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Sample records for eucalyptus grandis hill

  1. The genome of Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Myburg, Alexander A; Grattapaglia, Dario; Tuskan, Gerald A; Hellsten, Uffe; Hayes, Richard D; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Lindquist, Erika; Tice, Hope; Bauer, Diane; Goodstein, David M; Dubchak, Inna; Poliakov, Alexandre; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Kullan, Anand R K; Hussey, Steven G; Pinard, Desre; van der Merwe, Karen; Singh, Pooja; van Jaarsveld, Ida; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B; Togawa, Roberto C; Pappas, Marilia R; Faria, Danielle A; Sansaloni, Carolina P; Petroli, Cesar D; Yang, Xiaohan; Ranjan, Priya; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Ye, Chu-Yu; Li, Ting; Sterck, Lieven; Vanneste, Kevin; Murat, Florent; Soler, Marçal; Clemente, Hélène San; Saidi, Naijib; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Dunand, Christophe; Hefer, Charles A; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Kersting, Anna R; Vining, Kelly; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Ranik, Martin; Naithani, Sushma; Elser, Justin; Boyd, Alexander E; Liston, Aaron; Spatafora, Joseph W; Dharmwardhana, Palitha; Raja, Rajani; Sullivan, Christopher; Romanel, Elisson; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Külheim, Carsten; Foley, William; Carocha, Victor; Paiva, Jorge; Kudrna, David; Brommonschenkel, Sergio H; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Byrne, Margaret; Rigault, Philippe; Tibbits, Josquin; Spokevicius, Antanas; Jones, Rebecca C; Steane, Dorothy A; Vaillancourt, René E; Potts, Brad M; Joubert, Fourie; Barry, Kerrie; Pappas, Georgios J; Strauss, Steven H; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Salse, Jérôme; Van de Peer, Yves; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Schmutz, Jeremy

    2014-06-19

    Eucalypts are the world's most widely planted hardwood trees. Their outstanding diversity, adaptability and growth have made them a global renewable resource of fibre and energy. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640-megabase genome of Eucalyptus grandis. Of 36,376 predicted protein-coding genes, 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion thus far in plant genomes. Eucalyptus also shows the highest diversity of genes for specialized metabolites such as terpenes that act as chemical defence and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Genome sequencing of the E. grandis sister species E. globulus and a set of inbred E. grandis tree genomes reveals dynamic genome evolution and hotspots of inbreeding depression. The E. grandis genome is the first reference for the eudicot order Myrtales and is placed here sister to the eurosids. This resource expands our understanding of the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.

  2. The genome of Eucalyptus grandis

    SciTech Connect

    Myburg, Alexander A.; Grattapaglia, Dario; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Hellsten, Uffe; Hayes, Richard D.; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Lindquist, Erika; Tice, Hope; Bauer, Diane; Goodstein, David M.; Dubchak, Inna; Poliakov, Alexandre; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Kullan, Anand R. K.; Hussey, Steven G.; Pinard, Desre; van der Merwe, Karen; Singh, Pooja; van Jaarsveld, Ida; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B.; Togawa, Roberto C.; Pappas, Marilia R.; Faria, Danielle A.; Sansaloni, Carolina P.; Petroli, Cesar D.; Yang, Xiaohan; Ranjan, Priya; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Ye, Chu-Yu; Li, Ting; Sterck, Lieven; Vanneste, Kevin; Murat, Florent; Soler, Marçal; Clemente, Hélène San; Saidi, Naijib; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Dunand, Christophe; Hefer, Charles A.; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Kersting, Anna R.; Vining, Kelly; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Ranik, Martin; Naithani, Sushma; Elser, Justin; Boyd, Alexander E.; Liston, Aaron; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Dharmwardhana, Palitha; Raja, Rajani; Sullivan, Christopher; Romanel, Elisson; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Külheim, Carsten; Foley, William; Carocha, Victor; Paiva, Jorge; Kudrna, David; Brommonschenkel, Sergio H.; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Byrne, Margaret; Rigault, Philippe; Tibbits, Josquin; Spokevicius, Antanas; Jones, Rebecca C.; Steane, Dorothy A.; Vaillancourt, René E.; Potts, Brad M.; Joubert, Fourie; Barry, Kerrie; Pappas, Georgios J.; Strauss, Steven H.; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Salse, Jérôme; Van de Peer, Yves; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Schmutz, Jeremy

    2014-06-11

    Eucalypts are the world s most widely planted hardwood trees. Their broad adaptability, rich species diversity, fast growth and superior multipurpose wood, have made them a global renewable resource of fiber and energy that mitigates human pressures on natural forests. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640 Mbp genome of Eucalyptus grandis into its 11 chromosomes. A set of 36,376 protein coding genes were predicted revealing that 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion found thus far in any plant genome. Eucalypts also show the highest diversity of genes for plant specialized metabolism that act as chemical defence against biotic agents and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Resequencing of a set of inbred tree genomes revealed regions of strongly conserved heterozygosity, likely hotspots of inbreeding depression. The resequenced genome of the sister species E. globulus underscored the high inter-specific genome colinearity despite substantial genome size variation in the genus. The genome of E. grandis is the first reference for the early diverging Rosid order Myrtales and is placed here basal to the Eurosids. This resource expands knowledge on the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.

  3. Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden inoculated with Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC-Pt116) in land subject to the sandy process in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Eduardo Lorensi; Antoniolli, Zaida Inês; Machado, Rafael Goulart; Eckhardt, Daniel Pazzini; Dahmer, Sabrina de Fátima Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypts is one of the main species used for commercial reforestation in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the survival and early growth of eucalyptus trees in an area subject to sandy process after three years of growth. The Eucalyptus grandis seedlings were grown in a greenhouse, inoculated or not with the isolated ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC-Pt116), produced in peat or Entisol. After 120 days, the seedlings were transplanted to an area subject to the sandy process, in the São Francisco de Assis city, RS. The plants have been evaluated regarding survival, height, stem diameter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium levels and total phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus, organic phosphorus and wood production on different days after planting. The seedlings grown on the Entisol which was inoculated with the isolated UFSC-Pt116 presented higher survival rates, height, stem diameter, nitrogen concentration and wood production then non-inoculated seedlings. Inoculation with ectomycorrhizal fungi enhanced the production of E. grandis seedlings in survival rates, height, stem diameter. PMID:25763017

  4. Heat pulse observations of Eucalyptus grandis transpiration in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Dye, P.J.; Olbrich, B.W.

    1992-12-31

    Forest plantations in South Africa are currently limited to areas experiencing a minimum mean annual rainfall of 800 mm, and cover approximately 1.18 million ha. Of this total area, 37% is planted to Eucalyptus spp., of which 76% comprise E. grandis Hill ex Maiden. Micrometeorological methods of measuring evapotranspiration are impractical in many areas of South African forestry owing to the rugged topography and heterogeneous canopy and boundary layer conditions. The heat pulse velocity (HPV) technique shows great promise as a suitable method of measuring sap flow in even-aged forest plantations. This paper describes the method in detail, as well as the results of comparisons between HPV sap flow estimates and cut-tree uptake rates for two size classes of E. grandis.

  5. Response of Eucalyptus grandis trees to soil water deficits.

    PubMed

    Dye, P. J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of potential transpiration models to simulate transpiration rates in areas prone to soil water deficits leads to overestimates of water use as the soil dries. Therefore, I carried out studies on Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden trees subjected to soil drying at two field sites in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa to determine the relation between transpiration rate and soil water availability. I hypothesized that, with this relationship defined, simple modeling of the soil water balance could be used to predict what fraction of potential transpiration was taking place at a given time. Site 1 supported a stand of 3-year-old E. grandis trees, whereas 9-year-old trees were growing on Site 2, situated 2 km away. At each site, plastic sheeting was laid over the ground to prevent soil water recharge and thereby allow the roots in the soil to induce a continuous progressive depletion of soil water. Measurements of predawn xylem pressure potential, leaf area index, growth and sap flow rates revealed that prevention of soil water recharge resulted in only moderate drought stress. At Site 1, the trees abstracted water down to 8 m below the surface, whereas trees at Site 2 obtained most of their water from depths below 8 m. I found that modeling the water balance of deep rooting zones is impractical for the purpose of simulating nonpotential transpiration rates because of uncertainties about the depth of the root system, the soil water recharge mechanism and the water retention characteristics of the deep subsoil strata. I conclude that predicting the occurrence and severity of soil water deficits from the soil water balance is not feasible at these sites.

  6. High-resolution genetic maps of Eucalyptus improve Eucalyptus grandis genome assembly.

    PubMed

    Bartholomé, Jérôme; Mandrou, Eric; Mabiala, André; Jenkins, Jerry; Nabihoudine, Ibouniyamine; Klopp, Christophe; Schmutz, Jeremy; Plomion, Christophe; Gion, Jean-Marc

    2015-06-01

    Genetic maps are key tools in genetic research as they constitute the framework for many applications, such as quantitative trait locus analysis, and support the assembly of genome sequences. The resequencing of the two parents of a cross between Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis was used to design a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array of 6000 markers evenly distributed along the E. grandis genome. The genotyping of 1025 offspring enabled the construction of two high-resolution genetic maps containing 1832 and 1773 markers with an average marker interval of 0.45 and 0.5 cM for E. grandis and E. urophylla, respectively. The comparison between genetic maps and the reference genome highlighted 85% of collinear regions. A total of 43 noncollinear regions and 13 nonsynthetic regions were detected and corrected in the new genome assembly. This improved version contains 4943 scaffolds totalling 691.3 Mb of which 88.6% were captured by the 11 chromosomes. The mapping data were also used to investigate the effect of population size and number of markers on linkage mapping accuracy. This study provides the most reliable linkage maps for Eucalyptus and version 2.0 of the E. grandis genome. PMID:25385325

  7. Effects of autohydrolysis of Eucalyptus urograndis and Eucalyptus grandis on influence of chemical components and crystallinity index.

    PubMed

    da Silva Morais, Alaine Patrícia; Sansígolo, Cláudio Angeli; de Oliveira Neto, Mario

    2016-08-01

    Samples of Eucalyptus urograndis and Eucalyptus grandis sawdust were autohydrolyzed in aqueous conditions to reach temperatures in the range 110-190°C and reaction times of 0-150min in a minireactor. In each minireactor were used a liquor:wood ratio (10:1 L:kg dry wood), in order to assess the effects of the autohydrolysis severity and the crystalline properties of cellulose. The content of extractives, lignin, holocellulose, cellulose, hemicelluloses and crystallinity index obtained from the solid fraction after autohydrolysis of sawdust were determined. This study demonstrated that the hemicelluloses were extensively removed at 170 and 190°C, whereas cellulose was partly degraded to Eucalyptus urograndis and Eucalyptus grandis sawdust. The lignin content decreased, while the extractives content increased. It was defined that during autohydrolysis, had a slight decreased on crystalline structure of cellulose of Eucalyptus urogandis and Eucalyptus grandis. PMID:27187566

  8. Seasonal Variation of Carbon Metabolism in the Cambial Zone of Eucalyptus grandis

    PubMed Central

    Budzinski, Ilara G. F.; Moon, David H.; Lindén, Pernilla; Moritz, Thomas; Labate, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus species are the most widely hardwood planted in the world. It is one of the successful examples of commercial forestry plantation in Brazil and other tropical and subtropical countries. The tree is valued for its rapid growth, adaptability and wood quality. Wood formation is the result of cumulative annual activity of the vascular cambium. This cambial activity is generally related to the alternation of cold and warm, and/or dry and rainy seasons. Efforts have focused on analysis of cambial zone in response to seasonal variations in trees from temperate zones. However, little is known about the molecular changes triggered by seasonal variations in trees from tropical countries. In this work we attempted to establish a global view of seasonal alterations in the cambial zone of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, emphasizing changes occurring in the carbon metabolism. Using transcripts, proteomics and metabolomics we analyzed the tissues harvested in summer-wet and winter-dry seasons. Based on proteomics analysis, 70 proteins that changed in abundance were successfully identified. Transcripts for some of these proteins were analyzed and similar expression patterns were observed. We identified 19 metabolites differentially abundant. Our results suggest a differential reconfiguration of carbon partioning in E. grandis cambial zone. During summer, pyruvate is primarily metabolized via ethanolic fermentation, possibly to regenerate NAD+ for glycolytic ATP production and cellular maintenance. However, in winter there seems to be a metabolic change and we found that some sugars were highly abundant. Our results revealed a dynamic change in E. grandis cambial zone due to seasonality and highlight the importance of glycolysis and ethanolic fermentation for energy generation and maintenance in Eucalyptus, a fast growing tree. PMID:27446160

  9. Seasonal Variation of Carbon Metabolism in the Cambial Zone of Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Budzinski, Ilara G F; Moon, David H; Lindén, Pernilla; Moritz, Thomas; Labate, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus species are the most widely hardwood planted in the world. It is one of the successful examples of commercial forestry plantation in Brazil and other tropical and subtropical countries. The tree is valued for its rapid growth, adaptability and wood quality. Wood formation is the result of cumulative annual activity of the vascular cambium. This cambial activity is generally related to the alternation of cold and warm, and/or dry and rainy seasons. Efforts have focused on analysis of cambial zone in response to seasonal variations in trees from temperate zones. However, little is known about the molecular changes triggered by seasonal variations in trees from tropical countries. In this work we attempted to establish a global view of seasonal alterations in the cambial zone of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, emphasizing changes occurring in the carbon metabolism. Using transcripts, proteomics and metabolomics we analyzed the tissues harvested in summer-wet and winter-dry seasons. Based on proteomics analysis, 70 proteins that changed in abundance were successfully identified. Transcripts for some of these proteins were analyzed and similar expression patterns were observed. We identified 19 metabolites differentially abundant. Our results suggest a differential reconfiguration of carbon partioning in E. grandis cambial zone. During summer, pyruvate is primarily metabolized via ethanolic fermentation, possibly to regenerate NAD(+) for glycolytic ATP production and cellular maintenance. However, in winter there seems to be a metabolic change and we found that some sugars were highly abundant. Our results revealed a dynamic change in E. grandis cambial zone due to seasonality and highlight the importance of glycolysis and ethanolic fermentation for energy generation and maintenance in Eucalyptus, a fast growing tree. PMID:27446160

  10. Temporal dynamics of the response to Al stress in Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis.

    PubMed

    Alcântara, Berenice K de; Pizzaia, Daniel; Piotto, Fernando A; Borgo, Lucélia; Brondani, Gilvano E; Azevedo, Ricardo A

    2015-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation and root elongation of Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis were studied under stress conditions in response to aluminum (Al), a metal known to limit agricultural productivity in acidic soils primarily due to reduced root elongation. In Brazil, the Grancam 1277 hybrid (E. grandis × E. camaldulensis) has been planted in the "Cerrado", a region of the country with a wide occurrence of acidic soils. The present study demonstrated that the hybrid exhibited root growth reduction and increased levels of lipid peroxidation after 24h of treatment with 100 µM of Al, which was followed by a reduction in lipid peroxidation levels and the recovery of root elongation after 48 h of Al exposure, suggesting a rapid response to the early stressful conditions induced by Al. The understanding of the temporal dynamics of Al tolerance may be useful for selecting more tolerant genotypes and for identifying genes of interest for applications in bioengineering. PMID:26062119

  11. Phosphorus limits Eucalyptus grandis seedling growth in an unburnt rain forest soil

    PubMed Central

    Tng, David Y. P.; Janos, David P.; Jordan, Gregory J.; Weber, Ellen; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Although rain forest is characterized as pyrophobic, pyrophilic giant eucalypts grow as rain forest emergents in both temperate and tropical Australia. In temperate Australia, such eucalypts depend on extensive, infrequent fires to produce conditions suitable for seedling growth. Little is known, however, about constraints on seedlings of tropical giant eucalypts. We tested whether seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis experience edaphic constraints similar to their temperate counterparts. We hypothesized that phosphorous addition would alleviate edaphic constraints. We grew seedlings in a factorial experiment combining fumigation (to simulate nutrient release and soil pasteurization by fire), soil type (E. grandis forest versus rain forest soil) and phosphorus addition as factors. We found that phosphorus was the principal factor limiting E. grandis seedling survival and growth in rain forest soil, and that fumigation enhanced survival of seedlings in both E. grandis forest and rain forest soil. We conclude that similar to edaphic constraints on temperate giant eucalypts, mineral nutrient and biotic attributes of a tropical rain forest soil may hamper E. grandis seedling establishment. In rain forest soil, E. grandis seedlings benefited from conditions akin to a fire-generated ashbed (i.e., an “ashbed effect”). PMID:25339968

  12. A Newly Identified Passive Hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla under Manganese Stress.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qingqing; Li, Zhenji; Yang, Limin; Lv, Jing; Jobe, Timothy O; Wang, Qiuquan

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient needed for plant growth and development, but can be toxic to plants in excess amounts. However, some plant species have detoxification mechanisms that allow them to accumulate Mn to levels that are normally toxic, a phenomenon known as hyperaccumulation. These species are excellent candidates for developing a cost-effective remediation strategy for Mn-polluted soils. In this study, we identified a new passive Mn-hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla during a field survey in southern China in July 2010. This hybrid can accumulate as much as 13,549 mg/kg DW Mn in its leaves. Our results from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) X-ray microanalysis indicate that Mn is distributed in the entire leaf and stem cross-section, especially in photosynthetic palisade, spongy mesophyll tissue, and stem xylem vessels. Results from size-exclusion chromatography coupled with ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) lead us to speculate that Mn associates with relatively high molecular weight proteins and low molecular weight organic acids, including tartaric acid, to avoid Mn toxicity. Our results provide experimental evidence that both proteins and organic acids play important roles in Mn detoxification in Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla. The key characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla are an increased Mn translocation facilitated by transpiration through the xylem to the leaves and further distribution throughout the leaf tissues. Moreover, the Mn-speciation profile obtained for the first time in different cellular organelles of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla suggested that different organelles have differential accumulating abilities and unique mechanisms for Mn-detoxification.

  13. A Newly Identified Passive Hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla under Manganese Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qingqing; Li, Zhenji; Yang, Limin; Lv, Jing; Jobe, Timothy O.; Wang, Qiuquan

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient needed for plant growth and development, but can be toxic to plants in excess amounts. However, some plant species have detoxification mechanisms that allow them to accumulate Mn to levels that are normally toxic, a phenomenon known as hyperaccumulation. These species are excellent candidates for developing a cost-effective remediation strategy for Mn-polluted soils. In this study, we identified a new passive Mn-hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla during a field survey in southern China in July 2010. This hybrid can accumulate as much as 13,549 mg/kg DW Mn in its leaves. Our results from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) X-ray microanalysis indicate that Mn is distributed in the entire leaf and stem cross-section, especially in photosynthetic palisade, spongy mesophyll tissue, and stem xylem vessels. Results from size-exclusion chromatography coupled with ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) lead us to speculate that Mn associates with relatively high molecular weight proteins and low molecular weight organic acids, including tartaric acid, to avoid Mn toxicity. Our results provide experimental evidence that both proteins and organic acids play important roles in Mn detoxification in Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla. The key characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla are an increased Mn translocation facilitated by transpiration through the xylem to the leaves and further distribution throughout the leaf tissues. Moreover, the Mn-speciation profile obtained for the first time in different cellular organelles of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla suggested that different organelles have differential accumulating abilities and unique mechanisms for Mn-detoxification. PMID:26327118

  14. The Eucalyptus grandis NBS-LRR Gene Family: Physical Clustering and Expression Hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Nanette; Tobias, Peri A.; Naidoo, Sanushka; Külheim, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus grandis is a commercially important hardwood species and is known to be susceptible to a number of pests and pathogens. Determining mechanisms of defense is therefore a research priority. The published genome for E. grandis has aided the identification of one important class of resistance (R) genes that incorporate nucleotide binding sites and leucine-rich repeat domains (NBS-LRR). Using an iterative search process we identified NBS-LRR gene models within the E. grandis genome. We characterized the gene models and identified their genomic arrangement. The gene expression patterns were examined in E. grandis clones, challenged with a fungal pathogen (Chrysoporthe austroafricana) and insect pest (Leptocybe invasa). One thousand two hundred and fifteen putative NBS-LRR coding sequences were located which aligned into two large classes, Toll or interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) and coiled-coil (CC) based on NB-ARC domains. NBS-LRR gene-rich regions were identified with 76% organized in clusters of three or more genes. A further 272 putative incomplete resistance genes were also identified. We determined that E. grandis has a higher ratio of TIR to CC classed genes compared to other woody plant species as well as a smaller percentage of single NBS-LRR genes. Transcriptome profiles indicated expression hotspots, within physical clusters, including expression of many incomplete genes. The clustering of putative NBS-LRR genes correlates with differential expression responses in resistant and susceptible plants indicating functional relevance for the physical arrangement of this gene family. This analysis of the repertoire and expression of E. grandis putative NBS-LRR genes provides an important resource for the identification of novel and functional R-genes; a key objective for strategies to enhance resilience. PMID:26793216

  15. Explosive tandem and segmental duplications of multigenic families in Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Yu, Hong; Cao, Phi Bang; Fawal, Nizar; Mathé, Catherine; Azar, Sahar; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Myburg, Alexander A; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Marque, Christiane; Teulières, Chantal; Dunand, Christophe

    2015-03-13

    Plant organisms contain a large number of genes belonging to numerous multigenic families whose evolution size reflects some functional constraints. Sequences from eight multigenic families, involved in biotic and abiotic responses, have been analyzed in Eucalyptus grandis and compared with Arabidopsis thaliana. Two transcription factor families APETALA 2 (AP2)/ethylene responsive factor and GRAS, two auxin transporter families PIN-FORMED and AUX/LAX, two oxidoreductase families (ascorbate peroxidases [APx] and Class III peroxidases [CIII Prx]), and two families of protective molecules late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) and DNAj were annotated in expert and exhaustive manner. Many recent tandem duplications leading to the emergence of species-specific gene clusters and the explosion of the gene numbers have been observed for the AP2, GRAS, LEA, PIN, and CIII Prx in E. grandis, while the APx, the AUX/LAX and DNAj are conserved between species. Although no direct evidence has yet demonstrated the roles of these recent duplicated genes observed in E. grandis, this could indicate their putative implications in the morphological and physiological characteristics of E. grandis, and be the key factor for the survival of this nondormant species. Global analysis of key families would be a good criterion to evaluate the capabilities of some organisms to adapt to environmental variations.

  16. Explosive tandem and segmental duplications of multigenic families in Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Yu, Hong; Cao, Phi Bang; Fawal, Nizar; Mathé, Catherine; Azar, Sahar; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Myburg, Alexander A; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Marque, Christiane; Teulières, Chantal; Dunand, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    Plant organisms contain a large number of genes belonging to numerous multigenic families whose evolution size reflects some functional constraints. Sequences from eight multigenic families, involved in biotic and abiotic responses, have been analyzed in Eucalyptus grandis and compared with Arabidopsis thaliana. Two transcription factor families APETALA 2 (AP2)/ethylene responsive factor and GRAS, two auxin transporter families PIN-FORMED and AUX/LAX, two oxidoreductase families (ascorbate peroxidases [APx] and Class III peroxidases [CIII Prx]), and two families of protective molecules late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) and DNAj were annotated in expert and exhaustive manner. Many recent tandem duplications leading to the emergence of species-specific gene clusters and the explosion of the gene numbers have been observed for the AP2, GRAS, LEA, PIN, and CIII Prx in E. grandis, while the APx, the AUX/LAX and DNAj are conserved between species. Although no direct evidence has yet demonstrated the roles of these recent duplicated genes observed in E. grandis, this could indicate their putative implications in the morphological and physiological characteristics of E. grandis, and be the key factor for the survival of this nondormant species. Global analysis of key families would be a good criterion to evaluate the capabilities of some organisms to adapt to environmental variations. PMID:25769696

  17. Supercritical water gasification of Eucalyptus grandis and related pyrolysis char: Effect of feedstock composition.

    PubMed

    Louw, Jeanne; Schwarz, Cara E; Burger, Andries J

    2016-09-01

    Eucalyptus grandis (E. grandis) wood and char products derived from pyrolysis of E. grandis wood, were gasified in supercritical water at 450°C - with and without the use of a homogeneous (K2CO3) and heterogeneous (Ni/Al2O3-SiO2) catalyst. Gas yields and gasification efficiencies were measured experimentally and compared to calculated thermodynamic equilibrium values, specifically considering the effects of the O/C ratio and volatile matter content of the feed material. Thermodynamically, feed material with lower O/C ratios (0.22) typically resulted in higher CH4 yields (30mol/kgfeed,dry) and gasification efficiencies (188%). However, experimentally, feed material with lower O/C ratios and lower volatile matter resulted in the lowest CH4 yields and gasification efficiencies. Furthermore, a linear relationship between the carbon efficiency (CE) and both the volatile matter content and O/C ratio of the feed material was found to hold true in both catalytic and non-catalytic experiments. PMID:27343456

  18. Supercritical water gasification of Eucalyptus grandis and related pyrolysis char: Effect of feedstock composition.

    PubMed

    Louw, Jeanne; Schwarz, Cara E; Burger, Andries J

    2016-09-01

    Eucalyptus grandis (E. grandis) wood and char products derived from pyrolysis of E. grandis wood, were gasified in supercritical water at 450°C - with and without the use of a homogeneous (K2CO3) and heterogeneous (Ni/Al2O3-SiO2) catalyst. Gas yields and gasification efficiencies were measured experimentally and compared to calculated thermodynamic equilibrium values, specifically considering the effects of the O/C ratio and volatile matter content of the feed material. Thermodynamically, feed material with lower O/C ratios (0.22) typically resulted in higher CH4 yields (30mol/kgfeed,dry) and gasification efficiencies (188%). However, experimentally, feed material with lower O/C ratios and lower volatile matter resulted in the lowest CH4 yields and gasification efficiencies. Furthermore, a linear relationship between the carbon efficiency (CE) and both the volatile matter content and O/C ratio of the feed material was found to hold true in both catalytic and non-catalytic experiments.

  19. Effects of an inducible aiiA gene on disease resistance in Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, L J; Li, L M

    2016-08-01

    N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are metabolites of mostly gram-negative bacteria and are critical signaling molecules in bacterial quorum-sensing systems. At threshold concentrations, AHLs can activate the expression of pathogenic genes and induce diseases. Therefore, reducing AHL concentrations is a key point of disease control in plants. AHL-lactonase, which is expressed by aiiA, is widespread in Bacillus sp and can hydrolyze AHLs. In the present study, we cloned aiiA from Bacillus subtilis by PCR. A plant expression vector of aiiA was constructed and name Pcam-PPP3-aiiA, in which expression of aiiA was controlled by the pathogen-inducible plant promoter PPP3. The recombinant plasmid was transferred into Eucalyptus × urophylla × E. grandis by an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PCR and Southern blotting showed that aiiA was successfully integrated into the E. urophylla × E. grandis genome and its expression was induced by Ralstonia solanacearum 12 h after inoculation, as shown by reverse transcription-PCR. The transcription efficacy of aiiA increased 43.88-, 30.65-, and 18.95-fold after inoculation with R. solanacearum, Erwinia carotovora ssp. zeae (Sabet) and Cylindrocladium quinqueseptatum, respectively as shown by RT-real-time PCR. Transgenic E.urophylla × E.grandis expressing the AIIA protein exhibited significantly enhanced disease resistance compared to non-transgenic plants by delaying the onset of wilting and reducing the disease index. PMID:26905275

  20. Dry mass allocation, water use efficiency and delta(13)C in clones of Eucalyptus grandis, E. grandis x camaldulensis and E. grandis x nitens grown under two irrigation regimes.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, D; Stock, W D; Bond, W J; Maphanga, D

    1996-05-01

    Clonal variation in water use efficiency (WUE), dry mass accumulation and allocation, and stable carbon isotope ratio (delta(13)C) of crude leaf fiber extracts was determined in six clones of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden. grown for 16 months in field lysimeters in two soil water regimes. The relationships between delta(13)C and WUE calculated on the basis of leaf, harvestable stem, shoot and whole-plant dry mass accumulation were investigated. There was no clonal variation in dry mass accumulation but clonal allocation to roots, harvestable stems, branches and leaves varied. Water use efficiencies (mass of plant or plant part/water used over 16 months) differed significantly between clones. The clonal ranking of WUE varied depending on the units of dry mass accumulation used. Significant relationships between delta(13)C values and instantaneous water use efficiencies and ratios of internal leaf to ambient CO(2) concentrations were found only in the high soil water treatment. There were no relationships between delta(13)C values and whole-plant, shoot and harvestable stem water use efficiencies and soil water availability. Values of delta(13)C were negatively correlated with dry mass accumulation in the low soil water treatment. At the whole-plant level, WUE was positively correlated with dry mass accumulation in the high soil water treatment. We found significant differences in delta(13)C values between clones and the clonal rankings in delta(13)C and WUE were maintained in both soil water treatments. PMID:14871719

  1. Larvicidal effect of Eucalyptus grandis essential oil and turpentine and their major components on Aedes aegypti larvae.

    PubMed

    Lucia, Alejandro; Gonzalez Audino, Paola; Seccacini, Emilia; Licastro, Susana; Zerba, Eduardo; Masuh, Hector

    2007-09-01

    In the search for new alternatives for the control of Aedes aegypti the larvicidal activity of Eucalyptus grandis essential oil and pine resin essential oil (turpentine) and their major components (alpha- and beta-pinene and 1,8-cineole) was determined. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis of E. grandis essential oil revealed that its major components are alpha-pinene and 1,8-cineole. Similar analysis of turpentine obtained by distillation of the resin pitch of conifers showed that alpha- and beta-pinene are the only major components. Third and early 4th instars of the CIPEIN-susceptible strain of Ae. aegypti were exposed to acetonic solutions of E. grandis essential oil, turpentine, and their major components for 24 h. Turpentine, with an LC50 of 14.7 ppm, was more active than the essential oil of E. grandis (LC50: 32.4 ppm). Larvicidal activity of the essential oil components showed that alpha- and beta-pinene present low LC50 values (15.4 and 12.1 ppm, respectively), whereas pure 1,8-cineole showed an LC50 of 57.2 ppm. These results suggest that alpha-pinene in E. grandis and alpha- and beta-pinene in turpentine serve as the principal larvicidal components of both oils. Results obtained on larvicidal effects of essential oil of Eucalyptus grandis and turpentine could be considered a contribution to the search for new biodegradable larvicides of natural origin. PMID:17939510

  2. Impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiwei; Hu, Tingxing; Chen, Hong; Wang, Qian; Hu, Hongling; Tu, Lihua; Jing, Liao

    2013-09-01

    A pot experiment was performed to study the impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings. The experimental design scheme was 0 (CK), 40 (A1), 80 (A2) and 120 g pot(-1) (A3) of E. grandis leaves, and changes in the volatile oil chemical composition during litter decomposition were assessed in the present study. The results showed that C. septentrionale leaf litter inhibited the growth of E. grandis saplings, as determined by the height, basal diameter and chlorophyll content, after 69 d (T1). Five months after transplantation (T2), the height growth rate of the E. grandis saplings increased and then gradually reduced (A1: 40 g pot(-1) > A2: 80 g pot(-1) > A3: 120 g pot(-1) > CK: 0 g pot(-1)). After eleven months (T3), the variations in the height and basal diameter were the same as observed at T2, and the inhibition on leaf, branch, root and stem biomass increased with increasing leaf litter content. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the volatile compound composition. The results indicated that the C. septentrionale original leaf litter (S1) contained thirty-one volatile compounds, but the treated leaf litter S2 (which was mixed with soil for eleven months to simultaneously plant E. grandis saplings) only possessed fourteen volatile compounds, releasing many secondary metabolites in the soil during decomposition. Most of the volatile compounds were alcohols, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenes, alkanes, alkene, esters and ketones. Most of the allelochemicals of C. septentrionale might be released during the initial decomposing process, inhibiting the growth of other plants, whereas some nutrients might be released later, promoting the height growth of plants. In conclusion, decomposing C. septentrionale leaf litter release of many allelochemicals in the soil that significantly inhibit the growth of E. grandis.

  3. Impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiwei; Hu, Tingxing; Chen, Hong; Wang, Qian; Hu, Hongling; Tu, Lihua; Jing, Liao

    2013-09-01

    A pot experiment was performed to study the impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings. The experimental design scheme was 0 (CK), 40 (A1), 80 (A2) and 120 g pot(-1) (A3) of E. grandis leaves, and changes in the volatile oil chemical composition during litter decomposition were assessed in the present study. The results showed that C. septentrionale leaf litter inhibited the growth of E. grandis saplings, as determined by the height, basal diameter and chlorophyll content, after 69 d (T1). Five months after transplantation (T2), the height growth rate of the E. grandis saplings increased and then gradually reduced (A1: 40 g pot(-1) > A2: 80 g pot(-1) > A3: 120 g pot(-1) > CK: 0 g pot(-1)). After eleven months (T3), the variations in the height and basal diameter were the same as observed at T2, and the inhibition on leaf, branch, root and stem biomass increased with increasing leaf litter content. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the volatile compound composition. The results indicated that the C. septentrionale original leaf litter (S1) contained thirty-one volatile compounds, but the treated leaf litter S2 (which was mixed with soil for eleven months to simultaneously plant E. grandis saplings) only possessed fourteen volatile compounds, releasing many secondary metabolites in the soil during decomposition. Most of the volatile compounds were alcohols, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenes, alkanes, alkene, esters and ketones. Most of the allelochemicals of C. septentrionale might be released during the initial decomposing process, inhibiting the growth of other plants, whereas some nutrients might be released later, promoting the height growth of plants. In conclusion, decomposing C. septentrionale leaf litter release of many allelochemicals in the soil that significantly inhibit the growth of E. grandis. PMID:23835358

  4. Genetic Linkage Maps of Eucalyptus Grandis and Eucalyptus Urophylla Using a Pseudo-Testcross: Mapping Strategy and Rapd Markers

    PubMed Central

    Grattapaglia, D.; Sederoff, R.

    1994-01-01

    We have used a ``two-way pseudo-testcross'' mapping strategy in combination with the random amplified polymorhic DNA (RAPD) assay to construct two moderate density genetic linkage maps for species of Eucalyptus. In the cross between two heterozygous individuals many single-dose RAPD markers will be heterozygous in one parent, null in the other and therefore segregate 1:1 in their F(1) progeny following a testcross configuration. Meiosis and gametic segregation in each individual can be directly and efficiently analyzed using RAPD markers. We screened 305 primers of arbitrary sequence, and selected 151 to amplify a total of 558 markers. These markers were grouped at LOD 5.0, θ = 0.25, resulting in the maternal Eucalyptus grandis map having a total of 240 markers into 14 linkage groups (1552 cM) and the paternal Eucalyptus urophylla map with 251 markers in 11 linkage groups (1101 cM) (n = 11 in Eucalyptus). Framework maps ordered with a likelihood support >/=1000:1 were assembled covering 95% of the estimated genome size in both individuals. Characterization of genome complexity of a sample of 48 mapped random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers indicate that 53% amplify from low copy regions. These are the first reported high coverage linkage maps for any species of Eucalyptus and among the first for any hardwood tree species. We propose the combined use of RAPD markers and the pseudo-testcross configuration as a general strategy for the construction of single individual genetic linkage maps in outbred forest trees as well as in any highly heterozygous sexually reproducing living organism. A survey of the occurrence of RAPD markers in different individuals suggests that the pseudo-testcross/RAPD mapping strategy should also be efficient at the intraspecific level and increasingly so with crosses of genetically divergent individuals. The ability to quickly construct single-tree genetic linkage maps in any forest species opens the way for a shift from the

  5. Production and carbon allocation in monocultures and mixed-species plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nouvellon, Yann; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Epron, Daniel; Le Maire, Guerric; Bonnefond, Jean-Marc; Gonçalves, José Leonardo M; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre

    2012-06-01

    Introducing nitrogen-fixing tree species in fast-growing eucalypt plantations has the potential to improve soil nitrogen availability compared with eucalypt monocultures. Whether or not the changes in soil nutrient status and stand structure will lead to mixtures that out-yield monocultures depends on the balance between positive interactions and the negative effects of interspecific competition, and on their effect on carbon (C) uptake and partitioning. We used a C budget approach to quantify growth, C uptake and C partitioning in monocultures of Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) and Acacia mangium (Willd.) (treatments E100 and A100, respectively), and in a mixture at the same stocking density with the two species at a proportion of 1 : 1 (treatment MS). Allometric relationships established over the whole rotation, and measurements of soil CO(2) efflux and aboveground litterfall for ages 4-6 years after planting were used to estimate aboveground net primary production (ANPP), total belowground carbon flux (TBCF) and gross primary production (GPP). We tested the hypotheses that (i) species differences for wood production between E. grandis and A. mangium monocultures were partly explained by different C partitioning strategies, and (ii) the observed lower wood production in the mixture compared with eucalypt monoculture was mostly explained by a lower partitioning aboveground. At the end of the rotation, total aboveground biomass was lowest in A100 (10.5 kg DM m(-2)), intermediate in MS (12.2 kg DM m(-2)) and highest in E100 (13.9 kg DM m(-2)). The results did not support our first hypothesis of contrasting C partitioning strategies between E. grandis and A. mangium monocultures: the 21% lower growth (ΔB(w)) in A100 compared with E100 was almost entirely explained by a 23% lower GPP, with little or no species difference in ratios such as TBCF/GPP, ANPP/TBCF, ΔB(w)/ANPP and ΔB(w)/GPP. In contrast, the 28% lower ΔB(w) in MS than in E100 was explained both by

  6. Effects of potassium and sodium supply on drought-adaptive mechanisms in Eucalyptus grandis plantations.

    PubMed

    Battie-Laclau, Patricia; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Christina, Mathias; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; de Cassia Piccolo, Marisa; de Moraes Gonçalves, José Leonardo; e Moreira, Rildo Moreira; Krusche, Alex Vladimir; Bouvet, Jean-Marc; Nouvellon, Yann

    2014-07-01

    A basic understanding of nutrition effects on the mechanisms involved in tree response to drought is essential under a future drier climate. A large-scale throughfall exclusion experiment was set up in Brazil to gain an insight into the effects of potassium (K) and sodium (Na) nutrition on tree structural and physiological adjustments to water deficit. Regardless of the water supply, K and Na supply greatly increased growth and leaf area index (LAI) of Eucalyptus grandis trees over the first 3 yr after planting. Excluding 37% of throughfall reduced above-ground biomass accumulation in the third year after planting for K- supplied trees only. E. grandis trees were scarcely sensitive to drought as a result of the utilization of water stored in deep soil layers after clear-cutting the previous plantation. Trees coped with water restriction through stomatal closure (isohydrodynamic behavior), osmotic adjustment and decrease in LAI. Additionally, droughted trees showed higher phloem sap sugar concentrations. K and Na supply increased maximum stomatal conductance, and the high water requirements of fertilized trees increased water stress during dry periods. Fertilization regimes should be revisited in a future drier climate in order to find the right balance between improving tree growth and limiting water shortage. PMID:24725318

  7. Water balance analysis of a watershed dominated by Eucalyptus grandis hybrid plantations in Felixlandia (MG, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surian-Gamba, Otávio; Cristina-Tonello, Kelly; Garcia-Leite, Hélio; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Texeira-Dias, Herly C.

    2015-04-01

    Commercial eucalyptus plantations are commonly associated to excessive water use despite the fact that numerous studies have demonstrated significant differences among species and environmental systems. In fact, the analysis of its impact on water balance depending on specific environmental conditions is essential to guarantee its sustainability. The water balance of Eucalyptus grandis hybrid plantations in the Basin Creek of Riacho Fundo in Felixlândia, Minas Gerais (Brazil) is presented through a study of 2.6 years of measurements in a catchment of 719.9 ha. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships among precipitation, interception and evapotranspiration of eucalyptus plantations, for evaluating the weight on flow and effective precipitation. A triangular weir with a set of level- and baro-logger were used for measuring flow. Rainfall was measured with 2 pluviometers and evaporation using two evapotranspirometers Soil Control, Model JR-200mm. For througfall, eight plots of 136.5 m² each were installed with twelve pluviometers. To estimate the stemflow, the empirical equation Et = - 0.060 + 0.053 (P) was used, where P is the precipitation. The effective precipitation was calculated by summing of the througfall value plus the stemflow. The losses by interception were obtained by the difference between precipitation and effective precipitation. The analysis was carried out on the monthly and annual scales. The results showed that the measured rainfall was close to the average for the region, reaching values close to 1200 mm. The interception of the eucalyptus plantation for the period was approximately 12% of the external precipitation. There were neither significant relationships between flow and evapotranspiration nor between flow and effective precipitation, which shows the complexity of water components at the catchment scale. This is likely associated to the delay effect of the subsurface flow. The average flow for the period of study was

  8. The Eucalyptus grandis R2R3-MYB transcription factor family: evidence for woody growth-related evolution and function.

    PubMed

    Soler, Marçal; Camargo, Eduardo Leal Oliveira; Carocha, Victor; Cassan-Wang, Hua; San Clemente, Hélène; Savelli, Bruno; Hefer, Charles A; Paiva, Jorge A Pinto; Myburg, Alexander A; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2015-06-01

    The R2R3-MYB family, one of the largest transcription factor families in higher plants, controls a wide variety of plant-specific processes including, notably, phenylpropanoid metabolism and secondary cell wall formation. We performed a genome-wide analysis of this superfamily in Eucalyptus, one of the most planted hardwood trees world-wide. A total of 141 predicted R2R3-MYB sequences identified in the Eucalyptus grandis genome sequence were subjected to comparative phylogenetic analyses with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Populus trichocarpa and Vitis vinifera. We analysed features such as gene structure, conserved motifs and genome location. Transcript abundance patterns were assessed by RNAseq and validated by high-throughput quantitative PCR. We found some R2R3-MYB subgroups with expanded membership in E. grandis, V. vinifera and P. trichocarpa, and others preferentially found in woody species, suggesting diversification of specific functions in woody plants. By contrast, subgroups containing key genes regulating lignin biosynthesis and secondary cell wall formation are more conserved across all of the species analysed. In Eucalyptus, R2R3-MYB tandem gene duplications seem to disproportionately affect woody-preferential and woody-expanded subgroups. Interestingly, some of the genes belonging to woody-preferential subgroups show higher expression in the cambial region, suggesting a putative role in the regulation of secondary growth.

  9. Evaluation of acute toxicity and genotoxicity of liquid products from pyrolysis of Eucalyptus grandis wood.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, A S; Bayona, J M; García, M T; Solanas, A M

    2000-02-01

    Slow pyrolysis of Eucalyptus grandis wood was performed in an oven laboratory, and smoke was trapped and condensed to yield liquid products. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phenolic fractions were isolated from the former liquid products using adsorption column chromatography (ACC) and identified by GC/MS. Concentrations of PAH and phenolic fractions in total pyrolysis liquids were respectively 48.9 microg/g and 8.59% (w/w). Acute toxicity of total samples of pyrolysis liquids and the phenolic fraction was evaluated by means of two bioassays, namely, 24-h immobilization bioassay with Daphnia magna and Microtox bioassays, the latter employing the luminescent bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum. Total pyrolysis liquids and the PAH fraction were evaluated for genotoxicity by the Microtox bioassay conducted using rehydrated freeze-dried dark mutant of the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fisheri strain M169. Total pyrolysis liquids and the phenolic fraction, respectively, in concentrations of 170 and 68 mg/L were able to immobilize 50% (EC(50)) of the D. magna population following 24-h exposure. Concentrations of 19 and 6 mg/L, respectively, for total pyrolysis liquids and phenolic fraction were the effective concentrations that resulted in a 50% (EC(50)) reduction in light produced by bacteria in the Microtox bioassay. Accordingly, the Microtox bioassay was more sensitive to toxic effects of both kind of samples than the D. magna bioassay, particularly for the phenolic fraction. Regarding to the genotoxicity evaluation, the results achieved by Microtox bioassay showed that total pyrolysis liquids had no genotoxic effects with and without exogenous metabolic activation using rat liver homogenate (S9). However, the PAH fraction showed toxic effects with rat liver activation and had a dose-response number (DRN) equal to 1.6, being in this way suspected genotoxic. The lowest detected concentration (LDC) of the PAH fraction able to cause genotoxic effects was 375

  10. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Profiling of the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) Gene Family in Eucalyptus grandis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong; Soler, Marçal; Mila, Isabelle; San Clemente, Hélène; Savelli, Bruno; Dunand, Christophe; Paiva, Jorge A. P.; Myburg, Alexander A.; Bouzayen, Mondher; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Cassan-Wang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Auxin is a central hormone involved in a wide range of developmental processes including the specification of vascular stem cells. Auxin Response Factors (ARF) are important actors of the auxin signalling pathway, regulating the transcription of auxin-responsive genes through direct binding to their promoters. The recent availability of the Eucalyptus grandis genome sequence allowed us to examine the characteristics and evolutionary history of this gene family in a woody plant of high economic importance. With 17 members, the E. grandis ARF gene family is slightly contracted, as compared to those of most angiosperms studied hitherto, lacking traces of duplication events. In silico analysis of alternative transcripts and gene truncation suggested that these two mechanisms were preeminent in shaping the functional diversity of the ARF family in Eucalyptus. Comparative phylogenetic analyses with genomes of other taxonomic lineages revealed the presence of a new ARF clade found preferentially in woody and/or perennial plants. High-throughput expression profiling among different organs and tissues and in response to environmental cues highlighted genes expressed in vascular cambium and/or developing xylem, responding dynamically to various environmental stimuli. Finally, this study allowed identification of three ARF candidates potentially involved in the auxin-regulated transcriptional program underlying wood formation. PMID:25269088

  11. Modifying solubility of polymeric xylan extracted from Eucalyptus grandis and sugarcane bagasse by suitable side chain removing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Katiana R; Chimphango, Annie F A; Görgens, Johann F

    2015-10-20

    α-l-Arabinofuranosidase (AbfB) and novel α-d-glucuronidase (Agu1B) enzymes were applied for selective hydrolysis of beechwood (Fagus sylvatica) xylan (Sigma-Aldrich) as well as xylans extracted from Eucalyptus grandis and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) bagasse, leading to precipitation of these carbohydrate biopolymers. Hemicellulose extraction was performed with two mild-alkali methods, Höije and Pinto. Precipitation occurred after removal of 67, 40 and 16% 4-O-methyl-d-glucuronic acid (MeGlcA) present in polymeric xylans from beechwood, E. grandis (Pinto) and E. grandis (Höije), respectively. Precipitation was maximized at Agu1B levels of 3.79-7.53mg/gsubstrate and hemicellulose concentrations of 4.5-5.0% (w/v). Polymeric xylan from sugarcane bagasse precipitated after removal of 48 and 22% of arabinose and MeGlcA, respectively, at optimal AbfB and Agu1B dosages of 9.0U/g and 6.4mg/g, respectively. Both the purity of polymeric xylans and structure thereof had a critical impact on the propensity for precipitation, and morphology of the resulting precipitate. Nano-to micro-meter precipitates were produced, with potential for carbohydrate nanotechnology applications.

  12. Stand-level patterns of carbon fluxes and partitioning in a Eucalyptus grandis plantation across a gradient of productivity, in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campoe, Otávio C; Stape, José Luiz; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Marsden, Claire; Nouvellon, Yann

    2012-06-01

    Wood production represents a large but variable fraction of gross primary production (GPP) in highly productive Eucalyptus plantations. Assessing patterns of carbon (C) partitioning (C flux as a fraction of GPP) between above- and belowground components is essential to understand mechanisms driving the C budget of these plantations. Better knowledge of fluxes and partitioning to woody and non-woody tissues in response to site characteristics and resource availability could provide opportunities to increase forest productivity. Our study aimed at investigating how C allocation varied within one apparently homogeneous 90 ha stand of Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) in Southeastern Brazil. We assessed annual above-ground net primary production (ANPP: stem, leaf, and branch production) and total belowground C flux (TBCF: the sum of root production and respiration and mycorrhizal production and respiration), GPP (computed as the sum of ANPP, TBCF and estimated aboveground respiration) on 12 plots representing the gradient of productivity found within the stand. The spatial heterogeneity of topography and associated soil attributes across the stand likely explained this fertility gradient. Component fluxes of GPP and C partitioning were found to vary among plots. Stem NPP ranged from 554 g C m(-2) year(-1) on the plot with lowest GPP to 923 g C m(-2) year(-1) on the plot with highest GPP. Total belowground carbon flux ranged from 497 to 1235 g C m(-2) year(-1) and showed no relationship with ANPP or GPP. Carbon partitioning to stem NPP increased from 0.19 to 0.23, showing a positive trend of increase with GPP (R(2) = 0.29, P = 0.07). Variations in stem wood production across the gradient of productivity observed at our experimental site were a result of the variability in C partitioning to different forest system components. PMID:22543478

  13. Comparative interrogation of the developing xylem transcriptomes of two wood-forming species: Populus trichocarpa and Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Hefer, Charles A; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Myburg, Alexander A; Douglas, Carl J; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2015-06-01

    Wood formation is a complex developmental process governed by genetic and environmental stimuli. Populus and Eucalyptus are fast-growing, high-yielding tree genera that represent ecologically and economically important species suitable for generating significant lignocellulosic biomass. Comparative analysis of the developing xylem and leaf transcriptomes of Populus trichocarpa and Eucalyptus grandis together with phylogenetic analyses identified clusters of homologous genes preferentially expressed during xylem formation in both species. A conserved set of 336 single gene pairs showed highly similar xylem preferential expression patterns, as well as evidence of high functional constraint. Individual members of multi-gene orthologous clusters known to be involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis also showed conserved xylem expression profiles. However, species-specific expression as well as opposite (xylem versus leaf) expression patterns observed for a subset of genes suggest subtle differences in the transcriptional regulation important for xylem development in each species. Using sequence similarity and gene expression status, we identified functional homologs likely to be involved in xylem developmental and biosynthetic processes in Populus and Eucalyptus. Our study suggests that, while genes involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis show high levels of gene expression conservation, differential regulation of some xylem development genes may give rise to unique xylem properties.

  14. Genome scans for divergent selection in natural populations of the widespread hardwood species Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtaceae) using microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhijiao; Zhang, Miaomiao; Li, Fagen; Weng, Qijie; Zhou, Chanpin; Li, Mei; Li, Jie; Huang, Huanhua; Mo, Xiaoyong; Gan, Siming

    2016-01-01

    Identification of loci or genes under natural selection is important for both understanding the genetic basis of local adaptation and practical applications, and genome scans provide a powerful means for such identification purposes. In this study, genome-wide simple sequence repeats markers (SSRs) were used to scan for molecular footprints of divergent selection in Eucalyptus grandis, a hardwood species occurring widely in costal areas from 32° S to 16° S in Australia. High population diversity levels and weak population structure were detected with putatively neutral genomic SSRs. Using three FST outlier detection methods, a total of 58 outlying SSRs were collectively identified as loci under divergent selection against three non-correlated climatic variables, namely, mean annual temperature, isothermality and annual precipitation. Using a spatial analysis method, nine significant associations were revealed between FST outlier allele frequencies and climatic variables, involving seven alleles from five SSR loci. Of the five significant SSRs, two (EUCeSSR1044 and Embra394) contained alleles of putative genes with known functional importance for response to climatic factors. Our study presents critical information on the population diversity and structure of the important woody species E. grandis and provides insight into the adaptive responses of perennial trees to climatic variations. PMID:27748400

  15. Two-step liquid hot water pretreatment of Eucalyptus grandis to enhance sugar recovery and enzymatic digestibility of cellulose.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiang; Zhuang, Xinshu; Yuan, Zhenhong; Wang, Qiong; Qi, Wei; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Jingliang; Xu, Huijuan

    2010-07-01

    A two-step liquid hot water pretreatment (TSLHW) was developed with the objective of achieving complete saccharification of both hemicellulose and cellulose of Eucalyptus grandis, thereby avoiding the problems associated with the use of strong acid catalysts. The first step of the pretreatment was studied in the temperature range 180-200 degrees C, and the highest yield of total xylose achieved was 86.4% after 20 min at 180 degrees C. The second-step of the pretreatment was studied in the temperature range 180-240 degrees C and for lengths of time of 0-60 min. The conversion rate of glucan was more sensitive to temperature than time. The optimum reaction conditions for the second step of the pretreatment with minimal degradation of sugars were 200 degrees C for 20 min. the total sugar recovery from E. grandis with the optimized pretreatment and 72 h enzymatic digestion, reached 96.63%, which is superior to the recovery from a single-step pretreatment with hot water or dilute acid.

  16. [Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelidae: Oligochaeta) soil quality indicator in Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtacea) sites with slash and burn management].

    PubMed

    Uribe, Sheila; Huerta, Esperanza; Geissen, Violette; Mendoza, Manuel; Godoy, Roberto; Jarquín, Aarón

    2012-12-01

    Soil burning has been used in agricultural and forestry systems as a fundamental technique to clean the land and add some nutrients to the soil. In addition, earthworms are known to promote various soil functions since they contribute to aeration and organic matter and nutrients availability to other soil organisms. This study evaluated the effects of tropical forest crops management with presence-absence of Eucalyptus grandis on earthworm population in Huimanquillo, Tabasco, Mexico. Three sites (average area of 1-1.5ha each) with different management conditions were considered for soil and earthworm sampling (two depths and six replicates): without vegetation (SV) and recent slash-burned (38 days), forest crops of five years of production of E. grandis (Euc), and secondary vegetation of 15 years (Acah). Soil physico-chemical properties (apparent density, humidity, texture, pH, Ntot, OM, P, K, cationic capacity) were also evaluated, and earthworms were collected at the end of the rainy season (august-october 2007). We found that the sites soil is an acrisol acid, with pH 3.0-4.5 in the first 30cm depth. Organic matter content (OM) and total nitrogen (Ntot) in the recently burned sites were significantly lower (6-8% y 0.19-0.22%, respectively) than in sites with vegetation (OM=9-11%; el Ntot=0.27-0.33%). Only one species (P. corethrurus) was found in all the sampled areas, where most of the individuals were at juvenile stage (80%). The highest densities and biomass were found in Euc. treatment (166.4ind/m2 y 36.8g/m2) followed by Acah (138.7ind/m2 y 19.1g/m2 respectively), while the SV treatment showed of about an 80% reduced earthworm populations when compared to other treatments. Even though 15 years have passed over the secondary vegetation (Acah) still some perturbations were observed as the low abundance of the oligochaeta group. We concluded that the management used to culture E. grandis produces negative effects over the abundance and diversity of earthworms

  17. [Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelidae: Oligochaeta) soil quality indicator in Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtacea) sites with slash and burn management].

    PubMed

    Uribe, Sheila; Huerta, Esperanza; Geissen, Violette; Mendoza, Manuel; Godoy, Roberto; Jarquín, Aarón

    2012-12-01

    Soil burning has been used in agricultural and forestry systems as a fundamental technique to clean the land and add some nutrients to the soil. In addition, earthworms are known to promote various soil functions since they contribute to aeration and organic matter and nutrients availability to other soil organisms. This study evaluated the effects of tropical forest crops management with presence-absence of Eucalyptus grandis on earthworm population in Huimanquillo, Tabasco, Mexico. Three sites (average area of 1-1.5ha each) with different management conditions were considered for soil and earthworm sampling (two depths and six replicates): without vegetation (SV) and recent slash-burned (38 days), forest crops of five years of production of E. grandis (Euc), and secondary vegetation of 15 years (Acah). Soil physico-chemical properties (apparent density, humidity, texture, pH, Ntot, OM, P, K, cationic capacity) were also evaluated, and earthworms were collected at the end of the rainy season (august-october 2007). We found that the sites soil is an acrisol acid, with pH 3.0-4.5 in the first 30cm depth. Organic matter content (OM) and total nitrogen (Ntot) in the recently burned sites were significantly lower (6-8% y 0.19-0.22%, respectively) than in sites with vegetation (OM=9-11%; el Ntot=0.27-0.33%). Only one species (P. corethrurus) was found in all the sampled areas, where most of the individuals were at juvenile stage (80%). The highest densities and biomass were found in Euc. treatment (166.4ind/m2 y 36.8g/m2) followed by Acah (138.7ind/m2 y 19.1g/m2 respectively), while the SV treatment showed of about an 80% reduced earthworm populations when compared to other treatments. Even though 15 years have passed over the secondary vegetation (Acah) still some perturbations were observed as the low abundance of the oligochaeta group. We concluded that the management used to culture E. grandis produces negative effects over the abundance and diversity of earthworms

  18. Biochemical and ecophysiological responses to manganese stress by ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius and in association with Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Canton, Gabriela C; Bertolazi, Amanda A; Cogo, Antônio J D; Eutrópio, Frederico Jacob; Melo, Juliana; de Souza, Sávio Bastos; A Krohling, Cesar; Campostrini, Eliemar; da Silva, Ary Gomes; Façanha, Arnoldo R; Sepúlveda, Nuno; Cruz, Cristina; Ramos, Alessandro C

    2016-07-01

    At relatively low concentrations, the element manganese (Mn) is essential for plant metabolism, especially for photosynthesis and as an enzyme antioxidant cofactor. However, industrial and agricultural activities have greatly increased Mn concentrations, and thereby contamination, in soils. We tested whether and how growth of Pisolithus tinctorius is influenced by Mn and glucose and compare the activities of oxidative stress enzymes as biochemical markers of Mn stress. We also compared nutrient accumulation, ecophysiology, and biochemical responses in Eucalyptus grandis which had been colonized by the ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus tinctorius with those which had not, when both were exposed to increasing Mn concentrations. In vitro experiments comprised six concentrations of Mn in three concentrations of glucose. In vivo experiments used plants colonized by Pisolithus tinctorius, or not colonized, grown with three concentrations of Mn (0, 200, and 1000 μM). We found that fungal growth and glucose concentration were correlated, but these were not influenced by Mn levels in the medium. The anti-oxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione S-transferase were both activated when the fungus was exposed to Mn. Also, mycorrhizal plants grew more and faster than non-mycorrhizal plants, whatever Mn exposure. Photosynthesis rate, intrinsic water use efficiency, and carboxylation efficiency were all inversely correlated with Mn concentration. Thus, we originally show that the ectomycorrhizal fungus provides protection for its host plants against varying and potentially toxic concentrations of Mn.

