenient to both patients and hospital staff. This article aims to simplify the myths surrounding the management of chest drains following chest surgery, review current experience and explore the advantages of modern digital chest drain systems and address their disease-specific use. PMID:26941971

  17. Tiny biomedical amplifier combines high performance, low power drain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deboo, G. J.

    1965-01-01

    Transistorized, portable, high performance amplifier with low power drain facilitates biomedical studies on mobile subjects. This device, which utilizes a differential input to obtain a common-mode rejection, is used for amplifying electrocardiogram and electromyogram signals.

  18. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF COMPLEX LOOKING SOUTH, SAND DRAINING & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF COMPLEX LOOKING SOUTH, SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (right) AND SAND-SORTING BUILDING (left) - Mill "C" Complex, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  19. 2. VIEW EAST OF HEADGATES AT SPOOL DAM; DRAIN GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW EAST OF HEADGATES AT SPOOL DAM; DRAIN GATE MECHANISM AND DAM EDGE AT RIGHT - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 1, Immediately West of South Main Street, North Bank of Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  20. MODULATING STORM DRAIN FLOWS TO REDUCE STREAM POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pathogen and toxic chemical concentrations above the chemical and toxicity water quality standards in creeks and rivers pose risks to human health and aquatic ecosystems. Storm drains discharging into these watercourses often contribute significantly to elevating pollutant concen...

  1. Enteric bacterial translocation after intraperitoneal implantation of rubber drain pieces.

    PubMed

    Guo, W; Andersson, R; Ljungh, A; Wang, X D; Bengmark, S

    1993-05-01

    To study the kinetics and mechanisms of bacterial translocation from the gut after intraperitoneal (IP) implantation of prosthetic materials, different sizes of rubber drain pieces were intraperitoneally implanted in the rat, followed by evaluation of ileal mucosal permeability after 2 days and of the occurrence of bacterial translocation and gut oxygen extraction at various time points. Enteric bacteria translocated to mesenteric lymph nodes and disseminated to systemic organs (liver, spleen, lungs, and kidneys), the portal vein, and inferior vena cava 2, 4, and 6 h after IP implantation of rubber drain pieces with 10-, 7-, and 3-cm2 areas, respectively, and subsequently to the IP rubber drain piece and the peritoneal cavity on the 2nd postoperative day. The incidence of translocation correlated with the size of the implanted material and time after implantation. The gut oxygen extraction increased significantly after IP implantation of 7- and 10-cm2 rubber drain pieces. The ileal mucosal permeability was enhanced in the groups implanted with 7- and 10-cm2 drain pieces. Thus, bacterial translocation occurs already in the early period after IP implantation of rubber drain and increased with time. The increased gut oxygen extraction implies that the gut is susceptible to IP inflammatory stimulation, and the enhanced ileal permeability suggests that the integrity of the gastrointestinal tract is compromised, which might facilitate bacterial translocation.

  2. From "Brain Drain" to "Brain Bridging": Transnational Higher Education Development and Graduate Employment in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho; Han, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    In the past few decades, the internationalisation of higher education has become an increasingly popular trend across different parts of the globe. The fierce global competition and the aggravating unemployment rate, coupled with low teaching and research quality revealed by universities in mainland China, have inevitably compelled a growing…

  3. "Brain Gain Statt (instead of) Brain Drain": The Role of English in German Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgendorf, Suzanne K.

    2005-01-01

    Although there is extensive research on Anglicisms in the German language e.g. Carstensen, 1965; Carstensen, Busse & Schmude, 19936; Fink, 1970, 1980, 1995; Grlach, 2002, few studies look beyond lexical borrowing and structural impact to consider other aspects and dimensions of English-German contact in the Federal Republic of Germany. This…

  4. Y2O3:Eu nanocrystals as biomarkers prepared by a microwave hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaszewski, Jarosław; Godlewski, Michał M.; Witkowski, Bartłomiej S.; Słońska, Anna; Wolska-Kornio, Ewelina; Wachnicki, Łukasz; Przybylińska, Hanka; Kozankiewicz, Bolesław; Szal, Anna; Domino, Małgorzata A.; Mijowska, Ewa; Godlewski, Marek

    2016-09-01

    Microwave hydrothermal growth of Y2O3 crystallites results in needle-shaped aggregates of μm length. Thermal treatment has little influence on the material microstructure, but significant impact on the nanometric level. Nanoparticles doped with europium show an intense red luminescence, related to the 5D0 → 7F2 transition of Eu3+ ions. The luminescence intensity increases with the calcination temperature and is accompanied by increasing size of Y2O3:Eu crystallites. EPR studies show the absence of Eu2+ related signals in the material. Y2O3:Eu nanoparticles crystallized via a microwave hydrothermal method were employed as luminescent biomarkers in mice. The initial tests confirmed their applicability as biological markers. Persorption of the Y2O3:Eu nanoparticles after IG in the adult mouse duodenum, brain and liver is reported.

  5. Methane fluxes on pristine, drained and restored boreal spruce swamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskinen, Markku; Minkkinen, Kari; Nieminen, Mika; Maanavilja, Liisa; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2014-05-01

    Successful restoration of peatlands drained for forestry means that all the processes of pristine mires are present in the restored peatlands. Methanogen communities are usually disturbed by the lowering of water table by drainage and previous studies have found only slow recovery of methane emissions on restored peatlands. We made methane flux measurements on pristine, drained and restored conditions boreal spruce swamps. Restoration measures had taken place approximately 10 years before our measurement campaign. The measurement plots on the drained and restored sites included drainage ditches and the disturbed soil beside the ditch as well as the undisturbed mid-strip area. Water table was measured from wells near the flux measurement plots. Seven sites were sampled twice per month for one growing season with eight sampling plots grouped in four locations per site in total. The locations were placed on a line perpendicular to the mire edge on the pristine sites and a drainage ditch on the drained and restored sites. The highest mean water level was recorded on the restored sites, and the lowest on the drained sites. The restored sites showed high fluxes from all measurement plots. The fluxes from the pristine and drained sites were much smaller and did not differ significantly from each other. The highest fluxes were measured from the drainage ditches on both the drained and restored sites. The pristine sites showed high relative spatio-temporal variation in the flux, partly explained by changes in the water table level. No effect of measurement plot distance from the mire edge was discernible on the pristine sites.

  6. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from Wet Drained Forest Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Arnold, K.; Weslien, P.; Nilsson, M.; Hånell, B.; Klemedtsson, L.

    2003-04-01

    Ditching has commonly been used in order to improve forest productivity on wet soils. When wet soils are drained the methane emissions, which are usually substantial from wetlands, decrease and the uptake of carbon dioxide by the vegetation increases. However, there is also an increase in the emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide from the soil. The sizes of the fluxes depend on drainage depth and soil fertility. We have performed a study with the objective to examine the effect of tree species composition and site fertility on greenhouse gas emissions from drained temperate forest ecosystems. The fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide were measured during two years in seven temperate forest sites, one open mire, one undrained alder swamp, both to be used for comparison, and five drained forest sites of different fertilities covered with different tree species. The drained sites, chosen to represent the most common tree species in Sweden, were two spruce sites of different fertility, three sites dominated by pine, alder and birch respectively. All drained sites had a mean groundwater depth between 14 and 26 cm. Fluxes were measured with dark static chambers, ten chambers at each site. Gas samples were collected every week during summer and every month during the wintertime. The annual methane emissions (presented as means of all chambers +/- standard error) were much larger from the undrained sites, between 50 +/- 19.2 and 126 +/- 34.7 kg/ha compared to 0 +/- 1.5 to 17 +/- 8.3 kg/ha from the drained sites. The fluxes of carbon dioxide from the soil were higher at the drained sites but as most twice as large as from the undrained sites (8 +/- 1.6 ton/ha from the mire and 16 +/- 1.9 ton/ha from the drained alder during the first year of sampling). The emissions of nitrous oxide were highest from the drained alder site, 11 +/- 3.8 kg/ha the first sampling year and 7 +/- 2.9 the second. At all other sites the emissions were approximately 10 times

  7. Successful closed suction drain management of a canine elbow hygroma.

    PubMed

    Pavletic, M M; Brum, D E

    2015-07-01

    A 1-year-old castrated male St. Bernard dog presented to Angell Animal Medical Center with bilateral elbow hygromas which had been present for several weeks. The largest hygroma involving the left elbow was managed with a closed suction (active) drain system to continuously collapse the hygroma pocket over a 3-week period. Soft bedding was used to protect the elbows from further impact trauma to the olecranon areas. Following drain removal, there was no evidence of hygroma recurrence based on periodic examinations over an 18-month period. The smaller non-operated right elbow hygroma had slightly enlarged during this period. Closed suction drain management of the hygroma proved to be a simple and economical method of collapsing the left elbow hygroma. This closed drainage system eliminated the need for the postoperative bandage care required with the use of the Penrose (passive) drain method of managing elbow hygromas. The external drain tube should be adequately secured in order to minimise the risk of its inadvertent displacement.

  8. Equivalent mechanical model for liquid sloshing during draining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qing; Ma, Xingrui; Wang, Tianshu

    2011-01-01

    For a spacecraft draining liquid fuel during a continuous thruster maneuver, a brief equivalent method is proposed to model the time-varying properties of liquid sloshing for dynamics and control design. The sloshing liquid during draining is equivalent to a set of mechanical model with variable parameters. The model parameters for sample filling ratios are determined by an efficient finite element method according to equivalent principles, while the parameters for other filling ratios are obtained by piecewise linear interpolation. Using the proposed model, forces and torques acted on a Cassini shaped tank by the inside liquid during draining are investigated undergoing several typical motions. Verifications and comparative studies are done with Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations, which confirm the accuracy of the brief model while the sloshing amplitude is small and the flow rate is low.

  9. Relations between drained and undrained moduli in anisotropic poroelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loret, Benjamin; Rizzi, Egidio; Zerfa, Zohra

    2001-11-01

    Although the knowledge of the drained moduli is often assumed to define the material coefficients of elastic fluid-saturated porous media, it is not sufficient. Resorting to the properties of the constituents is possible but may not be satisfactory due to lack of accuracy. On the other hand, the mechanical information contained in the undrained moduli is complementary to that provided by the drained moduli but is also overabundant. The compatibility relations between these two types of moduli are examined for several classes of anisotropic solid skeletons and the information required from the undrained moduli is exactly defined through a spectral analysis of the dyadic difference in tensor compliances. A switch of the results is possible if the undrained moduli are given instead of the drained moduli. An incomplete data set of material coefficients for a transverse isotropic shale is treated as an example. Considerable simplifications arise for a particular form of anisotropy defined by a second order fabric tensor.

  10. EU Space Awareness: Initial implemenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    EU Space Awareness uses the excitement of space to attract young people into science and technology and stimulate European and global citizenship. The project will show children and teenagers the opportunities offered by space science and engineering and inspire primary-school children when their curiosity is high and their value systems are being formed. EU Space Awareness, a 3-year project, has started in March 2015 with 10 partner organisations and 15 network nodes in 17 European countries and the IAU Office of Astronomy for Development. During this talk we will give a update about the intial implementation of the project and its relevant for astronomy for development.

  11. Scaling of lowered source/drain (LSD) and raised source/drain (RSD) ultra-thin body (UTB) SOI MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Xia; Huang, Ru; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yangyuan

    2005-03-01

    Ultra-thin body (UTB) SOI MOSFETs are considered as one of most promising candidates for deca-nano-scale regimes. The device characteristics of two different UTB MOSFETs with raised source/drain (RSD) and lowered source/drain (LSD), respectively, are investigated with DC and AC considerations. The results suggest that LSD-UTB SOI MOSFETs show better control of the off-state leakage current, about one order of magnitude lower than that of RSD-UTB MOSFETs. The short-channel effect (SCE) and drain-induced-barrier-lowering (DIBL) effect are more effectively suppressed in LSD-UTB MOSFETs. And the intrinsic delay of LSD-UTB device is smaller than that of RSD-UTB as a result of the greatly reduced parasitic capacitance. In addition, the LSD-UTB MOSFETs demonstrate better scaling capability than RSD-UTB MOSFETs. And LSD-UTB can greatly relax the requirement for silicon body thickness by ˜60%.

  12. Beyond Draining the Swamp: Urban Development and Counterterrorism in Morocco

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    OranRabat Casablanca Lisbon Madrid Gibraltar In Salah Agadir Meknes Fes Tangier Marrakech Morocco and Surrounding Area Dalzell: Beyond Draining the...17 October 2004 in Rabat, Casablanca, JSOU Report 06-9 Marrakech , Oujda, Meknes, and Fes. By June 2005 they totaled 4,000 officers. In 2006, the

  13. 13. DETAIL WEST OF TURBINE PIT SHOWING PIT DRAINED AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL WEST OF TURBINE PIT SHOWING PIT DRAINED AND TURBINE EXPOSED. ORIGINAL WATER LEVEL SHOWN BY LINE JUST ABOVE ARCHED OPENING TO LEFT. WATER LINE AFTER 1982 INSTALLATION OF FLASH BOARDS REVEALED BY DARK STAIN. - Middle Creek Hydroelectric Dam, On Middle Creek, West of U.S. Route 15, 3 miles South of Selinsgrove, Selinsgrove, Snyder County, PA

  14. JMU Refuses to Let Money Go down the Drain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinn, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    James Madison University (JMU) in Harrisonburg, Virginia has embarked on a rational means to reduce energy costs and provides a sustainable approach to student housing. The investment to install a Drain Water Heat Recovery system (DWHR) at Wayland Hall is estimated to pay for itself in less than three years but will provide dividends for over 40.…

  15. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... is maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure, then paragraph (a)(1)(i)(B) of this....355(h); and (3) The pressure is monitored continuously to ensure that the pressure in the individual drain system remains below atmospheric pressure. (ii) The closed-vent system and control device shall...

  16. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... is maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure, then paragraph (a)(1)(i)(B) of this....355(h); and (3) The pressure is monitored continuously to ensure that the pressure in the individual drain system remains below atmospheric pressure. (ii) The closed-vent system and control device shall...

  17. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... is maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure, then paragraph (a)(1)(i)(B) of this....355(h); and (3) The pressure is monitored continuously to ensure that the pressure in the individual drain system remains below atmospheric pressure. (ii) The closed-vent system and control device shall...

  18. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... is maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure, then paragraph (a)(1)(i)(B) of this....355(h); and (3) The pressure is monitored continuously to ensure that the pressure in the individual drain system remains below atmospheric pressure. (ii) The closed-vent system and control device shall...

  19. 40 CFR 61.346 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... is maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure, then paragraph (a)(1)(i)(B) of this....355(h); and (3) The pressure is monitored continuously to ensure that the pressure in the individual drain system remains below atmospheric pressure. (ii) The closed-vent system and control device shall...

  20. Are You Phrog Farming or Helping to Drain the Swamp?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Jerry B.

    1983-01-01

    The difference between phrogfessors and teachers is that phrogfessors train tadpoles in the way of the swamp (i.e., create likenesses of themselves) while teachers produce people and thereby help to drain the swamp. Phrogfessors take responsibility for what their students learn. They believe that if a student does badly, it is the phrogfessor's…

  1. Factors that Affect Drain Indwelling Time after Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Uslukaya, Ömer; Türkoğlu, Ahmet; Gümüş, Metehan; Bozdağ, Zübeyir; Yılmaz, Ahmet; Gümüş, Hatice; Kaya, Şeyhmus; Gül, Mesut

    2016-01-01

    Objective The most common procedure to prevent seroma formation, a common complication after breast and axillary surgery, is to use prophylactic surgical drains. Ongoing discussions continue regarding the ideal time for removing drains after surgical procedures. In this study, we aimed to investigate factors that affect drain indwelling time (DIT). Materials and Methods From 2014 to 2015, a total of 91 consecutive patients with breast cancer were included in the study. The demographic characteristics of the patients, treatment methods, histopathologic features of the tumor, size of removed breast tissue (BS), tumor size (TS), number of totally removed lymph nodes (TLN), and metastatic lymph nodes (MLN), whether they had neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and the DIT were retrospectively recorded from the hospital database. Results The mean age of the patients was 48.9 years, and the mean DIT was 4.8 days. The mean size of breast removed was 17.3 cm and tumor size was 4.7 cm, and the mean number of metastatic lymph nodes was 3.3, and mean total number of lymph nodes was 14.1. Patients who had neoadjuvant chemotherahpy had longer DIT. There was a positive correlation between the BS, TS, TLN, MLN, length of hospital stay, and DIT. Linear regresion analysis revealed that the BS, TLN, and history of neoadjuvant chemotherahpy were independent risk factors for DIT. Conclusion DIT primarily depends on BS, TLN, and history of neoadjuvant chemotherahpy. A policy for the management of removing drains to prevent seroma formation should thus be individualized.

  2. 7. DRAIN TUNNEL PORTAL. THE WATER FLOWS IN A DITCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DRAIN TUNNEL PORTAL. THE WATER FLOWS IN A DITCH BENEATH TIMBER LAGGING, WHICH SUPPORTS THE MINE CAR TRACKS. - Park Utah Mining Company: Keetley Mine Complex, 1 mile East of U.S. 40 at Keetley, Heber City, Wasatch County, UT

  3. Phosphorus modeling in tile drained agricultural systems using APEX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus losses through tile drained systems in agricultural landscapes may be causing the persistent eutrophication problems observed in surface water. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the state of the science in the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model related to surf...

  4. 38. View of 6' valve for draining Wolslegal Basin, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. View of 6' valve for draining Wolslegal Basin, looking south from north side of the basin. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  5. 7 CFR 52.3755 - Minimum drained weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description... olives is determined by emptying the contents of the container upon a U.S. Standard No. 8 circular sieve.... The weight of drained olives is the weight of the sieve and product less the weight of the dry...

  6. 7 CFR 52.3755 - Minimum drained weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description... olives is determined by emptying the contents of the container upon a U.S. Standard No. 8 circular sieve.... The weight of drained olives is the weight of the sieve and product less the weight of the dry...

  7. 7 CFR 52.3755 - Minimum drained weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description... olives is determined by emptying the contents of the container upon a U.S. Standard No. 8 circular sieve.... The weight of drained olives is the weight of the sieve and product less the weight of the dry...

  8. State waste discharge permit application, 200-E chemical drain field

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect ground would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. This document presents the State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) application for the 200-E Chemical Drain Field. Waste water from the 272-E Building enters the process sewer line directly through a floor drain, while waste water from the 2703-E Building is collected in two floor drains, (north and south) that act as sumps and are discharged periodically. The 272-E and 2703-E Buildings constitute the only discharges to the process sewer line and the 200-E Chemical Drain Field.

  9. At 750 Gallery, (sump level) view of drain to sump ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    At 750 Gallery, (sump level) view of drain to sump pumps, looking north. This level contains the "art gallery" which features graffiti from the 1940s-1990s. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  10. 1. LOOKING TOWARD PLANE 9 WEST. BASIN HAS BEEN DRAINED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING TOWARD PLANE 9 WEST. BASIN HAS BEEN DRAINED AND SLOPE OF PLANE 9 IS VISIBLE BETWEEN ROW OF TREES IN BACKGROUND. STONEWORK ON LEFT IS ABUTMENT TO BRIDGE THAT CROSSED OVER THE CANAL. - Morris Canal, Inclined Plane 9 West, Port Warren, Warren County, NJ

  11. Chemical composition of dissolved organic matter draining permafrost soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Collin P.; Cory, Rose M.

    2015-10-01

    Northern circumpolar permafrost soils contain roughly twice the amount of carbon stored in the atmosphere today, but the majority of this soil organic carbon is perennially frozen. Climate warming in the arctic is thawing permafrost soils and mobilizing previously frozen dissolved organic matter (DOM) from deeper soil layers to nearby surface waters. Previous studies have reported that ancient DOM draining deeper layers of permafrost soils was more susceptible to degradation by aquatic bacteria compared to modern DOM draining the shallow active layer of permafrost soils, and have suggested that DOM chemical composition may be an important control for the lability of DOM to bacterial degradation. However, the compositional features that distinguish DOM drained from different depths in permafrost soils are poorly characterized. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize the chemical composition of DOM drained from different depths in permafrost soils, and relate these compositional differences to its susceptibility to biological degradation. DOM was leached from the shallow organic mat and the deeper permafrost layer of soils within the Imnavait Creek watershed on the North Slope of Alaska. DOM draining both soil layers was characterized in triplicate by coupling ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry, 13C solid-state NMR, and optical spectroscopy methods with multi-variate statistical analyses. Reproducibility of replicate mass spectra was high, and compositional differences resulting from interfering species or isolation effects were significantly smaller than differences between DOM drained from each soil layer. All analyses indicated that DOM leached from the shallower organic mat contained higher molecular weight, more oxidized, and more unsaturated aromatic species compared to DOM leached from the deeper permafrost layer. Bacterial production rates and bacterial efficiencies were significantly higher for permafrost compared to organic mat DOM

  12. Improved simulation of poorly drained forests using Biome-BGC.

    PubMed

    Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Gower, Stith T; Ahl, Douglas E

    2007-05-01

    Forested wetlands and peatlands are important in boreal and terrestrial biogeochemical cycling, but most general-purpose forest process models are designed and parameterized for upland systems. We describe changes made to Biome-BGC, an ecophysiological process model, that improve its ability to simulate poorly drained forests. Model changes allowed for: (1) lateral water inflow from a surrounding watershed, and variable surface and subsurface drainage; (2) adverse effects of anoxic soil on decomposition and nutrient mineralization; (3) closure of leaf stomata in flooded soils; and (4) growth of nonvascular plants (i.e., bryophytes). Bryophytes were treated as ectohydric broadleaf evergreen plants with zero stomatal conductance, whose cuticular conductance to CO(2) was dependent on plant water content. Individual model changes were parameterized with published data, and ecosystem-level model performance was assessed by comparing simulated output to field data from the northern BOREAS site in Manitoba, Canada. The simulation of the poorly drained forest model exhibited reduced decomposition and vascular plant growth (-90%) compared with that of the well-drained forest model; the integrated bryophyte photosynthetic response accorded well with published data. Simulated net primary production, biomass and soil carbon accumulation broadly agreed with field measurements, although simulated net primary production was higher than observed data in well-drained stands. Simulated net primary production in the poorly drained forest was most sensitive to oxygen restriction on soil processes, and secondarily to stomatal closure in flooded conditions. The modified Biome-BGC remains unable to simulate true wetlands that are subject to prolonged flooding, because it does not track organic soil formation, water table changes, soil redox potential or anaerobic processes.

  13. Factors predictive of increased surgical drain output after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF)

    PubMed Central

    Basques, Bryce A.; Bohl, Daniel D.; Golinvaux, Nicholas S.; Yacob, Alem; Varthi, Arya G.; Grauer, Jonathan N.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Objective To identify factors that are independently associated with increased surgical drain output in patients who have undergone ACDF. Summary of Background Data Surgical drains are typically placed following ACDF to reduce the risk of complications associated with neck hematoma. The orthopaedic literature has repeatedly challenged the use of surgical drains following many procedures, and there are currently no guidelines for determining which patients are most likely to benefit from drain placement after ACDF. Methods Consecutive patients who underwent elective ACDF with surgical drain placement at a single academic institution between January 2011 and February 2013 were identified using billing records. Patient information was abstracted from the medical record. Patients were categorized based on normal or increased total drain output, with increased drain output defined as total drain output ≥ 50th percentile (30mL). A multivariate logistic regression was used to determine which factors were independently associated with increased drain output. Results A total of 151 ACDF patients met inclusion criteria. Total drain output ranged from 0 mL to 265 mL. The average drain output for this cohort was 42.3 ± 45.5 mL (mean ± standard deviation). Among all patients in the study, 80 patients had increased drain output (drain output ≥ 50th percentile or 30 mL). Multivariate analysis identified three independent predictors of increased drain output: age ≥ 50 years (Odds Ratio [OR] = 3.9), number of levels (2 levels, OR = 2.7; 3–4 levels, OR = 17.0), and history of smoking (OR = 2.8). One patient developed a postoperative neck hematoma while a drain was in place. Conclusion Patients with the above-identified factors associated with increased drain output may benefit most from surgical drain placement after ACDF. Nonetheless, neck hematoma is still possible even with drain use. PMID:24480948

  14. Surface Water and Groundwater Nitrogen Dynamics in a Well Drained Riparian Forest within a Poorly Drained Agricultural Landscape

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effectiveness of riparian zones in mitigating nutrients in ground and surface water depends on the climate, management and hydrogeomorphology of a site. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a well-drained, mixed-deciduous riparian forest to buffer a ri...

  15. Quantification and valuation of ecosystem services to optimize sustainable re-use for low-productive drained peatlands (LIFEPeatLandUse)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolvanen, Anne; Parviainen, Miia; Ojanen, Paavo

    2016-04-01

    More than half of the original peatlands have been drained in Finland to increase tree growth. However, 20% of the drained peatland area is low-productive, and does not produce enough timber to fulfill commercial purposes. At the same time, their biodiversity is degraded, they may continue environmental loading to watercourses, and act as greenhouse gas (GHG) sources. A key question concerning the use of peatlands in Finland is what to do with these low-productive drained peatlands that have been left aside from active forestry. These low-productive drained peatlands can be re-used in many different ways. The problem is that the impacts of different re-use options on biodiversity, environment and economy are not yet fully understood and thus it is hard to give proposals for re-use actions. The challenge is to develop mechanisms that can balance the conflicting demands on the use of peatlands and to ensure their sustainable use. Our 5-year EU funded LIFE+ project LIFEPeatLandUse (2013-2018, LIFE12/ENV/FI/150) consolidates the knowledge on the impacts of peatland re-use on ecosystem services. Under investigation, there are seven different peatland re-use options, representing the economic activity as well as measures related to the protection. The purpose is to evaluate and predict their potential impacts on the peatland landscapes, if they were applied in practice. The aim is to find cost-efficient re-use options to low-productive drained peatlands, which help to prevent or stop decline of biodiversity and environmental loading to watercourses, and improve capacity of peatlands to store greenhouse gases.

  16. An experimental study on recovering heat from domestic drain water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, Mohamad; Al Shaer, Ali; Haddad, Ahmad; Khaled, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    This paper concerns an experimental study on a system of heat recovery applied to domestic drain water pipes. The concept suggested consists of using the heat still present in the drain water as a preheating/heating source to the cold water supply of the building. To proceed, an appropriate experimental setup is developed and a coil heat exchanger is used as heat transfer device in the recovery system. Several scenarios are simulated and corresponding parameters are recorded and analyzed. It was shown that the suggested recovery concept can considerably preheat the cold water supply and then decrease the energy consumption. Particularly, up to 8.6 kW of heat were recovered when the cold water supply is initially at 3 °C.

  17. Novel combination combining J-Vac and VAC sponge for draining a rectal wound.

    PubMed

    Durai, R; Ng, P C H

    2010-01-01

    Active drains, which work by negative pressure, require a closed space for retaining the vacuum. Here the authors describe their novel technique of combining a J-Vac drain and the sponge of a vacuum assisted closure dressing pack to drain a rectal wound. This modification may be useful for rectal wounds and anastomotic leaks.

  18. Effects of drain doping concentration on switching characteristics of tunnel field-effect transistor inverters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Dae Woong; Kim, Jang Hyun; Park, Byung-Gook

    2016-11-01

    In order to investigate the effects of the modulation of drain doping concentration (N drain) on alternating current (AC) switching characteristics of a tunnel filed-effect transistor (TFET) inverter, the characteristics of TFETs with various N drains are analyzed rigorously through mixed-mode device and circuit TCAD simulations. As the N drain gets decreased, the drain current (I D) becomes reduced and the gate-to-drain capacitance (C GD) reflects the entire gate capacitance (C GG) at a lower gate voltage (V G), which leads to the degradation of falling/rising delay in TFET inverters. These phenomena are explained successfully by the change of quasi-Fermi energy in the drain (E F_drain) as a function of V G. The E F_drain rises dramatically from when tunneling current starts to flow from the source in the n-type TFET with low N drain. As a result, drain-side channel inversion occurs at a lower V G due to the reduction of the energy barrier between the E F_drain and the conduction band edge of the channel.

  19. 33 CFR 149.145 - What are the requirements for curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs? 149.145 Section 149.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST..., drains, and reservoirs? Each pumping platform complex must have enough curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs to collect, in the reservoirs, all oil and contaminants not authorized for discharge into...

  20. 33 CFR 149.145 - What are the requirements for curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs? 149.145 Section 149.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST..., drains, and reservoirs? Each pumping platform complex must have enough curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs to collect, in the reservoirs, all oil and contaminants not authorized for discharge into...

  1. 33 CFR 149.145 - What are the requirements for curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs? 149.145 Section 149.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST..., drains, and reservoirs? Each pumping platform complex must have enough curbs, gutters, drains, and reservoirs to collect, in the reservoirs, all oil and contaminants not authorized for discharge into...

  2. Governance in EU illicit drugs policy.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Carel; Galla, Maurice

    2014-09-01

    This commentary represents the authors' views on EU governance in illicit drug policy, a field in which they were active for more than 10 years between them. EU drug policy has a narrow legal basis in the European Treaties and is mostly non-binding. The main policy instruments are 8-year EU Drug Strategies, underpinned by 4-year Action Plans which set out specific objectives at national, EU or international level. The approach that guides EU drug policy is known as the 'balanced approach'. It is remarkably restrained and reflects the reality that very few Member States have either the socio-political culture or the resources to consistently apply the punitive sanctions foreseen by the UN conventions. An important feature of EU governance in the field of drugs is the proactive support that is provided to non-governmental organisations both within the EU as well as in accession, associated or third countries. At a global level, the EU is a major financial aid donor also in this field. This position is not however reflected in corresponding political clout for the EU within the UN system. EU governance on drugs has made it possible for many of its Member States to accommodate the problem rather than to "solve" what by all the evidence from the last 100 years may well be insoluble, at least by means of criminalisation and prohibition. The big question is where EU drug policy is headed in the next few years. The EU has been promoting measures and practices that target real problems. It has done so without indulging too much in unhelpful rhetoric. However, like all successful formulae this one also has a sell-by date. EU governance in the field of drugs cannot afford to stand still. It needs to find a second wind.

  3. Liquid draining shut-off induced geyser and slosh wave excitation at suction dip during draining in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Shyu, K. L.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of vapor ingestion, liquid residual at the incipience of suction dip, liquid hydrogen shut-off at the incipience of suction dip, and slosh wave excitation under normal and various reduced gravity environments and different flow rates of liquid during draining have been investigated. It shows that the liquid residual at the incipience of suction dip increases as the values of gravity environment decrease from normal gravity to lower reduced gravity, and also that the liquid residual increases as the flow rates of liquid increase during the courses of liquid hydrogen draining. It also shows that slosh waves accompanied by strong geyser are developed for surge-related flowfields at the moment of liquid hydrogen shut-off. Slosh wave excitation, during the liquid hydrogen shut-off, shift the fluid mass distribution in the container which imposes time-dependent variation in spacecraft moment of inertia.

  4. Role of Routine Subhepatic Abdominal Drain Placement following Uncomplicated Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Prospective Randomised Study

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Sushil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Routine abdominal drainage after laparoscopy cholecystectomy is an issue of considerable debate. Reason for draining is to detect early bile/blood leak and allow CO2 insufflate during laparoscopy to escape via drain site thereby decreased shoulder tip pain and post-operative nausea and vomiting. But some studies show no difference in post-operative nausea /vomiting/pain between drain and no drain group. Aim To assess the role of drains following uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods This prospective randomized study was conducted in the Department of General Surgery, Government Medical College and Rajindra Hospital, Patiala. Hundred patients of symptomatic gallstones satisfying the selection and exclusion criteria, undergoing uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in this study, 50 cases with drains in right subhepatic space (Group I) and 50 cases without drains (Group II). Both groups were compared in terms of post-operative shoulder pain, analgesic requirement, nausea and vomiting, hospital stay and analgesic requirement in patient with drains and without drains. SPSS version 16.0 (Chi-Square Test and Fisher-Exact Test) were used for statistical analysis. Results In this study, average operative time in both the groups was same (p-value 0.977). There was more incidence of nausea /vomiting in no drain group than in drain group. Shoulder tip pain was lower in drain group in first 12 hours post-operative. However, after 12 hours, drain group had higher shoulder tip pain than no drain group. Analgesic requirement was higher in no drain group upto 12 hours after which it was higher in drain group (statistically not significant). In terms of hospital stay patients in drain group had a longer stay in hospital as compared to no drain group (2.96 vs 2.26; p <0.001 statistically significant). Conclusion Use of drains in uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not advantageous; its role in reducing post

  5. Improvised external ventricular drain in neurosurgery: A Nigerian tertiary hospital experience

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, O. A.; Asha, M. A.; Bankole, O. B.; Kanu, O. O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most common type of hydrocephalus in developing countries is post infective hydrocephalus. Infected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) however cannot be shunted for the reason that it will block the chamber of the ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt due to its high protein content. In centers where standard external ventricular drain (EVD) sets are not available, improvised feeding tube can be used. Aim: The main focus of this study is to encourage the use of improvised feeding tube catheters for EVD when standard sets are not available to improve patients’ survival. Methodology: This was a prospective study. Consecutive patients with hydrocephalus that cannot be shunted immediately for high chances of shunt failure or signs of increasing intracranial pressure were recruited into the study. Other inclusion criteria were preoperative brain tumor with possibility of blocked CSF pathway and massive intraventricular hemorrhage necessitating ventricular drainage as a salvage procedure. Standard EVD set is not readily available and too expensive for most of the parents to afford. Improvised feeding tube is used to drain/divert CSF using the standard documented procedure for EVD insertion. Outcome is measured and recorded. Results: A total of 28 patients were recruited into the study over a time frame of 2 years. There were 19 (67.9%) male and 9 (32.1%) females with a ratio of about 2:1. Age ranges varied from as low as 7 days to 66 years. The median age of the study sample was 6.5 months while the mean was 173.8 months. Duration of EVD varied from 2 days to 11 days with a median of 7 while the average was 6 days. Eventual outcome following the procedure of EVD showed that 19 (67.9%) survived and were discharged either to go home or to have VP shunt afterwards while 8 (28.6%) of the patients died. Conclusions: External ventricular drain can and should be done when it is necessary. Potential mortalities could be reduced by the improvised drainage using a standard

  6. Metronidazole and hydroxymetronidazole central nervous system distribution: 2. cerebrospinal fluid concentration measurements in patients with external ventricular drain.

    PubMed

    Frasca, Denis; Dahyot-Fizelier, Claire; Adier, Christophe; Mimoz, Olivier; Debaene, Bertrand; Couet, William; Marchand, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    This study explored metronidazole and hydroxymetronidazole distribution in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of brain-injured patients. Four brain-injured patients with external ventricular drain received 500 mg of metronidazole over 0.5 h every 8 h. CSF and blood samples were collected at steady state over 8 h, and the metronidazole and hydroxymetronidazole concentrations were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatograph. A noncompartmental analysis was performed. Metronidazole is distributed extensively within CSF, with a mean CSF to unbound plasma AUC0-τ ratio of 86% ± 16%. However, the concentration profiles in CSF were mostly flat compared to the plasma profiles. Hydroxymetronidazole concentrations were much lower than those of metronidazole both in plasma and in CSF, with a corresponding CSF/unbound plasma AUC0-τ ratio of 79% ± 16%. We describe here for the first time in detail the pharmacokinetics of metronidazole and hydroxymetronidazole in CSF.

  7. Hydrology and hydraulics of treatment wetlands constructed on drained peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postila, Heini; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kløve, Bjørn

    2013-04-01

    Treatment wetlands are globally used for wastewater purification purposes. In Finland, these wetlands are commonly peatland-based and are used to treat runoff from peat extraction sites and peatland forestry. Wetlands are also used for polishing municipal wastewaters and mining waters. In peat extraction the structures are usually called overland flow areas (OFAs), which are traditionally established on pristine peatlands. However, nowadays establishing of new peat extraction sites is guided to drained peatland areas due to the Finnish Peat Use Strategy, which leads difficulties to find undisturbed peatland area for OFA. Therefore treatment wetlands have had to construct also on drained peatland areas. In drained areas peat physical properties have changed due to oxidation and subsidence and the water flow pathways differs from OFAs flow patterns, which maybe have effect on purification results. Thus in the present study we aim to clarify the hydrology and hydraulic properties of treatment wetlands constructed on drained peatland areas. For this purposes, 20 treatment wetlands on drained peatland areas across Finland were detailed measured for peat hydraulic conductivity. In selected areas, runoff was continuously monitored, flow distribution at treatment areas was studied and water residence times measured with tracer tests using potassium iodide (KI). Generally, in the study areas, the ditches had been completely blocked, partly blocked e.g with peat dams or not blocked at all. The ditches were located partly parallel to the flow direction and partly perpendicular to it. The distribution of water to the wetlands has been implemented in many different ways e.g. by distribution ditch or by perforated pipes. Based on the results, in majority of the wetlands, the peat drainage has clearly affected the hydraulic properties of wetlands, but not on all sites. In more than half of the wetlands (12), the median hydraulic conductivity of peat drastically decreased at the

  8. Drain current local variability from linear to saturation region in 28 nm bulk NMOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatsori, T. A.; Theodorou, C. G.; Haendler, S.; Dimitriadis, C. A.; Ghibaudo, G.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we investigate the impact of the source - drain series resistance mismatch on the drain current variability in 28 nm bulk MOSFETs. For the first time, a mismatch model including the local fluctuations of the threshold voltage (Vt), the drain current gain factor (β) and the source - drain series resistance (RSD) in both linear and saturation regions is presented. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the influence of the source - drain series resistance mismatch is attenuated in the saturation region, due to the weaker sensitivity of the drain current variability on the series resistance variation. The experimental results were further verified by numerical simulations of the drain current characteristics with sensitivity analysis of the MOSFET parameters Vt, β and RSD.

  9. Bulk Friction Angles in Dry, Drained, and Saturated Gravel Beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holo, S.; Palucis, M. C.; Lamb, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    We examined the effect of capillary action and lubrication of grains on bulk friction angles through tilting chute experiments. In each experiment, we screed a bed of 5mm gravels in 65cm long x 18cm wide tilting chute with fixed roughness and slowly tilted the chute until a granular avalanche occurred. We performed these experiments under three conditions: with dry grains, with a bed that had been submerged and subsequently drained such that no water occupied the pore space, and with the entire apparatus submerged under water such that the bed is saturated. In addition, for each of these cases, we performed experiments with 5, 10, and 15cm bed thicknesses. In the dry case, the bed failed at ~ 41º, and bed thickness did not have a significant effect on failure angle. In the drained case, friction angles increased from 46.5º to 50.9º with increasing bed thickness. In the submerged case, the bed failed at angles not significantly different than those from the dry case, and they did not vary with bed thickness. The increase in friction angles between the dry and drained cases suggests that addition of the water induces a cohesive effect on the grains. Because the pore pressure from the saturated bed removes capillary effects but retains lubrication effects, the submerged case data suggest that capillary action is primarily responsible for the observed increases in friction angle and effects from grain lubrication are negligible. Further study is ongoing to fully understand the effect of capillary action on bulk friction angles in unsaturated gravel and why it appears to increase with bed thickness.

  10. Education of EU Migrant Children in EU Member States. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harte, Emma; Herrera, Facundo; Stepanek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This policy brief looks at the education of EU migrant children in the context of intra-EU mobility. It examines some of the literature and data on the topic in order to identify key differences between EU migrant children and non-migrant children. There are disparities in educational performance between migrants and non-migrants. The brief…

  11. Tuning Mixed-Valent Eu(2+) /Eu(3+) in Strontium Formate Frameworks for Multichannel Photoluminescence.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Lijia; Wang, Yanlong; Chen, Lanhua; McLeod, John A; Yang, Linju; Zhao, Jia; Liu, Zhiyong; Diwu, Juan; Chai, Zhifang; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E; Liu, Guokui; Wang, Shuao

    2016-08-01

    Cooperative performance of mixed-valent Eu(2+) /Eu(3+) in single-compound phosphors offers significant advantages in color rendering and luminescence efficiency, but their synthesis is challenging because of Eu(2+) oxidation. Using the tunable nature of the metal-ion nodes in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), we present an in situ reduction and crystallization route for preparing MOFs and doping Eu(2+) /Eu(3+) with a controlled ratio. These materials exhibit rich photoluminescence, including intrinsic- and sensitized-emissions of Eu(2+) and Eu(3+) , and long-lived luminescence from charge transfer. Color rendering can be easily achieved by fine-tuning the valence states of Eu. A linear relation between temperature and the intensity ratio of Eu(2+) /Eu(3+) emissions provides outstanding properties for applications as self-calibrated luminescent thermometers with a wide working temperature range. Further incorporation of Tb(3+) into the MOFs results in white light, utilizing all Eu(2+) ,Tb(3+) , and Eu(3+) emissions in a single crystalline lattice.

