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Sample records for euclidean correlators volume

  1. Correlation among genetic, Euclidean, temporal, and herd ownership distances of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains in Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a viral disease that has a major economic impact for the swine industry. Its control is mostly directed towards preventing its spread which requires a better understanding of the mechanisms of transmission of the virus between herds. The objectives of this study were to describe the genetic diversity and to assess the correlation among genetic, Euclidean and temporal distances and ownership to better understand pathways of transmission. Results A cross-sectional study was conducted on sites located in a high density area of swine production in Quebec. Geographical coordinates (longitude/latitude), date of submission and ownership were obtained for each site. ORF5 sequencing was attempted on PRRSV positive sites. Proportion of pairwise combinations of strains having ≥98% genetic homology were analysed according to Euclidean distances and ownership. Correlations between genetic, Euclidean and temporal distances and ownership were assessed using Mantel tests on continuous and binary matrices. Sensitivity of the correlations between genetic and Euclidean as well as temporal distances was evaluated for different Euclidean and temporal distance thresholds. An ORF5 sequence was identified for 132 of the 176 (75%) PRRSV positive sites; 122 were wild-type strains. The mean (min-max) genetic, Euclidean and temporal pairwise distances were 11.6% (0–18.7), 15.0 km (0.04-45.7) and 218 days (0–852), respectively. Significant positive correlations were observed between genetic and ownership, genetic and Euclidean and between genetic and temporal binary distances. The relationship between genetic and ownership suggests either common sources of animals or semen, employees, technical services or vehicles, whereas that between genetic and Euclidean binary distances is compatible with area spread of the virus. The latter correlation was observed only up to 5 km. Conclusions This study suggests that

  2. Studies in Mathematics, Volume II. Euclidean Geometry Based on Ruler and Protractor Axioms. Second Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Charles W.; And Others

    These materials were developed to help high school teachers to become familiar with the approach to tenth-grade Euclidean geometry which was adopted by the School Mathematics Study Group (SMSG). It is emphasized that the materials are unsuitable as a high school textbook. Each document contains material too difficult for most high school students.…

  3. Ideas of Space - Euclidean, Non-Euclidean, and Relativistic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Jeremy

    1989-09-01

    Now in a revised and expanded new edition, this volume chronologically traces the evolution of Euclidean, non-Euclidean, and relativistic theories regarding the shape of the universe. A unique, highly readable, and entertaining account, the book assumes no special mathematical knowledge. It reviews the failed classical attempts to prove the parallel postulate and provides coverage of the role of Gauss, Lobachevskii, and Bolyai in setting the foundations of modern differential geometry, which laid the groundwork for Einstein's theories of special and general relativity. This updated account includes a new chapter on Islamic contributions to this area, as well as additional information on gravitation, the nature of space and black holes.

  4. The Development of Euclidean and Non-Euclidean Cosmologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, P. D.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses early Euclidean cosmologies, inadequacies in classical Euclidean cosmology, and the development of non-Euclidean cosmologies. Explains the present state of the theory of cosmology including the work of Dirac, Sandage, and Gott. (CP)

  5. An optical space domain volume holographic correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, Philip; Gardezi, Akber; Mitra, Bhargav; Young, Rupert; Chatwin, Chris

    2009-04-01

    We propose a novel space domain volume holographic correlator system. One of the limitations of conventional correlators is the bandwidth limits imposed by updating the filter and the readout speed of the CCD. The volume holographic correlator overcomes these by storing a large number of filters that can be interrogated simultaneously. By using angle multiplexing, the match can be read out onto a high speed linear array of sensors. A scanning window can be used to implement shift invariance, thus, making the system operate like a space domain correlator. The space domain correlation method offers an advantage over the frequency domain correlator in that the correlation filter no longer has shift invariance imposed on it since the kernel can be modified depending on its position. This maybe used for normalising the kernel or imposing some non-linearity in an attempt to improve performance. However, one of the key advantages of the frequency domain method is lost using this technique, namely the speed of the computation. A large kernel space-domain correlation, performed on a computer, will be very slow compared to what is achievable using a 4f optical correlator. We propose a method of implementing this using the scanning holographic memory based correlator.

  6. Spacetime and Euclidean geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brill, Dieter; Jacobson, Ted

    2006-04-01

    Using only the principle of relativity and Euclidean geometry we show in this pedagogical article that the square of proper time or length in a two-dimensional spacetime diagram is proportional to the Euclidean area of the corresponding causal domain. We use this relation to derive the Minkowski line element by two geometric proofs of the spacetime Pythagoras theorem.

  7. Euclidean black hole vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowker, Fay; Gregory, Ruth; Traschen, Jennie

    1991-01-01

    We argue the existence of solutions of the Euclidean Einstein equations that correspond to a vortex sitting at the horizon of a black hole. We find the asymptotic behaviors, at the horizon and at infinity, of vortex solutions for the gauge and scalar fields in an abelian Higgs model on a Euclidean Schwarzschild background and interpolate between them by integrating the equations numerically. Calculating the backreaction shows that the effect of the vortex is to cut a slice out of the Schwarzschild geometry. Consequences of these solutions for black hole thermodynamics are discussed.

  8. Euclidean supergravity in five dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabra, Wafic A.; Vaughan, Owen

    2016-09-01

    We construct a 5D, N = 2 Euclidean theory of supergravity coupled to vector multiplets. Upon reducing this theory over a circle we recover the action of 4D, N = 2 Euclidean supergravity coupled to vector multiplets.

  9. Enjoyment of Euclidean Planar Triangles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    This article adopts the following classification for a Euclidean planar [triangle]ABC, purely based on angles alone. A Euclidean planar triangle is said to be acute angled if all the three angles of the Euclidean planar [triangle]ABC are acute angles. It is said to be right angled at a specific vertex, say B, if the angle ?ABC is a right angle…

  10. Non-Hermitian Euclidean random matrix theory.

    PubMed

    Goetschy, A; Skipetrov, S E

    2011-07-01

    We develop a theory for the eigenvalue density of arbitrary non-Hermitian Euclidean matrices. Closed equations for the resolvent and the eigenvector correlator are derived. The theory is applied to the random Green's matrix relevant to wave propagation in an ensemble of pointlike scattering centers. This opens a new perspective in the study of wave diffusion, Anderson localization, and random lasing.

  11. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop: Understanding QGP through Spectral Functions and Euclidean Correlators (Volume 89)

    SciTech Connect

    Mocsy,A.; Petreczky, P.

    2008-06-27

    In the past two decades, one of the most important goals of the nuclear physics community has been the production and characterization of the new state of matter--Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). Understanding how properties of hadrons change in medium, particularly, the bound state of a very heavy quark and its antiquark, known as quarkonium, as well as determining the transport coefficients is crucial for identifying the properties of QGP and for the understanding of the experimental data from RHIC. On April 23rd, more than sixty physicists from twenty-seven institutions gathered for this three-day topical workshop held at BNL to discuss how to understand the properties of the new state of matter obtained in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions (particularly at RHIC-BNL) through spectral functions. In-medium properties of the different particle species and the transport properties of the medium are encoded in spectral functions. The former could yield important signatures of deconfinement and chiral symmetry restoration at high temperatures and densities, while the later are crucial for the understanding of the dynamics of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Participants at the workshop are experts in various areas of spectral function studies. The workshop encouraged direct exchange of scientific information among experts, as well as between the younger and the more established scientists. The workshops success is evident from the coherent picture that developed of the current understanding of transport properties and in-medium particle properties, illustrated in the current proceedings. The following pages show calculations of meson spectral functions in lattice QCD, as well as implications of these for quarkonia melting/survival in the quark gluon plasma; Lattice calculations of the transport coefficients (shear and bulk viscosities, electric conductivity); Calculation of spectral functions and transport coefficients in field theories using weak coupling techniques; And certain spectral functions and also the heavy quark diffusion constant have been calculated in the strongly coupled limit of the N = 4 super-symmetric Yang Mills theory.

  12. Euclidean Epstein-Glaser renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Kai J.

    2009-10-01

    In the framework of perturbative algebraic quantum field theory recently developed by Brunetti, Dütsch, and Fredenhagen (http://arxiv.org/abs/0901.2038) I give a general construction of so-called Euclidean time-ordered products, i.e., algebraic versions of the Schwinger functions, for scalar quantum field theories on spaces of Euclidean signature. This is done by generalizing the recursive construction of time-ordered products by Epstein and Glaser, originally formulated for quantum field theories on Minkowski space [Epstein and Glaser, Ann. Inst. Henri Poincare 19, 211 (1973)]. An essential input of Epstein-Glaser renormalization is the causal structure of Minkowski space. The absence of this causal structure in the Euclidean framework makes it necessary to modify the original construction of Epstein and Glaser at two points. First, the whole construction has to be performed with an only partially defined product on (interaction) functionals. This is due to the fact that the fundamental solutions of the Helmholtz operator (-Δ+m2) of Euclidean quantum field theory have a unique singularity structure, i.e., they are unique up to a smooth part. Second, one needs to (re)introduce a (rather natural) "Euclidean causality" condition for the recursion of Epstein and Glaser to be applicable.

  13. Euclidean Epstein-Glaser renormalization

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Kai J.

    2009-10-15

    In the framework of perturbative algebraic quantum field theory recently developed by Brunetti, Duetsch, and Fredenhagen (http://arxiv.org/abs/0901.2038) I give a general construction of so-called Euclidean time-ordered products, i.e., algebraic versions of the Schwinger functions, for scalar quantum field theories on spaces of Euclidean signature. This is done by generalizing the recursive construction of time-ordered products by Epstein and Glaser, originally formulated for quantum field theories on Minkowski space [Epstein and Glaser, Ann. Inst. Henri Poincare 19, 211 (1973)]. An essential input of Epstein-Glaser renormalization is the causal structure of Minkowski space. The absence of this causal structure in the Euclidean framework makes it necessary to modify the original construction of Epstein and Glaser at two points. First, the whole construction has to be performed with an only partially defined product on (interaction) functionals. This is due to the fact that the fundamental solutions of the Helmholtz operator (-{delta}+m{sup 2}) of Euclidean quantum field theory have a unique singularity structure, i.e., they are unique up to a smooth part. Second, one needs to (re)introduce a (rather natural) 'Euclidean causality' condition for the recursion of Epstein and Glaser to be applicable.

  14. Finite volume form factors and correlation functions at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozsgay, Balázs

    2009-07-01

    In this thesis we investigate finite size effects in 1+1 dimensional integrable QFT. In particular we consider matrix elements of local operators (finite volume form factors) and vacuum expectation values and correlation functions at finite temperature. In the first part of the thesis we give a complete description of the finite volume form factors in terms of the infinite volume form factors (solutions of the bootstrap program) and the S-matrix of the theory. The calculations are correct to all orders in the inverse of the volume, only exponentially decaying (residual) finite size effects are neglected. We also consider matrix elements with disconnected pieces and determine the general rule for evaluating such contributions in a finite volume. The analytic results are tested against numerical data obtained by the truncated conformal space approach in the Lee-Yang model and the Ising model in a magnetic field. In a separate section we also evaluate the leading exponential correction (the μ-term) associated to multi-particle energies and matrix elements. In the second part of the thesis we show that finite volume factors can be used to derive a systematic low-temperature expansion for correlation functions at finite temperature. In the case of vacuum expectation values the series is worked out up to the third non-trivial order and a complete agreement with the LeClair-Mussardo formula is observed. A preliminary treatment of the two-point function is also given by considering the first nontrivial contributions.

  15. Euclidean, Spherical, and Hyperbolic Shadows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoban, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Many classical problems in elementary calculus use Euclidean geometry. This article takes such a problem and solves it in hyperbolic and in spherical geometry instead. The solution requires only the ability to compute distances and intersections of points in these geometries. The dramatically different results we obtain illustrate the effect…

  16. Read-only high accuracy volume holographic optical correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tian; Li, Jingming; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2011-10-01

    A read-only volume holographic correlator (VHC) is proposed. After the recording of all of the correlation database pages by angular multiplexing, a stand-alone read-only high accuracy VHC will be separated from the VHC recording facilities which include the high-power laser and the angular multiplexing system. The stand-alone VHC has its own low power readout laser and very compact and simple structure. Since there are two lasers that are employed for recording and readout, respectively, the optical alignment tolerance of the laser illumination on the SLM is very sensitive. The twodimensional angular tolerance is analyzed based on the theoretical model of the volume holographic correlator. The experimental demonstration of the proposed read-only VHC is introduced and discussed.

  17. Weak correlation of starch and volume in synchronized photosynthetic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rading, M. Michael; Sandmann, Michael; Steup, Martin; Chiarugi, Davide; Valleriani, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    In cultures of unicellular algae, features of single cells, such as cellular volume and starch content, are thought to be the result of carefully balanced growth and division processes. Single-cell analyses of synchronized photoautotrophic cultures of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii reveal, however, that the cellular volume and starch content are only weakly correlated. Likewise, other cell parameters, e.g., the chlorophyll content per cell, are only weakly correlated with cell size. We derive the cell size distributions at the beginning of each synchronization cycle considering growth, timing of cell division and daughter cell release, and the uneven division of cell volume. Furthermore, we investigate the link between cell volume growth and starch accumulation. This work presents evidence that, under the experimental conditions of light-dark synchronized cultures, the weak correlation between both cell features is a result of a cumulative process rather than due to asymmetric partition of biomolecules during cell division. This cumulative process necessarily limits cellular similarities within a synchronized cell population.

  18. Euclidean Circles and Their Modular Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Joe Dan

    1990-01-01

    Shows a series of Euclidean equations using the Euclidean algorithm to get the greatest common divisor of two integers. Describes the use of the equations to generate a series of circles. Discusses computer generation of Euclidean circles and provides a BASIC program. (YP)

  19. Non-Local Euclidean Medians.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Kunal N; Singer, Amit

    2012-11-01

    In this letter, we note that the denoising performance of Non-Local Means (NLM) can be improved at large noise levels by replacing the mean by the Euclidean median. We call this new denoising algorithm the Non-Local Euclidean Medians (NLEM). At the heart of NLEM is the observation that the median is more robust to outliers than the mean. In particular, we provide a simple geometric insight that explains why NLEM performs better than NLM in the vicinity of edges, particularly at large noise levels. NLEM can be efficiently implemented using iteratively reweighted least squares, and its computational complexity is comparable to that of NLM. We provide some preliminary results to study the proposed algorithm and to compare it with NLM.

  20. Self-duality in Euclidean supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrien, G. M.; Tchrakian, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    The compatibility conditions for curvatures satisfying self-duality (Hawking, 1978) and double-duality (Hehl et al., 1978) ansaetze in the theory of vacuum (Euclidean) supergravity and for the double-duality ansatz in Minkowski theory are investigated theoretically. It is found that the equations of motion of Euclidean supergravity admit solutions with self-dual curvature which correspond to nontrivial field configurations, and that the double-duality ansatz leads to nontrival configurations in both Euclidean and Minkowski cases.

  1. Amniotic fluid index: correlation with amniotic fluid volume.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, I A; McGovern, P G; Ordorica, S A; Frieden, F J; Young, B K

    1992-01-01

    We calculated the amniotic fluid indexes (AFIs) of 310 women on 459 occasions. Normative data were analyzed and compared with data in several high-risk groups. In the normal gestations there was a progressive increase in AFI with advancing gestation until 32 weeks, after which there was a decline. The mean AFIs in abnormal gestations varied with the clinical diagnoses. These values were compared to those obtained by assessing amniotic fluid volume (AFV), that is a pocket more than 2 cm. There were 51 patients with abnormal AFVs. Forty-two had decreased fluid, six also had decreased AFIs; nine had increased AFVs and five (all with diabetes) also had increased AFIs. Thus, AFIs in normal pregnancies showed an orderly pattern of change with gestational age, and there was no accurate correlation between AFI and AFV. Thus, using AFV alone may lead to false interpretations of amniotic fluid status. PMID:1418123

  2. The origins of Schwinger's Euclidean Green's functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Michael E.

    2015-05-01

    This paper places Julian Schwinger's development of the Euclidean Green's function formalism for quantum field theory in historical context. It traces the techniques employed in the formalism back to Schwinger's work on waveguides during World War II, and his subsequent formulation of the Minkowski space Green's function formalism for quantum field theory in 1951. Particular attention is dedicated to understanding Schwinger's physical motivation for pursuing the Euclidean extension of this formalism in 1958.

  3. Subvoxel accurate graph search using non-Euclidean graph space.

    PubMed

    Abràmoff, Michael D; Wu, Xiaodong; Lee, Kyungmoo; Tang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Graph search is attractive for the quantitative analysis of volumetric medical images, and especially for layered tissues, because it allows globally optimal solutions in low-order polynomial time. However, because nodes of graphs typically encode evenly distributed voxels of the volume with arcs connecting orthogonally sampled voxels in Euclidean space, segmentation cannot achieve greater precision than a single unit, i.e. the distance between two adjoining nodes, and partial volume effects are ignored. We generalize the graph to non-Euclidean space by allowing non-equidistant spacing between nodes, so that subvoxel accurate segmentation is achievable. Because the number of nodes and edges in the graph remains the same, running time and memory use are similar, while all the advantages of graph search, including global optimality and computational efficiency, are retained. A deformation field calculated from the volume data adaptively changes regional node density so that node density varies with the inverse of the expected cost. We validated our approach using optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the retina and 3-D MR of the arterial wall, and achieved statistically significant increased accuracy. Our approach allows improved accuracy in volume data acquired with the same hardware, and also, preserved accuracy with lower resolution, more cost-effective, image acquisition equipment. The method is not limited to any specific imaging modality and readily extensible to higher dimensions.

  4. A new method for determination of postmortem left ventricular volumes: clinico-pathologic correlations.

    PubMed

    Wissler, R W; Lichtig, C; Hughes, R; Al-Sadir, J; Glagov, S

    1975-05-01

    A description is presented of a new and simple procedure for ventricular volume determination by means of pressure fixation of the heart and preparation of plastic molds of the ventricles which can be used to displace water in a graduated cylinder to determine the volume of the mold. Correlations between postmortem ventricular volume as measured by this method and antemortem stroke volume or clinical cardiac status indicate that a large left ventricular volume is often correlated with a low cardiac output and cardiogenic shock. PMID:1119371

  5. Preterm Infant Hippocampal Volumes Correlate with Later Working Memory Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchamp, Miriam H.; Thompson, Deanne K.; Howard, Kelly; Doyle, Lex W.; Egan, Gary F.; Inder, Terrie E.; Anderson, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Children born preterm exhibit working memory deficits. These deficits may be associated with structural brain changes observed in the neonatal period. In this study, the relationship between neonatal regional brain volumes and working memory deficits at age 2 years were investigated, with a particular interest in the dorsolateral prefrontal…

  6. Making Euclidean Geometry Compulsory: Are We Prepared?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Putten, Sonja; Howie, Sarah; Stols, Gerrit

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the attitude towards, as well as the level of understanding of Euclidean geometry in pre-service mathematics education (PME) students. In order to do so, a case study was undertaken within which a one group pre-post-test procedure was conducted around a geometry module, and a representative group of students was interviewed…

  7. MEDOF - MINIMUM EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE OPTIMAL FILTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, R. S.

    1994-01-01

    The Minimum Euclidean Distance Optimal Filter program, MEDOF, generates filters for use in optical correlators. The algorithm implemented in MEDOF follows theory put forth by Richard D. Juday of NASA/JSC. This program analytically optimizes filters on arbitrary spatial light modulators such as coupled, binary, full complex, and fractional 2pi phase. MEDOF optimizes these modulators on a number of metrics including: correlation peak intensity at the origin for the centered appearance of the reference image in the input plane, signal to noise ratio including the correlation detector noise as well as the colored additive input noise, peak to correlation energy defined as the fraction of the signal energy passed by the filter that shows up in the correlation spot, and the peak to total energy which is a generalization of PCE that adds the passed colored input noise to the input image's passed energy. The user of MEDOF supplies the functions that describe the following quantities: 1) the reference signal, 2) the realizable complex encodings of both the input and filter SLM, 3) the noise model, possibly colored, as it adds at the reference image and at the correlation detection plane, and 4) the metric to analyze, here taken to be one of the analytical ones like SNR (signal to noise ratio) or PCE (peak to correlation energy) rather than peak to secondary ratio. MEDOF calculates filters for arbitrary modulators and a wide range of metrics as described above. MEDOF examines the statistics of the encoded input image's noise (if SNR or PCE is selected) and the filter SLM's (Spatial Light Modulator) available values. These statistics are used as the basis of a range for searching for the magnitude and phase of k, a pragmatically based complex constant for computing the filter transmittance from the electric field. The filter is produced for the mesh points in those ranges and the value of the metric that results from these points is computed. When the search is concluded, the

  8. Inter-Fraction Tumor Volume Response during Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Correlated to Patient Variables

    PubMed Central

    Ayan, Ahmet S.; Mo, Xiaokui; Williams, Terence M.; Mayr, Nina A.; Grecula, John C.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Xu-Welliver, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Analyze inter-fraction volumetric changes of lung tumors treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and determine if the volume changes during treatment can be predicted and thus considered in treatment planning. Methods and Materials Kilo-voltage cone-beam CT (kV-CBCT) images obtained immediately prior to each fraction were used to monitor inter-fraction volumetric changes of 15 consecutive patients (18 lung nodules) treated with lung SBRT at our institution (45–54 Gy in 3–5 fractions) in the year of 2011–2012. Spearman's (ρ) correlation and Spearman's partial correlation analysis was performed with respect to patient/tumor and treatment characteristics. Multiple hypothesis correction was performed using False Discovery Rate (FDR) and q-values were reported. Results All tumors studied experienced volume change during treatment. Tumor increased in volume by an average of 15% and regressed by an average of 11%. The overall volume increase during treatment is contained within the planning target volume (PTV) for all tumors. Larger tumors increased in volume more than smaller tumors during treatment (q = 0.0029). The volume increase on CBCT was correlated to the treatment planning gross target volume (GTV) as well as internal target volumes (ITV) (q = 0.0085 and q = 0.0039 respectively) and could be predicted for tumors with a GTV less than 22 mL. The volume increase was correlated to the integral dose (ID) in the ITV at every fraction (q = 0.0049). The peak inter-fraction volume occurred at an earlier fraction in younger patients (q = 0.0122). Conclusions We introduced a new analysis method to follow inter-fraction tumor volume changes and determined that the observed changes during lung SBRT treatment are correlated to the initial tumor volume, integral dose (ID), and patient age. Furthermore, the volume increase during treatment of tumors less than 22mL can be predicted during treatment planning. The volume increase remained

  9. Cross-correlations between price and volume in Chinese gold markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Qingsong; Jiang, Wei; Ma, Guofeng

    2016-06-01

    We apply the multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) method to investigate the cross-correlation behaviors between price and volume in Chinese gold spot and futures markets. Qualitatively, we find that the price and volume series are significantly cross-correlated using the cross-correlation test statistics Qcc(m) and the ρDCCA coefficients. Quantitatively, by employing the MF-DCCA analysis, we find that there is a power-law cross-correlation and significant multifractal features between price and volume in gold spot and futures markets. Furthermore, by comparing the multifractality of the original series to the shuffled and surrogated series, we find that, for the gold spot market, the main contribution of multifractality is fat-tail distribution; for the gold futures market, both long-range correlations and fat-tail distributions play important roles in the contribution of multifractality. Finally, by employing the method of rolling windows, we undertake further investigation into the time-varying features of the cross-correlations between price and volume. We find that for both spot and futures markets, the cross-correlations are anti-persistent in general. In the short term, the cross-correlation shows obvious fluctuations due to exogenous shocks while, in the long term, the relationship tends to be at a metastable level due to the dynamic mechanism.

  10. The Euclidean distribution of fast radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppermann, Niels; Connor, Liam D.; Pen, Ue-Li

    2016-09-01

    We investigate whether current data on the distribution of observed flux densities of fast radio bursts (FRBs) are consistent with a constant source density in Euclidean space. We use the number of FRBs detected in two surveys with different characteristics along with the observed signal-to-noise ratios of the detected FRBs in a formalism similar to a V/Vmax-test to constrain the distribution of flux densities. We find consistency between the data and a Euclidean distribution. Any extension of this model is therefore not data-driven and needs to be motivated separately. As a byproduct we also obtain new improved limits for the FRB rate at 1.4 GHz, which had not been constrained in this way before.

  11. Physical Exercise Habits Correlate with Gray Matter Volume of the Hippocampus in Healthy Adult Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killgore, William D. S.; Olson, Elizabeth A.; Weber, Mareen

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity facilitates neurogenesis of dentate cells in the rodent hippocampus, a brain region critical for memory formation and spatial representation. Recent findings in humans also suggest that aerobic exercise can lead to increased hippocampal volume and enhanced cognitive functioning in children and elderly adults. However, the association between physical activity and hippocampal volume during the period from early adulthood through middle age has not been effectively explored. Here, we correlated the number of minutes of self-reported exercise per week with gray matter volume of the hippocampus using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 61 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 45 years of age. After controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume, total minutes of weekly exercise correlated significantly with volume of the right hippocampus. Findings highlight the relationship between regular physical exercise and brain structure during early to middle adulthood.

  12. On the sensitivity of a Euclidean projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izmailov, A. F.; Kurennoy, A. S.

    2014-03-01

    The structure and behavior of Euclidean projections of a point onto a set defined by parametric constraints is studied. Under the Mangasarian-Fromovitz constraint qualification, it is shown that the projection is locally unique and continuous and, if the feasible set is constant, locally Lipschitz continuous as well. Quantitative results are obtained characterizing the asymptotic behavior of projections under perturbations in a given direction.

  13. Correlations among brain gray matter volumes, age, gender, and hemisphere in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Thyreau, Benjamin; Kinomura, Shigeo; Sato, Kazunori; Goto, Ryoi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    To determine the relationship between age and gray matter structure and how interactions between gender and hemisphere impact this relationship, we examined correlations between global or regional gray matter volume and age, including interactions of gender and hemisphere, using a general linear model with voxel-based and region-of-interest analyses. Brain magnetic resonance images were collected from 1460 healthy individuals aged 20-69 years; the images were linearly normalized and segmented and restored to native space for analysis of global gray matter volume. Linearly normalized images were then non-linearly normalized and smoothed for analysis of regional gray matter volume. Analysis of global gray matter volume revealed a significant negative correlation between gray matter ratio (gray matter volume divided by intracranial volume) and age in both genders, and a significant interaction effect of age × gender on the gray matter ratio. In analyzing regional gray matter volume, the gray matter volume of all regions showed significant main effects of age, and most regions, with the exception of several including the inferior parietal lobule, showed a significant age × gender interaction. Additionally, the inferior temporal gyrus showed a significant age × gender × hemisphere interaction. No regional volumes showed significant age × hemisphere interactions. Our study may contribute to clarifying the mechanism(s) of normal brain aging in each brain region.

  14. Pineal Gland Volume Assessed by MRI and Its Correlation with 6-Sulfatoxymelatonin Levels among Older Men.

    PubMed

    Sigurdardottir, Lara G; Markt, Sarah C; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Aspelund, Thor; Fall, Katja; Schernhammer, Eva; Rider, Jennifer R; Launer, Lenore; Harris, Tamara; Stampfer, Meir J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Czeisler, Charles A; Lockley, Steven W; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A; Mucci, Lorelei A

    2016-10-01

    The pineal gland produces the hormone melatonin, and its volume may influence melatonin levels. We describe an innovative method for estimating pineal volume in humans and present the association of pineal parenchyma volume with levels of the primary melatonin metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin. We selected a random sample of 122 older Icelandic men nested within the AGES-Reykjavik cohort and measured their total pineal volume, their parenchyma volume, and the extent of calcification and cysts. For volume estimations we used manual segmentation of magnetic resonance images in the axial plane with simultaneous side-by-side view of the sagittal and coronal plane. We used multivariable adjusted linear regression models to estimate the association of pineal parenchyma volume and baseline characteristics, including 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels. We used logistic regression to test for differences in first morning urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels among men with or without cystic or calcified glands. The pineal glands varied in volume, shape, and composition. Cysts were present in 59% of the glands and calcifications in 21%. The mean total pineal volume measured 207 mm(3) (range 65-536 mm(3)) and parenchyma volume 178 mm(3) (range 65-503 mm(3)). In multivariable-adjusted models, pineal parenchyma volume was positively correlated with 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels (β = 0.52, p < 0.001). Levels of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin did not differ significantly by presence of cysts or calcification. By using an innovative method for pineal assessment, we found pineal parenchyma volume to be positively correlated with 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels, in line with other recent studies.