  19. Integrated hot-compressed water and laccase-mediator treatments of Eucalyptus grandis fibers: structural changes of fiber and lignin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Quan; Wen, Jia-Long; Yuan, Tong-Qi; Sun, Run-Cang

    2015-02-18

    Eucalyptus grandis fibers were treated with hot-compressed water (HCW) and laccase mediator to enhance the fiber characteristics and to produce an active lignin substrate for binderless fiberboard production. The composition, morphology, and crystallinity index (CrI) analysis of fibers showed that the HCW treatment increased the CrI and lignin content of the treated fibers through partial removal of hemicelluloses. Simultaneously, the HCW treatment produced some granules and holes on the surface of the fibers, which possibly facilitated the accessibility of the laccase mediator. Milled wood lignins and enzymatic hydrolysis lignins isolated from the control and treated fibers were comparatively characterized. A reduction of molecular weight was observed, which indicated that a preferential degradation of lignin occurred after exposure to the laccase mediator. Quantitative (13)C, 2D-HSQC and (31)P NMR characterization revealed that the integrated treatment resulted in the cleavage of β-O-4' linkages, removal of G' (oxidized α-ketone) substructures, and an increase in the S/G ratio and free phenolic hydroxyls.

  20. Biochemical and ecophysiological responses to manganese stress by ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius and in association with Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Canton, Gabriela C; Bertolazi, Amanda A; Cogo, Antônio J D; Eutrópio, Frederico Jacob; Melo, Juliana; de Souza, Sávio Bastos; A Krohling, Cesar; Campostrini, Eliemar; da Silva, Ary Gomes; Façanha, Arnoldo R; Sepúlveda, Nuno; Cruz, Cristina; Ramos, Alessandro C

    2016-07-01

    At relatively low concentrations, the element manganese (Mn) is essential for plant metabolism, especially for photosynthesis and as an enzyme antioxidant cofactor. However, industrial and agricultural activities have greatly increased Mn concentrations, and thereby contamination, in soils. We tested whether and how growth of Pisolithus tinctorius is influenced by Mn and glucose and compare the activities of oxidative stress enzymes as biochemical markers of Mn stress. We also compared nutrient accumulation, ecophysiology, and biochemical responses in Eucalyptus grandis which had been colonized by the ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus tinctorius with those which had not, when both were exposed to increasing Mn concentrations. In vitro experiments comprised six concentrations of Mn in three concentrations of glucose. In vivo experiments used plants colonized by Pisolithus tinctorius, or not colonized, grown with three concentrations of Mn (0, 200, and 1000 μM). We found that fungal growth and glucose concentration were correlated, but these were not influenced by Mn levels in the medium. The anti-oxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione S-transferase were both activated when the fungus was exposed to Mn. Also, mycorrhizal plants grew more and faster than non-mycorrhizal plants, whatever Mn exposure. Photosynthesis rate, intrinsic water use efficiency, and carboxylation efficiency were all inversely correlated with Mn concentration. Thus, we originally show that the ectomycorrhizal fungus provides protection for its host plants against varying and potentially toxic concentrations of Mn. PMID:26861483

  1. Integrated hot-compressed water and laccase-mediator treatments of Eucalyptus grandis fibers: structural changes of fiber and lignin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Quan; Wen, Jia-Long; Yuan, Tong-Qi; Sun, Run-Cang

    2015-02-18

    Eucalyptus grandis fibers were treated with hot-compressed water (HCW) and laccase mediator to enhance the fiber characteristics and to produce an active lignin substrate for binderless fiberboard production. The composition, morphology, and crystallinity index (CrI) analysis of fibers showed that the HCW treatment increased the CrI and lignin content of the treated fibers through partial removal of hemicelluloses. Simultaneously, the HCW treatment produced some granules and holes on the surface of the fibers, which possibly facilitated the accessibility of the laccase mediator. Milled wood lignins and enzymatic hydrolysis lignins isolated from the control and treated fibers were comparatively characterized. A reduction of molecular weight was observed, which indicated that a preferential degradation of lignin occurred after exposure to the laccase mediator. Quantitative (13)C, 2D-HSQC and (31)P NMR characterization revealed that the integrated treatment resulted in the cleavage of β-O-4' linkages, removal of G' (oxidized α-ketone) substructures, and an increase in the S/G ratio and free phenolic hydroxyls. PMID:25639522

  2. Vegetative propagation of adult Eucalyptus grandis X urophylla and comparison of growth between micropropagated plantlets and rooted cuttings.

    PubMed

    Yang, J C; Chung, J D; Chen, Z Z

    1995-12-01

    Methods for the production of micropropagated plantlets and rooted cuttings were developed and used to vegetatively multiply adult Eucalyptus grandis X urophylla. Rooting success was less than 5% when cuttings excised from twigs of 3-year-old trees were used. The rooted cuttings were grown in the greenhouse as explant- or cutting-donors and maintained at a height of 30 to 100 cm by trimming back periodically. Good rooting success (95%) of cuttings was obtained for epicormic shoots produced from donor plants after trimming 5 times. Explants of both apical and axillary buds taken from the donor plants produced multiple shoots when cultured in vitro. In vitro multiple shoot production was optimal on MS medium containing 0.1 mg/l BA and 0.01 mg/l NAA averaging 13.7 shoots per explant in a 40-day culture period. Shoot elongation was accelerated on a modified MS medium containing half strength potassium nitrate and sucrose. Elongated shoots excised at approximately 1.5 cm in length were successfully rooted on media with NAA or IBA concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg/l. Root formation was optimal on medium consisting of full strength MS basal macro elements and vitamins, half strength micro elements, 1% sucrose and supplemented with 0.3 mg/l IBA. In the field test, no significant differences were found in tree height and DBH between micropropagated plantlets and rooted cuttings at 1 and 3 years old, with the exception at 2 years old. A considerable difference arose between the 2 types of vegetative propagules in physiological response to flowering, caused by dissimilar degrees of rejuvenation. PMID:24185769

  3. Genetic Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Growth and Wood Quality Traits in Eucalyptus Grandis Using a Maternal Half-Sib Family and Rapd Markers

    PubMed Central

    Grattapaglia, D.; Bertolucci, FLG.; Penchel, R.; Sederoff, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of forest productivity traits was performed using an open pollinated half-sib family of Eucalyptus grandis. For volume growth, a sequential QTL mapping approach was applied using bulk segregant analysis (BSA), selective genotyping (SG) and cosegregation analysis (CSA). Despite the low heritability of this trait and the heterogeneous genetic background employed for mapping. BSA detected one putative QTL and SG two out of the three later found by CSA. The three putative QTL for volume growth were found to control 13.7% of the phenotypic variation, corresponding to an estimated 43.7% of the genetic variation. For wood specific gravity five QTL were identified controlling 24.7% of the phenotypic variation corresponding to 49% of the genetic variation. Overlapping QTL for CBH, WSG and percentage dry weight of bark were observed. A significant case of digenic epistasis was found, involving unlinked QTL for volume. Our results demonstrate the applicability of the within half-sib design for QTL mapping in forest trees and indicate the existence of major genes involved in the expression of economically important traits related to forest productivity in Eucalyptus grandis. These findings have important implications for marker-assisted tree breeding. PMID:8913761

  4. Genome-wide patterns of recombination, linkage disequilibrium and nucleotide diversity from pooled resequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping unlock the evolutionary history of Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Silva-Junior, Orzenil B; Grattapaglia, Dario

    2015-11-01

    We used high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data and whole-genome pooled resequencing to examine the landscape of population recombination (ρ) and nucleotide diversity (ϴw ), assess the extent of linkage disequilibrium (r(2) ) and build the highest density linkage maps for Eucalyptus. At the genome-wide level, linkage disequilibrium (LD) decayed within c. 4-6 kb, slower than previously reported from candidate gene studies, but showing considerable variation from absence to complete LD up to 50 kb. A sharp decrease in the estimate of ρ was seen when going from short to genome-wide inter-SNP distances, highlighting the dependence of this parameter on the scale of observation adopted. Recombination was correlated with nucleotide diversity, gene density and distance from the centromere, with hotspots of recombination enriched for genes involved in chemical reactions and pathways of the normal metabolic processes. The high nucleotide diversity (ϴw = 0.022) of E. grandis revealed that mutation is more important than recombination in shaping its genomic diversity (ρ/ϴw = 0.645). Chromosome-wide ancestral recombination graphs allowed us to date the split of E. grandis (1.7-4.8 million yr ago) and identify a scenario for the recent demographic history of the species. Our results have considerable practical importance to Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS), while indicating bright prospects for genomic prediction of complex phenotypes in eucalypt breeding.

  5. Genome-Wide Analysis of the AP2/ERF Family in Eucalyptus grandis: An Intriguing Over-Representation of Stress-Responsive DREB1/CBF Genes

    PubMed Central

    SanClemente, H.; Mounet, F.; Dunand, C.; Marque, G.; Marque, C.; Teulières, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The AP2/ERF family includes a large number of developmentally and physiologically important transcription factors sharing an AP2 DNA-binding domain. Among them DREB1/CBF and DREB2 factors are known as master regulators respectively of cold and heat/osmotic stress responses. Experimental Approaches The manual annotation of AP2/ERF family from Eucalyptus grandis, Malus, Populus and Vitis genomes allowed a complete phylogenetic study for comparing the structure of this family in woody species and the model Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression profiles of the whole groups of EgrDREB1 and EgrDREB2 were investigated through RNAseq database survey and RT-qPCR analyses. Results The structure and the size of the AP2/ERF family show a global conservation for the plant species under comparison. In addition to an expansion of the ERF subfamily, the tree genomes mainly differ with respect to the group representation within the subfamilies. With regard to the E. grandis DREB subfamily, an obvious feature is the presence of 17 DREB1/CBF genes, the maximum reported to date for dicotyledons. In contrast, only six DREB2 have been identified, which is similar to the other plants species under study, except for Malus. All the DREB1/CBF and DREB2 genes from E. grandis are expressed in at least one condition and all are heat-responsive. Regulation by cold and drought depends on the genes but is not specific of one group; DREB1/CBF group is more cold-inducible than DREB2 which is mainly drought responsive. Conclusion These features suggest that the dramatic expansion of the DREB1/CBF group might be related to the adaptation of this evergreen tree to climate changes when it expanded in Australia. PMID:25849589

  6. Carbon Stocks and Soil C Dynamics: an Investigation of C Sequestration Potential in a Eucalyptus grandis Plantation in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, M. I.; Crow, S. E.; Yost, R.; Turn, S.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical forests are important for many reasons, one of which is their ability to transfer large quantities of CO2 from the atmosphere to living biomass thereby potentially offsetting climate change. If the biomass is then harvested for commercial use, the stored carbon (C) is released back to the atmosphere and as a result, rotational forestry is generally considered C neutral. However, the growth and harvest of forests also affects the soil C cycle through inputs of below ground biomass (BG) in proportion to above ground biomass (ABG). With sustainable management practices, soil can be a long-term sink for C, and provide a climate offset. This study examines the C stocks and dynamics of a E. grandis plantation located in Hawaii. There are two parts: 1) A snapshot of C resources in the plantation, including live biomass C (both BG and ABG) as well as soil C stock, and 2) An investigation of change in soil C stock and pool size with afforestation in E. grandis plantation. ABG C was calculated using published allometric equations and from measurements of the E. grandis trees and ranged from 41-68 Mg C/ha, while BG C ranged from 7-12 Mg C/ha. Added together, the biomass C stocks constitute a mere ≈10% of the soil C stock. To identify the effect of E. grandis afforestation on changes in soil C stock and pools, we compared adjacent pastureland and forested plots in a paired design. Soil C stocks were measured by taking five 1m soil cores in each of the plots. In the pasture, soil C ranged from 431-723 Mg C/ha, while in the E. grandis, it ranged from 544-692 Mg C/ha, an average percent change of 16%. In all plots, soil C decreased by depth. As expected, the surface (0-18) cm cores in the pasture contained more C on average, as grasses tend to input larger amounts of root biomass C in the surface soil. However, in the 20-70 cm depth, the E. grandis plots contained 20-30% more soil C. It is hypothesized that this is due to large differences in rooting depth. The greater

  7. Carbon Stocks and Soil C Dynamics: an Investigation of C Sequestration Potential in a Eucalyptus grandis Plantation in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, M. I.; Crow, S. E.; Yost, R.; Turn, S.

    2011-12-01

    Tropical forests are important for many reasons, one of which is their ability to transfer large quantities of CO2 from the atmosphere to living biomass thereby potentially offsetting climate change. If the biomass is then harvested for commercial use, the stored carbon (C) is released back to the atmosphere. As a result, commercial rotational forestry is generally considered C neutral. However, the growth and harvest of forests also affects the soil C cycle through inputs of below ground biomass in proportion to above ground biomass. With sustainable management practices, soil can be a long-term sink for C, shifting the C balance of the system and providing a climate offset. This study examines the C stocks and dynamics of an E. grandis plantation located in Hawaii. The study has two parts: 1) A snapshot of C resources in the plantation, and 2) An investigation of change in soil C stock and pool size with afforestation. Above ground biomass C was calculated from measurements of the E. grandis trees and ranged from 40-67 Mg C/ha. Below ground biomass C was estimated from published allometric equations and was 16-27 Mg C/ha. 55 preliminary soil cores from 0-30 cm were collected in a 400 m2 plot in the plantation. Strong spatial dependence was observed in a sample variogram constructed from this data, and cumulative organic C in the top 0.4 t ranged from 120-580 Mg C/ha. To identify the effect of E. grandis afforestation on changes in soil C stock and pools, we compared adjacent pastureland and forested plots in a paired design with six sites. The paired plots constrained elevation, climate, and soil series, so that the effects of conversion from pasture to E. grandis plantation could be evaluated. Soil is physically separated into fractions that have different C turnover times: the labile pool which decomposes rapidly, the intermediate (or intra-aggregate) pool which turns over on a decadal scale, and the mineral-associated pool, which can reside in the soil for

  8. Examining the cause of high inbreeding depression: analysis of whole-genome sequence data in 28 selfed progeny of Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Philip W; Hellsten, Uffe; Grattapaglia, Dario

    2016-01-01

    The genome-wide heterozygosity at 9590 genes, all heterozygous in a single Eucalyptus grandis parent tree, was examined in a group of 28 S1 offspring. Heterozygosity ranged from 52-79%, averaging 65.5%, much higher than the 50% expected under random segregation, supporting the occurrence of strong (47%) selection against homozygosity. The expected pattern of heterozygosity from theoretical calculations and simulations for recessive detrimentals (pseudo-overdominance) and intrinsic heterozygote advantage was examined and compared with that observed. The observed patterns are consistent with at least several detrimental loci with large effects on both parental chromosomes of the 11 pairs. It is likely that 100 or more genes, many with substantial effects on viability, are contributing to this inbreeding depression. Although our genome-wide analysis of nearly 10 000 genes strongly suggested that pseudo-overdominance was responsible for the observed high inbreeding depression, heterozygote advantage could not be excluded. Finding inconvertible evidence of the cause of inbreeding depression still presents a difficult challenge. This study is the first theoretical examination of the genomic effect of inbreeding in a forest tree and provides an approach to analyze these data to determine the extent and cause of inbreeding depression across other plant genomes.

  9. [Effects of Eucalyptus grandis leaf litter at its early stage of decomposition on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Cichorium intybus].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiu-Hua; Li, Yi-Qiao; Hu, Ting-Xing; Chen, Bao-Jun; Yang, Yong-Gui; Chen, Hong; Hu, Hong-Ling

    2013-07-01

    From March to May, 2010, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Eucalyptus grandis leaf litter at its early stage of decomposition on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Cichorium intybus. Four treatments with different application rate of the leaf litter, i.e., 0 g x pot(-1) (CK), 30 g x pot(-1) (A1), 60 g x pot(-1) (A2), and 90 g x pot(-1) (A3), were installed. Each pot contained 12 kg soil mixed with the leaf litter, and then, C. intybus was sown. The growth indicators of the C. intybus were measured at the 30, 45, 60, and 75 d after sowing, and the photosynthetic characteristics of the C. intybus in treatment A3 were studied after the seedlings third leaf fully expanded. At each measured time, the biomass accumulation and leaf area growth of C. intybus in treatments A1, A2, and A3 were inhibited significantly. At the early stage of the leaf litter decomposition, the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments of the C. intybus seedlings was inhibited significantly, and the inhibition effect was getting stronger with the increasing amount of the leaf litter addition. The diurnal change of the seedlings photosynthetic rate in all treatments showed a bimodal curve with midday depression, the stomatal conductance and water use efficiency had the same variation trend with the net photosynthetic rate, and the total diurnal photosynthesis decreased in the order of CK > A1 > A2 > A3. The GC-MS analysis showed there were 33 kinds of small molecule compounds released gradually with the decomposition of the leaf litter, among which, allelopathic substance terpenoid dominated.

  10. Measured and modeled interactive effects of potassium deficiency and water deficit on gross primary productivity and light-use efficiency in Eucalyptus grandis plantations.

    PubMed

    Christina, Mathias; Le Maire, Guerric; Battie-Laclau, Patricia; Nouvellon, Yann; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Jourdan, Christophe; de Moraes Gonçalves, José Leonardo; Laclau, Jean-Paul

    2015-05-01

    Global climate change is expected to increase the length of drought periods in many tropical regions. Although large amounts of potassium (K) are applied in tropical crops and planted forests, little is known about the interaction between K nutrition and water deficit on the physiological mechanisms governing plant growth. A process-based model (MAESPA) parameterized in a split-plot experiment in Brazil was used to gain insight into the combined effects of K deficiency and water deficit on absorbed radiation (aPAR), gross primary productivity (GPP), and light-use efficiency for carbon assimilation and stem biomass production (LUEC and LUEs ) in Eucalyptus grandis plantations. The main-plot factor was the water supply (undisturbed rainfall vs. 37% of throughfall excluded) and the subplot factor was the K supply (with or without 0.45 mol K m(-2 ) K addition). Mean GPP was 28% lower without K addition over the first 3 years after planting whether throughfall was partly excluded or not. K deficiency reduced aPAR by 20% and LUEC by 10% over the whole period of growth. With K addition, throughfall exclusion decreased GPP by 25%, resulting from a 21% decrease in LUEC at the end of the study period. The effect of the combination of K deficiency and water deficit was less severe than the sum of the effects of K deficiency and water deficit individually, leading to a reduction in stem biomass production, gross primary productivity and LUE similar to K deficiency on its own. The modeling approach showed that K nutrition and water deficit influenced absorbed radiation essentially through changes in leaf area index and tree height. The changes in gross primary productivity and light-use efficiency were, however, driven by a more complex set of tree parameters, especially those controlling water uptake by roots and leaf photosynthetic capacities. PMID:25430918

  11. Insecticidal activity of essential oils from eleven Eucalyptus spp. and two hybrids: lethal and sublethal effects of their major components on Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Alzogaray, Raul A; Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo N; Masuh, Hector M

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the fumigant activity of the essential oils from 11 species of the genus Eucalyptus and two of their hybrids on first instar of Blattella germanica L. The fumigant activity and repellence of the four major monoterpene components of these essential oils also were tested. Fumigant activity was evaluated by exposing nymphs to the vapors emitted by 50 microl of essential oil or monoterpene in a closed container. The lowest knockdown time 50% (KT50) values, expressed in minutes, were elicited by the essential oils of the Eucalyptus grandis X Eucalyptus tereticornis (57.9) hybrid, Eucalyptus sideroxylon A. Cunn (62.0), E. grandis X Eucalyptus camaldulensis (63.8) hybrid, Eucalyptus viminalis Labill (64.1), Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden (64.5), and Eucalyptus grandis (Hill) ex Maiden (68.7). The KT50 values for the remaining essential oils ranged between 74.5 (E. saligna Smith) and 161.4 min (E. tereticornis Smith). The essential oil from the hybrid E. grandis X E. tereticornis was 3.7 times less toxic than dichlorvos (positive control). The KT50 values of monoterpenes were 38.8 for alpha-pinene, 55.3 for 1,8-cineole, 175.6 for p-cymene, and 178.3 for gamma-terpinene. Alpha-pinene was 2.5 times less toxic than dichlorvos. There was a strong positive correlation between the fumigant activity of essential oils and their corresponding 1,8-cineole and alpha-pinene concentration. Repellency was quantified using a video tracking system. Two concentrations of monoterpenes were studied (7 and 70 microg/cm2). All compounds produced a light repellent effect but only when applied at 70 microg/cm2. In all cases, the repellent effect was less than that produced by the broad-spectrum insect repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (positive control). PMID:21510210

  12. Validation of reference genes from Eucalyptus spp. under different stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The genus Eucalyptus consists of approximately 600 species and subspecies and has a physiological plasticity that allows some species to propagate in different regions of the world. Eucalyptus is a major source of cellulose for paper manufacturing, and its cultivation is limited by weather conditions, particularly water stress and low temperatures. Gene expression studies using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) require reference genes, which must have stable expression to facilitate the comparison of the results from analyses using different species, tissues, and treatments. Such studies have been limited in eucalyptus. Results Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus urograndis (hybrid from Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake X Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex-Maiden) and E. uroglobulus (hybrid from E. urograndis X E. globulus) were subjected to different treatments, including water deficiency and stress recovery, low temperatures, presence or absence of light, and their respective controls. Except for treatment with light, which examined the seedling hypocotyl or apical portion of the stem, the expression analyses were conducted in the apical and basal parts of the stem. To select the best pair of genes, the bioinformatics tools GeNorm and NormFinder were compared. Comprehensive analyses that did not differentiate between species, treatments, or tissue types, showed that IDH (isocitrate dehydrogenase), SAND (SAND protein), ACT (actin), and A-Tub (α-tubulin) genes were the most stable. IDH was the most stable gene in all of the treatments. Conclusion Comparing these results with those of other studies on eucalyptus, we concluded that five genes are stable in different species and experimental conditions: IDH, SAND, ACT, A-Tub, and UBQ (ubiquitin). It is usually recommended a minimum of two reference genes is expression analysis; therefore, we propose that IDH and two others genes among the five identified genes in this study

  13. Eucalyptus tolerance mechanisms to lanthanum and cerium: subcellular distribution, antioxidant system and thiol pools.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yichang; Zhang, Shirong; Li, Sen; Xu, Xiaoxun; Jia, Yongxia; Gong, Guoshu

    2014-12-01

    Guanglin 9 (Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophlla) and Eucalyptus grandis 5 are two eucalyptus species which have been found to grow normally in soils contaminated with lanthanum and cerium, but the tolerance mechanisms are not clear yet. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the tolerance mechanisms of the eucalyptus to lanthanum and cerium. Cell walls stored 45.40-63.44% of the metals under lanthanum or cerium stress. Peroxidase and catalase activities enhanced with increasing soil La or Ce concentrations up to 200 mg kg(-1), while there were no obvious changes in glutathione and ascorbate concentrations. Non-protein thiols concentrations increased with increasing treatment levels up to 200 mg kg(-1), and then decreased. Phytochelatins concentrations continued to increase under La or Ce stress. Therefore, the two eucalyptus species are La and Ce tolerant plants, and the tolerance mechanisms include cell wall deposition, antioxidant system response, and thiol compound synthesis. PMID:25303462

  14. Down-regulation of p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H) and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) genes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis leads to improved sugar release

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sykes, Robert W.; Gjersing, Erica L.; Foutz, Kirk; Rottmann, William H.; Kuhn, Sean A.; Foster, Cliff E.; Ziebell, Angela; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Decker, Stephen R.; Hinchee, Maud A. W.; et al

    2015-08-27

    In this study, lignocellulosic materials provide an attractive replacement for food-based crops used to produce ethanol. Understanding the interactions within the cell wall is vital to overcome the highly recalcitrant nature of biomass. One factor imparting plant cell wall recalcitrance is lignin, which can be manipulated by making changes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway. In this study, eucalyptus down-regulated in expression of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H, EC 1.14.13.11) or p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H, EC 1.14.13.36) were evaluated for cell wall composition and reduced recalcitrance.

  15. Variation in volatile leaf oils of seven eucalyptus species harvested from Zerniza arboreta (Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Elaissi, Ameur; Medini, Hanène; Simmonds, Monique; Lynen, Frederic; Farhat, Farhat; Chemli, Rachid; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia; Khouja, Mohamed Larbi

    2011-02-01

    Leaves of seven species of the genus Eucalyptus L'Hér., viz., E. cladocalyx F. Muell., E. citriodora Hook., E. diversicolor F. Muell., E. fasciculosa F. Muell., E. grandis W. Hill, E. ovata Labill., and E. botryoides Sm., were harvested from Zerniza arboreta (region of Sejnene, northwest of Tunisia) in June 2007. Of the latter species, leaves were collected from trees having two origins, Morocco and Italy. Hydrodistillation of the dried leaves provided essential oils in yields varying from 0.4±0.0 to 3.3±0.1%, according to the species. E. citriodora had the highest mean percentage of essential oil amongst the species examined, whereas the lowest one was obtained for E. botryoides originating from Morocco. Analysis by GC (RI) and GC/MS allowed the identification of 140 compounds, representing 92.5 to 99.4% of the total oil composition. The contents of the different samples varied according to the species. The main components were 1,8-cineole (2), followed by α-pinene (1), p-cymene, borneol, α-terpineol, cryptone, spathulenol, trans-pinocarveol (4), bicyclogermacrene (5), caryophyllene oxide, and β-phellandrene. Principal components analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis separated the eight Eucalyptus leaf essential oils into five groups, each constituting a chemotype.

  16. Advancing Eucalyptus Genomics: Cytogenomics Reveals Conservation of Eucalyptus Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Teresa; Barrela, Ricardo M.; Bergès, Hélène; Marques, Cristina; Loureiro, João; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor; Paiva, Jorge A. P.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Eucalyptus encloses several species with high ecological and economic value, being the subgenus Symphyomyrtus one of the most important. Species such as E. grandis and E. globulus are well characterized at the molecular level but knowledge regarding genome and chromosome organization is very scarce. Here we characterized and compared the karyotypes of three economically important species, E. grandis, E. globulus, and E. calmadulensis, and three with ecological relevance, E. pulverulenta, E. cornuta, and E. occidentalis, through an integrative approach including genome size estimation, fluorochrome banding, rDNA FISH, and BAC landing comprising genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. All karyotypes show a high degree of conservation with pericentromeric 35S and 5S rDNA loci in the first and third pairs, respectively. GC-rich heterochromatin was restricted to the 35S rDNA locus while the AT-rich heterochromatin pattern was species-specific. The slight differences in karyotype formulas and distribution of AT-rich heterochromatin, along with genome sizes estimations, support the idea of Eucalyptus genome evolution by local expansions of heterochromatin clusters. The unusual co-localization of both rDNA with AT-rich heterochromatin was attributed mainly to the presence of silent transposable elements in those loci. The cinnamoyl CoA reductase gene (CCR1) previously assessed to linkage group 10 (LG10) was clearly localized distally at the long arm of chromosome 9 establishing an unexpected correlation between the cytogenetic chromosome 9 and the LG10. Our work is novel and contributes to the understanding of Eucalyptus genome organization which is essential to develop successful advanced breeding strategies for this genus. PMID:27148332

  17. Chemical composition and fumigant toxicity of the essential oils from 16 species of Eucalyptus against Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) adults.

    PubMed

    Juan, Laura W; Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo N; Harrand, Leonel; Marco, Martin; Masuh, Hector M

    2011-06-01

    Oils extracted from various species of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus badjensis Beuzev & Welch, Eucalyptus badjensis x Eucalyptus nitens, Eucalyptus benthamii variety dorrigoensis Maiden & Cambage, Eucalyptus botryoides Smith, Eucalyptus dalrympleana Maiden, Eucalyptus fastigata Deane & Maiden, Eucalyptus nobilis L.A.S. Johnson & K. D. Hill, Eucalyptus polybractea R. Baker, Eucalyptus radiata ssp. radiata Sieber ex Spreng, Eucalyptus resinifera Smith, Eucalyptus robertsonii Blakely, Eucalyptus rubida Deane & Maiden, Eucalyptus smithii R. Baker, Eucalyptus elata Dehnh, Eucalyptus fraxinoides Deane & Maiden, E. obliqua L'Hér) were obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of essential oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Essential oils were mainly composed of 1,8-cineole, alpha-pinene, alpha-terpineol, 4-terpineol, and p-cymene. Vapors from these essential oils and their major components were found to be toxic to Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) adults. An aliquot of each oil was placed in a cylindrical test chamber, and the number of knocked down flies was recorded as a function of time. Knockdown time 50% was then calculated. Results showed that essential oil of E. polybractea had the highest knockdown activity of 3.44 min. A correlation was observed between the content of 1,8-cineole in the Eucalyptus essential oils and the corresponding toxic effect.

  18. Chemical composition and fumigant toxicity of the essential oils from 16 species of Eucalyptus against Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) adults.

    PubMed

    Juan, Laura W; Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo N; Harrand, Leonel; Marco, Martin; Masuh, Hector M

    2011-06-01

    Oils extracted from various species of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus badjensis Beuzev & Welch, Eucalyptus badjensis x Eucalyptus nitens, Eucalyptus benthamii variety dorrigoensis Maiden & Cambage, Eucalyptus botryoides Smith, Eucalyptus dalrympleana Maiden, Eucalyptus fastigata Deane & Maiden, Eucalyptus nobilis L.A.S. Johnson & K. D. Hill, Eucalyptus polybractea R. Baker, Eucalyptus radiata ssp. radiata Sieber ex Spreng, Eucalyptus resinifera Smith, Eucalyptus robertsonii Blakely, Eucalyptus rubida Deane & Maiden, Eucalyptus smithii R. Baker, Eucalyptus elata Dehnh, Eucalyptus fraxinoides Deane & Maiden, E. obliqua L'Hér) were obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of essential oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Essential oils were mainly composed of 1,8-cineole, alpha-pinene, alpha-terpineol, 4-terpineol, and p-cymene. Vapors from these essential oils and their major components were found to be toxic to Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) adults. An aliquot of each oil was placed in a cylindrical test chamber, and the number of knocked down flies was recorded as a function of time. Knockdown time 50% was then calculated. Results showed that essential oil of E. polybractea had the highest knockdown activity of 3.44 min. A correlation was observed between the content of 1,8-cineole in the Eucalyptus essential oils and the corresponding toxic effect. PMID:21735933

  19. Interspecific hybridization of Eucalyptus as a potential tool to improve the bioactivity of essential oils against permethrin-resistant head lice from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel Ceferino; Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo; Masuh, Hector; Picollo, Maria Inés

    2008-10-01

    The essential oils extracted from Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus tereticornis, and the hybrids E. grandisxE. camaldulensis, and E. grandisxE. tereticornis were analyzed by GC-MS, and evaluated for their fumigant and repellent effects on permethrin-resistant head lice. Fumigant activity of both hybrids was higher than that for pure species. E. grandisxE. tereticornis and E. grandisxE. camaldulensis showed KT50 values of 12.99 and 13.63min, respectively. E. grandis, E. camaldulensis, and E. tereticornis showed KT50 values of 25.57, 35.01, and 31.31, respectively. A simple regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between KT50 data and % of 1,8-cineole in these essential oils. Repellency varied from 47.80+/-16% to 80.69+/-6% for the five Eucalyptus essential oils tested. Interspecific hybridization improves the pediculicidal activity of Eucalyptus essential oils. PMID:18261899

  20. [Comparison of the water consumption characteristics of Eucalyptus and Corymbia clone seedlings and the local indigenous tree species Bischofia javanica].

    PubMed

    Hua, Lei; He, Qian; Li, Ji-Yue; Liu, Shan; Yu, Fei

    2014-06-01

    The water consumption, water consumption rate, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr) and water use efficiency (WUE) of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis DH33-27, E. urophylla x E. grandis DH32-29, E. grandis H1, Corymbia ptychocarpa and an indigenous tree species Bischofia javanica were studied in normal soil moisture condition. The average daily water consumption of the five tree species was in the order of E. urophylla x E. grandis DH32-29 (188.47 +/- 14. 91) g > E. urophylla x E. grandis DH33-27 (169.27 +/- 16.26) g > E. grandis H1 (118.65 +/- 5.32) g > B. javanica (38.12 +/- 1.46) g > C. ptychocarpa (20.13 +/- 1.72) g, which had obviously positive correlation with the total leaf area of each seedling. The water consumption was mostly in the daytime, which took 90% of the whole day water consumption. The daily change of the water consumption rates of 5 kinds of seedlings followed the curve with one peak at 12:00-14:00. The total water consumption ability of Eucalyptus and Corymbia was higher than that of B. javanica. The water consumption rate of C. ptychocarpa was far higher than that of the other 4 kinds of seedlings, so its large area planting should be given full consideration to this issue. The change in water consumption rate of E. urophylla x E. grandis DH33-27 was mostly impacted by environmental temperature and humidity, because its water consumption rate was the smallest among 4 kinds of Eucalyptus and Corymbia seedlings during the daytime with high temperature and low humidity. The four clone seedlings of Eucalyptus and Corymbia showed higher photosynthetic rates and transpiration rates compared with B. javanica. Two clone seedlings of E. urophylla x E. grandis had better water-saving performance. The WUE of Eucalyptus and Corymbia was higher than that of B. javanica in general, except E. urophylla x E. Grandis DH33-27. PMID:25223018

  1. Photosynthesis in Eucalyptus Studied by the Open Photoacoustic Technique: Effects of Irradiance and Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barja, P. R.; Mansanares, A. M.; da Silva, E. C.; Magalhães, A. C. N.; Alves, P. L. C. A.

    2001-01-01

    This work demonstrates the usefulness of the Open Photoacoustic Cell Technique to study the effects of irradiance and temperature on photosynthesis. In vivo and in situ photosynthetic induction measurements were performed in three different species of eucalyptus plants ( E. grandis, E. urophylla, and E. urograndis) previously dark-adapted at different temperatures. Photosynthetic activity curves were built as a function of light intensity, indicating the occurrence of photosynthesis saturation. E. urograndis presented higher photosynthetic activity than the other species, especially at low temperature, indicating its tolerance to stress conditions. The incidence of background saturation light of various intensities allowed the in situ study of photoinhibition in eucalyptus plants through open photoacoustics.

  2. Mixed plantations of eucalyptus and leguminous trees enhance biomass production. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    DeBell, D.S.; Whitesell, C.D.; Schubert, T.H.

    1985-07-01

    Two Eucalyptus species--E. Saligna and E. grandis--are especially favored in Hawaii for wood, fiber, and fuel production because of their quick growth and high yields. Their growth is limited, however, on many sites by low levels of available nitrogen. Supplemental nitrogen can be provided by nitrogen-fixing plants, such as legumes. A test was conducted to determine whether planting two leguminous species--Acacia melanoxylon and Albizia falcataria Fosberg--could increase biomass production. Total biomass production was much greater in the mixed-species plantations than in the pure Eucalyptus plantation.

  3. Structural, evolutionary and functional analysis of the NAC domain protein family in Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Steven G; Saïdi, Mohammed N; Hefer, Charles A; Myburg, Alexander A; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2015-06-01

    NAC domain transcription factors regulate many developmental processes and stress responses in plants and vary widely in number and family structure. We analysed the characteristics and evolution of the NAC gene family of Eucalyptus grandis, a fast-growing forest tree in the rosid order Myrtales. NAC domain genes identified in the E. grandis genome were subjected to amino acid sequence, phylogenetic and motif analyses. Transcript abundance in developing tissues and abiotic stress conditions in E. grandis and E. globulus was quantified using RNA-seq and reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). One hundred and eighty-nine E. grandis NAC (EgrNAC) proteins, arranged into 22 subfamilies, are extensively duplicated in subfamilies associated with stress response. Most EgrNAC genes form tandem duplicate arrays that frequently carry signatures of purifying selection. Sixteen amino acid motifs were identified in EgrNAC proteins, eight of which are enriched in, or unique to, Eucalyptus. New candidates for the regulation of normal and tension wood development and cold responses were identified. This first description of a Myrtales NAC domain family reveals an unique history of tandem duplication in stress-related subfamilies that has likely contributed to the adaptation of eucalypts to the challenging Australian environment. Several new candidates for the regulation of stress, wood formation and tree-specific development are reported. PMID:25385212

  4. Development of Genetic Markers in Eucalyptus Species by Target Enrichment and Exome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Modhumita Ghosh; Dharanishanthi, Veeramuthu; Agarwal, Ishangi; Krutovsky, Konstantin V.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing has facilitated large-scale discovery, validation and assessment of genetic markers for high density genotyping. The present study was undertaken to identify markers in genes supposedly related to wood property traits in three Eucalyptus species. Ninety four genes involved in xylogenesis were selected for hybridization probe based nuclear genomic DNA target enrichment and exome sequencing. Genomic DNA was isolated from the leaf tissues and used for on-array probe hybridization followed by Illumina sequencing. The raw sequence reads were trimmed and high-quality reads were mapped to the E. grandis reference sequence and the presence of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and insertions/ deletions (InDels) were identified across the three species. The average read coverage was 216X and a total of 2294 SNVs and 479 InDels were discovered in E. camaldulensis, 2383 SNVs and 518 InDels in E. tereticornis, and 1228 SNVs and 409 InDels in E. grandis. Additionally, SNV calling and InDel detection were conducted in pair-wise comparisons of E. tereticornis vs. E. grandis, E. camaldulensis vs. E. tereticornis and E. camaldulensis vs. E. grandis. This study presents an efficient and high throughput method on development of genetic markers for family– based QTL and association analysis in Eucalyptus. PMID:25602379

  5. Down-regulation of p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H) and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) genes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis leads to improved sugar release

    SciTech Connect

    Sykes, Robert W.; Gjersing, Erica L.; Foutz, Kirk; Rottmann, William H.; Kuhn, Sean A.; Foster, Cliff E.; Ziebell, Angela; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Decker, Stephen R.; Hinchee, Maud A. W.; Davis, Mark F.

    2015-08-27

    In this study, lignocellulosic materials provide an attractive replacement for food-based crops used to produce ethanol. Understanding the interactions within the cell wall is vital to overcome the highly recalcitrant nature of biomass. One factor imparting plant cell wall recalcitrance is lignin, which can be manipulated by making changes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway. In this study, eucalyptus down-regulated in expression of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H, EC 1.14.13.11) or p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H, EC 1.14.13.36) were evaluated for cell wall composition and reduced recalcitrance.

  6. Investigating the molecular underpinnings underlying morphology and changes in carbon partitioning during tension wood formation in Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Mizrachi, Eshchar; Maloney, Victoria J; Silberbauer, Janine; Hefer, Charles A; Berger, Dave K; Mansfield, Shawn D; Myburg, Alexander A

    2015-06-01

    Tension wood has distinct physical and chemical properties, including altered fibre properties, cell wall composition and ultrastructure. It serves as a good system for investigating the genetic regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis and wood formation. The reference genome sequence for Eucalyptus grandis allows investigation of the global transcriptional reprogramming that accompanies tension wood formation in this global wood fibre crop. We report the first comprehensive analysis of physicochemical wood property changes in tension wood of Eucalyptus measured in a hybrid (E. grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla) clone, as well as genome-wide gene expression changes in xylem tissues 3 wk post-induction using RNA sequencing. We found that Eucalyptus tension wood in field-grown trees is characterized by an increase in cellulose, a reduction in lignin, xylose and mannose, and a marked increase in galactose. Gene expression profiling in tension wood-forming tissue showed corresponding down-regulation of monolignol biosynthetic genes, and differential expression of several carbohydrate active enzymes. We conclude that alterations of cell wall traits induced by tension wood formation in Eucalyptus are a consequence of a combination of down-regulation of lignin biosynthesis and hemicellulose remodelling, rather than the often proposed up-regulation of the cellulose biosynthetic pathway.

  7. Comparative Genomics Analyses Reveal Extensive Chromosome Colinearity and Novel Quantitative Trait Loci in Eucalyptus

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Qijie; Li, Mei; Yu, Xiaoli; Guo, Yong; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Xiaohong; Gan, Siming

    2015-01-01

    Dense genetic maps, along with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) detected on such maps, are powerful tools for genomics and molecular breeding studies. In the important woody genus Eucalyptus, the recent release of E. grandis genome sequence allows for sequence-based genomic comparison and searching for positional candidate genes within QTL regions. Here, dense genetic maps were constructed for E. urophylla and E. tereticornis using genomic simple sequence repeats (SSR), expressed sequence tag (EST) derived SSR, EST-derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (EST-CAPS), and diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers. The E. urophylla and E. tereticornis maps comprised 700 and 585 markers across 11 linkage groups, totaling at 1,208.2 and 1,241.4 cM in length, respectively. Extensive synteny and colinearity were observed as compared to three earlier DArT-based eucalypt maps (two maps with E. grandis × E. urophylla and one map of E. globulus) and with the E. grandis genome sequence. Fifty-three QTLs for growth (10–56 months of age) and wood density (56 months) were identified in 22 discrete regions on both maps, in which only one colocalizaiton was found between growth and wood density. Novel QTLs were revealed as compared with those previously detected on DArT-based maps for similar ages in Eucalyptus. Eleven to 585 positional candidate genes were obained for a 56-month-old QTL through aligning QTL confidence interval with the E. grandis genome. These results will assist in comparative genomics studies, targeted gene characterization, and marker-assisted selection in Eucalyptus and the related taxa. PMID:26695430

  8. Controlling the release of wood extractives into water bodies by selecting suitable eucalyptus species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilulya, K. F.; Msagati, T. A. M.; Mamba, B. B.; Ngila, J. C.; Bush, T.

    Pulping industries are increasing worldwide as a result of the increase in the demand for pulp for cellulose derivatives and paper manufacturing. Due to the activities involved in pulping processes, different chemicals from raw materials (wood) and bleaching agents are released in pulp-mill effluent streams discharged into the environment and find their way into water bodies. Large quantities of water and chemicals used in pulping result in large amounts of wastewater with high concentrations of extractives such as unsaturated fatty acids, which are known to be toxic, and plant sterols which affect the development, growth and reproduction of aquatic organisms. This study was aimed at assessing the composition of extractives in two eucalyptus species used for pulp production in South Africa, in order to identify the suitable species with regard to extractive content. Samples from two eucalyptus plant species (Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii) were collected from three sites and analysed for extractives by first extracting with water, followed by Soxhlet extraction using acetone. Compounds were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Major classes of extractives identified were fatty acids (mainly hexadecanoic acid, 9,12-octadecadienoic, 9-octadecenoic and octadecanoic acids) and sterols (mainly β-sitosterol and stigmastanol). E. dunnii was found to contain higher amounts of the compounds compared to those found in E. grandis in all sampled sites. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed and explained 92.9% of the total variation using three principal components. It was revealed that the percentage of fatty acids, which has a negative influence on both principal components 2 and 3, was responsible for the difference between the species. E. grandis, which was found to contain low amounts of extractives, was therefore found suitable for pulping with regard to minimal water usage and environment pollution.

  9. Validation of models to estimate the fumigant and larvicidal activity of Eucalyptus essential oils against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Lucia, Alejandro; Juan, Laura W; Zerba, Eduardo N; Harrand, Leonel; Marcó, Martín; Masuh, Hector M

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this work is to validate the pre-existing models that relate the larvicidal and adulticidal activities of the Eucalyptus essential oils on Aedes aegypti. Previous works at our laboratory described that the larvicidal activity of Eucalyptus essential oils can be estimated from the relative concentration of two main components (p-cymene and 1,8-cineole) and that the adulticidal effectiveness can be explained, to a great extent, by the presence of large amounts of the component 1,8-cineole in it. In general, the results show that the higher adulticidal effect of essential oils the lower their larvicidal activity. Fresh leaves was harvested and distilled. Once the essential oil was obtained, the chemical composition was analysed, evaluating the biological activity of 15 species of the genus Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus badjensis Beuzev and Welch, Eucalyptus badjensis × nitens, Eucalyptus benthamii var Benthamii Maiden and Cambage, Eucalyptus benthamii var dorrigoensis Maiden and Cambage, Eucalyptus botryoides Smith, Eucalyptus dalrympleana Maiden, Eucalyptus fastigata Deane and Maiden, Eucalyptus nobilis L.A.S. Johnson and K.D.Hill, Eucalyptus polybractea R. Baker, Eucalyptus radiata ssp radiata Sieber ex Spreng, Eucalyptus resinifera Smith, Eucalyptus robertsonii Blakely, Eucalyptus robusta Smith, Eucalyptus rubida Deane and Maiden, Eucalyptus smithii R. Baker). Essential oils of these plant species were used for the validation of equations from preexistent models, in which observed and estimated values of the biological activity were compared. The regression analysis showed a strong validation of the models, re-stating the trends previously observed. The models were expressed as follows: A, fumigant activity [KT(50(min)) = 10.65-0.076 × 1,8-cineole (%)](p < 0.01; F, 397; R (2), 0.79); B, larval mortality (%)((40 ppm)) = 103.85 + 0.482 × p-cymene (%) - 0.363 × α-pinene (%) - 1.07 × 1,8-cineole (%) (p < 0.01; F, 300; R (2), 0.90). These results confirmed the

  10. Validation of models to estimate the fumigant and larvicidal activity of Eucalyptus essential oils against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Lucia, Alejandro; Juan, Laura W; Zerba, Eduardo N; Harrand, Leonel; Marcó, Martín; Masuh, Hector M

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this work is to validate the pre-existing models that relate the larvicidal and adulticidal activities of the Eucalyptus essential oils on Aedes aegypti. Previous works at our laboratory described that the larvicidal activity of Eucalyptus essential oils can be estimated from the relative concentration of two main components (p-cymene and 1,8-cineole) and that the adulticidal effectiveness can be explained, to a great extent, by the presence of large amounts of the component 1,8-cineole in it. In general, the results show that the higher adulticidal effect of essential oils the lower their larvicidal activity. Fresh leaves was harvested and distilled. Once the essential oil was obtained, the chemical composition was analysed, evaluating the biological activity of 15 species of the genus Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus badjensis Beuzev and Welch, Eucalyptus badjensis × nitens, Eucalyptus benthamii var Benthamii Maiden and Cambage, Eucalyptus benthamii var dorrigoensis Maiden and Cambage, Eucalyptus botryoides Smith, Eucalyptus dalrympleana Maiden, Eucalyptus fastigata Deane and Maiden, Eucalyptus nobilis L.A.S. Johnson and K.D.Hill, Eucalyptus polybractea R. Baker, Eucalyptus radiata ssp radiata Sieber ex Spreng, Eucalyptus resinifera Smith, Eucalyptus robertsonii Blakely, Eucalyptus robusta Smith, Eucalyptus rubida Deane and Maiden, Eucalyptus smithii R. Baker). Essential oils of these plant species were used for the validation of equations from preexistent models, in which observed and estimated values of the biological activity were compared. The regression analysis showed a strong validation of the models, re-stating the trends previously observed. The models were expressed as follows: A, fumigant activity [KT(50(min)) = 10.65-0.076 × 1,8-cineole (%)](p < 0.01; F, 397; R (2), 0.79); B, larval mortality (%)((40 ppm)) = 103.85 + 0.482 × p-cymene (%) - 0.363 × α-pinene (%) - 1.07 × 1,8-cineole (%) (p < 0.01; F, 300; R (2), 0.90). These results confirmed the

  11. Black Hills

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Drought in the Black Hills     View ... and western South Dakota remain in the midst of a severe drought. This set of images and maps from NASA's Multi-angle Imaging ... the 2000 and 2004 dates. As the vegetation faded with the drought, the  albedo  at the surface increased. Albedo measures the ...

  12. Genetic architecture of carbon isotope composition and growth in Eucalyptus across multiple environments.

    PubMed

    Bartholomé, Jérôme; Mabiala, André; Savelli, Bruno; Bert, Didier; Brendel, Oliver; Plomion, Christophe; Gion, Jean-Marc

    2015-06-01

    In the context of climate change, the water-use efficiency (WUE) of highly productive tree varieties, such as eucalypts, has become a major issue for breeding programmes. This study set out to dissect the genetic architecture of carbon isotope composition (δ(13) C), a proxy of WUE, across several environments. A family of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis was planted in three trials and phenotyped for δ(13) C and growth traits. High-resolution genetic maps enabled us to target genomic regions underlying δ(13) C quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on the E. grandis genome. Of the 15 QTLs identified for δ(13) C, nine were stable across the environments and three displayed significant QTL-by-environment interaction, suggesting medium to high genetic determinism for this trait. Only one colocalization was found between growth and δ(13) C. Gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analysis suggested candidate genes related to foliar δ(13) C, including two involved in the regulation of stomatal movements. This study provides the first report of the genetic architecture of δ(13) C and its relation to growth in Eucalyptus. The low correlations found between the two traits at phenotypic and genetic levels suggest the possibility of improving the WUE of Eucalyptus varieties without having an impact on breeding for growth.

  13. Diversity and distribution of the endophytic bacterial community at different stages of Eucalyptus growth.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Paulo Sérgio Balbino; de Oliveira, Marcelo Nagem Valério; Delvaux, Júlio César; de Jesus, Guilherme Luiz; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer; Tótola, Marcos Rogério; Neves, Júlio César Lima; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2016-06-01

    The relationships between plants and endophytic bacteria significantly contribute to plant health and yield. However, the microbial diversity in leaves of Eucalyptus spp. is still poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the endophytic diversity in leaves of hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla (Eucalyptus "urograndis") by using culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches, to better understand their ecology in leaves at different stages of Eucalyptus development, including bacteria with N2 fixation potential. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria (classes alpha-, beta- and gamma-) and Actinobacteria were identified in the Eucalyptus "urograndis" endophytic bacterial community. Within this community, the species Novosphingobium barchaimii, Rhizobium grahamii, Stenotrophomonas panacihumi, Paenibacillus terrigena, P. darwinianus and Terrabacter lapilli represent the first report these bacteria as endophytes. The diversity of the total endophytic bacteria was higher in the leaves from the 'field' (the Shannon-Wiener index, 2.99), followed by the indices obtained in the 'clonal garden' (2.78), the 'recently out from under shade (2.68), 'under shade' (2.63) and 'plants for dispatch' (2.51). In contrast, for diazotrophic bacteria, the highest means of these indices were obtained from the leaves of plants in the 'under shade' (2.56), 'recently out from under shade (2.52)' and 'field' stages (2.54). The distribution of the endophytic bacterial species in Eucalyptus was distinct and specific to the development stages under study, and many of the species had the potential for nitrogen fixation, raising the question of whether these bacteria could contribute to overall nitrogen metabolism of Eucalyptus. PMID:27010209

  14. Diversity and distribution of the endophytic bacterial community at different stages of Eucalyptus growth.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Paulo Sérgio Balbino; de Oliveira, Marcelo Nagem Valério; Delvaux, Júlio César; de Jesus, Guilherme Luiz; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer; Tótola, Marcos Rogério; Neves, Júlio César Lima; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2016-06-01

    The relationships between plants and endophytic bacteria significantly contribute to plant health and yield. However, the microbial diversity in leaves of Eucalyptus spp. is still poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the endophytic diversity in leaves of hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla (Eucalyptus "urograndis") by using culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches, to better understand their ecology in leaves at different stages of Eucalyptus development, including bacteria with N2 fixation potential. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria (classes alpha-, beta- and gamma-) and Actinobacteria were identified in the Eucalyptus "urograndis" endophytic bacterial community. Within this community, the species Novosphingobium barchaimii, Rhizobium grahamii, Stenotrophomonas panacihumi, Paenibacillus terrigena, P. darwinianus and Terrabacter lapilli represent the first report these bacteria as endophytes. The diversity of the total endophytic bacteria was higher in the leaves from the 'field' (the Shannon-Wiener index, 2.99), followed by the indices obtained in the 'clonal garden' (2.78), the 'recently out from under shade (2.68), 'under shade' (2.63) and 'plants for dispatch' (2.51). In contrast, for diazotrophic bacteria, the highest means of these indices were obtained from the leaves of plants in the 'under shade' (2.56), 'recently out from under shade (2.52)' and 'field' stages (2.54). The distribution of the endophytic bacterial species in Eucalyptus was distinct and specific to the development stages under study, and many of the species had the potential for nitrogen fixation, raising the question of whether these bacteria could contribute to overall nitrogen metabolism of Eucalyptus.

  15. Catolaccus grandis (Burks)(Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catolaccus grandis is an ectoparasitoid of the boll weevil classified initially within the genus Heterolaccus (Burks 1954). It was first introduced to the U.S. during the early 1970’s and released in experimental fields in Mississippi State, MS (Johnson et al. 1973). Researchers observed encouraging...

  16. Superior cottonwood and eucalyptus clones for biomass production in wastewater biomass production in wastewater bioremediation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rockwood, D.L.; Pisano, S.M.; McConnell, W.V.

    1996-12-31

    Fast-growing cottonwood and Eucalyptus species have wastewater bioremediation potential. To estimate genetic variation in cottonwood`s response to sewage effluent, 10 clones were planted at Tallahassee in April 1992. Progenies and/or clones of E. Ampligolia (EA). E. Camaldulensis (EC), and E. Grandis (EG) were planted in a dry stormwater retention/bioremediation pond constructed in June 1993 at Tampa. Genetic variability within cottonwood and Eucalyptus species was observed and should be utilized to optimize biomass production and nutrient uptake in wastewater bioremediation applications. On good sites with freeze risk in northern Florida, three cottonwood clones are particularly productive. While as many as four EC and EG clones are promising, one EG clone appears superior for stormwater remediation, systems in central Florida.

  17. Species Discrimination, Population Structure and Linkage Disequilibrium in Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus tereticornis Using SSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Arumugasundaram, Shanmugapriya; Ghosh, Modhumita; Veerasamy, Sivakumar; Ramasamy, Yasodha

    2011-01-01

    Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. tereticornis are closely related species commonly cultivated for pulp wood in many tropical countries including India. Understanding the genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD) existing in these species is essential for the improvement of industrially important traits. Our goal was to evaluate the use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci for species discrimination, population structure and LD analysis in these species. Investigations were carried out with the most common alleles in 93 accessions belonging to these two species using 62 SSR markers through cross amplification. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.44 to 0.93 and 0.36 to 0.93 in E. camaldulensis and E. tereticornis respectively. A clear delineation between the two species was evident based on the analysis of population structure and species-specific alleles. Significant genotypic LD was found in E. camaldulensis, wherein out of 135 significant pairs, 17 pairs showed r2≥0.1. Similarly, in E. tereticornis, out of 136 significant pairs, 18 pairs showed r2≥0.1. The extent of LD decayed rapidly showing the significance of association analyses in eucalypts with higher resolution markers. The availability of whole genome sequence for E. grandis and the synteny and co-linearity in the genome of eucalypts, will allow genome-wide genotyping using microsatellites or single nucleotide polymorphims. PMID:22163287

  18. Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus by Eucalyptus and Populus at a tertiary treated municipal wastewater sprayfield.