  12. How Do Meningeal Lymphatic Vessels Drain the CNS?

    PubMed

    Raper, Daniel; Louveau, Antoine; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    The many interactions between the nervous and the immune systems, which are active in both physiological and pathological states, have recently become more clearly delineated with the discovery of a meningeal lymphatic system capable of carrying fluid, immune cells, and macromolecules from the central nervous system (CNS) to the draining deep cervical lymph nodes. However, the exact localization of the meningeal lymphatic vasculature and the path of drainage from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to the lymphatics remain poorly understood. Here, we discuss the potential differences between peripheral and CNS lymphatic vessels and examine the purported mechanisms of CNS lymphatic drainage, along with how these may fit into established patterns of CSF flow.

  13. Characterization Plan for Soils Around Drain Line PLA-100115

    SciTech Connect

    D. Shanklin

    2006-05-24

    This Characterization Plan supports the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (HWMA/RCRA) closure of soils that may have been contaminated by releases from drain line PLA-100115, located within the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The requirements to address the closure of soils contaminated by a potential release from this line in a characterization plan was identified in the "HWMA/RCRA Less Than 90-day Generator Closure Report for the VES-SFE-126."

  14. Laparoscopic primary repair and isoperistaltic endoluminal drain for Boerhaave's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Prete, Francesco; Pezzolla, Angela; Nitti, Paolo; Prete, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous oesophageal rupture, also known as Boerhaave syndrome (BS), is a rare and potentially lethal pathological condition. BS recognition is difficult, while rapidity of diagnosis, along with extension of the lesion, affects type and outcome of treatment. BS was classically treated by thoracotomy, but laparoscopic (LS), thoracoscopic (TS) surgery, and nonsurgical procedures as endoscopic stent positioning or use of glues have been described. Still, there is no model treatment, and selection of the most appropriate therapeutic procedure is complex in the absence of standardised criteria. We successfully managed a patient affected with BS by LS approach and present our experience along with a review of treatment options so far described. Our treatment integrated positioning of an oesophageal isoperistaltic endoluminal drain (IED), that we routinely use in oesophageal sutures at risk of leakage, and of which there is no previous report in the setting of BS. A 68 year old man presented to our attention with true BS, suspected on chest-abdominal CT scan and confirmed by upper GI contrast swallow test, showing leakage of hydro-soluble contrast from the lower third of the oesophagus. Of note, pleural cavities appeared intact. We performed an urgent laparoscopy 12 hours after the onset of symptoms. Laparoscopic toilet of the inferior mediastinum and dual layer oesophageal repair with pedicled omental flap were complemented by positioning of IED, feeding jejunostomy and two tubular drains. The patient had a slow but consistent recovery where IED played as a means of oesophageal suture protection, until he could be discharged home. We think that, when integrity of the pleura is documented, LS should be priority choice to avoid contamination of the pleural cavities. We have to consider every type of oesophageal repair in BS at risk of failure, and every means of protection of the suture is opportune. In our patient the oesophageal suture, covered with a flap of omentum

  15. Influence of Source/Drain Residual Implant Lattice Damage Traps on Silicon Carbide Metal Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor Drain I-V Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adjaye, J.; Mazzola, M. S.

    4H-SiC n-channel power metal semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs) with nitrogen n+-implanted source/drain ohmic contact regions, with and without p-buffer layer fabricated on semi-insulating substrates exhibited hysteresis in the drain I-V characteristics of both types of devices at 300 K and 480 K due to traps. However, thermal spectroscopic measurements could detect the traps only in the devices without p-buffer. Device simulation and optical admittance spectroscopy (OAS) are used to resolve the discrepancy in the initial experimental characterization results. Device simulations and OAS suggest that, in addition to the semi-insulating (SI) substrate traps, acceptor traps due to source/drain residual implant lattice damage contribute to the hysteresis observed in the drain I-V characteristics of the devices. Simulations suggest these traps are contained in the lateral straggle of the implanted source and drain regions since the drain current largely flows between the un-gated edges of the source and drain through the volume of lateral straggle traps. Since hysteresis in I-V curves is a manifestation of the presence of defects in devices and since defects degrade carrier mobility and hence device performance, efforts should be made to minimize the source/drain lateral straggle implant damage.

  16. Sewer and drain swabbing as a means of investigating salmonellosis

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, R. W. S.; Price, T. H.

    1970-01-01

    The use of gauze swabs in drains or sewers to clarify the path followed by a salmonella from source to human host has been reviewed in the light of experience gained in Cardiff over 15 years. This period has seen a marked change in attitudes to salmonella epidemiology in that infected food is now regarded as of greater importance than infected food handlers. In these 15 years, butchers, abattoirs and knackers' yards, markets and bakehouses have been monitored. In the bakehouse survey the existence of staff infection was demonstrated by sewage examination. Sewage investigation has also been used to show frequent entry of salmonellas into households in a residential estate. The estate was carefully chosen to exclude salmonellas from industrial sources and shops. The frequent finding of infection in this sewage implies that a commonly consumed heavily infected food item is involved. The wide range of serotypes isolated suggests an animal usually fed on infected animal feed. Poultry and pigs are put forward as animals liable to spread salmonellosis to man. It is hoped that clarification of the salmonella pathway may eventually lead to measures likely to prevent the transmission of infection to man. It is also suggested that swabs placed in abattoir drains serve as an economical method of obtaining warning of a persistent build-up of contamination. The persistence of a serotype in an abattoir is not infrequently followed by human infection. PMID:5276333

  17. Device for Catheter Placement of External Ventricular Drain

    PubMed Central

    Ann, Jae-Min; Oh, Jae-Sang; Yoon, Seok-Mann

    2016-01-01

    To introduce a new device for catheter placement of an external ventricular drain (EVD) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This device was composed of three portions, T-shaped main body, rectangular pillar having a central hole to insert a catheter and an arm pointing the tragus. The main body has a role to direct a ventricular catheter toward the right or left inner canthus and has a shallow longitudinal opening to connect the rectangular pillar. The arm pointing the tragus is controlled by back and forth movement and turn of the pillar attached to the main body. Between April 2012 and December 2014, 57 emergency EVDs were performed in 52 patients using this device in the operating room. Catheter tip located in the frontal horn in 52 (91.2%), 3rd ventricle in 2 (3.5%) and in the wall of the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle in 3 EVDs (5.2%). Small hemorrhage along to catheter tract occurred in 1 EVD. CSF was well drained through the all EVD catheters. The accuracy of the catheter position and direction using this device were 91% and 100%, respectively. This device for EVD guides to provide an accurate position of catheter tip safely and easily. PMID:27226870

  18. Rupture of draining foam films due to random pressure fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zebin; Narsimhan, Ganesan

    2007-02-27

    A generalized formalism for the rupture of a draining foam film due to imposed random pressure fluctuations, modeled as a Gaussian white noise, is presented in which the flow inside the film is decomposed into a flow due to film drainage and a flow due to imposed perturbation. The evolution of the amplitude of perturbation is described by a stochastic differential equation. The rupture time distribution is calculated from the sample paths of perturbation amplitude as the time for this amplitude to equal one-half the film thickness and is calculated for different amplitudes of imposed perturbations, film thicknesses, electrostatic interactions, viscosities, and interfacial mobilities. The probability of film rupture is high for thicker films, especially at smaller times, as a result of faster growth of perturbations in a thick film due to a smaller disjoining pressure gradient. Larger viscosity, larger surface viscosity, higher Marangoni number, and smaller imposed pressure fluctuation result in slower growth of perturbation of a draining film, thus leading to larger rupture time. It is shown that a composite rupture time distribution combining short time simulation results with equilibrium distribution is a good approximation.

  19. Carbon balance of a drained forested bog in southern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkkinen, Kari; Penttilä, Timo; Ojanen, Paavo; Lohila, Annalea

    2016-04-01

    Carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG) dynamics of a drained forested peatland in southern Finland were measured over multiple years, including one with severe drought during growing season. Net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange (NEE) was measured with an eddy covariance method from a tower above the forest. Soil and forest floor CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes were measured from the strips and from ditches with closed chambers. Biomasses and litter production were sampled, and soil subsidence was measured by consequtive levelings of the peat surface. The data were used to estimate the ecosystem C pools and annual fluxes of carbon and GHGs of the peatland and to analyse the impact of periodical drought on the carbon fluxes. The drained peatland was a strong sink of carbon dioxide in all studied years. Soil CO2 balance was estimated by subtracting the carbon sink of the growing tree stand from NEE, and it showed that also the soil was a sink of carbon in all studied years. A drought period in one summer significantly decreased the sink through decreased GPP. Drought also decreased the ecosystem respiration, including soil respiration. Decreasing water table thus did not increase, but rather decreased CO2 efflux from the peat soil. The site was a small sink for CH4, even when emissions from ditches were included. N2O emissions were small from all surfaces. Despite of the continuous carbon sink, peat surface subsided slightly (1.4 mm a-1) during the 10-year measurement period, which is interpreted to mean mainly compaction, rather than oxidation of the peat. It is concluded that this drained peatland acts as a continuous soil C sink similarly to an undrained peatland. The reason may be the relatively small water-level drawdown compared to an undrained situation, the consequently rather small changes in plant community structure and the significantly improved tree stand growth and litter production. The consequences of continuing production forestry vs. restoration of the site on the

  20. Why Cannot Suction Drains Prevent Postoperative Spinal Epidural Hematoma?

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Dong Ki; Kim, Jin Woo; Yi, Seong Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Postoperative spinal epidural hematoma (POSEH) is different from spontaneous or post-spinal procedure hematoma because of the application of suction drains. However, it appeared that suction drains were not effective for prevention of POSEH in previous studies. The purpose of this study was to test our hypothesis that POSEH can be caused by hypercoagulability. Methods This was an experimental study. One hundred fifty milliliters of blood was donated from each of the 12 consecutive patients who underwent spine surgery and infused into 3 saline bags of 50 mL each. One of the 3 bags in each set contained 5,000 units of thrombin. All of them were connected to 120 ± 30 mmHg vacuum suctions: drainage was started 8 minutes after connection to the vacuum system for 12 normal blood bags (BV8) and 12 thrombin-containing blood bags (TBV8) and 15 minutes after connection for the remaining 12 normal blood bags (BV15). The amount of initial and remaining hematoma at 20 minutes, 120 minutes, and 24 hours after vacuum application were measured by their weight (g). The primary endpoint was the difference between BV8 and TBV8. The secondary end point was the difference between BV8 and BV15. Results The remaining hematoma in TBV8 was significantly greater than that in BV8 at all measurement points: 46.3 ± 12.4 vs. 17.0 ± 1.3 (p = 0.000) at 20 minutes; 33.0 ± 8.2 vs. 16.3 ± 1.2 (p = 0.000) at 120 minutes; and 26.1 ± 4.0 vs. 15.8 ± 1.6 (p = 0.000) at 24 hours after vacuum application. The remaining hematoma of BV15 was significantly greater than that of BV8 at all measurement points: 30.0 ± 12.0 vs. 17.0 ± 1.3 (p = 0.002) at 20 minutes; 24.2 ± 7.6 vs. 16.3 ± 1.2 at 120 minutes (p = 0.002); and 22.2 ± 6.6 vs. 15.8 ± 1.6 (p = 0.004) at 24 hours after vacuum application. Conclusions With a suction drain in place, the amount of remaining hematoma could be affected by coagulability. Thrombin-containing local hemostatics and the length of time elapsed before the

  1. Calibration of the EU Oxybarometer for Nakhlites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makishima, J.; McKay, G.; Le, L.; Miyamoto; Mikouchi, T.

    2006-01-01

    Martian meteorites have various characteristics, which are direct clues to understanding the petrogenesis of Mars rocks. The variation in oxidation state among the Martian meteorites must have important implications for redox conditions of the Martian crust/mantle and overall differentiation on Mars. Wadhwa [1] and Herd et al. [2] reported that Martian basalts were formed under a range of oxidation states, suggesting complex petrogenesis processes. The nakhlites, which have rather different characteristics from basaltic shergottites, may give us additional clues to Martian petrogenesis. The oxidation states of meteorites are usually described by the oxygen fugacity (fO2) under which the meteorites crystallized. One of the methods to estimate the oxygen fugacity is the depth of Eu anomaly. Eu(2+)/Eu(3+) is determined by the oxygen fugacity and partitioning is different for Eu(2+) and Eu(3+). Therefore, the depth of Eu anomaly in a mineral is a function of the oxygen fugacity and the Eu2+/Eu3+ in the melt from which the mineral crystallized. This method has some advantages over another major method, the two-oxide oxybarometer [3], which can more easily be affected by subsolidus processes. The Eu oxybarometer can analyze the cores of the earliest formed crystals in Martian meteorites, which means it can give us a better indication of the oxygen fugacity of the parent melt. The calibration of the Eu oxybarometer has been done with the basaltic shergottites before [4]. However, it has never been applied to nakhlites (Oe et al. [5] measured the depth of Eu anomaly in the synthetic pyroxene only at QFM). Partition coefficients are strongly affected by phase compositions, especially pyroxene Ca content and melt Al content [e.g., 5,6]. The composition of nakhlite pyroxene is rather different from basaltic shergottite pyroxene. Thus, there may be problems in applying the Eu oxybarometer calibration for the basaltic shergottites [7] to nakhlites. Thus, we report in this

  2. RF power FinFET transistors with a wide drain-extended fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bo-Yuan; Chen, Kun-Ming; Chiu, Chia-Sung; Huang, Guo-Wei; Chen, Hsiu-Chih; Chen, Chun-Chi; Hsueh, Fu-Kuo; Chen, Min-Cheng; Chang, Edward Yi

    2017-04-01

    Drain-extended FinFET transistors for RF power applications have been fabricated and is presented in this paper. Power FinFETs with a wide drain extension are proposed to reduce the drain resistance. Compared with conventional drain-extended FinFETs, our proposed new devices exhibit lower on-resistances and better high-frequency performances while keeping a similar breakdown voltage. The enhancements of the on-resistance and peak cutoff frequency are 16 and 56%, respectively, under an optimal drain-extension layout. These experimental results suggest that FinFET transistors with a wide drain extension could be used for RF power applications, increasing the possibility of integrating RF power parts into future FinFET system-on-a-chip technologies.

  3. Study of Eu{sup 3+} → Eu{sup 2+} reduction in BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu prepared in different gas atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Rezende, Marcos V. dos S.; Valerio, Mário E.G.; Jackson, Robert A.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The effect of different gas atmospheres on the Eu reduction process was studied. • The Eu reduction was monitored analyzing XANES region at the Eu L{sub III}-edge. • Hydrogen reducing agent are the most appropriate gas for Eu{sup 2+} stabilization. • Only a part of the Eu ions can be stabilized in the divalent state. • A model of Eu reduction process is proposed. - Abstract: The effect of different gas atmospheres such as H{sub 2}(g), synthetic air, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) on the Eu{sup 3+} → Eu{sup 2+} reduction process during the synthesis of Eu-doped BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} was studied using synchrotron radiation. The Eu{sup 3+} → Eu{sup 2+} reduction was monitored analyzing XANES region when the sample are excited at the Eu L{sub III}-edge. The results show that the hydrogen reducing agent are the most appropriate gas for Eu{sup 2+} stabilization in BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and that only a part of the Eu ions can be stabilized in the divalent state. A model of Eu reduction process, based on the incorporation of charge compensation defects, is proposed.

  4. Modeling Subsurface Storm and Tile Drain Systems in GSSHA with SUPERLINK

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 4- 11 System-Wide Water Resources Program (SWWRP) Modeling Subsurface Storm and Tile Drain Systems in GSSHA with...System-Wide Water Resources Program (SWWRP) ERDC/CHL TR-14-11 September 2014 Modeling Subsurface Storm and Tile Drain Systems in GSSHA with...loadings and pollution abatement. A subsurface storm drain model, called SUPERLINK, has been incorporated into GSSHA to allow the model to

  5. Energy capability enhancement for isolated extended drain NMOS transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidong, Nie; Jin, Wu; Xiaohui, Ma; Zongguang, Yu

    2012-02-01

    Isolated extended drain NMOS (EDNMOS) transistors are widely used in power signal processing. The hole current induced by a high electric field can result in a serious reliability problem due to a parasitic NPN effect. By optimizing p-type epitaxial (p-epi) thickness, n-type buried layer (BLN) and nwell doping distribution, the peak electric field is decreased by 30% and the peak hole current is decreased by 60%, which obviously suppress the parasitic NPN effect. Measured I-V characteristics and transmission line pulsing (TLP) results show that the on-state breakdown voltage is increased from 28 to 37 V when 6 V Vgs is applied and the energy capability is improved by about 30%, while the on-state resistance remains unchanged.

  6. The chronically draining ear. Notes on management in the office.

    PubMed

    Sheehy, J L

    1966-07-01

    THERE ARE THREE FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR PERSISTENCE OF DISCHARGE FROM A CHRONICALLY DRAINING EAR: Moisture, opportunistic bacteria, and debris and diseased tissue. In most cases, the discharge may be temporarily controlled or eliminated by office treatment:* Instruction of the patient in aural hygiene and impressing upon him the importance of avoiding getting water in the ear.* Thorough cleaning of the ear, by the physician initially, and by the patient as frequently as necessary to keep the ear free of discharge.* Antibiotics, used locally rather than systemically, and usually in the form of a powder applied by the patient daily at home.* Culture and sensitivity tests when the problem does not respond to routine office treatment as outlined.

  7. [Retroprostatic cyst draining ejaculatory ducts with secondary obstructive azoospermia].

    PubMed

    Sarkis, P; Nawfal, G; Salloum, L; Kamel, G; Zanati, M; Saad, E; Karam, R; Chemaly, A

    2013-12-01

    Obstructive azoospermia constitutes 35 to 40% of azoospermia. Etiologies may be acquired or rarely congenital. Congenital utricular or Mullerian duct cyst may result in compression of ejaculatory ducts. However, they must be differentiated from exceptional wolffian or urogenital cysts, which are located at the same site but in which ejaculatory ducts may drain inside. We report a case of retroprostatic duct cyst diagnosed during work up of male infertility where magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed the drainage of both ejaculatory ducts inside and the presence of a thin canal ended blindly in the wall of prostatic urethra. Transurethral resection guided by MRI has been performed resulting in urethral drainage of the cyst, relieving of obstruction and normalization of spermogramm.

  8. Wettable Ceramic-Based Drained Cathode Technology for Aluminum Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    J.N. Bruggeman; T.R. Alcorn; R. Jeltsch; T. Mroz

    2003-01-09

    The goal of the project was to develop the ceramic based materials, technology, and necessary engineering packages to retrofit existing aluminum reduction cells in order to reduce energy consumption required for making primary aluminum. The ceramic materials would be used in a drained cathode configuration which would provide a stable, molten aluminum wetted cathode surface, allowing the reduction of the anode-cathode distance, thereby reducing the energy consumption. This multi-tasked project was divided into three major tasks: (1) Manufacturing and laboratory scale testing/evaluation of the ceramic materials, (2) Pilot scale testing of qualified compositions from the first task, and (3) Designing, retrofitting, and testing the ceramic materials in industrial cells at Kaiser Mead plant in Spokane, Washington. Specific description of these major tasks can be found in Appendix A - Project Scope. Due to the power situation in the northwest, the Mead facility was closed, thus preventing the industrial cell testing.

  9. Decommissioning of Experimental Breeder Reactor - II Complex, Post Sodium Draining

    SciTech Connect

    J. A. Michelbacher; S. Paul Henslee; Collin J. Knight; Steven R. sherman

    2005-09-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor - II (EBR-II) was shutdown in September 1994 as mandated by the United States Department of Energy. This sodium-cooled reactor had been in service since 1964. The bulk sodium was drained from the primary and secondary systems and processed. Residual sodium remaining in the systems after draining was converted into sodium bicarbonate using humid carbon dioxide. This technique was tested at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois under controlled conditions, then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary cooling system, followed by the primary tank. This process, terminated in 2002, was used to place a layer of sodium bicarbonate over all exposed surfaces of sodium. Treatment of the remaining EBR-II sodium is governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality issued a RCRA Operating Permit in 2002, mandating that all hazardous materials be removed from EBR-II within a 10 year period, with the ability to extend the permit and treatment period for another 10 years. A preliminary plan has been formulated to remove the remaining sodium and NaK from the primary and secondary systems using moist carbon dioxide, steam and nitrogen, and a water flush. The moist carbon dioxide treatment was resumed in May 2004. As of August 2005, approximately 60% of the residual sodium within the EBR-II primary tank had been treated. This process will continue through the end of 2005, when it is forecast that the process will become increasingly ineffective. At that time, subsequent treatment processes will be planned and initiated. It should be noted that the processes and anticipated costs associated with these processes are preliminary. Detailed engineering has not been performed, and approval for these methods has not been obtained from the regulator or the sponsors.

  10. Preferential flow estimates to an agricultural tile drain with implications for glyphosate transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, W.W.; Wilson, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural subsurface drains, commonly referred to as tile drains, are potentially significant pathways for the movement of fertilizers and pesticides to streams and ditches in much of the Midwest. Preferential flow in the unsaturated zone provides a route for water and solutes to bypass the soil matrix and reach tile drains faster than predicted by traditional displacement theory. This paper uses chloride concentrations to estimate preferential flow contributions to a tile drain during two storms in May 2004. Chloride, a conservative anion, was selected as the tracer because of differences in chloride concentrations between the two sources of water to the tile drain, preferential and matrix flow. A strong correlation between specific conductance and chloride concentration provided a mechanism to estimate chloride concentrations in the tile drain throughout the storm hydrographs. A simple mixing analysis was used to identify the preferential flow component of the storm hydrograph. During two storms, preferential flow contributed 11 and 51% of total storm tile drain flow; the peak contributions, 40 and 81%, coincided with the peak tile drain flow. Positive relations between glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] concentrations and preferential flow for the two storms suggest that preferential flow is an important transport pathway to the tile drain. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  11. Analysis of the impedance field of saturated MOSFETs and drain thermal noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kie-Young

    2017-04-01

    The effect of the velocity saturation region (VSR) on the impedance field of proto-type MOSFET devices, which operate in the saturation region, was investigated to analyze the drain thermal noise. An enhanced impedance field for the drain thermal noise was derived based on the well-known physical analyses of MOSFET noise. The mechanism of the VSR in inducing the drain thermal noise has been explicated by using a self-consistent equivalent circuit model of the saturated MOSFETs. This alternative description was found to be consistent with the analytical derivation. The present analysis has been demonstrated to be consistent with the behavior of empirical drain thermal noise.

  12. A prospective randomised study of drains in infra-peritoneal rectal anastomoses.

    PubMed

    Brown, S R; Seow-Choen, F; Eu, K W; Heah, S M; Tang, C L

    2001-08-01

    Although increasing evidence suggests that prophylactic drainage after intra-peritoneal colorectal anastomoses is unnecessary, drains for infra-peritoneal rectal anastomoses, where the leak rate is higher, are widely employed still. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of prophylactic drainage after anastomosis below the peritoneal reflection. All patients attending one specialist unit over an 8-month period for elective rectal cancer resection with an infra-peritoneal anastomosis were randomised to drainage or no drainage. The incidence of anastomotic leak and complications specific to the drain as well as other complications were compared. Fifty-nine patients were analysed (31 with drain). Twenty-five of the drained and 16 of the no-drain patients had a defunctioning stoma (p=ns). The groups were comparable for demographic data, operation and anastomotic height from the anal verge. There were three leaks (10%) in the drain group and five leaks (18%) in the no-drain group (p=ns). There were 2 (7%) patients in each group with a clinical leak. There were no specific drain complications and the incidence of other complications was similar in both groups. In conclusion, this study supports the contention that there is no difference in morbidity with or without the use of a drain for infra-peritoneal anastomoses.

  13. Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching

    DOEpatents

    Treat, Russell L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

  14. Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching

    DOEpatents

    Treat, R.L.; Gee, G.W.; Whyatt, G.A.

    1993-02-02

    The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

  15. Emerging food safety issues: An EU perspective.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, John D G

    2016-05-01

    Safe food is the right of every citizen of the European Union (EU). A comprehensive and dynamic framework of food and feed safety legislation has been put in place and the EU's executive arm - the European Commission - is responsible for ensuring that the EU member states apply food law consistently. Similarly, the Commission plays an important role in ensuring that imported food meets the EU's stringent food safety standards. Consumer perceptions of unsafe food tend to focus on acute outbreaks of bacterial or viral origin. In recent years there have been a number of diverse food crises associated with fraudulent activity which may (e.g. melamine in dairy products in China) or may not (e.g. the horse meat scandal in the EU) represent a genuine food safety risk. Well publicized incidents of chronic exposure to chemical contamination in the EU (e.g. dioxins in meat and mycotoxins in nuts) have required robust coordinated policy responses from the Commission. Despite the decreasing incidence of non-compliant residues of veterinary medicinal products and banned substances in animal products, EU consumers are increasingly concerned about the use of such products in food-producing animals, including in the context of the build-up of antimicrobial resistance in animals and transfer to humans. The Commission plays a key role in coordination of the EU member states' responses to such incidents, in risk management, and in preparation for emerging issues. This paper focuses on how the EU as a whole has dealt with a number of food crises, and what can be learned from past incidents. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Research institute tries to ease brain drain by bringing researchers back to Canada.

    PubMed Central

    OReilly, M

    1995-01-01

    The lack of research opportunities in Canada and the large number of them in the US have cost Canada some of its brightest young researchers. The Robarts Research Institute in London, Ont., is trying to reverse that trend by bringing some of these researchers back home. However, Dr. Mark Poznansky says the repatriation efforts will mean little if research budgets keep getting cut in Canada. He says the budget of the Medical Research Council of Canada is barely adequate for today's needs. Images p1110-a p1110-b p1111-a PMID:7712423

  17. Tacit Knowledge Capture and the Brain-Drain at Electrical Utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perjanik, Nicholas Steven

    As a consequence of an aging workforce, electric utilities are at risk of losing their most experienced and knowledgeable electrical engineers. In this research, the problem was a lack of understanding of what electric utilities were doing to capture the tacit knowledge or know-how of these engineers. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore the tacit knowledge capture strategies currently used in the industry by conducting a case study of 7 U.S. electrical utilities that have demonstrated an industry commitment to improving operational standards. The research question addressed the implemented strategies to capture the tacit knowledge of retiring electrical engineers and technical personnel. The research methodology involved a qualitative embedded case study. The theories used in this study included knowledge creation theory, resource-based theory, and organizational learning theory. Data were collected through one time interviews of a senior electrical engineer or technician within each utility and a workforce planning or training professional within 2 of the 7 utilities. The analysis included the use of triangulation and content analysis strategies. Ten tacit knowledge capture strategies were identified: (a) formal and informal on-boarding mentorship and apprenticeship programs, (b) formal and informal off-boarding mentorship programs, (c) formal and informal training programs, (d) using lessons learned during training sessions, (e) communities of practice, (f) technology enabled tools, (g) storytelling, (h) exit interviews, (i) rehiring of retirees as consultants, and (j) knowledge risk assessments. This research contributes to social change by offering strategies to capture the know-how needed to ensure operational continuity in the delivery of safe, reliable, and sustainable power.

  18. La Vida Robot - High School Engineering Program Combats Engineering Brain Drain

    ScienceCinema

    Cameron, Allan; Fredi, Lajvardi

    2016-07-12

    Carl Hayden High School has built an impressive reputation with its robotics club. At a time when interest in science, math and engineering is declining, the Falcon Robotics club has young people fired up about engineering. Their program in underwater robots (MATE) and FIRST robotics is becoming a national model, not for building robots, but for building engineers. Teachers Fredi Lajvardi and Allan Cameron will present their story (How kids 'from the mean streets of Phoenix took on the best from M.I.T. in the national underwater bot championship' - Wired Magazine, April 2005) and how every student needs the opportunity to 'do real engineering.'

  19. APS 'Globalisation of Physics': The Brain Drain - America's Gain is Europe's Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfendale, Arnold

    2001-03-01

    With the collapse of Communism and easier migration from Central and Eastern Europe there is a danger that US recruitment of scientists will damage these countries irretrievably. The remedy is for finances to be transferred from the US (and from other wealthy countries) pro rata to the numbers of scientists so recruited. The funds should be channelled into the science bases of the countries affected. It will be argued that such a scheme is too difficult to organize. This is not a valid argument - all our science is 'difficult', but we do it.

  20. La Vida Robot - High School Engineering Program Combats Engineering Brain Drain

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, Allan; Lajvardi, Fredi

    2006-03-15

    Carl Hayden High School has built an impressive reputation with its robotics club. At a time when interest in science, math and engineering is declining, the Falcon Robotics club has young people fired up about engineering. Their program in underwater robots (MATE) and FIRST robotics is becoming a national model, not for building robots, but for building engineers. Teachers Fredi Lajvardi and Allan Cameron will present their story (How kids 'from the mean streets of Phoenix took on the best from M.I.T. in the national underwater bot championship' - Wired Magazine, April 2005) and how every student needs the opportunity to 'do real engineering.'

  1. Brain Drain and the Disenchantment of Being a Higher Education Student in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerdeira, Luísa; Machado-Taylor, Maria de Lourdes; Cabrito, Belmiro; Patrocínio, Tomás; Brites, Rui; Gomes, Rui; Lopes, João Teixeira; Vaz, Henrique; Peixoto, Paulo; Magalhães, Dulce; Silva, Sílvia; Ganga, Rafaela

    2016-01-01

    The efforts made by most countries to accelerate economic development have included a significant investment in education. It has been argued that investment in education, particularly higher education, was itself a potential factor in economic development. Education has become a relatively easy means of improving access to the labour market.…

  2. Examining the Association between Hazardous Waste Facilities and Rural "Brain Drain"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Lori M.; Sutton, Jeannette

    2004-01-01

    Rural communities are increasingly being faced with the prospect of accepting facilities characterized as "opportunity-threat," such as facilities that generate, treat, store, or otherwise dispose of hazardous wastes. Such facilities may offer economic gains through jobs and tax revenue, although they may also act as environmental "disamenities."…

  3. Antiferromagnetism with divalent Eu in EuNi5As3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, W. B.; Smidman, M.; Xie, W.; Liu, J. Y.; Lee, J. M.; Chen, J. M.; Ho, S. C.; Ishii, H.; Tsuei, K. D.; Guo, C. Y.; Zhang, Y. J.; Lee, Hanoh; Yuan, H. Q.

    2017-01-01

    We have successfully synthesized single crystals of EuNi5As3 using a flux method, and we present a comprehensive study of the physical properties using magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, electrical resistivity, thermoelectric power, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements. EuNi5As3 undergoes two close antiferromagnetic transitions at respective temperatures of TN 1=7.2 K and TN 2=6.4 K, which are associated with the Eu2 + moments. Both transitions are suppressed upon applying a field, and we map the temperature-field phase diagrams for fields applied parallel and perpendicular to the easy a axis. XAS measurements reveal that the Eu is strongly divalent, with very little temperature dependence, indicating the localized Eu2 + nature of EuNi5As3 , with a lack of evidence for heavy-fermion behavior.

  4. Anomalous Eu valence state and superconductivity in undoped Eu3Bi2S4F4.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Hui-Fei; Zhang, Pan; Wu, Si-Qi; He, Chao-Yang; Tang, Zhang-Tu; Jiang, Hao; Sun, Yun-Lei; Bao, Jin-Ke; Nowik, Israel; Felner, Israel; Zeng, Yue-Wu; Li, Yu-Ke; Xu, Xiao-Feng; Tao, Qian; Xu, Zhu-An; Cao, Guang-Han

    2014-10-29

    We have synthesized a novel europium bismuth sulfofluoride, Eu3Bi2S4F4, by solid-state reactions in sealed evacuated quartz ampules. The compound crystallizes in a tetragonal lattice (space group I4/mmm, a = 4.0771(1) Å, c = 32.4330(6) Å, and Z = 2), in which CaF2-type Eu3F4 layers and NaCl-like BiS2 bilayers stack alternately along the crystallographic c axis. There are two crystallographically distinct Eu sites, Eu(1) and Eu(2) at the Wyckoff positions 4e and 2a, respectively. Our bond valence sum calculation, based on the refined structural data, indicates that Eu(1) is essentially divalent, while Eu(2) has an average valence of ∼ +2.64(5). This anomalous Eu valence state is further confirmed and supported, respectively, by Mössbauer and magnetization measurements. The Eu(3+) components donate electrons into the conduction bands that are mainly composed of Bi 6px and 6py states. Consequently, the material itself shows metallic conduction and superconducts at 1.5 K without extrinsic chemical doping.

  5. Source/Drain Engineering for High Performance Vertical MOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamoto, Takuya; Endoh, Tetsuo

    In this paper, Source/Drain (S/i>/D) engineering for high performance (HP) Vertical MOSFET (V-MOSFET) in 3Xnm generation and its beyond is investigated, by using gradual S/i>/D profile while degradation of driving current (ION) due to the parasitic series resistance (Rpara) is minimized through two-dimensional device simulation taking into account for gate-induced-drain-leakage (GIDL). In general, it is significant to reduce spreading resistance in the case of conventional Planar MOSFET. Therefore, in this study, we focused and analyzed the abruptness of diffusion layer that is still importance parameter in V-MOSFET. First, for improving the basic device performance such as subthreshold swing (SS), ION, and Rpara, S/D engineering is investigated. The dependency of device performance on S/D abruptness (σS/D) for various Lightly Doped Drain Extension (LDD) abruptness (σLDD) is analyzed. In this study, Spacer Length (LSP) is defined as a function of σS/D. As σS/D becomes smaller and S/D becomes more abrupt, LSP becomes shorter. SS depends on the σS/D rather than the σLDD. ION has the peak value of 1750µA/µm at σS/D =2nm/dec. and σLDD=3nm/dec. when the silicon pillar diameter (D) is 30nm and the gate length (Lg) is 60nm. As σS/D becomes small, higher ION is obtained due to reduction of Rpara while SS is degraded. However, when σS/D becomes too small in the short channel devices (Lg =60nm and Lg =45nm), ION is degraded because the leakage current due to GIDL is increased and reaches IOFF limit of 100nA/µm. In addition, as σLDD becomes larger, larger ION is obtained in the case of Lg =100nm and Lg =60nm because channel length becomes shorter. On the other hand, in the case of Lg =45nm, as σLDD becomes larger, ION is degraded because short channel effect (SCE) becomes significant. Next, the dependency of the basic device performance on D is investigated. By slimming D from 30nm to 10nm, while SS is improved and approaches the ideal value of 60mV/Decade, ION

  6. Liquefaction under drained condition, from the lab to reality ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, Cécile; Aharonov, Einat; Stojanova, Menka; Toussaint, Renaud

    2015-04-01

    Liquefaction constitutes a significant natural hazard in relation to earthquakes and landslides. This effect can cause buildings to tilt or sink into the soil, mud-volcanoes, floatation of buried objects, long-runout landslides, etc. In this work we present a new understanding regarding the mechanism by which buildings sink and tilt during liquefaction caused by earthquakes. Conventional understanding of liquefaction explains most observed cases as occurring in an undrained, under-compacted, layer of sandy soil saturated with water [1]: According to that understanding, the under compacted sandy layer has the tendency to compact when a load is applied. In our case the load comes from ground shaking during an earthquake. When the soil compacts, the fluid pore pressure rises. Because in undrained conditions the fluid cannot flow out, the pore pressure builds up. The weight of buildings is in this case transferred from the grains of the soil to the pore water. The soil loses its rigidity and it flows like a liquid. From this model scientists made theoretical and empirical laws for geotechnical use and buildings construction. Despite the success of this conventional model in many cases, liquefied soils were also observed under drained conditions, and in previously compacted soils, which doesn't agree with the assumption of the model quoted above. One of the famous liquefaction events is the Kobe port destruction during the 1995 earthquake. A simple calculation of the Deborah number following Goren et al ([2][3]) shows that the undrained constraint was not met below the Kobe port during the 1995 earthquake. We propose another model, of liquefaction in drained granular media. According to our model the mere presence of water in granular media is enough to cause liquefaction during an earthquake, provided that the water reaches close to the surface. Our computations are based on the buoyancy force, and we take into account the static fluid pressure only. For small

  7. Filling, storing and draining. Three key aspects of landslide hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogaard, Thom; Greco, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall-triggered landslides are among the most widespread hazards in the world. The hydrology in and around a landslide area is key to pore pressure build-up in the soil skeleton which reduces shear strength due to the buoyancy force exerted by water in a saturated soil and to soil suction in an unsaturated soil. Extraordinary precipitation events trigger most of the landslides, but, at the same time, the vast majority of slopes do not fail. The intriguing question is: 'When and where exactly can a slope become triggered to slide and flow downwards?' The objective of this article is to present and discuss landslide hydrology at three scales - pore, hillslope, and catchment - which, taken together, give an overview of this interdisciplinary science. In fact, for rainfall-triggered landslides to occur, an unfavourable hydrological interplay should exist between fast and/or prolonged infiltration, and a relatively 'slow' drainage. The competition of water storage, pressure build-up and the subsequently induced drainage contains the importance of the timing, which is indisputably one of the more delicate but relevant aspects of landslide modelling, the overlay of hydrological processes with different time scales. As slopes generally remain stable, we can argue that effective drainage mechanisms spontaneously develop, as the best for a slope to stay stable is getting rid of the overload of water (above field capacity), either vertically or laterally. So, landslide hydrology could be framed as 'Filling-Storing-Draining'. Obviously, 'Storing' is added to stress the importance of dynamic pressure build-up for slope stability. 'Draining' includes all removal of water from the system (vertical and lateral flow, evaporation and transpiration) and thus pore water pressure release. Furthermore, by addressing landslide hydrology from both earth sciences and soil mechanics perspectives, we aim to manifest the hydrological processes in hillslopes and their influence on behaviour

  8. Effect of surface inlet type on suspended sediment transported through a subsurface drain tile system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Throughout the Prairie Pothole Region, subsurface tile and surface inlets are used to remove water from low-lying or poorly-drained soils. Open inlets are being increasingly converted to buried inlets in which perforated tile is placed in a trench of rock (i.e., a French drain) and buried below a la...

  9. Greenhouse gas fluxes of drained organic and flooded mineral agricultural soils in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drained organic soils for agriculture represent less than 1% of the area used for crops in the United States (US). However, emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) from microbial oxidation of drained organic soils offsets almost half of the contributions that carbon sequestration of other cropping systems ...

  10. Treatment of phosphorus transported from tile and ditch-drained agricultural fields using sorption materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many flat, poorly drained soils, such as the Delmarva Peninsula, the upper Midwest, and certain areas of Europe such as Denmark and Netherlands, have been extensively drained through the construction of artificial drainage ditches and tiles to allow agriculture and other human activities. In additi...

  11. 40 CFR 63.136 - Process wastewater provisions-individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.136 Process wastewater provisions—individual drain systems. (a) For each individual drain...

  12. 40 CFR 63.136 - Process wastewater provisions-individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.136 Process wastewater provisions—individual drain systems. (a) For each individual drain...

  13. Cold Vacuum Drying facility effluent drains system design description (SYS 18)

    SciTech Connect

    TRAN, Y.S.

    2000-05-11

    The Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility provides required process systems, supporting equipment, and facilities needed for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) mission. This system design description (SDD) addresses the effluent drain system (EFS), which supports removal of water from the process bay floors. The discussion that follows is limited to piping, valves, components, and the process bay floor drain retention basin.

  14. 7 CFR 58.425 - Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese. 58.425 Section 58.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.425 Conveyor for moving and draining block or...

  15. 7 CFR 58.425 - Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese. 58.425 Section 58.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.425 Conveyor for moving and draining block or...

  16. 7 CFR 58.425 - Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese. 58.425 Section 58.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.425 Conveyor for moving and draining block or...

  17. 7 CFR 58.425 - Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese. 58.425 Section 58.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.425 Conveyor for moving and draining block or...

  18. 7 CFR 58.425 - Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conveyor for moving and draining block or barrel cheese. 58.425 Section 58.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.425 Conveyor for moving and draining block or...

  19. An Exact Solution to the Draining Reservoir Problem of the Incompressible and Non-Viscous Liquid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Seok-In

    2009-01-01

    The exact expressions for the drain time and the height, velocity and acceleration of the free surface are found for the draining reservoir problem of the incompressible and non-viscous liquid. Contrary to the conventional approximate results, they correctly describe the initial time dependence of the liquid velocity and acceleration. Torricelli's…

  20. 77 FR 30886 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable Drain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... Register a final rule regarding the revocation of the prior definition of ``unblockable drain.'' (76 FR... revocation of the definition of unblockable drain covers,'' dated March 30, 2012. Commission staff's summary... circumstances (131 comments). Comment: Members of the American Hotel & Lodging Association, the...

  1. 40 CFR 60.693-1 - Alternative standards for individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... drain systems. 60.693-1 Section 60.693-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.693-1 Alternative standards for individual drain systems. (a) An owner or operator may elect to construct and operate a completely...

  2. 40 CFR 60.693-1 - Alternative standards for individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... drain systems. 60.693-1 Section 60.693-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.693-1 Alternative standards for individual drain systems. (a) An owner or operator may elect to construct and operate a completely...