  15. Pineal Gland Volume Assessed by MRI and Its Correlation with 6-Sulfatoxymelatonin Levels among Older Men.

    PubMed

    Sigurdardottir, Lara G; Markt, Sarah C; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Aspelund, Thor; Fall, Katja; Schernhammer, Eva; Rider, Jennifer R; Launer, Lenore; Harris, Tamara; Stampfer, Meir J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Czeisler, Charles A; Lockley, Steven W; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A; Mucci, Lorelei A

    2016-10-01

    The pineal gland produces the hormone melatonin, and its volume may influence melatonin levels. We describe an innovative method for estimating pineal volume in humans and present the association of pineal parenchyma volume with levels of the primary melatonin metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin. We selected a random sample of 122 older Icelandic men nested within the AGES-Reykjavik cohort and measured their total pineal volume, their parenchyma volume, and the extent of calcification and cysts. For volume estimations we used manual segmentation of magnetic resonance images in the axial plane with simultaneous side-by-side view of the sagittal and coronal plane. We used multivariable adjusted linear regression models to estimate the association of pineal parenchyma volume and baseline characteristics, including 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels. We used logistic regression to test for differences in first morning urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels among men with or without cystic or calcified glands. The pineal glands varied in volume, shape, and composition. Cysts were present in 59% of the glands and calcifications in 21%. The mean total pineal volume measured 207 mm(3) (range 65-536 mm(3)) and parenchyma volume 178 mm(3) (range 65-503 mm(3)). In multivariable-adjusted models, pineal parenchyma volume was positively correlated with 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels (β = 0.52, p < 0.001). Levels of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin did not differ significantly by presence of cysts or calcification. By using an innovative method for pineal assessment, we found pineal parenchyma volume to be positively correlated with 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels, in line with other recent studies. PMID:27449477

  16. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Intelligence in Healthy Young Adults: The Role of Basal Ganglia Volume

    PubMed Central

    Rhein, Cosima; Mühle, Christiane; Richter-Schmidinger, Tanja; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Doerfler, Arnd; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Background In neuropsychiatric diseases with basal ganglia involvement, higher cognitive functions are often impaired. In this exploratory study, we examined healthy young adults to gain detailed insight into the relationship between basal ganglia volume and cognitive abilities under non-pathological conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated 137 healthy adults that were between the ages of 21 and 35 years with similar educational backgrounds. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and volumes of basal ganglia nuclei in both hemispheres were calculated using FreeSurfer software. The cognitive assessment consisted of verbal, numeric and figural aspects of intelligence for either the fluid or the crystallised intelligence factor using the intelligence test Intelligenz-Struktur-Test (I-S-T 2000 R). Our data revealed significant correlations of the caudate nucleus and pallidum volumes with figural and numeric aspects of intelligence, but not with verbal intelligence. Interestingly, figural intelligence associations were dependent on sex and intelligence factor; in females, the pallidum volumes were correlated with crystallised figural intelligence (r = 0.372, p = 0.01), whereas in males, the caudate volumes were correlated with fluid figural intelligence (r = 0.507, p = 0.01). Numeric intelligence was correlated with right-lateralised caudate nucleus volumes for both females and males, but only for crystallised intelligence (r = 0.306, p = 0.04 and r = 0.459, p = 0.04, respectively). The associations were not mediated by prefrontal cortical subfield volumes when controlling with partial correlation analyses. Conclusions/Significance The findings of our exploratory analysis indicate that figural and numeric intelligence aspects, but not verbal aspects, are strongly associated with basal ganglia volumes. Unlike numeric intelligence, the type of figural intelligence appears to be related to distinct basal ganglia

  17. Correlation between tumor regression grade and rectal volume in neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong Seok; Choi, Doo Ho; Park, Hee Chul; Park, Won; Yu, Jeong Il; Chung, Kwangzoo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether large rectal volume on planning computed tomography (CT) results in lower tumor regression grade (TRG) after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in rectal cancer patients. Materials and Methods We reviewed medical records of 113 patients treated with surgery following neoadjuvant CCRT for rectal cancer between January and December 2012. Rectal volume was contoured on axial images in which gross tumor volume was included. Average axial rectal area (ARA) was defined as rectal volume divided by longitudinal tumor length. The impact of rectal volume and ARA on TRG was assessed. Results Average rectal volume and ARA were 11.3 mL and 2.9 cm². After completion of neoadjuvant CCRT in 113 patients, pathologic results revealed total regression (TRG 4) in 28 patients (25%), good regression (TRG 3) in 25 patients (22%), moderate regression (TRG 2) in 34 patients (30%), minor regression (TRG 1) in 24 patients (21%), and no regression (TRG0) in 2 patients (2%). No difference of rectal volume and ARA was found between each TRG groups. Linear correlation existed between rectal volume and TRG (p = 0.036) but not between ARA and TRG (p = 0.058). Conclusion Rectal volume on planning CT has no significance on TRG in patients receiving neoadjuvant CCRT for rectal cancer. These results indicate that maintaining minimal rectal volume before each treatment may not be necessary. PMID:27592514

  18. Does Height to Width Ratio Correlate with Mean Volume in Gastropods?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriga, R.; Seixas, G.; Payne, J.

    2012-12-01

    Marine organisms' shell shape and size show important biological information. For example, shape and size can dictate how the organism ranges for food and escapes predation. Due to lack of data and analysis, the evolution of shell size in marine gastropods (snails) remains poorly known. In this study, I attempt to find the relationship between height to width ratio and mean volume. I collected height and width measurements from primary literature sources and calculated volume from these measurements. My results indicate that there was no correlation between height to width ratio and mean volume between 500 to 200 Ma, but there was a correlation between 200 Ma to present where there is a steady increase in both height to width ratio and mean volume. This means that shell shape was not an important factor at the beginning of gastropod evolution but after 200 Ma body size evolution was increasingly driven by the height to width ratio.

  19. Correlation of cell volume fractions with cell concentrations in fermentation media.

    PubMed

    Ju, L K; Ho, C S

    1988-06-20

    Cell volume fractions and cell concentrations were measured in submerged cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, and Penicillium chrysogenum. Correlations for cell volume fractions with cell concentrations in fermentation media of the microorganisms were established accordingly. Other key properties of microorganisms, such as cell water content, wet cell density, and dry cell density, can also be obtained with the use of the current method. The results are in good agreement with data available in the literature.

  20. Correlated Variability in the Breathing Pattern and End-Expiratory Lung Volumes in Conscious Humans

    PubMed Central

    Dellaca, Raffaele L.; Aliverti, Andrea; Lo Mauro, Antonella; Lutchen, Kenneth R.; Pedotti, Antonio; Suki, Bela

    2015-01-01

    In order to characterize the variability and correlation properties of spontaneous breathing in humans, the breathing pattern of 16 seated healthy subjects was studied during 40 min of quiet breathing using opto-electronic plethysmography, a contactless technology that measures total and compartmental chest wall volumes without interfering with the subjects breathing. From these signals, tidal volume (VT), respiratory time (TTOT) and the other breathing pattern parameters were computed breath-by-breath together with the end-expiratory total and compartmental (pulmonary rib cage and abdomen) chest wall volume changes. The correlation properties of these variables were quantified by detrended fluctuation analysis, computing the scaling exponentα. VT, TTOT and the other breathing pattern variables showed α values between 0.60 (for minute ventilation) to 0.71 (for respiratory rate), all significantly lower than the ones obtained for end-expiratory volumes, that ranged between 1.05 (for rib cage) and 1.13 (for abdomen) with no significant differences between compartments. The much stronger long-range correlations of the end expiratory volumes were interpreted by a neuromechanical network model consisting of five neuron groups in the brain respiratory center coupled with the mechanical properties of the respiratory system modeled as a simple Kelvin body. The model-based α for VT is 0.57, similar to the experimental data. While the α for TTOT was slightly lower than the experimental values, the model correctly predicted α for end-expiratory lung volumes (1.045). In conclusion, we propose that the correlations in the timing and amplitude of the physiological variables originate from the brain with the exception of end-expiratory lung volume, which shows the strongest correlations largely due to the contribution of the viscoelastic properties of the tissues. This cycle-by-cycle variability may have a significant impact on the functioning of adherent cells in the

  1. High volume confinement in two-photon fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with radially polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, D.; Shcheslavskiy, V.; Märki, I.; Leutenegger, M.; Lasser, T.

    2009-02-01

    We present the results on two-photon total-internal-reflection fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The combination of liquid crystal spatial light modulator, providing radial polarization, with ultrafast laser (picosecond Nd:GdVO4 laser) allowed us to take the advantage of nonlinear optical contrast mechanisms to suppress the side-lobe energy specific for radial polarization and reduce the effective excited volume twice compared to one-photon evanescent wave excitation in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

  2. High volume confinement in two-photon total-internal-reflection fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, D.; Shcheslavskiy, V.; Märki, I.; Leutenegger, M.; Lasser, T.

    2009-02-01

    We report results on two-photon total-internal-reflection fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with radially polarized light. The combination of liquid crystal spatial light modulator, providing radial polarization with ultrafast laser (picosecond Nd:GdVO4 laser), allowed us to take the advantage of nonlinear optical contrast mechanisms to suppress the side-lobe energy specific for radial polarization and reduce the effective excited volume twice compared to one-photon evanescent wave excitation in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

  3. RELAP5/MOD3 code manual. Volume 4, Models and correlations

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The RELAP5 code has been developed for best-estimate transient simulation of light water reactor coolant systems during postulated accidents. The code models the coupled behavior of the reactor coolant system and the core for loss-of-coolant accidents and operational transients such as anticipated transient without scram, loss of offsite power, loss of feedwater, and loss of flow. A generic modeling approach is used that permits simulating a variety of thermal hydraulic systems. Control system and secondary system components are included to permit modeling of plant controls, turbines, condensers, and secondary feedwater systems. RELAP5/MOD3 code documentation is divided into seven volumes: Volume I presents modeling theory and associated numerical schemes; Volume II details instructions for code application and input data preparation; Volume III presents the results of developmental assessment cases that demonstrate and verify the models used in the code; Volume IV discusses in detail RELAP5 models and correlations; Volume V presents guidelines that have evolved over the past several years through the use of the RELAP5 code; Volume VI discusses the numerical scheme used in RELAP5; and Volume VII presents a collection of independent assessment calculations.

  4. Scattering in the Euclidean formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyzou, Wayne

    2013-10-01

    Euclidean relativistic quantum mechanics is a formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics based on the Osterwalder-Schrader reconstruction theorem that exploits the logical independence of locality from the rest of the axioms of Euclidean field theory. I discuss the properties of Euclidean Green functions necessary for the existence of Møller wave operators and the construction of these wave operators in this formalism. Supported by the US Department of Energy, Grant - DE-AC02-81ER40038.

  5. Parental Praise Correlates with Posterior Insular Cortex Gray Matter Volume in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Matsudaira, Izumi; Yokota, Susumu; Hashimoto, Teruo; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Kohei; Asano, Michiko; Sassa, Yuko; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    A positive parenting style affects psychological and cognitive development in children. Neuroimaging studies revealed that a positive parenting style influenced brain structure in children. Parental praise is a concrete behavior observed in positive parenting. Although previous psychological studies revealed a positive effect of parental praise on children, little is known about the relationship between parental praise and brain structure in children. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a correlation between the parental attitude towards praising their child and gray matter volume in the children (116 boys and 109 girls; mean age, 10.6 years old). We examined the correlation between regional gray matter volume and parental praise using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, to confirm the positive effects of parental praise, we analyzed the correlation between the frequency of parental praise and personality traits in children. We showed that the parental attitude towards praising their child was significantly and positively correlated with the gray matter volume of the left posterior insular cortex in children. Moreover, we found a significant positive correlation between parental attitude towards praising their child and the personality traits of conscientiousness and openness to experience in the children. Prior studies said that gray matter volume in the posterior insula was correlated with empathy, and the functional connectivity between this area and the amygdala was associated with emotional regulation. Furthermore, the posterior insula relates to auditory function, and therefore, was likely involved in the processing of parental praise. Considering the possibility of experience-dependent plasticity, frequent parental praise would lead to increased posterior insular gray matter volume in children. Our study is the first to elucidate the relationship between a specific

  6. Parental Praise Correlates with Posterior Insular Cortex Gray Matter Volume in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Matsudaira, Izumi; Yokota, Susumu; Hashimoto, Teruo; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Kohei; Asano, Michiko; Sassa, Yuko; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    A positive parenting style affects psychological and cognitive development in children. Neuroimaging studies revealed that a positive parenting style influenced brain structure in children. Parental praise is a concrete behavior observed in positive parenting. Although previous psychological studies revealed a positive effect of parental praise on children, little is known about the relationship between parental praise and brain structure in children. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a correlation between the parental attitude towards praising their child and gray matter volume in the children (116 boys and 109 girls; mean age, 10.6 years old). We examined the correlation between regional gray matter volume and parental praise using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, to confirm the positive effects of parental praise, we analyzed the correlation between the frequency of parental praise and personality traits in children. We showed that the parental attitude towards praising their child was significantly and positively correlated with the gray matter volume of the left posterior insular cortex in children. Moreover, we found a significant positive correlation between parental attitude towards praising their child and the personality traits of conscientiousness and openness to experience in the children. Prior studies said that gray matter volume in the posterior insula was correlated with empathy, and the functional connectivity between this area and the amygdala was associated with emotional regulation. Furthermore, the posterior insula relates to auditory function, and therefore, was likely involved in the processing of parental praise. Considering the possibility of experience-dependent plasticity, frequent parental praise would lead to increased posterior insular gray matter volume in children. Our study is the first to elucidate the relationship between a specific

  7. Parental Praise Correlates with Posterior Insular Cortex Gray Matter Volume in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Matsudaira, Izumi; Yokota, Susumu; Hashimoto, Teruo; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Kohei; Asano, Michiko; Sassa, Yuko; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    A positive parenting style affects psychological and cognitive development in children. Neuroimaging studies revealed that a positive parenting style influenced brain structure in children. Parental praise is a concrete behavior observed in positive parenting. Although previous psychological studies revealed a positive effect of parental praise on children, little is known about the relationship between parental praise and brain structure in children. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a correlation between the parental attitude towards praising their child and gray matter volume in the children (116 boys and 109 girls; mean age, 10.6 years old). We examined the correlation between regional gray matter volume and parental praise using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, to confirm the positive effects of parental praise, we analyzed the correlation between the frequency of parental praise and personality traits in children. We showed that the parental attitude towards praising their child was significantly and positively correlated with the gray matter volume of the left posterior insular cortex in children. Moreover, we found a significant positive correlation between parental attitude towards praising their child and the personality traits of conscientiousness and openness to experience in the children. Prior studies said that gray matter volume in the posterior insula was correlated with empathy, and the functional connectivity between this area and the amygdala was associated with emotional regulation. Furthermore, the posterior insula relates to auditory function, and therefore, was likely involved in the processing of parental praise. Considering the possibility of experience-dependent plasticity, frequent parental praise would lead to increased posterior insular gray matter volume in children. Our study is the first to elucidate the relationship between a specific

  8. Correlation between Changes in Seismicity Rates and Well Injection Volumes in Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, A.; Baker, J.; Walsh, R.; Zoback, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    We present a statistical approach to establish correlations between locations with seismicity increase in Oklahoma and nearby well injection volumes. Seismicity rates in the state have significantly increased since approximately 2008. Fluid injection into deep wells has been theorized to be the cause of this seismicity, but the increase occurred significantly after the start of injection activities in the region. Further, injection-induced earthquakes depend on the presence and orientation of basement faults and the stress state in the region. Because of these complexities, it has been difficult to directly correlate fluid injection with seismicity. Here we show that a statistical correlation between increase in seismicity and injection volumes can be established in Oklahoma. We first employ a change point method to locate the regions where a change in seismicity rates has occurred. We then use a logistic regression model to relate the injection volumes in a region with the presence or absence of seismicity change in the region. This model is further used to evaluate the relative contribution of cumulative injection volumes and monthly injection rates to seismicity. The model can be used to identify "seismically sensitive regions" where seismicity increase has been observed with little fluid injection, and "seismically stable regions" where seismicity changes have not been observed even with high fluid injection. This information can be combined with geological information in a region, and used to make decisions about acceptable volumes for injection and to identify lower-risk regions for injection.

  9. Founding Gravitation in 4D Euclidean Space-Time Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, Franz-Guenter

    2010-11-24

    The Euclidean interpretation of special relativity which has been suggested by the author is a formulation of special relativity in ordinary 4D Euclidean space-time geometry. The natural and geometrically intuitive generalization of this view involves variations of the speed of light (depending on location and direction) and a Euclidean principle of general covariance. In this article, a gravitation model by Jan Broekaert, which implements a view of relativity theory in the spirit of Lorentz and Poincare, is reconstructed and shown to fulfill the principles of the Euclidean approach after an appropriate reinterpretation.

  10. Sex, ecology and the brain: evolutionary correlates of brain structure volumes in Tanganyikan cichlids.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; Kolm, Niclas

    2010-12-17

    Analyses of the macroevolutionary correlates of brain structure volumes allow pinpointing of selective pressures influencing specific structures. Here we use a multiple regression framework, including phylogenetic information, to analyze brain structure evolution in 43 Tanganyikan cichlid species. We analyzed the effect of ecological and sexually selected traits for species averages, the effect of ecological traits for each sex separately and the influence of sexual selection on structure dimorphism. Our results indicate that both ecological and sexually selected traits have influenced brain structure evolution. The patterns observed in males and females generally followed those observed at the species level. Interestingly, our results suggest that strong sexual selection is associated with reduced structure volumes, since all correlations between sexually selected traits and structure volumes were negative and the only statistically significant association between sexual selection and structure dimorphism was also negative. Finally, we previously found that monoparental female care was associated with increased brain size. However, here cerebellum and hypothalamus volumes, after controlling for brain size, associated negatively with female-only care. Thus, in accord with the mosaic model of brain evolution, brain structure volumes may not respond proportionately to changes in brain size. Indeed selection favoring larger brains can simultaneously lead to a reduction in relative structure volumes.

  11. Sex, Ecology and the Brain: Evolutionary Correlates of Brain Structure Volumes in Tanganyikan Cichlids

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; Kolm, Niclas

    2010-01-01

    Analyses of the macroevolutionary correlates of brain structure volumes allow pinpointing of selective pressures influencing specific structures. Here we use a multiple regression framework, including phylogenetic information, to analyze brain structure evolution in 43 Tanganyikan cichlid species. We analyzed the effect of ecological and sexually selected traits for species averages, the effect of ecological traits for each sex separately and the influence of sexual selection on structure dimorphism. Our results indicate that both ecological and sexually selected traits have influenced brain structure evolution. The patterns observed in males and females generally followed those observed at the species level. Interestingly, our results suggest that strong sexual selection is associated with reduced structure volumes, since all correlations between sexually selected traits and structure volumes were negative and the only statistically significant association between sexual selection and structure dimorphism was also negative. Finally, we previously found that monoparental female care was associated with increased brain size. However, here cerebellum and hypothalamus volumes, after controlling for brain size, associated negatively with female-only care. Thus, in accord with the mosaic model of brain evolution, brain structure volumes may not respond proportionately to changes in brain size. Indeed selection favoring larger brains can simultaneously lead to a reduction in relative structure volumes. PMID:21179407

  12. Correlation between Gray/White Matter Volume and Cognition in Healthy Elderly People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Kinomura, Shigeo; Sato, Kazunori; Goto, Ryoi; Wu, Kai; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    This study applied volumetric analysis and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of brain magnetic resonance (MR) images to assess whether correlations exist between global and regional gray/white matter volume and the cognitive functions of semantic memory and short-term memory, which are relatively well preserved with aging, using MR image data from 109…

  13. Large range rotation distortion measurement for remote sensing images based on volume holographic optical correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Tianxiang; Cao, Liangcai; Zhao, Tian; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2012-10-01

    Volume holographic optical correlator can compute the correlation results between images at a super-high speed. In the application of remote imaging processing such as scene matching, 6,000 template images have been angularly multiplexed in the photorefractive crystal and the 6,000 parallel processing channels are achieved. In order to detect the correlation pattern of images precisely and distinguishingly, an on-off pixel inverted technology of images is proposed. It can fully use the CCD's linear range for detection and expand the normalized correlation value differences as the target image rotates. Due to the natural characteristics of the remote sensing images, the statistical formulas between the rotation distortions and the correlation results can be estimated. The rotation distortion components can be estimated by curve fitting method with the data of correlation results. The intensities of the correlation spots are related to the distortion between the two images. The rotation distortion could be derived from the intensities in the post processing procedure. With 18 rotations of the input image and sending them into the volume holographic system, the detection of the rotation variation in the range of 180° can be fulfilled. So the large range rotation distortion detection is firstly realized. It offers a fast, large range rotation measurement method for image distortions.

  14. Improving the clinical correlation of multiple sclerosis black hole volume change by paired-scan analysis.

    PubMed

    Tam, Roger C; Traboulsee, Anthony; Riddehough, Andrew; Li, David K B

    2012-01-01

    The change in T 1-hypointense lesion ("black hole") volume is an important marker of pathological progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Black hole boundaries often have low contrast and are difficult to determine accurately and most (semi-)automated segmentation methods first compute the T 2-hyperintense lesions, which are a superset of the black holes and are typically more distinct, to form a search space for the T 1w lesions. Two main potential sources of measurement noise in longitudinal black hole volume computation are partial volume and variability in the T 2w lesion segmentation. A paired analysis approach is proposed herein that uses registration to equalize partial volume and lesion mask processing to combine T 2w lesion segmentations across time. The scans of 247 MS patients are used to compare a selected black hole computation method with an enhanced version incorporating paired analysis, using rank correlation to a clinical variable (MS functional composite) as the primary outcome measure. The comparison is done at nine different levels of intensity as a previous study suggests that darker black holes may yield stronger correlations. The results demonstrate that paired analysis can strongly improve longitudinal correlation (from -0.148 to -0.303 in this sample) and may produce segmentations that are more sensitive to clinically relevant changes.

  15. The correlation between emotional intelligence and gray matter volume in university students.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yafei; Zhang, Qinglin; Li, Wenfu; Wei, Dongtao; Qiao, Lei; Qiu, Jiang; Hitchman, Glenn; Liu, Yijun

    2014-11-01

    A number of recent studies have investigated the neurological substrates of emotional intelligence (EI), but none of them have considered the neural correlates of EI that are measured using the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Scale (SSREIS). This scale was developed based on the EI model of Salovey and Mayer (1990). In the present study, SSREIS was adopted to estimate EI. Meanwhile, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used to evaluate the gray matter volume (GMV) of 328 university students. Results found positive correlations between Monitor of Emotions and VBM measurements in the insula and orbitofrontal cortex. In addition, Utilization of Emotions was positively correlated with the GMV in the parahippocampal gyrus, but was negatively correlated with the VBM measurements in the fusiform gyrus and middle temporal gyrus. Furthermore, Social Ability had volume correlates in the vermis. These findings indicate that the neural correlates of the EI model, which primarily focuses on the abilities of individuals to appraise and express emotions, can also regulate and utilize emotions to solve problems.

  16. The correlation between emotional intelligence and gray matter volume in university students.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yafei; Zhang, Qinglin; Li, Wenfu; Wei, Dongtao; Qiao, Lei; Qiu, Jiang; Hitchman, Glenn; Liu, Yijun

    2014-11-01

    A number of recent studies have investigated the neurological substrates of emotional intelligence (EI), but none of them have considered the neural correlates of EI that are measured using the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Scale (SSREIS). This scale was developed based on the EI model of Salovey and Mayer (1990). In the present study, SSREIS was adopted to estimate EI. Meanwhile, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used to evaluate the gray matter volume (GMV) of 328 university students. Results found positive correlations between Monitor of Emotions and VBM measurements in the insula and orbitofrontal cortex. In addition, Utilization of Emotions was positively correlated with the GMV in the parahippocampal gyrus, but was negatively correlated with the VBM measurements in the fusiform gyrus and middle temporal gyrus. Furthermore, Social Ability had volume correlates in the vermis. These findings indicate that the neural correlates of the EI model, which primarily focuses on the abilities of individuals to appraise and express emotions, can also regulate and utilize emotions to solve problems. PMID:25282329

  17. Supersymmetric solutions to Euclidean Romans supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alday, Luis F.; Fluder, Martin; Gregory, Carolina Matte; Richmond, Paul; Sparks, James

    2016-02-01

    We study Euclidean Romans supergravity in six dimensions with a non-trivial Abelian R-symmetry gauge field. We show that supersymmetric solutions are in one-to-one correspondence with solutions to a set of differential constraints on an SU(2) structure. As an application of our results we (i) show that this structure reduces at a conformal boundary to the five-dimensional rigid supersymmetric geometry previously studied by the authors, (ii) find a general expression for the holographic dual of the VEV of a BPS Wilson loop, matching an exact field theory computation, (iii) construct holographic duals to squashed Sasaki-Einstein backgrounds, again matching to a field theory computation, and (iv) find new analytic solutions.

  18. Straight monotonic embedding of data sets in Euclidean spaces.

    PubMed

    Courrieu, Pierre

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents a fast incremental algorithm for embedding data sets belonging to various topological spaces in Euclidean spaces. This is useful for networks whose input consists of non-Euclidean (possibly non-numerical) data, for the on-line computation of spatial maps in autonomous agent navigation problems, and for building internal representations from empirical similarity data. PMID:12425437

  19. Semi-Euclidean quasi-elliptic planar motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekar, Murat; Yayli, Yusuf

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the algebra of split semi-quaternions with their basic properties. Also, the results of the Euclidean planar motion given by Blaschke and Grünwald is generalized to semi-Euclidean planar motion by using the algebra of split semi-quaternions.

  20. Straight monotonic embedding of data sets in Euclidean spaces.

    PubMed

    Courrieu, Pierre

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents a fast incremental algorithm for embedding data sets belonging to various topological spaces in Euclidean spaces. This is useful for networks whose input consists of non-Euclidean (possibly non-numerical) data, for the on-line computation of spatial maps in autonomous agent navigation problems, and for building internal representations from empirical similarity data.

  1. Individual differences in posterior cortical volume correlate with proneness to pride and gratitude.

    PubMed

    Zahn, Roland; Garrido, Griselda; Moll, Jorge; Grafman, Jordan

    2014-11-01

    Proneness to specific moral sentiments (e.g. pride, gratitude, guilt, indignation) has been linked with individual variations in functional MRI (fMRI) response within anterior brain regions whose lesion leads to inappropriate behaviour. However, the role of structural anatomical differences in rendering individuals prone to particular moral sentiments relative to others is unknown. Here, we investigated grey matter volumes (VBM8) and proneness to specific moral sentiments on a well-controlled experimental task in healthy individuals. Individuals with smaller cuneus, and precuneus volumes were more pride-prone, whereas those with larger right inferior temporal volumes experienced gratitude more readily. Although the primary analysis detected no associations with guilt- or indignation-proneness, subgenual cingulate fMRI responses to guilt were negatively correlated with grey matter volumes in the left superior temporal sulcus and anterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (right >left). This shows that individual variations in functional activations within critical areas for moral sentiments were not due to grey matter volume differences in the same areas. Grey matter volume differences between healthy individuals may nevertheless play an important role by affecting posterior cortical brain systems that are non-critical but supportive for the experience of specific moral sentiments. This may be of particular relevance when their experience depends on visuo-spatial elaboration.

  2. Individual differences in posterior cortical volume correlate with proneness to pride and gratitude

    PubMed Central

    Zahn, Roland; Garrido, Griselda; Moll, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Proneness to specific moral sentiments (e.g. pride, gratitude, guilt, indignation) has been linked with individual variations in functional MRI (fMRI) response within anterior brain regions whose lesion leads to inappropriate behaviour. However, the role of structural anatomical differences in rendering individuals prone to particular moral sentiments relative to others is unknown. Here, we investigated grey matter volumes (VBM8) and proneness to specific moral sentiments on a well-controlled experimental task in healthy individuals. Individuals with smaller cuneus, and precuneus volumes were more pride-prone, whereas those with larger right inferior temporal volumes experienced gratitude more readily. Although the primary analysis detected no associations with guilt- or indignation-proneness, subgenual cingulate fMRI responses to guilt were negatively correlated with grey matter volumes in the left superior temporal sulcus and anterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (right >left). This shows that individual variations in functional activations within critical areas for moral sentiments were not due to grey matter volume differences in the same areas. Grey matter volume differences between healthy individuals may nevertheless play an important role by affecting posterior cortical brain systems that are non-critical but supportive for the experience of specific moral sentiments. This may be of particular relevance when their experience depends on visuo-spatial elaboration. PMID:24106333

  3. Minimal Paths in the City Block: Human Performance on Euclidean and Non-Euclidean Traveling Salesperson Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walwyn, Amy L.; Navarro, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment is reported comparing human performance on two kinds of visually presented traveling salesperson problems (TSPs), those reliant on Euclidean geometry and those reliant on city block geometry. Across multiple array sizes, human performance was near-optimal in both geometries, but was slightly better in the Euclidean format. Even so,…

  4. Mimicking within Euclidean space a cosmological time dilation of gamma-ray burst durations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainerd, J. J.

    1994-01-01

    If gamma-ray burst sources are cosmological in origin, then the time dilation at large z can correlate a burst's duration with its peak flux. Detection of this effect is thought by many to be strong evidence for a cosmological burst origin. In this Letter I show that an apparent time distortion--either a dilation or contraction--is generally expected for an ensemble of bursts that is spatially limited within Euclidean space. The appearance of this effect is correlated with the falling away of the log N-log P curve from a -3/2 slope line. An example of this effect is provided by the relativistic bulk motion model, which produces a strong time dilation when spatially limited in Euclidean space. As a consequence, envidence that weak bursts have longer durations than strong bursts is not evidence of a cosmological burst origin.

  5. Volume localized spin echo correlation spectroscopy with suppression of 'diagonal' peaks.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Abhishek; Chandrakumar, N

    2014-02-01

    Two dimensional homonuclear (1)H correlation spectroscopy is of considerable interest for volume localized spectral studies, both in vivo and in vitro, of biological as well as material objects. The information principally sought from correlation spectra resides in the cross-peaks, which are often masked however by the presence of diagonal peaks in COSY, or 'pseudo-diagonal' peaks at F1=0 in SECSY. It has therefore been a concern to suppress these diagonal or 'pseudo-diagonal' peaks, in order to ensure that cross-peak information is fully discernible. We present here a report of our work on volume localized DIagonal Suppressed Spin Echo Correlation specTroscopy (LDISSECT) and demonstrate its performance in comparison to the standard volume localized SECSY experiment, employing brain metabolite phantoms in a gel. The sequence works in the inhomogeneous, multi-component environment by exploiting the short acquisition time to suppress undesired information by employing an additional rf pulse. A brief description of the pulse sequence, its theory, and simulations are also included, besides experimental benchmarking on two brain metabolite phantoms in gel phase.