    PubMed

    Minogue, Patrick J; Miwa, Masato; Rockwood, Donald L; Mackowiak, Cheryl L

    2012-12-01

    Various progenies of Eucalyptus grandis and E. amplifolia, and clones of Populus deltoides, were evaluated for plant removal of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) for 26 months at a municipal waste spray field in north Florida. Tertiary treated wastewater containing 2.73 mg L(-1) nitrate N and 0.30 mg L(-1) total P was applied using sprinkler irrigation (93.8 m3 ha(-1) d(-1)) to fast growing trees utilized for bioenergy. Eucalyptus amplifolia and E. grandis survived and grew very poorly as the result of severe winter injury in two successive years and were not evaluated for nutrient removal. Survival and growth of P. deltoides demonstrated suitability for phytoremediation, and selected clones were evaluated for biomass and nutrient content. Removals of total N (TN) and total P (TP) were greatest for main stem (36% and 44%, respectively) and foliage (44% and 36%, respectively). Low biomass producing clones generally had higher nutrient concentrations, but high biomass producing clones removed more TN and TP. Approximately 789 kg ha(-1) TN and 103 kg ha(-1) TP were removed by the highest biomass producing P. deltoides clone, representing 215% of N and 615% of P inputs. PMID:22908661

  19. FT overexpression induces precocious flowering and normal reproductive development in Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Klocko, Amy L; Ma, Cathleen; Robertson, Sarah; Esfandiari, Elahe; Nilsson, Ove; Strauss, Steven H

    2016-02-01

    Eucalyptus trees are among the most important species for industrial forestry worldwide. However, as with most forest trees, flowering does not begin for one to several years after planting which can limit the rate of conventional and molecular breeding. To speed flowering, we transformed a Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla hybrid (SP7) with a variety of constructs that enable overexpression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). We found that FT expression led to very early flowering, with events showing floral buds within 1-5 months of transplanting to the glasshouse. The most rapid flowering was observed when the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was used to drive the Arabidopsis thaliana FT gene (AtFT). Early flowering was also observed with AtFT overexpression from a 409S ubiquitin promoter and under heat induction conditions with Populus trichocarpa FT1 (PtFT1) under control of a heat-shock promoter. Early flowering trees grew robustly, but exhibited a highly branched phenotype compared to the strong apical dominance of nonflowering transgenic and control trees. AtFT-induced flowers were morphologically normal and produced viable pollen grains and viable self- and cross-pollinated seeds. Many self-seedlings inherited AtFT and flowered early. FT overexpression-induced flowering in Eucalyptus may be a valuable means for accelerating breeding and genetic studies as the transgene can be easily segregated away in progeny, restoring normal growth and form. PMID:26132805

  20. Can the Understory Affect the Hymenoptera Parasitoids in a Eucalyptus Plantation?

    PubMed Central

    Dall’Oglio, Onice Teresinha; Ribeiro, Rafael Coelho; Ramalho, Francisco de Souza; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; de Assis Júnior, Sebastião Lourenço; Rueda, Rosa Angélica Plata; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2016-01-01

    The understory in forest plantations can increase richness and diversity of natural enemies due to greater plant species richness. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the presence of the understory and climatic season in the region (wet or dry) can increase the richness and abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids in Eucalyptus plantations, in the municipality of Belo Oriente, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In each eucalyptus cultivation (five areas of cultivation) ten Malaise traps were installed, five with the understory and five without it. A total of 9,639 individuals from 30 families of the Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected, with Mymaridae, Scelionidae, Encyrtidae and Braconidae being the most collected ones with 4,934, 1,212, 619 and 612 individuals, respectively. The eucalyptus stands with and without the understory showed percentage of individuals 45.65% and 54.35% collected, respectively. The understory did not represent a positive effect on the overall abundance of the individuals Hymenoptera in the E. grandis stands, but rather exerted a positive effect on the specific families of the parasitoids of this order. PMID:26954578

  1. Can the Understory Affect the Hymenoptera Parasitoids in a Eucalyptus Plantation?

    PubMed

    Dall'Oglio, Onice Teresinha; Ribeiro, Rafael Coelho; Ramalho, Francisco de Souza; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Assis Júnior, Sebastião Lourenço de; Rueda, Rosa Angélica Plata; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2016-01-01

    The understory in forest plantations can increase richness and diversity of natural enemies due to greater plant species richness. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the presence of the understory and climatic season in the region (wet or dry) can increase the richness and abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids in Eucalyptus plantations, in the municipality of Belo Oriente, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In each eucalyptus cultivation (five areas of cultivation) ten Malaise traps were installed, five with the understory and five without it. A total of 9,639 individuals from 30 families of the Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected, with Mymaridae, Scelionidae, Encyrtidae and Braconidae being the most collected ones with 4,934, 1,212, 619 and 612 individuals, respectively. The eucalyptus stands with and without the understory showed percentage of individuals 45.65% and 54.35% collected, respectively. The understory did not represent a positive effect on the overall abundance of the individuals Hymenoptera in the E. grandis stands, but rather exerted a positive effect on the specific families of the parasitoids of this order.

  2. Antifungal Activity of Eucalyptus Oil against Rice Blast Fungi and the Possible Mechanism of Gene Expression Pattern.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li-Jun; Li, Fu-Rong; Huang, Li-Jie; Yang, Zhi-Rong; Yuan, Shu; Bai, Lin-Han

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus oil possesses a wide spectrum of biological activity, including anti-microbial, fungicidal, herbicidal, acaricidal and nematicidal properties. We studied anti-fungal activities of the leaf oil extracted from Eucalyptus. grandis × E. urophylla. Eleven plant pathogenic fungi were tested based on the mycelium growth rates with negative control. The results showed that Eucalyptus oil has broad-spectrum inhibitory effects toward these fungi. Remarkable morphological and structural alterations of hypha have been observed for Magnaporthe grisea after the treatment. The mRNA genome array of M. grisea was used to detect genes that were differentially expressed in the test strains treated by the Eucalyptus oil than the normal strains. The results showed 1919 genes were significantly affected, among which 1109 were down-regulated and 810 were up-regulated (p < 0.05, absolute fold change >2). According to gene ontology annotation analysis, these differentially expressed genes may cause abnormal structures and physiological function disorders, which may reduce the fungus growth. These results show the oil has potential for use in the biological control of plant disease as a green biopesticide.

  3. Antifungal Activity of Eucalyptus Oil against Rice Blast Fungi and the Possible Mechanism of Gene Expression Pattern.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li-Jun; Li, Fu-Rong; Huang, Li-Jie; Yang, Zhi-Rong; Yuan, Shu; Bai, Lin-Han

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus oil possesses a wide spectrum of biological activity, including anti-microbial, fungicidal, herbicidal, acaricidal and nematicidal properties. We studied anti-fungal activities of the leaf oil extracted from Eucalyptus. grandis × E. urophylla. Eleven plant pathogenic fungi were tested based on the mycelium growth rates with negative control. The results showed that Eucalyptus oil has broad-spectrum inhibitory effects toward these fungi. Remarkable morphological and structural alterations of hypha have been observed for Magnaporthe grisea after the treatment. The mRNA genome array of M. grisea was used to detect genes that were differentially expressed in the test strains treated by the Eucalyptus oil than the normal strains. The results showed 1919 genes were significantly affected, among which 1109 were down-regulated and 810 were up-regulated (p < 0.05, absolute fold change >2). According to gene ontology annotation analysis, these differentially expressed genes may cause abnormal structures and physiological function disorders, which may reduce the fungus growth. These results show the oil has potential for use in the biological control of plant disease as a green biopesticide. PMID:27187335

  4. Transcriptional Profiles of Hybrid Eucalyptus Genotypes with Contrasting Lignin Content Reveal That Monolignol Biosynthesis-related Genes Regulate Wood Composition.

    PubMed

    Shinya, Tomotaka; Iwata, Eiji; Nakahama, Katsuhiko; Fukuda, Yujiroh; Hayashi, Kazunori; Nanto, Kazuya; Rosa, Antonio C; Kawaoka, Akiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus species constitutes the most widely planted hardwood trees in temperate and subtropical regions. In this study, we compared the transcript levels of genes involved in lignocellulose formation such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin biosynthesis in two selected 3-year old hybrid Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis) genotypes (AM063 and AM380) that have different lignin content. AM063 and AM380 had 20.2 and 35.5% of Klason lignin content and 59.0 and 48.2%, α-cellulose contents, respectively. We investigated the correlation between wood properties and transcript levels of wood formation-related genes using RNA-seq with total RNAs extracted from developing xylem tissues at a breast height. Transcript levels of cell wall construction genes such as cellulose synthase (CesA) and sucrose synthase (SUSY) were almost the same in both genotypes. However, AM063 exhibited higher transcript levels of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and xyloglucan endotransglucoxylase than those in AM380. Most monolignol biosynthesis-related isozyme genes showed higher transcript levels in AM380. These results indicate monolignol biosynthesis-related genes may regulate wood composition in Eucalyptus. Flavonoids contents were also observed at much higher levels in AM380 as a result of the elevated transcript levels of common phenylpropanoid pathway genes, phenylalanine ammonium lyase, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL). Secondary plant cell wall formation is regulated by many transcription factors. We analyzed genes encoding NAC, WRKY, AP2/ERF, and KNOX transcription factors and found higher transcript levels of these genes in AM380. We also observed increased transcription of some MYB and LIM domain transcription factors in AM380 compared to AM063. All these results show that genes related to monolignol biosynthesis may regulate the wood composition and help maintain the ratio of cellulose and lignin contents in Eucalyptus plants. PMID

  5. Transcriptional Profiles of Hybrid Eucalyptus Genotypes with Contrasting Lignin Content Reveal That Monolignol Biosynthesis-related Genes Regulate Wood Composition

    PubMed Central

    Shinya, Tomotaka; Iwata, Eiji; Nakahama, Katsuhiko; Fukuda, Yujiroh; Hayashi, Kazunori; Nanto, Kazuya; Rosa, Antonio C.; Kawaoka, Akiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus species constitutes the most widely planted hardwood trees in temperate and subtropical regions. In this study, we compared the transcript levels of genes involved in lignocellulose formation such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin biosynthesis in two selected 3-year old hybrid Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis) genotypes (AM063 and AM380) that have different lignin content. AM063 and AM380 had 20.2 and 35.5% of Klason lignin content and 59.0 and 48.2%, α-cellulose contents, respectively. We investigated the correlation between wood properties and transcript levels of wood formation-related genes using RNA-seq with total RNAs extracted from developing xylem tissues at a breast height. Transcript levels of cell wall construction genes such as cellulose synthase (CesA) and sucrose synthase (SUSY) were almost the same in both genotypes. However, AM063 exhibited higher transcript levels of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and xyloglucan endotransglucoxylase than those in AM380. Most monolignol biosynthesis-related isozyme genes showed higher transcript levels in AM380. These results indicate monolignol biosynthesis-related genes may regulate wood composition in Eucalyptus. Flavonoids contents were also observed at much higher levels in AM380 as a result of the elevated transcript levels of common phenylpropanoid pathway genes, phenylalanine ammonium lyase, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL). Secondary plant cell wall formation is regulated by many transcription factors. We analyzed genes encoding NAC, WRKY, AP2/ERF, and KNOX transcription factors and found higher transcript levels of these genes in AM380. We also observed increased transcription of some MYB and LIM domain transcription factors in AM380 compared to AM063. All these results show that genes related to monolignol biosynthesis may regulate the wood composition and help maintain the ratio of cellulose and lignin contents in Eucalyptus plants. PMID

  6. Reference genes for the normalization of gene expression in eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Luisa Abruzzi; Breton, Michèle Claire; Bastolla, Fernanda Macedo; Camargo, Sandro da Silva; Margis, Rogério; Frazzon, Jeverson; Pasquali, Giancarlo

    2012-02-01

    Gene expression analysis is increasingly important in biological research, with reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) becoming the method of choice for high-throughput and accurate expression profiling of selected genes. Considering the increased sensitivity, reproducibility and large dynamic range of this method, the requirements for proper internal reference gene(s) for relative expression normalization have become much more stringent. Given the increasing interest in the functional genomics of Eucalyptus, we sought to identify and experimentally verify suitable reference genes for the normalization of gene expression associated with the flower, leaf and xylem of six species of the genus. We selected 50 genes that exhibited the least variation in microarrays of E. grandis leaves and xylem, and E. globulus xylem. We further performed the experimental analysis using RT-qPCR for six Eucalyptus species and three different organs/tissues. Employing algorithms geNorm and NormFinder, we assessed the gene expression stability of eight candidate new reference genes. Classic housekeeping genes were also included in the analysis. The stability profiles of candidate genes were in very good agreement. PCR results proved that the expression of novel Eucons04, Eucons08 and Eucons21 genes was the most stable in all Eucalyptus organs/tissues and species studied. We showed that the combination of these genes as references when measuring the expression of a test gene results in more reliable patterns of expression than traditional housekeeping genes. Hence, novel Eucons04, Eucons08 and Eucons21 genes are the best suitable references for the normalization of expression studies in the Eucalyptus genus. PMID:22197885

  7. Effect of overexpression of radish plasma membrane aquaporins on water-use efficiency, photosynthesis and growth of Eucalyptus trees.

    PubMed

    Tsuchihira, Ayako; Hanba, Yuko T; Kato, Naoki; Doi, Tomonori; Kawazu, Tetsu; Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2010-03-01

    Eucalyptus is a diverse genus of flowering trees with more than 700 genotypic species which are mostly native to Australia. We selected 19 wild provenances of Eucalyptus camaldulensis grown in Australia, compared their growth rate and drought tolerance and determined the protein levels of plasma membrane aquaporins (PIPs). There was a positive relationship between the drought tolerance and PIP content. PIPs are divided into two subgroups, PIP1 and PIP2. Most members of the PIP2 subgroup, but not PIP1 subgroup, exhibit water channel activity. We introduced two radish (Raphanus sativus L.) PIPs, RsPIP1;1 and RsPIP2;1, into a hybrid clone of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla to examine the effect of their overexpression. Expression of these genes was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the protein accumulation of RsPIP2;1 by immunoblotting. Drought tolerance was not enhanced in transgenic lines of either gene. However, one transgenic line expressing RsPIP2;1 showed high photosynthesis activity and growth rate under normal growth conditions. For RsPIP1;1-transformed lines, the RsPIP1;1 protein did not accumulate, and the abundance of endogenous PIP1 and PIP2 was decreased. The endogenous PIP1 and PIP2 genes were suppressed in these lines. Therefore, the decreased levels of PIP1 and PIP2 protein may be due to co-suppression of the PIP genes and/or high turnover of PIP proteins. RsPIP1;1-expressing lines gave low values of photosynthesis and growth compared with the control. These results suggest that down-regulation of PIP1 and PIP2 causes serious damage and that up-regulation of PIP2 improves the photosynthetic activity and growth of Eucalyptus trees.

  8. Eucalyptus hairy roots, a fast, efficient and versatile tool to explore function and expression of genes involved in wood formation.

    PubMed

    Plasencia, Anna; Soler, Marçal; Dupas, Annabelle; Ladouce, Nathalie; Silva-Martins, Guilherme; Martinez, Yves; Lapierre, Catherine; Franche, Claudine; Truchet, Isabelle; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2016-06-01

    Eucalyptus are of tremendous economic importance being the most planted hardwoods worldwide for pulp and paper, timber and bioenergy. The recent release of the Eucalyptus grandis genome sequence pointed out many new candidate genes potentially involved in secondary growth, wood formation or lineage-specific biosynthetic pathways. Their functional characterization is, however, hindered by the tedious, time-consuming and inefficient transformation systems available hitherto for eucalypts. To overcome this limitation, we developed a fast, reliable and efficient protocol to obtain and easily detect co-transformed E. grandis hairy roots using fluorescent markers, with an average efficiency of 62%. We set up conditions both to cultivate excised roots in vitro and to harden composite plants and verified that hairy root morphology and vascular system anatomy were similar to wild-type ones. We further demonstrated that co-transformed hairy roots are suitable for medium-throughput functional studies enabling, for instance, protein subcellular localization, gene expression patterns through RT-qPCR and promoter expression, as well as the modulation of endogenous gene expression. Down-regulation of the Eucalyptus cinnamoyl-CoA reductase1 (EgCCR1) gene, encoding a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis, led to transgenic roots with reduced lignin levels and thinner cell walls. This gene was used as a proof of concept to demonstrate that the function of genes involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis and wood formation can be elucidated in transgenic hairy roots using histochemical, transcriptomic and biochemical approaches. The method described here is timely because it will accelerate gene mining of the genome for both basic research and industry purposes. PMID:26579999

  9. Comparative transcriptional analysis provides new insights into the molecular basis of adventitious rooting recalcitrance in Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Márcia Rodrigues; de Bastiani, Daniela; Gaeta, Marcos Letaif; de Araújo Mariath, Jorge Ernesto; de Costa, Fernanda; Retallick, Jeffrey; Nolan, Lana; Tai, Helen H; Strömvik, Martina V; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano

    2015-10-01

    Adventitious rooting (AR) is essential in clonal propagation. Eucalyptus globulus is relevant for the cellulose industry due to its low lignin content. However, several useful clones are recalcitrant to AR, often requiring exogenous auxin, adding cost to clonal garden operations. In contrast, E. grandis is an easy-to-root species widely used in clonal forestry. Aiming at contributing to the elucidation of recalcitrance causes in E. globulus, we conducted a comparative analysis with these two species differing in rooting competence, combining gene expression and anatomical techniques. Recalcitrance in E. globulus is reversed by exposure to exogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which promotes important gene expression modifications in both species. The endogenous content of IAA was significantly higher in E. grandis than in E. globulus. The cambium zone was identified as an active area during AR, concentrating the first cell divisions. Immunolocalization assay showed auxin accumulation in cambium cells, further indicating the importance of this region for rooting. We then performed a cambium zone-specific gene expression analysis during AR using laser microdissection. The results indicated that the auxin-related genes TOPLESS and IAA12/BODENLOS and the cytokinin-related gene ARR1may act as negative regulators of AR, possibly contributing to the hard-to-root phenotype of E. globulus. PMID:26398800

  10. Mixing Eucalyptus and Acacia trees leads to fine root over-yielding and vertical segregation between species.

    PubMed

    Laclau, Jean-Paul; Nouvellon, Yann; Reine, Caroline; Gonçalves, José Leonardo de Moraes; Krushe, Alex Vladimir; Jourdan, Christophe; le Maire, Guerric; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre

    2013-07-01

    The consequences of diversity on belowground processes are still poorly known in tropical forests. The distributions of very fine roots (diameter <1 mm) and fine roots (diameter <3 mm) were studied in a randomized block design close to the harvest age of fast-growing plantations. A replacement series was set up in Brazil with mono-specific Eucalyptus grandis (100E) and Acacia mangium (100A) stands and a mixture with the same stocking density and 50% of each species (50A:50E). The total fine root (FR) biomass down to a depth of 2 m was about 27% higher in 50A:50E than in 100A and 100E. Fine root over-yielding in 50A:50E resulted from a 72 % rise in E. grandis fine root biomass per tree relative to 100E, whereas A. mangium FR biomass per tree was 17% lower than in 100A. Mixing A. mangium with E. grandis trees led to a drop in A. mangium FR biomass in the upper 50 cm of soil relative to 100A, partially balanced by a rise in deep soil layers. Our results highlight similarities in the effects of directional resources on leaf and FR distributions in the mixture, with A. mangium leaves below the E. grandis canopy and a low density of A. mangium fine roots in the resource-rich soil layers relative to monospecific stands. The vertical segregation of resource-absorbing organs did not lead to niche complementarity expected to increase the total biomass production. PMID:23180423

  11. Social implications of Eucalyptus propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, G.N.N.; Ramaswamy, S.R.

    1992-12-31

    The role of eucalypts for planting in social forestry programs in discussed from the point of view of a non-governmental organization concerned with the welfare of rural people who depend on common and wastelands of their livelihood. Plantations carried out under Social Forestry programs have provided industrial wood rather than satisfying the needs of local people for fuel and other forest products. It would be unrealistic and futile to discuss the Eucalyptus issue in isolation. In order to appreciate the various repercussions of problems arising from plantation forestry, it is necessary to view it in a socio-economic context. The Eucalyptus hybrid has been aggressively promoted by the Karnataka Forest Department under the Social Forestry Project.

  12. Sensitivity of Aedes aegypti adults (Diptera: Culicidae) to the vapors of Eucalyptus essential oils.

    PubMed

    Lucia, Alejandro; Licastro, Susana; Zerba, Eduardo; Gonzalez Audino, Paola; Masuh, Hector

    2009-12-01

    Vapors of essential oils extracted from various species of Eucalyptus (E. gunnii, E. tereticornis, E. grandis, E. camaldulensis, E. dunnii, E. cinerea, E. saligna, E. sideroxylon, E. globulus ssp. globulus, E. globulus ssp. maidenii, E. viminalis and the hybrids E. grandisxE. tereticornis and E. grandisxE. camaldulensis) and their major components were found to be toxic to Aedes aegypti adults, the yellow fever mosquito. An aliquot of each oil was placed in a cylindrical test chamber and the number of knocked-down mosquitoes was recorded as function of time. Knockdown time 50% was then calculated. Results showed that E. viminalis had the fastest knockdown time at of 4.2 min, on the same order as dichlorvos, a standard knockdown agent. A correlation was observed between the content of 1,8-cineole in the Eucalyptus essential oils and the corresponding toxic effect. The correlation between KT(50) values and calculated vapor pressures of the essential oil components showed that the fumigant activity of simple organic compounds in insects is correlated with their volatility. PMID:19592238

  13. [Effects of introducing Eucalyptus on indigenous biodiversity].

    PubMed

    Ping, Liang; Xie, Zong-Qiang

    2009-07-01

    Eucalyptus is well-known as an effective reforestation tree species, due to its fast growth and high adaptability to various environments. However, the introduction of Eucalyptus could have negative effects on the local environment, e. g., inducing soil degradation, decline of groundwater level, and decrease of biodiversity, and especially, there still have controversies on the effects of introduced Eucalyptus on the understory biodiversity of indigenous plant communities and related mechanisms. Based on a detailed analysis of the literatures at home and abroad, it was considered that the indigenous plant species in the majority of introduced Eucalyptus plantations were lesser than those in natural forests and indigenous species plantations but more than those in other exotic species plantations, mainly due to the unique eco-physiological characteristics of Eucalyptus and the irrational plantation design and harvesting techniques, among which, anthropogenic factors played leading roles. Be that as it may, the negative effects of introducing Eucalyptus on local plant biodiversity could be minimized via more rigorous scientific plantation design and management based on local plant community characteristics. To mitigate the negative effects of Eucalyptus introduction, the native trees and understory vegetation in plantations should be kept intact during reforestation with Eucalyptus to favor the normal development of plant community and regeneration. At the same time, human disturbance should be minimized to facilitate the natural regeneration of native species.

  14. David Keynes Hill.

    PubMed

    Huxley, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    David Hill followed his father, A.V. Hill FRS, into the study of muscular contraction. Using a wide range of experimental techniques, he made several important advances of which the most important was the discovery of the 'short-range elastic component', a phenomenon which implied that even in the resting state there was an interaction between the thick (myosin) and thin (actin) filaments. He also studied physical changes in nerve when stimulated.

  15. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto."

  16. Development and Characterization of Cassia grandis and Bixa orellana Nanoformulations.

    PubMed

    Prada, Ariadna L; Bitencourt, Antônio P R; Amado, Jesús R R; Cruz, Rodrigo A S; Carvalho, José C T; Fernandes, Caio P

    2016-01-01

    Cassia grandis and Bixa orellana are important plant species with folk use and great potential for phytopharmaceuticals. Nanodispersions are disperse systems of insoluble or immiscible substances in a liquid medium that may be prepared with or without coating polymers. To our knowledge, no studies were carried in order to achieve coating-polymer free nanoformulations using B. orellana extract or any C. grandis-based nanoformulations. Thus, on the present study we aimed to develop C. grandis nanoformulations using three different coating polymers (Eudragit® L 100 55, PEG 4000 and Kollicoat®), while B. orellana nanodispersions were obtained using different surfactants (polysorbate 80, polysorbate 20, polyethylene glycol 400 monooleate, polyethylene glycol 600 monooleate, polyethylene glycol 400 dioleate and polyethylene glycol 600 dioleate) as coating polymer-free nanoformulations. Characterization of nanoformulations was performed by different parameters, including particle size, polydispersity index and zeta-potential. Our results suggested that some optimal nanoformulations were obtained for both plant species. Moreover, possible stable behavior was observed during storage period for C. grandis (30 days) and B. orellana (21 days). On this context, the present study contributes to nanobiotechnology development of phytopharmaceuticals, allowing achievement of novel nano-delivery systems with two important folk medicinal plant extracts and making them potential products for innovative phytopharmaceuticals. PMID:26876518

  17. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto." PMID:26470226

  18. Essential oil composition of Eucalyptus microtheca and Eucalyptus viminalis

    PubMed Central

    Maghsoodlou, Malek Taher; Kazemipoor, Nasrin; Valizadeh, Jafar; Falak Nezhad Seifi, Mohsen; Rahneshan, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Eucalyptus (Fam. Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant and various Eucalyptus species possess potent pharmacological actions against diabetes, hepatotoxicity, and inflammation. This study aims to investigate essential oil composition from leaves and flowers of E. microtheca and E. viminalis leaves growing in the Southeast of Iran. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of these plants were collected from Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran in 2013. After drying the plant materials in the shade, the chemical composition of the essential oils was obtained by hydro-distillation method using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. Results: In the essential oil of E. microtheca leaves, 101 compounds representing 100%, were identified. Among them, α-phellandrene (16.487%), aromadendrene (12.773%), α-pinene (6.752%), globulol (5.997%), ledene (5.665%), P-cymen (5.251%), and β-pinene (5.006%) were the major constituents. In the oil of E. microtheca flowers, 88 compounds representing 100%, were identified in which α-pinene (16.246%), O-cymen (13.522%), β-pinene (11.082%), aromadendrene (7.444%), α-phellandrene (7.006%), globulol (5.419%), and 9-octadecenamide (5.414%) were the major components. Sixty six compounds representing 100% were identified in the oil of E. viminalis leaves. The major compounds were 1, 8-cineole (57.757%), α-pinene (13.379%), limonene (5.443%), and globulol (3.054%). Conclusion: The results showed the essential oils from the aerial parts of Eucalyptus species are a cheap source for the commercial isolation of α-phellandrene, α-pinene, and 1, 8-cineole compounds to be used in medicinal and food products. Furthermore, these plants could be an alternative source of insecticide agents. PMID:26693411

  19. Dual RNA-Sequencing of Eucalyptus nitens during Phytophthora cinnamomi Challenge Reveals Pathogen and Host Factors Influencing Compatibility

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Febé E.; Shuey, Louise S.; Naidoo, Sitha; Mamni, Thandekile; Berger, Dave K.; Myburg, Alexander A.; van den Berg, Noëlani; Naidoo, Sanushka

    2016-01-01

    Damage caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands remains an important concern on forest tree species. The pathogen causes root and collar rot, stem cankers, and dieback of various economically important Eucalyptus spp. In South Africa, susceptible cold tolerant Eucalyptus plantations have been affected by various Phytophthora spp. with P. cinnamomi considered one of the most virulent. The molecular basis of this compatible interaction is poorly understood. In this study, susceptible Eucalyptus nitens plants were stem inoculated with P. cinnamomi and tissue was harvested five days post inoculation. Dual RNA-sequencing, a technique which allows the concurrent detection of both pathogen and host transcripts during infection, was performed. Approximately 1% of the reads mapped to the draft genome of P. cinnamomi while 78% of the reads mapped to the Eucalyptus grandis genome. The highest expressed P. cinnamomi gene in planta was a putative crinkler effector (CRN1). Phylogenetic analysis indicated the high similarity of this P. cinnamomi CRN1 to that of Phytophthora infestans. Some CRN effectors are known to target host nuclei to suppress defense. In the host, over 1400 genes were significantly differentially expressed in comparison to mock inoculated trees, including suites of pathogenesis related (PR) genes. In particular, a PR-9 peroxidase gene with a high similarity to a Carica papaya PR-9 ortholog previously shown to be suppressed upon infection by Phytophthora palmivora was down-regulated two-fold. This PR-9 gene may represent a cross-species effector target during P. cinnamomi infection. This study identified pathogenicity factors, potential manipulation targets, and attempted host defense mechanisms activated by E. nitens that contributed to the susceptible outcome of the interaction. PMID:26973660

  20. Dual RNA-Sequencing of Eucalyptus nitens during Phytophthora cinnamomi Challenge Reveals Pathogen and Host Factors Influencing Compatibility.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Febé E; Shuey, Louise S; Naidoo, Sitha; Mamni, Thandekile; Berger, Dave K; Myburg, Alexander A; van den Berg, Noëlani; Naidoo, Sanushka

    2016-01-01

    Damage caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands remains an important concern on forest tree species. The pathogen causes root and collar rot, stem cankers, and dieback of various economically important Eucalyptus spp. In South Africa, susceptible cold tolerant Eucalyptus plantations have been affected by various Phytophthora spp. with P. cinnamomi considered one of the most virulent. The molecular basis of this compatible interaction is poorly understood. In this study, susceptible Eucalyptus nitens plants were stem inoculated with P. cinnamomi and tissue was harvested five days post inoculation. Dual RNA-sequencing, a technique which allows the concurrent detection of both pathogen and host transcripts during infection, was performed. Approximately 1% of the reads mapped to the draft genome of P. cinnamomi while 78% of the reads mapped to the Eucalyptus grandis genome. The highest expressed P. cinnamomi gene in planta was a putative crinkler effector (CRN1). Phylogenetic analysis indicated the high similarity of this P. cinnamomi CRN1 to that of Phytophthora infestans. Some CRN effectors are known to target host nuclei to suppress defense. In the host, over 1400 genes were significantly differentially expressed in comparison to mock inoculated trees, including suites of pathogenesis related (PR) genes. In particular, a PR-9 peroxidase gene with a high similarity to a Carica papaya PR-9 ortholog previously shown to be suppressed upon infection by Phytophthora palmivora was down-regulated two-fold. This PR-9 gene may represent a cross-species effector target during P. cinnamomi infection. This study identified pathogenicity factors, potential manipulation targets, and attempted host defense mechanisms activated by E. nitens that contributed to the susceptible outcome of the interaction. PMID:26973660

  1. [CO2 release from typical Stipa grandis grassland soil].

    PubMed

    Cui, X; Chen, S; Chen, Z

    2000-06-01

    Determinations on the soil respiration in a typical Stipa grandis grassland of Inner Mongolica by the method of static chamber/alkaline absorbing show that there existed great spatial and temporal variances of soil respiration, and the factors controlling these variances were different. The seasonal variance of soil respiration had a close relationship with the aboveground biomass of S. grandis and the status of soil moisture. The total amount of annual CO2 release in 1995, 1997 and 1998 was estimated as 180, 45.8 and 225 gC.m-2.yr-1, respectively. Overgrazing greatly decreased the biomass of the community, and also, decreased the CO2 release from the soil. The possibility of establishing a dynamic model of soil respiration in grassland with precipitation as a driven factor was discussed. PMID:11767639

  2. Effects of Planting Density on Transpiration, Stem Flow and Interception for Two Clones Differing in Drought Tolerance in a High Productivity Eucalyptus Plantation in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, R. M.; Hakemada, R.; Ferraz, S.

    2015-12-01

    Eucalypt plantations cover about 20 M hectares worldwide and expansion is expected to mainly occur in marginal growing areas where dry conditions may lead to water conflicts. One of the principal reasons for the expansion of Eucalyptus plantations is rapid wood growth but these forests also transpire large amounts of water. Genotype selection and planting density, are key factors regulating carbon and water tradeoffs at a stand scale, but few studies have examined these simultaneously especially in highly productive clonal plantations. Our goal in this study was to examine the effects of planting density on carbon and water interactions using a drought tolerant and drought sensitive eucalyptus clone. This work is part of a larger study (TECHS project - Tolerance of Eucalyptus Clones to Hydric and Thermal Stresses) and is located in a flat Oxisol in southeast of Brazil. A drought tolerant (E. grandis x E. camaldulensis (Grancam) and drought sensitive clone E. grandis x E. urophylla (Urograndis) were planted at four densities ranging from 600 to 3.000 stem ha-1. We measured transpiration using thermal heat dissipation probes, wood growth, canopy interception and stemflow during a full year (21 to 33 months old). Precipitation during the study period was 738 mm. Independently of genetics, growth increased with increasing density. Transpiration also increased with planting density and ranged from 515-595 mm at wider spacing to 735-978 mm at tighter spacing. Interception increased with planting density representing 18-22% of precipitation versus 13-14% in wider spacing while stem flow represented 2-5% in denser spacing and 1-2% at broader spacing. When density was higher than 1.250 and 1.750 stems ha-1 in Urograndis and Grancam clones, respectively, the water balance were negative. On a stand scale, results show both genetics and spacing can be used as silvicultural tools to better manage the tradeoff between wood growth and water consumption.

  3. Edaphic factors do not govern the ectomycorrhizal specificity of Pisonia grandis (Nyctaginaceae).

    PubMed

    Hayward, Jeremy A; Horton, Thomas R

    2012-11-01

    Pisonia grandis (Nyctaginaceae), a widespread tree of Pacific coral atolls and islands, displays one of the more restrictive ranges of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus associates among autotrophic plants. Only five ECM fungi are currently known associates; our study adds one. In many habitats, P. grandis is restricted to large seabird colonies where nitrogen and phosphorus inputs in the form of guano are substantial. It has been suggested that the ECM specificity displayed by P. grandis is the result of the unusual nutrient-rich habitat in which P. grandis grows. On Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, P. grandis grows in habitats heavily influenced by guano additions and also in upland forests where seabirds do not roost or nest. To test the hypothesis that the ECM specificity displayed by P. grandis is the result of nutrient-related or toxicity-related factors associated with guano inputs, we sampled P. grandis growing in both guano-rich and guano-poor habitats on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. We identified ECM symbionts of P. grandis from both habitats as well as two symbionts of Intsia bijuga (Fabaceae) from nutrient-rich habitats. We identified three ECM symbionts of P. grandis from Rota; all three were found in both guano-rich and guano-poor habitats. No differences in community diversity were detected between guano-rich and guano-poor habitats. We also detected two ECM fungal species associating with I. bijuga but not associating with P. grandis inside guano-rich habitats. From these results, we infer that edaphic factors are not responsible for limiting the ECM community associating with P. grandis to its observed level of specificity. PMID:22569801

  4. Edaphic factors do not govern the ectomycorrhizal specificity of Pisonia grandis (Nyctaginaceae).

    PubMed

    Hayward, Jeremy A; Horton, Thomas R

    2012-11-01

    Pisonia grandis (Nyctaginaceae), a widespread tree of Pacific coral atolls and islands, displays one of the more restrictive ranges of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus associates among autotrophic plants. Only five ECM fungi are currently known associates; our study adds one. In many habitats, P. grandis is restricted to large seabird colonies where nitrogen and phosphorus inputs in the form of guano are substantial. It has been suggested that the ECM specificity displayed by P. grandis is the result of the unusual nutrient-rich habitat in which P. grandis grows. On Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, P. grandis grows in habitats heavily influenced by guano additions and also in upland forests where seabirds do not roost or nest. To test the hypothesis that the ECM specificity displayed by P. grandis is the result of nutrient-related or toxicity-related factors associated with guano inputs, we sampled P. grandis growing in both guano-rich and guano-poor habitats on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. We identified ECM symbionts of P. grandis from both habitats as well as two symbionts of Intsia bijuga (Fabaceae) from nutrient-rich habitats. We identified three ECM symbionts of P. grandis from Rota; all three were found in both guano-rich and guano-poor habitats. No differences in community diversity were detected between guano-rich and guano-poor habitats. We also detected two ECM fungal species associating with I. bijuga but not associating with P. grandis inside guano-rich habitats. From these results, we infer that edaphic factors are not responsible for limiting the ECM community associating with P. grandis to its observed level of specificity.

  5. Eucalyptus

    MedlinePlus

    ... also used as an expectorant to loosen coughs, antiseptic, fever reducer, and in vaporizer fluids. Other uses ... cosmetics. It is also used as a mouthwash, antiseptic, liniment and ointment, and in toothpaste, cough drops, ...

  6. 'Scarecrow' Descends Hill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    An engineering model for NASA's Mars Science Laboratory makes its way up a hill in the Mars Yard testing area at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The model, called 'Scarecrow' because it does not include a computer brain, is used for tests of mobility and landing.

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover is in development for launch in 2009. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages the mission for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  7. Nose Hill Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Vivian

    2008-01-01

    A Blackfoot woman, caught in the act of adultery, was condemned at this site to have her nose cut off as a penalty for her actions. People do not know her story. The tribe cast it on the ground. And so She, Nose Hill, was named. John Laurie Boulevard holds her mound in a circlet of asphalt, defining the map of her "terra incognita." She is a park…

  8. Changes in hair properties by Eucalyptus extract.

    PubMed

    Mamada, Akira; Ishihama, Mariko; Fukuda, Reiko; Inoue, Shigeto

    2008-01-01

    A long-term usage investigation of a scalp lotion containing Eucalyptus extract, which increases the amount of ceramide in the skin, was carried out to explore the change in physical properties of the hair fiber. Half-head or whole-head usage studies of a scalp lotion with Eucalyptus extract were carried out for the following groups: Japanese female, Japanese senior female, Japanese male, and Caucasian female panelists. As a result, the improvement in hair luster and bounce in the root part of the hair were recognized by the panelists after the long-term application of the scalp lotion with Eucalyptus extract. Measurement of hair gloss intensity and bending stress at the root suggests that this improvement is based on changes in these physical properties. These results indicate that the recognition of panelists is based on an actual change in the hair fiber properties. The efficacy of Eucalyptus extract is expressed regardless of race, age, or gender, since similar results were confirmed in all panelist groups. In order to investigate the cause of these phenomena, we measured the elasticity (Young's modulus) of the new-growth part of the cortex in Eucalyptus extract-treated hair and placebo hair by the nano-indentation method of atomic force microscopy (AFM). These results suggest that the Young's modulus of the new-growth part of the cortex in Eucalyptus extract treated-hair increases in comparison with placebo hair. The IR spectra of treated samples of hair show changes that appear to confirm a decrease in the alpha-helix structure and an increase in the beta-sheet structure.

  9. A Capitol Hill Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Christal

    2006-04-01

    Relatively few women receive advanced degrees in the sciences, and relatively few scientists find their way into staff positions on Capitol Hill. Yet in this staffer's experience, I count more female science Ph.D.s in my circle of colleagues than I counted female classmates in physics graduate school. Why, at least anecdotally, does it seem that women with advanced degrees in science are more likely than their male peers to leave the laboratory and join the policy lobby? My observations are based on my own work in energy and environmental policy as a staffer in both the U.S. Senate and the U.S. House of Representatives.

  10. KISATCHIE HILLS WILDERNESS, LOUISIANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haley, Boyd R.; Ryan, George S.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Kisatchie Hills Wilderness, Louisiana indicated little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. There is insufficient data on oil and gas producing formations that underlie the area to evaluate the oil and gas resource potential. All the oil fields of Wilcox age are less than 40 acres in extent; therefore, closer spaced deeper wells might find additional fields in sediments of Wilcox age. Oil and natural gas have been produced from older reservoirs (Cretaceous age) to the northwest of the wilderness, and deeper wells might find oil and natural gas in sediments of Cretaceous and older age in the vicinity of the wilderness.

  11. Effects of pretreatment on morphology, chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of eucalyptus bark: a potentially valuable source of fermentable sugars for biofuel production – part 1

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, the growing demand for biofuels has encouraged the search for different sources of underutilized lignocellulosic feedstocks that are available in sufficient abundance to be used for sustainable biofuel production. Much attention has been focused on biomass from grass. However, large amounts of timber residues such as eucalyptus bark are available and represent a potential source for conversion to bioethanol. In the present paper, we investigate the effects of a delignification process with increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations, preceded or not by diluted acid, on the bark of two eucalyptus clones: Eucalyptus grandis (EG) and the hybrid, E. grandis x urophylla (HGU). The enzymatic digestibility and total cellulose conversion were measured, along with the effect on the composition of the solid and the liquor fractions. Barks were also assessed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-Ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results Compositional analysis revealed an increase in the cellulose content, reaching around 81% and 76% of glucose for HGU and EG, respectively, using a two-step treatment with HCl 1%, followed by 4% NaOH. Lignin removal was 84% (HGU) and 79% (EG), while the hemicellulose removal was 95% and 97% for HGU and EG, respectively. However, when we applied a one-step treatment, with 4% NaOH, higher hydrolysis efficiencies were found after 48 h for both clones, reaching almost 100% for HGU and 80% for EG, in spite of the lower lignin and hemicellulose removal. Total cellulose conversion increased from 5% and 7% to around 65% for HGU and 59% for EG. NMR and FTIR provided important insight into the lignin and hemicellulose removal and SEM studies shed light on the cell-wall unstructuring after pretreatment and lignin migration and precipitation on the fibers surface, which explain the different hydrolysis rates found for the clones. Conclusion Our

  12. Lost Hills, California Interferogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This figure shows a comparison of interferograms from four different years mapping the rapid ground subsidence over the Lost Hills oil field in California. Lost Hills is located about 60 km (40 miles) northwest of Bakersfield in the San Joaquin Valley. The oil field is about 1.5 km (1mile) wide and 6 km (3.5 miles) long.

    Each interferogram was created using pairs of images taken by synthetic aperture radar that have been combined to measure surface deformation or changes that may have occurred in the time between when data for the two images were taken. The images were collected by the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing satellites (ERS-1 and ERS-2) in two months of each year shown (1995, 1996, 1998 and 1999) and were combined to produce these image maps of the apparent surface deformation, or changes.

    The interferometric measurements that show the changes, primarily vertical subsidence of the surface, are rendered in color with purple indicating no motion and the brightest red showing rapid subsidence. The white areas are where the radar measurements could not be obtained, mostly in the agricultural fields around the oil fields where plant growth or plowing altered the radar properties of the surface.

    These radar data show that parts of the oil field were subsiding unusually rapidly, more than 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) a month, in 1995 and 1996. They also reveal that while the ground subsidence rate decreased in the center part of the oil field, it increased in the northern part between 1995 and 1996 and 1998 and 1999.

    Subsidence maps like these combined with records of oil and water extraction and injection will help scientist understand how the rocks within an oil field are behaving, leading to improvements in oil field operations.

  13. Lost Hills, California Interferogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This figure shows a comparison of interferograms from four different years mapping the rapid ground subsidence over the Lost Hills oil field in California. Lost Hills is located about 60 km (40 miles) northwest of Bakersfield in the San Joaquin Valley. The oilfield is about 1.5 km (1 mile) wide and 6 km (3.5 miles) long. Each interferogram was created using pairs of images taken by synthetic aperture radar that have been combined to measure surface deformation or changes that may have occurred in the time between when data for the two images were taken. The images were collected by the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing satellites (ERS-1 and ERS-2) in two months of each year shown (1995, 1996, 1998 and 1999) and were combined to produce these image maps of the apparent surface deformation, or changes. The interferometric measurements that show the changes, primarily vertical subsidence of the surface, are rendered in color with purple indicating no motion and the brightest red showing rapid subsidence. The white areas are where the radar measurements could not be obtained, mostly in the agricultural fields around the oilfields where plant growth or plowing altered the radar properties of the surface. These radar data show that parts of the oilfield were subsiding unusually rapidly, more than 3 centimenters (1.2 inches) a month, in 1995 and 1996. They also reveal that while the ground subsidence rate decreased in the center part of the oilfield, it increased in the northern part between 1995 and 1996 and 1998 and 1999. Subsidence maps like these combined with records of oil and water extraction and injection will help scientist understand how the rocks within an oilfield are behaving, leading to improvements in oilfield operations. For more information, read Radar Helps Monitor Oil Fields. Images courtesy Eric Fielding, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  14. 16. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking up ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking up at the trusses of the second floor - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  15. 6. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northeast, with chute building to the right - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  16. 22. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking at double doors - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  17. 21. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking towards window - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  18. 18. View of the second floor of the Cherry Hill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. View of the second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking at door - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  19. 9. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking north, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking north, with chute building on the left - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  20. 3. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking southeast; parking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking southeast; parking lot in foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  1. 12. Partial view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Partial view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northwest showing office - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  2. 20. View of second floor to the Cherry Hill lettuce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. View of second floor to the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking at floor area - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  3. 15. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed showing posts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed showing posts looking towards the chute building - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  4. 14. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking towards chute building - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  5. 19. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking at door to stairwell - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  6. 2. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking south; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking south; chute building is in background - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  7. Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus orchard. Camera facing 118" east-southeast. - Goerlitz House, 9893 Highland Avenue, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino County, CA

  8. Antigravity hills are visual illusions.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Paola; Garlaschelli, Luigi; Barracano, Monica

    2003-09-01

    Antigravity hills, also known as spook hills or magnetic hills, are natural places where cars put into neutral are seen to move uphill on a slightly sloping road, apparently defying the law of gravity. We show that these effects, popularly attributed to gravitational anomalies, are in fact visual illusions. We re-created all the known types of antigravity spots in our laboratory using tabletop models; the number of visible stretches of road, their slant, and the height of the visible horizon were systematically varied in four experiments. We conclude that antigravity-hill effects follow from a misperception of the eye level relative to gravity, caused by the presence of either contextual inclines or a false horizon line.

  9. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment V. The Florida eucalyptus energy farm: environmental impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The overall environmental impact of the eucalyptus to methanol energy system in Florida is assessed. The environmental impacts associated with the following steps of the process are considered: (1) the greenhouse and laboratory; (2) the eucalyptus plantation; (3) transporting the mature logs; (4) the hammermill; and (5) the methanol synthesis plant. Next, the environmental effects of methanol as an undiluted motor fuel, methanol as a gasoline blend, and gasoline as motor fuels are compared. Finally, the environmental effects of the eucalypt gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to the coal liquefaction and conversion system.

  10. Effect of Low pH and Aluminum Toxicity on the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Different Fast-Growing Eucalyptus Vegetatively Propagated Clones.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mei; Tan, Ling; Xu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yihui; Cheng, Fei; Ye, Shaoming; Jiang, Weixin

    2015-01-01

    Knowing how acid soils and aluminum in soils may limit the growth of Eucalyptus trees in plantations is important because these plantations grow in many tropical and subtropical regions. Seedlings of four vegetatively propagated Eucalyptus clones, E. grandis × E. urophylla 'GLGU9'(G9), E. grandis × E. urophylla 'GLGU12' (G12), E. urophylla × E. camaldulensis 'GLUC3' (G3) and E. urophylla 'GLU4'(G4), were subjected to liquid culture with Hoagland nutrient solution for 40 days, then treated with four different treatments of acid and aluminum for 1 day. The four treatments used either pH 3.0 or 4.0 with or without added aluminum (4.4 mM) in all possible combinations; a control used no added aluminum at pH 4.8. Subsequently, the photosynthetic parameters and morphology of leaves from eucalypt seedlings were determined and observed. The results showed that the tested chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were apparently inhibited by aluminum. Under uniform Al concentration (4.4 mM), the Al-induced limitation to photosynthetic parameters increased with pH, indicating acid stimulation to Al toxicity. Among all treatments, the most significant reduction was found in the combination of pH 3.0 and 4.4 mM Al. The photosynthetic and transpiration rates showed similar trends with G9 > G12 > G3 > G4, suggesting that G9 and G12 had higher Al-tolerance than other two clones. Microscopic observation revealed changes in leaf morphology when exposed to Al stress; for example, a reduced thickness of leaf epidermis and palisade tissue, the descendant palisade tissue/spongy tissue ratio and leaf tissue looseness. Overall, the acid and aluminum stress exerted negative effects on the photosynthetic activity of eucalypt seedlings, but the differences in tolerance to Al toxicity between the clones were favorable, offering potential to improve Eucalyptus plantation productivity by selecting Al tolerant clones. PMID:26090998

  11. Effect of Low pH and Aluminum Toxicity on the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Different Fast-Growing Eucalyptus Vegetatively Propagated Clones

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mei; Tan, Ling; Xu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yihui; Cheng, Fei; Ye, Shaoming; Jiang, Weixin

    2015-01-01

    Knowing how acid soils and aluminum in soils may limit the growth of Eucalyptus trees in plantations is important because these plantations grow in many tropical and subtropical regions. Seedlings of four vegetatively propagated Eucalyptus clones, E. grandis × E. urophylla ‘GLGU9’(G9), E. grandis × E. urophylla ‘GLGU12’ (G12), E. urophylla × E. camaldulensis ‘GLUC3’ (G3) and E. urophylla ‘GLU4’(G4), were subjected to liquid culture with Hoagland nutrient solution for 40 days, then treated with four different treatments of acid and aluminum for 1 day. The four treatments used either pH 3.0 or 4.0 with or without added aluminum (4.4 mM) in all possible combinations; a control used no added aluminum at pH 4.8. Subsequently, the photosynthetic parameters and morphology of leaves from eucalypt seedlings were determined and observed. The results showed that the tested chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were apparently inhibited by aluminum. Under uniform Al concentration (4.4 mM), the Al-induced limitation to photosynthetic parameters increased with pH, indicating acid stimulation to Al toxicity. Among all treatments, the most significant reduction was found in the combination of pH 3.0 and 4.4 mM Al. The photosynthetic and transpiration rates showed similar trends with G9 > G12 > G3 > G4, suggesting that G9 and G12 had higher Al-tolerance than other two clones. Microscopic observation revealed changes in leaf morphology when exposed to Al stress; for example, a reduced thickness of leaf epidermis and palisade tissue, the descendant palisade tissue/spongy tissue ratio and leaf tissue looseness. Overall, the acid and aluminum stress exerted negative effects on the photosynthetic activity of eucalypt seedlings, but the differences in tolerance to Al toxicity between the clones were favorable, offering potential to improve Eucalyptus plantation productivity by selecting Al tolerant clones. PMID

  12. Soufriere Hills Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this ASTER image of Soufriere Hills Volcano on Montserrat in the Caribbean, continued eruptive activity is evident by the extensive smoke and ash plume streaming towards the west-southwest. Significant eruptive activity began in 1995, forcing the authorities to evacuate more than 7,000 of the island's original population of 11,000. The primary risk now is to the northern part of the island and to the airport. Small rockfalls and pyroclastic flows (ash, rock and hot gases) are common at this time due to continued growth of the dome at the volcano's summit.

    This image was acquired on October 29, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is

  13. Mass propagation of the boll weevil parasite, Catolaccus grandis

    SciTech Connect

    Palamara, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    The USDA and the DOE production facility at Kansas City managed by AlliedSignal have partnered to redirect defense technologies to the development of specialized agricultural equipment. The initial use of the equipment will be for mass rearing of the boll weevil parasite, Catolaccus grandis, however, by reprogramming and altering fixtures, the equipment can be used for other insect species. The process flow diagrams for the following systems have been developed: (1) Mechanized Host Larvae Washing/Drying, Capsule Forming, Larvae Placement, Sealing, and Labeling; (2) Mechanized in vivo Preoviposition, Oviposition, and Developing; (3) Mechanized Placement in Release Containers; (4) Automated Packaging and Storage/Retrieval; (5) Mechanized System for Field Release; (6) Mechanized System for Adult Colony Maintenance, Egg Laying, and Egg Retrieval; (7) Mechanized System for in vitro Diet Manufacturing; (8) Mechanized System for in vitro Mass Propagation with Diet Dispensing, Egg Placement, and Developing of Parasite Pupae. Conceptual designs using ProEngineer software have been developed for four of the eight systems. The initial hardware will include the elements of the systems considered to be the most technologically challenging and those necessary to establish the feasibility of commercial mass rearing. The most important of these are mechanized in vitro diet manufacturing, egg laying/retrieval, egg placement and diet dispensing.

  14. Devolatilisation kinetics and pyrolytic analyses of Tectona grandis (teak).

    PubMed

    Balogun, A O; Lasode, O A; McDonald, A G

    2014-03-01

    Devolatilisation kinetics and pyrolytic analyses were carried out on Tectona grandis (teak) using iso-conversional methods (Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and Starink) and analytical Py-GC/MS technique respectively. Proximate and elemental analyses were also performed and they showed that the ash and C contents and the HHV were 0.7%, 49.6% and 19.8MJ/kg respectively. Biomass sample was subjected to multiple heating rates (5-35K/min) in thermogravimetric experiments and kinetic parameters were evaluated from the non-isothermal TGA curves. The activation energy (E) varied between 222 and 300kJ/mol as a function of degree of conversion. Similarly, the pre-exponential frequency factor (A) varied between 9.6×10(17) and 9.55×10(24)min(-1). Analytical Py-GC/MS showed the presence of CO2, acetic acid, furan+2-butanone, levoglucosan, trans-coniferyl alcohol and lignin derivatives. The proportion of phenolic compounds identified was more than one-third with isoeugenol, acetoguaiacone, and 4-vinylguaiacol showing dominance. PMID:24486938

  15. Suppression of nighttime sap flux with lower stem photosynthesis in Eucalyptus trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jianguo; Zhou, Juan; Sun, Zhenwei; Niu, Junfeng; Zhou, Cuiming; Gu, Daxing; Huang, Yuqing; Zhao, Ping

    2016-04-01

    It is widely accepted that substantial nighttime sap flux ( J s,n) or transpiration ( E) occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications are poorly known. It has been hypothesized that J s,n or E serves to enhance nitrogen uptake or deliver oxygen; however, no clear evidence is currently available. In this study, sap flux ( J s) in Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla with apparent stem photosynthesis was measured, including control trees which were covered by aluminum foil (approximately 1/3 of tree height) to block stem photosynthesis. We hypothesized that the nighttime water flux would be suppressed in trees with lower stem photosynthesis. The results showed that the green tissue degraded after 3 months, demonstrating a decrease in stem photosynthesis. The daytime J s decreased by 21.47 %, while J s,n decreased by 12.03 % in covered trees as compared to that of control, and the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0.01). The linear quantile regression model showed that J s,n decreased for a given daytime transpiration water loss, indicating that J s,n was suppressed by lower stem photosynthesis in covered trees. Predawn ( ψ pd) of covered trees was marginally higher than that of control while lower at predawn stomatal conductance ( g s), indicating a suppressed water flux in covered trees. There was no difference in leaf carbon content and δ13C between the two groups, while leaf nitrogen content and δ15N were significantly higher in covered trees than that of the control ( P < 0.05), indicating that J s,n was not used for nitrogen uptake. These results suggest that J s,n may act as an oxygen pathway since green tissue has a higher respiration or oxygen demand than non-green tissue. Thus, this study demonstrated the physiological implications of J s,n and the possible benefits of nighttime water use or E by the tree.

  16. Suppression of nighttime sap flux with lower stem photosynthesis in Eucalyptus trees.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jianguo; Zhou, Juan; Sun, Zhenwei; Niu, Junfeng; Zhou, Cuiming; Gu, Daxing; Huang, Yuqing; Zhao, Ping

    2016-04-01

    It is widely accepted that substantial nighttime sap flux (J s,n) or transpiration (E) occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications are poorly known. It has been hypothesized that J s,n or E serves to enhance nitrogen uptake or deliver oxygen; however, no clear evidence is currently available. In this study, sap flux (J s) in Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla with apparent stem photosynthesis was measured, including control trees which were covered by aluminum foil (approximately 1/3 of tree height) to block stem photosynthesis. We hypothesized that the nighttime water flux would be suppressed in trees with lower stem photosynthesis. The results showed that the green tissue degraded after 3 months, demonstrating a decrease in stem photosynthesis. The daytime J s decreased by 21.47%, while J s,n decreased by 12.03% in covered trees as compared to that of control, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). The linear quantile regression model showed that J s,n decreased for a given daytime transpiration water loss, indicating that J s,n was suppressed by lower stem photosynthesis in covered trees. Predawn (ψ pd) of covered trees was marginally higher than that of control while lower at predawn stomatal conductance (g s), indicating a suppressed water flux in covered trees. There was no difference in leaf carbon content and δ(13)C between the two groups, while leaf nitrogen content and δ(15)N were significantly higher in covered trees than that of the control (P < 0.05), indicating that J s,n was not used for nitrogen uptake. These results suggest that J s,n may act as an oxygen pathway since green tissue has a higher respiration or oxygen demand than non-green tissue. Thus, this study demonstrated the physiological implications of J s,n and the possible benefits of nighttime water use or E by the tree.

  17. Permanent draft genome sequence of the gliding predator Saprospira grandis strain Sa g1 (= HR1)

    SciTech Connect

    Mavromatis, K; Chertkov, Olga; Lapidus, Alla L.; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Huntemann, Marcel; Liolios, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, N; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam L; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Rohde, Manfred; Spring, Stefan; Goker, Markus; Detter, J. Chris; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Saprospira grandis Gross et al. 1911 is a member of the Saprospiraceae, a family in the class 'Sphingobacteria' that remains poorly characterized at the genomic level. The species is known for preying on other marine bacteria via 'ixotrophy'. S. grandis strain Sa g1 was isolated from decaying crab carapace in France and was selected for genome sequencing because of its isolated location in the tree of life. Only one type strain genome has been published so far from the Saprospiraceae, while the sequence of strain Sa g1 represents the second genome to be published from a non-type strain of S. grandis. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4,495,250 bp long Improved-High-Quality draft of the genome with its 3,536 protein-coding and 62 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  18. Stratigraphic Relationships on Husband Hill, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, S. B.; Watters, W. A.; Squyres, S. W.

    2011-03-01

    We measure bedding plane orientations of outcrops on Cumberland Ridge in the Columbia Hills. Our measurements are consistent with the hypotheses that the outcrops (1) form a stratigraphic section, and (2) drape the Husband Hill edifice.

  19. Transcriptome Analysis in Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis) and RNA Interference in Insect Pests

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Roberta Ramos; Antonino de Souza Jr, José Dijair; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas-Jr, Georgios Joannis; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Engler, Gilbert; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi) as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families’ data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects. PMID:24386449

  20. Transcriptome analysis in cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) and RNA interference in insect pests.

    PubMed

    Firmino, Alexandre Augusto Pereira; Fonseca, Fernando Campos de Assis; de Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Coelho, Roberta Ramos; Antonino de Souza, José Dijair; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas-Jr, Georgios Joannis; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Engler, Gilbert; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi) as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families' data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects.