  3. 40 CFR 60.693-1 - Alternative standards for individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... drain systems. 60.693-1 Section 60.693-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for VOC Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.693-1 Alternative standards for individual drain systems. (a) An owner or operator may elect to construct and operate a completely...

  4. A mathematical model to optimize the drain phase in gravity-based peritoneal dialysis systems.

    PubMed

    Akonur, Alp; Lo, Ying-Cheng; Cizman, Borut

    2010-01-01

    Use of patient-specific drain-phase parameters has previously been suggested to improve peritoneal dialysis (PD) adequacy. Improving management of the drain period may also help to minimize intraperitoneal volume (IPV). A typical gravity-based drain profile consists of a relatively constant initial fast-flow period, followed by a transition period and a decaying slow-flow period. That profile was modeled using the equation VD(t) = (V(D0) - Q(MAX) x t) xphi + (V(D0) x e(-alphat)) x (1 - phi), where V(D)(t) is the time-dependent dialysate volume; V(D0), the dialysate volume at the start of the drain; Q(MAX), the maximum drain flow rate; alpha, the exponential drain constant; and phi, the unit step function with respect to the flow transition. We simulated the effects of the assumed patient-specific maximum drain flow (Q(MAX)) and transition volume (psi), and the peritoneal volume percentage when transition occurs,for fixed device-specific drain parameters. Average patient transport parameters were assumed during 5-exchange therapy with 10 L of PD solution. Changes in therapy performance strongly depended on the drain parameters. Comparing 400 mL/85% with 200 mL/65% (Q(MAX/psi), drain time (7.5 min vs. 13.5 min) and IPV (2769 mL vs. 2355 mL) increased when the initial drain flow was low and the transition quick. Ultrafiltration and solute clearances remained relatively similar. Such differences were augmented up to a drain time of 22 minutes and an IPV of more than 3 L when Q(MAX) was 100 mL/min. The ability to model individual drain conditions together with water and solute transport may help to prevent patient discomfort with gravity-based PD. However, it is essential to note that practical difficulties such as displaced catheters and obstructed flow paths cause variability in drain characteristics even for the same patient, limiting the clinical applicability of this model.

  5. Brain herniation

    MedlinePlus

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  6. Post-Caesarean Drain Placement - Minor Procedure Leading to Major Complication

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Richa; Guleria, Kiran; Suneja, Amita

    2017-01-01

    Intra abdominal drain insertion in doubtful cases has been practised since many years. It may be associated with certain minor as well as major complications like drain site haemorrhage, infection, intestinal perforation and even visceral herniation from the site. Herein, we report a case of 28-year-old unbooked G2P1L1 at 33 weeks gestation with previous caesarean, who underwent Lower Segment Caesarean Section (LSCS) in view of breech presentation in labour. On sixth postoperative day, tubular structure herniation through the drain site was observed. She was undertaken for laparotomy and fallopian tube herniation through the drain site was confirmed. Ipsilateral salpingectomy was done. Thus, drain placement lead to prolonged hospital stay and maternal morbidity.

  7. Novel attributes and design considerations of source and drain regions in carbon nanotube transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orouji, Ali A.; Ahmadmiri, S. A.

    2010-03-01

    Source and drain regions are inseparable sections of carbon nanotube field effect transistor (CNTFET) whose parameters are effective for CNTFET performance. For the first time in this paper, design considerations of source and drain regions are presented by developing a two-dimensional (2-D) full quantum simulation. The simulations have been done by the self-consistent solution of 2-D Poisson-Schrödinger equations, within the nonequilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) formalism. The effects of varying the source and drain parameters are investigated in terms of on-off current ratio, transconductance characteristics, drain conductance, and subthreshold swing. Simulation results demonstrate that we could improve the CNTFET performance with proper selection of the source and drain parameters.

  8. Carbon export by rivers draining the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stets, Edward G.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Material exports by rivers, particularly carbon exports, provide insight to basin geology, weathering, and ecological processes within the basin. Accurate accounting of those exports is valuable to understanding present, past, and projected basin-wide changes in those processes. We calculated lateral export of inorganic and organic carbon (IC and OC) from rivers draining the conterminous United States using stream gaging and water quality data from more than 100 rivers. Approximately 90% of land area and 80% of water export were included, which enabled a continental-scale estimate using minor extrapolation. Total carbon export was 41–49 Tg C yr−1. IC was >75% of export and exceeded OC export in every region except the southeastern Atlantic seaboard. The 10 largest rivers, by discharge, accounted for 66% of water export and carried 74 and 62% of IC and OC export, respectively. Watershed carbon yield for the conterminous United States was 4.2 and 1.3 g C m−2 yr−1 for IC and OC, respectively. The dominance of IC export was unexpected but is consistent with geologic models suggesting high weathering rates in the continental United States due to the prevalence of easily weathered sedimentary rock.

  9. Hydraulic Capacity of an ADA Compliant Street Drain Grate

    SciTech Connect

    Lottes, Steven A.; Bojanowski, Cezary

    2015-09-01

    Resurfacing of urban roads with concurrent repairs and replacement of sections of curb and sidewalk may require pedestrian ramps that are compliant with the American Disabilities Act (ADA), and when street drains are in close proximity to the walkway, ADA compliant street grates may also be required. The Minnesota Department of Transportation ADA Operations Unit identified a foundry with an available grate that meets ADA requirements. Argonne National Laboratory’s Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center used full scale three dimensional computational fluid dynamics to determine the performance of the ADA compliant grate and compared it to that of a standard vane grate. Analysis of a parametric set of cases was carried out, including variation in longitudinal, gutter, and cross street slopes and the water spread from the curb. The performance of the grates was characterized by the fraction of the total volume flow approaching the grate from the upstream that was captured by the grate and diverted into the catch basin. The fraction of the total flow entering over the grate from the side and the fraction of flow directly over a grate diverted into the catch basin were also quantities of interest that aid in understanding the differences in performance of the grates. The ADA compliant grate performance lagged that of the vane grate, increasingly so as upstream Reynolds number increased. The major factor leading to the performance difference between the two grates was the fraction of flow directly over the grates that is captured by the grates.

  10. Modelling bacterial water quality in streams draining pastoral land.

    PubMed

    Collins, Rob; Rutherford, Kit

    2004-02-01

    A model has been developed to predict concentrations of the faecal bacteria indicator E. coli in streams draining grazed hill-country in New Zealand. The long-term aim of the modelling is to assess effects of land management upon faecal contamination and, in the short term, to provide a framework for field-based research. A daily record of grazing livestock is used to estimate E. coli inputs to a catchment, and transport of bacteria to the stream network is simulated within surface and subsurface flows. Deposition of E. coli directly to streams is incorporated where cattle have access to them, and areas of permanent saturation ('seepage zones') are also represented. Bacteria are routed down the stream network and in-stream processes of deposition and entrainment are simulated. Die-off, both on land and in water, is simulated as a function of temperature and solar radiation. The model broadly reproduces observed E. coli concentrations in a hill-country catchment grazed by sheep and beef cattle, although uncertainty exists with a number of the processes represented. The model is sensitive to the distance over which surface runoff delivers bacteria to a stream and the amount of excretion direct to streams and onto seepage zones. Scenario analysis suggests that riparian buffer strips may improve bacterial water quality both by eliminating livestock defaecation in and near streams, and by trapping of bacteria by the riparian vegetation.

  11. Observations of magnetite dissolution in poorly drained soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimley, D.A.; Arruda, N.K.

    2007-01-01

    Dissolution of strongly magnetic minerals is a common and relatively rapid phenomenon in poorly drained soils of the central United States, resulting in low magnetic susceptibility (MS). Low Eh reducing conditions are primarily responsible for magnetic mineral dissolution; a process likely mediated by iron-reducing bacteria in the presence of soil organic matter. Based on transects across drainage sequences from nine sites, natural magnetic minerals (>5 ??m) extracted from surface soil consist of 54% ?? 18% magnetite, 21% ?? 11% titanomagnetite, and 17% ?? 14% ilmenite. Magnetite and titanomagnetite dissolution, assessed by scanning electron microscopy on a 0-to-3 scale, inversely correlates with surface soil MS (r = 0.53), a proxy for soil drainage at studied transects. Altered magnetite typically displays etch pits 5 ??m) include 26% ?? 18% anthropogenic fly ash that also exhibits greater dissolution in low MS soils (r = 0.38), indicating detectable alteration can occur within 150 years in low Eh soils. Laboratory induced reduction of magnetite, titanomagnetite, and magnetic fly ash, with a citrate-bicarbonate- dithionite solution, resulted in dissolution textures similar to those of in situ soil particles. Although experiments indicate that reductive dissolution of magnetite can occur abiotically under extreme conditions, bacteria likely play an important role in the natural environment. ?? 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  12. Replace low-voltage bushings without draining transformer

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    Low-voltage, draw-lead bushings that can be removed from the transformer without draining the tank are difficult to design because of the high current. That`s why most transformers are shipped with the low-voltage bushings in place. A new design of split-conductor bushing now makes it possible to have draw-lead bushings on both the high- and low-voltage sides. Keys to the new design are the two-part split conductor - which can be broken into two parts at a point close to the bushing`s mounting flange - and the multiple-spring electrical contact with the bushing`s top terminal. When a new transformer is shipped, only the bottom half of the split conductor is in place - connected to the transformer winding through an oil-immersed lead. In the field, the top conductor top is bolted into place and the bushing lowered over the full-length conductor. 6 figs.

  13. Criticality safety considerations for MSRE fuel drain tank uranium aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenbach, D.F.; Hopper, C.M.

    1997-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary criticality safety study of some potential effects of uranium reduction and aggregation in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) fuel drain tanks (FDTs) during salt removal operations. Since the salt was transferred to the FDTs in 1969, radiological and chemical reactions have been converting the uranium and fluorine in the salt to UF{sub 6} and free fluorine. Significant amounts of uranium (at least 3 kg) and fluorine have migrated out of the FDTs and into the off-gas system (OGS) and the auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The loss of uranium and fluorine from the salt changes the chemical properties of the salt sufficiently to possibly allow the reduction of the UF{sub 4} in the salt to uranium metal as the salt is remelted prior to removal. It has been postulated that up to 9 kg of the maximum 19.4 kg of uranium in one FDT could be reduced to metal and concentrated. This study shows that criticality becomes a concern when more than 5 kg of uranium concentrates to over 8 wt% of the salt in a favorable geometry.

  14. Eu(2+) luminescence in strontium aluminates.

    PubMed

    Dutczak, D; Jüstel, T; Ronda, C; Meijerink, A

    2015-06-21

    The luminescence properties of Eu(2+) doped strontium aluminates are reported and reviewed for a variety of aluminates, viz. SrAl12O19, SrAl4O7, Sr4Al14O25, SrAl2O4 and Sr3Al2O6. The aim of the research is to investigate the role of local coordination and covalency of the aluminate host lattice, related to the Sr/Al ratio, on the optical properties of the Eu(2+) ion. The UV and VUV excited luminescence spectra as well as luminescence decay curves were recorded to characterize the luminescence properties of the investigated aluminates. The emission of Eu(2+) ions varies over a wide spectral range, from ultraviolet (UV) to red, for the series of aluminates. The variation in emission color can be related to the crystal-field splitting of the 5d levels and the covalent interaction with the surrounding oxygen anions. In the least covalent material, viz. SrAl12O19:Eu(2+), narrow line emission due to the (6)P7/2-(8)S7/2 transition occurs at 4 K, indicating that the 4f(6)5d excited state is situated above the (6)P7/2(4f(7)) excited state around 360 nm. The most alkaline material, viz. Sr3Al2O6:Eu(2+) is the most covalent host and exhibits several d-f emission bands in the yellow to red spectral range due to the Eu(2+) ions located on different crystallographic Sr(2+) sites. The Eu(2+) emission spectra in the other aluminates confirm the trend that with increasing Sr/Al ratio the Eu(2+) emission shifts to longer wavelengths. Interesting differences are observed for the Eu(2+) from different crystallographic sites which cannot always be related with apparent differences in the first oxygen coordination sphere. The discussion gives insight into how in a similar class of materials, strontium aluminates, the emission color of Eu(2+) can be tuned over a wide spectral region.

  15. Perceived Distributive Fairness of EU Transfer Payments, Outcome Favorability, Identity, and EU-Tax Compliance.

    PubMed

    Hartner, Martina; Rechberger, Silvia; Kirchler, Erich; Wenzel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In a representative UK study (N = 1000) the link between distributive fairness perceptions, outcome favorability, identity, and tax compliance was researched in the context of European transfer payments. Results showed that both forms of tax compliance (i.e., individual and collective EU-tax compliance) were influenced by perceived distributive fairness judgments of EU transfer payments. Fairness itself was related to perceived outcome favorability (i.e., whether their own nation benefits from the EU in financial as well as socio-political terms). Additionally, national identifiers (i.e., people identifying with their own nation, but not with Europe) perceived EU membership as unbeneficial in financial as well as in socio-political terms and thus considered the transfer payments as less fair. Dual identifiers (i.e., people identifying with their own nation and with Europe) perceived the socio-political outcomes from EU membership as more beneficial and thus evaluated the transfer payments as fairer.

  16. Photoexcited Eu2+ spin dynamics in EuFe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogrebna, A.; Mertelj, T.; Cao, G.; Xu, Z. A.; Mihailovic, D.

    2014-06-01

    Employing temperature dependent time-resolved optical femtosecond spectroscopy, we investigated the quasiparticle and Eu2+ spin relaxation dynamics in EuFe2As2 (EFA). As previously reported in other undoped iron-based pnictides, we observe the quasiparticle relaxation bottleneck due to the charge gap opening in the spin density wave (SDW) state below T SDW = 189 K. Below the Eu2+ antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin ordering temperature, T AFM = 19 K, we observe another slower relaxation component, which we attribute to the Eu2+ AFM order dynamics. The slow dynamics of this component suggests a weak coupling between the Eu2+ spins and the carriers in the Fe- d derived bands.

  17. Quadrupole splitting and Eu partial lattice dynamics in europium orthophosphate EuPO 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klobes, B.; Arinicheva, Y.; Neumeier, S.; Simon, R. E.; Jafari, A.; Bosbach, D.; Hermann, R. P.

    2016-12-01

    Hyperfine interactions in europium orthophosphate EuPO4 were investigated using 151Eu Mössbauer spectroscopy from 6 to 300 K. The value of the quadrupole splitting and the asymmetry parameter were refined and further substantiated by nuclear forward scattering data obtained at room temperature. The temperature dependence of the relative absorption was modeled with an Eu specific Debye temperature of 221(1) K. Eu partial lattice dynamics were probed by means of nuclear inelastic scattering and the mean force constant, the Lamb-Mössbauer factor, the internal energy, the vibrational entropy, the average phonon group velocity were calculated using the extracted density of phonon states. In general, Eu specific vibrations are characterized by rather small phonon energies and contribute strongly to the total entropy of the system. Although there is no classical Debye like behavior at low vibrational energies, the average phonon group velocity can be reasonably approximated using a linear fit.

  18. Do supranational EU institutions make a difference? EU asylum law before and after 'communitarization'.

    PubMed

    Ripoll Servent, Ariadna; Trauner, Florian

    2014-09-14

    This article examines whether the empowerment of the European Union's (EU) supranational institutions has had an impact on the development of EU asylum. By systematically investigating EU asylum law before and after 'communitarization', it argues that its 'policy core' has maintained a high degree of continuity. An advocacy coalition under the leadership of the interior ministers managed to co-opt pivotal actors in the newly empowered European Commission and European Parliament. By contenting themselves with changes of secondary order, these EU institutions accepted and institutionalized the restrictive and weakly integrated core of EU asylum set by the Council in the first negotiation round. Their role and decisions were driven not only by the negotiation dynamics and political expediency, but also by new inter- and intra-institutional norms fostering consensual practices.

  19. Assessment of soil organic matter fluxes at the EU level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne; Campling, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Soil has a complex relationship with climate change. Soil helps take carbon dioxide out of the air and as such it absorbs millions of tons each year, but with the Earth still warming micro-organisms grow faster, consume more soil organic matter and release carbon dioxide. The net result is a relative decline in soil organic carbon. With a growing population and higher bio-energy demands, more land is likely to be required for settlement, for commercial activity and for bio-energy production. Conversions from terrestrial ecosystems to urban and commercial activity will alter both the production and losses of organic matter, and have an indirect impact on potential SOM levels. Conversions between different terrestrial ecosystems have a direct impact on SOM levels. Net SOM losses are reported for several land conversions, e.g. from grassland to arable land, from wetlands to drained agricultural land, from crop rotations to monoculture, reforestation of agricultural land. In the context of looking for measures to support best practices to manage soil organic matter in Europe we propose a method to assess soil organic matter fluxes at the EU level. We adopt a parsimonious approach that is comparable to the nutrient balance approaches developed by the OECD and Eurostat. We describe the methodology and present the initial results of a European carbon balance indicator that uses existing European statistical and land use change databases. The carbon balance consists of the following components: organic matter production (I), organic matter losses (O), land use changes that effect both production and losses (E). These components are set against the (mostly legislative) boundary conditions that determine the maximum input potential (MIP) for soil organic matter. In order to budget SOM losses due to mineralisation, runs will be made with a multi-compartment SOM model that takes into account management practices, climate and different sources of organic matter.

  20. The EU sustainable energy policy indicators framework.

    PubMed

    Streimikiene, Dalia; Sivickas, Gintautas

    2008-11-01

    The article deals with indicators framework to monitor implementation of the main EU (European Union) directives and other policy documents targeting sustainable energy development. The main EU directives which have impact on sustainable energy development are directives promoting energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources, directives implementing greenhouse gas mitigation and atmospheric pollution reduction policies and other policy documents and strategies targeting energy sector. Promotion of use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency improvements are among priorities of EU energy policy because the use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency improvements has positive impact on energy security and climate change mitigation. The framework of indicators can be developed to establish the main targets set by EU energy and environmental policies allowing to connect indicators via chain of mutual impacts and to define policies and measures necessary to achieve established targets based on assessment of their impact on the targeted indicators representing sustainable energy development aims. The article discusses the application of indicators framework for EU sustainable energy policy analysis and presents the case study of this policy tool application for Baltic States. The article also discusses the use of biomass in Baltic States and future considerations in this field.

  1. Assessing the biodegradability of microparticles disposed down the drain.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Kathleen; Itrich, Nina; Casteel, Kenneth; Menzies, Jennifer; Williams, Tom; Krivos, Kady; Price, Jason

    2017-05-01

    Microparticles made from naturally occurring materials or biodegradable plastics such as poly(3-hydroxy butyrate)-co-(3-hydroxy valerate), PHBV, are being evaluated as alternatives to microplastics in personal care product applications but limited data is available on their ultimate biodegradability (mineralization) in down the drain environmental compartments. An OECD 301B Ready Biodegradation Test was used to quantify ultimate biodegradability of microparticles made of PHBV foam, jojoba wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, stearyl stearate, blueberry seeds and walnut shells. PHBV polymer was ready biodegradable reaching 65.4 ± 4.1% evolved CO2 in 5 d and 90.5 ± 3.1% evolved CO2 in 80 d. PHBV foam microparticles (125-500 μm) were mineralized extensively with >66% CO2 evolution in 28 d and >82% CO2 evolution in 80 d. PHBV foam microparticles were mineralized at a similar rate and extent as microparticles made of jojoba wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, and stearyl stearate which reached 84.8  ± 4.8, 84.9  ± 2.2, 82.7  ± 4.7, and 86.4 ± 3.2% CO2 evolution respectively in 80 d. Blueberry seeds and walnut shells mineralized more slowly only reaching 39.3  ± 6.9 and 5.1 ± 2.8% CO2 evolution in 80 d respectively.

  2. Variable carbon losses from recurrent fires in drained tropical peatlands.

    PubMed

    Konecny, Kristina; Ballhorn, Uwe; Navratil, Peter; Jubanski, Juilson; Page, Susan E; Tansey, Kevin; Hooijer, Aljosja; Vernimmen, Ronald; Siegert, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Tropical peatland fires play a significant role in the context of global warming through emissions of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. However, the state of knowledge on carbon loss from these fires is still poorly developed with few studies reporting the associated mass of peat consumed. Furthermore, spatial and temporal variations in burn depth have not been previously quantified. This study presents the first spatially explicit investigation of fire-driven tropical peat loss and its variability. An extensive airborne Light Detection and Ranging data set was used to develop a prefire peat surface modelling methodology, enabling the spatially differentiated quantification of burned area depth over the entire burned area. We observe a strong interdependence between burned area depth, fire frequency and distance to drainage canals. For the first time, we show that relative burned area depth decreases over the first four fire events and is constant thereafter. Based on our results, we revise existing peat and carbon loss estimates for recurrent fires in drained tropical peatlands. We suggest values for the dry mass of peat fuel consumed that are 206 t ha(-1) for initial fires, reducing to 115 t ha(-1) for second, 69 t ha(-1) for third and 23 t ha(-1) for successive fires, which are 58-7% of the current IPCC Tier 1 default value for all fires. In our study area, this results in carbon losses of 114, 64, 38 and 13 t C ha(-1) for first to fourth fires, respectively. Furthermore, we show that with increasing proximity to drainage canals both burned area depth and the probability of recurrent fires increase and present equations explaining burned area depth as a function of distance to drainage canal. This improved knowledge enables a more accurate approach to emissions accounting and will support IPCC Tier 2 reporting of fire emissions.

  3. Comparing External Ventricular Drains-Related Ventriculitis Surveillance Definitions.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Maria M; Munigala, Satish; Church, Emily L; Kulik, Tobias B; Keyrouz, Salah G; Zipfel, Gregory J; Warren, David K

    2017-02-21

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the agreement between the current National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definition for ventriculitis and others found in the literature among patients with an external ventricular drain (EVD) DESIGN Retrospective cohort study from January 2009 to December 2014 SETTING Neurology and neurosurgery intensive care unit of a large tertiary-care center PATIENTS Patients with an EVD were included. Patients with an infection prior to EVD placement or a permanent ventricular shunt were excluded. METHODS We reviewed the charts of patients with positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures and/or abnormal CSF results while they had an EVD in place and applied various ventriculitis definitions. RESULTS We identified 48 patients with a total of 52 cases of ventriculitis (41 CSF culture-positive cases and 11 cases based on abnormal CSF test results) using the NHSN definition. The most common organisms causing ventriculitis were gram-positive commensals (79.2%); however, 45% showed growth of only 1 colony on 1 piece of media. Approximately 60% of the ventriculitis cases by the NHSN definition met the Honda criteria, approximately 56% met the Gozal criteria, and 23% met Citerio's definition. Cases defined using Honda versus Gozal definitions had a moderate agreement (κ=0.528; P<.05) whereas comparisons of Honda versus Citerio definitions (κ=0.338; P<.05) and Citerio versus Gozal definitions (κ=0.384; P<.05) had only fair agreements. CONCLUSIONS The agreement between published ventriculostomy-associated infection (VAI) definitions in this cohort was moderate to fair. A VAI surveillance definition that better defines contaminants is needed for more homogenous application of surveillance definitions between institutions and better comparison of rates. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;1-6.

  4. Seasonal thaw settlement at drained thermokarst lake basins, Arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Lin; Schaefer, Kevin; Gusmeroli, Alessio; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M.; Zhang, Tinjun; Parsekian, Andrew; Zebker, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Drained thermokarst lake basins (DTLBs) are ubiquitous landforms on Arctic tundra lowland. Their dynamic states are seldom investigated, despite their importance for landscape stability, hydrology, nutrient fluxes, and carbon cycling. Here we report results based on high-resolution Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements using space-borne data for a study area located on the North Slope of Alaska near Prudhoe Bay, where we focus on the seasonal thaw settlement within DTLBs, averaged between 2006 and 2010. The majority (14) of the 18 DTLBs in the study area exhibited seasonal thaw settlement of 3–4 cm. However, four of the DTLBs examined exceeded 4 cm of thaw settlement, with one basin experiencing up to 12 cm. Combining the InSAR observations with the in situ active layer thickness measured using ground penetrating radar and mechanical probing, we calculated thaw strain, an index of thaw settlement strength along a transect across the basin that underwent large thaw settlement. We found thaw strains of 10–35% at the basin center, suggesting the seasonal melting of ground ice as a possible mechanism for the large settlement. These findings emphasize the dynamic nature of permafrost landforms, demonstrate the capability of the InSAR technique to remotely monitor surface deformation of individual DTLBs, and illustrate the combination of ground-based and remote sensing observations to estimate thaw strain. Our study highlights the need for better description of the spatial heterogeneity of landscape-scale processes for regional assessment of surface dynamics on Arctic coastal lowlands.

  5. Effects of pond draining on biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds.

    PubMed

    Usio, Nisikawa; Imada, Miho; Nakagawa, Megumi; Akasaka, Munemitsu; Takamura, Noriko

    2013-12-01

    Farm ponds have high conservation value because they contribute significantly to regional biodiversity and ecosystem services. In Japan pond draining is a traditional management method that is widely believed to improve water quality and eradicate invasive fish. In addition, fishing by means of pond draining has significant cultural value for local people, serving as a social event. However, there is a widespread belief that pond draining reduces freshwater biodiversity through the extirpation of aquatic animals, but scientific evaluation of the effectiveness of pond draining is lacking. We conducted a large-scale field study to evaluate the effects of pond draining on invasive animal control, water quality, and aquatic biodiversity relative to different pond-management practices, pond physicochemistry, and surrounding land use. The results of boosted regression-tree models and analyses of similarity showed that pond draining had little effect on invasive fish control, water quality, or aquatic biodiversity. Draining even facilitated the colonization of farm ponds by invasive red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), which in turn may have detrimental effects on the biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds. Our results highlight the need for reconsidering current pond management and developing management plans with respect to multifunctionality of such ponds. Efectos del Drenado de Estanques sobre la Biodiversidad y la Calidad del Agua en Estanques de Cultivo.

  6. Stormwater Drains and Catch Basins as Sources for Production of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Arana-Guardia, Roger; Baak-Baak, Carlos M.; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Beaty, Barry J.; Eisen, Lars; García-Rejón, Julián E.

    2014-01-01

    We present data showing that structures serving as drains and catch basins for stormwater are important sources for production of the mosquito arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Mérida City, México. We examined 1,761 stormwater drains – located in 45 different neighborhoods spread across the city – over dry and wet seasons from March 2012–March 2013. Of the examined stormwater drains, 262 (14.9%) held water at the time they were examined and 123 yielded mosquito immatures. In total, we collected 64,560 immatures representing nine species. The most commonly encountered species were Cx. quinquefasciatus (n=39,269) and Ae. aegypti (n=23,313). Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were collected during all 11 months when we found water-filled stormwater drains, and both were found in stormwater drains located throughout Mérida City. We also present data for associations between structural characteristics of stormwater drains or water-related characteristics and the abundance of mosquito immatures. In conclusion, stormwater drains produce massive numbers of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus across Mérida City, both in the wet and dry seasons, and represent non-residential development sites that should be strongly considered for inclusion in the local mosquito surveillance and control program. PMID:24582840

  7. Comparison of methods for placing and managing a silastic drain after pulmonary resection.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Takayuki; Sakakura, Noriaki; Kobayashi, Rei; Katayama, Tatsuya; Ito, Simon; Hatooka, Shunzo; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2009-10-01

    We have been using a silastic drain [Blake drain (BD)] after pulmonary resection by different placement methods and reviewed the daily amount of drainage in each patient. A 19-Fr BD was placed for each of 110 patients. First, a drain was inserted from the anterior chest wall and the tip reached the dorsal part of the diaphragm [anterior-to-posterior (AP)]. For the others [posterior-to-anterior (PA); n=37], we inserted a drain from the lower intercostal space, turned it around the apex and placed its tip in the lower front. Patients in the AP group included those placed under a water seal (AP-WS; n=43) or suction (AP-SC; n=30). The reference group consisted of 68 patients with a 32-Fr plastic drain during the same period [conventional drains (CD)]. The amount of drainage on the day of surgery in the PA group was significantly higher than that in the AP-WS group (P<0.0001) and similar to that in the CD group (P=0.54). The mean amount of drainage on postoperative day 1 and total amounts accumulating during drain placement showed no significant differences between the four groups. A BD placed using a PA approach with suction might be efficient for drainage.

  8. Sewage exfiltration as a source of storm drain contamination during dry weather in urban watersheds.

    PubMed

    Sercu, Bram; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie C; Murray, Jill L S; Holden, Patricia A

    2011-09-01

    Separating storm drains and sanitary sewers is expected to control sewage pollution, for example, from combined sewer overflows, and to reduce excessive stormwater flow to wastewater treatment plants. However, sewage contamination has been found in such separated storm drain systems in urban areas during dry-weather flow. To determine whether transmission of sewage is occurring from leaking sanitary sewers directly to leaking separated storm drains, field experiments were performed in three watersheds in Santa Barbara, CA. Areas with high and low risks for sewage exfiltration into storm drains were identified, and rhodamine WT (RWT) dye pulses were added to the sanitary sewers. RWT was monitored in nearby storm drain manholes using optical probes set up for unattended continuous monitoring. Above-background RWT peaks were detected in storm drains in high-risk areas, and multiple locations of sewage contamination were found. Sewage contamination during the field studies was confirmed using the human-specific Bacteroidales HF183 and Methanobrevibacter smithii nifH DNA markers. This study is the first to provide direct evidence that leaking sanitary sewers can directly contaminate nearby leaking storm drains with untreated sewage during dry weather and suggests that chronic sanitary sewer leakage contributes to downstream fecal contamination of coastal beaches.

  9. Quantification of non-stormwater flow entries into storm drains using a water balance approach.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zuxin; Yin, Hailong; Li, Huaizheng

    2014-07-15

    To make decisions about correcting illicit or inappropriate connections to storm drains, quantification of non-stormwater entries into storm drains was performed using a water flow balance approach, based on data analysis from 2008 to 2011 in a separate storm drainage system in a Shanghai downtown area of 374 ha. The study revealed severe sewage connections to storm drains; meanwhile, misconnections between surface water and storm drains were found to drive frequent non-stormwater pumping discharges at the outfall, producing a much larger volume of outfall flows in a short period. This paper presented a methodology to estimate quantities of inappropriate sewage flow, groundwater infiltration and river water backflow into the storm drains. It was concluded that inappropriate sewage discharge and groundwater seepage into storm drains were approximately 17,860 m(3)/d (i.e., up to 51% of the total sewage flow in the catchment) and 3,624 m(3)/d, respectively, and surface water backflow was up to an average 28,593 m(3)/d. On the basis of this work, end-of-storm pipe interceptor sewers of 0.25 m(3)/s (i.e., 21,600 m(3)/d) would be effective to tackle the problem of sewage connections and groundwater seepage to storm drains. Under this circumstance, the follow-up non-stormwater outfall pumping events indicate misconnections between surface water and storm drains, featuring pumping discharge equivalent to surface water backflow; hence the misconnections should be repaired. The information provided here is helpful in estimating the magnitude of non-stormwater flow entries into storm drains and designing the necessary pollution control activities, as well as combating city floods in storm events.

  10. Effect of Eu/Sr Ratios on Ferroelectric and Fluorescent Properties of Eu-Substituted Strontium Bismuth Tantalate Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizawa, Koji; Ohtani, Yusuke

    2008-09-01

    The ferroelectric and fluorescent properties of Eu-substituted strontium bismuth tantalate (Eu-SBT) films grown on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by spin coating were investigated. The polycrystalline Eu-SBT films with Aurivillius phases were grown at Eu/Sr ratios between 0 and 0.25. Moreover, the lattice constants along the a- and c-axes at Eu/Sr=0.25 in comparison with Eu/Sr=0 decreased by approximately 0.36 and 0.19%, respectively. The remnant polarization values of the Eu-SBT films with Eu/Sr ratios of 0 and 0.25 were approximately 6.6 and 5.8 µC/cm2, respectively. The 80%-fatigue endurance of a Eu-SBT film with Eu/Sr=0.25 was approximately 3.1×109 cycles when a 10 kHz triangular wave with an amplitude of 8 V (approximately 530 kV/cm electric field) was used. The photoluminescence intensity of the Eu-SBT films was increased by Eu doping with negligible change of the remnant polarization. Emission peaks at approximately 600 nm in wavelength, which were associated with the 5D0-7F transitions of Eu3+, were observed in the Eu-SBT films.

  11. Lagrangian water quality dynamics in the San Luis Drain, California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkmar, E. C.; Dahlgren, R. A.; Stringfellow, W. T.; Henson, S. S.; Borglin, S. E.; Kendall, C.

    2007-12-01

    Integration of temporal changes in biological and water quality constituents during downstream transport is critical to understanding aquatic ecosystem and biogeochemical dynamics of rivers, estuaries, and the near- coastal waters into which rivers flow. Changes in chemical, physical, and biological water quality constituents during downstream transport can be evaluated by following a specific parcel of water, known as a Lagrangian study. The objective of this study was to differentiate changes in water quality constituents occurring within a parcel of water as it travels downstream to the changes observed at a fixed sampling location. We sampled a parcel of agricultural drainage water as it traveled downstream for 84 h in a concrete-lined channel (San Luis Drain in San Joaquin Valley) with no additional water inputs or outputs. The Lagrangian sampling occurred in August 2006 and June 2007. Data from the Lagrangian study was compared to data collected at a fixed point using an automatic pump sampler and water quality sonde. Fluorescence (a measure of algal pigments), dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, and conductivity were measured every 30 minutes, as well as collecting grab samples every 2 h for nutrient and suspended sediment analyses. Sinusoidal diel (24 h) patterns were observed for dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature within the parcel of water. Algal pigments, nutrients, suspended solids, and turbidity did not exhibit sinusoidal diel patterns, generally observed at a fixed sampling location. The diel patterns observed indicated changes that would occur during downstream transport. Algal pigments showed a rapid day time increase during the first 24 to 48 h followed by a plateau or decrease for the remainder of the study. Algal growth was apparent each day during the study, as measured by increasing dissolved oxygen concentrations, in spite of non-detectable phosphate concentrations (<5 ppb) and nearly complete consumption of soluble silica during the 2007

  12. Morphometric Analysis of Major Catchments Draining the Adriatic Indenter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robl, Jörg; Heberer, Bianca; Neubauer, Franz; Prasicek, Günther; Hergarten, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Topography and relief in collisional orogens such as the European Alps result from the interplay of uplift driven by plate convergence and crustal shortening, and erosional surface processes that act along evolving topographic gradients and counteract topography formation. Due to ongoing indentation of the Adriatic indenter into the Eastern Alps, the eastern segment of the Adriatic indenter is one of the tectonically most active zones of the Central Mediterranean region. The region is characterized by numerous earthquakes, distinct spatial gradients in recent uplift rates and exhumation level, and active faulting. However, the predominance of carbonaceous lithology hindered low-temperature thermochronology and cosmogenic nuclide dating, so that timing, rates and drivers of south-alpine topography development are still not well constrained. Further on, a systematic morphometric analysis of rivers draining the south-alpine indenter is still missing. In this study we fill this gap and investigate the interplay of tectonics and climate by a morphometric analysis of drainage systems of the eastern segment of the Adriatic indenter. We systematically extract a variety of characteristic channel metrics of four major drainage systems (Adige, Brenta, Piave, and Tagliamento) of this domain and interpret the morphometric results in terms of (a) lithological effects such as erodibility contrasts and karstification, (b) spatially variable uplift rates, (c) base level lowering caused by glacial erosion and possible Messinian preconditioning, and (d) the migration of drainage divides. We find a clear correlation between the normalized steepness index (ksn) and bedrock type. ksn - values are systematically increased whenever rivers incise into the basement of the south-alpine indenter. However, the outcrop of the basement indicates a high level of exhumation and thus the highest overall uplift of the domain such that both increased uplift rates and low rock erodibility may be

  13. Super natural killer cells that target metastases in the tumor draining lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Siddarth; Chan, Maxine F; Li, Jiahe; King, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Tumor draining lymph nodes are the first site of metastasis in most types of cancer. The extent of metastasis in the lymph nodes is often used in staging cancer progression. We previously showed that nanoscale TRAIL liposomes conjugated to human natural killer cells enhance their endogenous therapeutic potential in killing cancer cells cultured in engineered lymph node microenvironments. In this work, it is shown that liposomes decorated with apoptosis-inducing ligand TRAIL and an antibody against a mouse natural killer cell marker are carried to the tumor draining inguinal lymph nodes and prevent the lymphatic spread of a subcutaneous tumor in mice. It is shown that targeting natural killer cells with TRAIL liposomes enhances their retention time within the tumor draining lymph nodes to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. It is concluded that this approach can be used to kill cancer cells within the tumor draining lymph nodes to prevent the lymphatic spread of cancer.

  14. Drain-Site Hernia Containing the Vermiform Appendix: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Zynamon, Anatol; von Flüe, Markus; Peterli, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    The herniated vermiform appendix has been described as content of every hernia orifice in the right lower quadrant. While the femoral and inguinal herniated vermiform appendix is frequent enough to result in an own designation, port-site or even drain-site hernias are less frequently described. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman who presented with right lower quadrant pain seven years after Roux-en-Y Cystojejunostomy for a pancreatic cyst. CT scan showed herniation of the vermiform appendix through a former drain-site. A diagnostic laparoscopy with appendectomy and direct closure of the abdominal wall defect combined with mesh reinforcement was performed. Despite the decreasing use of intraperitoneal drains over the recent years, a multitude of patients had intraperitoneal drainage in former times. These patients face nowadays the risk of drain-site hernias with sometimes even unexpected structures inside. PMID:23862093

  15. Improvised chest tube drain for decompression of an acute tension pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Vinson, Eric D

    2004-05-01

    A case of a woman presenting with an acute tension pneumothorax during a Navy humanitarian mission in East Timor is presented. The patient was treated at a local rural clinic run by our medical team. Prompt insertion of a chest tube saved the woman's life; however, there were no chest tube drains available. A field chest tube drain constructed out of an IV bag, a sterile water bottle, and tubing provided an adequate underwater seal and drain. Because of the remote location and limited resources, standard prehospital chest tube management had to be modified. A brief review of simple and tension pneumothoraces and management along with a description of the field chest tube drain is presented.

  16. Successful Removal of Malpositioned Chest Drain Within the Liver by Embolization of the Transhepatic Track

    SciTech Connect

    Tait, Paul; Waheed, Umeer; Bell, Suzanne

    2009-07-15

    The insertion of a chest drain catheter for the management of a pneumothorax in an 82-year-old woman resulted in the unusual complication of liver penetration. The position of the drain was assessed by contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scan. Because the patient was hemodynamically stable and no damage to major vessels was seen on computed tomographic scan, the patient was treated in a nonoperative manner. A procedure was performed under controlled conditions using techniques used during transhepatic liver biopsies but with the addition of a balloon catheter. Embolization of the liver track was performed during chest drain removal. The drain was successfully removed without the complication of bleeding in a patient unsuitable for a general anesthetic.

  17. Microbial activity and dissolved organic carbon production in drained and rewetted blanket peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallage, Z. E.; Holden, J.; Jones, T.; McDonald, A. T.

    2009-04-01

    Heightened levels of degradation in response to environmental change have resulted in an increased loss of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the drainage waters of many peatland catchments across Europe and North America. One significant threat to peatland sustainability has been the installation of artificial drainage ditches, and although recent restoration schemes have pursued drain blocking as a possible strategy for reducing degradation and fluvial carbon losses, little is known about how such processes influence the intimate biological systems operating within these soils. This paper investigates how disturbance, in the form of drainage and drain blocking, influences the rate of microbial activity within a peat soil, and the subsequent impact this has on DOC production potential. Peat samples were extracted from three treatment sites (intact peat, drained peat and drain-blocked peat) in an upland blanket peat catchment in the UK. Microbial activity was measured via laboratory experimentation that incorporated the use of an INT-Formazan dehydrogenase enzyme assay to assess the level of electron transport system (ETS) activity occurring within each treatment. Drainage significantly lowered the height of the water table relative to the intact peat, whilst drain blocking successfully rewetted the peat, having raised the height of the water table relative to the drained site. Mean microbial activity rates at the drained site were found to be 33 % greater than the undisturbed intact peat and almost double that of the restored, drain-blocked site. These results correspond well with previously published data observing significantly greater DOC concentrations in the pore waters of the drained site and significantly lower concentrations at the blocked site, relative to the intact peat. Data from the drain-blocked treatment also provides evidence contrary to the commonly quoted hypothesis that an enzyme-latch reaction may be sustained in drained peat, even once it has

  18. Synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of the fullerene-based ferromagnets Eu3C70 and Eu9C70.

    PubMed

    Takenobu, Taishi; Chi, Dam H; Margadonna, Serena; Prassides, Kosmas; Kubozono, Yoshihiro; Fitch, Andrew N; Kato, Ken-Ichi; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2003-02-19

    Intercalation of C(70) with europium affords two kinds of magnetic compounds, a canted antiferromagnet Eu(x)C(70) (x approximately 3) and a ferromagnet Eu(x)C(70) (x approximately 9) with transition temperatures (T(C)) of 5 and 38 K, respectively. The Curie constants in the paramagnetic phase and the saturation moment in the ferromagnetic phase are both understood by the full moment of Eu(2+) for both systems. The structure of Eu(3)(-)(delta)C(70) (delta approximately 0.27) is pseudo-monoclinic, derived by a simple deformation of the parent face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. Eu(9)(-)(delta)C(70) (delta approximately 0.2) forms an fcc structure, in which cuboctahedral clustering of Eu(2+) ions is observed in the enhanced size octahedral holes. The observed T(C) of the Eu(9)(-)(delta)C(70) ferromagnet is comparable to or larger than those of simple binary Eu-based ferromagnets, such as Eu chalcogenides or carbides, despite the low atomic ratio of Eu in the chemical formulas. This can be understood by the short Eu(2+)-Eu(2+) distances and high coordination numbers permitted by the multiple occupation by Eu(2+) ions of the expanded octahedral interstitial sites in higher fullerene-based solids.