  6. A Euclidean Perspective on the Unfolding of Azurin: Spatial Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Jeffrey J.; Gray, Harry B.; Winkler, Jay R.; Kozak, John J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the stability to structural perturbation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin using a previously developed geometric model. Our analysis considers Ru(2,2′,6′,2″-terpyridine)(1,10-phenanthroline)(His83)-labeled wild-type azurin and five variants with mutations to Cu-ligating residues. We find that in the early stages of unfolding, the β-strands exhibit the most structural stability. The conserved residues comprising the hydrophobic core are dislocated only after nearly complete unfolding of the β-barrel. Attachment of the Ru-complex at His83 does not destabilize the protein fold, despite causing some degree of structural rearrangement. Notably, replacing the Cys112 and/or Met121 Cu ligands does not affect the conformational integrity of the protein. Notably, these results are in accord with experimental evidence, as well as molecular dynamics simulations of the denaturation of azurin. PMID:23853392

  7. PBMC telomerase activity, but not leukocyte telomere length, correlates with hippocampal volume in major depression

    PubMed Central

    Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Mellon, Synthia H.; Lindqvist, Daniel; Epel, Elissa S.; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.; Lin, Jue; Reus, Victor I.; Burke, Heather; Rosser, Rebecca; Mahan, Laura; Mackin, Scott; Yang, Tony; Weiner, Michael; Mueller, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Accelerated cell aging, indexed in peripheral leukocytes by telomere length and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by telomerase activity, has been reported in several studies of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the relevance of these peripheral measures for brain indices that are presumably more directly related to MDD pathophysiology is unknown. In this study, we explored the relationship between PBMC telomerase activity and leukocyte telomere length and magnetic resonance imaging-estimated hippocampal volume in un-medicated depressed individuals and healthy controls. We predicted that, to the extent peripheral and central telomerase activity are directly related, PBMC telomerase activity would be positively correlated with hippocampal volume, perhaps due to hippocampal telomerase-associated neurogenesis, neuroprotection or neurotrophic facilitation, and that this effect would be clearer in individuals with increased PBMC telomerase activity, as previously reported in un-medicated MDD. We did not have specific hypotheses regarding the relationship between leukocyte telomere length and hippocampal volume, due to conflicting reports in the published literature. We found, in 25 un-medicated MDD subjects, that PBMC telomerase activity was significantly positively correlated with hippocampal volume; this relationship was not observed in 18 healthy controls. Leukocyte telomere length was not significantly related to hippocampal volume in either group (19 unmedicated MDD subjects and 17 healthy controls). Although the nature of the relationship between peripheral telomerase activity and telomere length and the hippocampus is unclear, these preliminary data are consistent with the possibility that PBMC telomerase activity indexes, and may provide a novel window into, hippocampal neuroprotection and/or neurogenesis in MDD. PMID:25773002

  8. Molecular weights of individual proteins correlate with molecular volumes measured by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Schneider, S W; Lärmer, J; Henderson, R M; Oberleithner, H

    1998-02-01

    Proteins are usually identified by their molecular weights, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) produces images of single molecules in three dimensions. We have used AFM to measure the molecular volumes of a number of proteins and to determine any correlation with their known molecular weights. We used native proteins (the TATA-binding protein Tbp, a fusion protein of glutathione-S-transferase and the renal potassium channel protein ROMK1, the immunoglobulins IgG and IgM, and the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein VASP) and also denatured proteins (the red blood cell proteins actin, Band 3 and spectrin separated by SDS-gel electrophoresis and isolated from nitrocellulose). Proteins studied had molecular weights between 38 and 900 kDa and were imaged attached to a mica substrate. We found that molecular weight increased with an increasing molecular volume (correlation coefficient = 0.994). Thus, the molecular volumes measured with AFM compare well with the calculated volumes of the individual proteins. The degree of resolution achieved (lateral 5 nm, vertical 0.2 nm) depended upon the firm attachment of the proteins to the mica. This was aided by coating the mica with suitable detergent and by imaging using the AFM tapping mode which minimizes any lateral force applied to the protein. We conclude that single (native and denatured) proteins can be imaged by AFM in three dimensions and identified by their specific molecular volumes. This new approach permits detection of the number of monomers of a homomultimeric protein and study of single proteins under physiological conditions at the molecular level.

  9. Brain tissue volume changes in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: correlation with lesion load.

    PubMed

    Quarantelli, Mario; Ciarmiello, Andrea; Morra, Vincenzo Brescia; Orefice, Giuseppe; Larobina, Michele; Lanzillo, Roberta; Schiavone, Vittorio; Salvatore, Elena; Alfano, Bruno; Brunetti, Arturo

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this study was to simultaneously measure in vivo volumes of gray matter (GM), normal white matter (WM), abnormal white matter (aWM), and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), and to assess their relationship in 50 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) (age range, 21-59; mean EDSS, 2.5; mean disease duration, 9.9 years), using an unsupervised multiparametric segmentation procedure applied to brain MR studies. Tissue volumes were normalized to total intracranial volume providing corresponding fractional volumes (fGM, faWM, fWM, and fCSF), subsequently corrected for aWM-related segmentation inaccuracies and adjusted to mean patients' age according to age-related changes measured in 54 normal volunteers (NV) (age range 16-70). In MS patients aWM was 23.8 +/- 29.8 ml (range 0.4-138.8). A significant decrease in fGM was present in MS patients as compared to NV (49.5 +/- 3.2% vs 53.3 +/- 2.1%; P < 0.0001), with a corresponding increase in fCSF (13.0 +/- 3.8% vs 9.1 +/- 2.4%; P < 0.0001). No difference could be detected between the two groups for fWM (37.5 +/- 2.6% vs 37.6 +/- 2.2%). faWM correlated inversely with fGM (R = -0.434, P < 0.001 at regression analysis), and directly with fCSF (R = 0.473, P < 0.001), but not with fWM. There was a significant correlation between disease duration and EDSS, while no relationship was found between EDSS or disease duration and fractional volumes. Brain atrophy in RR-MS is mainly related to GM loss, which correlates with faWM. Both measures do not appear to significantly affect EDSS, which correlates to disease duration. PMID:12595189

  10. Gray matter alterations and correlation of nutritional intake with the gray matter volume in prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yi-Cheng; Lai, Chien-Han; Wu, Yu-Te; Yang, Shwu-Huey

    2016-06-01

    The neurophysiology of prediabetes plays an important role in preventive medicine. The dysregulation of glucose metabolism is likely linked to changes in neuron-related gray matter. Therefore, we designed this study to investigate gray matter alterations in medication-naive prediabetic patients. We expected to find alterations in the gray matter of prediabetic patients.A total of 64 prediabetic patients and 54 controls were enrolled. All subjects received T1 scans using a 3-T magnetic resonance imaging machine. Subjects also completed nutritional intake records at the 24-hour and 3-day time points to determine their carbohydrate, protein, fat, and total calorie intake. We utilized optimized voxel-based morphometry to estimate the gray matter differences between the patients and controls. In addition, the preprandial serum glucose level and the carbohydrate, protein, fat, and total calorie intake levels were tested to determine whether these parameters were correlated with the gray matter volume.Prediabetic patients had lower gray matter volumes than controls in the right anterior cingulate gyrus, right posterior cingulate gyrus, left insula, left super temporal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus (corrected P < 0.05; voxel threshold: 33). Gray matter volume in the right anterior cingulate was also negatively correlated with the preprandial serum glucose level gyrus in a voxel-dependent manner (r = -0.501; 2-tailed P = 0.001).The cingulo-temporal and insula gray matter alterations may be associated with the glucose dysregulation in prediabetic patients.

  11. Gray matter alterations and correlation of nutritional intake with the gray matter volume in prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yi-Cheng; Lai, Chien-Han; Wu, Yu-Te; Yang, Shwu-Huey

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The neurophysiology of prediabetes plays an important role in preventive medicine. The dysregulation of glucose metabolism is likely linked to changes in neuron-related gray matter. Therefore, we designed this study to investigate gray matter alterations in medication-naive prediabetic patients. We expected to find alterations in the gray matter of prediabetic patients. A total of 64 prediabetic patients and 54 controls were enrolled. All subjects received T1 scans using a 3-T magnetic resonance imaging machine. Subjects also completed nutritional intake records at the 24-hour and 3-day time points to determine their carbohydrate, protein, fat, and total calorie intake. We utilized optimized voxel-based morphometry to estimate the gray matter differences between the patients and controls. In addition, the preprandial serum glucose level and the carbohydrate, protein, fat, and total calorie intake levels were tested to determine whether these parameters were correlated with the gray matter volume. Prediabetic patients had lower gray matter volumes than controls in the right anterior cingulate gyrus, right posterior cingulate gyrus, left insula, left super temporal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus (corrected P < 0.05; voxel threshold: 33). Gray matter volume in the right anterior cingulate was also negatively correlated with the preprandial serum glucose level gyrus in a voxel-dependent manner (r = –0.501; 2-tailed P = 0.001). The cingulo-temporal and insula gray matter alterations may be associated with the glucose dysregulation in prediabetic patients. PMID:27336893

  12. Gray matter alterations and correlation of nutritional intake with the gray matter volume in prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yi-Cheng; Lai, Chien-Han; Wu, Yu-Te; Yang, Shwu-Huey

    2016-06-01

    The neurophysiology of prediabetes plays an important role in preventive medicine. The dysregulation of glucose metabolism is likely linked to changes in neuron-related gray matter. Therefore, we designed this study to investigate gray matter alterations in medication-naive prediabetic patients. We expected to find alterations in the gray matter of prediabetic patients.A total of 64 prediabetic patients and 54 controls were enrolled. All subjects received T1 scans using a 3-T magnetic resonance imaging machine. Subjects also completed nutritional intake records at the 24-hour and 3-day time points to determine their carbohydrate, protein, fat, and total calorie intake. We utilized optimized voxel-based morphometry to estimate the gray matter differences between the patients and controls. In addition, the preprandial serum glucose level and the carbohydrate, protein, fat, and total calorie intake levels were tested to determine whether these parameters were correlated with the gray matter volume.Prediabetic patients had lower gray matter volumes than controls in the right anterior cingulate gyrus, right posterior cingulate gyrus, left insula, left super temporal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus (corrected P < 0.05; voxel threshold: 33). Gray matter volume in the right anterior cingulate was also negatively correlated with the preprandial serum glucose level gyrus in a voxel-dependent manner (r = -0.501; 2-tailed P = 0.001).The cingulo-temporal and insula gray matter alterations may be associated with the glucose dysregulation in prediabetic patients. PMID:27336893

  13. Characteristic free volumes of bulk metallic glasses: Measurement and their correlation with glass-forming ability

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Qiang; Zeng Xierong; Fu, M. W.

    2011-03-01

    A convenient method is proposed for the measurement of the characteristic free volumes, viz., the amount of excess free volume annihilation in structural relaxation V{sub f-sr} and the amount of new free volume production in glass transition V{sub f-gt} of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) by thermal dilation (DIL) test. Through the DIL tests, the characteristic free volumes are found to be sensitive to the change of glass forming ability (GFA). The Pd{sub 40}Cu{sub 30}Ni{sub 10}P{sub 20} BMG has a quite small V{sub f-sr}. For a series of Fe-Cr-Mo-C-B-(Er) BMGs, Fe{sub 48}Cr{sub 15}Mo{sub 14}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}Er{sub 2} with the largest GFA is identified to have the largest V{sub f-gt} and smallest V{sub f-sr}. The correlation between V{sub f-sr} and the squares of critical diameters of these iron-based BMGs can be fitted as a negative exponential function with high accuracy.

  14. Self-reported impulsivity is negatively correlated with amygdalar volumes in cocaine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Songli; Xu, Jiansong; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Although impulsivity has been associated with cocaine dependence and other addictive behaviors, the biological factors underlying impulsivity have yet to be precisely determined. This study aimed to examine relationships between impulsivity and volumes of the amygdala and hippocampus in cocaine-dependent and healthy comparison individuals. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) was used to assess impulsivity. FreeSurfer was used to assess amygdalar and hippocampal volumes from high-resolution structural magnetic resonance images. Relative to healthy comparison subjects, cocaine-dependent individuals scored higher on all three subscales of BIS-11 but did not differ from healthy comparison subjects in amygdalar or hippocampal volumes. Cocaine-dependent individuals showed significant negative correlations between amygdalar volumes and scores on the BIS-11 Attentional subscale, and this relationship differed significantly from the non-significant relationship in healthy comparison subjects. As individual differences in amygdalar structure may contribute to the high impulsivity observed in cocaine-dependent individuals, the findings suggest that future studies should assess the extent to which therapies that target impulsivity in cocaine dependence may operate through the amygdala or alter its structure or function. PMID:26187551

  15. Correlation of neurocognitive function and brain parenchyma volumes in children surviving cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddick, Wilburn E.; White, Holly A.; Glass, John O.; Mulhern, Raymond K.

    2002-04-01

    This research builds on our hypothesis that white matter damage and associated neurocognitive symptoms, in children treated for cancer with cranial spinal irradiation, spans a continuum of severity that can be reliably probed using non-invasive MR technology. Quantitative volumetric assessments of MR imaging and psychological assessments were obtained in 40 long-term survivors of malignant brain tumors treated with cranial irradiation. Neurocognitive assessments included a test of intellect (Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), attention (Conner's Continuous Performance Test), and memory (California Verbal Learning Test). One-sample t-tests were conducted to evaluate test performance of survivors against age-adjusted scores from the test norms; these analyses revealed significant impairments in all apriori selected measures of intelligence, attention, and memory. Partial correlation analyses were performed to assess the relationships between brain tissues volumes (normal appearing white matter (NAWM), gray matter, and CSF) and neurocognitive function. Global intelligence (r = 0.32, p = 0.05) and global attentional (r = 0.49, p < 0.01) were significantly positively correlated with NAWM volumes, whereas global memory was significantly positively correlated with overall brain parenchyma (r = 0.38, p = 0.04). We conclude that quantitative assessment of MR examinations in survivors of childhood cancer treated with cranial irradiation reveal that loss of NAWM is associated with decreased intellectual and attentional deficits, whereas overall parenchyma loss, as reflected by increased CSF and decreased white matter, is associated with memory-related deficits.

  16. Digital Volume Correlation for Study of the Mechanics of Whole Bones

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Amira I; Barbone, Paul E; Morgan, Elise F.

    2013-01-01

    Full-field measurement of deformation in biological structures such as bones is a promising experimental approach for study of the spatial heterogeneity in mechanical behavior. With the advent of high-resolution, 3-D imaging, digital volume correlation (DVC) allows for the measurement of spatially heterogeneous, 3-D deformation fields throughout entire volumes. For bones such as the vertebra, use of DVC to detect the onset and progression of failure is of direct relevance to the study of osteoporotic fractures. Application of DVC to whole bones, as opposed to machined specimens of bone tissue, involves additional challenges such as the irregular geometry, large data sets, and decreased signal-to-noise ratio. These challenges are addressed in this paper, and the DVC method that results is used to examine yield and post-yield deformations in vertebral compression experiments. PMID:23336099

  17. Digital Volume Correlation for Study of the Mechanics of Whole Bones.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Amira I; Barbone, Paul E; Morgan, Elise F

    2012-01-01

    Full-field measurement of deformation in biological structures such as bones is a promising experimental approach for study of the spatial heterogeneity in mechanical behavior. With the advent of high-resolution, 3-D imaging, digital volume correlation (DVC) allows for the measurement of spatially heterogeneous, 3-D deformation fields throughout entire volumes. For bones such as the vertebra, use of DVC to detect the onset and progression of failure is of direct relevance to the study of osteoporotic fractures. Application of DVC to whole bones, as opposed to machined specimens of bone tissue, involves additional challenges such as the irregular geometry, large data sets, and decreased signal-to-noise ratio. These challenges are addressed in this paper, and the DVC method that results is used to examine yield and post-yield deformations in vertebral compression experiments.

  18. Correlating Gray Matter Volume with Individual Difference in the Flanker Interference Effect

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Changming; Yang, Jiemin; Lai, Jiayu; Li, Hong; Yuan, Jiajin; Abbasi, Najam ul Hasan

    2015-01-01

    The Eriksen Flanker task has been widely used as a measurement of cognitive control, however till now information is still scarce about how the neuroanatomical properties are related to performance in this task. Using voxel-based morphometry technique (VBM), the current study identified a set of distributed areas where the gray matter volume (GM) correlated positively with participants’ efficiency in interference inhibition. These areas included the bilateral prefrontal gyri, left insula and inferior temporal gyrus, the left inferior parietal lobule. Further analysis using a novel machine learning algorithm with balanced cross-validation procedure confirmed that in these areas the GM-behavioral association was unlikely a byproduct of outlier values, instead, the gray matter volume could predict reliably participants’ interference inhibition efficiency. These results underscore the importance of the fronto-parietal and insula systems to the brain functioning of interference inhibition from the neuroanatomical perspective. PMID:26322974

  19. (3)He MRI in healthy volunteers: preliminary correlation with smoking history and lung volumes.

    PubMed

    Guenther, D; Eberle, B; Hast, J; Lill, J; Markstaller, K; Puderbach, M; Schreiber, W G; Hanisch, G; Heussel, C P; Surkau, R; Grossmann, T; Weiler, N; Thelen, M; Kauczor, H U

    2000-06-01

    MRI with hyperpolarized helium-3 ((3)He) provides high-resolution imaging of ventilated airspaces. The first aim of this (3)He-study was to compare observations of localized signal defects in healthy smokers and non-smokers. A second aim was to describe relationships between parameters of lung function, volume of inspired (3)He and signal-to-noise ratio. With Ethics Committee approval and informed consent, 12 healthy volunteers (seven smokers and five non-smokers) were studied. Imaging was performed in a 1.5 T scanner using a two-dimensional FLASH sequence at 30V transmitter amplitude (TR/TE/alpha = 11 ms/4.2 ms/<10 degrees ). Known amounts of (3)He were inhaled from a microprocessor-controlled delivery device and imaged during single breath-holds. Images were evaluated visually, and scored using a prospectively defined 'defect-index'. Signal-to-noise ratio of the images were correlated with localization, (3)He volumes and static lung volumes. Due to poor image quality studies of two smokers were not eligible for the evaluation. Smokers differed from non-smokers in total number and size of defects: the 'defect-index' of smokers ranged between 0.8 and 6.0 (median = 1.1), that of non-smokers between 0.1 and 0.8 (median = 0.4). Intraindividually, an anteroposterior gradient of signal-to-noise ratio was apparent. Signal-to-noise ratio correlated with the estimated amount of hyperpolarization administered (r = 0. 77), but not with static lung volumes. We conclude that (3)He MRI is a sensitive measure to detect regional abnormalities in the distribution of ventilation in clinically healthy persons with normal pulmonary function tests.

  20. Intracranial pressure pulse waveform correlates with aqueductal cerebrospinal fluid stroke volume.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Robert; Baldwin, Kevin; Fuller, Jennifer; Vespa, Paul; Hu, Xiao; Bergsneider, Marvin

    2012-11-01

    This study identifies a novel relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) stroke volume through the cerebral aqueduct and the characteristic peaks of the intracranial pulse (ICP) waveform. ICP waveform analysis has become much more advanced in recent years; however, clinical practice remains restricted to mean ICP, mainly due to the lack of physiological understanding of the ICP waveform. Therefore, the present study set out to shed some light on the physiological meaning of ICP morphological metrics derived by the morphological clustering and analysis of continuous intracranial pulse (MOCAIP) algorithm by investigating their relationships with a well defined physiological variable, i.e., the stroke volume of CSF through the cerebral aqueduct. Seven patients received both overnight ICP monitoring along with a phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI) of the cerebral aqueduct to quantify aqueductal stroke volume (ASV). Waveform morphological analysis of the ICP signal was performed by the MOCAIP algorithm. Following extraction of morphological metrics from the ICP signal, nine temporal ICP metrics and two amplitude-based metrics were compared with the ASV via Spearman's rank correlation. Of the nine temporal metrics correlated with the ASV, only the width of the P2 region (ICP-Wi2) reached significance. Furthermore, both ICP pulse pressure amplitude and mean ICP did not reach significance. In this study, we showed the width of the second peak (ICP-Wi2) of an ICP pulse wave is positively related to the volume of CSF movement through the cerebral aqueduct. This finding is an initial step in bridging the gap between ICP waveform morphology research and clinical practice.

  1. Hippocampal volume correlates with attenuated negative psychotic symptoms irrespective of antidepressant medication

    PubMed Central

    Bernasconi, Raffaele; Smieskova, Renata; Schmidt, André; Harrisberger, Fabienne; Raschle, Nora Maria; Lenz, Claudia; Walter, Anna; Simon, Andor; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Lang, Undine E.; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Borgwardt, Stefan J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals with at-risk mental state for psychosis (ARMS) often suffer from depressive and anxiety symptoms, which are clinically similar to the negative symptomatology described for psychosis. Thus, many ARMS individuals are already being treated with antidepressant medication. Objectives To investigate clinical and structural differences between psychosis high-risk individuals with or without antidepressants. Methods We compared ARMS individuals currently receiving antidepressants (ARMS-AD; n = 18), ARMS individuals not receiving antidepressants (ARMS-nonAD; n = 31) and healthy subjects (HC; n = 24), in terms of brain structure abnormalities, using voxel-based morphometry. We also performed region of interest analysis for the hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala and precuneus. Results The ARMS-AD had higher ‘depression’ and lower ‘motor hyperactivity’ scores than the ARMS-nonAD. Compared to HC, there was significantly less GMV in the middle frontal gyrus in the whole ARMS cohort and in the superior frontal gyrus in the ARMS-AD subgroup. Compared to ARMS-nonAD, the ARMS-AD group showed more gray matter volume (GMV) in the left superior parietal lobe, but less GMV in the left hippocampus and the right precuneus. We found a significant negative correlation between attenuated negative symptoms and hippocampal volume in the whole ARMS cohort. Conclusion Reduced GMV in the hippocampus and precuneus is associated with short-term antidepressant medication and more severe depressive symptoms. Hippocampal volume is further negatively correlated with attenuated negative psychotic symptoms. Longitudinal studies are needed to distinguish whether hippocampal volume deficits in the ARMS are related to attenuated negative psychotic symptoms or to antidepressant action. PMID:26110110

  2. Correlation of local heat flux from inclined volume-heated pools in bubbly flow

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, G.A.; Abuaf, N.; Jones, O.C. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Local and average heat transfer from volume-boiling pools in the two-phase bubbly flow regime to vertical and inclined flat boundaries were measured. The experimental technique and newly developed gold electroplated microthermocouples to make the measurements are described. A modification to the Boussinesq approximation for liquids is outlined which includes the effect of the average void fraction in a modified Rayleigh number. Heat transfer to vertical and inclined surfaces is correlated in a fashion similar to natural convection in the bubbly flow regime. These new correlations agreed in general with those based on average heat transfer data obtained by Gabor et al. The data from one reference, however, were found to lie significantly below the present data on an average as well as local basis.

  3. Bacterial spore heat resistance correlated with water content, wet density, and protoplast/sporoplast volume ratio.

    PubMed Central

    Beaman, T C; Greenamyre, J T; Corner, T R; Pankratz, H S; Gerhardt, P

    1982-01-01

    Five types of dormant Bacillus spores, between and within species, were selected representing a 600-fold range in moist-heat resistance determined as a D100 value. The wet and dry density and the solids and water content of the entire spore and isolated integument of each type were determined directly from gram masses of material, with correction for interstitial water. The ratio between the volume occupied by the protoplast (the structures bounded by the inner pericytoplasm membrane) and the volume occupied by the sporoplast (the structures bounded by the outer pericortex membrane) was calculated from measurements made on electron micrographs of medially thin-sectioned spores. Among the various spore types, an exponential increase in the heat resistance correlated directly with the wet density and inversely with the water content and with the protoplast/sporoplast volume ratio. Altogether with results supported a hypothesis that the extent of heat resistance is based in whole or in part on the extent of dehydration and diminution of the protoplast in the dormant spore, without implications about physiological mechanisms for attaining this state. Images PMID:6802802

  4. Focal volume optics and experimental artifacts in confocal fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Samuel T; Webb, Watt W

    2002-01-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) can provide a wealth of information about biological and chemical systems on a broad range of time scales (<1 micros to >1 s). Numerical modeling of the FCS observation volume combined with measurements has revealed, however, that the standard assumption of a three-dimensional Gaussian FCS observation volume is not a valid approximation under many common measurement conditions. As a result, the FCS autocorrelation will contain significant, systematic artifacts that are most severe with confocal optics when using a large detector aperture and aperture-limited illumination. These optical artifacts manifest themselves in the fluorescence correlation as an apparent additional exponential component or diffusing species with significant (>30%) amplitude that can imply extraneous kinetics, shift the measured diffusion time by as much as approximately 80%, and cause the axial ratio to diverge. Artifacts can be minimized or virtually eliminated by using a small confocal detector aperture, underfilled objective back-aperture, or two-photon excitation. However, using a detector aperture that is smaller or larger than the optimal value (approximately 4.5 optical units) greatly reduces both the count rate per molecule and the signal-to-noise ratio. Thus, there is a tradeoff between optimizing signal-to-noise and reducing experimental artifacts in one-photon FCS. PMID:12324447

  5. Gray matter volume and executive functioning correlate with time since injury following mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Killgore, William D S; Singh, Prabhjyot; Kipman, Maia; Pisner, Derek; Fridman, Andrew; Weber, Mareen

    2016-01-26

    Most people who sustain a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) will recover to baseline functioning within a period of several days to weeks. A substantial minority of patients, however, will show persistent symptoms and mild cognitive complaints for much longer. To more clearly delineate how the duration of time since injury (TSI) is associated with neuroplastic cortical volume changes and cognitive recovery, we employed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and select neuropsychological measures in a cross-sectional sample of 26 patients with mTBI assessed at either two-weeks, one-month, three-months, six-months, or one-year post injury, and a sample of 12 healthy controls. Longer duration of TSI was associated with larger gray matter volume (GMV) within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and right fusiform gyrus, and better neurocognitive performance on measures of visuospatial design fluency and emotional functioning. In particular, volume within the vmPFC was positively correlated with design fluency and negatively correlated with symptoms of anxiety, whereas GMV of the fusiform gyrus was associated with greater design fluency and sustained visual psychomotor vigilance performance. Moreover, the larger GMV seen among the more chronic individuals was significantly greater than healthy controls, suggesting possible enlargement of these regions with time since injury. These findings are interpreted in light of burgeoning evidence suggesting that cortical regions often exhibit structural changes following experience or practice, and suggest that with greater time since an mTBI, the brain displays compensatory remodeling of cortical regions involved in emotional regulation, which may reduce distractibility during attention demanding visuo-motor tasks. PMID:26711488

  6. The Hippocampus and Entorhinal Cortex Encode the Path and Euclidean Distances to Goals during Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Lorelei R.; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Yu, Yichao; Mill, Ravi D.; Morrison, Laura C.; Knight, Rebecca; Loftus, Michelle M.; Staskute, Laura; Spiers, Hugo J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Despite decades of research on spatial memory, we know surprisingly little about how the brain guides navigation to goals. While some models argue that vectors are represented for navigational guidance, other models postulate that the future path is computed. Although the hippocampal formation has been implicated in processing spatial goal information, it remains unclear whether this region processes path- or vector-related information. Results We report neuroimaging data collected from subjects navigating London’s Soho district; these data reveal that both the path distance and the Euclidean distance to the goal are encoded by the medial temporal lobe during navigation. While activity in the posterior hippocampus was sensitive to the distance along the path, activity in the entorhinal cortex was correlated with the Euclidean distance component of a vector to the goal. During travel periods, posterior hippocampal activity increased as the path to the goal became longer, but at decision points, activity in this region increased as the path to the goal became closer and more direct. Importantly, sensitivity to the distance was abolished in these brain areas when travel was guided by external cues. Conclusions The results indicate that the hippocampal formation contains representations of both the Euclidean distance and the path distance to goals during navigation. These findings argue that the hippocampal formation houses a flexible guidance system that changes how it represents distance to the goal depending on the fluctuating demands of navigation. PMID:24909328

  7. Correlation of right ventricular volume using axial angulated ventriculography to known right ventricular cast volumes in infants and children with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Ino, T; Benson, L N; Mikailian, H; Freedom, R M; Rowe, R D

    1988-01-01

    To calculate right ventricular (RV) volumes from biplane cineangiography obtained in nonstandard views, regression equations were developed from RV casts of known volume. Volumes were calculated using Simpson's rule from casts ranging from 2 to 42 ml from 25 postmortem specimens with various congenital heart diseases. The casts were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (n = 15) with abnormal or group 2 (n = 10) with normal RV hemodynamic measurements. Biplane cinegrams were taken in the anterolateral, anterior and long axis oblique, hepatoclavicular and sitting up projections. The true volume of each cast was determined from its weight and specific gravity. Excellent correlations were obtained between measured and true volumes (r = 0.92 to 0.96) in all projections, although each projection overestimated the true volume (slope value less than 1). The regression equations obtained from group 1 were not statistically different from those in group 2 in any view. Although the application of different regression equations is required in measuring RV volumes by multiple angulated angiography, these regression equations appear not to be affected by the hemodynamic state of the ventricle. These results are important in assessing RV volume in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease using axial angulated ventriculography.

  8. Flexible intuitions of Euclidean geometry in an Amazonian indigene group.

    PubMed

    Izard, Véronique; Pica, Pierre; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2011-06-14

    Kant argued that Euclidean geometry is synthesized on the basis of an a priori intuition of space. This proposal inspired much behavioral research probing whether spatial navigation in humans and animals conforms to the predictions of Euclidean geometry. However, Euclidean geometry also includes concepts that transcend the perceptible, such as objects that are infinitely small or infinitely large, or statements of necessity and impossibility. We tested the hypothesis that certain aspects of nonperceptible Euclidian geometry map onto intuitions of space that are present in all humans, even in the absence of formal mathematical education. Our tests probed intuitions of points, lines, and surfaces in participants from an indigene group in the Amazon, the Mundurucu, as well as adults and age-matched children controls from the United States and France and younger US children without education in geometry. The responses of Mundurucu adults and children converged with that of mathematically educated adults and children and revealed an intuitive understanding of essential properties of Euclidean geometry. For instance, on a surface described to them as perfectly planar, the Mundurucu's estimations of the internal angles of triangles added up to ~180 degrees, and when asked explicitly, they stated that there exists one single parallel line to any given line through a given point. These intuitions were also partially in place in the group of younger US participants. We conclude that, during childhood, humans develop geometrical intuitions that spontaneously accord with the principles of Euclidean geometry, even in the absence of training in mathematics.