  1. The capacity to cope with climate warming declines from temperate to tropical latitudes in two widely distributed Eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    Drake, John E; Aspinwall, Michael J; Pfautsch, Sebastian; Rymer, Paul D; Reich, Peter B; Smith, Renee A; Crous, Kristine Y; Tissue, David T; Ghannoum, Oula; Tjoelker, Mark G

    2015-01-01

    As rapid climate warming creates a mismatch between forest trees and their home environment, the ability of trees to cope with warming depends on their capacity to physiologically adjust to higher temperatures. In widespread species, individual trees in cooler home climates are hypothesized to more successfully acclimate to warming than their counterparts in warmer climates that may approach thermal limits. We tested this prediction with a climate-shift experiment in widely distributed Eucalyptus tereticornis and E. grandis using provenances originating along a ~2500 km latitudinal transect (15.5-38.0°S) in eastern Australia. We grew 21 provenances in conditions approximating summer temperatures at seed origin and warmed temperatures (+3.5 °C) using a series of climate-controlled glasshouse bays. The effects of +3.5 °C warming strongly depended on home climate. Cool-origin provenances responded to warming through an increase in photosynthetic capacity and total leaf area, leading to enhanced growth of 20-60%. Warm-origin provenances, however, responded to warming through a reduction in photosynthetic capacity and total leaf area, leading to reduced growth of approximately 10%. These results suggest that there is predictable intraspecific variation in the capacity of trees to respond to warming; cool-origin taxa are likely to benefit from warming, while warm-origin taxa may be negatively affected.

  2. 'Columbia Hills' Color Elevation Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Spirit's Long Journey, Sol 450

    This elevation map shows the region of the 'Columbia Hills' where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has been working since mid-2004. Areas colored blue are lower in elevation and areas colored yellow are higher in elevation. The map imagery is from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter.

    Spirit's Long Journey, Sol 450 More than 15 months after landing on Mars, NASA's Spirit rover is still going strong, having traveled a total of 4,276 meters (2.66 miles) as of martian day, or sol, 450 (April 8, 2005). This elevation map shows the traverse followed by Spirit since arriving at the 'Columbia Hills' in June, 2004. The areas colored blue are low in elevation and areas colored yellow are high in elevation. The blue area at the foot of the 'Columbia Hills' is approximately 20 meters (66 feet) higher in elevation than the site where Spirit landed in Gusev Crater. The highest peak is on the order of 80 meters (262 feet) higher still. In other words, the hills Spirit is exploring are more than 250 feet high. The map imagery is from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor.

  3. Coming Down from the Hill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    Lancaster University's Department of Continuing Education has a long tradition of engagement with older learners. Its latest innovation aims to reach out to older people sometimes suspicious of the "university on the hill". This article discusses how Lancaster University develops a "Senior Learner' Programme", which is continuing as one of the…

  4. 27 CFR 9.52 - Chalk Hill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chalk Hill. 9.52 Section 9... TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.52 Chalk Hill. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chalk Hill.” (b) Approved...

  5. 27 CFR 9.52 - Chalk Hill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chalk Hill. 9.52 Section 9... TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.52 Chalk Hill. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chalk Hill.” (b) Approved...

  6. 27 CFR 9.52 - Chalk Hill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chalk Hill. 9.52 Section 9... TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.52 Chalk Hill. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chalk Hill.” (b) Approved...

  7. 27 CFR 9.52 - Chalk Hill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chalk Hill. 9.52 Section 9... TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.52 Chalk Hill. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chalk Hill.” (b) Approved...

  8. 27 CFR 9.52 - Chalk Hill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chalk Hill. 9.52 Section 9... TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.52 Chalk Hill. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chalk Hill.” (b) Approved...

  9. [Isolation and identification of Metarhizium from Citrus grandis 'tomentosa' GAP base].

    PubMed

    Ma, Weisi; Xu, Jiang; Qiao, Haili; Chen, Jun; Li, Xiangming; Qin, Rongmin; Cheng, Huizhen

    2012-04-01

    A type of entomopathogenic fungus of soil in Citrus grandis 'tomentosa' production base was isolated and identified with morphological and molecular biological methods, including pathogenesis, spore characteristic and ITS sequence analysis were conducted. The results showed that eighteen entomopathogenic fungi strains were isolated from the Tenebrio molitor infected in the soil samples, which were identified as Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae. Based on results above, we concluded that there was quantity of Metarhizium resources in this area. These provided the useful information for controlling some pests of C. grandis by using these strains of fungus. PMID:22792782

  10. Oldest Known Eucalyptus Macrofossils Are from South America

    PubMed Central

    Zamaloa, María C.; Nixon, Kevin C.; González, Cynthia C.; Wilf, Peter; Cúneo, N. Rubén; Johnson, Kirk R.

    2011-01-01

    The evolutionary history of Eucalyptus and the eucalypts, the larger clade of seven genera including Eucalyptus that today have a natural distribution almost exclusively in Australasia, is poorly documented from the fossil record. Little physical evidence exists bearing on the ancient geographical distributions or morphologies of plants within the clade. Herein, we introduce fossil material of Eucalyptus from the early Eocene (ca. 51.9 Ma) Laguna del Hunco paleoflora of Chubut Province, Argentina; specimens include multiple leaves, infructescences, and dispersed capsules, several flower buds, and a single flower. Morphological similarities that relate the fossils to extant eucalypts include leaf shape, venation, and epidermal oil glands; infructescence structure; valvate capsulate fruits; and operculate flower buds. The presence of a staminophore scar on the fruits links them to Eucalyptus, and the presence of a transverse scar on the flower buds indicates a relationship to Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus. Phylogenetic analyses of morphological data alone and combined with aligned sequence data from a prior study including 16 extant eucalypts, one outgroup, and a terminal representing the fossils indicate that the fossils are nested within Eucalyptus. These are the only illustrated Eucalyptus fossils that are definitively Eocene in age, and the only conclusively identified extant or fossil eucalypts naturally occurring outside of Australasia and adjacent Mindanao. Thus, these fossils indicate that the evolution of the eucalypt group is not constrained to a single region. Moreover, they strengthen the taxonomic connections between the Laguna del Hunco paleoflora and extant subtropical and tropical Australasia, one of the three major ecologic-geographic elements of the Laguna del Hunco paleoflora. The age and affinities of the fossils also indicate that Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus is older than previously supposed. Paleoecological data indicate that the

  11. Airborne remote sensing of spatiotemporal change (1955-2004) in indigenous and exotic forest cover in the Taita Hills, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellikka, Petri K. E.; Lötjönen, Milla; Siljander, Mika; Lens, Luc

    2009-08-01

    We studied changes in area and species composition of six indigenous forest fragments in the Taita Hills, Kenya using 1955 and 1995 aerial photography with 2004 airborne digital camera mosaics. The study area is part of Eastern Arc Mountains, a global biodiversity hot spot that boasts an outstanding diversity of flora and fauna and a high level of endemism. While a total of 260 ha (50%) of indigenous tropical cloud forest was lost to agriculture and bushland between 1955 and 2004, large-scale planting of exotic pines, eucalyptus, grevillea, black wattle and cypress on barren land during the same period resulted in a balanced total forest area. In the Taita Hills, like in other Afrotropical forests, indigenous forest loss may adversely affect ecosystem services.

  12. Changes in soil quality due to converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations and subsequent successive Eucalyptus planting in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Zheng, H.; Chen, F. L.; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y. F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M.; Xiang, X. W.

    2014-09-01

    Plants play a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological properties were measured and a soil quality index (SQI) was calculated. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellobiosidase, phenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase activities significantly decreased in the 1st and 2nd generations of Eucalyptus plantations after conversion from Pinus to Eucalyptus but gradually recovered in the 3rd and 4th generations. Soil total and available potassium were significantly lower, but total phosphorus was significantly higher in Eucalyptus plantations compared to the Pinus plantation. As an integrated indicator, SQI was highest in the Pinus plantation (0.92), but decreased to 0.24 and 0.13 in the 1st and 2nd generations of Eucalyptus plantations, respectively. However, it recovered to 0.36 and 0.38 in the 3rd and 4th generations, respectively. Changing tree species, reclamation and fertilization may have contributed to the "U" shaped change observed in soil quality during conversion of Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Litter retention, keeping understory coverage, and reducing soil disturbance during logging and subsequent establishment of the next rotation should be considered to help improving soil quality during plantation management.

  13. On the origin of Hill's causal criteria.

    PubMed

    Morabia, A

    1991-09-01

    The rules to assess causation formulated by the eighteenth century Scottish philosopher David Hume are compared to Sir Austin Bradford Hill's causal criteria. The strength of the analogy between Hume's rules and Hill's causal criteria suggests that, irrespective of whether Hume's work was known to Hill or Hill's predecessors, Hume's thinking expresses a point of view still widely shared by contemporary epidemiologists. The lack of systematic experimental proof to causal inferences in epidemiology may explain the analogy of Hume's and Hill's, as opposed to Popper's, logic.

  14. Nanofibrillated cellulose (CNF) from eucalyptus sawdust as a dry strength agent of unrefined eucalyptus handsheets.

    PubMed

    Vallejos, María Evangelina; Felissia, Fernando Esteban; Area, María Cristina; Ehman, Nanci Vanesa; Tarrés, Quim; Mutjé, Pere

    2016-03-30

    Nanofibrillated cellulose has been obtained from the cellulosic fraction of eucalyptus sawdust. The fractionation process involved the partial removal of hemicelluloses and lignin. CNF was obtained using TEMPO oxidation with NaOCl in basic medium followed by mechanical homogenization. The obtained CNF was subsequently used as a dry strength agent on unbleached unrefined eucalyptus pulp. The addition of 3, 6 and 9 wt.% of CNF increased lineally the tensile index of handsheets to about 55 N mg(-1) at 35°SR, compatible with papermachine runnability. The other mechanical properties also increased substantially, and porosity decreased moderately. The estimated specific surface and average diameter of these CNF were 60 m(2)g(-1), and of 41.0 nm, respectively. The addition of 9 wt.% of CNF produced an increase in mechanical strength, equivalent to that produced by PFI refining at 1600 revolutions.

  15. The antiviral activity of leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Dehn) and Eucalyptus torelliana (R. Muell).

    PubMed

    Adeniyi, Bolanle Alake; Ayepola, Olayemi Oluseun; Adu, Festus Doyin

    2015-09-01

    Human enteroviruses are the major cause of aseptic meningitis and are resistant to all known antibiotics and chemotherapeutic agents. Methanolic extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus torelliana were tested on human enteroviruses: Poliovirus type I, Coxsackievirus B and Echovirus 6. The virucidal tests showed that the crude extracts were active on the test viruses: poliovirus type 1, coxsackievirus B and echovirus 6 giving a neutralization index of one log and above. The cytotoxicity assay of the crude extracts to L20B (a genetically engineered mouse cell line) and human rhabdomyo sarcoma (RD) cells showed that the extract of E. torelliana was more toxic than the extract of E. camaldulensis. The antiviral study showed that the extract of E. torelliana was more active than that of E. camaldulensis. PMID:26408896

  16. Characterization of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Communities of Aquilaria crassna and Tectona grandis Roots and Soils in Thailand Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Chaiyasen, Amornrat; Young, J. Peter W.; Teaumroong, Neung; Gavinlertvatana, Paiboolya; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2014-01-01

    Aquilaria crassna Pierre ex Lec. and Tectona grandis Linn.f. are sources of resin-suffused agarwood and teak timber, respectively. This study investigated arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus community structure in roots and rhizosphere soils of A. crassna and T. grandis from plantations in Thailand to understand whether AM fungal communities present in roots and rhizosphere soils vary with host plant species and study sites. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism complemented with clone libraries revealed that AM fungal community composition in A. crassna and T. grandis were similar. A total of 38 distinct terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) were found, 31 of which were shared between A. crassna and T. grandis. AM fungal communities in T. grandis samples from different sites were similar, as were those in A. crassna. The estimated average minimum numbers of AM fungal taxa per sample in roots and soils of T. grandis were at least 1.89 vs. 2.55, respectively, and those of A. crassna were 2.85 vs. 2.33 respectively. The TRFs were attributed to Claroideoglomeraceae, Diversisporaceae, Gigasporaceae and Glomeraceae. The Glomeraceae were found to be common in all study sites. Specific AM taxa in roots and soils of T. grandis and A. crassna were not affected by host plant species and sample source (root vs. soil) but affected by collecting site. Future inoculum production and utilization efforts can be directed toward the identified symbiotic associates of these valuable tree species to enhance reforestation efforts. PMID:25397675

  17. Contextual view of Goerlitz Property, showing eucalyptus trees along west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Goerlitz Property, showing eucalyptus trees along west side of driveway; parking lot and utility pole in foreground. Camera facing 38" northeast - Goerlitz House, 9893 Highland Avenue, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino County, CA

  18. GEOCHEMISTRY OF MAJUBA HILL, NEVADA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wenrich, Karen J.; Mascarenas, Joseph F.; Silberman, Miles L.

    1984-01-01

    Majuba Hill is the erosional remnant of a mineralized volcanic complex of rhyolite porphyry stocks, dikes, sills and irregular masses of breccia intruded into Triassic(? ) argillites. Majuba Hill is best known for its Cu and Sn ore; in addition, it was mineralized with other metals of possible economic significance, most notably, Mo, Ag, and U. Although this is an intrusive complex with no evidence of any extrusive phases, it was intruded sufficiently near the surface to develop a porphyritic texture. Intense sericitic and argillic alteration affected all stages of intrusion. Fresh rocks were not available for K-Ar analyses. Several samples of feldspars and sericite from altered zones yielded K-Ar ages for the alteration of 24. 7 to 25. 5 m. y. The tight clustering of ages suggests that all stages of the complex were altered within less than 1 m. y.

  19. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    This feasibility study includes all phases of methanol production from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The study examines: production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-day methanol production facility; potential environmental impacts of the whole project; safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol; and development of site specific cost estimates.

  20. Rocks of the Columbia Hills

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Blaney, D.L.; Clark, B. C.; Crumpler, L.; Farrand, W. H.; Gorevan, S.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Hurowitz, J.; Kusack, A.; McSween, H.Y.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Ruff, S.W.; Wang, A.; Yen, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has identified five distinct rock types in the Columbia Hills of Gusev crater. Clovis Class rock is a poorly sorted clastic rock that has undergone substantial aqueous alteration. We interpret it to be aqueously altered ejecta deposits formed by impacts into basaltic materials. Wishstone Class rock is also a poorly sorted clastic rock that has a distinctive chemical composition that is high in Ti and P and low in Cr. Wishstone Class rock may be pyroclastic or impact in origin. Peace Class rock is a sedimentary material composed of ultramafic sand grains cemented by significant quantities of Mg- and Ca-sulfates. Peace Class rock may have formed when water briefly saturated the ultramafic sands and evaporated to allow precipitation of the sulfates. Watchtower Class rocks are similar chemically to Wishstone Class rocks and have undergone widely varying degrees of near-isochemical aqueous alteration. They may also be ejecta deposits, formed by impacts into Wishstone-rich materials and altered by small amounts of water. Backstay Class rocks are basalt/trachybasalt lavas that were emplaced in the Columbia Hills after the other rock classes were, either as impact ejecta or by localized volcanic activity. The geologic record preserved in the rocks of the Columbia Hills reveals a period very early in Martian history in which volcanic materials were widespread, impact was a dominant process, and water was commonly present. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. [Population density of Eucalyptus urophylla plantation].

    PubMed

    Huang, B; Lu, C

    2000-02-01

    This paper dealt with the relationships and correlation models of the population density of 5.6 years old Eucalyptus urophylla plantation with its crown width, diamter at breast height(DBH), tree height, individual standing volume, stand volume, wood properties and survital rate. The results showed that the population density remarkably affected DBH, individual standing volume, crown width, live branch height, stand volume and wood fiber width; but not affect tree height, basic density of wood, and length of wood fibers. It had a positive relationship with stand volume, live branch height and wood fibers width, and a negative relationship with DBH, individual standing volume and crown width. In addition, E. urophylla had a wide range of reasonable density. For short-rotation puplwoods, the optimum planting density of E. urophylla is 2000 individuals per hectare. PMID:11766582

  2. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria in Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt, R E; Petty, A; McKinnon, G E

    2004-01-01

    It is important to verify mitochondrial inheritance in plant species in which mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) will be used as a source of molecular markers. We used a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) approach to amplify mitochondrial introns from subunits 1, 4, 5, and 7 of NADH dehydrogenase (nad) and cytochrome oxidase subunit II (cox2) in Eucalyptus globulus. PCR fragments were then either sequenced or cut with restriction enzymes to reveal polymorphism. Sequencing cox2 showed that eucalypts lack the intron between exons 1 and 2. One polymorphism was found in intron 2-3 of nad7 following restriction digests with HphI. Fifty-four F1 progeny from seven families with parents distinguishable in their mitochondrial nad7 were screened to show that mitochondria were maternally inherited in E. globulus. These results constitute the first report of mitochondrial inheritance in the family Myrtaceae.

  3. Isolation of some pathogenic bacteria from the great spruce bark beetle, Dendroctonus micans and its specific predator, Rhizophagus grandis.

    PubMed

    Yaman, M; Ertürk, O; Aslan, I

    2010-01-01

    Some bacteria were isolated from Dendroctonus micans and its specific predator, Rhizophagus grandis. Six bacteria from D. micans were identified as Bacillus pumilus, Enterobacter intermedius, Citrobacter freundii, Cellulomonas flavigena, Microbacterium liquefaciens and Enterobacter amnigenus, three bacteria from R. grandis as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pantoea agglomerans and Serratia grimesii, on the basis of fatty acid methyl ester analysis and carbon utilization profile by using Microbial Identification and Biolog Microplate Systems. Their insecticidal effects were tested on larvae and adults of D. micans.

  4. Keeping pace with Capitol Hill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, C.

    2007-01-01

    At the Capitol Hill, the legislative branch of the United States government, the work is always at pace. Working with Congress is a tough job yet, rewarding. The Congress worked hard together to serve the public interest but many big issues are one small part of what Congress does. However, many US news media do not report what the government does instead, the media report what the government argues about. The media reports the conflicts but story is always incomplete. In order for the people know what is happening to the government, contact the congressional representative to know the complete story.

  5. Uptake of inorganic and amino acid nitrogen from soil by Eucalyptus regnans and Eucalyptus pauciflora seedlings.

    PubMed

    Warren, Charles R

    2009-03-01

    This study examined whether two species of Eucalyptus can take up the amino acid glycine from soil and compared the uptake rate of glycine with the uptake rates of nitrate and ammonium. Ectomycorrhizal seedlings of two ecologically disparate species were studied: Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell., a fast-growing forest tree from low altitudes; and Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieber ex Spreng., a slow-growing tree that forms the alpine treeline. Seedlings were grown from seeds in field soil. When seedlings were 4-5 months old, soils were injected with equimolar mixtures of isotope-labeled glycine, ammonium and nitrate. Seedlings and soil were harvested 4 and 48 h later. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry analysis of (13)C and (15)N enrichment in plants receiving glycine indicated uptake of 1.5 (13)C for every (15)N at the 4-h harvest (versus 2:1 (13)C:(15)N in labeled glycine), suggesting intact uptake of around 75% of glycine. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis detected intact (13)C(2),(15)N-glycine in roots, but the pool of (13)C(2),(15)N-glycine was 10-500 times smaller than (13)C and (15)N excess, and no (13)C(2),(15)N-glycine was detected in shoots. This is consistent with glycine being taken up as an intact molecule that is subsequently metabolized rapidly. Both species took up more nitrate than ammonium, and glycine was the least preferred form of nitrogen (N). Microbes took up more N than seedlings, and their preference for N forms was the mirror image of the plant preferences. These data suggest that patterns of microbial uptake may determine plant preference for forms of N. PMID:19203963

  6. 40 CFR 180.1241 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1241 Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Time-limited exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance are established for residues of eucalyptus oil...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1241 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1241 Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Time-limited exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance are established for residues of eucalyptus oil...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1241 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1241 Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Time-limited exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance are established for residues of eucalyptus oil...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1241 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1241 Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Time-limited exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance are established for residues of eucalyptus oil...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1271 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1271 Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of tolerance is established for residues of eucalyptus oil in or on...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1271 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1271 Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of tolerance is established for residues of eucalyptus oil in or on...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1271 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1271 Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of tolerance is established for residues of eucalyptus oil in or on...

  13. 40 CFR 180.1241 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1241 Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Time-limited exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance are established for residues of eucalyptus oil...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1271 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1271 Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of tolerance is established for residues of eucalyptus oil in or on...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1271 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1271 Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of tolerance is established for residues of eucalyptus oil in or on...

  16. [Growth effect of eucalyptus-acacia mixed plantation in South China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zeng-Jiang; Xu, Da-Ping; Chen, Wen-Ping; Huang, Lie-Jian; Li, Shang-Jun; Chen, Yuan

    2009-10-01

    Eucalyptus U6 and Acacia crassicarpa were mixed planted with different ratios and modes to investigate the growth parameters of the two tree species. In the 2-3 years old mixed plantation, the wind-throw of A. crassicarpa decreased markedly with increasing ratio of Eucalyptus U6, the decrement being 26.14% when the Eucalyptus U6/A. crassicarpa ratio was 3 : 1, but the survival rates of Eucalyptus U6 and A. crassicarpa had no significant difference under different planting modes. Mixed planting retarded the A. crassicarpa growth to some extent, with the DBH being 90% of that in pure A. crassicarpa stand. The mixed planting had little effects on the height growth of Eucalyptus U6, but promoted its DBH growth markedly, and the beneficial effect increased with increasing ratio of A. crassicarpa. In the 6 years old 1 : 1 Eucalyptus U6/A. crassicarpa plantation, the Eucalyptus U6 individuals with DBH > 15 cm occupied 32.1%; while in pure Eucalyptus U6 stand, they only accounted for 5.83%. Mixed planting with 2 : 1 Eucalyptus U6/A. crassicarpa could obtain a maximum total biomass of 198.8 m3 x hm(-2), which was 118.8% of the total biomass in pure Eucalyptus U6 stand, or 169.9% of that in pure A. crassicarpa stand. Mixture of Eucalyptus with Acacia would be a good choice to produce Eucalyptus trees with larger DBH.

  17. 7. Detail of balcony rail. August 1936. Joseph Hill, photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail of balcony rail. August 1936. Joseph Hill, photographer, copied from small photo taken by survey member. - Jansonist Colony, Steeple Building, Main & Bishop Hill Streets, Bishop Hill, Henry County, IL

  18. 6. Detail of pilaster cap. Aug. 10, 1936. Joseph Hill, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail of pilaster cap. Aug. 10, 1936. Joseph Hill, photographer, copied from small photo taken by survey member. - Jansonist Colony, Steeple Building, Main & Bishop Hill Streets, Bishop Hill, Henry County, IL

  19. 3. West and south elevations. Joseph Hill, photographer, copied from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. West and south elevations. Joseph Hill, photographer, copied from photo lent by Evelyn S. Craig. August 1936. - Jansonist Colony, Steeple Building, Main & Bishop Hill Streets, Bishop Hill, Henry County, IL

  20. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer August 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer August 1936 FIRST ORIGINAL STORE AND POSTOFFICE, COPY OF AN EARLY PHOTOGRAPH. LENT BY EVELYN S. CRAIG - Jansonist Colony, Colony Store & Post Office, Main & Bishop Hill Streets, Bishop Hill, Henry County, IL

  1. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Ming-Chiu; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Sun, Yung-Wei; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi) and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (C. grandis) were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06%) and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%). In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities. PMID:26681970

  2. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck.

    PubMed

    Ou, Ming-Chiu; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Sun, Yung-Wei; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi) and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (C. grandis) were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06%) and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%). In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities. PMID:26681970

  3. Antidyslipidemic activity of polyprenol from Coccinia grandis in high-fat diet-fed hamster model.

    PubMed

    Singh, Geetu; Gupta, Prasoon; Rawat, Preeti; Puri, Anju; Bhatia, Gitika; Maurya, Rakesh

    2007-12-01

    Ethanol extract of Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt showed significant triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol-lowering effects in dyslipidemic hamster model. Ethanolic extract was fractionated into chloroform, n-butanol and water-soluble fractions and were evaluated. Activity was proved to be concentrated in chloroform-soluble fraction. Chloroform-soluble fraction containing active component was subjected to repeated column chromatography, furnished a polyprenol characterized as C(60)-polyprenol (1) isolated for the first time from this plant. It significantly decreased serum TG by 42%, total cholesterol (TC) 25% and glycerol (Gly) 12%, accompanied HDL-C/TC ratio 26% in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed dyslipidemic hamsters at the dose of 50mg/kg body weight. Results are comparable to standard drug fenofibrate at the dose of 108 mg/kg. Based on these investigations, it was concluded that the compound polyprenol (1) isolated from leaves of C. grandis possess marked antidyslipidemic activity.

  4. Complete genome sequencing and analysis of Saprospira grandis str. Lewin, a predatory marine bacterium.

    PubMed

    Saw, Jimmy H W; Yuryev, Anton; Kanbe, Masaomi; Hou, Shaobin; Young, Aaron G; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi; Alam, Maqsudul

    2012-03-19

    Saprospira grandis is a coastal marine bacterium that can capture and prey upon other marine bacteria using a mechanism known as 'ixotrophy'. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Saprospira grandis str. Lewin isolated from La Jolla beach in San Diego, California. The complete genome sequence comprises a chromosome of 4.35 Mbp and a plasmid of 54.9 Kbp. Genome analysis revealed incomplete pathways for the biosynthesis of nine essential amino acids but presence of a large number of peptidases. The genome encodes multiple copies of sensor globin-coupled rsbR genes thought to be essential for stress response and the presence of such sensor globins in Bacteroidetes is unprecedented. A total of 429 spacer sequences within the three CRISPR repeat regions were identified in the genome and this number is the largest among all the Bacteroidetes sequenced to date.

  5. The "House" in Half Hollow Hills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnilow, Sheldon

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how he initiated a systemic improvement to Half Hollow Hills school district when he became its superintendent. He relates that although he came to Half Hollow Hills with a deep understanding of the models of systemic change, he did not bring with him a specific prescriptive plan for improvement. His plan for…

  6. Counseling Uses of the Hill Interaction Matrix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Robert E.

    While the Hill Interaction Matrix was developed as a research instrument to assess interview process, it is also generally useful in any undertaking requiring the evaluation of verbal interaction and, hence, can be used as an aid in modifying communication in order to increase its therapeutic effect. The Hill Interaction Matrix with accompanying…

  7. Glaciated appalachian plateau: till shadows on hills.

    PubMed

    Coates, D R

    1966-06-17

    North slopes are twice as steep as south slopes on the hills of central New York. This asymmetry is caused by unequal till thickness-3.6 meters on north slopes and 27.6 meters on south slopes. Previous workers interpreted the hills as being of bedrock sculptured by glacial erosion, with till 0.9 to 3 meters thick.

  8. Leslie Pickney Hill's "Toussaint L'Ouverture."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ako, Edward O.

    1987-01-01

    In his 1928 play, the Harlem Renaissance writer Leslie Pickney Hill portrays Toussaint L'Ouverture, the leader of the Haitian slave rebellion, with historical accuracy. Hill's presentation was aimed at rehabilitating black pride, "A worthy literature reared upon authentic records of achievement is the present spiritual need of the race." (BJV)

  9. Colleges as Shining Cities on a Hill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Kathleen Kennedy

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes that the notion of America be reintroduced as the "shining city on a hill," that abiding image from American history. The image of the shining city on a hill captures the imagination because it reflects the abiding truth that people become fully human in society, not outside of it. People need one another to…

  10. Report on the Black Hills Alliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joe

    1979-01-01

    A rally to save the Black Hills from coal- and uranium-greedy energy companies was held on July 6 and over 2,000 joined in a 15-mile walk on July 7 in Rapid City, South Dakota. The Black Hills Alliance, an Indian coalition concerned about energy development proposals in the Great Plains, sponsored the gathering. (NQ)

  11. Distinct effects of auxin and light on adventitious root development in Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Fett-Neto, A G; Fett, J P; Veira Goulart, L W; Pasquali, G; Termignoni, R R; Ferreira, A G

    2001-05-01

    Adventitious rooting is essential for vegetative propagation of woody species. We studied the effects of auxin and light on the development of adventitious roots in cuttings obtained from seedlings of Eucalyptus saligna Smith and E. globulus Labill in an attempt to characterize the adventitious rooting process and identify factors controlling rhizogenesis. Root development was scored as rooting percentage, root density (roots per rooted cutting), mean rooting time and root length. In both species, rooting time was reduced in the presence of auxin. Cuttings from 2-month-old E. saligna seedlings were responsive to lower auxin concentrations than comparable cuttings from E. globulus seedlings. Cuttings from 3-month-old E. saligna seedlings rooted promptly and rooting was not significantly affected by light conditions. In contrast, rooting of cuttings from 3-month-old E. globulus seedlings exhibited recalcitrant behavior and no roots were formed if illuminated during the root formation phase. Effective root regeneration of E. globulus cuttings was obtained by a 4-day exposure to 10 mg l(-1) IBA and culture in darkness during the root formation step. Loss of rooting capacity with seedling age was more pronounced in E. globulus than in E. saligna. The possibility of switching adventitious rooting off and on by manipulating light regime and exogenous auxin supply in E. globulus, and the constitutive nature of rooting in E. saligna may provide useful models for examining the rooting process at the biochemical and molecular levels in Eucalyptus. PMID:11340046

  12. In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus torelliana.

    PubMed

    Adeniyi, Christiana Bola A; Lawal, Temitope Olufunmilayo; Mahady, Gail B

    2009-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. and Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell. (Myrtaceae), Nigerian medicinal plants, was investigated in six strains of H. pylori, namely, ATCC 4504, ATCC 47619, A2, TI8984, 019A, and A6. The susceptibility of these strains was determined using a standardized agar dilution method (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines) with Mueller-Hinton agar, supplemented with defibrinated horse blood. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts against all the tested strains ranged from 12.5 to 400 mug/mL. Phytochemical screening of the plant extracts revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, and cardenolides. The anti-H. pylori activities demonstrated by these plants may be attributed to their chemical constituents, and explain their reported traditional uses, as well as their gastroprotective properties as demonstrated previously in experimental animals. The results of this work suggest that, in accordance with their traditional medical use in Nigeria, E. camaldalensis and E. torelliana have some therapeutic potential against H. pylori, and thus are of interest for the treatment of H. pylori infections.

  13. Genetic Control of Heterochrony in Eucalyptus globulus

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Corey J.; Freeman, Jules S.; Jones, Rebecca C.; Potts, Brad M.; Wong, Melissa M. L.; Weller, James L.; Hecht, Valérie F. G.; Poethig, R. Scott; Vaillancourt, René E.

    2014-01-01

    A change in the timing or rate of developmental events throughout ontogeny is referred to as heterochrony, and it is a major evolutionary process in plants and animals. We investigated the genetic basis for natural variation in the timing of vegetative phase change in the tree Eucalyptus globulus, which undergoes a dramatic change in vegetative morphology during the juvenile-to-adult transition. Quantitative trait loci analysis in an outcross F2 family derived from crosses between individuals from a coastal population of E. globulus with precocious vegetative phase change and individuals from populations in which vegetative phase change occurs several years later implicated the microRNA EglMIR156.5 as a potential contributor to this heterochronic difference. Additional evidence for the involvement of EglMIR156.5 was provided by its differential expression in trees with early and late phase change. Our findings suggest that changes in the expression of miR156 underlie natural variation in vegetative phase change in E. globulus, and may also explain interspecific differences in the timing of this developmental transition. PMID:24950963

  14. Enhanced chlorhexidine skin penetration with eucalyptus oil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) is a widely used skin antiseptic, however it poorly penetrates the skin, limiting its efficacy against microorganisms residing beneath the surface layers of skin. The aim of the current study was to improve the delivery of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) when used as a skin antiseptic. Method Chlorhexidine was applied to the surface of donor skin and its penetration and retention under different conditions was evaluated. Skin penetration studies were performed on full-thickness donor human skin using a Franz diffusion cell system. Skin was exposed to 2% (w/v) CHG in various concentrations of eucalyptus oil (EO) and 70% (v/v) isopropyl alcohol (IPA). The concentration of CHG (μg/mg of skin) was determined to a skin depth of 1500 μm by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results The 2% (w/v) CHG penetration into the lower layers of skin was significantly enhanced in the presence of EO. Ten percent (v/v) EO in combination with 2% (w/v) CHG in 70% (v/v) IPA significantly increased the amount of CHG which penetrated into the skin within 2 min. Conclusion The delivery of CHG into the epidermis and dermis can be enhanced by combination with EO, which in turn may improve biocide contact with additional microorganisms present in the skin, thereby enhancing antisepsis. PMID:20860796

  15. The Oropharyngeal Morphology in the Semiaquatic Giant Asian Pond Turtle, Heosemys grandis, and Its Evolutionary Implications

    PubMed Central

    Lintner, Monika; Weissenbacher, Anton; Heiss, Egon

    2012-01-01

    The oropharynx as a functional entity plays a fundamental role in feeding. Transitions from aquatic to terrestrial lifestyles in vertebrates demanded major changes of the oropharynx for the required adaptations to a different feeding environment. Extant turtles evolved terrestrial feeding modes in three families (testudinids, emydids, geoemydids)–independently from other amniotes–and are therefore important model organisms to reconstruct morpho-functional changes behind aquatic-terrestrial transitions. In this study we hypothesized that the oropharyngeal morphology in semiaquatic turtles of the geoemydid family shows parallels to testudinids, the only purely terrestrial extant lineage. We provide an in-depth description of the oropharynx in the semiaquatic geoemydid Heosemys grandis by using a combination of micro computed tomography (micro-CT) and subsequent digital in situ 3-D reconstruction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and histology. We show that H. grandis has a large tongue with rough papillose surface and well-developed lingual muscles. The attachment sites of the lingual muscles on the hyolingual skeleton and their courses within the tongue are nearly identical with testudinids. The hyolingual skeleton itself is mainly cartilaginous and shows distinct–but compared to testudinids rather small–anterior extensions of the hyoid body and hypoglossum. Oral glands are well developed in H. grandis but are smaller and simpler than in testudinids. Similarly, oropharyngeal keratinization was minimal and found only in the anterior palate, regions close to the beak, and tongue tip. We conclude that H. grandis shows distinct oropharyngeal morpho-functional adaptations for a terrestrial lifestyle but still retains characters typical for aquatic forms. This makes this species an important example showing the oropharyngeal adaptations behind aquatic-terrestrial transitions in turtles. PMID:23029486

  16. Molecular Diagnosis of Abdominal Armillifer grandis Pentastomiasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Tappe, Dennis; Sulyok, Mihály; Rózsa, Lajos; Muntau, Birgit; Haeupler, Alexandra; Bodó, Imre; Hardi, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Pentastomiasis is an emerging snake-borne parasitic zoonosis in the tropics. We describe a molecular and morphological study to diagnose a cluster of asymptomatic abdominal human infections caused by Armillifer grandis. The findings may indicate a silent epidemic in a rural area where severe symptomatic ocular cases with the same parasite species have recently surfaced. Molecular diagnostics are of increasing importance when patient material from remote areas cannot be thoroughly examined locally for logistic reasons. PMID:25948609

  17. De novo Assembly and Transcriptomic Profiling of the Grazing Response in Stipa grandis

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xiangyang; Ren, Weibo; Ding, Yong; Sa, Rula

    2015-01-01

    Background Stipa grandis (Poaceae) is one of the dominant species in a typical steppe of the Inner Mongolian Plateau. However, primarily due to heavy grazing, the grasslands have become seriously degraded, and S. grandis has developed a special growth-inhibition phenotype against the stressful habitat. Because of the lack of transcriptomic and genomic information, the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the grazing response of S. grandis has been prohibited. Results Using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform, two libraries prepared from non-grazing (FS) and overgrazing samples (OS) were sequenced. De novo assembly produced 94,674 unigenes, of which 65,047 unigenes had BLAST hits in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) non-redundant (nr) database (E-value < 10-5). In total, 47,747, 26,156 and 40,842 unigenes were assigned to the Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Group (COG), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases, respectively. A total of 13,221 unigenes showed significant differences in expression under the overgrazing condition, with a threshold false discovery rate ≤ 0.001 and an absolute value of log2Ratio ≥ 1. These differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were assigned to 43,257 GO terms and were significantly enriched in 32 KEGG pathways (q-value ≤ 0.05). The alterations in the wound-, drought- and defense-related genes indicate that stressors have an additive effect on the growth inhibition of this species. Conclusions This first large-scale transcriptome study will provide important information for further gene expression and functional genomics studies, and it facilitated our investigation of the molecular mechanisms of the S. grandis grazing response and the associated morphological and physiological characteristics. PMID:25875617

  18. Should Exotic Eucalyptus be Planted in Subtropical China: Insights from Understory Plant Diversity in Two Contrasting Eucalyptus Chronosequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianping; Fan, Houbao; Liu, Wenfei; Huang, Guomin; Tang, Jianfu; Zeng, Ruijin; Huang, Jing; Liu, Zhanfeng

    2015-11-01

    Although Eucalyptus is widely planted in South China, whose effects on native biodiversity are unclear. The objective of this study was to quantify the richness and composition of understory plants in two contrasting Eucalyptus chronosequences in South China. One was in Zhangzhou City with plantation age of 2, 4, and 6 years after clear-cutting Chinese fir forests, while the other was in Heshan City with plantation age of 2, 3, and 24 years that reforested on barren lands. Results showed that the richness of understory plants and functional groups was not significantly altered in the Zhangzhou chronosequence, while increased in the 24-year-old plantations, with a significantly larger proportion of woody plants than the younger plantations for the Heshan chronosequence. Moreover, a higher richness of woody plants accompanied by a lower richness of herbaceous species was detected in the Zhangzhou chronosequence compared with the Heshan one. To balance the need for pulp production and plant diversity conservation, we suggest that intercropping approaches between exotic Eucalyptus plantations and native forests should be considered in the fast rotation Eucalyptus plantations. However, Eucalyptus plantations may be used as pioneer species to sustain ecosystem functioning for the degraded lands.

  19. Solar Rossby Wave 'Hills' Identified As Supergranules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, P. E.; Hathaway, David H.; Cuntz, M.

    2007-01-01

    We explore the nature of 'hills' observed on the solar surface which had previously been attributed to Rossby waves. We investigate the sol ar hills phenomenon by analyzing the output from a synthetic model ba sed solely on the observed solar photospheric convection spectrum. We show that the characteristics of these hills can be explained by the corrugation of the surface produced by the radial flows of the conve ction. The hills in our simulations are dominated by supergranules, a well-known component of solar convection. Rossby waves have been predicted to exist within the Sun and may play an important role in the d ynamics of the solar interior, including the Sun's differential rotat ion and magnetic dynamo. Our study suggests, however, that the hills observed at the solar limb do not confirm the existence of solar Ross by waves.

  20. Improving Cry8Ka toxin activity towards the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is a serious insect-pest in the Americas, particularly in Brazil. The use of chemical or biological insect control is not effective against the cotton boll weevil because of its endophytic life style. Therefore, the use of biotechnological tools to produce insect-resistant transgenic plants represents an important strategy to reduce the damage to cotton plants caused by the boll weevil. The present study focuses on the identification of novel molecules that show improved toxicity against the cotton boll weevil. In vitro directed molecular evolution through DNA shuffling and phage display screening was applied to enhance the insecticidal activity of variants of the Cry8Ka1 protein of Bacillus thuringiensis. Results Bioassays carried out with A. grandis larvae revealed that the LC50 of the screened mutant Cry8Ka5 toxin was 3.15-fold higher than the wild-type Cry8Ka1 toxin. Homology modelling of Cry8Ka1 and the Cry8Ka5 mutant suggested that both proteins retained the typical three-domain Cry family structure. The mutated residues were located mostly in loops and appeared unlikely to interfere with molecular stability. Conclusions The improved toxicity of the Cry8Ka5 mutant obtained in this study will allow the generation of a transgenic cotton event with improved potential to control A. grandis. PMID:21906288

  1. Efficacy and toxicological evaluation of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) extract in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Attanayake, Anoja Priyadarshani; Jayatilaka, Kamani Ayoma Perera Wijewardena; Pathirana, Chitra; Mudduwa, Lakmini Kumari Boralugoda

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the oral antihyperglycemic effect of aqueous leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (L.) (Cucurbitaceae) along with toxicological effects in alloxan induced diabetic and healthy Wistar rats. Methods A single graded dose of aqueous leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (0.25-2.00 g/kg) was administered orally to alloxan induced (150 mg/kg, i.p.) diabetic Wistar rats (n=6). In acute toxicity assessment, Wistar rats were administered the extract at the same dose range and observed for three days. Sub-chronic toxicity was evaluated by daily administration of the extract for 30 d at the dose which showed the optimum antihyperglycemic effect. Signs of toxicity, body weight of animals, consumption of food and water were monitored during the study period. The effects of the extract on biochemical (lipid parameters and activities of liver enzymes), hematological parameters (full blood count) and histopathological effects in organs were assessed at the end of the study. Results The optimum effective dose on glucose tolerance for Coccinia grandis leaf extract was found to be 0.75 g/kg in diabetic rats. The extract neither produced significant changes in consumption of food, intake of water, relative weight of organs nor affected biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters (P<0.05). Conclusions The extract at a dose of 0.75 g/kg was found to be toxicologically safe as a potential antihyperglycemic agent in Wistar rats.

  2. Genetic linkage map construction and QTL identification of juvenile growth traits in Torreya grandis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yanru; Ye, Shengyue; Yu, Weiwu; Wu, Song; Hou, Wei; Wu, Rongling; Dai, Wensheng; Chang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl, a conifer species widely distributed in Southeastern China, is of high economic value by producing edible, nutrient seeds. However, knowledge about the genome structure and organization of this species is poorly understood, thereby limiting the effective use of its gene resources. Here, we report on a first genetic linkage map for Torreya grandis using 96 progeny randomly chosen from a half-sib family of a commercially cultivated variety of this species, Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl cv. Merrillii. The map contains 262 molecular markers, i.e., 75 random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPD), 119 inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and 62 amplified fragments length polymorphisms (AFLP), and spans a total of 7,139.9 cM, separated by 10 linkage groups. The linkage map was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with juvenile growth traits by functional mapping. We identified four basal diameter-related QTLs on linkage groups 1, 5 and 9; four height-related QTLs on linkage groups 1, 2, 5 and 8. It was observed that the genetic effects of QTLs on growth traits vary with age, suggesting the dynamic behavior of growth QTLs. Part of the QTLs was found to display a pleiotropic effect on basal diameter growth and height growth.

  3. Antiproteolytic and leishmanicidal activity of Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt leaf extract against Leishmania donovani promastigotes.

    PubMed

    Das, Partha; Paik, Dibyendu; Pramanik, Asmita; De, Tripti; Chakraborti, Tapati

    2015-11-01

    In visceral leishmaniasis (VL), development of alternative safe therapeutic strategy is gaining paramount wherein natural components of plant origin have prominence. We explored Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt, a medicinal plant known in traditional folk medicine, for its antileishmanial efficacy. SDS-PAGE analysis of the C. grandis leaf extract (Cg-Ex) showed few protein bands about 14-66 kDa among which three (64.8, 55.8 and 15.3 kDa) were identified as serine protease inhibitors by reverse zymography. Since the virulence of Leishmania is also attributed by serine proteases, objective of the present study was to evaluate in vitro antileishmanial activity of Cg-Ex, targeting Leishmania donovani serine protease(s). Inhibition study of Cg-Ex in gelatin-zymogram and spectrophotometric assay revealed its strong inhibitory activity against bovine trypsin rather than chymotrypsin, and also showed significant inhibition of L. donovani serine protease(s). Further, studies with Cg-Ex were extended to estimate its antileishmanial efficacy with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) at 308.0 ± 2.42 μg/ml along with significant morphological alterations. The results have demonstrated the potential of the serine protease inhibitor rich fraction of the C. grandis leaf extract against visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:26669017

  4. Genetic linkage map construction and QTL identification of juvenile growth traits in Torreya grandis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl, a conifer species widely distributed in Southeastern China, is of high economic value by producing edible, nutrient seeds. However, knowledge about the genome structure and organization of this species is poorly understood, thereby limiting the effective use of its gene resources. Here, we report on a first genetic linkage map for Torreya grandis using 96 progeny randomly chosen from a half-sib family of a commercially cultivated variety of this species, Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl cv. Merrillii. The map contains 262 molecular markers, i.e., 75 random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPD), 119 inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and 62 amplified fragments length polymorphisms (AFLP), and spans a total of 7,139.9 cM, separated by 10 linkage groups. The linkage map was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with juvenile growth traits by functional mapping. We identified four basal diameter-related QTLs on linkage groups 1, 5 and 9; four height-related QTLs on linkage groups 1, 2, 5 and 8. It was observed that the genetic effects of QTLs on growth traits vary with age, suggesting the dynamic behavior of growth QTLs. Part of the QTLs was found to display a pleiotropic effect on basal diameter growth and height growth. PMID:25079139

  5. Conservation education and habitat restoration for the endangered Sagalla caecilian (Boulengerula niedeni) in Sagalla Hill, Kenya.

    PubMed

    K Malonza, Patrick

    2016-05-18

    The Sagalla caecilian (Boulengerula niedeni) is an endangered amphibian endemic to Sagalla Hill in the Taita Hills. This burrowing worm-like species prefers soft soil with high moisture and organic matter. The major threats to the Sagalla caecilian are soil erosion caused by steep slopes, bare ground and water siphoning/soil hardening from exotic eucalyptus trees. The purpose of this study was to get a better understanding of the local people's attitude towards this species and how they can contribute to its continued conservation through restoration of its remaining habitat. In this study, it was found that 96% of Sagalla people are aware of the species, its habits and its association with soils high in organic matter. It was also found that 96% of Sagalla people use organic manure from cow dung in their farms. Habitat restoration through planting of indigenous plants was found to be ongoing, especially on compounds of public institutions as well as on private lands. Although drought was found to be a challenge for seedlings development especially on the low elevation sites, destruction by livestock especially during the dry season is also a major threat. In this study, it was recommended that any future habitat restoration initiative should include strong chain-link fencing to protect the seedlings from livestock activity. Recognizing that the preferred habitats for the species are in the valleys, systematic planting of keystone plant species such as fig trees (Ficus) creates the best microhabitats. These are better than general woodlots of indigenous trees. PMID:27265654

  6. Layered Rocks in 'Columbia Hills'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This black-and-white image shows the first layered rocks scientists have seen close up in Gusev Crater, where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit landed Jan. 4, 2004. While Spirit's twin rover, Opportunity, reached the stadium-size Endurance Crater on the other side of Mars and began exploring its many layered outcrops in early May, Spirit traveled more than 3.5 kilometers (2.2 miles) to get to this layered bedrock in the 'Columbia Hills.' Scientists are planning to conduct a study of these rocks to determine if they are volcanic or sedimentary in origin, and if they have been chemically altered. Spirit's panoramic camera took this image on sol 217 (Aug. 13, 2004).

  7. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working Document 9. Economics of producing methanol from Eucalyptus in Central Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    A detailed feasibility study of producing methanol from Eucalyptus in Central Florida encompasses all phases of production - from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The project includes the following components: (1) production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; (2) establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; and (3) engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-year methanol production facility. In addition, the potential environmental impacts of the whole project were examined, safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol were analyzed, and site specific cost estimates were made. The economics of the project are presented here. Each of the three major components of the project - tissue culture lab, energy plantation, and methanol refinery - are examined individually. In each case a site specific analysis of the potential return on investment was conducted.

  8. Descent from the Summit of 'Husband Hill'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Descent from the Summit of 'Husband Hill' (QTVR)

    In late November 2005 while descending 'Husband Hill,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took the most detailed panorama so far of the 'Inner Basin,' the rover's next target destination. Spirit acquired the 405 individual images that make up this 360-degree view of the surrounding terrain using five different filters on the panoramic camera. The rover took the images on Martian days, or sols, 672 to 677 (Nov. 23 to 28, 2005 -- the Thanksgiving holiday weekend).

    This image is an approximately true-color rendering using camera's 750-, 530-, and 430-nanometer filters. Seams between individual frames have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

    'Home Plate,' a bright, semi-circular feature scientists hope to investigate, is harder to discern in this image than in earlier views taken from higher up the hill. Spirit acquired this more oblique view, known as the 'Seminole panorama,' from about halfway down the south flank of Husband Hill, 50 meters (164 feet) or so below the summit. Near the center of the panorama, on the horizon, are 'McCool Hill' and 'Ramon Hill,' named, like Husband Hill, in honor of the fallen astronauts of the space shuttle Columbia. Husband Hill is visible behind the rover, on the right and left sides of the panorama. An arc of rover tracks made while avoiding obstacles and getting into position to examine rock outcrops can be traced over a long distance by zooming in to explore the panorama in greater detail.

    Spirit is now significantly farther downhill toward the center of this panorama, en route to Home Plate and other enigmatic soils and outcrop rocks in the quest to uncover the history of Gusev Crater and the 'Columbia Hills.'

  9. Hill-Climbing Attacks and Robust Online Signature Verification Algorithm against Hill-Climbing Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Daigo

    Attacks using hill-climbing methods have been reported as a vulnerability of biometric authentication systems. In this paper, we propose a robust online signature verification algorithm against such attacks. Specifically, the attack considered in this paper is a hill-climbing forged data attack. Artificial forgeries are generated offline by using the hill-climbing method, and the forgeries are input to a target system to be attacked. In this paper, we analyze the menace of hill-climbing forged data attacks using six types of hill-climbing forged data and propose a robust algorithm by incorporating the hill-climbing method into an online signature verification algorithm. Experiments to evaluate the proposed system were performed using a public online signature database. The proposed algorithm showed improved performance against this kind of attack.

  10. Description of the female and notes on distribution, habitat, nymphal development, song and chromosomes of Tropidonotacris grandis Ragge (Orthoptera: Phaneropteridae).

    PubMed

    Hemp, Claudia; Heller, Klaus-Gerhard; Warchałowska-Śliwa, Elżbieta; Hemp, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The female of Tropidonotacris grandis is described and information on distribution, habitat, song, chromosomes and nymphal development of this species given. The populations of northern Tanzania all occur in deciduous dry forest, a habitat highly endangered by destruction and therefore T. grandis must be regarded at least as a vulnerable species according to the IUCN red list.  PMID:25544539

  11. Using morphometrics, in situ observations and genetic characters to distinguish among commercially valuable Hawaiian black coral species; a redescription of Antipathes grandis Verrill, 1928 (Antipatharia : Antipathidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Daniel; Toonen, Robert J.; Brugler, Mercer R.; France, Scott C.; Opresko, Dennis M; Montgomery, Anthony D.

    2010-01-01

    The commercially valuable Hawaiian black coral Antipathes grandis Verrill, 1928 is redescribed based on reexamination of the holotype from the Bernice P. Bishop Museum and field collections of 34 specimens from depths of 27-127 m. The first scanning electron micrographs of A. grandis skeletal spines are provided, along with a series of in situ color photographs and morphometric measurements of spines and polyps. Three color morphotypes were collected in the field (red, pale red, and white), none of which could be differentiated based on morphological or genetic characters (two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers). In situ observations are used in conjunction with morphological and genetic characters to distinguish among the commercially valuable Hawaiian black coral species A. grandis and A. griggi Opresko, 2009. A. grandis is differentiated from A. griggi by its finer and more irregular branching, smaller and more closely-spaced polyps, and conical spines that are smaller and not characterized by bifurcations towards their apex. Morphologically, the species most closely resembling A. grandis is A. caribbeana Opresko, 1996 from the Caribbean. Among analyzed congenerics, DNA sequences of A. grandis were likewise most similar to those of A. caribbeana for three of the four molecular markers used in this study. A combination of low genetic variability, incomplete taxonomic sampling, and unexpected similarity between A. caribbeana and the unbranched whip coral Stichopathes cf. occidentalis (Gray, 1860), hindered our ability to determine the sister relationship of A. grandis. However, in no phylogenetic reconstruction did A. grandis group sister to its sympatric congener A. griggi.

  12. Description of the female and notes on distribution, habitat, nymphal development, song and chromosomes of Tropidonotacris grandis Ragge (Orthoptera: Phaneropteridae).

    PubMed

    Hemp, Claudia; Heller, Klaus-Gerhard; Warchałowska-Śliwa, Elżbieta; Hemp, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The female of Tropidonotacris grandis is described and information on distribution, habitat, song, chromosomes and nymphal development of this species given. The populations of northern Tanzania all occur in deciduous dry forest, a habitat highly endangered by destruction and therefore T. grandis must be regarded at least as a vulnerable species according to the IUCN red list. 

  13. Inside Beacon Hill: Bertrand Russell as Schoolmaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jespersen, Shirley

    1987-01-01

    The author describes the life and theories of Bertrand Russell, founder of Beacon Hill School. Russell's educational theories centered on the personal autonomy of the student and democratization of the learning process. (CH)

  14. A perspective on Capitol Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, Carroll Ann

    As the AGU Congressional Science Fellow for 1980-1981, I had a unique opportunity to witness the federal engine in action—a remarkable piece of machinery. The American Association for the Advancement of Science organized an excellent orientation program, introducing our class of science fellows (about 30) to the kinds of options available for a year's tenure on Capitol Hill. These include affiliation with a congressman's or senator's staff or with one of the hundred or so standing, select, or joint committees and subcommittees. I arranged to join the personal staff of Congressman Jim Santini (D, Nev.), largely because of his demonstrated interest in Department of Interior affairs in general and the minerals industry in particular. The position of fellow provides no guarantee of work in one's areas of expertise or inclination, however, and I found that my staff assignments included topics ranging from wild horses to peanut subsidies. My principal task involved evaluation of the Air Force proposal to deploy the MX missile in Nevada and the consequent impact of that incredible scheme on the physical and economic environments of the state and the nation, including effects on minerals exploration. I had not expected to become conversant with missile technology, but the exercise provided quite an education.

  15. The Igwisi Hills extrusive 'kimberlites'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, A. M.; Donaldson, C. H.; Dawson, J. B.; Brown, R. W.; Ridley, W. I.

    1975-01-01

    The petrography and mineral chemistry of volcanic rocks from the Igwisi Hills in Tanzania are discussed. There is considerable evidence to suggest that the Igwisi rocks are extrusive kimberlites: a two-component nature with high P-T minerals in a low P-T matrix; the presence of chrome pyrope, Al enstatite, chrome diopside, chromite and olivine; a highly oxidized, volatile-rich matrix with serpentine, calcite, magnetite, perovskite; high Sr, Zr, and Nb contents; occurrence in a narrow isolated vent within a stable shield area. The Igwisi rocks differ from kimberlite in the lack of magnesian ilmenite, the scarcity of matrix phlogopite, and the overall low alkali content. They apparently contain material from phlogopite-bearing garnet peridotites with a primary mineral assemblage indicative of equilibrium at upper mantle temperatures and pressures. This primary assemblage was brought rapidly to the surface in a gas-charged, carbonate-rich fluid. Rapid upward transport, extrusion, and rapid cooling have tended to prevent reaction between inclusions and the carbonate-rich matrix that might otherwise have yielded a more typical kimberlite.

  16. Oblique View of Columbia Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This perspective view looking toward the northeast shows part of the Columbia Hills range inside Gusev Crater. At the center is the winter campaign site of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit.

    On its 805th Martian day, or sol, (April 8, 2006), Spirit was parked on a slope tilting 11 degrees to the north to maximize sunlight on the solar panels during the southern winter season. Science observations were formulated to take advantage of the long time during which the rover was parked. The plan focused on two tasks: tracking atmospheric and surface dynamics by periodically surveying the surface and atmosphere; and extensively examining surrounding terrains, rocks and soils using the panoramic camera and the miniature thermal emission spectrometer, coupled with long duration measurements using the alpha particle X-ray and Moessbauer spectrometers of rock and soil targets. For reference, the feature known as 'Home Plate' is approximately 90 meters (295 feet) wide.

    An image from Mars Global Surveyor's Mars Orbital Camera, catalogued as E03_00012 and courtesy Malin Space Science Systems, was used as the base image for this figure. The perspective was generated using elevation data generated from analyses of the camera's stereo images by the U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Ariz.

  17. Changes in essential oil during enzyme-assisted ensiling of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.) and lemon eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora Hook).