  19. CSF drains directly from the subarachnoid space into nasal lymphatics in the rat. Anatomy, histology and immunological significance.

    PubMed

    Kida, S; Pantazis, A; Weller, R O

    1993-12-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage pathways from the rat brain were investigated by the injection of 50 microliters Indian ink into the cisterna magna. The distribution of the ink, as it escaped from the cranial CSF space, was documented in 2 mm thick slices of brain and skull cleared in cedar wood oil and in decalcified paraffin sections. Following injection of the ink, deep cervical lymph nodes were selectively blackened within 30 min and lumbar para-aortic nodes within 6 h. Within the cranial cavity, carbon particles accumulated in the basal cisterns but were also distributed in the paravascular spaces around the middle cerebral arteries and the nasal-olfactory artery. Carbon particles in the subarachnoid space beneath the olfactory bulbs drained directly into discrete channels which passed through the cribriform plate and into lymphatics in the nasal submucosa. Although ink was distributed along the subarachnoid space of the optic nerves and entered the cochlea, the nasal route was the only direct connection between cranial CSF and lymphatics. Arachnoid villi associated with superior and inferior sagittal sinuses were identified and a minor amount of drainage of ink into dural lymphatics was also observed. This study demonstrates the direct drainage of cerebrospinal fluid through the cribriform plate in anatomically defined channels which connect with the nasal lymphatics.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Antimonide-Based Heterostructure p-Channel MOSFETs With Ni-Alloy Source/Drain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 34, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2013 1367 Antimonide-Based Heterostructure p-Channel MOSFETs With Ni-Alloy Source/Drain Ze...density of 2×1012cm−2. Index Terms— Antimonide semiconductors, metal source/drain (S/D), Ni-GaSb, p-channel MOSFET . I. INTRODUCTION ANTIMONIDE-based...channel MOSFETs [3], [4], performance of III–V p- MOSFETs traditionally lagged behind. Recently, high-performance antimonide p- MOSFETs have been

  1. Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  2. Method of making self-aligned lightly-doped-drain structure for MOS transistors

    DOEpatents

    Weiner, Kurt H.; Carey, Paul G.

    2001-01-01

    A process for fabricating lightly-doped-drains (LDD) for short-channel metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistors. The process utilizes a pulsed laser process to incorporate the dopants, thus eliminating the prior oxide deposition and etching steps. During the process, the silicon in the source/drain region is melted by the laser energy. Impurities from the gas phase diffuse into the molten silicon to appropriately dope the source/drain regions. By controlling the energy of the laser, a lightly-doped-drain can be formed in one processing step. This is accomplished by first using a single high energy laser pulse to melt the silicon to a significant depth and thus the amount of dopants incorporated into the silicon is small. Furthermore, the dopants incorporated during this step diffuse to the edge of the MOS transistor gate structure. Next, many low energy laser pulses are used to heavily dope the source/drain silicon only in a very shallow region. Because of two-dimensional heat transfer at the MOS transistor gate edge, the low energy pulses are inset from the region initially doped by the high energy pulse. By computer control of the laser energy, the single high energy laser pulse and the subsequent low energy laser pulses are carried out in a single operational step to produce a self-aligned lightly-doped-drain-structure.

  3. High Resolution Modeling of Tile-Drained Controls on Ecohydrologic Dynamics in Intensively Managed Landscapes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, D.; Le, P. V.; Kumar, P.; Woo, D.

    2015-12-01

    Tile drains are widely used in the Midwestern United States to improve the productivity of poorly drained agricultural fields. Since tile drain reduces vadose zone soil moisture by lowering the water table, and its outlets feed directly into streams and ditches, tile flow can affect various hydrologic, biotic and biogeochemical processes in the watershed. However, the effects of tile flow on ecohydrologic and nutrient dynamics at scales dominated by microtopographic variability, such as depression and roadside ditches, remain poorly understood. Here we present an explicit model of tile flow and incorporate into the integrated ecohydrologic-flow model, MLCan-GCSFlow, to investigate the impacts of tile drain on ecohydrologic and nutrient dynamics in intensively managed agricultural fields at lidar-resolution scales. Explicit coupling between subsurface and tile flow is obtained by modifications of variably saturated Richards equation to capture the impacts of tile drain on soil moisture. The coupling between subsurface and overland flow is obtained by prescribing a boundary condition switching approach at the top surface of the computational domain. Model results for study sites in Critical Zone Observatory for Intensively Managed Landscapes (IMLCZO) show the significance of tile drain flow on the vertical and spatial soil moisture distribution and coupled surface - sub-surface flow dynamics.

  4. Quantifying the proportion of tile-drained land in large river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirt, Ulrike; Volk, Martin

    A considerable reduction in the nutrient and pesticide inputs into the rivers and lakes of Germany is required in order to meet the “good ecological status” as demanded by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Subsurface tile drainage systems are one of the main pathways for such diffuse nutrient and pesticide inputs. However, the simulation of water and matter fluxes under tile-drained land on the landscape scale is still problematic in many countries, mainly due to a lack of data about the existing drainage systems. The present study examines for the first time whether an existing method to calculate the usually unknown proportions of tile-drained areas could be transferred to a large river basin, for which minimal data about drained areas is available. The study area was the Saale river basin (24,000 km 2) in central Germany, with a broad variety of soils and site characteristics. The share of tile-drained areas in the Saale river basin was calculated to be 11% of the agricultural area. Apart from that, the calculated proportion of tile-drained areas corresponded satisfactory with the statistical data of the meliorated areas of the former German Democratic Republic. The successful application of the promising method is considered as an important step towards the calculation of the proportion of tile-drained areas for the whole Germany and Europe.

  5. The EU Dimension to Soil Science in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sue

    2012-01-01

    The EU as a context for science lessons may be given scant attention but EU decision-making is a vital factor in everyday life. Lessons on the emergence of soil science with Charles Darwin's simple scientific experiments can be linked with competence through action, inclusion and argumentations in science lessons. Decisions about an EU Soil…

  6. Eu(2+) and Eu(3+) co-activated LaAlO3 phosphor: synthesis and tuned luminescence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wanping

    2015-10-28

    Sr(2+) and Si(4+) ion doped LaAlO3:Eu phosphors were synthesized through a high-temperature solid-state reaction route. Their phase component and photoluminescence properties were investigated. Under ultraviolet (UV) light excitation, the phosphors show simultaneously blue emission of the Eu(2+) ion and orange-red emission of the Eu(3+) ion. The relative emission intensity of both Eu(2+) and Eu(3+) ions can be tuned by changing the doping concentration of the Sr(2+), Si(4+) and Eu(3+) ions. In contrast to the Sr(2+) ion, the incorporation of Si(4+) ion can effectively enhance the emission of Eu(2+). The optimal doping concentration of the Eu(3+) and Si(4+) ions are about 0.02 and 0.03, respectively. The results indicate that the phosphor may be a potential candidate for white LED lighting applications.

  7. In patients with extensive subcutaneous emphysema, which technique achieves maximal clinical resolution: infraclavicular incisions, subcutaneous drain insertion or suction on in situ chest drain?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Charles H N; Lang, Sommer A; Bilal, Haris; Rammohan, Kandadai S

    2014-06-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: 'In patients with extensive subcutaneous emphysema, which technique achieves maximal clinical resolution: infraclavicular incisions, subcutaneous drain insertion or suction on in situ chest drain?'. Altogether more than 200 papers were found using the reported search, of which 14 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Subcutaneous emphysema is usually a benign, self-limiting condition only requiring conservative management. Interventions are useful in the context of severe patient discomfort, respiratory distress or persistent air leak. In the absence of any comparative study, it is not possible to choose definitively between infraclavicular incisions, drain insertion and increasing suction on an in situ drain as the best method for managing severe subcutaneous emphysema. All the three techniques described have been shown to provide effective relief. Increasing suction on a chest tube already in situ provided rapid relief in patients developing SE following pulmonary resection. A retrospective study showed resolution in 66%, increasing to 98% in those who underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery with identification and closure of the leak. Insertion of a drain into the subcutaneous tissue also provided rapid sustained relief. Several studies aided drainage by using regular compressive massage. Infraclavicular incisions were also shown to provide rapid relief, but were noted to be more invasive and carried the potential for cosmetic defect. No major complications were illustrated.

  8. Brain surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  9. Brain Malformations

    MedlinePlus

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  10. Brain components

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    The brain is composed of more than a thousand billion neurons. Specific groups of them, working in concert, provide ... of information. The 3 major components of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The ...

  11. No-drain DIEP Flap Donor-site Closure Using Barbed Progressive Tension Sutures

    PubMed Central

    Nagarkar, Purushottam; Lakhiani, Chrisovalantis; Cheng, Angela; Lee, Michael; Teotia, Sumeet

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of progressive tension sutures has been shown to be comparable to the use of abdominal drains in abdominoplasty. However, the use of barbed progressive tension sutures (B-PTSs) in deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap donor-site closure has not been investigated. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on patients with DIEP flap reconstruction in a 3-year period at 2 institutions by 2 surgeons. Patients were compared by method of DIEP donor-site closure. Group 1 had barbed running progressive tension sutures without drain placement. Group 2 had interrupted progressive tension closure with abdominal drain placement (PTS-AD). Group 3 had closure with only abdominal drain placement (AD). Data collected included demographics, perioperative data, and postoperative outcomes. Results: Seventy-five patients underwent DIEP reconstruction (25 B-PTS, 25 PTS-AD, and 25 AD). Patient characteristics—age, body mass index, comorbidities, smoking status, and chemotherapy—were not significantly different between groups. Rate of seroma was 1.3% (B-PTS = 0%, PTS-AD = 4%, AD = 0%), wound dehiscence 16% (B-PTS = 8%, PTS-AD = 16%, AD = 24%), and umbilical necrosis 5.3% (B-PTS = 0%, PTS-AD = 0%, AD = 16%). No hematomas were observed in any patients. No statistically significant difference was found between complication rates across groups. Conclusions: Use of B-PTSs for abdominal closure after DIEP flap harvest can obviate the need for abdominal drains. Complication rates following this technique are not significantly different from closure using progressive tension suture and abdominal drain placement. This practice can prevent the use of abdominal drains, which can promote patient mobility, increase independence upon discharge, and contribute to patient satisfaction. PMID:27200234

  12. The contribution of drained organic soils to the globally emitted greenhouse gases and emission hotspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthelmes, Alexandra; Couwenberg, John; Joosten, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Key words: organic soils, peatlands, drainage, emissions, globally Peatlands cover only 3% of the global land surface. Some 15% of these peatlands have been drained for agriculture, forestry and grazing, which leads to the release of huge amounts of carbon. The '2013 Supplement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Wetlands' (IPCC 2014) offers up-to-date default emission factors for different land use types on organic soil and thus enables proper reporting. For this, realistic area data of drained organic soils are needed at a national scale. We analysed the drained organic soil areas and related emissions as reported to the UNFCCC in 2014 for several Nordic-Baltic countries . The analysis revealed that the areas often seem to be underestimated and that several countries use outdated emission factors. The re-assessment of the drained area and the application of the IPCC (2014) default emission factors resulted in 5-10 x higher emissions from drained organic soils for some countries. Out of 9 Nordic-Baltic countries only 1 country seems to have overestimated the drainage related organic soil emissions. If adopting the default emission factors from IPCC (2014) globally, the emissions from drained and degrading organic soils (~ 1,600 Mt CO2-eq.) amount to almost double the amount of CO2 emissions from aviation, even when emissions from peat fires are not included . By far the top single emitter of drained peatland related greenhouse gases is Indonesia, followed by the European Union and Russia. 25 countries are together responsible for 95% of global emissions from peatland drainage, excluding fires. Fires raise the importance of particularly Indonesia and Russian Federation. In 25 countries emissions from peatland degradation are over 50% of the emissions from fossil fuels and cement production combined, hence peatland emissions are of national significance.

  13. Role of drains in laparoscopic appendectomy for complicated appendicitis at a busy county hospital.

    PubMed

    Pakula, Andrea M; Skinner, Ruby; Jones, Amber; Chung, Ray; Martin, Maureen

    2014-10-01

    Laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) has become the treatment of choice for acute appendicitis with equal or better outcomes than traditional open appendectomy (OA). LA in patients with a gangrenous or perforated appendicitis carries increased rate of pelvic abscess formation when compared with OA. We hypothesized routine placement of pelvic drains in gangrenous or perforated appendicitis decreases pelvic abscess formation after LA. Three hundred thirty-one patients undergoing LA between January 2007 and June 2011 were reviewed. Patients with perforated or gangrenous appendicitis were included. Group I had a Jackson-Pratt (JP) drain(s) placed and Group II had no JP drain. Data included patient demographics, emergency department laboratory values and vital signs, and computed axial tomography scan findings, intra-abdominal or pelvic abscess postoperatively, interventional radiology drainage, and length of stay. Clinic follow-up notes were reviewed. One hundred forty-eight patients were identified. Forty-three patients had placement of JP drains (Group I) and 105 patients had no JP drain (Group II). Three patients (three of 43 [6%]) in Group I developed pelvic abscess and 21 of 105 (20%) patients in Group II developed pelvic abscesses requiring subsequent drainage. This was statistically significant. Patient demographics, temperature, and mean white blood count before surgery were similar. Presurgery computed tomography (CT) with appendicolith and CT with abscess were more prevalent in Group I. The use of JP drainage in patients with perforated or gangrenous appendicitis during LA has decreased rates of pelvic abscess. This was demonstrated despite the drain group having appendicolith or abscess on preoperative CT.

  14. Impacts of drain blocking on the aquatic carbon export from a UK peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leith, Fraser; Dinsmore, Kerry; Carfrae, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Drainage ditches, which have historically been used across UK peatlands, provide a rapid pathway for carbon export between terrestrial and aquatic systems, potentially reducing or reversing the net uptake of carbon by peatlands. Currently, considerable investment is being made in Scotland to restore drained peatlands with the aim of raising water tables, restoring active vegetation cover, enhancing carbon uptake and reducing carbon losses via the aquatic pathway. However, monitoring of restoration and its impact is often restricted by a lack of pre-restoration data and typically does not cover the full range of fluvial carbon species. Drain blocking was carried out in March 2015 at the Auchencorth Moss peatland, SE Scotland, which has an extensive record of fluvial carbon measurements (from 2007 to present day). This study combines an intensive 12 month field monitoring campaign, during and after drain blocking works, with the long-term record to investigate the impacts of drain blocking on the dissolved and gaseous carbon export via the aquatic pathway. Post-restoration, concentrations and fluxes of all stream water dissolved and gaseous carbon species were in the range of values measured over the period 2007 to present; with no significant change in the 12 months post-restoration. The results from this study indicate that the drain blocking works did not have a significant impact on the concentration or speciation of carbon exported via the aquatic pathway which can be attributed to the largely overgrown nature of the drains and the large inter- and intra-annual variability in the system. This study raises questions on the suitability of some peatlands for drain blocking and the pre- and post-restoration monitoring required to accurately assess the impacts of peatland restoration activities.

  15. Pyrolytic synthesis and luminescence of porous lanthanide Eu-MOF.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guangya; Liu, Zhijian; Sun, Hongfa; Tian, Zhiyong

    2016-02-01

    A lanthanide metal coordination polymer [Eu2(BDC)3(DMSO)(H2O)] was synthesized by the reaction of europium oxide with benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (H2BDC) in a mixed solution of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and water under hydrothermal conditions. The crystal structure of Eu2(BDC)3(DMSO)(H2O) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Thermo-gravimetric analysis of Eu2(BDC)3(DMSO)(H2O) indicated that coordinated DMSO and H2O molecules could be removed to create Eu2(BDC)3(DMSO)(H2O)-py with permanent microporosity, which was also verified by powder XRD (PXRD) and elemental analysis. Both Eu2(BDC)3(DMSO)(H2O) and Eu2(BDC)3(DMSO)(H2O)-py showed mainly Eu-based luminescence and had characteristic emissions in the range 550-700 nm.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Eu-Doped Cadmium Selenide Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Raola, O. E.

    2002-01-01

    Substitution of Cd(II) sites by Eu ions in 5.0 nm {+-} 0.25 nm CdSe, Cd{sub 1-x}Eu{sub x}Se (x=0.374), can be achieved by modification of a lyothermal, single source precursor method. The Eu guest ion occupies a tetrahedral lattice site as a Eu(III) defect ion based on analysis of the XPS and XAS data. XRD and XAS measurements show a linear contraction of the lattice parameters for increasing Eu(III) concentration consistent with statistical substitution at both core and surface sites in the lattice by a random ion displacement mechanism. On the basis of a Vegard's law analysis, the Eu(III) ion is substituted in the tetrahedral cationic lattice site without formation of vacancies or phase segregation of the Eu ion in the lattice.

  17. Non-signalling energy use in the developing rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Engl, Elisabeth; Jolivet, Renaud; Hall, Catherine N

    2016-01-01

    Energy use in the brain constrains its information processing power, but only about half the brain's energy consumption is directly related to information processing. Evidence for which non-signalling processes consume the rest of the brain's energy has been scarce. For the first time, we investigated the energy use of the brain's main non-signalling tasks with a single method. After blocking each non-signalling process, we measured oxygen level changes in juvenile rat brain slices with an oxygen-sensing microelectrode and calculated changes in oxygen consumption throughout the slice using a modified diffusion equation. We found that the turnover of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton, followed by lipid synthesis, are significant energy drains, contributing 25%, 22% and 18%, respectively, to the rate of oxygen consumption. In contrast, protein synthesis is energetically inexpensive. We assess how these estimates of energy expenditure relate to brain energy use in vivo, and how they might differ in the mature brain. PMID:27170699

  18. Non-signalling energy use in the developing rat brain.

    PubMed

    Engl, Elisabeth; Jolivet, Renaud; Hall, Catherine N; Attwell, David

    2017-03-01

    Energy use in the brain constrains its information processing power, but only about half the brain's energy consumption is directly related to information processing. Evidence for which non-signalling processes consume the rest of the brain's energy has been scarce. For the first time, we investigated the energy use of the brain's main non-signalling tasks with a single method. After blocking each non-signalling process, we measured oxygen level changes in juvenile rat brain slices with an oxygen-sensing microelectrode and calculated changes in oxygen consumption throughout the slice using a modified diffusion equation. We found that the turnover of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton, followed by lipid synthesis, are significant energy drains, contributing 25%, 22% and 18%, respectively, to the rate of oxygen consumption. In contrast, protein synthesis is energetically inexpensive. We assess how these estimates of energy expenditure relate to brain energy use in vivo, and how they might differ in the mature brain.

  19. On the extraction of the external drain and source resistors and effective channel length in Si-MOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joodaki, M.

    2015-09-01

    This paper focuses on the extraction of drain/source resistance and effective channel length (Leff) of the silicon MOSFET in the linear drain current region. Leff is expressed as a function of drain/source resistance, drain current, threshold voltage, drain voltage, and body-effect coefficient. Using this definition, an additional component of drain/source resistance in the linear drain current region, inversion charge reduction resistance (RΔQ), is introduced which results from the influence of drain/source resistors, internal source/body voltage and drain voltage on the total inversion charge. Finally, a new method for extraction of the drain/source resistance is developed. In this method several parameters that have impact on device behavior are considered. The parameters include gate voltage dependency, short channel effects, and poly gate length dependency. The results presented here are not only very useful for accurate device modeling and characterization, but are also vital to better understanding of the device physics. Furthermore, they can describe shortcomings of the other methods which use devices of different gate lengths. The extracted linear model provides less than 1.07% and 3.3% average absolute error and maximum error, respectively, for all seven devices under test over the gate voltage range of 0.75-2 V.

  20. Dressings and drains in posterior spine surgery and their effect on wound complications.

    PubMed

    Andrew Glennie, R; Dea, Nicolas; Street, John T

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically search, critically appraise and summarize published randomized control trials (RCT) and non-RCT examining the effect of drains and dressings on wound healing rates and complications in posterior spine surgery. The use of post-operative drains and the type of post-operative dressing is at the discretion of the treating surgeon with no available clinical guidelines. Drains will theoretically decrease incidence of post-operative hematoma and therefore, potentially decrease the risk of neurologic compromise when the neural elements have been exposed. Occlusive dressings have more recently been advocated, potentially maintaining a sterile barrier for longer time periods post-operatively. A systematic review of databases from 1969-2013 was undertaken. All papers examining drains in spine surgery and dressings in primary healing of surgical wounds were included. Revman (version 5.2; The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK) was used to test for overall treatment effect, clinical heterogeneity and risk of bias. Of the papers identified, 1348 examined post-operative drains in spine surgery and 979 wound dressings for primary wound healing of all surgical wounds. Seven studies were included for analysis for post-operative drains and 10 studies were analyzed for primary wound healing. The use of a post-operative drain did not influence healing rates and had no effect secondarily on infection (odds ratio [OR] 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76-2.30). We were not able to establish whether surgical drains prevent hematomas causing neurologic compromise. There was a slight advantage to using occlusive dressings versus non-occlusive dressings in wound healing (OR 2.09; 95% CI 1.44-3.02). Incisional vacuum dressings as both an occlusive barrier and superficial drainage system have shown promise for wounds at risk of dehiscence. There is a relatively high risk of bias in the methodology of many of the

  1. Water movement and isoproturon behaviour in a drained heavy clay soil: 1. Preferential flow processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haria, A. H.; Johnson, A. C.; Bell, J. P.; Batchelor, C. H.

    1994-12-01

    The processes and mechanisms that control pesticide transport from drained heavy clay catchments are being studied at Wytham Farm (Oxford University) in southern England. In the first field season field-drain water contained high concentrations of pesticide. Soil studies demonstrated that the main mechanism for pesticide translocation was by preferential flow processes, both over the soil surface and through the soil profile via a macropore system that effectively by-passed the soil matrix. This macropore system included worm holes, shrinkage cracks and cracks resulting from ploughing. Rainfall events in early winter rapidly created a layer of saturation in the A horizon perched above a B horizon of very low hydraulic conductivity. Drain flow was initiated when the saturated layer in the A horizon extended into the upper 0.06m of the soil profile; thereafter water moved down slope via horizontal macropores possibly through a band of incorporated straw residues. These horizontal pathways for water movement connected with the fracture system of the mole drains, thus feeding the drains. Overland flow occurred infrequently during the season.

  2. Effects of groundwater pumping on agricultural drains in the Tule Lake subbasin, Oregon and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pischel, Esther M.; Gannett, Marshall W.

    2015-07-24

    To better define the effect of increased pumping on drain flow and on the water balance of the groundwater system, the annual water volume pumped from drains in three subareas of the Tule Lake subbasin was estimated and a fine-grid, local groundwater model of the Tule Lake subbasin was constructed. Results of the agricultural-drain flow analysis indicate that groundwater discharge to drains has decreased such that flows in 2012 were approximately 32,400 acre-ft less than the 1997–2000 average flow. This decrease was concentrated in the northern and southeastern parts of the subbasin, which corresponds with the areas of greatest groundwater pumping. Model simulation results of the Tule Lake subbasin groundwater model indicate that increased supplemental pumping is the dominant stress to the groundwater system in the subbasin. Simulated supplemental pumping and decreased recharge from irrigation between 2000 and 2010 totaled 323,573 acre-ft, 234,800 acre-ft (73 percent) of which was from supplemental pumping. The response of the groundwater system to this change in stress included about 180,500 acre-ft (56 percent) of decreased groundwater discharge to drains and a 126,000 acre-ft (39 percent) reduction in aquifer storage. The remaining 5 percent came from reduced groundwater flow to other model boundaries, including the Lost River, the Tule Lake sumps, and interbasin flow.

  3. Biodegradation of wastewater of Najafgarh drain, Delhi using autochthonous microbial consortia : a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Garima; Mehra, N K; Kumar, Rita

    2002-10-01

    There are seventeen drains, which discharge their untreated urban and industrial wastewaters into the Delhi segment of river Yamuna. The Najafgarh drain is the first and the largest drain, and it alone contributes 1667.84 mld i.e. 60% of the total wastewater discharge into the river Yamuna and as such add 81.36 tons of BOD load per day. As per the available data approximately 95% of the wastewater of this drain is biodegradable. In the present study, an attempt has been made to reduce the BOD load and COD levels of wastewater of Najafgarh drain using autochthonous microbial consortium. During this study the raw wastewater samples were treated for 6 h time interval with different concentration of consortium. It was observed that by increasing the existing microbial population in the wastewater sample by 150-200% there is a significant decrease in BOD and COD levels. Finally, BOD/COD ratios before and after biotreatment have been analyzed to assess the efficacy of the natural consortium.

  4. Source/drain technologies for the scaling of nanoscale CMOS device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yi; Zhou, Huajie; Xu, Qiuxia

    2011-02-01

    Continuous shrinking CMOS device into 21 nm technology node is facing fundamental challenges. The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) forecasts specific requirements to realize acceptable CMOS performance for the semiconductor industry. The innovations of various source/drain technologies are considered to be indispensable for the continuous scaling of CMOS device due to the requirements of high-performance and effective suppression of short channel effects. One of the key points is to realize ultra-shallow junction with steep concentration profile and low resistivity. There are many innovative solutions including advanced doping technologies and annealing technologies for ultra-shallow junction formation. Additionally, new source/drain structures such as raised source/drain and Schottky barrier metal source/drain, and advanced silicidation technologies also serve as the important options. The state-of-the-arts of these new technologies are extensively discussed from the view point of technical innovation and performance gain. Source/drain technologies are promising and active areas of device research down to 21 nm technology node and even beyond.

  5. DRAINING HAZARDOUS FLUIDS DURING BUILDING 221-1F DEACTIVATION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Musall, J.

    2010-05-11

    Several years ago, SRS completed a four year mission to decommission {approx}250 excess facilities. As part of that effort, SRS deactivated multiple facilities (e.g. Building 247-F, Naval Fuels Facility, and Building 211-F, Outside Facilities for F-Canyon) that contained extensive piping systems filled with hazardous material (e.g. nitric acid). Draining of hazardous materials from piping was successfully completed in all facilities without incident. In early 2009, the decommissioning program at SRS was restarted as a result of funding made available by the American Recovery & Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Under ARRA, draining of piping containing hazardous material was initiated in multiple facilities including Building 221-1F (or A-Line). This paper describes and reviews the draining of piping containing hazardous materials at A-Line, with emphasis on an incident involving the draining of nitric acid. The paper is intended to be a resource for engineers, planners, and project managers, who face similar draining challenges.

  6. Determining Factors for EU Military Intervention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    Lakes region was in response to the 1994 Rwanda tribal genocide and subsequent violence that spilled over the Zaire border.27 The first phase of...ITEM- 013+DOC+XML+V0//EN (accessed February 15, 2013). 27The war that ensued from the 1994 Rwanda genocide is commonly known as the First Congo War...defense policy. While the Balkans genocide triggered consensus, the road to actually developing a EU security policy would prove long and frustrating

  7. On the Luminescence Enhancement of Mn2+ By Co-doping of Eu2+ in ZnS:Mn,Eu

    SciTech Connect

    Hossu, Marius; Schaeffer, Roger O.; Ma, Lun; Chen, Wei; Zhu, Yongbin; Sammynaiken, Ramaswami; Joly, Alan G.

    2013-06-01

    The photoluminescence and X-ray luminescence of ZnS:Mn, ZnS:Mn,Eu and ZnS:Eu were investigated and it was found that the luminescence intensity of Mn2+ in ZnS:Mn,Eu co-doped phosphors is highly dependent on the doping concentration of Eu2+. At the optimized Eu2+concentration (0.2%), the photoluminescence of Mn2+ shows about a 5.5 times enhancement and its X-ray luminescence is enhanced by a factor of 2.5. Both wurtzite and zinc blend phases are present in the samples with wurtzite phase dominant. Co-doping of Eu2+ into ZnS:Mn does not change appreciably the ratio of the two phases or the Mn2+ emission luminescence lifetime; however, the doping of Eu2+ into ZnS:Mn does change the phonon activity. Furthermore, it was found that the defect-related blue emission of ZnS:Eu overlaps with the excitation bands of Mn2+ in ZnS:Mn and there is likely energy transfer from these defect states to Mn2+ in ZnS:Mn,Eu. This energy transfer and the phonon modification are considered to be the two main reasons for the luminescence enhancement and the intensity dependence of Mn2+ emission on Eu2+ doping concentration in ZnS:Mn,Eu.

  8. Contribution of Eu ions on the precipitation of silver nanoparticles in Ag-Eu co-doped borate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Qing; Qiu, Jianbei; Zhou, Dacheng; Xu, Xuhui

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silver nanoparticles are precipitated from the borate glasses during the melting process without any further heat treatment. • The reduction of Eu{sup 3+} ions to Eu{sup 2+} ions is presented in this material. • The intensity of Ag{sup +} luminescence. • The introduction of Eu ions accelerated the reaction between Eu{sup 2+} ions and silver ions inducing the silver clusters formation. - Abstract: Ag{sup +} doped sodium borate glasses with different Eu ions concentration were prepared by the melt-quenching method. The absorption at about 410 nm which was caused by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) is promoted with increasing of Eu ions concentration. Meanwhile, the luminescent spectra showed that the emission intensity of Ag{sup +} decreased while that of the Ag aggregates increased simultaneously. The results indicated that the Ag ions intend to form the high-polymeric state such as Ag aggregates and nanoparticles with increasing of europium ions. Owing to the self-reduction of Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} in our glass system, it revealed that Ag{sup +} has been reduced by the neighboring Eu{sup 2+} which leads to the formation of Ag aggregates and the precipitation of Ag NPs in the matrix. In addition, energy transfer (ET) process from Ag{sup +}/Ag aggregates to the Eu{sup 3+} was investigated for the enhancement of Eu{sup 3+} luminescence.

  9. Effect of Electrode and EuO Thickness on EuO-Electrode Interface in Tunneling Spin Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Negusse,E.; Holroyd, J.; Liberati, M.; Dvorak, J.; Idzerda, Y.; Santos, T.; Moodera, J.; Arenholz, E.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of electrode material and EuO film thickness on the interface between the two was studied. Of the electrodes examined, yttrium was found to decrease the formation of the nonmagnetic oxide Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}. By decomposing the x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) spectra of the samples with different electrodes against the reference EuO and Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} spectra, the relative fraction of these two species was quantified. Multilayers with silver electrodes had the highest amount of Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}, about 41%, whereas aluminum had 28% compared to the less than 5% observed for the multilayers with yttrium electrodes. A slight decrease in the fraction of Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} with increasing EuO thickness was found. Angle dependent XAS measurements, done on 80 A{sup o} EuO film, indicated the presence of Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} at high grazing angles which then decreased drastically with decreasing grazing angle. This indicated that the Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} was localized at the EuO-electrode interface.

  10. Framing the EU as Common Project vs. Common Heritage: Effects on Attitudes Towards the EU Deepening and Widening.

    PubMed

    La Barbera, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of framing the European Union (EU) as a common project vs. a common heritage on participants' attitude towards EU integration (Experiment 1) and EU enlargement (Experiment 2). An additional aim was exploring whether the different frames affected the strength of identification with the EU, and if the framing effect on attitudes was mediated by participants' identification with the EU and/or by their message evaluation (Experiment 3). Results showed that a common project-based frame was more effective than a common heritage-based frame in promoting positive attitude toward EU integration and enlargement, as well as participants' identification with the EU, which mediated the framing effect on both attitudes; the mediation of participants' message evaluation was not significant. The procedure of the last experiment was replicated on a British sample (Experiment 4), showing a similar pattern of results.

  11. Induced spin-polarization of EuS at room temperature in Ni/EuS multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Poulopoulos, P.; Goschew, A.; Straub, A.; Fumagalli, P.; Kapaklis, V.; Wolff, M.; Delimitis, A.; Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A.; Pappas, S. D.

    2014-03-17

    Ni/EuS multilayers with excellent multilayer sequencing are deposited via e-beam evaporation on the native oxide of Si(100) wafers at 4 × 10{sup −9} millibars. The samples have very small surface and interface roughness and show sharp interfaces. Ni layers are nanocrystalline 4–8 nm thick and EuS layers are 2–4 nm thick and are either amorphous or nanocrystalline. Unlike for Co/EuS multilayers, all Eu ions are in divalent (ferromagnetic) state. We show a direct antiferromagnetic coupling between EuS and Ni layers. At room temperature, the EuS layers are spin-polarized due to the proximity of Ni. Therefore, Ni/EuS is a candidate for room-temperature spintronics applications.

  12. Europium gallium garnet (Eu3Ga5O12) and Eu3GaO6: Synthesis and material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Kenji; Nakamura, Toshihiro; Adachi, Sadao

    2016-10-01

    Eu-Ga-O ternary compounds were synthesized from a mixture of cubic (c-) Eu2O3 and monoclinic Ga2O3 (β-Ga2O3) raw powders using the solid-state reaction method by calcination at Tc = 1200 °C. The structural and optical properties of the Eu-Ga-O ternary compounds were investigated using X-ray diffraction analysis, photoluminescence (PL) analysis, PL excitation (PLE) spectroscopy, and Raman scattering measurements. Stoichiometric compounds such as cubic Eu3Ga5O12 (EGG) and orthorhombic Eu3GaO6 were synthesized using molar ratios of x = 0.375 and 0.75 [x≡Eu2O3/(Eu2O3 + Ga2O3)], respectively, together with the end-point binary compounds β-Ga2O3 (x = 0) and monoclinic (m-) Eu2O3 (x = 1.0). The structural change from "cubic" to "monoclinic" in Eu2O3 is due to the structural phase transition occurring at Tc ≥ 1050 °C. In principle, the perovskite-type EuGaO3 and monoclinic Eu4Ga2O9 can also be synthesized at x = 0.5 and 0.667, respectively; however, such stoichiometric compounds could not be synthesized in this study. The PL and PLE properties of EGG and Eu3GaO6 were studied in detail. The temperature dependence of the PL spectra was observed through measurements carried out between T = 20 and 300 K and explained using a newly developed model. Raman scattering measurements were also performed on the Eu-Ga-O ternary systems over the entire composition range from x = 0 (β-Ga2O3) to 1.0 (m-Eu2O3).

  13. The problem of fire control on drained peatlands and its solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidel'Man, F. R.

    2011-08-01

    Fires on drained peatlands arise as a result of lowering of the groundwater table and the rupture of its capillary fringe from the peat soil horizons. Fires destroy the most fertile soils of the nonchernozemic region, adversely affect the diversity and species composition of the biota and the work of transport, and cause diseases and the death of people. A set of preventive measures against fires on the drained peatlands is proposed. It is important to use these soils only for meadow grass cultivation with rotations enriched in perennial grasses. No cases of "black" crop growing are possible on peatlands. The reclamation of peat soils should be implemented only with the bilateral regulation of the water regime. An optimal system of increasing the fertility of drained peat soils should be applied; their use should also be accompanied by sanding.

  14. Nitrogen and phosphorus loading from drained wetlands adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency lakes, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.; Morace, Jennifer L.

    1997-01-01

    The results of this study could be useful in helping to prioritize which drained wetlands may provide the greatest benefits with regard to reducing nutrient loads to the lake if restoration or land-use modifications are instituted. Recent acquisition and planned restoration of drained wetland areas at the Wood River and Williamson River North properties may produce significant reduction in the quantity of nutrients released by the decomposition of peat soils of these areas. If the water table rises to predrainage levels, the peats soils may become inundated most of the year, resulting in the continued long-term storage of nutrients within the peat soils by reducing aerobic decomposition. The maximum benefit, in terms of decreasing potential nutrient loss due to peat decomposition, could be the reduction of total nitrogen and total phosphorus loss to about one-half that of the 1994–95 annual loss estimated for all the drained wetlands sampled for this study.

  15. Novel Closing Method Using Subcutaneous Continuous Drain for Preventing Surgical Site Infections in Radical Cystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Yasuhiko; Ando, Ryosuke; Nakane, Akihiro; Etani, Toshiki; Iida, Keitaro; Akita, Hidetoshi; Okamura, Takehiko; Kohri, Kenjiro

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) after radical cystectomy, a new closing method using subcutaneous continuous aspiration drain was developed and compared to the conventional closing method. The new method involved (a) closed aspiration with an indwelling aspiration drain without suture of the subcutaneous fat and (b) covering with hydrocolloid wound dressing after suture of the dermis with 4-0 absorbable thread and reinforcement using strips. The incidence of SSI was significantly improved by using the new method. Furthermore, univariate and multivariate analysis associated with SSI revealed that the new closing method was statistically correlated with 85% reduction of SSI (odds ratio: 0.15, 95% confidence interval: 0.03–0.69).Our new method using continuous aspiration with subcutaneous drain is useful for preventing SSI through removal of effusions and reduction of dead space by apposition of the subcutaneous fat. PMID:24734201

  16. In-Situ Measurement of Vertical Bypass Flow Using a Drain Gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, W. L.; Brooks, E. S.; Sanchez-Murillo, R.

    2012-12-01

    With widespread technological advances in precision fertilizer application in agricultural production there is an increasing need to better understand the subsurface transport and vertical leaching of nitrate fertilizers. Optimizing fertilizer application reduces cost to the grower and improves downstream water supplies. In-situ measurement of nitrate flux is difficult and expensive. In this experiment nitrate transport was measured using a passive capillary drain gauge developed by Decagon Devices in Pullman, WA. The drain gauge measures water flux from a 30 cm diameter soil core 60 cm in length. In this study the drain gauge was installed 0.9 m to 1.5 m below the soil surface in a no-till field in cereal grain production. A potassium bromide tracer was applied using a rainfall simulator over a 5 day period to the drain gage roughly one year following installation of the drain gauge and approximately 3 months after being seeded to spring wheat. Bromide tracer movement was compared to measurements of stable oxygen/hydrogen isotopes, and nitrate in the leachate and from soil water extracted within the soil profile using suction lysimeters. Significant preferential flow occurred during the experiment. Vertical leaching initiated at the 1.5 m depth at a time when the wetting front had just reached the 0.3 cm depth. By the time the wetting front had reached a 1.5 m depth, 18 kg/ha of nitrogen fertilizer had leached beyond the root zone. Once the wetting front reached 1.5 m bromide and stable isotope data indicated that 60% of the total flow occurred through macropore flow. Stable isotope measurements responded similarly to the electrical conductivity and nitrate measurements suggesting their potential use as a groundwater tracer. The nitrate leaching observed in the drain gauge would not have been accounted for if soil moisture measurements alone were used to indicate potential nitrate transport.

