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Sample records for eucalyptus grandis hill

  1. The genome of Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Myburg, Alexander A; Grattapaglia, Dario; Tuskan, Gerald A; Hellsten, Uffe; Hayes, Richard D; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Lindquist, Erika; Tice, Hope; Bauer, Diane; Goodstein, David M; Dubchak, Inna; Poliakov, Alexandre; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Kullan, Anand R K; Hussey, Steven G; Pinard, Desre; van der Merwe, Karen; Singh, Pooja; van Jaarsveld, Ida; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B; Togawa, Roberto C; Pappas, Marilia R; Faria, Danielle A; Sansaloni, Carolina P; Petroli, Cesar D; Yang, Xiaohan; Ranjan, Priya; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Ye, Chu-Yu; Li, Ting; Sterck, Lieven; Vanneste, Kevin; Murat, Florent; Soler, Marçal; Clemente, Hélène San; Saidi, Naijib; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Dunand, Christophe; Hefer, Charles A; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Kersting, Anna R; Vining, Kelly; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Ranik, Martin; Naithani, Sushma; Elser, Justin; Boyd, Alexander E; Liston, Aaron; Spatafora, Joseph W; Dharmwardhana, Palitha; Raja, Rajani; Sullivan, Christopher; Romanel, Elisson; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Külheim, Carsten; Foley, William; Carocha, Victor; Paiva, Jorge; Kudrna, David; Brommonschenkel, Sergio H; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Byrne, Margaret; Rigault, Philippe; Tibbits, Josquin; Spokevicius, Antanas; Jones, Rebecca C; Steane, Dorothy A; Vaillancourt, René E; Potts, Brad M; Joubert, Fourie; Barry, Kerrie; Pappas, Georgios J; Strauss, Steven H; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Salse, Jérôme; Van de Peer, Yves; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Schmutz, Jeremy

    2014-06-19

    Eucalypts are the world's most widely planted hardwood trees. Their outstanding diversity, adaptability and growth have made them a global renewable resource of fibre and energy. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640-megabase genome of Eucalyptus grandis. Of 36,376 predicted protein-coding genes, 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion thus far in plant genomes. Eucalyptus also shows the highest diversity of genes for specialized metabolites such as terpenes that act as chemical defence and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Genome sequencing of the E. grandis sister species E. globulus and a set of inbred E. grandis tree genomes reveals dynamic genome evolution and hotspots of inbreeding depression. The E. grandis genome is the first reference for the eudicot order Myrtales and is placed here sister to the eurosids. This resource expands our understanding of the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.

  2. The genome of Eucalyptus grandis

    SciTech Connect

    Myburg, Alexander A.; Grattapaglia, Dario; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Hellsten, Uffe; Hayes, Richard D.; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Lindquist, Erika; Tice, Hope; Bauer, Diane; Goodstein, David M.; Dubchak, Inna; Poliakov, Alexandre; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Kullan, Anand R. K.; Hussey, Steven G.; Pinard, Desre; van der Merwe, Karen; Singh, Pooja; van Jaarsveld, Ida; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B.; Togawa, Roberto C.; Pappas, Marilia R.; Faria, Danielle A.; Sansaloni, Carolina P.; Petroli, Cesar D.; Yang, Xiaohan; Ranjan, Priya; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Ye, Chu-Yu; Li, Ting; Sterck, Lieven; Vanneste, Kevin; Murat, Florent; Soler, Marçal; Clemente, Hélène San; Saidi, Naijib; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Dunand, Christophe; Hefer, Charles A.; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Kersting, Anna R.; Vining, Kelly; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Ranik, Martin; Naithani, Sushma; Elser, Justin; Boyd, Alexander E.; Liston, Aaron; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Dharmwardhana, Palitha; Raja, Rajani; Sullivan, Christopher; Romanel, Elisson; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Külheim, Carsten; Foley, William; Carocha, Victor; Paiva, Jorge; Kudrna, David; Brommonschenkel, Sergio H.; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Byrne, Margaret; Rigault, Philippe; Tibbits, Josquin; Spokevicius, Antanas; Jones, Rebecca C.; Steane, Dorothy A.; Vaillancourt, René E.; Potts, Brad M.; Joubert, Fourie; Barry, Kerrie; Pappas, Georgios J.; Strauss, Steven H.; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Salse, Jérôme; Van de Peer, Yves; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Schmutz, Jeremy

    2014-06-11

    Eucalypts are the world s most widely planted hardwood trees. Their broad adaptability, rich species diversity, fast growth and superior multipurpose wood, have made them a global renewable resource of fiber and energy that mitigates human pressures on natural forests. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640 Mbp genome of Eucalyptus grandis into its 11 chromosomes. A set of 36,376 protein coding genes were predicted revealing that 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion found thus far in any plant genome. Eucalypts also show the highest diversity of genes for plant specialized metabolism that act as chemical defence against biotic agents and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Resequencing of a set of inbred tree genomes revealed regions of strongly conserved heterozygosity, likely hotspots of inbreeding depression. The resequenced genome of the sister species E. globulus underscored the high inter-specific genome colinearity despite substantial genome size variation in the genus. The genome of E. grandis is the first reference for the early diverging Rosid order Myrtales and is placed here basal to the Eurosids. This resource expands knowledge on the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.

  3. Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden inoculated with Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC-Pt116) in land subject to the sandy process in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Eduardo Lorensi; Antoniolli, Zaida Inês; Machado, Rafael Goulart; Eckhardt, Daniel Pazzini; Dahmer, Sabrina de Fátima Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypts is one of the main species used for commercial reforestation in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the survival and early growth of eucalyptus trees in an area subject to sandy process after three years of growth. The Eucalyptus grandis seedlings were grown in a greenhouse, inoculated or not with the isolated ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC-Pt116), produced in peat or Entisol. After 120 days, the seedlings were transplanted to an area subject to the sandy process, in the São Francisco de Assis city, RS. The plants have been evaluated regarding survival, height, stem diameter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium levels and total phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus, organic phosphorus and wood production on different days after planting. The seedlings grown on the Entisol which was inoculated with the isolated UFSC-Pt116 presented higher survival rates, height, stem diameter, nitrogen concentration and wood production then non-inoculated seedlings. Inoculation with ectomycorrhizal fungi enhanced the production of E. grandis seedlings in survival rates, height, stem diameter.

  4. Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden inoculated with Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC-Pt116) in land subject to the sandy process in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Eduardo Lorensi; Antoniolli, Zaida Inês; Machado, Rafael Goulart; Eckhardt, Daniel Pazzini; Dahmer, Sabrina de Fátima Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypts is one of the main species used for commercial reforestation in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the survival and early growth of eucalyptus trees in an area subject to sandy process after three years of growth. The Eucalyptus grandis seedlings were grown in a greenhouse, inoculated or not with the isolated ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC-Pt116), produced in peat or Entisol. After 120 days, the seedlings were transplanted to an area subject to the sandy process, in the São Francisco de Assis city, RS. The plants have been evaluated regarding survival, height, stem diameter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium levels and total phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus, organic phosphorus and wood production on different days after planting. The seedlings grown on the Entisol which was inoculated with the isolated UFSC-Pt116 presented higher survival rates, height, stem diameter, nitrogen concentration and wood production then non-inoculated seedlings. Inoculation with ectomycorrhizal fungi enhanced the production of E. grandis seedlings in survival rates, height, stem diameter. PMID:25763017

  5. Heat pulse observations of Eucalyptus grandis transpiration in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Dye, P.J.; Olbrich, B.W.

    1992-12-31

    Forest plantations in South Africa are currently limited to areas experiencing a minimum mean annual rainfall of 800 mm, and cover approximately 1.18 million ha. Of this total area, 37% is planted to Eucalyptus spp., of which 76% comprise E. grandis Hill ex Maiden. Micrometeorological methods of measuring evapotranspiration are impractical in many areas of South African forestry owing to the rugged topography and heterogeneous canopy and boundary layer conditions. The heat pulse velocity (HPV) technique shows great promise as a suitable method of measuring sap flow in even-aged forest plantations. This paper describes the method in detail, as well as the results of comparisons between HPV sap flow estimates and cut-tree uptake rates for two size classes of E. grandis.

  6. Boron impregnation treatment of Eucalyptus grandis wood.

    PubMed

    Dhamodaran, T K; Gnanaharan, R

    2007-08-01

    Eucalyptus grandis is suitable for small timber purposes, but its wood is reported to be non-durable and difficult to treat. Boron compounds being diffusible, and the vacuum-pressure impregnation (VPI) method being more suitable for industrial-scale treatment, the possibility of boron impregnation of partially dry to green timber was investigated using a 6% boric acid equivalent (BAE) solution of boric acid and borax in the ratio 1:1.5 under different treatment schedules. It was found that E. grandis wood, even in green condition, could be pressure treated to desired chemical dry salt retention (DSR) and penetration levels using 6% BAE solution. Up to a thickness of 50mm, in order to achieve a DSR of 5 kg/m(3) boron compounds, the desired DSR level as per the Indian Standard for perishable timbers for indoor use, it was found that neither the moisture content of wood nor the treatment schedule posed any problem as far as the treatability of E. grandis wood was concerned.

  7. Performance of Australian provenances of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna in Hawaii

    Treesearch

    Roger G. Skolmen

    1986-01-01

    Australian provenances of Eucalyptus grandis and E. saligna were compared at four locations on the island of Hawaii to seek seed sources better than those in current use which were introduced earlier from unrecorded locations in Australia. A broad range of latitude and elevation was represented among the provenances. At all four...

  8. High-resolution genetic maps of Eucalyptus improve Eucalyptus grandis genome assembly.

    PubMed

    Bartholomé, Jérôme; Mandrou, Eric; Mabiala, André; Jenkins, Jerry; Nabihoudine, Ibouniyamine; Klopp, Christophe; Schmutz, Jeremy; Plomion, Christophe; Gion, Jean-Marc

    2015-06-01

    Genetic maps are key tools in genetic research as they constitute the framework for many applications, such as quantitative trait locus analysis, and support the assembly of genome sequences. The resequencing of the two parents of a cross between Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis was used to design a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array of 6000 markers evenly distributed along the E. grandis genome. The genotyping of 1025 offspring enabled the construction of two high-resolution genetic maps containing 1832 and 1773 markers with an average marker interval of 0.45 and 0.5 cM for E. grandis and E. urophylla, respectively. The comparison between genetic maps and the reference genome highlighted 85% of collinear regions. A total of 43 noncollinear regions and 13 nonsynthetic regions were detected and corrected in the new genome assembly. This improved version contains 4943 scaffolds totalling 691.3 Mb of which 88.6% were captured by the 11 chromosomes. The mapping data were also used to investigate the effect of population size and number of markers on linkage mapping accuracy. This study provides the most reliable linkage maps for Eucalyptus and version 2.0 of the E. grandis genome.

  9. Effects of autohydrolysis of Eucalyptus urograndis and Eucalyptus grandis on influence of chemical components and crystallinity index.

    PubMed

    da Silva Morais, Alaine Patrícia; Sansígolo, Cláudio Angeli; de Oliveira Neto, Mario

    2016-08-01

    Samples of Eucalyptus urograndis and Eucalyptus grandis sawdust were autohydrolyzed in aqueous conditions to reach temperatures in the range 110-190°C and reaction times of 0-150min in a minireactor. In each minireactor were used a liquor:wood ratio (10:1 L:kg dry wood), in order to assess the effects of the autohydrolysis severity and the crystalline properties of cellulose. The content of extractives, lignin, holocellulose, cellulose, hemicelluloses and crystallinity index obtained from the solid fraction after autohydrolysis of sawdust were determined. This study demonstrated that the hemicelluloses were extensively removed at 170 and 190°C, whereas cellulose was partly degraded to Eucalyptus urograndis and Eucalyptus grandis sawdust. The lignin content decreased, while the extractives content increased. It was defined that during autohydrolysis, had a slight decreased on crystalline structure of cellulose of Eucalyptus urogandis and Eucalyptus grandis.

  10. Seasonal Variation of Carbon Metabolism in the Cambial Zone of Eucalyptus grandis

    PubMed Central

    Budzinski, Ilara G. F.; Moon, David H.; Lindén, Pernilla; Moritz, Thomas; Labate, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus species are the most widely hardwood planted in the world. It is one of the successful examples of commercial forestry plantation in Brazil and other tropical and subtropical countries. The tree is valued for its rapid growth, adaptability and wood quality. Wood formation is the result of cumulative annual activity of the vascular cambium. This cambial activity is generally related to the alternation of cold and warm, and/or dry and rainy seasons. Efforts have focused on analysis of cambial zone in response to seasonal variations in trees from temperate zones. However, little is known about the molecular changes triggered by seasonal variations in trees from tropical countries. In this work we attempted to establish a global view of seasonal alterations in the cambial zone of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, emphasizing changes occurring in the carbon metabolism. Using transcripts, proteomics and metabolomics we analyzed the tissues harvested in summer-wet and winter-dry seasons. Based on proteomics analysis, 70 proteins that changed in abundance were successfully identified. Transcripts for some of these proteins were analyzed and similar expression patterns were observed. We identified 19 metabolites differentially abundant. Our results suggest a differential reconfiguration of carbon partioning in E. grandis cambial zone. During summer, pyruvate is primarily metabolized via ethanolic fermentation, possibly to regenerate NAD+ for glycolytic ATP production and cellular maintenance. However, in winter there seems to be a metabolic change and we found that some sugars were highly abundant. Our results revealed a dynamic change in E. grandis cambial zone due to seasonality and highlight the importance of glycolysis and ethanolic fermentation for energy generation and maintenance in Eucalyptus, a fast growing tree. PMID:27446160

  11. Power of microsatellite markers for fingerprinting and parentage analysis in Eucalyptus grandis breeding populations.

    PubMed

    Kirst, M; Cordeiro, C M; Rezende, G D S P; Grattapaglia, D

    2005-01-01

    We report the genetic analysis of 192 unrelated individuals of an elite breeding population of Eucalyptus grandis (Hill ex Maiden) with a selected set of six highly polymorphic microsatellite markers developed for species of the genus Eucalyptus. A full characterization of this set of six loci was carried out generating allele frequency distributions that were used to estimate parameters of genetic information content of these loci, including expected heterozygosity, polymorphism information content (PIC), power of exclusion, and probability of identity. The number of detected alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 33, with an average of 19.8 +/- 9.2. The average expected heterozygosity was 0.86 +/- 0.11 and the average PIC was 0.83 +/- 0.16. Using only three loci, it was possible to discriminate all 192 individuals. The overall probability of identity considering all six EMBRA microsatellite markers combined was lower than 1 in 2 billion. An analysis of the sample size necessary to estimate expected heterozygosity with minimum variance indicated that at least 64 individuals have to be genotyped to characterize this parameter with adequate accuracy for most microsatellites in Eucalyptus. The high degree of multiallelism and the clear and simple codominant Mendelian inheritance of the set of microsatellites used provide an extremely powerful system for the unique identification of Eucalyptus individuals for fingerprinting purposes and parentage testing.

  12. Temporal dynamics of the response to Al stress in Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis.

    PubMed

    Alcântara, Berenice K de; Pizzaia, Daniel; Piotto, Fernando A; Borgo, Lucélia; Brondani, Gilvano E; Azevedo, Ricardo A

    2015-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation and root elongation of Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis were studied under stress conditions in response to aluminum (Al), a metal known to limit agricultural productivity in acidic soils primarily due to reduced root elongation. In Brazil, the Grancam 1277 hybrid (E. grandis × E. camaldulensis) has been planted in the "Cerrado", a region of the country with a wide occurrence of acidic soils. The present study demonstrated that the hybrid exhibited root growth reduction and increased levels of lipid peroxidation after 24h of treatment with 100 µM of Al, which was followed by a reduction in lipid peroxidation levels and the recovery of root elongation after 48 h of Al exposure, suggesting a rapid response to the early stressful conditions induced by Al. The understanding of the temporal dynamics of Al tolerance may be useful for selecting more tolerant genotypes and for identifying genes of interest for applications in bioengineering.

  13. Insights into temperature modulation of the Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus grandis antioxidant and lignification subproteomes.

    PubMed

    de Santana Costa, Marília Gabriela; Mazzafera, Paulo; Balbuena, Tiago Santana

    2017-05-01

    Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus globulus are among the most widely cultivated trees, differing in lignin composition and plantation areas, as E. grandis is mostly cultivated in tropical regions while E. globulus is preferred in temperate areas. As temperature is a key modulator in plant metabolism, a large-scale proteome analysis was carried out to investigate changes in the antioxidant system and the lignification metabolism in plantlets grown at different temperatures. Our strategy allowed the identification of 3111 stem proteins. A total of 103 antioxidant proteins were detected in the stems of both species. Hierarchical clustering revealed that alterations in the antioxidant proteins are more prominent when Eucalyptus seedlings were exposed to high temperature and that the superoxide isoforms coded by the gene Eucgr.B03930 are the most abundant antioxidant enzymes induced by thermal stimulus. Regarding the lignin biosynthesis, our proteomics approach resulted in the identification of 13 of the 17 core proteins involved in this metabolism, corroborating with gene predictions and the proposed lignin toolbox. Quantitative analyses revealed significant differences in 8 protein isoforms, including the ferulate 5-hydroxylase isoform F5H1, a key enzyme in catalyzing the synthesis of sinapyl alcohol, and the cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase isoform CAD2, the last enzyme in monolignol biosynthesis. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD005743.

  14. Modelo empirico integral de una plantacion de Eucalyptus grandis en Concordia, Entre Rios

    Treesearch

    Jorge Frangi; Carolina Perez; Juan Goya; Natalia Teson; Marcelo Barrera; Marcelo Arturi

    2016-01-01

    The Argentinian Mesopotamia is the core of fast-growing tree species plantations of the country. Eucalyptus grandis plantations constitute 90 % of the forested area with Eucalyptus spp. in NE Entre Rios. Based on previous studies on structural and functional features, a comprehensive model is here proposed on emergence of new properties linked to matter and ecosystem...

  15. Identification of the Eucalyptus grandis chitinase gene family and expression characterization under different biotic stress challenges.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Peri A; Christie, Nanette; Naidoo, Sanushka; Guest, David I; Külheim, Carsten

    2017-05-01

    Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) is an Australian Myrtaceae tree grown for timber in many parts of the world and for which the annotated genome sequence is available. Known to be susceptible to a number of pests and diseases, E. grandis is a useful study organism for investigating defense responses in woody plants. Chitinases are widespread in plants and cleave glycosidic bonds of chitin, the major structural component of fungal cell walls and arthropod exoskeletons. They are encoded by an important class of genes known to be up-regulated in plants in response to pathogens. The current study identified 67 chitinase gene models from two families known as glycosyl hydrolase 18 and 19 (36 GH18 and 31 GH19) within the E. grandis genome assembly (v1.1), indicating a recent gene expansion. Sequences were aligned and analyzed as conforming to currently recognized plant chitinase classes (I-V). Unlike other woody species investigated to date, E. grandis has a single gene encoding a putative vacuolar targeted Class I chitinase. In response to Leptocybe invasa (Fisher & La Salle) (the eucalypt gall wasp) and Chrysoporthe austroafricana (Gryzenhout & M.J. Wingf. 2004) (causal agent of fungal stem canker), this Class IA chitinase is strongly up-regulated in both resistant and susceptible plants. Resistant plants, however, indicate greater constitutive expression and increased up-regulation than susceptible plants following fungal challenge. Up-regulation within fungal resistant clones was further confirmed with protein data. Clusters of putative chitinase genes, particularly on chromosomes 3 and 8, are significantly up-regulated in response to fungal challenge, while a cluster on chromosome 1 is significantly down-regulated in response to gall wasp. The results of this study show that the E. grandis genome has an expanded group of chitinase genes, compared with other plants. Despite this expansion, only a single Class I chitinase is present and this gene is highly up

  16. Temperature effects on wood anatomy, wood density, photosynthesis and biomass partitioning of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D S; Montagu, K D; Conroy, J P

    2007-02-01

    Wood density, a gross measure of wood mass relative to wood volume, is important in our understanding of stem volume growth, carbon sequestration and leaf water supply. Disproportionate changes in the ratio of wood mass to volume may occur at the level of the whole stem or the individual cell. In general, there is a positive relationship between temperature and wood density of eucalypts, although this relationship has broken down in recent years with wood density decreasing as global temperatures have risen. To determine the anatomical causes of the effects of temperature on wood density, Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden seedlings were grown in controlled-environment cabinets at constant temperatures from 10 to 35 degrees C. The 20% increase in wood density of E. grandis seedlings grown at the higher temperatures was variously related to a 40% reduction in lumen area of xylem vessels, a 10% reduction in the lumen area of fiber cells and a 10% increase in fiber cell wall thickness. The changes in cell wall characteristics could be considered analogous to changes in carbon supply. Lumen area of fiber cells declined because of reduced fiber cell expansion and increased fiber cell wall thickening. Fiber cell wall thickness was positively related to canopy CO2 assimilation rate (Ac), which increased 26-fold because of a 24-fold increase in leaf area and a doubling in leaf CO2 assimilation rate from minima at 10 and 35 degrees C to maxima at 25 and 30 degrees C. Increased Ac increased seedling volume, biomass and wood density; but increased wood density was also related to a shift in partitioning of seedling biomass from roots to stems as temperature increased.

  17. Contenido de nutrientes en las raices finas y el mantillo de rodales de Eucalyptus grandis de diferente edad en la Mesopotomia Argentina [Fine roots and litter nutrient content of Eucalyptus grandis stands presenting different ages in Mesopotomia Argentina

    Treesearch

    C. Perez; J. Frangi; J.F. Goya; A. Luy; M. Arturi; NO-VALUE

    2013-01-01

    Entre Ríos province is an important center of Eucalyptus spp. plantations in Argentina. It was hypothesized that fine root biomass and litter mass increased with age increasing in plantations. Five, seven and seventeen year old stands of Eucalyptus grandis were sampled. All of them were first rotation stands. We estimated the mass of litter and fine roots (

  18. Phosphorus limits Eucalyptus grandis seedling growth in an unburnt rain forest soil

    PubMed Central

    Tng, David Y. P.; Janos, David P.; Jordan, Gregory J.; Weber, Ellen; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Although rain forest is characterized as pyrophobic, pyrophilic giant eucalypts grow as rain forest emergents in both temperate and tropical Australia. In temperate Australia, such eucalypts depend on extensive, infrequent fires to produce conditions suitable for seedling growth. Little is known, however, about constraints on seedlings of tropical giant eucalypts. We tested whether seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis experience edaphic constraints similar to their temperate counterparts. We hypothesized that phosphorous addition would alleviate edaphic constraints. We grew seedlings in a factorial experiment combining fumigation (to simulate nutrient release and soil pasteurization by fire), soil type (E. grandis forest versus rain forest soil) and phosphorus addition as factors. We found that phosphorus was the principal factor limiting E. grandis seedling survival and growth in rain forest soil, and that fumigation enhanced survival of seedlings in both E. grandis forest and rain forest soil. We conclude that similar to edaphic constraints on temperate giant eucalypts, mineral nutrient and biotic attributes of a tropical rain forest soil may hamper E. grandis seedling establishment. In rain forest soil, E. grandis seedlings benefited from conditions akin to a fire-generated ashbed (i.e., an “ashbed effect”). PMID:25339968

  19. Root morphogenic pathways in Eucalyptus grandis are modified by the activity of protein arginine methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Plett, Krista L; Raposo, Anita E; Bullivant, Stephen; Anderson, Ian C; Piller, Sabine C; Plett, Jonathan M

    2017-03-09

    Methylation of proteins at arginine residues, catalysed by members of the protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) family, is crucial for the regulation of gene transcription and for protein function in eukaryotic organisms. Inhibition of the activity of PRMTs in annual model plants has demonstrated wide-ranging involvement of PRMTs in key plant developmental processes, however, PRMTs have not been characterised or studied in long-lived tree species. Taking advantage of the recently available genome for Eucalyptus grandis, we demonstrate that most of the major plant PRMTs are conserved in E. grandis as compared to annual plants and that they are expressed in all major plant tissues. Proteomic and transcriptomic analysis in roots suggest that the PRMTs of E. grandis control a number of regulatory proteins and genes related to signalling during cellular/root growth and morphogenesis. We demonstrate here, using chemical inhibition of methylation and transgenic approaches, that plant type I PRMTs are necessary for normal root growth and branching in E. grandis. We further show that EgPRMT1 has a key role in root hair initiation and elongation and is involved in the methylation of β-tubulin, a key protein in cytoskeleton formation. Together, our data demonstrate that PRMTs encoded by E. grandis methylate a number of key proteins and alter the transcription of a variety of genes involved in developmental processes. Appropriate levels of expression of type I PRMTs are necessary for the proper growth and development of E. grandis roots.

  20. Phosphorus limits Eucalyptus grandis seedling growth in an unburnt rain forest soil.

    PubMed

    Tng, David Y P; Janos, David P; Jordan, Gregory J; Weber, Ellen; Bowman, David M J S

    2014-01-01

    Although rain forest is characterized as pyrophobic, pyrophilic giant eucalypts grow as rain forest emergents in both temperate and tropical Australia. In temperate Australia, such eucalypts depend on extensive, infrequent fires to produce conditions suitable for seedling growth. Little is known, however, about constraints on seedlings of tropical giant eucalypts. We tested whether seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis experience edaphic constraints similar to their temperate counterparts. We hypothesized that phosphorous addition would alleviate edaphic constraints. We grew seedlings in a factorial experiment combining fumigation (to simulate nutrient release and soil pasteurization by fire), soil type (E. grandis forest versus rain forest soil) and phosphorus addition as factors. We found that phosphorus was the principal factor limiting E. grandis seedling survival and growth in rain forest soil, and that fumigation enhanced survival of seedlings in both E. grandis forest and rain forest soil. We conclude that similar to edaphic constraints on temperate giant eucalypts, mineral nutrient and biotic attributes of a tropical rain forest soil may hamper E. grandis seedling establishment. In rain forest soil, E. grandis seedlings benefited from conditions akin to a fire-generated ashbed (i.e., an "ashbed effect").

  1. A Newly Identified Passive Hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla under Manganese Stress.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qingqing; Li, Zhenji; Yang, Limin; Lv, Jing; Jobe, Timothy O; Wang, Qiuquan

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient needed for plant growth and development, but can be toxic to plants in excess amounts. However, some plant species have detoxification mechanisms that allow them to accumulate Mn to levels that are normally toxic, a phenomenon known as hyperaccumulation. These species are excellent candidates for developing a cost-effective remediation strategy for Mn-polluted soils. In this study, we identified a new passive Mn-hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla during a field survey in southern China in July 2010. This hybrid can accumulate as much as 13,549 mg/kg DW Mn in its leaves. Our results from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) X-ray microanalysis indicate that Mn is distributed in the entire leaf and stem cross-section, especially in photosynthetic palisade, spongy mesophyll tissue, and stem xylem vessels. Results from size-exclusion chromatography coupled with ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) lead us to speculate that Mn associates with relatively high molecular weight proteins and low molecular weight organic acids, including tartaric acid, to avoid Mn toxicity. Our results provide experimental evidence that both proteins and organic acids play important roles in Mn detoxification in Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla. The key characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla are an increased Mn translocation facilitated by transpiration through the xylem to the leaves and further distribution throughout the leaf tissues. Moreover, the Mn-speciation profile obtained for the first time in different cellular organelles of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla suggested that different organelles have differential accumulating abilities and unique mechanisms for Mn-detoxification.

  2. A Newly Identified Passive Hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla under Manganese Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qingqing; Li, Zhenji; Yang, Limin; Lv, Jing; Jobe, Timothy O.; Wang, Qiuquan

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient needed for plant growth and development, but can be toxic to plants in excess amounts. However, some plant species have detoxification mechanisms that allow them to accumulate Mn to levels that are normally toxic, a phenomenon known as hyperaccumulation. These species are excellent candidates for developing a cost-effective remediation strategy for Mn-polluted soils. In this study, we identified a new passive Mn-hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla during a field survey in southern China in July 2010. This hybrid can accumulate as much as 13,549 mg/kg DW Mn in its leaves. Our results from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) X-ray microanalysis indicate that Mn is distributed in the entire leaf and stem cross-section, especially in photosynthetic palisade, spongy mesophyll tissue, and stem xylem vessels. Results from size-exclusion chromatography coupled with ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) lead us to speculate that Mn associates with relatively high molecular weight proteins and low molecular weight organic acids, including tartaric acid, to avoid Mn toxicity. Our results provide experimental evidence that both proteins and organic acids play important roles in Mn detoxification in Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla. The key characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla are an increased Mn translocation facilitated by transpiration through the xylem to the leaves and further distribution throughout the leaf tissues. Moreover, the Mn-speciation profile obtained for the first time in different cellular organelles of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla suggested that different organelles have differential accumulating abilities and unique mechanisms for Mn-detoxification. PMID:26327118

  3. Genetics of postzygotic isolation in Eucalyptus: whole-genome analysis of barriers to introgression in a wide interspecific cross of Eucalyptus grandis and E. globulus.

    PubMed Central

    Myburg, Alexander A; Vogl, Claus; Griffin, A Rod; Sederoff, Ronald R; Whetten, Ross W

    2004-01-01

    The genetic architecture of hybrid fitness characters can provide valuable insights into the nature and evolution of postzygotic reproductive barriers in diverged species. We determined the genome-wide distribution of barriers to introgression in an F(1) hybrid of two Eucalyptus tree species, Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden.) and E. globulus (Labill.). Two interspecific backcross families (N = 186) were used to construct comparative, single-tree, genetic linkage maps of an F(1) hybrid individual and two backcross parents. A total of 1354 testcross AFLP marker loci were evaluated in the three parental maps and a substantial proportion (27.7% average) exhibited transmission ratio distortion (alpha = 0.05). The distorted markers were located in distinct regions of the parental maps and marker alleles within each region were all biased toward either of the two parental species. We used a Bayesian approach to estimate the position and effect of transmission ratio distorting loci (TRDLs) in the distorted regions of each parental linkage map. The relative viability of TRDL alleles ranged from 0.20 to 0.72. Contrary to expectation, heterospecific (donor) alleles of TRDLs were favored as often as recurrent alleles in both backcrosses, suggesting that positive and negative heterospecific interactions affect introgression rates in this wide interspecific pedigree. PMID:15082559

  4. Realized gain from breeding Eucalyptus grandis in Florida

    Treesearch

    George Meskimen

    1983-01-01

    E. grandis is in the fourth generation of selection in southwest Florida. The breeding strategy combines a provenance trial, genetic base population, seedling seed orchard, and progeny test in a single plantation where all families are completely randomized in single-tree plots. That planting configuration closely predicted the magnitude of genetic...

  5. The Eucalyptus grandis NBS-LRR Gene Family: Physical Clustering and Expression Hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Nanette; Tobias, Peri A.; Naidoo, Sanushka; Külheim, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus grandis is a commercially important hardwood species and is known to be susceptible to a number of pests and pathogens. Determining mechanisms of defense is therefore a research priority. The published genome for E. grandis has aided the identification of one important class of resistance (R) genes that incorporate nucleotide binding sites and leucine-rich repeat domains (NBS-LRR). Using an iterative search process we identified NBS-LRR gene models within the E. grandis genome. We characterized the gene models and identified their genomic arrangement. The gene expression patterns were examined in E. grandis clones, challenged with a fungal pathogen (Chrysoporthe austroafricana) and insect pest (Leptocybe invasa). One thousand two hundred and fifteen putative NBS-LRR coding sequences were located which aligned into two large classes, Toll or interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) and coiled-coil (CC) based on NB-ARC domains. NBS-LRR gene-rich regions were identified with 76% organized in clusters of three or more genes. A further 272 putative incomplete resistance genes were also identified. We determined that E. grandis has a higher ratio of TIR to CC classed genes compared to other woody plant species as well as a smaller percentage of single NBS-LRR genes. Transcriptome profiles indicated expression hotspots, within physical clusters, including expression of many incomplete genes. The clustering of putative NBS-LRR genes correlates with differential expression responses in resistant and susceptible plants indicating functional relevance for the physical arrangement of this gene family. This analysis of the repertoire and expression of E. grandis putative NBS-LRR genes provides an important resource for the identification of novel and functional R-genes; a key objective for strategies to enhance resilience. PMID:26793216

  6. [Community structure of soil fauna in Eucalyptus grandis plantations at different slope locations].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Zhong, Yu; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Wan-qin

    2010-09-01

    To understand the effects of slope location on the community structure of soil fauna in Eucalyptus grandis plantation, an investigation was made on the soil fauna in 3 E. grandis plantations at different slope locations in the hilly area of Sichuan Province from January to October 2009. A total of 39,2762 individuals were observed, belonging to 146 groups, 7 phyla, 16 classes, and 31 orders. The community composition, trophic group, diversity, and seasonal dynamics of soil fauna in the plantations all varied with slope. The abundance of macro-fauna, xeric meso- and micro-fauna, saprophagous macro-fauna, and omnivorous xeric meso- and micro-fauna increased with the decrease of slope, indicating that soil fauna had sensitive responses to the soil environmental factors affected by slope. Significant differences in the diversity of soil saprophagous macro-fauna and hygrophilous meso- and micro-fauna were observed at different slope locations, suggesting that these two faunal groups could be used as the indicators of the habitat heterogeneity of E. grandis plantations at different slope. Overall, slope location had definite effects on the community structure and distribution of soil fauna in the E. grandis plantations, but the effects were not statistically significant.

  7. Explosive Tandem and Segmental Duplications of Multigenic Families in Eucalyptus grandis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Yu, Hong; Cao, Phi Bang; Fawal, Nizar; Mathé, Catherine; Azar, Sahar; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Myburg, Alexander A.; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Marque, Christiane; Teulières, Chantal; Dunand, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Plant organisms contain a large number of genes belonging to numerous multigenic families whose evolution size reflects some functional constraints. Sequences from eight multigenic families, involved in biotic and abiotic responses, have been analyzed in Eucalyptus grandis and compared with Arabidopsis thaliana. Two transcription factor families APETALA 2 (AP2)/ethylene responsive factor and GRAS, two auxin transporter families PIN-FORMED and AUX/LAX, two oxidoreductase families (ascorbate peroxidases [APx] and Class III peroxidases [CIII Prx]), and two families of protective molecules late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) and DNAj were annotated in expert and exhaustive manner. Many recent tandem duplications leading to the emergence of species-specific gene clusters and the explosion of the gene numbers have been observed for the AP2, GRAS, LEA, PIN, and CIII Prx in E. grandis, while the APx, the AUX/LAX and DNAj are conserved between species. Although no direct evidence has yet demonstrated the roles of these recent duplicated genes observed in E. grandis, this could indicate their putative implications in the morphological and physiological characteristics of E. grandis, and be the key factor for the survival of this nondormant species. Global analysis of key families would be a good criterion to evaluate the capabilities of some organisms to adapt to environmental variations. PMID:25769696

  8. Use of glass transition temperature for stabilization of board's cracks of Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Calonego, Fred W; Severo, Elias T D; Cunha, Antonio R; Gaia, Daiane C

    2010-09-01

    The Eucalyptus grandis logs temperatures were determined and correlated with the board's cracks during steaming. Thermocouples were inserted in the logs center, registering their temperatures during steaming at 90°C. The logs were sawed and the board's cracks measured. It was concluded that: (1) the logistic S-shaped curve explains the logs temperature variation; (2) the logs with diameter of 20 to <25, 25 to <30 and 30 to <35 cm presented, respectively, 84.2°C, 73.1°C and 45.8°C in the steaming; and (3) the cracks lengths significantly decreased in logs that reached the glass transition temperature.

  9. Genome-wide analysis of the TPX2 family proteins in Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Du, Pingzhou; Kumar, Manoj; Yao, Yuan; Xie, Qiaoli; Wang, Jinyan; Zhang, Baolong; Gan, Siming; Wang, Yuqi; Wu, Ai-Min

    2016-11-24

    The Xklp2 (TPX2) proteins belong to the microtubule-associated (MAP) family of proteins. All members of the family contain the conserved TPX2 motif, which can interact with microtubules, regulate microtubule dynamics or assist with different microtubule functions, for example, maintenance of cell morphology or regulation of cell growth and development. However, the role of members of the TPX family have not been studied in the model tree species Eucalyptus to date. Here, we report the identification of the members of the TPX2 family in Eucalyptus grandis (Eg) and analyse the expression patterns and functions of these genes. In present study, a comprehensive analysis of the plant TPX2 family proteins was performed. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the genes can be classified into 6 distinct subfamilies. A genome-wide survey identified 12 members of the TPX2 family in the sequenced genome of Eucalyptus grandis. The basic genetic properties of the TPX2 family in Eucalyptus were analysed. Our results suggest that the TPX2 family proteins within different sub-groups are relatively conserved but there are important differences between groups. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to confirm the expression levels of the genes in different tissues. The results showed that in the whole plant, the levels of EgWDL5 transcript are the highest, followed by those of EgWDL4. Compared with other tissues, the level of the EgMAP20 transcript is the highest in the root. Over-expression of EgMAP20 in Arabidopsis resulted in organ twisting. The cotyledon petioles showed left-handed twisting while the hypocotyl epidermal cells produced right-handed helical twisting. Finally, EgMAP20, EgWDL3 and EgWDL3L were all able to decorate microtubules. Plant TPX2 family proteins were systematically analysed using bioinformatics methods. There are 12 TPX2 family proteins in Eucalyptus. We have performed an initial characterization of the functions of several members of the TPX2

  10. Effects of an inducible aiiA gene on disease resistance in Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, L J; Li, L M

    2016-08-01

    N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are metabolites of mostly gram-negative bacteria and are critical signaling molecules in bacterial quorum-sensing systems. At threshold concentrations, AHLs can activate the expression of pathogenic genes and induce diseases. Therefore, reducing AHL concentrations is a key point of disease control in plants. AHL-lactonase, which is expressed by aiiA, is widespread in Bacillus sp and can hydrolyze AHLs. In the present study, we cloned aiiA from Bacillus subtilis by PCR. A plant expression vector of aiiA was constructed and name Pcam-PPP3-aiiA, in which expression of aiiA was controlled by the pathogen-inducible plant promoter PPP3. The recombinant plasmid was transferred into Eucalyptus × urophylla × E. grandis by an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PCR and Southern blotting showed that aiiA was successfully integrated into the E. urophylla × E. grandis genome and its expression was induced by Ralstonia solanacearum 12 h after inoculation, as shown by reverse transcription-PCR. The transcription efficacy of aiiA increased 43.88-, 30.65-, and 18.95-fold after inoculation with R. solanacearum, Erwinia carotovora ssp. zeae (Sabet) and Cylindrocladium quinqueseptatum, respectively as shown by RT-real-time PCR. Transgenic E.urophylla × E.grandis expressing the AIIA protein exhibited significantly enhanced disease resistance compared to non-transgenic plants by delaying the onset of wilting and reducing the disease index.

  11. Supercritical water gasification of Eucalyptus grandis and related pyrolysis char: Effect of feedstock composition.

    PubMed

    Louw, Jeanne; Schwarz, Cara E; Burger, Andries J

    2016-09-01

    Eucalyptus grandis (E. grandis) wood and char products derived from pyrolysis of E. grandis wood, were gasified in supercritical water at 450°C - with and without the use of a homogeneous (K2CO3) and heterogeneous (Ni/Al2O3-SiO2) catalyst. Gas yields and gasification efficiencies were measured experimentally and compared to calculated thermodynamic equilibrium values, specifically considering the effects of the O/C ratio and volatile matter content of the feed material. Thermodynamically, feed material with lower O/C ratios (0.22) typically resulted in higher CH4 yields (30mol/kgfeed,dry) and gasification efficiencies (188%). However, experimentally, feed material with lower O/C ratios and lower volatile matter resulted in the lowest CH4 yields and gasification efficiencies. Furthermore, a linear relationship between the carbon efficiency (CE) and both the volatile matter content and O/C ratio of the feed material was found to hold true in both catalytic and non-catalytic experiments.

  12. Dry mass allocation, water use efficiency and delta(13)C in clones of Eucalyptus grandis, E. grandis x camaldulensis and E. grandis x nitens grown under two irrigation regimes.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, D; Stock, W D; Bond, W J; Maphanga, D

    1996-05-01

    Clonal variation in water use efficiency (WUE), dry mass accumulation and allocation, and stable carbon isotope ratio (delta(13)C) of crude leaf fiber extracts was determined in six clones of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden. grown for 16 months in field lysimeters in two soil water regimes. The relationships between delta(13)C and WUE calculated on the basis of leaf, harvestable stem, shoot and whole-plant dry mass accumulation were investigated. There was no clonal variation in dry mass accumulation but clonal allocation to roots, harvestable stems, branches and leaves varied. Water use efficiencies (mass of plant or plant part/water used over 16 months) differed significantly between clones. The clonal ranking of WUE varied depending on the units of dry mass accumulation used. Significant relationships between delta(13)C values and instantaneous water use efficiencies and ratios of internal leaf to ambient CO(2) concentrations were found only in the high soil water treatment. There were no relationships between delta(13)C values and whole-plant, shoot and harvestable stem water use efficiencies and soil water availability. Values of delta(13)C were negatively correlated with dry mass accumulation in the low soil water treatment. At the whole-plant level, WUE was positively correlated with dry mass accumulation in the high soil water treatment. We found significant differences in delta(13)C values between clones and the clonal rankings in delta(13)C and WUE were maintained in both soil water treatments.

  13. Larvicidal effect of Eucalyptus grandis essential oil and turpentine and their major components on Aedes aegypti larvae.

    PubMed

    Lucia, Alejandro; Gonzalez Audino, Paola; Seccacini, Emilia; Licastro, Susana; Zerba, Eduardo; Masuh, Hector

    2007-09-01

    In the search for new alternatives for the control of Aedes aegypti the larvicidal activity of Eucalyptus grandis essential oil and pine resin essential oil (turpentine) and their major components (alpha- and beta-pinene and 1,8-cineole) was determined. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis of E. grandis essential oil revealed that its major components are alpha-pinene and 1,8-cineole. Similar analysis of turpentine obtained by distillation of the resin pitch of conifers showed that alpha- and beta-pinene are the only major components. Third and early 4th instars of the CIPEIN-susceptible strain of Ae. aegypti were exposed to acetonic solutions of E. grandis essential oil, turpentine, and their major components for 24 h. Turpentine, with an LC50 of 14.7 ppm, was more active than the essential oil of E. grandis (LC50: 32.4 ppm). Larvicidal activity of the essential oil components showed that alpha- and beta-pinene present low LC50 values (15.4 and 12.1 ppm, respectively), whereas pure 1,8-cineole showed an LC50 of 57.2 ppm. These results suggest that alpha-pinene in E. grandis and alpha- and beta-pinene in turpentine serve as the principal larvicidal components of both oils. Results obtained on larvicidal effects of essential oil of Eucalyptus grandis and turpentine could be considered a contribution to the search for new biodegradable larvicides of natural origin.

  14. Genetic linkage maps of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla using a pseudo-testcross: mapping strategy and RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Grattapaglia, D; Sederoff, R

    1994-08-01

    We have used a "two-way pseudo-testcross" mapping strategy in combination with the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay to construct two moderate density genetic linkage maps for species of Eucalyptus. In the cross between two heterozygous individuals many single-dose RAPD markers will be heterozygous in one parent, null in the other and therefore segregate 1:1 in their F1 progeny following a testcross configuration. Meiosis and gametic segregation in each individual can be directly and efficiently analyzed using RAPD markers. We screened 305 primers of arbitrary sequence, and selected 151 to amplify a total of 558 markers. These markers were grouped at LOD 5.0, theta = 0.25, resulting in the maternal Eucalyptus grandis map having a total of 240 markers into 14 linkage groups (1552 cM) and the paternal Eucalyptus urophylla map with 251 markers in 11 linkage groups (1101 cM) (n = 11 in Eucalyptus). Framework maps ordered with a likelihood support > or = 1000:1 were assembled covering 95% of the estimated genome size in both individuals. Characterization of genome complexity of a sample of 48 mapped random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers indicate that 53% amplify from low copy regions. These are the first reported high coverage linkage maps for any species of Eucalyptus and among the first for any hardwood tree species. We propose the combined use of RAPD markers and the pseudo-testcross configuration as a general strategy for the construction of single individual genetic linkage maps in outbred forest trees as well as in any highly heterozygous sexually reproducing living organisms. A survey of the occurrence of RAPD markers in different individuals suggests that the pseudo-testcross/RAPD mapping strategy should also be efficient at the intraspecific level and increasingly so with crosses of genetically divergent individuals. The ability to quickly construct single-tree genetic linkage maps in any forest species opens the way for a shift from the

  15. [Effects of fertilization level on diurnal variation of gas exchange of young Eucalyptus grandis leaf].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-ping; Wang, Jing-yan; Wang, Dong; Hu, Ting-xing; Chen, Hong-zhi; Gong, Wei

    2010-11-01

    Different levels (0, 90, 180, and 270 g per tree) of compound fertilizer containing 15% N, 15% P2O5, and 15% K2O were applied to young Eucalyptus grandis to study the diurnal variations of its leaf stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), net photosynthesis rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), water use efficiency (WUE), and vapor pressure deficit on leaf surface (Vpdl) as well as the variation of leaf chlorophyll content, aimed to approach the relationships of E. grandis photosynthesis with fertilization and environmental factors. In all treatments, the diurnal variation of Pn presented a single-peak curve, with the peak at 14:00 and not showing midday depression. The Gs, Tr, and Vpdl showed the similar trend with Pn, while the Ci had a minimum value at 14:00. The WUE demonstrated a double-peak curve, with the first and second peak occurred at 10:00 and 14:00, respectively. Comparing with the control, the mean values of Gs, Pn, Tr, WUE, and chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll contents under fertilization increased by 4.6%-15.9%, 7.8%-21.8%, 4.8%-11.6%, 3.2%-8.8%, 15.5%-62.0%, 14.5%-44.5% and 15.3%-57.1%, respectively, and the increment increased with fertilization level. By contrast, the mean values of Ci and VPdl decreased by 14.5%-44.5% and 15.3%-57.1%, respectively, and the decrement increased with fertilization level. The Gs, Pn, and Tr were significantly correlated with air temperature, relative humidity (RH), and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), and also, the Gs was significantly correlated with Pn and Tr. It was suggested that fertilization could promote E. grandis growth and enhance its WUE and biological carbon sequestration, and air temperature, RH, PAR, and Gs were the main factors causing the diurnal variations of photosynthesis and transpiration of E. grandis.

  16. Variation in natural durability of seven Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clones

    Treesearch

    F.J.N. Franca; T.S.F.A. Franca; R.A Arango; B.M. Woodward; G.B. Vidaurre

    2017-01-01

    Programs aimed at developing clones of hybrid trees are commonly established in Brazil to meet the demands of various forest-based industries. These programs have continually improved the quality of eucalyptus wood, which has the potential to reduce deforestation by lowering demand for other high-value species. This is particularly true in the lumber market, but little...

  17. Impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiwei; Hu, Tingxing; Chen, Hong; Wang, Qian; Hu, Hongling; Tu, Lihua; Jing, Liao

    2013-09-01

    A pot experiment was performed to study the impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings. The experimental design scheme was 0 (CK), 40 (A1), 80 (A2) and 120 g pot(-1) (A3) of E. grandis leaves, and changes in the volatile oil chemical composition during litter decomposition were assessed in the present study. The results showed that C. septentrionale leaf litter inhibited the growth of E. grandis saplings, as determined by the height, basal diameter and chlorophyll content, after 69 d (T1). Five months after transplantation (T2), the height growth rate of the E. grandis saplings increased and then gradually reduced (A1: 40 g pot(-1) > A2: 80 g pot(-1) > A3: 120 g pot(-1) > CK: 0 g pot(-1)). After eleven months (T3), the variations in the height and basal diameter were the same as observed at T2, and the inhibition on leaf, branch, root and stem biomass increased with increasing leaf litter content. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the volatile compound composition. The results indicated that the C. septentrionale original leaf litter (S1) contained thirty-one volatile compounds, but the treated leaf litter S2 (which was mixed with soil for eleven months to simultaneously plant E. grandis saplings) only possessed fourteen volatile compounds, releasing many secondary metabolites in the soil during decomposition. Most of the volatile compounds were alcohols, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenes, alkanes, alkene, esters and ketones. Most of the allelochemicals of C. septentrionale might be released during the initial decomposing process, inhibiting the growth of other plants, whereas some nutrients might be released later, promoting the height growth of plants. In conclusion, decomposing C. septentrionale leaf litter release of many allelochemicals in the soil that significantly inhibit the growth of E. grandis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All

  18. Production and carbon allocation in monocultures and mixed-species plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nouvellon, Yann; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Epron, Daniel; Le Maire, Guerric; Bonnefond, Jean-Marc; Gonçalves, José Leonardo M; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre

    2012-06-01

    Introducing nitrogen-fixing tree species in fast-growing eucalypt plantations has the potential to improve soil nitrogen availability compared with eucalypt monocultures. Whether or not the changes in soil nutrient status and stand structure will lead to mixtures that out-yield monocultures depends on the balance between positive interactions and the negative effects of interspecific competition, and on their effect on carbon (C) uptake and partitioning. We used a C budget approach to quantify growth, C uptake and C partitioning in monocultures of Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) and Acacia mangium (Willd.) (treatments E100 and A100, respectively), and in a mixture at the same stocking density with the two species at a proportion of 1 : 1 (treatment MS). Allometric relationships established over the whole rotation, and measurements of soil CO(2) efflux and aboveground litterfall for ages 4-6 years after planting were used to estimate aboveground net primary production (ANPP), total belowground carbon flux (TBCF) and gross primary production (GPP). We tested the hypotheses that (i) species differences for wood production between E. grandis and A. mangium monocultures were partly explained by different C partitioning strategies, and (ii) the observed lower wood production in the mixture compared with eucalypt monoculture was mostly explained by a lower partitioning aboveground. At the end of the rotation, total aboveground biomass was lowest in A100 (10.5 kg DM m(-2)), intermediate in MS (12.2 kg DM m(-2)) and highest in E100 (13.9 kg DM m(-2)). The results did not support our first hypothesis of contrasting C partitioning strategies between E. grandis and A. mangium monocultures: the 21% lower growth (ΔB(w)) in A100 compared with E100 was almost entirely explained by a 23% lower GPP, with little or no species difference in ratios such as TBCF/GPP, ANPP/TBCF, ΔB(w)/ANPP and ΔB(w)/GPP. In contrast, the 28% lower ΔB(w) in MS than in E100 was explained both by

  19. Genome-wide mapping of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation in Eucalyptus grandis developing xylem.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Steven G; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Groover, Andrew; Berger, Dave K; Myburg, Alexander A

    2015-05-10

    Histone modifications play an integral role in plant development, but have been poorly studied in woody plants. Investigating chromatin organization in wood-forming tissue and its role in regulating gene expression allows us to understand the mechanisms underlying cellular differentiation during xylogenesis (wood formation) and identify novel functional regions in plant genomes. However, woody tissue poses unique challenges for using high-throughput chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) techniques for studying genome-wide histone modifications in vivo. We investigated the role of the modified histone H3K4me3 (trimethylated lysine 4 of histone H3) in gene expression during the early stages of wood formation using ChIP-seq in Eucalyptus grandis, a woody biomass model. Plant chromatin fixation and isolation protocols were optimized for developing xylem tissue collected from field-grown E. grandis trees. A "nano-ChIP-seq" procedure was employed for ChIP DNA amplification. Over 9 million H3K4me3 ChIP-seq and 18 million control paired-end reads were mapped to the E. grandis reference genome for peak-calling using Model-based Analysis of ChIP-Seq. The 12,177 significant H3K4me3 peaks identified covered ~1.5% of the genome and overlapped some 9,623 protein-coding genes and 38 noncoding RNAs. H3K4me3 library coverage, peaking ~600 - 700 bp downstream of the transcription start site, was highly correlated with gene expression levels measured with RNA-seq. Overall, H3K4me3-enriched genes tended to be less tissue-specific than unenriched genes and were overrepresented for general cellular metabolism and development gene ontology terms. Relative expression of H3K4me3-enriched genes in developing secondary xylem was higher than unenriched genes, however, and highly expressed secondary cell wall-related genes were enriched for H3K4me3 as validated using ChIP-qPCR. In this first genome-wide analysis of a modified histone in a woody tissue, we optimized a ChIP-seq procedure suitable

  20. Effects of potassium and sodium supply on drought-adaptive mechanisms in Eucalyptus grandis plantations.

    PubMed

    Battie-Laclau, Patricia; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Christina, Mathias; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; de Cassia Piccolo, Marisa; de Moraes Gonçalves, José Leonardo; e Moreira, Rildo Moreira; Krusche, Alex Vladimir; Bouvet, Jean-Marc; Nouvellon, Yann

    2014-07-01

    A basic understanding of nutrition effects on the mechanisms involved in tree response to drought is essential under a future drier climate. A large-scale throughfall exclusion experiment was set up in Brazil to gain an insight into the effects of potassium (K) and sodium (Na) nutrition on tree structural and physiological adjustments to water deficit. Regardless of the water supply, K and Na supply greatly increased growth and leaf area index (LAI) of Eucalyptus grandis trees over the first 3 yr after planting. Excluding 37% of throughfall reduced above-ground biomass accumulation in the third year after planting for K- supplied trees only. E. grandis trees were scarcely sensitive to drought as a result of the utilization of water stored in deep soil layers after clear-cutting the previous plantation. Trees coped with water restriction through stomatal closure (isohydrodynamic behavior), osmotic adjustment and decrease in LAI. Additionally, droughted trees showed higher phloem sap sugar concentrations. K and Na supply increased maximum stomatal conductance, and the high water requirements of fertilized trees increased water stress during dry periods. Fertilization regimes should be revisited in a future drier climate in order to find the right balance between improving tree growth and limiting water shortage.

  1. [Effects of Eucalyptus grandis leaf litter decomposition on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Cichorium intybus].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiu-Hua; Hu, Ting-Xing; Yang, Wan-Qin; Chen, Hong; Hu, Hong-Ling; Tu, Li-Hua; Pan, Yong-Xiang; Zeng, Fan-Ming

    2012-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of Eucalyptus grandis leaf litter during its early stage decomposition on the growth and the photosynthesis of Cichorium intybus. Each pot contained 12 kg soil mixed with different amounts of E. grandis leaf litter (30 g x pot(-1), A1; 60 g x pot(-1), A2; 90 g x pot(-1), A3; and 0 g x pot(-1), CK), and sowed with C. intybus. The growth indicators and the photosynthetic characteristics of C. intybus were measured after the third leaf of C. intybus seedlings fully expanded in treatment A3. At the early stage of leaf litter decomposition, the C. intybus biomass accumulation, leaf area growth, and synthesis of photosynthetic pigments were inhibited significantly, and the inhibition effect was getting stronger with the increasing amount of the leaf litter addition. The intercellular CO2 concentration of C. intybus was increased by litter addition, while the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate were significantly lower than those of the control. With the increase of leaf litter addition, all the parameters of C. intybus light response and CO2 response except CO2 compensation point showed an obvious downward trend, and there existed significant differences between the treatments of litter additions and the control. It was suggested that during the decomposition of E. grandis leaf litter, its allelopathic substances released gradually and acted on receptor plants, inhibited the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments and the photosynthesis of the receptors, decreased the receptors environmental adaptation ability, and accordingly, inhibited the growth of C. intybus.

  2. Localization and Transcriptional Responses of Chrysoporthe austroafricana in Eucalyptus grandis Identify Putative Pathogenicity Factors.

    PubMed

    Mangwanda, Ronishree; Zwart, Lizahn; van der Merwe, Nicolaas A; Moleleki, Lucy Novungayo; Berger, Dave Kenneth; Myburg, Alexander A; Naidoo, Sanushka

    2016-01-01

    Chrysoporthe austroafricana is a fungal pathogen that causes the development of stem cankers on susceptible Eucalyptus grandis trees. Clones of E. grandis that are partially resistant and highly susceptible have been identified based on the extent of lesion formation on the stem upon inoculation with C. austroafricana. These interactions have been used as a model pathosystem to enhance our understanding of interactions between pathogenic fungi and woody hosts, which may be different to herbaceous hosts. In previous research, transcriptomics of host responses in these two clones to C. austroafricana suggested roles for salicylic acid and gibberellic acid phytohormone signaling in defense. However, it is unclear how the pathogen infiltrates host tissue and which pathogenicity factors facilitate its spread in the two host genotypes. The aim of this study was to investigate these two aspects of the E. grandis-C. austroafricana interaction and to test the hypothesis that the pathogen possesses mechanisms to modulate the tree phytohormone-mediated defenses. Light microscopy showed that the pathogen occurred in most cell types and structures within infected E. grandis stem tissue. Notably, the fungus appeared to spread through the stem by penetrating cell wall pits. In order to understand the molecular interaction between these organisms and predict putative pathogenicity mechanisms of C. austroafricana, fungal gene expression was studied in vitro and in planta. Fungal genes associated with cell wall degradation, carbohydrate metabolism and phytohormone manipulation were expressed in planta by C. austroafricana. These genes could be involved in fungal spread by facilitating cell wall pit degradation and manipulating phytohormone mediated defense in each host environment, respectively. Specifically, the in planta expression of an ent-kaurene oxidase and salicylate hydroxylase in C. austroafricana suggests putative mechanisms by which the pathogen can modulate the

  3. Evidence for salicylic acid signalling and histological changes in the defence response of Eucalyptus grandis to Chrysoporthe austroafricana

    PubMed Central

    Zwart, Lizahn; Berger, Dave Kenneth; Moleleki, Lucy Novungayo; van der Merwe, Nicolaas A.; Myburg, Alexander A.; Naidoo, Sanushka

    2017-01-01

    Eucalyptus species are cultivated for forestry and are of economic importance. The fungal stem canker pathogen Chrysoporthe austroafricana causes disease of varying severity on E. grandis. The Eucalyptus grandis-Chrysoporthe austroafricana interaction has been established as a model system for studying Eucalyptus antifungal defence. Previous studies revealed that the phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) affects the levels of resistance in highly susceptible (ZG14) and moderately resistant (TAG5) clones. The aims of this study were to examine histochemical changes in response to wounding and inoculation as well as host responses at the protein level. The anatomy and histochemical changes induced by wounding and inoculation were similar between the clones, suggesting that anatomical differences do not underlie their different levels of resistance. Tyloses and gum-like substances were present after inoculation and wounding, but cell death occurred only after inoculation. Hyphae of C. austroafricana were observed inside dead and living cells, suggesting that the possibility of a hemibiotrophic interaction requires further investigation. Proteomics analysis revealed the possible involvement of proteins associated with cell death, SA signalling and systemic resistance. In combination with previous information, this study forms a basis for future functional characterisation of candidate genes involved in resistance of E. grandis to C. austroafricana. PMID:28349984

  4. Identification of PEG-induced water stress responsive transcripts using co-expression network in Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Ghosh Dasgupta, Modhumita; Dharanishanthi, Veeramuthu

    2017-09-05

    Ecophysiological studies in Eucalyptus have shown that water is the principal factor limiting stem growth. Effect of water deficit conditions on physiological and biochemical parameters has been extensively reported in Eucalyptus. The present study was conducted to identify major polyethylene glycol induced water stress responsive transcripts in Eucalyptus grandis using gene co-expression network. A customized array representing 3359 water stress responsive genes was designed to document their expression in leaves of E. grandis cuttings subjected to -0.225MPa of PEG treatment. The differentially expressed transcripts were documented and significantly co-expressed transcripts were used for construction of network. The co-expression network was constructed with 915 nodes and 3454 edges with degree ranging from 2 to 45. Ninety four GO categories and 117 functional pathways were identified in the network. MCODE analysis generated 27 modules and module 6 with 479 nodes and 1005 edges was identified as the biologically relevant network. The major water responsive transcripts represented in the module included dehydrin, osmotin, LEA protein, expansin, arabinogalactans, heat shock proteins, major facilitator proteins, ARM repeat proteins, raffinose synthase, tonoplast intrinsic protein and transcription factors like DREB2A, ARF9, AGL24, UNE12, WLIM1 and MYB66, MYB70, MYB 55, MYB 16 and MYB 103. The coordinated analysis of gene expression patterns and coexpression networks developed in this study identified an array of transcripts that may regulate PEG induced water stress responses in E. grandis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evidence for salicylic acid signalling and histological changes in the defence response of Eucalyptus grandis to Chrysoporthe austroafricana.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Lizahn; Berger, Dave Kenneth; Moleleki, Lucy Novungayo; van der Merwe, Nicolaas A; Myburg, Alexander A; Naidoo, Sanushka

    2017-03-28

    Eucalyptus species are cultivated for forestry and are of economic importance. The fungal stem canker pathogen Chrysoporthe austroafricana causes disease of varying severity on E. grandis. The Eucalyptus grandis-Chrysoporthe austroafricana interaction has been established as a model system for studying Eucalyptus antifungal defence. Previous studies revealed that the phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) affects the levels of resistance in highly susceptible (ZG14) and moderately resistant (TAG5) clones. The aims of this study were to examine histochemical changes in response to wounding and inoculation as well as host responses at the protein level. The anatomy and histochemical changes induced by wounding and inoculation were similar between the clones, suggesting that anatomical differences do not underlie their different levels of resistance. Tyloses and gum-like substances were present after inoculation and wounding, but cell death occurred only after inoculation. Hyphae of C. austroafricana were observed inside dead and living cells, suggesting that the possibility of a hemibiotrophic interaction requires further investigation. Proteomics analysis revealed the possible involvement of proteins associated with cell death, SA signalling and systemic resistance. In combination with previous information, this study forms a basis for future functional characterisation of candidate genes involved in resistance of E. grandis to C. austroafricana.

  6. Water balance analysis of a watershed dominated by Eucalyptus grandis hybrid plantations in Felixlandia (MG, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surian-Gamba, Otávio; Cristina-Tonello, Kelly; Garcia-Leite, Hélio; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Texeira-Dias, Herly C.

    2015-04-01

    Commercial eucalyptus plantations are commonly associated to excessive water use despite the fact that numerous studies have demonstrated significant differences among species and environmental systems. In fact, the analysis of its impact on water balance depending on specific environmental conditions is essential to guarantee its sustainability. The water balance of Eucalyptus grandis hybrid plantations in the Basin Creek of Riacho Fundo in Felixlândia, Minas Gerais (Brazil) is presented through a study of 2.6 years of measurements in a catchment of 719.9 ha. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships among precipitation, interception and evapotranspiration of eucalyptus plantations, for evaluating the weight on flow and effective precipitation. A triangular weir with a set of level- and baro-logger were used for measuring flow. Rainfall was measured with 2 pluviometers and evaporation using two evapotranspirometers Soil Control, Model JR-200mm. For througfall, eight plots of 136.5 m² each were installed with twelve pluviometers. To estimate the stemflow, the empirical equation Et = - 0.060 + 0.053 (P) was used, where P is the precipitation. The effective precipitation was calculated by summing of the througfall value plus the stemflow. The losses by interception were obtained by the difference between precipitation and effective precipitation. The analysis was carried out on the monthly and annual scales. The results showed that the measured rainfall was close to the average for the region, reaching values close to 1200 mm. The interception of the eucalyptus plantation for the period was approximately 12% of the external precipitation. There were neither significant relationships between flow and evapotranspiration nor between flow and effective precipitation, which shows the complexity of water components at the catchment scale. This is likely associated to the delay effect of the subsurface flow. The average flow for the period of study was

  7. Localization and Transcriptional Responses of Chrysoporthe austroafricana in Eucalyptus grandis Identify Putative Pathogenicity Factors

    PubMed Central

    Mangwanda, Ronishree; Zwart, Lizahn; van der Merwe, Nicolaas A.; Moleleki, Lucy Novungayo; Berger, Dave Kenneth; Myburg, Alexander A.; Naidoo, Sanushka

    2016-01-01

    Chrysoporthe austroafricana is a fungal pathogen that causes the development of stem cankers on susceptible Eucalyptus grandis trees. Clones of E. grandis that are partially resistant and highly susceptible have been identified based on the extent of lesion formation on the stem upon inoculation with C. austroafricana. These interactions have been used as a model pathosystem to enhance our understanding of interactions between pathogenic fungi and woody hosts, which may be different to herbaceous hosts. In previous research, transcriptomics of host responses in these two clones to C. austroafricana suggested roles for salicylic acid and gibberellic acid phytohormone signaling in defense. However, it is unclear how the pathogen infiltrates host tissue and which pathogenicity factors facilitate its spread in the two host genotypes. The aim of this study was to investigate these two aspects of the E. grandis–C. austroafricana interaction and to test the hypothesis that the pathogen possesses mechanisms to modulate the tree phytohormone-mediated defenses. Light microscopy showed that the pathogen occurred in most cell types and structures within infected E. grandis stem tissue. Notably, the fungus appeared to spread through the stem by penetrating cell wall pits. In order to understand the molecular interaction between these organisms and predict putative pathogenicity mechanisms of C. austroafricana, fungal gene expression was studied in vitro and in planta. Fungal genes associated with cell wall degradation, carbohydrate metabolism and phytohormone manipulation were expressed in planta by C. austroafricana. These genes could be involved in fungal spread by facilitating cell wall pit degradation and manipulating phytohormone mediated defense in each host environment, respectively. Specifically, the in planta expression of an ent-kaurene oxidase and salicylate hydroxylase in C. austroafricana suggests putative mechanisms by which the pathogen can modulate the

  8. Lumber quality of Eucalyptus grandis as a function of diametrical position and log steaming.

    PubMed

    Severo, Elias Taylor Durgante; Calonego, Fred Willians; de Matos, Carlos Alberto Oliveira

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of log steaming and of the diametrical position of boards on the timber quality of Eucalyptus grandis. Logs with diameters between 20 and 25 cm, between 25 and 30 cm and between 30 and 35 cm were studied. Half of logs were kept in its original condition, and the other half was steamed at 90 degrees C for 20 h. Later, the logs were cut into flat saw boards, and defects due to growth stress relief were measured. The results show that: (1) boards from control logs show different magnitudes of cracking according to the diameter of the log and the diametrical position of the board; (2) boards from logs with diameters between 30 and 35 cm and those from next to the pith develop larger cracks; and (3) boards from steamed logs show a reduction in the magnitude of cracking and a homogenous distribution of this defect relative to diametrical position within the log.