    PubMed

    Dudai, N; Weinberg, Z G; Larkov, O; Ravid, U; Ashbell, G; Putievsky, E

    2001-05-01

    Changes in essential oil during ensiling of lemongrass and lemon eucalyptus were studied. Wilted lemongrass and eucalyptus leaves were ensiled in 0.25-L anaerobic jars. Samples consisted of a control (no additives) and a treated sample (0.5% glucose and lactic acid bacteria and 1% cellulase plus 1% hemicellulase plus pectinase). Three jars per treatment were sampled on days 2, 6, 10, and 36 for analysis of essential oil. Essential oil was obtained by extraction and by hydrodistillation. Extraction efficacy of essential oil from the lemongrass was improved by the enzyme treatment, but it was much lower than the amount obtained by distillation. The major components of the essential oil were neral and geranial. In the eucalyptus, total essential oils obtained by distillation decreased during ensiling, and the amount was similar to the amount obtained by extraction. Citronellal, which was the major component of the essential oil in the fresh eucalyptus leaves, decreased, whereas isopulegol and 3,8-terpinolhydrate increased during ensiling. PMID:11368586

  18. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

  19. In vitro regeneration of Eucalyptus camaldulensis.

    PubMed

    Girijashankar, V

    2012-01-01

    An efficient in vitro regeneration protocol enables mass multiplication, genetic modification and germplasm conservation of desired plants. In vitro plant regeneration was achieved from nodal segments of 18-months-old superior genotypes of Eucalyptus camaldulensis trees through direct organogenesis (DO) and direct somatic embryogenesis (DSE) pathways. Initial bud break (BB) stage occurred via DO while shoot multiplication phase followed both DO and DSE pathways. Interestingly, both BB and shoot multiplication stages were achieved on shoot induction and multiplication (SIM) media composed of Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 2 mg l(-1) benzyl aminopurine (BAP) and 0.1 mg l(-1) naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Best shoot elongation response was observed on half strength MS fortified with 0.5 mg l(-1) BAP, while root induction and elongation was superior in 1/2 MS + 1 mg l(-1) Indole butyric acid (IBA). Full strength MS fortified with cytokinins (BAP) and weak auxin (NAA) in the ratio of 20:1 favored direct regeneration pathways. Further, half strength MS supported shoot and root development. The absence of intervening callus phase in this protocol can help in minimizing the chance occurrence of somaclones. When compared to other compositions tried, hardening in 100 % coco peat resulted in maximum survival (80 %) of the in vitro raised plantlets. For mass multiplication, fortnight subculturing of a single nodal explants for eight passages on SIM medium resulted in 60-148 shoot initials. Repeated subculturing in SIM medium induced the formation of direct somatic embryos which in turn improved the turnover capacity and enabled large scale clonal multiplication of elite and desirable trees of E. camaldulensis. Following this protocol, it takes a minimum time period of four-months between in vitro explant inoculation to hardening stage. In the present study, DO and DSE pathway of plant regeneration was reported occurring simultaneously in

  20. Drought in the Black Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Color-Coded Map

    Despite good rainfall and record-setting snowstorms in the spring of 2005, most of northeastern Wyoming, the Black Hills, and western South Dakota remain in the midst of a severe drought. This set of images and maps from NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) contrast the appearance of the Black Hills region of northwestern South Dakota on July 12, 2000 (left column), with views acquired four years later, on July 14, 2004 (right column). The natural-color images along the top are from MISR's nadir (downward-looking) camera. The browning that appears in 2004 compared with 2000 indicates that the vigor of green vegetation was significantly diminished in 2004.

    The color-coded maps (along the bottom) provide a quantitative measurement of the sunlight reflected from these surfaces, and the loss of sunlight-absorbing vegetation between the 2000 and 2004 dates. As the vegetation faded with the drought, the albedo at the surface increased. Albedo measures the fraction of incident sunlight that is reflected by a surface, and can vary between zero (if all the incident sunlight is absorbed and none is reflected) and one (if all sunlight is reflected and none is absorbed). Dense forest has a low albedo; bright desert, snow and clouds, have a high albedo. Here, albedo is provided for the wavelengths of sunlight that plants use for photosynthesis (400 - 700 nanometers). This measurement is known as the albedo for Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR). Surfaces with greater absorption of PAR appear here in blue hues, whereas surfaces with lower absorption appear as green, yellow, orange or red. Black pixels indicate areas where albedo could not be derived, usually due to the presence of clouds. In July 2004, low albedo areas (blue pixels) are notably reduced in extent, and higher albedo areas (yellow, orange and red pixels) have increased.

    Because incoming sunlight is

  1. Bunker Hill Sediment Characterization Study

    SciTech Connect

    Neal A. Yancey; Debby F. Bruhn

    2009-12-01

    The long history of mineral extraction in the Coeur d’Alene Basin has left a legacy of heavy metal laden mine tailings that have accumulated along the Coeur d’Alene River and its tributaries (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2001; Barton, 2002). Silver, lead and zinc were the primary metals of economic interest in the area, but the ores contained other elements that have become environmental hazards including zinc, cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel, and copper. The metals have contaminated the water and sediments of Lake Coeur d’Alene, and continue to be transported downstream to Spokane Washington via the Spokane River. In 1983, the EPA listed the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex on the National Priorities List. Since that time, many of the most contaminated areas have been stabilized or isolated, however metal contaminants continue to migrate through the basin. Designation as a Superfund site causes significant problems for the economically depressed communities in the area. Identification of primary sources of contamination can help set priorities for cleanup and cleanup options, which can include source removal, water treatment or no action depending on knowledge about the mobility of contaminants relative to water flow. The mobility of contaminant mobility under natural or engineered conditions depends on multiple factors including the physical and chemical state (or speciation) of metals and the range of processes, some of which can be seasonal, that cause mobilization of metals. As a result, it is particularly important to understand metal speciation (National Research Council, 2005) and the link between speciation and the rates of metal migration and the impact of natural or engineered variations in flow, biological activity or water chemistry.

  2. [Biomass- and energy allocation in Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus tereticornis plantations at different stand ages].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qun-Ying; Chen, Shao-Xiong; Han, Fei-Yang; Chen, Wen-Ping; Wu, Zhi-Hua

    2010-01-01

    An investigation was made on the biomass- and energy allocation in 1-4-year-old Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus tereticornis plantations at Beipo Forest Farm of Suixi County in Guangdong Province. Stand age had significant effects on the retained biomass of the plantations (P < 0.01). The biomass was in the range of 10.61-147.28 t x hm(-2). Both the total biomass and the biomass of above- and belowground components increased with increasing stand age. The proportions of leaf-, branch- and bark biomass to total biomass decreased with year, while that of stem biomass was in reverse. The biomass allocation of the components in 1- and 2-year-old plantations decreased in order of stem > branch > bark > root > leaf, and that in 3- and 4 -year-old plantations was in order of stem > root > branch > bark > leaf. The mean ash content (AC) of the five components at different stand ages ranged from 0.47% to 5.91%, being the highest in bark and the lowest in stem. The mean gross caloric value (GCV) and ash free caloric value (AFCV) of different components ranged from 17.33 to 20. 60 kJ x g(-1) and from 18.42 to 21.59 kJ x g(-1) respectively. Of all the components, leaf had the highest GVC and AFCV, while bark had the lowest ones. Stand age had significant effects on the GVC of branch, stem, and bark, and on the AFCV of leaf, stem, and bark (P < 0.05), but the effects on the GVC of leaf and root, the AFCV of branch and root, and the GVC and AFCV of individual trees were not significant (P > 0.05). The retained energy of 1-4-year-old plantations ranged from 199.98 to 2837.20 GJ x hm(-2), with significant differences among the stand ages (P < 0.01). The retained energy of various components and plantations increased with stand age, and the energy allocation of various components had the same trend as biomass allocation.

  3. Seizure caused by dermal application of over-the-counter eucalyptus oil head lice preparation.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Neil

    2011-10-01

    Natural plant oils such as eucalyptus are common worldwide in non-prescription natural health products. Oral ingestion of eucalyptus oil is well known to produce neurological symptoms and seizures; however, its dermal use is presumed to be safe. We describe a brief, self-limited, tonic-clonic seizure in a healthy 4-year-old girl following dermal exposure to eucalyptus oil as directed for treatment of head lice. Initial symptoms were vomiting, lethargy, and ataxia followed by a grand mal seizure. Recovery occurred rapidly after the skin was washed. Health care providers should be aware that eucalyptus oil toxicity may occur with dermal exposure and should report additional cases.

  4. Development of LiDAR aware allometrics for Abies grandis: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, G. A.; Tinkham, W. T.; Smith, A. M.; Hudak, A. T.; Falkowski, M. J.; Keefe, R.

    2012-12-01

    Forest managers rely increasingly on accurate allometric relationships to inform decisions regarding stand rotations, silvilcultural treatments, timber harvesting, and biometric modeling. At the same time, advances in remote sensing techniques like LiDAR (light detection and ranging) have brought about opportunities to advance how we assess forest growth, and thus are contributing to the need for more accurate allometries. Past studies have attempted to relate LiDAR data to both plot and individual tree measures of forest biomass. However, many of these studies have been limited by the accuracy of their coincident observations. In this study, 24 Abies grandis were measured, felled, and dissected for the explicit objective of developing LiDAR aware allometrics. The analysis predicts spatial variables of competition, growth potential (e.g, trees per acre, aspect, elevation, etc.) and common statistical distributional metrics (e.g., mean, mode, percentiles, variance, skewness, kurtosis, etc.) derived from LiDAR point cloud returns to coincident in situ measures of Abies grandis stem biomass. The resulting allometries exemplify a new approach for predicting structural attributes of interest (biomass, basal area, volume, etc.) directly from LiDAR point cloud data, precluding the measurement errors that are propogated by indirectly predicting these structure attributes of interest from LiDAR data using traditional plot-based measurements.

  5. Evaluation of Arctopsyche grandis (Hydropsychidae) as a Biological Monitoring Tool in Rocky Mountain Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, W. D.

    2005-05-01

    Trace metal loading has been shown to cause marked disturbance in benthic invertebrate communities of Rocky Mountain streams. Metal concentrations in invertebrate tissues are commonly measured in biological monitoring studies as an indicator of metals contamination in the stream. Comparisons of metal body burdens across sampling sites and occasions carry the assumption that burdens reflect metal bioavailability in the field. Laboratory experiments were conducted with indigenous, larval, net-spinning caddisflies (Arctopsyche grandis) to evaluate this important assumption. Caddisfly larvae were exposed to a range of zinc (50 to 1000 ppb) and copper (10 to 360 ppb) concentrations for 96 hours. Water hardness (50, 100 ppm) and dissolved organic carbon (3, 6 ppm) concentrations were systematically varied in order to estimate differences in metal burdens due to changes in aqueous chemistry. Whole individual larvae were analyzed for trace metal concentrations. Results suggest that larval A. grandis are capable of regulating internal zinc concentrations. Surprisingly, maximum zinc burdens were observed where hardness and DOC were highest. Conversely, copper accumulation was reduced by 30 percent where DOC (3 ppm) was added to the exposure medium. Results will be discussed with respect to their significance for future biomonitoring efforts.

  6. Effect of Tectona grandis Linn. seeds on hair growth activity of albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Jaybhaye, Deepali; Varma, Sushikumar; Gagne, Nitin; bonde, Vijay; Gite, Amol; Bhosle, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    The seeds of Tectona grandis Linn. are traditionally acclaimed as hair tonic in the Indian system of medicine. Studies were therefore undertaken in order to evaluate petroleum ether extract of T. grandis seeds for its effect on hair growth in albino mice. The 5% and 10% extracts incorporated into simple ointment base were applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino mice. The time required for initiation of hair growth as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control. The result of treatment with minoxidil 2% is 49% hair in anagenic phase. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts compared to control animals. The treatment was successful in bringing a greater number of hair follicles (64% and 51%) in anagenic phase than standard minoxidil (49%). The results of treatment with 5% and 10% petroleum ether extracts were comparable to the positive control minoxidil. PMID:21455447

  7. Antimicrobial activity of protease inhibitor from leaves of Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt.

    PubMed

    Satheesh, L Shilpa; Murugan, K

    2011-05-01

    Antimicrobial activity of protease inhibitor isolated from Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt. has been reported. A 14.3 kDa protease inhibitor (PI) was isolated and purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation (20-85% saturation), sephadex G-75, DEAE sepharose column and trypsin-sepharose affinity chromatography from the leaves of C. grandis. The purity was checked by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. PI exhibited marked growth inhibitory effects on colon cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. PI was thermostable and showed antimicrobial activity without hemolytic activity. PI strongly inhibited pathogenic microbial strains, including Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Eschershia coli, Bacillus subtilis and pathogenic fungus Candida albicans, Mucor indicus, Penicillium notatum, Aspergillus flavus and Cryptococcus neoformans. Examination by bright field microscopy showed inhibition of mycelial growth and sporulation. Morphologically, PI treated fungus showed a significant shrinkage of hyphal tips. Reduced PI completely lost its activity indicating that disulfide bridge is essential for its protease inhibitory and antifungal activity. Results reported in this study suggested that PI may be an excellent candidate for development of novel oral or other anti-infective agents. PMID:21615062

  8. Comparison of flavonoid compounds in the flavedo and juice of two pummelo cultivars (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck) from different cultivation regions in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingxia; Nan, Haijuan; Wang, Yanjie; Jiang, Xiaoying; Li, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different cultivation regions on the pattern and content of flavonoids in two pummelo cultivars (C. grandis L. Osbeck) in China. Results showed that similar patterns of flavonoids were observed in the flavedo or juice of each pummelo cultivar from these cultivation regions, whereas the individual flavonoid content showed unique characteristics. Naringin, the predominant flavanone glycoside, showed the highest content in both flavedo and juice of C. grandis "Guanximiyu" from the Pinghe of Fujian (FJ) cultivation region compared with the Dapu of Guangdong (GD) and Nanbu of Sichuan (SC) regions. However, its content in the flavedo of C. grandis "Shatianyu" from the Pingle of Guangxi (GX) was significantly lower than in the GD and SC regions. Vicenin-2 appeared to be the dominant flavone C-glycoside in the flavedo of both cultivars, and the lowest content was observed in the flavedo of C. grandis "Guanximiyu" from the SC region. However, C. grandis "Shatianyu" contained the highest content of vicenin-2 in the flavedo from SC region. Similarly, the predominant flavone O-glucoside, rhoifolin, showed the highest content in C. grandis "Guanximiyu" from the GD and FJ regions, whereas C. grandis "Shatianyu" in SC region showed the highest content of rhoifolin. Cluster analysis suggested that genotype played a primary role in determining the flavonoid profiles of pummelo cultivars, whereas regional differences significantly affected the flavonoid distribution of pummelo cultivars potentially via affecting the direction of flavonoid accumulation in pummelo.

  9. Nanoliposomes containing Eucalyptus citriodora as antibiotic with specific antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Cui, Haiying; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Xuejing; Bortolini, Christian; Chen, Menglin; Liu, Lei; Dong, Mingdong

    2015-02-14

    Bacterial infections are a serious issue for public health and represent one of the major challenges of modern medicine. In this work, a selective antimicrobial strategy based on triggering of pore-forming toxin, which is secreted by infective bacteria, was designed to fight Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial activity is realized by employing Eucalyptus citriodora oil as antibiotic which in this study is encapsulated in nanoliposomes.

  10. Valuation of pollinator forage services provided by Eucalyptus cladocalyx.

    PubMed

    de Lange, Willem J; Veldtman, Ruan; Allsopp, Mike H

    2013-08-15

    We assess the monetary value of forage provisioning services for honeybees as provided by an alien tree species in the Western Cape province of South Africa. Although Eucalyptus cladocalyx is not an officially declared invader, it is cleared on a regular basis along with other invasive Eucalyptus species such as Eucalyptus camaldulensis, and Eucalyptus conferruminata (which have been prioritised for eradication in South Africa). We present some of the trade-offs associated with the clearing of E. cladocalyx by means of a practical example that illustrates a situation where the benefits of the species to certain stakeholders could support the containment of the species in demarcated areas, while allowing clearing outside such areas. Given the absence of market prices for such forage provisioning services, the replacement cost is used to present the value of the loss in forage as provided by E. cladocalyx if the alien tree species is cleared along with invasive alien tree species. Two replacement scenarios formed the basis for our calculations. The first scenario was an artificial diet as replacement for the forage provisioning service, which yielded a direct cost estimate of US$7.5 m per year. The second was based on a Fynbos cultivation/restoration initiative aimed at substituting the forage provisioning service of E. cladocalyx, which yielded a direct cost of US$20.2 m per year. These figures provide estimates of the potential additional cost burden on the beekeeping industry if E. cladocalyx is completely eradicated from the Western Cape. The cost estimates should be balanced against the negative impacts of E. cladocalyx on ecosystem services in order to make an informed decision with regard to appropriate management strategies for this species. The findings therefore serve as useful inputs to balance trade-offs for alien species that are considered as beneficial to some, but harmful to other.

  11. Valuation of pollinator forage services provided by Eucalyptus cladocalyx.

    PubMed

    de Lange, Willem J; Veldtman, Ruan; Allsopp, Mike H

    2013-08-15

    We assess the monetary value of forage provisioning services for honeybees as provided by an alien tree species in the Western Cape province of South Africa. Although Eucalyptus cladocalyx is not an officially declared invader, it is cleared on a regular basis along with other invasive Eucalyptus species such as Eucalyptus camaldulensis, and Eucalyptus conferruminata (which have been prioritised for eradication in South Africa). We present some of the trade-offs associated with the clearing of E. cladocalyx by means of a practical example that illustrates a situation where the benefits of the species to certain stakeholders could support the containment of the species in demarcated areas, while allowing clearing outside such areas. Given the absence of market prices for such forage provisioning services, the replacement cost is used to present the value of the loss in forage as provided by E. cladocalyx if the alien tree species is cleared along with invasive alien tree species. Two replacement scenarios formed the basis for our calculations. The first scenario was an artificial diet as replacement for the forage provisioning service, which yielded a direct cost estimate of US$7.5 m per year. The second was based on a Fynbos cultivation/restoration initiative aimed at substituting the forage provisioning service of E. cladocalyx, which yielded a direct cost of US$20.2 m per year. These figures provide estimates of the potential additional cost burden on the beekeeping industry if E. cladocalyx is completely eradicated from the Western Cape. The cost estimates should be balanced against the negative impacts of E. cladocalyx on ecosystem services in order to make an informed decision with regard to appropriate management strategies for this species. The findings therefore serve as useful inputs to balance trade-offs for alien species that are considered as beneficial to some, but harmful to other. PMID:23629013

  12. Nanoliposomes containing Eucalyptus citriodora as antibiotic with specific antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Cui, Haiying; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Xuejing; Bortolini, Christian; Chen, Menglin; Liu, Lei; Dong, Mingdong

    2015-02-14

    Bacterial infections are a serious issue for public health and represent one of the major challenges of modern medicine. In this work, a selective antimicrobial strategy based on triggering of pore-forming toxin, which is secreted by infective bacteria, was designed to fight Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial activity is realized by employing Eucalyptus citriodora oil as antibiotic which in this study is encapsulated in nanoliposomes. PMID:25573466

  13. Composition and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Kernel Oil from Torreya grandis, Carya Cathayensis, and Myrica R ubra.

    PubMed

    Ni, Liang; Shi, Wei-Yong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we measured the composition and free radical scavenging activity of several species of nuts, namely, Torreya grandis, Carya cathayensis, and Myrica rubra. The nut kernels of the aforementioned species are rich in fatty acids, particularly in unsaturated fatty acids, and have 51% oil content. T. grandis and C. cathayensis are mostly produced in ZheJiang province. The trace elements in the kernels of T. grandis and C. cathayensis were generally higher than those in M. rubra, except for Fe with a value of 64.41 mg/Kg. T. grandis is rich in selenium (52.91-68.71 mg/Kg). All three kernel oils have a certain free radical scavenging capacity, with the highest value in M. rubra. In the DPPH assay, the IC50 of M. rubra kernel oil was 60 μg/mL, and OH was 100 μg/mL. The results of this study provide basic data for the future development of the edible nut resources in ZheJiang province. PMID:24734074

  14. Disentangling respiratory acclimation and adaptation to growth temperature by Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Jörg; Turnbull, Tarryn L; Adams, Mark A

    2012-07-01

    • Respiratory acclimation to growth temperature differs between species, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that respiratory acclimation of CO(2) release is a consequence of growth regulation such that growth rates of young foliage of Eucalyptus spp. are similar at contrasting growth temperatures. Further, we tested whether such a response is affected by adaptation of Eucalyptus to different thermal environments via growth at different altitudes in the Australian Alps. • We employed calorimetric methods to relate rates of CO(2) release (mainly from substrate oxidation) and rates of O(2) reduction to conservation of energy. Temperature responses of these processes provided insight into mechanisms that control energy conservation and expenditure, and helped define 'instantaneous enthalpic growth capacity' (CapG). • CapG increased with altitude, but was counteracted by other factors in species adapted to highland habitats. The acclimation response was partly driven by changes in respiratory capacity (CapR(CO2)), and partly by more pronounced dynamic responses of CO(2) release (δ(R(CO2))) to measurement temperature. We observed enhanced temperature sensitivity of O(2) reduction (E(o)(R(O2))) at higher altitudes. • Adaptation to growth temperature included differences in respiration and growth capacities, but there was little evidence that Eucalyptus species vary in metabolic flexibility.

  15. Mechanical properties of acacia and eucalyptus wood chars

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M.; Verma, B.B.; Gupta, R.C.

    1999-10-01

    In the present investigation the effects of carbonization conditions (temperature and heating rate) on the mechanical properties (such as crushing and impact strengths and shatter index) of acacia and eucalyptus wood chars have been determined. The crushing and impact strengths of both the acacia and eucalyptus wood chars (made by slow carbonization) decreased with increase of preparation temperature up to 600 C, followed by an increase thereafter. These wood chars showed a continuous increase in shatter index values with carbonization temperature. In contrast to slow carbonization (heating rate 4 C min{sup {minus}1}), rapid carbonization (heating rate 30 C min{sup {minus}1}) yielded chars of lower crushing strengths. Slowly carbonized eucalyptus wood gave chars of superior crushing and impact strengths than those produced from acacia wood under the same carbonization conditions. The crushing and impact strengths of these wood chars, in general, have shown an increase with increase in their apparent density. The crushing strength of cubic-shaped wood char decreased with increase in size.

  16. Matching, maximizing, and hill-climbing

    PubMed Central

    Hinson, John M.; Staddon, J. E. R.

    1983-01-01

    In simple situations, animals consistently choose the better of two alternatives. On concurrent variable-interval variable-interval and variable-interval variable-ratio schedules, they approximately match aggregate choice and reinforcement ratios. The matching law attempts to explain the latter result but does not address the former. Hill-climbing rules such as momentary maximizing can account for both. We show that momentary maximizing constrains molar choice to approximate matching; that molar choice covaries with pigeons' momentary-maximizing estimate; and that the “generalized matching law” follows from almost any hill-climbing rule. PMID:16812350

  17. Photovoltaics - 10 years after Cherry Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, E. L.

    The status of R&D programs connected with photovoltaic (PV) systems 10 years after the Cherry Hill workshop on 'Photovoltaic Conversion of Solar Energy for Terrestrial Applications' is assessed. The five categories of research recommended by the Cherry Hill Workshop are listed in a table together with their recommended research budget allocations. The workshop categories include: single-crystal Si cells; poly-Si cells; systems and diagnostics. Categories for thin film CdS/Cu2S and CuInSe2 cells are also included. The roles of government and private utility companies in providing adequate financial support for PV research programs is emphasized.

  18. Elk Hills: still out in front

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, B.

    1982-07-01

    The producing history and capacity of the Elk Hills Oil and Gas Fields in California are described. Developments in the field are discussed, including waterflooding. The field presently produces ca. 160,000 bpd of oil and 350 mmcfd of natural gas. Gas liquids production totals ca. 683,000 gal/day. Waterflooding is expected to pay an increasingly important role in the production of crude oil. Steaming techniques also are viewed with favor after analysis of results of pilot projects. Exploratory develoment in Elk Hills also continues.

  19. 3. GENERAL VIEW DOWN EAST HILLS DRIVE, BUILDING 20 (ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW DOWN EAST HILLS DRIVE, BUILDING 20 (ONE BEDROOM) AND BUILDING 21 (TWO/THREE BEDROOM); ACTIVITY CENTER IN REAR, FACING NORTHEAST. - Aluminum City Terrace, East Hill Drive, New Kensington, Westmoreland County, PA

  20. OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WARM SPRINGS CAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WARM SPRINGS CAMP BUILDINGS, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. THE FUNCTION OF THE FLAT AREA AT CENTER RIGHT IS UNKNOWN. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  1. Hill-Burton Free and Reduced Cost Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hill-Burton Spanish Brochure (PDF - 83 KB) HHS Poverty Guidelines HHS Spanish Poverty Guidelines (PDF - 32 KB) Spanish Inquiry Letter (PDF - ... income is at or below the current HHS Poverty Guidelines . You may be eligible for Hill-Burton ...

  2. Conservation education and habitat restoration for the endangered Sagalla caecilian (Boulengerula niedeni) in Sagalla Hill, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    MALONZA, Patrick K

    2016-01-01

    The Sagalla caecilian (Boulengerula niedeni) is an endangered amphibian endemic to Sagalla Hill in the Taita Hills. This burrowing worm-like species prefers soft soil with high moisture and organic matter. The major threats to the Sagalla caecilian are soil erosion caused by steep slopes, bare ground and water siphoning/soil hardening from exotic eucalyptus trees. The purpose of this study was to get a better understanding of the local people’s attitude towards this species and how they can contribute to its continued conservation through restoration of its remaining habitat. In this study, it was found that 96% of Sagalla people are aware of the species, its habits and its association with soils high in organic matter. It was also found that 96% of Sagalla people use organic manure from cow dung in their farms. Habitat restoration through planting of indigenous plants was found to be ongoing, especially on compounds of public institutions as well as on private lands. Although drought was found to be a challenge for seedlings development especially on the low elevation sites, destruction by livestock especially during the dry season is also a major threat. In this study, it was recommended that any future habitat restoration initiative should include strong chain-link fencing to protect the seedlings from livestock activity. Recognizing that the preferred habitats for the species are in the valleys, systematic planting of keystone plant species such as fig trees (Ficus) creates the best microhabitats. These are better than general woodlots of indigenous trees. PMID:27265654

  3. Genome sequence of Pantoea ananatis LMG20103, the causative agent of Eucalyptus blight and dieback.

    PubMed

    De Maayer, Pieter; Chan, Wai Yin; Venter, Stephanus N; Toth, Ian K; Birch, Paul R J; Joubert, Fourie; Coutinho, Teresa A

    2010-06-01

    Pantoea ananatis is a Gram-negative plant pathogen that causes disease on a broad range of host plants, including pineapple, maize, rice, onion, melons, and Eucalyptus, and has been implicated in several cases of human disease. Here, we report the genome sequence of P. ananatis LMG20103 isolated from diseased Eucalyptus in South Africa.

  4. Eucalyptus essential oil toxicity against permethrin-resistant Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel C; Lucía, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo; Masuh, Hector; Picollo, María Inés

    2010-01-01

    During the past decades, chemical control against the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer has been based in the application of products containing permethrin. The repetitive overuse of pediculicides has resulted in the development of high levels of resistance to one or more of these products worldwide. Essential oils obtained from aromatic plants like Eucalyptus are good and safe alternatives due to their low toxicity to mammals and easy biodegradability. In the present study, we reported the chemical composition of Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus gunni, and the fumigant activity of five Eucalyptus essential oils and their main compounds against permethrin-resistant head lice from Argentina. The most effective essential oils were Eucalyptus sideroxylon, Eucalyptus globulus ssp globulus, and Eucalyptus globulus ssp maidenii, with knockdown time 50% (KT(50)) values of 24.75, 27.73, and 31.39 min. A linear regression analysis between percentage of 1,8-Cineole and KT(50) values of the essential oils showed a significant correlation at a p < 0.01. Since Eucalyptus essential oils showed to be effective against head lice and are classified as safer compounds, they can be employed into pediculicide formulations. PMID:19902249

  5. Processed eucalyptus trees as a substrate component for greenhouse crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fast growing eucalyptus species are selected for commercial plantings worldwide and are harvested for a variety of uses. Eucalyptus plantings in south Florida are harvested for landscape mulch production, yet this material may have potential as a container substrate for horticulture crop production....

  6. General Education at UNC-Chapel Hill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalin, Jay; Robinson, Jenna Ashley

    2013-01-01

    The general education program at UNC-Chapel Hill has abandoned the concept of a core curriculum. Instead, students choose their "required" classes from lists of thousands of courses that may be as narrow and idiosyncratic as Love, Sex and Marriage in Soviet Culture (RUSS 277) or The Gardens, Shrines and Temples of Japan (ASIA 586).…

  7. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area (27 CFR 9.69). From the beginning point, the Rattlesnake Hills viticultural area boundary line— (2) Proceeds straight eastward, crossing onto the Elephant Mountain map, to the 2,192-foot...) Yakima East Quadrangle, Washington—Yakima Co., 1953, photorevised 1985; (2) Elephant Mountain...

  8. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area (27 CFR 9.69). From the beginning point, the Rattlesnake Hills viticultural area boundary line— (2) Proceeds straight eastward, crossing onto the Elephant Mountain map, to the 2,192-foot...) Yakima East Quadrangle, Washington—Yakima Co., 1953, photorevised 1985; (2) Elephant Mountain...

  9. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area (27 CFR 9.69). From the beginning point, the Rattlesnake Hills viticultural area boundary line— (2) Proceeds straight eastward, crossing onto the Elephant Mountain map, to the 2,192-foot...) Yakima East Quadrangle, Washington—Yakima Co., 1953, photorevised 1985; (2) Elephant Mountain...

  10. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area (27 CFR 9.69). From the beginning point, the Rattlesnake Hills viticultural area boundary line— (2) Proceeds straight eastward, crossing onto the Elephant Mountain map, to the 2,192-foot...) Yakima East Quadrangle, Washington—Yakima Co., 1953, photorevised 1985; (2) Elephant Mountain...

  11. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area (27 CFR 9.69). From the beginning point, the Rattlesnake Hills viticultural area boundary line— (2) Proceeds straight eastward, crossing onto the Elephant Mountain map, to the 2,192-foot...) Yakima East Quadrangle, Washington—Yakima Co., 1953, photorevised 1985; (2) Elephant Mountain...

  12. 27 CFR 9.197 - Clements Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... area (27 CFR 9.107). The Clements Hills viticultural areas boundary is as follows— (1) The beginning...., 1968, minor revision 1993; (4) Wallace, Calif., 1962; (5) Valley Springs SW., Calif., 1962... along the San Joaquin-Amador and San Joaquin-Calaveras County lines, crossing over the Wallace map,...

  13. 27 CFR 9.197 - Clements Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... area (27 CFR 9.107). The Clements Hills viticultural areas boundary is as follows— (1) The beginning...., 1968, minor revision 1993; (4) Wallace, Calif., 1962; (5) Valley Springs SW., Calif., 1962... along the San Joaquin-Amador and San Joaquin-Calaveras County lines, crossing over the Wallace map,...

  14. 27 CFR 9.197 - Clements Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... area (27 CFR 9.107). The Clements Hills viticultural areas boundary is as follows— (1) The beginning...., 1968, minor revision 1993; (4) Wallace, Calif., 1962; (5) Valley Springs SW., Calif., 1962... along the San Joaquin-Amador and San Joaquin-Calaveras County lines, crossing over the Wallace map,...

  15. 27 CFR 9.197 - Clements Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... area (27 CFR 9.107). The Clements Hills viticultural areas boundary is as follows— (1) The beginning...., 1968, minor revision 1993; (4) Wallace, Calif., 1962; (5) Valley Springs SW., Calif., 1962... along the San Joaquin-Amador and San Joaquin-Calaveras County lines, crossing over the Wallace map,...

  16. 27 CFR 9.197 - Clements Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... area (27 CFR 9.107). The Clements Hills viticultural areas boundary is as follows— (1) The beginning...., 1968, minor revision 1993; (4) Wallace, Calif., 1962; (5) Valley Springs SW., Calif., 1962... along the San Joaquin-Amador and San Joaquin-Calaveras County lines, crossing over the Wallace map,...

  17. An Unlikely Student Hits Capitol Hill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Todd Sollar, a laid-off autoworker from Ohio who is studying for an associate degree in engineering at Sinclair Community College, in Dayton, OH, went to Capitol Hill to help educate lawmakers about the importance of including support for community colleges in the economic-stimulus bill. Mr. Sollar came to Washington with Sinclair's president, and…

  18. Numerical construction of the Hill functions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segethova, J.

    1972-01-01

    As an aid in the numerical construction of Hill functions and their derivatives, an algorithm using local coordinates and an expansion in Legendre polynomials is proposed. The algorithm is shown to possess sufficient stability, and the orthogonality of the Legendre polynomials simplifies the computation when the Ritz-Galerkin technique is used.

  19. The House on the Hill Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author suggests a classroom challenge that will engage students in designing a house on the hill. He suggests teachers ask a local builder to come to the school to discuss the kinds of concerns that must be dealt with when building homes in cold environments. The use of dioramas and cardboard scale models would be very useful…

  20. Ocean Hill-Brownsville, 40 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlenberg, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    Forty years ago--on May 9, 1968--the local school board in Brooklyn's black ghetto of Ocean Hill-Brownsville sent telegrams to 19 unionized educators, informing them that their employment in the district was terminated. Eighteen were white. One black teacher was mistakenly included on the list, but reinstated almost immediately after the error was…

  1. ENHANCED REMEDIATION DEMONSTRATIONS AT HILL AFB: INTRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nine enhanced aquifer remediation technologies were demonstrated side-by-side at a Hill Air Force Base Chemical Disposal Pit/Fire Training Area site. The demonstrations were performed inside 3 x 5 m cells isolated from the surrounding shallow aquifer by steel piling. The site w...

  2. Plains and Hills Explored by Spirit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Spirit's Long Journey, Sol 450

    This view from orbit shows the region within Gusev Crater where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has been working for the past 15 months. The view is a mosaic of images from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. In the left and central portion, previously released as PIA07192, tracks made by Spirit's wheels are visible from the landing site to the edge of the 'Columbia Hills.'

    Spirit's Long Journey, Sol 450 (Full Traverse) More than 15 months after landing on Mars, NASA's Spirit rover is still going strong, having traveled a total of 4,276 meters (2.66 miles) as of martian day, or sol, 450 (April 8, 2005). This elevation map shows the traverse followed by Spirit since arriving at the 'Columbia Hills' in June, 2004. The areas colored blue are low in elevation and areas colored yellow are high in elevation. The blue area at the foot of the 'Columbia Hills' is approximately 20 meters (66 feet) higher in elevation than the site where Spirit landed in Gusev Crater. The highest peak is on the order of 80 meters (262 feet) higher still. In other words, the hills Spirit is exploring are more than 250 feet high. The map imagery is from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor.

  3. 27 CFR 9.145 - Dunnigan Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... The Dunnigan Hills viticultural area is located in Yolo County, California. The boundary is as follows... and U.S. Route 99W just south of the Colusa-Yolo county line; (2) From the beginning point, the... just north of the town of Yolo, California, on the Woodland, Calif., U.S.G.S. map; (3) The...

  4. 27 CFR 9.145 - Dunnigan Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... The Dunnigan Hills viticultural area is located in Yolo County, California. The boundary is as follows... and U.S. Route 99W just south of the Colusa-Yolo county line; (2) From the beginning point, the... just north of the town of Yolo, California, on the Woodland, Calif., U.S.G.S. map; (3) The...

  5. 27 CFR 9.145 - Dunnigan Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... The Dunnigan Hills viticultural area is located in Yolo County, California. The boundary is as follows... and U.S. Route 99W just south of the Colusa-Yolo county line; (2) From the beginning point, the... just north of the town of Yolo, California, on the Woodland, Calif., U.S.G.S. map; (3) The...

  6. 27 CFR 9.145 - Dunnigan Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... The Dunnigan Hills viticultural area is located in Yolo County, California. The boundary is as follows... and U.S. Route 99W just south of the Colusa-Yolo county line; (2) From the beginning point, the... just north of the town of Yolo, California, on the Woodland, Calif., U.S.G.S. map; (3) The...

  7. Jesse Stuart: Lessons from the Kentucky Hills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Lu

    1986-01-01

    Highlights events in the life of Jesse Stuart, who began his teaching career at the age of 17 in a remote one-room school in the Kentucky hills and went on to become widely recognized as teacher, lecturer, and significant regional writer. Emphasizes Stuart's love of teaching and his personal values. (JHZ)

  8. Eucalyptus Tree: A Potential Source of Cryptococcus neoformans in Egyptian Environment.

    PubMed

    Elhariri, Mahmoud; Hamza, Dalia; Elhelw, Rehab; Refai, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt, the River Red Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) is a well-known tree and is highly appreciated by the rural and urban dwellers. The role of Eucalyptus trees in the ecology of Cryptococcus neoformans is documented worldwide. The aim of this survey was to show the prevalence of C. neoformans during the flowering season of E. camaldulensis at the Delta region in Egypt. Three hundred and eleven samples out of two hundred Eucalyptus trees, including leaves, flowers, and woody trunks, were collected from four governorates in the Delta region. Thirteen isolates of C. neoformans were recovered from Eucalyptus tree samples (4.2%). Molecular identification of C. neoformans was done by capsular gene specific primer CAP64 and serotype identification was done depending on LAC1 gene. This study represents an update on the ecology of C. neoformans associated with Eucalyptus tree in Egyptian environment. PMID:26884765

  9. Eucalyptus Tree: A Potential Source of Cryptococcus neoformans in Egyptian Environment

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Dalia; Elhelw, Rehab; Refai, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt, the River Red Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) is a well-known tree and is highly appreciated by the rural and urban dwellers. The role of Eucalyptus trees in the ecology of Cryptococcus neoformans is documented worldwide. The aim of this survey was to show the prevalence of C. neoformans during the flowering season of E. camaldulensis at the Delta region in Egypt. Three hundred and eleven samples out of two hundred Eucalyptus trees, including leaves, flowers, and woody trunks, were collected from four governorates in the Delta region. Thirteen isolates of C. neoformans were recovered from Eucalyptus tree samples (4.2%). Molecular identification of C. neoformans was done by capsular gene specific primer CAP64 and serotype identification was done depending on LAC1 gene. This study represents an update on the ecology of C. neoformans associated with Eucalyptus tree in Egyptian environment. PMID:26884765

  10. 75. Southeast elevation of Forest Hills station looking Northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    75. Southeast elevation of Forest Hills station - looking Northwest from junction of Washington and Walk Hill Streets. At left is the beginning of Section F-7 the exposed steel portion of elevated structure leading to the Forest Hills storage yard (demolished in 1985). - Boston Elevated Railway, Elevated Mainline, Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. AERIAL VIEW, LAUREL HILL CEMETERY (LEFT) AND MOUNT PEACE CEMETERY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LAUREL HILL CEMETERY (LEFT) AND MOUNT PEACE CEMETERY (RIGHT). LOCATED ACROSS RIDGE AVENUE FROM LAUREL HILL CEMETERY, MOUNT PEACE CEMETERY WAS FOUNDED BY THE ODD FELLOWS CEMETERY COMPANY IN 1865. - Laurel Hill Cemetery, 3822 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. 27 CFR 9.136 - Texas Hill Country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Texas Hill Country. 9.136... Texas Hill Country. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Texas Hill Country.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the “Texas...

  13. 27 CFR 9.136 - Texas Hill Country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Texas Hill Country. 9.136... Texas Hill Country. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Texas Hill Country.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the “Texas...

  14. 27 CFR 9.136 - Texas Hill Country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Texas Hill Country. 9.136... Texas Hill Country. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Texas Hill Country.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the “Texas...

  15. 27 CFR 9.136 - Texas Hill Country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Texas Hill Country. 9.136... Texas Hill Country. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Texas Hill Country.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the “Texas...

  16. View of south boundary of Easter Hill project site, former ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south boundary of Easter Hill project site, former right of way for Hoffman Boulevard. Note reconstructed Easter Hill Building No. 6 at rear. Looking east - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  17. 27 CFR 9.190 - Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Hill Douglas County... Areas § 9.190 Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Red...

  18. The mitochondrial genome of Nobia grandis Sowerby, 1839 (Cirripedia: Sessilia): the first report from the coral-inhabiting barnacles family Pyrgomatidae.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan; Tsang, Ling Ming

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the coral-inhabiting barnacle Nobia grandis Sowerby, 1839 complete mitochondrial genome, which is the first report from the family Pyrgomatidae (Cirripedia: Sessilia). The N. grandis mitochondrial genome is 15,032 bp in length, containing a total of 469 bp of non-coding nucleotides spreading in 11 intergenic regions (with the largest region of 376 bp). Compared with the pancrustacean ground pattern, there are not less than seven tRNAs rearranged in the N. grandis mitochondrial genome. Gene overlaps are founded in eight places. Nine PCGs (COX1-3, ATP6, ATP8, CYTB, ND2, ND3 and ND6) are encoded on the heavy strand while the remaining 4 PCGs and the two rRNAs are located on the light strand. As the first representative from the family Pyrgomatidae, the N. grandis mitochondrial genome will help us to explore the evolutionary history and molecular evolution of coral barnacles and Sessilia in future studies.

  19. Structure, stratigraphy, and origin of Husband Hill, Columbia Hills, Gusev Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, T. J.; Sims, M.; Schmidt, M. E.; Edwards, L.; Tornabene, L. L.; Crumpler, L. S.; Cohen, B. A.; Soderblom, L. A.; Blaney, D. L.; Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Rice, J. W.; Tréguier, E.; d'Uston, C.; Grant, J. A.; McSween, H. Y.; Golombek, M. P.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; de Souza, P. A.

    2008-06-01

    The strike and dip of lithologic units imaged in stereo by the Spirit rover in the Columbia Hills using three-dimensional imaging software shows that measured dips (15-32°) for bedding on the main edifice of the Columbia Hill are steeper than local topography (~8-10°). Outcrops measured on West Spur are conformable in strike with shallower dips (7-15°) than observed on Husband Hill. Dips are consistent with observed strata draping the Columbia Hills. Initial uplift was likely related either to the formation of the Gusev Crater central peak or ring or through mutual interference of overlapping crater rims. Uplift was followed by subsequent draping by a series of impact and volcaniclastic materials that experienced temporally and spatially variable aqueous infiltration, cementation, and alteration episodically during or after deposition. West Spur likely represents a spatially isolated depositional event. Erosion by a variety of processes, including mass wasting, removed tens of meters of materials and formed the Tennessee Valley primarily after deposition. This was followed by eruption of the Adirondack-class plains basalt lava flows which embayed the Columbia Hills. Minor erosion, impact, and aeolian processes have subsequently modified the Columbia Hills.

  20. Structure, stratigraphy, and origin of Husband Hill, Columbia Hills, Gusev Crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy, T.J.; Sims, M.; Schmidt, M.E.; Edwards, L.; Tornabene, L.L.; Crumpler, L.S.; Cohen, B. A.; Soderblom, L.A.; Blaney, D.L.; Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Rica, J.W.; Treguier, E.; d'Uston, C.; Grant, J. A.; McSween, H.Y.; Golombek, M.P.; Haldemann, A.F.C.; de Souza, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    The strike and dip of lithologic units imaged in stereo by the Spirit rover in the Columbia Hills using three-dimensional imaging software shows that measured dips (15-32??) for bedding on the main edifice of the Columbia Hill are steeper than local topography (???8-10??). Outcrops measured on West Spur are conformable in strike with shallower dips (7-15??) than observed on Husband Hill. Dips are consistent with observed strata draping the Columbia Hills. Initial uplift was likely related either to the formation of the Gusev Crater central peak or ring or through mutual interference of overlapping crater rims. Uplift was followed by subsequent draping by a series of impact and volcaniclastic materials that experienced temporally and spatially variable aqueous infiltration, cementation, and alteration episodically during or after deposition. West Spur likely represents a spatially isolated depositional event. Erosion by a variety of processes, including mass wasting, removed tens of meters of materials and formed the Tennessee Valley primarily after deposition. This was followed by eruption of the Adirondack-class plains basalt lava flows which embayed the Columbia Hills. Minor erosion, impact, and aeolian processes have subsequently modified the Columbia Hills. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Comparison of larval thermal maxima between Fundulus heteroclitus and F. grandis.

    PubMed

    Galleher, Stacy N; Gilg, Matthew R; Smith, Kelly J

    2010-09-01

    Fundulus heteroclitus and F. grandis are resident salt marsh fishes that overlap in distribution over a narrow range in northeastern Florida. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the limits of the species' ranges could be explained by differences in thermal tolerance. Two populations of each species were collected and then spawned in the laboratory, and 9-day-old larvae were used for critical thermal maxima trials. Mean LOE temperatures of larvae ranged from 43.04 to 43.65 degrees C and showed little difference between species. Therefore, differences in high temperatures experienced cannot account for the differences of the distributions of the two species. Condition-specific competition may play a greater role in determining the observed range of the two species.

  2. Multifunctional properties of polysaccharides from Dalbergia sissoo, Tectona grandis and Mimosa diplotricha.

    PubMed

    Rana, Vikas; Das, Manuj K; Gogoi, Satyabrat; Kumar, Vineet

    2014-02-15

    Three water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated and purified from the leaves of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (DSLP), bark of Tectona grandis L. f (TGBP) and seeds of Mimosa diplotricha var. diplotricha Sauvalle (MDSP). Antioxidant and moisture preserving activities of these three polysaccharides were investigated using in vitro methods. The antioxidant activities studied include superoxide (O2(*-)), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(*+)), hydroxyl (OH(-)), nitric oxide (NO*), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD(+)) radical scavenging activities, ferric ion (Fe(3+)) reducing ability, ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) chelating and lipid peroxidation activities. The study revealed higher activity of TGBP in all antioxidant assays than DSLP and MDSP. Further, the three polysaccharides showed effective moisture retention properties in comparison with hyaluronic acid and glycerol.

  3. Determination of bioactive compounds in the juice of pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck).

    PubMed

    Russo, Marina; Bonaccorsi, Ivana; Torre, Germana; Cotroneo, Antonella; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2013-02-01

    The juice of pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) was analyzed to determine its composition of flavonoids, polymethoxyflavones, coumarins and psoralens. The analyses were carried out by HPLC using columns packed with small diameter Fused-Core C18 particles to achieve high resolution in short analysis time. In addition, the profile of the native carotenoids present in the juice was determined using a C30 column. Identification of flavonoids was achieved by MS with ESI in negative mode; the MS acquisition of oxygenated heterocyclic compounds was performed in positive APCI; carotenoids were detected with a PDA detector. Nineteen native carotenoids were determined in pummelo juice for the first time. The composition of this juice is also discussed in comparison with other Citrus juices, especially grapefruit.

  4. Salicylic Acid Alleviates the Adverse Effects of Salt Stress in Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii Seedlings by Activating Photosynthesis and Enhancing Antioxidant Systems

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xuhua; Tang, Hui; Shen, Chaohua; Wu, Jiasheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Salt stress is a major factor limiting plant growth and productivity. Salicylic acid (SA) has been shown to ameliorate the adverse effects of environmental stress on plants. To investigate the protective role of SA in ameliorating salt stress on Torreya grandis (T. grandis) trees, a pot experiment was conducted to analyze the biomass, relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll content, net photosynthesis (Pn), gas exchange parameters, relative leakage conductivity (REC), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) of T. grandis under 0.2% and 0.4% NaCl conditions with and without SA. Methodology/Principal Findings The exposure of T. grandis seedlings to salt conditions resulted in reduced growth rates, which were associated with decreases in RWC and Pn and increases in REC and MDA content. The foliar application of SA effectively increased the chlorophyll (chl (a+b)) content, RWC, net CO2 assimilation rates (Pn), and proline content, enhanced the activities of SOD, CAT and POD, and minimized the increases in the REC and MDA content. These changes increased the capacity of T. grandis in acclimating to salt stress and thus increased the shoot and root dry matter. However, when the plants were under 0% and 0.2% NaCl stress, the dry mass of the shoots and roots did not differ significantly between SA-treated plants and control plants. Conclusions SA induced the salt tolerance and increased the biomass of T. grandis cv. by enhancing the chlorophyll content and activity of antioxidative enzymes, activating the photosynthetic process, and alleviating membrane injury. A better understanding about the effect of salt stress in T. grandis is vital, in order gain knowledge over expanding the plantations to various regions and also for the recovery of T. grandis species in the future. PMID:25302987

  5. Patterns of Reproductive Isolation in Eucalyptus-A Phylogenetic Perspective.

    PubMed

    Larcombe, Matthew J; Holland, Barbara; Steane, Dorothy A; Jones, Rebecca C; Nicolle, Dean; Vaillancourt, René E; Potts, Brad M

    2015-07-01

    We assess phylogenetic patterns of hybridization in the speciose, ecologically and economically important genus Eucalyptus, in order to better understand the evolution of reproductive isolation. Eucalyptus globulus pollen was applied to 99 eucalypt species, mainly from the large commercially important subgenus, Symphyomyrtus. In the 64 species that produce seeds, hybrid compatibility was assessed at two stages, hybrid-production (at approximately 1 month) and hybrid-survival (at 9 months), and compared with phylogenies based on 8,350 genome-wide DArT (diversity arrays technology) markers. Model fitting was used to assess the relationship between compatibility and genetic distance, and whether or not the strength of incompatibility "snowballs" with divergence. There was a decline in compatibility with increasing genetic distance between species. Hybridization was common within two closely related clades (one including E. globulus), but rare between E. globulus and species in two phylogenetically distant clades. Of three alternative models tested (linear, slowdown, and snowball), we found consistent support for a snowball model, indicating that the strength of incompatibility accelerates relative to genetic distance. Although we can only speculate about the genetic basis of this pattern, it is consistent with a Dobzhansky-Muller-model prediction that incompatibilities should snowball with divergence due to negative epistasis. Different rates of compatibility decline in the hybrid-production and hybrid-survival measures suggest that early-acting postmating barriers developed first and are stronger than later-acting barriers. We estimated that complete reproductive isolation can take up to 21-31 My in Eucalyptus. Practical implications for hybrid eucalypt breeding and genetic risk assessment in Australia are discussed. PMID:25777461

  6. Seasonal influence on the essential oil of Eucalyptus microcorys.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Flávia N M; Fortes, Gilmara A C; Paula, José R; Ferri, Pedro H; Santos, Suzana C

    2014-04-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil, phenolic contents, and foliar nutrients of Eucalyptus microcorys leaves, cultivated in Brazil, was analysed on a monthly basis for one year. Canonical redundancy analysis correlated results with climate conditions (rainfall, humidity, and mean temperature), allowing three groups to be distinguished as regards temperature, flavonoids, and the content of some metals. Strong correlations between Mn, Cu, Zn, Ca, P, and K with some monoterpenes and phenolic compounds were observed. Oxygenated monoterpenes were predominant in all sampling months. Oil chemovariation may be influenced by climatic factors as well as by foliar nutrient variation. PMID:24868888

  7. Seasonal influence on the essential oil of Eucalyptus microcorys.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Flávia N M; Fortes, Gilmara A C; Paula, José R; Ferri, Pedro H; Santos, Suzana C

    2014-04-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil, phenolic contents, and foliar nutrients of Eucalyptus microcorys leaves, cultivated in Brazil, was analysed on a monthly basis for one year. Canonical redundancy analysis correlated results with climate conditions (rainfall, humidity, and mean temperature), allowing three groups to be distinguished as regards temperature, flavonoids, and the content of some metals. Strong correlations between Mn, Cu, Zn, Ca, P, and K with some monoterpenes and phenolic compounds were observed. Oxygenated monoterpenes were predominant in all sampling months. Oil chemovariation may be influenced by climatic factors as well as by foliar nutrient variation.

  8. Uranium series dating of Allan Hills ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1986-03-01

    Uranium-238 decay series nuclides dissolved in Antarctic ice samples were measured in areas of both high and low concentrations of volcanic glass shards. Ice from the Allan Hills site (high shard content) had high Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 activities but similarly low U-238 activities in comparison with Antarctic ice samples without shards. The Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 excesses were found to be proportional to the shard content, while the U-238 decay series results were consistent with the assumption that alpha decay products recoiled into the ice from the shards. Through this method of uranium series dating, it was learned that the Allen Hills Cul de Sac ice is approximately 325,000 years old.

  9. The planar Hill problem with oblate primary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadakis, K. E.

    2004-09-01

    The regularized equations of motion of the planar Hill problem which includes the effect of the oblateness of the larger primary body, is presented. Using the Levi-Civita coordinate transformation as well as the corresponding time transformation, we obtain a simple regularized polynomial Hamiltonian of the dynamical system that corresponds to that of two uncoupled harmonic oscillators perturbed by polynomial terms. The relations between the synodic and regularized variables are also given. The convenient numerical computations of the regularized equations of motion, allow derivation of a map of the group of families of simple-periodic orbits, free of collision cases, of both the classical and the Hill problem with oblateness. The horizontal stability of the families is calculated and we determine series of horizontally critical symmetric periodic orbits of the basic families g and g'.

  10. Uranium series dating of Allan Hills ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1986-01-01

    Uranium-238 decay series nuclides dissolved in Antarctic ice samples were measured in areas of both high and low concentrations of volcanic glass shards. Ice from the Allan Hills site (high shard content) had high Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 activities but similarly low U-238 activities in comparison with Antarctic ice samples without shards. The Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 excesses were found to be proportional to the shard content, while the U-238 decay series results were consistent with the assumption that alpha decay products recoiled into the ice from the shards. Through this method of uranium series dating, it was learned that the Allen Hills Cul de Sac ice is approximately 325,000 years old.

  11. Freshwater influences on embryos, hatching and larval survival of euryhaline Gulf killifish Fundulus grandis and potential constraints on habitat distribution.

    PubMed

    Ramee, S W; Allen, P J

    2016-08-01

    The influence of fresh water on potential habitat occupancy of early life-history stages of euryhaline Gulf killifish Fundulus grandis was determined by evaluating fertilization of freshwater-spawned eggs and subsequent survival of embryos and larvae in comparison with saline water (salinity 7). Overall per cent fertilization of eggs was low (mean ± s.e. = 20·21 ± 0·03%). Embryo survival was greater in saline water, but hatching rate (mean ± s.e. = 81·6 ± 0·1%) and post-hatch survival of larvae in fresh water (mean ± s.e. = 74·5 ± 0·1%) was relatively high. Therefore, the relative limitation of fresh water on habitat distribution of F. grandis changes with development, stimulating further questions on factors that may constrain habitat distribution of euryhaline fishes. PMID:27238386

  12. Activity of a Brazilian strain of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis against the cotton Boll Weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Monnerat, R; Martins, E; Praça, L; Dumas, V; Berry, C

    2012-02-01

    A Brazilian Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies israelensis, toxic to Diptera, including mosquitoes, was found also to show toxicity to the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman at an equivalent level to that of the standard coleopteran-active B. thuringiensis subspecies tenebrionis T08017. Recombinant B. thuringiensis strains expressing the individual Cyt1Aa, Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa toxins from this strain were assessed to evaluate their potential contribution to the activity against A. grandis, either alone or in combination. Whilst individual toxins produced mortality, none was sufficiently potent to allow calculation of LC50 values. Combinations of toxins were unable to attain the same potency as the parental B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, suggesting a major role for other factors produced by this strain. PMID:23950011

  13. Segment lengths influence hill walking strategies.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Riley C; Gottschall, Jinger S

    2014-08-22

    Segment lengths are known to influence walking kinematics and muscle activity patterns. During level walking at the same speed, taller individuals take longer, slower strides than shorter individuals. Based on this, we sought to determine if segment lengths also influenced hill walking strategies. We hypothesized that individuals with longer segments would display more joint flexion going uphill and more extension going downhill as well as greater lateral gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis activity in both directions. Twenty young adults of varying heights (below 155 cm to above 188 cm) walked at 1.25 m/s on a level treadmill as well as 6° and 12° up and downhill slopes while we collected kinematic and muscle activity data. Subsequently, we ran linear regressions for each of the variables with height, leg, thigh, and shank length. Despite our population having twice the anthropometric variability, the level and hill walking patterns matched closely with previous studies. While there were significant differences between level and hill walking, there were few hill walking variables that were correlated with segment length. In support of our hypothesis, taller individuals had greater knee and ankle flexion during uphill walking. However, the majority of the correlations were between tibialis anterior and lateral gastrocnemius activities and shank length. Contrary to our hypothesis, relative step length and muscle activity decreased with segment length, specifically shank length. In summary, it appears that individuals with shorter segments require greater propulsion and toe clearance during uphill walking as well as greater braking and stability during downhill walking. PMID:24968942

  14. Photovoltaics - 10 years after Cherry Hill

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph, E.L.

    1984-05-01

    The question is, could a workshop today be effective in planning the next 10 years of development in the PV industry. Given is some insight into the Cherry Hill workshop, who was there and what was accomplished. Plans were made at workshop sessions, open panels discussed the needs, and invited papers were presented by experts in the field showing what concepts and ideas existed. The need for U.S. Government support of a 10 year PV development program was confirmed.

  15. Possible Meteorites in the Martian Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    From its winter outpost at 'Low Ridge' inside Gusev Crater, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this spectacular, color mosaic of hilly, sandy terrain and two potential iron meteorites. The two light-colored, smooth rocks about two-thirds of the way up from the bottom of the frame have been labeled 'Zhong Shan' and 'Allan Hills.'

    The two rocks' informal names are in keeping with the rover science team's campaign to nickname rocks and soils in the area after locations in Antarctica. Zhong Shang is an Antarctic base that the People's Republic of China opened on Feb. 26, 1989, at the Larsemann Hills in Prydz Bay in East Antarctica. Allan Hills is a location where researchers have found many Martian meteorites, including the controversial ALH84001, which achieved fame in 1996 when NASA scientists suggested that it might contain evidence for fossilized extraterrestrial life. Zhong Shan was the given name of Dr. Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925), known as the 'Father of Modern China.' Born to a peasant family in Guangdong, Sun moved to live with his brother in Honolulu at age 13 and later became a medical doctor. He led a series of uprisings against the Qing dynasty that began in 1894 and eventually succeeded in 1911. Sun served as the first provisional president when the Republic of China was founded in 1912.