  9. Equivalence between Euclidean and in-in formalisms in de Sitter QFT

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, Atsushi; Marolf, Donald; Morrison, Ian A.

    2011-04-15

    We study the relation between two sets of correlators in interacting quantum field theory on de Sitter space. The first are correlators computed using in-in perturbation theory in the expanding cosmological patch of de Sitter space (also known as the conformal patch, or the Poincare patch), and for which the free propagators are taken to be those of the free Euclidean vacuum. The second are correlators obtained by analytic continuation from Euclidean de Sitter; i.e., they are correlators in the fully interacting Hartle-Hawking state. We give an analytic argument that these correlators coincide for interacting massive scalar fields with any m{sup 2}>0. We also verify this result via direct calculation in simple examples. The correspondence holds diagram by diagram, and at any finite value of an appropriate Pauli-Villars regulator mass M. Along the way, we note interesting connections between various prescriptions for perturbation theory in general static spacetimes with bifurcate Killing horizons.

  10. Dynamic volume vs respiratory correlated 4DCT for motion assessment in radiation therapy simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Coolens, Catherine; Bracken, John; Driscoll, Brandon; Hope, Andrew; Jaffray, David

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: Conventional (i.e., respiratory-correlated) 4DCT exploits the repetitive nature of breathing to provide an estimate of motion; however, it has limitations due to binning artifacts and irregular breathing in actual patient breathing patterns. The aim of this work was to evaluate the accuracy and image quality of a dynamic volume, CT approach (4D{sub vol}) using a 320-slice CT scanner to minimize these limitations, wherein entire image volumes are acquired dynamically without couch movement. This will be compared to the conventional respiratory-correlated 4DCT approach (RCCT). Methods: 4D{sub vol} CT was performed and characterized on an in-house, programmable respiratory motion phantom containing multiple geometric and morphological ''tumor'' objects over a range of regular and irregular patient breathing traces obtained from 3D fluoroscopy and compared to RCCT. The accuracy of volumetric capture and breathing displacement were evaluated and compared with the ground truth values and with the results reported using RCCT. A motion model was investigated to validate the number of motion samples needed to obtain accurate motion probability density functions (PDF). The impact of 4D image quality on this accuracy was then investigated. Dose measurements using volumetric and conventional scan techniques were also performed and compared. Results: Both conventional and dynamic volume 4DCT methods were capable of estimating the programmed displacement of sinusoidal motion, but patient breathing is known to not be regular, and obvious differences were seen for realistic, irregular motion. The mean RCCT amplitude error averaged at 4 mm (max. 7.8 mm) whereas the 4D{sub vol} CT error stayed below 0.5 mm. Similarly, the average absolute volume error was lower with 4D{sub vol} CT. Under irregular breathing, the 4D{sub vol} CT method provides a close description of the motion PDF (cross-correlation 0.99) and is able to track each object, whereas the RCCT method results in a

  11. The correlation between gray matter volume and perceived social support: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Che, XianWei; Wei, DongTao; Li, WenFu; Li, HaiJiang; Qiao, Lei; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, QingLin; Liu, YiJun

    2014-01-01

    Social support refers to interpersonal exchanges that include the combinations of aid, affirmation and affection. Perceived social support is a kind of subjective judgment of one's availability of social support. In spite of the importance of perceived social support to health, however, its neural substrate remains unknown. To address this question, voxel-based morphometry was employed to investigate the neural bases of individual differences in responses to the Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS) in healthy volunteers (144 men and 203 women; mean age = 19.9; SD = 1.33, age range : 17-27). As a result, multiple regression analysis revealed that the PSSS scores were significantly and positively correlated with gray matter volume in a cluster that mainly included areas in posterior parts of posterior cingulate cortex, bilateral lingual cortex, left occipital lobe and cuneus. Highly-supported individuals had larger gray matter volume in these brain regions, implying a relatively high level of ability to engage in self-referential processes and social cognition. Our results provide a biological basis for exploring perceived social support particularly in relationship to various health parameters and outcomes.

  12. Correlators of left charges and weak operators in finite volume chiral perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Pilar; Laine, Mikko

    2003-01-01

    We compute the two-point correlator between left-handed flavour charges, and the three-point correlator between two left-handed charges and one strangeness violating DeltaI = 3/2 weak operator, at next-to-leading order in finite volume SU(3)L × SU(3)R chiral perturbation theory, in the so-called epsilon-regime. Matching these results with the corresponding lattice measurements would in principle allow to extract the pion decay constant F, and the effective chiral theory parameter g27, which determines the Delta I = 3/2 amplitude of the weak decays K to pipi as well as the kaon mixing parameter BK in the chiral limit. We repeat the calculations in the replica formulation of quenched chiral perturbation theory, finding only mild modifications. In particular, a properly chosen ratio of the three-point and two-point functions is shown to be identical in the full and quenched theories at this order.

  13. White matter volume change and its correlation with symptom severity in patients with schizophrenia: a VBM-DARTEL study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gwang-Won; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2015-12-16

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the white matter (WM) volume change and its correlation with symptom severity in patients with schizophrenia using voxel-based morphometry. A total of 20 patients with schizophrenia and 20 age-matched healthy controls participated in this study. MR image data were processed using SPM8 software with diffeomorphic anatomical registration through an exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm. The patients with schizophrenia showed significant decreases (P=0.042) in the WM volumes of the temporal lobe and superior frontal gyrus compared with the healthy controls. The WM volumes of the middle temporal gyrus were negatively correlated with the scores of both the Positive Subscale (Pearson's ρ=-0.68, P=0.001) and the Negative Subscale (ρ=-0.71, P=0.0005) in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. In addition, the scores of the General Psychopathology Subscale were negatively correlated with the WM volumes of the superior frontal gyrus (ρ=-0.68, P=0.0009). This study evaluated the WM volume of patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy controls using DARTEI-based voxel-based morphometry and also assessed the correlation of the localized WM volume changes with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. These findings will be useful to understand the neuropathology associated with WM abnormality in schizophrenia. PMID:26485094

  14. Dyslexia and voxel-based morphometry: correlations between five behavioural measures of dyslexia and gray and white matter volumes.

    PubMed

    Tamboer, Peter; Scholte, H Steven; Vorst, Harrie C M

    2015-10-01

    In voxel-based morphometry studies of dyslexia, the relation between causal theories of dyslexia and gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations is still under debate. Some alterations are consistently reported, but others failed to reach significance. We investigated GM alterations in a large sample of Dutch students (37 dyslexics and 57 non-dyslexics) with two analyses: group differences in local GM and total GM and WM volume and correlations between GM and WM volumes and five behavioural measures. We found no significant group differences after corrections for multiple comparisons although total WM volume was lower in the group of dyslexics when age was partialled out. We presented an overview of uncorrected clusters of voxels (p < 0.05, cluster size k > 200) with reduced or increased GM volume. We found four significant correlations between factors of dyslexia representing various behavioural measures and the clusters found in the first analysis. In the whole sample, a factor related to performances in spelling correlated negatively with GM volume in the left posterior cerebellum. Within the group of dyslexics, a factor related to performances in Dutch-English rhyme words correlated positively with GM volume in the left and right caudate nucleus and negatively with increased total WM volume. Most of our findings were in accordance with previous reports. A relatively new finding was the involvement of the caudate nucleus. We confirmed the multiple cognitive nature of dyslexia and suggested that experience greatly influences anatomical alterations depending on various subtypes of dyslexia, especially in a student sample.

  15. Peripatetic and Euclidean theories of the visual ray.

    PubMed

    Jones, A

    1994-01-01

    The visual ray of Euclid's Optica is endowed with properties that reveal the concept to be an abstraction of a specific physical account of vision. The evolution of a physical theory of vision compatible with the Euclidean model can be traced in Peripatetic writings of the late fourth and third centuries B.C.

  16. From geometry to algebra: the Euclidean way with technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrarello, Daniela; Flavia Mammana, Maria; Pennisi, Mario

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present the results of an experimental classroom activity, history-based with a phylogenetic approach, to achieve algebra properties through geometry. In particular, we used Euclidean propositions, processed them by a dynamic geometry system and translate them into algebraic special products.

  17. Random sequential addition of hard spheres in high Euclidean dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torquato, S.; Uche, O. U.; Stillinger, F. H.

    2006-12-01

    Sphere packings in high dimensions have been the subject of recent theoretical interest. Employing numerical and theoretical methods, we investigate the structural characteristics of random sequential addition (RSA) of congruent spheres in d -dimensional Euclidean space Rd in the infinite-time or saturation limit for the first six space dimensions (1≤d≤6) . Specifically, we determine the saturation density, pair correlation function, cumulative coordination number and the structure factor in each of these dimensions. We find that for 2≤d≤6 , the saturation density ϕs scales with dimension as ϕs=c1/2d+c2d/2d , where c1=0.202048 and c2=0.973872 . We also show analytically that the same density scaling is expected to persist in the high-dimensional limit, albeit with different coefficients. A byproduct of this high-dimensional analysis is a relatively sharp lower bound on the saturation density for any d given by ϕs≥(d+2)(1-S0)/2d+1 , where S0ɛ[0,1] is the structure factor at k=0 (i.e., infinite-wavelength number variance) in the high-dimensional limit. We demonstrate that a Palàsti-type conjecture (the saturation density in Rd is equal to that of the one-dimensional problem raised to the d th power) cannot be true for RSA hyperspheres. We show that the structure factor S(k) must be analytic at k=0 and that RSA packings for 1≤d≤6 are nearly “hyperuniform.” Consistent with the recent “decorrelation principle,” we find that pair correlations markedly diminish as the space dimension increases up to six. We also obtain kissing (contact) number statistics for saturated RSA configurations on the surface of a d -dimensional sphere for dimensions 2≤d≤5 and compare to the maximal kissing numbers in these dimensions. We determine the structure factor exactly for the related “ghost” RSA packing in Rd and demonstrate that its distance from “hyperuniformity” increases as the space dimension increases, approaching a constant asymptotic value

  18. Power-law correlations in finance-related Google searches, and their cross-correlations with volatility and traded volume: Evidence from the Dow Jones Industrial components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2015-06-01

    We study power-law correlations properties of the Google search queries for Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) component stocks. Examining the daily data of the searched terms with a combination of the rescaled range and rescaled variance tests together with the detrended fluctuation analysis, we show that the searches are in fact power-law correlated with Hurst exponents between 0.8 and 1.1. The general interest in the DJIA stocks is thus strongly persistent. We further reinvestigate the cross-correlation structure between the searches, traded volume and volatility of the component stocks using the detrended cross-correlation and detrending moving-average cross-correlation coefficients. Contrary to the universal power-law correlations structure of the related Google searches, the results suggest that there is no universal relationship between the online search queries and the analyzed financial measures. Even though we confirm positive correlation for a majority of pairs, there are several pairs with insignificant or even negative correlations. In addition, the correlations vary quite strongly across scales.

  19. SU-E-J-249: Correlation of Mean Lung Ventilation Value with Ratio of Total Lung Volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, N; Qu, H; Xia, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Lung ventilation function measured from 4D-CT and from breathing correlated CT images is a novel concept to incorporate the lung physiologic function into treatment planning of radiotherapy. The calculated ventilation functions may vary from different breathing patterns, affecting evaluation of the treatment plans. The purpose of this study is to correlate the mean lung ventilation value with the ratio of the total lung volumes obtained from the relevant CTs. Methods: A ventilation map was calculated from the variations of voxel-to-voxel CT densities from two breathing phases from either 4D-CT or breathing correlated CTs. An open source image registration tool of Plastimatch was used to deform the inhale phase images to the exhale phase images. To calculate the ventilation map inside lung, the whole lung was delineated and the tissue outside the lung was masked out. With a software tool developed in house, the 3D ventilation map was then converted in the DICOM format associated with the planning CT images. The ventilation map was analyzed on a clinical workstation. To correlate ventilation map thus calculated with lung volume change, the total lung volume change was compared the mean ventilation from our method. Results: Twenty two patients who underwent stereotactic body irradiation for lung cancer was selected for this retrospective study. For this group of patients, the ratio of lung volumes for the inhale (Vin ) and exhale phase (Vex ) was shown to be linearly related to the mean of the local ventilation (Vent), Vin/Vex=1.+0.49*Vent (R2=0.93, p<0.01). Conclusion: The total lung volume change is highly correlated with the mean of local ventilation. The mean of local ventilation may be useful to assess the patient's lung capacity.

  20. Detrended cross-correlations between returns, volatility, trading activity, and volume traded for the stock market companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rak, Rafał; Drożdż, Stanisław; Kwapień, Jarosław; Oświȩcimka, Paweł

    2015-11-01

    We consider a few quantities that characterize trading on a stock market in a fixed time interval: logarithmic returns, volatility, trading activity (i.e., the number of transactions), and volume traded. We search for the power-law cross-correlations among these quantities aggregated over different time units from 1 min to 10 min. Our study is based on empirical data from the American stock market consisting of tick-by-tick recordings of 31 stocks listed in Dow Jones Industrial Average during the years 2008-2011. Since all the considered quantities except the returns show strong daily patterns related to the variable trading activity in different parts of a day, which are the most evident in the autocorrelation function, we remove these patterns by detrending before we proceed further with our study. We apply the multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis with sign preserving (MFCCA) and show that the strongest power-law cross-correlations exist between trading activity and volume traded, while the weakest ones exist (or even do not exist) between the returns and the remaining quantities. We also show that the strongest cross-correlations are carried by those parts of the signals that are characterized by large and medium variance. Our observation that the most convincing power-law cross-correlations occur between trading activity and volume traded reveals the existence of strong fractal-like coupling between these quantities.

  1. Primordial scalar power spectrum from the Euclidean big bounce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schander, Susanne; Barrau, Aurélien; Bolliet, Boris; Linsefors, Linda; Mielczarek, Jakub; Grain, Julien

    2016-01-01

    In effective models of loop quantum cosmology, the holonomy corrections are associated with deformations of space-time symmetries. The most evident manifestation of the deformations is the emergence of a Euclidean phase accompanying the nonsingular bouncing dynamics of the scale factor. In this article, we compute the power spectrum of scalar perturbations generated in this model, with a massive scalar field as the matter content. Instantaneous and adiabatic vacuum-type initial conditions for scalar perturbations are imposed in the contracting phase. The evolution through the Euclidean region is calculated based on the extrapolation of the time direction pointed by the vectors normal to the Cauchy hypersurface in the Lorentzian domains. The obtained power spectrum is characterized by a suppression in the IR regime and oscillations in the intermediate energy range. Furthermore, the speculative extension of the analysis in the UV reveals a specific rise of the power leading to results incompatible with the data.

  2. Tackling higher derivative ghosts with the Euclidean path integral

    SciTech Connect

    Fontanini, Michele; Trodden, Mark

    2011-05-15

    An alternative to the effective field theory approach to treat ghosts in higher derivative theories is to attempt to integrate them out via the Euclidean path integral formalism. It has been suggested that this method could provide a consistent framework within which we might tolerate the ghost degrees of freedom that plague, among other theories, the higher derivative gravity models that have been proposed to explain cosmic acceleration. We consider the extension of this idea to treating a class of terms with order six derivatives, and find that for a general term the Euclidean path integral approach works in the most trivial background, Minkowski. Moreover we see that even in de Sitter background, despite some difficulties, it is possible to define a probability distribution for tensorial perturbations of the metric.

  3. The efficient algorithms for achieving Euclidean distance transformation.

    PubMed

    Shih, Frank Y; Wu, Yi-Ta

    2004-08-01

    Euclidean distance transformation (EDT) is used to convert a digital binary image consisting of object (foreground) and nonobject (background) pixels into another image where each pixel has a value of the minimum Euclidean distance from nonobject pixels. In this paper, the improved iterative erosion algorithm is proposed to avoid the redundant calculations in the iterative erosion algorithm. Furthermore, to avoid the iterative operations, the two-scan-based algorithm by a deriving approach is developed for achieving EDT correctly and efficiently in a constant time. Besides, we discover when obstacles appear in the image, many algorithms cannot achieve the correct EDT except our two-scan-based algorithm. Moreover, the two-scan-based algorithm does not require the additional cost of preprocessing or relative-coordinates recording.

  4. Riemannian means on special euclidean group and unipotent matrices group.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaomin; Sun, Huafei; Peng, Linyu

    2013-01-01

    Among the noncompact matrix Lie groups, the special Euclidean group and the unipotent matrix group play important roles in both theoretic and applied studies. The Riemannian means of a finite set of the given points on the two matrix groups are investigated, respectively. Based on the left invariant metric on the matrix Lie groups, the geodesic between any two points is gotten. And the sum of the geodesic distances is taken as the cost function, whose minimizer is the Riemannian mean. Moreover, a Riemannian gradient algorithm for computing the Riemannian mean on the special Euclidean group and an iterative formula for that on the unipotent matrix group are proposed, respectively. Finally, several numerical simulations in the 3-dimensional case are given to illustrate our results.

  5. Neuroanatomical correlates of the sense of control: Gray and white matter volumes associated with an internal locus of control.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Teruo; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-10-01

    A belief that effort is rewarded can develop incentive, achievement motivation, and self-efficacy. Individuals with such a belief attribute causes of events to themselves, not to external, uncontrollable factors, and are thus said to have an internal locus of control. An internal locus of control is a positive personality trait and has been thoroughly studied in applied psychology, but has not been widely examined in neuroscience. In the present study, correlations between locus of control assessment scores and brain volumes were examined in 777 healthy young adults using magnetic resonance imaging. A whole-brain multiple regression analysis with corrections for the effects of age, gender, and intelligence was conducted. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed that gray matter volumes in the anterior cingulate cortex, striatum, and anterior insula positively correlated with higher scores, which indicate an internal LOC. In addition, white matter volumes in the striatum showed significant correlations with an internal locus of control. These results suggest that cognitive, socioemotional, self-regulatory, and reward systems might be associated with internal control orientation. The finding of greater volumes in several brain regions in individuals with a stronger internal locus of control indicates that there is a neuroanatomical basis for the belief that one's efforts are rewarded.

  6. General Nth order integrals of motion in the Euclidean plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, S.; Winternitz, P.

    2015-10-01

    The general form of an integral of motion that is a polynomial of order N in the momenta is presented for a Hamiltonian system in two-dimensional Euclidean space. The classical and the quantum cases are treated separately, emphasizing both the similarities and the differences between the two. The main application will be to study Nth order superintegrable systems that allow separation of variables in the Hamilton-Jacobi and Schrödinger equations, respectively.

  7. Optimal recovery of linear operators in non-Euclidean metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Osipenko, K Yu

    2014-10-31

    The paper looks at problems concerning the recovery of operators from noisy information in non-Euclidean metrics. A number of general theorems are proved and applied to recovery problems for functions and their derivatives from the noisy Fourier transform. In some cases, a family of optimal methods is found, from which the methods requiring the least amount of original information are singled out. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  8. Kidney volume correlates with tumor diameter in renal cell carcinoma and is associated with histological poor prognostic features.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Brian D; Finn, Stephen P

    2014-02-01

    We aimed to correlate kidney volume (KV) in renal cell carcinoma nephrectomy specimens with tumor diameter (TD), macroscopic growth pattern, and histological features associated with poor prognosis. Histopathology reports, macroscopic specimen photographs, and selected glass slides were retrospectively reviewed. KV was approximated to the volume of an ellipsoid. A total of 273 specimens were identified with median KV 245 cm(3). Kidneys larger than this contained larger tumors (7.5 vs 4.5 cm). KV was significantly greater in tumors of high grade, involving perinephric fat, exhibiting venous invasion, and involving renal sinus. There was a robust linear correlation between KV and TD (r = 0.602) and a weaker correlation between kidney diameter (KD) and TD (r = 0.53). In pT1 tumors, KV (r = 0.40) also correlated better with TD than did KD (r = 0.27). By multiple regression analysis, both TD and venous invasion independently predicted both KD (R (2) = 38.27%) and KV (R (2) = 51.97%). KV and KD correlate well with TD and histopathological features of aggressiveness, although KD correlates better overall and in the pT1 subset.

  9. Predictability and Market Efficiency in Agricultural Futures Markets: a Perspective from Price-Volume Correlation Based on Wavelet Coherency Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ling-Yun; Wen, Xing-Chun

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we use a time-frequency domain technique, namely, wavelet squared coherency, to examine the associations between the trading volumes of three agricultural futures and three different forms of these futures' daily closing prices, i.e. prices, returns and volatilities, over the past several years. These agricultural futures markets are selected from China as a typical case of the emerging countries, and from the US as a representative of the developed economies. We investigate correlations and lead-lag relationships between the trading volumes and the prices to detect the predictability and efficiency of these futures markets. The results suggest that the information contained in the trading volumes of the three agricultural futures markets in China can be applied to predict the prices or returns, while that in US has extremely weak predictive power for prices or returns. We also conduct the wavelet analysis on the relationships between the volumes and returns or volatilities to examine the existence of the two "stylized facts" proposed by Karpoff [J. M. Karpoff, The relation between price changes and trading volume: A survey, J. Financ. Quant. Anal.22(1) (1987) 109-126]. Different markets in the two countries perform differently in reproducing the two stylized facts. As the wavelet tools can decode nonlinear regularities and hidden patterns behind price-volume relationship in time-frequency space, different from the conventional econometric framework, this paper offers a new perspective into the market predictability and efficiency.

  10. Correcting Correlations When Predicting Success in College. IR Applications. Volume 31

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saupe, Joe L.; Eimers, Mardy T.

    2011-01-01

    Critics of testing for admission purposes cite the moderate correlations of admissions test scores with success in college. In response, this study applies formulas from classical measurement theory to observed correlations to correct for restricted variances in predictor and success variables. Estimates of the correlations in the population of…

  11. Direct correlation between free volume and dielectric constant in a fluorine-containing polyimide blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramani, R.; Ramachandran, R.; Amarendra, G.; Alam, S.

    2015-06-01

    The dielectric constant of fluorinated polyimides and their blends is known to decrease with increase in free volume due to decrease in the number of polarizable groups per unit volume. Interestingly, we report here a polyimide which when blended with a fluoro- polymer showed a positive deviation of dielectric constant with free volume. In our experiment, we have used a blend of poly(ether imide) and poly(vinylidene fluorine-co-hexafluoropropylene) and the interaction between them was studied using FTIR, XRD, TGA and SEM. The blend was investigated by PALS, DB and DEA. Surprisingly, with the increase in the free volume content in this blend, the dielectric constant also increases. This change is attributed to additional space available for the polarizable groups to orient themselves to the applied electric field.

  12. Elastic stiffness characterization using three-dimensional full-field deformation obtained with optical coherence tomography and digital volume correlation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiawei; Pierron, Fabrice; Ruiz, Pablo D

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a methodology for stiffness identification from depth-resolved three-dimensional (3-D) full-field deformation fields. These were obtained by performing digital volume correlation on optical coherence tomography volume reconstructions of silicone rubber phantoms. The effect of noise and reconstruction uncertainties on the performance of the correlation algorithm was first evaluated through stationary and rigid body translation tests to give an indication of the minimum strain that can be reliably measured. The phantoms were then tested under tension, and the 3-D deformation fields were used to identify the elastic constitutive parameters using a 3-D manually defined virtual fields method. The identification results for the cases of uniform and heterogeneous strain fields were compared with those calculated analytically through the constant uniaxial stress assumption, showing good agreement.

  13. Correlation of the Peach Springs Tuff, a large-volume Miocene ignimbrite sheet in California and Arizona ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glazner, A.F.; Nielson, J.E.; Howard, K.A.; Miller, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    The Peach Springs Tuff is a distinctive early Miocene ignimbrite deposit that was first recognized in western Arizona. Recent field studies and phenocryst analyses indicate that adjacent outcrops of similar tuff in the central and eastern Mojave Desert may be correlative. This proposed correlation implies that outcrops of the tuff are scattered over an area of at least 35 000 km2 from the western Colorado Plateau to Barstow, California, and that the erupted volume, allowing for posteruption crustal extension, was at least several hundred cubic kilometres. Thus, the Peach Springs Tuff may be a regional stratigraphic marker, useful for determining regional paleogeography and the time and extent of Tertiary crustal extension. -Authors

  14. Dermatoglyphic correlates of hippocampus volume: Evaluation of aberrant neurodevelopmental markers in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kalmady, Sunil V; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Gautham, S; Arasappa, Rashmi; Jose, Dania A; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Gangadhar, B N

    2015-10-30

    Schizophrenia is a disorder of aberrant neurodevelopment is marked by abnormalities in brain structure and dermatoglyphic traits. However, the link between these two (i.e. dermatoglyphic parameters and brain structure) which share ectodermal origin and common developmental window has not been explored extensively. The current study examined dermatoglyphic correlates of hippocampal volume in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients in comparison with matched healthy controls. Ridge counts and asymmetry measures for palmar inter-digital areas (a-b, b-c, c-d) were obtained using high resolution digital scans of palms from 89 schizophrenia patients [M:F=48:41] and 48 healthy controls [M:F=30:18]. Brain scans were obtained for subset of subjects including 26 antipsychotic-naïve patients [M:F=13:13] and 29 healthy controls [M:F=19:10] using 3 T-MRI. Hippocampal volume and palmar ridge counts were measured by blinded raters with good inter-rater reliability using valid methods. Directional asymmetry (DA) of b-c and bilateral hippocampal volume were significantly lower in patients than controls. Significant positive correlation was found between DA and ridge count of b-c with bilateral anterior hippocampal volume. Study demonstrates the utility of dermatoglyphic markers in identifying structural changes in the brain which may form the basis for neurodevelopmental pathogenesis in schizophrenia. PMID:26385539

  15. Dermatoglyphic correlates of hippocampus volume: Evaluation of aberrant neurodevelopmental markers in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kalmady, Sunil V; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Gautham, S; Arasappa, Rashmi; Jose, Dania A; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Gangadhar, B N

    2015-10-30

    Schizophrenia is a disorder of aberrant neurodevelopment is marked by abnormalities in brain structure and dermatoglyphic traits. However, the link between these two (i.e. dermatoglyphic parameters and brain structure) which share ectodermal origin and common developmental window has not been explored extensively. The current study examined dermatoglyphic correlates of hippocampal volume in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients in comparison with matched healthy controls. Ridge counts and asymmetry measures for palmar inter-digital areas (a-b, b-c, c-d) were obtained using high resolution digital scans of palms from 89 schizophrenia patients [M:F=48:41] and 48 healthy controls [M:F=30:18]. Brain scans were obtained for subset of subjects including 26 antipsychotic-naïve patients [M:F=13:13] and 29 healthy controls [M:F=19:10] using 3 T-MRI. Hippocampal volume and palmar ridge counts were measured by blinded raters with good inter-rater reliability using valid methods. Directional asymmetry (DA) of b-c and bilateral hippocampal volume were significantly lower in patients than controls. Significant positive correlation was found between DA and ridge count of b-c with bilateral anterior hippocampal volume. Study demonstrates the utility of dermatoglyphic markers in identifying structural changes in the brain which may form the basis for neurodevelopmental pathogenesis in schizophrenia.

  16. Electrophysiological Correlates of Emotional Content and Volume Level in Spoken Word Processing

    PubMed Central

    Grass, Annika; Bayer, Mareike; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2016-01-01

    For visual stimuli of emotional content as pictures and written words, stimulus size has been shown to increase emotion effects in the early posterior negativity (EPN), a component of event-related potentials (ERPs) indexing attention allocation during visual sensory encoding. In the present study, we addressed the question whether this enhanced relevance of larger (visual) stimuli might generalize to the auditory domain and whether auditory emotion effects are modulated by volume. Therefore, subjects were listening to spoken words with emotional or neutral content, played at two different volume levels, while ERPs were recorded. Negative emotional content led to an increased frontal positivity and parieto-occipital negativity—a scalp distribution similar to the EPN—between ~370 and 530 ms. Importantly, this emotion-related ERP component was not modulated by differences in volume level, which impacted early auditory processing, as reflected in increased amplitudes of the N1 (80–130 ms) and P2 (130–265 ms) components as hypothesized. However, contrary to effects of stimulus size in the visual domain, volume level did not influence later ERP components. These findings indicate modality-specific and functionally independent processing triggered by emotional content of spoken words and volume level. PMID:27458359

  17. Modelflow Estimates of Stroke Volume Do Not Correlate With Doppler Ultrasound Estimates During Upright Posture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Connor R.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steven H.; Laurie, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance affects 60-80% of astronauts returning from long-duration missions, representing a significant risk to completing mission-critical tasks. While likely multifactorial, a reduction in stroke volume (SV) represents one factor contributing to orthostatic intolerance during stand and head up tilt (HUT) tests. Current measures of SV during stand or HUT tests use Doppler ultrasound and require a trained operator and specialized equipment, restricting its use in the field. BeatScope (Finapres Medical Systems BV, The Netherlands) uses a modelflow algorithm to estimate SV from continuous blood pressure waveforms in supine subjects; however, evidence supporting the use of Modelflow to estimate SV in subjects completing stand or HUT tests remain scarce. Furthermore, because the blood pressure device is held extended at heart level during HUT tests, but allowed to rest at the side during stand tests, changes in the finger arterial pressure waveform resulting from arm positioning could alter modelflow estimated SV. The purpose of this project was to compare Doppler ultrasound and BeatScope estimations of SV to determine if BeatScope can be used during stand or HUT tests. Finger photoplethysmography was used to acquire arterial pressure waveforms corrected for hydrostatic finger-to-heart height using the Finometer (FM) and Portapres (PP) arterial pressure devices in 10 subjects (5 men and 5 women) during a stand test while simultaneous estimates of SV were collected using Doppler ultrasound. Measures were made after 5 minutes of supine rest and while subjects stood for 5 minutes. Next, SV estimates were reacquired while each arm was independently raised to heart level, a position similar to tilt testing. Supine SV estimates were not significantly different between all three devices (FM: 68+/-20, PP: 71+/-21, US: 73+/-21 ml/beat). Upon standing, the change in SV estimated by FM (-18+/-8 ml) was not different from PP (-21+/-12), but both were significantly

  18. Onboard utilization of ground control points for image correction. Volume 4: Correlation analysis software design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The software utilized for image correction accuracy measurement is described. The correlation analysis program is written to allow the user various tools to analyze different correlation algorithms. The algorithms were tested using LANDSAT imagery in two different spectral bands. Three classification algorithms are implemented.