  9. [Physiological bases of herbages shade-tolerance in Eucalyptus grandis and herbage inter-cultivated system].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuang; Hu, Ting-Xing; Liu, Wen-Ting; Zhang, Li; Shuai, Wei; Tang, Tian-Yun; Li, Qiang

    2008-09-01

    The study on the physiological bases of the shade-tolerance of Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne, and Hemarthria compressa inter-cultivated in Eucalyptus grandis forests with different canopy densities showed that with increasing canopy density, the light saturation point (LSP), light compensation point (LCP), chlorophyll a/b (Chla/Chlb), and the contents of proline (Pro), soluble sugar (SS) and soluble protein (SP) of the three herbages decreased gradually, but the apparent quantum yield (AQY), chlorophyll content (Chl), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were in adverse. The daily average net photosynthesis rates (P(n)) of H. compressa decreased gradually, while that of D. glomerata and L. perenne increased first and decreased then. When the canopy density was below 0.54 for D. glomerata and below 0.27 for L. perenne, the P(n) of the two herbages was higher than CK. There existed significant correlations (P < 0.05) between 11 physiological indices of the three herbages and canopy density, and the shade-tolerance of the three herbages was in the order of D. glomerata > L. perenne > H. compressa, based on the ordination with average subjection function method.

  10. Optimization of acid hydrolysis from the hemicellulosic fraction of Eucalyptus grandis residue using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Canettieri, Eliana Vieira; de Moraes Rocha, George Jackson; de Carvalho, João Andrade; de Almeida e Silva, João Batista

    2007-01-01

    Biotechnological conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals requires hydrolysis of the polysaccharide fraction into monomeric sugars. Hydrolysis can be performed enzymatically and with dilute or concentrate mineral acids. The present study used dilute sulfuric acid as a catalyst for hydrolysis of Eucalyptus grandis residue. The purpose of this paper was to optimize the hydrolysis process in a 1.4 l pilot-scale reactor and investigate the effects of the acid concentration, temperature and residue/acid solution ratio on the hemicellulose removal and consequently on the production of sugars (xylose, glucose and arabinose) as well as on the formation of by-products (furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and acetic acid). This study was based on a model composition corresponding to a 2(3) orthogonal factorial design and employed the response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the hydrolysis conditions, aiming to attain maximum xylose extraction from hemicellulose of residue. The considered optimum conditions were: H(2)SO(4) concentration of 0.65%, temperature of 157 degrees C and residue/acid solution ratio of 1/8.6 with a reaction time of 20 min. Under these conditions, 79.6% of the total xylose was removed and the hydrolysate contained 1.65 g/l glucose, 13.65 g/l xylose, 1.55 g/l arabinose, 3.10 g/l acetic acid, 1.23 g/l furfural and 0.20 g/l 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

  11. Fractionation of Eucalyptus grandis chips by dilute acid-catalysed steam explosion.

    PubMed

    Emmel, Alexandre; Mathias, Alvaro L; Wypych, Fernando; Ramos, Luiz P

    2003-01-01

    Steam explosion of Eucalyptus grandis has been carried out under various pretreatment conditions (200-210 degrees C, 2-5 min) after impregnation of the wood chips with 0.087 and 0.175% (w/w) H2SO4. This study, arranged as a 2(3) factorial design, indicated that pretreatment temperature is the most critical variable affecting the yield of steam-treated fractions. Pretreatment of 0.175% (w/w) H2SO4-impregnated chips at 210 degrees C for 2 min was the best condition for hemicellulose recovery (mostly as xylose) in the water soluble fraction, reaching almost 70% of the corresponding xylose theoretical yield. By contrast, lower pretreatment temperatures of 200 degrees C were enough to yield steam-treated substrates from which a 90% cellulose conversion was obtained in 48 h, using low enzyme loadings of a Celluclast 1.5 1 plus Novozym 188 mixture (Novo Nordisk). Release of water-soluble chromophores was monitored by UV spectroscopy and their concentration increased with pretreatment severity. The yield of alkali-soluble lignin increased at higher levels of acid impregnation and pretreatment temperatures. Thermoanalysis of these lignin fractions indicated a pattern of lignin fragmentation towards greater pretreatment severities but lignin condensation prevailed at the most drastic pretreatment conditions.

  12. The Eucalyptus grandis R2R3-MYB transcription factor family: evidence for woody growth-related evolution and function.

    PubMed

    Soler, Marçal; Camargo, Eduardo Leal Oliveira; Carocha, Victor; Cassan-Wang, Hua; San Clemente, Hélène; Savelli, Bruno; Hefer, Charles A; Paiva, Jorge A Pinto; Myburg, Alexander A; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2015-06-01

    The R2R3-MYB family, one of the largest transcription factor families in higher plants, controls a wide variety of plant-specific processes including, notably, phenylpropanoid metabolism and secondary cell wall formation. We performed a genome-wide analysis of this superfamily in Eucalyptus, one of the most planted hardwood trees world-wide. A total of 141 predicted R2R3-MYB sequences identified in the Eucalyptus grandis genome sequence were subjected to comparative phylogenetic analyses with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Populus trichocarpa and Vitis vinifera. We analysed features such as gene structure, conserved motifs and genome location. Transcript abundance patterns were assessed by RNAseq and validated by high-throughput quantitative PCR. We found some R2R3-MYB subgroups with expanded membership in E. grandis, V. vinifera and P. trichocarpa, and others preferentially found in woody species, suggesting diversification of specific functions in woody plants. By contrast, subgroups containing key genes regulating lignin biosynthesis and secondary cell wall formation are more conserved across all of the species analysed. In Eucalyptus, R2R3-MYB tandem gene duplications seem to disproportionately affect woody-preferential and woody-expanded subgroups. Interestingly, some of the genes belonging to woody-preferential subgroups show higher expression in the cambial region, suggesting a putative role in the regulation of secondary growth.

  13. High-throughput gene and SNP discovery in Eucalyptus grandis, an uncharacterized genome

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Evandro; Drost, Derek R; Farmerie, William G; Pappas, Georgios J; Grattapaglia, Dario; Sederoff, Ronald R; Kirst, Matias

    2008-01-01

    Background Benefits from high-throughput sequencing using 454 pyrosequencing technology may be most apparent for species with high societal or economic value but few genomic resources. Rapid means of gene sequence and SNP discovery using this novel sequencing technology provide a set of baseline tools for genome-level research. However, it is questionable how effective the sequencing of large numbers of short reads for species with essentially no prior gene sequence information will support contig assemblies and sequence annotation. Results With the purpose of generating the first broad survey of gene sequences in Eucalyptus grandis, the most widely planted hardwood tree species, we used 454 technology to sequence and assemble 148 Mbp of expressed sequences (EST). EST sequences were generated from a normalized cDNA pool comprised of multiple tissues and genotypes, promoting discovery of homologues to almost half of Arabidopsis genes, and a comprehensive survey of allelic variation in the transcriptome. By aligning the sequencing reads from multiple genotypes we detected 23,742 SNPs, 83% of which were validated in a sample. Genome-wide nucleotide diversity was estimated for 2,392 contigs using a modified theta (θ) parameter, adapted for measuring genetic diversity from polymorphisms detected by randomly sequencing a multi-genotype cDNA pool. Diversity estimates in non-synonymous nucleotides were on average 4x smaller than in synonymous, suggesting purifying selection. Non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions (Ka/Ks) among 2,001 contigs averaged 0.30 and was skewed to the right, further supporting that most genes are under purifying selection. Comparison of these estimates among contigs identified major functional classes of genes under purifying and diversifying selection in agreement with previous researches. Conclusion In providing an abundance of foundational transcript sequences where limited prior genomic information existed, this work created part of the

  14. Optimal management and productivity of Eucalyptus grandis on former phosphate mined and citrus lands in central and southern Florida: influence of genetics and spacing

    Treesearch

    Kyle W. Fabbro; Donald L. Rockwood

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus short rotation woody crops (SRWC) with superior genotypes are promising in central and south Florida due to their fast growth, freeze resilience, coppicing ability, and site tolerance. Four Eucalyptus grandis cultivars, E.nergy™ G1, G2, G3, and/or G5, were established in 2009 at varying planting densities on a...

  15. Evaluation of acute toxicity and genotoxicity of liquid products from pyrolysis of Eucalyptus grandis wood.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, A S; Bayona, J M; García, M T; Solanas, A M

    2000-02-01

    Slow pyrolysis of Eucalyptus grandis wood was performed in an oven laboratory, and smoke was trapped and condensed to yield liquid products. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phenolic fractions were isolated from the former liquid products using adsorption column chromatography (ACC) and identified by GC/MS. Concentrations of PAH and phenolic fractions in total pyrolysis liquids were respectively 48.9 microg/g and 8.59% (w/w). Acute toxicity of total samples of pyrolysis liquids and the phenolic fraction was evaluated by means of two bioassays, namely, 24-h immobilization bioassay with Daphnia magna and Microtox bioassays, the latter employing the luminescent bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum. Total pyrolysis liquids and the PAH fraction were evaluated for genotoxicity by the Microtox bioassay conducted using rehydrated freeze-dried dark mutant of the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fisheri strain M169. Total pyrolysis liquids and the phenolic fraction, respectively, in concentrations of 170 and 68 mg/L were able to immobilize 50% (EC(50)) of the D. magna population following 24-h exposure. Concentrations of 19 and 6 mg/L, respectively, for total pyrolysis liquids and phenolic fraction were the effective concentrations that resulted in a 50% (EC(50)) reduction in light produced by bacteria in the Microtox bioassay. Accordingly, the Microtox bioassay was more sensitive to toxic effects of both kind of samples than the D. magna bioassay, particularly for the phenolic fraction. Regarding to the genotoxicity evaluation, the results achieved by Microtox bioassay showed that total pyrolysis liquids had no genotoxic effects with and without exogenous metabolic activation using rat liver homogenate (S9). However, the PAH fraction showed toxic effects with rat liver activation and had a dose-response number (DRN) equal to 1.6, being in this way suspected genotoxic. The lowest detected concentration (LDC) of the PAH fraction able to cause genotoxic effects was 375

  16. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Profiling of the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) Gene Family in Eucalyptus grandis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong; Soler, Marçal; Mila, Isabelle; San Clemente, Hélène; Savelli, Bruno; Dunand, Christophe; Paiva, Jorge A. P.; Myburg, Alexander A.; Bouzayen, Mondher; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Cassan-Wang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Auxin is a central hormone involved in a wide range of developmental processes including the specification of vascular stem cells. Auxin Response Factors (ARF) are important actors of the auxin signalling pathway, regulating the transcription of auxin-responsive genes through direct binding to their promoters. The recent availability of the Eucalyptus grandis genome sequence allowed us to examine the characteristics and evolutionary history of this gene family in a woody plant of high economic importance. With 17 members, the E. grandis ARF gene family is slightly contracted, as compared to those of most angiosperms studied hitherto, lacking traces of duplication events. In silico analysis of alternative transcripts and gene truncation suggested that these two mechanisms were preeminent in shaping the functional diversity of the ARF family in Eucalyptus. Comparative phylogenetic analyses with genomes of other taxonomic lineages revealed the presence of a new ARF clade found preferentially in woody and/or perennial plants. High-throughput expression profiling among different organs and tissues and in response to environmental cues highlighted genes expressed in vascular cambium and/or developing xylem, responding dynamically to various environmental stimuli. Finally, this study allowed identification of three ARF candidates potentially involved in the auxin-regulated transcriptional program underlying wood formation. PMID:25269088

  17. Genome-wide characterization and expression profiling of the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) gene family in Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Soler, Marçal; Mila, Isabelle; San Clemente, Hélène; Savelli, Bruno; Dunand, Christophe; Paiva, Jorge A P; Myburg, Alexander A; Bouzayen, Mondher; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Cassan-Wang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Auxin is a central hormone involved in a wide range of developmental processes including the specification of vascular stem cells. Auxin Response Factors (ARF) are important actors of the auxin signalling pathway, regulating the transcription of auxin-responsive genes through direct binding to their promoters. The recent availability of the Eucalyptus grandis genome sequence allowed us to examine the characteristics and evolutionary history of this gene family in a woody plant of high economic importance. With 17 members, the E. grandis ARF gene family is slightly contracted, as compared to those of most angiosperms studied hitherto, lacking traces of duplication events. In silico analysis of alternative transcripts and gene truncation suggested that these two mechanisms were preeminent in shaping the functional diversity of the ARF family in Eucalyptus. Comparative phylogenetic analyses with genomes of other taxonomic lineages revealed the presence of a new ARF clade found preferentially in woody and/or perennial plants. High-throughput expression profiling among different organs and tissues and in response to environmental cues highlighted genes expressed in vascular cambium and/or developing xylem, responding dynamically to various environmental stimuli. Finally, this study allowed identification of three ARF candidates potentially involved in the auxin-regulated transcriptional program underlying wood formation.

  18. Modifying solubility of polymeric xylan extracted from Eucalyptus grandis and sugarcane bagasse by suitable side chain removing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Katiana R; Chimphango, Annie F A; Görgens, Johann F

    2015-10-20

    α-l-Arabinofuranosidase (AbfB) and novel α-d-glucuronidase (Agu1B) enzymes were applied for selective hydrolysis of beechwood (Fagus sylvatica) xylan (Sigma-Aldrich) as well as xylans extracted from Eucalyptus grandis and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) bagasse, leading to precipitation of these carbohydrate biopolymers. Hemicellulose extraction was performed with two mild-alkali methods, Höije and Pinto. Precipitation occurred after removal of 67, 40 and 16% 4-O-methyl-d-glucuronic acid (MeGlcA) present in polymeric xylans from beechwood, E. grandis (Pinto) and E. grandis (Höije), respectively. Precipitation was maximized at Agu1B levels of 3.79-7.53mg/gsubstrate and hemicellulose concentrations of 4.5-5.0% (w/v). Polymeric xylan from sugarcane bagasse precipitated after removal of 48 and 22% of arabinose and MeGlcA, respectively, at optimal AbfB and Agu1B dosages of 9.0U/g and 6.4mg/g, respectively. Both the purity of polymeric xylans and structure thereof had a critical impact on the propensity for precipitation, and morphology of the resulting precipitate. Nano-to micro-meter precipitates were produced, with potential for carbohydrate nanotechnology applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Eucalyptus

    MedlinePlus

    Eucalyptus is a tree. The dried leaves and oil are used to make medicine. Though eucalyptus is used medicinally for many purposes, there ... odorata, Eucalyptus Oil, Eucalyptus polybractea, Eucalyptus smithii, Fever Tree, Fieberbaumblatter, Gully Gum, Gully Gum Oil, Gum Tree, ...

  20. Comparative interrogation of the developing xylem transcriptomes of two wood-forming species: Populus trichocarpa and Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Hefer, Charles A; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Myburg, Alexander A; Douglas, Carl J; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2015-06-01

    Wood formation is a complex developmental process governed by genetic and environmental stimuli. Populus and Eucalyptus are fast-growing, high-yielding tree genera that represent ecologically and economically important species suitable for generating significant lignocellulosic biomass. Comparative analysis of the developing xylem and leaf transcriptomes of Populus trichocarpa and Eucalyptus grandis together with phylogenetic analyses identified clusters of homologous genes preferentially expressed during xylem formation in both species. A conserved set of 336 single gene pairs showed highly similar xylem preferential expression patterns, as well as evidence of high functional constraint. Individual members of multi-gene orthologous clusters known to be involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis also showed conserved xylem expression profiles. However, species-specific expression as well as opposite (xylem versus leaf) expression patterns observed for a subset of genes suggest subtle differences in the transcriptional regulation important for xylem development in each species. Using sequence similarity and gene expression status, we identified functional homologs likely to be involved in xylem developmental and biosynthetic processes in Populus and Eucalyptus. Our study suggests that, while genes involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis show high levels of gene expression conservation, differential regulation of some xylem development genes may give rise to unique xylem properties.

  1. Two-step liquid hot water pretreatment of Eucalyptus grandis to enhance sugar recovery and enzymatic digestibility of cellulose.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiang; Zhuang, Xinshu; Yuan, Zhenhong; Wang, Qiong; Qi, Wei; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Jingliang; Xu, Huijuan

    2010-07-01

    A two-step liquid hot water pretreatment (TSLHW) was developed with the objective of achieving complete saccharification of both hemicellulose and cellulose of Eucalyptus grandis, thereby avoiding the problems associated with the use of strong acid catalysts. The first step of the pretreatment was studied in the temperature range 180-200 degrees C, and the highest yield of total xylose achieved was 86.4% after 20 min at 180 degrees C. The second-step of the pretreatment was studied in the temperature range 180-240 degrees C and for lengths of time of 0-60 min. The conversion rate of glucan was more sensitive to temperature than time. The optimum reaction conditions for the second step of the pretreatment with minimal degradation of sugars were 200 degrees C for 20 min. the total sugar recovery from E. grandis with the optimized pretreatment and 72 h enzymatic digestion, reached 96.63%, which is superior to the recovery from a single-step pretreatment with hot water or dilute acid. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Photosynthetic and anatomical responses of Eucalyptus grandis leaves to potassium and sodium supply in a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Battie-Laclau, Patricia; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Beri, Constance; Mietton, Lauriane; Muniz, Marta R Almeida; Arenque, Bruna Cersózimo; DE Cassia Piccolo, Marisa; Jordan-Meille, Lionel; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Nouvellon, Yann

    2014-01-01

    Although vast areas in tropical regions have weathered soils with low potassium (K) levels, little is known about the effects of K supply on the photosynthetic physiology of trees. This study assessed the effects of K and sodium (Na) supply on the diffusional and biochemical limitations to photosynthesis in Eucalyptus grandis leaves. A field experiment comparing treatments receiving K (+K) or Na (+Na) with a control treatment (C) was set up in a K-deficient soil. The net CO2 assimilation rates were twice as high in +K and 1.6 times higher in +Na than in the C as a result of lower stomatal and mesophyll resistance to CO2 diffusion and higher photosynthetic capacity. The starch content was higher and soluble sugar was lower in +K than in C and +Na, suggesting that K starvation disturbed carbon storage and transport. The specific leaf area, leaf thickness, parenchyma thickness, stomatal size and intercellular air spaces increased in +K and +Na compared to C. Nitrogen and chlorophyll concentrations were also higher in +K and +Na than in C. These results suggest a strong relationship between the K and Na supply to E. grandis trees and the functional and structural limitations to CO2 assimilation rates.

  3. Genome scans for divergent selection in natural populations of the widespread hardwood species Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtaceae) using microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhijiao; Zhang, Miaomiao; Li, Fagen; Weng, Qijie; Zhou, Chanpin; Li, Mei; Li, Jie; Huang, Huanhua; Mo, Xiaoyong; Gan, Siming

    2016-01-01

    Identification of loci or genes under natural selection is important for both understanding the genetic basis of local adaptation and practical applications, and genome scans provide a powerful means for such identification purposes. In this study, genome-wide simple sequence repeats markers (SSRs) were used to scan for molecular footprints of divergent selection in Eucalyptus grandis, a hardwood species occurring widely in costal areas from 32° S to 16° S in Australia. High population diversity levels and weak population structure were detected with putatively neutral genomic SSRs. Using three FST outlier detection methods, a total of 58 outlying SSRs were collectively identified as loci under divergent selection against three non-correlated climatic variables, namely, mean annual temperature, isothermality and annual precipitation. Using a spatial analysis method, nine significant associations were revealed between FST outlier allele frequencies and climatic variables, involving seven alleles from five SSR loci. Of the five significant SSRs, two (EUCeSSR1044 and Embra394) contained alleles of putative genes with known functional importance for response to climatic factors. Our study presents critical information on the population diversity and structure of the important woody species E. grandis and provides insight into the adaptive responses of perennial trees to climatic variations. PMID:27748400

  4. The fasciclin-like arabinogalactan protein family of Eucalyptus grandis contains members that impact wood biology and biomechanics.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Colleen P; Taylor, Lynette; Bi, Yingdong; Southerton, Simon G; Evans, Rob; Spokevicius, Antanas

    2015-06-01

    Fasciclin-like arabinogalactan protein (FLA) families have been identified and characterised in key plant species, with some members exhibiting functional specialization. Here we identify the FLA family of Eucalyptus grandis, and investigate the roles of three single-FAS domain FLAs, with particular focus on secondary cell-wall formation and wood properties. We use various in-silico approaches to identify and characterise E. grandis genome FLAs, and perform phylogenetic comparisons with other species. For three key FLAs, we perform functional testing including promoter-reporter and overexpression transgenic approaches using eucalypts, poplar and tobacco. Of the 18 eucalypt FLAs identified, several were specifically and highly expressed in stems. The specificity to stem xylem vessel and fibre development was demonstrated with EniFLA1promoter:GUS studies in several species. Testing of select eucalypt FLAs resulted in altered wood development and properties, for example 35S:EgrFLA2 led to a 3 degree reduction in cellulose microfibril angle in eucalypt xylem fibres, and 35S:EgrFLA3 to a reduction in tobacco stem flexural strength. These results indicate that the eucalypt FLA family contains diverse members, and particular members with single FAS domains that are functionally specialized for secondary cell wall growth and properties. © 2015 CSIRO. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Constancy, Distribution, and Frequency of Lepidoptera Defoliators of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla (Myrtaceae) in Four Brazilian Regions.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, G T; Zanuncio, J C; de S Tavares, W; de S Ramalho, F; Serrão, J E

    2016-12-01

    The growth of the Brazilian forest sector with monocultures favors the adaptation of Arthropoda pests. The Lepidoptera order includes major pests of Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae). The aim of this work is to study the population constancy, distribution, and frequency of Lepidoptera primary pests of Eucalyptus spp. Lepidoptera pests in Eucalyptus spp. plantations were collected in Três Marias and Guanhães (state of Minas Gerais), Niquelândia (state of Goiás), and Monte Dourado (state of Pará), Brazil, for a period of 5 years, with light traps and captures, every 15 days, for every region. The number of primary pest species (12) has been similar in the four regions, and even with 1.5 to 2.4% of the total species collected, this group has shown a high frequency, especially in Três Marias, Niquelândia, and Monte Dourado, with 66.3, 54.2, and 40.0% of the individuals collected, respectively, for 5 years. The primary pest species have been constant and frequent in all the regions, with population peaks from February to September in Três Marias, February and May in Niquelândia, and from July to September in Monte Dourado. The highest population peaks of these species have been recorded when the Eucalyptus spp. plants are 3 to 6 years old. The Guanhães region is more stable and, therefore, has a lower possibility of outbreaks of the Lepidoptera primary pest species.

  6. Genomewide analysis of the lateral organ boundaries domain gene family in Eucalyptus grandis reveals members that differentially impact secondary growth.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiang; Shao, Fenjuan; Macmillan, Colleen; Wilson, Iain W; van der Merwe, Karen; Hussey, Steven G; Myburg, Alexander A; Dong, Xiaomei; Qiu, Deyou

    2017-05-12

    Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain (LBD) proteins are plant-specific transcription factors playing crucial roles in growth and development. However, the function of LBD proteins in Eucalyptus grandis remains largely unexplored. In this study, LBD genes in E. grandis were identified and characterized using bioinformatics approaches. Gene expression patterns in various tissues and the transcriptional responses of EgLBDs to exogenous hormones were determined by qRT-PCR. Functions of the selected EgLBDs were studied by ectopically overexpressing in a hybrid poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa). Expression levels of genes in the transgenic plants were investigated by RNA-seq. Our results showed that there were forty-six EgLBD members in the E. grandis genome and three EgLBDs displayed xylem- (EgLBD29) or phloem-preferential expression (EgLBD22 and EgLBD37). Confocal microscopy indicated that EgLBD22, EgLBD29 and EgLBD37 were localized to the nucleus. Furthermore, we found that EgLBD22, EgLBD29 and EgLBD37 were responsive to the treatments of indol-3-acetic acid and gibberellic acid. More importantly, we demonstrated EgLBDs exerted different influences on secondary growth. Namely, 35S::EgLBD37 led to significantly increased secondary xylem, 35S::EgLBD29 led to greatly increased phloem fibre production, and 35S::EgLBD22 showed no obvious effects. We revealed that key genes related to gibberellin, ethylene and auxin signalling pathway as well as cell expansion were significantly up- or down-regulated in transgenic plants. Our new findings suggest that LBD genes in E. grandis play important roles in secondary growth. This provides new mechanisms to increase wood or fibre production. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Decay resistance of thermally-modified Eucalyptus grandis wood at 140 degrees C, 160 degrees C, 180 degrees C, 200 degrees C and 220 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Calonego, Fred Willians; Severo, Elias Taylor Durgante; Furtado, Edson Luiz

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of thermal treatment on the biological resistance of Eucalyptus grandis wood to the decay fungus Picnoporus sanguineus. Boards from 5 years and 11 months old E. grandis trees, taken from the stock possessed by the Duratex-SA company, were thermally-modified at 140 degrees C, 160 degrees C, 180 degrees C, 200 degrees C and 220 degrees C in the Laboratory of Wood Drying and Preservation from UNESP, Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Samples of each treatment were treated according to ASTM D-2017 (1994). The experiment tested the accelerated decay caused by the decay fungus P. sanguineus on a system of soil-block wood. The results of thermal treatment showed that an increase of temperature of 180-220 degrees C caused reductions of between 15.7% and 82.4% in the weight loss in the samples from E. grandis incubated with P. sanguineus.

  8. Mixed plantations of Eucalyptus and leguminous trees enhance biomass production

    Treesearch

    Dean S. DeBell; Craig D. Whitesell; Thomas H. Schubert

    1985-01-01

    Two Eucalyptus species-E. saligna Sm. and E. grandis Hill-are especially favored in Hawaii forwood, fiber, and fuel production because of their quick growth and high yields. Their growth is limited, however, on many sites by low levels of available nitrogen. Supplemental nitrogen can be provided by nitrogen-...

  9. Special trends in CBF and DREB2 groups in Eucalyptus gunnii vs Eucalyptus grandis suggest that CBF are master players in the trade-off between growth and stress resistance.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hong C; Cao, Phi B; San Clemente, Hélène; Ployet, Raphaël; Mounet, Fabien; Ladouce, Nathalie; Harvengt, Luc; Marque, Christiane; Teulieres, Chantal

    2017-04-01

    Annotation of the Eucalyptus grandis genome showed a large amplification of the dehydration-responsive element binding 1/C-repeat binding factor (DREB1/CBF) group without recent DREB2 gene duplication compared with other plant species. The present annotation of the CBF and DREB2 genes from a draft of the Eucalyptus gunnii genome sequence reveals at least one additional CBF copy in the E. gunnii genome compared with E. grandis, suggesting that this group is still evolving, unlike the DREB2 group. This study aims to investigate the redundancy/neo- or sub-functionalization of the duplicates and the relative involvement of the two groups in abiotic stress responses in both E. grandis and E. gunnii (lower growth but higher cold resistance). A comprehensive transcriptional analysis using high-throughput quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed on leaves, stems and roots from the two Eucalyptus species after cold, heat or drought treatment. A large CBF cluster accounted for most of the cold response in all the organs, whereas heat and drought responses mainly involved a small CBF cluster and the DREB2 genes. In addition, CBF putative target genes, known to be involved in plant tolerance and development, were found to be cold-regulated. The higher transcript amounts of both the CBF and target genes in the cold tolerant E. gunnii contrasted with the higher CBF induction rates in the fast growing E. grandis. Altogether, the present results, in agreement with previous data about Eucalyptus transgenic lines over-expressing CBF, suggest that these factors, which promote both stress protection and growth limitation, participate in the trade-off between growth and resistance in this woody species. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  10. The tonoplast intrinsic aquaporin (TIP) subfamily of Eucalyptus grandis: Characterization of EgTIP2, a root-specific and osmotic stress-responsive gene.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Marcela I; Bravo, Juliana P; Sassaki, Flávio T; Severino, Fábio E; Maia, Ivan G

    2013-12-01

    Aquaporins have important roles in various physiological processes in plants, including growth, development and adaptation to stress. In this study, a gene encoding a root-specific tonoplast intrinsic aquaporin (TIP) from Eucalyptus grandis (named EgTIP2) was investigated. The root-specific expression of EgTIP2 was validated over a panel of five eucalyptus organ/tissues. In eucalyptus roots, EgTIP2 expression was significantly induced by osmotic stress imposed by PEG treatment. Histochemical analysis of transgenic tobacco lines (Nicotiana tabacum SR1) harboring an EgTIP2 promoter:GUS reporter cassette revealed major GUS staining in the vasculature and in root tips. Consistent with its osmotic-stress inducible expression in eucalyptus, EgTIP2 promoter activity was up-regulated by mannitol treatment, but was down-regulated by abscisic acid. Taken together, these results suggest that EgTIP2 might be involved in eucalyptus response to drought. Additional searches in the eucalyptus genome revealed the presence of four additional putative TIP coding genes, which could be individually assigned to the classical TIP1-5 groups.

  11. Genetic dissection of growth, wood basic density and gene expression in interspecific backcrosses of Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background F1 hybrid clones of Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla are widely grown for pulp and paper production in tropical and subtropical regions. Volume growth and wood quality are priority objectives in Eucalyptus tree improvement. The molecular basis of quantitative variation and trait expression in eucalypt hybrids, however, remains largely unknown. The recent availability of a draft genome sequence (http://www.phytozome.net) and genome-wide genotyping platforms, combined with high levels of genetic variation and high linkage disequilibrium in hybrid crosses, greatly facilitate the detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) as well as underlying candidate genes for growth and wood property traits. In this study, we used Diversity Arrays Technology markers to assess the genetic architecture of volume growth (diameter at breast height, DBH) and wood basic density in four-year-old progeny of an interspecific backcross pedigree of E. grandis and E. urophylla. In addition, we used Illumina RNA-Seq expression profiling in the E. urophylla backcross family to identify cis- and trans-acting polymorphisms (eQTLs) affecting transcript abundance of genes underlying QTLs for wood basic density. Results A total of five QTLs for DBH and 12 for wood basic density were identified in the two backcross families. Individual QTLs for DBH and wood basic density explained 3.1 to 12.2% of phenotypic variation. Candidate genes underlying QTLs for wood basic density on linkage groups 8 and 9 were found to share trans-acting eQTLs located on linkage groups 4 and 10, which in turn coincided with QTLs for wood basic density suggesting that these QTLs represent segregating components of an underlying transcriptional network. Conclusion This is the first demonstration of the use of next-generation expression profiling to quantify transcript abundance in a segregating tree population and identify candidate genes potentially affecting wood property variation. The QTLs identified in this

  12. [Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelidae: Oligochaeta) soil quality indicator in Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtacea) sites with slash and burn management].

    PubMed

    Uribe, Sheila; Huerta, Esperanza; Geissen, Violette; Mendoza, Manuel; Godoy, Roberto; Jarquín, Aarón

    2012-12-01

    Soil burning has been used in agricultural and forestry systems as a fundamental technique to clean the land and add some nutrients to the soil. In addition, earthworms are known to promote various soil functions since they contribute to aeration and organic matter and nutrients availability to other soil organisms. This study evaluated the effects of tropical forest crops management with presence-absence of Eucalyptus grandis on earthworm population in Huimanquillo, Tabasco, Mexico. Three sites (average area of 1-1.5ha each) with different management conditions were considered for soil and earthworm sampling (two depths and six replicates): without vegetation (SV) and recent slash-burned (38 days), forest crops of five years of production of E. grandis (Euc), and secondary vegetation of 15 years (Acah). Soil physico-chemical properties (apparent density, humidity, texture, pH, Ntot, OM, P, K, cationic capacity) were also evaluated, and earthworms were collected at the end of the rainy season (august-october 2007). We found that the sites soil is an acrisol acid, with pH 3.0-4.5 in the first 30cm depth. Organic matter content (OM) and total nitrogen (Ntot) in the recently burned sites were significantly lower (6-8% y 0.19-0.22%, respectively) than in sites with vegetation (OM=9-11%; el Ntot=0.27-0.33%). Only one species (P. corethrurus) was found in all the sampled areas, where most of the individuals were at juvenile stage (80%). The highest densities and biomass were found in Euc. treatment (166.4ind/m2 y 36.8g/m2) followed by Acah (138.7ind/m2 y 19.1g/m2 respectively), while the SV treatment showed of about an 80% reduced earthworm populations when compared to other treatments. Even though 15 years have passed over the secondary vegetation (Acah) still some perturbations were observed as the low abundance of the oligochaeta group. We concluded that the management used to culture E. grandis produces negative effects over the abundance and diversity of earthworms

  13. Biochemical and ecophysiological responses to manganese stress by ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius and in association with Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Canton, Gabriela C; Bertolazi, Amanda A; Cogo, Antônio J D; Eutrópio, Frederico Jacob; Melo, Juliana; de Souza, Sávio Bastos; A Krohling, Cesar; Campostrini, Eliemar; da Silva, Ary Gomes; Façanha, Arnoldo R; Sepúlveda, Nuno; Cruz, Cristina; Ramos, Alessandro C

    2016-07-01

    At relatively low concentrations, the element manganese (Mn) is essential for plant metabolism, especially for photosynthesis and as an enzyme antioxidant cofactor. However, industrial and agricultural activities have greatly increased Mn concentrations, and thereby contamination, in soils. We tested whether and how growth of Pisolithus tinctorius is influenced by Mn and glucose and compare the activities of oxidative stress enzymes as biochemical markers of Mn stress. We also compared nutrient accumulation, ecophysiology, and biochemical responses in Eucalyptus grandis which had been colonized by the ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus tinctorius with those which had not, when both were exposed to increasing Mn concentrations. In vitro experiments comprised six concentrations of Mn in three concentrations of glucose. In vivo experiments used plants colonized by Pisolithus tinctorius, or not colonized, grown with three concentrations of Mn (0, 200, and 1000 μM). We found that fungal growth and glucose concentration were correlated, but these were not influenced by Mn levels in the medium. The anti-oxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione S-transferase were both activated when the fungus was exposed to Mn. Also, mycorrhizal plants grew more and faster than non-mycorrhizal plants, whatever Mn exposure. Photosynthesis rate, intrinsic water use efficiency, and carboxylation efficiency were all inversely correlated with Mn concentration. Thus, we originally show that the ectomycorrhizal fungus provides protection for its host plants against varying and potentially toxic concentrations of Mn.

  14. Integrated hot-compressed water and laccase-mediator treatments of Eucalyptus grandis fibers: structural changes of fiber and lignin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Quan; Wen, Jia-Long; Yuan, Tong-Qi; Sun, Run-Cang

    2015-02-18

    Eucalyptus grandis fibers were treated with hot-compressed water (HCW) and laccase mediator to enhance the fiber characteristics and to produce an active lignin substrate for binderless fiberboard production. The composition, morphology, and crystallinity index (CrI) analysis of fibers showed that the HCW treatment increased the CrI and lignin content of the treated fibers through partial removal of hemicelluloses. Simultaneously, the HCW treatment produced some granules and holes on the surface of the fibers, which possibly facilitated the accessibility of the laccase mediator. Milled wood lignins and enzymatic hydrolysis lignins isolated from the control and treated fibers were comparatively characterized. A reduction of molecular weight was observed, which indicated that a preferential degradation of lignin occurred after exposure to the laccase mediator. Quantitative (13)C, 2D-HSQC and (31)P NMR characterization revealed that the integrated treatment resulted in the cleavage of β-O-4' linkages, removal of G' (oxidized α-ketone) substructures, and an increase in the S/G ratio and free phenolic hydroxyls.

  15. The influence of pulping and washing conditions on the properties of Eucalyptus grandis unbleached kraft pulps treated with chelants.

    PubMed

    Area, M C; Carvalho, M G V S; Ferreira, P J; Felissia, F E; Barboza, O M; Bengoechea, D I

    2010-03-01

    The influence of different addition points of a chelating agent and a counter-ion exchange on the properties of Eucalyptus grandis unbleached kraft pulps is studied. Seven pulps were considered: two laboratory kraft pulps with or without the inclusion of the chelant DTPMPA (diethylene triamine penta (methylene phosphonic acid)), a mill kraft pulp and four mill pulps after Ca(+2) or Na(+) counter-ion exchange followed, or not, by washing with DTPMPA addition. The laboratory pulps required lower beating energy than the industrial pulps for achieving 30 degrees SR, and the corresponding handsheets also showed better strength and optical properties, as well as a more homogeneous and smooth surface. The counter-ion exchange decreases the mechanical resistances and increases brightness. However, the effects of Ca(+2) are deeper than those of Na(+). DTPMPA added to pulping causes a decrease in calcium content whereas as a washing additive does not have a relevant impact on the mechanical and optical properties. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Shifts in the bacterial community composition along deep soil profiles in monospecific and mixed stands of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Arthur Prudêncio de Araujo; Andrade, Pedro Avelino Maia de; Bini, Daniel; Durrer, Ademir; Robin, Agnès; Bouillet, Jean Pierre; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

    2017-01-01

    Our knowledge of the rhizosphere bacterial communities in deep soils and the role of Eucalyptus and Acacia on the structure of these communities remains very limited. In this study, we targeted the bacterial community along a depth profile (0 to 800 cm) and compared community structure in monospecific or mixed plantations of Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus grandis. We applied quantitative PCR (qPCR) and sequence the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize composition of bacterial communities. We identified a decrease in bacterial abundance with soil depth, and differences in community patterns between monospecific and mixed cultivations. Sequence analysis indicated a prevalent effect of soil depth on bacterial communities in the mixed plant cultivation system, and a remarkable differentiation of bacterial communities in areas solely cultivated with Eucalyptus. The groups most influenced by soil depth were Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria (more frequent in samples between 0 and 300 cm). The predominant bacterial groups differentially displayed in the monospecific stands of Eucalyptus were Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Our results suggest that the addition of an N2-fixing tree in a monospecific cultivation system modulates bacterial community composition even at a great depth. We conclude that co-cultivation systems may represent a key strategy to improve soil resources and to establish more sustainable cultivation of Eucalyptus in Brazil.

  17. Shifts in the bacterial community composition along deep soil profiles in monospecific and mixed stands of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Pedro Avelino Maia; Bini, Daniel; Durrer, Ademir; Robin, Agnès; Bouillet, Jean Pierre; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

    2017-01-01

    Our knowledge of the rhizosphere bacterial communities in deep soils and the role of Eucalyptus and Acacia on the structure of these communities remains very limited. In this study, we targeted the bacterial community along a depth profile (0 to 800 cm) and compared community structure in monospecific or mixed plantations of Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus grandis. We applied quantitative PCR (qPCR) and sequence the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize composition of bacterial communities. We identified a decrease in bacterial abundance with soil depth, and differences in community patterns between monospecific and mixed cultivations. Sequence analysis indicated a prevalent effect of soil depth on bacterial communities in the mixed plant cultivation system, and a remarkable differentiation of bacterial communities in areas solely cultivated with Eucalyptus. The groups most influenced by soil depth were Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria (more frequent in samples between 0 and 300 cm). The predominant bacterial groups differentially displayed in the monospecific stands of Eucalyptus were Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Our results suggest that the addition of an N2-fixing tree in a monospecific cultivation system modulates bacterial community composition even at a great depth. We conclude that co-cultivation systems may represent a key strategy to improve soil resources and to establish more sustainable cultivation of Eucalyptus in Brazil. PMID:28686690

  18. The effect of elevated carbon dioxide on the interaction between Eucalyptus grandis and diverse isolates of Pisolithus sp. is associated with a complex shift in the root transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Plett, Jonathan M; Kohler, Annegret; Khachane, Amit; Keniry, Kerry; Plett, Krista L; Martin, Francis; Anderson, Ian C

    2015-06-01

    Using the newly available genome for Eucalyptus grandis, we sought to determine the genome-wide traits that enable this host to form mutualistic interactions with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) Pisolithus sp. and to determine how future predicted concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) will affect this relationship. We analyzed the physiological and transcriptomic responses of E. grandis during colonization by different Pisolithus sp. isolates under conditions of ambient (400 ppm) and elevated (650 ppm) CO2 to tease out the gene expression profiles associated with colonization status. We demonstrate that E. grandis varies in its susceptibility to colonization by different Pisolithus isolates in a manner that is not predictable by geographic origin or the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-based phylogeny of the fungal partner. Elevated concentrations of CO2 alter the receptivity of E. grandis to Pisolithus, a change that is correlated to a dramatic shift in the transcriptomic profile of the root. These data provide a starting point for understanding how future environmental change may alter the signaling between plants and their ECM partners and is a step towards determining the mechanism behind previously observed shifts in Eucalypt-associated fungal communities exposed to elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 .

  19. Xylan-hydrolyzing enzyme system from Bacillus pumilus CBMAI 0008 and its effects on Eucalyptus grandis kraft pulp for pulp bleaching improvement.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Marta C Teixeira; da Silva, Elizete Cristina; de Bulhões Gomes, Isabel Menezes; Ponezi, Alexandre Nunes; Portugal, Edilberto Princi; Vicente, João Roberto; Davanzo, Ednilson

    2003-05-01

    The extracellular productions of beta-xylanase, beta-xylosidase, beta-glucosidase, beta-mannanase, arabinosidase, alpha-glucuronidase, alpha-galactosidase and Fpase from Bacillus pumilus CBMAI 0008 were investigated with three different xylan sources as substrate. The enzymatic profiles on birchwood, Eucalyptus grandis and oat were studied at alkaline and acidic pH conditions. B. pumilus CBMAI 0008 grown on the three carbon sources produced mainly beta-xylanase. At pH 10, the levels of xylanase were 328, 160 and 136 U/ml, for birch, oat and E. grandis, respectively. beta-Mannanase production was induced on E. grandis (5 U/ml) and arabinofuranosidase on oat (5 U/ml). Although small quantities of alpha-glucuronidase had been produced at pH 10, activity at pH 4.8 was 1.5 U/ml, higher than observed for Aspergillus sp. in literature reports. Preliminary assays carried out on E. grandis kraft pulp from an industrial paper mill (RIPASA S.A. Celulose e Papel, Limeira, SP, Brazil) showed a reduction of 0.3% of chlorine use in the pulp treated with the enzymes, resulting in increased brightness, compared to conventional bleaching. The enzymes were more efficient if applied before the initial bleaching sequence, in a non-pre-oxygenated pulp.

  20. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling growth and wood quality traits in Eucalyptus grandis using a maternal half-sib family and RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Grattapaglia, D; Bertolucci, F L; Penchel, R; Sederoff, R R

    1996-11-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of forest productivity traits was performed using an open pollinated half-sib family of Eucalyptus grandis. For volume growth, a sequential QTL mapping approach was applied using bulk segregant analysis (BSA), selective genotyping (SG) and cosegregation analysis (CSA). Despite the low heritability of this trait and the heterogeneous genetic background employed for mapping, BSA detected one putative QTL and SG two out of the three later found by CSA. The three putative QTL for volume growth were found to control 13.7% of the phenotypic variation, corresponding to an estimated 43.7% of the genetic variation. For wood specific gravity five QTL were identified controlling 24.7% of the phenotypic variation corresponding to 49% of the genetic variation. Overlapping QTL for CBH, WSG and percentage dry weight of bark were observed. A significant case of digenic epistasis was found, involving unlinked QTL for volume. Our results demonstrate the applicability of the within half-sib design for QTL mapping in forest trees and indicate the existence of major genes involved in the expression of economically important traits related to forest productivity in Eucalyptus grandis. These findings have important implications for marker-assisted tree breeding.

  1. Genetic Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Growth and Wood Quality Traits in Eucalyptus Grandis Using a Maternal Half-Sib Family and Rapd Markers

    PubMed Central

    Grattapaglia, D.; Bertolucci, FLG.; Penchel, R.; Sederoff, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of forest productivity traits was performed using an open pollinated half-sib family of Eucalyptus grandis. For volume growth, a sequential QTL mapping approach was applied using bulk segregant analysis (BSA), selective genotyping (SG) and cosegregation analysis (CSA). Despite the low heritability of this trait and the heterogeneous genetic background employed for mapping. BSA detected one putative QTL and SG two out of the three later found by CSA. The three putative QTL for volume growth were found to control 13.7% of the phenotypic variation, corresponding to an estimated 43.7% of the genetic variation. For wood specific gravity five QTL were identified controlling 24.7% of the phenotypic variation corresponding to 49% of the genetic variation. Overlapping QTL for CBH, WSG and percentage dry weight of bark were observed. A significant case of digenic epistasis was found, involving unlinked QTL for volume. Our results demonstrate the applicability of the within half-sib design for QTL mapping in forest trees and indicate the existence of major genes involved in the expression of economically important traits related to forest productivity in Eucalyptus grandis. These findings have important implications for marker-assisted tree breeding. PMID:8913761

  2. Microarray analysis revealed upregulation of nitrate reductase in juvenile cuttings of Eucalyptus grandis, which correlated with increased nitric oxide production and adventitious root formation.

    PubMed

    Abu-Abied, Mohamad; Szwerdszarf, David; Mordehaev, Inna; Levy, Aviv; Stelmakh, Oksana Rogovoy; Belausov, Eduard; Yaniv, Yossi; Uliel, Shai; Katzenellenbogen, Mark; Riov, Joseph; Ophir, Ron; Sadot, Einat

    2012-09-01

    The loss of rooting capability following the transition from the juvenile to the mature phase is a known phenomenon in woody plant development. Eucalyptus grandis was used here as a model system to study the differences in gene expression between juvenile and mature cuttings. RNA was prepared from the base of the two types of cuttings before root induction and hybridized to a DNA microarray of E. grandis. In juvenile cuttings, 363 transcripts were specifically upregulated, enriched in enzymes of oxidation/reduction processes. In mature cuttings, 245 transcripts were specifically upregulated, enriched in transcription factors involved in the regulation of secondary metabolites. A gene encoding for nitrate reductase (NIA), which is involved in nitric oxide (NO) production, was among the genes that were upregulated in juvenile cuttings. Concomitantly, a transient burst of NO was observed upon excision, which was higher in juvenile cuttings than in mature ones. Treatment with an NO donor improved rooting of both juvenile and mature cuttings. A single NIA gene was found in the newly released E. grandis genome sequence, the cDNA of which was isolated, overexpressed in Arabidopsis plants and shown to increase NO production in intact plants. Therefore, higher levels of NIA in E. grandis juvenile cuttings might lead to increased ability to produce NO and to form adventitious roots. Arabidopsis transgenic plants constantly expressing EgNIA did not exhibit a significantly higher lateral or adventitious root formation, suggesting that spatial and temporal rather than a constitutive increase in NO is favorable for root differentiation. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Genome-wide patterns of recombination, linkage disequilibrium and nucleotide diversity from pooled resequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping unlock the evolutionary history of Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Silva-Junior, Orzenil B; Grattapaglia, Dario

    2015-11-01

    We used high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data and whole-genome pooled resequencing to examine the landscape of population recombination (ρ) and nucleotide diversity (ϴw ), assess the extent of linkage disequilibrium (r(2) ) and build the highest density linkage maps for Eucalyptus. At the genome-wide level, linkage disequilibrium (LD) decayed within c. 4-6 kb, slower than previously reported from candidate gene studies, but showing considerable variation from absence to complete LD up to 50 kb. A sharp decrease in the estimate of ρ was seen when going from short to genome-wide inter-SNP distances, highlighting the dependence of this parameter on the scale of observation adopted. Recombination was correlated with nucleotide diversity, gene density and distance from the centromere, with hotspots of recombination enriched for genes involved in chemical reactions and pathways of the normal metabolic processes. The high nucleotide diversity (ϴw = 0.022) of E. grandis revealed that mutation is more important than recombination in shaping its genomic diversity (ρ/ϴw = 0.645). Chromosome-wide ancestral recombination graphs allowed us to date the split of E. grandis (1.7-4.8 million yr ago) and identify a scenario for the recent demographic history of the species. Our results have considerable practical importance to Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS), while indicating bright prospects for genomic prediction of complex phenotypes in eucalypt breeding. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Genome-Wide Analysis of the AP2/ERF Family in Eucalyptus grandis: An Intriguing Over-Representation of Stress-Responsive DREB1/CBF Genes

    PubMed Central

    SanClemente, H.; Mounet, F.; Dunand, C.; Marque, G.; Marque, C.; Teulières, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The AP2/ERF family includes a large number of developmentally and physiologically important transcription factors sharing an AP2 DNA-binding domain. Among them DREB1/CBF and DREB2 factors are known as master regulators respectively of cold and heat/osmotic stress responses. Experimental Approaches The manual annotation of AP2/ERF family from Eucalyptus grandis, Malus, Populus and Vitis genomes allowed a complete phylogenetic study for comparing the structure of this family in woody species and the model Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression profiles of the whole groups of EgrDREB1 and EgrDREB2 were investigated through RNAseq database survey and RT-qPCR analyses. Results The structure and the size of the AP2/ERF family show a global conservation for the plant species under comparison. In addition to an expansion of the ERF subfamily, the tree genomes mainly differ with respect to the group representation within the subfamilies. With regard to the E. grandis DREB subfamily, an obvious feature is the presence of 17 DREB1/CBF genes, the maximum reported to date for dicotyledons. In contrast, only six DREB2 have been identified, which is similar to the other plants species under study, except for Malus. All the DREB1/CBF and DREB2 genes from E. grandis are expressed in at least one condition and all are heat-responsive. Regulation by cold and drought depends on the genes but is not specific of one group; DREB1/CBF group is more cold-inducible than DREB2 which is mainly drought responsive. Conclusion These features suggest that the dramatic expansion of the DREB1/CBF group might be related to the adaptation of this evergreen tree to climate changes when it expanded in Australia. PMID:25849589

  5. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF family in Eucalyptus grandis: an intriguing over-representation of stress-responsive DREB1/CBF genes.

    PubMed

    Cao, P B; Azar, S; SanClemente, H; Mounet, F; Dunand, C; Marque, G; Marque, C; Teulières, C

    2015-01-01

    The AP2/ERF family includes a large number of developmentally and physiologically important transcription factors sharing an AP2 DNA-binding domain. Among them DREB1/CBF and DREB2 factors are known as master regulators respectively of cold and heat/osmotic stress responses. The manual annotation of AP2/ERF family from Eucalyptus grandis, Malus, Populus and Vitis genomes allowed a complete phylogenetic study for comparing the structure of this family in woody species and the model Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression profiles of the whole groups of EgrDREB1 and EgrDREB2 were investigated through RNAseq database survey and RT-qPCR analyses. The structure and the size of the AP2/ERF family show a global conservation for the plant species under comparison. In addition to an expansion of the ERF subfamily, the tree genomes mainly differ with respect to the group representation within the subfamilies. With regard to the E. grandis DREB subfamily, an obvious feature is the presence of 17 DREB1/CBF genes, the maximum reported to date for dicotyledons. In contrast, only six DREB2 have been identified, which is similar to the other plants species under study, except for Malus. All the DREB1/CBF and DREB2 genes from E. grandis are expressed in at least one condition and all are heat-responsive. Regulation by cold and drought depends on the genes but is not specific of one group; DREB1/CBF group is more cold-inducible than DREB2 which is mainly drought responsive. These features suggest that the dramatic expansion of the DREB1/CBF group might be related to the adaptation of this evergreen tree to climate changes when it expanded in Australia.

  6. Gene expression profiling in juvenile and mature cuttings of Eucalyptus grandis reveals the importance of microtubule remodeling during adventitious root formation.

    PubMed

    Abu-Abied, Mohamad; Szwerdszarf, David; Mordehaev, Inna; Yaniv, Yossi; Levinkron, Saar; Rubinstein, Mor; Riov, Joseph; Ophir, Ron; Sadot, Einat

    2014-09-30

    The ability to form adventitious roots (AR) is an economically important trait that is lost during the juvenile-to-mature phase change in woody plants. Auxin treatment, which generally promotes rooting in juvenile cuttings, is often ineffective when applied to mature cuttings. The molecular basis for this phenomenon in Eucalyptus grandis was addressed here. A comprehensive microarray analysis was performed in order to compare gene-expression profiles in juvenile and mature cuttings of E. grandis, with or without auxin treatment on days, 0, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 post AR induction. Under these conditions AR primordia were formed only in auxin-treated juvenile cuttings. However, clustering the expression profiles revealed that the time after induction contributed more significantly to the differences in expression than the developmental phase of the cuttings or auxin treatment. Most detected differences which were related to the developmental phase and auxin treatment occurred on day 6, which correlated with the kinetics of AR-primordia formation. Among the functional groups of transcripts that differed between juvenile and mature cuttings was that of microtubules (MT). The expression of 42 transcripts annotated as coding for tubulin, MT-associated proteins and kinesin motor proteins was validated in the same RNA samples. The results suggest a coordinated developmental and auxin dependent regulation of several MT-related transcripts in these cuttings. To determine the relevance of MT remodeling to AR formation, MTs were subjected to subtle perturbations by trifluralin, a MT disrupting drug, applied during auxin induction. Juvenile cuttings were not affected by the treatment, but rooting of mature cuttings increased from 10 to more than 40 percent. The data suggest that juvenile-specific MT remodeling is involved in AR formation in E. grandis.

  7. Productivity and carbon allocation in pure and mixed-species plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouvellon, Y.; Laclau, J.; Epron, D.; Le Maire, G.; Gonçalves, J.; Bouillet, J.

    2010-12-01

    Nitrogen fertilizer inputs are required in fast growing eucalypt plantations to meet tree requirements, and to compensate for the large nitrogen outputs associated with wood exportation at the end of the short rotations. Due to the economic and potential environmental cost of fertilizers, mixed-species plantations (MSP) with N-fixing species (NFS) such as Acacia sp. might be an attractive option to improve the long-term soil N (and possibly soil carbon) status. In such MSP, increases in N availability may influence the productivity and C partitioning of the non-N fixing species. To investigate the effects of NFS on nutrient cycling, wood production, C sequestration, and soil fertility, a randomized block design including monocultures of Eucalyptus grandis (100%E) and Acacia mangium (100%A), and mixtures of these species (50%E:50%A) was set up in southern Brazil. Our specific goals in the present study were to compare the production and C allocation patterns of these plantations, during the two last years of the 6-yr rotation. We hypothesized that 1) a large part of the differences in wood production between monospecific stands would be explained by differences in C allocation; and 2) the C allocation patterns of each species would be strongly modified in mixed- species plantations compared to mono-specific plantations due to inter-specific interactions and shifts in soil N status. Biomass increase (growth, G) in the different plant compartments was assessed by means of inventories and allometric relationships. Total aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), and the productivity of each aboveground plant compartment were estimated from measurements of G and litterfall (L) (ANPP=G+L). Total belowground C allocations (TBCA) were estimated using a mass-balance approach as soil CO2 efflux C minus the C input from aboveground litter plus changes in the C stored in roots, in the forest floor litter layer, and in soil. Over this first rotation, mixing NFS with eucalypt

  8. Carbon Stocks and Soil C Dynamics: an Investigation of C Sequestration Potential in a Eucalyptus grandis Plantation in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, M. I.; Crow, S. E.; Yost, R.; Turn, S.

    2011-12-01

    Tropical forests are important for many reasons, one of which is their ability to transfer large quantities of CO2 from the atmosphere to living biomass thereby potentially offsetting climate change. If the biomass is then harvested for commercial use, the stored carbon (C) is released back to the atmosphere. As a result, commercial rotational forestry is generally considered C neutral. However, the growth and harvest of forests also affects the soil C cycle through inputs of below ground biomass in proportion to above ground biomass. With sustainable management practices, soil can be a long-term sink for C, shifting the C balance of the system and providing a climate offset. This study examines the C stocks and dynamics of an E. grandis plantation located in Hawaii. The study has two parts: 1) A snapshot of C resources in the plantation, and 2) An investigation of change in soil C stock and pool size with afforestation. Above ground biomass C was calculated from measurements of the E. grandis trees and ranged from 40-67 Mg C/ha. Below ground biomass C was estimated from published allometric equations and was 16-27 Mg C/ha. 55 preliminary soil cores from 0-30 cm were collected in a 400 m2 plot in the plantation. Strong spatial dependence was observed in a sample variogram constructed from this data, and cumulative organic C in the top 0.4 t ranged from 120-580 Mg C/ha. To identify the effect of E. grandis afforestation on changes in soil C stock and pools, we compared adjacent pastureland and forested plots in a paired design with six sites. The paired plots constrained elevation, climate, and soil series, so that the effects of conversion from pasture to E. grandis plantation could be evaluated. Soil is physically separated into fractions that have different C turnover times: the labile pool which decomposes rapidly, the intermediate (or intra-aggregate) pool which turns over on a decadal scale, and the mineral-associated pool, which can reside in the soil for

  9. Carbon Stocks and Soil C Dynamics: an Investigation of C Sequestration Potential in a Eucalyptus grandis Plantation in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, M. I.; Crow, S. E.; Yost, R.; Turn, S.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical forests are important for many reasons, one of which is their ability to transfer large quantities of CO2 from the atmosphere to living biomass thereby potentially offsetting climate change. If the biomass is then harvested for commercial use, the stored carbon (C) is released back to the atmosphere and as a result, rotational forestry is generally considered C neutral. However, the growth and harvest of forests also affects the soil C cycle through inputs of below ground biomass (BG) in proportion to above ground biomass (ABG). With sustainable management practices, soil can be a long-term sink for C, and provide a climate offset. This study examines the C stocks and dynamics of a E. grandis plantation located in Hawaii. There are two parts: 1) A snapshot of C resources in the plantation, including live biomass C (both BG and ABG) as well as soil C stock, and 2) An investigation of change in soil C stock and pool size with afforestation in E. grandis plantation. ABG C was calculated using published allometric equations and from measurements of the E. grandis trees and ranged from 41-68 Mg C/ha, while BG C ranged from 7-12 Mg C/ha. Added together, the biomass C stocks constitute a mere ≈10% of the soil C stock. To identify the effect of E. grandis afforestation on changes in soil C stock and pools, we compared adjacent pastureland and forested plots in a paired design. Soil C stocks were measured by taking five 1m soil cores in each of the plots. In the pasture, soil C ranged from 431-723 Mg C/ha, while in the E. grandis, it ranged from 544-692 Mg C/ha, an average percent change of 16%. In all plots, soil C decreased by depth. As expected, the surface (0-18) cm cores in the pasture contained more C on average, as grasses tend to input larger amounts of root biomass C in the surface soil. However, in the 20-70 cm depth, the E. grandis plots contained 20-30% more soil C. It is hypothesized that this is due to large differences in rooting depth. The greater

  10. Identification of differentially expressed genes of the fungus Hydnangium sp. during the pre-symbiotic phase of the ectomycorrhizal association with Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    da Silva Coelho, Irene; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira; Costa, Maurício Dutra; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes

    2010-11-01

    The pre-symbiotic phase that precedes physical contact between symbionts is a crucial phase in determining their compatibility, allowing the formation of the ectomycorrhiza. A subtractive cDNA library representing the differentially expressed genes of the fungus Hydnangium sp. in the pre-symbiotic phase was constructed using fungal mycelia obtained through the in vitro mycorrhization technique. The fungus was cultured in the presence of Eucalyptus grandis roots, but with no contact between the hyphae and the root system of the host plant. Genes that code for proteins related to carbohydrate, amino acid, and energy metabolisms, transcription, and protein synthesis, cellular communication, signal transduction, stress response, transposons, and proteins related to the biogenesis of cell components were identified among the 131 expressed sequence tags. Expression of the genes that code for acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, ATP synthase, a voltage-dependent protein from the selective ion channel, and hydrophobin was evaluated by the RT-qPCR technique, confirming the activation of these genes in this phase of the association.

  11. Downregulation of p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H) or cinnamate-4-hydrolylase (C4H) in Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis leads to increased extractability

    DOE PAGES

    Ziebell, Angela; Gjersing, Erica; Hinchee, Maud; ...

    2016-01-20

    Lignin reduction through breeding and genetic modification has the potential to reduce costs in biomass processing in pulp and paper, forage, and lignocellulosic ethanol industries. Here, we present detailed characterization of the extractability and lignin structure of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis RNAi downregulated in p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H) or cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H). Both the C3'H and C4H downregulated lines were found to have significantly higher extractability when exposed to NaOH base extraction, indicating altered cell wall construction. The molecular weight of isolated lignin was measured and lignin structure was determined by HSQC NMR-based lignin subunit analysis for control and themore » C3'H and C4H downregulated lines. The slight reductions in average molecular weights of the lignin isolated from the transgenic lines (C3'H = 7000, C4H = 6500, control = 7300) does not appear to explain the difference in extractability. The HSQC NMR-based lignin subunit analysis showed increases in H lignin content for the C3'H but only slight differences in the lignin subunit structure of the C3'H and C4H downregulated lines when compared to the control. The greatest difference between the C3'H and C4H downregulated lines is the total lignin content; therefore, it appears that overall lowered lignin content contributes greatly to reduced recalcitrance and increased extractability of cell wall biopolymers. Furthermore, studies will be conducted to determine how the reduction in lignin content creates a less rigid cell wall that is more prone to extraction and sugar release.« less

  12. Flavonoid supplementation affects the expression of genes involved in cell wall formation and lignification metabolism and increases sugar content and saccharification in the fast-growing eucalyptus hybrid E. urophylla x E. grandis.

    PubMed

    Lepikson-Neto, Jorge; Nascimento, Leandro C; Salazar, Marcela M; Camargo, Eduardo L O; Cairo, João P F; Teixeira, Paulo J; Marques, Wesley L; Squina, Fabio M; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Deckmann, Ana C; Pereira, Gonçalo A G

    2014-11-19

    Eucalyptus species are the most widely planted hardwood species in the world and are renowned for their rapid growth and adaptability. In Brazil, one of the most widely grown Eucalyptus cultivars is the fast-growing Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis hybrid. In a previous study, we described a chemical characterization of these hybrids when subjected to flavonoid supplementation on 2 distinct timetables, and our results revealed marked differences between the wood composition of the treated and untreated trees. In this work, we report the transcriptional responses occurring in these trees that may be related to the observed chemical differences. Gene expression was analysed through mRNA-sequencing, and notably, compared to control trees, the treated trees display differential down-regulation of cell wall formation pathways such as phenylpropanoid metabolism as well as differential expression of genes involved in sucrose, starch and minor CHO metabolism and genes that play a role in several stress and environmental responses. We also performed enzymatic hydrolysis of wood samples from the different treatments, and the results indicated higher sugar contents and glucose yields in the flavonoid-treated plants. Our results further illustrate the potential use of flavonoids as a nutritional complement for modifying Eucalyptus wood, since, supplementation with flavonoids alters its chemical composition, gene expression and increases saccharification probably as part of a stress response.

  13. Dynamics of soil exploration by fine roots down to a depth of 10 m throughout the entire rotation in Eucalyptus grandis plantations.