    The Zhong Shan and Allan Hills rocks, at the left and right, respectively, have unusual morphologies and miniature thermal emission spectrometer signatures that resemble those of a rock known as 'Heat Shield' at the Meridiani site explored by Spirit's twin, Opportunity. Opportunity's analyses revealed Heat Shield to be an iron meteorite.

    Spirit acquired this approximately true-color image on the rover's 872nd Martian day, or sol (June 16, 2006), using exposures taken through three of the panoramic camera's filters, centered on wavelengths of 600 nanometers, 530 nanometers, and 480 nanometers.

  16. Flow over periodic hills: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, Ch.; Manhart, M.

    2011-07-01

    Two-dimensional flow over periodically arranged hills was investigated experimentally in a water channel. Two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV) and one-dimensional laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) measurements were undertaken at four Reynolds numbers ({5,600} le Re le {37,000}). Two-dimensional PIV field measurements were thoroughly validated by means of point-by-point 1D LDA measurements at certain positions of the flow. A detailed study of the periodicity and the homogeneity was undertaken, which demonstrates that the flow can be regarded as two-dimensional and periodic for Re ge {10,000}. We found a decreasing reattachment length with increasing Reynolds number. This is connected to a higher momentum in the near-wall zone close to flow separation which comes from the velocity speed up above the obstacle. This leads to a velocity overshoot directly above the hill crest which increases with Reynolds number as the inner layer depth decreases. The flow speed up above that layer is independent of the Reynolds number which supports the assumption of inviscid flow disturbance in the outer layer usually made in asymptotic theory for flow over small hills.

  17. The Rocks of the Columbia Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squyres, Steven W.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Blaney, Diana L.; Clark, Benton C.; Crumpler, Larry; Farrand, William H.; Gorevan, Stephen; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Hurowitz, Joel; Kusack, Alastair; McSween, Harry Y.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Ruff, Steven W.; Wang, Alian; Yen, Albert

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has identified five distinct rock types in the Columbia Hills of Gusev crater. Clovis Class rock is a poorly-sorted clastic rock that has undergone substantial aqueous alteration. We interpret it to be aqueously-altered ejecta deposits formed by impacts into basaltic materials. Wishstone Class rock is also a poorly-sorted clastic rock that has a distinctive chemical composition that is high in Ti and P and low in Cr. Wishstone Class rock may be pyroclastic in origin. Peace Class rock is a sedimentary material composed of ultramafic sand grains cemented by significant quantities of Mg- and Ca-sulfates. Peace Class rock may have formed when water briefly saturated the ultramafic sands, and evaporated to allow precipitation of the sulfates. Watchtower Class rocks are similar chemically to Wishstone Class rocks, and have undergone widely varying degrees of near-isochemical aqueous alteration. They may also be ejecta deposits, formed by impacts into Wishstone-rich materials and altered by small amounts of water. Backstay Class rocks are basalt/trachybasalt lavas that were emplaced in the Columbia Hills after the other rock classes were, either as impact ejecta or by localized volcanic activity. The geologic record preserved in the rocks of the Columbia Hills reveals a period very early in martian history in which volcanic materials were widespread, impact was a dominant process, and water was commonly present.

  18. Unintentional exposure of young children to camphor and eucalyptus oils

    PubMed Central

    Flaman, Zorina; Pellechia-Clarke, Sandra; Bailey, Benoit; McGuigan, Michael

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Essential oils, such as camphorated and eucalyptus oils, are volatile oils that can be absorbed by mouth and through the skin; if ingested orally by children, they can be harmful, even life-threatening. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of essential oil ingestion among children in Toronto, Ontario. METHODS: Charts from December 1995 through March 1997 at the Ontario Regional Poison Information Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto were reviewed to collect information on calls about essential oil ingestion, and a search of MEDLINE articles from 1966 to 1998 was conducted using the key words: ‘camphor’, ‘eucalyptus’, ‘paediatric’, and ‘poisoning’. RESULTS: Callers to the Poison Information Centre reported that 251 children had ingested an essential oil or product: eucalyptus oil 50 children; camphorated oil 18 children; VapAir (Drug Trading, Canada) vaporizing liquid 93 children; and Vicks VaporRub (Procter & Gamble, Canada) 90 children. The most common symptoms were cough, vomiting and cough associated with vomiting. Two children had seizures but recovered. The MEDLINE search found 18 reports of paediatric ingestion of the oils or oil products. The main symptoms were vomiting, lethargy, coma and seizures. One child died. CONCLUSION: Although widely used by health care consumers, essential oils and the products that contain them can be harmful when ingested by children. Further education for parents and other caregivers about the risks involved in exposure to these products is required. PMID:20084213

  19. [Relationship between soil enzyme activities and trace element contents in Eucalyptus plantation soil].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuelin; Peng, Shaolin; Li, Zhihui; Ren, Hai; Li, Zhi'an

    2003-03-01

    Canonical correlation analysis on soil enzyme activities and trace element contents in Eucalyptus plantation soil showed that among the test elements, only Zn and Mn affected enzyme activity. Both Zn and Mn increased soil proteinase activity. Zn decreased the activities of soil urease and peroxidase, while Mn promoted them. "Integral soil enzyme factor" could be used as an index of soil fertility. Together with other growth factors, this index should be considered when evaluating soil fertility of Eucalyptus forest sites. It also had a definite significance on the division of Eucalyptus soil families. PMID:12836538

  20. Ameliorative potential of Coccinia grandis extract on serum and liver marker enzymes and lipid profile in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Krishnakumari, S.; Bhuvaneswari, P.; Rajeswari, P.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most severe metabolic pandemic of the 21st century, affecting essential biochemical activities in almost every cell in the body. Indian literatures have already mentioned herbal remediation for a number of human ailments. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of Coccinia grandis extract on serum and liver marker enzymes (ALP, AST, ALT and LDH) and lipid profile (total cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides and free fatty acids in serum and liver) in streptozotocin induced diabetic animals. The experimental animals were treated with methanolic extract of Coccinia grandis and the levels of marker enzymes and lipid profile were estimated. The ALP, AST, ALT and LDH levels were increased in diabetic rats and restored to near normal levels after administration of plant extract. The lipid profile increased in diabetic group and after the treatment with the plant extract the levels were reverted to near normal. Thus the methanolic extract of Coccinia grandis has a potent ability to restore the marker enzymes and the lipid profile was reverted to near normal levels. PMID:22736887

  1. Confidence Hills Mineralogy and Chemin Results from Base of Mt. Sharp, Pahrump Hills, Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavanagh, P. D.; Bish, D. L.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; Achilles, C. N.; Chipera, S. J.; Treiman, A. H.; Downs, R. T.; Morrison, S. M.; Fendrich, K. V.; Yen, A. S.; Grotzinger, J.; Crisp, J. A.; Bristow, T. F.; Sarrazin, P. C.; Farmer, J. D.; Des Marais, D. J.; Stolper, E. M.; Morookian, J. M.; Wilson, M. A.; Spanovich, N.; Anderson, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity recently completed its fourth drill sampling of sediments on Mars. The Confidence Hills (CH) sample was drilled from a rock located in the Pahrump Hills region at the base of Mt. Sharp in Gale Crater. The CheMin X-ray diffractometer completed five nights of analysis on the sample, more than previously executed for a drill sample, and the data have been analyzed using Rietveld refinement and full-pattern fitting to determine quantitative mineralogy. Confidence Hills mineralogy has several important characteristics: 1) abundant hematite and lesser magnetite; 2) a 10 angstrom phyllosilicate; 3) multiple feldspars including plagioclase and alkali feldspar; 4) mafic silicates including forsterite, orthopyroxene, and two types of clinopyroxene (Ca-rich and Ca-poor), consistent with a basaltic source; and 5) minor contributions from sulfur-bearing species including jarosite.

  2. Semiochemicals from herbivory induced cotton plants enhance the foraging behavior of the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, D M; Borges, M; Laumann, R A; Sujii, E R; Mayon, P; Caulfield, J C; Midega, C A O; Khan, Z R; Pickett, J A; Birkett, M A; Blassioli-Moraes, M C

    2012-12-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, has been monitored through deployment of traps baited with aggregation pheromone components. However, field studies have shown that the number of insects caught in these traps is significantly reduced during cotton squaring, suggesting that volatiles produced by plants at this phenological stage may be involved in attraction. Here, we evaluated the chemical profile of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by undamaged or damaged cotton plants at different phenological stages, under different infestation conditions, and determined the attractiveness of these VOCs to adults of A. grandis. In addition, we investigated whether or not VOCs released by cotton plants enhanced the attractiveness of the aggregation pheromone emitted by male boll weevils. Behavioral responses of A. grandis to VOCs from conspecific-damaged, heterospecific-damaged (Spodoptera frugiperda and Euschistus heros) and undamaged cotton plants, at different phenological stages, were assessed in Y-tube olfactometers. The results showed that volatiles emitted from reproductive cotton plants damaged by conspecifics were attractive to adults boll weevils, whereas volatiles induced by heterospecific herbivores were not as attractive. Additionally, addition of boll weevil-induced volatiles from reproductive cotton plants to aggregation pheromone gave increased attraction, relative to the pheromone alone. The VOC profiles of undamaged and mechanically damaged cotton plants, in both phenological stages, were not different. Chemical analysis showed that cotton plants produced qualitatively similar volatile profiles regardless of damage type, but the quantities produced differed according to the plant's phenological stage and the herbivore species. Notably, vegetative cotton plants released higher amounts of VOCs compared to reproductive plants. At both stages, the highest rate of VOC release was observed in A. grandis-damaged plants. Results show that A. grandis uses

  3. Feeding ecology of the copepod Lucicutia aff. L. grandis near the lower interface of the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowing, Marcia M.; Wishner, Karen F.

    Feeding ecology of the calanoid copepod Lucicutia aff. L. grandis collected in the Arabian Sea at one station during the Spring Intermonsoon and during the Southwest Monsoon of 1995 was studied with transmission electron microscopy of gut-contents. Highest abundances of these animals occurred from ˜400 to 1100 m, near the lower interface of the oxygen minimum zone and at the inflection point where oxygen starts to increase. We expected that their gut-contents would include particles and cells that had sunk relatively undegraded from surface waters as well as those from within the oxygen minimum zone, and that gut-contents would differ between the Spring Intermonsoon and the more productive SW Monsoon. Overall, in both seasons Lucicutia aff. L. grandis was omnivorous, and consumed a variety of detrital particles, prokaryotic and eukaryotic autotrophs, gram-negative bacteria including metal-precipitating bacteria, aggregates of probable gram-positive bacteria, microheterotrophs, virus-like particles and large virus-like particles, as well as cuticle and cnidarian tissue. Few significant differences in types of food consumed were seen among life stages within or among various depth zones. Amorphous, unidentifiable material was significantly more abundant in guts during the Spring Intermonsoon than during the late SW Monsoon, and recognizable cells made up a significantly higher portion of gut-contents during the late SW Monsoon. This is consistent with the Intermonsoon as a time when organic material is considerably re-worked by the surface water microbial loop before leaving the euphotic zone. In both seasons Lucicutia aff. L. grandis had consumed what appeared to be aggregates of probable gram-positive bacteria, similar to those we had previously found in gut-contents of several species of zooplankton from the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern tropical Pacific. By intercepting sinking material, populations of Lucicutia aff. L. grandis act as a filter for carbon

  4. Cross-resistance in Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) populations resistant to dioxin-like compounds.

    PubMed

    Oziolor, Elias M; Dubansky, Benjamin; Burggren, Warren W; Matson, Cole W

    2016-06-01

    The Houston Ship Channel (HSC) in Houston, Texas is an aquatic environment with a long history of contamination, including polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and heavy metals. Populations of Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) from the HSC have adapted to resist developmental cardiac deformities caused by dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Contaminants in the HSC have acted as a strong selective pressure on resident Gulf killifish populations. Rapid adaptation can lead to fitness costs, some as a direct result of the mechanisms involved in the adaptive process, whereas other adaptations may be more general. To explore potential fitness costs, we evaluated two Gulf killifish populations with documented resistance to DLC-induced cardiac teratogenesis (Patrick Bayou and Vince Bayou), and one previously characterized reference population (Gangs Bayou). We also characterized a previously unstudied population from Galveston Bay as an additional reference population (Smith Point). We tested the sensitivity of F1 larvae from these four populations to two classes of pesticides (pyrethroid (permethrin) and carbamate (carbaryl)) and two model pro-oxidants (tert-butyl hydroquinone (tBHQ) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBOOH)). In addition, we explored their responses to hypoxia and measured resting metabolic rates (M.O2). Both adapted populations were cross-resistant to the toxicity of carbaryl and both pro-oxidants tested. There were no population differences in sensitivity to permethrin. On the other hand, one reference population (Gangs Bayou) was less sensitive to hypoxia, and maintained a lower M.O2 . However, there were no differences in hypoxia tolerance or resting metabolic rate between the second reference and the two adapted populations. This investigation emphasizes the importance of including multiple reference populations to clearly link fitness costs or

  5. RNA-Seq reveals complex genetic response to deepwater horizon oil release in Fundulus grandis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The release of oil resulting from the blowout of the Deepwater Horizon (DH) drilling platform was one of the largest in history discharging more than 189 million gallons of oil and subject to widespread application of oil dispersants. This event impacted a wide range of ecological habitats with a complex mix of pollutants whose biological impact is still not yet fully understood. To better understand the effects on a vertebrate genome, we studied gene expression in the salt marsh minnow Fundulus grandis, which is local to the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico and is a sister species of the ecotoxicological model Fundulus heteroclitus. To assess genomic changes, we quantified mRNA expression using high throughput sequencing technologies (RNA-Seq) in F. grandis populations in the marshes and estuaries impacted by DH oil release. This application of RNA-Seq to a non-model, wild, and ecologically significant organism is an important evaluation of the technology to quickly assess similar events in the future. Results Our de novo assembly of RNA-Seq data produced a large set of sequences which included many duplicates and fragments. In many cases several of these could be associated with a common reference sequence using blast to query a reference database. This reduced the set of significant genes to 1,070 down-regulated and 1,251 up-regulated genes. These genes indicate a broad and complex genomic response to DH oil exposure including the expected AHR-mediated response and CYP genes. In addition a response to hypoxic conditions and an immune response are also indicated. Several genes in the choriogenin family were down-regulated in the exposed group; a response that is consistent with AH exposure. These analyses are in agreement with oligonucleotide-based microarray analyses, and describe only a subset of significant genes with aberrant regulation in the exposed set. Conclusion RNA-Seq may be successfully applied to feral and extremely polymorphic

  6. Three-dimensional potential flow over hills and oval mounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, R.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis was made of the potential flow behavior for an initially uniform flow passing over a single axisymmetric hill, an oval mound, and a combination of two hills. Small perturbation theory was used, and the resulting Laplace equation for the perturbation velocity potential was solved by using either a product solution or a Green's function. The three dimensional solution is of interest in calculating the pressure distribution around obstacles, the flow of pollutants carried by the wind, and the augmentation of wind velocity for windmill siting. The augmentation in velocity at the top of a hill was found to be proportional to the hill height relative to a characteristic width dimension of the hill. An axisymmetric hill produced about 20 percent less velocity increase than a two dimensional ridge having the same cross-sectional profile.

  7. Seizure caused by dermal application of over-the-counter eucalyptus oil head lice preparation.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Neil

    2011-10-01

    Natural plant oils such as eucalyptus are common worldwide in non-prescription natural health products. Oral ingestion of eucalyptus oil is well known to produce neurological symptoms and seizures; however, its dermal use is presumed to be safe. We describe a brief, self-limited, tonic-clonic seizure in a healthy 4-year-old girl following dermal exposure to eucalyptus oil as directed for treatment of head lice. Initial symptoms were vomiting, lethargy, and ataxia followed by a grand mal seizure. Recovery occurred rapidly after the skin was washed. Health care providers should be aware that eucalyptus oil toxicity may occur with dermal exposure and should report additional cases. PMID:21867365

  8. Variation in chemical composition and acaricidal activity against Dermanyssus gallinae of four eucalyptus essential oils.

    PubMed

    George, David R; Masic, Dino; Sparagano, Olivier A E; Guy, Jonathan H

    2009-06-01

    The results of this study suggest that certain eucalyptus essential oils may be of use as an alternative to synthetic acaricides in the management of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae. At a level of 0.21 mg/cm(2), the essential oil from Eucalyptus citriodora achieved 85% mortality in D. gallinae over a 24 h exposure period in contact toxicity tests. A further two essential oils from different eucalyptus species, namely E. globulus and E. radiata, provided significantly (P < 0.05) lower mite mortality (11 and 19%, respectively). Notable differences were found between the eucalyptus essential oils regarding their chemical compositions. There appeared to be a trend whereby the essential oils that were composed of the fewer chemical components were the least lethal to D. gallinae. It may therefore be the case that the complexity of an essential oil's chemical make up plays an important role in dictating the toxicity of that oil to pests such as D. gallinae.

  9. Chemical compositions and larvicidal activities of leaf essential oils from two eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Huang, Chin-Gi; Chen, Ying-Ju; Yu, Jane-Jane; Chen, Wei-June; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2009-01-01

    In the current study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oils and their constituents from two eucalyptus species (Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus urophylla) against two mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, was investigated. In addition, the chemical compositions of the leaf essential oils were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results from the larvicidal tests revealed that essential oil from the leaves of E. camaldulensis had an excellent inhibitory effect against both A. aegypti and A. albopictus larvae. The 12 pure constituents extracted from the two eucalyptus leaf essential oils were also tested individually against two mosquito larvae. Among the six effective constituents, alpha-terpinene exhibits the best larvicidal effect against both A. aegypti and A. albopictus larvae. Results of this study show that the leaf essential oil of E. camaldulensis and its effective constituents might be considered as a potent source for the production of fine natural larvicides. PMID:18396398

  10. PLANS AND SECTIONS. WEIR SPILLWAY. TEXAS HILL CANAL STA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLANS AND SECTIONS. WEIR SPILLWAY. TEXAS HILL CANAL - STA. 132+82.15. TEXAS HILL CANAL AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. United States Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-3200, dated February 7, 1955, Denver, Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Relift Station, Texas Hill Canal 2.5, Northern Terminus of Avenue 51 East, approximately .5 mile south of Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  11. Eucalyptus plantations for energy production in Hawaii. Technical status report, October 1, 1978-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-14

    Progress made on accomplishing research objectives is reported. The objectives of this project are: (1) to increase the biomass production of Eucalyptus; (2) to determine the optimum requirements to maximize yield; (3) to assess planting, cultivation, harvesting, and transportation equipment requirements; (4) to determine the optimum mixture of biomass (eucalyptus and bagasse) at the generator for the production of electricity; and (5) to evaluate a complete production/conversion system which utilized optimum management conditions in relationship to costs. (DMC)

  12. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May, 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May, 1936 EAST ELEVATION - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  13. 78 FR 73187 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... entry into the building. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Scott Jacobson, Committee Coordinator, by... requests for oral comments must be sent to Scott Jacobson, Black Hills National Forest Supervisor's...

  14. Surface Chemical and Color Characterization of Juvenile TECTONA GRANDIS Wood Subjected to Steam-Drying Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrocal, Alexander; Moya, Róger; Rodriguez-Solis, María; Starbird, Ricardo; Muñoz, Freddy

    2016-11-01

    The color of Tectona grandis wood is an attribute that favors its commercialization, however, wood color from fast-growth plantation trees is clear and lacks uniformity. The aim of this work is to characterize steamed teak wood by means of the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and L∗a∗b∗ color systems. Two moisture conditions (green and 50%) and two grain patterns (flat and quarter) of boards were analyzed through the application of different steaming times (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18h). The FTIR results showed that the bands at 1158, 1231, 1373 and 1419cm-1 did not show any change with steaming, whereas the bands at 1053, 1108, 1453, 1506, 1536, 1558, 1595, 1652, 1683, 1700 and 1733cm-1 presented a decrease in the intensity with the steaming time. The band at 1318cm-1 was the only one that increased. Lightness (L∗) was the most affected parameter, followed by yellowness (b∗), while redness (a∗) showed the smallest change. Surface color change (ΔE∗) presented the lowest value between 3h and 6h of steam-drying in the boards with flat grain, whereas for boards with quarter grain, the smallest ΔE∗ value was obtained after 18h of steaming.

  15. The GC/MS Analysis of Volatile Components Extracted by Different Methods from Exocarpium Citri Grandis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qundi; Liang, Zhikun; Zhao, Mingqian; Yu, Xiaoxue; Yang, Depo; Xu, Xinjun

    2013-01-01

    Volatile components from Exocarpium Citri Grandis (ECG) were, respectively, extracted by three methods, that is, steam distillation (SD), headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and solvent extraction (SE). A total of 81 compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry including 77 (SD), 56 (HS-SPME), and 48 (SE) compounds, respectively. Despite of the extraction method, terpenes (39.98~57.81%) were the main volatile components of ECG, mainly germacrene-D, limonene, 2,6,8,10,14-hexadecapentaene, 2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-, (E,E,E)-, and trans-caryophyllene. Comparison was made among the three methods in terms of extraction profile and property. SD relatively gave an entire profile of volatile in ECG by long-time extraction; SE enabled the analysis of low volatility and high molecular weight compounds but lost some volatiles components; HS-SPME generated satisfactory extraction efficiency and gave similar results to those of SD at analytical level when consuming less sample amount, shorter extraction time, and simpler procedure. Although SD and SE were treated as traditionally preparative extractive techniques for volatiles in both small batches and large scale, HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS could be useful and appropriative for the rapid extraction and qualitative analysis of volatile components from medicinal plants at analytical level. PMID:24349825

  16. The GC/MS Analysis of Volatile Components Extracted by Different Methods from Exocarpium Citri Grandis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhisheng; Liu, Qundi; Liang, Zhikun; Zhao, Mingqian; Yu, Xiaoxue; Yang, Depo; Xu, Xinjun

    2013-01-01

    Volatile components from Exocarpium Citri Grandis (ECG) were, respectively, extracted by three methods, that is, steam distillation (SD), headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and solvent extraction (SE). A total of 81 compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry including 77 (SD), 56 (HS-SPME), and 48 (SE) compounds, respectively. Despite of the extraction method, terpenes (39.98~57.81%) were the main volatile components of ECG, mainly germacrene-D, limonene, 2,6,8,10,14-hexadecapentaene, 2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-, (E,E,E)-, and trans-caryophyllene. Comparison was made among the three methods in terms of extraction profile and property. SD relatively gave an entire profile of volatile in ECG by long-time extraction; SE enabled the analysis of low volatility and high molecular weight compounds but lost some volatiles components; HS-SPME generated satisfactory extraction efficiency and gave similar results to those of SD at analytical level when consuming less sample amount, shorter extraction time, and simpler procedure. Although SD and SE were treated as traditionally preparative extractive techniques for volatiles in both small batches and large scale, HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS could be useful and appropriative for the rapid extraction and qualitative analysis of volatile components from medicinal plants at analytical level. PMID:24349825

  17. Physiological management of dietary deficiency in n-3 fatty acids by spawning Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis).

    PubMed

    Patterson, Joshua T; Green, Christopher C

    2015-08-01

    Lipid dynamics of spawning fish are critical to the production of viable embryos and larvae. The present study utilized manipulation of dietary fatty acid (FA) profiles to examine the ability of spawning Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) to mobilize critical lipid components from somatic reserves or synthesize long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs) de novo from shorter-chain C18 precursors. An egg and multi-tissue evaluation of changes in FA concentrations across time after fish were switched from LC-PUFA-rich to LC-PUFA-deficient experimental diets was employed. The two experimental diets contained lipid sources which differed drastically in n-3 C18 FA content but had similar levels of n-6 C18 FAs. Discrete effects of dietary n-3 FAs can be analyzed because n-3 and n-6 represent distinct metabolic families which cannot be exchanged in vivo. Results indicate that a combination of mobilization and de novo synthesis is likely utilized to maintain physiologically required FA levels in critical tissues and embryos. Mobilization was supported by decreases in LC-PUFAs in somatic tissues and decreases in intraperitoneal fat content and liver mass. Evidence for biosynthesis was provided by a higher level of n-3 LC-PUFAs in the liver and ova of fish fed diets containing n-3 C18 precursors versus those fed diets with low levels of precursor FAs. The characteristic physiological plasticity of Gulf killifish is exemplified in the nutritional domain by its management of dietary FA deficiency. PMID:25939715

  18. Metabolic and embryonic responses to terrestrial incubation of Fundulus grandis embryos across a temperature gradient.

    PubMed

    Brown, C A; Green, C C

    2014-03-01

    This study simulated terrestrial incubation and measured rates of embryogenesis, nitrogen elimination, heart rate, lactate production, maximum length of time a hatch could be delayed and developmental responses of terrestrially incubated Gulf killifish Fundulus grandis embryos at temperatures ranging from 20 to 30° C. Temperature had a positive relationship with rate of embryogenesis, but a negative relationship with extent of extended incubation. The 30° C treatment reached embryonic maturity 6 days before the 20° C treatment. Embryos hatched between intervals of 240 and 336, 144 and 288, 96 and 240 and 96 and 192 h after reaching developmental maturity for the 20, 23, 26 and 30° C treatments. Significantly higher concentrations of total nitrogen, in the form of ammonia and urea, were recorded in the 20 and 30° C treatments. While temperature significantly influenced lactate and ATP concentrations, no significant influence of time of incubation was detected. Terrestrial embryos displayed an ability to develop quickly during embryogenesis and prolong incubation for an extended period of time after reaching embryonic maturity. This adaptation may be a life-history trait used to minimize asynchronous hatching, cannibalism and cohort size heterogeneity. PMID:24588641

  19. Investigating a galactomannan gel obtained from Cassia grandis seeds as immobilizing matrix for Cramoll lectin.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Priscilla B S; Silva, Caroline S; Soares, Paulo A G; Barros, Wilson; Correia, Maria T S; Coelho, Luana C B B; Teixeira, José A; Carneiro-da-Cunha, Maria G

    2016-05-01

    Characterization, with emphasis on the rheological properties, of Cassia grandis seeds galactomannan gel containing immobilized Cramoll 1-4 is presented. The gels, with and without immobilized Cramoll 1-4, were evaluated along time by rheometry, pH, color, microbial contamination and lectin hemagglutinating activity (HA). Rheological determinations confirmed the gels to be very stable up to 30 days with variations occurring after this period. Rheological data also showed that the gel/Cramoll 1-4 immobilizing matrix loses its elastic modulus substantially after 60 days. Both gels presented no microbial contamination as well as a pH close to neutral. Colorimetric parameters demonstrated the gels transparency with occasional yellowness. The opacity of the galactomannan gel did not change significantly along the study; the same did not occur for the gel with immobilized Cramoll 1-4 as a statistically significant reduction of its opacity was observed. In what concerns immobilized Cramoll 1-4 HA, up to 90% of its initial HA was maintained after 20 days, with a decrease to 60% after 60 days. These results combined with the thickening and stabilizing characteristics of the galactomannan gel make this gel a promising immobilizing matrix for Cramoll 1-4 that can be further exploited for clinical and cosmetic applications. PMID:26840177

  20. Cultivar variations in antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic properties of pomelo pulp (Citrus grandis [L.] Osbeck) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Mäkynen, Kittana; Jitsaardkul, Sritanaporn; Tachasamran, Pansiree; Sakai, Nathaporn; Puranachoti, Supitcha; Nirojsinlapachai, Natthapat; Chattapat, Vipaporn; Caengprasath, Natarin; Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2013-08-15

    Pomelo (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck) is a native fruit of great economic importance in Southeast Asia. To provide experimental evidence for the antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic properties of pomelo, 6 cultivars, including Kao-Yai (KY), Thong-dee (TD), Kao-Tangkwa (KT), Kao-Numpueng (KN), Ta-Koi (TK), and Tubtim Siam (TS) were evaluated. KY had the highest phenolic content, and the strongest 1,1-diphenyl-2-pireyhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. From the high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, naringin and naringenin were the major flavonoids in the KT and TK cultivars. Six pomelo cultivars had antihyperlipidemic activities including the inhibition of pancreatic lipase and cholesterol esterase, as well as cholesterol micelle formation and bile acid binding. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed that the 6 cultivars were separated into 2 classifications. In addition, the total phenolics of the pomelo cultivars were significantly correlated with ferric reducing antioxidant power and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. The results suggest that pomelo provides significant health benefits and may be used for developing functional foods.

  1. Ferric ions involved in the flower color development of the Himalayan blue poppy, Meconopsis grandis.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kumi; Kitahara, Sayoko; Ito, Daisuke; Kondo, Tadao

    2006-05-01

    The Himalayan blue poppy, Meconopsis grandis, has sky blue-colored petals, although the anthocyanidin nucleus of the petal pigment is cyanidin. The blue color development in this blue poppy involving ferric ions was therefore studied. We analyzed the vacuolar pH, and the organic and inorganic components of the colored cells. A direct measurement by a proton-selective microelectrode revealed that the vacuolar pH value was 4.8. The concentrations of the total anthocyanins in the colored cells were around 5mM, and ca. three times more concentrated flavonols were detected. Fe was detected by atomic analysis of the colored cells, and the ratio of Fe to anthocyanins was ca. 0.8 eq. By mixing the anthocyanin, flavonol and metal ion components in a buffered aq. solution at pH 5.0, we were able to reproduce the same blue color; the visible absorption spectrum and CD were identical to those in the petals, with Fe(3+), Mg(2+) and flavonol being essential for the blue color. The blue pigment in Meconopsis should be a new type of metal complex pigment that is different from a stoichiometric supramolecular pigment such as commelinin or protocyanin.

  2. Structure and function of the digestive system of solen grandis dunker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiuzhen, Sheng; Wenbin, Zhan; Sulian, Ren

    2003-10-01

    Structure and function of the digestive system of a bivalve mollusc, Solen grandis, were studied using light microscopy and histochemical methods. The wall of digestive tube consists of four layers: the mucosal epithelium, connective tissue, muscular and fibrosa or serosa (only in the portion of rectum) from the inner to the outer. The ciliated columnar epithelial cells, dispersed by cup-shaped mucous cells, rest on a thin base membrane. There are abundant blood spaces in connective tissue layer. The digestive diverticula are composed of multi-branched duct and digestive tubules. The digestive tubules are lined with digestive and basophilic secretory cells, and surrounded by a layer of smooth muscle fibers and connective tissues. Activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, esterase and lipase are detected in the digestive cells, and the epithelia of stomach and intestine, suggesting that these cells are capable of intracellular digesting of food materials and absorbing. Besides, acid phosphatase and esterase activities are present in the posterior portion of esophagus. Phagocytes are abundant in blood spaces and the lumens of stomach and intestine, containing brown granules derived from the engulfed food materials. The present work indicates that phagocytes play important roles in ingestion and digestion of food materials, which is supported as well by the activities of acid phosphatase, esterase and lipase detected in blood spaces.

  3. Cellulose nanocrystal from pomelo (C. Grandis osbeck) albedo: Chemical, morphology and crystallinity evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Nor Fazelin Mat; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Ahmad, Ishak

    2013-11-01

    Citrus peel is one of the under-utilized waste materials that have potential in producing a valuable fibre, which are cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal. Cellulose was first isolated from pomelo (C. Grandis Osbeck) albedo by combination of alkali treatment and bleaching process, followed by acid hydrolysis (65% H2SO4, 45 °C, 45min) to produce cellulose nanocrystal. The crystalline, structural, morphological and chemical properties of both materials were studied. Result reveals the crystallinity index obtained from X-ray diffraction for cellulose nanocrystal was found higher than extracted cellulose with the value of 60.27% and 57.47%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared showed that the chemical treatments removed most of the hemicellulose and lignin from the pomelo albedo fibre. This has been confirmed further by SEM and TEM for their morphological studies. These results showed that cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal were successfully obtained from pomelo albedo and might be potentially used in producing functional fibres for food application.

  4. Volatile constituents of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and pummelo (Citrus grandis) peel essential oils from Kenya.

    PubMed

    Njoroge, Simon Muhoho; Koaze, Hiroshi; Karanja, Paul Nyota; Sawamura, Masayoshi

    2005-12-14

    The volatile constituents of cold-pressed peel essential oils of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen forma Redblush) and pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) from the same locality in Kenya were determined by GC and GC-MS. A total of 67 and 52 compounds, amounting to 97.9 and 98.8% of the two oils, respectively, were identified. Monoterpene hydrocarbons constituted 93.3 and 97.5% in the oils, respectively, with limonene (91.1 and 94.8%), alpha-terpinene (1.3 and 1.8%), and alpha-pinene (0.5%) as the main compounds. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons constituted 0.4% in each oil. The notable compounds were beta-caryophyllene, alpha-cubebene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene. Oxygenated compounds constituted 4.2 and 2.0% of the redblush grapefruit and pummelo oils, respectively, out of which carbonyl compounds (2.0 and 1.3%), alcohols (1.4 and 0.3%), and esters (0.7 and 0.4%) were the major groups. Heptyl acetate, octanal, decanal, citronellal, and (Z)-carvone were the main constituents (0.1-0.5%). Perillene, (E)-carveol, and perillyl acetate occurred in the redblush grapefruit but were absent from the pummelo oil. Nootkatone, alpha- and beta-sinensal, methyl-N-methylanthranilate, and (Z,E)-farnesol were prominent in both oils. PMID:16332132

  5. Cellulose nanocrystal from pomelo (C. Grandis osbeck) albedo: Chemical, morphology and crystallinity evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Zain, Nor Fazelin Mat; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Ahmad, Ishak

    2013-11-27

    Citrus peel is one of the under-utilized waste materials that have potential in producing a valuable fibre, which are cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal. Cellulose was first isolated from pomelo (C. Grandis Osbeck) albedo by combination of alkali treatment and bleaching process, followed by acid hydrolysis (65% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, 45 °C, 45min) to produce cellulose nanocrystal. The crystalline, structural, morphological and chemical properties of both materials were studied. Result reveals the crystallinity index obtained from X-ray diffraction for cellulose nanocrystal was found higher than extracted cellulose with the value of 60.27% and 57.47%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared showed that the chemical treatments removed most of the hemicellulose and lignin from the pomelo albedo fibre. This has been confirmed further by SEM and TEM for their morphological studies. These results showed that cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal were successfully obtained from pomelo albedo and might be potentially used in producing functional fibres for food application.

  6. Proposed Schedule for Fenton Hill Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, James N.; Brown, Donald W.

    1990-10-22

    To help in planning Fenton Hill experimental operations in concert with preparations for the Long-Term Flow Test (LTFT) next summer, the following schedule is proposed. This schedule fits some of the realities of the next few months, including the Laboratory closure during the Holidays, the seismic monitoring tests in Roswell, and the difficulties of operating during the winter months. Whenever possible, cyclic pumping operations during the colder months will be scheduled so that the pump will be on during the late evening and early morning hours to prevent freezeup.

  7. RYAN HILL ROADLESS AREA, NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxwell, C.H.; Ellis, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a geochemical survey, the Ryan Hill Roadless Area, now the Langmuir Research Site in New Mexico has both probable and substantiated resource potential for manganese deposits. The nature of the geologic terrane holds little likelihood for the occurrence of organic fuels. Additional geochemical studies of the manganese vein systems are desirable to better delineate the resource potential; mineralogical and metallurgical studies are needed to determine recoverability of potentially important byproducts, including tungsten and cobalt. Drilling into the vein system at depth would be required to test the continuity of the manganese deposits and evaluate the resource potential of the area for deeply buried base- and precious-metal resources.

  8. Spirit's View of 'Columbia Hills' (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit looked up at the 'Columbia Hills' from its location on the 265th martian day, or sol, of its mission (Sept. 30, 2004) and captured this 3-D view. This cropped mosaic image, presented here in a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction, was taken by the rover's navigation camera.

    Figure 1 is the left-eye view of a stereo pair and Figure 2 is the right-eye view of a stereo pair.

  9. Effect of eucalyptus wood vinegar on rubberwood infestation by Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Tarasin, M

    2013-01-01

    Wood degradation caused by fungi, termites, and insects, is a major problem for the rubberwood industry. The potential of wood vinegar as rubberwood preservative was studied. The infestation rates of Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) on rubberwood samples treated with 25%, 50% and 100% eucalyptus wood vinegar for 24 hours were observed in laboratory conditions. Both non-choice and choice experiments were included. The effects of eucalyptus wood vinegar treatment depended on its concentration. In the non-choice experiments, rubberwood samples treated with 100% eucalyptus wood vinegar had the highest resistance to C. gestroi infestation, with the lowest relative loss of mass, followed in rank order by 50% and 25% treatments. However, in the choice experiments the relative loss of mass did not differ significantly between the treatments with varied wood vinegar concentration. Untreated control samples were distinctly infested by C. gestroi in both non-choice and choice experiments, but their relative loss of mass in the non-choice experiments was not significantly different from samples treated with 25% eucalyptus wood vinegar. Hence, 25% eucalyptus wood vinegar was not effective as rubberwood preservative against C. gestroi attack. The results suggest that eucalyptus wood vinegar acts as a rubberwood preservative against termites, provided the treatment is done without dilution. About 50% dilution still has some efficacy, while lower concentrations are not effective. PMID:25145252

  10. Eucalyptus Biodiesel as an Alternative to Diesel Fuel: Preparation and Tests on DI Diesel Engine

    PubMed Central

    Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend. PMID:22675246

  11. Eucalyptus essential oil as a natural food preservative: in vivo and in vitro antiyeast potential.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Bukvicki, Danka; Gottardi, Davide; Tabanelli, Giulia; Montanari, Chiara; Malik, Anushree; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the application of eucalyptus essential oil/vapour as beverages preservative is reported. The chemical composition of eucalyptus oil was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and solid phase microextraction GC-MS (SPME/GC-MS) analyses. GC-MS revealed that the major constituents were 1,8-cineole (80.5%), limonene (6.5%), α-pinene (5%), and γ-terpinene (2.9%) while SPME/GC-MS showed a relative reduction of 1,8-cineole (63.9%) and an increase of limonene (13.8%), α-pinene (8.87%), and γ-terpinene (3.98%). Antimicrobial potential of essential oil was initially determined in vitro against 8 different food spoilage yeasts by disc diffusion, disc volatilization, and microdilution method. The activity of eucalyptus vapours was significantly higher than the eucalyptus oil. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) varied from 0.56 to 4.50 mg/mL and from 1.13 to 9 mg/mL, respectively. Subsequently, the combined efficacy of essential oil and thermal treatment were used to evaluate the preservation of a mixed fruit juice in a time-dependent manner. These results suggest eucalyptus oil as a potent inhibitor of food spoilage yeasts not only in vitro but also in a real food system. Currently, this is the first report that uses eucalyptus essential oil for fruit juice preservation against food spoiling yeast.

  12. Eucalyptus biodiesel as an alternative to diesel fuel: preparation and tests on DI diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend.

  13. Microsporogenesis and flower development in Eucalyptus urophylla × E. tereticornis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Kang, Xiangyang

    2015-03-01

    We compared microsporogenesis and flower development in Eucalyptus urophylla × E. tereticornis. In this study, although microsporogenesis and cytokinesis occurred simultaneously during meiosis of pollen mother cells, we observed a strong asynchronism in different anthers from a flower bud. The developmental period of microsporogenesis in anthers originated from the long thrum before the short thrum. Flower development was also asynchronous at different locations on a branch. The flower buds grew on the lower side of the branch and showed greater increases in diameter. In addition, we observed a relationship between microsporogenesis development and flower bud diameter growth. Generally, when the pachytene stage was first observed in a small single flower bud growing on top of a flowering branch, the remaining microsporogenesis stages (from diplotene to tetrad) in the whole branch occurred over the next 5-9 days. Thus, the start of microsporogenesis in E. urophylla × E. tereticornis could be determined, which may be applicable to future breeding studies. PMID:26069443

  14. Microsporogenesis and flower development in Eucalyptus urophylla × E. tereticornis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Kang, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    We compared microsporogenesis and flower development in Eucalyptus urophylla × E. tereticornis. In this study, although microsporogenesis and cytokinesis occurred simultaneously during meiosis of pollen mother cells, we observed a strong asynchronism in different anthers from a flower bud. The developmental period of microsporogenesis in anthers originated from the long thrum before the short thrum. Flower development was also asynchronous at different locations on a branch. The flower buds grew on the lower side of the branch and showed greater increases in diameter. In addition, we observed a relationship between microsporogenesis development and flower bud diameter growth. Generally, when the pachytene stage was first observed in a small single flower bud growing on top of a flowering branch, the remaining microsporogenesis stages (from diplotene to tetrad) in the whole branch occurred over the next 5–9 days. Thus, the start of microsporogenesis in E. urophylla × E. tereticornis could be determined, which may be applicable to future breeding studies. PMID:26069443

  15. Furfural production from Eucalyptus wood using an Acidic Ionic Liquid.

    PubMed

    Peleteiro, Susana; Santos, Valentín; Garrote, Gil; Parajó, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were treated with hot, compressed water to separate hemicelluloses (as soluble saccharides) from a solid phase mainly made up of cellulose and lignin. The liquid phase was dehydrated, and the resulting solids (containing pentoses as well as poly- and oligo- saccharides made up of pentoses) were dissolved and reacted in media containing an Acidic Ionic Liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate) and a co-solvent (dioxane). The effects of the reaction time on the product distribution were studied at temperatures in the range 120-170°C for reaction times up to 8h, and operational conditions leading to 59.1% conversion of the potential substrates (including pentoses and pentose structural units in oligo- and poly- saccharides) into furfural were identified. PMID:27112846

  16. Valorisation of by Products from Bleached Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, M. C.; Lopes, O. R.; Colodette, J. L.; Porto, A. O.; Rieumont, J.; Chaussy, D.; Belgacem, M. N.; Silva, G. G.

    2008-08-01

    Three industrial wastes arising from bleached hardwood kraft pulps, namely: unbleached screen rejects (USR), effluent treatment (ETW), and eucalyptus bark (EB) were analyzed with the aim of their possible valorization as an alternative source of cellulose. Their morphological properties were determined using MorFi apparatus. For this study the sample bleached kraft pulp, BKP, was analyzed as a reference. Lignin and carbohydrate contents were also quantified. These by-products were studied as such (i.e. without careful purification) because we intended to find rational and low-cost way of valorization. In fact any additional operation will induce an over cost. The results obtained indicate that these industrial wastes can be potential raw material in fibre-based applications (paper, composites…), since they contain a high proportion of cellulose with preserved fibrillar morphology. Some of these materials have low lignin and inorganic residue contents.

  17. Mineral nutrition and adventitious rooting in microcuttings of Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Schwambach, Joséli; Fadanelli, Cristina; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2005-04-01

    We characterized the adventitious rooting response of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. to various concentrations of calcium, nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, manganese, zinc, boron and copper. The parameters analyzed were percent rooting, root number, root length and mean rooting time. Root number and root length were significantly affected by mineral nutrition, whereas mean rooting time and rooting percentage seemed to be closely related to auxin availability. Root number was affected by calcium, nitrogen source and zinc, whereas root length was influenced by concentrations of phosphorus, iron and manganese, and by nitrogen source. Based on these results, we evaluated various combinations of several concentrations of these minerals in each rooting phase. Cuttings that were rooted in an optimized mineral nutrient medium and acclimatized to ex-vitro conditions for two months showed significantly higher survival after transplanting and drought stress than cuttings rooted in basal medium and treated in the same way.

  18. Furfural production from Eucalyptus wood using an Acidic Ionic Liquid.

    PubMed

    Peleteiro, Susana; Santos, Valentín; Garrote, Gil; Parajó, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were treated with hot, compressed water to separate hemicelluloses (as soluble saccharides) from a solid phase mainly made up of cellulose and lignin. The liquid phase was dehydrated, and the resulting solids (containing pentoses as well as poly- and oligo- saccharides made up of pentoses) were dissolved and reacted in media containing an Acidic Ionic Liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate) and a co-solvent (dioxane). The effects of the reaction time on the product distribution were studied at temperatures in the range 120-170°C for reaction times up to 8h, and operational conditions leading to 59.1% conversion of the potential substrates (including pentoses and pentose structural units in oligo- and poly- saccharides) into furfural were identified.

  19. Environmental aspects of eucalyptus based ethanol production and use.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; Moreira, Ma Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2012-11-01

    A renewable biofuel economy is projected as a pathway to decrease dependence on fossil fuels as well as to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Ethanol produced on large-scale from lignocellulosic materials is considered the automotive fuel with the highest potential. In this paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study was developed to evaluate the environmental implications of the production of ethanol from a fast-growing short rotation crop (SRC): eucalyptus as well as its use in a flexi-fuel vehicle (FFV). The aim of the analysis was to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol based formulations: E10, E85 and E100, in comparison with conventional gasoline. The standard framework of LCA from International Standards Organization was followed and the system boundaries included the cultivation of the eucalyptus biomass, the processing to ethanol conversion, the blending with gasoline (when required) and the final use of fuels. The environmental results show reductions in all impact categories under assessment when shifting to ethanol based fuels, excluding photochemical oxidant formation, eutrophication as well as terrestrial and marine ecotoxicity which were considerably influenced by upstream activities related to ethanol manufacture. The LCA study remarked those stages where the researchers and technicians need to work to improve the environmental performance. Special attention must be paid on ethanol production related activities, such as on-site energy generation and distillation, as well as forest activities oriented to the biomass production. The use of forest machinery with higher efficiency levels, reduction of fertilizers dose and the control of diffuse emissions from the conversion plant would improve the environmental profile. PMID:22960456

  20. Environmental aspects of eucalyptus based ethanol production and use.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; Moreira, Ma Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2012-11-01

    A renewable biofuel economy is projected as a pathway to decrease dependence on fossil fuels as well as to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Ethanol produced on large-scale from lignocellulosic materials is considered the automotive fuel with the highest potential. In this paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study was developed to evaluate the environmental implications of the production of ethanol from a fast-growing short rotation crop (SRC): eucalyptus as well as its use in a flexi-fuel vehicle (FFV). The aim of the analysis was to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol based formulations: E10, E85 and E100, in comparison with conventional gasoline. The standard framework of LCA from International Standards Organization was followed and the system boundaries included the cultivation of the eucalyptus biomass, the processing to ethanol conversion, the blending with gasoline (when required) and the final use of fuels. The environmental results show reductions in all impact categories under assessment when shifting to ethanol based fuels, excluding photochemical oxidant formation, eutrophication as well as terrestrial and marine ecotoxicity which were considerably influenced by upstream activities related to ethanol manufacture. The LCA study remarked those stages where the researchers and technicians need to work to improve the environmental performance. Special attention must be paid on ethanol production related activities, such as on-site energy generation and distillation, as well as forest activities oriented to the biomass production. The use of forest machinery with higher efficiency levels, reduction of fertilizers dose and the control of diffuse emissions from the conversion plant would improve the environmental profile.

  1. Isolation of intact sub-dermal secretory cavities from Eucalyptus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The biosynthesis of plant natural products in sub-dermal secretory cavities is poorly understood at the molecular level, largely due to the difficulty of physically isolating these structures for study. Our aim was to develop a protocol for isolating live and intact sub-dermal secretory cavities, and to do this, we used leaves from three species of Eucalyptus with cavities that are relatively large and rich in essential oils. Results Leaves were digested using a variety of commercially available enzymes. A pectinase from Aspergillus niger was found to allow isolation of intact cavities after a relatively short incubation (12 h), with no visible artifacts from digestion and no loss of cellular integrity or cavity contents. Several measurements indicated the potential of the isolated cavities for further functional studies. First, the cavities were found to consume oxygen at a rate that is comparable to that estimated from leaf respiratory rates. Second, mRNA was extracted from cavities, and it was used to amplify a cDNA fragment with high similarity to that of a monoterpene synthase. Third, the contents of the cavity lumen were extracted, showing an unexpectedly low abundance of volatile essential oils and a sizeable amount of non-volatile material, which is contrary to the widely accepted role of secretory cavities as predominantly essential oil repositories. Conclusions The protocol described herein is likely to be adaptable to a range of Eucalyptus species with sub-dermal secretory cavities, and should find wide application in studies of the developmental and functional biology of these structures, and the biosynthesis of the plant natural products they contain. PMID:20807444

  2. A GC-FID validated method for the quality control of Eucalyptus globulus raw material and its pharmaceutical products, and gc-ms fingerprinting of 12 Eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    Buenoa, Paula Carolina Pires; Junior, Milton Groppo; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp

    2014-12-01

    In this work we have validated a method to standardize and control the quality of Eucalyptus globulus raw material and phytomedicines containing either the essential oil or the fluid extract of this plant in the final formulation. Internal standardization provided a simple, fast, and reproducible GC-FID analytical method that accurately quantified 1,8-cineol in different E. globulus sub-products, such as its essential oil, dried leaves, fluid extract, and syrup. In addition, GC-MS identification of the main compounds ofE. globulus species afforded fingerprints for the qualitative analysis of different Eucalyptus species.

  3. A GC-FID validated method for the quality control of Eucalyptus globulus raw material and its pharmaceutical products, and gc-ms fingerprinting of 12 Eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    Buenoa, Paula Carolina Pires; Junior, Milton Groppo; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp

    2014-12-01

    In this work we have validated a method to standardize and control the quality of Eucalyptus globulus raw material and phytomedicines containing either the essential oil or the fluid extract of this plant in the final formulation. Internal standardization provided a simple, fast, and reproducible GC-FID analytical method that accurately quantified 1,8-cineol in different E. globulus sub-products, such as its essential oil, dried leaves, fluid extract, and syrup. In addition, GC-MS identification of the main compounds ofE. globulus species afforded fingerprints for the qualitative analysis of different Eucalyptus species. PMID:25632486

  4. New type of hill-top inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barvinsky, A. O.; Kamenshchik, A. Yu.; Nesterov, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    We suggest a new type of hill-top inflation originating from the initial conditions in the form of the microcanonical density matrix for the cosmological model with a large number of quantum fields conformally coupled to gravity. Initial conditions for inflation are set up by cosmological instantons describing underbarrier oscillations in the vicinity of the inflaton potential maximum. These periodic oscillations of the inflaton field and cosmological scale factor are obtained within the approximation of two coupled oscillators subject to the slow roll regime in the Euclidean time. This regime is characterized by rapid oscillations of the scale factor on the background of a slowly varying inflaton, which guarantees smallness of slow roll parameters epsilon and η of the following inflation stage. A hill-like shape of the inflaton potential is shown to be generated by logarithmic loop corrections to the tree-level asymptotically shift-invariant potential in the non-minimal Higgs inflation model and R2-gravity. The solution to the problem of hierarchy between the Planckian scale and the inflation scale is discussed within the concept of conformal higher spin fields, which also suggests the mechanism bringing the model below the gravitational cutoff and, thus, protecting it from large graviton loop corrections.

  5. Spirit's Express Route to 'Columbia Hills'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This map illustrates the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's position as of sol 112 (April 26, 2004), near the crater called 'Missoula.' Like a train on a tight schedule, Spirit will make regular stops along the way to its ultimate destination, the 'Columbia Hills.' At each stop, or 'station,' the rover will briefly analyze the area's rocks and soils. Each tick mark on the rover's route represents one sol's worth of travel, or about 60 to 70 meters (200 to 230 feet). Rover planners estimate that Spirit will reach the hills around mid-June. Presently, the rover is stopped at a site called 'Plains Station.'

    The color thermal data show how well different surface features hold onto heat. Red indicates warmth; blue indicates coolness. Areas with higher temperatures are more likely to be rocky, as rocks absorb heat. Lower temperatures denote small particles and fewer rocks. During its traverse, Spirit will document the causes of these temperature variations.

    The map comprises data from the camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter and the thermal emission imaging system on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter.

  6. Spirit's Express Route to 'Columbia Hills'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This map illustrates the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's position as of sol 112 (April 26, 2004), near the crater called 'Missoula.' Like a train on a tight schedule, Spirit will make regular stops along the way to its ultimate destination, the 'Columbia Hills.' At each stop, or 'station,' the rover will briefly analyze the area's rocks and soils. Each tick mark on the rover's route represents one sol's worth of travel, or about 60 to 70 meters (200 to 230 feet). Rover planners estimate that Spirit will reach the hills around mid-June. Presently, the rover is stopped at a site called 'Plains Station.'

    The color thermal data show how well different surface features hold onto heat. Red indicates a higher thermal inertia associated with rocky terrain (cooler in the day, warmer at night); blue indicates a lower thermal inertia associated with smaller particles and fewer rocks (warmer at night, cooler in the day). During its traverse, Spirit will document the causes of these thermal variations.

    The map comprises data from the camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter and the thermal emission imaging system on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter.

  7. Hill crossing during preheating after hilltop inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antusch, Stefan; Nolde, David; Orani, Stefano

    2015-06-01

    In ``hilltop inflation'', inflation takes place when the inflaton field slowly rolls from close to a maximum of its potential (i.e. the ``hilltop'') towards its minimum. When the inflaton potential is associated with a phase transition, possible topological defects produced during this phase transition, such as domain walls, are efficiently diluted during inflation. It is typically assumed that they also do not reform after inflation, i.e. that the inflaton field stays on its side of the ``hill'', finally performing damped oscillations around the minimum of the potential. In this paper we study the linear and the non-linear phases of preheating after hilltop inflation. We find that the fluctuations of the inflaton field during the tachyonic oscillation phase grow strong enough to allow the inflaton field to form regions in position space where it crosses ``over the top of the hill'' towards the ``wrong vacuum''. We investigate the formation and behaviour of these overshooting regions using lattice simulations: rather than durable domain walls, these regions form oscillon-like structures (i.e. localized bubbles that oscillate between the two vacua) which should be included in a careful study of preheating in hilltop inflation.

  8. New type of hill-top inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Barvinsky, A.O.; Nesterov, D.V.; Kamenshchik, A.Yu. E-mail: Alexander.Kamenshchik@bo.infn.it

    2016-01-01

    We suggest a new type of hill-top inflation originating from the initial conditions in the form of the microcanonical density matrix for the cosmological model with a large number of quantum fields conformally coupled to gravity. Initial conditions for inflation are set up by cosmological instantons describing underbarrier oscillations in the vicinity of the inflaton potential maximum. These periodic oscillations of the inflaton field and cosmological scale factor are obtained within the approximation of two coupled oscillators subject to the slow roll regime in the Euclidean time. This regime is characterized by rapid oscillations of the scale factor on the background of a slowly varying inflaton, which guarantees smallness of slow roll parameters ε and η of the following inflation stage. A hill-like shape of the inflaton potential is shown to be generated by logarithmic loop corrections to the tree-level asymptotically shift-invariant potential in the non-minimal Higgs inflation model and R{sup 2}-gravity. The solution to the problem of hierarchy between the Planckian scale and the inflation scale is discussed within the concept of conformal higher spin fields, which also suggests the mechanism bringing the model below the gravitational cutoff and, thus, protecting it from large graviton loop corrections.

  9. One-step column chromatographic extraction with gradient elution followed by automatic separation of volatiles, flavonoids and polysaccharides from Citrus grandis.

    PubMed

    Han, Han-Bing; Li, Hui; Hao, Rui-Lin; Chen, Ya-Fei; Ni, He; Li, Hai-Hang

    2014-02-15

    Citrus grandis Tomentosa is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine and health foods. Its functional components include volatiles, flavonoids and polysaccharides which cannot be effectively extracted through traditional methods. A column chromatographic extraction with gradient elution was developed for one-step extraction of all bioactive substances from C. grandis. Dried material was loaded into a column with petroleum ether: ethanol (8:2, PE) and sequentially eluted with 2-fold PE, 3-fold ethanol: water (6:4) and 8-fold water. The elutes was separated into an ether fraction containing volatiles and an ethanol-water fraction containing flavonoids and polysaccharides. The later was separated into flavonoids and polysaccharides by 80% ethanol precipitation of polysaccharides. Through this procedure, volatiles, flavonoids and polysaccharides in C. grandis were simultaneously extracted at 98% extraction rates and simply separated at higher than 95% recovery rates. The method provides a simple and high-efficient extraction and separation of wide range bioactive substances.

  10. Changes in soil quality after converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Zheng, H.; Chen, F. L.; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y. F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M.; Xiang, X. W.