  19. Creatine Kinase Activity Weakly Correlates to Volume Completed Following Upper Body Resistance Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado, Marco; Willardson, Jeffrey M.; Silva, Dailson P.; Frigulha, Italo C.; Koch, Alexander J.; Souza, Sergio C.

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the relationship between serum creatine kinase (CK) activity following upper body resistance exercise with a 1- or 3-min rest between sets. Twenty men performed two sessions, each consisting of four sets with a 10-repetition maximum load. The results demonstrated significantly greater volume for the 3-min…

  20. On cohomogeneity one biharmonic hypersurfaces into the Euclidean space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaldo, S.; Oniciuc, C.; Ratto, A.

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to prove that there exists no cohomogeneity one G-invariant proper biharmonic hypersurface into the Euclidean space Rn, where G denotes a transformation group which acts on Rn by isometries, with codimension two principal orbits. This result may be considered in the context of the Chen conjecture, since this family of hypersurfaces includes examples with up to seven distinct principal curvatures. The paper uses the methods of equivariant differential geometry. In particular, the technique of proof provides a unified treatment for all these G-actions.

  1. Stable hypersurfaces with zero scalar curvature in Euclidean space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alencar, Hilário; do Carmo, Manfredo; Neto, Gregório Silva

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we prove some results concerning stability of hypersurfaces in the four dimensional Euclidean space with zero scalar curvature. First we prove there is no complete stable hypersurface with zero scalar curvature, polynomial growth of integral of the mean curvature, and with the Gauss-Kronecker curvature bounded away from zero. We conclude this paper giving a sufficient condition for a regular domain to be stable in terms of the mean and the Gauss-Kronecker curvatures of the hypersurface and the radius of the smallest extrinsic ball which contains the domain.

  2. Multi-stability in folded shells: non-Euclidean origami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Arthur

    2015-03-01

    Both natural and man-made structures benefit from having multiple mechanically stable states, from the quick snapping motion of hummingbird beaks to micro-textured surfaces with tunable roughness. Rather than discuss special fabrication techniques for creating bi-stability through material anisotropy, in this talk I will present several examples of how folding a structure can modify the energy landscape and thus lead to multiple stable states. Using ideas from origami and differential geometry, I will discuss how deforming a non-Euclidean surface can be done either continuously or discontinuously, and explore the effects that global constraints have on the ultimate stability of the surface.

  3. Phase shift extraction algorithm based on Euclidean matrix norm.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jian; Wang, Hankun; Zhang, Desi; Zhong, Liyun; Fan, Jinping; Lu, Xiaoxu

    2013-05-01

    In this Letter, the character of Euclidean matrix norm (EMN) of the intensity difference between phase-shifting interferograms, which changes in sinusoidal form with the phase shifts, is presented. Based on this character, an EMN phase shift extraction algorithm is proposed. Both the simulation calculation and experimental research show that the phase shifts with high precision can be determined with the proposed EMN algorithm easily. Importantly, the proposed EMN algorithm will supply a powerful tool for the rapid calibration of the phase shifts.

  4. Volumetric quantitation by MRI in primary progressive multiple sclerosis: volumes of plaques and atrophy correlated with neurological disability.

    PubMed

    Ukkonen, M; Dastidar, P; Heinonen, T; Laasonen, E; Elovaara, I

    2003-11-01

    In primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) abnormalities in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) differ from abnormalities in other subtypes of multiple sclerosis (MS). It was investigated whether the extent of brain and spinal cord MRI abnormalities is reflected in the neurological disability in PPMS. Focal and diffuse changes and atrophy in central nervous system (CNS) in patients with PPMS (n = 28) and healthy controls (n = 20) were assessed by semi-automatic MRI segmentation and volumetric analysis. The measurements were related to neurological disability as expressed by the expanded disability status scale (EDSS), the regional functional scoring system (RFSS), the arm index and the ambulation index. Plaques in T1- and/or T2-weighted images were seen in all brains, while spinal plaques were detected in 23 of 28 patients (82%). The total volumes of brain and spinal cord were significantly smaller in patients than in controls (P = 0.001 and 0.000, respectively). The volumes of T1 or T2 lesions in the brain correlated to the ambulation index (r = 0.51, P = 0.005 and r = 0.53, P = 0.004, respectively). No correlations were detected between MRI measurements and total EDSS score, but relative brain atrophy correlated inversely with the total RFSS scores, poor arm index and higher cerebral disturbances (r = -0.53, P = 0.004; r = -0.53, P = 0.004; and r = -0.52, P = 0.005, respectively). Although the number of spinal T2 lesions correlated with sensory disturbances (r = 0.60, P = 0.001), no correlations were found between EDSS subscores and spinal cord atrophy. These findings show that marked atrophy of brain and spinal cord detected by volumetric quantitation correlates with neurological disability. This observation indicates the importance of neurodegenerative events in PPMS. PMID:14641511

  5. Mapping soil deformation around plant roots using in vivo 4D X-ray Computed Tomography and Digital Volume Correlation.

    PubMed

    Keyes, S D; Gillard, F; Soper, N; Mavrogordato, M N; Sinclair, I; Roose, T

    2016-06-14

    The mechanical impedance of soils inhibits the growth of plant roots, often being the most significant physical limitation to root system development. Non-invasive imaging techniques have recently been used to investigate the development of root system architecture over time, but the relationship with soil deformation is usually neglected. Correlative mapping approaches parameterised using 2D and 3D image data have recently gained prominence for quantifying physical deformation in composite materials including fibre-reinforced polymers and trabecular bone. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) are computational techniques which use the inherent material texture of surfaces and volumes, captured using imaging techniques, to map full-field deformation components in samples during physical loading. Here we develop an experimental assay and methodology for four-dimensional, in vivo X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) and apply a Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) approach to the data to quantify deformation. The method is validated for a field-derived soil under conditions of uniaxial compression, and a calibration study is used to quantify thresholds of displacement and strain measurement. The validated and calibrated approach is then demonstrated for an in vivo test case in which an extending maize root in field-derived soil was imaged hourly using XCT over a growth period of 19h. This allowed full-field soil deformation data and 3D root tip dynamics to be quantified in parallel for the first time. This fusion of methods paves the way for comparative studies of contrasting soils and plant genotypes, improving our understanding of the fundamental mechanical processes which influence root system development.

  6. Mapping soil deformation around plant roots using in vivo 4D X-ray Computed Tomography and Digital Volume Correlation.

    PubMed

    Keyes, S D; Gillard, F; Soper, N; Mavrogordato, M N; Sinclair, I; Roose, T

    2016-06-14

    The mechanical impedance of soils inhibits the growth of plant roots, often being the most significant physical limitation to root system development. Non-invasive imaging techniques have recently been used to investigate the development of root system architecture over time, but the relationship with soil deformation is usually neglected. Correlative mapping approaches parameterised using 2D and 3D image data have recently gained prominence for quantifying physical deformation in composite materials including fibre-reinforced polymers and trabecular bone. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) are computational techniques which use the inherent material texture of surfaces and volumes, captured using imaging techniques, to map full-field deformation components in samples during physical loading. Here we develop an experimental assay and methodology for four-dimensional, in vivo X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) and apply a Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) approach to the data to quantify deformation. The method is validated for a field-derived soil under conditions of uniaxial compression, and a calibration study is used to quantify thresholds of displacement and strain measurement. The validated and calibrated approach is then demonstrated for an in vivo test case in which an extending maize root in field-derived soil was imaged hourly using XCT over a growth period of 19h. This allowed full-field soil deformation data and 3D root tip dynamics to be quantified in parallel for the first time. This fusion of methods paves the way for comparative studies of contrasting soils and plant genotypes, improving our understanding of the fundamental mechanical processes which influence root system development. PMID:27155747

  7. The underlying anatomical correlates of long-term meditation: larger hippocampal and frontal volumes of gray matter.

    PubMed

    Luders, Eileen; Toga, Arthur W; Lepore, Natasha; Gaser, Christian

    2009-04-15

    Although the systematic study of meditation is still in its infancy, research has provided evidence for meditation-induced improvements in psychological and physiological well-being. Moreover, meditation practice has been shown not only to benefit higher-order cognitive functions but also to alter brain activity. Nevertheless, little is known about possible links to brain structure. Using high-resolution MRI data of 44 subjects, we set out to examine the underlying anatomical correlates of long-term meditation with different regional specificity (i.e., global, regional, and local). For this purpose, we applied voxel-based morphometry in association with a recently validated automated parcellation approach. We detected significantly larger gray matter volumes in meditators in the right orbito-frontal cortex (as well as in the right thalamus and left inferior temporal gyrus when co-varying for age and/or lowering applied statistical thresholds). In addition, meditators showed significantly larger volumes of the right hippocampus. Both orbito-frontal and hippocampal regions have been implicated in emotional regulation and response control. Thus, larger volumes in these regions might account for meditators' singular abilities and habits to cultivate positive emotions, retain emotional stability, and engage in mindful behavior. We further suggest that these regional alterations in brain structures constitute part of the underlying neurological correlate of long-term meditation independent of a specific style and practice. Future longitudinal analyses are necessary to establish the presence and direction of a causal link between meditation practice and brain anatomy.

  8. Computation of full-field displacements in a scaffold implant using digital volume correlation and finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Madi, K; Tozzi, G; Zhang, Q H; Tong, J; Cossey, A; Au, A; Hollis, D; Hild, F

    2013-09-01

    Measurements of three-dimensional displacements in a scaffold implant under uniaxial compression have been obtained by two digital volume correlation (DVC) methods, and compared with those obtained from micro-finite element models. The DVC methods were based on two approaches, a local approach which registers independent small volumes and yields discontinuous displacement fields; and a global approach where the registration is performed on the whole volume of interest, leading to continuous displacement fields. A customised mini-compression device was used to perform in situ step-wise compression of the scaffold within a micro-computed tomography (μCT) chamber, and the data were collected at steps of interest. Displacement uncertainties, ranging from 0.006 to 0.02 voxel (i.e. 0.12-0.4 μm), with a strain uncertainty between 60 and 600 με, were obtained with a spatial resolution of 32 voxels using both approaches, although the global approach has lower systematic errors. Reduced displacement and strain uncertainties may be obtained using the global approach by increasing the element size; and using the local approach by increasing the number of intermediary sub-volumes. Good agreements between the results from the DVC measurements and the FE simulations were obtained in the primary loading direction as well as in the lateral directions. This study demonstrates that volumetric strain measurements can be obtained successfully using DVC, which may be a useful tool to investigate mechanical behaviour of porous implants.

  9. Spatial resolution and measurement uncertainty of strains in bone and bone-cement interface using digital volume correlation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Qing-Hang; Lupton, Colin; Tong, Jie

    2016-04-01

    The measurement uncertainty of strains has been assessed in a bone analogue (sawbone), bovine trabecular bone and bone-cement interface specimens under zero load using the Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) method. The effects of sub-volume size, sample constraint and preload on the measured strain uncertainty have been examined. There is generally a trade-off between the measurement uncertainty and the spatial resolution. Suitable sub-volume sizes have been be selected based on a compromise between the measurement uncertainty and the spatial resolution of the cases considered. A ratio of sub-volume size to a microstructure characteristic (Tb.Sp) was introduced to reflect a suitable spatial resolution, and the measurement uncertainty associated was assessed. Specifically, ratios between 1.6 and 4 appear to give rise to standard deviations in the measured strains between 166 and 620 με in all the cases considered, which would seem to suffice for strain analysis in pre as well as post yield loading regimes. A microscale finite element (μFE) model was built from the CT images of the sawbone, and the results from the μFE model and a continuum FE model were compared with those from the DVC. The strain results were found to differ significantly between the two methods at tissue level, consistent in trend with the results found in human bones, indicating mainly a limitation of the current DVC method in mapping strains at this level.

  10. Structure and Dimensions of Core-Shell Nanoparticles Comparable to the Confocal Volume Studied by Means of Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gapinski, Jacek; Jarzębski, Maciej; Buitenhuis, Johan; Deptula, Tobiasz; Mazuryk, Jaroslaw; Patkowski, Adam

    2016-03-15

    In some applications the dye distribution within fluorescently labeled nanoparticles and its stability over long periods of time are important issues. In this article we study numerically and experimentally the applicability of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to resolve such questions. When the size of fluorescently labeled particles is comparable to or larger than the confocal volume, the effective confocal volume seen in FCS experiments is increasing. Such an effect has already been studied for uniformly labeled spherical particles. In this work we analyze the form of the FCS correlation functions (CFs) for core-labeled and shell-labeled core-shell particles. For shell-labeled particles an additional fast decay was found both in simulations and in experiments on custom-made surface-labeled particles. Universal scaling of FCS correlation times based on the squared ratio of the labeled part radius of gyration to the Gaussian radius of the beam profile was found. Recipes based on the analysis of simulated CFs, proposed for interpretation of experimental results, were successfully applied to the FCS results on suspensions of large core-labeled and surface-labeled particles.

  11. Mechanical durability of polymeric coatings studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy: correlation between cyclic loading and free volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Peng, Q.; Huang, Y. Y.; Zhang, R.; Mallon, P. E.; Zhang, J.; Li, Y.; Wu, Y.; Richardson, J. R.; Sandreczki, T. C.; Jean, Y. C.; Suzuki, R.; Ohdaira, T.

    2002-06-01

    The mechanical durability of seven commercially polymeric coatings is investigated using slow positron beam techniques to monitor changes in sub-nanometer defects during the process of cyclic loading. Doppler broadened energy spectra and positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) measurements were performed as a function of the slow positron energy at different periods of cycling loading. The positron annihilation dada show that both S-defect parameter and o-positronium (Ps) lifetime decrease as the loading cycle increases. The results indicate a loss of free volumes due to the loss of mechanical durability by cyclic loading. A direct correlation between the loss of S-defect parameter and the period of loading cycle is observed. This is interpreted as that durability of polymeric coatings is controlled by the atomic level free volumes. It is shown that the slow positron beam is a very successful probe in detecting the very early stages of coating degradation due to mechanical processes.

  12. Non-Euclidean geometry of twisted filament bundle packing

    PubMed Central

    Bruss, Isaac R.; Grason, Gregory M.

    2012-01-01

    Densely packed and twisted assemblies of filaments are crucial structural motifs in macroscopic materials (cables, ropes, and textiles) as well as synthetic and biological nanomaterials (fibrous proteins). We study the unique and nontrivial packing geometry of this universal material design from two perspectives. First, we show that the problem of twisted bundle packing can be mapped exactly onto the problem of disc packing on a curved surface, the geometry of which has a positive, spherical curvature close to the center of rotation and approaches the intrinsically flat geometry of a cylinder far from the bundle center. From this mapping, we find the packing of any twisted bundle is geometrically frustrated, as it makes the sixfold geometry of filament close packing impossible at the core of the fiber. This geometrical equivalence leads to a spectrum of close-packed fiber geometries, whose low symmetry (five-, four-, three-, and twofold) reflect non-Euclidean packing constraints at the bundle core. Second, we explore the ground-state structure of twisted filament assemblies formed under the influence of adhesive interactions by a computational model. Here, we find that the underlying non-Euclidean geometry of twisted fiber packing disrupts the regular lattice packing of filaments above a critical radius, proportional to the helical pitch. Above this critical radius, the ground-state packing includes the presence of between one and six excess fivefold disclinations in the cross-sectional order. PMID:22711799

  13. Dentin ablation by Ho: YAG laser: correlation of energy versus volume using stereophotogrammetry.

    PubMed

    Stevens, B H; Trowbridge, H O; Harrison, G; Silverton, S F

    1994-05-01

    The future use of lasers in endodontics is dependent upon predictable and consistent ablation of dentin. In this pilot study we used an Ho:YAG laser fiberoptic delivery system to apply laser energy to prepared tooth sections in vitro. Longitudinally sectioned single-rooted human teeth were subjected to single-energy pulses varying from 25 to 1750 mJ at a focal length of 1 mm. At different energy levels we observed changes in the dentin surface ranging from minute surface pitting to the formation of large craters. Scanning electron microscopy and stereophotogrammetry were used to determine the relationship between the amount of energy applied to dentin and the extent of dentin ablation. Dentin crater formation was quantified by determining surface area, depth, and volume of craters produced. Increases in laser energy were compared with increases in surface area, depth, and volume of craters produced within the range of 150 to 1200 mJ. The Ho:YAG laser fiberoptic delivery system used in this study provides an effective means of ablating dentin. Three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry may prove to be a useful method for further studies on the effects of laser energy on mineralized tissues.

  14. Local shear stress and its correlation with local volume fraction in concentrated non-Brownian suspensions: lattice Boltzmann simulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Ki; Ahn, Kyung Hyun; Lee, Seung Jong

    2014-12-01

    The local shear stress of non-Brownian suspensions was investigated using the lattice Boltzmann method coupled with the smoothed profile method. Previous studies have only focused on the bulk rheology of complex fluids because the local rheology of complex fluids was not accessible due to technical limitations. In this study, the local shear stress of two-dimensional solid particle suspensions in Couette flow was investigated with the method of planes to correlate non-Newtonian fluid behavior with the structural evolution of concentrated particle suspensions. Shear thickening was successfully captured for highly concentrated suspensions at high particle Reynolds number, and both the local rheology and local structure of the suspensions were analyzed. It was also found that the linear correlation between the local particle stress and local particle volume fraction was dramatically reduced during shear thickening. These results clearly show how the change in local structure of suspensions influences the local and bulk rheology of the suspensions. PMID:25615103

  15. Synaptic vesicle exocytosis in hippocampal synaptosomes correlates directly with total mitochondrial volume

    PubMed Central

    Ivannikov, Maxim V.; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2012-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity in many regions of the central nervous system leads to the continuous adjustment of synaptic strength, which is essential for learning and memory. In this study, we show by visualizing synaptic vesicle release in mouse hippocampal synaptosomes that presynaptic mitochondria and specifically, their capacities for ATP production are essential determinants of synaptic vesicle exocytosis and its magnitude. Total internal reflection microscopy of FM1-43 loaded hippocampal synaptosomes showed that inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation reduces evoked synaptic release. This reduction was accompanied by a substantial drop in synaptosomal ATP levels. However, cytosolic calcium influx was not affected. Structural characterization of stimulated hippocampal synaptosomes revealed that higher total presynaptic mitochondrial volumes were consistently associated with higher levels of exocytosis. Thus, synaptic vesicle release is linked to the presynaptic ability to regenerate ATP, which itself is a utility of mitochondrial density and activity. PMID:22772899

  16. A Controlled Study on the Correlation between Tear Film Volume and Tear Film Stability in Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Eissa, Iman M; Khalil, Noha M; El-Gendy, Heba A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the tear film quantity and correlate it with the quality and stability of the tear film in diabetics and compare them to age matched controls. Introduction. Diabetes affects tear film parameters in multiple ways. Poor metabolic control and neuropathy are postulated factors. To further understand how diabetes affects tear film parameters this study was conducted. Subjects and Methods. Tear meniscus height was measured by anterior segment OCT, along with tear thinning time, a subtype of noninvasive tear break-up time, and blinking rate per minute which were all recorded for 22 diabetic patients. Correlations between these tear film parameters were studied and then compared to 16 age matched controls. Results. A statistically significant difference was found in blinking rate between the diabetic and the control group (P = 0.002), with higher blinking rate among diabetics. All tear film parameters were negatively correlated with duration of diabetes. A positive correlation was found between tear film volume and stability. Conclusion. Diabetes affects the tear film in various ways. Diabetics should be examined for dry eye signs even in absence of symptoms which may be masked by associated neuropathy. Duration of diabetes has an impact on tear film status.

  17. Free volume hole size of Cyanate ester resin/Epoxy resin interpenetrating networks and its correlations with physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Minfeng; Lu, Cuiyun; Wang, Baoyi; Qi, Chenze

    2010-09-01

    Cyanate ester (CE) resin was blended with epoxy resin (EP) at different mass ratios (CE/EP: 100/0, 90/10, 70/30, 50/50, 30/70, 10/90, and 0/100). The curing process of the blend system was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Examination of the mechanical properties, thermal stability, and morphology of the blend systems showed that addition of epoxy resin resulted in improved toughness but a little sacrifice in thermal stability when compared with neat CE. The free volume size of the blend system determined by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) decreased with the epoxy resin content, which is consistent with the chemical structure changes for the copolymerization between CE and EP. The crosslinking units of curing products (oxazoline, oxazolidinone, and polyether network) of the blends are all smaller in size than those of triazine ring structure from neat CE. Therefore, the free volume size of the blends decreases with increase of EP content. The correlations between the free volume properties and other physical properties (thermal stability and mechanical properties) have also been discussed.

  18. Post-traumatic stress symptoms correlate with smaller subgenual cingulate, caudate, and insula volumes in unmedicated combat veterans.

    PubMed

    Herringa, Ryan; Phillips, Mary; Almeida, Jorge; Insana, Salvatore; Germain, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Prior studies have examined differences in brain volume between patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and control subjects. Convergent findings include smaller hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex volumes in PTSD. However, post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) exist on a spectrum, and neural changes may occur beyond the diagnostic threshold of PTSD. We examined the relationship between PTSS and gray matter among combat-exposed U.S. military veterans. Structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained on 28 combat veterans from Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom. PTSS were assessed using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). Thirteen subjects met criteria for PTSD. Subjects were unmedicated, and free of major comorbid psychiatric disorders. Images were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry, and regressed against the total CAPS score and trauma load. Images were subsequently analyzed by diagnosis of PTSD vs. non-PTSD. CAPS scores were inversely correlated with volumes of the subgenual cingulate (sgACC), caudate, hypothalamus, insula, and left middle temporal gyrus (MTG). Group contrast revealed smaller sgACC, caudate, hypothalamus, left insula, left MTG, and right MFG in the PTSD group. PTSS are associated with abnormalities in limbic structures that may underlie the pathophysiology of PTSD. These abnormalities exist on a continuum with PTSS, beyond a diagnosis of PTSD.

  19. Cerebellar gray matter and lobular volumes correlate with core autism symptoms

    PubMed Central

    D'Mello, Anila M.; Crocetti, Deana; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Stoodley, Catherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroanatomical differences in the cerebellum are among the most consistent findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but little is known about the relationship between cerebellar dysfunction and core ASD symptoms. The newly-emerging existence of cerebellar sensorimotor and cognitive subregions provides a new framework for interpreting the functional significance of cerebellar findings in ASD. Here we use two complementary analyses — whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and the SUIT cerebellar atlas — to investigate cerebellar regional gray matter (GM) and volumetric lobular measurements in 35 children with ASD and 35 typically-developing (TD) children (mean age 10.4 ± 1.6 years; range 8–13 years). To examine the relationships between cerebellar structure and core ASD symptoms, correlations were calculated between scores on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI) and the VBM and volumetric data. Both VBM and the SUIT analyses revealed reduced GM in ASD children in cerebellar lobule VII (Crus I/II). The degree of regional and lobular gray matter reductions in different cerebellar subregions correlated with the severity of symptoms in social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors. Structural differences and behavioral correlations converged on right cerebellar Crus I/II, a region which shows structural and functional connectivity with fronto-parietal and default mode networks. These results emphasize the importance of the location within the cerebellum to the potential functional impact of structural differences in ASD, and suggest that GM differences in cerebellar right Crus I/II are associated with the core ASD profile. PMID:25844317

  20. The cosmic X-ray background-IRAS galaxy correlation and the local X-ray volume emissivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyaji, Takamitsu; Lahav, Ofer; Jahoda, Keith; Boldt, Elihu

    1994-01-01

    We have cross-correlated the galaxies from the IRAS 2 Jy redshift survey sample and the 0.7 Jy projected sample with the all-sky cosmic X-ray background (CXB) map obtained from the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) 1 A-2 experiment. We have detected a significant correlation signal between surface density of IRAS galaxies and the X-ray background intensity, with W(sub xg) = (mean value of ((delta I)(delta N)))/(mean value of I)(mean value of N)) of several times 10(exp -3). While this correlation signal has a significant implication for the contribution of the local universe to the hard (E greater than 2 keV) X-ray background, its interpretation is model-dependent. We have developed a formulation to model the cross-correlation between CXB surface brightness and galaxy counts. This includes the effects of source clustering and the X-ray-far-infrared luminosity correlation. Using an X-ray flux-limited sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), which has IRAS 60 micrometer measurements, we have estimated the contribution of the AGN component to the observed CXB-IRAS galaxy count correlations in order to see whether there is an excess component, i.e., contribution from low X-ray luminosity sources. We have applied both the analytical approach and Monte Carlo simulations for the estimations. Our estimate of the local X-ray volume emissivity in the 2-10 keV band is rho(sub x) approximately = (4.3 +/- 1.2) x 10(exp 38) h(sub 50) ergs/s/cu Mpc, consistent with the value expected from the luminosity function of AGNs alone. This sets a limit to the local volume emissivity from lower luminosity sources (e.g., star-forming galaxies, low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs)) to rho(sub x) less than or approximately = 2 x 10(exp 38) h(sub 50) ergs/s/cu Mpc.

  1. Euclidean and Noetherian entropies in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Suvankar; Gopakumar, Rajesh

    2006-08-15

    We examine the Euclidean action approach, as well as that of Wald, to the entropy of black holes in asymptotically AdS spaces. From the point of view of holography these two approaches are somewhat complementary in spirit and it is not obvious why they should give the same answer in the presence of arbitrary higher derivative gravity corrections. For the case of the AdS{sub 5} Schwarzschild black hole, we explicitly study the leading correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in the presence of a variety of higher derivative corrections studied in the literature, including the Type IIB R{sup 4} term. We find a nontrivial agreement between the two approaches in every case. Finally, we give a general way of understanding the equivalence of these two approaches.

  2. Sensor Network Localization by Eigenvector Synchronization Over the Euclidean Group

    PubMed Central

    CUCURINGU, MIHAI; LIPMAN, YARON; SINGER, AMIT

    2013-01-01

    We present a new approach to localization of sensors from noisy measurements of a subset of their Euclidean distances. Our algorithm starts by finding, embedding, and aligning uniquely realizable subsets of neighboring sensors called patches. In the noise-free case, each patch agrees with its global positioning up to an unknown rigid motion of translation, rotation, and possibly reflection. The reflections and rotations are estimated using the recently developed eigenvector synchronization algorithm, while the translations are estimated by solving an overdetermined linear system. The algorithm is scalable as the number of nodes increases and can be implemented in a distributed fashion. Extensive numerical experiments show that it compares favorably to other existing algorithms in terms of robustness to noise, sparse connectivity, and running time. While our approach is applicable to higher dimensions, in the current article, we focus on the two-dimensional case. PMID:23946700

  3. On the Euclidean version of the photon number integral

    SciTech Connect

    Ruijsenaars, S.; Stodolsky, L.

    2008-02-15

    We reconsider the Euclidean version of the photon number integral introduced by Stodolsky [Acta Phys. Pol. B 33, 2659 (2002), e-print hep-th/02053131].This integral is well defined for any smooth non-self-intersecting curve in R{sup N}. Besides studying general features of this integral (including its conformal invariance), we evaluate it explicitly for the ellipse. The result is n{sub ellipse}=({xi}{sup -1}+{xi}){pi}{sup 2}, where {xi} is the ratio of the minor and major axes. This is in agreement with the previous result n{sub circle}=2{pi}{sup 2} and also with the conjecture that the minimum value of n for any plane curve occurs for the circle.

  4. Entropic Force and its Fluctuation in Euclidean Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yue

    In this paper, we study the idea about gravity as entropic force proposed by Verlinde. By interpreting Euclidean gravity in the language of thermodynamic quantities on holographic screen, we find the gravitational force can be calculated from the change of entropy on the screen. We show that normal gravity calculation can be reinterpreted in the language of thermodynamic variables. We also study the fluctuation of the force and find the fluctuation acting on the point-like particle can never be larger than the expectation value of the force. For a black hole in AdS space, by gauge/gravity duality, the fluctuation may be interpreted as arising from thermal fluctuation in the boundary description. And for a black hole in flat space, the ratio between fluctuation and force goes to a constant (T)/(m) at infinity.

  5. Complex networks in the Euclidean space of communicability distances.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Ernesto

    2012-06-01

    We study the properties of complex networks embedded in a Euclidean space of communicability distances. The communicability distance between two nodes is defined as the difference between the weighted sum of walks self-returning to the nodes and the weighted sum of walks going from one node to the other. We give some indications that the communicability distance identifies the least crowded routes in networks where simultaneous submission of packages is taking place. We define an index Q based on communicability and shortest path distances, which allows reinterpreting the "small-world" phenomenon as the region of minimum Q in the Watts-Strogatz model. It also allows the classification and analysis of networks with different efficiency of spatial uses. Consequently, the communicability distance displays unique features for the analysis of complex networks in different scenarios.