    PubMed

    Laclau, Jean-Paul; da Silva, Eder A; Rodrigues Lambais, George; Bernoux, Martial; le Maire, Guerric; Stape, José L; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Gonçalves, José L de Moraes; Jourdan, Christophe; Nouvellon, Yann

    2013-01-01

    Although highly weathered soils cover considerable areas in tropical regions, little is known about exploration by roots in deep soil layers. Intensively managed Eucalyptus plantations are simple forest ecosystems that can provide an insight into the belowground growth strategy of fast-growing tropical trees. Fast exploration of deep soil layers by eucalypt fine roots may contribute to achieving a gross primary production that is among the highest in the world for forests. Soil exploration by fine roots down to a depth of 10 m was studied throughout the complete cycle in Eucalyptus grandis plantations managed in short rotation. Intersects of fine roots, less than 1 mm in diameter, and medium-sized roots, 1-3 mm in diameter, were counted on trench walls in a chronosequence of 1-, 2-, 3.5-, and 6-year-old plantations on a sandy soil, as well as in an adjacent 6-year-old stand growing in a clayey soil. Two soil profiles were studied down to a depth of 10 m in each stand (down to 6 m at ages 1 and 2 years) and 4 soil profiles down to 1.5-3.0 m deep. The root intersects were counted on 224 m(2) of trench walls in 15 pits. Monitoring the soil water content showed that, after clear-cutting, almost all the available water stored down to a depth of 7 m was taken up by tree roots within 1.1 year of planting. The soil space was explored intensively by fine roots down to a depth of 3 m from 1 year after planting, with an increase in anisotropy in the upper layers throughout the rotation. About 60% of fine root intersects were found at a depth of more than 1 m, irrespective of stand age. The root distribution was isotropic in deep soil layers and kriged maps showed fine root clumping. A considerable volume of soil was explored by fine roots in eucalypt plantations on deep tropical soils, which might prevent water and nutrient losses by deep drainage after canopy closure and contribute to maximizing resource uses.

  14. Dynamics of soil exploration by fine roots down to a depth of 10 m throughout the entire rotation in Eucalyptus grandis plantations

    PubMed Central

    Laclau, Jean-Paul; da Silva, Eder A.; Rodrigues Lambais, George; Bernoux, Martial; le Maire, Guerric; Stape, José L.; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Gonçalves, José L. de Moraes; Jourdan, Christophe; Nouvellon, Yann

    2013-01-01

    Although highly weathered soils cover considerable areas in tropical regions, little is known about exploration by roots in deep soil layers. Intensively managed Eucalyptus plantations are simple forest ecosystems that can provide an insight into the belowground growth strategy of fast-growing tropical trees. Fast exploration of deep soil layers by eucalypt fine roots may contribute to achieving a gross primary production that is among the highest in the world for forests. Soil exploration by fine roots down to a depth of 10 m was studied throughout the complete cycle in Eucalyptus grandis plantations managed in short rotation. Intersects of fine roots, less than 1 mm in diameter, and medium-sized roots, 1–3 mm in diameter, were counted on trench walls in a chronosequence of 1-, 2-, 3.5-, and 6-year-old plantations on a sandy soil, as well as in an adjacent 6-year-old stand growing in a clayey soil. Two soil profiles were studied down to a depth of 10 m in each stand (down to 6 m at ages 1 and 2 years) and 4 soil profiles down to 1.5–3.0 m deep. The root intersects were counted on 224 m2 of trench walls in 15 pits. Monitoring the soil water content showed that, after clear-cutting, almost all the available water stored down to a depth of 7 m was taken up by tree roots within 1.1 year of planting. The soil space was explored intensively by fine roots down to a depth of 3 m from 1 year after planting, with an increase in anisotropy in the upper layers throughout the rotation. About 60% of fine root intersects were found at a depth of more than 1 m, irrespective of stand age. The root distribution was isotropic in deep soil layers and kriged maps showed fine root clumping. A considerable volume of soil was explored by fine roots in eucalypt plantations on deep tropical soils, which might prevent water and nutrient losses by deep drainage after canopy closure and contribute to maximizing resource uses. PMID:23847645

  15. Measured and modeled interactive effects of potassium deficiency and water deficit on gross primary productivity and light-use efficiency in Eucalyptus grandis plantations.

    PubMed

    Christina, Mathias; Le Maire, Guerric; Battie-Laclau, Patricia; Nouvellon, Yann; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Jourdan, Christophe; de Moraes Gonçalves, José Leonardo; Laclau, Jean-Paul

    2015-05-01

    Global climate change is expected to increase the length of drought periods in many tropical regions. Although large amounts of potassium (K) are applied in tropical crops and planted forests, little is known about the interaction between K nutrition and water deficit on the physiological mechanisms governing plant growth. A process-based model (MAESPA) parameterized in a split-plot experiment in Brazil was used to gain insight into the combined effects of K deficiency and water deficit on absorbed radiation (aPAR), gross primary productivity (GPP), and light-use efficiency for carbon assimilation and stem biomass production (LUEC and LUEs ) in Eucalyptus grandis plantations. The main-plot factor was the water supply (undisturbed rainfall vs. 37% of throughfall excluded) and the subplot factor was the K supply (with or without 0.45 mol K m(-2 ) K addition). Mean GPP was 28% lower without K addition over the first 3 years after planting whether throughfall was partly excluded or not. K deficiency reduced aPAR by 20% and LUEC by 10% over the whole period of growth. With K addition, throughfall exclusion decreased GPP by 25%, resulting from a 21% decrease in LUEC at the end of the study period. The effect of the combination of K deficiency and water deficit was less severe than the sum of the effects of K deficiency and water deficit individually, leading to a reduction in stem biomass production, gross primary productivity and LUE similar to K deficiency on its own. The modeling approach showed that K nutrition and water deficit influenced absorbed radiation essentially through changes in leaf area index and tree height. The changes in gross primary productivity and light-use efficiency were, however, driven by a more complex set of tree parameters, especially those controlling water uptake by roots and leaf photosynthetic capacities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Ion Torrent PGM as tool for fungal community analysis: a case study of endophytes in Eucalyptus grandis reveals high taxonomic diversity.

    PubMed

    Kemler, Martin; Garnas, Jeff; Wingfield, Michael J; Gryzenhout, Marieka; Pillay, Kerry-Anne; Slippers, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The Kingdom Fungi adds substantially to the diversity of life, but due to their cryptic morphology and lifestyle, tremendous diversity, paucity of formally described specimens, and the difficulty in isolating environmental strains into culture, fungal communities are difficult to characterize. This is especially true for endophytic communities of fungi living in healthy plant tissue. The developments in next generation sequencing technologies are, however, starting to reveal the true extent of fungal diversity. One of the promising new technologies, namely semiconductor sequencing, has thus far not been used in fungal diversity assessments. In this study we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) nuclear encoded ribosomal RNA of the endophytic community of the economically important tree, Eucalyptus grandis, from South Africa using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). We determined the impact of various analysis parameters on the interpretation of the results, namely different sequence quality parameter settings, different sequence similarity cutoffs for clustering and filtering of databases for removal of sequences with incomplete taxonomy. Sequence similarity cutoff values only had a marginal effect on the identified family numbers, whereas different sequence quality filters had a large effect (89 vs. 48 families between least and most stringent filters). Database filtering had a small, but statistically significant, effect on the assignment of sequences to reference sequences. The community was dominated by Ascomycota, and particularly by families in the Dothidiomycetes that harbor well-known plant pathogens. The study demonstrates that semiconductor sequencing is an ideal strategy for environmental sequencing of fungal communities. It also highlights some potential pitfalls in subsequent data analyses when using a technology with relatively short read lengths.

  17. Allelopathic effects of volatile organic compounds from Eucalyptus grandis rhizosphere soil on Eisenia fetida assessed using avoidance bioassays, enzyme activity, and comet assays.

    PubMed

    Zhiqun, Tang; Jian, Zhang; Junli, Yu; Chunzi, Wang; Danju, Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Allelopathy has been identified as an underlying mechanism of detrimental environmental impacts within commercial plantations. Eucalyptus spp. are known to generate huge amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can function as phytotoxins and thus inhibit other plants. In the present study, biochemical markers, including activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and oxidative stress enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), were assayed to assess changes in Eisenia fetida at the physiological level induced by different doses of VOCs as part of an acute toxicity test over 7 and 14-day exposures. In addition, the toxicities of VOCs were investigated using a soil avoidance test and comet assay. The results revealed that E. fetida exhibited significant avoidance behavior towards the highest concentrations of undecane, decane, 2,4-dimethyl heptane, and 2,2,4,6,6-pentametyl heptane. The tail DNA percentages were significantly increased for all experimental treatments relative to control. However, under the treatments of VOCs, Olive tail moment content and comet tail length also display an obvious increase compared to control, except for that of octane, undecane and decane treatments. As VOC concentrations and durations increased in the soil, activities of AChE, SOD, and GST were either stimulated or inhibited. Among the VOCs, decane, 2,4-dimethyl heptane, 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethyl heptane, and 2,4-di tert buyl phenol exerted stronger effects on enzymatic activities. In summary, VOCs in rhizosphere soils of E. grandis might exert a toxic impact on E. fetida, among which 2,4-dimethyl heptane, 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethyl heptane, and 2,4-di tert buyl phenol have the strongest effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ion Torrent PGM as Tool for Fungal Community Analysis: A Case Study of Endophytes in Eucalyptus grandis Reveals High Taxonomic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Kemler, Martin; Garnas, Jeff; Wingfield, Michael J.; Gryzenhout, Marieka; Pillay, Kerry-Anne; Slippers, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The Kingdom Fungi adds substantially to the diversity of life, but due to their cryptic morphology and lifestyle, tremendous diversity, paucity of formally described specimens, and the difficulty in isolating environmental strains into culture, fungal communities are difficult to characterize. This is especially true for endophytic communities of fungi living in healthy plant tissue. The developments in next generation sequencing technologies are, however, starting to reveal the true extent of fungal diversity. One of the promising new technologies, namely semiconductor sequencing, has thus far not been used in fungal diversity assessments. In this study we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) nuclear encoded ribosomal RNA of the endophytic community of the economically important tree, Eucalyptus grandis, from South Africa using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). We determined the impact of various analysis parameters on the interpretation of the results, namely different sequence quality parameter settings, different sequence similarity cutoffs for clustering and filtering of databases for removal of sequences with incomplete taxonomy. Sequence similarity cutoff values only had a marginal effect on the identified family numbers, whereas different sequence quality filters had a large effect (89 vs. 48 families between least and most stringent filters). Database filtering had a small, but statistically significant, effect on the assignment of sequences to reference sequences. The community was dominated by Ascomycota, and particularly by families in the Dothidiomycetes that harbor well-known plant pathogens. The study demonstrates that semiconductor sequencing is an ideal strategy for environmental sequencing of fungal communities. It also highlights some potential pitfalls in subsequent data analyses when using a technology with relatively short read lengths. PMID:24358124

  19. Insecticidal activity of essential oils from eleven Eucalyptus spp. and two hybrids: lethal and sublethal effects of their major components on Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Alzogaray, Raul A; Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo N; Masuh, Hector M

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the fumigant activity of the essential oils from 11 species of the genus Eucalyptus and two of their hybrids on first instar of Blattella germanica L. The fumigant activity and repellence of the four major monoterpene components of these essential oils also were tested. Fumigant activity was evaluated by exposing nymphs to the vapors emitted by 50 microl of essential oil or monoterpene in a closed container. The lowest knockdown time 50% (KT50) values, expressed in minutes, were elicited by the essential oils of the Eucalyptus grandis X Eucalyptus tereticornis (57.9) hybrid, Eucalyptus sideroxylon A. Cunn (62.0), E. grandis X Eucalyptus camaldulensis (63.8) hybrid, Eucalyptus viminalis Labill (64.1), Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden (64.5), and Eucalyptus grandis (Hill) ex Maiden (68.7). The KT50 values for the remaining essential oils ranged between 74.5 (E. saligna Smith) and 161.4 min (E. tereticornis Smith). The essential oil from the hybrid E. grandis X E. tereticornis was 3.7 times less toxic than dichlorvos (positive control). The KT50 values of monoterpenes were 38.8 for alpha-pinene, 55.3 for 1,8-cineole, 175.6 for p-cymene, and 178.3 for gamma-terpinene. Alpha-pinene was 2.5 times less toxic than dichlorvos. There was a strong positive correlation between the fumigant activity of essential oils and their corresponding 1,8-cineole and alpha-pinene concentration. Repellency was quantified using a video tracking system. Two concentrations of monoterpenes were studied (7 and 70 microg/cm2). All compounds produced a light repellent effect but only when applied at 70 microg/cm2. In all cases, the repellent effect was less than that produced by the broad-spectrum insect repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (positive control).

  20. Carbon, water and energy balances of an Eucalyptus grandis plantation in Brazil: effects of clearcut and stand age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouvellon, Y.; Stape, J. L.; Le Maire, G.; Bonnefond, J.; Rocha, H.; Campoe, O.; Bouillet, J.; Laclau, J.

    2013-12-01

    Eucalypt grandis plantations in Brazil are among the most productive forests of the world, reaching mean annual increments of about 50 m3/ha/yr over short (6 yr) rotations. These high productions are generally associated with high water-use, but little is known on the effects of management practices on their carbon (C), water and energy budgets. We investigated the effects of stand age and clear cutting on the C and water balances through continuous eddy-covariance measurements of latent (LE), sensible heat (H), and CO2 fluxes over a 5 yrs period encompassing two successive rotations: 2 yrs before and 3 yrs after clear cutting and replanting. The water table depth, soil temperature and soil water content (SWC, till 10 m deep) were also continuously monitored. Leaf area index (LAI) was measured at 3-month intervals, and the soil exploration by fine roots was investigated. For the last 2 yrs before clearcutting the first rotation, LAI was ~3.5 and fine roots were found down to a depth of 16 m. No percolation was observed below 5 m, and the 5-10 m soil layer was water-depleted. Actual evapotranspiration (AET) was approximately equal to annual precipitation (1350 mm). H was very low, except during some dry events characterized by sharp increases in the bowen ratio (H/LE). Clearcut resulted in an increase in soil temperature and H, and a strong decrease in AET, allowing gravitational water to reach 6, 8 and 10 m depths about 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5 months after clearcutting, respectively, in this sandy soil. From the clearcut (Oct 2009) to the end of the first rainy season (May 2010), the water table had raised from -18.5 to -15 m. The third year after clearcutting and replanting, AET was higher than rainfall, leading to soil water-depletion till 10 m deep. This rapid depletion of soil water was consistent with the fast exploration of the soil by fine roots (root front at 6-7 m deep at age 1 yr) and the fast increase in LAI (reaching 5 at age 2.5 yr). Clearcutting turned the

  1. Genetic mapping of QTLs controlling vegetative propagation in Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla using a pseudo-testcross strategy and RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Grattapaglia, D; Bertolucci, F L; Sederoff, R R

    1995-06-01

    We have extended the combined use of the "pseudo-testcross" mapping strategy and RAPD markers to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling traits related to vegetative propagation in Eucalyptus. QTL analyses were performed using two different interval mapping approaches, MAPMAKER-QTL (maximum likelihood) and QTL-STAT (non-linear least squares). A total of ten QTLs were detected for micropropagation response (measured as fresh weight of shoots, FWS), six for stump sprouting ability (measured as # stump sprout cuttings, #Cutt) and four for rooting ability (measured as % rooting of cuttings, %Root). With the exception of three QTLs, both interval-mapping methods yielded similar results in terms of QTL detection. Discrepancies in the most likely QTL location were observed between the two methods. In 75% of the cases the most likely position was in the same, or in an adjacent, interval. Standardized gene substitution effects for the QTLs detected were typically between 0.46 and 2.1 phenotypic standard deviations (σp), while differences between the family mean and the favorable QTL genotype were between 0.25 and 1.07 (σp). Multipoint estimates of the total genetic variation explained by the QTLs (89.0% for FWS, 67.1 % for#Cutt, 62.7% for %Root) indicate that a large proportion of the variation in these traits is controlled by a relatively small number of major-effect QTLs. In this cross, E. grandis is responsible for most of the inherited variation in the ability to form shoots, while E. urophylla contributes most of the ability in rooting. QTL mapping in the pseudo-testcross configuration relies on withinfamily linkage disequilibrium to establish marker/trait associations. With this approach QTL analysis is possible in any available full-sib family generated from undomesticated and highly heterozygous organisms such as forest trees. QTL mapping on two-generation pedigrees opens the possibility of using already existing families in retrospective QTL analyses to

  2. Validation of reference genes from Eucalyptus spp. under different stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The genus Eucalyptus consists of approximately 600 species and subspecies and has a physiological plasticity that allows some species to propagate in different regions of the world. Eucalyptus is a major source of cellulose for paper manufacturing, and its cultivation is limited by weather conditions, particularly water stress and low temperatures. Gene expression studies using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) require reference genes, which must have stable expression to facilitate the comparison of the results from analyses using different species, tissues, and treatments. Such studies have been limited in eucalyptus. Results Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus urograndis (hybrid from Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake X Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex-Maiden) and E. uroglobulus (hybrid from E. urograndis X E. globulus) were subjected to different treatments, including water deficiency and stress recovery, low temperatures, presence or absence of light, and their respective controls. Except for treatment with light, which examined the seedling hypocotyl or apical portion of the stem, the expression analyses were conducted in the apical and basal parts of the stem. To select the best pair of genes, the bioinformatics tools GeNorm and NormFinder were compared. Comprehensive analyses that did not differentiate between species, treatments, or tissue types, showed that IDH (isocitrate dehydrogenase), SAND (SAND protein), ACT (actin), and A-Tub (α-tubulin) genes were the most stable. IDH was the most stable gene in all of the treatments. Conclusion Comparing these results with those of other studies on eucalyptus, we concluded that five genes are stable in different species and experimental conditions: IDH, SAND, ACT, A-Tub, and UBQ (ubiquitin). It is usually recommended a minimum of two reference genes is expression analysis; therefore, we propose that IDH and two others genes among the five identified genes in this study

  3. Validation of reference genes from Eucalyptus spp. under different stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Moura, Jullyana Cristina Magalhães Silva; Araújo, Pedro; Brito, Michael dos Santos; Souza, Uiara Romero; Viana, Juliana de Oliveira Fernandes; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2012-11-14

    The genus Eucalyptus consists of approximately 600 species and subspecies and has a physiological plasticity that allows some species to propagate in different regions of the world. Eucalyptus is a major source of cellulose for paper manufacturing, and its cultivation is limited by weather conditions, particularly water stress and low temperatures. Gene expression studies using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) require reference genes, which must have stable expression to facilitate the comparison of the results from analyses using different species, tissues, and treatments. Such studies have been limited in eucalyptus. Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus urograndis (hybrid from Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake X Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex-Maiden) and E. uroglobulus (hybrid from E. urograndis X E. globulus) were subjected to different treatments, including water deficiency and stress recovery, low temperatures, presence or absence of light, and their respective controls. Except for treatment with light, which examined the seedling hypocotyl or apical portion of the stem, the expression analyses were conducted in the apical and basal parts of the stem. To select the best pair of genes, the bioinformatics tools GeNorm and NormFinder were compared. Comprehensive analyses that did not differentiate between species, treatments, or tissue types, showed that IDH (isocitrate dehydrogenase), SAND (SAND protein), ACT (actin), and A-Tub (α-tubulin) genes were the most stable. IDH was the most stable gene in all of the treatments. Comparing these results with those of other studies on eucalyptus, we concluded that five genes are stable in different species and experimental conditions: IDH, SAND, ACT, A-Tub, and UBQ (ubiquitin). It is usually recommended a minimum of two reference genes is expression analysis; therefore, we propose that IDH and two others genes among the five identified genes in this study should be used as reference genes

  4. Competition for light and light use efficiency for Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus grandis trees in mono-specific and mixed-species plantations in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Maire, G.; Nouvellon, Y.; Gonçalves, J.; Bouillet, J.; Laclau, J.

    2010-12-01

    Mixed plantations with N-fixing species might be an attractive option for limiting the use of fertilizer in highly productive Eucalyptus plantations. A randomized block design was set up in southern Brazil, including a replacement series and an additive series design, as well as a nitrogen fertilization treatment, and conducted during a full 6 years rotation. The gradient of competition between Eucalyptus and Acacia in this design resulted in very different conditions of growth of Acacia, from totally dominated up to dominant canopies. We used the MAESTRA model to estimate the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) at tree level. This model requires the description of the scene and distinct structural variables of the two species, and their evolution with time. The competition for light is analysed by comparing the inter-specific values of APAR during a period of 2 years at the end of the rotation. APAR is further compared to the measured increment in stem wood biomass of the tree, and their ratio is an estimation of the light use efficiency for stemwood production at tree-scale. Variability of these LUE are analysed in respect to the species, the size of the tree, and at plot scale (competition level). Stemwood production was 3400, 3900 and 2400 gDM/m2 while APAR was 1640, 2280 and 2900 MJ/y for the pure Eucalyptus, pure Acacia and 50/50 mixed plantation, respectively, for an average LAI of 3.7, 3.3 and 4.5, respectively. Individual LUE for stemwood was estimated at an average value of 1.72 and 1.41 gDM/MJ/tree for Eucalyptus and Acacia, respectively, and at 0.92 and 0.40 gDM/MJ/tree when they were planted in mixed 50/50 plantations. LUE was highly dependant on tree size for both species. At the plot scale, LUE for stemwood were 2.1 gDM/MJ and 1.75 for Eucalyptus and Acacias, respectively, and 0.85 for the mixed 50/50 plantation. These results suggest that the mixed 50/50 plantation, which absorbed a higher amount of light, produce less

  5. The Eucalyptus terpene synthase gene family.

    PubMed

    Külheim, Carsten; Padovan, Amanda; Hefer, Charles; Krause, Sandra T; Köllner, Tobias G; Myburg, Alexander A; Degenhardt, Jörg; Foley, William J

    2015-06-11

    Terpenoids are abundant in the foliage of Eucalyptus, providing the characteristic smell as well as being valuable economically and influencing ecological interactions. Quantitative and qualitative inter- and intra- specific variation of terpenes is common in eucalypts. The genome sequences of Eucalyptus grandis and E. globulus were mined for terpene synthase genes (TPS) and compared to other plant species. We investigated the relative expression of TPS in seven plant tissues and functionally characterized five TPS genes from E. grandis. Compared to other sequenced plant genomes, Eucalyptus grandis has the largest number of putative functional TPS genes of any sequenced plant. We discovered 113 and 106 putative functional TPS genes in E. grandis and E. globulus, respectively. All but one TPS from E. grandis were expressed in at least one of seven plant tissues examined. Genomic clusters of up to 20 genes were identified. Many TPS are expressed in tissues other than leaves which invites a re-evaluation of the function of terpenes in Eucalyptus. Our data indicate that terpenes in Eucalyptus may play a wider role in biotic and abiotic interactions than previously thought. Tissue specific expression is common and the possibility of stress induction needs further investigation. Phylogenetic comparison of the two investigated Eucalyptus species gives insight about recent evolution of different clades within the TPS gene family. While the majority of TPS genes occur in orthologous pairs some clades show evidence of recent gene duplication, as well as loss of function.

  6. Numerical analysis of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla heat-treatment: A dynamically detecting method of mass loss during the process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zijian; Ma, Qing; Mu, Jun; Yi, Songlin; He, Zhengbin

    Eucalyptus particles, lamellas and boards were applied to explore a simply-implemented method with neglected heat and mass transfer to inspect the mass loss during the heat-treatment course. The results revealed that the mass loss of a certain period was theoretically the definite integration of loss rate to time in this period, and a monitoring model for mass loss speed was developed with the particles and validated with the lamellas and boards. The loss rate was correlated to the temperature and temperature-evolving speed in the model which was composed of three functions during different temperature-evolving period. The sample mass loss was calculated in the MATLAB for the lamellas and boards and the model was validated and adjusted based on the difference between the computed results and the practically measured loss values. The error ranges of the new models were -16.30% to 18.35% for wood lamellas and -9.86% to 6.80% for wood boards. This method made it possible to acquire the instantaneous loss value through continuously detecting the wood temperature evolution. This idea could provide a reference for the Eucalyptus heat-treatment to detect the treating course and control the final material characteristics.

  7. Predicting plant water content in Eucalyptus grandis forest stands in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa using field spectra resampled to the Sumbandila Satellite Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oumar, Z.; Mutanga, O.

    2010-06-01

    The measurement of plant water content is essential to assess stress and disturbance in forest plantations. Traditional techniques to assess plant water content are costly, time consuming and spatially restrictive. Remote sensing techniques offer the alternative of a non-destructive and instantaneous method of assessing plant water content over large spatial scales where ground measurements would be impossible on a regular basis. In the context of South Africa, due to the cost and availability of imagery, studies focusing on the estimation of plant water content using remote sensing data have been limited. With the scheduled launch of the South African satellite SumbandilaSat evident in 2009, it is imperative to test the utility of this satellite in estimating plant water content. This study resamples field spectral data measured from a field spectrometer to the band settings of the SumbandilaSat in order to test its potential in estimating plant water content in a Eucalyptus plantation. The resampled SumbandilaSat wavebands were input into a neural network due to its ability to model non-linearity in a dataset and its inherent ability to perform better than conventional linear models. The integrated approach involving neural networks and the resampled field spectral data successfully predicted plant water content with a correlation coefficient of 0.74 and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.41% on an independent test dataset outperforming the traditional multiple regression method of estimation. The best-trained neural network algorithm that was chosen for assessing the relationship between plant water content and the SumbandilaSat bands was based on a few points only and more research is required to test the robustness and effectiveness of this sensor in estimating plant water content across different species and seasons. This is critical for monitoring plantation health in South Africa using a cheaply available local sensor containing key vegetation wavelengths.

  8. Assessing specific gravity of young Eucalyptus plantation trees using a resistance drilling technique

    Treesearch

    José Tarcísio da Silva Oliveira; Xiping Wang; Graziela Baptista Vidaurre

    2017-01-01

    The resistance drilling technique has been in focus for assessing the specific gravity (SG) of young Eucalyptus trees from plantations for pulpwood production. Namely, the data of 50 34-month-old and 50 62-monthold trees from Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla clonal plantations was evaluated, while...

  9. Does Diatomaceous Earth Control Leaf-Cutter Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Eucalyptus Plantations?

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Filho, Pedro J; Wilcken, Carlos F; Neves, Daniela A; Pogetto, Mario H F A D; Carmo, Janaina B; Guerreiro, Julio C; Serrão, José E; Zanuncio, José C

    2015-06-01

    Genus Atta includes some of the most important Formicidae leaf cutter ants which cause extensive damage to the eucalyptus plantations. Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, one of the chief pests in Brazilian reforestation, can restrict and reduce forest productivity by its intense and constant leaf-cutting activities on plants at all stages. Therefore, the demand for new products to control A. sexdens rubropilosa indicates the study of the utilization of the dry powder formulation of diatomaceous earth (DE) against this pest in the eucalyptus cultivars. The study was conducted using 120 colonies of A. sexdens rubropilosa in Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla Blake (Myrtaceae) (urograndis) stand. The randomized block experimental design was used with six treatments (1, 10, 25, and 50 g/m2 of DE, 6.0 g/m2 sulfluramid bait per square meter of loose soil, and the control) with five replications, each with four colonies of this ant. Diatomaceous earth was applied to the active A. sexdens rubropilosa ant holes, and the sulfluramid bait was applied in bulk in a localized manner. The control efficacy of A. sexdens rubropilosa with DE was low, showing values similar to that of the control, and, for this reason, it cannot be used to control this ant. The bait with sulfluramid showed higher efficacy than those of the other treatments.

  10. Uncovering the defence responses of Eucalyptus to pests and pathogens in the genomics age.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Sanushka; Külheim, Carsten; Zwart, Lizahn; Mangwanda, Ronishree; Oates, Caryn N; Visser, Erik A; Wilken, Febé E; Mamni, Thandekile B; Myburg, Alexander A

    2014-09-01

    Long-lived tree species are subject to attack by various pests and pathogens during their lifetime. This problem is exacerbated by climate change, which may increase the host range for pathogens and extend the period of infestation by pests. Plant defences may involve preformed barriers or induced resistance mechanisms based on recognition of the invader, complex signalling cascades, hormone signalling, activation of transcription factors and production of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins with direct antimicrobial or anti-insect activity. Trees have evolved some unique defence mechanisms compared with well-studied model plants, which are mostly herbaceous annuals. The genome sequence of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden has recently become available and provides a resource to extend our understanding of defence in large woody perennials. This review synthesizes existing knowledge of defence mechanisms in model plants and tree species and features mechanisms that may be important for defence in Eucalyptus, such as anatomical variants and the role of chemicals and proteins. Based on the E. grandis genome sequence, we have identified putative PR proteins based on sequence identity to the previously described plant PR proteins. Putative orthologues for PR-1, PR-2, PR-4, PR-5, PR-6, PR-7, PR-8, PR-9, PR-10, PR-12, PR-14, PR-15 and PR-17 have been identified and compared with their orthologues in Populus trichocarpa Torr. & A. Gray ex Hook and Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. The survey of PR genes in Eucalyptus provides a first step in identifying defence gene targets that may be employed for protection of the species in future. Genomic resources available for Eucalyptus are discussed and approaches for improving resistance in these hardwood trees, earmarked as a bioenergy source in future, are considered. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Lack of association between allozyme heterozygosity and juvenile traits in Eucalyptus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic variability for juvenile waits, which included basal diameter, height, biomass accumulation, and growth increment, was studied in eight provenances involving four species, Eucalyptus grandis, E. saligna, E. camaldulensis and E. urophylla, under uniform greenhouse conditions. The species diff...

  12. Effect of surfactant concentration on the spreading properties of pesticide droplets on Eucalyptus leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The area wetted by 500-µm diameter droplets of pesticide and deionised water placed at different positions on Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis (E.u × E.g) and Eucalyptus tereticornis (E.t) leaves was determined at an air temperature of 30 °C and a relative humidity of 60%. Dimethyl dichlorovinyl ph...

  13. Variation in volatile leaf oils of seven eucalyptus species harvested from Zerniza arboreta (Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Elaissi, Ameur; Medini, Hanène; Simmonds, Monique; Lynen, Frederic; Farhat, Farhat; Chemli, Rachid; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia; Khouja, Mohamed Larbi

    2011-02-01

    Leaves of seven species of the genus Eucalyptus L'Hér., viz., E. cladocalyx F. Muell., E. citriodora Hook., E. diversicolor F. Muell., E. fasciculosa F. Muell., E. grandis W. Hill, E. ovata Labill., and E. botryoides Sm., were harvested from Zerniza arboreta (region of Sejnene, northwest of Tunisia) in June 2007. Of the latter species, leaves were collected from trees having two origins, Morocco and Italy. Hydrodistillation of the dried leaves provided essential oils in yields varying from 0.4±0.0 to 3.3±0.1%, according to the species. E. citriodora had the highest mean percentage of essential oil amongst the species examined, whereas the lowest one was obtained for E. botryoides originating from Morocco. Analysis by GC (RI) and GC/MS allowed the identification of 140 compounds, representing 92.5 to 99.4% of the total oil composition. The contents of the different samples varied according to the species. The main components were 1,8-cineole (2), followed by α-pinene (1), p-cymene, borneol, α-terpineol, cryptone, spathulenol, trans-pinocarveol (4), bicyclogermacrene (5), caryophyllene oxide, and β-phellandrene. Principal components analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis separated the eight Eucalyptus leaf essential oils into five groups, each constituting a chemotype.

  14. Down-regulation of p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H) and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) genes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis leads to improved sugar release

    DOE PAGES

    Sykes, Robert W.; Gjersing, Erica L.; Foutz, Kirk; ...

    2015-08-27

    In this study, lignocellulosic materials provide an attractive replacement for food-based crops used to produce ethanol. Understanding the interactions within the cell wall is vital to overcome the highly recalcitrant nature of biomass. One factor imparting plant cell wall recalcitrance is lignin, which can be manipulated by making changes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway. In this study, eucalyptus down-regulated in expression of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H, EC 1.14.13.11) or p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H, EC 1.14.13.36) were evaluated for cell wall composition and reduced recalcitrance.

  15. Advancing Eucalyptus Genomics: Cytogenomics Reveals Conservation of Eucalyptus Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Teresa; Barrela, Ricardo M.; Bergès, Hélène; Marques, Cristina; Loureiro, João; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor; Paiva, Jorge A. P.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Eucalyptus encloses several species with high ecological and economic value, being the subgenus Symphyomyrtus one of the most important. Species such as E. grandis and E. globulus are well characterized at the molecular level but knowledge regarding genome and chromosome organization is very scarce. Here we characterized and compared the karyotypes of three economically important species, E. grandis, E. globulus, and E. calmadulensis, and three with ecological relevance, E. pulverulenta, E. cornuta, and E. occidentalis, through an integrative approach including genome size estimation, fluorochrome banding, rDNA FISH, and BAC landing comprising genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. All karyotypes show a high degree of conservation with pericentromeric 35S and 5S rDNA loci in the first and third pairs, respectively. GC-rich heterochromatin was restricted to the 35S rDNA locus while the AT-rich heterochromatin pattern was species-specific. The slight differences in karyotype formulas and distribution of AT-rich heterochromatin, along with genome sizes estimations, support the idea of Eucalyptus genome evolution by local expansions of heterochromatin clusters. The unusual co-localization of both rDNA with AT-rich heterochromatin was attributed mainly to the presence of silent transposable elements in those loci. The cinnamoyl CoA reductase gene (CCR1) previously assessed to linkage group 10 (LG10) was clearly localized distally at the long arm of chromosome 9 establishing an unexpected correlation between the cytogenetic chromosome 9 and the LG10. Our work is novel and contributes to the understanding of Eucalyptus genome organization which is essential to develop successful advanced breeding strategies for this genus. PMID:27148332

  16. Streptomyces rhizobacteria modulate the secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus plants.

    PubMed

    Salla, Tamiris Daros; da Silva, Ramos; Astarita, Leandro Vieira; Santarém, Eliane Romanato

    2014-12-01

    The genus Eucalyptus comprises economically important species, such as Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus globulus, used especially as a raw material in many industrial sectors. Species of Eucalyptus are very susceptible to pathogens, mainly fungi, which leads to mortality of plant cuttings in rooting phase. One alternative to promote plant health and development is the potential use of microorganisms that act as agents for biological control, such as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Rhizobacteria Streptomyces spp have been considered as PGPR. This study aimed at selecting strains of Streptomyces with ability to promote plant growth and modulate secondary metabolism of E. grandis and E. globulus in vitro plants. The experiments assessed the development of plants (root number and length), changes in key enzymes in plant defense (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) and induction of secondary compounds(total phenolic and quercetinic flavonoid fraction). The isolate Streptomyces PM9 showed highest production of indol-3-acetic acid and the best potential for root induction. Treatment of Eucalyptus roots with Streptomyces PM9 caused alterations in enzymes activities during the period of co-cultivation (1-15 days), as well as in the levels of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Shoots also showed alteration in the secondary metabolism, suggesting induced systemic response. The ability of Streptomyces sp. PM9 on promoting root growth, through production of IAA, and possible role on modulation of secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus plants characterizes this isolate as PGPR and indicates its potential use as a biological control in forestry.

  17. Transcriptionally active LTR retrotransposons in Eucalyptus genus are differentially expressed and insertionally polymorphic.

    PubMed

    Marcon, Helena Sanches; Domingues, Douglas Silva; Silva, Juliana Costa; Borges, Rafael Junqueira; Matioli, Fábio Filippi; Fontes, Marcos Roberto de Mattos; Marino, Celso Luis

    2015-08-14

    In Eucalyptus genus, studies on genome composition and transposable elements (TEs) are particularly scarce. Nearly half of the recently released Eucalyptus grandis genome is composed by retrotransposons and this data provides an important opportunity to understand TE dynamics in Eucalyptus genome and transcriptome. We characterized nine families of transcriptionally active LTR retrotransposons from Copia and Gypsy superfamilies in Eucalyptus grandis genome and we depicted genomic distribution and copy number in two Eucalyptus species. We also evaluated genomic polymorphism and transcriptional profile in three organs of five Eucalyptus species. We observed contrasting genomic and transcriptional behavior in the same family among different species. RLC_egMax_1 was the most prevalent family and RLC_egAngela_1 was the family with the lowest copy number. Most families of both superfamilies have their insertions occurring <3 million years, except one Copia family, RLC_egBianca_1. Protein theoretical models suggest different properties between Copia and Gypsy domains. IRAP and REMAP markers suggested genomic polymorphisms among Eucalyptus species. Using EST analysis and qRT-PCRs, we observed transcriptional activity in several tissues and in all evaluated species. In some families, osmotic stress increases transcript values. Our strategy was successful in isolating transcriptionally active retrotransposons in Eucalyptus, and each family has a particular genomic and transcriptional pattern. Overall, our results show that retrotransposon activity have differentially affected genome and transcriptome among Eucalyptus species.

  18. Chemical composition and fumigant toxicity of the essential oils from 16 species of Eucalyptus against Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) adults.

    PubMed

    Juan, Laura W; Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo N; Harrand, Leonel; Marco, Martin; Masuh, Hector M

    2011-06-01

    Oils extracted from various species of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus badjensis Beuzev & Welch, Eucalyptus badjensis x Eucalyptus nitens, Eucalyptus benthamii variety dorrigoensis Maiden & Cambage, Eucalyptus botryoides Smith, Eucalyptus dalrympleana Maiden, Eucalyptus fastigata Deane & Maiden, Eucalyptus nobilis L.A.S. Johnson & K. D. Hill, Eucalyptus polybractea R. Baker, Eucalyptus radiata ssp. radiata Sieber ex Spreng, Eucalyptus resinifera Smith, Eucalyptus robertsonii Blakely, Eucalyptus rubida Deane & Maiden, Eucalyptus smithii R. Baker, Eucalyptus elata Dehnh, Eucalyptus fraxinoides Deane & Maiden, E. obliqua L'Hér) were obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of essential oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Essential oils were mainly composed of 1,8-cineole, alpha-pinene, alpha-terpineol, 4-terpineol, and p-cymene. Vapors from these essential oils and their major components were found to be toxic to Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) adults. An aliquot of each oil was placed in a cylindrical test chamber, and the number of knocked down flies was recorded as a function of time. Knockdown time 50% was then calculated. Results showed that essential oil of E. polybractea had the highest knockdown activity of 3.44 min. A correlation was observed between the content of 1,8-cineole in the Eucalyptus essential oils and the corresponding toxic effect.

  19. Eucalyptus growth promotion by endophytic Bacillus spp.

    PubMed

    Paz, I C P; Santin, R C M; Guimarães, A M; Rosa, O P P; Dias, A C F; Quecine, M C; Azevedo, J L; Matsumura, A T S

    2012-10-11

    Clonal eucalyptus plantings have increased in recent years; however, some clones with high production characteristics have vegetative propagation problems because of weak root and aerial development. Endophytic microorganisms live inside healthy plants without causing any damage to their hosts and can be beneficial, acting as plant growth promoters. We isolated endophytic bacteria from eucalyptus plants and evaluated their potential in plant growth promotion of clonal plantlets of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis, known as the hybrid, E. urograndis. Eighteen isolates of E. urograndis, clone 4622, were tested for plant growth promotion using the same clone. These isolates were also evaluated for indole acetic acid production and their potential for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. The isolates were identified by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA. Bacillus subtilis was the most prevalent species. Several Bacillus species, including B. licheniformis and B. subtilis, were found for the first time as endophytes of eucalyptus. Bacillus sp strain EUCB 10 significantly increased the growth of the root and aerial parts of eucalyptus plantlets under greenhouse conditions, during the summer and winter seasons.

  20. Lebia grandis (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lebia species number over 450 and the genus is cosmopolitan, with 47 in North America. Adults typically seek prey in plant canopies, and all known larvae are ectoparasitoids of chrysomelid beetle pupae, yet only 2 species’ hosts have been documented in North America. Lebia grandis is a predator an...

  1. Hylax bahiensis Bechyné (Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae): a New Potential Pest of Eucalyptus and Species Used for Atlantic Rainforest Restoration.

    PubMed

    Mafia, R G; da Silva, J B; Ramos, J F; Mafia, G V; Rosado-Neto, G H; Ferronatto, E M O

    2015-02-01

    Hylax bahiensis Bechyné (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a new pest of forest species, including eucalyptus (hybrid Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis), Joannesia princeps, Mimosa artemisiana, Croton urucurana, Croton floribundus, and Senna multijuga is recorded. The insect attack in clonal eucalyptus plantations and in forest restoration areas between 2010 and 2013 in the states of Espírito Santo, Bahia and Minas Gerais, Brasil, was observed for the first time. The outbreaks generally occurred from September to March. This new potential pest can affect the growth, productivity, and quality of the trees. We recommended monitoring this leaf-eating beetle especially during the critical period of its occurrence.

  2. Production and carbon allocation in a clonal Eucalyptus plantation with water and nutrient manipulations

    Treesearch

    Jose Luiz Stape; Dan Binkley; Michael G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    We examined resource limitations on growth and carbon allocation in a fast-growing, clonal plantation of Eucalyptus grandis urophylla in Brazil by characterizing responses to annual rainfall, and response to irrigation and fertililization for 2 years. Productivity measures included gross primary production (GPP), total belowground carbon allocation (...

  3. Characterization of an endophytic bacterial community associated with Eucalyptus spp.

    PubMed

    Procópio, R E L; Araújo, W L; Maccheroni, W; Azevedo, J L

    2009-11-24

    Endophytic bacteria were isolated from stems of Eucalyptus spp (Eucalyptus citriodora, E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. camaldulensis, E. torelliana, E. pellita, and a hybrid of E. grandis and E. urophylla) cultivated at two sites; they were characterized by RAPD and amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). Endophytic bacteria were more frequently isolated from E. grandis and E. pellita. The 76 isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Erwinia/Pantoea (45%), Agrobacterium sp (21%), Curtobacterium sp (9%), Brevibacillus sp (8%), Pseudomonas sp (8%), Acinetobacter sp (4%), Burkholderia cepacia (2.6%), and Lactococcus lactis (2.6%). Genetic characterization of these endophytic bacteria isolates showed at least eight ARDRA haplotypes. The genetic diversity of 32 Erwinia/Pantoea and 16 Agrobacterium sp isolates was assessed with the RAPD technique. There was a high level of genetic polymorphism among all the isolates and there was positive correlation between the clusters and the geographic origin of the strains. These endophytic bacteria were further analyzed for in vitro interaction with endophytic fungi from Eucalyptus spp. We found that metabolites secreted by Erwinia/Pantoea and B. cepacia isolates had an inhibitory growth effect on some endophytic fungi, suggesting that these metabolites play a role in bacterial-fungal interactions inside the host plant. Apparently, these bacteria could have an important role in plant development; in the future they may be useful for biological control of diseases and plant growth promotion, as well as for the production of new metabolites and enzymes.

  4. Interspecific hybridization of Eucalyptus as a potential tool to improve the bioactivity of essential oils against permethrin-resistant head lice from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel Ceferino; Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo; Masuh, Hector; Picollo, Maria Inés

    2008-10-01

    The essential oils extracted from Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus tereticornis, and the hybrids E. grandisxE. camaldulensis, and E. grandisxE. tereticornis were analyzed by GC-MS, and evaluated for their fumigant and repellent effects on permethrin-resistant head lice. Fumigant activity of both hybrids was higher than that for pure species. E. grandisxE. tereticornis and E. grandisxE. camaldulensis showed KT50 values of 12.99 and 13.63min, respectively. E. grandis, E. camaldulensis, and E. tereticornis showed KT50 values of 25.57, 35.01, and 31.31, respectively. A simple regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between KT50 data and % of 1,8-cineole in these essential oils. Repellency varied from 47.80+/-16% to 80.69+/-6% for the five Eucalyptus essential oils tested. Interspecific hybridization improves the pediculicidal activity of Eucalyptus essential oils.

  5. Automation of solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry extraction of eucalyptus volatiles.

    PubMed

    Zini, Cláudia A; Lord, Heather; Christensen, Eva; de, Assis Teotĵnio F; Caramão, Elina B; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2002-03-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography (GC)-ion-trap mass spectrometry (ITMS) is employed to analyze fragrance compounds from different species of eucalyptus trees: Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus grandis, and hybrids of other species. The analyses are performed using an automated system for preincubation, extraction, injection, and analysis of samples. The autosampler used is a CombiPAL and has much flexibility for the development of SPME methods and accommodates a variety of vial sizes. For automated fragrance analysis the 10- and 20-mL vials are the most appropriate. The chromatographic separation and identification of the analytes are performed with a Varian Saturn 4D GC-ITMS using an HP-5MS capillary column. Several compounds of eucalyptus volatiles are identified, with good reproducibility for both the peak areas and retention times. Equilibrium extraction provides maximal sensitivity but requires additional consideration for the effect of carryover. Preequilibrium extraction allows good sensitivity with minimal carryover.

  6. Eucalyptus tolerance mechanisms to lanthanum and cerium: subcellular distribution, antioxidant system and thiol pools.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yichang; Zhang, Shirong; Li, Sen; Xu, Xiaoxun; Jia, Yongxia; Gong, Guoshu

    2014-12-01

    Guanglin 9 (Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophlla) and Eucalyptus grandis 5 are two eucalyptus species which have been found to grow normally in soils contaminated with lanthanum and cerium, but the tolerance mechanisms are not clear yet. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the tolerance mechanisms of the eucalyptus to lanthanum and cerium. Cell walls stored 45.40-63.44% of the metals under lanthanum or cerium stress. Peroxidase and catalase activities enhanced with increasing soil La or Ce concentrations up to 200 mg kg(-1), while there were no obvious changes in glutathione and ascorbate concentrations. Non-protein thiols concentrations increased with increasing treatment levels up to 200 mg kg(-1), and then decreased. Phytochelatins concentrations continued to increase under La or Ce stress. Therefore, the two eucalyptus species are La and Ce tolerant plants, and the tolerance mechanisms include cell wall deposition, antioxidant system response, and thiol compound synthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Eucalyptus oil poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, S; Wiggins, J

    1980-01-01

    Accidental ingestion of eucalyptus oil by a 3-year-old boy caused profound central nervous system depression within 30 minutes, but he recovered rapidly after gastric lavage. The extreme toxicity of eucalyptus oil is emphasised. PMID:7436478

  8. Yields in high density, short rotation intensive culture (SRIC)—plantations of Eucalyptus and Other Hardwood Species

    Treesearch

    R.M. Sachs; C.B. Low

    1983-01-01

    Initial high density (17,200 trees ha-1, 6961 trees a-1) plantations of Eucalyptus grandis yielded up to 22 oven dry tons (ODT) ha-l yr-I (10 ta-1 yr-1) on an approximate 6 month rotation. Border effects could not be eliminated from the small sized plots used...

  9. [Comparison of the water consumption characteristics of Eucalyptus and Corymbia clone seedlings and the local indigenous tree species Bischofia javanica].

    PubMed

    Hua, Lei; He, Qian; Li, Ji-Yue; Liu, Shan; Yu, Fei

    2014-06-01

    The water consumption, water consumption rate, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr) and water use efficiency (WUE) of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis DH33-27, E. urophylla x E. grandis DH32-29, E. grandis H1, Corymbia ptychocarpa and an indigenous tree species Bischofia javanica were studied in normal soil moisture condition. The average daily water consumption of the five tree species was in the order of E. urophylla x E. grandis DH32-29 (188.47 +/- 14. 91) g > E. urophylla x E. grandis DH33-27 (169.27 +/- 16.26) g > E. grandis H1 (118.65 +/- 5.32) g > B. javanica (38.12 +/- 1.46) g > C. ptychocarpa (20.13 +/- 1.72) g, which had obviously positive correlation with the total leaf area of each seedling. The water consumption was mostly in the daytime, which took 90% of the whole day water consumption. The daily change of the water consumption rates of 5 kinds of seedlings followed the curve with one peak at 12:00-14:00. The total water consumption ability of Eucalyptus and Corymbia was higher than that of B. javanica. The water consumption rate of C. ptychocarpa was far higher than that of the other 4 kinds of seedlings, so its large area planting should be given full consideration to this issue. The change in water consumption rate of E. urophylla x E. grandis DH33-27 was mostly impacted by environmental temperature and humidity, because its water consumption rate was the smallest among 4 kinds of Eucalyptus and Corymbia seedlings during the daytime with high temperature and low humidity. The four clone seedlings of Eucalyptus and Corymbia showed higher photosynthetic rates and transpiration rates compared with B. javanica. Two clone seedlings of E. urophylla x E. grandis had better water-saving performance. The WUE of Eucalyptus and Corymbia was higher than that of B. javanica in general, except E. urophylla x E. Grandis DH33-27.

  10. Comparative genomics of Eucalyptus and Corymbia reveals low rates of genome structural rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Butler, J B; Vaillancourt, R E; Potts, B M; Lee, D J; King, G J; Baten, A; Shepherd, M; Freeman, J S

    2017-05-22

    Previous studies suggest genome structure is largely conserved between Eucalyptus species. However, it is unknown if this conservation extends to more divergent eucalypt taxa. We performed comparative genomics between the eucalypt genera Eucalyptus and Corymbia. Our results will facilitate transfer of genomic information between these important taxa and provide further insights into the rate of structural change in tree genomes. We constructed three high density linkage maps for two Corymbia species (Corymbia citriodora subsp. variegata and Corymbia torelliana) which were used to compare genome structure between both species and Eucalyptus grandis. Genome structure was highly conserved between the Corymbia species. However, the comparison of Corymbia and E. grandis suggests large (from 1-13 MB) intra-chromosomal rearrangements have occurred on seven of the 11 chromosomes. Most rearrangements were supported through comparisons of the three independent Corymbia maps to the E. grandis genome sequence, and to other independently constructed Eucalyptus linkage maps. These are the first large scale chromosomal rearrangements discovered between eucalypts. Nonetheless, in the general context of plants, the genomic structure of the two genera was remarkably conserved; adding to a growing body of evidence that conservation of genome structure is common amongst woody angiosperms.

  11. Xylem transcription profiles indicate potential metabolic responses for economically relevant characteristics of Eucalyptus species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Eucalyptus is one of the most important sources of industrial cellulose. Three species of this botanical group are intensively used in breeding programs: E. globulus, E. grandis and E. urophylla. E. globulus is adapted to subtropical/temperate areas and is considered a source of high-quality cellulose; E. grandis grows rapidly and is adapted to tropical/subtropical climates; and E. urophylla, though less productive, is considered a source of genes related to robustness. Wood, or secondary xylem, results from cambium vascular differentiation and is mostly composed of cellulose, lignin and hemicelluloses. In this study, the xylem transcriptomes of the three Eucalyptus species were investigated in order to provide insights on the particularities presented by each of these species. Results Data analysis showed that (1) most Eucalyptus genes are expressed in xylem; (2) most genes expressed in species-specific way constitutes genes with unknown functions and are interesting targets for future studies; (3) relevant differences were observed in the phenylpropanoid pathway: E. grandis xylem presents higher expression of genes involved in lignin formation whereas E. urophylla seems to deviates the pathway towards flavonoid formation; (4) stress-related genes are considerably more expressed in E. urophylla, suggesting that these genes may contribute to its robustness. Conclusions The comparison of these three transcriptomes indicates the molecular signatures underlying some of their distinct wood characteristics. This information may contribute to the understanding of xylogenesis, thus increasing the potential of genetic engineering approaches aiming at the improvement of Eucalyptus forest plantations productivity. PMID:23521840

  12. Xylem transcription profiles indicate potential metabolic responses for economically relevant characteristics of Eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Marcela Mendes; Nascimento, Leandro Costa; Camargo, Eduardo Leal Oliveira; Gonçalves, Danieli Cristina; Lepikson Neto, Jorge; Marques, Wesley Leoricy; Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Mondego, Jorge Maurício Costa; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Deckmann, Ana Carolina; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2013-03-22

    Eucalyptus is one of the most important sources of industrial cellulose. Three species of this botanical group are intensively used in breeding programs: E. globulus, E. grandis and E. urophylla. E. globulus is adapted to subtropical/temperate areas and is considered a source of high-quality cellulose; E. grandis grows rapidly and is adapted to tropical/subtropical climates; and E. urophylla, though less productive, is considered a source of genes related to robustness. Wood, or secondary xylem, results from cambium vascular differentiation and is mostly composed of cellulose, lignin and hemicelluloses. In this study, the xylem transcriptomes of the three Eucalyptus species were investigated in order to provide insights on the particularities presented by each of these species. Data analysis showed that (1) most Eucalyptus genes are expressed in xylem; (2) most genes expressed in species-specific way constitutes genes with unknown functions and are interesting targets for future studies; (3) relevant differences were observed in the phenylpropanoid pathway: E. grandis xylem presents higher expression of genes involved in lignin formation whereas E. urophylla seems to deviates the pathway towards flavonoid formation; (4) stress-related genes are considerably more expressed in E. urophylla, suggesting that these genes may contribute to its robustness. The comparison of these three transcriptomes indicates the molecular signatures underlying some of their distinct wood characteristics. This information may contribute to the understanding of xylogenesis, thus increasing the potential of genetic engineering approaches aiming at the improvement of Eucalyptus forest plantations productivity.

  13. Assessment of Cryptococcus albidus for biopulping of eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Anjali; Jaiswal, Prashant Kumar; Jha, Pawan Kumar; Thapliyal, Alka; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2013-01-01

    Cryptococcus albidus shows delignification activity in nature. It was used for the biopulping of eucalyptus wood (Eucalyptus grandis) to access its potential for industrial application in the pulp and paper industry. Enzyme analysis on days 15, 30, and 60 showed the presence of laccase and xylanase as key enzymes. The production of endo-glucanase (CMCase) and exo-glucanase (FPase) was very low. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the surface colonization of wood and loosening of wood fibers in C. albidus-treated samples. Fourier-transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) indicated the chemical modification of eucalyptus wood. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis on days 15, 30, and 60 confirmed the presence of C. albidus throughout the experiments. Cryptococcu albidus was able to suppress the growth of a native population. Further, after 60 days both the control and treated eucalyptus wood chips were given kraft pulping treatment. The kappa number of pulp of control wood was 21 and for treated wood was 17. Kappa number is considered a measure of lignin content in wood; hence the treatment of eucalyptus by C. albidus (biopulping) was effective in reducing its lignin content and can be used for biopulping in the pulp and paper industry.

  14. Genome-wide analysis of EgEVE_1, a transcriptionally active endogenous viral element associated to small RNAs in Eucalyptus genomes.

    PubMed

    Marcon, Helena Sanches; Costa-Silva, Juliana; Lorenzetti, Alan Péricles Rodrigues; Marino, Celso Luis; Domingues, Douglas Silva

    2017-01-01

    Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) are the result of heritable horizontal gene transfer from viruses to hosts. In the last years, several EVE integration events were reported in plants by the exponential availability of sequenced genomes. Eucalyptus grandis is a forest tree species with a sequenced genome that is poorly studied in terms of evolution and mobile genetic elements composition. Here we report the characterization of E. grandis endogenous viral element 1 (EgEVE_1), a transcriptionally active EVE with a size of 5,664 bp. Phylogenetic analysis and genomic distribution demonstrated that EgEVE_1 is a newly described member of the Caulimoviridae family, distinct from the recently characterized plant Florendoviruses. Genomic distribution of EgEVE_1 and Florendovirus is also distinct. EgEVE_1 qPCR quantification in Eucalyptus urophylla suggests that this genome has more EgEVE_1 copies than E. grandis. EgEVE_1 transcriptional activity was demonstrated by RT-qPCR in five Eucalyptus species and one intrageneric hybrid. We also identified that Eucalyptus EVEs can generate small RNAs (sRNAs),that might be involved in de novo DNA methylation and virus resistance. Our data suggest that EVE families in Eucalyptus have distinct properties, and we provide the first comparative analysis of EVEs in Eucalyptus genomes.

  15. Genome-wide analysis of EgEVE_1, a transcriptionally active endogenous viral element associated to small RNAs in Eucalyptus genomes

    PubMed Central

    Marcon, Helena Sanches; Costa-Silva, Juliana; Lorenzetti, Alan Péricles Rodrigues; Marino, Celso Luis; Domingues, Douglas Silva

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) are the result of heritable horizontal gene transfer from viruses to hosts. In the last years, several EVE integration events were reported in plants by the exponential availability of sequenced genomes. Eucalyptus grandis is a forest tree species with a sequenced genome that is poorly studied in terms of evolution and mobile genetic elements composition. Here we report the characterization of E. grandis endogenous viral element 1 (EgEVE_1), a transcriptionally active EVE with a size of 5,664 bp. Phylogenetic analysis and genomic distribution demonstrated that EgEVE_1 is a newly described member of the Caulimoviridae family, distinct from the recently characterized plant Florendoviruses. Genomic distribution of EgEVE_1 and Florendovirus is also distinct. EgEVE_1 qPCR quantification in Eucalyptus urophylla suggests that this genome has more EgEVE_1 copies than E. grandis. EgEVE_1 transcriptional activity was demonstrated by RT-qPCR in five Eucalyptus species and one intrageneric hybrid. We also identified that Eucalyptus EVEs can generate small RNAs (sRNAs),that might be involved in de novo DNA methylation and virus resistance. Our data suggest that EVE families in Eucalyptus have distinct properties, and we provide the first comparative analysis of EVEs in Eucalyptus genomes. PMID:28235127

  16. Mixed plantations of eucalyptus and leguminous trees enhance biomass production. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    DeBell, D.S.; Whitesell, C.D.; Schubert, T.H.

    1985-07-01

    Two Eucalyptus species--E. Saligna and E. grandis--are especially favored in Hawaii for wood, fiber, and fuel production because of their quick growth and high yields. Their growth is limited, however, on many sites by low levels of available nitrogen. Supplemental nitrogen can be provided by nitrogen-fixing plants, such as legumes. A test was conducted to determine whether planting two leguminous species--Acacia melanoxylon and Albizia falcataria Fosberg--could increase biomass production. Total biomass production was much greater in the mixed-species plantations than in the pure Eucalyptus plantation.

  17. A reference linkage map for Eucalyptus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genetic linkage maps are invaluable resources in plant research. They provide a key tool for many genetic applications including: mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL); comparative mapping; identifying unlinked (i.e. independent) DNA markers for fingerprinting, population genetics and phylogenetics; assisting genome sequence assembly; relating physical and recombination distances along the genome and map-based cloning of genes. Eucalypts are the dominant tree species in most Australian ecosystems and of economic importance globally as plantation trees. The genome sequence of E. grandis has recently been released providing unprecedented opportunities for genetic and genomic research in the genus. A robust reference linkage map containing sequence-based molecular markers is needed to capitalise on this resource. Several high density linkage maps have recently been constructed for the main commercial forestry species in the genus (E. grandis, E. urophylla and E. globulus) using sequenced Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) and microsatellite markers. To provide a single reference linkage map for eucalypts a composite map was produced through the integration of data from seven independent mapping experiments (1950 individuals) using a marker-merging method. Results The composite map totalled 1107 cM and contained 4101 markers; comprising 3880 DArT, 213 microsatellite and eight candidate genes. Eighty-one DArT markers were mapped to two or more linkage groups, resulting in the 4101 markers being mapped to 4191 map positions. Approximately 13% of DArT markers mapped to identical map positions, thus the composite map contained 3634 unique loci at an average interval of 0.31 cM. Conclusion The composite map represents the most saturated linkage map yet produced in Eucalyptus. As the majority of DArT markers contained on the map have been sequenced, the map provides a direct link to the E. grandis genome sequence and will serve as an important reference for

  18. Eucalyptus production and the supply, use and efficiency of use of water, light and nitrogen across a geographic gradient in Brazil

    Treesearch

    Jose Luiz Stape; Dan Binkley; Michael G. Ryan

    Millions of hectares of Eucalyptus are intensively managed for wood production in the tropics, but little is known about the physiological processes that control growth and their regulation. We examined the main environmental factors controlling growth and resource use across a geographic gradient with clonal E. grandis x urophylla in north-eastern Brazil. Rates of...

  19. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry applied to the identification of valuable phenolic compounds from Eucalyptus wood.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sónia A O; Vilela, Carla; Freire, Carmen S R; Neto, Carlos Pascoal; Silvestre, Armando J D

    2013-11-01

    Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) was applied for the first time in the analysis of wood extracts. The potential of this technique coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry in the rapid and effective detection and identification of bioactive components in complex vegetal samples was demonstrated. Several dozens of compounds were detected in less than 30min of analysis time, corresponding to more than 3-fold reduction in time, when compared to conventional HPLC analysis of similar extracts. The phenolic chemical composition of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urograndis (E. grandis×E. urophylla) and Eucalyptus maidenii wood extracts was assessed for the first time, with the identification of 51 phenolic compounds in the three wood extracts. Twenty of these compounds are reported for the first time as Eucalyptus genus components. Ellagic acid and ellagic acid-pentoside are the major components in all extracts, followed by gallic and quinic acids in E. grandis and E. urograndis and ellagic acid-pentoside isomer, isorhamnetin-hexoside and gallic acid in E. maidenii. The antioxidant scavenging activity of the extracts was evaluated, with E. grandis wood extract showing the lowest IC50 value. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of these extracts was higher than that of the commercial antioxidant BHT and of those of the corresponding bark extracts. These results, together with the phenolic content values, open good perspectives for the exploitation of these renewable resources as a source of valuable phenolic compounds.

  20. Development of Genetic Markers in Eucalyptus Species by Target Enrichment and Exome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Modhumita Ghosh; Dharanishanthi, Veeramuthu; Agarwal, Ishangi; Krutovsky, Konstantin V.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing has facilitated large-scale discovery, validation and assessment of genetic markers for high density genotyping. The present study was undertaken to identify markers in genes supposedly related to wood property traits in three Eucalyptus species. Ninety four genes involved in xylogenesis were selected for hybridization probe based nuclear genomic DNA target enrichment and exome sequencing. Genomic DNA was isolated from the leaf tissues and used for on-array probe hybridization followed by Illumina sequencing. The raw sequence reads were trimmed and high-quality reads were mapped to the E. grandis reference sequence and the presence of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and insertions/ deletions (InDels) were identified across the three species. The average read coverage was 216X and a total of 2294 SNVs and 479 InDels were discovered in E. camaldulensis, 2383 SNVs and 518 InDels in E. tereticornis, and 1228 SNVs and 409 InDels in E. grandis. Additionally, SNV calling and InDel detection were conducted in pair-wise comparisons of E. tereticornis vs. E. grandis, E. camaldulensis vs. E. tereticornis and E. camaldulensis vs. E. grandis. This study presents an efficient and high throughput method on development of genetic markers for family– based QTL and association analysis in Eucalyptus. PMID:25602379

  1. Development of genetic markers in Eucalyptus species by target enrichment and exome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Modhumita Ghosh; Dharanishanthi, Veeramuthu; Agarwal, Ishangi; Krutovsky, Konstantin V

    2015-01-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing has facilitated large-scale discovery, validation and assessment of genetic markers for high density genotyping. The present study was undertaken to identify markers in genes supposedly related to wood property traits in three Eucalyptus species. Ninety four genes involved in xylogenesis were selected for hybridization probe based nuclear genomic DNA target enrichment and exome sequencing. Genomic DNA was isolated from the leaf tissues and used for on-array probe hybridization followed by Illumina sequencing. The raw sequence reads were trimmed and high-quality reads were mapped to the E. grandis reference sequence and the presence of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and insertions/ deletions (InDels) were identified across the three species. The average read coverage was 216X and a total of 2294 SNVs and 479 InDels were discovered in E. camaldulensis, 2383 SNVs and 518 InDels in E. tereticornis, and 1228 SNVs and 409 InDels in E. grandis. Additionally, SNV calling and InDel detection were conducted in pair-wise comparisons of E. tereticornis vs. E. grandis, E. camaldulensis vs. E. tereticornis and E. camaldulensis vs. E. grandis. This study presents an efficient and high throughput method on development of genetic markers for family- based QTL and association analysis in Eucalyptus.

  2. Structural, evolutionary and functional analysis of the NAC domain protein family in Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Steven G; Saïdi, Mohammed N; Hefer, Charles A; Myburg, Alexander A; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2015-06-01

    NAC domain transcription factors regulate many developmental processes and stress responses in plants and vary widely in number and family structure. We analysed the characteristics and evolution of the NAC gene family of Eucalyptus grandis, a fast-growing forest tree in the rosid order Myrtales. NAC domain genes identified in the E. grandis genome were subjected to amino acid sequence, phylogenetic and motif analyses. Transcript abundance in developing tissues and abiotic stress conditions in E. grandis and E. globulus was quantified using RNA-seq and reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). One hundred and eighty-nine E. grandis NAC (EgrNAC) proteins, arranged into 22 subfamilies, are extensively duplicated in subfamilies associated with stress response. Most EgrNAC genes form tandem duplicate arrays that frequently carry signatures of purifying selection. Sixteen amino acid motifs were identified in EgrNAC proteins, eight of which are enriched in, or unique to, Eucalyptus. New candidates for the regulation of normal and tension wood development and cold responses were identified. This first description of a Myrtales NAC domain family reveals an unique history of tandem duplication in stress-related subfamilies that has likely contributed to the adaptation of eucalypts to the challenging Australian environment. Several new candidates for the regulation of stress, wood formation and tree-specific development are reported.

  3. Red Hill

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the Red Hill Bulk Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii Administrative Order on Consent (AOC), an enforceable agreement of the Hawaii Department of Health, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Navy -- Defense Logistics Agency.