    2015-02-01

    Vegetation plays a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and first, second, third and fourth generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological properties were measured and a soil quality index was calculated using principal component analysis. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellobiosidase, phenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase activities were significantly lower in the first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations compared with Pinus plantation, but they were significantly higher in the third and fourth generations than in the first and second generations and significantly lower than in Pinus plantation. Soil total and available potassium were significantly lower in Eucalyptus plantations (1.8-2.5 g kg-1 and 26-66 mg kg-1) compared to the Pinus plantation (14.3 g kg-1 and 92 mg kg-1), but total phosphorus was significantly higher in Eucalyptus plantations (0.9-1.1 g kg-1) compared to the Pinus plantation (0.4 g kg-1). As an integrated indicator, soil quality index was highest in the Pinus plantation (0.92) and lowest in the first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations (0.24 and 0.13). Soil quality index in the third and fourth generations (0.36 and 0.38) was between that in Pinus plantation and in first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations. Changing tree species, reclamation and fertilization may have contributed to the change observed in soil quality during conversion of Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Litter retention, keeping understorey coverage, and reducing soil disturbance during

  11. Service with Style: Corinne Hill--Denton Public Library, TX

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Although a librarian for only eight years, Corinne Hill is already known in Dallas and Denton, TX, for turning dull, little-used branches into vibrant community centers. A stylish woman with a zest for shopping, Hill loves developing new collections and showing them off. She sees no reason why a library should not be as attractive as any good…

  12. Accounting for imperfect detection in Hill numbers for biodiversity studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broms, Kristin M.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Fitzpatrick, Ryan M.

    2015-01-01

    The occupancy-based Hill number estimators are always at their asymptotic values (i.e. as if an infinite number of samples have been taken for the study region), therefore making it easy to compare biodiversity between different assemblages. In addition, the Hill numbers are computed as derived quantities within a Bayesian hierarchical model, allowing for straightforward inference.

  13. View of sports field and Easter Hill at west side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of sports field and Easter Hill at west side of project site. Looking west - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  14. View of sports field from Easter Hill looking at intersection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of sports field from Easter Hill looking at intersection of South Twenty-Sixth Street and Foothill Avenue at left center rear. Buildings No. 36, 35, 25, 27, and 29, from left to right. Looking northeast - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  15. View of sports field and Easter Hill at west side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of sports field and Easter Hill at west side of project site. Looking southwest - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  16. 78 FR 76100 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board (Board) will... Committee Act of 1972 (5 U.S.C. App. II), the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of...

  17. AmeriFlux US-Blk Black Hills

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, Tilden

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Blk Black Hills. Site Description - The Black Hills tower was established by the Institute for Atmospheric Studies of the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology.

  18. Is "Home" Still in the Hills? Staff Paper 153.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eldon D.

    Although there was expectation that the current recession would bring a new wave of Appalachian Kentuckians back to their homeland hills, as had previous recessions, no great "return to the hills" (or even to other areas of the state) has materialized. Unemployment insurance claims by people formerly employed in other states have not increased in…

  19. OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WHITE PINE TALC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WHITE PINE TALC MINE LOOKING EAST. THE OPENING TO THE TALC MINE IS IN THE DARK AREA AT CENTER LEFT EDGE. WARM SPRINGS CAMP IS OUT OF FRAME TO THE RIGHT. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  20. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST TOWARD QUARTERMASTER BUILDINGS GROUP AND RESERVOIR HILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW TO SOUTHEAST TOWARD QUARTERMASTER BUILDINGS GROUP AND RESERVOIR HILL, FROM AMMUNITION (IGLOO) HILL. (Part 2 of a 3 view panorama; see also CA-2398-J-1 and CA-2398-16.) - Hamilton Field, East of Nave Drive, Novato, Marin County, CA

  1. "This Delightfull Garden": "Rabbit Hill" and the Pastoral Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1997-01-01

    Contends that Robert Lawson's children's book "Rabbit Hill" (1944) falls within the genre of pastoral literature, in the tradition of Edmund Spenser's "Faerie Queen." Examines the history of the genre and finds reasons for classifying Lawson's book as pastoral. Cites classic elements in "Rabbit Hill." Gives five questions for stimulating student…

  2. 83. GENERAL VIEW FROM NORTH END OF GUN HILL PLATFORM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    83. GENERAL VIEW FROM NORTH END OF GUN HILL PLATFORM OF 3RD AVENUE EL SHOWING THE SOUTHBOUND TRACK APPROACH INTO GUN HILL STATION. 7TH AVENUE EXPRESS EL ABOVE. - Interborough Rapid Transit Company, Third Avenue Elevated Line, Borough of the Bronx, New York County, NY

  3. 78 FR 64471 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... Fifth Street, Custer, SD. Please call ahead to Scott Jacobson, ] Committee Management Officer, at 605...: Scott Jacobson, Committee Management Officer, Black Hills National Forest Supervisor's Office, 605-673... comments must be sent to Scott Jacobson, Supervisor's Office, Black Hills National Forest, 1019 North...

  4. 78 FR 59337 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... Fifth Street, Custer, SD. Please call ahead to Scott Jacobson, ] Committee Management Officer, at 605...: Scott Jacobson, Committee Management Officer, Black Hills National Forest Supervisor's Office, 605-673... comments must be sent to Scott Jacobson, Supervisor's Office, Black Hills National Forest, 1019 North...

  5. 2. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM CIA TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM CIA TO THE SOUTH. IN FOREGROUND, PLANT DRY, SLAG FUMING PLANT, BLAST FURNACE, SMELTER OFFICE, LEAD AND SILVER REFINERIES ARE VISIBLE, L. TO R. HIGH VELOCITY FLUE LEADS FROM LOWER PLANT TO BAG HOUSE AND STACKS AT TOP OF SMELTING FACILITY. - Bunker Hill Lead Smelter, Bradley Rail Siding, Kellogg, Shoshone County, ID

  6. 3. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM CIA TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM CIA TO THE SOUTHWEST. BUILDINGS NOTED IN ID-29-2 APPEAR, IN ADDITION TO DRY ORE PLANT AND BONNOT COAL PULVERIZING EQUIPMENT BUILDING ON THE RIGHT. - Bunker Hill Lead Smelter, Bradley Rail Siding, Kellogg, Shoshone County, ID

  7. 1. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM CENTRAL IMPOUNDMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM CENTRAL IMPOUNDMENT AREA LOOKING SOUTH. PLANT DRY IS IN CENTER FOREGROUND, SLAG FUMING PLANT IS IN RIGHT FOREGROUND, AND BAG HOUSE IS IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. VARIOUS PLANT STACKS ARE ALSO VISIBLE. - Bunker Hill Lead Smelter, Bradley Rail Siding, Kellogg, Shoshone County, ID

  8. View of south boundary of Easter Hill project site for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south boundary of Easter Hill project site for right of way for Hoffman Boulevard. Buildings No. 11 and 14 at right in trees. Looking west - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  9. 77 FR 22755 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... approval of the Board's re-charter package submitted to the Secretary, U.S. Department of Agriculture...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board AGENCY: USDA Forest Service. ACTION: Notice of cancellation of meetings of the Black Hills National Forest Advisory...

  10. VIEW LOOKING WEST TOWARD RESERVOIR HILL. THE SPRR HOTEL WAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING WEST TOWARD RESERVOIR HILL. THE SPRR HOTEL WAS LOCATED IN THE STRIPED AREA AT THE BOTTOM OF THE IMAGE, AND THE TRACK RAN BETWEEN THE HILL AND THE HOTEL. - Southern Pacific Railroad Water Settling Reservoir, Yuma Crossing, south bank of Colorado River at foot of Madison Avenue, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  11. 27 CFR 9.188 - Horse Heaven Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Horse Heaven Hills. 9.188... Horse Heaven Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Horse Heaven Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Horse Heaven Hills” and “Horse Heaven” are...

  12. 27 CFR 9.162 - Sta. Rita Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sta. Rita Hills. 9.162.... Rita Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sta. Rita Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Sta. Rita Hills” is a term of viticultural significance....

  13. 27 CFR 9.162 - Sta. Rita Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sta. Rita Hills. 9.162.... Rita Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sta. Rita Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Sta. Rita Hills” is a term of viticultural significance....

  14. 27 CFR 9.162 - Sta. Rita Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sta. Rita Hills. 9.162.... Rita Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sta. Rita Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Sta. Rita Hills” is a term of viticultural significance....

  15. Evolved resistance to PCB- and PAH-induced cardiac teratogenesis, and reduced CYP1A activity in Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) populations from the Houston Ship Channel, Texas.

    PubMed

    Oziolor, Elias M; Bigorgne, Emilie; Aguilar, Lissette; Usenko, Sascha; Matson, Cole W

    2014-05-01

    The Houston Ship Channel (HSC), connecting Houston, Texas to Galveston Bay and ultimately the Gulf of Mexico, is heavily industrialized and includes several areas that have historically been identified as containing significant levels of mercury, dioxins, furans, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis, inhabit this entire estuarine system, including the most contaminated areas. F. grandis is the sister species of the well-established estuarine model organism Fundulus heteroclitus, for which heritable resistance to both PCB and PAH toxicity has been documented in several populations. F. grandis collected from two Superfund sites on the HSC and from a reference population were used to establish breeding colonies. F1 embryos from HSC populations were approximately 1000-fold more resistant to PCB126- and 2-5-fold more resistant to coal tar-induced cardiovascular teratogenesis, relative to embryos from the reference population. Reciprocal crosses between reference and contaminated populations exhibit an intermediate level of resistance, confirming that observed protection is genetic and biparentally inherited. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) data confirm a reduction in basal and induced cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) activity in resistant populations of F. grandis. This result is consistent with responses previously described for resistant populations of F. heteroclitus, specifically a recalcitrant aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway. The decreased levels of cardiovascular teratogenesis, and decrease in CYP1A inducibility in response to PCB126 and a PAH mixture, suggest that HSC F. grandis populations have adapted to chronic contaminants exposures via a mechanism similar to that previously described for F. heteroclitus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of evolved pollution resistance in F. grandis. Additionally, the mechanistic similarities between the population

  16. Evolved resistance to PCB- and PAH-induced cardiac teratogenesis, and reduced CYP1A activity in Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) populations from the Houston Ship Channel, Texas.

    PubMed

    Oziolor, Elias M; Bigorgne, Emilie; Aguilar, Lissette; Usenko, Sascha; Matson, Cole W

    2014-05-01

    The Houston Ship Channel (HSC), connecting Houston, Texas to Galveston Bay and ultimately the Gulf of Mexico, is heavily industrialized and includes several areas that have historically been identified as containing significant levels of mercury, dioxins, furans, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis, inhabit this entire estuarine system, including the most contaminated areas. F. grandis is the sister species of the well-established estuarine model organism Fundulus heteroclitus, for which heritable resistance to both PCB and PAH toxicity has been documented in several populations. F. grandis collected from two Superfund sites on the HSC and from a reference population were used to establish breeding colonies. F1 embryos from HSC populations were approximately 1000-fold more resistant to PCB126- and 2-5-fold more resistant to coal tar-induced cardiovascular teratogenesis, relative to embryos from the reference population. Reciprocal crosses between reference and contaminated populations exhibit an intermediate level of resistance, confirming that observed protection is genetic and biparentally inherited. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) data confirm a reduction in basal and induced cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) activity in resistant populations of F. grandis. This result is consistent with responses previously described for resistant populations of F. heteroclitus, specifically a recalcitrant aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway. The decreased levels of cardiovascular teratogenesis, and decrease in CYP1A inducibility in response to PCB126 and a PAH mixture, suggest that HSC F. grandis populations have adapted to chronic contaminants exposures via a mechanism similar to that previously described for F. heteroclitus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of evolved pollution resistance in F. grandis. Additionally, the mechanistic similarities between the population

  17. Blood Sugar Lowering Effect of Coccinia grandis (L.) J. Voigt: Path for a New Drug for Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Munasinghe, M. A. A. K.; Abeysena, C.; Yaddehige, I. S.; Vidanapathirana, T.; Piyumal, K. P. B.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Role of herbs in the management and control of diabetes has emerged fast over the years. We assessed the efficacy of Coccinia grandis (locally known as Ken, Kovakka) leaves as a hypoglycemic agent. Methods. Double-blind phase I clinical trial was conducted at the general hospital and a private hospital in Matara in August 2009. All the participants were given a common meal for dinner, and they maintained a 10-hour fasting period. Sixty-one healthy volunteers were given a meal containing 20 g of leaves of Coccinia grandis which was mixed with a measured amount of scraped coconut and table salt for breakfast, and other 61 were given the placebo meal which also contained scraped coconut and salt. Glucose tolerance test was performed blindly for the two groups. Mixed factorial design analysis of variance and student's t-test were applied. Results. Overall blood sugar levels of the experimental group were also significantly lower than those of the control group (F(1,117) 5.56, P < 0.05). Increase in the blood sugar levels from fasting to one hour (F(1,117) 6.77, P < 0.05) and two hours (F(1,117) 5.28, P < 0.05) postprandially was statistically significant for participants who were in the control group than those of in the experimental group. The mean difference of postprandial blood sugar levels (mg/dL) after one hour (20.2, 95% confidence interval, 4.81 to 35.5) and two hours (11.46, 95% confidence interval; 1.03 to 21.9) was statistically significant between the two groups. Conclusions. Coccinia grandis has a blood sugar lowering effect. However further studies are needed to validate our findings. PMID:21822423

  18. Comparisons of calculated and measured helicopter noise near instrument hill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, Henry E.; You, Chulsoo

    1993-01-01

    The polar parabolic equation (POPE) method solves for the diffraction of sound by a curved surface including a realistic sound speed profile. POPE is outlined briefly to describe diffraction which propagates the field over a hill. Experimental data are compared with POPE predictions using the measured sound speed profile and ground impedance. Two trial cases are considered for the comparisons: the helicopter located at the base of the hill and far away from the base of the hill, respectively. The physical mechanisms for sound propagation over a hill are examined with and of POPE calculations and experimental data. The shedding of rays from the hillside gives an interference effect with a wave along the flat surface beyond the base of a hill.

  19. Decay of isolated hills and saddles on Si(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschbaum, Pierre; Brendel, Lothar; Roos, Kelly R.; Horn-von Hoegen, Michael; Heringdorf, Frank-J. Meyer zu

    2016-08-01

    We discuss the high temperature decay of isolated hills and saddle points on Si(001). Using in situ dark-field imaging in low energy electron microscopy, we track the movement of individual steps during high temperature annealing. We find different temperature dependent decay rates for the top of the hill compared to a saddle point with low step density that is present in the vicinity of the hill. The decay rate of the hill is always higher than the decay rate at the saddle. The two rates converge with increasing temperature and become equal at temperatures above 1060 °C. We also report an alternating fast and low decay rate for the layer-by-layer decay of the hills. This surprising finding is independent of temperature and is explained by macroscopic strain in the sample.

  20. Seeing mountains in mole hills: geographical-slant perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proffitt, D. R.; Creem, S. H.; Zosh, W. D.; Kaiser, M. K. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    When observers face directly toward the incline of a hill, their awareness of the slant of the hill is greatly overestimated, but motoric estimates are much more accurate. The present study examined whether similar results would be found when observers were allowed to view the side of a hill. Observers viewed the cross-sections of hills in real (Experiment 1) and virtual (Experiment 2) environments and estimated the inclines with verbal estimates, by adjusting the cross-section of a disk, and by adjusting a board with their unseen hand to match the inclines. We found that the results for cross-section viewing replicated those found when observers directly face the incline. Even though the angles of hills are directly evident when viewed from the side, slant perceptions are still grossly overestimated.

  1. Insights into Diterpene Cyclization from Structure of Bifunctional Abietadiene Synthase from Abies grandis*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ke; Gao, Yang; Hoy, Julie A.; Mann, Francis M.; Honzatko, Richard B.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2012-01-01

    Abietadiene synthase from Abies grandis (AgAS) is a model system for diterpene synthase activity, catalyzing class I (ionization-initiated) and class II (protonation-initiated) cyclization reactions. Reported here is the crystal structure of AgAS at 2.3 Å resolution and molecular dynamics simulations of that structure with and without active site ligands. AgAS has three domains (α, β, and γ). The class I active site is within the C-terminal α domain, and the class II active site is between the N-terminal γ and β domains. The domain organization resembles that of monofunctional diterpene synthases and is consistent with proposed evolutionary origins of terpene synthases. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to determine the effect of substrate binding on enzymatic structure. Although such studies of the class I active site do lead to an enclosed substrate-Mg2+ complex similar to that observed in crystal structures of related plant enzymes, it does not enforce a single substrate conformation consistent with the known product stereochemistry. Simulations of the class II active site were more informative, with observation of a well ordered external loop migration. This “loop-in” conformation not only limits solvent access but also greatly increases the number of conformational states accessible to the substrate while destabilizing the nonproductive substrate conformation present in the “loop-out” conformation. Moreover, these conformational changes at the class II active site drive the substrate toward the proposed transition state. Docked substrate complexes were further assessed with regard to the effects of site-directed mutations on class I and II activities. PMID:22219188

  2. Influence of Two Acyclic Homoterpenes (Tetranorterpenes) on the Foraging Behavior of Anthonomus grandis Boh.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, D M; Borges, M; Laumann, R A; Woodcock, C M; Pickett, J A; Birkett, M A; Blassioli-Moraes, Maria Carolina

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is attracted to constitutive and conspecific herbivore-induced cotton volatiles, preferring the blend emitted by cotton at the reproductive over the vegetative stage. Moreover, this preference was paralleled by the release of the acyclic homoterpenes (tetranorterpenes) (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) and (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene (TMTT) in Delta Opal cotton being higher at the vegetative than at the reproductive stage. Here, we evaluated whether this difference in release of acyclic homoterpenes also occurred in other cotton varieties, and if boll weevils could recognize these compounds as indicators of a specific cotton phenological stage. Results showed that cotton genotypes CNPA TB-90, BRS-293 and Delta Opal all produced higher levels of DMNT and TMTT at the vegetative stage than at the reproductive stage and that these homoterpenes allowed for principal component analysis separation of volatiles produced by the two phenological stages. Electroantennograms confirmed boll weevil antennal responses to DMNT and TMTT. Behavioral assays, using Y-tube olfactometers, showed that adding synthetic homoterpenes to reproductive cotton volatiles (mimicking cotton at the vegetative stage in terms of homoterpene levels) resulted in reduced attraction to boll weevils compared to that to unmodified reproductive cotton. Weevils showed no preference when given a choice between plants at the vegetative stage and the vegetative stage-mimicked plant. Altogether, the results show that DMNT and TMTT are used by boll weevils to distinguish between cotton phenological stages. PMID:27105878

  3. Insights into Diterpene Cyclization from Structure of Bifunctional Abietadiene Synthase from Abies grandis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ke; Gao, Yang; Hoy, Julie A.; Mann, Francis M.; Honzatko, Richard B.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2013-09-24

    Abietadiene synthase from Abies grandis (AgAS) is a model system for diterpene synthase activity, catalyzing class I (ionization-initiated) and class II (protonation-initiated) cyclization reactions. Reported here is the crystal structure of AgAS at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution and molecular dynamics simulations of that structure with and without active site ligands. AgAS has three domains ({alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma}). The class I active site is within the C-terminal {alpha} domain, and the class II active site is between the N-terminal {gamma} and {beta} domains. The domain organization resembles that of monofunctional diterpene synthases and is consistent with proposed evolutionary origins of terpene synthases. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to determine the effect of substrate binding on enzymatic structure. Although such studies of the class I active site do lead to an enclosed substrate-Mg{sup 2+} complex similar to that observed in crystal structures of related plant enzymes, it does not enforce a single substrate conformation consistent with the known product stereochemistry. Simulations of the class II active site were more informative, with observation of a well ordered external loop migration. This 'loop-in' conformation not only limits solvent access but also greatly increases the number of conformational states accessible to the substrate while destabilizing the nonproductive substrate conformation present in the 'loop-out' conformation. Moreover, these conformational changes at the class II active site drive the substrate toward the proposed transition state. Docked substrate complexes were further assessed with regard to the effects of site-directed mutations on class I and II activities.

  4. AGU climate scientists visit Capitol Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankin, Erik

    2012-02-01

    On 1 February 2012, AGU teamed with 11 other scientific societies to bring 29 scientists researching various aspects of climate change to Washington, D. C., for the second annual Climate Science Day on Capitol Hill. The participants represented a wide range of expertise, from meteorology to agriculture, paleoclimatology to statistics, but all spoke to the reality of climate change as demonstrated in their scientific research. With Congress debating environmental regulations and energy policy amid tight fiscal pressures, it is critical that lawmakers have access to the best climate science to help guide policy decisions. The scientists met with legislators and their staff to discuss the importance of climate science for their districts and the nation and offered their expertise as an ongoing resource to the legislators.

  5. Motivations of female Black Hills deer hunters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Covelli Metcalf, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    State fish and wildlife agencies are particularly interested in attracting female participation because of the potential to offset declining participation in hunting. Understanding female hunters’ motivations will be critical for designing effective recruitment and retention programs for women hunters. Although female participation in hunting is increasing, males still outnumber females by about tenfold. Gender differences in deer hunters were explored by comparing ratings of eight motivations (social, nature, excitement, meat, challenge, trophy, extra hunting opportunity, and solitude). Hunter types were defined by hunters’ selection of the most important motivation for why they like Black Hills deer hunting. Overall, females and males were relatively similar in their ratings of the eight motivations, and we found 85% gender similarity in the selection of the most important motivation. Women were slightly more motivated by the food aspect of the hunt while men placed slightly more value on the hunt as a sporting activity.

  6. Meteorological analysis for Fenton Hill, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.; Wilson, S.K.

    1981-01-01

    Three years of meteorological data have been collected at the Fenton Hill site to establish a local climatic baseline, transport and diffusion climatology, and an initial site for an eventual Valles Caldera meteorological network. Tower-based wind and temperature data at 15 m above ground were supplemented during 1979 with precipitation, humidity and pressure measurements, and a limited program of upper winds. Preliminary analysis of the data has been made to identify major topographic and meteorological driving forces affecting the local climatic variations on diurnal and seasonal time scales. The site is quite high and exposed enough tht external influences such as gradient wind flow and thunderstorms tend to dominate over purely local driving forces in determining climate. Locally generated wind circulations are identifiable at night but tend to be weak and sporadic. The presence of topographic obstacles on the 10- to 100-km scale is observed in the winds.

  7. Ash and Steam, Soufriere Hills Volcano, Monserrat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    International Space Station crew members are regularly alerted to dynamic events on the Earth's surface. On request from scientists on the ground, the ISS crew observed and recorded activity from the summit of Soufriere Hills on March 20, 2002. These two images provide a context view of the island (bottom) and a detailed view of the summit plume (top). When the images were taken, the eastern side of the summit region experienced continued lava growth, and reports posted on the Smithsonian Institution's Weekly Volcanic Activity Report indicate that 'large (50-70 m high), fast-growing, spines developed on the dome's summit. These spines periodically collapsed, producing pyroclastic flows down the volcano's east flank that sometimes reached the Tar River fan. Small ash clouds produced from these events reached roughly 1 km above the volcano and drifted westward over Plymouth and Richmond Hill. Ash predominately fell into the sea. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remained high. Theodolite measurements of the dome taken on March 20 yielded a dome height of 1,039 m.' Other photographs by astronauts of Montserrat have been posted on the Earth Observatory: digital photograph number ISS002-E-9309, taken on July 9, 2001; and a recolored and reprojected version of the same image. Digital photograph numbers ISS004-E-8972 and 8973 were taken 20 March, 2002 from Space Station Alpha and were provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  8. Quantifying the role of mitigation hills in reducing tsunami runup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marras, S.; Suckale, J.; Lunghino, B.; Giraldo, F.; Hood, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal communities around the world are being encouraged to plant or restore vegetation along their shores for the purpose of mitigating tsunami damage. A common setup for these projects is to develop 'mitigation hills' - an ensemble of vegetated hills along the coast - instead of one continuous stretch of vegetation. The rationale behind a staggered-hill setup is to give tree roots more space to grow and deepen. From a fluid-dynamical point of view, however, staggered mitigation hills may have significant drawbacks such as diverting the flow into the low-lying areas of the park, which could entail strong currents in the narrow channels between the hills and lead to erosion of the hills from the sides. The goal of this study is to quantify how mitigation hills affect tsunami runup and to provide constraints on the design of mitigation hills that mitigate tsunami damage using numerical simulations. Our computations of tsunami runup are based on the non-linear shallow water equation solved through a fully implicit, high-order, discontinuous Galerkin method. The adaptive computational grid is fitted to the hill topography to capture geometric effects accurately. A new dynamic subgrid-scale eddy viscosity originally designed for large eddy simulation of compressible flows is used for stabilization and to capture the obstacle-generated turbulence. We have carefully benchmarked our model in 1D and 2D against classical test cases. The included figure shows an example run of tsunami runup through coastal mitigation hills. In the interest of providing generalizable results, we perform a detailed scaling analysis of our model runs. We find that the protective value of mitigation hills depends sensitively on the non-linearity of the incoming wave and the relative height of the wave to the hills. Our simulations also suggest that the assumed initial condition is consequential and we hence consider a range of incoming waves ranging from a simple soliton to a more realistic N

  9. Wheel Tracks from Landing Site to Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2

    Wheel tracks left by the NASA rover Spirit's 3-kilometer (2-mile) trek from its landing site to the 'Columbia Hills' are visible in this orbital view from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. Spirit's rover track shows up nicely from orbit because the surfaces disrupted and churned by the wheels are darker than the surrounding, dust-coated plain. North is up.

    The largest crater in the view, dubbed 'Bonneville Crater,' is about 210 meters (230 yards) in diameter. The picture is a composite of Mars Orbiter Camera image R15-02643, taken on March 30, 2004, when Spirit was near the south rim of Bonneville Crater, and image R20-01024, taken Aug. 18, 2004, when Spirit was climbing the hills' western spur, seen in the picture's bottom right corner.

    New Dark Streak Near Spirit In figure 1, frames taken from orbit 20 weeks apart (top pair) and by the NASA rover Spirit at ground level (bottom) show the formation of a new dark streak on the ground in the area where Spirit was driving inside Mars' Gusev Crater in April 2004. The new dark streak and other dark streaks in the area are believed to result from dust devils removing brighter dust from the surface.

    The upper frames were taken by the Mars Orbiter Camera aboard NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. They are from the same pair of images combined to create the orbital view of the NASA rover Spirit's trail from the rover's landing site to the 'Columbia Hills.' The orbiter took the upper-left picture on March 30, 2004 (Spirit's 85th martian day, or sol). It took the upper-right picture on Aug. 18, 2004 (Spirit's sol 223). A dark streak occurs in the larger crater in the lower right quarter of the August image. This streak was not present when the March image was obtained. Inspection of the lower image, which was taken by Spirit's navigation camera when the rover was at

  10. Foliar Essential Oil Glands of Eucalyptus Subgenus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) Are a Rich Source of Flavonoids and Related Non-Volatile Constituents.

    PubMed

    Goodger, Jason Q D; Seneratne, Samiddhi L; Nicolle, Dean; Woodrow, Ian E

    2016-01-01

    The sub-dermal secretory cavities (glands) embedded within the leaves of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) were once thought to be the exclusive repositories of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oils. Recent research has debunked this theory and shown that abundant non-volatile compounds also occur within foliar glands. In particular, glands of four species in subgenus Eucalyptus contain the biologically active flavanone pinocembrin. Pinocembrin shows great promise as a pharmaceutical and is predominantly plant-sourced, so Eucalyptus could be a potential commercial source of such compounds. To explore this we quantified and assessed the purity of pinocembrin in glands of 11 species of E. subg. Eucalyptus using Electro-Spray Ionisation Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of acetonitrile extracts and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses of hexane extracts of isolated glands which were free from other leaf tissues. Our results showed that the glands of subgenus Eucalyptus contain numerous flavanones that are structurally related to pinocembrin and often present in much greater abundance. The maximum concentration of pinocembrin was 2 mg g-1 dry leaf found in E. stellulata, whereas that of dimethylpinocembrin (5,7-dimethoxyflavanone) was 10 mg g-1 in E. oreades and that of pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone) was 12 mg g-1 in E. nitida. We also found that the flavanones are exclusively located within the foliar glands rather than distributed throughout leaf tissues. The flavanones differ from the non-methylated pinocembrin in the degree and positions of methylation. This finding is particularly important given the attractiveness of methylated flavonoids as pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. Another important finding was that glands of some members of the subgenus also contain flavanone O-glucosides and flavanone-β-triketone conjugates. In addition, glands contain free β-triketones, β-triketone heterodimers and chromone C-glucosides. Therefore, the foliar glands

  11. Foliar Essential Oil Glands of Eucalyptus Subgenus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) Are a Rich Source of Flavonoids and Related Non-Volatile Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Nicolle, Dean; Woodrow, Ian E.

    2016-01-01

    The sub-dermal secretory cavities (glands) embedded within the leaves of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) were once thought to be the exclusive repositories of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oils. Recent research has debunked this theory and shown that abundant non-volatile compounds also occur within foliar glands. In particular, glands of four species in subgenus Eucalyptus contain the biologically active flavanone pinocembrin. Pinocembrin shows great promise as a pharmaceutical and is predominantly plant-sourced, so Eucalyptus could be a potential commercial source of such compounds. To explore this we quantified and assessed the purity of pinocembrin in glands of 11 species of E. subg. Eucalyptus using Electro-Spray Ionisation Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of acetonitrile extracts and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses of hexane extracts of isolated glands which were free from other leaf tissues. Our results showed that the glands of subgenus Eucalyptus contain numerous flavanones that are structurally related to pinocembrin and often present in much greater abundance. The maximum concentration of pinocembrin was 2 mg g-1 dry leaf found in E. stellulata, whereas that of dimethylpinocembrin (5,7-dimethoxyflavanone) was 10 mg g-1 in E. oreades and that of pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone) was 12 mg g-1 in E. nitida. We also found that the flavanones are exclusively located within the foliar glands rather than distributed throughout leaf tissues. The flavanones differ from the non-methylated pinocembrin in the degree and positions of methylation. This finding is particularly important given the attractiveness of methylated flavonoids as pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. Another important finding was that glands of some members of the subgenus also contain flavanone O-glucosides and flavanone-β-triketone conjugates. In addition, glands contain free β-triketones, β-triketone heterodimers and chromone C-glucosides. Therefore, the foliar glands

  12. Foliar Essential Oil Glands of Eucalyptus Subgenus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) Are a Rich Source of Flavonoids and Related Non-Volatile Constituents.

    PubMed

    Goodger, Jason Q D; Seneratne, Samiddhi L; Nicolle, Dean; Woodrow, Ian E

    2016-01-01

    The sub-dermal secretory cavities (glands) embedded within the leaves of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) were once thought to be the exclusive repositories of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oils. Recent research has debunked this theory and shown that abundant non-volatile compounds also occur within foliar glands. In particular, glands of four species in subgenus Eucalyptus contain the biologically active flavanone pinocembrin. Pinocembrin shows great promise as a pharmaceutical and is predominantly plant-sourced, so Eucalyptus could be a potential commercial source of such compounds. To explore this we quantified and assessed the purity of pinocembrin in glands of 11 species of E. subg. Eucalyptus using Electro-Spray Ionisation Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of acetonitrile extracts and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses of hexane extracts of isolated glands which were free from other leaf tissues. Our results showed that the glands of subgenus Eucalyptus contain numerous flavanones that are structurally related to pinocembrin and often present in much greater abundance. The maximum concentration of pinocembrin was 2 mg g-1 dry leaf found in E. stellulata, whereas that of dimethylpinocembrin (5,7-dimethoxyflavanone) was 10 mg g-1 in E. oreades and that of pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone) was 12 mg g-1 in E. nitida. We also found that the flavanones are exclusively located within the foliar glands rather than distributed throughout leaf tissues. The flavanones differ from the non-methylated pinocembrin in the degree and positions of methylation. This finding is particularly important given the attractiveness of methylated flavonoids as pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. Another important finding was that glands of some members of the subgenus also contain flavanone O-glucosides and flavanone-β-triketone conjugates. In addition, glands contain free β-triketones, β-triketone heterodimers and chromone C-glucosides. Therefore, the foliar glands

  13. Nanoemulsion of eucalyptus oil and its larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Sugumar, S; Clarke, S K; Nirmala, M J; Tyagi, B K; Mukherjee, A; Chandrasekaran, N

    2014-06-01

    Filariasis is a mosquito-borne disease that causes lymphedema and the main vector is Culex quinquefasciatus. A simple measure was taken to eradicate the vector using nanoemulsion. Eucalyptus oil nanoemulsion was formulated in various ratios comprising of eucalyptus oil, tween 80 and water by ultrasonication. The stability of nanoemulsion was observed over a period of time and 1:2 ratios of eucalyptus oil (6%) and surfactant (12%) was found to be stable. The formulated eucalyptus oil nanoemulsion was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The nanoemulsion droplets were found to have a Z-average diameter of 9.4 nm and were spherical in shape. The larvicidal activity of eucalyptus oil nanoemulsion and bulk emulsion was tested and compared. Our nanoemulsion showed higher activity when compared to bulk emulsion. The histopathology of larvae-treated and untreated nanoemulsion was analyzed. Furthermore, biochemical assays were carried out to examine the effect of nanoemulsion on biochemical characteristics of larvae. The treated larval homogenate showed decrease in total protein content and a significant reduction in the levels of acetylcholinesterase. The levels of acid and alkaline phosphatase also showed reduction as compared to control larval homogenate.

  14. Encapsulated eucalyptus oil in ionically cross-linked alginate microcapsules and its controlled release.

    PubMed

    Noppakundilograt, Supaporn; Piboon, Phianghathai; Graisuwan, Wilaiporn; Nuisin, Roongkan; Kiatkamjornwong, Suda

    2015-10-20

    Sodium alginate microcapsules containing eucalyptus oil were prepared by oil-in-water emulsification via Shirasu porous glass (SPG) membrane and cross-linked by calcium chloride (CaCl2). SPG membrane pore size of 5.2μm was used to control the size of eucalyptus oil microdroplets. Effects of sodium alginate, having a mannuronic acid/guluronic acid (M/G) ratio of 1.13, eucalyptus oil and CaCl2 amounts on microdroplet sizes and size distribution were elucidated. Increasing sodium alginate amounts from 0.1 to 0.5% (wv(-1)) sodium alginate, the average droplets size increased from 42.2±2.0 to 48.5±0.6μm, with CVs of 16.5±2.2 and 30.2±4.5%, respectively. CaCl2 successfully gave narrower size distribution of cross-linked eucalyptus oil microcapsules. The optimum conditions for preparing the microcapsules, oil loading efficiency, and controlled release of the encapsulated eucalyptus oil from the microcapsules as a function of time at 40°C were investigated. Release model for the oil from microcapsules fitted Ritger-Peppas model with non-Fickian transport mechanism. PMID:26256156

  15. Encapsulated eucalyptus oil in ionically cross-linked alginate microcapsules and its controlled release.

    PubMed

    Noppakundilograt, Supaporn; Piboon, Phianghathai; Graisuwan, Wilaiporn; Nuisin, Roongkan; Kiatkamjornwong, Suda

    2015-10-20

    Sodium alginate microcapsules containing eucalyptus oil were prepared by oil-in-water emulsification via Shirasu porous glass (SPG) membrane and cross-linked by calcium chloride (CaCl2). SPG membrane pore size of 5.2μm was used to control the size of eucalyptus oil microdroplets. Effects of sodium alginate, having a mannuronic acid/guluronic acid (M/G) ratio of 1.13, eucalyptus oil and CaCl2 amounts on microdroplet sizes and size distribution were elucidated. Increasing sodium alginate amounts from 0.1 to 0.5% (wv(-1)) sodium alginate, the average droplets size increased from 42.2±2.0 to 48.5±0.6μm, with CVs of 16.5±2.2 and 30.2±4.5%, respectively. CaCl2 successfully gave narrower size distribution of cross-linked eucalyptus oil microcapsules. The optimum conditions for preparing the microcapsules, oil loading efficiency, and controlled release of the encapsulated eucalyptus oil from the microcapsules as a function of time at 40°C were investigated. Release model for the oil from microcapsules fitted Ritger-Peppas model with non-Fickian transport mechanism.

  16. Nanoemulsion of eucalyptus oil and its larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Sugumar, S; Clarke, S K; Nirmala, M J; Tyagi, B K; Mukherjee, A; Chandrasekaran, N

    2014-06-01

    Filariasis is a mosquito-borne disease that causes lymphedema and the main vector is Culex quinquefasciatus. A simple measure was taken to eradicate the vector using nanoemulsion. Eucalyptus oil nanoemulsion was formulated in various ratios comprising of eucalyptus oil, tween 80 and water by ultrasonication. The stability of nanoemulsion was observed over a period of time and 1:2 ratios of eucalyptus oil (6%) and surfactant (12%) was found to be stable. The formulated eucalyptus oil nanoemulsion was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The nanoemulsion droplets were found to have a Z-average diameter of 9.4 nm and were spherical in shape. The larvicidal activity of eucalyptus oil nanoemulsion and bulk emulsion was tested and compared. Our nanoemulsion showed higher activity when compared to bulk emulsion. The histopathology of larvae-treated and untreated nanoemulsion was analyzed. Furthermore, biochemical assays were carried out to examine the effect of nanoemulsion on biochemical characteristics of larvae. The treated larval homogenate showed decrease in total protein content and a significant reduction in the levels of acetylcholinesterase. The levels of acid and alkaline phosphatase also showed reduction as compared to control larval homogenate. PMID:24401169

  17. Control of Tetranychus urticae Koch by extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Moneim, MR Afify; Fatma, S Ali; Turky, AF

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the acaricidal activity of extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus against Tetranychus urticae (T. urticae) Koch. Methods Extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus with different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0% and 4.0%) were used to control T. urticae Koch. Results The results showed that chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) represented the most potent efficient acaricidal agent against Tetranychus followed by marjoram (Marjorana hortensis) and Eucalyptus. The LC50 values of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus for adults were 0.65, 1.84 and 2.18, respectively and for eggs 1.17, 6.26 and 7.33, respectively. Activities of enzymes including glutathione-S-transferase, esterase (α-esterase and β-esterase) and alkaline phosphatase in susceptible mites were determined and activities of enzymes involved in the resistance of acaricides were proved. Protease enzyme was significantly decreased at LC50 of both chamomile and marjoram compared with positive control. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) proved that the major compositions of Chamomilla recutita are α-bisabolol oxide A (35.251%), and trans-β-farersene (7.758%), while the main components of Marjorana hortensis are terpinene-4-ol (23.860%), p-cymene (23.404%) and sabinene (10.904%). Conclusions It can be concluded that extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus possess acaricidal activity against T. urticae. PMID:23569829

  18. Scientific contributions of A. V. Hill: exercise physiology pioneer.

    PubMed

    Bassett, David R

    2002-11-01

    Beginning in 1910, A. V. Hill performed careful experiments on the time course of heat production in isolated frog muscle. His research paralleled that of the German biochemist Otto Meyerhof, who measured the changes in muscle glycogen and lactate during contractions and recovery. For their work in discovering the distinction between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, Hill and Meyerhof were jointly awarded the 1922 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. Because of Hill's interest in athletics, he sought to apply the concepts discovered in isolated frog muscle to the exercising human. Hill and his colleagues made measurements of O(2) consumption on themselves and other subjects running around an 85-m grass track. In the process of this work, they defined the terms "maximum O(2) intake," "O(2) requirement," and "steady state of exercise." Other contributions of Hill include his discoveries of heat production in nerve, the series elastic component, and the force-velocity equation in muscle. Around the time of World War II, Hill was a leading figure in the Academic Assistance Council, which helped Jewish scientists fleeing Nazi Germany to relocate in the West. He served as a member of the British Parliament from 1940 to 1945 and as a scientific advisor to India. Hill's vision and enthusiasm attracted many scientists to the field of exercise physiology, and he pointed the way toward many of the physiological adaptations that occur with physical training.

  19. Descent from the Summit of 'Husband Hill' (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    In late November 2005 while descending 'Husband Hill,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took the most detailed panorama so far of the 'Inner Basin,' the rover's next target destination. Spirit acquired the 405 individual images that make up this 360-degree view of the surrounding terrain using five different filters on the panoramic camera. The rover took the images on Martian days, or sols, 672 to 677 (Nov. 23 to 28, 2005 -- the Thanksgiving holiday weekend).

    This image is a false-color rendering using camera's 750-, 530-, and 430-nanometer filters, emphasizing some colors more than others to enhance striking but subtle color differences among rocks, soils, hills, and plains.

    'Home Plate,' a bright, semi-circular feature scientists hope to investigate, is harder to discern in this image than in earlier views taken from higher up the hill. Spirit acquired this more oblique view, known as the 'Seminole panorama,' from about halfway down the south flank of Husband Hill, 50 meters (164 feet) or so below the summit. Near the center of the panorama, on the horizon, are 'McCool Hill' and 'Ramon Hill,' named, like Husband Hill, in honor of the fallen astronauts of the space shuttle Columbia. Husband Hill is visible behind the rover, on the right and left sides of the panorama. An arc of rover tracks made while avoiding obstacles and getting into position to examine rock outcrops can be traced over a long distance by zooming in to explore the panorama in greater detail.

    Spirit is now significantly farther downhill toward the center of this panorama, en route to Home Plate and other enigmatic soils and outcrop rocks in the quest to uncover the history of Gusev Crater and the 'Columbia Hills.'

  20. Repellency of oils of lemon eucalyptus, geranium, and lavender and the mosquito repellent MyggA natural to Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the laboratory and field.

    PubMed

    Jaenson, Thomas G T; Garboui, Samira; Palsson, Katinka

    2006-07-01

    MyggA Natural (Bioglan, Lund, Sweden) is a commercially available repellent against blood-feeding arthropods. It contains 30% of lemon-scented eucalyptus, Corymbia citriodora (Hook.) K. D. Hill & L. A. S. Johnson (Myrtaceae), oil with a minimum of 50% p-menthane-3,8-diol. MyggA Natural also contains small amounts of the essential oils of lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (Lamiaceae), and geranium, Pelargonium graveolens L'Her. (Geraniaceae). In laboratory bioassays, MyggA Natural and C. citriodora oil exhibited 100% repellency against host-seeking nymphs of Ixodes ricinus (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae). Lavender oil and geranium oil, when diluted to 1% in 1,2-propanediol, had weak repellent activities on I. ricinus nymphs, but when diluted to 30% in 1,2-propanediol had 100% repellencies. 1,2-Propanediol (100%) had no significant repellent activity in comparison with that of the control. In field tests in tick-infested areas in central Sweden, tick repellency of MyggA Natural and C. citriodora oil was tested by the blanket-dragging technique for 4 d during a 6-d period. The repellencies (74 and 85%, respectively) on day 1 are similar (89%) to that of blankets treated in a similar manner with 19% diethyl-methyl-benzamide, based on previous work. Repellencies declined significantly from day 1 to day 6 (74 to 45% for MyggA Natural; 85 to 42% for C. citriodora oil). PMID:16892632

  1. Airborne antituberculosis activity of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil.

    PubMed

    Ramos Alvarenga, René F; Wan, Baojie; Inui, Taichi; Franzblau, Scott G; Pauli, Guido F; Jaki, Birgit U

    2014-03-28

    The rapid emergence of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR-TB) has created a pressing public health problem, which mostly affects regions with HIV/AIDS prevalence and represents a new constraint in the already challenging disease management of tuberculosis (TB). The present work responds to the need to reduce the number of contagious MDR/XRD-TB patients, protect their immediate environment, and interrupt the rapid spread by laying the groundwork for an inhalation therapy based on anti-TB-active constituents of the essential oil (EO) of Eucalyptus citriodora. In order to address the metabolomic complexity of EO constituents and active principles in botanicals, this study applied biochemometrics, a 3-D analytical approach that involves high-resolution CCC fractionation, GC-MS analysis, bioactivity measurements, and chemometric analysis. Thus, 32 airborne anti-TB-active compounds were identified in E. citriodora EO: the monoterpenes citronellol (1), linalool (3), isopulegol (5), and α-terpineol (7) and the sesquiterpenoids spathulenol (11), β-eudesmol (23), and τ-cadinol (25). The impact of the interaction of multiple components in EOs was studied using various artificial mixtures (AMxs) of the active monoterpenes 1, 2, and 5 and the inactive eucalyptol (33). Both neat 1 and the AMx containing 1, 2, and 33 showed airborne TB inhibition of >90%, while the major E. citriodora EO component, 2, was only weakly active, at 18% inhibition.

  2. Evaluation of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil on goat gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Iara Tersia Freitas; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; de Oliveira, Lorena Mayana Beserra; Camurça-Vasconcelos, Ana Lourdes Fernandes; Vieira, Luiz da Silva; Amóra, Sthenia Dos Santos Albano

    2011-01-01

    Phytotherapy may be an alternative strategy for controlling gastrointestinal parasites. This study evaluated the anthelmintic efficacy of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil (EcEO). The in vitro effects of EcEO were determined through testing the inhibition of egg hatching and larval development of Haemonchus contortus. EcEO was subjected to acute toxicity testing on mice, orally and intraperitoneally. The in vivo effects of EcEO were determined by the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) in goats infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. The results showed that 5.3 mg.mL(-1) EcEO inhibited egg hatching by 98.8% and 10.6 mg.mL(-1) EcEO inhibited H. contortus larval development by 99.71%. The lethal doses for 50% of the mice were 4153 and 622.8 mg.kg(-1), for acute toxicity orally and intraperitoneally. In the FECRT, the efficacy of EcEO and ivermectin was 66.25 and 79.16% respectively, on goat gastrointestinal nematodes eight days after treatment. EcEO showed in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity.

  3. Activated carbon from flash pyrolysis of eucalyptus residue.

    PubMed

    Grima-Olmedo, C; Ramírez-Gómez, Á; Gómez-Limón, D; Clemente-Jul, C

    2016-09-01

    Forestry waste (eucalyptus sp) was converted into activated carbon by initial flash pyrolysis followed carbonization and CO2 activation. These residues were obtained from a pilot plant in Spain that produces biofuel, the biochar represented 10-15% in weight. It was observed that the highest activation was achieved at a temperature of 800 °C, the specific surface increased with time but, on the contrary, high loss of matter was observed. At 600 °C, although there was an important increase of the specific surface and the volume of micropores, at this temperature it was observed that the activation time was not an influential parameter. Finally, at 400 °C it was observed that the activation process was not very significant. Assessing the average pore diameter it was found that the lowest value corresponded to the activation temperature of 600 °C, which indicated the development of microporosity. When the activation temperature increases up to 800 °C the pore diameter increased developing mesoporosity. PMID:27668291

  4. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Karen M.; Janos, David P.; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT) followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations. PMID:25750650

  5. Measurements of transpiration from Eucalyptus plantations, India, using deuterium tracing

    SciTech Connect

    Calder, I.R.; Swaminath, M.H.; Kariyappa, G.S.; Srinivasalu, N.V.; Murthy, K.V.; Mumtaz, J.

    1992-12-31

    Measurements of transpiration from individual trees in Eucalyptus plantations at four different sites in Karnataka, southern India, are presented. These show large (as much as tenfold) differences in the transpiration between pre and post monsoon periods; a reflection of the effects of soil moisture stress in the pre monsoon periods. For trees with diameters at breast height (DBH) less than 10 cm the transpiration rate of individual trees is proportional to the square of the DBH. For trees which are not experiencing soil water stress the daily transpiration rate of individual trees, q, is well represented by the relation: q= (6.6 {+-} 0.3)g m{sup 3}d{sup {minus}1} where g (m{sup 2}) is the tree basal area. On a unit ground area basis the transpiration rate, expressed as a depth per day, is given by the relation: E{sub t}= (0.66 {+-} 0.03)G (mm d{sup {minus}1}) where G (m{sup 2} ha{sup {minus}1}) is the total basal area per hectare. For all the sites studied, although there is evidence for the mining of soil water as roots penetrate deeper depths in the soil each year, there is no evidence for direct abstraction from the watertable.

  6. Activated carbon from flash pyrolysis of eucalyptus residue.

    PubMed

    Grima-Olmedo, C; Ramírez-Gómez, Á; Gómez-Limón, D; Clemente-Jul, C

    2016-09-01

    Forestry waste (eucalyptus sp) was converted into activated carbon by initial flash pyrolysis followed carbonization and CO2 activation. These residues were obtained from a pilot plant in Spain that produces biofuel, the biochar represented 10-15% in weight. It was observed that the highest activation was achieved at a temperature of 800 °C, the specific surface increased with time but, on the contrary, high loss of matter was observed. At 600 °C, although there was an important increase of the specific surface and the volume of micropores, at this temperature it was observed that the activation time was not an influential parameter. Finally, at 400 °C it was observed that the activation process was not very significant. Assessing the average pore diameter it was found that the lowest value corresponded to the activation temperature of 600 °C, which indicated the development of microporosity. When the activation temperature increases up to 800 °C the pore diameter increased developing mesoporosity.

  7. Shoot regeneration from stem and leaf callus of Eucalyptus tereticornis.

    PubMed

    Subbaiah, M M; Minocha, S C

    1990-11-01

    Adventitious shoots were obtained from leaf and stem callus of Eucalyptus tereticornis SM. Callus was induced on B5 medium with 0.1 mg/l benzyladenine (BA) and 3 or 5 mg/l naphthalene acetic acid in the dark. Shoot initiation occurred on modified Woody Plant medium (mWP) containing 0.5 mg/l BA, 500 mg/l polyvinylpyrrolidone and 10% (v/v) coconut milk. Multiple shoots were also regenerated directly from hypocotyl segments of 4 to 6 week old seedlings on B5 medium with 0.5 mg/l BA. Regenerated shoots could be rooted with 100% efficiency on mWP medium containing 0.5 mg/l indolebutyric acid and transferred to soil in the greenhouse. Suspension cultures were obtained from the callus using B5 medium with 0.5 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Callus clumps grew from less than 1 mm to 4-6 mm in diameter within two weeks on transfer to shoot regeneration medium but failed to form shoots or somatic embryos.

  8. Climate determines vascular traits in the ecologically diverse genus Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Pfautsch, Sebastian; Harbusch, Marco; Wesolowski, Anita; Smith, Renee; Macfarlane, Craig; Tjoelker, Mark G; Reich, Peter B; Adams, Mark A

    2016-03-01

    Current theory presumes that natural selection on vascular traits is controlled by a trade-off between efficiency and safety of hydraulic architecture. Hence, traits linked to efficiency, such as vessel diameter, should show biogeographic patterns; but critical tests of these predictions are rare, largely owing to confounding effects of environment, tree size and phylogeny. Using wood sampled from a phylogenetically constrained set of 28 Eucalyptus species, collected from a wide gradient of aridity across Australia, we show that hydraulic architecture reflects adaptive radiation of this genus in response to variation in climate. With increasing aridity, vessel diameters narrow, their frequency increases with a distribution that becomes gradually positively skewed and sapwood density increases while the theoretical hydraulic conductivity declines. Differences in these hydraulic traits appear largely genotypic in origin rather than environmentally plastic. Data reported here reflect long-term adaptation of hydraulic architecture to water availability. Rapidly changing climates, on the other hand, present significant challenges to the ability of eucalypts to adapt their vasculature. PMID:26743135

  9. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons.

    PubMed

    Barry, Karen M; Janos, David P; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M J S

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT) followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations.

  10. Climate determines vascular traits in the ecologically diverse genus Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Pfautsch, Sebastian; Harbusch, Marco; Wesolowski, Anita; Smith, Renee; Macfarlane, Craig; Tjoelker, Mark G; Reich, Peter B; Adams, Mark A

    2016-03-01

    Current theory presumes that natural selection on vascular traits is controlled by a trade-off between efficiency and safety of hydraulic architecture. Hence, traits linked to efficiency, such as vessel diameter, should show biogeographic patterns; but critical tests of these predictions are rare, largely owing to confounding effects of environment, tree size and phylogeny. Using wood sampled from a phylogenetically constrained set of 28 Eucalyptus species, collected from a wide gradient of aridity across Australia, we show that hydraulic architecture reflects adaptive radiation of this genus in response to variation in climate. With increasing aridity, vessel diameters narrow, their frequency increases with a distribution that becomes gradually positively skewed and sapwood density increases while the theoretical hydraulic conductivity declines. Differences in these hydraulic traits appear largely genotypic in origin rather than environmentally plastic. Data reported here reflect long-term adaptation of hydraulic architecture to water availability. Rapidly changing climates, on the other hand, present significant challenges to the ability of eucalypts to adapt their vasculature.

  11. [Characterization of growth-promoting rhizobacteria in Eucalyptus nitens seedlings].

    PubMed

    Angulo, Violeta C; Sanfuentes, Eugenio A; Rodríguez, Francisco; Sossa, Katherine E

    2014-01-01

    Rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria were isolated from the rizosphere and root tissue of Eucalyptus nitens. The objective of this work was to evaluate their capacity to promote growth in seedlings of the same species under greenhouse conditions. The isolates that improved seedling growth were identified and characterized by their capacity to produce indoleacetic acid (IAA), solubilize phosphates and increase 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. One hundred and five morphologically different strains were isolated, 15 of which promoted E. nitens seedling growth, significantly increasing the height (50%), root length (45%) as well as the aerial and root dry weight (142% and 135% respectively) of the plants. Bacteria belonged to the genus Arthrobacter, Lysinibacillus, Rahnella and Bacillus. Isolates A. phenanthrenivorans 21 and B. cereus 113 improved 3.15 times the emergence of E. nitens after 12 days, compared to control samples. Among isolated R. aquatilis, 78 showed the highest production of IAA (97.5±2.87 μg/ml) in the presence of tryptophan and the highest solubilizer index (2.4) for phosphorus, while B. amyloliquefaciens 60 isolate was positive for ACC deaminase activity. Our results reveal the potential of the studied rhizobacteria as promoters of emergence and seedling growth of E. nitens, and their possible use as PGPR inoculants, since they have more than one mechanism associated with plant growth promotion.

  12. Understanding the impact of ionic liquid pretreatment on eucalyptus

    SciTech Connect

    Centikol, Ozgul; Dibble, Dean; Cheng, Gang; Kent, Michael S; Knierim, Manfred; Melnichenko, Yuri B

    2010-01-01

    The development of cost-competitive biofuels necessitates the realization of advanced biomass pretreatment technologies. Ionic liquids provide a basis for one of the most promising pretreatment technologies and are known to allow effective processing of cellulose and some biomass species. Here, we demonstrate that the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium acetate, [C2mim][OAc], induces structural changes at the molecular level in the cell wall of Eucalyptus globulus. Deacetylation of xylan, acetylation of the lignin units, selective removal of guaiacyl units (increasing the syringyl:guaiacyl ratio) and decreased {beta}-ether content were the most prominent changes observed. Scanning electron microscopy images of the plant cell wall sections reveal extensive swelling during [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate a change in cellulose crystal structure from cellulose I to cellulose II after [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. Enzymatic saccharification of the pretreated material produced increased sugar yields and improved hydrolysis kinetics after [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. These results provide new insight into the mechanism of ionic liquid pretreatment and reaffirm that this approach may be promising for the production of cellulosic biofuels from woody biomass.

  13. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons.

    PubMed

    Barry, Karen M; Janos, David P; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M J S

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT) followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations. PMID:25750650

  14. Airborne antituberculosis activity of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil.

    PubMed

    Ramos Alvarenga, René F; Wan, Baojie; Inui, Taichi; Franzblau, Scott G; Pauli, Guido F; Jaki, Birgit U

    2014-03-28

    The rapid emergence of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR-TB) has created a pressing public health problem, which mostly affects regions with HIV/AIDS prevalence and represents a new constraint in the already challenging disease management of tuberculosis (TB). The present work responds to the need to reduce the number of contagious MDR/XRD-TB patients, protect their immediate environment, and interrupt the rapid spread by laying the groundwork for an inhalation therapy based on anti-TB-active constituents of the essential oil (EO) of Eucalyptus citriodora. In order to address the metabolomic complexity of EO constituents and active principles in botanicals, this study applied biochemometrics, a 3-D analytical approach that involves high-resolution CCC fractionation, GC-MS analysis, bioactivity measurements, and chemometric analysis. Thus, 32 airborne anti-TB-active compounds were identified in E. citriodora EO: the monoterpenes citronellol (1), linalool (3), isopulegol (5), and α-terpineol (7) and the sesquiterpenoids spathulenol (11), β-eudesmol (23), and τ-cadinol (25). The impact of the interaction of multiple components in EOs was studied using various artificial mixtures (AMxs) of the active monoterpenes 1, 2, and 5 and the inactive eucalyptol (33). Both neat 1 and the AMx containing 1, 2, and 33 showed airborne TB inhibition of >90%, while the major E. citriodora EO component, 2, was only weakly active, at 18% inhibition. PMID:24641242

  15. Genetic control of cuticular wax compounds in Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Gosney, Benjamin J; Potts, Brad M; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M; Vaillancourt, René E; Fitzgerald, Hugh; Davies, Noel W; Freeman, Jules S

    2016-01-01

    Plant cuticular wax compounds perform functions that are essential for the survival of terrestrial plants. Despite their importance, the genetic control of these compounds is poorly understood outside of model taxa. Here we investigate the genetic basis of variation in cuticular compounds in Eucalyptus globulus using quantitative genetic and quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses. Quantitative genetic analysis was conducted using 246 open-pollinated progeny from 13 native sub-races throughout the geographic range. QTL analysis was conducted using 112 clonally replicated progeny from an outcross F2 population. Nine compounds exhibited significant genetic variation among sub-races with three exhibiting signals of diversifying selection. Fifty-two QTL were found with co-location of QTL for related compounds commonly observed. Notable among these was the QTL for five wax esters, which co-located with a gene from the KCS family, previously implicated in the biosynthesis of cuticular waxes in Arabidopsis. In combination, the QTL and quantitative genetic analyses suggest the variation and differentiation in cuticular wax compounds within E. globulus has a complex genetic origin. Sub-races exhibited independent latitudinal and longitudinal differentiation in cuticular wax compounds, likely reflecting processes such as historic gene flow and diversifying selection acting upon genes that have diverse functions in distinct biochemical pathways.