  17. Field-scale modeling of subsurface tile-drained soils using an equivalent-medium approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlier, Jean Philippe; Kao, Cyril; Ginzburg, Irina

    2007-07-01

    SummaryResearch conducted for the last 35 years has shown that subsurface drainage has a significant impact on hydrology and contaminant transport. This can be observed at the field-scale and also at the watershed scale. Impacts are always associated with modifying otherwise natural flow paths. Most computer model representations of drainage have been drawn at the field-scale. These models require relatively precise data that are usually unavailable when simulating hydrology and water quality in large watersheds. We believe that in this case drainage representation should be simplified and yet closely match observations. As a first step towards incorporating drainage systems into large-scale hydrological models, we propose an equivalent representation of drains buried in a soil profile by using a homogeneous anisotropic porous medium without drains. This representation is based on a "self-consistent" approach and on geometrical considerations. Simplification is such that calculating the equivalent hydraulic conductivity requires only information on the main length and spacing of the tile drains and not on their precise location. This approach also provides a much simpler discretisation of the domain because of the absence of internal boundary conditions on the drainage pipes. Compared to other methods that have simplified drainage representation in existing watershed models, it requires no parameter fitting. Two alternatives to the method are presented: in the first one, the soil profile equipped with the actual drain pipes is represented by an equivalent, horizontally layered system with no pipes; in the second, the layered system has been replaced with an equivalent homogeneous profile. The efficiency of these approaches was tested against a classical representation of tile drains using the SWMS 3D code, which solves the Richards equation for a typical drained plot configuration. The equivalent-medium approach appears to give satisfying results for global water

  18. Use of closed suction drain after primary total knee arthroplasty – an overrated practice

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Gaurav M.; Palekar, Gauresh; Tanna, Dilip D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The age-old practice of closed suction drain following orthopedic procedures has been challenged since past few decades. Our aim was to assess the effectiveness of closed suction drain after total knee arthroplasty. Materials and methods: One hundred twenty patients (135 knees) with primary Total Knee Arthroplasty were divided into a study group (no drain) and a control group (drain used). Inclusion criteria were grade 3 and grade 4 osteoarthritis of the knee. Revision cases and rheumatoid arthritis were excluded. Parameters assessed were pain, pre and post-op Hb, dressing change, early infection, ecchymosis and duration of stay. Results were calculated using Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index and Oxford Knee scoring systems at two weeks, six months and one year. Results: Mean age was 72.03 ± 6.68 in study group and 71.38 ± 7.02 in control group. Pre and post op Hb was 12.1678 ± 1.3220 (study group), 12.1803 ± 1.2717 (control group) and 9.8373 ± 1.5703 (study group), 9.7918 ± 1.4163 (control group). There was one case of early infection in both groups which was controlled by oral antibiotics. Change of dressing and ecchymosis were more in the study group. Duration of hospital stay was more in the control group p < 0.0006 (statistically significant). Conclusion: There is no added advantage of closed suction drain over no drain usage and this practice can safely be brought to a halt. PMID:27855775

  19. Using MODFLOW drains to simulate groundwater flow in a karst environment

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, J.; Tomasko, D.; Glennon, M.A.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1998-07-01

    Modeling groundwater flow in a karst environment is both numerically challenging and highly uncertain because of potentially complex flowpaths and a lack of site-specific information. This study presents the results of MODFLOW numerical modeling in which drain cells in a finite-difference model are used as analogs for preferential flowpaths or conduits in karst environments. In this study, conduits in mixed-flow systems are simulated by assigning connected pathways of drain cells from the locations of tracer releases, sinkholes, or other karst features to outlet springs along inferred flowpaths. These paths are determined by the locations of losing stream segments, ephemeral stream beds, geophysical surveys, fracture lineaments, or other surficial characteristics, combined with the results of dye traces. The elevations of the drains at the discharge ends of the inferred flowpaths are estimated from field data and are adjusted when necessary during model calibration. To simulate flow in a free-flowing conduit, a high conductance is assigned to each drain to eliminate the need for drain-specific information that would be very difficult to obtain. Calculations were performed for a site near Hohenfels, Germany. The potentiometric surface produced by the simulations agreed well with field data. The head contours in the vicinity of the karst features behaved in a manner consistent with a flow system having both diffuse and conduit components, and the sum of the volumetric flow out of the drain cells agreed closely with spring discharges and stream flows. Because of the success of this approach, it is recommended for regional studies in which little site-specific information (e.g., location, number, size, and conductivity of fractures and conduits) is available, and general flow characteristics are desired.

  20. The hydrology of a drained topographical depression within an agricutlural field in north-central Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roth, Jason L.; Capel, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    North-central Iowa is an agriculturally intensive area comprising the southeastern portion of the Prairie Pothole Region, a landscape containing a high density of enclosed topographical depressions. Artificial drainage practices have been implemented throughout the area to facilitate agricultural production. Vertical surface drains are utilized to drain the topographical depressions that accumulate water. This study focuses on the hydrology of a drained topographical depression located in a 39.5 ha agricultural field. To assess the hydrology of the drained depression, a water balance was constructed for 11 ponding events during the 2008 growing season. Continuous pond and groundwater level data were obtained with pressure transducers. Flows into the vertical surface drain were calculated based on pond depth. Precipitation inflows and evaporative outflows of the ponds were calculated using climatic data. Groundwater levels were used to assess groundwater/pond interactions. Results of the water balances show distinct differences between the inflows to and outflows from the depression based on antecedent conditions. In wet conditions, groundwater inflow sustained the ponds. The ponds receded only after the groundwater level declined to below the land surface. In drier conditions, groundwater was not a source of water to the depression. During these drier conditions, infiltration comprised 30% of the outflows from the depression during declining pond stages. Over the entire study period, the surface drain, delivering water to the stream, was the largest outflow from the pond, accounting for 97% of the outflow, while evapotranspiration was just 2%. Precipitation onto the pond surface proved to be a minor component, accounting for 4% of the total inflows.

  1. Giant Arachnoid Granulation Associated with Anomalous Draining Vein: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Oskouian, Rod J; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R. Shane

    2017-01-01

    Giant arachnoid granulations (AG) can mimic intracranial lesions. Knowledge of these structures can help avoid misdiagnosis when interpreting imaging. Here, we report a child who presented with a mass within the superior sagittal sinus and an anomalous draining vein. Herein, the diagnosis of a giant AG was made. Clinicians who view or interpret imaging of the head should be aware of these anatomical variants and though when very large, apparently, do not necessarily result in pathology. Based on our case report, giant AG might also demonstrate anomalous draining veins.

  2. Arteriovenous fistula failure due to two straight shunts formation at draining vein.

    PubMed

    Tong, YanQing; Qi, WanLi; Sun, Min

    2013-01-01

    A 48-year-old asian man was admitted to hospital for the consideration of hemodialysis (HD). An adequate site was decided on for the AVF after Doppler ultrasonography examination of radial artery and cephalic vein. The AVF was formed under local anaesthetic at his right wrist. When seen at the clinic appointment one month later, the AVF was not working. The subsequent Doppler ultrasonography examination revealed two straight shunts at draining vein. The failure of AVF is due to impaired outflow following reduction of the resistance between draining vein and peripheral venous system.

  3. Dural arteriovenous fistula at the anterior clinoid process draining directly into the superficial middle cerebral vein.

    PubMed

    Ushikoshi, Satoshi; Honma, Toshimi; Uchida, Kazuki; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Ajiki, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    A 76-year-old man presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Selective angiography revealed a dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) at the right anterior clinoid process, draining into the superficial middle cerebral vein in a retrograde fashion. Two internal carotid artery aneurysms were also demonstrated at the origin of the posterior communicating artery and the anterior choroidal artery on the same side. The patient underwent craniotomy, and all lesions were treated simultaneously. Rupture of the anterior choroidal artery aneurysm was confirmed. DAVF draining directly into the superficial middle cerebral vein is extremely rare. The precise location of the shunt, the anatomical features, and venous drainage must be evaluated to consider treatment.

  4. The Anomalous Effect of Interface Traps on Generation Current in Lightly Doped Drain nMOSFET's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiao-Hua; Gao, Hai-Xia; Cao, Yan-Rong; Chen, Hai-Feng; Hao, Yue

    2010-05-01

    The anomalous phenomenon of generation current IGD in the lightly doped drain (LDD) nMOSFET measured under the drain bias VD-step mode is reported. We propose an assumption of activated (A) and frozen (F) traps for the VD-step mode: The A traps contributes to IGD while the F process can make them lose the roles as generation centers. The A and F regions can form the F-A region. The comparison of the F and A regions decides the role of the F-A region. The experiments confirm the assumption.

  5. Internal combuston engine having separated cylinder head oil drains and crankcase ventilation passages

    DOEpatents

    Boggs, D.L.; Baraszu, D.J.; Foulkes, D.M.; Gomes, E.G.

    1998-12-29

    An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine`s crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages. 4 figs.

  6. Internal combuston engine having separated cylinder head oil drains and crankcase ventilation passages

    DOEpatents

    Boggs, David Lee; Baraszu, Daniel James; Foulkes, David Mark; Gomes, Enio Goyannes

    1998-01-01

    An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine's crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages.

  7. Temperature dependence of Eu-related EPR spectra in CsBr:Eu needle image plates

    SciTech Connect

    Loncke, F.; Vrielinck, H.; Matthys, P.; Callens, F.; Tahon, J.-P.; Leblans, P.; Ahmad, I.; Goovaerts, E.

    2009-05-01

    Vacuum-deposited CsBr needle plates doped with Eu{sup 2+} have been investigated with Q ({approx}34 GHz) and W ({approx}95 GHz) band electron paramagnetic resonance in a large temperature interval (4 K: room temperature). At low temperatures (<35 K), two Eu-related centers were found with different symmetry (tetragonal and orthorhombic), while in earlier studies at room temperature only one center was found with tetragonal symmetry. Possible models for the three defects are investigated, taking into account their temperature behavior, their symmetry, and the atypical values of their zero-field splitting parameters.

  8. Coexistence phenomenon of Ce(3+)-Ce(4+) and Eu(2+)-Eu(3+) in Ce/Eu co-doped LiBaB9O15 phosphor: luminescence and energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Li, Panlai; Wang, Zhijun; Xu, Shuchao; Bai, Qiongyu; Yang, Zhiping

    2017-02-01

    Ce/Eu-doped LiBaB9O15 (LBB) samples were prepared via conventional high temperature solid state reactions. The XRD patterns, crystal structures, luminescence properties, and decay times were investigated systematically. Ce(3+) ions exist in LBB:xCe(3+) that were synthesized in a reducing atmosphere and in an air atmosphere. However, we observed Eu(2+) ions in LBB:yEu(2+) in a reducing atmosphere and Eu(3+) ions in LBB:zEu(3+) in an air atmosphere. LBB:0.05Ce(3+),yEu(2+) phosphors synthesized in a reducing atmosphere only possess Ce(3+) and Eu(2+) and exhibit a broad excitation band ranging from 350 to 425 nm. A reduction phenomenon of Eu(3+) → Eu(2+) and coexistence of Ce(4+), Ce(3+), Eu(2+) and Eu(3+) were observed when LBB:0.05Ce,wEu phosphors were synthesized in an air atmosphere. There are three processes in LBB:0.05Ce,wEu, i.e., energy transfers from Ce(3+) to Eu(2+) and from Eu(2+) to Eu(3+), and metal-metal charge transfer (MMCT) between Ce(3+) and Eu(3+). Moreover, the MMCT process is dominant in LBB:0.05Ce,wEu due to less efficient energy transfer from Ce(3+) to Eu(2+). Moreover, the CIE coordinates of LBB:0.05Ce,wEu vary systematically from light blue (0.313, 0.129) to red (0.589, 0.315) for LBB:0.05Ce(3+),wEu synthesized in air with the changes in Eu ion concentration. Thus, we can control the color by controlling the synthesis atmospheres.

  9. Evidence of Eu{sup 2+} 4f electrons in the valence band spectra of EuTiO{sub 3} and EuZrO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Kolodiazhnyi, T.; Valant, M.; Williams, J. R.; Bugnet, M.; Botton, G. A.; Ohashi, N.; Sakka, Y.

    2012-10-15

    We report on optical band gap and valence electronic structure of two Eu{sup 2+}-based perovskites, EuTiO{sub 3} and EuZrO{sub 3} as revealed by diffuse optical scattering, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and valence-band x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The data show good agreement with the first-principles studies in which the top of the valence band structure is formed by the narrow Eu 4f{sup 7} electron band. The O 2p band shows the features similar to those of the Ba(Sr)TiO{sub 3} perovskites except that it is shifted to higher binding energies. Appearance of the Eu{sup 2+} 4f{sup 7} band is a reason for narrowing of the optical band gap in the title compounds as compared to their Sr-based analogues.

  10. Evidence of Eu2+ 4f electrons in the valence band spectra of EuTiO3 and EuZrO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolodiazhnyi, T.; Valant, M.; Williams, J. R.; Bugnet, M.; Botton, G. A.; Ohashi, N.; Sakka, Y.

    2012-10-01

    We report on optical band gap and valence electronic structure of two Eu2+-based perovskites, EuTiO3 and EuZrO3 as revealed by diffuse optical scattering, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and valence-band x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The data show good agreement with the first-principles studies in which the top of the valence band structure is formed by the narrow Eu 4f7 electron band. The O 2p band shows the features similar to those of the Ba(Sr)TiO3 perovskites except that it is shifted to higher binding energies. Appearance of the Eu2+ 4f7 band is a reason for narrowing of the optical band gap in the title compounds as compared to their Sr-based analogues.

  11. Breakthrough of two pesticides into tile drain and shallow groundwater: comparison of tile drain reaction and soil profiles within a field scale irrigation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, Julian; Zehe, Erwin; Elsner, Martin; Palm, Juliane; Schneider, Dorothee; Schröder, Boris; Steinbeiss, Sibylle; West, Stephanie

    2010-05-01

    Preferential flow in macropores is a key process which strongly affects infiltration and may cause rapid transport of pesticides into depths of 80 to 150 cm. At these depths they experience a much slower degradation, may leach into shallow groundwater or enter a tile-drain and are transported into surface water bodies. Therefore, preferential transport might be an environmental problem, if the topsoil is bypassed, which has been originally thought to act as a filter to protect the subsoil and shallow groundwater. To investigate the behaviour of two pesticides with different chemical characteristics and to compare their transport behaviour in soil and into the tile drain an irrigation experiment was performed on a 400 m² field site. The experimental plot is located in the Weiherbach valley, south-west Germany, which basic geology consists of Loess and Keuper layers, the soil at the test site is a gleyic Colluvisol. The distance of the irrigation site to the Weiherbach brook is approximately 12 m, the field is drained with a tile-drain in about 1.2 m depth and shows discharge over the entire year. Three hours before the irrigation started, the farmer applied a pesticide solution consisting of Isoproturon (80 g) and Flufenacet (20 g) (IPU and FLU) according to conventional agricultural practice on the field plot. The irrigation took place in three time blocks (80 min, 60 min, 80 min) with in total 33.6 mm of precipitation. During the first block 1600 g of Bromide were mixed in the irrigation water. The drainage outlet was instrumented with a pressure probe. About 50 water samples ware taken during the experimental day, and several samples more the days after the experiment. They were analysed for the pesticides, bromide and water isotopes. In the two days after the experiment three soil profiles were excavated and soil samples were taken on a 10x10 cm² scheme. One week after the experiment two additional profiles were excavated. The soil was analysed for IPU, FLU

  12. EVALUATION OF FABRIC MEMBRANES FOR USE IN SALTSTONE DRAIN WATER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Pickenheim, B.; Miller, D.; Burket, P.

    2012-03-08

    Saltstone Disposal Unit 2 contains a sheet drain fabric intended to separate solids from drain water to be returned to the Salt Feed Tank. A similar system installed in Vault 4 appears to be ineffective in keeping solids out of the drain water return lines. Waste Solidification Engineering is considering installation of an additional fabric membrane to supplement the existing sheet drain in SDU 2. Amerdrain 200 is the product currently installed in SDU 2. This product is no longer available, so Sitedrain 94 was used as the replacement product in this testing. Fabrics with apparent opening sizes of 10, 25, 50 and 100 microns were evaluated. These fabrics were evaluated under three separate test conditions, a water flow test, a solids retention test and a grout pour test. A flow test with water showed that installation of an additional filter layer will predictably reduce the theoretical flux through the sheet drain. The manufacturer reports the flux for Sitedrain 94 as 150 gpm/ft{sup 2} by ASTM D-4491. This compares reasonably well with the 117 gpm/ft{sup 2} obtained in this testing. A combination of the 10 micron fabric with Sitedrain 94 could be expected to decrease flux by about 10 times as compared to Sitedrain 94 alone. The different media were used to filter a slag and fly ash mixture from water. Slag historically has the smallest nominal particle size of the premix components. Cement was omitted from the test because of its reactivity with water would prohibit accurately particle size measurements of the filtered samples. All four media sizes were able to remove greater than 95% of particles larger than 100 microns from the slurry. The smaller opening sizes were increasingly effective in removing more particles. The 10 micron filter captured 15% of the total amount of solids used in the test. This result implies that some insoluble particles may still be able to enter the drain water collection system, although the overall solids rejection is significantly

  13. DETERMINATION OF LIQUID FILM THICKNESS FOLLOWING DRAINING OF CONTACTORS, VESSELS, AND PIPES IN THE MCU PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M; Fernando Fondeur, F; Samuel Fink, S

    2006-06-06

    The Department of Energy (DOE) identified the caustic side solvent extraction (CSSX) process as the preferred technology to remove cesium from radioactive waste solutions at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As a result, Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) began designing and building a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) in the SRS tank farm to process liquid waste for an interim period until the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) begins operations. Both the solvent and the strip effluent streams could contain high concentrations of cesium which must be removed from the contactors, process tanks, and piping prior to performing contactor maintenance. When these vessels are drained, thin films or drops will remain on the equipment walls. Following draining, the vessels will be flushed with water and drained to remove the flush water. The draining reduces the cesium concentration in the vessels by reducing the volume of cesium-containing material. The flushing, and subsequent draining, reduces the cesium in the vessels by diluting the cesium that remains in the film or drops on the vessel walls. MCU personnel requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers conduct a literature search to identify models to calculate the thickness of the liquid films remaining in the contactors, process tanks, and piping following draining of salt solution, solvent, and strip solution. The conclusions from this work are: (1) The predicted film thickness of the strip effluent is 0.010 mm on vertical walls, 0.57 mm on horizontal walls and 0.081 mm in horizontal pipes. (2) The predicted film thickness of the salt solution is 0.015 mm on vertical walls, 0.74 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.106 mm in horizontal pipes. (3) The predicted film thickness of the solvent is 0.022 mm on vertical walls, 0.91 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.13 mm in horizontal pipes. (4) The calculated film volume following draining is: (a) Salt solution receipt tank--1.6 gallons; (b) Salt solution feed

  14. Eu oxidation state in fluorozirconate-based glass ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Henke, B.; Paßlick, C.; Keil, P.; Johnson, J. A.; Schweizer, S.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of InF3 doping and remelting on Eu-doped fluorozirconate-based glass ceramics was investigated using near-edge x-ray absorption and optical spectroscopy. It was found that the addition of InF3 to the melt decreases the Eu2+∕Eu3+ mole ratio, while remelting leads to a significant change in the Eu2+∕Eu3+ ratio in favor of Eu2+. Photoluminescence spectroscopy shows that additional annealing steps lead to the formation of BaCl2 nanoparticles in the glass. In as-made glass ceramics containing InF3, a phase transition of the nanoparticles from hexagonal to orthorhombic structure is observed. This phase transition is not observed in the remelted glasses studied here. PMID:20057931

  15. Large magnetocaloric effect in sintered ferromagnetic EuS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koichi; Li, Liang; Hirai, Shinji; Nakamura, Eiji; Murayama, Daiki; Ura, Yutaro; Abe, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    We present magnetocaloric effect measurements of the ferromagnetic semiconductor EuS in the vicinity of its ordering temperature. Single phase EuS powder was synthesized by CS2 gas sulfurization of Eu2O3. A sintered compact with relative density over 95% was prepared by pulsed electric current sintering of the powder. Temperature and magnetic field dependence of the magnetization and specific heat were characteristic of a paramagnetic to ferromagnetic second order phase transition. The entropy change induced by an external magnetic field and the specific heat were both close to those of a single crystal. We obtained an entropy-temperature (S-T) diagram of the EuS sintered compact. Carnot cycle liquefaction of hydrogen using EuS was compared with several other materials, with results indicating that sintered EuS is an excellent magnetic refrigerant for hydrogen liquefaction.

  16. Luminescent nitridophosphates CaP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , SrP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , BaP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , and BaSr2 P6 N12 :Eu(2.).

    PubMed

    Pucher, Florian J; Marchuk, Alexey; Schmidt, Peter J; Wiechert, Detlef; Schnick, Wolfgang

    2015-04-20

    Nitridophosphates MP2 N4 :Eu(2+) (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) and BaSr2 P6 N12 :Eu(2+) have been synthesized at elevated pressures and 1100-1300 °C starting from the corresponding azides and P3 N5 with EuCl2 as dopant. Addition of NH4 Cl as mineralizer allowed for the growth of single crystals. This led to the successful structure elucidation of a highly condensed nitridophosphate from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data (CaP2 N4 :Eu(2+) (P63 , no. 173), a=16.847(2), c=7.8592(16) Å, V=1931.7(6) Å(3) , Z=24, 2033 observed reflections, 176 refined parameters, wR2 =0.096). Upon excitation by UV light, luminescence due to parity-allowed 4f(6) ((7) F)5d(1) →4f(7) ((8) S7/2 ) transition was observed in the orange (CaP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , λmax =575 nm), green (SrP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , λmax =529 nm), and blue regions of the visible spectrum (BaSr2 P6 N12 :Eu(2+) and BaP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , λmax =450 and 460 nm, respectively). Thus, the emission wavelength decreases with increasing ionic radius of the alkaline-earth ions. The corresponding full width at half maximum values (2240-2460 cm(-1) ) are comparable to those of other known Eu(2+) -doped (oxo)nitrides emitting in the same region of the visible spectrum. Following recently described quaternary Ba3 P5 N10 Br:Eu(2+) , this investigation represents the first report on the luminescence of Eu(2+) -doped ternary nitridophosphates. Similarly to nitridosilicates and related oxonitrides, Eu(2+) -doped nitridophosphates may have the potential to be further developed into efficient light-emitting diode phosphors.

  17. Quasiparticle bandstructure of antiferromagnetic EuTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathi Jaya, S.; Nolting, W.

    1997-11-01

    The temperature-dependent electronic quasiparticle spectrum of the antiferromagnetic semiconductor EuTe is derived by use of a combination of a many-body model procedure with a tight-binding - `linear muffin tin orbital' (TB - LMTO) band structure calculation. The central part is the d - f model for a single band electron (`test electron') being exchange coupled to the antiferromagnetically ordered localized moments of the Eu ions. The single-electron Bloch energies of the d - f model are taken from a TB - LMTO calculation for paramagnetic EuTe. The d - f model is evaluated by a recently proposed moment conserving Green function technique to get the temperature-dependent sublattice - quasiparticle bandstructure (S - QBS) and sublattice - quasiparticle density of states (S - QDOS) of the unoccupied 5d - 6s energy bands. Unconventional correlation effects and the appearance of characteristic quasiparticles (`magnetic polarons') are worked out in detail. The temperature dependence of the S - QDOS and S - QBS is mainly provoked by the spectral weights of the energy dispersions. Minority- and majority-spin spectra coincide for all temperatures but with different densities of states. Upon cooling from 0953-8984/9/47/012/img1 to T = 0 K the lower conduction band edge exhibits a small blue shift of -0.025 eV in accordance with the experiment. Quasiparticle damping manifesting itself in a temperature-dependent broadening of the spectral density peaks arises from spin exchange processes between (5d - 6s) conduction band electrons and localized 4f moments.

  18. Adsorption of Eu(III) onto roots of water hyacinth

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, C.; Mielke, R.E.; Dimaquibo, D.; Curtis, A.J.; Dewitt, J.G.

    1999-05-01

    The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has drawn attention as a plant capable of removing pollutants, including toxic metals, from water. The authors are interested in the capacity of the water hyacinth to remediate aquatic environments that have been contaminated with the lanthanide metal, europium Eu(III). Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) they have been able to determine that Eu(III) is adsorbed onto the surface of the roots from water and that the highest concentration of Eu(III) is on the root hairs. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) techniques were used to speciate the Eu(III) adsorbed onto the surface of the roots. The XAS data for Eu-contaminated water hyacinth roots provides evidence of a Eu-oxygen environment and establishes that Eu(III) is coordinated to 10--11 oxygen atoms at a distance of 2.44 {angstrom}. This likely involves binding of Eu(III) to the root via carboxylate groups and hydration of Eu(III) at the root surface.

  19. The magnetic structure of EuCu2Sb2

    DOE PAGES

    Ryan, D. H.; Cadogan, J. M.; Anand, V. K.; ...

    2015-05-06

    Antiferromagnetic ordering of EuCu2Sb2 which forms in the tetragonal CaBe2Ge2-type structure (space group P4/nmm #129) has been studied using neutron powder diffraction and 151Eu Mössbauer spectroscopy. The room temperature 151Eu isomer shift of –12.8(1) mm/s shows the Eu to be divalent, while the 151Eu hyperfine magnetic field (Bhf) reaches 28.7(2) T at 2.1 K, indicating a full Eu2+ magnetic moment. Bhf(T) follows a smoothmore » $$S=\\frac{7}{2}$$ Brillouin function and yields an ordering temperature of 5.1(1) K. Refinement of the neutron diffraction data reveals a collinear A-type antiferromagnetic arrangement with the Eu moments perpendicular to the tetragonal c-axis. As a result, the refined Eu magnetic moment at 0.4 K is 7.08(15) μB which is the full free-ion moment expected for the Eu2+ ion with $$S=\\frac{7}{2}$$ and a spectroscopic splitting factor of g = 2.« less

  20. Exploring growth conditions and Eu2+ concentration effects for KSr2I5:Eu scintillator crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stand, L.; Zhuravleva, M.; Camarda, G.; Lindsey, A.; Johnson, J.; Hobbs, C.; Melcher, C. L.

    2016-04-01

    Our current research is focused on understanding dopant optimization, growth rate, homogeneity and their impact on the overall performance of KSr2I5:Eu2+ single crystal scintillators. In this work we have investigated the effects of Eu2+ concentration in the potassium strontium iodide matrix, and we found that the concentration needed to maximize the light yield was 4 mol%. In order to assess the effects of the pulling rate, we grew single crystals at 12, 24 and 120 mm/day via the vertical Bridgman technique. For the sample sizes measured (5×5×5 mm3), we found that the crystal grown at the fastest rate of 120 mm/day showed a light yield within ~7% of the more slowly grown boules, and no significant change was observed in the energy resolution. Therefore, light yields from 88,000 to 96,000 ph/MeV and energy resolutions from 2.4 to 3.0% (at 662 keV) were measured for KSr2I5:Eu 4% over a relatively wide range of growth conditions. In order to assess the homogeneity of KSr2I5:Eu 4%, a newly developed micro-resolution X-ray technique was used to map the light yield as a function of excitation position. In the crystals that we studied, we did not observe any significant inhomogeneity other than a smooth gradient due to light collection and self absorption effects.

  1. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL PATTERNS OF METHANE EMISSIONS FROM A RESERVOIR DRAINING AN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHED (abstract)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used multiple approaches to characterize temporal and spatial patterns in methane (CH4) emissions from a mid-latitude reservoir (William H. Harsha Lake, Ohio, USA) draining an agricultural watershed. Weekly to monthly monitoring at six sites in the reservoir during a 13 month...

  2. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL PATTERNS OF METHANE EMISSIONS FROM A RESERVOIR DRAINING AN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used multiple approaches to characterize temporal and spatial patterns in methane (CH4) emissions from a mid-latitude reservoir (William H. Harsha Lake, Ohio, USA) draining an agricultural watershed. Weekly to monthly monitoring at six sites in the reservoir during a 13 month...

  3. Measurement and modeling of soil-water dynamics and evapotranspiration of drained peatland soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural peat soils serve as important sinks for nutrients, organic components, and water. Peat soils can pose major environmental problems when they are drained for agricultural production, which may change their role in the landscape from a sink to a source. To successfully restore and conserve pea...

  4. State of science of phosphorus modeling in tile drained agricultural systems using APEX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus losses through tile drained systems in agricultural landscapes may be causing the persistent eutrophication problems observed in surface water. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the state of the science in the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model related to surf...

  5. Tylosin-resistant Enterococci, erm genes, and tylosin in drained fields receiving swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of tylosin at subtherapeutic levels by the swine industry provides selective pressure for the development of antibiotic resistance in gastrointestinal bacteria. The land application of swine manure to drained agricultural fields might introduce elevated levels of total and tylosin-resistant ...

  6. Occurrence and movement of antibiotic resistant bacxteria, in tile-drained agricultural fields receiving swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of tylosin at subtherapeutic levels by the swine industry provides selective pressure for the development of antibiotic resistance in gastrointestinal bacteria. The land application of swine manure to drained agricultural fields might accelerate the transport of pathogen indicators such as e...

  7. Compositional and functional stability of aerobic methane consuming communities in drained and rewetted peat meadows.

    PubMed

    Krause, Sascha; Niklaus, Pascal A; Badwan Morcillo, Sara; Meima Franke, Marion; Lüke, Claudia; Reim, Andreas; Bodelier, Paul L E

    2015-11-01

    The restoration of peatlands is an important strategy to counteract subsidence and loss of biodiversity. However, responses of important microbial soil processes are poorly understood. We assessed functioning, diversity and spatial organization of methanotrophic communities in drained and rewetted peat meadows with different water table management and agricultural practice. Results show that the methanotrophic diversity was similar between drained and rewetted sites with a remarkable dominance of the genus Methylocystis. Enzyme kinetics depicted no major differences, indicating flexibility in the methane (CH4) concentrations that can be used by the methanotrophic community. Short-term flooding led to temporary elevated CH4 emission but to neither major changes in abundances of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) nor major changes in CH4 consumption kinetics in drained agriculturally used peat meadows. Radiolabeling and autoradiographic imaging of intact soil cores revealed a markedly different spatial arrangement of the CH4 consuming zone in cores exposed to near-atmospheric and elevated CH4. The observed spatial patterns of CH4 consumption in drained peat meadows with and without short-term flooding highlighted the spatial complexity and responsiveness of the CH4 consuming zone upon environmental change. The methanotrophic microbial community is not generally altered and harbors MOB that can cover a large range of CH4 concentrations offered due to water-table fluctuations, effectively mitigating CH4 emissions.

  8. Verifiable metamodels for nitrate losses to drains and groundwater in the corn belt, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metamodels (MMs) consisting of artificial neural networks were developed to simplify and upscale mechanistic fate and transport models for prediction of nitrate losses to drains and groundwater in the Corn Belt, USA. The two final MMs predicted nitrate concentration and flux, respectively, in the sh...

  9. Methane oxidation in freely and poorly drained grassland soils and effects of cattle urine application.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Kelliher, Francis M

    2007-01-01

    A sink for atmospheric methane (CH4) is microbial oxidation in soils. We report CH4 oxidation rates in freely and poorly drained soils on an intensively managed dairy farm. Following cattle urine application to half the plots (650 kg of nitrogen [N] ha(-1)) 31 chamber measurements were made over 100 d during autumn and winter. In the control plots, the freely and poorly drained soils' integrated CH4 oxidation rates averaged 1.8+/-0.2 and 0.6+/-0.1 kg CH4 ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively. In the poorly drained soil, the highest CH4 oxidation rates occurred when water-filled pore space (WFPS)<56% and CH4 oxidation rate declined by ninefold to near zero as WFPS increased from 56 to 68%. Urine application induced the freely and poorly drained soils' CH4 oxidation rates to decline for up to 2 mo by 0.7+/-0.2 and 0.4+/-0.1 kg CH4 ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively. The two soils' responses were thus not significantly different. After urine application, soil pore space CH4 concentration profiles suggested a simultaneous inhibition of bacteria that were CH4 oxidizers and stimulation of CH4 producers.

  10. An analysis of molten-corium-induced failure of drain pipes in BWR Mark 2 containments

    SciTech Connect

    Taleyarkhan, R.P. ); Podowski, M.Z. )

    1991-01-01

    This study has focused on mechanistic simulation and analysis of potential failure modes for inpedestal drywell drain pipes in the Limerick boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark 2 containment. Physical phenomena related to surface tension breakdown, heatup, melting, ablation, crust formation and failure, and core material relocation into drain pipes with simultaneous melting of pipe walls were modeled and analyzed. The results of analysis have been used to assess the possibility of drain pipe failure and the resultant loss of pressure-suppression capability. Estimates have been made for the timing and amount of molten corium released to the wetwell. The study has revealed that significantly different melt progression sequences can result depending upon the failure characteristics of the frozen metallic crust which forms over the drain cover during the initial stages of debris pour. Another important result is that it can take several days for the molten fuel to ablate the frozen metallic debris layer -- if the frozen layer has cooled below 1100 K before fuel attack. 10 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Genome Sequence of Clostridium tunisiense TJ, Isolated from Drain Sediment from a Pesticide Factory

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lili; Wang, Yu; Yu, Chunyan; Zhao, Yongqin

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium tunisiense is a Gram-positive, obligate anaerobe that was first isolated in an anaerobic evironment under eutrophication. Here we report the first genome sequence of the Clostridium tunisiense TJ isolated from drain sediment of a pesticide factory in Tianjin, China. The genome is of great importance for both basic and application research. PMID:23209212

  12. Applicability of models to predict phosphorus losses in drained fields: a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most phosphorus (P) modeling studies of water quality have focused on surface runoff loses. However, a growing number of experimental studies have shown that P loses can occur in drainage water from artificially drained fields. In this review paper, we assess the applicability of nine models to pred...

  13. Corn stover harvest increases herbicide movement to subsurface drains – Root Zone Water Quality Model simulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Removal of crop residues for bioenergy production can alter soil hydrologic properties, but there is little information on its impact on transport of herbicides and their degradation products to subsurface drains. The Root Zone Water Quality Model, previously calibrated using measured fl...

  14. A semi-analytical model for transient flow to a subsurface tile drain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillman, Jennifer S.; Haws, Nathan W.; Govindaraju, R. S.; Rao, P. Suresh C.

    2006-02-01

    The goal of this paper is to develop and test a semi-analytical model for event-based transient flow to a subsurface tile drain. A sharp-front theory was used to describe redistribution of infiltrated water in the vadose zone. New approximate analytical solutions in terms of Fourier series were sought for the Boussinesq equation describing subsurface saturated flow subject to time-dependent recharge. Both one and two-term solutions of the series approximation were compared with observed tile hydrograph data from the Purdue Water Quality Field Station (WQFS) in West Lafayette, Indiana. In general, the models were able to capture the peaks of the tile-drain hydrographs, as well as the times-to-peak and the times-of-initial-response to rainfall events. The models performed particularly well for rainfall events with single-burst hyetographs, and in the prediction of the first hydrograph peak from multiple-burst hyetographs, though subsequent peaks could not be captured as well. A further comparison of results from the one-term model with those from HYDRUS 2D suggested that the one-term model is adequate for estimating transient flow to a tile drain. The solution developed here holds promise for extension to larger watersheds where the hydrology is governed by tile drains.

  15. A Physical Model for Shallow Groundwater Studies and the Simulation of Land Drain Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Robert; Reid, Ian

    1987-01-01

    Describes a two-dimensional sand-tank model that illustrates the influence of ground slope on tile drain discharge and the movement of groundwater in general. The model can be used to demonstrate the effect of topography on sub-surface water movement in agricultural catchments, thus it is a useful hydrological teaching aid. (Author/BSR)

  16. Drainage water management for reducing nitrate losses from tile drained fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive nitrate in surface waters increases the costs of water treatment for domestic use and each summer drives the formation of a hypoxic or low oxygen zone in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Much of the nitrate in surface waters comes from artificially drained row crop land in the Midwest. There a...

  17. 75 FR 21985 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable Drain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ...: ``Based on the dimensions of the blocking element found in the standard, an outlet cover with measurements in excess of 18'' x 23'' (or a diagonal measurement greater than 29'') would provide a means to... drains. We describe and respond to the comments in part B of this document. 1. Diagonal...

  18. 40 CFR 63.136 - Process wastewater provisions-individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... opening for sampling or removal, or for equipment inspection, maintenance, or repair. (2) The control... sampling or removal, or for equipment inspection, maintenance, or repair. (2) For individual drain systems..., cracks, or holes) which shall be kept in place at all times except during inspection and maintenance....

  19. 40 CFR 63.136 - Process wastewater provisions-individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... opening for sampling or removal, or for equipment inspection, maintenance, or repair. (2) The control... sampling or removal, or for equipment inspection, maintenance, or repair. (2) For individual drain systems..., cracks, or holes) which shall be kept in place at all times except during inspection and maintenance....

  20. Effect of tillage on macropore flow and phosphorus transport to tile drains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated phosphorus (P) concentrations in subsurface drainage water are thought to be the result of P bypassing the soil matrix via macropore flow. The objectives of this study were to quantify event water delivery to tile drains via macropore flow paths during storm events and to determine the effe...

  1. 40 CFR 63.136 - Process wastewater provisions-individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... opening for sampling or removal, or for equipment inspection, maintenance, or repair. (2) The control... sampling or removal, or for equipment inspection, maintenance, or repair. (2) For individual drain systems... equipped with water seal controls or a tightly fitting cap or plug. The owner or operator shall comply...

  2. Thermal-fluid analysis of the fill and drain operations of a cryrogenic fuel tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Craig A.; Hanna, Gregory J.; Gong, Leslie

    1993-01-01

    The Generic Research Cryogenic Tank was designed to establish techniques for testing and analyzing the behavior of reusable fuel tank structures subjected to cryogenic fuels and aerodynamic heating. The Generic Research Cryogenic Tank tests will consist of filling a pressure vessel to a prescribed fill level, waiting for steady-state conditions, then draining the liquid while heating the external surface to simulate the thermal environment associated with hypersonic flight. Initial tests of the Generic Research Cryogenic Tank will use liquid nitrogen with future tests requiring liquid hydrogen. Two-dimensional finite-difference thermal-fluid models were developed for analyzing the behavior of the Generic Research Cryogenic Tank during fill and drain operations. The development and results of the two-dimensional fill and drain models, using liquid nitrogen, are provided, along with results and discussion on extrapolating the model results to the operation of the full-size Generic Research Cryogenic Tank. These numerical models provided a means to predict the behavior of the Generic Research Cryogenic Tank during testing and to define the requirements for the Generic Research Cryogenic Tank support systems such as vent, drain, pressurization, and instrumentation systems. In addition, the fill model provided insight into the unexpected role of circumferential conduction in cooling the Generic Research Cryogenic Tank pressure vessel during fill operations.

  3. Genome sequence of Clostridium tunisiense TJ, isolated from drain sediment from a pesticide factory.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lili; Wang, Yu; Yu, Chunyan; Zhao, Yongqin; Gan, Yinbo

    2012-12-01

    Clostridium tunisiense is a Gram-positive, obligate anaerobe that was first isolated in an anaerobic environment under eutrophication. Here we report the first genome sequence of the Clostridium tunisiense TJ isolated from drain sediment of a pesticide factory in Tianjin, China. The genome is of great importance for both basic and application research.

  4. Modeling the impact of nitrogen fertilizer application and tile drain configuration on nitrate leaching using SWAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was revised to improve the partitioning of runoff and tile drainage in poorly drained soils by modifying the algorithm for computing the soil moisture retention parameter. In this study, the revised SWAT model was used to evaluate the sensitivity a...

  5. Brain Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

  6. Brain Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests don't provide enough information. Screening for brain aneurysms The use of imaging tests to screen ... and occupational therapy to relearn skills. Treating unruptured brain aneurysms Surgical clipping or endovascular coiling can be ...

  7. Brain Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... developed the f… Series Healthy Minds: Nurturing Your Child's Development Each of these age-based handouts are based ... report from the National Academy of Sciences on child and brain development. Podcast Nurturing Brain Development From Birth to Three ...

  8. Brain Fog

    MedlinePlus

    ... friendships and relationships. • Take your body to the gym and don’t forget to visit the “BRAIN SPA” – both will improve brain function. • Recent scientific data show that longevity ...

  9. Brain Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Karl

    2002-01-01

    Reviews significant findings of recent brain research, including the concept of five minds: automatic, subconscious, practical, creative, and spiritual. Suggests approaches to training the brain that are related to this hierarchy of thinking. (JOW)

  10. Drain Tank Information for Developing Design Basis of the Preliminary Design - R00

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, Juan J

    2011-01-01

    Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) drain tanks (DTs) serve two functions: normal operation and safety operation. Normal DTs are used for regular maintenance operations when draining is necessary. Safety DTs are used to receive the water leaked into the Vacuum Vessel (VV) after an in-vessel loss of cooling accident (LOCA) event. The preliminary design of the DTs shall be based on the information provided by this document. The capacity of the normal DTs is estimated based on the internal volume of in-vessel components [e.g., First Wall/Blanket (FW/BLK) and Divertor (DIV)], Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) components, and TCWS piping, heat exchangers, electric heaters, pump casing, pressurizers, and valves. Water volumes have been updated based on 2004 design information, changes adopted because of approved Project Change Requests (PCRs), and data verification by U.S. ITER. Two tanks will store water from normal draining operations of the FW/BLK and DIV Primary Heat Transfer Systems (PHTSs). One tank will store water from normal draining operations of the NBI PHTS. The capacity of the safety DTs is based on analysis of a design-basis accident:1 a large leak from in-vessel components. There are two safety DTs that will receive water from a VV LOCA event and drainage from the VV, as needed. In addition, there is one sump tank for the DIV that will be used for collecting drain water from the draining and drying processes and specifically for draining the DIV system as the DIV cassettes lines are at a lower elevation than the DT connection point. Information documented in this report must be refined and verified during the preliminary design of the DTs, and there are several aspects to be considered to complete the preliminary design. Input to these design considerations is discussed in this report and includes, but is not limited to, water inventory; operating procedures/maintenance; Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA); tank layout anddimensions, including design

  11. Drain Tank Information for Developing Design Basis of the Preliminary Design

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, Juan J

    2012-02-01

    Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) drain tanks (DTs) serve two functions: normal operation and safety operation. Normal DTs are used for regular maintenance operations when draining is necessary. Safety DTs are used to receive the water leaked into the Vacuum Vessel (VV) after an in-vessel loss of coolant accident (LOCA) event. The preliminary design of the DTs shall be based on the information provided by this document. The capacity of the normal DTs is estimated based on the internal volume of in-vessel components [e.g., First Wall/Blanket (FW/BLK) and Divertor (DIV)]; Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) components; and TCWS piping, heat exchangers, electric heaters, pump casing, pressurizers, and valves. Water volumes have been updated based on 2004-design information, changes adopted because of approved Project Change Requests (PCRs), and data verification by US ITER and AREVA Federal Services, the US ITER A and E Company. Two tanks will store water from normal draining operations of the FW/BLK and DIV Primary Heat Transfer Systems (PHTSs). One tank will store water from normal draining operations of the NBI PHTS. The capacity of the safety DTs is based on analysis of a design basis accident: a large leak from in-vessel components. There are two safety DTs that will receive water from a VV LOCA event and drainage from the VV, as needed. In addition, there is one sump tank for the DIV that will be used for collecting drain water from the draining and drying processes and specifically for draining the DIV system as the DIV cassette lines are at a lower elevation than the DT connection point. Information documented in this report must be refined and verified during the preliminary design of the DTs, and there are several aspects to be considered to complete the preliminary design. Input to these design considerations is discussed in this report and includes, but is not limited to, water inventory; operating procedures/maintenance; Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA

  12. Effects of a legal drain clean-out on wetlands and waterbirds: a recent case history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, Gary L.