  6. Sensor Network Localization by Eigenvector Synchronization Over the Euclidean Group.

    PubMed

    Cucuringu, Mihai; Lipman, Yaron; Singer, Amit

    2012-07-01

    We present a new approach to localization of sensors from noisy measurements of a subset of their Euclidean distances. Our algorithm starts by finding, embedding, and aligning uniquely realizable subsets of neighboring sensors called patches. In the noise-free case, each patch agrees with its global positioning up to an unknown rigid motion of translation, rotation, and possibly reflection. The reflections and rotations are estimated using the recently developed eigenvector synchronization algorithm, while the translations are estimated by solving an overdetermined linear system. The algorithm is scalable as the number of nodes increases and can be implemented in a distributed fashion. Extensive numerical experiments show that it compares favorably to other existing algorithms in terms of robustness to noise, sparse connectivity, and running time. While our approach is applicable to higher dimensions, in the current article, we focus on the two-dimensional case.

  7. On the high-density expansion for Euclidean random matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigera, T. S.; Martin-Mayor, V.; Parisi, G.; Urbani, P.; Verrocchio, P.

    2011-02-01

    Diagrammatic techniques to compute perturbatively the spectral properties of Euclidean random matrices (ERM) in the high-density regime are introduced and discussed in detail. Such techniques are developed in two alternative and very different formulations of the mathematical problem and are shown to give identical results up to second order in the perturbative expansion. One method, based on writing the so-called resolvent function as a Taylor series, allows us to group the diagrams into a small number of topological classes, providing a simple way to determine the infrared (small momenta) behaviour of the theory up to third order, which is of interest for the comparison with experiments. The other method, which reformulates the problem as a field theory, can instead be used to study the infrared behaviour at any perturbative order.

  8. Quantum Anomalies for Generalized Euclidean Taub-Newman Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visinescu, Mihai; Visinescu, Anca

    2008-09-01

    We investigate the gravitational and axial anomalies with regard to quadratic constants of motion for the Euclidean Taub-Newman-Unti-Tamburino (Taub-NUT) space and its generalizations as was done by Iwai and Katayama. The generalized Taub-NUT metrics exhibit in general gravitational anomalies. This is in contrast with the fact that the standard Taub-NUT metric does not exhibit gravitational anomalies, which is a consequence of the fact that it admits Killing-Yano tensors forming Stäckel-Killing tensors as products. For the axial anomaly, interpreted as the index of the Dirac operator, the role of Killing-Yano tensors is irrelevant. We compute the index of the Dirac operator for the generalized Taub-NUT metrics with the APS boundary conditions and find these metrics do not contribute to the axial anomaly for not too large deformations of the standard Taub-NUT metric.

  9. A Case Example of Insect Gymnastics: How Is Non-Euclidean Geometry Learned?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junius, Premalatha

    2008-01-01

    The focus of the article is on the complex cognitive process involved in learning the concept of "straightness" in Non-Euclidean geometry. Learning new material is viewed through a conflict resolution framework, as a student questions familiar assumptions understood in Euclidean geometry. A case study reveals how mathematization of the straight…

  10. Acoustic Treatment Design Scaling Methods. Volume 5; Analytical and Experimental Data Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, W. E.; Kraft, R. E.; Syed, A. A.

    1999-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study presented in this volume is to present the results and data analysis of in-duct transmission loss measurements. Transmission loss testing was performed on full-scale, 1/2-scale, and 115-scale treatment panel samples. The objective of the study was to compare predicted and measured transmission loss for full-scale and subscale panels in an attempt to evaluate the variations in suppression between full- and subscale panels which were ostensibly of equivalent design. Generally, the results indicated an unsatisfactory agreement between measurement and prediction, even for full-scale. This was attributable to difficulties encountered in obtaining sufficiently accurate test results, even with extraordinary care in calibrating the instrumentation and performing the test. Test difficulties precluded the ability to make measurements at frequencies high enough to be representative of subscale liners. It is concluded that transmission loss measurements without ducts and data acquisition facilities specifically designed to operate with the precision and complexity required for high subscale frequency ranges are inadequate for evaluation of subscale treatment effects.

  11. Tumor Volume Reduction Rate Measured by Magnetic Resonance Volumetry Correlated With Pathologic Tumor Response of Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yeo, Seung-Gu; Kim, Dae Yong; Kim, Tae Hyun; Jung, Kyung Hae; Hong, Yong Sang; Chang, Hee Jin; Park, Ji Won; Lim, Seok-Byung; Choi, Hyo Seong; Jeong, Seung-Yong

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the tumor volume reduction rate (TVRR) measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest magnetic resonance volumetry correlates with the pathologic tumor response after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: The study included 405 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (cT3-T4) who had undergone preoperative CRT and radical proctectomy. The tumor volume was measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest magnetic resonance volumetry before and after CRT but before surgery. We analyzed the correlation between the TVRR and the pathologic tumor response in terms of downstaging and tumor regression grade (TRG). Downstaging was defined as ypStage 0-I (ypT0-T2N0M0), and the TRG proposed by Dworak et al. was used. Results: The mean TVRR was 65.0% {+-} 22.3%. Downstaging and complete regression occurred in 167 (41.2%) and 58 (14.3%) patients, respectively. The TVRRs according to ypT classification (ypT0-T2 vs. ypT3-T4), ypN classification (ypN0 vs. ypN1-N2), downstaging (ypStage 0-I vs. ypStage II-III), good regression (TRG 3-4 vs. TRG 1-2), and complete regression (TRG 4 vs. TRG 1-3) were all significantly different (p <.05). When the TVRR was categorized into three groups (<60%, 60-80%, and >80%), the rates of ypT0-T2, ypN0, downstaging, and good regression were all significantly greater for patients with a TVRR of {>=}60%, as was the complete regression rate for patients with a TVRR >80% (p <.05). Conclusion: The TVRR measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest magnetic resonance volumetry correlated significantly with the pathologic tumor response in terms of downstaging and TRG after preoperative CRT for locally advanced rectal cancer.

  12. Geostatistical analysis of groundwater level using Euclidean and non-Euclidean distance metrics and variable variogram fitting criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodoridou, Panagiota G.; Karatzas, George P.; Varouchakis, Emmanouil A.; Corzo Perez, Gerald A.

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater level is an important information in hydrological modelling. Geostatistical methods are often employed to map the free surface of an aquifer. In geostatistical analysis using Kriging techniques the selection of the optimal variogram model is very important for the optimal method performance. This work compares three different criteria, the least squares sum method, the Akaike Information Criterion and the Cressie's Indicator, to assess the theoretical variogram that fits to the experimental one and investigates the impact on the prediction results. Moreover, five different distance functions (Euclidean, Minkowski, Manhattan, Canberra, and Bray-Curtis) are applied to calculate the distance between observations that affects both the variogram calculation and the Kriging estimator. Cross validation analysis in terms of Ordinary Kriging is applied by using sequentially a different distance metric and the above three variogram fitting criteria. The spatial dependence of the observations in the tested dataset is studied by fitting classical variogram models and the Matérn model. The proposed comparison analysis performed for a data set of two hundred fifty hydraulic head measurements distributed over an alluvial aquifer that covers an area of 210 km2. The study area is located in the Prefecture of Drama, which belongs to the Water District of East Macedonia (Greece). This area was selected in terms of hydro-geological data availability and geological homogeneity. The analysis showed that a combination of the Akaike information Criterion for the variogram fitting assessment and the Brays-Curtis distance metric provided the most accurate cross-validation results. The Power-law variogram model provided the best fit to the experimental data. The aforementioned approach for the specific dataset in terms of the Ordinary Kriging method improves the prediction efficiency in comparison to the classical Euclidean distance metric. Therefore, maps of the spatial

  13. Quantifying uncertainty in soot volume fraction estimates using Bayesian inference of auto-correlated laser-induced incandescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadwin, Paul J.; Sipkens, T. A.; Thomson, K. A.; Liu, F.; Daun, K. J.

    2016-01-01

    Auto-correlated laser-induced incandescence (AC-LII) infers the soot volume fraction (SVF) of soot particles by comparing the spectral incandescence from laser-energized particles to the pyrometrically inferred peak soot temperature. This calculation requires detailed knowledge of model parameters such as the absorption function of soot, which may vary with combustion chemistry, soot age, and the internal structure of the soot. This work presents a Bayesian methodology to quantify such uncertainties. This technique treats the additional "nuisance" model parameters, including the soot absorption function, as stochastic variables and incorporates the current state of knowledge of these parameters into the inference process through maximum entropy priors. While standard AC-LII analysis provides a point estimate of the SVF, Bayesian techniques infer the posterior probability density, which will allow scientists and engineers to better assess the reliability of AC-LII inferred SVFs in the context of environmental regulations and competing diagnostics.

  14. Ion-ion correlation, solvent excluded volume and pH effects on physicochemical properties of spherical oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ovanesyan, Zaven; Aljzmi, Amal; Almusaynid, Manal; Khan, Asrar; Valderrama, Esteban; Nash, Kelly L; Marucho, Marcelo

    2016-01-15

    One major source of complexity in the implementation of nanoparticles in aqueous electrolytes arises from the strong influence that biological environments has on their physicochemical properties. A key parameter for understanding the molecular mechanisms governing the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles is the formation of the surface charge density. In this article, we present an efficient and accurate approach that combines a recently introduced classical solvation density functional theory for spherical electrical double layers with a surface complexation model to account for ion-ion correlation and excluded volume effects on the surface titration of spherical nanoparticles. We apply the proposed computational approach to account for the charge-regulated mechanisms on the surface chemistry of spherical silica (SiO2) nanoparticles. We analyze the effects of the nanoparticle size, as well as pH level and electrolyte concentration of the aqueous solution on the nanoparticle's surface charge density and Zeta potential. We validate our predictions for 580Å and 200Å nanoparticles immersed in acid, neutral and alkaline mono-valent aqueous electrolyte solutions against experimental data. Our results on mono-valent electrolyte show that the excluded volume and ion-ion correlations contribute significantly to the surface charge density and Zeta potential of the nanoparticle at high electrolyte concentration and pH levels, where the solvent crowding effects and electrostatic screening have shown a profound influence on the protonation/deprotonation reactions at the liquid/solute interface. The success of this approach in describing physicochemical properties of silica nanoparticles supports its broader application to study other spherical metal oxide nanoparticles.

  15. Multilayered poly(vinylidene fluoride) composite membranes with improved interfacial compatibility: correlating pervaporation performance with free volume properties.

    PubMed

    An, Quanfu; Chen, Jung-Tsai; De Guzman, Manuel; Hung, Wei-Song; Lee, Kueir-Rarn; Lai, Juin-Yih

    2011-09-01

    A spin-coating process integrated with an ozone-induced graft polymerization technique was applied in this study. The purpose was to improve the poor interfacial compatibility between a selective layer of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) and the surface of a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) substrate. The composite membranes thus fabricated were tested for their pervaporation performance in dehydrating an ethyl acetate/water mixture. Furthermore, the composite membranes were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) for morphological change observation and by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy equipped with attenuated total reflectance (ATR-FTIR) for surface chemical composition analysis. Effects of grafting density and spin-coating speed on pervaporation performance were examined. The composite membrane pervaporation performance was elucidated by means of free volume and depth profile data obtained with the use of a variable monoenergy slow positron beam (VMSPB). Results indicated that a smaller free volume was correlated with a higher pervaporation performance of a composite membrane consisting of a selective layer of spin-coated PHEMA on a PHEMA-grafted PVDF substrate (S-PHEMA/PHEMA-g-PVDF). The composite membrane depth profile illustrated that an S-PHEMA layer spin-coated at a higher revolutions per minute (rpm) was thinner and denser than that at a lower rpm.

  16. Fast Encoding Method for Image Vector Quantization Based on Multiple Appropriate Features to Estimate Euclidean Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhibin; Kotani, Koji; Ohmi, Tadahiro

    The encoding process of finding the best-matched codeword (winner) for a certain input vector in image vector quantization (VQ) is computationally very expensive due to a lot of k-dimensional Euclidean distance computations. In order to speed up the VQ encoding process, it is beneficial to firstly estimate how large the Euclidean distance is between the input vector and a candidate codeword by using appropriate low dimensional features of a vector instead of an immediate Euclidean distance computation. If the estimated Euclidean distance is large enough, it implies that the current candidate codeword could not be a winner so that it can be rejected safely and thus avoid actual Euclidean distance computation. Sum (1-D), L2 norm (1-D) and partial sums (2-D) of a vector are used together as the appropriate features in this paper because they are the first three simplest features. Then, four estimations of Euclidean distance between the input vector and a codeword are connected to each other by the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality to realize codeword rejection. For typical standard images with very different details (Lena, F-16, Pepper and Baboon), the final remaining must-do actual Euclidean distance computations can be eliminated obviously and the total computational cost including all overhead can also be reduced obviously compared to the state-of-the-art EEENNS method meanwhile keeping a full search (FS) equivalent PSNR.

  17. Measuring local volume fraction, long-wavelength correlations, and fractionation in a phase-separating polydisperse fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, J. J.; Evans, R. M. L.

    2014-10-28

    We dynamically simulate fractionation (partitioning of particle species) during spinodal gas-liquid separation of a size-polydisperse colloid, using polydispersity up to ∼40% and a skewed parent size distribution. We introduce a novel coarse-grained Voronoi method to minimise size bias in measuring local volume fraction, along with a variety of spatial correlation functions which detect fractionation without requiring a clear distinction between the phases. These can be applied whether or not a system is phase separated, to determine structural correlations in particle size, and generalise easily to other kinds of polydispersity (charge, shape, etc.). We measure fractionation in both mean size and polydispersity between the phases, its direction differing between model interaction potentials which are identical in the monodisperse case. These qualitative features are predicted by a perturbative theory requiring only a monodisperse reference as input. The results show that intricate fractionation takes place almost from the start of phase separation, so can play a role even in nonequilibrium arrested states. The methods for characterisation of inhomogeneous polydisperse systems could in principle be applied to experiment as well as modelling.

  18. Percolation thresholds on planar Euclidean relative-neighborhood graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchert, O.

    2013-04-01

    In the present article, statistical properties regarding the topology and standard percolation on relative neighborhood graphs (RNGs) for planar sets of points, considering the Euclidean metric, are put under scrutiny. RNGs belong to the family of “proximity graphs”; i.e., their edgeset encodes proximity information regarding the close neighbors for the terminal nodes of a given edge. Therefore they are, e.g., discussed in the context of the construction of backbones for wireless ad hoc networks that guarantee connectedness of all underlying nodes. Here, by means of numerical simulations, we determine the asymptotic degree and diameter of RNGs and we estimate their bond and site percolation thresholds, which were previously conjectured to be nontrivial. We compare the results to regular 2D graphs for which the degree is close to that of the RNG. Finally, we deduce the common percolation critical exponents from the RNG data to verify that the associated universality class is that of standard 2D percolation.

  19. Algebraic field descriptions in three-dimensional Euclidean space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salingaros, Nikos; Ilamed, Yehiel

    1984-08-01

    In this paper, we use the differential forms of three-dimensional Euclidean space to realize a Clifford algebra which is isomorphic to the algebra of the Pauli matrices or the complex quaternions. This is an associative vector-antisymmetric tensor algebra with division: We provide the algebraic inverse of an eight-component spinor field which is the sum of a scalar + vector + pseudovector + pseudoscalar. A surface of singularities is defined naturally by the inverse of an eight-component spinor and corresponds to a generalized Minkowski “double” light cone in the parameter space. A general description of finite spatial rotations, which utilizes the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula, generalizes the usual infinitesimal treatments of the rotation group. We derive an explicit expression for the angle corresponding to two successive finite rotations in any direction. We also discuss Lorentz transformations and duality rotations of the electromagnetic field and exhibit a relationship between the algebraic inverse and a duality rotated field. Using a combined transformation, one can always transform an arbitrary electromagnetic field ( E≠0) into a pure electric field, but never into a pure magnetic field.

  20. Correlation between brain volume change and T2 relaxation time induced by dehydration and rehydration: implications for monitoring atrophy in clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kunio; Brown, Robert A; Araujo, David; Narayanan, Sridar; Arnold, Douglas L

    2014-01-01

    Brain volume change measured from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a widely used and useful in vivo measure of irreversible tissue loss. These measurements, however, can be influenced by reversible factors such as shifts in brain water content. Given the strong effect of water on T2 relaxation, we investigated whether an estimate of T2 relaxation time would correlate with brain volume changes induced by physiologically manipulating hydration status. We used a clinically feasible estimate of T2 ("pseudo-T2") computed from a dual turbo spin-echo MRI sequence and correlated pseudo-T2 changes to percent brain volume changes in 12 healthy subjects after dehydration overnight (16-hour thirsting) and rehydration (drinking 1.5 L of water). We found that the brain volume significantly increased between the dehydrated and rehydrated states (mean brain volume change = 0.36%, p = 0.0001) but did not change significantly during the dehydration interval (mean brain volume change = 0.04%, p = 0.57). The changes in brain volume and pseudo-T2 significantly correlated with each other, with marginal and conditional correlations (R (2)) of 0.44 and 0.65, respectively. Our results show that pseudo-T2 may be used in conjunction with the measures of brain volume to distinguish reversible water fluctuations and irreversible brain tissue loss (atrophy) and to investigate disease mechanisms related to neuro-inflammation, e.g., in multiple sclerosis, where edema-related water fluctuations may occur with disease activity and anti-inflammatory treatment.

  1. Scattering Solutions of Bethe-Salpeter Equation in Minkowski and Euclidean Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, J.; Karmanov, V. A.

    2016-07-01

    We shortly review different methods to obtain the scattering solutions of the Bethe-Salpeter equation in Minkowski space. We emphasize the possibility to obtain the zero energy observables in terms of the Euclidean scattering amplitude.

  2. Euclidean wormhole solutions of Einstein-Yang-Mills theory in diverse dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, K.; Hirenzaki, S. ); Shiraishi, K. )

    1990-09-15

    We solve the Euclidean Einstein equations with non-Abelian gauge fields of sufficiently large symmetry in various dimensions. In higher-dimensional spaces, we find the solutions which are similar to so-called scalar wormholes. In four-dimensional space-time, we find singular wormhole solutions with infinite Euclidean action. Wormhole solutions in the three-dimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills theory with a Chern-Simons term are also constructed.

  3. Euclidean sections of protein conformation space and their implications in dimensionality reduction.

    PubMed

    Duan, Mojie; Li, Minghai; Han, Li; Huo, Shuanghong

    2014-10-01

    Dimensionality reduction is widely used in searching for the intrinsic reaction coordinates for protein conformational changes. We find the dimensionality-reduction methods using the pairwise root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) as the local distance metric face a challenge. We use Isomap as an example to illustrate the problem. We believe that there is an implied assumption for the dimensionality-reduction approaches that aim to preserve the geometric relations between the objects: both the original space and the reduced space have the same kind of geometry, such as Euclidean geometry vs. Euclidean geometry or spherical geometry vs. spherical geometry. When the protein free energy landscape is mapped onto a 2D plane or 3D space, the reduced space is Euclidean, thus the original space should also be Euclidean. For a protein with N atoms, its conformation space is a subset of the 3N-dimensional Euclidean space R(3N). We formally define the protein conformation space as the quotient space of R(3N) by the equivalence relation of rigid motions. Whether the quotient space is Euclidean or not depends on how it is parameterized. When the pairwise RMSD is employed as the local distance metric, implicit representations are used for the protein conformation space, leading to no direct correspondence to a Euclidean set. We have demonstrated that an explicit Euclidean-based representation of protein conformation space and the local distance metric associated to it improve the quality of dimensionality reduction in the tetra-peptide and β-hairpin systems.

  4. Nonlinear bivariate dependency of price-volume relationships in agricultural commodity futures markets: A perspective from Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ling-Yun; Chen, Shu-Peng

    2011-01-01

    Nonlinear dependency between characteristic financial and commodity market quantities (variables) is crucially important, especially between trading volume and market price. Studies on nonlinear dependency between price and volume can provide practical insights into market trading characteristics, as well as the theoretical understanding of market dynamics. Actually, nonlinear dependency and its underlying dynamical mechanisms between price and volume can help researchers and technical analysts in understanding the market dynamics by integrating the market variables, instead of investigating them in the current literature. Therefore, for investigating nonlinear dependency of price-volume relationships in agricultural commodity futures markets in China and the US, we perform a new statistical test to detect cross-correlations and apply a new methodology called Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (MF-DCCA), which is an efficient algorithm to analyze two spatially or temporally correlated time series. We discuss theoretically the relationship between the bivariate cross-correlation exponent and the generalized Hurst exponents for time series of respective variables. We also perform an empirical study and find that there exists a power-law cross-correlation between them, and that multifractal features are significant in all the analyzed agricultural commodity futures markets.

  5. Quantifying Bulk Electrode Strain and Material Displacement within Lithium Batteries via High‐Speed Operando Tomography and Digital Volume Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Finegan, Donal P.; Tudisco, Erika; Scheel, Mario; Robinson, James B.; Taiwo, Oluwadamilola O.; Eastwood, David S.; Lee, Peter D.; Di Michiel, Marco; Bay, Brian; Hall, Stephen A.; Hinds, Gareth; Brett, Dan J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Tracking the dynamic morphology of active materials during operation of lithium batteries is essential for identifying causes of performance loss. Digital volume correlation (DVC) is applied to high‐speed operando synchrotron X‐ray computed tomography of a commercial Li/MnO2 primary battery during discharge. Real‐time electrode material displacement is captured in 3D allowing degradation mechanisms such as delamination of the electrode from the current collector and electrode crack formation to be identified. Continuum DVC of consecutive images during discharge is used to quantify local displacements and strains in 3D throughout discharge, facilitating tracking of the progression of swelling due to lithiation within the electrode material in a commercial, spiral‐wound battery during normal operation. Displacement of the rigid current collector and cell materials contribute to severe electrode detachment and crack formation during discharge, which is monitored by a separate DVC approach. Use of time‐lapse X‐ray computed tomography coupled with DVC is thus demonstrated as an effective diagnostic technique to identify causes of performance loss within commercial lithium batteries; this novel approach is expected to guide the development of more effective commercial cell designs.

  6. Excluded volume and ion-ion correlation effects on the ionic atmosphere around B-DNA: Theory, simulations, and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovanesyan, Zaven; Medasani, Bharat; Fenley, Marcia O.; Guerrero-García, Guillermo Iván; Olvera de la Cruz, Mónica; Marucho, Marcelo

    2014-12-01

    The ionic atmosphere around a nucleic acid regulates its stability in aqueous salt solutions. One major source of complexity in biological activities involving nucleic acids arises from the strong influence of the surrounding ions and water molecules on their structural and thermodynamic properties. Here, we implement a classical density functional theory for cylindrical polyelectrolytes embedded in aqueous electrolytes containing explicit (neutral hard sphere) water molecules at experimental solvent concentrations. Our approach allows us to include ion correlations as well as solvent and ion excluded volume effects for studying the structural and thermodynamic properties of highly charged cylindrical polyelectrolytes. Several models of size and charge asymmetric mixtures of aqueous electrolytes at physiological concentrations are studied. Our results are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. Our numerical calculations display significant differences in the ion density profiles for the different aqueous electrolyte models studied. However, similar results regarding the excess number of ions adsorbed to the B-DNA molecule are predicted by our theoretical approach for different aqueous electrolyte models. These findings suggest that ion counting experimental data should not be used alone to validate the performance of aqueous DNA-electrolyte models.

  7. Excluded volume and ion-ion correlation effects on the ionic atmosphere around B-DNA: Theory, simulations, and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ovanesyan, Zaven; Marucho, Marcelo; Medasani, Bharat; Fenley, Marcia O.; Guerrero-García, Guillermo Iván; Olvera de la Cruz, Mónica

    2014-12-14

    The ionic atmosphere around a nucleic acid regulates its stability in aqueous salt solutions. One major source of complexity in biological activities involving nucleic acids arises from the strong influence of the surrounding ions and water molecules on their structural and thermodynamic properties. Here, we implement a classical density functional theory for cylindrical polyelectrolytes embedded in aqueous electrolytes containing explicit (neutral hard sphere) water molecules at experimental solvent concentrations. Our approach allows us to include ion correlations as well as solvent and ion excluded volume effects for studying the structural and thermodynamic properties of highly charged cylindrical polyelectrolytes. Several models of size and charge asymmetric mixtures of aqueous electrolytes at physiological concentrations are studied. Our results are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. Our numerical calculations display significant differences in the ion density profiles for the different aqueous electrolyte models studied. However, similar results regarding the excess number of ions adsorbed to the B-DNA molecule are predicted by our theoretical approach for different aqueous electrolyte models. These findings suggest that ion counting experimental data should not be used alone to validate the performance of aqueous DNA-electrolyte models.

  8. Significant correlation between spleen volume and thrombocytopenia in liver transplant patients: a concept for predicting persistent thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Masahiro; Ishifuro, Minoru; Ide, Kentaro; Irei, Toshimitsu; Tashiro, Hirotaka; Itamoto, Toshiyuki; Ito, Katsuhide; Chayama, Kazuaki; Asahara, Toshimasa; Ohdan, Hideki

    2009-02-01

    Interferon (IFN) therapy with or without ribavirin treatment is well established as a standard antiviral treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. However, susceptibility to thrombocytopenia is a major obstacle for initiating or continuing this therapy, particularly in liver transplant (LTx) recipients with HCV. Studies have reported that splenectomy performed concurrently with LTx is a feasible strategy for conditioning patients for anti-HCV IFN therapy. However, the relationship between the severity of splenomegaly and alterations in the blood cytopenia in LTx recipients remains to be clarified. Here, we analyzed the relationship between spleen volume (SV) and thrombocytopenia in 45 patients who underwent LTx at Hiroshima University Hospital. The extent of pre-LTx splenomegaly [the SV to body surface area (BSA) ratio in an individual] was inversely correlated with both the post-LTx white blood cell count and platelet (PLT) count (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the PLT count of patients with thrombocytopenia (PLT count or= 400), persistent thrombocytopenia is predictable after LTx.

  9. Excluded volume and ion-ion correlation effects on the ionic atmosphere around B-DNA: theory, simulations, and experiments.

    PubMed

    Ovanesyan, Zaven; Medasani, Bharat; Fenley, Marcia O; Guerrero-García, Guillermo Iván; de la Cruz, Mónica Olvera; Marucho, Marcelo

    2014-12-14

    The ionic atmosphere around a nucleic acid regulates its stability in aqueous salt solutions. One major source of complexity in biological activities involving nucleic acids arises from the strong influence of the surrounding ions and water molecules on their structural and thermodynamic properties. Here, we implement a classical density functional theory for cylindrical polyelectrolytes embedded in aqueous electrolytes containing explicit (neutral hard sphere) water molecules at experimental solvent concentrations. Our approach allows us to include ion correlations as well as solvent and ion excluded volume effects for studying the structural and thermodynamic properties of highly charged cylindrical polyelectrolytes. Several models of size and charge asymmetric mixtures of aqueous electrolytes at physiological concentrations are studied. Our results are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. Our numerical calculations display significant differences in the ion density profiles for the different aqueous electrolyte models studied. However, similar results regarding the excess number of ions adsorbed to the B-DNA molecule are predicted by our theoretical approach for different aqueous electrolyte models. These findings suggest that ion counting experimental data should not be used alone to validate the performance of aqueous DNA-electrolyte models. PMID:25494770

  10. Quantifying Bulk Electrode Strain and Material Displacement within Lithium Batteries via High‐Speed Operando Tomography and Digital Volume Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Finegan, Donal P.; Tudisco, Erika; Scheel, Mario; Robinson, James B.; Taiwo, Oluwadamilola O.; Eastwood, David S.; Lee, Peter D.; Di Michiel, Marco; Bay, Brian; Hall, Stephen A.; Hinds, Gareth; Brett, Dan J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Tracking the dynamic morphology of active materials during operation of lithium batteries is essential for identifying causes of performance loss. Digital volume correlation (DVC) is applied to high‐speed operando synchrotron X‐ray computed tomography of a commercial Li/MnO2 primary battery during discharge. Real‐time electrode material displacement is captured in 3D allowing degradation mechanisms such as delamination of the electrode from the current collector and electrode crack formation to be identified. Continuum DVC of consecutive images during discharge is used to quantify local displacements and strains in 3D throughout discharge, facilitating tracking of the progression of swelling due to lithiation within the electrode material in a commercial, spiral‐wound battery during normal operation. Displacement of the rigid current collector and cell materials contribute to severe electrode detachment and crack formation during discharge, which is monitored by a separate DVC approach. Use of time‐lapse X‐ray computed tomography coupled with DVC is thus demonstrated as an effective diagnostic technique to identify causes of performance loss within commercial lithium batteries; this novel approach is expected to guide the development of more effective commercial cell designs. PMID:27610334

  11. Increasing the Accuracy of Volume and ADC Delineation for Heterogeneous Tumor on Diffusion-Weighted MRI: Correlation with PET/CT

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Nan-Jie; Wong, Chun-Sing; Chu, Yiu-Ching; Guo, Hua; Huang, Bingsheng; Chan, Queenie

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To improve the accuracy of volume and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements in diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we proposed a method based on thresholding both the b0 images and the ADC maps. Methods and Materials: In 21 heterogeneous lesions from patients with metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), gross lesion were manually contoured, and corresponding volumes and ADCs were denoted as gross tumor volume (GTV) and gross ADC (ADC{sub g}), respectively. Using a k-means clustering algorithm, the probable high-cellularity tumor tissues were selected based on b0 images and ADC maps. ADC and volume of the tissues selected using the proposed method were denoted as thresholded ADC (ADC{sub thr}) and high-cellularity tumor volume (HCTV), respectively. The metabolic tumor volume (MTV) in positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) was measured using 40% maximum standard uptake value (SUV{sub max}) as the lower threshold, and corresponding mean SUV (SUV{sub mean}) was also measured. Results: HCTV had excellent concordance with MTV according to Pearson's correlation (r=0.984, P<.001) and linear regression (slope = 1.085, intercept = −4.731). In contrast, GTV overestimated the volume and differed significantly from MTV (P=.005). ADC{sub thr} correlated significantly and strongly with SUV{sub mean} (r=−0.807, P<.001) and SUV{sub max} (r=−0.843, P<.001); both were stronger than those of ADC{sub g}. Conclusions: The proposed lesion-adaptive semiautomatic method can help segment high-cellularity tissues that match hypermetabolic tissues in PET/CT and enables more accurate volume and ADC delineation on diffusion-weighted MR images of GIST.