  16. Evolution of the Puente Hills Thrust Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergen, K. J.; Shaw, J. H.; Dolan, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to assess the evolution of the blind Puente Hills thrust fault system (PHT) by determining its age of initiation, lateral propagation history, and changes in slip rate over time. The PHT presents one of the largest seismic hazards in the United States, given its location beneath downtown Los Angeles. The PHT is comprised of three fault segments: the Los Angeles (LA), Santa Fe Springs (SFS), and Coyote Hills (CH). The LA and SFS segments are characterized by growth stratigraphy where folds formed by uplift on the fault segments have been continually buried by sediment from the Los Angeles and San Gabriel rivers. The CH segment has developed topography and is characterized by onlapping growth stratigraphy. This depositional setting gives us the unique opportunity to measure uplift on the LA and SFS fault segments, and minimum uplift on the CH fault segment, as the difference in sediment thicknesses across the buried folds. We utilize depth converted oil industry seismic reflection data to image the fold geometries. Identifying time-correlative stratigraphic markers for slip rate determination in the basin has been a problem for researchers in the past, however, as the faunal assemblages observed in wells are time-transgressive by nature. To overcome this, we utilize the sequence stratigraphic model and well picks of Ponti et al. (2007) as a basis for mapping time-correlative sequence boundaries throughout our industry seismic reflection data from the present to the Pleistocene. From the Pleistocene to Miocene we identify additional sequence boundaries in our seismic reflection data from imaged sequence geometries and by correlating industry well formation tops. The sequence and formation top picks are then used to build 3-dimensional surfaces in the modeling program Gocad. From these surfaces we measure the change in thicknesses across the folds to obtain uplift rates between each sequence boundary. Our results show three distinct phases of

  17. Eucalyptus essential oil as a natural food preservative: in vivo and in vitro antiyeast potential.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Bukvicki, Danka; Gottardi, Davide; Tabanelli, Giulia; Montanari, Chiara; Malik, Anushree; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the application of eucalyptus essential oil/vapour as beverages preservative is reported. The chemical composition of eucalyptus oil was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and solid phase microextraction GC-MS (SPME/GC-MS) analyses. GC-MS revealed that the major constituents were 1,8-cineole (80.5%), limonene (6.5%), α-pinene (5%), and γ-terpinene (2.9%) while SPME/GC-MS showed a relative reduction of 1,8-cineole (63.9%) and an increase of limonene (13.8%), α-pinene (8.87%), and γ-terpinene (3.98%). Antimicrobial potential of essential oil was initially determined in vitro against 8 different food spoilage yeasts by disc diffusion, disc volatilization, and microdilution method. The activity of eucalyptus vapours was significantly higher than the eucalyptus oil. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) varied from 0.56 to 4.50 mg/mL and from 1.13 to 9 mg/mL, respectively. Subsequently, the combined efficacy of essential oil and thermal treatment were used to evaluate the preservation of a mixed fruit juice in a time-dependent manner. These results suggest eucalyptus oil as a potent inhibitor of food spoilage yeasts not only in vitro but also in a real food system. Currently, this is the first report that uses eucalyptus essential oil for fruit juice preservation against food spoiling yeast. PMID:25177704

  18. Environmental effects on growth phenology of co-occurring Eucalyptus species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawal, Deepa S.; Kasel, Sabine; Keatley, Marie R.; Aponte, Cristina; Nitschke, Craig R.

    2014-05-01

    Growth is one of the most important phenological cycles in a plant's life. Higher growth rates increase the competitive ability, survival and recruitment and can provide a measure of a plant's adaptive capacity to climate variability and change. This study identified the growth relationship of six Eucalyptus species to variations in temperature, soil moisture availability, photoperiod length and air humidity over 12 months. The six species represent two naturally co-occurring groups of three species each representing warm-dry and the cool-moist sclerophyll forests, respectively. Warm-dry eucalypts were found to be more tolerant of higher temperatures and lower air humidity than the cool-moist eucalypts. Within groups, species-specific responses were detected with Eucalyptus microcarpa having the widest phenological niche of the warm-dry species, exhibiting greater resistance to high temperature and lower air humidity. Temperature dependent photoperiodic responses were exhibited by all the species except Eucalyptus tricarpa and Eucalyptus sieberi, which were able to maintain growth as photoperiod shortened but temperature requirements were fulfilled. Eucalyptus obliqua exhibited a flexible growth rate and tolerance to moisture limitation which enables it to maintain its growth rate as water availability changes. The wider temperature niche exhibited by E. sieberi compared with E. obliqua and Eucalyptus radiata may improve its competitive ability over these species where winters are warm and moisture does not limit growth. With climate change expected to result in warmer and drier conditions in south-east Australia, the findings of this study suggest all cool-moist species will likely suffer negative effects on growth while the warm-dry species may still maintain current growth rates. Our findings highlight that climate driven shifts in growth phenology will likely occur as climate changes and this may facilitate changes in tree communities by altering inter

  19. BVOC emissions from 2 Asian Eucalyptus species,E.camadulensis and E.robusta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, J.; Guenther, A. B.; Chan, C. K.; Lau, A. P.

    2009-12-01

    Eucalyptus species dominate native forests in Australia and are planted over vast regions in Asia and other continents for afforestation and for pulp due to their fast growth rates. However, they have also been identified as high emitters of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). BVOCs, when emitted to the atmosphere, react to form air pollutants such as ozone (O3) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA). The large areas of Eucalyptus forests in Australia and Asia, and high BVOC emission rates of Eucalyptus species, imply a potential significant effect of BVOC emissions from Eucalyptus on the air quality of these regions. A better understanding of BVOC emissions from this genus is thus needed. Here we present data of BVOC measurements from E.camadulensis and E.robusta. BVOC emissions of the 2 Eucalyptus species were measured by a branch enclosure approach in an environmental chamber, in which light and temperature were carefully controlled to mimic their changes throughout the day under natural conditions. E. camadulensis was found to emit isoprene, α-pinene, camphene and limonene, while E. robusta was found to emit isoprene, α-pinene, β-pinene, α-phellandrene, 3-carene and ocimene. Diurnal variations in BVOC emissions from the 2 species were observed. The 2 Eucalyptus species were also treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a plant hormone which has found to induce elevated BVOC emissions similar to response to insect attacks in other plant species. The emission profiles of the 2 species before and after MeJA treatment were contrasted to examine the effects of the MeJA on their BVOC emissions. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the General Research Fund of the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (Project No. 610909).

  20. Eucalyptus Essential Oil as a Natural Food Preservative: In Vivo and In Vitro Antiyeast Potential

    PubMed Central

    Bukvicki, Danka; Gottardi, Davide; Malik, Anushree; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the application of eucalyptus essential oil/vapour as beverages preservative is reported. The chemical composition of eucalyptus oil was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and solid phase microextraction GC-MS (SPME/GC-MS) analyses. GC-MS revealed that the major constituents were 1,8-cineole (80.5%), limonene (6.5%), α-pinene (5%), and γ-terpinene (2.9%) while SPME/GC-MS showed a relative reduction of 1,8-cineole (63.9%) and an increase of limonene (13.8%), α-pinene (8.87%), and γ-terpinene (3.98%). Antimicrobial potential of essential oil was initially determined in vitro against 8 different food spoilage yeasts by disc diffusion, disc volatilization, and microdilution method. The activity of eucalyptus vapours was significantly higher than the eucalyptus oil. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) varied from 0.56 to 4.50 mg/mL and from 1.13 to 9 mg/mL, respectively. Subsequently, the combined efficacy of essential oil and thermal treatment were used to evaluate the preservation of a mixed fruit juice in a time-dependent manner. These results suggest eucalyptus oil as a potent inhibitor of food spoilage yeasts not only in vitro but also in a real food system. Currently, this is the first report that uses eucalyptus essential oil for fruit juice preservation against food spoiling yeast. PMID:25177704

  1. 123. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF UPPER DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF UPPER DECK OFF-RAMP DESCENDING TO FREMONT STREET, WITH TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP BEHIND, FACING NORTH. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. EXTERIOR, A view looking northwest from far hill toward the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR, A view looking northwest from far hill toward the Mounds complex and the HH Building - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Hydrolysis House Building (HH Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  3. Directional Site Amplification Effect on Tarzana Hill, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graizer, V.; Shakal, A.

    2003-12-01

    Significantly amplified ground accelerations at the Tarzana Hill station were recorded during the 1987 Mw 5.9 Whittier Narrows and the 1994 Mw 6.7 Northridge earthquakes. Peak horizontal ground acceleration at the Tarzana station during the 1999 Mw 7.1 Hector Mine earthquake was almost twice as large as the accelerations recorded at nearby stations. The Tarzana site was drilled to a depth of 100 m. A low shear-wave velocity near the surface of 100 m/sec increasing to near 750 m/sec at 100 m depth was measured. The 20 m high hill was found to be well drained with a water table near 17 m. Modelo formation (extremely weathered at the surface to fresh at depth) underlies the hill. The subsurface geology and velocities obtained allow classification of this location as a soft-rock site. After the Northridge earthquake the California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program significantly increased instrumentation at Tarzana to study the unusual site amplification effect. Current instrumentation at Tarzana consists of an accelerograph at the top of Tarzana hill (Tarzana - Cedar Hill B), a downhole instrument at 60 m depth, and an accelerograph at the foot of the hill (Tarzana - Clubhouse), 180 m from the Cedar Hill B station. The original station, Tarzana - Cedar Hill Nursery A, was lost in 1999 due to construction. More than twenty events, including the Hector Mine earthquake, were recorded by all these instruments at Tarzana. Comparison of recordings and response spectra demonstrates strong directional resonance on the top of the hill in a direction perpendicular to the strike of the hill in the period range from 0.04 to 0.8 sec (1.2 to 25 Hz). There is practically no amplification from the bottom to the top of the hill for the component parallel to the strike of the hill. In contrast to accelerations recorded during the Hector Mine earthquake (high frequency part of seismic signal), displacements (relatively low frequency part of seismic signal) demonstrate almost no site

  4. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer July 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer July 10, 1936 SOUTH ELEVATION (Copied from student's drawing, Dept. of Architecture, Armour Institute of Technology. Chicago) - Keating House, U.S. Highway 430, Fayville, Alexander County, IL

  5. 23. CUESTA TUNNEL, PORTAL STRUCTURES. Leeds, Hill, Barnard & Jewett ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. CUESTA TUNNEL, PORTAL STRUCTURES. Leeds, Hill, Barnard & Jewett drawing, no number, revised 10/10/41. - Salinas River Project, Cuesta Tunnel, Southeast of U.S. 101, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  6. 22. TRANSMISSION MAIN, PLAN AND PROFILE, INDEX SHEET. Leeds, Hill, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. TRANSMISSION MAIN, PLAN AND PROFILE, INDEX SHEET. Leeds, Hill, Barnard & Jewett drawing, no date, no number. - Salinas River Project, Cuesta Tunnel, Southeast of U.S. 101, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  7. 265. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF TENSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    265. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF TENSION EYE BARS AT CANTILEVER TRUSS, FACING SOUTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. 266. Dennis Hill, Photographer June 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF TENSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    266. Dennis Hill, Photographer June 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF TENSION EYE BARS AND COMPRESSION MEMBERS ABOVE UPPER DECK, FACING SOUTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. Inwood Hill Park underpass, below Henry Hudson Parkway southbound, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Inwood Hill Park underpass, below Henry Hudson Parkway southbound, looking southeast. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  10. 234. Dennis Hill, Photographer July 1998 VIEW OF BUS STOP, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    234. Dennis Hill, Photographer July 1998 VIEW OF BUS STOP, UPPER DECK OF YERBA BUENA EAST VIADUCT, FACING WEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. 24. VIEW FORM NORTHWEST, WHERE HOUSE RECEDES INTO HILL, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW FORM NORTHWEST, WHERE HOUSE RECEDES INTO HILL, SHOWING ROOF, CHIMNEY AND OCTAGONAL SKYLIGHT TO KITCHEN IN CENTER - Isaac N. Hagan House, Kentuck Knob, U.S. Route 40 vicinity (Stewart Township), Chalkhill, Fayette County, PA

  12. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 10, 1936 CAST IRON GATE AT 1352 W. Washington Blvd., Chicago - Chicago Ironwork, William M. Strong Estate (Cast Iron House & Gate), 1352 West Washington Boulevard, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  13. 46. LINED SECTION OF AQUEDUCT LOOKING NORTH TO ALABAMA HILLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. LINED SECTION OF AQUEDUCT LOOKING NORTH TO ALABAMA HILLS - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer Spring 1937 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer Spring 1937 DETAIL OF CORNICE AND SECOND FLOOR WINDOW TRIM. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  15. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 PRESENT WEST + SOUTH ELEVATIONS - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  16. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 26, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 26, 1936 NORTH ELEVATION - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  17. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 FRONT HALL, INTERIOR DETAIL - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  18. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 26, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 26, 1936 TYPICAL WINDOW, EXTERIOR - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  19. 17. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 LIVING ROOM FIREPLACE (RESTORED) - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  20. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 COPY OF OLD PHOTOGRAPH FURNISHED BY THE COMMANDANT, DATE UNKNOWN - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  1. 14. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 26, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 26, 1936 MAIN ENTRANCE - EXTERIOR - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  2. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 26, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 26, 1936 FIREPLACE IN DINING ROOM, The Davenport House, Rock Island Arsenal - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  3. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 26, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 26, 1936 NORTH ELEVATION - DETAIL OF PORTICO - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  4. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 COPY OF OLD PHOTOGRAPH LOANED BY THE COMMANDANT, EARLY PHOTO OF HOUSE DATE UNKNOWN. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  5. 16. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 26, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 26, 1936 TYPICAL WINDOW, INTERIOR - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  6. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer COL. DAVENPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer COL. DAVENPORT Copy of an old photograph loaned by the commandant. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  7. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 COPY OF OLD PHOTOGRAPH LOANED BY THE COMMANDANT. DATE UNKNOWN - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  8. 203. Dennis Hill, Photographer May 1998 VIEW OF LOWER DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    203. Dennis Hill, Photographer May 1998 VIEW OF LOWER DECK AT CENTER ANCHORAGE, FACING NORTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer October 1936 #12 EARLY RED BRICK HOUSE, Elk and Prospect Sts., Galena, Illinois - Galena Doorways, Red Brick House, Elk & Prospect Streets, Galena, Jo Daviess County, IL

  10. Dennis Hill, Photographer May 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF WINDOW AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Dennis Hill, Photographer May 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF WINDOW AT TORPEDO ASSEMBLY BUILDING, FACING SOUTHEAST - Torpedo Assembly Building, Eastern end of Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF FRONT OF SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF FRONT OF SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE FIREHOUSE, FACING SOUTHWEST - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge Firehouse, Adjacent to north side of bridge on Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. 2. Dennis Hill, Photographer May 1998 INTERIOR DETAIL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Dennis Hill, Photographer May 1998 INTERIOR DETAIL VIEW OF STERLING STREET SUBSTATION COMPRESSIVE PANELS, FACING SOUTHWEST. - Sterling Street Substation, Near corner of Harrison & Second Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. Hill Stability in the Finite Density N-Body Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2016-05-01

    A Celestial Mechanics system is Hill Stable if its components cannot escape from each other. Such stability is difficult to prove for general Celestial Mechanics problems with N ≥ 3 bodies interacting with each other. This is in part due to the ability of two bodies to come arbitrarily close to each other, freeing kinetic energy that can be used for an additional body to escape. When considering bodies with finite density, meaning that they have finite sizes and their mass centers cannot come arbitrarily close to each other, this pathway to escape has specific limits that make the determination of Hill Stability feasible. This opens up new definitions of Hill Stability that can be used to determine energetic thresholds at which a rubble pile body with sufficient angular momentum can shed mass components of various sizes. This talk will review recent advances in Hill Stability with direct application to the interaction of self-gravitating rubble pile bodies.

  14. 28. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM CREST OF HILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM CREST OF HILL ABOVE EAST TOWER. NOTE SWAY CABLES ON EACH SIDE OF THE WALKWAY. March 1987 - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. View looking east over coal tipple toward Friendship Hill, home ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking east over coal tipple toward Friendship Hill, home of Albert Gallatin, in right background behine bridge. - Monongahela Railroad, New Geneva Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River, South of Lock & Dam No. 7, New Geneva, Fayette County, PA

  16. 233. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF LOWER DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    233. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF LOWER DECK AND KEY SYSTEM STATION CANOPY, YERBA BUENA EAST VIADUCT, FACING NORTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. 215. Dennis Hill, Photographer May 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF STRAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    215. Dennis Hill, Photographer May 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF STRAND SHOES AND STORM CABLE EYE BARS IN YERBA BUENA ANCHORAGE, FACING EAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. 184. Dennis Hill, Photographer June 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    184. Dennis Hill, Photographer June 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER DECK EXPANSION JOINT AT PIER W-2, FACING WEST-SOUTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 12. VIEW FROM PARKWAY MEDIAN TO SPORT HILL ROAD BRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW FROM PARKWAY MEDIAN TO SPORT HILL ROAD BRIDGE, Copy of photograph ca. 1940. Collection Connecticut Department of Transportation. - Merritt Parkway, Bridge No. 744, Spanning Merritt Parkway at Route 59, Fairfield, Fairfield County, CT

  20. Boothby Hill Road Bridge. Aberdeen, Hareford Co., MD. Sec. 1201, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Boothby Hill Road Bridge. Aberdeen, Hareford Co., MD. Sec. 1201, MP 66.88. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  1. Context view looking west from hill with tree in foreground. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Context view looking west from hill with tree in foreground. Entist Mountains are in distance. - Badger Mountain Lookout, .125 mile northwest of Badger Mountain summit, East Wenatchee, Douglas County, WA

  2. 170. Credit SHS. Northern California Power Company substation, Bully Hill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    170. Credit SHS. Northern California Power Company substation, Bully Hill Mine area. Note lack of vegetation, caused by nearby copper smelting works. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  3. 81. VIEW NORTH ON WEST SIDE OF GUN HILL PLATFORM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. VIEW NORTH ON WEST SIDE OF GUN HILL PLATFORM SHOWING LAMP STANDARDS FOR NIGHT LIGHTNING. - Interborough Rapid Transit Company, Third Avenue Elevated Line, Borough of the Bronx, New York County, NY

  4. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment III. Florida's eucalyptus energy farm and methanol refinery: the background environment

    SciTech Connect

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    A wide array of general background information is presented on the Central Florida area in which the eucalyptus energy plantation and methanol refinery will be located. Five counties in Central Florida may be affected by the project, DeSoto, Hardee, Hillsborough, Manatee, and Polk. The human resources of the area are reviewed. Included are overviews of population demographic and economic trends. Land use patterns and the transportation are system described, and the region's archeological and recreational resources are evaluated. The region's air quality is emphasized. The overall climate is described along with noise and air shed properties. An analysis of the region's water resources is included. Ground water is discussed first followed by an analysis of surface water. Then the overall quality and water supply/demand balance for the area is evaluated. An overview of the region's biota is presented. Included here are discussions of the general ecosystems in Central Florida, and an analysis of areas with important biological significance. Finally, land resources are examined.

  5. Field test of a lemon eucalyptus repellent against Leptoconops biting midges.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Scott P; Loye, Jenella

    2006-09-01

    We tested a lemon eucalyptus-based repellent against the biting midge Leptoconops carteri Hoffman in the Central Valley of California. This relatively new active ingredient has demonstrated high efficacy in a number of studies with mosquitoes. Ten subjects tested spray and lotion formulations on 2 consecutive days, along with a deet-positive control and an untreated control, with 6 h of continuous exposure per treatment. Half of the eucalyptus subjects received no bites, and the true median protection time probably exceeded the test duration. PMID:17067050

  6. Field test of a lemon eucalyptus repellent against Leptoconops biting midges.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Scott P; Loye, Jenella

    2006-09-01

    We tested a lemon eucalyptus-based repellent against the biting midge Leptoconops carteri Hoffman in the Central Valley of California. This relatively new active ingredient has demonstrated high efficacy in a number of studies with mosquitoes. Ten subjects tested spray and lotion formulations on 2 consecutive days, along with a deet-positive control and an untreated control, with 6 h of continuous exposure per treatment. Half of the eucalyptus subjects received no bites, and the true median protection time probably exceeded the test duration.

  7. The insecticidal activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil on the development of Musca domestica third stage larvae.

    PubMed

    Abdel Halim, Azza S; Morsy, Tosson A

    2005-08-01

    The insecticidal activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil (Camphor oil) against the larval maturation and adult emergency of the house-fly, Musca domestica 3rd stage was evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. Concentrations of 100%, 70%, 50% 25%, 5%, 2%, 1%, 0.9 % and 0.7% showed 100% larval mortality rate. At concentrations of 0.5%, 0.3%, 0.2% and 0.1% the larval mortality rate was 90%. On the other hand, the developed pupae did not emerge to adults. Eucalyptus globulus oil is safe, cheap and widely used in Medicine. So, it is recommended to be use in controlling larvae of M. domestica. PMID:16083072

  8. Influence of carbonization conditions on the pyrolytic carbon deposition in acacia and eucalyptus wood chars

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M.; Gupta, R.C.

    1997-04-01

    The amount of deposited pyrolytic carbon (resulting from the cracking of volatile matter) was found to depend on wood species and carbonization conditions, such as temperature and heating rate. Maximum pyrolytic carbon deposition in both the acacia and eucalyptus wood chars has been observed at a carbonization temperature of 800 C. Rapid carbonization (higher heating rate) of wood significantly reduces the amount of deposited pyrolytic carbon in resulting chars. Results also indicate that the amount of deposited pyrolytic carbon in acacia wood char is less than that in eucalyptus wood char.

  9. Elastic Cloud Computing Infrastructures in the Open Cirrus Testbed Implemented via Eucalyptus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baun, Christian; Kunze, Marcel

    Cloud computing realizes the advantages and overcomes some restrictionsof the grid computing paradigm. Elastic infrastructures can easily be createdand managed by cloud users. In order to accelerate the research ondata center management and cloud services the OpenCirrusTM researchtestbed has been started by HP, Intel and Yahoo!. Although commercialcloud offerings are proprietary, Open Source solutions exist in the field ofIaaS with Eucalyptus, PaaS with AppScale and at the applications layerwith Hadoop MapReduce. This paper examines the I/O performance ofcloud computing infrastructures implemented with Eucalyptus in contrastto Amazon S3.

  10. After runaway: The trans-Hill stage of planetesimal growth

    SciTech Connect

    Lithwick, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    When planetesimals begin to grow by coagulation, they first enter an epoch of runaway, during which the biggest bodies grow faster than all the others. The questions of how runaway ends and what comes next have not been answered satisfactorily. We show that runaway is followed by a new stage—the 'trans-Hill stage'—that commences when the bodies that dominate viscous stirring ('big bodies') become trans-Hill, i.e., when their Hill velocity matches the random speed of the small bodies they accrete. Subsequently, the small bodies' random speed grows in lockstep with the big bodies' sizes, such that the system remains in the trans-Hill state. Trans-Hill growth is crucial for determining the efficiency of growing big bodies, as well as their growth timescale and size spectrum. Trans-Hill growth has two sub-stages. In the earlier one, which occurs while the stirring bodies remain sufficiently small, the evolution is collisionless, i.e., collisional cooling among all bodies is irrelevant. The efficiency of forming big bodies in this collisionless sub-stage is very low, ∼10α << 1, where α ∼ 0.005(a/AU){sup –1} is the ratio between the physical size of a body and its Hill radius. Furthermore, the size spectrum is flat (equal mass per size decade, i.e., q = 4). This collisionless trans-Hill solution explains results from previous coagulation simulations for both the Kuiper Belt and the asteroid belt. The second trans-Hill sub-stage commences once the stirring bodies grow big enough (>α{sup –1} × the size of the accreted small bodies). After that time, collisional cooling among small bodies controls the evolution. The efficiency of forming big bodies rises and the size spectrum becomes more top heavy. Trans-Hill growth can terminate in one of two ways, depending on the sizes of the small bodies. First, mutual accretion of big bodies can become significant and conglomeration proceeds until half of the total mass is converted into big bodies. This mode of growth

  11. After Runaway: The Trans-Hill Stage of Planetesimal Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lithwick, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    When planetesimals begin to grow by coagulation, they first enter an epoch of runaway, during which the biggest bodies grow faster than all the others. The questions of how runaway ends and what comes next have not been answered satisfactorily. We show that runaway is followed by a new stage—the "trans-Hill stage"—that commences when the bodies that dominate viscous stirring ("big bodies") become trans-Hill, i.e., when their Hill velocity matches the random speed of the small bodies they accrete. Subsequently, the small bodies' random speed grows in lockstep with the big bodies' sizes, such that the system remains in the trans-Hill state. Trans-Hill growth is crucial for determining the efficiency of growing big bodies, as well as their growth timescale and size spectrum. Trans-Hill growth has two sub-stages. In the earlier one, which occurs while the stirring bodies remain sufficiently small, the evolution is collisionless, i.e., collisional cooling among all bodies is irrelevant. The efficiency of forming big bodies in this collisionless sub-stage is very low, ~10α Lt 1, where α ~ 0.005(a/AU)-1 is the ratio between the physical size of a body and its Hill radius. Furthermore, the size spectrum is flat (equal mass per size decade, i.e., q = 4). This collisionless trans-Hill solution explains results from previous coagulation simulations for both the Kuiper Belt and the asteroid belt. The second trans-Hill sub-stage commences once the stirring bodies grow big enough (>α-1 × the size of the accreted small bodies). After that time, collisional cooling among small bodies controls the evolution. The efficiency of forming big bodies rises and the size spectrum becomes more top heavy. Trans-Hill growth can terminate in one of two ways, depending on the sizes of the small bodies. First, mutual accretion of big bodies can become significant and conglomeration proceeds until half of the total mass is converted into big bodies. This mode of growth may explain the

  12. Steamboat Hills exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, F.D.; Hickox, C.E.; Eaton, R.R.

    1994-10-01

    During July-September, 1993, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Far West Capital, drilled a 4000 feet exploratory slimhole (3.9 inch diameter) in the Steamboat Hills geothermal field near Reno, Nevada. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed four series of production and injection tests while taking downhole (pressure-temperature-spinner) and surface (wellhead pressure and temperature, flow rate) data. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: continuous core (with detailed log); borehole televiewer images of the wellbore`s upper 500 feet; daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; numerous temperature logs; and comparative data from production and injection wells in the same field. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  13. SRTM Anaglyph: Haro and Kas Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On January 26, 2001 the Kachchh region in western India suffered the most deadly earthquake in India's history. This three-dimensional view of landforms northeast of the city of Bhuj depicts geologic structures that are of interest in the study the tectonic processes that may have led to that earthquake. However, preliminary field studies indicate that these structures are composed of Mesozoic rocks that are overlain by younger rocks showing little deformation. Thus these structures may be old, not actively growing, and not directly related to the recent earthquake.

    The Haro Hills are on the left and the Kas Hills are on the right. The Haro Hills are an 'anticline,' which is an upwardly convex elongated fold of layered rocks. The anticline is distinctly ringed by an erosion resistant layer of sandstone. The east-west orientation of the anticline may relate to the crustal compression that has occurred during India's northward movement toward, and collision with, Asia. In contrast, the largest of the Kas Hills appears to be a tilted (to the south) and faulted (on the north) block of layered rocks. Also seen here, the curvilinear ridge trending toward the southwest from the image center is an erosion resistant 'dike,' which is an igneous intrusion into older 'host' rocks along a fault plane or other crack. The dike also appears to extend northeast from the image center as a dark line having very little topography. Its location between the tilted block and a smaller anticline to the north (directly east of the larger anticline) probably indicates that the dike fills the fault that separates these contrasting geologic structures. These features are simple examples of how digital elevation data can stereoscopically enhance satellite imagery to provide a direct input to geologic studies.

    The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image (taken just two weeks after the earthquake) over preliminary digital elevation

  14. Bunker Hill Superfund site: Ecological restoration program

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.; Chaney, R.; Henry, C.L.; Compton, H.

    1998-12-31

    Bunker Hill ID was the site of mining and smelting activities for many decades. As a result of these activities, soils on the hillsides adjacent to the site became contaminated with Pb, Zn, and Cd. In addition to metal contamination, pH of the soils became highly acidic. Native vegetation has died off and the soils have become highly erosive. An application of municipal biosolids in combination with wood ash and log yard wood waste was made to test the potential of this remediation mixture to reduce erosion, correct soil pH, and support a self sustaining vegetative cover. Biosolids improve soil physical properties and provide macro and micro nutrients. Wood ash serves as a lime substitute and a source of nutrients. Log yard waste improves physical properties and has a high C:N ratio that reduces the potential for N leaching. Initial results are promising. A healthy stand of grasses and legumes has been established. In addition, the application mixture has proven itself to be highly resistant to erosion.

  15. Robert I. Hill (1953-1992)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Geoff

    Robert I. Hill of the Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, died suddenly on July 25 at age 38. Robert was a warm and generous person, a scientist with substantial accomplishments already to his credit, and a skilled lobbyist for and communicator of science. He had great potential as a scientist and as a leader of science.Robert obtained a first-class honors degree from the ANU Geology Department in 1976 and a Ph.D. from Caltech in 1984. He went on to become a research associate at Cambridge, a research fellow at RSES, and finally, a Queen Elizabeth II Fellow there. His Ph.D. research was a field-based study of the dynamic processes involved in the intrusion of magma into the crust. Later, he studied the sources of deep crustal fluids using helium isotopes, the geological setting of ore bodies with a variety of geochemical and geochronological methods, the occurrence of oil and gas deposits, and the processes that formed and modified the continental crust.

  16. SOUTH ELEVATION OF GOLD HILL MILL, LOOKING NORTH. THE PRIMARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH ELEVATION OF GOLD HILL MILL, LOOKING NORTH. THE PRIMARY ORE BIN IS A CENTER, WITH A JAW CRUSHER JUST TO THE RIGHT. A CONVEYOR (MISSING) WAS USED TO CARRY CRUSHED ORE UP AND INTO THE SECONDARY ORE BIN. THE STONE RAMP TO THE LEFT OF THE ORE BIN WAS USED TO DRIVE TRUCKS UP TO DUMPING LEVEL. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  17. 4. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM RIDGE ABOVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM RIDGE ABOVE GOVERNMENT GULCH LOOKING TO THE EAST. IN THE RIGHT MID GROUND, CARPENTER SHOP BUILDINGS AND FRAMING SHEDS ARE VISIBLE. THE BACKGROUND FACILITIES VISIBLE FROM L. TO R. ARE: SMELTER OFFICE, REFINERIES, SLAG FUMING STACKS, HIGH VELOCITY FLUE, BAG HOUSE, 200-FOOT STACK, AND 715-FOOT STACK. - Bunker Hill Lead Smelter, Bradley Rail Siding, Kellogg, Shoshone County, ID

  18. 3. General view of Fort Hill Farm, view looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view of Fort Hill Farm, view looking west from (B) two-story hall-and-parlor house. Buildings visible, from left to right, are (B) parlor house porch; (E) one-room cabin; (D) center chimney four-room cabin; (J) hay barn; (I) log tobacco barn; (A) mansion, obscured by trees; (M) stable; (K) small barn. - Fort Hill Farm, West of Staunton (Roanoke) River between Turkey & Caesar's Runs, Clover, Halifax County, VA

  19. 2. General view of Fort Hill Farm, view looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. General view of Fort Hill Farm, view looking north from (F) two-room cabin. From left to right, buildings visible are (I) log tobacco barn; (H and D) shed and center chimney four-room cabin; (E and (A) one-room cabin in front of mansion; (J) hay barn. - Fort Hill Farm, West of Staunton (Roanoke) River between Turkey & Caesar's Runs, Clover, Halifax County, VA

  20. 1. General view of Fort Hill Farm, view looking southsoutheast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of Fort Hill Farm, view looking south-southeast. From left to right, buildings visible are (B) two-story hall-and-parlor house; (k) small barn; (A) mansion' (G( shed; (H) shed; (I) log tobacco barn; (H and D) shed and center chimney four-room cabin; (E and (A) one-room cabin in front of mansion; (J) hay barn. - Fort Hill Farm, West of Staunton (Roanoke) River between Turkey & Caesar's Runs, Clover, Halifax County, VA

  1. Stormwater Management Plan for the Arden Hills Army Training Site, Arden Hills, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, Adrianne E.; Wuthrich, Kelsey K.; Ziech, Angela M.; Bowen, Esther E.; Quinn, John

    2013-03-01

    This stormwater management plan focuses on the cantonment and training areas of the Arden Hills Army Training Site (AHATS). The plan relates the site stormwater to the regulatory framework, and it summarizes best management practices to aide site managers in promoting clean site runoff. It includes documentation for a newly developed, detailed model of stormwater flow retention for the entire AHATS property and adjacent upgradient areas. The model relies on established modeling codes integrated in a U.S. Department of Defense-sponsored software tool, the Watershed Modeling System (WMS), and it can be updated with data on changes in land use or with monitoring data.

  2. Geologic and paleoecologic studies of the Nebraska Sand Hills

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.; Fryberger, S.G.; Hanley, John H.; Bradbury, J. Platt

    1980-01-01

    PART A: The Nebraska Sand Hills are an inactive, late Quaternary, most probably Holocene, dune field (covering 57,000 km 2 ) that have been eroded along streams and in blowouts, resulting in excellent lateral and vertical exposures of the stratification of dune and interdune sediments. This paper presents new data on the geometry, primary sedimentary structures, modification of sedimentary structures, direction of sand movement, and petrography of these eolian deposits. Eolian deposits of the Sand Hills occur as relatively thin (9-24 m) 'blanket' sands, composed of a complex of dune and discontinuous, diachronous interdune deposits unconformably overlying fluviolacustrine sediments. The internal stratification of large dunes in the Sand Hills (as high as 100 m), is similar to the internal stratification of smaller dunes of the same type in the Sand Hills, differing only in scale. Studies of laminae orientation in the Sand Hills indicate that transverse, barchan, and blowout dunes can be differentiated in rocks of eolian origin using both the mean dip angle of laminae and the mean angular deviation of dip direction. A variety of secondary structures modify or replace primary eolian stratification in the Sand Hills, the more common of which are dissipation structures and bioturbation. Dissipation structures in the Sand Hills may develop when infiltrating water deposits clay adjacent to less permeable layers in the sand, or along the upper margins of frozen layers that form in the sands during winter. Cross-bed measurements from dunes of the Nebraska Sand Hills necessitate a new interpretation of the past sand transport directions. The data from these measurements indicate a general northwest-to-southeast drift of sand, with a more southerly drift in the southeast part of the Sand Hills. A large area of small dunes < 100 m high) described by Smith (1965) as linear or seif in the central part of the Sand Hills was interpreted by him on the basis of morphology only. We

  3. Recovering of carbon fixation in a eucalyptus site after felling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, A. M.; Pita, G. P. A.; Mateus, A.; Santos Pereira, J.

    2009-04-01

    Espirra site (38°38'N,8°36'W) is located in a 300ha Eucalyptus globulus plantation, with a Mediterranean type climate with a mean annual precipitation of 709mm and a mean annual air temperature of 15.9°C. The plantation was established in 1986 with about 1100 trees ha-1. A 33m observation tower was installed in 2002, with an ultrasonic Gill anemometer R2, an open path analyzer IRGA LI-7500 and a microclimate unit at its top. A harvesting of trees was made at the end of the 2nd rotation period, from November to December 2006. During the last four years of the second rotation the coppice were 20m height. Harvesting was planned in order to initiate a new 12 year productive cycle. In October 2008 a first thinning was made in three fourths of emerging stems from stumps. At this stage the forest trees had a mean height of 6m. For the 2002-2006 period, mean annual values of carbon net ecosystem exchange (NEE), gross production(GPP) and ecosystem respiration(Reco) were -533.3 gCm-2, 1628.6 gCm-2 and 1095.2 gCm-2. Seasonal patterns of carbon fixation for the five years showed a decrease in July-August periods due to highest air temperatures, atmospheric water vapour deficits and stomata partial closure to prevent water transpiration losses. For the period 2002-2006, the dry year of 2005 with a precipitation of about 390 mm, corresponded to the smaller carbon fixation of 390 gCm-2. Similarly, values of Reco, GPP and estimated leaf area index (less than three) were also minimal in 2005. Water use efficiency, WUE (ratio GPP/precipitation) was maximum in summer periods and in driest years, reaching values of about 12g/L-1. Recovery of carbon sink capacity, after the felling, begun after August 2007. The 2007 and 2008 annual NEE values were respectively 105.8 gCm-2 and -35.78 gCm-2. This negative value of NEE for 2008 is indicative of a carbon sink recovery. Annual Reco values for 2007 and 2008 were respectively 1059.03 gCm-2 and 1148.21 gCm-2. For GPP the annual values of

  4. Isoprene and monoterpene emissions from a Eucalyptus plantation in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Street, Rachel A.; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Mennicken, Stefan

    1997-07-01

    Measurements of isoprene and monoterpene emission rates were made from a mature and an immature Eucalyptus globulus tree in a commercial monoculture plantation in central Portugal in 1994 using a branch enclosure sampling system with analysis by gas chromatography/flame ionization and gas chromatography/mass selective methods. Isoprene was the dominant compound emitted and represented over 90% of the total assigned volatile organic compound plant emissions during the day. Other identified species were α-pinene, sabinene, β-pinene, myrcene, limonene, cineole, linalool, α-terpineol, and, tentatatively, cis- and trans-ocimine and an unidentified octatriene. When they were adjusted to standard conditions of temperature (30°C) and light (1000 μmol-2 ms-1) VOC emissions from a 1 year old sapling were 5 times higher (49 and 5.2 μg Cg-1 dry wt h-1 for isoprene and total monoterpenes, respectively) than those from a 7-year-old tree (15 and 0.7 μg C g-1 dry wt h-1 respectively). On a projected leaf area basis these differences were not so apparent (isoprene; 5 and 4 mg m-2 h-1, young and old trees, respectively; monoterpenes, 0.6 and 0.2 mg m-2 h-1, respectively). Emission rates from both trees were closely correlated with incident light flux and temperature, with daytime maxima, and with nighttime minima. Existing models describing emissions in terms of light, temperature, and empirical coefficients were found to adequately predict emissions from the young tree but to grossly overestimate emission rates from the mature tree. This finding has implications for the extrapolation of emission data obtained in the laboratory with immature trees to the canopy, regional, or global scales, although additional measurements are required to determine whether the results presented here can be generalized.

  5. Effect of eucalyptus oil inhalation on pain and inflammatory responses after total knee replacement: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Jun, Yang Suk; Kang, Purum; Min, Sun Seek; Lee, Jeong-Min; Kim, Hyo-Keun; Seol, Geun Hee

    2013-01-01

    Eucalyptus oil has been reported effective in reducing pain, swelling, and inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of eucalyptus oil inhalation on pain and inflammatory responses after total knee replacement (TKR) surgery. Participants were randomized 1 : 1 to intervention group (eucalyptus inhalation group) or control group (almond oil inhalation group). Patients inhaled eucalyptus or almond oil for 30 min of continuous passive motion (CPM) on 3 consecutive days. Pain on a visual analog scale (VAS), blood pressure, heart rate, C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, and white blood cell (WBC) count were measured before and after inhalation. Pain VAS on all three days (P < .001) and systolic (P < .05) and diastolic (P = .03) blood pressure on the second day were significantly lower in the group inhaling eucalyptus than that inhaling almond oil. Heart rate, CRP, and WBC, however, did not differ significantly in the two groups. In conclusion, inhalation of eucalyptus oil was effective in decreasing patient's pain and blood pressure following TKR, suggesting that eucalyptus oil inhalation may be a nursing intervention for the relief of pain after TKR.

  6. Stargazing at 'Husband Hill Observatory' on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit continues to take advantage of extra solar energy by occasionally turning its cameras upward for night sky observations. Most recently, Spirit made a series of observations of bright star fields from the summit of 'Husband Hill' in Gusev Crater on Mars. Scientists use the images to assess the cameras' sensitivity and to search for evidence of nighttime clouds or haze. The image on the left is a computer simulation of the stars in the constellation Orion. The next three images are actual views of Orion captured with Spirit's panoramic camera during exposures of 10, 30, and 60 seconds.

    Because Spirit is in the southern hemisphere of Mars, Orion appears upside down compared to how it would appear to viewers in the Northern Hemisphere of Earth. 'Star trails' in the longer exposures are a result of the planet's rotation. The faintest stars visible in the 60-second exposure are about as bright as the faintest stars visible with the naked eye from Earth (about magnitude 6 in astronomical terms). The Orion Nebula, famous as a nursery of newly forming stars, is also visible in these images. Bright streaks in some parts of the images aren't stars or meteors or unidentified flying objects, but are caused by solar and galactic cosmic rays striking the camera's detector. Spirit acquired these images with the panoramic camera on Martian day, or sol, 632 (Oct. 13, 2005) at around 45 minutes past midnight local time, using the camera's broadband filter (wavelengths of 739 nanometers plus or minus 338 nanometers).

  7. Polyplax guatemalensis sp. n. (Phthiraptera: Anoplura), a new sucking louse from Peromyscus grandis, a montane cloud forest rodent from Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Durden, L A; Eckerlin, R P

    2001-01-01

    The adult male and female of Polyplax guatemalensis sp. n. are described from the sigmodontine murid rodent Peromyscus grandis Goodwin collected in the Reserva de Biosfera, Sierra de las Minas, Guatemala, at an elevation of 2,200 m. The new species extends the number of known native species of Polyplax in the New World to four with none of them recorded south of Panama. Polyplax guatemalensis is morphologically most closely related to Polyplax auricularis which parasitises a cluster of closely related New World sigmodontine rodents from Canada to Panama. These two species can be distinguished from all other known species of Polyplax by the presence of partially overlapping, subtriangular, anterior abdominal plates in both sexes. Polyplax guatemalensis can be separated from P. auricularis by the abundant tergal abdominal setae and longer pseudopenis in males, and by the presence of one fewer anterior abdominal, subtriangular tergite and sternite in females.

  8. Genetic diversity of Brazilian natural populations of Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the major cotton pest in the New World.

    PubMed

    Martins, W F S; Ayres, C F J; Lucena, W A

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-five RAPD loci and 6 isozyme loci were studied to characterize the genetic variability of natural populations of Anthonomus grandis from two agroecosystems of Brazil. The random-amplified polymorphic DNA data disclosed a polymorphism that varied from 52 to 84% and a heterozygosity of 0.189 to 0.347. The index of genetic differentiation (GST) among the six populations was 0.258. The analysis of isozymes showed a polymorphism and a heterozygosity ranging from 25 to 100% and 0.174 to 0.277, respectively. The genetic differentiation (FST) among the populations obtained by isozyme data was 0.544. It was possible to observe rare alleles in the populations from the Northeast region. The markers examined allowed us to distinguish populations from large-scale, intensive farming region (cotton belts) versus populations from areas of small-scale farming

  9. Effects of granulation on organic acid metabolism and its relation to mineral elements in Citrus grandis juice sacs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-You; Wang, Ping; Qi, Yi-Ping; Zhou, Chen-Ping; Yang, Lin-Tong; Liao, Xin-Yan; Wang, Liu-Qing; Zhu, Dong-Huang; Chen, Li-Song

    2014-02-15

    We investigated the effects of granulation on organic acid metabolism and its relation to mineral elements in 'Guanximiyou' pummelo (Citrus grandis) juice sacs. Granulated juice sacs had decreased concentrations of citrate and isocitrate, thus lowering juice sac acidity. By contrast, malate concentration was higher in granulated juice sacs than in normal ones. The reduction in citrate concentration might be caused by increased degradation, as indicated by enhanced aconitase activity, whilst the increase in malate concentration might be caused by increased biosynthesis, as indicated by enhanced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC). Real time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that the activities of most acid-metabolizing enzymes were regulated at the transcriptional level, whilst post-translational modifications might influence the PEPC activity. Granulation led to increased accumulation of mineral elements (especially phosphorus, magnesium, sulphur, zinc and copper) in juice sacs, which might be involved in the incidence of granulation in pummelo fruits.

  10. Modification of eucalyptus pulp fiber using silane coupling agents with aliphatic side chains of different length

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of three silane coupling agents with different aliphatic chain lengths on the hydrophobicity of eucalyptus pulp fiber. The three silanes coupling agents used (isobutyltrimethoxysilane, methyltrimethoxysilane, and n-octyltriethoxysilane [OTES]) we...

  11. Polyester composites reinforced with corona-treated fibers from pine, eucalyptus and sugarcane bagasse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study aims to evaluate plant fibers that were surface activated with NaOH and corona discharge before incorporating in ortho unsaturated polyester-based fiber composites. It demonstrates the potential use of lignocellulosic particles, especially eucalyptus that presented the higher values for a...

  12. Ecophysiological and foliar nitrogen concentration responses of understorey Acacia spp. and Eucalyptus sp. to prescribed burning.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ling; Rao, Xingquan; Lu, Ping; Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Xu, Zhihong; Chen, Xiaoyang; Blumfield, Timothy; Xie, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Eucalyptus spp. is a dominant tree genus in Australia and most Eucalyptus spp. are canopy dominant species. In Australian natural forests, Eucalyptus spp. commonly are associated with understorey legumes which play a crucial role for ecological restoration owing to their nitrogen (N) fixing ability for replenishing the soil N lost after frequent prescribed burning. This study aimed to explore to what extent physiological responses of these species differ 7 and 12 years after last fire. Two most common understorey Acacia spp., Acacia leiocalyx and A. disparrima, as well as one non-leguminous Eucalyptus resinifera, were studied due to their dominance in the forest. Both A. leiocalyx and A. disparrima showed higher carbon (C) assimilation capacity, maximum photosynthetic capacity, and moderate foliar C/N ratio compared with E. resinifera. A. leiocalyx showed various advantages compared to A. disparrima such as higher photosynthetic capacity, adaptation to wider light range and higher foliar total N (TNmass). A. leiocalyx also relied on N2-fixing ability for longer time compared to A. disparrima. The results suggested that the two Acacia spp. were more beneficial to C and N cycles for the post burning ecosystem than the non-N2-fixing species E. resinifera. A. leiocalyx had greater contribution to complementing soil N cycle long after burning compared to A. disparrima.

  13. Ecophysiological and foliar nitrogen concentration responses of understorey Acacia spp. and Eucalyptus sp. to prescribed burning.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ling; Rao, Xingquan; Lu, Ping; Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Xu, Zhihong; Chen, Xiaoyang; Blumfield, Timothy; Xie, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Eucalyptus spp. is a dominant tree genus in Australia and most Eucalyptus spp. are canopy dominant species. In Australian natural forests, Eucalyptus spp. commonly are associated with understorey legumes which play a crucial role for ecological restoration owing to their nitrogen (N) fixing ability for replenishing the soil N lost after frequent prescribed burning. This study aimed to explore to what extent physiological responses of these species differ 7 and 12 years after last fire. Two most common understorey Acacia spp., Acacia leiocalyx and A. disparrima, as well as one non-leguminous Eucalyptus resinifera, were studied due to their dominance in the forest. Both A. leiocalyx and A. disparrima showed higher carbon (C) assimilation capacity, maximum photosynthetic capacity, and moderate foliar C/N ratio compared with E. resinifera. A. leiocalyx showed various advantages compared to A. disparrima such as higher photosynthetic capacity, adaptation to wider light range and higher foliar total N (TNmass). A. leiocalyx also relied on N2-fixing ability for longer time compared to A. disparrima. The results suggested that the two Acacia spp. were more beneficial to C and N cycles for the post burning ecosystem than the non-N2-fixing species E. resinifera. A. leiocalyx had greater contribution to complementing soil N cycle long after burning compared to A. disparrima. PMID:25703618

  14. The effectiveness of eucalyptus oil, orange oil, and xylene in dissolving different endodontic sealers

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Hemant Kumar; Yadav, Rakesh Kumar; Chandra, Anil; Thakkar, Rahul Rameshbhai

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the dissolution effectiveness of eucalyptus oil, orange oil, xylene, and distilled water on three different endodontic sealers. Materials and Methods: About 240 samples of root canal sealers (eighty for each sealer) were prepared and divided into four groups of 20 each for immersion in different organic solvents. Each group was further subdivided into two subgroups (n = 10) for 2 and 10 min of immersion time. The mean percentage of weight loss was determined for each sealer in each solvent at both time periods. Data were statistically analyzed by two factor analysis of variance and significance of mean difference was obtained by Tukey's post hoc test (P < 0.05). Results: The lowest level of solubility was observed for Adseal followed by Apexit Plus and Endomethasone N at both time periods in all solvents. Apexit Plus showed no significant (P > 0.05) difference in its dissolution in all the organic solvents except distilled water at both the time periods. The solubility profile of Endomethasone N and Adseal did not differ significantly among eucalyptus oil, orange oil, and xylene at 2 min and between eucalyptus oil and orange oil at 10 min. However, at 10 min, Endomethasone N and Adseal showed a more pronounced solubility in xylene as compared to both eucalyptus oil and orange oil. Conclusions: In general, xylene was the most effective in dissolving root canal sealers than other organic solvents. Essential oils (eucalyptus oil and orange oil) were found similar in their ability to dissolve Apexit Plus and Endomethasone N. PMID:27563181

  15. Phytotoxic Activity and Chemical Composition of Aqueous Volatile Fractions from Eucalyptus Species

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinbiao; An, Min; Wu, Hanwen; Liu, De Li; Stanton, Rex

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from four Eucalyptus species (E. spathulata, E. salubris, E. brockwayii and E. dundasii) have been previously confirmed to have stronger inhibitory effects on germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.). The aqueous volatile fractions (AVFs) were the water soluble volatile fractions produced together with the essential oils (water insoluble fractions) during the steam distillation process. The aim of this study was to further assess the phytotoxicity of AVFs from the four Eucalyptus species and their chemical composition. The fresh leaves of the four Eucalyptus species were used for the extraction of AVFs. The AVFs were tested for their phytotoxic effects on the perennial weed, silverleaf nightshade under laboratory conditions. The chemical compositions of the AVFs were determined by gas chromatograph–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our results showed that the AVFs had strong inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade. The inhibition index increased with the increasing concentrations of AVFs. The inhibitory effects of the AVFs varied between different Eucalyptus species. The AVF from E. salubris demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity on the weed tested, with complete inhibition on germination and seedling growth at a concentration of 75%. The GC-MS analysis revealed that 1,8-cineole, isopentyl isovalerate, isomenthol, pinocarvone, trans-pinocarveol, alpha-terpineol and globulol were the main compounds in the AVFs. These results indicated that all AVFs tested had differential inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade, which could be due to the joint effects of compounds present in the AVFs as these compounds were present in different quantities and ratio between Eucalyptus species. PMID:24681490

  16. Quantum theory of rotational isomerism and Hill equation

    SciTech Connect

    Ugulava, A.; Toklikishvili, Z.; Chkhaidze, S.; Abramishvili, R.; Chotorlishvili, L.

    2012-06-15

    The process of rotational isomerism of linear triatomic molecules is described by the potential with two different-depth minima and one barrier between them. The corresponding quantum-mechanical equation is represented in the form that is a special case of the Hill equation. It is shown that the Hill-Schroedinger equation has a Klein's quadratic group symmetry which, in its turn, contains three invariant subgroups. The presence of these subgroups makes it possible to create a picture of energy spectrum which depends on a parameter and has many merging and branch points. The parameter-dependent energy spectrum of the Hill-Schroedinger equation, like Mathieu-characteristics, contains branch points from the left and from the right of the demarcation line. However, compared to the Mathieu-characteristics, in the Hill-Schroedinger equation spectrum the 'right' points are moved away even further for some distance that is the bigger, the bigger is the less deep well. The asymptotic wave functions of the Hill-Schroedinger equation for the energy values near the potential minimum contain two isolated sharp peaks indicating a possibility of the presence of two stable isomers. At high energy values near the potential maximum, the height of two peaks decreases, and between them there appear chaotic oscillations. This form of the wave functions corresponds to the process of isomerization.

  17. Runoff Scale-dependency in Burned Dry Eucalyptus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasmaei, L.; Sheridan, G. J.; Lane, P. N. J.

    2015-12-01

    To examine the impact of wildfire on timing and magnitude of extreme hydrologic events, it is essential to quantify the degree of scale-dependency of post-fire hydro-geomorphic processes. Scaling of hydrologic processes has been shown to increase uncertainties unless they are known to have the same spatio-temporal scale or accurate methods of conversion. Hydrological responses at watershed-scale are linked to peak flows and total volume of overland flow hydrographs. At a burned hillslope, both flow generation and transport responsive to hydrographs dynamics, are determined by post-fire hydro-geomorphic factors and their interaction with rainfall events. A hierarchical monitoring approach consisting of paired rainfall-runoff plots and rainguages with different size from point to hillslope scale were installed on a dry eucalyptus hillslope, south east Australia, burned by wildfire January 2013. Scaling effect of overland flow on the burned hillslope was studied with help of event- seasonal- and annual-based rainfall-runoff data in relation to travel distance, contributing area and rainfall patterns. A linear decrease in runoff ratio with slope length was observed for plots with the same width. However, the rate of runoff production declined exponentially for plots with narrower width. Further investigation of vegetation patches, soil moisture, water repellency, and macropores patterns showed no significant differences in soil-surface factors affecting initial infiltration in these plots comparing to the rest of compound. Thus initial infiltration in narrower plots was similar to the rest of plots; however initiated runoff had less chance to reach the outlet. This could be due to higher positive pore pressures in smaller bounded area per length result in higher macropores and matrix infiltration, overcoming water repellency. Measurement also showed that soil in narrower plots was less repellent in downslope, supporting higher transmission loss downslope in these plots

  18. Short-rotation management of Eucalyptus: Guidelines for plantations in Hawaii. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Whitesell, C.D.; DeBell, D.S.; Schubert, T.H.; Strand, R.F.; Crabb, T.B.

    1992-11-01

    A 10-year research and development program was conducted on the island of Hawaii, where nearly 230,000 acres are suitable for growing biomass in short-rotation Eucalyptus plantations. Successful techniques are described for seedling production, plantation establishment (site preparation, weed control, planting), maintenance (weed control, fertilization), biomass yield estimation, and harvest. Basic biological relationships are described to aid decisions on site selection, initial spacing, fertilizer schedules, and rotation length. Environmental issues likely to be faced by growers of Eucalyptus plantations are discussed, including soil erosion, nutrient depletion, and monocultures. Continuing programs for tree improvement, monitoring, and silviculture research are recommeded. Production costs for biomass yields are estimated for three promising management regimes, representing pure Eucalyptus plantings at dense and wide spacings and a mixed species plantation where Albizia is used as a nurse crop to provide nitrogen needed for optimum Eucalyptus growth.

  19. Lignin isolated from steam-exploded eucalyptus wood chips by phase separation and its affinity to Trichoderma reesei cellulase.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Ai; Funaoka, Masamitsu

    2013-07-01

    Steam-exploded eucalyptus wood chips were treated with p-cresol and 72% sulfuric acid at ambient temperature. Steam-exploded lignin was isolated as acetone-soluble and diethyl ether-insoluble compounds from the cresol layer. The lignin extraction yield was only 47%, and the amount of cresol grafted to lignin was much less than that in the case of eucalyptus lignin without steam explosion. Clearly, the steam explosion process depolymerized native lignin, and simultaneously, promoted polymerization via labile benzyl positions. The steam-exploded eucalyptus lignin adsorbed more Trichoderma reesei cellulase; however, its enzymatic activity was less than that of eucalyptus lignin that did not undergo steam explosion. It is evident that pretreatment potentially affects the affinity between lignin and cellulase and the resultant saccharification efficiency.

  20. A water-alcohol extract of Citrus grandis whole fruits has beneficial metabolic effects in the obese Zucker rats fed with high fat/high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Raasmaja, Atso; Lecklin, Anne; Li, Xiang Ming; Zou, Jianqiang; Zhu, Guo-Guang; Laakso, Into; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that citrus fruits and compounds such as flavonoids, limonoids and pectins have health promoting effects. Our aim was to study the effects of Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck var. tomentosa hort. fruit extract on the energy metabolism. A whole fruit powder from dry water and alcohol extracts of C. grandis containing 19% naringin flavonoid was prepared. The effects of the citrus extract were followed in the obese Zucker rats fed with the HFD. The circulatory levels of GLP-1 decreased significantly by the extract in comparison to the HFD group, whereas the decreased ghrelin levels were reversed. The levels of PYY were decreased in all HFD groups. The leptin amounts decreased but not significantly whereas insulin and amylin were unchanged. The cholesterol and glucose levels were somewhat but not systematically improved in the HFD fed rats. Further studies are needed to identify the active compounds and their mechanisms.