    1996-01-01

    Repairs to legal drains in the United States may be regulated to protect adjacent wetlands under Section 404 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, commonly known as the Clean Water Act (CWA). However, few studies have examined effects of legal drain clean-outs on adjacent wetlands and associated migratory waterbird populations. I compare water regimes, cover-to-open water ratios, and waterbird use on Bruns, Big, Meszaros, and Kraft sloughs (BBMK) in Sargent County, North Dakota before and after the clean-out of Crete-Cogswell Drain No. 11, and relate wetland habitat loss to observed disease-related mortality among staging waterfowl in fall 1990 and spring 1991. Water regimes of BBMK were exceptionally stable, with few records of drawdowns before 1984 when the clean-out began. After the clean-out (1987-90), BBM were dry by mid-summer in all years and open area declined by 96% by 1990, whereas Kraft Slough (a control area) had water throughout all years and percent open area did not change. Numerous species of waterbirds nested in BBMK before the clean-out, and mean ranks of waterbird density were similar. After the clean-out, waterbirds failed to breed successfully in all years at BBM, and use as major waterfowl staging areas and for waterfowl hunting also ended. At Kraft Slough, use by breeding and staging waterbirds continued in all years, as did waterfowl hunting. Reduced access to fresh water after the Drain No. 11 clean-out may have contributed to a dieoff of 487 lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens) from necrotic enteritis in Kraft Slough in November 1990. Loss of three major staging areas in Sargent County as a result of the drain clean-out has further concentrated migrant waterfowl, particularly during drought periods, increasing the magnitude of risk when epizootics occur in southeastern North Dakota. Ducks and geese banded in Sargent County have been recovered from 34 and 14 states, 7 and 6 provinces of Canada, and 13 and 1 other countries

  13. Posterior foss avenous angiomas with drainage through the brain stem

    SciTech Connect

    Damiano, T.R.; Truwit, C.L. ); Dowd, C.F. ); Symonds, D.L. )

    1994-04-01

    To describe 11 cases of posterior fossa venous angiomas with drainage through the brain stem. Eleven cases of posterior fossa venous angioma with drainage through the brain stem were evaluated using MR. Correlation with known routes of venous drainage for the cerebellum and brain stem is made. Six of the 11 venous angiomas were found in the cerebellum, four in the brain stem; one involved both the cerebellum and brain stem. The cerebellar venous angiomas drained to subependymal veins about the fourth ventricle and dorsal pons. These then connected with an enlarged transmesencephalic or transpontine vein, to drain anteriorly to the anterior pontine veins. The brain stem angiomas had variable drainage depending on location. Evidence of hemorrhage was seen in five cases. Cerebellar and brain stem venous angiomas have several potential routes of drainage, including an enlarged vein traversing the pons, midbrain, or medulla. A knowledge of the normal venous anatomy of this region helps to understand the occurrence of these uncommon routes of venous drainage. 15 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Transport and Magnetic Properties of EuAl4 and EuGa4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Ai; Uejo, Taro; Honda, Fuminori; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Harima, Hisatomo; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Haga, Yoshinori; Matsubayashi, Kazuyuki; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Hedo, Masato; Nakama, Takao; Ōnuki, Yoshichika

    2015-12-01

    We succeeded in growing a single crystal of the Eu-divalent compound EuAl4 with the BaAl4-type tetragonal structure by the Al self-flux method and measured the electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, specific heat, and thermoelectric power. EuAl4 orders antiferromagnetically below TN1 = 15.4 K, with three successive antiferromagnetic transitions at TN2 = 13.2 K, TN3 = 12.2 K, and TN4 = 10.0 K. The latter two transitions are of the first-order. The corresponding magnetization curve indicates three successive metamagnetic transitions with hystereses and saturates above 16 kOe. We observed a plausible characteristic feature of the charge density wave (CDW) below TCDW = 140 K. We also studied an effect of pressure on the electronic state by measuring the electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power. TCDW is found to decrease with increasing pressure at a rate of dTCDW/dP = -54.7 K/GPa and becomes zero at about 2.5 GPa. The present antiferromagnetic ordering is, however, found to be stable at higher pressures up to 7 GPa in EuAl4. On the other hand, the different characteristic CDW was observed in EuGa4, not at ambient pressure but above 1 GPa, and TCDW increases with increasing pressure. Above 6 GPa, we found that the antiferromagnetic ordering is changed into another first-order-like phase transition. Its characteristic feature is similar to that of the valence transition, and the heavy fermion state is realized at low temperatures.

  15. Brain Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

  16. Brain Lesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... MRI scans, brain lesions appear as dark or light spots that don't look like normal brain tissue. Usually, a brain lesion is an incidental finding unrelated to the condition or symptom that led to the imaging test in the first place. ...

  17. The Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubel, David H.

    1979-01-01

    This article on the brain is part of an entire issue about neurobiology and the question of how the human brain works. The brain as an intricate tissue composed of cells is discussed based on the current knowledge and understanding of its composition and structure. (SA)

  18. Rapid digestion of shredded MSW by sequentially flooding and draining small landfill cells.

    PubMed

    Clarke, William P; Xie, Sihuang; Patel, Miheka

    2016-09-01

    This paper compares the digestion of a packed bed of shredded municipal waste using a flood and drain regime against a control digestion of similarly prepared material using a trickle flow regime. All trials were performed on shallow (2m) beds of the sub-8cm fraction of shredded mixed MSW, encapsulated in a polyethylene bladder. The control cell (Cell 1) was loaded with 1974 tonnes shredded municipal waste and produced 76±9m(3) CH4dryt(-1) (45±2m(3) CH4 'as received't(-1)) over 200days in response to a daily recirculation of the leachate inventory which was maintained at 60m(3). The flood and drain operation was performed on two co-located cells (Cell 2 and Cell 3) that were loaded simultaneously with 1026 and 915 tonnes of the sub-8cm fraction of shredded mixed MSW, with a third empty cell used as a reservoir for 275m(3) of mature landfill leachate. Cell 2 was first digested in isolation by flooding and draining once per week to avoid excessive souring. Gas production from Cell 2 peaked and declined to a steady residual level in 150days. Cell 3 was flooded and drained for the first time 186days after the commencement of Cell 2, using the same inventory of leachate which was now exchanged between the cells, such that each cell was flooded and drained twice per week. Biogas production from Cell 3 commenced immediately with flooding, peaking and reducing to a residual level within 100days. The average CH4 yield from Cells 2 and 3 was 123±15m(3)dryt(-1) (92±2m(3) 'as received't(-1), equal to 95% of the long term (2month) BMP yield.

  19. Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from drained irrigated rice fields.

    PubMed

    Towprayoon, S; Smakgahn, K; Poonkaew, S

    2005-06-01

    One of the important cultural practices that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from tropical rice plantations is the water drainage system. While drainage can reduce methane emissions, it can also increase nitrous oxide emissions, as well as reduce yields. In this experiment, four different water drainage systems were compared in a rice field in central Thailand including: (1) continuous flooding, (2) mid-season drainage, (3) multiple drainage and (4) a local method (drainage was done according to local cultural practice) in order to find a system of drainage that would optimize yields while simultaneously limiting methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Methane and nitrous oxide emission were observed and compared with rice yield and physical changes of rice plants. It was found that drainage during the flowering period could reduce methane emission. Interestingly, nitrous oxide emission was related to number of drain days rather than the frequency of draining. Fewer drain days can help reduce nitrous oxide emission. The mid-season drainage and the multiple drainage, with 6.9% and 11.4% reduction in rice yield, respectively, had an average methane emission per crop 27% and 35% lower when compared to the local method. Draining with fewer drain days during the flowering period was recommended as a compromise between emissions and yield. The field drainage can be used as an option to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice fields with acceptable yield reduction. Mid-season drainage during the rice flowering period, with a shortened drainage period (3 days), is suggested as a compromise between the need to reduce global warming and current socio-economic realities.

  20. Measurement and simulation of subsurface tracer migration to tile drains in low permeability, macroporous soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Joshua M.; Callaghan, Michael V.; Cey, Edwin E.; Bentley, Larry R.

    2015-06-01

    Multiyear monitoring and simulation of a conservative tracer was used in this study to investigate preferential flow and macropore-matrix interactions in low permeability, macroporous soil. 2,6-Difluorobenzoic acid (DFBA) tracer was applied to a 20 × 20 m drip irrigated test plot situated over two tile drains. Tracer movement over the 2009 and 2010 field seasons was monitored using tile drain effluent, suction lysimeters, monitoring wells, and soil cores. Despite similar volumes of water application to the plot in each season, 10 times more water and 14 times more DFBA were captured by the drains in 2010 due to wetter regional hydrologic conditions. The importance of preferential flow along macropores was shown by rapid DFBA breakthrough to the tile (<47 h), and DFBA detections in sand units below the tile drains. Preferential flow resulted in less than 8% of the DFBA mass being captured by the tiles over both years. With much of the DFBA mass (75%) retained in the upper 0.25 m of the soil at the end of 2009, numerical simulations were used to quantify the migration of this in situ tracer during the subsequent 2010 field season. Dual permeability and dual porosity models produced similar matches to measured tile drain flows and concentrations, but solute leaching was captured more effectively by the dual permeability formulation. The simulations highlighted limitations in current descriptions for small-scale mass transfer between matrix and macropore domains, which do not consider time-dependent transfer coefficients or nonuniform distributions of solute mass within soil matrix blocks.

  1. Infiltration measurements and modeling in a soil-vertical drain system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammecker, Claude; Siltecho, Siwaporn; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael; Lassabatere, Laurent; Robain, Henri; Winiarski, Thierry; Trelo-ges, Vidaya; Suvannang, Nopmanee

    2016-04-01

    Severe water logging problems occur in rubber tree plantations in NE Thailand during the rainy season and create adverse conditions for the development of the trees. Moreover this situation contributes to a waste of scarce rainfall and reduce it's efficiency, as 50% is lost by hypodermic water flow and superficial runoff. The presence of a clayey layer at 1m depth with low permeability, hindering the water infiltration that led to the occurrence of a perched water table. In order to drawdown the water level of the perched water table and to increase the efficiency of the rainfall by storing water in the underlying bedrock a vertical drainage system was developed. In order to test the feasibility of this solution we chose to use the numerical modelling of water flow in soil and to test different set-ups (size and spacing between the drains). The objective of this study was to characterise the hydraulic properties and of the soil-drain system in a rubber tree plantation. Therefore an experiment was set up in rubber tree plantation at Ban Non Tun, Khon Kaen Province (Northeast of Thailand). Infiltration experiments around the vertical drains with single ring of 1m diameter, were conducted in three different locations to measure infiltration rate. The infiltration experiments were also monitored with two complementary geophysical methods (ERT and GPR) to asses the progression ans at the geometry of the wetting front. The model Hydrus2D was used to adjust the computed infiltration curves and water level in the drain to the experimental data, by fitting effective unsaturated hydrodynamic parameters for the drain. These parameters were used to calibrate the model and to perform further predictive numerical simulations.

  2. [A questionnaire about radiation safety management of the draining-water system at nuclear medicine facilities].

    PubMed

    Shizukuishi, Kazuya; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Narita, Hiroto; Kanaya, Shinichi; Kobayashi, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Tsukada, Masaru; Iwanaga, Tetsuo; Ikebuchi, Shuji; Kusama, Keiji; Tanaka, Mamoru; Namiki, Norio; Fuiimura, Youko; Horikoshi, Akiko; Inoue, Tomio; Kusakabe, Kiyoko

    2004-05-01

    We conducted a questionnaire survey about radiation-safety management condition in Japanese nuclear medicine facilities to make materials of proposition for more reasonable management of medical radioactive waste. We distributed a questionnaire to institutions equipped with Nuclear Medicine facilities. Of 1,125 institutions, 642 institutes (52.8%) returned effective answers. The questionnaire covered the following areas: 1) scale of an institution, 2) presence of enforcement of radiotherapy, 3) system of a tank, 4) size and number of each tank, 5) a form of draining-water system, 6) a displacement in a radioactive rays management area, 7) a measurement method of the concentration of medical radioactive waste in draining water system, 8) planned and used quantity of radioisotopes for medical examination and treatment, 9) an average displacement of hospital for one month. In most institutions, a ratio of dose limitation of radioisotope in draining-water system was less than 1.0, defined as an upper limitation in ordinance. In 499 hospitals without facilities of hospitalization for unsealed radioisotope therapy, 473 hospitals reported that sum of ratios of dose limits in a draining-water system was less than 1.0. It was calculated by used dose of radioisotope and monthly displacement from hospital, on the premise that all used radioisotope entered in the general draining-water system. When a drainage including radioactivity from a controlled area join with that from other area before it flows out of a institution, it may be diluted and its radioactive concentration should be less than its upper limitation defined in the rule. Especially, in all institutions with a monthly displacement of more than 25,000 m3, the sum of ratio of the concentration of each radionuclide to the concentration limit dose calculated by used dose of radioisotope, indicated less than 1.0.

  3. Nitrate and Pesticide Transport From Tile-Drained Fields in the Willamette Valley, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, K. L.; Rupp, D. E.; Selker, J. S.; Dragila, M. I.; Peachey, R. E.

    2002-12-01

    Tile drainage affects the hydrology and thus the solute transport on agricultural fields by increasing the volume of water that drains from the subsurface. Previous NAWQA studies have shown elevated nitrate levels in wells and high detection frequencies for selected pesticides in Willamette Valley streams. As a substantial area of Willamette Valley agricultural land is tile-drained, it is important to determine the role of tile drains in surface water and ground water pollution. Four fields in the Willamette Valley were instrumented to monitor tile effluent for two winter seasons. On two fields, surface runoff was also monitored for the second season. Field areas ranged from 3 to 30 acres and were cropped in grass, corn, or a grass/corn rotation. Tile effluent nitrate concentrations frequently exceeded 10 ppm on some fields. Flow-weighted averages for each field were 0.87 ppm and 1.36 ppm for two established grass fields, and 8.1 ppm and 14.4 ppm for grass fields that had recently grown corn. Mass losses ranged from 1.15%-6.45% of the applied nitrate through the tile drains. Diuron, Metolachlor, and Chlorpyrifos were tested in selected surface runoff and tile effluent samples. On one field, Metolachlor concentrations were similar in the tile drains and surface runoff. Concentrations in both sources were 10 times lower than the drinking water advisory for Metolachlor. In a second field, Chlorpyrifos concentrations were two orders of magnitude lower than drinking water advisories in both sources. On the same field, Diuron concentrations were significantly higher in the surface runoff than in the tile effluent. Diuron concentrations were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher during the first precipitation events after application in the surface runoff. On a third field, Diuron was at least 10 times lower than drinking water advisories in the tile effluent, with the highest concentrations found in samples collected within 21 days of pesticide application.

  4. Evapotranspiration from drained wetlands with different hydrologic regimes: Drivers, modeling, and storage functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chin-Lung; Shukla, Sanjay; Shrestha, Niroj K.

    2016-07-01

    We tested whether the current understanding of insignificant effect of drainage on evapotranspiration (ET) in the temperate region wetlands applies to those in the subtropics. Hydro-climatic drivers causing the changes in drained wetlands were identified and used to develop a generic model to predict wetland ET. Eddy covariance (EC)-based ET measurements were made for two years at two differently drained but close by wetlands, a heavily drained wetland (SW) (97% reduced surface storage) and a more functional wetland (DW) (42% reduced storage). Annual ET for more intensively drained SW was 836 mm, 34% less than DW (1271 mm) and the difference was significant (p = 0.001). This difference was mainly due to drainage driven differences in inundation and associated effects on net radiation (Rn) and local relative humidity. Two generic daily ET models, a regression model (MSE = 0.44 mm2, R2 = 0.80) and a machine learning-based Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) model (MSE = 0.36 mm2, R2 = 0.84), were developed with the latter being more robust. The RVM model can predict changes in ET for different restoration scenarios; a 1.1 m rise in drainage level showed 7% increase ET (18 mm) at SW while the increase at DW was negligible. The additional ET, 28% of surface flow, can enhance water storage, flood protection, and climate mitigation services at SW compared to DW. More intensely drained wetlands at higher elevation should be targeted for restoration for enhanced storage through increased ET. The models developed can predict changes in ET for improved evaluation of basin-scale effects of restoration programs and climate change scenarios.

  5. Reach-scale geomorphic differences between headwater streams draining mountaintop mined and unmined catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Kristin L.

    2015-05-01

    Mountaintop surface mining (MTM) is a controversial coal extraction method commonly practiced in the central and southern Appalachian Mountains, USA, that drastically reengineers previously steep, forested landscapes and alters sediment and water delivery processes to and along headwater channels draining mined areas. Although sediment delivery and hydrologic response from MTM operations remain highly variable and poorly resolved, the inherent close coupling between hillslopes and headwater channels is expected to result in geomorphic differences in stream channels draining MTM landscapes relative to unmined landscapes. Dedicated geomorphic studies are severely lacking in comparison to extensive research on water quality impacts of MTM. This study reports moderate geomorphic differences between headwater (catchment area <~ 6 km2) stream channels draining MTM and unmined catchments in tributaries of the Mud River in southern West Virginia. Univariate and multivariate analyses indicate that MTM streams are characterized by deeper maximum channel depths, smaller width-to-depth ratios, increased bedrock exposure along the streambed, and increased frequency of very fine silt and sand deposition relative to channels draining unmined catchments. Geomorphic differences are most pronounced for streams draining the smallest catchment areas (< 3.5 km2). Collectively, geomorphic differences provide evidence for relatively rapid channel adjustment of accelerated bedrock incision attributed to potential increased hydraulic driving forces and altered sediment regimes in MTM channels, notably sustained delivery of very fine sediment and potentially reduced coarse sediment delivery. More rapid delivery and transfer of water in addition to excess delivery of very fine sediments to and through headwater channels will have consequences to flooding and water quality in the short term and landscape evolution processes over longer time scales. Given the extent of MTM operations in this

  6. CsEuBr3: Crystal structure and its role in the photostimulation of CsBr :Eu2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, S.; Zimmermann, J.; von Seggern, H.; Ehrenberg, H.; Fuess, H.; Fasel, C.; Riedel, R.

    2006-10-01

    CsBr :Eu2+ has recently been investigated as a photostimulable x-ray storage phosphor with great potential for application in high-resolution image plates. In a recent paper Hackenschmied et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 93, 5109 (2003)] suggested that segregations of CsEuBr3 or Cs4EuBr6 formed within CsBr :Eu2+ during annealing are responsible for an increase in the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) yield. In this work single crystals of CsEuBr3 were prepared by a one step synthesis and identified by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis as single phase perovskites. It was concluded that, after preparation, CsEuBr3 degrades in normal atmosphere into at least two phases, one of which is the orthorhombic structure of Cs2EuBr5•10H2O. The XRD powder diffraction pattern of this compound is very similar to that of the segregations observed within CsBr :Eu2+ and reported by Hackenschmied et al. However, the increased PSL yield in CsBr :Eu2+ after annealing cannot be due to the segregations, because the trivalent nature of the europium in the segregations renders them PSL inactive.

  7. Left Brain. Right Brain. Whole Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    2004-01-01

    As the United States student population is becoming more diverse, library media specialists need to find ways to address these distinctive needs. However, some of these differences transcend culture, touching on variations in the brain itself. Most people have a dominant side of the brain, which can affect their personality and learning style.…

  8. Novel pod for chlorine dioxide generation and delivery to control aerobic bacteria on the inner surface of floor drains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Floor drains in poultry processing and further processing plants are a harborage site for bacteria both free swimming and in biofilms. This population can include Listeria monocytogenes which has been shown to have potential for airborne spreading from mishandled open drains. Chlorine dioxide (ClO...

  9. Severe hypotension related to high negative pressure suction drainage on a thoracic epidural drain during multilevel spinal fixation.

    PubMed

    Brahmbhatt, Anjalee; Hall, Nicholas D P; Bradley, William Pierre Litherland

    2013-11-15

    Hypotension or bradycardia or both related to intracranial hypotension after craniotomy has been reported in the literature. However, such reports are uncommon with thoracic epidural drains. We describe a case in which application of high negative pressure suction to a thoracic epidural drain caused a sudden decrease in arterial blood pressure.

  10. Long-term tillage and drainage influences on greenhouse gas fluxes from a poorly-drained soil of central Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensive tillage practices and poorly-drained soils of Midwestern USA are the prime reasons for greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes from agriculture. The naturally poorly-drained soils prevalent in this region require subsurface drainage for improved aeration and improved crop productivity. Soil surface GH...

  11. Viscosity-dependent drain current noise of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor in polar liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J. Y.; Hsu, C. P.; Kang, Y. W.; Fang, K. C.; Kao, W. L.; Yao, D. J.; Chen, C. C.; Li, S. S.; Yeh, J. A.; Wang, Y. L.; Lee, G. Y.; Chyi, J. I.; Hsu, C. H.; Huang, Y. F.; Ren, F.

    2013-11-28

    The drain current fluctuation of ungated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) measured in different fluids at a drain-source voltage of 0.5 V was investigated. The HEMTs with metal on the gate region showed good current stability in deionized water, while a large fluctuation in drain current was observed for HEMTs without gate metal. The fluctuation in drain current for the HEMTs without gate metal was observed and calculated as standard deviation from a real-time measurement in air, deionized water, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylene glycol, 1,2-butanediol, and glycerol. At room temperature, the fluctuation in drain current for the HEMTs without gate metal was found to be relevant to the dipole moment and the viscosity of the liquids. A liquid with a larger viscosity showed a smaller fluctuation in drain current. The viscosity-dependent fluctuation of the drain current was ascribed to the Brownian motions of the liquid molecules, which induced a variation in the surface dipole of the gate region. This study uncovers the causes of the fluctuation in drain current of HEMTs in fluids. The results show that the AlGaN/GaN HEMTs may be used as sensors to measure the viscosity of liquids within a certain range of viscosity.

  12. Brain to music to brain!

    PubMed

    Azizi, S Ausim

    2009-07-31

    It has been implicitly understood that culture and music as collective products of human brain in turn influence the brain itself. Now, imaging and anatomical data add substance to this notion. The impact of playing piano on the brain of musicians and its possible effects on cultural and neurological evolution are briefly discussed.

  13. Development, testing and application of DrainFlow: A fully distributed integrated surface-subsurface flow model for drainage study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokri, Ali; Bardsley, William Earl

    2016-06-01

    Hydrological and hydrogeological investigation of drained land is a complex and integrated procedure. The scale of drainage studies may vary from a high-resolution small scale project through to comprehensive catchment or regional scale investigations. This wide range of scales and integrated system behaviour poses a significant challenge for the development of suitable drainage models. Toward meeting these requirements, a fully distributed coupled surface-subsurface flow model titled DrainFlow has been developed and is described. DrainFlow includes both the diffusive wave equation for surface flow components (overland flow, open drain, tile drain) and Richard's equation for saturated/unsaturated zones. To overcome the non-linearity problem created from switching between wet and dry boundaries, a smooth transitioning technique is introduced to buffer the model at tile drains and at interfaces between surface and subsurface flow boundaries. This gives a continuous transition between Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. DrainFlow is tested against five well-known integrated surface-subsurface flow benchmarks. DrainFlow as applied to some synthetic drainage study examples is quite flexible for changing all or part of the model dimensions as required by problem complexity, problem scale, and data availability. This flexibility enables DrainFlow to be modified to allow for changes in both scale and boundary conditions, as often encountered in real-world drainage studies. Compared to existing drainage models, DrainFlow has the advantage of estimating actual infiltration directly from the partial differential form of Richard's equation rather than through analytical or empirical infiltration approaches like the Green and Ampt equation.

  14. EU-US ABWG AgENCODE Workshop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As considerable progress has been made on producing draft quality genomic sequence for many food animal species, the next goal for genomics research is a greater understanding of gene regulation and expression. The EU-US Animal Biotechnology Working Group (ABWG), established by the EU-US Biotechnolo...

  15. EU nurse figures in decline long before Brexit vote.

    PubMed

    Mckew, Matthew

    2017-03-08

    The falling number of European Union (EU) nurses applying to work in the UK has been widely blamed on Brexit. But figures obtained by Nursing Standard reveal interest from EU nurses was waning months before the June 2016 referendum, a trend experts say could be due to tougher language requirements introduced by the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC).

  16. Better understanding of the EU regulatory frameworks for cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Kirsten; Mech, Agnieszka

    2014-05-01

    This letter to the editor corrects some misunderstandings regarding the EU regulations covering cosmetic products stated in a recent publication by A. Sobek et al. "In the shadow of the cosmetics directive - Inconsistencies in EU environmental hazard classification requirements for UV-filters" published in Science of the Total Environment 461-462 (2013) 706-711.

  17. An Assessment of EU 2020 Strategy: Too Far to Reach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colak, Mehmet Selman; Ege, Aylin

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, EU adopted a new growth strategy which includes three growth priorities and five headline targets to be reached by 2020. The aim of this paper is to investigate the current performance of the EU member and candidate states in achieving these growth priorities and the overall strategy target by allocating the headline targets into the…

  18. Preparation and luminescence characteristics of Eu2+ activated silicate phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pan-Lai; Yang, Zhi-Ping; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Guo, Qing-Lin

    2008-03-01

    This paper synthesizes the Sr2SiO4 : Eu2+ phosphor by high temperature solid-state reaction. The emission spectrum of Sr2SiO4 : Eu2+ shows two bands centred at 480 and 547 nm, which agree well with the calculation values of emission spectrum, and the location of yellow emission of Sr2SiO4 : Eu2+ is influenced by the Eu2+ concentration. The excitation spectrum for 547nm emission has two bands at 363 and 402 nm. The emission spectrum of white light emitting diodes (w-LEDs) based on Sr2SiO4 :Eu2+ phosphor + InGaN LED was investigated.

  19. Search for linking transitions in {sup 143}Eu

    SciTech Connect

    Lerma, F.; LaFosse, D.R.; Devlin, M.

    1996-12-31

    Six SD bands were populated in {sup 143}Eu and {sup 144}Eu, two of which had not been previously observed. Sum spectra were generated to search for two step links from the yrast SD band in {sup 143}Eu. However, no two step links were found. A single link from the SD band in {sup 143}Eu was found at 3364 keV. The level where it feeds into has not been identified. Alpha-particle energy (E{sub {alpha}}) spectra leading to the SD band and to normal states in {sup 143}Eu were measured and a correlation was found between E{sub {alpha}} and the level spin of the residual nucleus.

  20. [Effective laws for tobacco control: EU directives and Italian legislation].

    PubMed

    Charrier, Lorena; Piccinelli, Cristiano; Coppo, Alessandro; Di Stefano, Francesca; D'Elia, Paolo; Molinar, Roberta; Senore, Carlo; Giordano, Livia; Segnan, Nereo

    2006-01-01

    Effective tobacco control policies include law issuing: bans/restrictions on smoking in public areas and workplaces, increasing of taxes on tobacco products, bans on advertising of tobacco products, warning labels on cigarette boxes. For some of these policies the European Union (EU) has introduced specific directives that EU member states have to put into law. This paper briefly presents literature data, EU directives and the laws consequently issued in Italy. The importance of standardizing European legislation, especially for those policies that are not enforced by EU directives is also discussed. In Italy and in some other European countries smoking is forbidden in public and work-places, despite no EU directive. The positive impact of this ban in these countries suggests that it should be considered a priority in the European policies against tobacco in order to reduce the gap between literature recommendations and actions.

  1. Metolachlor and its metabolites in tile drain and stream runoff in the canajoharie creek watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, P.J.; Wall, G.R.; Thurman, E.M.; Eckhardt, D.A.; Vanhoesen, J.

    1999-01-01

    Water samples collected during April-November 1997 from tile drains beneath cultivated fields in central New York indicate that two metabolites of the herbicide metolachlor-metolachlor ESA (ethanesulfonic acid) and OA (oxanilic acid) can persist in agricultural soils for 4 or more years after application and that fine-grained soils favor the transport of metolachlor ESA over metolachlor and metolachlor OA. Concentrations of metolachlor ESA from the tile drains ranged from 3.27 to 23.4 ??g/L (200 1800 times higher than those of metolachlor), metolachlor OA concentrations ranged from 1.14 to 13.5 ??g/L, and metolachlor concentrations ranged from less than 0.01 to 0.1 ??g/L. In the receiving stream, concentrations of metolachlor ESA were always below 0.6 ??g/L except during a November storm, when concentrations reached 0.85 ??g/L. Concentrations of metolachlor ESA in the stream were 2 45 times higher than those of metolachlor, reflecting the greater relative concentrations of metolachlor in surface water runoff than in tile drain runoff. These results are consistent with findings in other studies that acetanilide herbicide degredates are found in much higher concentrations than parent compounds in both surface water and groundwater.Water samples collected during April-November 1997 from tile drains beneath cultivated fields in central New York indicate that two metabolites of the herbicide metolachlor-metolachlor ESA (ethanesulfonic acid) and OA (oxanilic acid)-can persist in agricultural soils for 4 or more years after application and that fine-grained soils favor the transport of metolachlor ESA over metolachlor and metolachlor OA. Concentrations of metolachlor ESA from the tile drains ranged from 3.27 to 23.4 ??g/L (200-1800 times higher than those of metolachlor), metolachlor OA concentrations ranged from 1.14 to 13.5 ??g/L, and metolachlor concentrations ranged from less than 0.01 to 0.1 ??g/L. In the receiving stream, concentrations of metolachlor ESA were

  2. Spatial and temporal distribution of mosquitoes in underground storm drain systems in Orange County, California.

    PubMed

    Su, Tianyun; Webb, James P; Meyer, Richard P; Mulla, Mir S

    2003-06-01

    Underground storm drain systems in urban areas of Orange County include thousands of miles of gutters and underground pipelines, plus hundreds of thousands of catch basins and manhole chambers, all of which drain runoff water from residential, business and commercial establishments as well as highways and streets. These systems serve as major developmental and resting sites for anthropophilic and zoophilic mosquitoes. Investigations on spatial and temporal distribution of mosquitoes in these systems were conducted during November 1999 to October 2001. Immature mosquitoes were sampled by dipper or dipping net and adult mosquitoes by non-attractive CDC traps in manhole chambers, catch basins and a large drain. Culex quinquefasciatus Say prevailed at all 15 structures of the study in 4 cities of Orange County as the predominant species (> 99.9%). Larvae and pupae were present from April to October, peaking from May to September. The population density of adults was the lowest in February with 2 peaks of abundance occurring from May to July and from September to October. Manhole chambers and catch basins harbored more mosquitoes than did the large drain. Minimum and maximum temperatures during a 24 h sampling period was an important factor influencing adult mosquito activity and catches; more mosquitoes were caught in traps when it was warmer, especially when the minimum temperatures were higher. The proportion of females to males in general increased during winter and early spring an ddeclined during summer. The proportion of gravid females to empty females was higher during the winter than in summer. Other dipteran taxa such as psychodid moth flies and chironomid midges exhibited somewhat similar seasonal patterns as did mosquito populations. Average water temperature was relatively stable throughout the year, and water quality in underground drain systems was characterized by low dissolved oxygen, coupled with above normal electrical conductivity and salinity levels

  3. Low-lying electronic structure of EuH, EuOH, and EuO neutrals and anions determined by anion photoelectron spectroscopy and DFT calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kafader, Jared O.; Ray, Manisha; Jarrold, Caroline Chick

    2015-07-21

    The anion photoelectron (PE) spectra of EuH{sup −} and the PE spectrum of overlapping EuOH{sup −} and EuO{sup −} anions are presented and analyzed with supporting results from density functional theory calculations on the various anions and neutrals. Results point to ionically bound, high-spin species. EuH and EuOH anions and neutrals exhibit analogous electronic structures: Transitions from {sup 8}Σ{sup −} anion ground states arising from the 4f{sup 7}σ{sub 6s}{sup 2} superconfiguration to the close-lying neutral {sup 9}Σ{sup −} and {sup 7}Σ{sup −} states arising from the 4f{sup 7}σ{sub 6s} superconfiguration are observed spaced by an energy interval similar to the free Eu{sup +} [4f{sup 7}6s] {sup 9}S - {sup 7}S splitting. The electron affinities (EAs) of EuH and EuOH are determined to be 0.771 ± 0.009 eV and 0.700 ± 0.011 eV, respectively. Analysis of spectroscopic features attributed to EuO{sup −} photodetachment is complicated by the likely presence of two energetically competitive electronic states of EuO{sup −} populating the ion beam. However, based on the calculated relative energies of the close-lying anion states arising from the 4f{sup 7}σ{sub 6s} and 4f{sup 6}σ{sub 6s}{sup 2} configurations and the relative energies of the one-electron accessible 4f{sup 7} and 4f{sup 6}σ{sub 6s} neutral states based on ligand-field theory [M. Dulick, E. Murad, and R. F. Barrow, J. Chem. Phys. 85, 385 (1986)], the remaining features are consistent with the 4f{sup 6}σ{sub 6s}{sup 2}  {sup 7}Σ{sup −} and 4f{sup 7}σ{sub 6s}{sup 7}Σ{sup −} anion states lying very close in energy (the former was calculated to be 0.15 eV lower in energy than the latter), though the true anion ground state and neutral EA could not be established unambiguously. Calculations on the various EuO anion and neutral states suggest 4f-orbital overlap with 2p orbitals in species with 4f{sup 6} occupancy.

  4. A Strategy to enhance Eu3+ emission from LiYF4:Eu nanophosphors and green-to-orange multicolor tunable, transparent nanophosphor-polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Yeon; Won, Yu-Ho; Jang, Ho Seong

    2015-01-19

    LiYF4:Eu nanophosphors with a single tetragonal phase are synthesized, and various strategies to enhance the Eu(3+) emission from the nanophosphors are investigated. The optimized Eu(3+) concentration is 35 mol%, and the red emission peaks due to the (5)D0 →(7)FJ (J = 1 and 2) transitions of Eu(3+) ions are further enhanced by energy transfer from a sensitizer pair of Ce(3+) and Tb(3+). The triple doping of Ce, Tb, and Eu into the LiYF4 host more effectively enhances the Eu(3+) emission than the core/shell strategies of LiYF4:Eu(35%)/LiYF4:Ce(15%), Tb(15%) and LiYF4:Ce(15%), Tb(15%)/LiYF4:Eu(35%) architectures. Efficient energy transfer from Ce(3+) to Eu(3+) through Tb(3+) results in three times higher Eu(3+) emission intensity from LiYF4:Ce(15%), Tb(15%), Eu(1%) nanophosphors compared with LiYF4:Eu(35%), which contains the optimized Eu(3+) concentration. Owing to the energy transfer of Ce(3+) → Tb(3+) and Ce(3+) → Tb(3+) → Eu(3+), intense green and red emission peaks are observed from LiYF4:Ce(13%), Tb(14%), Eu(1-5%) (LiYF4:Ce, Tb, Eu) nanophosphors, and the intensity ratio of green to red emission is controlled by adjusting the Eu(3+) concentration. With increasing Eu(3+) concentration, the LiYF4:Ce, Tb, Eu nanophosphors exhibit multicolor emission from green to orange. In addition, the successful incorporation of LiYF4:Ce, Tb, Eu nanophosphors into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) facilitates the preparation of highly transparent nanophosphor-PDMS composites that present excellent multicolor tunability.

  5. A Strategy to enhance Eu3+ emission from LiYF4:Eu nanophosphors and green-to-orange multicolor tunable, transparent nanophosphor-polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Su Yeon; Won, Yu-Ho; Jang, Ho Seong

    2015-01-01

    LiYF4:Eu nanophosphors with a single tetragonal phase are synthesized, and various strategies to enhance the Eu3+ emission from the nanophosphors are investigated. The optimized Eu3+ concentration is 35 mol%, and the red emission peaks due to the 5D0 -->7FJ (J = 1 and 2) transitions of Eu3+ ions are further enhanced by energy transfer from a sensitizer pair of Ce3+ and Tb3+. The triple doping of Ce, Tb, and Eu into the LiYF4 host more effectively enhances the Eu3+ emission than the core/shell strategies of LiYF4:Eu(35%)/LiYF4:Ce(15%), Tb(15%) and LiYF4:Ce(15%), Tb(15%)/LiYF4:Eu(35%) architectures. Efficient energy transfer from Ce3+ to Eu3+ through Tb3+ results in three times higher Eu3+ emission intensity from LiYF4:Ce(15%), Tb(15%), Eu(1%) nanophosphors compared with LiYF4:Eu(35%), which contains the optimized Eu3+ concentration. Owing to the energy transfer of Ce3+ --> Tb3+ and Ce3+ --> Tb3+ --> Eu3+, intense green and red emission peaks are observed from LiYF4:Ce(13%), Tb(14%), Eu(1-5%) (LiYF4:Ce, Tb, Eu) nanophosphors, and the intensity ratio of green to red emission is controlled by adjusting the Eu3+ concentration. With increasing Eu3+ concentration, the LiYF4:Ce, Tb, Eu nanophosphors exhibit multicolor emission from green to orange. In addition, the successful incorporation of LiYF4:Ce, Tb, Eu nanophosphors into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) facilitates the preparation of highly transparent nanophosphor-PDMS composites that present excellent multicolor tunability.

  6. Direct evidence for significant spin-polarization of EuS in Co/EuS multilayers at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, S. D.; Poulopoulos, P.; Lewitz, B.; Straub, A.; Goschew, A.; Kapaklis, V.; Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A.; Fumagalli, P.

    2013-01-01

    The new era of spintronics promises the development of nanodevices, where the electron spin will be used to store information and charge currents will be replaced by spin currents. For this, ferromagnetic semiconductors at room temperature are needed. We report on significant room-temperature spin polarization of EuS in Co/EuS multilayers recorded by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). The films were found to contain a mixture of divalent and trivalent europium, but only Eu++ is responsible for the ferromagnetic behavior of EuS. The magnetic XMCD signal of Eu at room temperature could unambiguously be assigned to magnetic ordering of EuS and was found to be only one order of magnitude smaller than that at 2.5 K. The room temperature magnetic moment of EuS is as large as the one of bulk ferromagnetic Ni. Our findings pave the path for fabrication of room–temperature spintronic devices using spin polarized EuS layers. PMID:23434820

  7. Unique Pressure versus Temperature Phase Diagram for Antiferromagnets Eu2Ni3Ge5 and EuRhSi3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Miho; Amako, Yasushi; Matsubayashi, Kazuyuki; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Nada, Masato; Sugiyama, Kiyohiro; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Haga, Yoshinori; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Ai; Akamine, Hiromu; Tomori, Keisuke; Yara, Tomoyuki; Ashitomi, Yosuke; Hedo, Masato; Nakama, Takao; Ōnuki, Yoshichika

    2017-03-01

    We studied the magnetic properties of the antiferromagnets Eu2Ni3Ge5 and EuRhSi3 by measuring their electrical resistivity, specific heat, magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, and thermoelectric power, together with the electrical resistivities at high pressures of up to 15 GPa. These compounds have almost divalent Eu ions at ambient pressure and order antiferromagnetically with a successive change in the antiferromagnetic structure at TN = 19 K and T'N = 17 K in Eu2Ni3Ge5, and at TN = 49 K and T'N = 45 K in EuRhSi3. Magnetic field versus temperature (H-T) phase diagrams were constructed for both compounds from the magnetization measurements. The Néel temperature in Eu2Ni3Ge5 was found to increase up to 7 GPa but to decrease continuously with further increasing pressure, without the so-called valence transition. Under a high pressure of 15 GPa, Kondo-like behavior of the electrical resistivity was observed, suggesting the existence of the heavy-fermion state at low temperatures. A similar trend is likely to occur in EuRhSi3. The present P-T phase diagrams for both compounds are the first cases that are reminiscent of the phase diagram of EuCu2(SixGe1-x)2.