  12. Epileptic Seizure Detection with Log-Euclidean Gaussian Kernel-Based Sparse Representation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shasha; Zhou, Weidong; Wu, Qi; Zhang, Yanli

    2016-05-01

    Epileptic seizure detection plays an important role in the diagnosis of epilepsy and reducing the massive workload of reviewing electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. In this work, a novel algorithm is developed to detect seizures employing log-Euclidean Gaussian kernel-based sparse representation (SR) in long-term EEG recordings. Unlike the traditional SR for vector data in Euclidean space, the log-Euclidean Gaussian kernel-based SR framework is proposed for seizure detection in the space of the symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrices, which form a Riemannian manifold. Since the Riemannian manifold is nonlinear, the log-Euclidean Gaussian kernel function is applied to embed it into a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) for performing SR. The EEG signals of all channels are divided into epochs and the SPD matrices representing EEG epochs are generated by covariance descriptors. Then, the testing samples are sparsely coded over the dictionary composed by training samples utilizing log-Euclidean Gaussian kernel-based SR. The classification of testing samples is achieved by computing the minimal reconstructed residuals. The proposed method is evaluated on the Freiburg EEG dataset of 21 patients and shows its notable performance on both epoch-based and event-based assessments. Moreover, this method handles multiple channels of EEG recordings synchronously which is more speedy and efficient than traditional seizure detection methods.

  13. 4D analysis of the microstructural evolution of Si-based electrodes during lithiation: Time-lapse X-ray imaging and digital volume correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz-Garcia, J. M.; Taiwo, O. O.; Tudisco, E.; Finegan, D. P.; Shearing, P. R.; Brett, D. J. L.; Hall, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    Silicon is a promising candidate to substitute or complement graphite as anode material in Li-ion batteries due, mainly, to its high energy density. However, the lithiation/delithiation processes of silicon particles are inherently related to drastic volume changes which, within a battery's physically constrained case, can induce significant deformation of the fundamental components of the battery that can eventually cause it to fail. In this work, we use non-destructive time-lapse X-ray imaging techniques to study the coupled electrochemo-mechanical phenomena in Li-ion batteries. We present X-ray computed tomography data acquired at different times during the first lithiation of custom-built silicon-lithium battery cells. Microstructural volume changes have been quantified using full 3D strain field measurements from digital volume correlation analysis. Furthermore, the extent of lithiation of silicon particles has been quantified in 3D from the grey-scale of the tomography images. Correlation of the volume expansion and grey-scale changes over the silicon-based electrode volume indicates that the process of lithiation is kinetically affected by the reaction at the Si/LixSi interface.

  14. Differences in cognitive ability and hippocampal volume between Alzheimer's disease, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and healthy control groups, and their correlation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Gim, Seon-Young; Kim, Woo-Ram; Mun, Kyung-Ryul; Tack, Gye-Rae; Lee, Bongsoo; Choi, Young Chil; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Hong, Seung Hwa; Lim, Dae-Woon; Chung, Soon-Cheol

    2016-05-01

    The study investigated differences in cognitive ability and hippocampal volume between groups of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and healthy control (HC) subjects, and explored the relationship between cognitive ability and hippocampal volume. Among the sub-tests of Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD-K), the Boston naming test score decreased in the order HC, aMCI, and AD. The hippocampal volumes of subjects with AD and aMCI were relatively smaller than those of HC individuals. There were strongly positive correlations between hippocampal volume and the scores for the Boston naming test. Discriminant analysis identified the Boston naming test as having the highest level of discrimination among the variables used to differentiate the three groups (89.9%). In conclusion, the Boston naming test accurately differentiated the three groups and was correlated with hippocampal volume. These results will be helpful for choosing an accurate and economically feasible test method that efficiently differentiates the three groups.

  15. Euclidean Complex Relativistic Mechanics: A New Special Relativity Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vossos, Spyridon; Vossos, Elias

    2015-09-01

    Relativity Theory (RT) was fundamental for the development of Quantum Mechanics (QMs). Special Relativity (SR), as is applied until now, cancels the transitive attribute in parallelism, when three observers are related, because Lorentz Boost (LB) is not closed transformation. In this presentation, considering Linear Spacetime Transformation (LSTT), we demand the maintenance of Minkowski Spacetime Interval (S2). In addition, we demand this LSTT to be closed, so there is no need for axes rotation. The solution is the Vossos Matrix (ΛB) containing real and imaginary numbers. As a result, space becomes complex, but time remains real. Thus, the transitive attribute in parallelism, which is equivalent to the Euclidean Request (ER), is also valid for moving observers. Choosing real spacetime for the unmoved observer (O), all the natural sizes are real, too. Using Vossos Transformation (VT) for moving observers, the four-vectors’ zeroth component (such as energy) is real, in contrast with spatial components that are complex, but their norm is real. It is proved that moving (relative to O) human O' meter length, according to Lorentz Boost (LB). In addition, we find Rotation Matrix Vossos-Lorentz (RBL) that turns natural sizes’ complex components to real. We also prove that Speed of Light in Vacuum (c) is invariant, when complex components are used and VT is closed for three sequential observers. After, we find out the connection between two moving (relative to O) observers: X"= ΛLO"(o) ΛLO(O') X', using Lorentz Matrix (ΛL). We applied this theory, finding relations between natural sizes, that are the same as these extracted by Classic Relativity (CR), when two observers are related (i.e. relativistic Doppler shift is the same). But, the results are different, when more than two observers are related. VT of Electromagnetic Tensor (Fμv), leads to Complex Electromagnetic Fields (CEMFs) for a moving observer. When the unmoved observer O and a moving observer O' are

  16. Apoptotic markers in cultured fibroblasts correlate with brain metabolites and regional brain volume in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Batalla, A; Bargalló, N; Gassó, P; Molina, O; Pareto, D; Mas, S; Roca, J M; Bernardo, M; Lafuente, A; Parellada, E

    2015-08-25

    Cultured fibroblasts from first-episode schizophrenia patients (FES) have shown increased susceptibility to apoptosis, which may be related to glutamate dysfunction and progressive neuroanatomical changes. Here we determine whether apoptotic markers obtained from cultured fibroblasts in FES and controls correlate with changes in brain glutamate and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and regional brain volumes. Eleven antipsychotic-naive FES and seven age- and gender-matched controls underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Glutamate plus glutamine (Glx) and NAA levels were measured in the anterior cingulate (AC) and the left thalamus (LT). Hallmarks of apoptotic susceptibility (caspase-3-baseline activity, phosphatidylserine externalization and chromatin condensation) were measured in fibroblast cultures obtained from skin biopsies after inducing apoptosis with staurosporine (STS) at doses of 0.25 and 0.5 μM. Apoptotic biomarkers were correlated to brain metabolites and regional brain volume. FES and controls showed a negative correlation in the AC between Glx levels and percentages of cells with condensed chromatin (CC) after both apoptosis inductions (STS 0.5 μM: r = -0.90; P = 0.001; STS 0.25 μM: r = -0.73; P = 0.003), and between NAA and cells with CC (STS 0.5 μM induction r = -0.76; P = 0.002; STS 0.25 μM r = -0.62; P = 0.01). In addition, we found a negative correlation between percentages of cells with CC and regional brain volume in the right supratemporal cortex and post-central region (STS 0.25 and 0.5 μM; P < 0.05 family-wise error corrected (FWEc)). We reveal for the first time that peripheral markers of apoptotic susceptibility may correlate with brain metabolites, Glx and NAA, and regional brain volume in FES and controls, which is consistent with the neuroprogressive theories around the onset of the schizophrenia illness.

  17. NOTE Thyroid volume measurement in external beam radiotherapy patients using CT imaging: correlation with clinical and anthropometric characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, C.; Garsi, J. P.; Rubino, C.; Pouzoulet, F.; Bidault, F.; Chavaudra, J.; Bridier, A.; Ricard, M.; Ferreira, I.; Lefkopoulos, D.; de Vathaire, F.; Diallo, I.

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to define criteria for accurate representation of the thyroid in human models used to represent external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) patients and evaluate the relationship between the volume of this organ and clinical and anthropometric characteristics. From CT images, we segmented the thyroid gland and calculated its volume for a population of 188 EBRT patients of both sexes, with ages ranging from 1 to 89 years. To evaluate uncertainties linked to measured volumes, experimental studies on the Livermore anthropomorphic phantom were performed. For our population of EBRT patients, we observed that in children, thyroid volume increased rapidly with age, from about 3 cm3 at 2 years to about 16 cm3 at 20. In adults, the mean thyroid gland volume was 23.5 ± 9 cm3 for males and 17.5 ± 8 cm3 for females. According to anthropometric parameters, the best fit for children was obtained by modeling the log of thyroid volume as a linear function of body surface area (BSA) (p < 0.0001) and age (p = 0.04) and for adults, as a linear function of BSA (p < 0.0001) and gender (p = 0.01). This work enabled us to demonstrate that BSA was the best indicator of thyroid volume for both males and females. These results should be taken into account when modeling the volume of the thyroid in human models used to represent EBRT patients for dosimetry in retrospective studies of the relationship between the estimated dose to the thyroid and long-term follow-up data on EBRT patients.

  18. Impact of the radiotherapy technique on the correlation between dose-volume histograms of the bladder wall defined on MRI imaging and dose-volume/surface histograms in prostate cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggio, Angelo; Carillo, Viviana; Cozzarini, Cesare; Perna, Lucia; Rancati, Tiziana; Valdagni, Riccardo; Gabriele, Pietro; Fiorino, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the ‘true’ absolute and relative dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the bladder wall, dose-wall histogram (DWH) defined on MRI imaging and other surrogates of bladder dosimetry in prostate cancer patients, planned both with 3D-conformal and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques. For 17 prostate cancer patients, previously treated with radical intent, CT and MRI scans were acquired and matched. The contours of bladder walls were drawn by using MRI images. External bladder surfaces were then used to generate artificial bladder walls by performing automatic contractions of 5, 7 and 10 mm. For each patient a 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and an IMRT treatment plan was generated with a prescription dose of 77.4 Gy (1.8 Gy/fr) and DVH of the whole bladder of the artificial walls (DVH-5/10) and dose-surface histograms (DSHs) were calculated and compared against the DWH in absolute and relative value, for both treatment planning techniques. A specific software (VODCA v. 4.4.0, MSS Inc.) was used for calculating the dose-volume/surface histogram. Correlation was quantified for selected dose-volume/surface parameters by the Spearman correlation coefficient. The agreement between %DWH and DVH5, DVH7 and DVH10 was found to be very good (maximum average deviations below 2%, SD < 5%): DVH5 showed the best agreement. The correlation was slightly better for absolute (R = 0.80-0.94) compared to relative (R = 0.66-0.92) histograms. The DSH was also found to be highly correlated with the DWH, although slightly higher deviations were generally found. The DVH was not a good surrogate of the DWH (R < 0.7 for most of parameters). When comparing the two treatment techniques, more pronounced differences between relative histograms were seen for IMRT with respect to 3DCRT (p < 0.0001).

  19. 10D to 4D Euclidean supergravity over a Calabi-Yau three-fold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabra, Wafic A.; Vaughan, Owen

    2016-01-01

    We dimensionally reduce the bosonic sector of 10D Euclidean type IIA supergravity over a Calabi-Yau three-fold. The resulting theory describes the bosonic sector of 4D, {N}=2 Euclidean supergravity coupled to vector- and hyper-multiplets. We show that the scalar target manifold of the vector-multiplets is projective special para-Kähler, and is therefore of split signature, whereas the target manifold of the hyper-multiplets is (positive-definite) quaternionic Kähler.

  20. Generalized Thomson problem in arbitrary dimensions and non-euclidean geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batle, J.; Bagdasaryan, Armen; Abdel-Aty, M.; Abdalla, S.

    2016-06-01

    Systems of identical particles with equal charge are studied under a special type of confinement. These classical particles are free to move inside some convex region S and on the boundary of it Ω (the S d - 1 -sphere, in our case). We shall show how particles arrange themselves under the sole action of the Coulomb repulsion in many dimensions in the usual Euclidean space, therefore generalizing the so called Thomson problem to many dimensions. Also, we explore how the problem varies when non-Euclidean geometries are considered. We shall see that optimal configurations in all cases possess a high degree of symmetry, regardless of the concomitant dimension or geometry.

  1. Does caval aorta index correlate with central venous pressure in intravascular volume assessment in patients undergoing endoscopic transuretheral resection of prostate?

    PubMed Central

    El-Baradey, GF; El-Shmaa, NS

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Ultrasonography has been suggested as a useful noninvasive tool for intravascular volume assessment in critically ill-patients. Fluid absorption is an inevitable complication of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). However, there are few data comparing the caval aortic index with central venous pressure (CVP) measurement for intravascular volume assessment in patients undergoing TURP. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective observer blinded study carried out on 50 patients who underwent elective TURP. The primary outcome measure of our study was the correlation of the caval aorta (Ao) index with CVP, and the secondary outcome measures were the sensitivity and specificity of the caval Ao index. Results: There was a positive correlation of inferior vena cava/Ao (IVC/Ao) index to CVP (R = 0.9 and significant P = 0.001*). The sensitivity and specificity of the IVC/Ao index were measured to predict the CVP. A CVP ≤7 cm H2O correlated with IVC/Ao index 0.8 ± 0.3 mean ± standard deviation (SD) (sensitivity 0.93, specificity 0.66), a CVP of 8-12 cm H2O correlated with IVC/Ao index 1.5 ± 0.2 mean ± SD (sensitivity 0.96, specificity 0.42), and a CVP >12 cm H2O correlated with IVC/Ao index 1.8 ± 0.07 mean ± SD (sensitivity 0.93, specificity 0.58). Conclusion: Sonographic caval Ao index is useful for the evaluation of preoperative and intraoperative volume status, especially in major surgeries with marked fluid shift or blood loss and had the advantage of being noninvasive, safe, quick, and easy technique with no complications. PMID:27051368

  2. Correlation of In Vivo and In Vitro Methods in Measuring Choroidal Vascularization Volumes Using a Subretinal Injection Induced Choroidal Neovascularization Model

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Chuang; Zhang, Mao-Nian; Zhao, Hong-Wei; Olsen, Thomas D; Jackman, Kyle; Hu, Lian-Na; Ma, Wen-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Ying; Gao, Tie-Shan; Uehara, Hiro; Ambati, Balamurali K; Luo, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Background: In vivo quantification of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) based on noninvasive optical coherence tomography (OCT) examination and in vitro choroidal flatmount immunohistochemistry stained of CNV currently were used to evaluate the process and severity of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) both in human and animal studies. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between these two methods in murine CNV models induced by subretinal injection. Methods: CNV was developed in 20 C57BL6/j mice by subretinal injection of adeno-associated viral delivery of a short hairpin RNA targeting sFLT-1 (AAV.shRNA.sFLT-1), as reported previously. After 4 weeks, CNV was imaged by OCT and fluorescence angiography. The scaling factors for each dimension, x, y, and z (μm/pixel) were recorded, and the corneal curvature standard was adjusted from human (7.7) to mice (1.4). The volume of each OCT image stack was calculated and then normalized by multiplying the number of voxels by the scaling factors for each dimension in Seg3D software (University of Utah Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute, available at http://www.sci.utah.edu/cibc-software/seg3d.html). Eighteen mice were prepared for choroidal flatmounts and stained by CD31. The CNV volumes were calculated using scanning laser confocal microscopy after immunohistochemistry staining. Two mice were stained by Hematoxylin and Eosin for observing the CNV morphology. Results: The CNV volume calculated using OCT was, on average, 2.6 times larger than the volume calculated using the laser confocal microscopy. The correlation statistical analysis showed OCT measuring of CNV correlated significantly with the in vitro method (R2 =0.448, P = 0.001, n = 18). The correlation coefficient for CNV quantification using OCT and confocal microscopy was 0.693 (n = 18, P = 0.001). Conclusions: There is a fair linear correlation on CNV volumes between in vivo and in vitro methods in CNV models induced by subretinal injection

  3. Dyslexia and Voxel-Based Morphometry: Correlations between Five Behavioural Measures of Dyslexia and Gray and White Matter Volumes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamboer, Peter; Scholte, H. Steven; Vorst, Harrie C. M.

    2015-01-01

    In voxel-based morphometry studies of dyslexia, the relation between causal theories of dyslexia and gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations is still under debate. Some alterations are consistently reported, but others failed to reach significance. We investigated GM alterations in a large sample of Dutch students (37 dyslexics…

  4. Perceptual or Analytical Processing? Evidence from Children's and Adult's Performance on the Euclidean Traveling Salesperson Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rooij, Iris; Schactman, Alissa; Kadlec, Helena; Stege, Ulrike

    2006-01-01

    The Euclidean Traveling Salesperson Problem (E-TSP) is a useful task to study how humans optimize when faced with computational intractability. It has been found that humans are capable of finding high-quality solutions for E-TSP in a relatively short time and with seemingly little cognitive effort. This observation has led to two general…

  5. An orbit analysis approach to the study of superintegrable systems in the Euclidean plane

    SciTech Connect

    Adlam, C. M. McLenaghan, R. G. Smirnov, R. G.

    2007-03-15

    We classify the superintegrable potentials in the Euclidean plane by means of an orbit analysis of the space of valence two Killing tensors under the action of the group of rigid motions. Our approach generalizes the classical approach of Winternitz and collaborators by considering pairs of Killing tensors that are not both in canonical form.

  6. The Twisted Euclidean GREEN’S Function in the Spacetime of a Cosmic String

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linet, B.

    In a conical spacetime, we determine the twisted Euclidean Green’s function for a massive scalar field. In particular, we give a convenient form for studying the vacuum averages. We then derive an integral expression of the vacuum expectation value <Φ2(x)>. In the Minkowski spacetime, we express <Φ2(x)> in terms of elementary functions.

  7. System of Schwinger-Dyson equations and asymptotic behavior in the Euclidean region

    SciTech Connect

    Rochev, V. E.

    2015-05-15

    A system of Schwinger-Dyson equations for the model of scalar-field interaction is studied in a deep Euclidean region. It is shown that there exists a critical coupling constant that separates the weak-coupling region characterized by the asymptotically free behavior and the strong-coupling region, where the asymptotic behavior of field propagators becomes ultralocal.

  8. Ab-initio reconstruction of complex Euclidean networks in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gujarathi, S. R.; Farrow, C. L.; Glosser, C.; Granlund, L.; Duxbury, P. M.

    2014-05-01

    Reconstruction of complex structures is an inverse problem arising in virtually all areas of science and technology, from protein structure determination to bulk heterostructure solar cells and the structure of nanoparticles. We cast this problem as a complex network problem where the edges in a network have weights equal to the Euclidean distance between their endpoints. We present a method for reconstruction of the locations of the nodes of the network given only the edge weights of the Euclidean network. The theoretical foundations of the method are based on rigidity theory, which enables derivation of a polynomial bound on its efficiency. An efficient implementation of the method is discussed and timing results indicate that the run time of the algorithm is polynomial in the number of nodes in the network. We have reconstructed Euclidean networks of about 1000 nodes in approximately 24 h on a desktop computer using this implementation. We also reconstruct Euclidean networks corresponding to polymer chains in two dimensions and planar graphene nanoparticles. We have also modified our base algorithm so that it can successfully solve random point sets when the input data are less precise.

  9. Non-CMC solutions of the Einstein constraint equations on asymptotically Euclidean manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilts, James; Isenberg, Jim; Mazzeo, Rafe; Meier, Caleb

    2014-03-01

    In this note we prove two existence theorems for the Einstein constraint equations on asymptotically Euclidean manifolds. The first is for arbitrary mean curvature functions with restrictions on the size of the transverse-traceless data and the non-gravitational field data, while the second assumes a near-CMC condition, with no other restrictions.

  10. Ab-initio reconstruction of complex Euclidean networks in two dimensions.

    PubMed

    Gujarathi, S R; Farrow, C L; Glosser, C; Granlund, L; Duxbury, P M

    2014-05-01

    Reconstruction of complex structures is an inverse problem arising in virtually all areas of science and technology, from protein structure determination to bulk heterostructure solar cells and the structure of nanoparticles. We cast this problem as a complex network problem where the edges in a network have weights equal to the Euclidean distance between their endpoints. We present a method for reconstruction of the locations of the nodes of the network given only the edge weights of the Euclidean network. The theoretical foundations of the method are based on rigidity theory, which enables derivation of a polynomial bound on its efficiency. An efficient implementation of the method is discussed and timing results indicate that the run time of the algorithm is polynomial in the number of nodes in the network. We have reconstructed Euclidean networks of about 1000 nodes in approximately 24 h on a desktop computer using this implementation. We also reconstruct Euclidean networks corresponding to polymer chains in two dimensions and planar graphene nanoparticles. We have also modified our base algorithm so that it can successfully solve random point sets when the input data are less precise.

  11. Thinking Outside the Euclidean Box: Riemannian Geometry and Inter-Temporal Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Himanshu; Mishra, Arul

    2016-01-01

    Inter-temporal decisions involves assigning values to various payoffs occurring at different temporal distances. Past research has used different approaches to study these decisions made by humans and animals. For instance, considering that people discount future payoffs at a constant rate (e.g., exponential discounting) or at variable rate (e.g., hyperbolic discounting). In this research, we question the widely assumed, but seldom questioned, notion across many of the existing approaches that the decision space, where the decision-maker perceives time and monetary payoffs, is a Euclidean space. By relaxing the rigid assumption of Euclidean space, we propose that the decision space is a more flexible Riemannian space of Constant Negative Curvature. We test our proposal by deriving a discount function, which uses the distance in the Negative Curvature space instead of Euclidean temporal distance. The distance function includes both perceived values of time as well as money, unlike past work which has considered just time. By doing so we are able to explain many of the empirical findings in inter-temporal decision-making literature. We provide converging evidence for our proposal by estimating the curvature of the decision space utilizing manifold learning algorithm and showing that the characteristics (i.e., metric properties) of the decision space resembles those of the Negative Curvature space rather than the Euclidean space. We conclude by presenting new theoretical predictions derived from our proposal and implications for how non-normative behavior is defined.

  12. A Quasi-Nonmetric Method for Multidimensional Scaling via an Extended Euclidean Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsberg, Suzanne; Carroll, J. Douglas

    1989-01-01

    An Extended Two-Way Euclidean Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) model that assumes both common and specific dimensions is described and contrasted with the "standard" (Two-Way) MDS model. Illustrations with both artificial and real data on the judged similarity of nations are provided. (TJH)

  13. On the sequences ri, si, ti ∈ ℤ related to extended Euclidean algorithm and continued fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Khairun Nisak; Kamarulhaili, Hailiza

    2016-06-01

    The extended Euclidean Algorithm is a practical technique used in many cryptographic applications, where it computes the sequences ri, si, ti ∈ ℤ that always satisfy ri = si a+ tib. The integer ri is the remainder in the ith sequences. The sequences si and ti arising from the extended Euclidean algorithm are equal, up to sign, to the convergents of the continued fraction expansion of a/b. The values of (ri, si, ti) satisfy various properties which are used to solve the shortest vector problem in representing point multiplications in elliptic curves cryptography, namely the GLV (Gallant, Lambert & Vanstone) integer decomposition method and the ISD (integer sub decomposition) method. This paper is to extend the proof for each of the existing properties on (ri, si, ti). We also generate new properties which are relevant to the sequences ri, si, ti ∈ ℤ. The concepts of Euclidean algorithm, extended Euclidean algorithm and continued fractions are intertwined and the properties related to these concepts are proved. These properties together with the existing properties of the sequence (ri, si, ti) are regarded as part and parcel of the building blocks of a new generation of an efficient cryptographic protocol.

  14. Usability Evaluation of an Augmented Reality System for Teaching Euclidean Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Gonzalez, Anabel; Chi-Poot, Angel; Uc-Cetina, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is one of the emerging technologies that has demonstrated to be an efficient technological tool to enhance learning techniques. In this paper, we describe the development and evaluation of an AR system for teaching Euclidean vectors in physics and mathematics. The goal of this pedagogical tool is to facilitate user's…

  15. On the Partitioning of Squared Euclidean Distance and Its Applications in Cluster Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Randy L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The partitioning of squared Euclidean--E(sup 2)--distance between two vectors in M-dimensional space into the sum of squared lengths of vectors in mutually orthogonal subspaces is discussed. Applications to specific cluster analysis problems are provided (i.e., to design Monte Carlo studies for performance comparisons of several clustering methods…

  16. Thinking Outside the Euclidean Box: Riemannian Geometry and Inter-Temporal Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Inter-temporal decisions involves assigning values to various payoffs occurring at different temporal distances. Past research has used different approaches to study these decisions made by humans and animals. For instance, considering that people discount future payoffs at a constant rate (e.g., exponential discounting) or at variable rate (e.g., hyperbolic discounting). In this research, we question the widely assumed, but seldom questioned, notion across many of the existing approaches that the decision space, where the decision-maker perceives time and monetary payoffs, is a Euclidean space. By relaxing the rigid assumption of Euclidean space, we propose that the decision space is a more flexible Riemannian space of Constant Negative Curvature. We test our proposal by deriving a discount function, which uses the distance in the Negative Curvature space instead of Euclidean temporal distance. The distance function includes both perceived values of time as well as money, unlike past work which has considered just time. By doing so we are able to explain many of the empirical findings in inter-temporal decision-making literature. We provide converging evidence for our proposal by estimating the curvature of the decision space utilizing manifold learning algorithm and showing that the characteristics (i.e., metric properties) of the decision space resembles those of the Negative Curvature space rather than the Euclidean space. We conclude by presenting new theoretical predictions derived from our proposal and implications for how non-normative behavior is defined. PMID:27018787

  17. Dose-Volume Parameters of the Corpora Cavernosa Do Not Correlate With Erectile Dysfunction After External Beam Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer: Results From a Dose-Escalation Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Wielen, Gerard J. van der Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Dohle, Gert R.; Putten, Wim L.J. van; Incrocci, Luca

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To analyze the correlation between dose-volume parameters of the corpora cavernosa and erectile dysfunction (ED) after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between June 1997 and February 2003, a randomized dose-escalation trial comparing 68 Gy and 78 Gy was conducted. Patients at our institute were asked to participate in an additional part of the trial evaluating sexual function. After exclusion of patients with less than 2 years of follow-up, ED at baseline, or treatment with hormonal therapy, 96 patients were eligible. The proximal corpora cavernosa (crura), the superiormost 1-cm segment of the crura, and the penile bulb were contoured on the planning computed tomography scan and dose-volume parameters were calculated. Results: Two years after EBRT, 35 of the 96 patients had developed ED. No statistically significant correlations between ED 2 years after EBRT and dose-volume parameters of the crura, the superiormost 1-cm segment of the crura, or the penile bulb were found. The few patients using potency aids typically indicated to have ED. Conclusion: No correlation was found between ED after EBRT for prostate cancer and radiation dose to the crura or penile bulb. The present study is the largest study evaluating the correlation between ED and radiation dose to the corpora cavernosa after EBRT for prostate cancer. Until there is clear evidence that sparing the penile bulb or crura will reduce ED after EBRT, we advise to be careful in sparing these structures, especially when this involves reducing treatment margins.