  4. Genomic patterns of species diversity and divergence in Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Corey J; Freeman, Jules S; Myburg, Alexander A; Potts, Brad M; Vaillancourt, René E

    2015-06-01

    We examined genome-wide patterns of DNA sequence diversity and divergence among six species of the important tree genus Eucalyptus and investigated their relationship with genomic architecture. Using c. 90 range-wide individuals of each Eucalyptus species (E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. globulus, E. nitens, E. dunnii and E. camaldulensis), genetic diversity and divergence were estimated from 2840 polymorphic diversity arrays technology markers covering the 11 chromosomes. Species differentiating markers (SDMs) identified in each of 15 pairwise species comparisons, along with species diversity (HHW ) and divergence (FST ), were projected onto the E. grandis reference genome. Across all species comparisons, SDMs totalled 1.1-5.3% of markers and were widely distributed throughout the genome. Marker divergence (FST and SDMs) and diversity differed among and within chromosomes. Patterns of diversity and divergence were broadly conserved across species and significantly associated with genomic features, including the proximity of markers to genes, the relative number of clusters of tandem duplications, and gene density within or among chromosomes. These results suggest that genomic architecture influences patterns of species diversity and divergence in the genus. This influence is evident across the six species, encompassing diverse phylogenetic lineages, geography and ecology. © 2015 University of Tasmania New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Genetic architecture of transcript-level variation in differentiating xylem of a eucalyptus hybrid.

    PubMed

    Kirst, Matias; Basten, Christopher J; Myburg, Alexander A; Zeng, Zhao-Bang; Sederoff, Ronald R

    2005-04-01

    Species diversity may have evolved by differential regulation of a similar set of genes. To analyze and compare the genetic architecture of transcript regulation in different genetic backgrounds of Eucalyptus, microarrays were used to examine variation in mRNA abundance in the differentiating xylem of a E. grandis pseudobackcross population [E. grandis x F(1) hybrid (E. grandis x E. globulus)]. Least-squares mean estimates of transcript levels were generated for 2608 genes in 91 interspecific backcross progeny. The quantitative measurements of variation in transcript abundance for specific genes were mapped as expression QTL (eQTL) in two single-tree genetic linkage maps (F(1) hybrid paternal and E. grandis maternal). EQTL were identified for 1067 genes in the two maps, of which 811 were located in the F(1) hybrid paternal map, and 451 in the E. grandis maternal map. EQTL for 195 genes mapped to both parental maps, the majority of which localized to nonhomologous linkage groups, suggesting trans-regulation by different loci in the two genetic backgrounds. For 821 genes, a single eQTL that explained up to 70% of the transcript-level variation was identified. Hotspots with colocalized eQTL were identified in both maps and typically contained genes associated with specific metabolic and regulatory pathways, suggesting coordinated genetic regulation.

  6. Eucalyptus urograndis stem proteome is responsive to short-term cold stress.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Gabriela de Almeida; Carlos, Natália Aparecida; Mazzafera, Paulo; Balbuena, Tiago Santana

    2015-05-01

    Eucalyptus urograndis is a hybrid eucalyptus of major economic importance to the Brazilian pulp and paper industry. Although widely used in forest nurseries around the country, little is known about the biochemical changes imposed by environmental stress in this species. In this study, we evaluated the changes in the stem proteome after short-term stimulation by exposure to low temperature. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry-based protein identification, 12 proteins were found to be differentially regulated and successfully identified after stringent database searches against a protein database from a closely related species (Eucalyptus grandis). The identification of these proteins indicated that the E. urograndis stem proteome responded quickly to low temperature, mostly by down-regulating specific proteins involved in energy metabolism, protein synthesis and signaling. The results of this study represent the first step in understanding the molecular and biochemical responses of E. urograndis to thermal stress.

  7. Eucalyptus urograndis stem proteome is responsive to short-term cold stress

    PubMed Central

    Leonardi, Gabriela de Almeida; Carlos, Natália Aparecida; Mazzafera, Paulo; Balbuena, Tiago Santana

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus urograndis is a hybrid eucalyptus of major economic importance to the Brazilian pulp and paper industry. Although widely used in forest nurseries around the country, little is known about the biochemical changes imposed by environmental stress in this species. In this study, we evaluated the changes in the stem proteome after short-term stimulation by exposure to low temperature. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry-based protein identification, 12 proteins were found to be differentially regulated and successfully identified after stringent database searches against a protein database from a closely related species (Eucalyptus grandis). The identification of these proteins indicated that the E. urograndis stem proteome responded quickly to low temperature, mostly by down-regulating specific proteins involved in energy metabolism, protein synthesis and signaling. The results of this study represent the first step in understanding the molecular and biochemical responses of E. urograndis to thermal stress. PMID:26273222

  8. Investigating the molecular underpinnings underlying morphology and changes in carbon partitioning during tension wood formation in Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Mizrachi, Eshchar; Maloney, Victoria J; Silberbauer, Janine; Hefer, Charles A; Berger, Dave K; Mansfield, Shawn D; Myburg, Alexander A

    2015-06-01

    Tension wood has distinct physical and chemical properties, including altered fibre properties, cell wall composition and ultrastructure. It serves as a good system for investigating the genetic regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis and wood formation. The reference genome sequence for Eucalyptus grandis allows investigation of the global transcriptional reprogramming that accompanies tension wood formation in this global wood fibre crop. We report the first comprehensive analysis of physicochemical wood property changes in tension wood of Eucalyptus measured in a hybrid (E. grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla) clone, as well as genome-wide gene expression changes in xylem tissues 3 wk post-induction using RNA sequencing. We found that Eucalyptus tension wood in field-grown trees is characterized by an increase in cellulose, a reduction in lignin, xylose and mannose, and a marked increase in galactose. Gene expression profiling in tension wood-forming tissue showed corresponding down-regulation of monolignol biosynthetic genes, and differential expression of several carbohydrate active enzymes. We conclude that alterations of cell wall traits induced by tension wood formation in Eucalyptus are a consequence of a combination of down-regulation of lignin biosynthesis and hemicellulose remodelling, rather than the often proposed up-regulation of the cellulose biosynthetic pathway. © 2014 University of Pretoria New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Down-regulation of p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H) and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) genes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis leads to improved sugar release.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Robert W; Gjersing, Erica L; Foutz, Kirk; Rottmann, William H; Kuhn, Sean A; Foster, Cliff E; Ziebell, Angela; Turner, Geoffrey B; Decker, Stephen R; Hinchee, Maud A W; Davis, Mark F

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic materials provide an attractive replacement for food-based crops used to produce ethanol. Understanding the interactions within the cell wall is vital to overcome the highly recalcitrant nature of biomass. One factor imparting plant cell wall recalcitrance is lignin, which can be manipulated by making changes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway. In this study, eucalyptus down-regulated in expression of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H, EC 1.14.13.11) or p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H, EC 1.14.13.36) were evaluated for cell wall composition and reduced recalcitrance. Eucalyptus trees with down-regulated C4H or C3'H expression displayed lowered overall lignin content. The control samples had an average of 29.6 %, the C3'H reduced lines had an average of 21.7 %, and the C4H reduced lines had an average of 18.9 % lignin from wet chemical analysis. The C3'H and C4H down-regulated lines had different lignin compositions with average S/G/H ratios of 48.5/33.2/18.3 for the C3'H reduced lines and 59.0/39.8/1.2 for the C4H reduced lines, compared to the control with 65.9/33.2/1.0. Both the C4H and C3'H down-regulated lines had reduced recalcitrance as indicated by increased sugar release as determined using enzymatic conversion assays utilizing both no pretreatment and a hot water pretreatment. Lowering lignin content rather than altering sinapyl alcohol/coniferyl alcohol/4-coumaryl alcohol ratios was found to have the largest impact on reducing recalcitrance of the transgenic eucalyptus variants. The development of lower recalcitrance trees opens up the possibility of using alternative pretreatment strategies in biomass conversion processes that can reduce processing costs.

  10. Down-regulation of p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H) and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) genes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis leads to improved sugar release

    SciTech Connect

    Sykes, Robert W.; Gjersing, Erica L.; Foutz, Kirk; Rottmann, William H.; Kuhn, Sean A.; Foster, Cliff E.; Ziebell, Angela; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Decker, Stephen R.; Hinchee, Maud A. W.; Davis, Mark F.

    2015-08-27

    In this study, lignocellulosic materials provide an attractive replacement for food-based crops used to produce ethanol. Understanding the interactions within the cell wall is vital to overcome the highly recalcitrant nature of biomass. One factor imparting plant cell wall recalcitrance is lignin, which can be manipulated by making changes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway. In this study, eucalyptus down-regulated in expression of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H, EC 1.14.13.11) or p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H, EC 1.14.13.36) were evaluated for cell wall composition and reduced recalcitrance.

  11. Comparative Genomics Analyses Reveal Extensive Chromosome Colinearity and Novel Quantitative Trait Loci in Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Li, Fagen; Zhou, Changpin; Weng, Qijie; Li, Mei; Yu, Xiaoli; Guo, Yong; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Xiaohong; Gan, Siming

    2015-01-01

    Dense genetic maps, along with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) detected on such maps, are powerful tools for genomics and molecular breeding studies. In the important woody genus Eucalyptus, the recent release of E. grandis genome sequence allows for sequence-based genomic comparison and searching for positional candidate genes within QTL regions. Here, dense genetic maps were constructed for E. urophylla and E. tereticornis using genomic simple sequence repeats (SSR), expressed sequence tag (EST) derived SSR, EST-derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (EST-CAPS), and diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers. The E. urophylla and E. tereticornis maps comprised 700 and 585 markers across 11 linkage groups, totaling at 1,208.2 and 1,241.4 cM in length, respectively. Extensive synteny and colinearity were observed as compared to three earlier DArT-based eucalypt maps (two maps with E. grandis × E. urophylla and one map of E. globulus) and with the E. grandis genome sequence. Fifty-three QTLs for growth (10-56 months of age) and wood density (56 months) were identified in 22 discrete regions on both maps, in which only one colocalizaiton was found between growth and wood density. Novel QTLs were revealed as compared with those previously detected on DArT-based maps for similar ages in Eucalyptus. Eleven to 585 positional candidate genes were obained for a 56-month-old QTL through aligning QTL confidence interval with the E. grandis genome. These results will assist in comparative genomics studies, targeted gene characterization, and marker-assisted selection in Eucalyptus and the related taxa.

  12. Comparative Genomics Analyses Reveal Extensive Chromosome Colinearity and Novel Quantitative Trait Loci in Eucalyptus

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Qijie; Li, Mei; Yu, Xiaoli; Guo, Yong; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Xiaohong; Gan, Siming

    2015-01-01

    Dense genetic maps, along with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) detected on such maps, are powerful tools for genomics and molecular breeding studies. In the important woody genus Eucalyptus, the recent release of E. grandis genome sequence allows for sequence-based genomic comparison and searching for positional candidate genes within QTL regions. Here, dense genetic maps were constructed for E. urophylla and E. tereticornis using genomic simple sequence repeats (SSR), expressed sequence tag (EST) derived SSR, EST-derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (EST-CAPS), and diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers. The E. urophylla and E. tereticornis maps comprised 700 and 585 markers across 11 linkage groups, totaling at 1,208.2 and 1,241.4 cM in length, respectively. Extensive synteny and colinearity were observed as compared to three earlier DArT-based eucalypt maps (two maps with E. grandis × E. urophylla and one map of E. globulus) and with the E. grandis genome sequence. Fifty-three QTLs for growth (10–56 months of age) and wood density (56 months) were identified in 22 discrete regions on both maps, in which only one colocalizaiton was found between growth and wood density. Novel QTLs were revealed as compared with those previously detected on DArT-based maps for similar ages in Eucalyptus. Eleven to 585 positional candidate genes were obained for a 56-month-old QTL through aligning QTL confidence interval with the E. grandis genome. These results will assist in comparative genomics studies, targeted gene characterization, and marker-assisted selection in Eucalyptus and the related taxa. PMID:26695430

  13. Defense responses in plants of Eucalyptus elicited by Streptomyces and challenged with Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Salla, Tamiris D; Astarita, Leandro V; Santarém, Eliane R

    2016-04-01

    Elicitation of E. grandis plants with Streptomyces PM9 reduced the gray-mold disease, through increasing the levels of enzymes directly related to the induction of plant defense responses, and accumulation of specific phenolic compounds. Members of Eucalyptus are economically important woody species, especially as a raw material in many industrial sectors. Species of this genus are susceptible to pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea (gray mold). Biological control of plant diseases using rhizobacteria is one alternative to reduce the use of pesticides and pathogen attack. This study evaluated the metabolic and phenotypic responses of Eucalyptus grandis and E. globulus plants treated with Streptomyces sp. PM9 and challenged with the pathogenic fungus B. cinerea. Metabolic responses were evaluated by assessing the activities of the enzymes polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase as well as the levels of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. The incidence and progression of the fungal disease in PM9-treated plants and challenged with B. cinerea were evaluated. Treatment with Streptomyces sp. PM9 and challenge with B. cinerea led to changes in the activities of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase as well as in the levels of phenolic compounds in the plants at different time points. Alterations in enzymes of PM9-treated plants were related to early defense responses in E. grandis. Gallic and chlorogenic acids were on average more abundant, although caffeic acid, benzoic acid and catechin were induced at specific time points during the culture period. Treatment with Streptomyces sp. PM9 significantly delayed the establishment of gray mold in E. grandis plants. These results demonstrate the action of Streptomyces sp. PM9 in inducing plant responses against B. cinerea, making this organism a potential candidate for biological control in Eucalyptus.

  14. Validation of models to estimate the fumigant and larvicidal activity of Eucalyptus essential oils against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Lucia, Alejandro; Juan, Laura W; Zerba, Eduardo N; Harrand, Leonel; Marcó, Martín; Masuh, Hector M

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this work is to validate the pre-existing models that relate the larvicidal and adulticidal activities of the Eucalyptus essential oils on Aedes aegypti. Previous works at our laboratory described that the larvicidal activity of Eucalyptus essential oils can be estimated from the relative concentration of two main components (p-cymene and 1,8-cineole) and that the adulticidal effectiveness can be explained, to a great extent, by the presence of large amounts of the component 1,8-cineole in it. In general, the results show that the higher adulticidal effect of essential oils the lower their larvicidal activity. Fresh leaves was harvested and distilled. Once the essential oil was obtained, the chemical composition was analysed, evaluating the biological activity of 15 species of the genus Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus badjensis Beuzev and Welch, Eucalyptus badjensis × nitens, Eucalyptus benthamii var Benthamii Maiden and Cambage, Eucalyptus benthamii var dorrigoensis Maiden and Cambage, Eucalyptus botryoides Smith, Eucalyptus dalrympleana Maiden, Eucalyptus fastigata Deane and Maiden, Eucalyptus nobilis L.A.S. Johnson and K.D.Hill, Eucalyptus polybractea R. Baker, Eucalyptus radiata ssp radiata Sieber ex Spreng, Eucalyptus resinifera Smith, Eucalyptus robertsonii Blakely, Eucalyptus robusta Smith, Eucalyptus rubida Deane and Maiden, Eucalyptus smithii R. Baker). Essential oils of these plant species were used for the validation of equations from preexistent models, in which observed and estimated values of the biological activity were compared. The regression analysis showed a strong validation of the models, re-stating the trends previously observed. The models were expressed as follows: A, fumigant activity [KT(50(min)) = 10.65-0.076 × 1,8-cineole (%)](p < 0.01; F, 397; R (2), 0.79); B, larval mortality (%)((40 ppm)) = 103.85 + 0.482 × p-cymene (%) - 0.363 × α-pinene (%) - 1.07 × 1,8-cineole (%) (p < 0.01; F, 300; R (2), 0.90). These results confirmed the

  15. Controlling the release of wood extractives into water bodies by selecting suitable eucalyptus species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilulya, K. F.; Msagati, T. A. M.; Mamba, B. B.; Ngila, J. C.; Bush, T.

    Pulping industries are increasing worldwide as a result of the increase in the demand for pulp for cellulose derivatives and paper manufacturing. Due to the activities involved in pulping processes, different chemicals from raw materials (wood) and bleaching agents are released in pulp-mill effluent streams discharged into the environment and find their way into water bodies. Large quantities of water and chemicals used in pulping result in large amounts of wastewater with high concentrations of extractives such as unsaturated fatty acids, which are known to be toxic, and plant sterols which affect the development, growth and reproduction of aquatic organisms. This study was aimed at assessing the composition of extractives in two eucalyptus species used for pulp production in South Africa, in order to identify the suitable species with regard to extractive content. Samples from two eucalyptus plant species (Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii) were collected from three sites and analysed for extractives by first extracting with water, followed by Soxhlet extraction using acetone. Compounds were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Major classes of extractives identified were fatty acids (mainly hexadecanoic acid, 9,12-octadecadienoic, 9-octadecenoic and octadecanoic acids) and sterols (mainly β-sitosterol and stigmastanol). E. dunnii was found to contain higher amounts of the compounds compared to those found in E. grandis in all sampled sites. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed and explained 92.9% of the total variation using three principal components. It was revealed that the percentage of fatty acids, which has a negative influence on both principal components 2 and 3, was responsible for the difference between the species. E. grandis, which was found to contain low amounts of extractives, was therefore found suitable for pulping with regard to minimal water usage and environment pollution.

  16. Black Hills

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Drought in the Black Hills     View ... and western South Dakota remain in the midst of a severe drought. This set of images and maps from NASA's Multi-angle Imaging ... the 2000 and 2004 dates. As the vegetation faded with the drought, the  albedo  at the surface increased. Albedo measures the ...

  17. Do changes in carbon allocation account for the growth response to potassium and sodium applications in tropical Eucalyptus plantations?

    PubMed

    Epron, Daniel; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Almeida, Julio C R; Gonçalves, José Leonardo M; Ponton, Stephane; Sette, Carlos R; Delgado-Rojas, Juan S; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Nouvellon, Yann

    2012-06-01

    Understanding the underlying mechanisms that account for the impact of potassium (K) fertilization and its replacement by sodium (Na) on tree growth is key to improving the management of forest plantations that are expanding over weathered tropical soils with low amounts of exchangeable bases. A complete randomized block design was planted with Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) to quantify growth, carbon uptake and carbon partitioning using a carbon budget approach. A combination of approaches including the establishment of allometric relationships over the whole rotation and measurements of soil CO(2) efflux and aboveground litterfall at the end of the rotation were used to estimate aboveground net production (ANPP), total belowground carbon flux and gross primary production (GPP). The stable carbon isotope (δ(13)C) of stem wood α-cellulose produced every year was used as a proxy for stomatal limitation of photosynthesis. Potassium fertilization increased GPP and decreased the fraction of carbon allocated belowground. Aboveground net production was strongly enhanced, and because leaf lifespan increased, leaf biomass was enhanced without any change in leaf production, and wood production (P(W)) was dramatically increased. Sodium application decreased the fraction of carbon allocated belowground in a similar way, and enhanced GPP, ANPP and P(W), but to a lesser extent compared with K fertilization. Neither K nor Na affected δ(13)C of stem wood α-cellulose, suggesting that water-use efficiency was the same among the treatments and that the inferred increase in leaf photosynthesis was not only related to a higher stomatal conductance. We concluded that the response to K fertilization and Na addition on P(W) resulted from drastic changes in carbon allocation.

  18. Main lepidopteran pest species from an eucalyptus plantation in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zanuncio, Teresinha V; Zanuncio, José C; de Freitas, Fernando A; Pratissoli, Dirceu; Sediyama, Camilla A Z; Maffia, Vanessa P

    2006-06-01

    Lepidoptera species were monitored in a plantation of Eucalyptus grandis in the Municipality of Bom Despacho, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil from March 1987 to February 1992. A total of 547 species were collected and divided in: primary pests: 13; secondary pests: 20; species without defined importance to eucalyptus: 79; and non-identified species: 435. These four groups had a mean of 5231.29; 338.18; 438.16 and 2222.87 individuals with a total of 8229.87 individuals collected per trap. The number of species without defined importance to eucalyptus, and non-identified species, increased during the collecting period of five years while those of primary and secondary pests showed similar numbers in all years. The most collected primary pests Thyrinteina arnobia Stoll and Stenalcidia sp. (Geometridae) showed higher frequencies during the driest and coldest periods of the year, whereas Psorocampa denticulata Schaus (Notodontidae) was most frequent during periods of higher rainfall. Species of groups III and IV increased in diversity with eucalyptus age. This area has a high probability of outbreaks of eucalyptus defoliating caterpillars, especially T. arnobia. For this reason, lepidopteran pests should be monitored in this plantation during the driest and coldest periods of the year, when they can reach population peaks.

  19. Genetic architecture of carbon isotope composition and growth in Eucalyptus across multiple environments.

    PubMed

    Bartholomé, Jérôme; Mabiala, André; Savelli, Bruno; Bert, Didier; Brendel, Oliver; Plomion, Christophe; Gion, Jean-Marc

    2015-06-01

    In the context of climate change, the water-use efficiency (WUE) of highly productive tree varieties, such as eucalypts, has become a major issue for breeding programmes. This study set out to dissect the genetic architecture of carbon isotope composition (δ(13) C), a proxy of WUE, across several environments. A family of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis was planted in three trials and phenotyped for δ(13) C and growth traits. High-resolution genetic maps enabled us to target genomic regions underlying δ(13) C quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on the E. grandis genome. Of the 15 QTLs identified for δ(13) C, nine were stable across the environments and three displayed significant QTL-by-environment interaction, suggesting medium to high genetic determinism for this trait. Only one colocalization was found between growth and δ(13) C. Gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analysis suggested candidate genes related to foliar δ(13) C, including two involved in the regulation of stomatal movements. This study provides the first report of the genetic architecture of δ(13) C and its relation to growth in Eucalyptus. The low correlations found between the two traits at phenotypic and genetic levels suggest the possibility of improving the WUE of Eucalyptus varieties without having an impact on breeding for growth. © 2015 CIRAD. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Influence of nitrogen and potassium fertilization on leaf lifespan and allocation of above-ground growth in Eucalyptus plantations.

    PubMed

    Laclau, Jean-Paul; Almeida, Julio C R; Gonçalves, José Leonardo M; Saint-André, Laurent; Ventura, Marcelo; Ranger, Jacques; Moreira, Rildo M; Nouvellon, Yann

    2009-01-01

    Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) leaf traits and tree growth were studied over 3 years after the establishment of two adjacent complete randomized block designs in southern Brazil. In a nitrogen (N) input experiment, a treatment with the application of 120 kg N ha(-1) was compared to a control treatment without N addition, and in a potassium (K) input experiment a control treatment without K addition was compared to a treatment with the application of 116 kg K ha(-1). Young leaves were tagged 9 months after planting to estimate the effect of N and K fertilizations on leaf lifespan. Leaf mass, specific leaf area and nutrient concentrations were measured on a composite sample per plot every 28 days until the last tagged leaf fell. Successive inventories, destructive sampling of trees and leaf litter fall collection made it possible to assess the effect of N and K fertilization on the dynamics of biomass accumulation in above-ground tree components. Whilst the effects of N fertilization on tree growth only occurred in the first 24 months after planting, K fertilization increased the above-ground net primary production from 4478 to 8737 g m(-2) over the first 36 months after planting. The average lifespan of tagged leaves was not modified by N addition but it increased from 111 to 149 days with K fertilization. The peak of leaf production occurred in the second year after planting (about 800 g m(-2) year(-1)) and was not significantly modified (P < 0.05) by N and K fertilizations. By contrast, K addition significantly increased the maximum leaf standing biomass from 292 to 528 g m(-2), mainly as a consequence of the increase in leaf lifespan. Potassium fertilization increased the stand biomass mainly through the enhancement in leaf area index (LAI) since growth efficiency (defined as the ratio between woody biomass production and LAI) was not significantly modified. A better understanding of the physiological processes governing the leaf lifespan is necessary to

  1. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography combined to multivariate data analysis for detection of disease-resistant clones of Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Hantao, Leandro Wang; Toledo, Bruna Regina; Ribeiro, Fabiana Alves de Lima; Pizetta, Marilia; Pierozzi, Caroline Geraldi; Furtado, Edson Luiz; Augusto, Fabio

    2013-11-15

    In this paper it is reported the use of the chromatographic profiles from volatile fractions of plant clones - in this case, hybrids of Eucalyptus grandis×Eucalyptus urophylla - to determine specimens susceptible to rust disease. The analytes were isolated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and analyzed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography combined to fast quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC×GC-qMS). Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) was employed for estimate the correlation between the chromatographic profiles and resistance against Eucalyptus rust, after preliminary variable selection performed by Fisher ratio analysis. The proposed method allowed the differentiation between susceptible and non-susceptible clones and determination of three resistance biomarkers. This approach can be a valuable alternative for the otherwise time-consuming and labor-intensive methods commonly used.

  2. Diversity and distribution of the endophytic bacterial community at different stages of Eucalyptus growth.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Paulo Sérgio Balbino; de Oliveira, Marcelo Nagem Valério; Delvaux, Júlio César; de Jesus, Guilherme Luiz; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer; Tótola, Marcos Rogério; Neves, Júlio César Lima; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2016-06-01

    The relationships between plants and endophytic bacteria significantly contribute to plant health and yield. However, the microbial diversity in leaves of Eucalyptus spp. is still poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the endophytic diversity in leaves of hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla (Eucalyptus "urograndis") by using culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches, to better understand their ecology in leaves at different stages of Eucalyptus development, including bacteria with N2 fixation potential. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria (classes alpha-, beta- and gamma-) and Actinobacteria were identified in the Eucalyptus "urograndis" endophytic bacterial community. Within this community, the species Novosphingobium barchaimii, Rhizobium grahamii, Stenotrophomonas panacihumi, Paenibacillus terrigena, P. darwinianus and Terrabacter lapilli represent the first report these bacteria as endophytes. The diversity of the total endophytic bacteria was higher in the leaves from the 'field' (the Shannon-Wiener index, 2.99), followed by the indices obtained in the 'clonal garden' (2.78), the 'recently out from under shade (2.68), 'under shade' (2.63) and 'plants for dispatch' (2.51). In contrast, for diazotrophic bacteria, the highest means of these indices were obtained from the leaves of plants in the 'under shade' (2.56), 'recently out from under shade (2.52)' and 'field' stages (2.54). The distribution of the endophytic bacterial species in Eucalyptus was distinct and specific to the development stages under study, and many of the species had the potential for nitrogen fixation, raising the question of whether these bacteria could contribute to overall nitrogen metabolism of Eucalyptus.

  3. Vegetation management in Eucalyptus

    Treesearch

    Clyde L. Elmore

    1983-01-01

    Weeds and weed control are a major problem in the growth and management of Eucalyptus trees. Annual, biennial and perennial weed species are common in sites to be planted. These weeds should be controlled before planting. Preplant, preemergence and postemergence herbicides are discussed. Safe preemergence herbicides include oryzalin, napropamide, oxadiazon, linuron and...

  4. Advancing Eucalyptus genomics: identification and sequencing of lignin biosynthesis genes from deep-coverage BAC libraries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Eucalyptus species are among the most planted hardwoods in the world because of their rapid growth, adaptability and valuable wood properties. The development and integration of genomic resources into breeding practice will be increasingly important in the decades to come. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries are key genomic tools that enable positional cloning of important traits, synteny evaluation, and the development of genome framework physical maps for genetic linkage and genome sequencing. Results We describe the construction and characterization of two deep-coverage BAC libraries EG_Ba and EG_Bb obtained from nuclear DNA fragments of E. grandis (clone BRASUZ1) digested with HindIII and BstYI, respectively. Genome coverages of 17 and 15 haploid genome equivalents were estimated for EG_Ba and EG_Bb, respectively. Both libraries contained large inserts, with average sizes ranging from 135 Kb (Eg_Bb) to 157 Kb (Eg_Ba), very low extra-nuclear genome contamination providing a probability of finding a single copy gene ≥ 99.99%. Libraries were screened for the presence of several genes of interest via hybridizations to high-density BAC filters followed by PCR validation. Five selected BAC clones were sequenced and assembled using the Roche GS FLX technology providing the whole sequence of the E. grandis chloroplast genome, and complete genomic sequences of important lignin biosynthesis genes. Conclusions The two E. grandis BAC libraries described in this study represent an important milestone for the advancement of Eucalyptus genomics and forest tree research. These BAC resources have a highly redundant genome coverage (> 15×), contain large average inserts and have a very low percentage of clones with organellar DNA or empty vectors. These publicly available BAC libraries are thus suitable for a broad range of applications in genetic and genomic research in Eucalyptus and possibly in related species of Myrtaceae, including genome

  5. Superior cottonwood and eucalyptus clones for biomass production in wastewater biomass production in wastewater bioremediation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rockwood, D.L.; Pisano, S.M.; McConnell, W.V.

    1996-12-31

    Fast-growing cottonwood and Eucalyptus species have wastewater bioremediation potential. To estimate genetic variation in cottonwood`s response to sewage effluent, 10 clones were planted at Tallahassee in April 1992. Progenies and/or clones of E. Ampligolia (EA). E. Camaldulensis (EC), and E. Grandis (EG) were planted in a dry stormwater retention/bioremediation pond constructed in June 1993 at Tampa. Genetic variability within cottonwood and Eucalyptus species was observed and should be utilized to optimize biomass production and nutrient uptake in wastewater bioremediation applications. On good sites with freeze risk in northern Florida, three cottonwood clones are particularly productive. While as many as four EC and EG clones are promising, one EG clone appears superior for stormwater remediation, systems in central Florida.

  6. Species Discrimination, Population Structure and Linkage Disequilibrium in Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus tereticornis Using SSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Arumugasundaram, Shanmugapriya; Ghosh, Modhumita; Veerasamy, Sivakumar; Ramasamy, Yasodha

    2011-01-01

    Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. tereticornis are closely related species commonly cultivated for pulp wood in many tropical countries including India. Understanding the genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD) existing in these species is essential for the improvement of industrially important traits. Our goal was to evaluate the use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci for species discrimination, population structure and LD analysis in these species. Investigations were carried out with the most common alleles in 93 accessions belonging to these two species using 62 SSR markers through cross amplification. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.44 to 0.93 and 0.36 to 0.93 in E. camaldulensis and E. tereticornis respectively. A clear delineation between the two species was evident based on the analysis of population structure and species-specific alleles. Significant genotypic LD was found in E. camaldulensis, wherein out of 135 significant pairs, 17 pairs showed r2≥0.1. Similarly, in E. tereticornis, out of 136 significant pairs, 18 pairs showed r2≥0.1. The extent of LD decayed rapidly showing the significance of association analyses in eucalypts with higher resolution markers. The availability of whole genome sequence for E. grandis and the synteny and co-linearity in the genome of eucalypts, will allow genome-wide genotyping using microsatellites or single nucleotide polymorphims. PMID:22163287

  7. Catolaccus grandis (Burks)(Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Catolaccus grandis is an ectoparasitoid of the boll weevil classified initially within the genus Heterolaccus (Burks 1954). It was first introduced to the U.S. during the early 1970’s and released in experimental fields in Mississippi State, MS (Johnson et al. 1973). Researchers observed encouraging...

  8. Correspondence between performance of Eucalyptus spp trees selected from family and clonal tests.

    PubMed

    Reis, C A F; Gonçalves, F M A; Rosse, L N; Costa, R R G F; Ramalho, M A P

    2011-06-21

    We examined the correspondence in performance between trees selected from a family test and their respective clones from a clonal test of Eucalyptus. Full-sib families were obtained from controlled pollination among individuals of Eucalyptus grandis and between E. grandis and E. urophylla. The hybridizations did not follow a factorial scheme. The family tests were carried out at three locations in Eunápolis and Itabela counties, in Bahia, Brazil, in 2003. Four hundred and ninety-seven high-performance trees were selected, by the individual BLUP procedure, in the family tests at two years of age, based on wood volume. The clones from these trees and 14 checks were evaluated in clonal tests carried out in the same region in 2006. The wood volume of the clones was evaluated at two years of age. Trait correlation between the trees selected from the family and clonal tests was low. The estimate of the coincidence between the best trees and the best clones using an average of the different intensities of selection was only 27%. These results demonstrate that the selection of trees in the family test should not be too drastic; otherwise the chance plus clones may be overlooked.

  9. Estimating biophysical properties of eucalyptus plantations using optical remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Joao V.; Xavier, Alexandre C.; de Almeida, Auro C.; da Costa Freitas, Corina

    1998-12-01

    The feasibility of the inversion of optical remote sensing products to measure critical biophysical properties of Eucalyptus Forests at regional scales is investigated here. The biophysical variables used were leaf area Index, LAI, Diameter at Breast Height, DBH, Height and Age of Eucalyptus stands pertaining to a combination of different genetic materials (E. urophylla x E. grandis hybrids) and propagating systems (seeds or cuttings) and management system (planting and coppicing). The field sampling was done daily during 3 months, from April to June 1997, and covered 130 stands of minimum sizes of 9 hectares, within an Eucalyptus farming area of about 800 km2, centered at 19 degrees South, 42 degrees West, Brazil. The stands ranged from 12 to 84 months old. The measurements of LAI were done using two pairs of LAI-2000 (LICOR) under conditions of diffuse light. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI, and the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index, SAVI, were derived from a LANDSAT-TM image acquired on June 5, 1997. Furthermore, a mixture model technique was applied to derive three new parameters: fraction of green vegetation, FGV, fraction of shadow, FSH, and fraction of soil, FS. Regression analysis were done between biophysical variables and remote sensing products. Linear correlation with coefficients of determination, R2, as high as 0.8 were found between LAI versus FGV and LAI versus SAVI, on all genetic materials. In general, SAVI was shown to give better estimates of LAI than NDVI, which is explained by the openings in the canopy as the Eucalyptus grow older. The correlation with the other biophysical variables (Height and DBH) were also shown to be significant, although the R2 ranged from 0.4 to 0.6. The correlation between FGV and SAVI was higher than 90% such that they can be used to estimate Eucalyptus biophysical parameters with the same statistical significance.

  10. Proteomic profiling of Tectona grandis L. leaf.

    PubMed

    Quiala, Elisa; Cañal, María Jesús; Rodríguez, Roberto; Yagüe, Norma; Chávez, Maité; Barbón, Raúl; Valledor, Luis

    2012-04-01

    Tectona grandis L. (teak) is one of the premier hardwood timbers in the world, ranking at present in the top five tropical hardwood species in terms of worldwide plantation area. Characterization of the proteins present in teak leaves will provide a basis for the development of new tools aimed at assisting tree selection, the monitoring of plant propagation, and the certification of clonal and phenotypic identities. In this paper, we describe the extraction, separation, and identification of leaf proteins from T. grandis using a TCA/acetone protocol, 2DE, and MALDI-TOF. After TCA/acetone protein extraction of leaves, 998 well-resolved spots were detected in Coomassie-stained gels within the 10-114 kDa relative molecular mass (Mr) range at a pH ranging from 3 to 11. A total of 120 spots were digested and subjected to MS. Of these, 100 nonredundant protein species were successfully identified. Functional classification of the identified proteins revealed that proteins involved in photosynthesis, protein translation, and energy production were the most abundant. This work is the first high-throughput attempt to study the T. grandis leaf proteome and represents a stepping stone for further differential expression proteomic studies related to growth, development, biomass production, and culture-associated physiological responses. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. De novo assembled expressed gene catalog of a fast-growing Eucalyptus tree produced by Illumina mRNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Mizrachi, Eshchar; Hefer, Charles A; Ranik, Martin; Joubert, Fourie; Myburg, Alexander A

    2010-12-01

    De novo assembly of transcript sequences produced by short-read DNA sequencing technologies offers a rapid approach to obtain expressed gene catalogs for non-model organisms. A draft genome sequence will be produced in 2010 for a Eucalyptus tree species (E. grandis) representing the most important hardwood fibre crop in the world. Genome annotation of this valuable woody plant and genetic dissection of its superior growth and productivity will be greatly facilitated by the availability of a comprehensive collection of expressed gene sequences from multiple tissues and organs. We present an extensive expressed gene catalog for a commercially grown E. grandis × E. urophylla hybrid clone constructed using only Illumina mRNA-Seq technology and de novo assembly. A total of 18,894 transcript-derived contigs, a large proportion of which represent full-length protein coding genes were assembled and annotated. Analysis of assembly quality, length and diversity show that this dataset represent the most comprehensive expressed gene catalog for any Eucalyptus tree. mRNA-Seq analysis furthermore allowed digital expression profiling of all of the assembled transcripts across diverse xylogenic and non-xylogenic tissues, which is invaluable for ascribing putative gene functions. De novo assembly of Illumina mRNA-Seq reads is an efficient approach for transcriptome sequencing and profiling in Eucalyptus and other non-model organisms. The transcriptome resource (Eucspresso, http://eucspresso.bi.up.ac.za/) generated by this study will be of value for genomic analysis of woody biomass production in Eucalyptus and for comparative genomic analysis of growth and development in woody and herbaceous plants.

  12. De novo assembled expressed gene catalog of a fast-growing Eucalyptus tree produced by Illumina mRNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background De novo assembly of transcript sequences produced by short-read DNA sequencing technologies offers a rapid approach to obtain expressed gene catalogs for non-model organisms. A draft genome sequence will be produced in 2010 for a Eucalyptus tree species (E. grandis) representing the most important hardwood fibre crop in the world. Genome annotation of this valuable woody plant and genetic dissection of its superior growth and productivity will be greatly facilitated by the availability of a comprehensive collection of expressed gene sequences from multiple tissues and organs. Results We present an extensive expressed gene catalog for a commercially grown E. grandis × E. urophylla hybrid clone constructed using only Illumina mRNA-Seq technology and de novo assembly. A total of 18,894 transcript-derived contigs, a large proportion of which represent full-length protein coding genes were assembled and annotated. Analysis of assembly quality, length and diversity show that this dataset represent the most comprehensive expressed gene catalog for any Eucalyptus tree. mRNA-Seq analysis furthermore allowed digital expression profiling of all of the assembled transcripts across diverse xylogenic and non-xylogenic tissues, which is invaluable for ascribing putative gene functions. Conclusions De novo assembly of Illumina mRNA-Seq reads is an efficient approach for transcriptome sequencing and profiling in Eucalyptus and other non-model organisms. The transcriptome resource (Eucspresso, http://eucspresso.bi.up.ac.za/) generated by this study will be of value for genomic analysis of woody biomass production in Eucalyptus and for comparative genomic analysis of growth and development in woody and herbaceous plants. PMID:21122097

  13. Can the Understory Affect the Hymenoptera Parasitoids in a Eucalyptus Plantation?

    PubMed

    Dall'Oglio, Onice Teresinha; Ribeiro, Rafael Coelho; Ramalho, Francisco de Souza; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Assis Júnior, Sebastião Lourenço de; Rueda, Rosa Angélica Plata; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2016-01-01

    The understory in forest plantations can increase richness and diversity of natural enemies due to greater plant species richness. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the presence of the understory and climatic season in the region (wet or dry) can increase the richness and abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids in Eucalyptus plantations, in the municipality of Belo Oriente, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In each eucalyptus cultivation (five areas of cultivation) ten Malaise traps were installed, five with the understory and five without it. A total of 9,639 individuals from 30 families of the Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected, with Mymaridae, Scelionidae, Encyrtidae and Braconidae being the most collected ones with 4,934, 1,212, 619 and 612 individuals, respectively. The eucalyptus stands with and without the understory showed percentage of individuals 45.65% and 54.35% collected, respectively. The understory did not represent a positive effect on the overall abundance of the individuals Hymenoptera in the E. grandis stands, but rather exerted a positive effect on the specific families of the parasitoids of this order.

  14. Emissions of isoprene, monoterpene and short-chained carbonyl compounds from Eucalyptus spp. in southern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, Anthony J.; Adams, Mark A.; Bleby, Tim M.; Rennenberg, Heinz; Steigner, Dominik; Steinbrecher, Rainer; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen

    Eucalypts are among the highest emitters of biogenic volatile organic compounds, yet there is relatively little data available from field studies of this genus. Emissions of isoprene, monoterpenes and the short-chained carbonyls formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone were determined from four species ( Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus grandis, and Eucalytpus viminalis) in Australia. A smaller comparative study was conducted on E. camaldulensis in south-eastern Australia. Carbonyl emissions, reported here for the first time from eucalypts, were generally comparable with rates reported for other species, with diurnal emissions peaking at about 4, 75 and 34 nmol m -2 min -1 for acetone, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde respectively. There was wide variation in diurnal isoprene and monoterpene emissions between species, but under standard conditions, isoprene emissions were much lower than previous reports. Conversely, standard emission rates of monoterpenes were as much as six times greater than previous reports for some species. Emission of each carbonyl was correlated with its ambient concentration across different species, but more weakly related to temperature. Acetaldehyde emission in particular was significantly correlated with transpiration, but not with sap flow or with ethanol concentrations in xylem sap, suggesting fermentation within the leaf and stomatal conductance are primary controlling processes. Differences in acetaldehyde exchange velocities between sites, in addition to transpiration differences, suggest stomata may indeed exert long term emission regulation, in contrast to compounds for which no biological sink exists.

  15. Can the Understory Affect the Hymenoptera Parasitoids in a Eucalyptus Plantation?

    PubMed Central

    Dall’Oglio, Onice Teresinha; Ribeiro, Rafael Coelho; Ramalho, Francisco de Souza; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; de Assis Júnior, Sebastião Lourenço; Rueda, Rosa Angélica Plata; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2016-01-01

    The understory in forest plantations can increase richness and diversity of natural enemies due to greater plant species richness. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the presence of the understory and climatic season in the region (wet or dry) can increase the richness and abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids in Eucalyptus plantations, in the municipality of Belo Oriente, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In each eucalyptus cultivation (five areas of cultivation) ten Malaise traps were installed, five with the understory and five without it. A total of 9,639 individuals from 30 families of the Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected, with Mymaridae, Scelionidae, Encyrtidae and Braconidae being the most collected ones with 4,934, 1,212, 619 and 612 individuals, respectively. The eucalyptus stands with and without the understory showed percentage of individuals 45.65% and 54.35% collected, respectively. The understory did not represent a positive effect on the overall abundance of the individuals Hymenoptera in the E. grandis stands, but rather exerted a positive effect on the specific families of the parasitoids of this order. PMID:26954578

  16. The Eucalyptus Tonoplast Intrinsic Protein (TIP) Gene Subfamily: Genomic Organization, Structural Features, and Expression Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Marcela I.; Takeda, Agnes A. S.; Bravo, Juliana P.; Maia, Ivan G.

    2016-01-01

    Plant aquaporins are water channels implicated in various physiological processes, including growth, development and adaptation to stress. In this study, the Tonoplast Intrinsic Protein (TIP) gene subfamily of Eucalyptus, an economically important woody species, was investigated and characterized. A genome-wide survey of the Eucalyptus grandis genome revealed the presence of eleven putative TIP genes (referred as EgTIP), which were individually assigned by phylogeny to each of the classical TIP1–5 groups. Homology modeling confirmed the presence of the two highly conserved NPA (Asn-Pro-Ala) motifs in the identified EgTIPs. Residue variations in the corresponding selectivity filters, that might reflect differences in EgTIP substrate specificity, were observed. All EgTIP genes, except EgTIP5.1, were transcribed and the majority of them showed organ/tissue-enriched expression. Inspection of the EgTIP promoters revealed the presence of common cis-regulatory elements implicated in abiotic stress and hormone responses pointing to an involvement of the identified genes in abiotic stress responses. In line with these observations, additional gene expression profiling demonstrated increased expression under polyethylene glycol-imposed osmotic stress. Overall, the results obtained suggest that these novel EgTIPs might be functionally implicated in eucalyptus adaptation to stress. PMID:27965702

  17. Transcriptional Profiles of Hybrid Eucalyptus Genotypes with Contrasting Lignin Content Reveal That Monolignol Biosynthesis-related Genes Regulate Wood Composition

    PubMed Central

    Shinya, Tomotaka; Iwata, Eiji; Nakahama, Katsuhiko; Fukuda, Yujiroh; Hayashi, Kazunori; Nanto, Kazuya; Rosa, Antonio C.; Kawaoka, Akiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus species constitutes the most widely planted hardwood trees in temperate and subtropical regions. In this study, we compared the transcript levels of genes involved in lignocellulose formation such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin biosynthesis in two selected 3-year old hybrid Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis) genotypes (AM063 and AM380) that have different lignin content. AM063 and AM380 had 20.2 and 35.5% of Klason lignin content and 59.0 and 48.2%, α-cellulose contents, respectively. We investigated the correlation between wood properties and transcript levels of wood formation-related genes using RNA-seq with total RNAs extracted from developing xylem tissues at a breast height. Transcript levels of cell wall construction genes such as cellulose synthase (CesA) and sucrose synthase (SUSY) were almost the same in both genotypes. However, AM063 exhibited higher transcript levels of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and xyloglucan endotransglucoxylase than those in AM380. Most monolignol biosynthesis-related isozyme genes showed higher transcript levels in AM380. These results indicate monolignol biosynthesis-related genes may regulate wood composition in Eucalyptus. Flavonoids contents were also observed at much higher levels in AM380 as a result of the elevated transcript levels of common phenylpropanoid pathway genes, phenylalanine ammonium lyase, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL). Secondary plant cell wall formation is regulated by many transcription factors. We analyzed genes encoding NAC, WRKY, AP2/ERF, and KNOX transcription factors and found higher transcript levels of these genes in AM380. We also observed increased transcription of some MYB and LIM domain transcription factors in AM380 compared to AM063. All these results show that genes related to monolignol biosynthesis may regulate the wood composition and help maintain the ratio of cellulose and lignin contents in Eucalyptus plants. PMID

  18. Coordinated Genetic Regulation of Growth and Lignin Revealed by Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of cDNA Microarray Data in an Interspecific Backcross of Eucalyptus1

    PubMed Central

    Kirst, Matias; Myburg, Alexander A.; De León, José P.G.; Kirst, Mariana E.; Scott, Jay; Sederoff, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Phenotypic, genotypic, and transcript level (microarray) data from an interspecific backcross population of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus globulus were integrated to dissect the genetic and metabolic network underlying growth variation. Transcript abundance, measured for 2,608 genes in the differentiating xylem of a 91 (E. grandis × E. globulus) × E. grandis backcross progeny was correlated with diameter variation, revealing coordinated down-regulation of genes encoding enzymes of the lignin biosynthesis and associated methylation pathways in fast growing individuals. Lignin analysis of wood samples confirmed the content and quality predicted by the transcript levels measured on the microarrays. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of transcript levels of lignin-related genes showed that their mRNA abundance is regulated by two genetic loci, demonstrating coordinated genetic control over lignin biosynthesis. These two loci colocalize with QTLs for growth, suggesting that the same genomic regions are regulating growth, and lignin content and composition in the progeny. Genetic mapping of the lignin genes revealed that most of the key biosynthetic genes do not colocalize with growth and transcript level QTLs, with the exception of the locus encoding the enzyme S-adenosylmethionine synthase. This study illustrates the power of integrating quantitative analysis of gene expression data and genetic map information to discover genetic and metabolic networks regulating complex biological traits. PMID:15299141

  19. Field performance and bioenergy characteristics of four commercial eucalyptus grandis cultivars in Florida

    Treesearch

    Donald L. Rockwood; Bijay Tamang; Matias Kirst; JY Zhu

    2012-01-01

    For several methods utilizing woody biomass for energy (Rockwood and others 2008), one of the challenges is the large, continuous fuel supply required. For example, proposed biomass plants in Florida may each require one million tons of biomass/year. When supplies of forest residues and urban wood wastes are limited, short rotation woody crops (SRWC) are a viable...

  20. Genome-wide mapping of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation in Eucalyptus grandis developing xylem

    Treesearch

    Steven G Hussey; Eshchar Mizrachi; Andrew Groover; Dave K Berger; Alexander A Myburg

    2015-01-01

    Background: Histone modifications play an integral role in plant development, but have been poorly studied inwoody plants. Investigating chromatin organization in wood-forming tissue and its role in regulating gene expression allows us to understand the mechanisms underlying cellular differentiation during xylogenesis (wood...

  1. Dominant clonal Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla trees use water more efficiently

    Treesearch

    Marina Shinkai Gentil Otto; Robert M. Hubbard; Dan Binkley; Jose Luis Stape

    2014-01-01

    Wood growth in trees depends on the acquisition of resources, and can vary with tree size leading to a variety of stand dynamics. Typically, larger trees obtain more resources and grow faster than smaller trees, but while light has been addressed more often, few case studies have investigated the contributions of water use and water use efficiency (WUE) within stands...

  2. Fertilization with phosphorus increases soil nitrogen absorption in young plants of Eucalyptus grandis.

    Treesearch

    Corina Graciano; Juan F. Goya; Jorge L. Frangi; Juan J. Guiamet

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are the nutrients that most commonly limit tree growth. Interactions between fertilization and soil type are well known, and in soils with moderate or low N availability, N-fertilization is frequently recommended to improve tree nutrition. The aim of this paper was to analyze how different doses of P and N applied in three different...

  3. Comprehensive genetic dissection of wood properties in a widely-grown tropical tree: Eucalyptus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Eucalyptus is an important genus in industrial plantations throughout the world and is grown for use as timber, pulp, paper and charcoal. Several breeding programmes have been launched worldwide to concomitantly improve growth performance and wood properties (WPs). In this study, an interspecific cross between Eucalyptus urophylla and E. grandis was used to identify major genomic regions (Quantitative Trait Loci, QTL) controlling the variability of WPs. Results Linkage maps were generated for both parent species. A total of 117 QTLs were detected for a series of wood and end-use related traits, including chemical, technological, physical, mechanical and anatomical properties. The QTLs were mainly clustered into five linkage groups. In terms of distribution of QTL effects, our result agrees with the typical L-shape reported in most QTL studies, i.e. most WP QTLs had limited effects and only a few (13) had major effects (phenotypic variance explained > 15%). The co-locations of QTLs for different WPs as well as QTLs and candidate genes are discussed in terms of phenotypic correlations between traits, and of the function of the candidate genes. The major wood property QTL harbours a gene encoding a Cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR), a structural enzyme of the monolignol-specific biosynthesis pathway. Conclusions Given the number of traits analysed, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of the genetic architecture of wood properties in this Eucalyptus full-sib pedigree. At the dawn of Eucalyptus genome sequence, it will provide a framework to identify the nature of genes underlying these important quantitative traits. PMID:21651758

  4. Reference genes for the normalization of gene expression in eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Luisa Abruzzi; Breton, Michèle Claire; Bastolla, Fernanda Macedo; Camargo, Sandro da Silva; Margis, Rogério; Frazzon, Jeverson; Pasquali, Giancarlo

    2012-02-01

    Gene expression analysis is increasingly important in biological research, with reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) becoming the method of choice for high-throughput and accurate expression profiling of selected genes. Considering the increased sensitivity, reproducibility and large dynamic range of this method, the requirements for proper internal reference gene(s) for relative expression normalization have become much more stringent. Given the increasing interest in the functional genomics of Eucalyptus, we sought to identify and experimentally verify suitable reference genes for the normalization of gene expression associated with the flower, leaf and xylem of six species of the genus. We selected 50 genes that exhibited the least variation in microarrays of E. grandis leaves and xylem, and E. globulus xylem. We further performed the experimental analysis using RT-qPCR for six Eucalyptus species and three different organs/tissues. Employing algorithms geNorm and NormFinder, we assessed the gene expression stability of eight candidate new reference genes. Classic housekeeping genes were also included in the analysis. The stability profiles of candidate genes were in very good agreement. PCR results proved that the expression of novel Eucons04, Eucons08 and Eucons21 genes was the most stable in all Eucalyptus organs/tissues and species studied. We showed that the combination of these genes as references when measuring the expression of a test gene results in more reliable patterns of expression than traditional housekeeping genes. Hence, novel Eucons04, Eucons08 and Eucons21 genes are the best suitable references for the normalization of expression studies in the Eucalyptus genus.

  5. A novel genome-wide microsatellite resource for species of Eucalyptus with linkage-to-physical correspondence on the reference genome sequence.

    PubMed

    Grattapaglia, Dario; Mamani, Eva M C; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B; Faria, Danielle A

    2015-03-01

    Keystone species in their native ranges, eucalypts, are ecologically and genetically very diverse, growing naturally along extensive latitudinal and altitudinal ranges and variable environments. Besides their ecological importance, eucalypts are also the most widely planted trees for sustainable forestry in the world. We report the development of a novel collection of 535 microsatellites for species of Eucalyptus, 494 designed from ESTs and 41 from genomic libraries. A selected subset of 223 was evaluated for individual identification, parentage testing, and ancestral information content in the two most extensively studied species, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus globulus. Microsatellites showed high transferability and overlapping allele size range, suggesting they have arisen still in their common ancestor and confirming the extensive genome conservation between these two species. A consensus linkage map with 437 microsatellites, the most comprehensive microsatellite-only genetic map for Eucalyptus, was built by assembling segregation data from three mapping populations and anchored to the Eucalyptus genome. An overall colinearity between recombination-based and physical positioning of 84% of the mapped microsatellites was observed, with some ordering discrepancies and sporadic locus duplications, consistent with the recently described whole genome duplication events in Eucalyptus. The linkage map covered 95.2% of the 605.8-Mbp assembled genome sequence, placing one microsatellite every 1.55 Mbp on average, and an overall estimate of physical to recombination distance of 618 kbp/cM. The genetic parameters estimates together with linkage and physical position data for this large set of microsatellites should assist marker choice for genome-wide population genetics and comparative mapping in Eucalyptus.

  6. Eucalyptus as a landscape tree

    Treesearch

    W. Douglas Hamilton

    1983-01-01

    Ninety-two species of Eucalyptus were evaluated at the University of California re- search station in San Jose. The purpose: to find acceptable new street and park trees. Growth rates and horticultural characteristics were noted. Forty-three species were studied in locations statewide to evaluate site adaptation and landscape usefulness; flooded, cold, dry, saline....

  7. Effect of overexpression of radish plasma membrane aquaporins on water-use efficiency, photosynthesis and growth of Eucalyptus trees.

    PubMed

    Tsuchihira, Ayako; Hanba, Yuko T; Kato, Naoki; Doi, Tomonori; Kawazu, Tetsu; Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2010-03-01

    Eucalyptus is a diverse genus of flowering trees with more than 700 genotypic species which are mostly native to Australia. We selected 19 wild provenances of Eucalyptus camaldulensis grown in Australia, compared their growth rate and drought tolerance and determined the protein levels of plasma membrane aquaporins (PIPs). There was a positive relationship between the drought tolerance and PIP content. PIPs are divided into two subgroups, PIP1 and PIP2. Most members of the PIP2 subgroup, but not PIP1 subgroup, exhibit water channel activity. We introduced two radish (Raphanus sativus L.) PIPs, RsPIP1;1 and RsPIP2;1, into a hybrid clone of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla to examine the effect of their overexpression. Expression of these genes was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the protein accumulation of RsPIP2;1 by immunoblotting. Drought tolerance was not enhanced in transgenic lines of either gene. However, one transgenic line expressing RsPIP2;1 showed high photosynthesis activity and growth rate under normal growth conditions. For RsPIP1;1-transformed lines, the RsPIP1;1 protein did not accumulate, and the abundance of endogenous PIP1 and PIP2 was decreased. The endogenous PIP1 and PIP2 genes were suppressed in these lines. Therefore, the decreased levels of PIP1 and PIP2 protein may be due to co-suppression of the PIP genes and/or high turnover of PIP proteins. RsPIP1;1-expressing lines gave low values of photosynthesis and growth compared with the control. These results suggest that down-regulation of PIP1 and PIP2 causes serious damage and that up-regulation of PIP2 improves the photosynthetic activity and growth of Eucalyptus trees.

  8. Eucalyptus hairy roots, a fast, efficient and versatile tool to explore function and expression of genes involved in wood formation.

    PubMed

    Plasencia, Anna; Soler, Marçal; Dupas, Annabelle; Ladouce, Nathalie; Silva-Martins, Guilherme; Martinez, Yves; Lapierre, Catherine; Franche, Claudine; Truchet, Isabelle; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2016-06-01

    Eucalyptus are of tremendous economic importance being the most planted hardwoods worldwide for pulp and paper, timber and bioenergy. The recent release of the Eucalyptus grandis genome sequence pointed out many new candidate genes potentially involved in secondary growth, wood formation or lineage-specific biosynthetic pathways. Their functional characterization is, however, hindered by the tedious, time-consuming and inefficient transformation systems available hitherto for eucalypts. To overcome this limitation, we developed a fast, reliable and efficient protocol to obtain and easily detect co-transformed E. grandis hairy roots using fluorescent markers, with an average efficiency of 62%. We set up conditions both to cultivate excised roots in vitro and to harden composite plants and verified that hairy root morphology and vascular system anatomy were similar to wild-type ones. We further demonstrated that co-transformed hairy roots are suitable for medium-throughput functional studies enabling, for instance, protein subcellular localization, gene expression patterns through RT-qPCR and promoter expression, as well as the modulation of endogenous gene expression. Down-regulation of the Eucalyptus cinnamoyl-CoA reductase1 (EgCCR1) gene, encoding a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis, led to transgenic roots with reduced lignin levels and thinner cell walls. This gene was used as a proof of concept to demonstrate that the function of genes involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis and wood formation can be elucidated in transgenic hairy roots using histochemical, transcriptomic and biochemical approaches. The method described here is timely because it will accelerate gene mining of the genome for both basic research and industry purposes.

  9. Comparative transcriptional analysis provides new insights into the molecular basis of adventitious rooting recalcitrance in Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Márcia Rodrigues; de Bastiani, Daniela; Gaeta, Marcos Letaif; de Araújo Mariath, Jorge Ernesto; de Costa, Fernanda; Retallick, Jeffrey; Nolan, Lana; Tai, Helen H; Strömvik, Martina V; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano

    2015-10-01

    Adventitious rooting (AR) is essential in clonal propagation. Eucalyptus globulus is relevant for the cellulose industry due to its low lignin content. However, several useful clones are recalcitrant to AR, often requiring exogenous auxin, adding cost to clonal garden operations. In contrast, E. grandis is an easy-to-root species widely used in clonal forestry. Aiming at contributing to the elucidation of recalcitrance causes in E. globulus, we conducted a comparative analysis with these two species differing in rooting competence, combining gene expression and anatomical techniques. Recalcitrance in E. globulus is reversed by exposure to exogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which promotes important gene expression modifications in both species. The endogenous content of IAA was significantly higher in E. grandis than in E. globulus. The cambium zone was identified as an active area during AR, concentrating the first cell divisions. Immunolocalization assay showed auxin accumulation in cambium cells, further indicating the importance of this region for rooting. We then performed a cambium zone-specific gene expression analysis during AR using laser microdissection. The results indicated that the auxin-related genes TOPLESS and IAA12/BODENLOS and the cytokinin-related gene ARR1may act as negative regulators of AR, possibly contributing to the hard-to-root phenotype of E. globulus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mixing Eucalyptus and Acacia trees leads to fine root over-yielding and vertical segregation between species.

    PubMed

    Laclau, Jean-Paul; Nouvellon, Yann; Reine, Caroline; Gonçalves, José Leonardo de Moraes; Krushe, Alex Vladimir; Jourdan, Christophe; le Maire, Guerric; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre

    2013-07-01

    The consequences of diversity on belowground processes are still poorly known in tropical forests. The distributions of very fine roots (diameter <1 mm) and fine roots (diameter <3 mm) were studied in a randomized block design close to the harvest age of fast-growing plantations. A replacement series was set up in Brazil with mono-specific Eucalyptus grandis (100E) and Acacia mangium (100A) stands and a mixture with the same stocking density and 50% of each species (50A:50E). The total fine root (FR) biomass down to a depth of 2 m was about 27% higher in 50A:50E than in 100A and 100E. Fine root over-yielding in 50A:50E resulted from a 72 % rise in E. grandis fine root biomass per tree relative to 100E, whereas A. mangium FR biomass per tree was 17% lower than in 100A. Mixing A. mangium with E. grandis trees led to a drop in A. mangium FR biomass in the upper 50 cm of soil relative to 100A, partially balanced by a rise in deep soil layers. Our results highlight similarities in the effects of directional resources on leaf and FR distributions in the mixture, with A. mangium leaves below the E. grandis canopy and a low density of A. mangium fine roots in the resource-rich soil layers relative to monospecific stands. The vertical segregation of resource-absorbing organs did not lead to niche complementarity expected to increase the total biomass production.

  11. Lost Hills Subsidence Animation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-06

    This frame from an animation depicts ground subsidence resulting from the extraction of oil. The oil fields are located near the community of Lost Hills, California, approximately 100 km northwest of Bakersfield.

  12. Red Hill Updates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This and other periodic updates are intended to keep the public informed on major progress being made to protect public health and the environment at the Red Hill Underground Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii.

  13. Meet Janis Hill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Jane

    1980-01-01

    Janis Hill, an itinerant physical education teacher in Florida, is interviewed about her job, which sometimes involves work with emotionally disturbed or learning disabled students. The importance of teaching children to work together, have fun, and play is stressed. (CJ)

  14. Dunes Streaming through Hills

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-26

    This dramatic image observed by NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows dark rippled bodies of sand, sometimes in the form of dunes, streaming through Ganges Chasma. The floor of the canyon is covered by hills and mesas.

  15. Breeding Eucalyptus for disease resistance

    Treesearch

    Edival A.V. Zauza; Acelino Couto Alfenas; Lúcio Mauro da Silva Guimarães; João Flávio da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus plantations cover about 1.5 percent of the agricultural area in Brazil, and contribute to 4 percent of GDP and 3 percent in exports of forest products. Technological and research advances in silviculture and genetic improvement have increased productivity up to 80 m³ of wood/ha/year, with an average of 35 to 45 m³/ha/year. The greatest...

  16. Integrating genomics into Eucalyptus breeding.

    PubMed

    Grattapaglia, Dario

    2004-09-30

    The advent of high throughput genomic technologies has opened new perspectives in the speed, scale and detail with which one can investigate genes, genomes and complex traits in Eucalyptus species. A genomic approach to a more detailed understanding of important metabolic and physiological processes, which affect tree growth and stress resistance, and the identification of genes and their allelic variants, which determine the major chemical and physical features of wood properties, should eventually lead to new opportunities for directed genetic modifications of far-reaching economic impact in forest industry. It should be kept in mind, however, that basic breeding strategies, coupled with sophisticated quantitative methods, breeder's experience and breeder's intuition, will continue to generate significant genetic gains and have a clear measurable impact on production forestry. Even with a much more global view of genetic processes, genomics will only succeed in contributing to the development of improved industrial forests if it is strongly interconnected with intensive fieldwork and creative breeding. Integrated genomic projects involving multi-species expressed sequence tag sequencing and quantitative trait locus detection, single nucleotide polymorphism discovery for association mapping, and the development of a gene-rich physical map for the Eucalyptus genome will quickly move toward linking phenotypes to genes that control the wood formation processes that define industrial-level traits. Exploiting the full power of the superior natural phenotypic variation in wood properties found in Eucalyptus genetic resources will undoubtedly be a key factor to reach this goal.

  17. Photoacoustics as a tool for the diagnosis of radicular stress: Measurements in eucalyptus seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barja, P. R.; Mansanares, A. M.; da Silva, E. C.; Alves, P. L. C. A.

    2003-01-01

    In reforesting companies (cellulose industry), eucalyptus is usually cultivated in small plastic containers (50 mL). As seedlings remain for about 120 days in these containers—until transplantation—their roots become space restricted, with consequent limitations in water and nutrient absorption. These restrictions may lead to plant stress, decreasing productivity. In this work, we used the photoacoustic technique to evaluate the photosynthetic activity of Eucalyptus grandis, E. urophylla and E. urograndis seedlings subjected to this limited space availability, seeking a correlation with morphological parameters and fluorescence measurements in these seedlings. Photoacoustic, fluorescence, and morphological analysis were conducted every 15 days, from 45 to 120 days after sowing. Fluorescence and photosynthetic rate were evaluated in vivo and in situ, the latter one using the open photoacoustic technique. Data show that root dry matter diminished markedly at 90 and 120 days after sowing; this behavior showed a high correlation with the gas exchange component of the photoacoustic signal, as well as with the fluorescence ratio Fv/Fm. These results indicate that the soil volume of the container becomes insufficient for the roots after 90 days, probably leading to a nutritional deficiency in plants, which explains the decrease observed in the photosynthetic rate of seedlings.