  8. Lifetimes of Rydberg states of Eu atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Hua; Ye, Shi-Wei; Dai, Chang-Jian

    2015-01-01

    The radiative lifetimes of the Eu 4f76snp (8PJ or 10PJ) Rydberg states with J = 5/2 and 11/2 are investigated with a combination of multi-step laser excitation and pulsed electric field ionization, from which their dependence on the effective principal quantum number is observed. The lifetimes of 21 states are reported along with an evaluation of their experimental uncertainty. The influence of blackbody radiation, due to the oven temperature, on the lifetime of the higher-n states is detected. The non-hydrogen behavior of the investigated states is also observed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11174218).

  9. Antiferromagnetism in EuCu2As2 and EuCu1.82Sb2 single crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Anand, V. K.; Johnston, D. C.

    2015-05-07

    Single crystals of EuCu2As2 and EuCu2Sb2 were grown from CuAs and CuSb self-flux, respectively. The crystallographic, magnetic, thermal, and electronic transport properties of the single crystals were investigated by room-temperature x-ray diffraction (XRD), magnetic susceptibility χ versus temperature T, isothermal magnetization M versus magnetic field H, specific heat Cp(T), and electrical resistivity ρ(T) measurements. EuCu2As2 crystallizes in the body-centered tetragonal ThCr2Si2-type structure (space group I4/mmm), whereas EuCu2Sb2 crystallizes in the related primitive tetragonal CaBe2Ge2-type structure (space group P4/nmm). The energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and XRD data for the EuCu2Sb2 crystals showed the presence of vacancies on the Cu sites, yielding themore » actual composition EuCu1.82Sb2. The ρ(T) and Cp(T) data reveal metallic character for both EuCu2As2 and EuCu1.82Sb2. Antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering is indicated from the χ(T),Cp(T), and ρ(T) data for both EuCu2As2 (TN = 17.5 K) and EuCu1.82Sb2 (TN = 5.1 K). In EuCu1.82Sb2, the ordered-state χ(T) and M(H) data suggest either a collinear A-type AFM ordering of Eu+2 spins S = 7/2 or a planar noncollinear AFM structure, with the ordered moments oriented in the tetragonal ab plane in either case. This ordered-moment orientation for the A-type AFM is consistent with calculations with magnetic dipole interactions. As a result, the anisotropic χ(T) and isothermal M(H) data for EuCu2As2, also containing Eu+2 spins S = 7/2, strongly deviate from the predictions of molecular field theory for collinear AFM ordering and the AFM structure appears to be both noncollinear and noncoplanar.« less

  10. Hemovac drain

    MedlinePlus

    ... 6 cotton swabs Gauze pads Clean soapy water Plastic trash bag Surgical tape Waterproof pad or bath towel To ... old bandage. Throw the old bandage into a plastic trash bag. Inspect your skin where the drainage tube comes ...

  11. Nitrous oxide emissions from drained and undrained loamy soils in Central France.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossel, Agnes; Nicoullaud, Bernard; Rochette, Philippe; Guimbaud, Christophe; Chartier, Michel; Hénault, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    Artificial drainage is extensively used in cropped areas to decrease soil hydromorphy. Soil drainage class is considered as a possible factor controlling nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions (Bouwman et al, 2002). Nevertheless, artificial drainage may have contrasting effects on N2O emissions depending on climatic conditions (Colbourn et al, 1987; Venterea et al, 2008). By decreasing anoxic periods in soils, artificial drainage could reduce N2O production by denitrification but it could also limit the reduction of N2O into N2. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of drainage on N2O emissions and to provide a better understanding of the control of emissions by soil factors in both situations. N2O emissions were measured in Central France on 4 tile-drained and 4 undrained loamy plots, all located in a rural area of 10 km2. 2 drained and 2 undrained plots were studied from December 2010 to June 2011 and 2 others drained and undrained plots were studied from November 2012 to June 2013. Fluxes were measured monthly before spring fertilizations and then weekly until the end of the measurement period. The closed chamber method (with 5 replicates per plot) was used and gas analysis was made by gas chromatography (ECD detector) during the first year and by the SPIRIT QCL spectrometer (Guimbaud et al., 2011) during the second year. Ancillary variables such as soil temperature, mineral nitrogen, water filled pore space (WFPS) in the top layer and groundwater table level were also measured. Undrained soils presented much larger emissions and higher soil water content than drained ones. WFPS ranged from 16 to 82.6% on drained plots and 14 to 100% on undrained plots. On average, WFPS was 9% smaller on drained soils. The mean daily N2O flux on drained soils (3.6 g N. N2O.ha-1.d-1) was significantly smaller (T test, p=0.003) than on undrained ones (29.1 g N. N2O.ha-1.d-1). Significant emissions were measured in nearly saturated conditions on undrained plots. The response

  12. A low specific on-resistance power trench MOSFET with a buried-interface-drain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shengdong; Chen, Yinhui; Jin, Jingjing; Zhou, Jianlin; Zhou, Feng; Chen, Zongze; Huang, Ye; Luo, Jun; Wang, Jian'an

    2015-09-01

    A novel trench power MOSFET with a buried-interface-drain (BID MOSFET) is proposed in this paper. The drain n+ region of BID MOSFET extends to the surface of p- substrate and is buried along the interface of the substrate-layer and epitaxy-layer, which shortens the motion-path in the high-resistance n- drift region for the carriers, and therefore, exhibits a lower specific on-resistance (Ron,sp) and a higher figure-of-merit. The influences of structure parameters on the device performances are investigated. An ultralow Ron,sp of 0.85 mΩ cm2 is obtained with a breakdown voltage (VB) of 133 V. BID MOSFET is compared with several previous-proposed trench MOSFETs, and a significantly optimized dependence of Ron,sp on VB is obtained.

  13. Effects of draining cochlear fluids on stapes displacement in human middle-ear models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lord, Richard M.; Abel, Eric W.; Wang, Zhigang; Mills, Robert P.

    2001-12-01

    Displacement-frequency characteristics of the stapes footplate were measured in five human temporal bones before and after draining the vestibule. Measurements were made in the 0.125-8 kHz range at 80 dB input sound pressure level, using a laser Doppler vibrometer. A circuit model was also used to predict stapes displacement. The temporal bone studies show a slight decrease in stapes footplate displacement at low frequency, and little change above 1 kHz. The displacement change is not as great as that found by other investigators or predicted by the model. There is little difference in stapes motion in temporal bones when the inner ear is intact or drained.

  14. Comparison of multispectral remote-sensing techniques for monitoring subsurface drain conditions. [Imperial Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goettelman, R. C.; Grass, L. B.; Millard, J. P.; Nixon, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    The following multispectral remote-sensing techniques were compared to determine the most suitable method for routinely monitoring agricultural subsurface drain conditions: airborne scanning, covering the visible through thermal-infrared (IR) portions of the spectrum; color-IR photography; and natural-color photography. Color-IR photography was determined to be the best approach, from the standpoint of both cost and information content. Aerial monitoring of drain conditions for early warning of tile malfunction appears practical. With careful selection of season and rain-induced soil-moisture conditions, extensive regional surveys are possible. Certain locations, such as the Imperial Valley, Calif., are precluded from regional monitoring because of year-round crop rotations and soil stratification conditions. Here, farms with similar crops could time local coverage for bare-field and saturated-soil conditions.

  15. Effect of drains on the seepage of contaminants from subgrade tailings disposal areas

    SciTech Connect

    Witten, A.J.; Pin, F.G.; Sharp, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical simulation study is performed to investigate the influence of ponded water and a bottom drain on the pathways for contaminant migration from a subgrade uranium mill tailings disposal pit. A numerical model is applied to a generic disposal pit constructed with a bottom clay liner and steep unlined sidewalls. The migration of a two-contaminant system is modeled assuming that neither contaminant decays and only one contaminant is retarded. Two dominant pathways are identified; one associated with lateral sidewall leakage and the other associated with transport through the bottom clay liner. It is found that the drain serves to reduce migration through the sidewall which, in turn, prevents the retarded contaminant from reaching the aquifer. The ponded water provides increased head which causes an accelerated vertical movement of moisture through the clay liner. 2 references, 8 figures.

  16. Investigation of drain current transient behavior in SLS TFTs with the DLTS technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exarchos, M. A.; Papaioannou, G. J.; Kouvatsos, D. N.; Voutsas, A. T.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the study of drain current overshoot transients of thin film transistors (TFTs) fabricated by excimer laser sequential lateral solidification (ELA SLS) process is presented. Drain current transient behavior, is ascribed to carrier capture/emission processes within the transistors' Si body, and represents complex mechanisms differently responding at dark and under illumination conditions. Additionally, the thickness of the Si body film, which is an important parameter for the material structure evaluation, ranged from 30 nm to 100 nm. The results were stemmed by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) technique and measurements were conducted within the temperature interval of 200 K to 400 K. The impact of illumination, contributes mainly at lower temperatures through electron-hole generation processes, compensating though carrier freeze-out phenomena.

  17. Enhancement-mode Ga2O3 MOSFETs with Si-ion-implanted source and drain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Man Hoi; Nakata, Yoshiaki; Kuramata, Akito; Yamakoshi, Shigenobu; Higashiwaki, Masataka

    2017-04-01

    Enhancement-mode β-Ga2O3 metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors with low series resistance were achieved by Si-ion implantation doping of the source/drain contacts and access regions. An unintentionally doped Ga2O3 channel with low background carrier concentration that was fully depleted at a gate bias of 0 V gave rise to a positive threshold voltage without additional constraints on the channel dimensions or device architecture. Transistors with a channel length of 4 µm delivered a maximum drain current density (I DS) of 1.4 mA/mm and an I DS on/off ratio near 106. Nonidealities associated with the Al2O3 gate dielectric as well as their impact on enhancement-mode device performance are discussed.

  18. Numerical simulation of offset-drain amorphous oxide-based thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jaewook

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we analyzed the electrical characteristics of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an offset-drain structure by technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulation. When operating in a linear region, an enhancement-type TFT shows poor field-effect mobility because most conduction electrons are trapped in acceptor-like defects in an offset region when the offset length (L off) exceeds 0.5 µm, whereas a depletion-type TFT shows superior field-effect mobility owing to the high free electron density in the offset region compared with the trapped electron density. When operating in the saturation region, both types of TFTs show good field-effect mobility comparable to that of a reference TFT with a large gate overlap. The underlying physics of the depletion and enhancement types of offset-drain TFTs are systematically analyzed.

  19. Brain surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... to take these medicines. If you had a brain aneurysm , you may also have other symptoms or problems. ... chap 28. Read More Acoustic neuroma Brain abscess Brain aneurysm repair Brain surgery Brain tumor - children Brain tumor - ...

  20. Image Findings in Brain Developmental Venous Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mong

    2012-01-01

    Objective Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) are benign anatomic variations; therefore, they are usually discovered incidentally. The aim of this article was to describe radiological findings of DVAs. Methods A retrospective search for DVAs of the brain was performed in 1899 patients who had undergone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast enhancement between January 1, 2005 and April 25, 2011. We also reviewed the results of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), CT angiography, and transfemoral cerebral angiography (TFCA) studies performed in patients with DVAs. Results Thirty-two DVAs were identified in 31 of the 1899 patients (1.63%). These 31 patients underwent five enhanced CTs, three MRAs, two CT angiographies, and two TFCAs. Thirty of the 32 DVAs were supratentorial (ST) and two were infratentorial (IT). All enhanced MRI studies exhibited excellent resolution of DVAs. All DVAs had only one draining vein. The venous drainage system was an IT vein in three DVAs and an ST vein in 29 DVAs. Two out of five enhanced CTs presented good visualization of the draining vein. None of the MRAs, including the source image, revealed the presence of DVAs. The two CT angiographies exhibited good resolution of DVAs. One of the two TFCAs yielded an excellent illustration of the DVA. Conclusion CT angiography and MRI with contrast enhancement yielded detailed findings of DVAs. In contrast, MRA did not identify the DVAs. Enhanced CT presented only the draining vein of DVAs. PMID:23210028

  1. Carbon dioxide flux from rice paddy soils in central China: effects of intermittent flooding and draining cycles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Wan, Kai-yuan; Tao, Yong; Li, Zhi-guo; Zhang, Guo-shi; Li, Shuang-lai; Chen, Fang

    2013-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to (i) examine the diurnal and seasonal soil carbon dioxide (CO(2)) fluxes pattern in rice paddy fields in central China and (ii) assess the role of floodwater in controlling the emissions of CO(2) from soil and floodwater in intermittently draining rice paddy soil. The soil CO(2) flux rates ranged from -0.45 to 8.62 µmol.m(-2).s(-1) during the rice-growing season. The net effluxes of CO(2) from the paddy soil were lower when the paddy was flooded than when it was drained. The CO(2) emissions for the drained conditions showed distinct diurnal variation with a maximum efflux observed in the afternoon. When the paddy was flooded, daytime soil CO(2) fluxes reversed with a peak negative efflux just after midday. In draining/flooding alternating periods, a sudden pulse-like event of rapidly increasing CO(2) efflux occured in response to re-flooding after draining. Correlation analysis showed a negative relation between soil CO(2) flux and temperature under flooded conditions, but a positive relation was found under drained conditions. The results showed that draining and flooding cycles play a vital role in controlling CO(2) emissions from paddy soils.

  2. Groundwater interaction with surface drains in the Ord River Irrigation Area, northern Australia: investigation by multiple methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Anthony J.; Pollock, Daniel W.; Palmer, Duncan

    2010-08-01

    Following 35 years of persistent groundwater rise beneath northern Ivanhoe Plain in the Ord River Irrigation Area, northern Australia, the water table appears to have stabilized near the base of the irrigation surface-drain network. Hydrometric evidence indicates that intersection of the deepest surface drains by the rising water table simultaneously reduced aquifer recharge from surface-water infiltration and increased aquifer discharge by groundwater exfiltration. Water-table analysis supports the working hypothesis that the largest irrigation drain D4 on north Ivanhoe Plain has been receiving a significant amount of groundwater discharge since the mid-1990s. The rate of groundwater discharge to surface drains on north Ivanhoe Plain was estimated to be around 15-20 million (M)L/day based on groundwater-flow modelling. Groundwater tracing using radon and electrical conductivity indicated that groundwater discharge to drain D4 was ˜6-12 ML/day in August 2007. The rate of groundwater discharge was significantly larger where the drain traverses a very-permeable sand and gravel palaeochannel. Relatively modest exfiltration rates of order of magnitude tens to hundreds of mm/day into the drain were estimated to mitigate 0.5 m/year groundwater accretion for a land area of order of magnitude hundreds to thousands of ha.

  3. Lateral carbon fluxes and CO2 outgassing from a tropical peat-draining river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, D.; Warneke, T.; Rixen, T.; Müller, M.; Jamahari, S.; Denis, N.; Mujahid, A.; Notholt, J.

    2015-10-01

    Tropical peatlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle due to their immense carbon storage capacity. However, pristine peat swamp forests are vanishing due to deforestation and peatland degradation, especially in Southeast Asia. CO2 emissions associated with this land use change might not only come from the peat soil directly but also from peat-draining rivers. So far, though, this has been mere speculation, since there has been no data from undisturbed reference sites. We present the first combined assessment of lateral organic carbon fluxes and CO2 outgassing from an undisturbed tropical peat-draining river. Two sampling campaigns were undertaken on the Maludam River in Sarawak, Malaysia. The river catchment is covered by protected peat swamp forest, offering a unique opportunity to study a peat-draining river in its natural state, without any influence from tributaries with different characteristics. The two campaigns yielded consistent results. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations ranged between 3222 and 6218 μmol L-1 and accounted for more than 99 % of the total organic carbon (TOC). Radiocarbon dating revealed that the riverine DOC was of recent origin, suggesting that it derives from the top soil layers and surface runoff. We observed strong oxygen depletion, implying high rates of organic matter decomposition and consequently CO2 production. The measured median pCO2 was 7795 and 8400 μatm during the first and second campaign, respectively. Overall, we found that only 32 ± 19 % of the carbon was exported by CO2 evasion, while the rest was exported by discharge. CO2 outgassing seemed to be moderated by the short water residence time. Since most Southeast Asian peatlands are located at the coast, this is probably an important limiting factor for CO2 outgassing from most of its peat-draining rivers.

  4. Lateral carbon fluxes and CO2 outgassing from a tropical peat-draining river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, D.; Warneke, T.; Rixen, T.; Müller, M.; Jamahari, S.; Denis, N.; Mujahid, A.; Notholt, J.

    2015-07-01

    Tropical peatlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle due to their immense carbon storage capacity. However, pristine peat swamp forests are vanishing due to deforestation and peatland degradation, especially in Southeast Asia. CO2 emissions associated with this land use change might not only come from the peat soil directly, but also from peat-draining rivers. So far, though, this has been mere speculation, since there was no data from undisturbed reference sites. We present the first combined assessment of lateral organic carbon fluxes and CO2 outgassing from an undisturbed tropical peat-draining river. Two sampling campaigns were undertaken on the Maludam river in Sarawak, Malaysia. The river catchment is covered by protected peat swamp forest, offering a unique opportunity to study a peat-draining river in its natural state, without any influence from tributaries with different characteristics. The two campaigns yielded consistent results. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations ranged between 3222 and 6218 μmol L-1 and accounted for more than 99 % of the total organic carbon (TOC). Radiocarbon dating revealed that the riverine DOC was of recent origin, suggesting that it derives from the top soil layers and surface runoff. We observed strong oxygen depletion, implying high rates of organic matter decomposition and consequently CO2 production. The measured median pCO2 was 7795 and 8400 μatm during the two campaigns, respectively. Overall, we found that only 26 ± 15 % of the carbon was exported by CO2 evasion, while the rest was exported by discharge. CO2 outgassing seemed to be moderated by the short water residence time. Since most Southeast Asian peatlands are located at the coast, this is probably an important limiting factor for CO2 outgassing from most of its peat-draining rivers.

  5. Selenium Concentrations in Irrigation Drain Inflows to the Salton Sea, California, October 2006 and January 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Mike W.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents raw data on selenium concentrations in samples of water, sediment, detritus, and selected food-chain matrices collected from selected agricultural drains in the southern portion of the Salton Sea during October 2006 and January 2007. Total selenium and selenium species were determined in water samples, whereas total selenium was determined in sediment, detritus, algae, plankton, midge larvae (Family Chironomidae), and two fish species (western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, and sailfin molly, Poecilia latipinna).

  6. Modeling and extraction of gate bias-dependent parasitic source and drain resistances in MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D. M.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, H. T.

    2003-10-01

    Gate voltage-dependent parasitic source and drain resistances in MOSFETs have been modeled and extracted with a symmetric additional resistance method (sARM) for better description of asymmetric parasitic resistances which are induced by intentional and/or accidental variations in the layout and fabrication process. A good agreement of nonlinear models with the sARM has been verified with experimental data obtained from n-channel LDD MOSFETs.

  7. Lawps ion exchange column gravity drain of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde resin

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Herman, D. T.; Restivo, M. L.; Burket, P. R.

    2016-01-28

    Experiments at several different scales were performed to understand the removal of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) ion exchange resin using a gravity drain system with a valve located above the resin screen in the ion exchange column (IXC). This is being considered as part of the design for the Low Activity Waste Pretreatment System (LAWPS) to be constructed at the DOE Hanford Site.

  8. Suspended sediment yield of New Jersey coastal plain streams draining into the Delaware estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mansue, Lawrence J.

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize sediment data collected at selected stream-sampling sites in southern New Jersey. Computations of excepted average annual yields at each sampling site were made and utilized to estimate the annual yield at ungaged sites. Similar data currently are being compiled for streams draining Pennsylvania and Delaware. It is planned to report on the combined information at a later date in the Geological Survey's Water-Supply Paper series.

  9. STS-35 MS Hoffman drains LES after water egress exercises in JSC's WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-35 Mission Specialist (MS) Jeffrey A. Hoffman drains his launch and entry suit (LES) by propping himself upside down against a chair. Training personnel (left) and Pilot Guy S. Gardner watch as Hoffman's head stand forces water from his suit. Crewmembers were participating in launch emergency egress procedures in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Various WETF mockups are visible in the background.

  10. Differential Draining of Parallel-Fed Propellant Tanks in Morpheus and Apollo Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Eric; Guardado, Hector; Hernandez, Humberto; Desai, Pooja

    2015-01-01

    Parallel-fed propellant tanks are an advantageous configuration for many spacecraft. Parallel-fed tanks allow the center of gravity (cg) to be maintained over the engine(s), as opposed to serial-fed propellant tanks which result in a cg shift as propellants are drained from tank one tank first opposite another. Parallel-fed tanks also allow for tank isolation if that is needed. Parallel tanks and feed systems have been used in several past vehicles including the Apollo Lunar Module. The design of the feedsystem connecting the parallel tank is critical to maintain balance in the propellant tanks. The design must account for and minimize the effect of manufacturing variations that could cause delta-p or mass flowrate differences, which would lead to propellant imbalance. Other sources of differential draining will be discussed. Fortunately, physics provides some self-correcting behaviors that tend to equalize any initial imbalance. The question concerning whether or not active control of propellant in each tank is required or can be avoided or not is also important to answer. In order to provide data on parallel-fed tanks and differential draining in flight for cryogenic propellants (as well as any other fluid), a vertical test bed (flying lander) for terrestrial use was employed. The Morpheus vertical test bed is a parallel-fed propellant tank system that uses passive design to keep the propellant tanks balanced. The system is operated in blow down. The Morpheus vehicle was instrumented with a capacitance level sensor in each propellant tank in order to measure the draining of propellants in over 34 tethered and 12 free flights. Morpheus did experience an approximately 20 lb/m imbalance in one pair of tanks. The cause of this imbalance will be discussed. This paper discusses the analysis, design, flight simulation vehicle dynamic modeling, and flight test of the Morpheus parallel-fed propellant. The Apollo LEM data is also examined in this summary report of the

  11. Treatment of drainage water with industrial by-products to prevent phosphorus loss from tile-drained land.

    PubMed

    McDowell, R W; Sharpley, A N; Bourke, W

    2008-01-01

    Tile drained land with phosphorus (P)-rich topsoil is prone to P loss, which can impair surface water quality via eutrophication. We used by-products from steel and energy industries to mitigate P loss from tile drains. For each by-product, P sorption maximum (P(max)) and strength (k) were determined, while a fluvarium trial assessed P uptake with flow rate. Although two ash materials (fly ash and bottom ash) had high P(max) and k values, heavy metal concentrations negated their use in the field. The fluvarium experiment determined that P uptake with by-products was best at low flow, but decreased at higher flow in proportion to k. A mixture of melter slag (<10 mm) and basic slag (high P(max), 7250 mg kg(-1); and k, 0.508 L mg P(-1)) was installed as backfill in eight drains on a dairy farm. Four drains with greywacke as backfill were constructed for controls. The site (10 ha) had P-rich topsoil (Olsen P of 64 mg kg(-1)) and yielded a mean dissolved reactive P (DRP) and total P (TP) concentration from greywacke backfilled drains of 0.33 and 1.20 mg L(-1), respectively. In contrast, slag backfilled drains had DRP and TP concentrations of 0.09 and 0.36 mg L(-1), respectively. Loads of DRP and TP in greywacke drains (0.45 and 1.92, respectively) were significantly greater (P < 0.05) than those from slag drains (0.18 and 0.85, respectively). Data from a farm where melter slag was used as a backfill suggested that slag would have a life expectancy of about 25 yr. Thus, backfilling tile drains with melter slag and a small proportion of basic slag is recommended as an effective means of decreasing P loss from high P soils.

  12. Remote sensing for assessing the zone of benefit where deep drains improve productivity of land affected by shallow saline groundwater.

    PubMed

    Kobryn, H T; Lantzke, R; Bell, R; Admiraal, R

    2015-03-01

    The installation of deep drains is an engineering approach to remediate land salinised by the influence of shallow groundwater. It is a costly treatment and its economic viability is, in part, dependent on the lateral extent to which the drain increases biological productivity by lowering water tables and soil salinity (referred to as the drains' zone of benefit). Such zones may be determined by assessing the biological productivity response of adjacent vegetation over time. We tested a multi-temporal satellite remote sensing method to analyse temporal and spatial changes in vegetation condition surrounding deep drainage sites at five locations in the Western Australian wheatbelt affected by dryland salinity-Morawa, Pithara, Beacon, Narembeen and Dumbleyung. Vegetation condition as a surrogate for biological productivity was assessed by Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) during the peak growing season. Analysis was at the site scale within a 1000 m buffer zone from the drains. There was clear evidence of NDVI increasing with elevation, slope and distance from the drain. After accounting for elevation, slope and distance from the drain, there was a significant increase in NDVI across the five locations after installation of deep drains. Changes in NDVI after drainage were broadly consistent with measured changes at each site in groundwater levels after installation of the deep drains. However, this study assessed the lateral extent of benefit for biological productivity and gave a measure of the area of benefit along the entire length of the drain. The method demonstrated the utility of spring NDVI images for rapid and relatively simple assessment of the change in site condition after implementation of drainage, but approaches for further improvement of the procedure were identified.

  13. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in vertical peat profiles of natural and drained boreal peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nykänen, Hannu; Mpamah, Promise; Rissanen, Antti; Pitkänen, Aki; Turunen, Jukka; Simola, Heikki

    2015-04-01

    Peatlands form a significant carbon pool in the global carbon cycle. Change in peat hydrology, due to global warming is projected to change microbiological processes and peat carbon pool. We tested if bulk stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes serve as indicators of severe long term drying in peatlands drained for forestry. Depth profile analysis of peat, for their carbon and nitrogen content as well as their carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures, were conducted for peatlands in southern and eastern Finland, having ombrotrophic and minerotrophic natural and corresponding drained pairs or separate drained sites. The selection of sites allowed us to compare changes due to different fertility and changes due to long term artificial drying. Drainage lasting over 40 years has led to changes in hydrology, vegetation, nutrient mineralization and respiration. Furthermore, increased nutrient uptake and possible recycling of peat nitrogen and carbon trough vegetation back to the peat surface, also possibly has an effect on the stable isotopic composition of peat carbon and nitrogen. We think that drainage induced changes somehow correspond to those caused by changed hydrology due to climate change. We will present data from these measurements and discuss their implications for carbon and nitrogen flows in peatlands.

  14. Widespread occurrence of diverse human pathogenic types of the fungus Fusarium detected in plumbing drains.

    PubMed

    Short, Dylan P G; O'Donnell, Kerry; Zhang, Ning; Juba, Jean H; Geiser, David M

    2011-12-01

    It has been proposed that plumbing systems might serve as a significant environmental reservoir of human-pathogenic isolates of Fusarium. We tested this hypothesis by performing the first extensive multilocus sequence typing (MLST) survey of plumbing drain-associated Fusarium isolates and comparing the diversity observed to the known diversity of clinical Fusarium isolates. We sampled 471 drains, mostly in bathroom sinks, from 131 buildings in the United States using a swabbing method. We found that 66% of sinks and 80% of buildings surveyed yielded at least one Fusarium culture. A total of 297 isolates of Fusarium collected were subjected to MLST to identify the phylogenetic species and sequence types (STs) of these isolates. Our survey revealed that the six most common STs in sinks were identical to the six most frequently associated with human infections. We speculate that the most prevalent STs, by virtue of their ability to form and grow in biofilms, are well adapted to plumbing systems. Six major Fusarium STs were frequently isolated from plumbing drains within a broad geographic area and were identical to STs frequently associated with human infections.

  15. Treatment of rayon grade pulp drain effluent by upflow anaerobic fixed packed bed reactor (UAFPBR).

    PubMed

    Satyawali, Yamini; Pant, Deepak; Singh, Anoop; Srivastava, R K

    2009-09-01

    The Rayon grade pulp (RGP) drain effluent of pulp and paper mill was studied to find out pollutant loading and its control measures by low cost and efficient treatment method. Upflow anaerobic fixed packed bed reactor (UAFPBR) with brick ballasts as packing material was used for this purpose. This was compared with conventional anaerobic treatment method. The digested slurry was taken as inoculum from the active cow dung biogas plant. After stabilization of the reactors the reduction in pollutant loading was found to be higher in UAFPBR than conventional anaerobic reactor (CAR). Hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12 hr was optimum for the treatment of effluent when 74.5% COD and 81% BOD reduction was obtained. 30% inoculum concentration was best for the anaerobic treatment of RGP colour drain effluent. The maximum biogas production (1.37 l l(-1) of effluent) was when the effluent was inoculated with 30% seeding material. Thus, UAFPBR system was very efficient in terms of BOD, COD, TSS and TDS removal from RGP drain of paper mills in ambient environmental conditions.

  16. Low Drain Fluid Amylase Predicts Absence of Pancreatic Fistula Following Pancreatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Christina W.; Pitt, Henry A.; Riall, Taylor S.; Ronnekleiv-Kelly, Sean S.; Israel, Jacqueline S.; Leverson, Glen E.; Parmar, Abhishek D.; Kilbane, E. Molly; Hall, Bruce L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Improvements in the ability to predict pancreatic fistula could enhance patient outcomes. Previous studies demonstrate that drain fluid amylase on postoperative day 1 (DFA1) is predictive of pancreatic fistula. We sought to assess the accuracy of DFA1 and to identify a reliable DFA1 threshold under which pancreatic fistula is ruled out. Methods Patients undergoing pancreatic resection from November 1, 2011 to December 31, 2012 were selected from the American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pancreatectomy Demonstration Project data-base. Pancreatic fistula was defined as drainage of amylase-rich fluid with drain continuation >7 days, percutaneous drainage, or reoperation for a pancreatic fluid collection. Univariate and multi-variable regression models were utilized to identify factors predictive of pancreatic fistula. Results DFA1 was recorded in 536 of 2,805 patients who underwent pancreatic resection, including pancreaticoduodenectomy (n=380), distal pancreatectomy (n=140), and enucleation (n=16). Pancreatic fistula occurred in 92/536 (17.2 %) patients. DFA1, increased body mass index, small pancreatic duct size, and soft texture were associated with fistula (p<0.05). A DFA1 cutoff value of <90 U/L demonstrated the highest negative predictive value of 98.2 %. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve confirmed the predictive relationship of DFA1 and pancreatic fistula. Conclusion Low DFA1 predicts the absence of a pancreatic fistula. In patients with DFA1<90 U/L, early drain removal is advisable. PMID:25112411

  17. RETRAN analysis of Susquehanna Steam Electric Station Unit 2 moisture separator drain tank level transient response

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Susquehanna Steam Electric Station Unit 2 (SSES-2) experienced three main turbine trips on high moisture separator drain tank level during initial startup testing in 1984. The SSES-2, a 3293-MW (thermal) boiling water reactor-4 with Mark II containment, uses two parallel nonreheating moisture separators between the high- and low-pressure turbine stages. Two of the main turbine trips and subsequent scrams occurred due to the high level in the ''B'' moisture separator drain tank during combined intermediate valve testing. The third trip was also initiated on the same signal, but during a recirculation pump runback event. A task group was created to determine the cause of the level excursions and to make recommendations to reduce the severity of these transients. The RETRAN-02 computer code was used to evaluate the dynamic response of both the A and B moisture separator drain systems to determine the cause of the events, including why the level excursions only occurred in the B system. RETRAN was also used to evaluate the systems' dynamic response to several proposed corrective plant modifications. Based on the recommendations of the task group, modifications were made to SSES-2 during the precommercial operation outage. Startup testing following the outage proved the success of the modifications.

  18. Slosh wave and geyser excitations due to liquid hydrogen shut-off during draining in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Shyu, K. L.

    1995-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of liquid hydrogen shut-off during draining, and shut-off at the moment of the incipience of a suction dip have been investigated. It shows that a large amplitude surge is observed for liquid in the container at the moment of liquid hydrogen shut-off in reduced gravity. It also shows that slosh waves accompanied by a strong geyser are developed for surge-related flow fields induced by liquid hydrogen shut-off at the incipience of a suction dip. In the slosh wave excitation, both a lower gravity environment and higher flow rate before the shut-off of liquid draining are resonsible for the initiation of greater amplitude slosh waves. Slosh wave excitation, due to shut-off during liquid hydrogen draining, shift the fluid mass distribution in the container which imposes time-dependent variation in the spacecraft moment of inertia. This provides important information necessary for on-orbit guidance and attitude control of spacecraft.

  19. Characteristics of the overflow pollution of storm drains with inappropriate sewage entry.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hailong; Lu, Yi; Xu, Zuxin; Li, Huaizheng; Schwegler, Benedict R

    2017-02-01

    To probe the overflow pollution of separate storm drains with inappropriate sewage entries, in terms of the relationship between sewage entries and the corresponding dry-weather and wet-weather overflow, the monitoring activities were conducted in a storm drainage system in the Shanghai downtown area (374 ha). In this study site, samples from inappropriately entered dry-weather sewage and the overflow due to storm pumps operation on dry-weather and wet-weather days were collected and then monitored for six water quality constituents. It was found that overflow concentrations of dry-weather period could be higher than those of wet-weather period; under wet-weather period, the overflow concentrations of storm drains were close to or even higher than that of combined sewers. Relatively strong first flush mostly occurred under heavy rain that satisfied critical rainfall amount, maximum rainfall intensity, and maximum pumping discharge, while almost no first flush effect or only weak first flush effect was found for the other rainfall events. Such phenomenon was attributed to lower in-line pipe storage as compared to that of the combined sewers, and serious sediment accumulation within the storm pipes due to sewage entry. For this kind of system, treating a continuous overflow rate is a better strategy than treating the maximum amount of early part of the overflow. Correcting the key inappropriate sewage entries into storm drains should also be focused.

  20. Simulation of Sub-Drains Performance Using Visual MODFLOW for Slope Water Seepage Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baharuddin, M. F. T.; Tajudin, S. A. A.; Abidin, M. H. Z.; Yusoff, N. A.

    2016-07-01

    Numerical simulation technique was used for investigating water seepage problem at the Botanic Park Kuala Lumpur. A proposed sub-drains installation in problematic site location was simulated using Modular Three-Dimensional Finite Difference Groundwater Flow (MODFLOW) software. The results of simulation heads during transient condition showed that heads in between 43 m (water seepage occurred at level 2) until 45 m (water seepage occurred at level 4) which heads measurement are referred to mean sea level. However, elevations measurements for level 2 showed the values between 41 to 42 m from mean sea level and elevations for level 4 between 42 to 45 m from mean sea level. These results indicated an increase in heads for level 2 and level 4 between 1 to 2 m when compared to elevations slope at the level 2 and level 4. The head increases surpass the elevation level of the slope area that causing water seepage at level 2 and level 4. In order to overcome this problems, the heads level need to be decrease to 1 until 2 m by using two options of sub-drain dimension size. Sub-drain with the dimension of 0.0750 m (diameter), 0.10 m (length) and using 4.90 m spacing was the best method to use as it was able to decrease the heads to the required levels of 1 to 2 m.

  1. The effect of an antimicrobial drain sponge dressing on specific bacterial isolates at tracheostomy sites.

    PubMed

    Motta, Glenda J; Trigilia, Donna

    2005-01-01

    Patients with tracheostomies frequently experience complications, including bacteremia, sepsis, pneumonia, and multi antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. A prospective, descriptive, randomized, controlled, clinical case series involving seven men and three women was conducted on patients in the neuroscience unit of a long-term rehabilitation hospital during a period of 25 days to compare the use of an nonwoven drain sponge dressing containing an antimicrobial (polyhexamethylene biguanide) to a non-impregnated, nonwoven drain sponge dressing on tracheostomy sites. Specifically, the purpose of the study was to compare the presence of four bacterial pathogens (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus) and resident normal skin flora (alpha-hemolytic Streptococci and Staphylococcus epidermidis) at the tracheostomy sites. Culture results for total days of growth showed an absence of pathogens and presence of normal skin flora for 11 study days in patients randomized to the antimicrobial dressing group and an absence of pathogens and presence of normal skin flora for six study days in patients randomized to the control group. The results of this descriptive case series suggest that an antimicrobial drain sponge dressing could be an important adjunct in the control of infections in patients with tracheostomies without compromising normal skin flora.

  2. Effect of local corticosteroids on antibody-forming cells in the eye and draining lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Meyer, R F; Smolin, G; Hall, J M; Okumoto, M

    1975-02-01

    Significant numbers of antibody-forming cells (AFC) have been found in the cornea, uveal tract, and draining lymph nodes after the intracorneal injection of bovine gamma-globulin (BGG). To study the effect of locally administered corticosteroids on these antibody-forming tissues, we made unilateral intracorneal injections of rabbit eyes with BGG. These we followed immediately with subconjunctival injections of 10 mg. of triamcinolone suspension, and then with a second round of 10 mg. injections seven days later. A control group of animals received the BGG injections followed by two subconjunctival saline injections. We killed the animals on postinjection days 6, 9, 12, 15, and 21, and tested the draining lymph nodes, homolateral uveal tissue, and homolateral cornea for AFC by a modification of the Jerne placque technique. The local steroids had no effect on the number of AFC produced in the draining lymph nodes or on the circulating antibody response, but they reduced the number of AFC in the homolateral uveal tracts and corneas. Clinically there was less inflammatory response in the steroid-treated eyes than in the control eyes. The possible mechanisms by which corticosteroids achieve their anti-immunologic and anti-inflammatory benefits are discussed.

  3. Environmental Setting of the Granger Drain and DR2 Basins, Washington, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Payne, Karen L.; Johnson, Henry M.; Black, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The Granger Drain and DR2 basins are located in the Yakima River basin in south central Washington. These agricultural basins are one of five areas in the United States selected for study as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program Agricultural Chemicals: Source, Transport, and Fate Study. The Program is designed to describe water-quality conditions and trends based on representative surface- and ground-water resources across the Nation. The objective of the Agricultural Chemicals topical study is to investigate the sources, transport, and fate of selected agricultural chemicals in a variety of agriculturally diverse environmental settings. The Granger Drain and DR2 basins were selected for the Agricultural Chemicals topical study because they represent the irrigated agricultural setting that characterizes eastern Washington. These basins are located in one of the most productive agricultural areas in the United States. This report describes the environmental setting of the Granger Drain and DR2 basins in the context of how agricultural practices, including agricultural chemical applications and irrigation methods, interface with natural settings and hydrologic processes.

  4. Antimony retention and release from drained and waterlogged shooting range soil under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Hockmann, Kerstin; Tandy, Susan; Lenz, Markus; Reiser, René; Conesa, Héctor M; Keller, Martin; Studer, Björn; Schulin, Rainer

    2015-09-01

    Many soils polluted by antimony (Sb) are subject to fluctuating waterlogging conditions; yet, little is known about how these affect the mobility of this toxic element under field conditions. Here, we compared Sb leaching from a calcareous shooting range soil under drained and waterlogged conditions using four large outdoor lysimeters. After monitoring the leachate samples taken at bi-weekly intervals for >1.5 years under drained conditions, two of the lysimeters were subjected to waterlogging with a water table fluctuating according to natural rainfall water infiltration. Antimony leachate concentrations under drained conditions showed a strong seasonal fluctuation between 110 μg L(-1) in summer and <40 μg L(-1) in winter, which closely correlated with fluctuations in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. With the development of anaerobic conditions upon waterlogging, Sb in leachate decreased to 2-5 μg L(-1) Sb and remained stable at this level. Antimony speciation measurements in soil solution indicated that this decrease in Sb(V) concentrations was attributable to the reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) and the stronger sorption affinity of the latter to iron (Fe) (hydr)oxide phases. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering seasonal and waterlogging effects in the assessment of the risks from Sb-contaminated sites.

  5. Commercializing genetically modified crops under EU regulations: objectives and barriers.

    PubMed

    Raybould, Alan; Poppy, Guy M

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture faces serious problems in feeding 9 billion people by 2050: production must be increased and ecosystem services maintained under conditions for growing crops that are predicted to worsen in many parts of the world. A proposed solution is sustainable intensification of agriculture, whereby yields are increased on land that is currently cultivated, so sparing land to deliver other ecosystem services. Genetically modified (GM) crops are already contributing to sustainable intensification through higher yields and lower environmental impacts, and have potential to deliver further significant improvements. Despite their widespread successful use elsewhere, the European Union (EU) has been slow to introduce GM crops: decisions on applications to import GM commodities are lengthy, and decision-making on applications to cultivate GM crops has virtually ceased. Delayed import approvals result in economic losses, particularly in the EU itself as a result of higher commodity prices. Failure to grant cultivation approvals costs EU farmers opportunities to reduce inputs, and results in loss of agricultural research and development from the EU to countries such as the United States and China. Delayed decision-making in the EU ostensibly results from scientific uncertainty about the effects of using GM crops; however, scientific uncertainty may be a means to justify a political decision to restrict cultivation of GM crops in the EU. The problems associated with delayed decision-making will not improve until there is clarity about the EU's agricultural policy objectives, and whether the use of GM crops will be permitted to contribute to achieving those objectives.

  6. Two measured completely different electron affinities for atomic Eu?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Msezane, A. Z.; Felfli, Z.