  18. Sensitivity of Aedes aegypti adults (Diptera: Culicidae) to the vapors of Eucalyptus essential oils.

    PubMed

    Lucia, Alejandro; Licastro, Susana; Zerba, Eduardo; Gonzalez Audino, Paola; Masuh, Hector

    2009-12-01

    Vapors of essential oils extracted from various species of Eucalyptus (E. gunnii, E. tereticornis, E. grandis, E. camaldulensis, E. dunnii, E. cinerea, E. saligna, E. sideroxylon, E. globulus ssp. globulus, E. globulus ssp. maidenii, E. viminalis and the hybrids E. grandisxE. tereticornis and E. grandisxE. camaldulensis) and their major components were found to be toxic to Aedes aegypti adults, the yellow fever mosquito. An aliquot of each oil was placed in a cylindrical test chamber and the number of knocked-down mosquitoes was recorded as function of time. Knockdown time 50% was then calculated. Results showed that E. viminalis had the fastest knockdown time at of 4.2 min, on the same order as dichlorvos, a standard knockdown agent. A correlation was observed between the content of 1,8-cineole in the Eucalyptus essential oils and the corresponding toxic effect. The correlation between KT(50) values and calculated vapor pressures of the essential oil components showed that the fumigant activity of simple organic compounds in insects is correlated with their volatility.

  19. Creating a database on Eucalyptus for California

    Treesearch

    Miles L. Merwin

    1983-01-01

    While public agencies, nurserymen and landscapers are receiving more inquiries about individual eucalyptus species for California plantings, little information is readily available to them on the potential usefulness or adaptability of these species. A survey of eucalyptus species was undertaken to collect information on their performance both in California trials,...

  20. Aggregate stability in soils cultivated with eucalyptus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eucalyptus cultivation has increased in many Brazilian regions. In order to recommend good management practices, it is necessary to understand changes in soil properties where eucalyptus is planted. Aggregate stability analyses have proved to be a useful tool to measure soil effects caused by change...

  1. Evaluation of Tectona grandis leaves for wound healing activity.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Mrityunjoy; Nayeem, Naira; Kamath, Jagadish V; Asad, Mohammed

    2007-04-01

    The frontal leaves of Tectona grandis (Verabinaceae) are widely used in the folklore for the treatment of various kinds of wounds, especially burn wound. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of hydrochloric extract of Tectona grandis on experimentally induced wounds in rats and compare the effects observed with a known wound healing agent, Aloe vera. The models selected were excision wound, incision wound, burn wound and dead space wound. A suitable gel formulation was selected for the application using cellophane membrane penetration. In the excision wound and burn wound models, animals treated with Tectona grandis leaf extract showed significant reduction in period of epithelisation and wound contraction 50%. In the incision wound model, a significant increase in the breaking strength was observed. Tectona grandis leaf extract treatment orally produced a significant increase in the breaking strength, dry weight and hydroxyproline content of the granulation tissue in dead space wound. It was concluded that Tectona grandis leaf extract applied topically (5% and 10% gel formulation) or administered orally (250 mg and 500 mg/kg body weight) possesses wound healing activity.

  2. FT overexpression induces precocious flowering and normal reproductive development in Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Klocko, Amy L; Ma, Cathleen; Robertson, Sarah; Esfandiari, Elahe; Nilsson, Ove; Strauss, Steven H

    2016-02-01

    Eucalyptus trees are among the most important species for industrial forestry worldwide. However, as with most forest trees, flowering does not begin for one to several years after planting which can limit the rate of conventional and molecular breeding. To speed flowering, we transformed a Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla hybrid (SP7) with a variety of constructs that enable overexpression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). We found that FT expression led to very early flowering, with events showing floral buds within 1-5 months of transplanting to the glasshouse. The most rapid flowering was observed when the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was used to drive the Arabidopsis thaliana FT gene (AtFT). Early flowering was also observed with AtFT overexpression from a 409S ubiquitin promoter and under heat induction conditions with Populus trichocarpa FT1 (PtFT1) under control of a heat-shock promoter. Early flowering trees grew robustly, but exhibited a highly branched phenotype compared to the strong apical dominance of nonflowering transgenic and control trees. AtFT-induced flowers were morphologically normal and produced viable pollen grains and viable self- and cross-pollinated seeds. Many self-seedlings inherited AtFT and flowered early. FT overexpression-induced flowering in Eucalyptus may be a valuable means for accelerating breeding and genetic studies as the transgene can be easily segregated away in progeny, restoring normal growth and form. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Essential oil composition of Eucalyptus microtheca and Eucalyptus viminalis

    PubMed Central

    Maghsoodlou, Malek Taher; Kazemipoor, Nasrin; Valizadeh, Jafar; Falak Nezhad Seifi, Mohsen; Rahneshan, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Eucalyptus (Fam. Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant and various Eucalyptus species possess potent pharmacological actions against diabetes, hepatotoxicity, and inflammation. This study aims to investigate essential oil composition from leaves and flowers of E. microtheca and E. viminalis leaves growing in the Southeast of Iran. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of these plants were collected from Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran in 2013. After drying the plant materials in the shade, the chemical composition of the essential oils was obtained by hydro-distillation method using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. Results: In the essential oil of E. microtheca leaves, 101 compounds representing 100%, were identified. Among them, α-phellandrene (16.487%), aromadendrene (12.773%), α-pinene (6.752%), globulol (5.997%), ledene (5.665%), P-cymen (5.251%), and β-pinene (5.006%) were the major constituents. In the oil of E. microtheca flowers, 88 compounds representing 100%, were identified in which α-pinene (16.246%), O-cymen (13.522%), β-pinene (11.082%), aromadendrene (7.444%), α-phellandrene (7.006%), globulol (5.419%), and 9-octadecenamide (5.414%) were the major components. Sixty six compounds representing 100% were identified in the oil of E. viminalis leaves. The major compounds were 1, 8-cineole (57.757%), α-pinene (13.379%), limonene (5.443%), and globulol (3.054%). Conclusion: The results showed the essential oils from the aerial parts of Eucalyptus species are a cheap source for the commercial isolation of α-phellandrene, α-pinene, and 1, 8-cineole compounds to be used in medicinal and food products. Furthermore, these plants could be an alternative source of insecticide agents. PMID:26693411

  4. Bacon Hill Substation. Bacon Hill, Cecil Co., MD. Sec. 1201, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bacon Hill Substation. Bacon Hill, Cecil Co., MD. Sec. 1201, MP 48.50. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  5. Genomic Characterization of DArT Markers Based on High-Density Linkage Analysis and Physical Mapping to the Eucalyptus Genome

    PubMed Central

    Petroli, César D.; Sansaloni, Carolina P.; Carling, Jason; Steane, Dorothy A.; Vaillancourt, René E.; Myburg, Alexander A.; da Silva, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas, Georgios Joannis; Kilian, Andrzej; Grattapaglia, Dario

    2012-01-01

    Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) provides a robust, high throughput, cost-effective method to query thousands of sequence polymorphisms in a single assay. Despite the extensive use of this genotyping platform for numerous plant species, little is known regarding the sequence attributes and genome-wide distribution of DArT markers. We investigated the genomic properties of the 7,680 DArT marker probes of a Eucalyptus array, by sequencing them, constructing a high density linkage map and carrying out detailed physical mapping analyses to the Eucalyptus grandis reference genome. A consensus linkage map with 2,274 DArT markers anchored to 210 microsatellites and a framework map, with improved support for ordering, displayed extensive collinearity with the genome sequence. Only 1.4 Mbp of the 75 Mbp of still unplaced scaffold sequence was captured by 45 linkage mapped but physically unaligned markers to the 11 main Eucalyptus pseudochromosomes, providing compelling evidence for the quality and completeness of the current Eucalyptus genome assembly. A highly significant correspondence was found between the locations of DArT markers and predicted gene models, while most of the 89 DArT probes unaligned to the genome correspond to sequences likely absent in E. grandis, consistent with the pan-genomic feature of this multi-Eucalyptus species DArT array. These comprehensive linkage-to-physical mapping analyses provide novel data regarding the genomic attributes of DArT markers in plant genomes in general and for Eucalyptus in particular. DArT markers preferentially target the gene space and display a largely homogeneous distribution across the genome, thereby providing superb coverage for mapping and genome-wide applications in breeding and diversity studies. Data reported on these ubiquitous properties of DArT markers will be particularly valuable to researchers working on less-studied crop species who already count on DArT genotyping arrays but for which no reference

  6. Spectral characterization of eucalyptus wood.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela; Popescu, Maria-Cristina; Singurel, Ghita; Vasile, Cornelia; Argyropoulos, Dimitris S; Willfor, Stefan

    2007-11-01

    The main difficulties in wood and pulp analyses arise principally from their numerous components with different chemical structures. Therefore, the basic problem in a specific analytical procedure may be the selective separation of the main carbohydrate-derived components from lignin due to their chemical association and structural coexistence. The processing of the wood determines some structural modification in its components depending on the type of wood and the applied procedure. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry and X-ray diffraction have been applied to analyze Eucalyptus g. wood chips and unbleached and chlorite-bleached pulp. The differences between samples have been established by examination of the spectra of the fractions obtained by successive extraction (acetone extractives, acetone free extractive samples, hemicelluloses, and lignins) by evaluating the derivative spectra, band deconvolution, etc. The energy and the hydrogen bonding distance have been evaluated. The relationship between spectral characteristics and sample composition has been established, as well as the variation of the degree of crystallinity after pulping and bleaching. The integral absorption and lignin/carbohydrate ratios calculated from FT-IR spectra of the IR bands assigned to different bending or stretching in lignin groups are stronger in the spectrum of eucalyptus chips than those from brown stock (BS) pulp spectra because of the smaller total amount of lignin in the latter. FT-IR spectra clearly show that after chlorite bleaching the structure of the wood components is partially modified or removed. Along with FT-IR data, the X-ray results confirmed the low content of lignin in the pulp samples by increasing the calculated values of the crystalline parameters. It was concluded that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a quick method to differentiate Eucalyptus globulus samples.

  7. Dual RNA-Sequencing of Eucalyptus nitens during Phytophthora cinnamomi Challenge Reveals Pathogen and Host Factors Influencing Compatibility

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Febé E.; Shuey, Louise S.; Naidoo, Sitha; Mamni, Thandekile; Berger, Dave K.; Myburg, Alexander A.; van den Berg, Noëlani; Naidoo, Sanushka

    2016-01-01

    Damage caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands remains an important concern on forest tree species. The pathogen causes root and collar rot, stem cankers, and dieback of various economically important Eucalyptus spp. In South Africa, susceptible cold tolerant Eucalyptus plantations have been affected by various Phytophthora spp. with P. cinnamomi considered one of the most virulent. The molecular basis of this compatible interaction is poorly understood. In this study, susceptible Eucalyptus nitens plants were stem inoculated with P. cinnamomi and tissue was harvested five days post inoculation. Dual RNA-sequencing, a technique which allows the concurrent detection of both pathogen and host transcripts during infection, was performed. Approximately 1% of the reads mapped to the draft genome of P. cinnamomi while 78% of the reads mapped to the Eucalyptus grandis genome. The highest expressed P. cinnamomi gene in planta was a putative crinkler effector (CRN1). Phylogenetic analysis indicated the high similarity of this P. cinnamomi CRN1 to that of Phytophthora infestans. Some CRN effectors are known to target host nuclei to suppress defense. In the host, over 1400 genes were significantly differentially expressed in comparison to mock inoculated trees, including suites of pathogenesis related (PR) genes. In particular, a PR-9 peroxidase gene with a high similarity to a Carica papaya PR-9 ortholog previously shown to be suppressed upon infection by Phytophthora palmivora was down-regulated two-fold. This PR-9 gene may represent a cross-species effector target during P. cinnamomi infection. This study identified pathogenicity factors, potential manipulation targets, and attempted host defense mechanisms activated by E. nitens that contributed to the susceptible outcome of the interaction. PMID:26973660

  8. A Hill Divided

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-07

    This image captured by NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows an elevated group of hills east of Phlegra Montes. This highland is divided by a linear channel that is most likely of tectonic origin. Orbit Number: 61195 Latitude: 31.5513 Longitude: 167.142 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2015-09-30 13:26 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20109

  9. Jack Hills, Australia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-02

    This image acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft, shows the oldest material on Earth which has yet been dated by man is a zircon mineral of 4.4 billion years old from a sedimentary gneiss in the Jack Hills of the Narre Gneiss Terrane of Australia.

  10. Chocolate Hills Rock

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-16

    This false-color image, taken by the panoramic camera on NASA rover Opportunity, shows the rock Chocolate Hills, perched on the rim of the 10-meter 33-foot wide Concepcion crater. This rock has a thick, dark-colored coating resembling chocolate.

  11. Eucalyptus globulus (Eucalyptus) Treatment of Candidiasis in Normal and Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bokaeian, Mohammad; Nakhaee, Alireza; Moodi, Bita; Ali Khazaei, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    Background: The leaves of Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus) are used for treatment of diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of eucalyptus in treatment of established systemic infection with Candida albicans in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Sixty normoglycemic male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 g, were selected and randomly divided into six groups (n= 10): normal control, control + C. albicans, control + eucalyptus + C. albicans, diabetic control, diabetic + C. albicans, diabetic + eucalyptus + C. albicans. Diabetes was induced after a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight) and eucalyptus was added to the diet (62.5 g/kg) and drinking water (2.5 g/L) of treated animals for 4 weeks. The concerned groups were inoculated with C. albicans 15 days after diabetes induction. At the end of one month experiment, fasted rats were killed by cervical decapitation. Blood was collected from neck vein for estimation of glucose. C. albicans concentrations were estimated in liver and kidneys using serial dilution culture of tissue homogenates. Results: Eucalyptus administration significantly improved the hyperglycemia, polydipsia, polyphagia, and it also compensated weight loss of diabetic rats (P<0.05). Moreover, eucalyptus caused a significant reduction in C. albicans concentration in liver and kidney homogenates (P<0.01). Conclusion: The results revealed that eucalyptus improves Candidia infection in normal and diabetic rats that in some ways validates the traditional use of this plant in treatment of diabetic patients. PMID:21079663

  12. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto."

  13. Development and Characterization of Cassia grandis and Bixa orellana Nanoformulations.

    PubMed

    Prada, Ariadna L; Bitencourt, Antônio P R; Amado, Jesús R R; Cruz, Rodrigo A S; Carvalho, José C T; Fernandes, Caio P

    2016-01-01

    Cassia grandis and Bixa orellana are important plant species with folk use and great potential for phytopharmaceuticals. Nanodispersions are disperse systems of insoluble or immiscible substances in a liquid medium that may be prepared with or without coating polymers. To our knowledge, no studies were carried in order to achieve coating-polymer free nanoformulations using B. orellana extract or any C. grandis-based nanoformulations. Thus, on the present study we aimed to develop C. grandis nanoformulations using three different coating polymers (Eudragit® L 100 55, PEG 4000 and Kollicoat®), while B. orellana nanodispersions were obtained using different surfactants (polysorbate 80, polysorbate 20, polyethylene glycol 400 monooleate, polyethylene glycol 600 monooleate, polyethylene glycol 400 dioleate and polyethylene glycol 600 dioleate) as coating polymer-free nanoformulations. Characterization of nanoformulations was performed by different parameters, including particle size, polydispersity index and zeta-potential. Our results suggested that some optimal nanoformulations were obtained for both plant species. Moreover, possible stable behavior was observed during storage period for C. grandis (30 days) and B. orellana (21 days). On this context, the present study contributes to nanobiotechnology development of phytopharmaceuticals, allowing achievement of novel nano-delivery systems with two important folk medicinal plant extracts and making them potential products for innovative phytopharmaceuticals.

  14. Southern California trial plantings of Eucalyptus

    Treesearch

    Paul W. Moore

    1983-01-01

    A trial planting to compare the biomass production of 9 tree species was established in May 1979. Species compared were Acacia melanoxylon, Casuarina cunninghamiana, Casuarina equisitifolia, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. dalrympleana, E...

  15. Phenotypic plasticity of growth trajectory and ontogenic allometry in response to density for eucalyptus hybrid clones and families.

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Jean-Marc; Vigneron, Philippe; Saya, Aubin

    2005-10-01

    and Aims Response to density is a crucial aspect of the ecology of trees in forests and plantations. Few studies have investigated the genetics of plasticity in response to density for growth traits such as height and circumference through development. Two experiments were carried out in the field, the first with full-sib families of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis hybrids, and the second with clones of E. tereticornis x E. grandis hybrids planted across a range of densities (625, 1111 and 2500 trees ha-1). Height, circumference and stem taper were measured through development in both experiments. Variance components were estimated and a repeated measure approach for plasticity and three different methods were used to compare the variance-covariance matrix across densities. Genetic variance was significantly different from zero but the density x genotype interaction was significant only for clone experiments at the adult stage. Significant plasticity for three traits in both experiments was found. In the clone experiments, a significant clone x time x density interaction was found, suggesting that plasticity for growth and stem form is under genetic control. In both experiments, density did not affect environmental correlation, which remained high throughout tree development. The impact of density on genetic correlation was marked in the clone experiment, with a reduced value at lower density, but was not observed in the family trial. The differences between clones and family are mainly explained by the distribution of genetic variation within and among genotypes. The results suggest that plasticity for growth traits and form of tropical Eucalyptus species is under genetic control and that the environment changes genetic co-variation through ontogeny. The findings confirm that a tree population with a narrow genetic basis (represented by clones) is sensitive to a changing environment, whereas a population with a broader genetic basis (full-sib family here

  16. Phenotypic Plasticity of Growth Trajectory and Ontogenic Allometry in Response to Density for Eucalyptus Hybrid Clones and Families

    PubMed Central

    BOUVET, JEAN-MARC; VIGNERON, PHILIPPE; SAYA, AUBIN

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Response to density is a crucial aspect of the ecology of trees in forests and plantations. Few studies have investigated the genetics of plasticity in response to density for growth traits such as height and circumference through development. • Methods Two experiments were carried out in the field, the first with full-sib families of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis hybrids, and the second with clones of E. tereticornis × E. grandis hybrids planted across a range of densities (625, 1111 and 2500 trees ha−1). Height, circumference and stem taper were measured through development in both experiments. Variance components were estimated and a repeated measure approach for plasticity and three different methods were used to compare the variance–covariance matrix across densities. • Key Results Genetic variance was significantly different from zero but the density × genotype interaction was significant only for clone experiments at the adult stage. Significant plasticity for three traits in both experiments was found. In the clone experiments, a significant clone × time × density interaction was found, suggesting that plasticity for growth and stem form is under genetic control. In both experiments, density did not affect environmental correlation, which remained high throughout tree development. The impact of density on genetic correlation was marked in the clone experiment, with a reduced value at lower density, but was not observed in the family trial. The differences between clones and family are mainly explained by the distribution of genetic variation within and among genotypes. • Conclusions The results suggest that plasticity for growth traits and form of tropical Eucalyptus species is under genetic control and that the environment changes genetic co-variation through ontogeny. The findings confirm that a tree population with a narrow genetic basis (represented by clones) is sensitive to a changing environment, whereas a

  17. Reference genes for high-throughput quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis of gene expression in organs and tissues of Eucalyptus grown in various environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Cassan-Wang, Hua; Soler, Marçal; Yu, Hong; Camargo, Eduardo Leal O; Carocha, Victor; Ladouce, Nathalie; Savelli, Bruno; Paiva, Jorge A P; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2012-12-01

    Interest in the genomics of Eucalyptus has skyrocketed thanks to the recent sequencing of the genome of Eucalyptus grandis and to a growing number of large-scale transcriptomic studies. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) is the method of choice for gene expression analysis and can now also be used as a high-throughput method. The selection of appropriate internal controls is becoming of utmost importance to ensure accurate expression results in Eucalyptus. To this end, we selected 21 candidate reference genes and used high-throughput microfluidic dynamic arrays to assess their expression among a large panel of developmental and environmental conditions with a special focus on wood-forming tissues. We analyzed the expression stability of these genes by using three distinct statistical algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder and ΔCt), and used principal component analysis to compare methods and rankings. We showed that the most stable genes identified depended not only on the panel of biological samples considered but also on the statistical method used. We then developed a comprehensive integration of the rankings generated by the three methods and identified the optimal reference genes for 17 distinct experimental sets covering 13 organs and tissues, as well as various developmental and environmental conditions. The expression patterns of Eucalyptus master genes EgMYB1 and EgMYB2 experimentally validated our selection. Our findings provide an important resource for the selection of appropriate reference genes for accurate and reliable normalization of gene expression data in the organs and tissues of Eucalyptus trees grown in a range of conditions including abiotic stresses.

  18. Effects of Planting Density on Transpiration, Stem Flow and Interception for Two Clones Differing in Drought Tolerance in a High Productivity Eucalyptus Plantation in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, R. M.; Hakemada, R.; Ferraz, S.

    2015-12-01

    Eucalypt plantations cover about 20 M hectares worldwide and expansion is expected to mainly occur in marginal growing areas where dry conditions may lead to water conflicts. One of the principal reasons for the expansion of Eucalyptus plantations is rapid wood growth but these forests also transpire large amounts of water. Genotype selection and planting density, are key factors regulating carbon and water tradeoffs at a stand scale, but few studies have examined these simultaneously especially in highly productive clonal plantations. Our goal in this study was to examine the effects of planting density on carbon and water interactions using a drought tolerant and drought sensitive eucalyptus clone. This work is part of a larger study (TECHS project - Tolerance of Eucalyptus Clones to Hydric and Thermal Stresses) and is located in a flat Oxisol in southeast of Brazil. A drought tolerant (E. grandis x E. camaldulensis (Grancam) and drought sensitive clone E. grandis x E. urophylla (Urograndis) were planted at four densities ranging from 600 to 3.000 stem ha-1. We measured transpiration using thermal heat dissipation probes, wood growth, canopy interception and stemflow during a full year (21 to 33 months old). Precipitation during the study period was 738 mm. Independently of genetics, growth increased with increasing density. Transpiration also increased with planting density and ranged from 515-595 mm at wider spacing to 735-978 mm at tighter spacing. Interception increased with planting density representing 18-22% of precipitation versus 13-14% in wider spacing while stem flow represented 2-5% in denser spacing and 1-2% at broader spacing. When density was higher than 1.250 and 1.750 stems ha-1 in Urograndis and Grancam clones, respectively, the water balance were negative. On a stand scale, results show both genetics and spacing can be used as silvicultural tools to better manage the tradeoff between wood growth and water consumption.

  19. Black Hills hydrology study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, D.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Black Hills area of western South Dakota is a valuable resource center. The area has attracted numerous residents and industries because of the availability of mineral, timber, agricultural, recreational, and water resources. The water resources of the area have been stressed locally by increasing population, periodic drought, and development of other resources. In response to residents' concerns about these stresses on the water resources, the Black Hills Hydrology Study was initiated in 1990 as a cooperative effort among the U.S. Geological Survey, the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District. West Dakota represents the various local and county cooperators. This report describes the purpose, scope, approach, and status of the study and presents highlights from the first project data report produced for the study.

  20. Hill and Depression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    21 November 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows exposures of north polar layered material -- perhaps composed of a mixture of dust and ice--in the form of a hill and an adjacent depression. The depression is in the lower half of the image and forms an oval shape at its lowest elevations. The hill is immediately above the depression (above the center of the image) and forms a similar pattern of arcuate bands. This scene is located near 85.7oN, 21.0oW. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  1. Hill In Deuteronilus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    28 December 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an eroded, rounded hill in the Deuteronilus Colles region of Mars, near 40.3oN, 338.8oW. The plains surrounding the hill have been pitted and modified by erosion. Similar pitting is common throughout the middle latitude regions of Mars. Some Mars science investigators have proposed that the pitted materials were ice-rich, and that sublimation of ice has created these textures. However, no similar landforms are found on Earth, thus there is no clear analog that would help scientists better understand the origin of these features. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the left/lower left.

  2. Nose Hill Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Vivian

    2008-01-01

    A Blackfoot woman, caught in the act of adultery, was condemned at this site to have her nose cut off as a penalty for her actions. People do not know her story. The tribe cast it on the ground. And so She, Nose Hill, was named. John Laurie Boulevard holds her mound in a circlet of asphalt, defining the map of her "terra incognita." She…

  3. Top of the hill.

    PubMed

    Lubell, Jennifer

    2009-08-24

    With healthcare reform the hottest topic in Washington (and at congressional town halls) this summer, it's no surprise President Barack Obama tops our 100 Most Powerful People in Healthcare ranking, joined by plenty of other power players on the Hill. "Clearly, the president is pushing hard on his goals to expand access to care, to reform health insurance and to control costs," says LifePoint's Bill Carpenter.

  4. Notting Hill Carnival 1988.

    PubMed

    Dalton, A M; Sharma, A; Touquet, R

    1989-06-01

    The injuries sustained at the 1988 Notting Hill Carnival were documented in order to suggest ways in which these might be reduced in future years. Sixty-four patients presented to six hospitals participating in the study over a 48-h period, most of whom were victims of accidents (63%) rather than assaults (37%). Many of the accidents were caused by motorized floats or by stepping on broken glass.

  5. Notting Hill Carnival 1988.

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, A M; Sharma, A; Touquet, R

    1989-01-01

    The injuries sustained at the 1988 Notting Hill Carnival were documented in order to suggest ways in which these might be reduced in future years. Sixty-four patients presented to six hospitals participating in the study over a 48-h period, most of whom were victims of accidents (63%) rather than assaults (37%). Many of the accidents were caused by motorized floats or by stepping on broken glass. PMID:2742669

  6. A Cone Shaped Hill

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-14

    There are many hills and knobs on Mars that reveal aspects of the local geologic history. Typically, the hills in the relatively-smooth region surrounding this image are flat topped erosional remnants or mesas with irregular or even polyhedral margins. These landforms suggest wide spread erosion of the soft or weakly-cemented sedimentary layers. This hill stands out because of is circular inverted-cone shape and apparent dark streaks along its flanks visible in lower resolution images. Close inspection from HiRISE reveals that the fine soils sloping down from the peak are intersected with radiating lines of rock and eroding rubble. This formation is similar to lava intrusions that form in the core of a volcano. As lava is squeezed up into a central conduit, radiating fractures fill with lava forming rock units called dikes. As the lava cools inside the ground and in the fractures, it forms into a harder rock that is more resistant to erosion. Later, as the surrounding sediments and soils erode, the resistant volcanic rock remains standing to tell a story of what happened underground long ago. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20003

  7. Different processing of CAPA and pyrokinin precursors in the giant mealworm beetle Zophobas atratus (Tenebrionidae) and the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis grandis (Curculionidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Capa and pyrokinin (pk) genes in hexapods share a common evolutionary origin. Using transcriptomics and peptidomics, we analyzed products of these genes in two beetles, the giant mealworm beetle (Zophobas atratus; Tenebrionidae) and the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis; Curculionidae). Our ...

  8. 'Columbia Hills' from Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This view of the 'Columbia Hills' in Gusev Crater was made by draping an image from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter (image E0300012 from that camera) over a digital elevation model that was derived from two Mars Orbiter Camera images (E0300012 and R0200357).

    This unique view is helpful to the rover team members as they plan the journey of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit to the base of the Columbia Hills and beyond. Spirit successfully completed a three-month primary mission, and so far remains healthy in an extended mission of bonus exploration. As of sol 135 (on May 21, 2004), Spirit sits approximately 680 meters (0.4 miles) away from its first target at the western base of the hills, a spot informally called 'West Spur.' The team estimates that Spirit will reach West Spur by sol 146 (June 1, 2004). Spirit will most likely remain there for about a week to study the outcrops and rocks associated with this location.

    When done there, Spirit will head approximately 620 meters (0.38 miles) to a higher-elevation location informally called 'Lookout Point.' Spirit might reach Lookout Point by around sol 165 (June 20, 2004). On the way, the rover will pass by and study ripple-shaped wind deposits that may reveal more information about wind processes on Mars.

    Lookout Point will provide a great vantage point for scientists to remotely study the inner basin area of the Columbia Hills. This basin contains a broad range of interesting geological targets including the informally named 'Home Plate' and other possible layered outcrops. These features suggest that the hills contain rock layers. Spirit might investigate the layers to determine whether they are water-deposited sedimentary rock.

    Once at Lookout Point, Spirit will acquire 360-degree panoramic images of the entire area to help define the rover's next steps. Assuming the rover stays healthy, Spirit will eventually drive down into the basin to get an up

  9. 'Columbia Hills' from Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This view of the 'Columbia Hills' in Gusev Crater was made by draping an image from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter (image E0300012 from that camera) over a digital elevation model that was derived from two Mars Orbiter Camera images (E0300012 and R0200357).

    This unique view is helpful to the rover team members as they plan the journey of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit to the base of the Columbia Hills and beyond. Spirit successfully completed a three-month primary mission, and so far remains healthy in an extended mission of bonus exploration. As of sol 135 (on May 21, 2004), Spirit sits approximately 680 meters (0.4 miles) away from its first target at the western base of the hills, a spot informally called 'West Spur.' The team estimates that Spirit will reach West Spur by sol 146 (June 1, 2004). Spirit will most likely remain there for about a week to study the outcrops and rocks associated with this location.

    When done there, Spirit will head approximately 620 meters (0.38 miles) to a higher-elevation location informally called 'Lookout Point.' Spirit might reach Lookout Point by around sol 165 (June 20, 2004). On the way, the rover will pass by and study ripple-shaped wind deposits that may reveal more information about wind processes on Mars.

    Lookout Point will provide a great vantage point for scientists to remotely study the inner basin area of the Columbia Hills. This basin contains a broad range of interesting geological targets including the informally named 'Home Plate' and other possible layered outcrops. These features suggest that the hills contain rock layers. Spirit might investigate the layers to determine whether they are water-deposited sedimentary rock.

    Once at Lookout Point, Spirit will acquire 360-degree panoramic images of the entire area to help define the rover's next steps. Assuming the rover stays healthy, Spirit will eventually drive down into the basin to get an up

  10. Propagation and planting of containerized Eucalyptus seedlings in Hawaii

    Treesearch

    Gerald A. Walters

    1983-01-01

    A container reforestation system has been researched and developed in Hawaii which results in consistently high survival and growth rates for eucalyptus seedlings. Mean survival of containerized saligna eucalyptus (Eucalyptus saligna Smith) seedlings is 90 percent with a standard deviation of 4. Because transplant shock is minimal, seedlings begin to...

  11. Physical and mechanical properties of saligna eucalyptus grown in Hawaii

    Treesearch

    C.C. Gerhards

    1965-01-01

    Physical and mechanical properties were determined for saligna eucalyptus (Eucalyptus saligna, Smith) grown in Hawaii. In comparison with wood of the same species grown in Australia, saligna eucalyptus grown in Hawaii was lower in density, shrinkage, and compressive strength parallel to grain; it was about equal in strength in bending and shear; and it was stiffer....

  12. A Capitol Hill Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Christal

    2006-04-01

    Relatively few women receive advanced degrees in the sciences, and relatively few scientists find their way into staff positions on Capitol Hill. Yet in this staffer's experience, I count more female science Ph.D.s in my circle of colleagues than I counted female classmates in physics graduate school. Why, at least anecdotally, does it seem that women with advanced degrees in science are more likely than their male peers to leave the laboratory and join the policy lobby? My observations are based on my own work in energy and environmental policy as a staffer in both the U.S. Senate and the U.S. House of Representatives.

  13. KISATCHIE HILLS WILDERNESS, LOUISIANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haley, Boyd R.; Ryan, George S.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Kisatchie Hills Wilderness, Louisiana indicated little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. There is insufficient data on oil and gas producing formations that underlie the area to evaluate the oil and gas resource potential. All the oil fields of Wilcox age are less than 40 acres in extent; therefore, closer spaced deeper wells might find additional fields in sediments of Wilcox age. Oil and natural gas have been produced from older reservoirs (Cretaceous age) to the northwest of the wilderness, and deeper wells might find oil and natural gas in sediments of Cretaceous and older age in the vicinity of the wilderness.

  14. Isolation and phytotoxicity of terpenes from Tectona grandis.

    PubMed

    Macías, Francisco A; Lacret, Rodney; Varela, Rosa M; Nogueiras, Clara; Molinillo, Jose M G

    2010-04-01

    A study was carried out on the allelopathic potential of four forest species, Tectona grandis, Aleurites fordii, Gliricidia sepium, and Maytenus buxifolia. The most active species, T. grandis, was selected to perform a phytochemical study. A new compound, abeograndinoic acid, was isolated, and elucidation of its structure showed that this compound has an unusual carbon skeleton. A further 21 known terpenoids-including 4 sesquiterpenoids, 8 diterpenes and 9 triterpenes-also were isolated. A biosynthetic scheme for the presence of the new compound is proposed. Bioactivity profiles that used etiolated wheat coleoptiles and phytotoxicity bioassays on the isolated compounds were conducted. The compounds that presented the highest phytotoxic activity are the diterpenes 9 (2-oxokovalenic acid) and 12 (19-hydroxyferruginol).

  15. Contrasting nitrogen fertilization treatments impact xylem gene expression and secondary cell wall lignification in Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Eduardo Leal Oliveira; Nascimento, Leandro Costa; Soler, Marçal; Salazar, Marcela Mendes; Lepikson-Neto, Jorge; Marques, Wesley Leoricy; Alves, Ana; Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Martinez, Yves; Deckmann, Ana Carolina; Rodrigues, José Carlos; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2014-09-28

    Nitrogen (N) is a main nutrient required for tree growth and biomass accumulation. In this study, we analyzed the effects of contrasting nitrogen fertilization treatments on the phenotypes of fast growing Eucalyptus hybrids (E. urophylla x E. grandis) with a special focus on xylem secondary cell walls and global gene expression patterns. Histological observations of the xylem secondary cell walls further confirmed by chemical analyses showed that lignin was reduced by luxuriant fertilization, whereas a consistent lignin deposition was observed in trees grown in N-limiting conditions. Also, the syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) ratio was significantly lower in luxuriant nitrogen samples. Deep sequencing RNAseq analyses allowed us to identify a high number of differentially expressed genes (1,469) between contrasting N treatments. This number is dramatically higher than those obtained in similar studies performed in poplar but using microarrays. Remarkably, all the genes involved the general phenylpropanoid metabolism and lignin pathway were found to be down-regulated in response to high N availability. These findings further confirmed by RT-qPCR are in agreement with the reduced amount of lignin in xylem secondary cell walls of these plants. This work enabled us to identify, at the whole genome level, xylem genes differentially regulated by N availability, some of which are involved in the environmental control of xylogenesis. It further illustrates that N fertilization can be used to alter the quantity and quality of lignocellulosic biomass in Eucalyptus, offering exciting prospects for the pulp and paper industry and for the use of short coppices plantations to produce second generation biofuels.

  16. High-throughput SNP genotyping in the highly heterozygous genome of Eucalyptus: assay success, polymorphism and transferability across species

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background High-throughput SNP genotyping has become an essential requirement for molecular breeding and population genomics studies in plant species. Large scale SNP developments have been reported for several mainstream crops. A growing interest now exists to expand the speed and resolution of genetic analysis to outbred species with highly heterozygous genomes. When nucleotide diversity is high, a refined diagnosis of the target SNP sequence context is needed to convert queried SNPs into high-quality genotypes using the Golden Gate Genotyping Technology (GGGT). This issue becomes exacerbated when attempting to transfer SNPs across species, a scarcely explored topic in plants, and likely to become significant for population genomics and inter specific breeding applications in less domesticated and less funded plant genera. Results We have successfully developed the first set of 768 SNPs assayed by the GGGT for the highly heterozygous genome of Eucalyptus from a mixed Sanger/454 database with 1,164,695 ESTs and the preliminary 4.5X draft genome sequence for E. grandis. A systematic assessment of in silico SNP filtering requirements showed that stringent constraints on the SNP surrounding sequences have a significant impact on SNP genotyping performance and polymorphism. SNP assay success was high for the 288 SNPs selected with more rigorous in silico constraints; 93% of them provided high quality genotype calls and 71% of them were polymorphic in a diverse panel of 96 individuals of five different species. SNP reliability was high across nine Eucalyptus species belonging to three sections within subgenus Symphomyrtus and still satisfactory across species of two additional subgenera, although polymorphism declined as phylogenetic distance increased. Conclusions This study indicates that the GGGT performs well both within and across species of Eucalyptus notwithstanding its nucleotide diversity ≥2%. The development of a much larger array of informative SNPs across

  17. High-throughput SNP genotyping in the highly heterozygous genome of Eucalyptus: assay success, polymorphism and transferability across species.

    PubMed

    Grattapaglia, Dario; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B; Kirst, Matias; de Lima, Bruno Marco; Faria, Danielle A; Pappas, Georgios J

    2011-04-14

    High-throughput SNP genotyping has become an essential requirement for molecular breeding and population genomics studies in plant species. Large scale SNP developments have been reported for several mainstream crops. A growing interest now exists to expand the speed and resolution of genetic analysis to outbred species with highly heterozygous genomes. When nucleotide diversity is high, a refined diagnosis of the target SNP sequence context is needed to convert queried SNPs into high-quality genotypes using the Golden Gate Genotyping Technology (GGGT). This issue becomes exacerbated when attempting to transfer SNPs across species, a scarcely explored topic in plants, and likely to become significant for population genomics and inter specific breeding applications in less domesticated and less funded plant genera. We have successfully developed the first set of 768 SNPs assayed by the GGGT for the highly heterozygous genome of Eucalyptus from a mixed Sanger/454 database with 1,164,695 ESTs and the preliminary 4.5X draft genome sequence for E. grandis. A systematic assessment of in silico SNP filtering requirements showed that stringent constraints on the SNP surrounding sequences have a significant impact on SNP genotyping performance and polymorphism. SNP assay success was high for the 288 SNPs selected with more rigorous in silico constraints; 93% of them provided high quality genotype calls and 71% of them were polymorphic in a diverse panel of 96 individuals of five different species.SNP reliability was high across nine Eucalyptus species belonging to three sections within subgenus Symphomyrtus and still satisfactory across species of two additional subgenera, although polymorphism declined as phylogenetic distance increased. This study indicates that the GGGT performs well both within and across species of Eucalyptus notwithstanding its nucleotide diversity ≥ 2%. The development of a much larger array of informative SNPs across multiple Eucalyptus species is

  18. Differential expression of three eucalyptus secondary cell wall-related cellulose synthase genes in response to tension stress.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shanfa; Li, Laigeng; Yi, Xiaoping; Joshi, Chandrashekhar P; Chiang, Vincent L

    2008-01-01

    Trees constitute the majority of lignocellulosic biomass existing on our planet. Trees also serve as important feedstock materials for various industrial products. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of cellulose synthase (CesA) genes of trees. Here, the cloning and characterization of three CesA genes (EgraCesA1, EgraCesA2, and EgraCesA3) from an economically important tree species, Eucalyptus grandis, are reported. All three genes were specifically expressed in xylem cells of eucalyptus undergoing secondary cell wall biosynthesis. The GUS gene, expressed under the control of the EgraCesA2 or EgraCesA3 promoter, was also localized in the secondary xylem in transgenic tobacco stems. However, the EgraCesA1 promoter alone or along with its 5'-UTR introns was insufficient to direct appropriate GUS expression. EgraCesA2 and EgraCesA3 gene expression was up-regulated in tension-stressed eucalyptus xylem cells. Accordingly, GUS expression directed by the EgraCesA2 or EgraCesA3 promoter was also up-regulated. EgraCesA1 had no such response. Thus, it is most unlikely that EgraCesA1 is a subunit of the EgraCesA2-EgraCesA3 complex. The presence of at least two types of cellulose biosynthesis machinery in wood formation is an important clue in deciphering the underpinnings of the perennial growth of trees in various environmental conditions. By analysing GUS gene expression directed by the EgraCesA3 promoter or its deletions, several negative and positive regulatory regions controlling gene expression in xylem or phloem were identified. Also a region which is likely to contain mechanical stress-responsive elements was deduced. These results will guide further studies on identifying cis-regulatory elements directing CesA gene transcription and wood formation regulatory networks.

  19. Antitussive, expectorant and anti-inflammatory activities of different extracts from Exocarpium Citri grandis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kun; Song, Qian; Wang, Lei; Xie, Tianzhu; Wu, Xi; Wang, Ping; Yin, Guo; Ye, Wencai; Wang, Tiejie

    2014-10-28

    Exocarpium Citri grandis (C. grandis, Huajuhong in Chinese), the epicarp of C. grandis 'Tomentosa', is used as an antitussive, expectorant and anti-inflammatory drug for hundreds of years in China. The study was aimed at evaluating the antitussive, expectorant and anti-inflammatory effects of different extracts of C. grandis, providing experimental evidence for its traditional use, and laying a foundation for its further researches. Crude drugs of C. grandis were extracted with four kinds of solvents (water, 50% ethanol, 70% ethanol and 90% ethanol) in reflux conditions, respectively. Solutions were concentrated in reduced pressure and lyophilized in vacuum to yield the aqueous extract, 50% ethanolic extract, 70% ethanolic extract, and 90% ethanolic extract of C. grandis. Antitussive evaluations were carried out with ammonia liquor induced mice cough; expectorant effects were tested with phenol red secretion experiments in mice; anti-inflammatory effects were assessed by murine model of xylene induced ear edema in mice. Only aqueous and 70% ethanolic extracts of C. grandis displayed significant antitussive, expectorant and anti-inflammatory activities. Aqueous extract of C. grandis significantly decreased cough frequency caused by ammonia liquor, increased phenol red secretion and inhibited the development of ear edema in anti-inflammatory assay at the dose of 1005 mg/kg (P<0.05). However, aqueous extract of C. grandis did not lengthened the cough period. It was worth noting that, 70% ethanolic extract of C. grandis showed strong effect of decreasing cough frequency, prolonging cough period, increasing phenol red secretion and decreasing the extent of ear edema at the dose of 493 mg/kg (P<0.001). The low, middle, and high dose (247, 493, and 986 mg/kg) of 70% ethanolic extract of C. grandis showed significant antitussive, expectorant and anti-inflammatory effects in good dose dependant manner. The results supported the folk use of C. grandis (decoction of C

  20. Edaphic factors do not govern the ectomycorrhizal specificity of Pisonia grandis (Nyctaginaceae).

    PubMed

    Hayward, Jeremy A; Horton, Thomas R

    2012-11-01

    Pisonia grandis (Nyctaginaceae), a widespread tree of Pacific coral atolls and islands, displays one of the more restrictive ranges of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus associates among autotrophic plants. Only five ECM fungi are currently known associates; our study adds one. In many habitats, P. grandis is restricted to large seabird colonies where nitrogen and phosphorus inputs in the form of guano are substantial. It has been suggested that the ECM specificity displayed by P. grandis is the result of the unusual nutrient-rich habitat in which P. grandis grows. On Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, P. grandis grows in habitats heavily influenced by guano additions and also in upland forests where seabirds do not roost or nest. To test the hypothesis that the ECM specificity displayed by P. grandis is the result of nutrient-related or toxicity-related factors associated with guano inputs, we sampled P. grandis growing in both guano-rich and guano-poor habitats on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. We identified ECM symbionts of P. grandis from both habitats as well as two symbionts of Intsia bijuga (Fabaceae) from nutrient-rich habitats. We identified three ECM symbionts of P. grandis from Rota; all three were found in both guano-rich and guano-poor habitats. No differences in community diversity were detected between guano-rich and guano-poor habitats. We also detected two ECM fungal species associating with I. bijuga but not associating with P. grandis inside guano-rich habitats. From these results, we infer that edaphic factors are not responsible for limiting the ECM community associating with P. grandis to its observed level of specificity.

  1. Hills in Arctic Canada with Impact Origin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-06-02

    While most hills and mountains on Earth originate from tectonic motions or volcanism, Earth also has some examples of hills that originated from impacts of large meteorites, the predominant origin for hills and mountains on the Moon.

  2. Changes in hair properties by Eucalyptus extract.

    PubMed

    Mamada, Akira; Ishihama, Mariko; Fukuda, Reiko; Inoue, Shigeto

    2008-01-01

    A long-term usage investigation of a scalp lotion containing Eucalyptus extract, which increases the amount of ceramide in the skin, was carried out to explore the change in physical properties of the hair fiber. Half-head or whole-head usage studies of a scalp lotion with Eucalyptus extract were carried out for the following groups: Japanese female, Japanese senior female, Japanese male, and Caucasian female panelists. As a result, the improvement in hair luster and bounce in the root part of the hair were recognized by the panelists after the long-term application of the scalp lotion with Eucalyptus extract. Measurement of hair gloss intensity and bending stress at the root suggests that this improvement is based on changes in these physical properties. These results indicate that the recognition of panelists is based on an actual change in the hair fiber properties. The efficacy of Eucalyptus extract is expressed regardless of race, age, or gender, since similar results were confirmed in all panelist groups. In order to investigate the cause of these phenomena, we measured the elasticity (Young's modulus) of the new-growth part of the cortex in Eucalyptus extract-treated hair and placebo hair by the nano-indentation method of atomic force microscopy (AFM). These results suggest that the Young's modulus of the new-growth part of the cortex in Eucalyptus extract treated-hair increases in comparison with placebo hair. The IR spectra of treated samples of hair show changes that appear to confirm a decrease in the alpha-helix structure and an increase in the beta-sheet structure.

  3. Botanical, Phytochemical, and Anticancer Properties of the Eucalyptus Species.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Quan V; Chalmers, Anita C; Jyoti Bhuyan, Deep; Bowyer, Michael C; Scarlett, Christopher J

    2015-06-01

    The genus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) is mainly native to Australia; however, some species are now distributed globally. Eucalyptus has been used in indigenous Australian medicines for the treatment of a range of aliments including colds, flu, fever, muscular aches, sores, internal pains, and inflammation. Eucalyptus oils containing volatile compounds have been widely used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries for a multitude of purposes. In addition, Eucalyptus extracts containing nonvolatile compounds are also an important source of key bioactive compounds, and several studies have linked Eucalyptus extracts with anticancer properties. With the increasing research interest in Eucalyptus and its health properties, this review briefly outlines the botanical features of Eucalyptus, discusses its traditional use as medicine, and comprehensively reviews its phytochemical and anticancer properties and, finally, proposes trends for future studies.

  4. 'Columbia Hills' in Stereo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2

    While en route to higher ground in the 'Columbia Hills,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its panoramic camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree stereo panorama of its surroundings. Because the rover was parked on a steep slope, it was tilted approximately 22 degrees to the west-northwest. This would be similar to tilting your body sideways like a leaning pole and turning your body and head around to survey your surroundings without bending your neck. At one point, you would be looking slightly down. At another point, you would be looking slightly up. In between those two points, your eyes would be slanted at an angle to the horizon. To compensate for this, image processing experts 'untilted' the images, so to speak, which makes the martian horizon appear flat but also creates a vertical offset between the left and right eyes. This offset can make it difficult to view a scene like this looking through 3-D glasses because the two sides of the stereo image do not line up perfectly. Tilting your head one way or the other may help to view it more easily.

    The highest point visible in this panorama is 'Husband Hill,' named for space shuttle Columbia Commander Rick Husband. To the right are the rover's tracks through the soil, where it stopped to perform maintenance on its right front wheel in July. In the distance, below the hills, is the floor of Gusev Crater, where Spirit landed Jan. 3, 2004, before traveling more than 3 kilometers (1.8 miles) to reach this point. This vista comprises 188 images taken between Spirit's 213th day, or sol, on Mars to its 223rd sol (Aug. 9 to 19, 2004). Team members at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Cornell University spent several weeks processing images and producing geometric maps to stitch all the images together in this mosaic. The 360-degree view is presented in a

  5. Toilets in the hills.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, P; Holcombe, S J

    1990-04-01

    Population and Community Development Association (PDA) in Chieng Rai province in northern Thailand implemented its Environmental Sanitation for the Hill Tribes Project in March 1988 to reduce parasite infection and generate interest in self help development projects. As of early 1990, the hill tribes population growth rate stood at 4.5% compared to 1.5% in lowland Thailand. Other problems included villagers defecating around dwellings, not drinking safe water (since none was available), and not wearing shoes all of which contributed to a high rate of parasite infection. In fact, an analysis of stool samples revealed that parasites infected a mean of almost 70% of the villagers. PDA staff informed villagers about basic environmental health information which influenced them to improve sanitation conditions. They also demonstrated how to build the 1st model latrine. After that, each villager designed and constructed his own latrine. Each villager took out a Baht 150 (US$6) loan to pay for the construction materials (squat casings and cement) provided by PDA. Over the following 10 months, the staff returned to the villages to collect payments and to provide technical assistance. Those villagers that constructed a latrine persuaded others to also construct a latrine. In fact, villagers, not always PDA staff, have even transferred the knowledge to other villages. As of early 1990, villagers and staff have built 1000 squats and 993 latrines. With the health education and latrine use, PDA hoped to see a subsequent reduction in parasite infections. With the help of volunteer contraceptive distributors, PDA has also been able to expand its family planning program to 250 villages. It has also initiated a parasite control pilot project in the area in which infection rates have steadily decreased.

  6. Dissolved organic carbon in water fluxes of Eucalyptus grandis plantations in northeastern Entre Ríos Province, Argentina

    Treesearch

    Natalia Tesón; Víctor H Conzonno; Marcelo F Arturi; Jorge L Frangi

    2014-01-01

    Water fluxes in tree plantations and other ecosystems carry dissolved organic carbon (DOC) provided by atmospheric inputs, autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolisms and from the lysis of dead material. These compounds may be colorless or provide a yellow-to-brown color to water and may also absorb visible light due to the presence of chromophores in the chemical...

  7. Actinomycetes from Eucalyptus and their biological activities for controlling Eucalyptus leaf and shoot blight.

    PubMed

    Himaman, Winanda; Thamchaipenet, Arinthip; Pathom-Aree, Wasu; Duangmal, Kannika

    2016-01-01

    In Thailand, Eucalyptus plantations rapidly expand across the country. Leaf and shoot blight caused by Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti, Cylindrocladium sp. and Teratosphaeria destructans is a serious disease in Eucalyptus plantations. In this study, a total of 477 actinomycete strains were successfully isolated from roots and rhizosphere soil of Eucalyptus. Four hundred and thirty nine isolates were classified as streptomycetes and 38 isolates were non-streptomycetes. Among these isolates, 272 (57.0%), 118 (24.7%) and 241 (50.5%) isolates were antagonistic to Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti, Cylindrocladium sp. and Teratosphaeria destructans, respectively. All isolates were tested for their abilities to produce siderophores, indole acetic acid (IAA) and solubilise phosphate. Most isolates (464, 97.3%) produced siderophores. The majority of isolates (345, 72.3%) solubilised phosphate. In addition, almost half of these isolates (237, 49.7%) produced indole acetic acid. Strain EUSKR2S82 which showed the strongest inhibitory effect against all tested fungi with plant growth promoting ability was selected to test with Eucalyptus. This strain could colonize plant roots and increase Eucalyptus roots length. In a detached leaves bioassay, the disease severity of EUSKR2S82-inoculated Eucalyptus leaves was only 30% compared to 95% in the control treatment. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strain EUSKR2S82 was related to Streptomyces ramulosus NRRL-B 2714(T) (99.44% similarity). Identification of non-streptomycete isolates using 16S rRNA gene sequences classified them into 9 genera: Actinoallomurus, Actinomadura, Amycolatopsis, Cryptosporangium, Microbispora, Micromonospora, Nocardia, Nonomuraea and Pseudonocardia. It is evident that Eucalyptus tree harbored several genera of actinomycetes. The selected isolate, EUSKR2S82 showed potential as a candidate for biocontrol agent of leaf and shoot blight of Eucalyptus and to promote growth.

  8. Boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) population genomics as a tool for monitoring and management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite the success of eradication efforts across most of the cotton-producing regions of the U.S., the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman) remains a major pest of cotton in much of the New World. The area along the Texas border with northern Mexico has been a particularly troub...

  9. Grandy's River Collegiate: Can a Rural School Survive in an Urban Landscape?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jean

    1996-01-01

    One school in Canada's Exemplary Schools Project, Grandy's River Collegiate, is a rural high school threatened with closure because it does not meet Newfoundland's new "viability" requirements (primarily involving school size). Compares characteristics of several types of schools, and suggests that schools such as Grandy's are suited to…

  10. Eucalyptus water use greater than rainfall input - possible explanation from southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, I. R.; Rosier, P. T. W.; Prasanna, K. T.; Parameswarappa, S.

    Hydrological and silvicultural studies carried out in southern India on the effects of plantations of Eucalyptus and other fast growing exotic tree species have determined the impacts of these plantations on water resources, erosion, soil nutrient status and growth rates at sites of differing rainfall and soil depth in Karnataka. Whilst providing new information on these issues, the studies also raised two important questions: what was the explanation for the anomalous result that the water use of 3400 mm from Eucalyptus plantations at Hosakote over a three year period exceeded the rainfall of 2100 mm over the same period and why were growth rates of woodlots on most farmer's fields higher than those of plantations on land owned by the Karnataka Forest Department? The records of the soil moisture depletion patterns under these plantations from the day of planting provide the basis for the answers to both questions: i) whilst roots are penetrating into deeper soil layers, they are able to extract from a reservoir of water additional to that available from the rainfall each year, ii) farmer's land on which short rooted agricultural crops have been grown previously is likely to have a much higher soil water status than land previously under forest or scrub vegetation. These new studies have also established that the development of the drying front under the Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantations is very rapid, indicating average root extension rates in excess of 2.5 m per year, whilst those under Tectona grandis and Artocarpus heterophyllus advanced at approximately half the rate. These results have obvious implications for the long term sustainability of growth rates from these plantations and the recharge of groundwater. The authors believe that this study may be the first to report neutron probe soil moisture depletion observations, from the date of planting, beneath tree plantations in a dry climate. The extent to which the roots were able to penetrate raises the

  11. Phenol adsorption onto powdered and granular activated carbon, prepared from Eucalyptus wood.

    PubMed

    Tancredi, Nestor; Medero, Natalia; Möller, Fabiana; Píriz, Javier; Plada, Carina; Cordero, Tomás

    2004-11-15

    Eucalyptus grandis sawdust, a major waste from the growing Uruguayan wood industry, was used in previous work to prepare powdered activated carbon (PAC). In the present work, granular activated carbon (GAC) was prepared by mixing PAC, carboxymethyl cellulose as a binder, and kaolin as reinforcer. Ultimate analysis and surface characterization of GAC and PAC were performed. Phenol adsorption was used as a way to compare the characteristics of different PAC and GAC preparations. Kinetics and isotherms of the different GAC and PAC were performed in a shaking bath at 100 rpm and 298 K. Phenol concentrations were determined by UV spectroscopy. Some kinetics parameters were calculated; from kinetics results, external resistance to mass transfer from the bulk liquid can be neglected as the controlling step. Isotherms were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich models, and corresponding parameters were determined. Maximum phenol uptakes for all carbons were determined and correlated with carbon characteristics. Thermogravimertic analysis (TGA) determinations were performed in order to study adsorption characteristics and conditions for GAC regeneration after its use. The results showed that phenol is preferentially physisorbed on the carbon of the granules, though some chemisorption was detected. No adsorption was detected in the kaolin-carboxymethyl cellulose mixture.

  12. Effects of pretreatment on morphology, chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of eucalyptus bark: a potentially valuable source of fermentable sugars for biofuel production – part 1

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, the growing demand for biofuels has encouraged the search for different sources of underutilized lignocellulosic feedstocks that are available in sufficient abundance to be used for sustainable biofuel production. Much attention has been focused on biomass from grass. However, large amounts of timber residues such as eucalyptus bark are available and represent a potential source for conversion to bioethanol. In the present paper, we investigate the effects of a delignification process with increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations, preceded or not by diluted acid, on the bark of two eucalyptus clones: Eucalyptus grandis (EG) and the hybrid, E. grandis x urophylla (HGU). The enzymatic digestibility and total cellulose conversion were measured, along with the effect on the composition of the solid and the liquor fractions. Barks were also assessed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-Ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results Compositional analysis revealed an increase in the cellulose content, reaching around 81% and 76% of glucose for HGU and EG, respectively, using a two-step treatment with HCl 1%, followed by 4% NaOH. Lignin removal was 84% (HGU) and 79% (EG), while the hemicellulose removal was 95% and 97% for HGU and EG, respectively. However, when we applied a one-step treatment, with 4% NaOH, higher hydrolysis efficiencies were found after 48 h for both clones, reaching almost 100% for HGU and 80% for EG, in spite of the lower lignin and hemicellulose removal. Total cellulose conversion increased from 5% and 7% to around 65% for HGU and 59% for EG. NMR and FTIR provided important insight into the lignin and hemicellulose removal and SEM studies shed light on the cell-wall unstructuring after pretreatment and lignin migration and precipitation on the fibers surface, which explain the different hydrolysis rates found for the clones. Conclusion Our

  13. Managing a Coastal Bluegum (Eucalyptus globules) forest

    Treesearch

    Ralph S. Osterling

    1983-01-01

    Eucalyptus was thought to be a replacement to oak and other hardwoods for many products. Thousands of acres have been planted and now are in need of management. Management techniques are discussed in context with a coastal stand of approximately 300 acres of mixed aged bluegum. Potential markets are explored.

  14. Fertilizer Tablets Stimulate Eucalyptus in Florida Trial

    Treesearch

    George Meskimen

    1971-01-01

    Eucalyptus plantings in south Florida must grow rapidly to withstand first-year frosts and dominate herbaceous competition. Fertilizer tablets in the planting holes of E. camaldulensis stimulated immediate growth, resulting in stems 50 percent taller and 83 percent thicker than check trees at 6 months. Effects of tablets persisted after 4 years, with...

  15. Growth and yield in Eucalyptus globulus

    Treesearch

    James A. Rinehart; Richard B. Standiford

    1983-01-01

    A study of the major Eucalyptus globulus stands throughout California conducted by Woodbridge Metcalf in 1924 provides a complete and accurate data set for generating variable site-density yield models. Two models were developed using linear regression techniques. Model I depicts a linear relationship between age and yield best used for stands between five and fifteen...

  16. Micropropagation of frost-resistant Eucalyptus

    Treesearch

    Michel Boulay

    1983-01-01

    A method for the in vitro propagation of frost resistant eucalyptus is presented. It was used for the propagation of 2-30 years old trees. This method is presently used for the fast production of mother trees from selected trees.

  17. Flavonoids in monospecific eucalyptus honeys from Australia.

    PubMed

    Martos, I; Ferreres, F; Yao, L; D'Arcy, B; Caffin, N; Tomás-Barberán, F A

    2000-10-01

    The HPLC analyses of Australian unifloral Eucalyptus honeys have shown that the flavonoids myricetin (3,5,7,3',4', 5'-hexahydroxyflavone), tricetin (5,7,3',4',5'-pentahydroxyflavone), quercetin (3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone), luteolin (5,7,3', 4'-tetrahydroxyflavone), and kaempferol (3,5,7, 4'-tetrahydroxyflavone) are present in all samples. These compounds were previously suggested as floral markers of European Eucalyptus honeys. The present results confirm the use of flavonoid analysis as an objective method for the botanical origin determination of eucalyptus honey. Honeys from E. camaldulensis (river red gum honey) contain tricetin as the main flavonoid marker, whereas in honeys from E. pilligaensis (mallee honey), luteolin is the main flavonoid marker, suggesting that species-specific differences can be detected with this analysis. The main difference between the flavonoid profiles of Australian and European Eucalyptus honeys is that in the Australian honeys, the propolis-derived flavonoids (pinobanksin (3,5, 7-trihydroxyflavanone), pinocembrin (5,7-dihydroxyflavanone), and chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone)) are seldom found and in much smaller amounts.

  18. Air-drying of Robusta eucalyptus lumber

    Treesearch

    Roger G. Skolmen

    1964-01-01

    A study of air-drying 4/4 Eucalyptus robusta lumber in Hilo, Hawaii showed that during typical summer weather it can be dried to below 20 percent moisture content in 2-1/2 months. Grade reduction in 36 percent of the lumber was caused by end splits, insect damage, warp, and surface checking.

  19. Clonal propagation of eucalyptus in Brazilian nurseries

    Treesearch

    Ken McNabb; Natal Goncalves; Jose Goncalves

    2002-01-01

    Brazil has established extensive Eucalyptus plantations to support a growing forest products industry. During the past 25 years, the country has been a pioneer in developing clonal propagation systems to regenerate these highly productive plantations. Original clonal selections optimized disease resistance, coppicing ability, and volume growth, while recent priorities...

  20. Black Hills Region, SD, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-81-157 (22 June 1973) --- This view of the Black Hills Region, SD (44.0N, 104.0W) shows the scenic Black Hills where Mt. Rushmore and other monuments are located. Cities and towns in this view include: Rapid City, Deadwood, and Belle Fourche with the nearby Belle Fourche Reservoir. Notable in this scene are the recovering burn scars (seen as irregular shaped light toned patches) from a 1959 forest fire in the Black Hills National Forest near the edge of the photo. Photo credit: NASA

  1. 15. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed showing posts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed showing posts looking towards the chute building - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  2. 9. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking north, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking north, with chute building on the left - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  3. 12. Partial view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Partial view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northwest showing office - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  4. 19. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking at door to stairwell - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  5. 14. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking towards chute building - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  6. 16. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking up ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking up at the trusses of the second floor - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  7. 3. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking southeast; parking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking southeast; parking lot in foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  8. 2. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking south; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking south; chute building is in background - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  9. 20. View of second floor to the Cherry Hill lettuce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. View of second floor to the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking at floor area - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  10. 22. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking at double doors - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  11. 6. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northeast, with chute building to the right - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  12. 18. View of the second floor of the Cherry Hill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. View of the second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking at door - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  13. 21. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking towards window - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  14. Antigravity hills are visual illusions.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Paola; Garlaschelli, Luigi; Barracano, Monica

    2003-09-01

    Antigravity hills, also known as spook hills or magnetic hills, are natural places where cars put into neutral are seen to move uphill on a slightly sloping road, apparently defying the law of gravity. We show that these effects, popularly attributed to gravitational anomalies, are in fact visual illusions. We re-created all the known types of antigravity spots in our laboratory using tabletop models; the number of visible stretches of road, their slant, and the height of the visible horizon were systematically varied in four experiments. We conclude that antigravity-hill effects follow from a misperception of the eye level relative to gravity, caused by the presence of either contextual inclines or a false horizon line.

  15. Drought in the Black Hills

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-05-18

    Despite good rainfall and record-setting snowstorms in the spring of 2005, most of northeastern Wyoming, the Black Hills, and western South Dakota remained in the midst of a severe drought. These images are from NASA Terra spacecraft.

  16. Soufriere Hills Volcano

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-11-07

    In this ASTER image of Soufriere Hills Volcano on Montserrat in the Caribbean, continued eruptive activity is evident by the extensive smoke and ash plume streaming towards the west-southwest. Significant eruptive activity began in 1995, forcing the authorities to evacuate more than 7,000 of the island's original population of 11,000. The primary risk now is to the northern part of the island and to the airport. Small rockfalls and pyroclastic flows (ash, rock and hot gases) are common at this time due to continued growth of the dome at the volcano's summit. This image was acquired on October 29, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03880

  17. Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus orchard. Camera facing 118" east-southeast. - Goerlitz House, 9893 Highland Avenue, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino County, CA

  18. Pre-Drying Eucalyptus Saligna for Carbonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourao, Marcelo Breda; Varon, Lina Maria; Takano, Cyro

    The growing search for forms of clean renewable energy has placed wood charcoal as a possible alternative to coal in the Brazilian steel industry. The carbonization of Eucalyptus Saligna is an important step in the production of charcoal. The aim of this study is to analyze the behavior of the endothermic and exothermic reactions involved in the carbonization process. The carbonization of logs of Eucalyptus Saligna has been performed in a stainless steel reactor at different temperatures (300 ° C, 400 ° C and 500 ° C) and the results were compared with the ones obtained through thermal analysis (TG / DSC) of small samples (36 mg and 54 mg) of the same wood. The TG/DSC results indicated that the process presents both endothermic and exothermic features, at different ranges of temperature and time, in connection with the degradation of the three major macromolecules contained in the wood: cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin.

  19. Soufriere Hills Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this ASTER image of Soufriere Hills Volcano on Montserrat in the Caribbean, continued eruptive activity is evident by the extensive smoke and ash plume streaming towards the west-southwest. Significant eruptive activity began in 1995, forcing the authorities to evacuate more than 7,000 of the island's original population of 11,000. The primary risk now is to the northern part of the island and to the airport. Small rockfalls and pyroclastic flows (ash, rock and hot gases) are common at this time due to continued growth of the dome at the volcano's summit.

    This image was acquired on October 29, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is

  20. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment V. The Florida eucalyptus energy farm: environmental impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The overall environmental impact of the eucalyptus to methanol energy system in Florida is assessed. The environmental impacts associated with the following steps of the process are considered: (1) the greenhouse and laboratory; (2) the eucalyptus plantation; (3) transporting the mature logs; (4) the hammermill; and (5) the methanol synthesis plant. Next, the environmental effects of methanol as an undiluted motor fuel, methanol as a gasoline blend, and gasoline as motor fuels are compared. Finally, the environmental effects of the eucalypt gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to the coal liquefaction and conversion system.

  1. Spirit's Trip to the Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This overhead view of a portion of Gusev Crater shows the route the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has traveled since arriving on the red planet over five months ago. On sol 156 (June 11, 2004), Spirit reached the base of the 'Columbia Hills,' where it is currently investigating some unusual rocks. The rover may eventually head to the top of one of the closest hills.

    This image is a composite of images taken by the camera on the orbiting Mars Global Surveyor and the descent image motion estimation system camera located on the bottom of the rover's lander.

  2. Eucalyptus Forest Information System for the Portuguese pulp and paper industry

    Treesearch

    Luis Fonseca; Rita Crespo; Henk Feith; Jose Luis Carvalho; Antonio Macedo; Joao Pedro Pina

    2000-01-01

    To support the management of the Portuguese eucalyptus forest, the Association of Portuguese Pulp and Paper Industries (CELPA) decided to develop a Eucalyptus Forest Information System (EFIS). The specific goals of the EFIS are: characterization and development of the eucalyptus forest over time; planning of successive national eucalyptus forest inventories; estimation...

  3. Genetic basis of resistance in eucalyptus spp. pathosystems

    Treesearch

    Acelino Couto Alfenas; Lucio Mauro da Silva Guimaraes; Marcos Deon Vilela Resende

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus is the most widely planted hardwood crop in world-wide tropical and subtropical regions because of its high growth rate, broad adaptability, and multipurpose wood properties. Until the 1970s, the Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil were practically disease free. However, plantations have continued to expand into warmer...

  4. [Community features of Sacrabaeoida larvae in Stipa grandis steppe].

    PubMed

    Xinmin, Liu; Ning, Wu

    2004-09-01

    The study showed that in the Stipa grandis steppe of Inner Mongolia, there were 4 families and 9 species of Scarabaeoidea larvae, among which, the numbers of species and individuals of Melolonthidae were more than those of other families. The important value of the dominant species in Scarabaeoidea larvae community were Trematodes tenebrioides > Serica orientalis > Amphimallon solstitialis > Cyriopertha arcuata. Based on the features of their seasonal dynamics, they could be classified into three kinds. The first kind was that their density peak occurred in spring and autumn, such as Serica orientalis. Cyriopertha arcuata belonged to the second kind, and its density had no obvious fluctuation through all the year. Trematodes tenebrioides and Amphimallon solstitialis could be classified into the third kind, and their density peak all occurred in autumn. The biodiversity index of Scarabaeoidea larvae community was relatively higher in autumn than in spring and summer. Although the richness of Scarabaeoidea larvae populations was not lower in spring, their composition was very simple.

  5. [Habitat factor analysis for Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii based on spatial information technology].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-ming; Wang, Ke; Ao, Wei-jiu; Deng, Jin-song; Han, Ning; Zhu, Xiao-yun

    2008-11-01

    Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii, a tertiary survival plant, is a rare tree species of significant economic value and expands rapidly in China. Its special habitat factor analysis has the potential value to provide guide information for its planting, management, and sustainable development, because the suitable growth conditions for this tree species are special and strict. In this paper, the special habitat factors for T. grandis cv. Merrillii in its core region, i.e., in seven villages of Zhuji City, Zhejiang Province were analyzed with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a series of data, such as IKONOS image, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and field survey data supported by the spatial information technology. The results showed that T. grandis cv. Merrillii exhibited high selectivity of environmental factors such as elevation, slope, and aspect. 96.22% of T. grandis cv. Merrillii trees were located at the elevation from 300 to 600 m, 97.52% of them were found to present on the areas whose slope was less than 300, and 74.43% of them distributed on sunny and half-sunny slopes. The results of PCA analysis indicated that the main environmental factors affecting the habitat of T. grandis cv. Merrillii were moisture, heat, and soil nutrients, and moisture might be one of the most important ecological factors for T. grandis cv. Merrillii due to the unique biological and ecological characteristics of the tree species.

  6. Effect of Low pH and Aluminum Toxicity on the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Different Fast-Growing Eucalyptus Vegetatively Propagated Clones

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mei; Tan, Ling; Xu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yihui; Cheng, Fei; Ye, Shaoming; Jiang, Weixin

    2015-01-01

    Knowing how acid soils and aluminum in soils may limit the growth of Eucalyptus trees in plantations is important because these plantations grow in many tropical and subtropical regions. Seedlings of four vegetatively propagated Eucalyptus clones, E. grandis × E. urophylla ‘GLGU9’(G9), E. grandis × E. urophylla ‘GLGU12’ (G12), E. urophylla × E. camaldulensis ‘GLUC3’ (G3) and E. urophylla ‘GLU4’(G4), were subjected to liquid culture with Hoagland nutrient solution for 40 days, then treated with four different treatments of acid and aluminum for 1 day. The four treatments used either pH 3.0 or 4.0 with or without added aluminum (4.4 mM) in all possible combinations; a control used no added aluminum at pH 4.8. Subsequently, the photosynthetic parameters and morphology of leaves from eucalypt seedlings were determined and observed. The results showed that the tested chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were apparently inhibited by aluminum. Under uniform Al concentration (4.4 mM), the Al-induced limitation to photosynthetic parameters increased with pH, indicating acid stimulation to Al toxicity. Among all treatments, the most significant reduction was found in the combination of pH 3.0 and 4.4 mM Al. The photosynthetic and transpiration rates showed similar trends with G9 > G12 > G3 > G4, suggesting that G9 and G12 had higher Al-tolerance than other two clones. Microscopic observation revealed changes in leaf morphology when exposed to Al stress; for example, a reduced thickness of leaf epidermis and palisade tissue, the descendant palisade tissue/spongy tissue ratio and leaf tissue looseness. Overall, the acid and aluminum stress exerted negative effects on the photosynthetic activity of eucalypt seedlings, but the differences in tolerance to Al toxicity between the clones were favorable, offering potential to improve Eucalyptus plantation productivity by selecting Al tolerant clones. PMID

  7. Effect of Low pH and Aluminum Toxicity on the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Different Fast-Growing Eucalyptus Vegetatively Propagated Clones.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mei; Tan, Ling; Xu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yihui; Cheng, Fei; Ye, Shaoming; Jiang, Weixin

    2015-01-01

    Knowing how acid soils and aluminum in soils may limit the growth of Eucalyptus trees in plantations is important because these plantations grow in many tropical and subtropical regions. Seedlings of four vegetatively propagated Eucalyptus clones, E. grandis × E. urophylla 'GLGU9'(G9), E. grandis × E. urophylla 'GLGU12' (G12), E. urophylla × E. camaldulensis 'GLUC3' (G3) and E. urophylla 'GLU4'(G4), were subjected to liquid culture with Hoagland nutrient solution for 40 days, then treated with four different treatments of acid and aluminum for 1 day. The four treatments used either pH 3.0 or 4.0 with or without added aluminum (4.4 mM) in all possible combinations; a control used no added aluminum at pH 4.8. Subsequently, the photosynthetic parameters and morphology of leaves from eucalypt seedlings were determined and observed. The results showed that the tested chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were apparently inhibited by aluminum. Under uniform Al concentration (4.4 mM), the Al-induced limitation to photosynthetic parameters increased with pH, indicating acid stimulation to Al toxicity. Among all treatments, the most significant reduction was found in the combination of pH 3.0 and 4.4 mM Al. The photosynthetic and transpiration rates showed similar trends with G9 > G12 > G3 > G4, suggesting that G9 and G12 had higher Al-tolerance than other two clones. Microscopic observation revealed changes in leaf morphology when exposed to Al stress; for example, a reduced thickness of leaf epidermis and palisade tissue, the descendant palisade tissue/spongy tissue ratio and leaf tissue looseness. Overall, the acid and aluminum stress exerted negative effects on the photosynthetic activity of eucalypt seedlings, but the differences in tolerance to Al toxicity between the clones were favorable, offering potential to improve Eucalyptus plantation productivity by selecting Al tolerant clones.

  8. Clarks Hill Lake Water Quality Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    MACROINVERTEBRATE TAXONOMIC LIST CLARKS HILL LAKE 1981 Phylum Platyhelminthes Order Diptera Class Turbellaria Ablabesmyia parajanta unidentified Planariidae A...HILL LAKE 1981 Phylum Platyhelminthes Order Diptera (continued) Planaria sp.,’ Bezzia sp. 2 unidentified Planariidae Chaoborus punctipennis unidentified

  9. Antimicrobial activities of eucalyptus leaf extracts and flavonoids from Eucalyptus maculata.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Kokubo, R; Sakaino, M

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the antimicrobial activities of eucalyptus leaf extracts to find effective antibacterial agents. The antimicrobial activities of leaf extracts from 26 species of eucalyptus were measured. Extracts of Eucalyptus globulus, E. maculata and E. viminalis significantly inhibited the growth of six Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Propionibacterium acnes), and of a fungus (Trichophyton mentagrophytes), but they did not show strong antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida). 2',6'-dihydroxy-3'-methyl-4'-methoxy-dihydrochalcone, eucalyptin and 8-desmethyl-eucalyptin, isolated from E. maculata extracts, exhibited potent antimicrobial activities against seven micro-organisms with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 1.0 to 31 mg l(-1). The eucalyptus extracts and three compounds from E. maculata were found to be effective against micro-organisms that cause food poisoning, acne and athlete's foot. This study shows potential uses of extracts from E. globulus, E. maculata and E. viminalis, and antimicrobial compounds isolated from E. maculata.

  10. Hill & Knowlton's Two Ethical Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Cornelius B.

    1994-01-01

    Presents arguments for and against the acceptance, in 1990, of two controversial client accounts by the public relations agency Hill & Knowlton. Examines the ethical implications of both accounts and concludes that whatever ethical infractions may have occurred reflect the agency's dominant public relations practices, not necessarily the "greedy…

  11. 27 CFR 9.52 - Chalk Hill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chalk Hill. 9.52 Section 9... TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.52 Chalk Hill. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chalk Hill.” (b) Approved maps...

  12. 27 CFR 9.52 - Chalk Hill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chalk Hill. 9.52 Section 9... TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.52 Chalk Hill. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chalk Hill.” (b) Approved maps...

  13. 27 CFR 9.52 - Chalk Hill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chalk Hill. 9.52 Section 9... TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.52 Chalk Hill. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chalk Hill.” (b) Approved maps...

  14. 27 CFR 9.52 - Chalk Hill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chalk Hill. 9.52 Section 9... TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.52 Chalk Hill. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chalk Hill.” (b) Approved maps...

  15. 27 CFR 9.52 - Chalk Hill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chalk Hill. 9.52 Section 9... TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.52 Chalk Hill. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chalk Hill.” (b) Approved maps...

  16. 27 CFR 9.204 - Tracy Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tracy Hills. 9.204 Section... Hills. (a) Tracy Hills. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Tracy Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Tracy Hills” is a term of viticultural significance. (b...

  17. Airborne remote sensing of spatiotemporal change (1955-2004) in indigenous and exotic forest cover in the Taita Hills, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellikka, Petri K. E.; Lötjönen, Milla; Siljander, Mika; Lens, Luc

    2009-08-01

    We studied changes in area and species composition of six indigenous forest fragments in the Taita Hills, Kenya using 1955 and 1995 aerial photography with 2004 airborne digital camera mosaics. The study area is part of Eastern Arc Mountains, a global biodiversity hot spot that boasts an outstanding diversity of flora and fauna and a high level of endemism. While a total of 260 ha (50%) of indigenous tropical cloud forest was lost to agriculture and bushland between 1955 and 2004, large-scale planting of exotic pines, eucalyptus, grevillea, black wattle and cypress on barren land during the same period resulted in a balanced total forest area. In the Taita Hills, like in other Afrotropical forests, indigenous forest loss may adversely affect ecosystem services.

  18. Suppression of nighttime sap flux with lower stem photosynthesis in Eucalyptus trees.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jianguo; Zhou, Juan; Sun, Zhenwei; Niu, Junfeng; Zhou, Cuiming; Gu, Daxing; Huang, Yuqing; Zhao, Ping

    2016-04-01

    It is widely accepted that substantial nighttime sap flux (J s,n) or transpiration (E) occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications are poorly known. It has been hypothesized that J s,n or E serves to enhance nitrogen uptake or deliver oxygen; however, no clear evidence is currently available. In this study, sap flux (J s) in Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla with apparent stem photosynthesis was measured, including control trees which were covered by aluminum foil (approximately 1/3 of tree height) to block stem photosynthesis. We hypothesized that the nighttime water flux would be suppressed in trees with lower stem photosynthesis. The results showed that the green tissue degraded after 3 months, demonstrating a decrease in stem photosynthesis. The daytime J s decreased by 21.47%, while J s,n decreased by 12.03% in covered trees as compared to that of control, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). The linear quantile regression model showed that J s,n decreased for a given daytime transpiration water loss, indicating that J s,n was suppressed by lower stem photosynthesis in covered trees. Predawn (ψ pd) of covered trees was marginally higher than that of control while lower at predawn stomatal conductance (g s), indicating a suppressed water flux in covered trees. There was no difference in leaf carbon content and δ(13)C between the two groups, while leaf nitrogen content and δ(15)N were significantly higher in covered trees than that of the control (P < 0.05), indicating that J s,n was not used for nitrogen uptake. These results suggest that J s,n may act as an oxygen pathway since green tissue has a higher respiration or oxygen demand than non-green tissue. Thus, this study demonstrated the physiological implications of J s,n and the possible benefits of nighttime water use or E by the tree.

  19. Suppression of nighttime sap flux with lower stem photosynthesis in Eucalyptus trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jianguo; Zhou, Juan; Sun, Zhenwei; Niu, Junfeng; Zhou, Cuiming; Gu, Daxing; Huang, Yuqing; Zhao, Ping

    2016-04-01

    It is widely accepted that substantial nighttime sap flux ( J s,n) or transpiration ( E) occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications are poorly known. It has been hypothesized that J s,n or E serves to enhance nitrogen uptake or deliver oxygen; however, no clear evidence is currently available. In this study, sap flux ( J s) in Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla with apparent stem photosynthesis was measured, including control trees which were covered by aluminum foil (approximately 1/3 of tree height) to block stem photosynthesis. We hypothesized that the nighttime water flux would be suppressed in trees with lower stem photosynthesis. The results showed that the green tissue degraded after 3 months, demonstrating a decrease in stem photosynthesis. The daytime J s decreased by 21.47 %, while J s,n decreased by 12.03 % in covered trees as compared to that of control, and the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0.01). The linear quantile regression model showed that J s,n decreased for a given daytime transpiration water loss, indicating that J s,n was suppressed by lower stem photosynthesis in covered trees. Predawn ( ψ pd) of covered trees was marginally higher than that of control while lower at predawn stomatal conductance ( g s), indicating a suppressed water flux in covered trees. There was no difference in leaf carbon content and δ13C between the two groups, while leaf nitrogen content and δ15N were significantly higher in covered trees than that of the control ( P < 0.05), indicating that J s,n was not used for nitrogen uptake. These results suggest that J s,n may act as an oxygen pathway since green tissue has a higher respiration or oxygen demand than non-green tissue. Thus, this study demonstrated the physiological implications of J s,n and the possible benefits of nighttime water use or E by the tree.

  20. Medium term water deficit elicits distinct transcriptome responses in Eucalyptus species of contrasting environmental origin.

    PubMed

    Spokevicius, Antanas V; Tibbits, Josquin; Rigault, Philippe; Nolin, Marc-Alexandre; Müller, Caroline; Merchant, Andrew

    2017-04-07

    Climatic and edaphic conditions over geological timescales have generated enormous diversity of adaptive traits and high speciation within the genus Eucalyptus (L. Hér.). Eucalypt species occur from high rainfall to semi-arid zones and from the tropics to latitudes as high as 43°S. Despite several morphological and metabolomic characterizations, little is known regarding gene expression differences that underpin differences in tolerance to environmental change. Using species of contrasting taxonomy, morphology and physiology (E. globulus and E. cladocalyx), this study combines physiological characterizations with 'second-generation' sequencing to identify key genes involved in eucalypt responses to medium-term water limitation. One hundred twenty Million high-quality HiSeq reads were created from 14 tissue samples in plants that had been successfully subjected to a water deficit treatment or a well-watered control. Alignment to the E. grandis genome saw 23,623 genes of which 468 exhibited differential expression (FDR < 0.01) in one or both ecotypes in response to the treatment. Further analysis identified 80 genes that demonstrated a significant species-specific response of which 74 were linked to the 'dry' species E. cladocalyx where 23 of these genes were uncharacterised. The majority (approximately 80%) of these differentially expressed genes, were expressed in stem tissue. Key genes that differentiated species responses were linked to photoprotection/redox balance, phytohormone/signalling, primary photosynthesis/cellular metabolism and secondary metabolism based on plant metabolic pathway network analysis. These results highlight a more definitive response to water deficit by a 'dry' climate eucalypt, particularly in stem tissue, identifying key pathways and associated genes that are responsible for the differences between 'wet' and 'dry' climate eucalypts. This knowledge provides the opportunity to further investigate and understand the mechanisms and

  1. On the origin of Hill's causal criteria.

    PubMed

    Morabia, A

    1991-09-01

    The rules to assess causation formulated by the eighteenth century Scottish philosopher David Hume are compared to Sir Austin Bradford Hill's causal criteria. The strength of the analogy between Hume's rules and Hill's causal criteria suggests that, irrespective of whether Hume's work was known to Hill or Hill's predecessors, Hume's thinking expresses a point of view still widely shared by contemporary epidemiologists. The lack of systematic experimental proof to causal inferences in epidemiology may explain the analogy of Hume's and Hill's, as opposed to Popper's, logic.

  2. Oldest Known Eucalyptus Macrofossils Are from South America

    PubMed Central

    Zamaloa, María C.; Nixon, Kevin C.; González, Cynthia C.; Wilf, Peter; Cúneo, N. Rubén; Johnson, Kirk R.

    2011-01-01

    The evolutionary history of Eucalyptus and the eucalypts, the larger clade of seven genera including Eucalyptus that today have a natural distribution almost exclusively in Australasia, is poorly documented from the fossil record. Little physical evidence exists bearing on the ancient geographical distributions or morphologies of plants within the clade. Herein, we introduce fossil material of Eucalyptus from the early Eocene (ca. 51.9 Ma) Laguna del Hunco paleoflora of Chubut Province, Argentina; specimens include multiple leaves, infructescences, and dispersed capsules, several flower buds, and a single flower. Morphological similarities that relate the fossils to extant eucalypts include leaf shape, venation, and epidermal oil glands; infructescence structure; valvate capsulate fruits; and operculate flower buds. The presence of a staminophore scar on the fruits links them to Eucalyptus, and the presence of a transverse scar on the flower buds indicates a relationship to Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus. Phylogenetic analyses of morphological data alone and combined with aligned sequence data from a prior study including 16 extant eucalypts, one outgroup, and a terminal representing the fossils indicate that the fossils are nested within Eucalyptus. These are the only illustrated Eucalyptus fossils that are definitively Eocene in age, and the only conclusively identified extant or fossil eucalypts naturally occurring outside of Australasia and adjacent Mindanao. Thus, these fossils indicate that the evolution of the eucalypt group is not constrained to a single region. Moreover, they strengthen the taxonomic connections between the Laguna del Hunco paleoflora and extant subtropical and tropical Australasia, one of the three major ecologic-geographic elements of the Laguna del Hunco paleoflora. The age and affinities of the fossils also indicate that Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus is older than previously supposed. Paleoecological data indicate that the

  3. The capacity to cope with climate warming declines from temperate to tropical latitudes in two widely distributed Eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    Drake, John E; Aspinwall, Michael J; Pfautsch, Sebastian; Rymer, Paul D; Reich, Peter B; Smith, Renee A; Crous, Kristine Y; Tissue, David T; Ghannoum, Oula; Tjoelker, Mark G

    2015-01-01

    As rapid climate warming creates a mismatch between forest trees and their home environment, the ability of trees to cope with warming depends on their capacity to physiologically adjust to higher temperatures. In widespread species, individual trees in cooler home climates are hypothesized to more successfully acclimate to warming than their counterparts in warmer climates that may approach thermal limits. We tested this prediction with a climate-shift experiment in widely distributed Eucalyptus tereticornis and E. grandis using provenances originating along a ~2500 km latitudinal transect (15.5-38.0°S) in eastern Australia. We grew 21 provenances in conditions approximating summer temperatures at seed origin and warmed temperatures (+3.5 °C) using a series of climate-controlled glasshouse bays. The effects of +3.5 °C warming strongly depended on home climate. Cool-origin provenances responded to warming through an increase in photosynthetic capacity and total leaf area, leading to enhanced growth of 20-60%. Warm-origin provenances, however, responded to warming through a reduction in photosynthetic capacity and total leaf area, leading to reduced growth of approximately 10%. These results suggest that there is predictable intraspecific variation in the capacity of trees to respond to warming; cool-origin taxa are likely to benefit from warming, while warm-origin taxa may be negatively affected. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. GEOCHEMISTRY OF MAJUBA HILL, NEVADA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wenrich, Karen J.; Mascarenas, Joseph F.; Silberman, Miles L.

    1984-01-01

    Majuba Hill is the erosional remnant of a mineralized volcanic complex of rhyolite porphyry stocks, dikes, sills and irregular masses of breccia intruded into Triassic(? ) argillites. Majuba Hill is best known for its Cu and Sn ore; in addition, it was mineralized with other metals of possible economic significance, most notably, Mo, Ag, and U. Although this is an intrusive complex with no evidence of any extrusive phases, it was intruded sufficiently near the surface to develop a porphyritic texture. Intense sericitic and argillic alteration affected all stages of intrusion. Fresh rocks were not available for K-Ar analyses. Several samples of feldspars and sericite from altered zones yielded K-Ar ages for the alteration of 24. 7 to 25. 5 m. y. The tight clustering of ages suggests that all stages of the complex were altered within less than 1 m. y.

  5. Color reduction of sulfonated eucalyptus kraft lignin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Bai, Youcan; Zhou, Wanpeng; Chen, Fangeng

    2017-04-01

    Several eucalyptus lignins named as HSL, SML and BSL were prepared by high temperature sulfonation, sulfomethylation, butane sultone sulfonation respectively. The color properties of samples were investigated. Under optimized conditions the sulfonic group (SO3H) content of HSL, SML and BSL reached 1.52, 1.60 and 1.58mmol/g, respectively. Samples were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, GPC and brightness test, respectively. The results revealed that BSL performed a higher molecular weight and lighter color due to the phenolic hydroxyl blocking by 1,4-butane sultone (1,4-BS). The color reduction of sodium borohydride treated BSL (labeled as SBSL) was further enhanced and the brightness value was improved by 76.1% compared with the darkest HSL. SBSL process was much better than HSL and SML process. Hydroxyl blocking effect of 1,4-BS and reducibility of sodium borohydride played important roles in the color reduction of sulfonated eucalyptus kraft lignin.

  6. Rolling Mill Hill, Nashville, TN

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Rolling Mill Hill was the home to Nashville General Hospital from 1890 to the 1990s and encompassed several buildings and structures. These existing buildings of historical significance were re-used in the form of apartments. The original Trolley Barns on the site are now artists’ lofts and are home to several companies and non-profit offices. Nance Place, which entails additional buildings built on-site, is a Tax Credit Workforce Housing Development and is Platinum LEED certified.

  7. Rocks of the Columbia Hills

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Blaney, D.L.; Clark, B. C.; Crumpler, L.; Farrand, W. H.; Gorevan, S.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Hurowitz, J.; Kusack, A.; McSween, H.Y.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Ruff, S.W.; Wang, A.; Yen, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has identified five distinct rock types in the Columbia Hills of Gusev crater. Clovis Class rock is a poorly sorted clastic rock that has undergone substantial aqueous alteration. We interpret it to be aqueously altered ejecta deposits formed by impacts into basaltic materials. Wishstone Class rock is also a poorly sorted clastic rock that has a distinctive chemical composition that is high in Ti and P and low in Cr. Wishstone Class rock may be pyroclastic or impact in origin. Peace Class rock is a sedimentary material composed of ultramafic sand grains cemented by significant quantities of Mg- and Ca-sulfates. Peace Class rock may have formed when water briefly saturated the ultramafic sands and evaporated to allow precipitation of the sulfates. Watchtower Class rocks are similar chemically to Wishstone Class rocks and have undergone widely varying degrees of near-isochemical aqueous alteration. They may also be ejecta deposits, formed by impacts into Wishstone-rich materials and altered by small amounts of water. Backstay Class rocks are basalt/trachybasalt lavas that were emplaced in the Columbia Hills after the other rock classes were, either as impact ejecta or by localized volcanic activity. The geologic record preserved in the rocks of the Columbia Hills reveals a period very early in Martian history in which volcanic materials were widespread, impact was a dominant process, and water was commonly present. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Rocks of the Columbia Hills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squyres, Steven W.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Blaney, Diana L.; Clark, Benton C.; Crumpler, Larry; Farrand, William H.; Gorevan, Stephen; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Hurowitz, Joel; Kusack, Alastair; McSween, Harry Y.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Ruff, Steven W.; Wang, Alian; Yen, Albert

    2006-02-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has identified five distinct rock types in the Columbia Hills of Gusev crater. Clovis Class rock is a poorly sorted clastic rock that has undergone substantial aqueous alteration. We interpret it to be aqueously altered ejecta deposits formed by impacts into basaltic materials. Wishstone Class rock is also a poorly sorted clastic rock that has a distinctive chemical composition that is high in Ti and P and low in Cr. Wishstone Class rock may be pyroclastic or impact in origin. Peace Class rock is a sedimentary material composed of ultramafic sand grains cemented by significant quantities of Mg- and Ca-sulfates. Peace Class rock may have formed when water briefly saturated the ultramafic sands and evaporated to allow precipitation of the sulfates. Watchtower Class rocks are similar chemically to Wishstone Class rocks and have undergone widely varying degrees of near-isochemical aqueous alteration. They may also be ejecta deposits, formed by impacts into Wishstone-rich materials and altered by small amounts of water. Backstay Class rocks are basalt/trachybasalt lavas that were emplaced in the Columbia Hills after the other rock classes were, either as impact ejecta or by localized volcanic activity. The geologic record preserved in the rocks of the Columbia Hills reveals a period very early in Martian history in which volcanic materials were widespread, impact was a dominant process, and water was commonly present.

  9. Changes in soil quality due to converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations and subsequent successive Eucalyptus planting in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Zheng, H.; Chen, F. L.; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y. F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M.; Xiang, X. W.

    2014-09-01

    Plants play a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological properties were measured and a soil quality index (SQI) was calculated. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellobiosidase, phenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase activities significantly decreased in the 1st and 2nd generations of Eucalyptus plantations after conversion from Pinus to Eucalyptus but gradually recovered in the 3rd and 4th generations. Soil total and available potassium were significantly lower, but total phosphorus was significantly higher in Eucalyptus plantations compared to the Pinus plantation. As an integrated indicator, SQI was highest in the Pinus plantation (0.92), but decreased to 0.24 and 0.13 in the 1st and 2nd generations of Eucalyptus plantations, respectively. However, it recovered to 0.36 and 0.38 in the 3rd and 4th generations, respectively. Changing tree species, reclamation and fertilization may have contributed to the "U" shaped change observed in soil quality during conversion of Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Litter retention, keeping understory coverage, and reducing soil disturbance during logging and subsequent establishment of the next rotation should be considered to help improving soil quality during plantation management.

  10. Nanofibrillated cellulose (CNF) from eucalyptus sawdust as a dry strength agent of unrefined eucalyptus handsheets.

    PubMed

    Vallejos, María Evangelina; Felissia, Fernando Esteban; Area, María Cristina; Ehman, Nanci Vanesa; Tarrés, Quim; Mutjé, Pere

    2016-03-30

    Nanofibrillated cellulose has been obtained from the cellulosic fraction of eucalyptus sawdust. The fractionation process involved the partial removal of hemicelluloses and lignin. CNF was obtained using TEMPO oxidation with NaOCl in basic medium followed by mechanical homogenization. The obtained CNF was subsequently used as a dry strength agent on unbleached unrefined eucalyptus pulp. The addition of 3, 6 and 9 wt.% of CNF increased lineally the tensile index of handsheets to about 55 N mg(-1) at 35°SR, compatible with papermachine runnability. The other mechanical properties also increased substantially, and porosity decreased moderately. The estimated specific surface and average diameter of these CNF were 60 m(2)g(-1), and of 41.0 nm, respectively. The addition of 9 wt.% of CNF produced an increase in mechanical strength, equivalent to that produced by PFI refining at 1600 revolutions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Population structure and genetic diversity of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), on Gossypium in North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, has been identified as one of the most devastating pests in U.S. history, its origin and activity in Mexico, both on wild and cultivated cotton hosts (genus Gossypium), is poorly understood. Three forms (geographical or host-associated races) of A. grandis ...

  12. The man and the hill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1962-01-01

    He was sitting on a large slab of rock. As he looked at the cloud of dust hanging hazily on the horizon, the piece of antler and the block of flint he held in his hand hung as if they were suspended from their previous rapid motion. The man gazed intently across the swaying grass which rose in wave-like billows across the distant hills. What was that dust - a herd of buffalo, a band of hunters, or were coyotes chasing the antelope again? After watching for a while he started again to chip the flint with a rapid twisting motion of the bone in his right hand. The little chips of flint fell in the grass before him. It is the same hill but the scene has changed. Seated on the same rock, holding the reins of a saddle horse, a man dressed in buckskin took the fur cap off his head and wiped his brow. He was looking intently across a brown and desolate landscape at a cloud of dust on the far horizon. Was it the hostile tribe of Indians? It could be buffalo. Nervously he kicked at the ground with the deerhide moccasin, pushing the flint chips out of the way. He wiped the dust from his long rifle. What a terrible place - no water, practically no grass, everything bare and brown. Now at sunset, slanting across the hills green with springtime, a cowman sits on a big rock, pushes his sombrero back on his head, and looks across the valley at a large but quiet herd of stock, moving slowly as each steer walks from one lush patch of grass to another, nibbling. Suddenly he stood up. Far on the horizon some dark objects were moving. Is it the sheepmen? Could it be the stage coach from Baggs to the Sweetwater Crossing?Same hill - a gray truck was grinding slowly toward the summit. It pulled up near a small fenced enclosure where there were some instruments painted a bright silver color. A man stepped out of the truck and turned to his younger companion, "You've never found an arrowhead? Maybe you have never thought about it correctly. If you want to find where an Indian camped long

  13. Cassia grandis Linn. f. seed galactomannan: structural and crystallographical studies.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Harsha; Kapoor, Virendra P

    2003-09-01

    Cassia grandis is a small or medium sized tree, found in abundance throughout India. The seeds contain about 50% endosperm gum and possess the characteristics of becoming a potential source of seed gum. The purified polysaccharide has been characterized as a pure galactomannan having a mannose-galactose ratio of 3.15; molecular weight (Mw) 80,200; polydispersity (Mw/Mn), 1.35 and intrinsic viscosity [eta], 848 mL/g. Methylation, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation and 13C NMR studies confirm that the polysaccharide has the basic structure of legume galactomannans consisting of a beta-(1-->4)-linked main mannan backbone to which galactose units are attached at O-6. The orthorhombic lattice constants of the hydrated gum are as follows: a=9.00, b=24.81, c=10.30 A. The crystallographic data establish that the probable space group symmetry of the unit cell is P2(1)2(1)2. The results are in contradiction to earlier reports (Indian J. Chem. 16B (1978) 966; J. Indian Chem. Soc. 55 (1978) 1216) in which a non-galactomannan polysaccharide structure has been assigned having a main chain of (1-->4)-linked galactose and mannose units in the molar ratio 6:3, where 50% of the galactose units branched with two galactose and one mannose through 1-->3 linkage.

  14. Mass propagation of the boll weevil parasite, Catolaccus grandis

    SciTech Connect

    Palamara, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    The USDA and the DOE production facility at Kansas City managed by AlliedSignal have partnered to redirect defense technologies to the development of specialized agricultural equipment. The initial use of the equipment will be for mass rearing of the boll weevil parasite, Catolaccus grandis, however, by reprogramming and altering fixtures, the equipment can be used for other insect species. The process flow diagrams for the following systems have been developed: (1) Mechanized Host Larvae Washing/Drying, Capsule Forming, Larvae Placement, Sealing, and Labeling; (2) Mechanized in vivo Preoviposition, Oviposition, and Developing; (3) Mechanized Placement in Release Containers; (4) Automated Packaging and Storage/Retrieval; (5) Mechanized System for Field Release; (6) Mechanized System for Adult Colony Maintenance, Egg Laying, and Egg Retrieval; (7) Mechanized System for in vitro Diet Manufacturing; (8) Mechanized System for in vitro Mass Propagation with Diet Dispensing, Egg Placement, and Developing of Parasite Pupae. Conceptual designs using ProEngineer software have been developed for four of the eight systems. The initial hardware will include the elements of the systems considered to be the most technologically challenging and those necessary to establish the feasibility of commercial mass rearing. The most important of these are mechanized in vitro diet manufacturing, egg laying/retrieval, egg placement and diet dispensing.

  15. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    This feasibility study includes all phases of methanol production from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The study examines: production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-day methanol production facility; potential environmental impacts of the whole project; safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol; and development of site specific cost estimates.

  16. Permanent draft genome sequence of the gliding predator Saprospira grandis strain Sa g1 (= HR1)

    SciTech Connect

    Mavromatis, K; Chertkov, Olga; Lapidus, Alla L.; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Huntemann, Marcel; Liolios, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, N; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam L; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Rohde, Manfred; Spring, Stefan; Goker, Markus; Detter, J. Chris; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Saprospira grandis Gross et al. 1911 is a member of the Saprospiraceae, a family in the class 'Sphingobacteria' that remains poorly characterized at the genomic level. The species is known for preying on other marine bacteria via 'ixotrophy'. S. grandis strain Sa g1 was isolated from decaying crab carapace in France and was selected for genome sequencing because of its isolated location in the tree of life. Only one type strain genome has been published so far from the Saprospiraceae, while the sequence of strain Sa g1 represents the second genome to be published from a non-type strain of S. grandis. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4,495,250 bp long Improved-High-Quality draft of the genome with its 3,536 protein-coding and 62 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  17. A high-density transcript linkage map with 1,845 expressed genes positioned by microarray-based Single Feature Polymorphisms (SFP) in Eucalyptus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Technological advances are progressively increasing the application of genomics to a wider array of economically and ecologically important species. High-density maps enriched for transcribed genes facilitate the discovery of connections between genes and phenotypes. We report the construction of a high-density linkage map of expressed genes for the heterozygous genome of Eucalyptus using Single Feature Polymorphism (SFP) markers. Results SFP discovery and mapping was achieved using pseudo-testcross screening and selective mapping to simultaneously optimize linkage mapping and microarray costs. SFP genotyping was carried out by hybridizing complementary RNA prepared from 4.5 year-old trees xylem to an SFP array containing 103,000 25-mer oligonucleotide probes representing 20,726 unigenes derived from a modest size expressed sequence tags collection. An SFP-mapping microarray with 43,777 selected candidate SFP probes representing 15,698 genes was subsequently designed and used to genotype SFPs in a larger subset of the segregating population drawn by selective mapping. A total of 1,845 genes were mapped, with 884 of them ordered with high likelihood support on a framework map anchored to 180 microsatellites with average density of 1.2 cM. Using more probes per unigene increased by two-fold the likelihood of detecting segregating SFPs eventually resulting in more genes mapped. In silico validation showed that 87% of the SFPs map to the expected location on the 4.5X draft sequence of the Eucalyptus grandis genome. Conclusions The Eucalyptus 1,845 gene map is the most highly enriched map for transcriptional information for any forest tree species to date. It represents a major improvement on the number of genes previously positioned on Eucalyptus maps and provides an initial glimpse at the gene space for this global tree genome. A general protocol is proposed to build high-density transcript linkage maps in less characterized plant species by SFP genotyping

  18. Transcriptome analysis in cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) and RNA interference in insect pests.

    PubMed

    Firmino, Alexandre Augusto Pereira; Fonseca, Fernando Campos de Assis; de Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Coelho, Roberta Ramos; Antonino de Souza, José Dijair; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas-Jr, Georgios Joannis; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Engler, Gilbert; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi) as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families' data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects.

  19. Transcriptome Analysis in Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis) and RNA Interference in Insect Pests

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Roberta Ramos; Antonino de Souza Jr, José Dijair; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas-Jr, Georgios Joannis; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Engler, Gilbert; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi) as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families’ data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects. PMID:24386449

  20. Keeping pace with Capitol Hill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, C.

    2007-01-01

    At the Capitol Hill, the legislative branch of the United States government, the work is always at pace. Working with Congress is a tough job yet, rewarding. The Congress worked hard together to serve the public interest but many big issues are one small part of what Congress does. However, many US news media do not report what the government does instead, the media report what the government argues about. The media reports the conflicts but story is always incomplete. In order for the people know what is happening to the government, contact the congressional representative to know the complete story.

  1. Spirit Rover on 'Husband Hill'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Location of Spirit

    Two Earth years ago, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit touched down in Gusev Crater. The rover marked its first Mars-year (687 Earth days) anniversary in November 2005. Shortly before Spirit's Martian anniversary, the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor acquired an image covering approximately 3 kilometers by 3 kilometers (1.9 miles by 1.9 miles) centered on the rover's location at that time in the 'Columbia Hills.'

    'Husband Hill,' the tallest in the range, is just below the center of the image. The image has a resolution of about 50 centimeters (1.6 feet) per pixel. North is up; illumination is from the left. The location is near 14.8 degrees south latitude, 184.6 degrees west longitude.

    The image was acquired on Nov. 2, 2005. A white box (see Figure 1) indicates the location of an excerpted portion on which the location of Spirit on that date is marked. Dr. Timothy J. Parker of the Mars Exploration Rover team at the NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., confirmed the location of the rover in the image. The region toward the bottom of the image shows the area where the rover is currently headed. The large dark patch and other similar dark patches are accumulations of windblown sand and granules.

  2. Spirit Rover on 'Husband Hill'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Location of Spirit

    Two Earth years ago, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit touched down in Gusev Crater. The rover marked its first Mars-year (687 Earth days) anniversary in November 2005. Shortly before Spirit's Martian anniversary, the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor acquired an image covering approximately 3 kilometers by 3 kilometers (1.9 miles by 1.9 miles) centered on the rover's location at that time in the 'Columbia Hills.'

    'Husband Hill,' the tallest in the range, is just below the center of the image. The image has a resolution of about 50 centimeters (1.6 feet) per pixel. North is up; illumination is from the left. The location is near 14.8 degrees south latitude, 184.6 degrees west longitude.

    The image was acquired on Nov. 2, 2005. A white box (see Figure 1) indicates the location of an excerpted portion on which the location of Spirit on that date is marked. Dr. Timothy J. Parker of the Mars Exploration Rover team at the NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., confirmed the location of the rover in the image. The region toward the bottom of the image shows the area where the rover is currently headed. The large dark patch and other similar dark patches are accumulations of windblown sand and granules.

  3. Characterization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus communities of Aquilaria crassna and Tectona grandis roots and soils in Thailand plantations.

    PubMed

    Chaiyasen, Amornrat; Young, J Peter W; Teaumroong, Neung; Gavinlertvatana, Paiboolya; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2014-01-01

    Aquilaria crassna Pierre ex Lec. and Tectona grandis Linn.f. are sources of resin-suffused agarwood and teak timber, respectively. This study investigated arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus community structure in roots and rhizosphere soils of A. crassna and T. grandis from plantations in Thailand to understand whether AM fungal communities present in roots and rhizosphere soils vary with host plant species and study sites. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism complemented with clone libraries revealed that AM fungal community composition in A. crassna and T. grandis were similar. A total of 38 distinct terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) were found, 31 of which were shared between A. crassna and T. grandis. AM fungal communities in T. grandis samples from different sites were similar, as were those in A. crassna. The estimated average minimum numbers of AM fungal taxa per sample in roots and soils of T. grandis were at least 1.89 vs. 2.55, respectively, and those of A. crassna were 2.85 vs. 2.33 respectively. The TRFs were attributed to Claroideoglomeraceae, Diversisporaceae, Gigasporaceae and Glomeraceae. The Glomeraceae were found to be common in all study sites. Specific AM taxa in roots and soils of T. grandis and A. crassna were not affected by host plant species and sample source (root vs. soil) but affected by collecting site. Future inoculum production and utilization efforts can be directed toward the identified symbiotic associates of these valuable tree species to enhance reforestation efforts.

  4. Characterization of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Communities of Aquilaria crassna and Tectona grandis Roots and Soils in Thailand Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Chaiyasen, Amornrat; Young, J. Peter W.; Teaumroong, Neung; Gavinlertvatana, Paiboolya; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2014-01-01

    Aquilaria crassna Pierre ex Lec. and Tectona grandis Linn.f. are sources of resin-suffused agarwood and teak timber, respectively. This study investigated arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus community structure in roots and rhizosphere soils of A. crassna and T. grandis from plantations in Thailand to understand whether AM fungal communities present in roots and rhizosphere soils vary with host plant species and study sites. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism complemented with clone libraries revealed that AM fungal community composition in A. crassna and T. grandis were similar. A total of 38 distinct terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) were found, 31 of which were shared between A. crassna and T. grandis. AM fungal communities in T. grandis samples from different sites were similar, as were those in A. crassna. The estimated average minimum numbers of AM fungal taxa per sample in roots and soils of T. grandis were at least 1.89 vs. 2.55, respectively, and those of A. crassna were 2.85 vs. 2.33 respectively. The TRFs were attributed to Claroideoglomeraceae, Diversisporaceae, Gigasporaceae and Glomeraceae. The Glomeraceae were found to be common in all study sites. Specific AM taxa in roots and soils of T. grandis and A. crassna were not affected by host plant species and sample source (root vs. soil) but affected by collecting site. Future inoculum production and utilization efforts can be directed toward the identified symbiotic associates of these valuable tree species to enhance reforestation efforts. PMID:25397675

  5. Description and Phylogeny of Urostyla grandis wiackowskii subsp. nov. (Ciliophora, Hypotricha) from an Estuarine Mangrove in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Thiago da Silva; Shao, Chen; Fernandes, Noemi Mendes; Borges, Bárbara do Nascimento; da Silva-Neto, Inácio Domingos

    2016-01-01

    Interphase specimens, aspects of physiological reorganization and divisional morphogenesis were investigated in a strain of a hypotrichous ciliate highly similar to Urostyla grandis Ehrenberg, (type species of Urostyla), collected from a mangrove area in the estuary of the Paraíba do Sul river (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). The results revealed that albeit interphase specimens match with the known morphologic variability in U. grandis, morphogenetic processes have conspicuous differences. Parental adoral zone is entirely renewed during morphogenesis, and marginal cirri exhibit a unique combination of developmental modes, in which left marginal rows originate from multiple anlagen arising from innermost left marginal cirral row, whereas right marginal ciliature originates from individual within-row anlagen. Based on such characteristics, a new subspecies, namely U. grandis wiackowskii subsp. nov. is proposed, and consequently, U. grandis grandis Ehrenberg, stat. nov. is established. Bayesian and maximum-likelihood analyses of the 18S rDNA unambiguously placed U. grandis wiackowskii as adelphotaxon of a cluster formed by other U. grandis sequences. The implications of such findings to the systematics of Urostyla are discussed. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  6. Different processing of CAPA and pyrokinin precursors in the giant mealworm beetle Zophobas atratus (Tenebrionidae) and the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis grandis (Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Neupert, Susanne; Marciniak, Pawel; Köhler, Rene; Nachman, Ronald J; Suh, Charles P-C; Predel, Reinhard

    2017-08-31

    Capa and pyrokinin (pk) genes in hexapods share a common evolutionary origin. Using transcriptomics and peptidomics, we analyzed products of these genes in two beetles, the giant mealworm beetle (Zophobas atratus; Tenebrionidae) and the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis; Curculionidae). Our data revealed that even within Coleoptera, which represents a very well-defined group of insects, highly different evolutionary developments occurred in the neuropeptidergic system. These differences, however, primarily affect the general structure of the precursors and differential processing of mature peptides and, to a lesser degree, the sequences of the active core motifs. With the differential processing of the CAPA-precursor in Z. atratus we found a perfect example of completely different products cleaved from a single neuropeptide precursor in different cells. The CAPA precursor in abdominal ganglia of this species yields primarily periviscerokinins (PVKs) whereas processing of the same precursor in neurosecretory cells of the subesophageal ganglion results in CAPA-tryptoPK and a novel CAPA-PK. Particularly important was the detection of CAPA-PK which has never been observed in the CNS of insects before. The three different types of CAPA peptides (CAPA-tryptoPK, CAPA-PK, PVK) each represent potential ligands which activate different receptors. In contrast to the processing of the CAPA precursor from Z. atratus, no indications of a differential processing of the CAPA precursor were found in A. g. grandis. These data suggest that rapid evolutionary changes regarding the processing of CAPA precursors were still going on when the different beetle lineages diverged. The sequence of the single known PVK of A. g. grandis occupies a special position within the known PVKs of insects and might serve as a basis to develop lineage-specific peptidomimetics capable of disrupting physiological processes regulated by PVKs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. 7. Detail of balcony rail. August 1936. Joseph Hill, photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail of balcony rail. August 1936. Joseph Hill, photographer, copied from small photo taken by survey member. - Jansonist Colony, Steeple Building, Main & Bishop Hill Streets, Bishop Hill, Henry County, IL

  8. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer August 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer August 1936 FIRST ORIGINAL STORE AND POSTOFFICE, COPY OF AN EARLY PHOTOGRAPH. LENT BY EVELYN S. CRAIG - Jansonist Colony, Colony Store & Post Office, Main & Bishop Hill Streets, Bishop Hill, Henry County, IL

  9. 6. Detail of pilaster cap. Aug. 10, 1936. Joseph Hill, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail of pilaster cap. Aug. 10, 1936. Joseph Hill, photographer, copied from small photo taken by survey member. - Jansonist Colony, Steeple Building, Main & Bishop Hill Streets, Bishop Hill, Henry County, IL

  10. 3. West and south elevations. Joseph Hill, photographer, copied from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. West and south elevations. Joseph Hill, photographer, copied from photo lent by Evelyn S. Craig. August 1936. - Jansonist Colony, Steeple Building, Main & Bishop Hill Streets, Bishop Hill, Henry County, IL

  11. Bluff Hills - Ideal For Hardwood Timber Production

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Johnson

    1958-01-01

    Meandering along the eastern edge of the Mississippi River Valley from Cairo, Illinois, to Baton Rouge, Louisiana, are 4% million acres of forested uplands variously called the Loess Hills, the Thick Loess area, the Brown Loam Bluffs, the Bluff Hills, or just the Bluffs. The area (Fig. 1) is well known to foresters and lumbermen who work in the Lower Mississippi Valley...

  12. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rattlesnake Hills. 9.193... Rattlesnake Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Rattlesnake Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Rattlesnake Hills” is a term of viticultural significance....

  13. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rattlesnake Hills. 9.193... Rattlesnake Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Rattlesnake Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Rattlesnake Hills” is a term of viticultural significance....

  14. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rattlesnake Hills. 9.193... Rattlesnake Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Rattlesnake Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Rattlesnake Hills” is a term of viticultural significance....

  15. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rattlesnake Hills. 9.193... Rattlesnake Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Rattlesnake Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Rattlesnake Hills” is a term of viticultural significance....

  16. Leslie Pickney Hill's "Toussaint L'Ouverture."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ako, Edward O.

    1987-01-01

    In his 1928 play, the Harlem Renaissance writer Leslie Pickney Hill portrays Toussaint L'Ouverture, the leader of the Haitian slave rebellion, with historical accuracy. Hill's presentation was aimed at rehabilitating black pride, "A worthy literature reared upon authentic records of achievement is the present spiritual need of the race."…

  17. Management Decisions and the "Dred" Hills

    Treesearch

    Steven W. Anderson

    1992-01-01

    An area of public land called the Red Hills was being so abused by the public that it was often called the "Dred" Hills. Some staff work had been accomplished to protect sensitive areas within the 7,200-acre site, but depreciative behavior continued. Primary destructive activities included off-road vehicle use and indiscriminate shooting and dumping. This...

  18. Report on the Black Hills Alliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joe

    1979-01-01

    A rally to save the Black Hills from coal- and uranium-greedy energy companies was held on July 6 and over 2,000 joined in a 15-mile walk on July 7 in Rapid City, South Dakota. The Black Hills Alliance, an Indian coalition concerned about energy development proposals in the Great Plains, sponsored the gathering. (NQ)

  19. Colleges as Shining Cities on a Hill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Kathleen Kennedy

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes that the notion of America be reintroduced as the "shining city on a hill," that abiding image from American history. The image of the shining city on a hill captures the imagination because it reflects the abiding truth that people become fully human in society, not outside of it. People need one…

  20. Colleges as Shining Cities on a Hill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Kathleen Kennedy

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes that the notion of America be reintroduced as the "shining city on a hill," that abiding image from American history. The image of the shining city on a hill captures the imagination because it reflects the abiding truth that people become fully human in society, not outside of it. People need one…

  1. Glaciated appalachian plateau: till shadows on hills.

    PubMed

    Coates, D R

    1966-06-17

    North slopes are twice as steep as south slopes on the hills of central New York. This asymmetry is caused by unequal till thickness-3.6 meters on north slopes and 27.6 meters on south slopes. Previous workers interpreted the hills as being of bedrock sculptured by glacial erosion, with till 0.9 to 3 meters thick.

  2. Report on the Black Hills Alliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joe

    1979-01-01

    A rally to save the Black Hills from coal- and uranium-greedy energy companies was held on July 6 and over 2,000 joined in a 15-mile walk on July 7 in Rapid City, South Dakota. The Black Hills Alliance, an Indian coalition concerned about energy development proposals in the Great Plains, sponsored the gathering. (NQ)

  3. Soufriere Hills Volcano Resumes Activity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    A massive eruption of Montserrat’s Soufrière Hills Volcano covered large portions of the island in debris. The eruption was triggered by a collapse of Soufrière Hills’ summit lava dome on February 11, 2010. Pyroclastic flows raced down the northern flank of the volcano, leveling trees and destroying buildings in the village of Harris, which was abandoned after Soufrière Hills became active in 1995. The Montserrat Volcano Observatory reported that some flows, about 15 meters (49 feet) thick, reached the sea at Trant’s Bay. These flows extended the island’s coastline up to 650 meters (2,100 feet). These false-color satellite images show the southern half of Montserrat before and after the dome collapse. The top image shows Montserrat on February 21, 2010, just 10 days after the event. For comparison, the bottom image shows the same area on March 17, 2007. Red areas are vegetated, clouds are white, blue/black areas are ocean water, and gray areas are covered by flow deposits. Fresh deposits tend to be lighter than older deposits. On February 21, the drainages leading down from Soufrière Hills, including the White River Valley, the Tar River Valley, and the Belham River Valley, were filled with fresh debris. According to the Montserrat Volcano Observatory, pyroclastic flows reached the sea through Aymers Ghaut on January 18, 2010, and flows entered the sea near Plymouth on February 5, 2010. NASA Earth Observatory image by Robert Simmon, using data from the NASA/GSFC/METI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team. Caption by Robert Simmon. To read more go to: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=42792 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation's largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  4. Diel and seasonal movements by adult Sacramento pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus grandis) in the Eel River, northwestern California

    Treesearch

    Bret C. Harvey; Rodney J. Nakamoto

    1999-01-01

    Abstract - In late summer and fall, radio-tagged adult Sacramento pike-minnow (Ptychocheilus grandis) at three sites in the Eel River of northwestern California moved more at night than during the day. Fish moved up to 535 m at night and returned to their original positions the following morning. Adult Sacramento pikeminnow at all sites occupied only pools during the...

  5. Secondary resin production increases with vigor of Abies grandis inoculated with Trichosporium symbioticum in northeastern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Gregory M. Filip; Erik Christiansen; Catherine A. Parks

    1989-01-01

    Thirty grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl.) trees were artificially inoculated with the fungal symbiont, Trichosporium symbioticum Wright, to simulate attack by the fir engraver beetle, Scolytus ventralis LeConte. Fifteen months after treatment, secondary resin production, necrotic lesion...

  6. Chemical components of cold pressed kernel oils from different Torreya grandis cultivars.

    PubMed

    He, Zhiyong; Zhu, Haidong; Li, Wangling; Zeng, Maomao; Wu, Shengfang; Chen, Shangwei; Qin, Fang; Chen, Jie

    2016-10-15

    The chemical compositions of cold pressed kernel oils of seven Torreya grandis cultivars from China were analyzed in this study. The contents of the chemical components of T. grandis kernels and kernel oils varied to different extents with the cultivar. The T. grandis kernels contained relatively high oil and protein content (45.80-53.16% and 10.34-14.29%, respectively). The kernel oils were rich in unsaturated fatty acids including linoleic (39.39-47.77%), oleic (30.47-37.54%) and eicosatrienoic acid (6.78-8.37%). The kernel oils contained some abundant bioactive substances such as tocopherols (0.64-1.77mg/g) consisting of α-, β-, γ- and δ-isomers; sterols including β-sitosterol (0.90-1.29mg/g), campesterol (0.06-0.32mg/g) and stigmasterol (0.04-0.18mg/g) in addition to polyphenols (9.22-22.16μgGAE/g). The results revealed that the T. grandis kernel oils possessed the potentially important nutrition and health benefits and could be used as oils in the human diet or functional ingredients in the food industry.

  7. Layered Rocks in 'Columbia Hills'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This black-and-white image shows the first layered rocks scientists have seen close up in Gusev Crater, where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit landed Jan. 4, 2004. While Spirit's twin rover, Opportunity, reached the stadium-size Endurance Crater on the other side of Mars and began exploring its many layered outcrops in early May, Spirit traveled more than 3.5 kilometers (2.2 miles) to get to this layered bedrock in the 'Columbia Hills.' Scientists are planning to conduct a study of these rocks to determine if they are volcanic or sedimentary in origin, and if they have been chemically altered. Spirit's panoramic camera took this image on sol 217 (Aug. 13, 2004).

  8. Chemical Variability and Biological Activities of Eucalyptus spp. Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Luiz Claudio Almeida; Filomeno, Claudinei Andrade; Teixeira, Robson Ricardo

    2016-12-07

    Many plant species produce mixtures of odorous and volatile compounds known as essential oils (EOs). These mixtures play important roles in Nature and have been utilized by mankind for different purposes, such as pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, aromatherapy, and food flavorants. There are more than 3000 EOs reported in the literature, with approximately 300 in commercial use, including the EOs from Eucalyptus species. Most EOs from Eucalyptus species are rich in monoterpenes and many have found applications in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, food flavorants, and perfumes. Such applications are related to their diverse biological and organoleptic properties. In this study, we review the latest information concerning the chemical composition and biological activities of EOs from different species of Eucalyptus. Among the 900 species and subspecies of the Eucalyptus genus, we examined 68 species. The studies associated with these species were conducted in 27 countries. We have focused on the antimicrobial, acaricidal, insecticidal and herbicidal activities, hoping that such information will contribute to the development of research in this field. It is also intended that the information described in this study can be useful in the rationalization of the use of Eucalyptus EOs as components for pharmaceutical and agrochemical applications as well as food preservatives and flavorants.

  9. Phylogeny Explains Variation in The Root Chemistry of Eucalyptus Species.

    PubMed

    Senior, John K; Potts, Brad M; Davies, Noel W; Wooliver, Rachel C; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Bailey, Joseph K; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M

    2016-10-01

    Plants are dependent on their root systems for survival, and thus are defended from belowground enemies by a range of strategies, including plant secondary metabolites (PSMs). These compounds vary among species, and an understanding of this variation may provide generality in predicting the susceptibility of forest trees to belowground enemies and the quality of their organic matter input to soil. Here, we investigated phylogenetic patterns in the root chemistry of species within the genus Eucalyptus. Given the known diversity of PSMs in eucalypt foliage, we hypothesized that (i) the range and concentrations of PSMs and carbohydrates in roots vary among Eucalyptus species, and (ii) that phylogenetic relationships explain a significant component of this variation. To test for interspecific variation in root chemistry and the influence of tree phylogeny, we grew 24 Eucalyptus species representing two subgenera (Eucalyptus and Symphyomyrtus) in a common garden for two years. Fine root samples were collected from each species and analyzed for total phenolics, condensed tannins, carbohydrates, terpenes, and formylated phloroglucinol compounds. Compounds displaying significant interspecific variation were mapped onto a molecular phylogeny and tested for phylogenetic signal. Although all targeted groups of compounds were present, we found that phenolics dominated root defenses and that all phenolic traits displayed significant interspecific variation. Further, these compounds displayed a significant phylogenetic signal. Overall, our results suggest that within these representatives of genus Eucalyptus, more closely related species have more similar root chemistry, which may influence their susceptibility to belowground enemies and soil organic matter accrual.

  10. Conservation education and habitat restoration for the endangered Sagalla caecilian (Boulengerula niedeni) in Sagalla Hill, Kenya.

    PubMed

    K Malonza, Patrick

    2016-05-18

    The Sagalla caecilian (Boulengerula niedeni) is an endangered amphibian endemic to Sagalla Hill in the Taita Hills. This burrowing worm-like species prefers soft soil with high moisture and organic matter. The major threats to the Sagalla caecilian are soil erosion caused by steep slopes, bare ground and water siphoning/soil hardening from exotic eucalyptus trees. The purpose of this study was to get a better understanding of the local people's attitude towards this species and how they can contribute to its continued conservation through restoration of its remaining habitat. In this study, it was found that 96% of Sagalla people are aware of the species, its habits and its association with soils high in organic matter. It was also found that 96% of Sagalla people use organic manure from cow dung in their farms. Habitat restoration through planting of indigenous plants was found to be ongoing, especially on compounds of public institutions as well as on private lands. Although drought was found to be a challenge for seedlings development especially on the low elevation sites, destruction by livestock especially during the dry season is also a major threat. In this study, it was recommended that any future habitat restoration initiative should include strong chain-link fencing to protect the seedlings from livestock activity. Recognizing that the preferred habitats for the species are in the valleys, systematic planting of keystone plant species such as fig trees (Ficus) creates the best microhabitats. These are better than general woodlots of indigenous trees.

  11. Comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the Aux/IAA gene family in Eucalyptus: evidence for the role of EgrIAA4 in wood formation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Soler, Marçal; San Clemente, Hélène; Mila, Isabelle; Paiva, Jorge A P; Myburg, Alexander A; Bouzayen, Mondher; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Cassan-Wang, Hua

    2015-04-01

    Auxin plays a pivotal role in various plant growth and development processes, including vascular differentiation. The modulation of auxin responsiveness through the auxin perception and signaling machinery is believed to be a major regulatory mechanism controlling cambium activity and wood formation. To gain more insights into the roles of key Aux/IAA gene regulators of the auxin response in these processes, we identified and characterized members of the Aux/IAA family in the genome of Eucalyptus grandis, a tree of worldwide economic importance. We found that the gene family in Eucalyptus is slightly smaller than that in Populus and Arabidopsis, but all phylogenetic groups are represented. High-throughput expression profiling of different organs and tissues highlighted several Aux/IAA genes expressed in vascular cambium and/or developing xylem, some showing differential expression in response to developmental (juvenile vs. mature) and/or to environmental (tension stress) cues. Based on the expression profiles, we selected a promising candidate gene, EgrIAA4, for functional characterization. We showed that EgrIAA4 protein is localized in the nucleus and functions as an auxin-responsive repressor. Overexpressing a stabilized version of EgrIAA4 in Arabidopsis dramatically impeded plant growth and fertility and induced auxin-insensitive phenotypes such as inhibition of primary root elongation, lateral root emergence and agravitropism. Interestingly, the lignified secondary walls of the interfascicular fibers appeared very late, whereas those of the xylary fibers were virtually undetectable, suggesting that EgrIAA4 may play crucial roles in fiber development and secondary cell wall deposition.

  12. In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus torelliana

    PubMed Central

    Adeniyi, Christiana Bola A.; Lawal, Temitope Olufunmilayo; Mahady, Gail B.

    2010-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. and Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell. (Myrtaceae), Nigerian medicinal plants, was investigated in six strains of H. pylori, namely, ATCC 4504, ATCC 47619, A2, TI8984, 019A, and A6. The susceptibility of these strains was determined using a standardized agar dilution method (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines) with Mueller–Hinton agar, supplemented with defibrinated horse blood. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts against all the tested strains ranged from 12.5 to 400 μg/mL. Phytochemical screening of the plant extracts revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, and cardenolides. The anti-H. pylori activities demonstrated by these plants may be attributed to their chemical constituents, and explain their reported traditional uses, as well as their gastroprotective properties as demonstrated previously in experimental animals. The results of this work suggest that, in accordance with their traditional medical use in Nigeria, E. camaldalensis and E. torelliana have some therapeutic potential against H. pylori, and thus are of interest for the treatment of H. pylori infections. PMID:20396588

  13. Should Exotic Eucalyptus be Planted in Subtropical China: Insights from Understory Plant Diversity in Two Contrasting Eucalyptus Chronosequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianping; Fan, Houbao; Liu, Wenfei; Huang, Guomin; Tang, Jianfu; Zeng, Ruijin; Huang, Jing; Liu, Zhanfeng

    2015-11-01

    Although Eucalyptus is widely planted in South China, whose effects on native biodiversity are unclear. The objective of this study was to quantify the richness and composition of understory plants in two contrasting Eucalyptus chronosequences in South China. One was in Zhangzhou City with plantation age of 2, 4, and 6 years after clear-cutting Chinese fir forests, while the other was in Heshan City with plantation age of 2, 3, and 24 years that reforested on barren lands. Results showed that the richness of understory plants and functional groups was not significantly altered in the Zhangzhou chronosequence, while increased in the 24-year-old plantations, with a significantly larger proportion of woody plants than the younger plantations for the Heshan chronosequence. Moreover, a higher richness of woody plants accompanied by a lower richness of herbaceous species was detected in the Zhangzhou chronosequence compared with the Heshan one. To balance the need for pulp production and plant diversity conservation, we suggest that intercropping approaches between exotic Eucalyptus plantations and native forests should be considered in the fast rotation Eucalyptus plantations. However, Eucalyptus plantations may be used as pioneer species to sustain ecosystem functioning for the degraded lands.

  14. Should Exotic Eucalyptus be Planted in Subtropical China: Insights from Understory Plant Diversity in Two Contrasting Eucalyptus Chronosequences.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianping; Fan, Houbao; Liu, Wenfei; Huang, Guomin; Tang, Jianfu; Zeng, Ruijin; Huang, Jing; Liu, Zhanfeng

    2015-11-01

    Although Eucalyptus is widely planted in South China, whose effects on native biodiversity are unclear. The objective of this study was to quantify the richness and composition of understory plants in two contrasting Eucalyptus chronosequences in South China. One was in Zhangzhou City with plantation age of 2, 4, and 6 years after clear-cutting Chinese fir forests, while the other was in Heshan City with plantation age of 2, 3, and 24 years that reforested on barren lands. Results showed that the richness of understory plants and functional groups was not significantly altered in the Zhangzhou chronosequence, while increased in the 24-year-old plantations, with a significantly larger proportion of woody plants than the younger plantations for the Heshan chronosequence. Moreover, a higher richness of woody plants accompanied by a lower richness of herbaceous species was detected in the Zhangzhou chronosequence compared with the Heshan one. To balance the need for pulp production and plant diversity conservation, we suggest that intercropping approaches between exotic Eucalyptus plantations and native forests should be considered in the fast rotation Eucalyptus plantations. However, Eucalyptus plantations may be used as pioneer species to sustain ecosystem functioning for the degraded lands.

  15. Genetic Control of Heterochrony in Eucalyptus globulus

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Corey J.; Freeman, Jules S.; Jones, Rebecca C.; Potts, Brad M.; Wong, Melissa M. L.; Weller, James L.; Hecht, Valérie F. G.; Poethig, R. Scott; Vaillancourt, René E.