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the electron affinity (EA) of atomic Eu was measured to be 0.116?eV. This value is in outstanding agreement with the theoretically calculated values using the Regge pole and MCDF-RCI methods. Previously, the EA of Eu was measured to be 1.053 eV. In an attempt to resolve the discrepancy between the two measured values, we have adopted the complex angular momentum (CAM) method and investigated in the electron energy range 0.11 eV Eu as Regge resonances following Ref.. We find the value of 2.63 eV as the EA of Eu. This leads us to conclude that neither the claimed measured EA of Eu correspond to the actual EA of Eu. We conclude that the EA in corresponds to the BE of an excited (metastable) state of the Euanion and that in to a shape resonance. We have also investigated the EA of atomic Nd and found the value of 1.88 eV, consistent with the measurement. These significant EA values of Eu and Nd could be important in the use of their negative ions in catalyzing the oxidation of water to peroxide and of methane to methanol without CO2 emission. These new results call for immediate experimental and theoretical verification.

  7. EU accession: A policy window opportunity for nursing?

    PubMed

    De Raeve, Paul; Rafferty, Anne-Marie; Bariball, Louise; Young, Ruth; Boiko, Olga

    2017-03-01

    European enlargement has been studied in a wide range of policy areas within and beyond health. Yet the impact of EU enlargement upon one of the largest health professions, nursing, has been largely neglected. This paper aims to explore nurse leadership using a comparative case study method in two former Communist countries, Romania and Croatia. Specifically, it considers the extent to which engagement in the EU accession policy-making process provided a policy window for the leaders to formulate and implement a professional agenda while negotiating EU accession. Findings of qualitative interviews and documentary analysis indicate that the mechanisms used to facilitate the accession process were not successful in achieving compliance with the education standards in the Community Acquis, as highlighted in the criteria on the mutual recognition of professional qualifications set out in Directive 2005/36/EC. EU accession capacity building and accession funds were not deployed efficiently to upgrade Romanian and Croatian nursing education towards meeting EU standards. Conflicting views on accession held by the various nursing stakeholders (nursing regulator, nursing union, governmental chief nurse and the professional association) inhibited the setting of a common policy agenda to achieve compliance with EU standards. The study findings suggest a need to critically review EU accession mechanisms and better align leadership at all governance levels.

  8. Integration of the ferromagnetic insulator EuO onto graphene.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Adrian G; Odenthal, Patrick M; Hao, Yufeng; Ruoff, Rodney S; Kawakami, Roland K

    2012-11-27

    We have demonstrated the deposition of EuO films on graphene by reactive molecular beam epitaxy in a special adsorption-controlled and oxygen-limited regime, which is a critical advance toward the realization of the exchange proximity interaction (EPI). It has been predicted that when the ferromagnetic insulator (FMI) EuO is brought into contact with graphene, an overlap of electronic wave functions at the FMI/graphene interface can induce a large spin splitting inside the graphene. Experimental realization of this effect could lead to new routes for spin manipulation, which is a necessary requirement for a functional spin transistor. Furthermore, EPI could lead to novel spintronic behavior such as controllable magnetoresistance, gate tunable exchange bias, and quantized anomalous Hall effect. However, experimentally, EuO has not yet been integrated onto graphene. Here we report the successful growth of high-quality crystalline EuO on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and single-layer graphene. The epitaxial EuO layers have (001) orientation and do not induce an observable D peak (defect) in the Raman spectra. Magneto-optic measurements indicate ferromagnetism with a Curie temperature of 69 K, which is the value for bulk EuO. Transport measurements on exfoliated graphene before and after EuO deposition indicate only a slight decrease in mobility.

  9. Risk of infection is associated more with drain duration than daily drainage volume in prosthesis-based breast reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng-Feng; Lin, Shou-Fong; Hung, Chen-Fang; Chou, Pesus

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In prosthesis-based breast reconstruction, drains are used to prevent seroma formation and to reduce the risk of infection. However, prolonged drainage increases the risk of ascending infection. Although the volume often accepted for drain removal is ≤30 mL per day, the optimal timing to remove the drain for best clinical outcome remains controversial. We did a retrospective cohort study of 569 patients of prosthesis-based breast reconstruction with infection rate as the outcome variable; drain duration and last daily drainage volume as the main independent variables. Data on age, smoking history, diabetes mellitus history, body mass index, breast weight, tissue expander size, drain size, number of retrieved lymph nodes, tumor size, number of metastatic lymph nodes, tumor stage, mastectomy type, reconstruction type, submuscular implantation, skin defect, operative time, duration of antibiotics use, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy were collected as covariates. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to control for confounding. The total infection rate was 5.1% (29/569). The daily drainage volume ≥30 mL/d at the time of drain removal was not found associated with increased infection rate (P = 0.32). Of the various cutoff values of last daily drainage volume, none was found to be a determinant for drain removal where the risk of infection was concerned. By contrast, drain duration over 21 days significantly increased infection rate (P = 0.001). The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed an increase of 76.2% in the infection rate with each additional week of drain retention (P = 0.001). Breast weight also had a significant influence on risk of infection. Chemotherapy and drain size showed borderline effect on risk of infection whereas the last daily drainage volume was not associated with risk of infection In summary, our study revealed that drain duration, rather than the last daily drainage volume, significantly affects the

  10. Policy Responses to Address Student "Brain Drain": An Assessment of Measures Intended to Reduce the Emigration of Singaporean International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziguras, Christopher; Gribble, Cate

    2015-01-01

    For several decades, Singapore has experienced a high rate of outbound degree mobility with around 1 in 10 higher education students currently studying outside the country according to UNESCO figures. Singapore's successful economic development strategy, which has seen it become a key Asian hub for knowledge-intensive industries for…

  11. Brain Drain in the Rust Belt: Can Educational Reform Help to Build Civic Capacity in Struggling Communities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Dana L.; Movit, Marcela; Frick, William

    2008-01-01

    City leaders increasingly have hoped that school reform can spark a renaissance in struggling communities. Using the lens of building civic capacity, this article examines efforts to revitalize "Milltown"--a small urban community that has been devastated by the loss of manufacturing jobs. Analysis of interview and written documents identifies…

  12. Is New England Experiencing a "Brain Drain"? Facts about Demographic Change and Young Professionals. Discussion Paper 07-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brome, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Recent news articles and studies have generated concern among New England policy makers and others that the region's supply of young, highly educated professionals is disappearing. The fear is that comparatively high housing and other costs may be driving away many within this highly mobile group. This paper explores trends in the stocks and…

  13. Brain drain in sub-Saharan Africa: contributing factors, potential remedies and the role of academic medical centres.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Jennifer; Bajunirwe, Francis

    2012-11-01

    A double jeopardy exists in resource-limited settings (RLS) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA): there are a disproportionately greater number of acutely ill patients, but a paucity of healthcare workers (HCW) to care for them. SSA has 25% of the global disease burden but only 3% of the world's HCW. Thirty-two SSA countries do not meet the WHO minimum of 23 HCW per 10000 population. Contributing factors include insufficient supply, inadequate distribution and migration. Potential remedies include international workforce policies, non-governmental organisations, national and international medical organisations' codes of conduct, inter-country collaborations, donor-directed policies and funding to train more people in-country, and health system strengthening and task-shifting. Collaborations among academic institutions from resource-rich and poor countries can help address HCW supply, distribution and migration. It is now opportune to harness bright, committed people from academic centres in resource-rich and poor settings to create long-term, collaborative relationships focused on training, clinical skills and locally relevant research endeavours, who mutually strive for HCW retention, less migration, and ultimately sufficient HCW to provide optimal care in all RLS.

  14. Can a bog drained for forestry be a stronger carbon sink than a natural bog forest?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommeltenberg, J.; Schmid, H. P.; Drösler, M.; Werle, P.

    2014-07-01

    This study compares the CO2 exchange of a natural bog forest, and of a bog drained for forestry in the pre-Alpine region of southern Germany. The sites are separated by only 10 km, they share the same soil formation history and are exposed to the same climate and weather conditions. In contrast, they differ in land use history: at the Schechenfilz site a natural bog-pine forest (Pinus mugo ssp. rotundata) grows on an undisturbed, about 5 m thick peat layer; at Mooseurach a planted spruce forest (Picea abies) grows on drained and degraded peat (3.4 m). The net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) at both sites has been investigated for 2 years (July 2010-June 2012), using the eddy covariance technique. Our results indicate that the drained, forested bog at Mooseurach is a much stronger carbon dioxide sink (-130 ± 31 and -300 ± 66 g C m-2 a-1 in the first and second year, respectively) than the natural bog forest at Schechenfilz (-53 ± 28 and -73 ± 38 g C m-2 a-1). The strong net CO2 uptake can be explained by the high gross primary productivity of the 44-year old spruces that over-compensates the two-times stronger ecosystem respiration at the drained site. The larger productivity of the spruces can be clearly attributed to the larger plant area index (PAI) of the spruce site. However, even though current flux measurements indicate strong CO2 uptake of the drained spruce forest, the site is a strong net CO2 source when the whole life-cycle since forest planting is considered. It is important to access this result in terms of the long-term biome balance. To do so, we used historical data to estimate the difference between carbon fixation by the spruces and the carbon loss from the peat due to drainage since forest planting. This rough estimate indicates a strong carbon release of +134 t C ha-1 within the last 44 years. Thus, the spruces would need to grow for another 100 years at about the current rate, to compensate the potential peat loss of the former years. In

  15. Can a bog drained for forestry be a stronger carbon sink than a natural bog forest?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommeltenberg, J.; Schmid, H. P.; Droesler, M.; Werle, P.

    2014-02-01

    This study compares the CO2 exchange of a natural bog forest, and of a bog drained for forestry in the pre-alpine region of southern Germany. The sites are separated by only ten kilometers, they share the same formation history and are exposed to the same climate and weather conditions. In contrast, they differ in land use history: at the Schechenfilz site a natural bog-pine forest (Pinus mugo rotundata) grows on an undisturbed, about 5 m thick peat layer; at Mooseurach a planted spruce forest (Picea abies) grows on drained and degraded peat (3.4 m). The net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) at both sites has been investigated for two years (July 2010 to June 2012), using the eddy covariance technique. Our results indicate that the drained, forested bog at Mooseurach is a much stronger carbon dioxide sink (-130 ± 31 and -300 ± 66 g C m-2 a-1 in the first and second year respectively) than the natural bog forest at Schechenfilz (-53 ± 28 and -73±38 g C m-2 a-1). The strong net CO2 uptake can be explained by the high gross primary productivity of the spruces that over-compensates the two times stronger ecosystem respiration at the drained site. The larger productivity of the spruces can be clearly attributed to the larger LAI of the spruce site. However, even though current flux measurements indicate strong CO2 uptake of the drained spruce forest, the site is a strong net CO2 source, if the whole life-cycle, since forest planting is considered. We determined the difference between carbon fixation by the spruces and the carbon loss from the peat due to drainage since forest planting. The estimate resulted in a strong carbon release of +156 t C ha-1 within the last 44 yr, means the spruces would need to grow for another 100 yr, at the current rate, to compensate the peat loss of the former years. In contrast, the natural bog-pine ecosystem has likely been a small but consistent carbon sink for decades, which our results suggest is very robust regarding short

  16. Preservation of labile organic matter in soils of drained thaw lakes in Northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Carsten W.; Rethemeyer, Janet; Kao-Kniffin, Jenny; Löppmann, Sebastian; Hinkel, Kenneth; Bockheim, James

    2014-05-01

    A large number of studies predict changing organic matter (OM) dynamics in arctic soils due to global warming. In contrast to rather slowly altering bulk soil properties, single soil organic matter (SOM) fractions can provide a more detailed picture of the dynamics of differently preserved SOM pools in climate sensitive arctic regions. By the study of the chemical composition of such distinctive SOM fractions using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) together with radiocarbon analyses it is possible to evaluate the stability of the major OM pools. Approximately 50-75% of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain is covered with thaw lakes and drained thaw lakes that follow a 5,000 yr cycle of development (between creation and final drainage), thus forming a natural soil chronosequence. The drained thaw lakes offer the possibility to study SOM dynamics affected by permafrost processes over millennial timescales. In April 2010 we sampled 16 soil cores (including the active and permanent layer) reaching from young drained lakes (0-50 years since drainage) to ancient drained lakes (3000-5500 years since drainage). Air dried soil samples from soil horizons of the active and permanent layer were subjected to density fractionation in order to differentiate particulate OM and mineral associated OM. The chemical composition of the SOM fractions was analyzed by 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy. For a soil core of a young and an ancient drained thaw lake basin we also analyzed the 14C content. For the studied soils we can show that up to over 25 kg OC per square meter are stored mostly as labile, easily degradable organic matter rich in carbohydrates. In contrast only 10 kg OC per square meter were sequestered as presumably more stable mineral associated OC dominated by aliphatic compounds. Comparable to soils of temperate regions, we found small POM (< 20 µm) occluded in aggregated soil structures which differed in the chemical composition from larger organic particles. This was

  17. The effect of drain blocking on dissolved organic carbon under the peak flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    zhang, zhuoli

    2014-05-01

    There are numerous studies that have shown increasing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration down stream of upland peat catchments (eg. Worrall et al., 2007; Clark et al., 2007; Gibson et al., 200). In the UK, upland peat soils are both an important water source and an important carbon store, therefore, the transportation of DOC from soil to the aquatic system remains a critical part of the impact that upland peat environments have on wider society. The majority of the DOC is delivered from the peat soil during the peak flow events (Clark et al., 2008), however, most of the storm events analysis has been developed for organo-mineral soil rather than for peat soil catchments. Worrall et al., (2007) suggested that drain blocking as a potential method for controlling DOC release from peat soil. An events analysis was conducted on the drain blocking data collected from 2008 to 2010 from Cronkley Fell (UK National grid reference NY 83800 26996). A total of 756 peak flow events were chosen to access the impact of drain blocking on DOC concentration and flux during the events. The data was analysed by the combination of principal components analysis (PCA) and end member mixing analysis (EMMA). The results showed that during the peak flow events, the effects of drain blocking was minimised by the rapid flushing of the event water: the DOC concentration on storm events increased after blocking rather than decreased; DOC flux did decrease after blocking but rather as a result of the increased volume of the event water. Worrall, F., Armstrong, A., Holden, J., 2007. Short term impact of peat drain blocking on water color, dissolved organic carbon concentration and water table depth. Journal of Hydrology 337,315-325 Clark, J.M., Lane, S.N., Chapman, P.J., Adamson, J.K., 2007. Export of dissolved organic carbon from an upland peat during storm events: Implication for flux estimates. Journal of Hydrology 347, 438-447. Aitkenhead, J.A., McDowell, W. H., 2000. Soil C: N ratio

  18. Use of Subperiosteal Drain Versus Subdural Drain in Chronic Subdural Hematomas Treated With Burr-Hole Trepanation: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Katharina; Schaedelin, Sabine; Mariani, Luigi; Fandino, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) is one of the most frequent neurosurgical conditions affecting elderly people and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. The use of a subdural drain (SDD) after burr-hole trepanation for cSDH was proven to reduce recurrence and mortality at 6 months. To date in neurosurgery practice, evidence-based guidelines on whether an SDD or subperiosteal drain (SPD) should be used do not exist. Currently both methods are being practiced depending on the institute and/or the practicing neurosurgeon. Objective The aim of this study is to compare the reoperation rates after burr-hole trepanation and insertion of an SPD or SDD in patients with cSDH. Methods This is a prospective, noninferiority, multicenter, randomized controlled trial designed to include 220 patients over the age of 18 years presenting with a symptomatic cSDH verified on cranial computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging who are to undergo surgical evacuation with burr-hole trepanation. After informed consent is obtained, patients are randomly allocated to an SPD or SDD group. The primary endpoint is recurrence indicating a reoperation within 12 months. Results This research is investigator-initiated and has received ethics approval. Patient recruitment started in April 2013, and we expect all study-related activities to be completed by the end of 2016 or beginning of 2017. Conclusions To date, evidence-based recommendations concerning the operative treatment of cSDH are sparse. Results of this research are expected to have applications in evidence-based practice for the increasing number of patients suffering from cSDH and possibly lead to more efficient treatment of this disease with fewer postoperative complications. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01869855; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01869855 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6fNK4Jlxk) PMID:27059872

  19. Optical Probing of metamagnetic phases in epitaxial EuSe

    SciTech Connect

    Galgano, G. D.; Henriques, A. B.; Bauer, G.; Springholz, G.

    2011-12-23

    EuSe is a wide gap magnetic semiconductors with a potential for applications in proof-of-concept spintronic devices. When the temperature is lowered, EuSe goes through sharp transitions between a variety of magnetic phases and is thus described as metamagnetic. The purpose of the present investigation is to correlate the magnetic order to the sharp dichroic doublet, discovered recently in high quality thin epitaxial layers of EuSe, grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We report detailed measurements of the doublet positions and intensities as a function of magnetic field in low temperatures, covering several magnetic phases.

  20. Optical properties of Eu2+ doped antipervoskite fluoride single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, D. Joseph; Nithya, R.; Ramasamy, P.; Madhusoodanan, U.

    2013-02-01

    Single crystals of pure and Eu2+ doped LiBaF3 have been grown from melt by using a vertical Bridgman-Stockbarger method. Absorption and luminescence spectra for pure and rare-earth-doped LiBaF3 were studied. At ambient conditions the photoluminescence spectra consisted of sharp lines peaked at ˜359 nm attributed to the 6P7/2→8S7/2 transitions in the 4f7 electronic configuration of Eu2+ and a broad band extending between 370 and 450 nm attributed to Eu2+ trapped exciton recombination. The effect of 60Co gamma irradiation has also been investigated.

  1. Synthesis YPO4:Eu3+ Nanophosphor from Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, George D

    2010-01-01

    Live fungi (zygo and asco) were cultivated and grown in an agar solution with a 2000 ppm concentration of Y3+ from YNO3 and a 20 ppm concentration of Eu3+ from EuNO3. When the fungi were grown to a good amount, they were collected, dried, and burnt at 1000 C for 2 h in air. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and optical spectroscopy experiments revealed that the product was nanophosphor YPO4:Eu3+ with a size of 100 200 nm.

  2. Eu{sup 3+} luminescence enhancement by intercalation of benzenepolycarboxylic guests into Eu{sup 3+}-doped layered gadolinium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Qingyang; Pan, Guohua; Ma, Teng; Huang, Gailing; Sun, Genban; Ma, Shulan; Yang, Xiaojing

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: Two benzenepolycarboxylic sensitizers, 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid (BTA) and 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid (BA), were intercalated into NO{sub 3}–LGdH:Eu, in which different structures of the compounds resulted in varied arrangement in the gallery. The two organic compounds especially BA markedly enhanced the red luminescence of Eu{sup 3+} due to efficient energy transfer between the organic guests and Eu{sup 3+} centers. - Highlights: • We report the intercalation of benzenepolycarboxylic organic sensitizers into LRH. • We study the intercalation structure and the arrangement of the interlayer guests. • The two organic compounds can markedly enhance the luminescence of Eu{sup 3+}. • There exists efficient energy transfer between organic guests and Eu{sup 3+} centers. • This material opens a route for fabricating new multifunctional luminescent materials. - Abstract: Two benzenepolycarboxylic organic sensitizers, 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid (BTA) and 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid (BA), were intercalated into the gallery of NO{sub 3}{sup −} type Eu{sup 3+}-doped layered gadolinium hydroxide (NO{sub 3}–LGdH:Eu). CHN analysis, FTIR, and SEM were employed to characterize the intercalation structures of the as-prepared organic/inorganic hybrids. The area per unit charge (S{sub charge}) was used to explain the intercalation structure and the arrangement of the interlayer guests. Different structures of the two organic compounds resulted in varied arrangement of guests. Photoluminescence studies indicated that both of the two organic compounds especially BA markedly enhanced the red luminescence of Eu{sup 3+} due to efficient energy transfer between the organic guests and Eu{sup 3+} centers.

  3. Effects of drain bias on the statistical variation of double-gate tunnel field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo Young

    2017-04-01

    The effects of drain bias on the statistical variation of double-gate (DG) tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) are discussed in comparison with DG metal–oxide–semiconductor FETs (MOSFETs). Statistical variation corresponds to the variation of threshold voltage (V th), subthreshold swing (SS), and drain-induced barrier thinning (DIBT). The unique statistical variation characteristics of DG TFETs and DG MOSFETs with the variation of drain bias are analyzed by using full three-dimensional technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation in terms of the three dominant variation sources: line-edge roughness (LER), random dopant fluctuation (RDF) and workfunction variation (WFV). It is observed than DG TFETs suffer from less severe statistical variation as drain voltage increases unlike DG MOSFETs.

  4. High-Precision Measurement of Eu/Eu* in Geological Glasses via LA-ICP-MS Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Ming; McDonough, William F.; Arevalo, Ricardo, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Elemental fractionation during laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis has been historically documented between refractory and volatile elements. In this work, however, we observed fractionation between light rare earth elements (LREEs) and heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) when using ablation strategies involving large spot sizes (greater than 100 millimeters) and line scanning mode. In addition: (1) ion yields decrease when using spot sizes above 100 millimeters; (2) (Eu/Eu*)(sub raw) (i.e. Europium anomaly) positively correlates with carrier gas (He) flow rate, which provides control over the particle size distribution of the aerosol reaching the ICP; (3) (Eu/Eu*)(sub raw) shows a positive correlation with spot size, and (4) the changes in REE signal intensity, induced by the He flow rate change, roughly correlate with REE condensation temperatures. The REE fractionation is likely driven by the slight but significant difference in their condensation temperatures. Large particles may not be completely dissociated in the ICP and result in preferential evaporation of the less refractory LREEs and thus non-stoichiometric particle-ion conversion. This mechanism may also be responsible for Sm-Eu-Gd fractionation as Eu is less refractory than Sm and Gd. The extent of fractionation depends upon the particle size distribution of the aerosol, which in turn is influenced by the laser parameters and matrix. Ablation pits and lines defined by low aspect ratios produce a higher proportion of large particles than high aspect ratio ablation, as confirmed by measurements of particle size distribution in the laser induced aerosol. Therefore, low aspect ratio ablation introduces particles that cannot be decomposed and/or atomized by the ICP and thus results in exacerbated elemental fractionation. Accurate quantification of REE concentrations and Eu/Eu* requires reduction of large particle production during laser ablation. For the reference

  5. Analysis of immune cells draining from the abdominal cavity as a novel tool to study intestinal transplant immunobiology.

    PubMed

    Meier, D; Cagnola, H; Ramisch, D; Rumbo, C; Chirdo, F; Docena, G; Gondolesi, G E; Rumbo, M

    2010-10-01

    During intestinal transplant (ITx) operation, intestinal lymphatics are not reconstituted. Consequently, trafficking immune cells drain freely into the abdominal cavity. Our aim was to evaluate whether leucocytes migrating from a transplanted intestine could be recovered from the abdominal draining fluid collected by a peritoneal drainage system in the early post-ITx period, and to determine potential applications of the assessment of draining cellular populations. The cell composition of the abdominal draining fluid was analysed during the first 11 post-ITx days. Using flow cytometry, immune cells from blood and draining fluid samples obtained the same day showed an almost complete lymphopenia in peripheral blood, whereas CD3(+) CD4(+) CD8(-) , CD3(+) CD4(-) CD8(+) and human leucocyte antigen D-related (HLA-DR)(+) CD19(+) lymphocytes were the main populations in the draining fluid. Non-complicated recipients evolved from a mixed leucocyte pattern including granulocytes, monocytes and lymphocytes to an exclusively lymphocytic pattern along the first post-ITx week. At days 1-2 post-Itx, analysis by short tandem repeats fingerprinting of CD3(+) CD8(+) sorted T cells from draining fluid indicated that 50% of cells were from graft origin, whereas by day 11 post-ITx this proportion decreased to fewer than 1%. Our results show for the first time that the abdominal drainage fluid contains mainly immune cells trafficking from the implanted intestine, providing the opportunity to sample lymphocytes draining from the grafted organ along the post-ITx period. Therefore, this analysis may provide information useful for understanding ITx immunobiology and eventually could also be of interest for clinical management.

  6. Impact of a drain field plate on the breakdown characteristics of AlInN/GaN MOSHEMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, Kanjalochan; Swain, Raghunandan; Lenka, T. R.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a novel AlInN/GaN metal oxide semiconductor high electron mobility transistor (MOSHEMT) employing the drain field plate technique is proposed and the effect of a drain field plate on the breakdown voltage (BV) is investigated. A reduction of the peak electric field is required to achieve AlInN/GaN MOSHEMTs with a high BV. The proposed AlInN/GaN MOSHEMT with both gate and drain field plates simultaneously reduces the electric field concentration at the gate and the drain edge by decreasing the potential gradient along the channel for the 2 dimensional electron gas (2DEG). The reduction in the peak electric field at the drain edge of the proposed device leads to a 57% increase in BV compared with the BV for an AlInN/GaN MOSHEMT with a gate field plate only. A significantly higher BV can be achieved by optimizing the gate-to-drain distance (L gd ), the length of the drain field plate (L dfp ) and the thickness of the SiN passivation layer thickness (T SiN ). A detailed breakdown analysis of the device was carried out using Silvaco Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD). The detailed numerical simulations were done by using the non-local energy balance (EB) transport model, which was calibrated with the previously published experimental results. The results showed a great potential for applications of the drain-field-plated AlInN/GaN MOSHEMT to deliver high currents and high powers in microwave technologies.

  7. Analysis of immune cells draining from the abdominal cavity as a novel tool to study intestinal transplant immunobiology

    PubMed Central

    Meier, D; Cagnola, H; Ramisch, D; Rumbo, C; Chirdo, F; Docena, G; Gondolesi, G E; Rumbo, M

    2010-01-01

    During intestinal transplant (ITx) operation, intestinal lymphatics are not reconstituted. Consequently, trafficking immune cells drain freely into the abdominal cavity. Our aim was to evaluate whether leucocytes migrating from a transplanted intestine could be recovered from the abdominal draining fluid collected by a peritoneal drainage system in the early post-ITx period, and to determine potential applications of the assessment of draining cellular populations. The cell composition of the abdominal draining fluid was analysed during the first 11 post-ITx days. Using flow cytometry, immune cells from blood and draining fluid samples obtained the same day showed an almost complete lymphopenia in peripheral blood, whereas CD3+CD4+CD8-, CD3+CD4-CD8+ and human leucocyte antigen D-related (HLA-DR)+CD19+ lymphocytes were the main populations in the draining fluid. Non-complicated recipients evolved from a mixed leucocyte pattern including granulocytes, monocytes and lymphocytes to an exclusively lymphocytic pattern along the first post-ITx week. At days 1–2 post-Itx, analysis by short tandem repeats fingerprinting of CD3+CD8+ sorted T cells from draining fluid indicated that 50% of cells were from graft origin, whereas by day 11 post-ITx this proportion decreased to fewer than 1%. Our results show for the first time that the abdominal drainage fluid contains mainly immune cells trafficking from the implanted intestine, providing the opportunity to sample lymphocytes draining from the grafted organ along the post-ITx period. Therefore, this analysis may provide information useful for understanding ITx immunobiology and eventually could also be of interest for clinical management. PMID:20831713

  8. Is There a Benefit to Drains with a Kocher-Langenbeck Approach? A Prospective Randomized Pilot Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    HO, Kaukonen JP, Salo SA. Drainage is of no use in primary uncomplicated cemented hip and knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis : a prospective...their posterior wall fractures. One patient had an open fracture with communication between the rectum and the hip joint. All patients underwent open...the frequent presence of damaged and contused muscle about the hip as an additional reason for the use of drains. Closed suction drains cannot be

  9. Testing and evaluation of a moisture separator drain demineralizer at Davis-Besse Nuclear Station. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, W.D.; Briden, D.W.; Scott, R.J.; Edwards, R.D.; Koch, D.W.; Lamanna, L.S.

    1994-04-01

    Davis-Besse operating data, obtained using the plant`s Chemistry Data Acquisition and Management System (CDAMS) show that by polishing 15--20% of the moisture separator drains the entire drain flow can be pumped forward, saving 5.4 MWe of plant output. Concurrently, the useful lifetimes of condensate polishers were extended by factors of about 6, reducing resin replacement costs by approximately $450,000 per year.

  10. Effects of Crop Rotation, N Management, Tillage, and Controlled Drainage on nitrate-N Loss in Drain Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L.; Malone, R.; Ahuja, L.; Kanwar, R. S.

    2007-12-01

    Accurate simulation of agricultural management effects on N loss in tile drainage is vitally important for understanding hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. An experimental study was initiated in 1978 at Nashua, Iowa of the USA to study long-term effects of tillage, crop rotation, and N management practices on subsurface drainage flow and associated N losses. The Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) was applied to evaluate management effects (tillage, crop rotation, N application, and controlled drainage) on N loss in drain flow. RZWQM simulated the observed increase in N concentration in drain flow with increasing tillage intensity from NT (no-till) to RT (ridge till) to CP (chisel plow) and to MP (moldboard plow). It also adequately simulated tillage effects on yearly drain flow and yearly N loss in drain flow. On the other hand, RZWQM adequately simulated lower yearly drain flow and lower flow-weighted N concentration in drain flow under CS (corn-soybean) and SC (soybean-corn) than under CC (continuous corn). The model also simulated higher N loss from fertilizer-N applications than from manure-N applications. Applying the newly suggested N management practice for the Midwest of controlled drainage, the model simulated a 30% reduction in drain flow and a 29% decrease in N losses in drain flow under controlled drainage (CD) compared to free drainage (FD). With most of the simulations in reasonably close agreement with observations, we concluded that RZWQM is a promising tool for quantifying the relative effects of tillage, crop rotation, N application, and controlled drainage on N loss in drainage flow. Further improvements on simulated management effects on N mineralization and plant N uptake are needed, however.

  11. Luminescence studies of Eu-doped YBO3 host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Ramya G.; Nigam, Sandeep; Sudarsan, V.; Dhabekar, B. S.; Vatsa, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    Highly crystalline phase of YBO3:Eu3+ phosphors were prepared by solid state reaction. The phosphor shows characteristic 5D0→7F1 (J = 1, 2, 3, 4) transition for Eu3+. Phase purity, and emission intensity increases with increase in the annealing temperature and corresponding Eu-O charge transfer band shows blue shift in excitation spectrum. Color purity, determined in terms of R/O ratio, was found to be 1.42 (CIE color coordinates x = 0.62, y = 0.36). According to the luminescence decay analysis the 5D0 level of Eu3+ lifetime is around 5ms and quantum efficiency is 72%. Thermo-luminescence (TL) spectra of the sample reveal three broad peaks between 80 and 240°C.

  12. Paradoxical EU agricultural policies on genetically engineered crops.

    PubMed

    Masip, Gemma; Sabalza, Maite; Pérez-Massot, Eduard; Banakar, Raviraj; Cebrian, David; Twyman, Richard M; Capell, Teresa; Albajes, Ramon; Christou, Paul

    2013-06-01

    European Union (EU) agricultural policy has been developed in the pursuit of laudable goals such as a competitive economy and regulatory harmony across the union. However, what has emerged is a fragmented, contradictory, and unworkable legislative framework that threatens economic disaster. In this review, we present case studies highlighting differences in the regulations applied to foods grown in EU countries and identical imported products, which show that the EU is undermining its own competitiveness in the agricultural sector, damaging both the EU and its humanitarian activities in the developing world. We recommend the adoption of rational, science-based principles for the harmonization of agricultural policies to prevent economic decline and lower standards of living across the continent.

  13. Optical characterization of Eu3+ doped ZnO nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Grandhe, Bhaskar Kumar; Bandi, Vengala Rao; Jang, Kiwan; Lee, Ho-Sueb; Shin, Dong-Soo; Yi, Soung-Soo; Jeong, Jung-Hyun

    2013-11-01

    A rare-earth metal ion (Eu3+) doped ZnO nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized by employing wet chemical procedure using multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT's) as removable template. The preparation was carried out by immersing empty and dried MWCNT's in a stoichiometric composition of zinc nitrate and europium nitrate solution followed by filtration and sintering. The synthesized Eu3+ doped ZnO nanocomposites were characterized by means of different characterization techniques namely XRD, SEM, EDS, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. The XRD profile of the Eu3+ doped ZnO nanocomposites indicated its hexagonal nature while the photoluminescent analysis reveals that the prepared nanocomposite exhibits a strong red emission peak at 619 nm due to 5D0 --> 7F2 forced electric dipole transition of Eu3+ ions. Such luminescent materials are expected to find potential applications in display devices.

  14. Brain investigation and brain conceptualization

    PubMed Central

    Redolfi, Alberto; Bosco, Paolo; Manset, David; Frisoni, Giovanni B.

    Summary The brain of a patient with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) undergoes changes starting many years before the development of the first clinical symptoms. The recent availability of large prospective datasets makes it possible to create sophisticated brain models of healthy subjects and patients with AD, showing pathophysiological changes occurring over time. However, these models are still inadequate; representations are mainly single-scale and they do not account for the complexity and interdependence of brain changes. Brain changes in AD patients occur at different levels and for different reasons: at the molecular level, changes are due to amyloid deposition; at cellular level, to loss of neuron synapses, and at tissue level, to connectivity disruption. All cause extensive atrophy of the whole brain organ. Initiatives aiming to model the whole human brain have been launched in Europe and the US with the goal of reducing the burden of brain diseases. In this work, we describe a new approach to earlier diagnosis based on a multimodal and multiscale brain concept, built upon existing and well-characterized single modalities. PMID:24139654

  15. The Multiplex Network of EU Lobby Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, An; Battiston, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The practice of lobbying in the interest of economic or social groups plays an important role in the policy making process of most economies. While no data is available at this stage to examine the success of lobbies in exerting influence on specific policy issues, we perform a first systematic multi-layer network analysis of a large lobby registry. Here we focus on the domains of finance and climate and we combine information on affiliation and client relations from the EU transparency register with information about shareholding and interlocking directorates of firms. We find that the network centrality of lobby organizations has no simple relation with their lobbying budget. Moreover, different layers of the multiplex network provide complementary information to characterize organizations’ potential influence. At the aggregate level, it appears that while the domains of finance and climate are separated on the layer of affiliation relations, they become intertwined when economic relations are considered. Because groups of interest differ not only in their budget and network centrality but also in terms of their internal cohesiveness, drawing a map of both connections across and within groups is a precondition to better understand the dynamics of influence on policy making and the forces at play. PMID:27792734

  16. Partitioning of Eu between augite and a highly spiked martian basalt composition as a function of oxygen fugacity (IW-1 to QFM): Determination of Eu[superscript 2+]/Eu[superscript 3+] ratios by XANES

    SciTech Connect

    Karner, J.M.; Papike, J.J.; Sutton, S.R.; Burger, P.V.; Shearer, C.K.; Le, L.; Newville, M.; Choi, Y.

    2010-03-16

    We have determined D{sub Eu} between augite and melt in samples that crystallized from a highly spiked martian basalt composition at four f{sub O{sub 2}} conditions. D{sub Eu} augite/melt shows a steady increase with f{sub O{sub 2}} from 0.086 at IW-1 to 0.274 at IW+3.5. This increase is because Eu{sup 3+} is more compatible than Eu{sup 2+} in the pyroxene structure; thus increasing f{sub O{sub 2}} leads to greater Eu{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 2+} in the melt and more Eu (total) can partition into the crystallizing pyroxene. This interpretation is supported by direct determinations of Eu valence state by XANES, which show a steady increase of Eu{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 2+} with increasing f{sub O{sub 2}} in both pyroxene (0.38 to 14.6) and glass (0.20 to 12.6) in the samples. Also, pyroxene Eu{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 2+} is higher than that of adjacent glass in all the samples, which verifies that Eu{sup 3+} is more compatible than Eu{sup 2+} in the pyroxene structure. Combining partitioning data with XANES data allows for the calculation of specific valence state D-values for augite/melt where D{sub Eu{sup 3+}} = 0.28 and D{sub Eu{sup 2+}} = 0.07.

  17. Unusual Mixed Valence of Eu in Two Materials-EuSr2Bi2S4F4 and Eu2SrBi2S4F4: Mössbauer and X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy Investigations.

    PubMed

    Haque, Zeba; Thakur, Gohil Singh; Parthasarathy, Rangasamy; Gerke, Birgit; Block, Theresa; Heletta, Lukas; Pöttgen, Rainer; Joshi, Amish G; Selvan, Ganesan Kalai; Arumugam, Sonachalam; Gupta, Laxmi Chand; Ganguli, Ashok Kumar

    2017-02-28

    We have synthesized two new Eu-based compounds, EuSr2Bi2S4F4 and Eu2SrBi2S4F4, which are derivatives of Eu3Bi2S4F4, an intrinsic superconductor with Tc = 1.5 K. They belong to a tetragonal structure (SG: I4/mmm, Z = 2), similar to the parent compound Eu3Bi2S4F4. Our structural and (151)Eu Mössbauer spectroscopy studies show that, in EuSr2Bi2S4F4, Eu-atoms exclusively occupy the crystallographic 2a-sites. In Eu2SrBi2S4F4, 2a-sites are fully occupied by Eu-atoms and the other half of Eu-atoms and Sr-atoms together fully occupy 4e-sites in a statistical distribution. In both compounds Eu atoms occupying the crystallographic 2a-sites are in a homogeneous mixed valent state ∼2.6-2.7. From our magnetization studies in an applied H ≤ 9 T, we infer that the valence of Eu-atoms in Eu2SrBi2S4F4 at the 2a-sites exhibits a shift toward 2+. Our XPS studies corroborate the occurrence of valence fluctuations of Eu and after Ar-ion sputtering show evidence of enhanced population of Eu(2+)-states. Resistivity measurements, down to 2 K, suggest a semimetallic nature for both compounds.

  18. Regionale Meeresschutzkooperation und die EU-Gratwanderung der Helsinki-Kommission imOsterweiterungsprozess der EU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhoff, Heike

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of the lecture is to describe the role of regional marine protection cooperation in the context of international cooperation. My intention is to provide evidence that regional forms of cooperation are an indispensable instrument, in particular against the backdrop of the EU enlargement to the east. Signed at times when the iron curtain still existed, the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Convention was the basis of a first reluctant cooperation between Western and Eastem states bordering on the Baltic Sea. As a result of the fall of the iron curtain and of the accession of Finland and Sweden to the European Union there was a shift in the political structure of the Baltic Sea cooperation. 4 EU member states are represented in the Helsinki Commission. As there is a total of 10 Parties (one of them the Commission of the European Communities) this means that EU countries currently already make up 50% of the Commission. The regulatory instruments of the Helsinki Commission (legally non-binding, yet politically appellative recommendations) and of the EU (directives, regulations etc. which are binding by international law) make it clear that there are serious differences. From the point of view of regional marine protection cooperation, the EC Commission’s involvement in issues of regional marine protection has been linked to both advantages and disadvantages. The pressure created by the EC’s involvement in certain issues can be considered an advantage, since it requires that certain issues are continually addressed in the framework of regional marine protection cooperation. For example, in the wake of the adoption of the nitrates directive special rules were established in the framework of the Helsinki Commission. However, the exclusive competence for individual areas (e.g. fisheries) claimed by the EC Commission sometimes has negative effects. Those member states of the Helsinki Commission which are also EU member states may formally only accept rules

  19. EU Failing FAO Challenge to Improve Global Food Security.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Stuart J; Phillips, Peter W B; Kerr, William A

    2016-07-01

    The announcement that the European Union (EU) had reached an agreement allowing Member States (MS) to ban genetically modified (GM) crops confirms that the EU has chosen to ignore the food security challenge issued to the world by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in 2009. The FAO suggests that agricultural biotechnology has a central role in meeting the food security challenge.

  20. Electron spin resonance in Eu-based iron pnictides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krug von Nidda, H.-A.; Kraus, S.; Schaile, S.; Dengler, E.; Pascher, N.; Hemmida, M.; Eom, M. J.; Kim, J. S.; Jeevan, H. S.; Gegenwart, P.; Deisenhofer, J.; Loidl, A.

    2012-09-01

    The phase diagrams of EuFe2-xCoxAs2 (0≤x≤0.4) and EuFe2As2-yPy (0≤y≤0.43) are investigated by Eu2+ electron spin resonance (ESR) in single crystals. From the temperature dependence of the linewidth ΔH(T) of the exchange narrowed ESR line, the spin-density wave (SDW) (TTSDW) are clearly distinguished. At T>TSDW the isotropic linear increase of the linewidth is driven by the Korringa relaxation which measures the conduction-electron density of states at the Fermi level. For T0.2 and y>0.3 it remains nearly constant. Comparative ESR measurements on single crystals of the Eu diluted SDW compound Eu0.2Sr0.8Fe2As2 and superconducting (SC) Eu0.22Sr0.78Fe1.72Co0.28As2 corroborate the leading influence of the ligand field on the Eu2+ spin relaxation in the SDW regime as well as the Korringa relaxation in the normal metallic regime. A coherence peak is not detected in the latter compound below Tc=21 K, which is in agreement with the expected complex anisotropic SC gap structure. In contrast, indications for phase coexistence and BCS-type superconductivity are found in EuFe2As1.57P0.43.