    2014-01-01

    A change in the timing or rate of developmental events throughout ontogeny is referred to as heterochrony, and it is a major evolutionary process in plants and animals. We investigated the genetic basis for natural variation in the timing of vegetative phase change in the tree Eucalyptus globulus, which undergoes a dramatic change in vegetative morphology during the juvenile-to-adult transition. Quantitative trait loci analysis in an outcross F2 family derived from crosses between individuals from a coastal population of E. globulus with precocious vegetative phase change and individuals from populations in which vegetative phase change occurs several years later implicated the microRNA EglMIR156.5 as a potential contributor to this heterochronic difference. Additional evidence for the involvement of EglMIR156.5 was provided by its differential expression in trees with early and late phase change. Our findings suggest that changes in the expression of miR156 underlie natural variation in vegetative phase change in E. globulus, and may also explain interspecific differences in the timing of this developmental transition. PMID:24950963

  16. Foliar nutrient retranslocation in Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Saur, E; Nambiar, E K; Fife, D N

    2000-10-01

    We measured patterns of change in concentrations and contents of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and calcium in fully expanded leaves of young Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) trees growing in a plantation in southeastern Australia, over a 12-month period beginning at the onset of spring. There was significant net retranslocation of mobile nutrients on a seasonal basis from green leaves, coinciding with continued growth and production of foliage. There was a close positive relationship between initial nutrient content (N, P and K) of the leaf and amount retranslocated, and a tight coupling between N and P retranslocated from leaves. Net retranslocation was significantly correlated with basal area growth increments. Artificial shading of leaves resulted in senescence and reduction in leaf mass. It also induced retranslocation of N, P and K from leaves of different ages and from different position in the canopy. Although the mechanisms underlying the effects of shading intensity on these changes were not elucidated, shading provided an experimental tool for studying retranslocation. Comparison of the results with published data for Pinus radiata (D. Don) grown in the same environment indicated a similarity between the species in patterns of change in foliar nutrient contents and in factors governing foliar nutrient retranslocation, giving rise to unifying principles.

  17. Suppression of branches in Eucalyptus trees.

    PubMed

    Senthalir, P; Sharanya, S; Paramathma, M

    2004-06-01

    The effect of neem oil, which acts as a suckericide in tobacco, on branch suppression in Eucalyptus tereticornis was assessed to help maximize stem biomass. Lateral branches of selected trees were pruned, and neem oil solutions at concentrations of either 80%, 40%, 20%, 10%, or 0% (untreated control) were applied to leaf axils of the pruned branches. Regeneration of branches was suppressed, and the magnitude of suppression was proportional to the concentration of neem oil. Compared to the control, the percentage reduction in branching at 80% neem oil was 41.6%. When regenerated branches were repruned and neem oil applied at either 100%, 80%, or 0% (control), the regenerating ability of these branches was severely repressed by 78% at 100% neem oil relative to the control. Apical shoots were also topped and treated at either 100% or 0% (control) neem oil to identify the principal suppressive component in neem oil. The principal component azadirachtin was tested at 375, 750, 1500, 3125, 6250, 12 500, 25 000, 50 000, and 100 000 ppm and 0 ppm as the control. Reduction in the coppicing shoot was as high as 85%. Azadirachtin was responsible for the suppression. By pruning the lateral branches with neem oil, wasteful consumption of photosynthates can be precluded and the stem biomass maximized.

  18. Descent from the Summit of 'Husband Hill'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Descent from the Summit of 'Husband Hill' (QTVR)

    In late November 2005 while descending 'Husband Hill,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took the most detailed panorama so far of the 'Inner Basin,' the rover's next target destination. Spirit acquired the 405 individual images that make up this 360-degree view of the surrounding terrain using five different filters on the panoramic camera. The rover took the images on Martian days, or sols, 672 to 677 (Nov. 23 to 28, 2005 -- the Thanksgiving holiday weekend).

    This image is an approximately true-color rendering using camera's 750-, 530-, and 430-nanometer filters. Seams between individual frames have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

    'Home Plate,' a bright, semi-circular feature scientists hope to investigate, is harder to discern in this image than in earlier views taken from higher up the hill. Spirit acquired this more oblique view, known as the 'Seminole panorama,' from about halfway down the south flank of Husband Hill, 50 meters (164 feet) or so below the summit. Near the center of the panorama, on the horizon, are 'McCool Hill' and 'Ramon Hill,' named, like Husband Hill, in honor of the fallen astronauts of the space shuttle Columbia. Husband Hill is visible behind the rover, on the right and left sides of the panorama. An arc of rover tracks made while avoiding obstacles and getting into position to examine rock outcrops can be traced over a long distance by zooming in to explore the panorama in greater detail.

    Spirit is now significantly farther downhill toward the center of this panorama, en route to Home Plate and other enigmatic soils and outcrop rocks in the quest to uncover the history of Gusev Crater and the 'Columbia Hills.'

  19. Descent from the Summit of 'Husband Hill'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Descent from the Summit of 'Husband Hill' (QTVR)

    In late November 2005 while descending 'Husband Hill,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took the most detailed panorama so far of the 'Inner Basin,' the rover's next target destination. Spirit acquired the 405 individual images that make up this 360-degree view of the surrounding terrain using five different filters on the panoramic camera. The rover took the images on Martian days, or sols, 672 to 677 (Nov. 23 to 28, 2005 -- the Thanksgiving holiday weekend).

    This image is an approximately true-color rendering using camera's 750-, 530-, and 430-nanometer filters. Seams between individual frames have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

    'Home Plate,' a bright, semi-circular feature scientists hope to investigate, is harder to discern in this image than in earlier views taken from higher up the hill. Spirit acquired this more oblique view, known as the 'Seminole panorama,' from about halfway down the south flank of Husband Hill, 50 meters (164 feet) or so below the summit. Near the center of the panorama, on the horizon, are 'McCool Hill' and 'Ramon Hill,' named, like Husband Hill, in honor of the fallen astronauts of the space shuttle Columbia. Husband Hill is visible behind the rover, on the right and left sides of the panorama. An arc of rover tracks made while avoiding obstacles and getting into position to examine rock outcrops can be traced over a long distance by zooming in to explore the panorama in greater detail.

    Spirit is now significantly farther downhill toward the center of this panorama, en route to Home Plate and other enigmatic soils and outcrop rocks in the quest to uncover the history of Gusev Crater and the 'Columbia Hills.'

  20. Evaluating the accuracy of genomic prediction of growth and wood traits in two Eucalyptus species and their F1 hybrids.

    PubMed

    Tan, Biyue; Grattapaglia, Dario; Martins, Gustavo Salgado; Ferreira, Karina Zamprogno; Sundberg, Björn; Ingvarsson, Pär K

    2017-06-29

    Genomic prediction is a genomics assisted breeding methodology that can increase genetic gains by accelerating the breeding cycle and potentially improving the accuracy of breeding values. In this study, we use 41,304 informative SNPs genotyped in a Eucalyptus breeding population involving 90 E.grandis and 78 E.urophylla parents and their 949 F1 hybrids to develop genomic prediction models for eight phenotypic traits - basic density and pulp yield, circumference at breast height and height and tree volume scored at age three and six years. We assessed the impact of different genomic prediction methods, the composition and size of the training and validation set and the number and genomic location of SNPs on the predictive ability (PA). Heritabilities estimated using the realized genomic relationship matrix (GRM) were considerably higher than estimates based on the expected pedigree, mainly due to inconsistencies in the expected pedigree that were readily corrected by the GRM. Moreover, the GRM more precisely capture Mendelian sampling among related individuals, such that the genetic covariance was based on the true proportion of the genome shared between individuals. PA improved considerably when increasing the size of the training set and by enhancing relatedness to the validation set. Prediction models trained on pure species parents could not predict well in F1 hybrids, indicating that model training has to be carried out in hybrid populations if one is to predict in hybrid selection candidates. The different genomic prediction methods provided similar results for all traits, therefore either GBLUP or rrBLUP represents better compromises between computational time and prediction efficiency. Only slight improvement was observed in PA when more than 5000 SNPs were used for all traits. Using SNPs in intergenic regions provided slightly better PA than using SNPs sampled exclusively in genic regions. The size and composition of the training set and number of SNPs

  1. Transcriptome and proteome analysis of Eucalyptus infected with Calonectria pseudoreteaudii.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quanzhu; Guo, Wenshuo; Feng, Lizhen; Ye, Xiaozhen; Xie, Wanfeng; Huang, Xiuping; Liu, Jinyan

    2015-02-06

    Cylindrocladium leaf blight is one of the most severe diseases in Eucalyptus plantations and nurseries. There are Eucalyptus cultivars with resistance to the disease. However, little is known about the defense mechanism of resistant cultivars. Here, we investigated the transcriptome and proteome of Eucalyptus leaves (E. urophylla×E. tereticornis M1), infected or not with Calonectria pseudoreteaudii. A total of 8585 differentially expressed genes (|log2 ratio| ≥1, FDR ≤0.001) at 12 and 24hours post-inoculation were detected using RNA-seq. Transcriptional changes for five genes were further confirmed by qRT-PCR. A total of 3680 proteins at the two time points were identified using iTRAQ technique.The combined transcriptome and proteome analysis revealed that the shikimate/phenylpropanoid pathway, terpenoid biosynthesis, signalling pathway (jasmonic acid and sugar) were activated. The data also showed that some proteins (WRKY33 and PR proteins) which have been reported to involve in plant defense response were up-regulated. However, photosynthesis, nucleic acid metabolism and protein metabolism were impaired by the infection of C. pseudoreteaudii. This work will facilitate the identification of defense related genes and provide insights into Eucalyptus defense responses to Cylindrocladium leaf blight. In this study, a total of 130 proteins and genes involved in the shikimate/phenylpropanoid pathway, terpenoid biosynthesis, signalling pathway, cell transport, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism and protein metabolism in Eucalyptus leaves after infected with C. pseudoreteaudii were identified. This is the first report of a comprehensive transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of Eucalyptus in response to Calonectria sp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Symplectic Integrator for Hill's Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Thomas; Perrine, Randall P.; Richardson, Derek C.; Barnes, Rory

    2010-02-01

    Hill's equations are an approximation that is useful in a number of areas of astrophysics including planetary rings and planetesimal disks. We derive a symplectic method for integrating Hill's equations based on a generalized leapfrog. This method is implemented in the parallel N-body code, PKDGRAV, and tested on some simple orbits. The method demonstrates a lack of secular changes in orbital elements, making it a very useful technique for integrating Hill's equations over many dynamical times. Furthermore, the method allows for efficient collision searching using linear extrapolation of particle positions.

  3. A SYMPLECTIC INTEGRATOR FOR HILL'S EQUATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Thomas; Barnes, Rory; Perrine, Randall P.; Richardson, Derek C.

    2010-02-15

    Hill's equations are an approximation that is useful in a number of areas of astrophysics including planetary rings and planetesimal disks. We derive a symplectic method for integrating Hill's equations based on a generalized leapfrog. This method is implemented in the parallel N-body code, PKDGRAV, and tested on some simple orbits. The method demonstrates a lack of secular changes in orbital elements, making it a very useful technique for integrating Hill's equations over many dynamical times. Furthermore, the method allows for efficient collision searching using linear extrapolation of particle positions.

  4. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working Document 9. Economics of producing methanol from Eucalyptus in Central Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    A detailed feasibility study of producing methanol from Eucalyptus in Central Florida encompasses all phases of production - from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The project includes the following components: (1) production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; (2) establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; and (3) engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-year methanol production facility. In addition, the potential environmental impacts of the whole project were examined, safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol were analyzed, and site specific cost estimates were made. The economics of the project are presented here. Each of the three major components of the project - tissue culture lab, energy plantation, and methanol refinery - are examined individually. In each case a site specific analysis of the potential return on investment was conducted.

  5. Hill-Climbing Attacks and Robust Online Signature Verification Algorithm against Hill-Climbing Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Daigo

    Attacks using hill-climbing methods have been reported as a vulnerability of biometric authentication systems. In this paper, we propose a robust online signature verification algorithm against such attacks. Specifically, the attack considered in this paper is a hill-climbing forged data attack. Artificial forgeries are generated offline by using the hill-climbing method, and the forgeries are input to a target system to be attacked. In this paper, we analyze the menace of hill-climbing forged data attacks using six types of hill-climbing forged data and propose a robust algorithm by incorporating the hill-climbing method into an online signature verification algorithm. Experiments to evaluate the proposed system were performed using a public online signature database. The proposed algorithm showed improved performance against this kind of attack.

  6. 27 CFR 9.136 - Texas Hill Country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Texas Hill Country. 9.136... Texas Hill Country. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Texas Hill Country.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the “Texas Hill...

  7. 27 CFR 9.169 - Red Hills Lake County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Hills Lake County. 9... Red Hills Lake County. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Hills Lake County”. (b) Approved Map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Red Hills...

  8. 27 CFR 9.169 - Red Hills Lake County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red Hills Lake County. 9... Red Hills Lake County. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Hills Lake County”. (b) Approved Map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Red Hills...

  9. 27 CFR 9.169 - Red Hills Lake County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red Hills Lake County. 9... Red Hills Lake County. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Hills Lake County”. (b) Approved Map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Red Hills...

  10. Exploring Hill Ciphers with Graphing Calculators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Dennis

    1998-01-01

    Explains how to code and decode messages using Hill ciphers which combine matrix multiplication and modular arithmetic. Discusses how a graphing calculator can facilitate the matrix and modular arithmetic used in the coding and decoding procedures. (ASK)

  11. Confidence Hills Drill Powder in Scoop

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-04

    This image from NASA Curiosity rover shows a sample of powdered rock extracted by the rover drill from the Confidence Hills target -- the first rock drilled after Curiosity reached the base of Mount Sharp in September 2014.

  12. Exploring Hill Ciphers with Graphing Calculators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Dennis

    1998-01-01

    Explains how to code and decode messages using Hill ciphers which combine matrix multiplication and modular arithmetic. Discusses how a graphing calculator can facilitate the matrix and modular arithmetic used in the coding and decoding procedures. (ASK)

  13. Dark Hill on Asteroid Vesta Movie

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-06

    This still from a movie shows an image taken by NASA Dawn spacecraft layered on a digital terrain model of an unusual hill containing a dark-rayed impact crater and nearby dark deposit on asteroid Vesta.

  14. Ionospheric Climatology Over Millstone Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Holt, J. M.

    2002-05-01

    26 years of incoherent scatter observations over Millstone Hill since 1976 have been analyzed and modeled in order to study the climatological behavior in the local ionosphere-thermosphere system. A bin-fit technique is applied to process and represent the huge volume of data: measurements are binned according to local time, season, and altitude; sorted data in each bin are fitted into an empirical model where solar activity index F107 and geomagnetical activity index Ap are included as keyed inputs [Holt et al., 2002]. This paper focuses on seasonal, semiannual and annual variations and the long-term trend in electron density, electron temperature and ion temperature measurements over a 200-500 km height range of the F2 layer. A clear semiannual variation of the electron density is seen above the F2 peak during the day, as well as at the F2 peak and below during the later afternoon to evening period (16-20LT) . The semiannual variation of the electron temperature persists with minimum at equinox during the night, while the annual variation prevails by day with maximum in summer.

  15. The Igwisi Hills extrusive 'kimberlites'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, A. M.; Donaldson, C. H.; Dawson, J. B.; Brown, R. W.; Ridley, W. I.

    1975-01-01

    The petrography and mineral chemistry of volcanic rocks from the Igwisi Hills in Tanzania are discussed. There is considerable evidence to suggest that the Igwisi rocks are extrusive kimberlites: a two-component nature with high P-T minerals in a low P-T matrix; the presence of chrome pyrope, Al enstatite, chrome diopside, chromite and olivine; a highly oxidized, volatile-rich matrix with serpentine, calcite, magnetite, perovskite; high Sr, Zr, and Nb contents; occurrence in a narrow isolated vent within a stable shield area. The Igwisi rocks differ from kimberlite in the lack of magnesian ilmenite, the scarcity of matrix phlogopite, and the overall low alkali content. They apparently contain material from phlogopite-bearing garnet peridotites with a primary mineral assemblage indicative of equilibrium at upper mantle temperatures and pressures. This primary assemblage was brought rapidly to the surface in a gas-charged, carbonate-rich fluid. Rapid upward transport, extrusion, and rapid cooling have tended to prevent reaction between inclusions and the carbonate-rich matrix that might otherwise have yielded a more typical kimberlite.

  16. A perspective on Capitol Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, Carroll Ann

    As the AGU Congressional Science Fellow for 1980-1981, I had a unique opportunity to witness the federal engine in action—a remarkable piece of machinery. The American Association for the Advancement of Science organized an excellent orientation program, introducing our class of science fellows (about 30) to the kinds of options available for a year's tenure on Capitol Hill. These include affiliation with a congressman's or senator's staff or with one of the hundred or so standing, select, or joint committees and subcommittees. I arranged to join the personal staff of Congressman Jim Santini (D, Nev.), largely because of his demonstrated interest in Department of Interior affairs in general and the minerals industry in particular. The position of fellow provides no guarantee of work in one's areas of expertise or inclination, however, and I found that my staff assignments included topics ranging from wild horses to peanut subsidies. My principal task involved evaluation of the Air Force proposal to deploy the MX missile in Nevada and the consequent impact of that incredible scheme on the physical and economic environments of the state and the nation, including effects on minerals exploration. I had not expected to become conversant with missile technology, but the exercise provided quite an education.

  17. Streamlined Hills of Maja Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 16 May 2003

    Classic catastrophic flood morphology (streamlined hills and longitudinal grooves) is captured in this image of Lunae Planum. Similar features (although much smaller in size) are seen in terrestrial catastrophic flood regions such as Channeled Scabland of Washington state and in Iceland.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 14.8, Longitude 301.8East (58.2). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck.

    PubMed

    Ou, Ming-Chiu; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Sun, Yung-Wei; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi) and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (C. grandis) were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06%) and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%). In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities.

  19. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Ming-Chiu; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Sun, Yung-Wei; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi) and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (C. grandis) were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06%) and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%). In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities. PMID:26681970

  20. Cut-to-length harvesting of short-rotation Eucalyptus

    Treesearch

    Bruce R. Hartsough; David J. Cooper

    1999-01-01

    Traditional whole-tree harvesting systems work well in short-rotation hardwood plantations, but other methods are needed where it is desirable to leave the residues on the site. We tested a system consisting of a cut-to-length harvester, forwarder, mobile chipper, and chip screen to clearcut a 7-year-old plantation of Eucalyptus viminalis. Three...

  1. Lumber grade recoverey from Hawaii-grown robusta Eucalyptus logs

    Treesearch

    Roger G. Skolmen

    1970-01-01

    In part to supplement meager data on lumber grade yield of Hawaii-grown timber, 30 robusta eucalyptus logs were shipped to a Michigan sawmill for processing. The logs were from 12 trees in three different stands. The lumber produced was graded according to National Hardwood Lumber Association standards. The sample was too small to provide a basis for predicting grade...

  2. Transcript profiling of Eucalyptus xylem genes during tension wood formation.

    PubMed

    Paux, Etienne; Carocha, Víctor; Marques, Cristina; Mendes de Sousa, António; Borralho, Nuno; Sivadon, Pierre; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2005-07-01

    Tension wood formed in response to gravitational force is a striking example of the plasticity of angiosperm wood. In this study our goal was to characterize the early changes in gene expression during tension wood formation in Eucalyptus. Using cDNA array technology, transcript profiling of 231 genes preferentially expressed in differentiating Eucalyptus xylem was followed from 6 h to 1 wk of a tension time course of artificially bent Eucalyptus trees. 196 genes were differentially regulated between control and bent trees, some exhibiting distinctive expression patterns related to changes in secondary cell wall structure and composition. For instance, expression of a cellulose synthase gene was well correlated with the appearance of the G-layers. Cluster correlation analysis revealed differential regulation of lignin biosynthetic genes and may also be used to help infer the function of unknown gene products. Eucalyptus wood transcriptome analysis during tension wood formation not only provided new clues into the transcriptional regulatory network of genes preferentially expressed in xylem, but also highlighted candidate genes responsible for the genetic and environmentally induced variation of wood quality traits.

  3. Developing clones of Eucalyptus cloeziana resistant to rust (Puccinia psidii)

    Treesearch

    Rafael F. Alfenas; Marcelo M. Coutinho; Camila S. Freitas; Rodrigo G. Freitas; Acelino C. Alfenas

    2012-01-01

    Besides its high resistance to Chrysoporthe cubensis canker, Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell. is a highly valuable tree species for wood production. It can be used for furniture, electric poles, fence posts, and charcoal. Nevertheless, it is highly susceptible to the rust caused by Puccinia psidii, which...

  4. Ongoing molecular studies of Eucalyptus powdery mildew in Brazil

    Treesearch

    N. R. Fonseca; L. M. S. Guimaraes; R. P. Pires; Ned Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim; A. C. Alfenas

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew diseases are caused by biotrophic fungi in the Erysiphales. These fungal pathogens are easily observed by the whitish powdery appearance caused by their colonization of the aerial surfaces on living plants (Stadnik & Rivera, 2001) (Figure 1). In Brazil, powdery mildew of Eucalyptus spp is increasing under the current nursery production...

  5. Clonal propagation on Eucalyptus by cuttings in France

    Treesearch

    H. Chaperon

    1983-01-01

    A.FO.CEL has developed a technique for mass propagation by cuttings of Eucalyptus in France. This technique is described from the selection of the ortet to the mass propagation of the clone for afforestation: the first stage is the mobilization of the ortet, the second stage is called pre-propagation which includes rejuvenating and rooting conditioning, the third stage...

  6. Soil conservation service tests of Eucalyptus species for windbreaks

    Treesearch

    Gary L. Young

    1983-01-01

    The Soil Conservation Service is in the early stages of testing many species of Eucalyptus or windbreaks. Over 260 different species have been collected. The pre-planting selection criteria and process is described as well as the test conditions and procedures. Some sources of information on the use of the Eucalypts may be misleading through...

  7. Large-scale Eucalyptus energy farms and power cogeneration

    Treesearch

    Robert C. Noroña

    1983-01-01

    A thorough evaluation of all factors possibly affecting a large-scale planting of eucalyptus is foremost in determining the cost effectiveness of the planned operation. Seven basic areas of concern must be analyzed:1. Species Selection 2. Site Preparation 3. Planting 4. Weed Control 5....

  8. Tests of 36 Eucalyptus species in northern California

    Treesearch

    James P. King; Stanley L. Krugmanand

    1980-01-01

    A trial of 36 species of Eucalyptus near Concord, California, found species of sufficiently rapid growth and good survival to merit further screening. Species from western Australia and of the subgenus Monocalyprus all failed on the site. E. camaldulensis, E. dalrympleana, E....

  9. Drought in the Black Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Color-Coded Map

    Despite good rainfall and record-setting snowstorms in the spring of 2005, most of northeastern Wyoming, the Black Hills, and western South Dakota remain in the midst of a severe drought. This set of images and maps from NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) contrast the appearance of the Black Hills region of northwestern South Dakota on July 12, 2000 (left column), with views acquired four years later, on July 14, 2004 (right column). The natural-color images along the top are from MISR's nadir (downward-looking) camera. The browning that appears in 2004 compared with 2000 indicates that the vigor of green vegetation was significantly diminished in 2004.

    The color-coded maps (along the bottom) provide a quantitative measurement of the sunlight reflected from these surfaces, and the loss of sunlight-absorbing vegetation between the 2000 and 2004 dates. As the vegetation faded with the drought, the albedo at the surface increased. Albedo measures the fraction of incident sunlight that is reflected by a surface, and can vary between zero (if all the incident sunlight is absorbed and none is reflected) and one (if all sunlight is reflected and none is absorbed). Dense forest has a low albedo; bright desert, snow and clouds, have a high albedo. Here, albedo is provided for the wavelengths of sunlight that plants use for photosynthesis (400 - 700 nanometers). This measurement is known as the albedo for Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR). Surfaces with greater absorption of PAR appear here in blue hues, whereas surfaces with lower absorption appear as green, yellow, orange or red. Black pixels indicate areas where albedo could not be derived, usually due to the presence of clouds. In July 2004, low albedo areas (blue pixels) are notably reduced in extent, and higher albedo areas (yellow, orange and red pixels) have increased.

    Because incoming sunlight is

  10. Drought in the Black Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Color-Coded Map

    Despite good rainfall and record-setting snowstorms in the spring of 2005, most of northeastern Wyoming, the Black Hills, and western South Dakota remain in the midst of a severe drought. This set of images and maps from NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) contrast the appearance of the Black Hills region of northwestern South Dakota on July 12, 2000 (left column), with views acquired four years later, on July 14, 2004 (right column). The natural-color images along the top are from MISR's nadir (downward-looking) camera. The browning that appears in 2004 compared with 2000 indicates that the vigor of green vegetation was significantly diminished in 2004.

    The color-coded maps (along the bottom) provide a quantitative measurement of the sunlight reflected from these surfaces, and the loss of sunlight-absorbing vegetation between the 2000 and 2004 dates. As the vegetation faded with the drought, the albedo at the surface increased. Albedo measures the fraction of incident sunlight that is reflected by a surface, and can vary between zero (if all the incident sunlight is absorbed and none is reflected) and one (if all sunlight is reflected and none is absorbed). Dense forest has a low albedo; bright desert, snow and clouds, have a high albedo. Here, albedo is provided for the wavelengths of sunlight that plants use for photosynthesis (400 - 700 nanometers). This measurement is known as the albedo for Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR). Surfaces with greater absorption of PAR appear here in blue hues, whereas surfaces with lower absorption appear as green, yellow, orange or red. Black pixels indicate areas where albedo could not be derived, usually due to the presence of clouds. In July 2004, low albedo areas (blue pixels) are notably reduced in extent, and higher albedo areas (yellow, orange and red pixels) have increased.

    Because incoming sunlight is

  11. Cloning and structural analysis of a haemocyanin from the Stonefly Perla grandis.

    PubMed

    Fochetti, Romolo; Belardinelli, Mariacristina; Guerra, Laura; Buonocore, Francesco; Fausto, Anna Maria; Caporale, Carlo

    2006-12-01

    We characterized two subunits of a putative haemocyanin from the stonefly species Perla grandis. In particular, we cloned and sequenced the corresponding cDNAs and studied their expression in different insect stages. Moreover, using the deduced amino acid sequences, homology studies were performed both on their primary and tertiary structures. 3-D molecular modelling data showed that the residues involved in the oxygen transport and subunits contacts were located in spatial positions preserving the functionality of the molecule. Despite it was paradigmatically affirmed that insects do not have respiratory proteins, our data suggest that the haemocyanin could be involved in the respiratory mechanisms of P. grandis. As far as we know, this is the first haemocyanin 3-D structure described and analyzed in insects.

  12. Complete genome sequencing and analysis of Saprospira grandis str. Lewin, a predatory marine bacterium.

    PubMed

    Saw, Jimmy H W; Yuryev, Anton; Kanbe, Masaomi; Hou, Shaobin; Young, Aaron G; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi; Alam, Maqsudul

    2012-03-19

    Saprospira grandis is a coastal marine bacterium that can capture and prey upon other marine bacteria using a mechanism known as 'ixotrophy'. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Saprospira grandis str. Lewin isolated from La Jolla beach in San Diego, California. The complete genome sequence comprises a chromosome of 4.35 Mbp and a plasmid of 54.9 Kbp. Genome analysis revealed incomplete pathways for the biosynthesis of nine essential amino acids but presence of a large number of peptidases. The genome encodes multiple copies of sensor globin-coupled rsbR genes thought to be essential for stress response and the presence of such sensor globins in Bacteroidetes is unprecedented. A total of 429 spacer sequences within the three CRISPR repeat regions were identified in the genome and this number is the largest among all the Bacteroidetes sequenced to date.

  13. Complete genome sequencing and analysis of Saprospira grandis str. Lewin, a predatory marine bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Saw, Jimmy H. W.; Yuryev, Anton; Kanbe, Masaomi; Hou, Shaobin; Young, Aaron G.; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi

    2012-01-01

    Saprospira grandis is a coastal marine bacterium that can capture and prey upon other marine bacteria using a mechanism known as ‘ixotrophy’. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Saprospira grandis str. Lewin isolated from La Jolla beach in San Diego, California. The complete genome sequence comprises a chromosome of 4.35 Mbp and a plasmid of 54.9 Kbp. Genome analysis revealed incomplete pathways for the biosynthesis of nine essential amino acids but presence of a large number of peptidases. The genome encodes multiple copies of sensor globin-coupled rsbR genes thought to be essential for stress response and the presence of such sensor globins in Bacteroidetes is unprecedented. A total of 429 spacer sequences within the three CRISPR repeat regions were identified in the genome and this number is the largest among all the Bacteroidetes sequenced to date. PMID:22675601

  14. Bunker Hill Sediment Characterization Study

    SciTech Connect

    Neal A. Yancey; Debby F. Bruhn

    2009-12-01

    The long history of mineral extraction in the Coeur d’Alene Basin has left a legacy of heavy metal laden mine tailings that have accumulated along the Coeur d’Alene River and its tributaries (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2001; Barton, 2002). Silver, lead and zinc were the primary metals of economic interest in the area, but the ores contained other elements that have become environmental hazards including zinc, cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel, and copper. The metals have contaminated the water and sediments of Lake Coeur d’Alene, and continue to be transported downstream to Spokane Washington via the Spokane River. In 1983, the EPA listed the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex on the National Priorities List. Since that time, many of the most contaminated areas have been stabilized or isolated, however metal contaminants continue to migrate through the basin. Designation as a Superfund site causes significant problems for the economically depressed communities in the area. Identification of primary sources of contamination can help set priorities for cleanup and cleanup options, which can include source removal, water treatment or no action depending on knowledge about the mobility of contaminants relative to water flow. The mobility of contaminant mobility under natural or engineered conditions depends on multiple factors including the physical and chemical state (or speciation) of metals and the range of processes, some of which can be seasonal, that cause mobilization of metals. As a result, it is particularly important to understand metal speciation (National Research Council, 2005) and the link between speciation and the rates of metal migration and the impact of natural or engineered variations in flow, biological activity or water chemistry.

  15. New species of Falcaustra (Nematoda: Kathlaniidae) from Heosemys grandis (Testudines: Emydidae).

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Freeman, Jennifer M

    2005-10-01

    Falcaustra kinsellai n. sp. from the intestines of the turtle Heosemys grandis is described and illustrated. Falcaustra kinsellai represents the 30th Oriental species assigned to the genus and is distinguished from other species by the distribution pattern of caudal papillae (6 precloacal, 6 adcloacal, 10 postcloacal, and 1 median), length of spicules (427-451 microm), presence of a pseudosucker, and presence of a toothed chamber between vestibule and pharynx.

  16. The Oropharyngeal Morphology in the Semiaquatic Giant Asian Pond Turtle, Heosemys grandis, and Its Evolutionary Implications

    PubMed Central

    Lintner, Monika; Weissenbacher, Anton; Heiss, Egon

    2012-01-01

    The oropharynx as a functional entity plays a fundamental role in feeding. Transitions from aquatic to terrestrial lifestyles in vertebrates demanded major changes of the oropharynx for the required adaptations to a different feeding environment. Extant turtles evolved terrestrial feeding modes in three families (testudinids, emydids, geoemydids)–independently from other amniotes–and are therefore important model organisms to reconstruct morpho-functional changes behind aquatic-terrestrial transitions. In this study we hypothesized that the oropharyngeal morphology in semiaquatic turtles of the geoemydid family shows parallels to testudinids, the only purely terrestrial extant lineage. We provide an in-depth description of the oropharynx in the semiaquatic geoemydid Heosemys grandis by using a combination of micro computed tomography (micro-CT) and subsequent digital in situ 3-D reconstruction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and histology. We show that H. grandis has a large tongue with rough papillose surface and well-developed lingual muscles. The attachment sites of the lingual muscles on the hyolingual skeleton and their courses within the tongue are nearly identical with testudinids. The hyolingual skeleton itself is mainly cartilaginous and shows distinct–but compared to testudinids rather small–anterior extensions of the hyoid body and hypoglossum. Oral glands are well developed in H. grandis but are smaller and simpler than in testudinids. Similarly, oropharyngeal keratinization was minimal and found only in the anterior palate, regions close to the beak, and tongue tip. We conclude that H. grandis shows distinct oropharyngeal morpho-functional adaptations for a terrestrial lifestyle but still retains characters typical for aquatic forms. This makes this species an important example showing the oropharyngeal adaptations behind aquatic-terrestrial transitions in turtles. PMID:23029486

  17. Molecular Diagnosis of Abdominal Armillifer grandis Pentastomiasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Sulyok, Mihály; Rózsa, Lajos; Muntau, Birgit; Haeupler, Alexandra; Bodó, Imre; Hardi, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Pentastomiasis is an emerging snake-borne parasitic zoonosis in the tropics. We describe a molecular and morphological study to diagnose a cluster of asymptomatic abdominal human infections caused by Armillifer grandis. The findings may indicate a silent epidemic in a rural area where severe symptomatic ocular cases with the same parasite species have recently surfaced. Molecular diagnostics are of increasing importance when patient material from remote areas cannot be thoroughly examined locally for logistic reasons. PMID:25948609

  18. The oropharyngeal morphology in the semiaquatic giant Asian pond turtle, Heosemys grandis, and its evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Lintner, Monika; Weissenbacher, Anton; Heiss, Egon

    2012-01-01

    The oropharynx as a functional entity plays a fundamental role in feeding. Transitions from aquatic to terrestrial lifestyles in vertebrates demanded major changes of the oropharynx for the required adaptations to a different feeding environment. Extant turtles evolved terrestrial feeding modes in three families (testudinids, emydids, geoemydids)-independently from other amniotes-and are therefore important model organisms to reconstruct morpho-functional changes behind aquatic-terrestrial transitions. In this study we hypothesized that the oropharyngeal morphology in semiaquatic turtles of the geoemydid family shows parallels to testudinids, the only purely terrestrial extant lineage. We provide an in-depth description of the oropharynx in the semiaquatic geoemydid Heosemys grandis by using a combination of micro computed tomography (micro-CT) and subsequent digital in situ 3-D reconstruction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and histology. We show that H. grandis has a large tongue with rough papillose surface and well-developed lingual muscles. The attachment sites of the lingual muscles on the hyolingual skeleton and their courses within the tongue are nearly identical with testudinids. The hyolingual skeleton itself is mainly cartilaginous and shows distinct-but compared to testudinids rather small-anterior extensions of the hyoid body and hypoglossum. Oral glands are well developed in H. grandis but are smaller and simpler than in testudinids. Similarly, oropharyngeal keratinization was minimal and found only in the anterior palate, regions close to the beak, and tongue tip. We conclude that H. grandis shows distinct oropharyngeal morpho-functional adaptations for a terrestrial lifestyle but still retains characters typical for aquatic forms. This makes this species an important example showing the oropharyngeal adaptations behind aquatic-terrestrial transitions in turtles.

  19. Testing the utility of the 3-PG model for growth of Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla with natural and manipulated supplies of water and nutrients

    Treesearch

    Jose Luiz Stape; Michael G. Ryan; Dan Binkley

    2004-01-01

    The productivity of fast-growing tropical plantations depends, in part, on the ability of trees to obtain and utilize site resources, and the allocation of fixed carbon (C) to wood production. Simulation models can represent these processes and interactions, but the value of these models depends on their ability to improve predictions of stand growth relative to...

  20. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

  1. Changes in essential oil during enzyme-assisted ensiling of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.) and lemon eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora Hook).

    PubMed

    Dudai, N; Weinberg, Z G; Larkov, O; Ravid, U; Ashbell, G; Putievsky, E

    2001-05-01

    Changes in essential oil during ensiling of lemongrass and lemon eucalyptus were studied. Wilted lemongrass and eucalyptus leaves were ensiled in 0.25-L anaerobic jars. Samples consisted of a control (no additives) and a treated sample (0.5% glucose and lactic acid bacteria and 1% cellulase plus 1% hemicellulase plus pectinase). Three jars per treatment were sampled on days 2, 6, 10, and 36 for analysis of essential oil. Essential oil was obtained by extraction and by hydrodistillation. Extraction efficacy of essential oil from the lemongrass was improved by the enzyme treatment, but it was much lower than the amount obtained by distillation. The major components of the essential oil were neral and geranial. In the eucalyptus, total essential oils obtained by distillation decreased during ensiling, and the amount was similar to the amount obtained by extraction. Citronellal, which was the major component of the essential oil in the fresh eucalyptus leaves, decreased, whereas isopulegol and 3,8-terpinolhydrate increased during ensiling.

  2. Genetic linkage map construction and QTL identification of juvenile growth traits in Torreya grandis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl, a conifer species widely distributed in Southeastern China, is of high economic value by producing edible, nutrient seeds. However, knowledge about the genome structure and organization of this species is poorly understood, thereby limiting the effective use of its gene resources. Here, we report on a first genetic linkage map for Torreya grandis using 96 progeny randomly chosen from a half-sib family of a commercially cultivated variety of this species, Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl cv. Merrillii. The map contains 262 molecular markers, i.e., 75 random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPD), 119 inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and 62 amplified fragments length polymorphisms (AFLP), and spans a total of 7,139.9 cM, separated by 10 linkage groups. The linkage map was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with juvenile growth traits by functional mapping. We identified four basal diameter-related QTLs on linkage groups 1, 5 and 9; four height-related QTLs on linkage groups 1, 2, 5 and 8. It was observed that the genetic effects of QTLs on growth traits vary with age, suggesting the dynamic behavior of growth QTLs. Part of the QTLs was found to display a pleiotropic effect on basal diameter growth and height growth. PMID:25079139

  3. Improving Cry8Ka toxin activity towards the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is a serious insect-pest in the Americas, particularly in Brazil. The use of chemical or biological insect control is not effective against the cotton boll weevil because of its endophytic life style. Therefore, the use of biotechnological tools to produce insect-resistant transgenic plants represents an important strategy to reduce the damage to cotton plants caused by the boll weevil. The present study focuses on the identification of novel molecules that show improved toxicity against the cotton boll weevil. In vitro directed molecular evolution through DNA shuffling and phage display screening was applied to enhance the insecticidal activity of variants of the Cry8Ka1 protein of Bacillus thuringiensis. Results Bioassays carried out with A. grandis larvae revealed that the LC50 of the screened mutant Cry8Ka5 toxin was 3.15-fold higher than the wild-type Cry8Ka1 toxin. Homology modelling of Cry8Ka1 and the Cry8Ka5 mutant suggested that both proteins retained the typical three-domain Cry family structure. The mutated residues were located mostly in loops and appeared unlikely to interfere with molecular stability. Conclusions The improved toxicity of the Cry8Ka5 mutant obtained in this study will allow the generation of a transgenic cotton event with improved potential to control A. grandis. PMID:21906288

  4. Efficacy and toxicological evaluation of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) extract in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Attanayake, Anoja Priyadarshani; Jayatilaka, Kamani Ayoma Perera Wijewardena; Pathirana, Chitra; Mudduwa, Lakmini Kumari Boralugoda

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the oral antihyperglycemic effect of aqueous leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (L.) (Cucurbitaceae) along with toxicological effects in alloxan induced diabetic and healthy Wistar rats. Methods A single graded dose of aqueous leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (0.25-2.00 g/kg) was administered orally to alloxan induced (150 mg/kg, i.p.) diabetic Wistar rats (n=6). In acute toxicity assessment, Wistar rats were administered the extract at the same dose range and observed for three days. Sub-chronic toxicity was evaluated by daily administration of the extract for 30 d at the dose which showed the optimum antihyperglycemic effect. Signs of toxicity, body weight of animals, consumption of food and water were monitored during the study period. The effects of the extract on biochemical (lipid parameters and activities of liver enzymes), hematological parameters (full blood count) and histopathological effects in organs were assessed at the end of the study. Results The optimum effective dose on glucose tolerance for Coccinia grandis leaf extract was found to be 0.75 g/kg in diabetic rats. The extract neither produced significant changes in consumption of food, intake of water, relative weight of organs nor affected biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters (P<0.05). Conclusions The extract at a dose of 0.75 g/kg was found to be toxicologically safe as a potential antihyperglycemic agent in Wistar rats.

  5. Antihyperglycemic actions of Eucalyptus globulus (Eucalyptus) are associated with pancreatic and extra-pancreatic effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Gray, A M; Flatt, P R

    1998-12-01

    Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus) is used as a traditional treatment for diabetes. In this study, incorporation of eucalyptus in the diet (62.5 g/kg) and drinking water (2.5 g/L) reduced the hyperglycemia and associated weight loss of streptozotocin-treated mice. An aqueous extract of eucalyptus (AEE) (0.5 g/L) enhanced 2-deoxy-glucose transport by 50%, glucose oxidation by 60% and incorporation of glucose into glycogen by 90% in mouse abdominal muscle. In acute, 20 min incubations, 0.25-0.5 g AEE/L evoked a stepwise 70-160% enhancement of insulin secretion from the clonal pancreatic beta-cell line (BRIN-BD11). The stimulatory effect of 0.5 g/L AEE was unaltered by the presence of 400 micromol diazoxide/L and prior exposure to AEE did not alter subsequent insulin secretory response to L-alanine, thereby negating adetrimental effect on cell viability. The effect of AEE was not potentiated by glucose or demonstrable in cells exposed to a depolarizing concentration of KCl. Further study of the insulin-releasing effects of AEE revealed the activity to be heat stable, acetone insoluble, stable to acid, but abolished by exposure to alkali. Sequential extraction with solvents revealed activity in both methanol and water fractions, indicating the presence of more than one biologically active extract constituent. These data indicate that Eucalyptus globulus represents an effective antihyperglycemic dietary adjunct for the treatment of diabetes and a potential source for discovery of new orally active agent(s) for future therapy.

  6. Engaging Hill-Sachs Defects

    PubMed Central

    Burns, David; Chahal, Jaskarndip; Shahrokhi, Shahram; Henry, Patrick; Wasserstein, David; Whyne, Cari; Theodoropoulos, John S.; Ogilvie-Harris, Darrell; Dwyer, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Anatomic studies have demonstrated that bipolar glenoid and humeral bone loss have a cumulative impact on shoulder instability, and that these defects may engage in functional positions depending on their size, location, and orientation, potentially resulting in failure of stabilization procedures. Determining which lesions pose a risk for engagement remains a challenge, with arthroscopic assessment and Itoi’s 3DCT based glenoid track method being the accepted approaches at this time. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction of humeral and glenoid bone defects on shoulder engagement in a cadaveric model. Two alternative approaches to predicting engagement were evaluated; 1) CT scanning the shoulder in abduction and external rotation 2) measurement of Bankart lesion width and a novel parameter, the intact anterior articular angle (IAAA), on conventional 2D multi-plane reformats. The results of these two approaches were compared to the results obtained using Itoi’s glenoid track method for predicting engagement. Methods: Hill-Sachs and Bony Bankart defects of varying size were created in 12 cadaveric upper limbs, producing 45 bipolar defect combinations. The shoulders were assessed for engagement using cone beam CT in various positions of function, from 30 to 90 degrees of both abduction and external rotation. The humeral and glenoid defects were characterized by measurement of their size, location, and orientation. Diagnostic performance measures for predicting engagement were calculated for both the abduction external rotation scan and 2D IAAA approaches using the glenoid track method as reference standard. Results: Engagement was predicted by Itoi’s glenoid track method in 24 of 45 specimens (53%). The abduction external rotation CT scan performed at 60 degrees of glenohumeral abduction (corresponding to 90 degrees of abduction relative to the trunk) and 90 degrees of external rotation predicted engagement accurately in 43 of

  7. [Preliminary screening tests of molluscicidal effect of extracts from Eucalyptus leaves].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Zhu, Dan; Li, Ming-Ya

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the molluscicidal effects of extracts from five Eucalyptus leaves collected from Guangdong Province, China. According to the WHO recommended indoor immersed method, the molluscicidal effects of extracts from five Eucalyptus leaves with 250, 100, 10 mg/L of water extraction, alcohol precipitation and organic solvent extraction were investigated. The dose-effect relationship showed that all the mortality rates of Oncomelania hupensis reached 80% with the volatile oil from five Eucalyptus leaves immersed at the concentrations of 100 mg/L for 48 h, and the mortality rates were both 93.3% with the volatile oil from Corymbia citriodora and Eucalyptus urophylla leaves. The mortality rate was up to 95% with the chloroform extract, and the mortality rate reached 60% at the concentrations of 10 mg/L for 48 h. The volatile oils from five Eucalyptus leaves and the chloroform extract in alcohol extraction from Eucalyptus urophylla leaves are better than other solvents.

  8. Genome-wide variation in recombination rate in Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Gion, Jean-Marc; Hudson, Corey J; Lesur, Isabelle; Vaillancourt, René E; Potts, Brad M; Freeman, Jules S

    2016-08-09

    Meiotic recombination is a fundamental evolutionary process. It not only generates diversity, but influences the efficacy of natural selection and genome evolution. There can be significant heterogeneity in recombination rates within and between species, however this variation is not well understood outside of a few model taxa, particularly in forest trees. Eucalypts are forest trees of global economic importance, and dominate many Australian ecosystems. We studied recombination rate in Eucalyptus globulus using genetic linkage maps constructed in 10 unrelated individuals, and markers anchored to the Eucalyptus reference genome. This experimental design provided the replication to study whether recombination rate varied between individuals and chromosomes, and allowed us to study the genomic attributes and population genetic parameters correlated with this variation. Recombination rate varied significantly between individuals (range = 2.71 to 3.51 centimorgans/megabase [cM/Mb]), but was not significantly influenced by sex or cross type (F1 vs. F2). Significant differences in recombination rate between chromosomes were also evident (range = 1.98 to 3.81 cM/Mb), beyond those which were due to variation in chromosome size. Variation in chromosomal recombination rate was significantly correlated with gene density (r = 0.94), GC content (r = 0.90), and the number of tandem duplicated genes (r = -0.72) per chromosome. Notably, chromosome level recombination rate was also negatively correlated with the average genetic diversity across six species from an independent set of samples (r = -0.75). The correlations with genomic attributes are consistent with findings in other taxa, however, the direction of the correlation between diversity and recombination rate is opposite to that commonly observed. We argue this is likely to reflect the interaction of selection and specific genome architecture of Eucalyptus. Interestingly, the differences amongst

  9. Pesticides, Neurodevelopmental Disagreement, and Bradford Hill's Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Shrader-Frechette, Kristin; ChoGlueck, Christopher

    2016-06-27

    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism affect one-eighth of all U.S. newborns. Yet scientists, accessing the same data and using Bradford-Hill guidelines, draw different conclusions about the causes of these disorders. They disagree about the pesticide-harm hypothesis, that typical United States prenatal pesticide exposure can cause neurodevelopmental damage. This article aims to discover whether apparent scientific disagreement about this hypothesis might be partly attributable to questionable interpretations of the Bradford-Hill causal guidelines. Key scientists, who claim to employ Bradford-Hill causal guidelines, yet fail to accept the pesticide-harm hypothesis, fall into errors of trimming the guidelines, requiring statistically-significant data, and ignoring semi-experimental evidence. However, the main scientists who accept the hypothesis appear to commit none of these errors. Although settling disagreement over the pesticide-harm hypothesis requires extensive analysis, this article suggests that at least some conflicts may arise because of questionable interpretations of the guidelines.

  10. Dynamic-Mechanical Characterization of Polyester Matrix Composites Reinforced with Eucalyptus Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Caroline G.; Neves, Anna C. C.; Simonassi, Noan T.; Pereira, Artur C.; Margem, Frederico M.; Barbosa, Anderson; Monteiro, Sergio N.

    Recently, the eucalyptus fibers have been investigated as a potential option in composites application, due to some advantages in comparison with synthetic fibers. It is largely cultivated in all Brazilian territory. The present work has as objective to characterize the dynamic-mechanical behavior of eucalyptus fiber composites subjected to thermal and mechanical constraints. In this work, the temperature variation and the dynamic-mechanical parameters of polyester composites incorporated with up to 30% in volume of eucalyptus fibers were investigated by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) experiments. The results showed that the incorporation of eucalyptus fibers tends to increase the viscoelastic stiffness of the polyester matrix. It was also observed

  11. [Biomass- and energy allocation in Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus tereticornis plantations at different stand ages].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qun-Ying; Chen, Shao-Xiong; Han, Fei-Yang; Chen, Wen-Ping; Wu, Zhi-Hua

    2010-01-01

    An investigation was made on the biomass- and energy allocation in 1-4-year-old Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus tereticornis plantations at Beipo Forest Farm of Suixi County in Guangdong Province. Stand age had significant effects on the retained biomass of the plantations (P < 0.01). The biomass was in the range of 10.61-147.28 t x hm(-2). Both the total biomass and the biomass of above- and belowground components increased with increasing stand age. The proportions of leaf-, branch- and bark biomass to total biomass decreased with year, while that of stem biomass was in reverse. The biomass allocation of the components in 1- and 2-year-old plantations decreased in order of stem > branch > bark > root > leaf, and that in 3- and 4 -year-old plantations was in order of stem > root > branch > bark > leaf. The mean ash content (AC) of the five components at different stand ages ranged from 0.47% to 5.91%, being the highest in bark and the lowest in stem. The mean gross caloric value (GCV) and ash free caloric value (AFCV) of different components ranged from 17.33 to 20. 60 kJ x g(-1) and from 18.42 to 21.59 kJ x g(-1) respectively. Of all the components, leaf had the highest GVC and AFCV, while bark had the lowest ones. Stand age had significant effects on the GVC of branch, stem, and bark, and on the AFCV of leaf, stem, and bark (P < 0.05), but the effects on the GVC of leaf and root, the AFCV of branch and root, and the GVC and AFCV of individual trees were not significant (P > 0.05). The retained energy of 1-4-year-old plantations ranged from 199.98 to 2837.20 GJ x hm(-2), with significant differences among the stand ages (P < 0.01). The retained energy of various components and plantations increased with stand age, and the energy allocation of various components had the same trend as biomass allocation.

  12. Prey preference and host suitability of the predatory and parasitoid carabid beetle, Lebia grandis, for several species of Leptinotarsa beetles.

    PubMed

    Weber, Donald C; Rowley, Daniel L; Greenstone, Matthew H; Athanas, Michael M

    2006-01-01

    Lebia grandis (Coleoptera: Carabidae), recorded as a parasitoid only on Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is capable of parasitizing the false potato beetle, L. juncta, and also L. haldemani. Historical records show that L. decemlineata, while the only recorded host, was not present in much of the original range of L. grandis, and may not have been its host prior to its expansion into eastern North America, where L. juncta is endemic. Our laboratory comparisons suggest that L. juncta, the presumptive original host, best supports the development of the parasitoid larval L. grandis, based on 43.6% successful emergence of the adult carabid parasitoid, compared to 11.5% from the two other Leptinotarsa species. L. grandis adults accept eggs and larvae of all 3 Leptinotarsa species as adult food. Naive, newly-emerged adults show no preference when presented the 3 species of third-instar larvae, which they consume at a mean rate of 3.3 per day, a rate which does not differ significantly by sex, larval host, or weight at emergence. When presented with equal amounts by weight of the 3 species of Leptinotarsa eggs, such adults consume the equivalent of 23.0 L. decemlineata eggs per day, with consumption of L. juncta eggs 67% higher by weight than L. decemlineata consumption. Insight into the biotic and abiotic limitations on L. grandis should aid in determining its potential for suppression of Colorado potato beetle by biological control in diverse agroecosystems.

  13. Recombinant Cry1Ia protein is highly toxic to cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) and fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda).

    PubMed

    Martins, E S; Aguiar, R W D S; Martins, N F; Melatti, V M; Falcão, R; Gomes, A C M M; Ribeiro, B M; Monnerat, R G

    2008-05-01

    To evaluate the activity of cry1Ia gene against cotton pests, Spodoptera frugiperda and Anthonomus grandis. Had isolated and characterized a toxin gene from the Bacillus thuringiensis S1451 strain which have been previously shown to be toxic to S. frugiperda and A. grandis. The toxin gene (cry1Ia) was amplified by PCR, sequenced, and cloned into the genome of a baculovirus. The Cry1Ia protein was expressed in baculovirus infected insect cells, producing protein inclusions in infected cells. The Cry1Ia protein has used in bioassays against to S. frugiperda and A. grandis. Bioassays using the purified recombinant protein showed high toxicity to S. frugiperda and A. grandis larvae. Molecular modelling of the Cry1Ia protein translated from the DNA sequence obtained in this work, showed that this protein possibly posses a similar structure to the Cry3A protein. Ultrastructural analysis of midgut cells from A. grandis incubated with the Cry1Ia toxin, showed loss of microvilli integrity. The results indicate that the cry1Ia is a good candidate for the construction of transgenic plants resistant to these important cotton pests.

  14. Using morphometrics, in situ observations and genetic characters to distinguish among commercially valuable Hawaiian black coral species; a redescription of Antipathes grandis Verrill, 1928 (Antipatharia : Antipathidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Daniel; Toonen, Robert J.; Brugler, Mercer R.; France, Scott C.; Opresko, Dennis M; Montgomery, Anthony D.

    2010-01-01

    The commercially valuable Hawaiian black coral Antipathes grandis Verrill, 1928 is redescribed based on reexamination of the holotype from the Bernice P. Bishop Museum and field collections of 34 specimens from depths of 27-127 m. The first scanning electron micrographs of A. grandis skeletal spines are provided, along with a series of in situ color photographs and morphometric measurements of spines and polyps. Three color morphotypes were collected in the field (red, pale red, and white), none of which could be differentiated based on morphological or genetic characters (two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers). In situ observations are used in conjunction with morphological and genetic characters to distinguish among the commercially valuable Hawaiian black coral species A. grandis and A. griggi Opresko, 2009. A. grandis is differentiated from A. griggi by its finer and more irregular branching, smaller and more closely-spaced polyps, and conical spines that are smaller and not characterized by bifurcations towards their apex. Morphologically, the species most closely resembling A. grandis is A. caribbeana Opresko, 1996 from the Caribbean. Among analyzed congenerics, DNA sequences of A. grandis were likewise most similar to those of A. caribbeana for three of the four molecular markers used in this study. A combination of low genetic variability, incomplete taxonomic sampling, and unexpected similarity between A. caribbeana and the unbranched whip coral Stichopathes cf. occidentalis (Gray, 1860), hindered our ability to determine the sister relationship of A. grandis. However, in no phylogenetic reconstruction did A. grandis group sister to its sympatric congener A. griggi.

  15. Elk Hills: still out in front

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, B.

    1982-07-01

    The producing history and capacity of the Elk Hills Oil and Gas Fields in California are described. Developments in the field are discussed, including waterflooding. The field presently produces ca. 160,000 bpd of oil and 350 mmcfd of natural gas. Gas liquids production totals ca. 683,000 gal/day. Waterflooding is expected to pay an increasingly important role in the production of crude oil. Steaming techniques also are viewed with favor after analysis of results of pilot projects. Exploratory develoment in Elk Hills also continues.

  16. Photovoltaics - 10 years after Cherry Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, E. L.

    The status of R&D programs connected with photovoltaic (PV) systems 10 years after the Cherry Hill workshop on 'Photovoltaic Conversion of Solar Energy for Terrestrial Applications' is assessed. The five categories of research recommended by the Cherry Hill Workshop are listed in a table together with their recommended research budget allocations. The workshop categories include: single-crystal Si cells; poly-Si cells; systems and diagnostics. Categories for thin film CdS/Cu2S and CuInSe2 cells are also included. The roles of government and private utility companies in providing adequate financial support for PV research programs is emphasized.

  17. New cryptic species of Teratosphaeria on Eucalyptus in Australia.

    PubMed

    Andjic, Vera; Maxwell, Aaron; Hardy, Giles E StJ; Burgess, Treena I

    2016-12-01

    Teratosphaeria destructans and T. viscida are serious pathogens causing leaf, bud and shoot blight diseases of Eucalyptus plantations in the subtropics and tropics of South-East Asia (T. destructans) and North Queensland, Australia (T. viscida). During disease surveys in northern Western Australia and the Northern Territory of Australia, symptoms resembling those of T. destructans were observed on young and adult leaves of native and plantation Eucalyptus spp. and its hybrids. Phylogenetic studies revealed Teratosphaeria species associated with these symptoms are new taxonomic novelties described here as T. novaehollandiae and T. tiwiana spp. nov. Isolates from previous records of T. destructans recorded in Australia were re-examined and based upon the phylogenetic evidence are reassigned to these new taxa. We conclude that T. destructans is absent from Australia.

  18. Specific gravity variation in robusta eucalyptus grown in Hawaii

    Treesearch

    Roger G. Skolmen

    1972-01-01

    The specific gravity (air-dry volume, ovendry weight) of Eucalyptus robusta wood was tested within and between trees from 10 stands. Mean specific gravity was 0.603, but the range in individual samples for 50 trees was 0.331 to 0.869, and was 0.357 to 0.755 within one cross section. A consistent increase was recorded in all trees from pith to cambium and from butt to...

  19. Valuation of pollinator forage services provided by Eucalyptus cladocalyx.

    PubMed

    de Lange, Willem J; Veldtman, Ruan; Allsopp, Mike H

    2013-08-15

    We assess the monetary value of forage provisioning services for honeybees as provided by an alien tree species in the Western Cape province of South Africa. Although Eucalyptus cladocalyx is not an officially declared invader, it is cleared on a regular basis along with other invasive Eucalyptus species such as Eucalyptus camaldulensis, and Eucalyptus conferruminata (which have been prioritised for eradication in South Africa). We present some of the trade-offs associated with the clearing of E. cladocalyx by means of a practical example that illustrates a situation where the benefits of the species to certain stakeholders could support the containment of the species in demarcated areas, while allowing clearing outside such areas. Given the absence of market prices for such forage provisioning services, the replacement cost is used to present the value of the loss in forage as provided by E. cladocalyx if the alien tree species is cleared along with invasive alien tree species. Two replacement scenarios formed the basis for our calculations. The first scenario was an artificial diet as replacement for the forage provisioning service, which yielded a direct cost estimate of US$7.5 m per year. The second was based on a Fynbos cultivation/restoration initiative aimed at substituting the forage provisioning service of E. cladocalyx, which yielded a direct cost of US$20.2 m per year. These figures provide estimates of the potential additional cost burden on the beekeeping industry if E. cladocalyx is completely eradicated from the Western Cape. The cost estimates should be balanced against the negative impacts of E. cladocalyx on ecosystem services in order to make an informed decision with regard to appropriate management strategies for this species. The findings therefore serve as useful inputs to balance trade-offs for alien species that are considered as beneficial to some, but harmful to other. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 3. GENERAL VIEW DOWN EAST HILLS DRIVE, BUILDING 20 (ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW DOWN EAST HILLS DRIVE, BUILDING 20 (ONE BEDROOM) AND BUILDING 21 (TWO/THREE BEDROOM); ACTIVITY CENTER IN REAR, FACING NORTHEAST. - Aluminum City Terrace, East Hill Drive, New Kensington, Westmoreland County, PA

  1. OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WARM SPRINGS CAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WARM SPRINGS CAMP BUILDINGS, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. THE FUNCTION OF THE FLAT AREA AT CENTER RIGHT IS UNKNOWN. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  2. Conservation education and habitat restoration for the endangered Sagalla caecilian (Boulengerula niedeni) in Sagalla Hill, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    MALONZA, Patrick K

    2016-01-01

    The Sagalla caecilian (Boulengerula niedeni) is an endangered amphibian endemic to Sagalla Hill in the Taita Hills. This burrowing worm-like species prefers soft soil with high moisture and organic matter. The major threats to the Sagalla caecilian are soil erosion caused by steep slopes, bare ground and water siphoning/soil hardening from exotic eucalyptus trees. The purpose of this study was to get a better understanding of the local people’s attitude towards this species and how they can contribute to its continued conservation through restoration of its remaining habitat. In this study, it was found that 96% of Sagalla people are aware of the species, its habits and its association with soils high in organic matter. It was also found that 96% of Sagalla people use organic manure from cow dung in their farms. Habitat restoration through planting of indigenous plants was found to be ongoing, especially on compounds of public institutions as well as on private lands. Although drought was found to be a challenge for seedlings development especially on the low elevation sites, destruction by livestock especially during the dry season is also a major threat. In this study, it was recommended that any future habitat restoration initiative should include strong chain-link fencing to protect the seedlings from livestock activity. Recognizing that the preferred habitats for the species are in the valleys, systematic planting of keystone plant species such as fig trees (Ficus) creates the best microhabitats. These are better than general woodlots of indigenous trees. PMID:27265654

  3. Two new Phytophthora species from South African Eucalyptus plantations.

    PubMed

    Maseko, Bongani; Burgess, Treena I; Coutinho, Teresa A; Wingfield, Michael J

    2007-11-01

    A recent study to determine the cause of collar and root rot disease outbreaks of cold tolerant Eucalyptus species in South Africa resulted in the isolation of two putative new Phytophthora species. Based on phylogenetic comparisons using the ITS and beta-tubulin gene regions, these species were shown to be distinct from known species. These differences were also supported by robust morphological characteristics. The names, Phytophthora frigida sp. nov. and Phytophthora alticola sp. nov. are thus provided for these taxa, which are phylogenetically closely related to species within the ITS clade 2 (P. citricola, P. tropicali and P.multivesiculata) and 4 (P. arecae and P. megakarya), respectively. Phytophthora frigida is heterothallic, and produces stellate to rosaceous growth patterns on growth medium, corraloid hyphae, sporangia with a variety of distorted shapes and has the ability to grow at low temperatures. Phytophthora alticola is homothallic and has a slower growth rate in culture. Both P. frigida and P. alticola are pathogenic to Eucalyptus dunnii. In pathogenicity tests, they were, however, less pathogenic than P. cinnamomi, which is a well-known pathogen of Eucalyptus in South Africa.

  4. Anticariogenic and phytochemical evaluation of Eucalyptus globules Labill.

    PubMed Central

    Ishnava, Kalpesh B.; Chauhan, Jenabhai B.; Barad, Mahesh B.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, in vitro anticariogenic potential of ethyl acetate, hexane and methanol and aqueous extracts of plant leaves of Eucalyptus globules Labill. were evaluated by using four cariogenic bacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans. Agar well diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were used for this purpose. The ethyl acetate extracted fraction of plant leaves showed good inhibitory effects against all selected bacteria. In Eucalyptus globules, hexane and ethyl acetate extracts found highly effective against, Lactobacillus acidophilus with MIC value of 0.031 and 0.062 mg/mL, respectively. Qualitative phytochemical investigation of above extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, phenolic compounds, steroids, cardiac glycosides and terpenes. Based on the MIC value and bioautography, ethyl acetate of plant leaf was selected for further study. Further investigation on the structure elucidation of the bioactive compound using IR, GC-MS and NMR techniques revealed the presence of alpha-farnesene, a sesquiterpene. Eucalyptus globules plant leaf extracts have great potential as anticariogenic agents that may be useful in the treatment of oral disease. PMID:23961222

  5. Unintentional exposure of young children to camphor and eucalyptus oils.

    PubMed

    Flaman, Z; Pellechia-Clarke, S; Bailey, B; McGuigan, M

    2001-02-01

    Essential oils, such as camphorated and eucalyptus oils, are volatile oils that can be absorbed by mouth and through the skin; if ingested orally by children, they can be harmful, even life-threatening. To determine the frequency of essential oil ingestion among children in Toronto, Ontario. Charts from December 1995 through March 1997 at the Ontario Regional Poison Information Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto were reviewed to collect information on calls about essential oil ingestion, and a search of MEDLINE articles from 1966 to 1998 was conducted using the key words: 'camphor', 'eucalyptus', 'paediatric', and 'poisoning'. Callers to the Poison Information Centre reported that 251 children had ingested an essential oil or product: eucalyptus oil 50 children; camphorated oil 18 children; VapAir (Drug Trading, Canada) vaporizing liquid 93 children; and Vicks VaporRub (Procter & Gamble, Canada) 90 children. The most common symptoms were cough, vomiting and cough associated with vomiting. Two children had seizures but recovered. The MEDLINE search found 18 reports of paediatric ingestion of the oils or oil products. The main symptoms were vomiting, lethargy, coma and seizures. One child died. Although widely used by health care consumers, essential oils and the products that contain them can be harmful when ingested by children. Further education for parents and other caregivers about the risks involved in exposure to these products is required.

  6. Disentangling respiratory acclimation and adaptation to growth temperature by Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Jörg; Turnbull, Tarryn L; Adams, Mark A

    2012-07-01

    • Respiratory acclimation to growth temperature differs between species, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that respiratory acclimation of CO(2) release is a consequence of growth regulation such that growth rates of young foliage of Eucalyptus spp. are similar at contrasting growth temperatures. Further, we tested whether such a response is affected by adaptation of Eucalyptus to different thermal environments via growth at different altitudes in the Australian Alps. • We employed calorimetric methods to relate rates of CO(2) release (mainly from substrate oxidation) and rates of O(2) reduction to conservation of energy. Temperature responses of these processes provided insight into mechanisms that control energy conservation and expenditure, and helped define 'instantaneous enthalpic growth capacity' (CapG). • CapG increased with altitude, but was counteracted by other factors in species adapted to highland habitats. The acclimation response was partly driven by changes in respiratory capacity (CapR(CO2)), and partly by more pronounced dynamic responses of CO(2) release (δ(R(CO2))) to measurement temperature. We observed enhanced temperature sensitivity of O(2) reduction (E(o)(R(O2))) at higher altitudes. • Adaptation to growth temperature included differences in respiration and growth capacities, but there was little evidence that Eucalyptus species vary in metabolic flexibility.

  7. Mechanical properties of acacia and eucalyptus wood chars

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M.; Verma, B.B.; Gupta, R.C.

    1999-10-01

    In the present investigation the effects of carbonization conditions (temperature and heating rate) on the mechanical properties (such as crushing and impact strengths and shatter index) of acacia and eucalyptus wood chars have been determined. The crushing and impact strengths of both the acacia and eucalyptus wood chars (made by slow carbonization) decreased with increase of preparation temperature up to 600 C, followed by an increase thereafter. These wood chars showed a continuous increase in shatter index values with carbonization temperature. In contrast to slow carbonization (heating rate 4 C min{sup {minus}1}), rapid carbonization (heating rate 30 C min{sup {minus}1}) yielded chars of lower crushing strengths. Slowly carbonized eucalyptus wood gave chars of superior crushing and impact strengths than those produced from acacia wood under the same carbonization conditions. The crushing and impact strengths of these wood chars, in general, have shown an increase with increase in their apparent density. The crushing strength of cubic-shaped wood char decreased with increase in size.

  8. Ocean Hill-Brownsville, 40 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlenberg, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    Forty years ago--on May 9, 1968--the local school board in Brooklyn's black ghetto of Ocean Hill-Brownsville sent telegrams to 19 unionized educators, informing them that their employment in the district was terminated. Eighteen were white. One black teacher was mistakenly included on the list, but reinstated almost immediately after the error was…

  9. An Unlikely Student Hits Capitol Hill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Todd Sollar, a laid-off autoworker from Ohio who is studying for an associate degree in engineering at Sinclair Community College, in Dayton, OH, went to Capitol Hill to help educate lawmakers about the importance of including support for community colleges in the economic-stimulus bill. Mr. Sollar came to Washington with Sinclair's president, and…

  10. Ocean Hill-Brownsville, 40 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlenberg, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    Forty years ago--on May 9, 1968--the local school board in Brooklyn's black ghetto of Ocean Hill-Brownsville sent telegrams to 19 unionized educators, informing them that their employment in the district was terminated. Eighteen were white. One black teacher was mistakenly included on the list, but reinstated almost immediately after the error was…

  11. Paleoecology of Kettleman Hills, Coalinga, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiss-Cortez, M.; Kelison, D.; Mooney, A. G.

    2016-12-01

    The lithofacies at Kettleman Hills in Coalinga, California contain many clues to the paleoecology of the region. Though the examination of lithofacies, invertebrate fossils, and vertebrate fossils we interpret the depositional depths, nutrient availability, salinity, and energy of the environment over the Miocene to the early Pleistocene (11 MYA to 1.8 MYA).

  12. ENHANCED REMEDIATION DEMONSTRATIONS AT HILL AFB: INTRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nine enhanced aquifer remediation technologies were demonstrated side-by-side at a Hill Air Force Base Chemical Disposal Pit/Fire Training Area site. The demonstrations were performed inside 3 x 5 m cells isolated from the surrounding shallow aquifer by steel piling. The site w...

  13. Andoyer construction for Hill and Delaunay variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskar, Jacques

    2017-03-01

    Andoyer variables are well known for the study of rotational dynamics. These variables were derived by Andoyer through a procedure that can be also used to obtain the Hill variables of the Kepler problem. Andoyer construction can also forecast the Delaunay variables which canonicity is then obtained without the use of a generating function.

  14. Reflections on the Black Hills Claim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deloria, Vine, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses Sioux claim to the Black Hills of South Dakota from the Sioux perspective. Land claim discussed not as legal or political issue, but as a problem deeper than simple land transaction. Examines history and federal land acquisition as violation of Indian culture. Discusses possible future strategies in dealing with government. (TES)

  15. An Unlikely Student Hits Capitol Hill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Todd Sollar, a laid-off autoworker from Ohio who is studying for an associate degree in engineering at Sinclair Community College, in Dayton, OH, went to Capitol Hill to help educate lawmakers about the importance of including support for community colleges in the economic-stimulus bill. Mr. Sollar came to Washington with Sinclair's president, and…

  16. Interior ponderosa pine in the Black Hills

    Treesearch

    Charles E. Boldt; Robert R. Alexander; Milo J. Larson

    1983-01-01

    The gross area of the Black Hills of South Dakota and associated Bear Lodge Mountains of eastern Wyoming is about 3.5 million acres (1.4 million ha). Roughly half the area supports forest or woodland cover. Essentially pure stands of climax Rocky Mountain ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum Engelm.) predominate on about...

  17. Segment lengths influence hill walking strategies.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Riley C; Gottschall, Jinger S

    2014-08-22

    Segment lengths are known to influence walking kinematics and muscle activity patterns. During level walking at the same speed, taller individuals take longer, slower strides than shorter individuals. Based on this, we sought to determine if segment lengths also influenced hill walking strategies. We hypothesized that individuals with longer segments would display more joint flexion going uphill and more extension going downhill as well as greater lateral gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis activity in both directions. Twenty young adults of varying heights (below 155 cm to above 188 cm) walked at 1.25 m/s on a level treadmill as well as 6° and 12° up and downhill slopes while we collected kinematic and muscle activity data. Subsequently, we ran linear regressions for each of the variables with height, leg, thigh, and shank length. Despite our population having twice the anthropometric variability, the level and hill walking patterns matched closely with previous studies. While there were significant differences between level and hill walking, there were few hill walking variables that were correlated with segment length. In support of our hypothesis, taller individuals had greater knee and ankle flexion during uphill walking. However, the majority of the correlations were between tibialis anterior and lateral gastrocnemius activities and shank length. Contrary to our hypothesis, relative step length and muscle activity decreased with segment length, specifically shank length. In summary, it appears that individuals with shorter segments require greater propulsion and toe clearance during uphill walking as well as greater braking and stability during downhill walking.

  18. The House on the Hill Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author suggests a classroom challenge that will engage students in designing a house on the hill. He suggests teachers ask a local builder to come to the school to discuss the kinds of concerns that must be dealt with when building homes in cold environments. The use of dioramas and cardboard scale models would be very useful…

  19. Living the Past at Oak Hill School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Amy D.

    2000-01-01

    Oak Hill School served elementary students in the 10th district of Washington County, Tennessee, from 1886 to 1952. After extensive restoration and a move to Historic Jonesborough, the one-room school now functions as a living history museum. Fourth-grade students spend a day following the 1892 curriculum for grade 4. A teacher's resource and…

  20. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Approved Maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Rattlesnake Hills viticultural area are eight United States Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. They are titled: (1.... The area's boundary is defined as follows: (1) The beginning point is on the Yakima East map at...

  1. ENHANCED REMEDIATION DEMONSTRATIONS AT HILL AFB: INTRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nine enhanced aquifer remediation technologies were demonstrated side-by-side at a Hill Air Force Base Chemical Disposal Pit/Fire Training Area site. The demonstrations were performed inside 3 x 5 m cells isolated from the surrounding shallow aquifer by steel piling. The site w...

  2. General Education at UNC-Chapel Hill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalin, Jay; Robinson, Jenna Ashley

    2013-01-01

    The general education program at UNC-Chapel Hill has abandoned the concept of a core curriculum. Instead, students choose their "required" classes from lists of thousands of courses that may be as narrow and idiosyncratic as Love, Sex and Marriage in Soviet Culture (RUSS 277) or The Gardens, Shrines and Temples of Japan (ASIA 586).…

  3. Extraction of pinocembrin from leaves of different species of Eucalyptus and its quantitative analysis by qNMR and HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Sarat, Isha; Choudhary, Alka; Sharma, Ram Jee; Dandia, Karthik; Marsh, Karen J; Foley, William J; Singh, Inder Pal

    2015-03-01

    Pinocembrin, a flavanone with a variety of biological activities was isolated from Eucalyptus sieberi leaves and quantified in several other Eucalyptus species using qNMR and HPTLC densitometry. The effect of different extraction procedures on the extraction of the compound from Eucalyptus sieberi was also studied. The methods were validated in terms ofselectivity, specificity, linearity, recovery, precision and repeatability.

  4. The timber resources of the Ohio Hill Country

    Treesearch

    Paul S. DeBald; Roger E. McCay

    1969-01-01

    This report presents 1967 forest resource statistics for the Hill Country-Ohio's portion of Appalachia. The Hill Country comprises 28 counties, which were divided into three geographic sampling units for this survey. The Hill Country of the 1952 Ohio forest survey contained 26 of these counties. The additional Appalachia counties are Brown and Clermont in the...

  5. 3. HYDE STREET HILL: View to north looking down the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. HYDE STREET HILL: View to north looking down the Hyde Street hill from Lombard Street. The steepest hill on the present cable railway system, this grade exceeds 20%. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. 77 FR 22755 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board AGENCY: USDA Forest Service. ACTION: Notice of cancellation of meetings of the Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board. SUMMARY: The U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Black Hills National Forest was required...

  7. View of south boundary of Easter Hill project site, former ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south boundary of Easter Hill project site, former right of way for Hoffman Boulevard. Note reconstructed Easter Hill Building No. 6 at rear. Looking east - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  8. Paleotopography of Husband Hill and the West Spur of the Columbia Hills, Gusev Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, S. B.; Watters, W. A.; Aron, F. A.; Squyres, S.

    2012-12-01

    From June 2004 through March 2010, Spirit conducted a detailed campaign examining the Columbia Hills of Gusev Crater. The Hills are an irregular, nearly-triangular edifice of uncertain origin, spanning ~8.4 km in the northerly direction by ~4.5 km in the easterly direction, and are embayed by the basaltic plains that fill the floor of Gusev Crater. The topography is as irregular as the perimeter, cut by numerous valleys of varying lengths, widths, and directional trends. Along its traverse, Spirit examined several rock classes as defined by elemental abundances from the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS). Unlike the Gusev Plains, the rocks of the Columbia Hills show extensive evidence of aqueous alteration. In addition to mineralogical and chemical investigations, Spirit's stereo panoramic (Pancam) and navigation (Navcam) cameras obtained over 7,000 images of the West Spur of the Columbia Hills and Husband Hill, the highest peak. This dataset includes stereo coverage of several outcrop exposures with apparent bedding. In this analysis, we reconstruct a paleo-Digital Elevation Model (paleo-DEM) of the West Spur and Husband Hill based on stereo image data from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. We have performed detailed structural and stratigraphic measurements of the outcrops Spirit observed on its traverse across the West Spur and Husband Hill, using digital terrain models derived from Pancam and Navcam data. We compare outcrop bedding orientations to local topography as determined by the HiRISE DEM. While bedding orientations do not conform to the current topography, outcrops within local geographic regions exhibit conformable bedding orientations both within and across the rock classes defined by composition. Assuming that the bedding planes are in-place and were conformable to the local topography at the time of deposition, we reconstruct the ancient topography of the West Spur and Husband Hill.

  9. Precipitation pattern affects nitrogen acquisition by Stipa grandis and microorganisms in a temperate steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Shuhai; Tian, Yuqiang

    2017-04-01

    Growing evidence shows that the precipitation have already become more extreme and will be common in future climate regimes. Extreme precipitation pattern has been suggested to be an important factor to affect grassland ecosystems and could intensely influence productivity and species composition. The extreme precipitation may affect the ecosystem by changing N acquisition of plant and microbes. However, it still remains unclear how they respond to such altered extreme precipitation in nitrogen (N) acquisition over chemical and spatial scales. The simulation of extreme precipitation pattern (the same amount of precipitation but with different frequencies) was performed during a growing season (July, August), and a short-term 15N tracer experiment was conducted after precipitation simulation in a temperate steppe in Inner Mongolia to unravel plant-microbial acquisition of N for different N forms over soil depths. Stipa grandis (dominant species in our study land) acquired more N with increasing frequency of extreme precipitation, while the amount of microbial N uptake showed little changes. Soil microbes outcompeted for N than Stipa grandis. The preference for N forms in Stipa grandis and microbes were different in low frequency of extreme precipitation, while they showed similar preference in high frequency of extreme precipitation. It indicates that the chemical niche between plant and microbes was overlapped and could compete intensively for chemical N niche in high frequency of extreme precipitation in the system. These findings help us to understand the changes in N acquisition by plant and microbes, which provides a physical explanation for altered ecosystem function and composition resulted from extreme precipitation in a temperate steppe in Inner Mongolia.

  10. Structure, stratigraphy, and origin of Husband Hill, Columbia Hills, Gusev Crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy, T.J.; Sims, M.; Schmidt, M.E.; Edwards, L.; Tornabene, L.L.; Crumpler, L.S.; Cohen, B. A.; Soderblom, L.A.; Blaney, D.L.; Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Rica, J.W.; Treguier, E.; d'Uston, C.; Grant, J. A.; McSween, H.Y.; Golombek, M.P.; Haldemann, A.F.C.; de Souza, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    The strike and dip of lithologic units imaged in stereo by the Spirit rover in the Columbia Hills using three-dimensional imaging software shows that measured dips (15-32??) for bedding on the main edifice of the Columbia Hill are steeper than local topography (???8-10??). Outcrops measured on West Spur are conformable in strike with shallower dips (7-15??) than observed on Husband Hill. Dips are consistent with observed strata draping the Columbia Hills. Initial uplift was likely related either to the formation of the Gusev Crater central peak or ring or through mutual interference of overlapping crater rims. Uplift was followed by subsequent draping by a series of impact and volcaniclastic materials that experienced temporally and spatially variable aqueous infiltration, cementation, and alteration episodically during or after deposition. West Spur likely represents a spatially isolated depositional event. Erosion by a variety of processes, including mass wasting, removed tens of meters of materials and formed the Tennessee Valley primarily after deposition. This was followed by eruption of the Adirondack-class plains basalt lava flows which embayed the Columbia Hills. Minor erosion, impact, and aeolian processes have subsequently modified the Columbia Hills. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. In vitro anticancer properties of selected Eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    Bhuyan, Deep Jyoti; Sakoff, Jennette; Bond, Danielle R; Predebon, Melanie; Vuong, Quan V; Chalmers, Anita C; van Altena, Ian A; Bowyer, Michael C; Scarlett, Christopher J

    2017-08-01

    In spite of the recent advancements in oncology, the overall survival rate for pancreatic cancer has not improved over the last five decades. Eucalypts have been linked with cytotoxic and anticancer properties in various studies; however, there is very little scientific evidence that supports the direct role of eucalypts in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. This study assessed the anticancer properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of four Eucalyptus species using an MTT assay. The most promising extracts were further evaluated using a CCK-8 assay. Apoptotic studies were performed using a caspase 3/7 assay in MIA PaCa-2 cells. The aqueous extract of Eucalyptus microcorys leaf and the ethanolic extract of Eucalyptus microcorys fruit inhibited the growth of glioblastoma, neuroblastoma, lung and pancreatic cancer cells by more than 80% at 100 μg/mL. The E. microcorys and Eucalyptus saligna extracts showed lower GI50 values than the ethanolic Eucalyptus robusta extract in MIA PaCa-2 cells. Aqueous E. microcorys leaf and fruit extracts at 100 μg/mL exerted significantly higher cell growth inhibition in MIA PaCa-2 cells than other extracts (p < 0.05). Statistically similar IC50 values (p > 0.05) were observed in aqueous E. microcorys leaf (86.05 ± 4.75 μg/mL) and fruit (64.66 ± 15.97 μg/mL) and ethanolic E. microcorys leaf (79.30 ± 29.45 μg/mL) extracts in MIA PaCa-2 cells using the CCK-8 assay. Caspase 3/7-mediated apoptosis and morphological changes of cells were also witnessed in MIA PaCa-2 cells after 24 h of treatment with the extracts. This study highlighted the significance of E. microcorys as an important source of phytochemicals with efficacy against pancreatic cancer cells. Further studies are warranted to purify and structurally identify individual compounds and elucidate their mechanisms of action for the development of more potent and specific chemotherapeutic agents for pancreatic cancer.

  12. The antineoplastic quassinoids of Simaba cuspidata spruce and Ailanthus grandis Prain.

    PubMed

    Polonsky, J; Varon, Z; Moretti, C; Pettit, G R; Herald, C L; Rideout, J A; Saha, S B; Khastgir, H N

    1980-01-01

    The South American Simaba cuspidata Spruce and North Indian Ailanthus grandis Prain were investigated as sources of potentially useful antineoplastic agents. Both of these Simaroubaceae plant species were found to produce 6 alpha-tigloyloxychaparrinone (4a) and the new quassinoid 6 alpha-tigloyloxychaparrin (3b). The latter structure was determined by interpretation of spectral data and oxidation to 6 alpha-tigloyloxychaparrinone (4a). While both glycol 3b and alpha-ketol 4a were found to significantly inhibit growth of the murine P388 lymphocytic leukemia cell line, only the alpha-ketol (4a) inhibited growth of the corresponding in vivo system.

  13. Magnesium Alleviates Adverse Effects of Lead on Growth, Photosynthesis, and Ultrastructural Alterations of Torreya grandis Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Song, Lili; Müller, Karin; Hu, Yuanyuan; Song, Yang; Yu, Weiwu; Wang, Hailong; Wu, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg2+) has been shown to reduce the physiological and biochemical stress in plants caused by heavy metals. To date our understanding of how Mg2+ ameliorates the adverse effects of heavy metals in plants is scarce. The potential effect of Mg2+ on lead (Pb2+) toxicity in plants has not yet been studied. This study was designed to clarify the mechanism of Mg2+-induced alleviation of lead (Pb2+) toxicity. Torreya grandis (T. grandis) seedlings were grown in substrate contaminated with 0, 700 and 1400 mg Pb2+ per kg-1 and with or without the addition of 1040 mg kg-1 Mg2+. Growth parameters, concentrations of Pb2+ and Mg2+ in the plants’ shoots and roots, photosynthetic pigment, gas exchange parameters, the maximum quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm), root oxidative activity, ultrastructure of chloroplasts and root growth were determined to analyze the effect of different Pb2+ concentrations on the seedlings as well as the potential ameliorating effect of Mg2+ on the Pb2+ induced toxicity. All measurements were tested by a one-way ANOVA for the effects of treatments. The growth of T. grandis seedlings cultivated in soils treated with 1400 mg kg-1 Pb2+ was significantly reduced compared with that of plants cultivated in soils treated with 0 or 700 mg kg-1 Pb2+. The addition of 1040 mg kg-1 Mg2+ improved the growth of the Pb2+-stressed seedlings, which was accompanied by increased chlorophyll content, the net photosynthetic rate and Fv/Fm, and enhanced chloroplasts development. In addition, the application of Mg2+ induced plants to accumulate five times higher concentrations of Pb2+ in the roots and to absorb and translocate four times higher concentrations of Mg2+ to the shoots than those without Mg2+ application. Furthermore, Mg2+ addition increased root growth and oxidative activity, and protected the root ultrastructure. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first report on the mechanism of Mg2+-induced alleviation of Pb2+ toxicity. The generated results

  14. Projecting potential adoption of genetically engineered freeze-tolerant Eucalyptus in the United States

    Treesearch

    David N. Wear; Ernest Dixon IV; Robert C. Abt; Navinder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Development of commercial Eucalyptus plantations has been limited in the United States because of the species’ sensitivity to freezing temperatures. Recently developed genetically engineered clones of a Eucalyptus hybrid, which confer freeze tolerance, could expand the range of commercial plantations. This study explores how...

  15. Eucalyptus essential oil toxicity against permethrin-resistant Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel C; Lucía, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo; Masuh, Hector; Picollo, María Inés

    2010-01-01

    During the past decades, chemical control against the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer has been based in the application of products containing permethrin. The repetitive overuse of pediculicides has resulted in the development of high levels of resistance to one or more of these products worldwide. Essential oils obtained from aromatic plants like Eucalyptus are good and safe alternatives due to their low toxicity to mammals and easy biodegradability. In the present study, we reported the chemical composition of Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus gunni, and the fumigant activity of five Eucalyptus essential oils and their main compounds against permethrin-resistant head lice from Argentina. The most effective essential oils were Eucalyptus sideroxylon, Eucalyptus globulus ssp globulus, and Eucalyptus globulus ssp maidenii, with knockdown time 50% (KT(50)) values of 24.75, 27.73, and 31.39 min. A linear regression analysis between percentage of 1,8-Cineole and KT(50) values of the essential oils showed a significant correlation at a p < 0.01. Since Eucalyptus essential oils showed to be effective against head lice and are classified as safer compounds, they can be employed into pediculicide formulations.

  16. 40 CFR 180.1271 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD... exemption from the requirement of tolerance is established for residues of eucalyptus oil in or on honey, honeycomb, and honeycomb with honey when used at 2g or less eucalyptus oil per hive, where the...

  17. Eucalyptus beyond its native range: Environmental issues in exotic bioenergy plantations

    Treesearch

    John A. Stanturf; Eric D. Vance; Thomas R. Fox; Matias Kirst

    2013-01-01

    The genus Eucalyptus is native to Australia and Indonesia but has been widely planted in many countries. Eucalyptus has proven to be particularly successful in tropical and subtropical regions. Several species are also successful in some temperate regions, but problems with sudden and severe frosts pose limitations. Current...

  18. Direct seeding of brushbox, lemon-gum eucalyptus, and cluster pine in Hawaii

    Treesearch

    Gerald A. Walters

    1969-01-01

    Seeds of brushbox, lemon-gum eucalyptus, and cluster pine were sown in separate seed spots on the Mokuleia Forest Reserve, Oahu. Half the seed spots were mulched. After 1 year, only two brushbox seed spots were stocked; lemon-gum eucalyptus had significantly (5 percent level) more seed spots stocked in the mulched plots; cluster pine had significantly less. These two...

  19. Processed eucalyptus trees as a substrate component for greenhouse crop production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fast growing eucalyptus species are selected for commercial plantings worldwide and are harvested for a variety of uses. Eucalyptus plantings in south Florida are harvested for landscape mulch production, yet this material may have potential as a container substrate for horticulture crop production....

  20. Effects of irrigation on water use and water use efficiency in two fast growing Eucalyptus plantations

    Treesearch

    Robert M. Hubbard; Jose Stape; Michael G. Ryan; Auro C. Almeida; Juan Rojas

    2010-01-01

    Eucalyptus plantations occupy almost 20 million ha worldwide and exceed 3.7 million ha in Brazil alone. Improved genetics and silviculture have led to as much as a three-fold increase in productivity in Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil and the large land area occupied by these highly productive ecosystems raises concern over their...

  1. Herbicide site preparation and release options for eucalyptus plantation establishment in the western gulf

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Blazier; John Johnson; Eric L. Taylor; Brad Osbon

    2012-01-01

    Cold-tolerant species of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) are increasingly grown in the Western Gulf region as short-rotation pulpwood feedstock. Operational chemical suppression of competing vegetation has been relatively costly and inefficient because it requires frequent applications of glyphosate applied via backpack sprayers. A series of studies...

  2. Eucalyptus Tree: A Potential Source of Cryptococcus neoformans in Egyptian Environment

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Dalia; Elhelw, Rehab; Refai, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt, the River Red Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) is a well-known tree and is highly appreciated by the rural and urban dwellers. The role of Eucalyptus trees in the ecology of Cryptococcus neoformans is documented worldwide. The aim of this survey was to show the prevalence of C. neoformans during the flowering season of E. camaldulensis at the Delta region in Egypt. Three hundred and eleven samples out of two hundred Eucalyptus trees, including leaves, flowers, and woody trunks, were collected from four governorates in the Delta region. Thirteen isolates of C. neoformans were recovered from Eucalyptus tree samples (4.2%). Molecular identification of C. neoformans was done by capsular gene specific primer CAP64 and serotype identification was done depending on LAC1 gene. This study represents an update on the ecology of C. neoformans associated with Eucalyptus tree in Egyptian environment. PMID:26884765

  3. Pretreatment of Eucalyptus in biphasic system for furfural production and accelerated enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiudong; Bai, Yuanyuan; Cao, Xuefei; Sun, Runcang

    2017-08-01

    Herein, an efficient biphasic pretreatment process was developed to improve the production of furfural (FF) and glucose from Eucalyptus. The influence of formic acid and NaCl on FF production from xylose in water and various biphasic systems was investigated. Results showed that the addition of formic acid and NaCl significantly promoted the FF yield, and the biphasic system of MIBK (methyl isobutyl ketone)/water exhibited the best performance for FF production. Then the Eucalyptus was pretreated in the MIBK/water system, and a maximum FF yield of 82.0% was achieved at 180°C for 60min. Surface of the pretreated Eucalyptus became relatively rough and loose, and its crystallinity index increased obviously due to the removal of hemicelluloses and lignin. The pretreated Eucalyptus samples showed much higher enzymatic hydrolysis rates (26.2-70.7%) than the raw Eucalyptus (14.5%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of flavonoid compounds in the flavedo and juice of two pummelo cultivars (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck) from different cultivation regions in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingxia; Nan, Haijuan; Wang, Yanjie; Jiang, Xiaoying; Li, Zheng

    2014-10-28

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different cultivation regions on the pattern and content of flavonoids in two pummelo cultivars (C. grandis L. Osbeck) in China. Results showed that similar patterns of flavonoids were observed in the flavedo or juice of each pummelo cultivar from these cultivation regions, whereas the individual flavonoid content showed unique characteristics. Naringin, the predominant flavanone glycoside, showed the highest content in both flavedo and juice of C. grandis "Guanximiyu" from the Pinghe of Fujian (FJ) cultivation region compared with the Dapu of Guangdong (GD) and Nanbu of Sichuan (SC) regions. However, its content in the flavedo of C. grandis "Shatianyu" from the Pingle of Guangxi (GX) was significantly lower than in the GD and SC regions. Vicenin-2 appeared to be the dominant flavone C-glycoside in the flavedo of both cultivars, and the lowest content was observed in the flavedo of C. grandis "Guanximiyu" from the SC region. However, C. grandis "Shatianyu" contained the highest content of vicenin-2 in the flavedo from SC region. Similarly, the predominant flavone O-glucoside, rhoifolin, showed the highest content in C. grandis "Guanximiyu" from the GD and FJ regions, whereas C. grandis "Shatianyu" in SC region showed the highest content of rhoifolin. Cluster analysis suggested that genotype played a primary role in determining the flavonoid profiles of pummelo cultivars, whereas regional differences significantly affected the flavonoid distribution of pummelo cultivars potentially via affecting the direction of flavonoid accumulation in pummelo.

  5. Comparison of classical and ultrasound-assisted isolation procedures of cellulose from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus rodustrus Sm.).

    PubMed

    Pappas, C; Tarantilis, P A; Daliani, I; Mavromoustakos, T; Polissiou, M

    2002-01-01

    A comparative study of classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction and purification of cellulose from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus rodustrus Sm.), has been conducted. The isolated cellulose samples were studied by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) spectroscopy and the crystallinity was also determined. The use of ultrasound decreased the total time of treatment, in addition the purity of the obtained cellulose was very high.

  6. Control of Passion Fruit Fungal Diseases Using Essential Oils Extracted from Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus agglomerata) in Egerton University Main Campus Njoro, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Waithaka, Paul Njenga; Gathuru, Eliud Mugu; Githaiga, Benson Muriuki; Kimani, Salome Nduta

    2017-01-01

    Growth of fruits which form an important part of human diet has been jeopardized by the many fungal diseases that are present today. This study was conceived to isolate the most common fungal pathogens in passion fruits. Fungi were isolated using potato dextrose agar in addition to characterization using morphological, cultural, and biochemical means. Extraction of essential oils from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus agglomerata) was done. Before carrying the sensitivity test of essential oils to the fungal isolates, constituents of the essential oils were determined. The most common fungal pathogens isolated from passion fruits were Alternaria spp. (45%), Fusarium spp. (22%), Colletotrichum spp. (17%), and Penicillium spp. (16%). There was a relationship between heating time and yield of essential oils in rosemary (r = 0.99) and eucalyptus (r = 0.99). Conversely, there was no significant difference in the amount of essential oils produced by rosemary and eucalyptus (P = 0.08). Furthermore, there was a significant difference in growth inhibition of the fungal pathogens between essential oils from rosemary and eucalyptus (P = 0.000438). Fungal pathogens isolated from passion fruits can be controlled using essential oils from rosemary and eucalyptus. The oils need to be produced in large scale.

  7. Control of Passion Fruit Fungal Diseases Using Essential Oils Extracted from Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus agglomerata) in Egerton University Main Campus Njoro, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Gathuru, Eliud Mugu; Githaiga, Benson Muriuki; Kimani, Salome Nduta

    2017-01-01

    Growth of fruits which form an important part of human diet has been jeopardized by the many fungal diseases that are present today. This study was conceived to isolate the most common fungal pathogens in passion fruits. Fungi were isolated using potato dextrose agar in addition to characterization using morphological, cultural, and biochemical means. Extraction of essential oils from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus agglomerata) was done. Before carrying the sensitivity test of essential oils to the fungal isolates, constituents of the essential oils were determined. The most common fungal pathogens isolated from passion fruits were Alternaria spp. (45%), Fusarium spp. (22%), Colletotrichum spp. (17%), and Penicillium spp. (16%). There was a relationship between heating time and yield of essential oils in rosemary (r = 0.99) and eucalyptus (r = 0.99). Conversely, there was no significant difference in the amount of essential oils produced by rosemary and eucalyptus (P = 0.08). Furthermore, there was a significant difference in growth inhibition of the fungal pathogens between essential oils from rosemary and eucalyptus (P = 0.000438). Fungal pathogens isolated from passion fruits can be controlled using essential oils from rosemary and eucalyptus. The oils need to be produced in large scale. PMID:28458692

  8. The planar Hill problem with oblate primary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadakis, K. E.

    2004-09-01

    The regularized equations of motion of the planar Hill problem which includes the effect of the oblateness of the larger primary body, is presented. Using the Levi-Civita coordinate transformation as well as the corresponding time transformation, we obtain a simple regularized polynomial Hamiltonian of the dynamical system that corresponds to that of two uncoupled harmonic oscillators perturbed by polynomial terms. The relations between the synodic and regularized variables are also given. The convenient numerical computations of the regularized equations of motion, allow derivation of a map of the group of families of simple-periodic orbits, free of collision cases, of both the classical and the Hill problem with oblateness. The horizontal stability of the families is calculated and we determine series of horizontally critical symmetric periodic orbits of the basic families g and g'.

  9. Uranium series dating of Allan Hills ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1986-01-01

    Uranium-238 decay series nuclides dissolved in Antarctic ice samples were measured in areas of both high and low concentrations of volcanic glass shards. Ice from the Allan Hills site (high shard content) had high Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 activities but similarly low U-238 activities in comparison with Antarctic ice samples without shards. The Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 excesses were found to be proportional to the shard content, while the U-238 decay series results were consistent with the assumption that alpha decay products recoiled into the ice from the shards. Through this method of uranium series dating, it was learned that the Allen Hills Cul de Sac ice is approximately 325,000 years old.

  10. Morgan Hill, California Earthquake, April 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, Henry

    1987-01-01

    The Morgan Hill earthquake, a moderate-size (Mg=6.1, ML =6.2, M=6.2) event, was felt throughout central California on April 24, 1984. The epicenter of the earthquake was located near Halls Valley southwest of Mount Hamilton, and the event is presumed to have occurred on the Calaveras fault. Damage, however, was concentrated near the south end of the Anderson Reservoir and in the town of Morgan Hill. A preliminary assessment by the California Office of Emergency Services estimated damage to private property at \\$7.0 million and to local-government facilities at \\$0.5 million, for a total of \\$7.5 million in damage. 

  11. Uranium series dating of Allan Hills ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1986-01-01

    Uranium-238 decay series nuclides dissolved in Antarctic ice samples were measured in areas of both high and low concentrations of volcanic glass shards. Ice from the Allan Hills site (high shard content) had high Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 activities but similarly low U-238 activities in comparison with Antarctic ice samples without shards. The Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 excesses were found to be proportional to the shard content, while the U-238 decay series results were consistent with the assumption that alpha decay products recoiled into the ice from the shards. Through this method of uranium series dating, it was learned that the Allen Hills Cul de Sac ice is approximately 325,000 years old.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of protease inhibitor from leaves of Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt.

    PubMed

    Satheesh, L Shilpa; Murugan, K

    2011-05-01

    Antimicrobial activity of protease inhibitor isolated from Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt. has been reported. A 14.3 kDa protease inhibitor (PI) was isolated and purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation (20-85% saturation), sephadex G-75, DEAE sepharose column and trypsin-sepharose affinity chromatography from the leaves of C. grandis. The purity was checked by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. PI exhibited marked growth inhibitory effects on colon cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. PI was thermostable and showed antimicrobial activity without hemolytic activity. PI strongly inhibited pathogenic microbial strains, including Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Eschershia coli, Bacillus subtilis and pathogenic fungus Candida albicans, Mucor indicus, Penicillium notatum, Aspergillus flavus and Cryptococcus neoformans. Examination by bright field microscopy showed inhibition of mycelial growth and sporulation. Morphologically, PI treated fungus showed a significant shrinkage of hyphal tips. Reduced PI completely lost its activity indicating that disulfide bridge is essential for its protease inhibitory and antifungal activity. Results reported in this study suggested that PI may be an excellent candidate for development of novel oral or other anti-infective agents.

  13. Development of LiDAR aware allometrics for Abies grandis: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, G. A.; Tinkham, W. T.; Smith, A. M.; Hudak, A. T.; Falkowski, M. J.; Keefe, R.

    2012-12-01

    Forest managers rely increasingly on accurate allometric relationships to inform decisions regarding stand rotations, silvilcultural treatments, timber harvesting, and biometric modeling. At the same time, advances in remote sensing techniques like LiDAR (light detection and ranging) have brought about opportunities to advance how we assess forest growth, and thus are contributing to the need for more accurate allometries. Past studies have attempted to relate LiDAR data to both plot and individual tree measures of forest biomass. However, many of these studies have been limited by the accuracy of their coincident observations. In this study, 24 Abies grandis were measured, felled, and dissected for the explicit objective of developing LiDAR aware allometrics. The analysis predicts spatial variables of competition, growth potential (e.g, trees per acre, aspect, elevation, etc.) and common statistical distributional metrics (e.g., mean, mode, percentiles, variance, skewness, kurtosis, etc.) derived from LiDAR point cloud returns to coincident in situ measures of Abies grandis stem biomass. The resulting allometries exemplify a new approach for predicting structural attributes of interest (biomass, basal area, volume, etc.) directly from LiDAR point cloud data, precluding the measurement errors that are propogated by indirectly predicting these structure attributes of interest from LiDAR data using traditional plot-based measurements.

  14. Pathogenic Interactions Between Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri and Cultivars of Pummelo (Citrus grandis).

    PubMed

    Shiotani, H; Ozaki, K; Tsuyumu, S

    2000-12-01

    ABSTRACT The aggressiveness of strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri on seven Citrus species, including Citrus sinensis (navel orange), C. paradisi (grapefruit), C. unshiu (Satsuma mandarin), C. junos (Yuzu), C. aurantifolia ('Mexican' lime), C. tachibana (Tachibana), and C. grandis (pummelo: 'Otachibana', 'Banpeiyu', and 'Anseikan'), were assessed by comparing lesion expansion and growth in planta, using a prick inoculation method. The existence of two groups distinct in aggressiveness was demonstrated on the pummelo cultivars, whereas the remaining species tested were uniformly susceptible. The two groups of strains were distinct in lesion expansion and growth in planta; however, both caused canker lesions on the 'Otachibana' pummelo. The sensitivity of the bacterial strains to phages Cp1 and Cp2 was associated with differences in aggressiveness. Namely, all the strains sensitive to Cp2 but resistant to Cp1 were aggressive to 'Otachibana', whereas all the strains sensitive to Cp1 but resistant to Cp2 were weakly aggressive. When a repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction amplification was carried out by enterobacterial repetitive intergeneric consensus (ERIC) sequences (ERIC1R and ERIC2) as the primers, these two groups were also distinguishable by the presence or absence of a 1.8-kb DNA fragment among otherwise identical fragments. The 1.8-kb fragment was amplified only from the strains aggressive to C. grandis.

  15. Evaluation of Arctopsyche grandis (Hydropsychidae) as a Biological Monitoring Tool in Rocky Mountain Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, W. D.

    2005-05-01

    Trace metal loading has been shown to cause marked disturbance in benthic invertebrate communities of Rocky Mountain streams. Metal concentrations in invertebrate tissues are commonly measured in biological monitoring studies as an indicator of metals contamination in the stream. Comparisons of metal body burdens across sampling sites and occasions carry the assumption that burdens reflect metal bioavailability in the field. Laboratory experiments were conducted with indigenous, larval, net-spinning caddisflies (Arctopsyche grandis) to evaluate this important assumption. Caddisfly larvae were exposed to a range of zinc (50 to 1000 ppb) and copper (10 to 360 ppb) concentrations for 96 hours. Water hardness (50, 100 ppm) and dissolved organic carbon (3, 6 ppm) concentrations were systematically varied in order to estimate differences in metal burdens due to changes in aqueous chemistry. Whole individual larvae were analyzed for trace metal concentrations. Results suggest that larval A. grandis are capable of regulating internal zinc concentrations. Surprisingly, maximum zinc burdens were observed where hardness and DOC were highest. Conversely, copper accumulation was reduced by 30 percent where DOC (3 ppm) was added to the exposure medium. Results will be discussed with respect to their significance for future biomonitoring efforts.

  16. Immobilization of bioactive compounds in Cassia grandis galactomannan-based films: Influence on physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Priscilla B S; Cerqueira, Miguel A; Vicente, António A; Teixeira, José A; Carneiro-da-Cunha, Maria G

    2017-03-01

    Galactomannan extracted from Cassia grandis seeds was used for the production of films containing different concentrations of the bioactive compounds lactoferrin (LF), bioactive peptides (BAPs), and phytosterols. SEM, FTIR, mechanical and thermal properties, colour, moisture content (MC), solubility, water vapour permeability (WVP), and contact angle (CA) were performed evaluating the effect of increasing concentrations of bioactive compounds on the films' physicochemical properties. The immobilization of bioactive compounds leads to films with roughness on their surface, as observed by SEM. The thermal events demonstrated that bioactive compounds avoided the establishment of more hydrogen bonds when compared to galactomannan control film; this behaviour was also confirmed by FTIR. All the studied films had a strong whiteness tendency as well as a yellowish appearance. The addition of Lf reduced MC and solubility values and leads to an increase of WVP and CA values, while the addition of BAPs and phytosterols did not changed the filmś solubility. The mechanical properties were affected by the addition of bioactive compounds, which improved the stiffness of the films. Galactomannan-based films from C. grandis showed to be a promising structure for the immobilization of biomolecules, pointing at a significant number of possible applications in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  17. Effect of Tectona grandis Linn. seeds on hair growth activity of albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Jaybhaye, Deepali; Varma, Sushikumar; Gagne, Nitin; bonde, Vijay; Gite, Amol; Bhosle, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    The seeds of Tectona grandis Linn. are traditionally acclaimed as hair tonic in the Indian system of medicine. Studies were therefore undertaken in order to evaluate petroleum ether extract of T. grandis seeds for its effect on hair growth in albino mice. The 5% and 10% extracts incorporated into simple ointment base were applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino mice. The time required for initiation of hair growth as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control. The result of treatment with minoxidil 2% is 49% hair in anagenic phase. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts compared to control animals. The treatment was successful in bringing a greater number of hair follicles (64% and 51%) in anagenic phase than standard minoxidil (49%). The results of treatment with 5% and 10% petroleum ether extracts were comparable to the positive control minoxidil. PMID:21455447

  18. Autonomous Legged Hill and Stairwell Ascent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    environments with little burden to a human operator. Keywords: autonomous robot, hill climbing, stair climbing, sequential composition, hexapod, self...simulation studies [11], with almost all empirical work confined to the traversal of a single flight and yaw control on the stairs (summarized in [4]). The...only prior report we have found documenting empirical work over multiple flights of stairs assumed a very specific, simple landing geometry [12]; we

  19. Hill Ciphers over Near-Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farag, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Hill ciphers are linear codes that use as input a "plaintext" vector [p-right arrow above] of size n, which is encrypted with an invertible n x n matrix E to produce a "ciphertext" vector [c-right arrow above] = E [middle dot] [p-right arrow above]. Informally, a near-field is a triple [left angle bracket]N; +, *[right angle bracket] that…

  20. An SP-Hill layered broadcast cryptosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, M. E.; Tavares, S. E.

    A new type of cryptosystem with applications in broadcast communications and database systems is described. The scheme combines various elements of both SP-networks and Hill broadcast encryption systems. The theoretical basis for the encryption technique is described in a series of equations and the results of a preliminary production process complexity test are presented. The results of the test indicate that the scheme performs well cryptographically and that it represents a significant advance over conventional encryption systems.

  1. Possible Meteorites in the Martian Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    From its winter outpost at 'Low Ridge' inside Gusev Crater, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this spectacular, color mosaic of hilly, sandy terrain and two potential iron meteorites. The two light-colored, smooth rocks about two-thirds of the way up from the bottom of the frame have been labeled 'Zhong Shan' and 'Allan Hills.'

    The two rocks' informal names are in keeping with the rover science team's campaign to nickname rocks and soils in the area after locations in Antarctica. Zhong Shang is an Antarctic base that the People's Republic of China opened on Feb. 26, 1989, at the Larsemann Hills in Prydz Bay in East Antarctica. Allan Hills is a location where researchers have found many Martian meteorites, including the controversial ALH84001, which achieved fame in 1996 when NASA scientists suggested that it might contain evidence for fossilized extraterrestrial life. Zhong Shan was the given name of Dr. Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925), known as the 'Father of Modern China.' Born to a peasant family in Guangdong, Sun moved to live with his brother in Honolulu at age 13 and later became a medical doctor. He led a series of uprisings against the Qing dynasty that began in 1894 and eventually succeeded in 1911. Sun served as the first provisional president when the Republic of China was founded in 1912.

    The Zhong Shan and Allan Hills rocks, at the left and right, respectively, have unusual morphologies and miniature thermal emission spectrometer signatures that resemble those of a rock known as 'Heat Shield' at the Meridiani site explored by Spirit's twin, Opportunity. Opportunity's analyses revealed Heat Shield to be an iron meteorite.

    Spirit acquired this approximately true-color image on the rover's 872nd Martian day, or sol (June 16, 2006), using exposures taken through three of the panoramic camera's filters, centered on wavelengths of 600 nanometers, 530 nanometers, and 480 nanometers.

  2. Possible Meteorites in the Martian Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    From its winter outpost at 'Low Ridge' inside Gusev Crater, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this spectacular, color mosaic of hilly, sandy terrain and two potential iron meteorites. The two light-colored, smooth rocks about two-thirds of the way up from the bottom of the frame have been labeled 'Zhong Shan' and 'Allan Hills.'

    The two rocks' informal names are in keeping with the rover science team's campaign to nickname rocks and soils in the area after locations in Antarctica. Zhong Shang is an Antarctic base that the People's Republic of China opened on Feb. 26, 1989, at the Larsemann Hills in Prydz Bay in East Antarctica. Allan Hills is a location where researchers have found many Martian meteorites, including the controversial ALH84001, which achieved fame in 1996 when NASA scientists suggested that it might contain evidence for fossilized extraterrestrial life. Zhong Shan was the given name of Dr. Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925), known as the 'Father of Modern China.' Born to a peasant family in Guangdong, Sun moved to live with his brother in Honolulu at age 13 and later became a medical doctor. He led a series of uprisings against the Qing dynasty that began in 1894 and eventually succeeded in 1911. Sun served as the first provisional president when the Republic of China was founded in 1912.

    The Zhong Shan and Allan Hills rocks, at the left and right, respectively, have unusual morphologies and miniature thermal emission spectrometer signatures that resemble those of a rock known as 'Heat Shield' at the Meridiani site explored by Spirit's twin, Opportunity. Opportunity's analyses revealed Heat Shield to be an iron meteorite.

    Spirit acquired this approximately true-color image on the rover's 872nd Martian day, or sol (June 16, 2006), using exposures taken through three of the panoramic camera's filters, centered on wavelengths of 600 nanometers, 530 nanometers, and 480 nanometers.

  3. Composition and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Kernel Oil from Torreya grandis, Carya Cathayensis, and Myrica R ubra.

    PubMed

    Ni, Liang; Shi, Wei-Yong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we measured the composition and free radical scavenging activity of several species of nuts, namely, Torreya grandis, Carya cathayensis, and Myrica rubra. The nut kernels of the aforementioned species are rich in fatty acids, particularly in unsaturated fatty acids, and have 51% oil content. T. grandis and C. cathayensis are mostly produced in ZheJiang province. The trace elements in the kernels of T. grandis and C. cathayensis were generally higher than those in M. rubra, except for Fe with a value of 64.41 mg/Kg. T. grandis is rich in selenium (52.91-68.71 mg/Kg). All three kernel oils have a certain free radical scavenging capacity, with the highest value in M. rubra. In the DPPH assay, the IC50 of M. rubra kernel oil was 60 μg/mL, and OH was 100 μg/mL. The results of this study provide basic data for the future development of the edible nut resources in ZheJiang province.

  4. Composition and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Kernel Oil from Torreya grandis, Carya Cathayensis, and Myrica Rubra

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Liang; Shi, Wei-Yong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we measured the composition and free radical scavenging activity of several species of nuts, namely, Torreya grandis, Carya cathayensis, and Myrica rubra. The nut kernels of the aforementioned species are rich in fatty acids, particularly in unsaturated fatty acids, and have 51% oil content. T. grandis and C. cathayensis are mostly produced in ZheJiang province. The trace elements in the kernels of T. grandis and C. cathayensis were generally higher than those in M. rubra, except for Fe with a value of 64.41 mg/Kg. T. grandis is rich in selenium (52.91−68.71 mg/Kg). All three kernel oils have a certain free radical scavenging capacity, with the highest value in M. rubra. In the DPPH assay, the IC50 of M. rubra kernel oil was 60 μg/mL, and OH was 100 μg/mL. The results of this study provide basic data for the future development of the edible nut resources in ZheJiang province. PMID:24734074

  5. Mycorrhizal symbionts of Pisonia grandis and P. sechellarum in Seychelles: identification of mycorrhizal fungi and description of new Tomentella species.

    PubMed

    Suvi, Triin; Tedersoo, Leho; Abarenkov, Kessy; Beaver, Katy; Gerlach, Justin; Kõljalg, Urmas

    2010-01-01

    Nyctaginaceae includes species that are predominantly non-mycorrhizal or form arbuscular or ectomycorrhiza. Root-associated fungi were studied from P. grandis and P. sechellarum roots collected respectively on the islands of Cousin and Silhouette in Seychelles. In addition fungal sporocarps were collected from the sampling area. Fungal symbionts were identified from the roots by anatomotyping and rDNA sequencing; sporocarps collected were examined microscopically and sequenced. Three distantly related ectomycorrhizal fungal species belonging to Thelephoraceae were identified from the roots of P. grandis. Sporocarps also were found for two symbionts and described as new Tomentella species. In addition Tomentella species collected from other Seychelles islands were studied and described as new species if there was no close resemblance to previously established species. P. sechellarum was determined to be an arbuscular mycorrhizal plant; three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species were detected from the roots. P. grandis is probably associated only with species of Thelephoraceae throughout its area. Only five Tomentella species are known to form ectomycorrhiza with P. grandis and they never have been found to be associated with another host, suggesting adaptation of these fungi to extreme environmental conditions in host's habitat.

  6. The Rocks of the Columbia Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squyres, Steven W.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Blaney, Diana L.; Clark, Benton C.; Crumpler, Larry; Farrand, William H.; Gorevan, Stephen; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Hurowitz, Joel; Kusack, Alastair; hide

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has identified five distinct rock types in the Columbia Hills of Gusev crater. Clovis Class rock is a poorly-sorted clastic rock that has undergone substantial aqueous alteration. We interpret it to be aqueously-altered ejecta deposits formed by impacts into basaltic materials. Wishstone Class rock is also a poorly-sorted clastic rock that has a distinctive chemical composition that is high in Ti and P and low in Cr. Wishstone Class rock may be pyroclastic in origin. Peace Class rock is a sedimentary material composed of ultramafic sand grains cemented by significant quantities of Mg- and Ca-sulfates. Peace Class rock may have formed when water briefly saturated the ultramafic sands, and evaporated to allow precipitation of the sulfates. Watchtower Class rocks are similar chemically to Wishstone Class rocks, and have undergone widely varying degrees of near-isochemical aqueous alteration. They may also be ejecta deposits, formed by impacts into Wishstone-rich materials and altered by small amounts of water. Backstay Class rocks are basalt/trachybasalt lavas that were emplaced in the Columbia Hills after the other rock classes were, either as impact ejecta or by localized volcanic activity. The geologic record preserved in the rocks of the Columbia Hills reveals a period very early in martian history in which volcanic materials were widespread, impact was a dominant process, and water was commonly present.

  7. Miocene cercopithecoidea from the Tugen Hills, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Christopher C; Goble, Emily D; Hill, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    Miocene to Pleistocene fossiliferous sediments in the Tugen Hills span the time period from at least 15.5 Ma to 0.25 Ma, including time periods unknown or little known elsewhere in Africa. Consequently, the Tugen Hills deposits hold the potential to inform us about crucial phylogenetic events in African faunal evolution and about long-term environmental change. Among the specimens collected from this region are a number of discoveries already important to the understanding of primate evolution. Here, we describe additional cercopithecoid material from the Miocene deposits in the Tugen Hills sequence, including those from securely dated sites in the Muruyur Beds (16-13.4 Ma), the Mpesida Beds (7-6.2 Ma) and the Lukeino Formation (∼ 6.2-5.7 Ma). We also evaluate previously described material from the Ngorora Formation (13-8.8 Ma). Identified taxa include Victoriapithecidae gen. et sp. indet., cf. Parapapio lothagamensis, and at least two colobines. Specimens attributed to cf. Pp. lothagamensis would extend the species' geographic range beyond its type locality. In addition, we describe specimens sharing derived characters with modern African colobines (Tribe: Colobina), a finding that is congruent with previous molecular estimates of colobine divergence dates. These colobine specimens represent some of the earliest known members of the modern African colobine radiation and, in contrast to previous hypotheses, suggest that early African colobines were mainly arboreal and that semi-terrestrial Late Miocene and Plio-Pleistocene colobine taxa were secondarily derived in their locomotor adaptations.

  8. Midnight Temperature Maximum Observations Over Millstone Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azeem, S. I.; Crowley, G.; Noto, J.; Kerr, R. B.; Kapali, S.; Riccobono, J.; Migliozzi, M.

    2012-12-01

    The thermospheric Midnight Temperature Maximum (MTM) is a large-scale neutral temperature anomaly usually observed at low latitudes. The magnitude of temperature enhancements during low-latitude MTM events is about 50-150 K and its occurrence is linked to poleward surges in an otherwise "quiescent" equatorward meridional flow. The MTM is also associated with the post-midnight brightness of 630 nm (redline) emission and the downward descent of the F-region plasma (midnight collapse). Recent experimental and modeling studies have indicated that MTM anomalies extend into mid-latitudes, although observational evidence of the mid-latitude MTM in the literature is limited to a single site in the Southern Hemisphere. In this paper, we present observations of Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude MTM in Faby-Perot Interferometer (FPI) redline data from Millstone Hill Observatory (42.6° N, 71.49° W). The FPI at Millstone Hill has been operating since April, 2010 and providing F-region night-time neutral winds and temperatures. We present case studies of post-midnight red-line temperature enhancements and correlated poleward surges in the meridional neutral winds.; An example of Millstone Hill redline temperature and neutral wind measurements during an MTM event.

  9. Plasticity of primary and secondary growth dynamics in Eucalyptus hybrids: a quantitative genetics and QTL mapping perspective

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The genetic basis of growth traits has been widely studied in forest trees. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies have highlighted the presence of both stable and unstable genomic regions accounting for biomass production with respect to tree age and genetic background, but results remain scarce regarding the interplay between QTLs and the environment. In this study, our main objective was to dissect the genetic architecture of the growth trajectory with emphasis on genotype x environment interaction by measuring primary and secondary growth covering intervals connected with environmental variations. Results Three different trials with the same family of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis hybrids (with different genotypes) were planted in the Republic of Congo, corresponding to two QTL mapping experiments and one clonal test. Height and radial growths were monitored at regular intervals from the seedling stage to five years old. The correlation between growth increments and an aridity index revealed that growth before two years old (r = 0.5; 0.69) was more responsive to changes in water availability than late growth (r = 0.39; 0.42) for both height and circumference. We found a regular increase in heritability with time for cumulative growth for both height [0.06 - 0.33] and circumference [0.06 - 0.38]. Heritabilities for incremental growth were more heterogeneous over time even if ranges of variation were similar (height [0-0.31]; circumference [0.19 to 0.48]). Within the trials, QTL analysis revealed collocations between primary and secondary growth QTLs as well as between early growth increments and final growth QTLs. Between trials, few common QTLs were detected highlighting a strong environmental effect on the genetic architecture of growth, validated by significant QTL x E interactions. Conclusion These results suggest that early growth responses to water availability determine the genetic architecture of total growth at the mature stage

  10. Isolation and characterization of lignins from Eucalyptus tereticornis (12ABL).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aiping; Lu, Fachuang; Liu, Chuanfu; Sun, Run-Cang

    2010-11-10

    A three-step sequential extraction-precipitation method was used to isolate lignin from Eucalyptus tereticornis. The ball-milled eucalyptus was extracted with 96% dioxane, 50% dioxane, and 80% dioxane containing 1% NaOH at boiling temperature, consecutively resulting in solubilization of lignin and hemicelluloses. By precipitating such solutions into 70% aqueous ethanol, the hemicelluloses were removed substantially although there were still some carbohydrates left over, especially for lignin fraction extracted by 50% dioxane. Lignins dissolved in the 70% ethanol solutions were recovered via concentration and precipitation into acidified water. About 37% of the original lignin was released following such procedure whereas only 13.5% can be isolated by traditional milled wood lignin (MWL) method. The obtained lignin fractions were analyzed by high performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) following acid hydrolysis for sugar composition of the contaminating carbohydrates and characterized by quantitative (31)P NMR as well as two-dimensional heteronuclear single-quantum coherence ((13)C-(1)H) NMR. The results showed that 96% aqueous dioxane extraction of ball-milled wood under conditions used in this study resulted in lignin preparation with very similar structures and sugar composition as traditional MWL. Therefore extracting ball-milled wood with 96% aqueous dioxane produced lignin in 33.6% yield, which makes it very attractive as an alternative to the traditional MWL method. However further extraction with 50% aqueous dioxane or 80% aqueous dioxane containing 1% NaOH gave just a little more lignins with different carbohydrate compositions from those in MWL. The eucalyptus lignins obtained were syringyl and guaiacyl type units. Lignin fraction obtained from 96% dioxane extraction was found to have more phenolic hydroxyl and less aliphatic hydroxyl than the other two preparations.

  11. Patterns of Reproductive Isolation in Eucalyptus-A Phylogenetic Perspective.

    PubMed

    Larcombe, Matthew J; Holland, Barbara; Steane, Dorothy A; Jones, Rebecca C; Nicolle, Dean; Vaillancourt, René E; Potts, Brad M

    2015-07-01

    We assess phylogenetic patterns of hybridization in the speciose, ecologically and economically important genus Eucalyptus, in order to better understand the evolution of reproductive isolation. Eucalyptus globulus pollen was applied to 99 eucalypt species, mainly from the large commercially important subgenus, Symphyomyrtus. In the 64 species that produce seeds, hybrid compatibility was assessed at two stages, hybrid-production (at approximately 1 month) and hybrid-survival (at 9 months), and compared with phylogenies based on 8,350 genome-wide DArT (diversity arrays technology) markers. Model fitting was used to assess the relationship between compatibility and genetic distance, and whether or not the strength of incompatibility "snowballs" with divergence. There was a decline in compatibility with increasing genetic distance between species. Hybridization was common within two closely related clades (one including E. globulus), but rare between E. globulus and species in two phylogenetically distant clades. Of three alternative models tested (linear, slowdown, and snowball), we found consistent support for a snowball model, indicating that the strength of incompatibility accelerates relative to genetic distance. Although we can only speculate about the genetic basis of this pattern, it is consistent with a Dobzhansky-Muller-model prediction that incompatibilities should snowball with divergence due to negative epistasis. Different rates of compatibility decline in the hybrid-production and hybrid-survival measures suggest that early-acting postmating barriers developed first and are stronger than later-acting barriers. We estimated that complete reproductive isolation can take up to 21-31 My in Eucalyptus. Practical implications for hybrid eucalypt breeding and genetic risk assessment in Australia are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For

  12. Bioconversion of eucalyptus bark waste into soil conditioner.

    PubMed

    Yadav, K R; Sharma, R K; Kothari, R M

    2002-01-01

    An optimized protocol for the bioconversion of eucalyptus bark was devised. It comprised: (i) mechanical reduction in bark size to 0.5-3.0 cm, (ii) moistening to 60-65%, (iii) fortification with ligninase-rich fungus Volvariella sp. (S-1) and 2% urea and (iv) maintenance of this composting mix under aerobic and ambient condition for 14-15 weeks. The resulting bark soil conditioner (BSC) was an easily crumbling, reddish brown biomass, with physico-chemical and microbial properties which would enrich soil fertility/productivity.

  13. Spasmolytic constituents from Eucalyptus camaldulensis var. obtusa leaves.

    PubMed

    Begum, S; Farhat, F; Sultana, I; Siddiqui, B S; Shaheen, F; Gilani, A H

    2000-09-01

    Phytochemical studies on the leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis var. obtusa have resulted in the isolation of a new triterpenoid camaldulin (3beta-formyloxyurs-11-en-28,13beta-olide) (1) along with ursolic acid lactone acetate (2), ursolic acid lactone (3), betulinic acid (4), and beta-sitosterol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5). The structures were assigned on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR studies. Compounds 1-3 were tested for spasmolytic activity and were found to possess calcium antagonist activity.

  14. Seasonal influence on the essential oil of Eucalyptus microcorys.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Flávia N M; Fortes, Gilmara A C; Paula, José R; Ferri, Pedro H; Santos, Suzana C

    2014-04-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil, phenolic contents, and foliar nutrients of Eucalyptus microcorys leaves, cultivated in Brazil, was analysed on a monthly basis for one year. Canonical redundancy analysis correlated results with climate conditions (rainfall, humidity, and mean temperature), allowing three groups to be distinguished as regards temperature, flavonoids, and the content of some metals. Strong correlations between Mn, Cu, Zn, Ca, P, and K with some monoterpenes and phenolic compounds were observed. Oxygenated monoterpenes were predominant in all sampling months. Oil chemovariation may be influenced by climatic factors as well as by foliar nutrient variation.

  15. Confidence Hills Mineralogy and Chemin Results from Base of Mt. Sharp, Pahrump Hills, Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavanagh, P. D.; Bish, D. L.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; Achilles, C. N.; Chipera, S. J.; Treiman, A. H.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity recently completed its fourth drill sampling of sediments on Mars. The Confidence Hills (CH) sample was drilled from a rock located in the Pahrump Hills region at the base of Mt. Sharp in Gale Crater. The CheMin X-ray diffractometer completed five nights of analysis on the sample, more than previously executed for a drill sample, and the data have been analyzed using Rietveld refinement and full-pattern fitting to determine quantitative mineralogy. Confidence Hills mineralogy has several important characteristics: 1) abundant hematite and lesser magnetite; 2) a 10 angstrom phyllosilicate; 3) multiple feldspars including plagioclase and alkali feldspar; 4) mafic silicates including forsterite, orthopyroxene, and two types of clinopyroxene (Ca-rich and Ca-poor), consistent with a basaltic source; and 5) minor contributions from sulfur-bearing species including jarosite.

  16. Estimations of evapotranspiration in an age sequence of Eucalyptus plantations in subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenfei; Wu, Jianping; Fan, Houbao; Duan, Honglang; Li, Qiang; Yuan, Yinghong; Zhang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Eucalyptus species are widely planted for reforestation in subtropical China. However, the effects of Eucalyptus plantations on the regional water use remain poorly understood. In an age sequence of 2-, 4- and 6-year-old Eucalyptus plantations, the tree water use and soil evaporation were examined by linking model estimations and field observations. Results showed that annual evapotranspiration of each age sequence Eucalyptus plantations was 876.7, 944.1 and 1000.7 mm, respectively, accounting for 49.81%, 53.64% and 56.86% of the annual rainfall. In addition, annual soil evaporations of 2-, 4- and 6-year-old were 318.6, 336.1, and 248.7 mm of the respective Eucalyptus plantations. Our results demonstrated that Eucalyptus plantations would potentially reduce water availability due to high evapotranspiration in subtropical regions. Sustainable management strategies should be implemented to reduce water consumption in Eucalyptus plantations in the context of future climate change scenarios such as drought and warming.

  17. Estimations of evapotranspiration in an age sequence of Eucalyptus plantations in subtropical China

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Houbao; Duan, Honglang; Li, Qiang; Yuan, Yinghong; Zhang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Eucalyptus species are widely planted for reforestation in subtropical China. However, the effects of Eucalyptus plantations on the regional water use remain poorly understood. In an age sequence of 2-, 4- and 6-year-old Eucalyptus plantations, the tree water use and soil evaporation were examined by linking model estimations and field observations. Results showed that annual evapotranspiration of each age sequence Eucalyptus plantations was 876.7, 944.1 and 1000.7 mm, respectively, accounting for 49.81%, 53.64% and 56.86% of the annual rainfall. In addition, annual soil evaporations of 2-, 4- and 6-year-old were 318.6, 336.1, and 248.7 mm of the respective Eucalyptus plantations. Our results demonstrated that Eucalyptus plantations would potentially reduce water availability due to high evapotranspiration in subtropical regions. Sustainable management strategies should be implemented to reduce water consumption in Eucalyptus plantations in the context of future climate change scenarios such as drought and warming. PMID:28399174

  18. Antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities of volatile oils and extracts from stems, leaves, and flowers of Eucalyptus sideroxylon and Eucalyptus torquata.

    PubMed

    Ashour, Hossam M

    2008-03-01

    Eucalyptus species leaves have been traditionally used to heal wounds and fungal infections. Essential oils and extracts of some Eucalyptus species possess antimicrobial and antitumor properties. We sought to determine antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of oils and extracts of leaves, stems, and flowers of Eucalyptus sideroxylon and Eucalyptus torquata grown in Egypt. An agar diffusion method was used to analyze antimicrobial activities of essential oils and extracts of Eucalyptus against medically important gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. A sulphorhodamine B assay was used to analyze the in vitro cytotoxic activities of oils and extracts against Human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HEPG2), and Human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7). Gram-positive bacteria were highly susceptible to oils and extracts of both Eucalyptus species. With the exception of Escherichia coli, gram-negative bacteria were resistant to extracts, but susceptible to the oil obtained from at least one organ of E sideroxylon and E torquata. Although Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were resistant to the extracts, essential oils of E sideroxylon and E torquata generally exhibited moderate to high antifungal activities against Candida albicans, A flavus and A niger. Oils of E torquata stems exhibited cytotoxic activities on MCF7 cells followed by oils of E torquata leaves and E sideroxylon leaves. However, oils from both species failed to exert cytotoxic effects on HEPG2 cells. This is the first report of antimicrobial and antitumor properties of E sideroxylon and E torquata. Results suggest a wider use of Eucalyptus species products in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food preparations.

  19. Three-dimensional potential flow over hills and oval mounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, R.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis was made of the potential flow behavior for an initially uniform flow passing over a single axisymmetric hill, an oval mound, and a combination of two hills. Small perturbation theory was used, and the resulting Laplace equation for the perturbation velocity potential was solved by using either a product solution or a Green's function. The three dimensional solution is of interest in calculating the pressure distribution around obstacles, the flow of pollutants carried by the wind, and the augmentation of wind velocity for windmill siting. The augmentation in velocity at the top of a hill was found to be proportional to the hill height relative to a characteristic width dimension of the hill. An axisymmetric hill produced about 20 percent less velocity increase than a two dimensional ridge having the same cross-sectional profile.

  20. Distribution and occurrence of the insect pathogenic alga Helicosporidium sp. (Chlorophyta: Trebouxiophyceae) in the predator beetle Rhizophagus grandis G: yll. (Coleoptera: Rhizophagidae)-rearing laboratories.

    PubMed

    Yaman, M; Tosun, O; Aydın, C; Ertürk, O

    2011-01-01

    The distribution and occurrence of the insect pathogenic algae Helicosporidium sp. (Chlorophyta: Trebouxiophyceae) in the predator beetle Rhizophagus grandis (Coleoptera: Rhizophagidae)-rearing laboratories were studied and reported here for the first time. The insect pathogenic alga Helicosporidium sp. infection was observed in all R. grandis-rearing laboratories. The infection rate reached more than 20% which is significant among the samples in some R. grandis-rearing laboratories. The infection rates of the examined beetles showed noticeable differences between localities and years. There was no significant difference in the infection levels of male and female beetles. These results showed that Helicosporidium sp. is one of the factors that decrease efficiency of the R. grandis-rearing laboratories.