  18. Changes in Hippocampal Volume are Correlated with Cell Loss but Not with Seizure Frequency in Two Chronic Models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Polli, Roberson S; Malheiros, Jackeline M; Dos Santos, Renan; Hamani, Clement; Longo, Beatriz M; Tannús, Alberto; Mello, Luiz E; Covolan, Luciene

    2014-01-01

    Kainic acid (KA) or pilocarpine (PILO) have been used in rats to model human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) but the distribution and severity of structural lesions between these two models may differ. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have used quantitative measurements of hippocampal T2 (T2HP) relaxation time and volume, but simultaneous comparative results have not been reported yet. The aim of this study was to compare the MRI T2HP and volume with histological data and frequency of seizures in both models. KA- and PILO-treated rats were imaged with a 2 T MRI scanner. T2HP and volume values were correlated with the number of cells, mossy fiber sprouting, and spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) frequency over the 9 months following status epilepticus (SE). Compared to controls, KA-treated rats had unaltered T2HP, pronounced reduction in hippocampal volume and concomitant cell reduction in granule cell layer, CA1 and CA3 at 3 months post SE. In contrast, hippocampal volume was unchanged in PILO-treated animals despite detectable increased T2HP and cell loss in granule cell layer, CA1 and CA3. In the following 6 months, MRI hippocampal volume remained stable with increase of T2HP signal in the KA-treated group. The number of CA1 and CA3 cells was smaller than age-matched CTL group. In contrast, PILO group had MRI volumetric reduction accompanied by reduction in the number of CA1 and CA3 cells. In this group, T2HP signal was unaltered at 6 or 9 months after status. Reductions in the number of cells were not progressive in both models. Notably, the SRS frequency was higher in PILO than in the KA model. The volumetry data correlated well with tissue damage in the epileptic brain, suggesting that MRI may be useful for tracking longitudinal hippocampal changes, allowing the assessment of individual variability and disease progression. Our results indicate that the temporal changes in hippocampal morphology are distinct for both models of TLE and that

  19. Changes in Hippocampal Volume are Correlated with Cell Loss but Not with Seizure Frequency in Two Chronic Models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Polli, Roberson S.; Malheiros, Jackeline M.; dos Santos, Renan; Hamani, Clement; Longo, Beatriz M.; Tannús, Alberto; Mello, Luiz E.; Covolan, Luciene

    2014-01-01

    Kainic acid (KA) or pilocarpine (PILO) have been used in rats to model human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) but the distribution and severity of structural lesions between these two models may differ. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have used quantitative measurements of hippocampal T2 (T2HP) relaxation time and volume, but simultaneous comparative results have not been reported yet. The aim of this study was to compare the MRI T2HP and volume with histological data and frequency of seizures in both models. KA- and PILO-treated rats were imaged with a 2 T MRI scanner. T2HP and volume values were correlated with the number of cells, mossy fiber sprouting, and spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) frequency over the 9 months following status epilepticus (SE). Compared to controls, KA-treated rats had unaltered T2HP, pronounced reduction in hippocampal volume and concomitant cell reduction in granule cell layer, CA1 and CA3 at 3 months post SE. In contrast, hippocampal volume was unchanged in PILO-treated animals despite detectable increased T2HP and cell loss in granule cell layer, CA1 and CA3. In the following 6 months, MRI hippocampal volume remained stable with increase of T2HP signal in the KA-treated group. The number of CA1 and CA3 cells was smaller than age-matched CTL group. In contrast, PILO group had MRI volumetric reduction accompanied by reduction in the number of CA1 and CA3 cells. In this group, T2HP signal was unaltered at 6 or 9 months after status. Reductions in the number of cells were not progressive in both models. Notably, the SRS frequency was higher in PILO than in the KA model. The volumetry data correlated well with tissue damage in the epileptic brain, suggesting that MRI may be useful for tracking longitudinal hippocampal changes, allowing the assessment of individual variability and disease progression. Our results indicate that the temporal changes in hippocampal morphology are distinct for both models of TLE and that

  20. Apoptotic markers in cultured fibroblasts correlate with brain metabolites and regional brain volume in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Batalla, A; Bargalló, N; Gassó, P; Molina, O; Pareto, D; Mas, S; Roca, J M; Bernardo, M; Lafuente, A; Parellada, E

    2015-01-01

    Cultured fibroblasts from first-episode schizophrenia patients (FES) have shown increased susceptibility to apoptosis, which may be related to glutamate dysfunction and progressive neuroanatomical changes. Here we determine whether apoptotic markers obtained from cultured fibroblasts in FES and controls correlate with changes in brain glutamate and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and regional brain volumes. Eleven antipsychotic-naive FES and seven age- and gender-matched controls underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Glutamate plus glutamine (Glx) and NAA levels were measured in the anterior cingulate (AC) and the left thalamus (LT). Hallmarks of apoptotic susceptibility (caspase-3-baseline activity, phosphatidylserine externalization and chromatin condensation) were measured in fibroblast cultures obtained from skin biopsies after inducing apoptosis with staurosporine (STS) at doses of 0.25 and 0.5 μM. Apoptotic biomarkers were correlated to brain metabolites and regional brain volume. FES and controls showed a negative correlation in the AC between Glx levels and percentages of cells with condensed chromatin (CC) after both apoptosis inductions (STS 0.5 μM: r=−0.90; P=0.001; STS 0.25 μM: r=−0.73; P=0.003), and between NAA and cells with CC (STS 0.5 μM induction r=−0.76; P=0.002; STS 0.25 μM r=−0.62; P=0.01). In addition, we found a negative correlation between percentages of cells with CC and regional brain volume in the right supratemporal cortex and post-central region (STS 0.25 and 0.5 μM; P<0.05 family-wise error corrected (FWEc)). We reveal for the first time that peripheral markers of apoptotic susceptibility may correlate with brain metabolites, Glx and NAA, and regional brain volume in FES and controls, which is consistent with the neuroprogressive theories around the onset of the schizophrenia illness. PMID:26305477

  1. Neural Correlates of Biased Responses: The Negative Method Effect in the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Is Associated with Right Amygdala Volume.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinan; Kong, Feng; Huang, Lijie; Liu, Jia

    2016-10-01

    Self-esteem is a widely studied construct in psychology that is typically measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). However, a series of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested that a simple and widely used unidimensional factor model does not provide an adequate explanation of RSES responses due to method effects. To identify the neural correlates of the method effect, we sought to determine whether and how method effects were associated with the RSES and investigate the neural basis of these effects. Two hundred and eighty Chinese college students (130 males; mean age = 22.64 years) completed the RSES and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Behaviorally, method effects were linked to both positively and negatively worded items in the RSES. Neurally, the right amygdala volume negatively correlated with the negative method factor, while the hippocampal volume positively correlated with the general self-esteem factor in the RSES. The neural dissociation between the general self-esteem factor and negative method factor suggests that there are different neural mechanisms underlying them. The amygdala is involved in modulating negative affectivity; therefore, the current study sheds light on the nature of method effects that are related to self-report with a mix of positively and negatively worded items.

  2. Novel computational approach for studying ph effects, excluded volume and ion-ion correlations in electrical double layers around polyelectrolytes and nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovanesyan, Zaven

    Highly charged cylindrical and spherical objects (macroions) are probably the simplest structures for modeling nucleic acids, proteins and nanoparticles. Their ubiquitous presence within biophysical systems ensures that Coulomb forces are among the most important interactions that regulate the behavior of these systems. In these systems, ions position themselves in a strongly correlated manner near the surface of a macroion and form electrical double layers (EDLs). These EDLs play an important role in many biophysical and biochemical processes. For instance, the macroion's net charge can change due to the binding of many multivalent ions to its surface. Thus, proper description of EDLs near the surface of a macroion may reveal a counter-intuitive charge inversion behavior, which can generate attraction between like-charged objects. This is relevant for the variety of fields such as self-assembly of DNA and RNA folding, as well as for protein aggregation and neurodegenerative diseases. Certainly, the key factors that contribute to these phenomena cannot be properly understood without an accurate solvation model. With recent advancements in computer technologies, the possibility to use computational tools for fundamental understanding of the role of EDLs around biomolecules and nanoparticles on their physical and chemical properties is becoming more feasible. Establishing the impact of the excluded volume and ion-ion correlations, ionic strength and pH of the electrolyte on the EDL around biomolecules and nanoparticles, and how changes in these properties consequently affect the Zeta potential and surface charge density are still not well understood. Thus, modeling and understanding the role of these properties on EDLs will provide more insights on the stability, adsorption, binding and function of biomolecules and nanoparticles. Existing mean-field theories such as Poisson Boltzmann (PB) often neglect the ion-ion correlations, solvent and ion excluded volume effects

  3. Novel computational approach for studying ph effects, excluded volume and ion-ion correlations in electrical double layers around polyelectrolytes and nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovanesyan, Zaven

    Highly charged cylindrical and spherical objects (macroions) are probably the simplest structures for modeling nucleic acids, proteins and nanoparticles. Their ubiquitous presence within biophysical systems ensures that Coulomb forces are among the most important interactions that regulate the behavior of these systems. In these systems, ions position themselves in a strongly correlated manner near the surface of a macroion and form electrical double layers (EDLs). These EDLs play an important role in many biophysical and biochemical processes. For instance, the macroion's net charge can change due to the binding of many multivalent ions to its surface. Thus, proper description of EDLs near the surface of a macroion may reveal a counter-intuitive charge inversion behavior, which can generate attraction between like-charged objects. This is relevant for the variety of fields such as self-assembly of DNA and RNA folding, as well as for protein aggregation and neurodegenerative diseases. Certainly, the key factors that contribute to these phenomena cannot be properly understood without an accurate solvation model. With recent advancements in computer technologies, the possibility to use computational tools for fundamental understanding of the role of EDLs around biomolecules and nanoparticles on their physical and chemical properties is becoming more feasible. Establishing the impact of the excluded volume and ion-ion correlations, ionic strength and pH of the electrolyte on the EDL around biomolecules and nanoparticles, and how changes in these properties consequently affect the Zeta potential and surface charge density are still not well understood. Thus, modeling and understanding the role of these properties on EDLs will provide more insights on the stability, adsorption, binding and function of biomolecules and nanoparticles. Existing mean-field theories such as Poisson Boltzmann (PB) often neglect the ion-ion correlations, solvent and ion excluded volume effects

  4. Correlation of physical properties with molecular structure for some dicyclic hydrocarbons having high thermal-energy release per unit volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, P H; Serijan, K T; Goodman, I A

    1951-01-01

    As part of a program to study the correlation between molecular structure and physical properties of high-density hydrocarbons, the net heats of combustion, melting points, boiling points, densities, and kinematic viscosities of some hydrocarbons in the 2-n-alkylbiphenyl, 1,1-diphenylalkane, diphenylalkane, 1,1-dicyclohexylalkane, and dicyclohexylalkane series are presented.

  5. Data correlation and analysis of arc tunnel and wind tunnel tests of RSI joints and gaps. Volume 1: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, H. E.; Kipp, H. W.

    1974-01-01

    Heat transfer data measured in gaps typical of those under consideration for joints in space shuttle reusable surface insulation protection systems have been assimilated, analyzed and correlated. The data were obtained in four NASA facilities. Several types of gaps were investigated with emphasis on simple butt joints. Gap widths ranged from 0.07 to 0.7 cm and depths ranged from 1 to 6 cm. Laminar, transitional and turbulent boundary layer flows over the gap opening were investigated. Three-dimensional heating variations were observed within gaps in the absence of external flow pressure gradients. Heat transfer correlation equations were obtained for several of the tests. Thermal protection system performance with and without gaps was compared for a representative shuttle entry trajectory.

  6. Phase cell cluster expansion for Euclidean field theories

    SciTech Connect

    Battle, G.A. III; Federbush, P.

    1982-08-01

    We adapt the cluster expansion first used to treat infrared problems for lattice models (a mass zero cluster expansion) to the usual field theory situation. The field is expanded in terms of spectral block spin functions and the cluster expansion given in terms of the expansion coefficients (phase cell variables); the other cluster expansion expresses correlation functions in terms of contributions from finite coupled subsets of these variables. Most of the present work is carried through in d space time dimensions (for phi/sup 4//sub 2/ the details of the cluster expansion are pursued and convergence is proven). Thus most of the results in this present work will apply to a treatment of phi/sup 4//sub 3/ to which we hope to return in a succeeding paper. Of particular interest in this paper is a substitute for the stability of the vaccum bound appropriate to this cluster expansion (for d = 2 and d = 3), and the new method for performing estimates with tree graphs. The phase cell cluster expansions have the renormalization group incorporated intimately into their structure. We hope they will be useful ultimately in treating four dimensional field theories.

  7. Data correlation and analysis of arc tunnel and wind tunnel tests of RSI joints and gaps. Volume 2: Data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, H. E.; Kipp, H. W.

    1974-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to determine the aerodynamic heating created by gaps in the reusable surface insulation (RSI) thermal protection system (TPS) for the space shuttle. The effects of various parameters of the RSI on convective heating characteristics are described. The wind tunnel tests provided a data base for accurate assessment of gap heating. Analysis and correlation of the data provide methods for predicting heating in the RSI gaps on the space shuttle.

  8. Spherical roller bearing analysis. SKF computer program SPHERBEAN. Volume 3: Program correlation with full scale hardware tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleckner, R. J.; Rosenlieb, J. W.; Dyba, G.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a series of full scale hardware tests comparing predictions of the SPHERBEAN computer program with measured data are presented. The SPHERBEAN program predicts the thermomechanical performance characteristics of high speed lubricated double row spherical roller bearings. The degree of correlation between performance predicted by SPHERBEAN and measured data is demonstrated. Experimental and calculated performance data is compared over a range in speed up to 19,400 rpm (0.8 MDN) under pure radial, pure axial, and combined loads.

  9. Chemical toxicity to environmental bacteria: Quantitative structure activity relationships and interspecies correlations and comparisons (Volumes I and II)

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, D.J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Toxicity data were collected for four groups of bacteria and a fish. These data were collected for four groups of bacteria and a fish. These data were used to compare and correlate the toxicities to different organisms, and to develop Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSARs) correlating chemical structure with toxicity. Chemical toxicity to aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, Nitrosomonas, and methanogens were measured using serum bottle techniques in order to determine the concentration of chemical which caused 50% inhibition in microorganism's activity. Toxicity to Photobacteria phosphoreum (Microtox bacteria) and fathead minnows was also tested or data collected from the literature. Toxicants included chlorinated and other substituted benzenes and phenols, chlorinated alkanes, and a variety of additional compounds covering a range of chemical structures. Data were obtained for 50 to 130 chemicals per species. The sensitivity of the organism fell into two groups with Microtox bacteria, Nitrosomonas, and fathead minnows showing significantly greater sensitivity than aerobic heterotrophs and methanogens. Highly successful interspecies correlations were found between Microtox and each of the other species.

  10. Milk and dairy consumption correlates with cerebral cortical as well as cerebral white matter volume in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Darnai, Gergely; Plózer, Enikő; Perlaki, Gábor; Orsi, Gergely; Nagy, Szilvia Anett; Horváth, Réka; Schwarcz, Attila; Kovács, Norbert; Altbäcker, Anna; Janszky, József; Clemens, Zsófia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between habitual milk and dairy consumption and brain morphology as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigations in 119 young healthy university students. MRI measurements were performed on a Siemens Magnetom Trio Tim (3T) system while FreeSurfer software suite was used for volumetric segmentation. Dietary habits related to milk and dairy consumption were assessed by a structured questionnaire. Total cerebral cortex, total cerebral white matter, and total cerebral parenchyma were significantly related with cottage cheese and total protein intake from milk and dairy also when controlled for age and gender in the multivariate model. Our results indicate that dietary habits related with milk and dairy are proportionally associated with volumes of both cerebral cortex and cerebral white matter. PMID:26436708

  11. Correlation of preoperative ankle-brachial index and pulse volume recording with impaired saphenous vein incisional wound healing post coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Haraden, Jamie; Jaenicke, Connie

    2006-06-01

    Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery have vascular disease and, subsequently, the risk for impaired healing of their saphenous vein graft site. The purpose of this study was to identify the correlation of the preoperative ankle-brachial index (ABI) and pulse volume recording (PVR) with impaired saphenous vein incisional wound healing post coronary artery bypass grafting. A prospective, correlational research design was used to study 271 male and female adults undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery in which the saphenous vein was used for grafting. Arterial insufficiency was assessed preoperatively using patient history, physical examination, ABI, and PVR. Wound status was assessed postoperatively using the validated ASEPSIS tool for inpatients. A modified ASEPSIS tool, the Wound Healing Self Score, was used for telephone follow-up post discharge. Abnormal ABI and PVR measurements were positively correlated with impaired saphenous vein incisional wound healing (r = 0.72, P < .0001). Both tests also independently predicted impaired healing. Incisional infection correlated with impaired healing (P < .0001). Other clinical variables, including diabetes, hypertension, venous disease, and alcohol and cigarette use, were not found to be statistically significant independent predictors of impaired healing. Routine histories and physical examinations alone are insufficient in predicting risk for impaired saphenous vein incisional wound healing. The addition of noninvasive screening for the presence of arterial insufficiency before coronary artery bypass grafting using ABI and PVR tests is one method of predicting the likelihood of impaired healing.

  12. Inverting the Nakanishi Integral Relation for a Bound State Euclidean Bethe-Salpeter Amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederico, T.; Carbonell, J.; Gigante, V.; Karmanov, V. A.

    2016-07-01

    The extraction of the weight function g of the Nakanishi integral representation of the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude is investigated. We studied the numerical inversion of the discretized Nakanishi kernel in the case of an Euclidean bound state. The discretized kernel is regularized by adding the identity operator times a small regularisation parameter {\\varepsilon} to avoid numerically unstabilities. We have found that the weight function g as well as the associated light-front valence wave function are unstable against variation of {\\varepsilon}. These results suggest that the extraction of the Nakanishi weight function from an Euclidean amplitude, is an ill-defined problem. Without further assumptions on the solution or/and without developing more elaborate methods, the Nakanishi weight function, as well as the corresponding light-front valence wave function, cannot be safely determined.

  13. A Low-Complexity Euclidean Orthogonal LDPC Architecture for Low Power Applications.

    PubMed

    Revathy, M; Saravanan, R

    2015-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have been implemented in latest digital video broadcasting, broadband wireless access (WiMax), and fourth generation of wireless standards. In this paper, we have proposed a high efficient low-density parity-check code (LDPC) decoder architecture for low power applications. This study also considers the design and analysis of check node and variable node units and Euclidean orthogonal generator in LDPC decoder architecture. The Euclidean orthogonal generator is used to reduce the error rate of the proposed LDPC architecture, which can be incorporated between check and variable node architecture. This proposed decoder design is synthesized on Xilinx 9.2i platform and simulated using Modelsim, which is targeted to 45 nm devices. Synthesis report proves that the proposed architecture greatly reduces the power consumption and hardware utilizations on comparing with different conventional architectures. PMID:26065017

  14. A Low-Complexity Euclidean Orthogonal LDPC Architecture for Low Power Applications

    PubMed Central

    Revathy, M.; Saravanan, R.

    2015-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have been implemented in latest digital video broadcasting, broadband wireless access (WiMax), and fourth generation of wireless standards. In this paper, we have proposed a high efficient low-density parity-check code (LDPC) decoder architecture for low power applications. This study also considers the design and analysis of check node and variable node units and Euclidean orthogonal generator in LDPC decoder architecture. The Euclidean orthogonal generator is used to reduce the error rate of the proposed LDPC architecture, which can be incorporated between check and variable node architecture. This proposed decoder design is synthesized on Xilinx 9.2i platform and simulated using Modelsim, which is targeted to 45 nm devices. Synthesis report proves that the proposed architecture greatly reduces the power consumption and hardware utilizations on comparing with different conventional architectures. PMID:26065017

  15. A Low-Complexity Euclidean Orthogonal LDPC Architecture for Low Power Applications.

    PubMed

    Revathy, M; Saravanan, R

    2015-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have been implemented in latest digital video broadcasting, broadband wireless access (WiMax), and fourth generation of wireless standards. In this paper, we have proposed a high efficient low-density parity-check code (LDPC) decoder architecture for low power applications. This study also considers the design and analysis of check node and variable node units and Euclidean orthogonal generator in LDPC decoder architecture. The Euclidean orthogonal generator is used to reduce the error rate of the proposed LDPC architecture, which can be incorporated between check and variable node architecture. This proposed decoder design is synthesized on Xilinx 9.2i platform and simulated using Modelsim, which is targeted to 45 nm devices. Synthesis report proves that the proposed architecture greatly reduces the power consumption and hardware utilizations on comparing with different conventional architectures.

  16. Non-Euclidean basis function based level set segmentation with statistical shape prior.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Esmeralda; Reisert, Marco; Bai, Li

    2013-01-01

    We present a new framework for image segmentation with statistical shape model enhanced level sets represented as a linear combination of non-Euclidean radial basis functions (RBFs). The shape prior for the level set is represented as a probabilistic map created from the training data and registered with the target image. The new framework has the following advantages: 1) the explicit RBF representation of the level set allows the level set evolution to be represented as ordinary differential equations and reinitialization is no longer required. 2) The non-Euclidean distance RBFs makes it possible to incorporate image information into the basis functions, which results in more accurate and topologically more flexible solutions. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the advantages of the method, as well as critical analysis of level sets versus the combination of both methods.

  17. Spatially adaptive log-euclidean polyaffine registration based on sparse matches.

    PubMed

    Taquet, Maxime; Macq, Benoît; Warfield, Simon K

    2011-01-01

    Log-euclidean polyaffine transforms have recently been introduced to characterize the local affine behavior of the deformation in principal anatomical structures. The elegant mathematical framework makes them a powerful tool for image registration. However, their application is limited to large structures since they require the pre-definition of affine regions. This paper extends the polyaffine registration to adaptively fit a log-euclidean polyaffine transform that captures deformations at smaller scales. The approach is based on the sparse selection of matching points in the images and the formulation of the problem as an expectation maximization iterative closest point problem. The efficiency of the algorithm is shown through experiments on inter-subject registration of brain MRI between a healthy subject and patients with multiple sclerosis.

  18. Two-dimensional maximum local variation based on image euclidean distance for face recognition.

    PubMed

    Gao, Quanxue; Gao, Feifei; Zhang, Hailin; Hao, Xiu-Juan; Wang, Xiaogang

    2013-10-01

    Manifold learning concerns the local manifold structure of high dimensional data, and many related algorithms are developed to improve image classification performance. None of them, however, consider both the relationships among pixels in images and the geometrical properties of various images during learning the reduced space. In this paper, we propose a linear approach, called two-dimensional maximum local variation (2DMLV), for face recognition. In 2DMLV, we encode the relationships among pixels in images using the image Euclidean distance instead of conventional Euclidean distance in estimating the variation of values of images, and then incorporate the local variation, which characterizes the diversity of images and discriminating information, into the objective function of dimensionality reduction. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  19. Recovering Euclidean structure from principal-axes paralleled conics: applications to camera calibration.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zijian; Weng, Ying

    2014-06-01

    We focus on recovering the 2D Euclidean structure further for camera calibration from the projections of N parallel similar conics in this paper. This work demonstrates that the conic dual to the absolute points (CDAP) is the general form of the conic dual to the circular points, so it encodes the 2D Euclidean structure. However, the geometric size of the conic should be known if we utilize the CDAP. Under some special conditions (concentric conics), we proposed the rank-1 and rank-2 constraints. Our work relaxes the problem conditions and gives a more general framework than before. Experiments with simulated and real data are carried out to show the validity of the proposed algorithm.

  20. 3D micro-scale deformations of wood in bending: synchrotron radiation muCT data analyzed with digital volume correlation.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, F; Mooser, R; Arnold, M; Hack, E; Wyss, P

    2008-12-01

    A micro-scale three-point-bending experiment with a wood specimen was carried out and monitored by synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography. The full three-dimensional wood structure of the 1.57x3.42x0.75mm(3) specimen was reconstructed at cellular level in different loading states. Furthermore, the full three-dimensional deformation field of the loaded wood specimen was determined by digital volume correlation, applied to the reconstructed data at successive loading states. Results from two selected regions within the wood specimen are presented as continuous displacement and strain fields in both 2D and 3D. The applied combination of synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography and digital volume correlation for the deformation analysis of wood under bending stress is a novel application in wood material science. The method offers the potential for the simultaneous observation of structural changes and quantified deformations during in situ micro-mechanical experiments. Moreover, the high spatial resolution allows studying the influence of anatomical features on the fracture behaviour of wood. Possible applications of this method range from bio-mechanical observations in fresh plant tissue to fracture mechanics aspects in structural timber. PMID:18804168

  1. 3D micro-scale deformations of wood in bending: synchrotron radiation muCT data analyzed with digital volume correlation.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, F; Mooser, R; Arnold, M; Hack, E; Wyss, P

    2008-12-01

    A micro-scale three-point-bending experiment with a wood specimen was carried out and monitored by synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography. The full three-dimensional wood structure of the 1.57x3.42x0.75mm(3) specimen was reconstructed at cellular level in different loading states. Furthermore, the full three-dimensional deformation field of the loaded wood specimen was determined by digital volume correlation, applied to the reconstructed data at successive loading states. Results from two selected regions within the wood specimen are presented as continuous displacement and strain fields in both 2D and 3D. The applied combination of synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography and digital volume correlation for the deformation analysis of wood under bending stress is a novel application in wood material science. The method offers the potential for the simultaneous observation of structural changes and quantified deformations during in situ micro-mechanical experiments. Moreover, the high spatial resolution allows studying the influence of anatomical features on the fracture behaviour of wood. Possible applications of this method range from bio-mechanical observations in fresh plant tissue to fracture mechanics aspects in structural timber.

  2. Geometric properties of the magnetic Laplacian on the Euclidean 4-space

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmierowski, Dominique; Zinoun, Azzouz; Intissar, Ahmed

    2010-12-15

    When the four-dimensional Euclidean space is endowed with a covariant derivative that is either self-dual or antiself-dual and of constant curvature, the corresponding magnetic Laplacian is closely related to the sub-Laplacian of the quaternionic Heisenberg group. Some geometric properties of this operator are studied. In particular, it is proved that there exists a canonical orthogonal complex structure which provides a factorization in the sense of Schroedinger.

  3. Parameterized runtime analyses of evolutionary algorithms for the planar euclidean traveling salesperson problem.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Andrew M; Neumann, Frank; Nallaperuma, Samadhi

    2014-01-01

    Parameterized runtime analysis seeks to understand the influence of problem structure on algorithmic runtime. In this paper, we contribute to the theoretical understanding of evolutionary algorithms and carry out a parameterized analysis of evolutionary algorithms for the Euclidean traveling salesperson problem (Euclidean TSP). We investigate the structural properties in TSP instances that influence the optimization process of evolutionary algorithms and use this information to bound their runtime. We analyze the runtime in dependence of the number of inner points k. In the first part of the paper, we study a [Formula: see text] EA in a strictly black box setting and show that it can solve the Euclidean TSP in expected time [Formula: see text] where A is a function of the minimum angle [Formula: see text] between any three points. Based on insights provided by the analysis, we improve this upper bound by introducing a mixed mutation strategy that incorporates both 2-opt moves and permutation jumps. This strategy improves the upper bound to [Formula: see text]. In the second part of the paper, we use the information gained in the analysis to incorporate domain knowledge to design two fixed-parameter tractable (FPT) evolutionary algorithms for the planar Euclidean TSP. We first develop a [Formula: see text] EA based on an analysis by M. Theile, 2009, "Exact solutions to the traveling salesperson problem by a population-based evolutionary algorithm," Lecture notes in computer science, Vol. 5482 (pp. 145-155), that solves the TSP with k inner points in [Formula: see text] generations with probability [Formula: see text]. We then design a [Formula: see text] EA that incorporates a dynamic programming step into the fitness evaluation. We prove that a variant of this evolutionary algorithm using 2-opt mutation solves the problem after [Formula: see text] steps in expectation with a cost of [Formula: see text] for each fitness evaluation.

  4. A functional technique based on the Euclidean algorithm with applications to 2-D acoustic diffractal diffusers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortés-Vega, Luis

    2015-09-01

    We built, based on the Euclidean algorithm, a functional technique, which allows to discover a direct proof of Chinese Remainder Theorem. Afterwards, by using this functional approach, we present some applications to 2-D acoustic diffractal diffusers. The novelty of the method is their functional algorithmic character, which improves ideas, as well as, other results of the author and his collaborators in a previous work.

  5. ETEA: a Euclidean minimum spanning tree-based evolutionary algorithm for multi-objective optimization.

    PubMed

    Li, Miqing; Yang, Shengxiang; Zheng, Jinhua; Liu, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    The Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST), widely used in a variety of domains, is a minimum spanning tree of a set of points in space where the edge weight between each pair of points is their Euclidean distance. Since the generation of an EMST is entirely determined by the Euclidean distance between solutions (points), the properties of EMSTs have a close relation with the distribution and position information of solutions. This paper explores the properties of EMSTs and proposes an EMST-based evolutionary algorithm (ETEA) to solve multi-objective optimization problems (MOPs). Unlike most EMO algorithms that focus on the Pareto dominance relation, the proposed algorithm mainly considers distance-based measures to evaluate and compare individuals during the evolutionary search. Specifically, in ETEA, four strategies are introduced: (1) An EMST-based crowding distance (ETCD) is presented to estimate the density of individuals in the population; (2) A distance comparison approach incorporating ETCD is used to assign the fitness value for individuals; (3) A fitness adjustment technique is designed to avoid the partial overcrowding in environmental selection; (4) Three diversity indicators-the minimum edge, degree, and ETCD-with regard to EMSTs are applied to determine the survival of individuals in archive truncation. From a series of extensive experiments on 32 test instances with different characteristics, ETEA is found to be competitive against five state-of-the-art algorithms and its predecessor in providing a good balance among convergence, uniformity, and spread.

  6. Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED): A New Class of Adaptable Distance Transforms.

    PubMed

    Schouten, Theo E; van den Broek, Egon L

    2014-11-01

    A new unique class of foldable distance transforms of digital images (DT) is introduced, baptized: Fast exact euclidean distance (FEED) transforms. FEED class algorithms calculate the DT starting-directly from the definition or rather its inverse. The principle of FEED class algorithms is introduced, followed by strategies for their efficient implementation. It is shown that FEED class algorithms unite properties of ordered propagation, raster scanning, and independent scanning DT. Moreover, FEED class algorithms shown to have a unique property: they can be tailored to the images under investigation. Benchmarks are conducted on both the Fabbri et al. data set and on a newly developed data set. Three baseline, three approximate, and three state-of-the-art DT algorithms were included, in addition to two implementations of FEED class algorithms. It illustrates that FEED class algorithms i) provide truly exact Euclidean DT; ii) do no suffer from disconnected Voronoi tiles, which is a unique feature for non-parallel but fast DT; iii) outperform any other approximate and exact Euclidean DT with its time complexity O(N), even after their optimization; and iv) are unequaled in that they can be adapted to the characteristics of the image class at hand.

  7. Impact of FDG-PET/CT on Radiotherapy Volume Delineation in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Correlation of Imaging Stage With Pathologic Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Faria, Sergio L. Menard, Sonia; Devic, Slobodan; Sirois, Christian; Souhami, Luis; Lisbona, Robert; Freeman, Carolyn R.

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) is more accurate than CT in determining the extent of non-small-cell lung cancer. We performed a study to evaluate the impact of FDG-PET/CT on the radiotherapy volume delineation compared with CT without using any mathematical algorithm and to correlate the findings with the pathologic examination findings. Methods and Materials: A total of 32 patients with proven non-small-cell lung cancer, pathologic specimens from the mediastinum and lung primary, and pretreatment chest CT and FDG-PET/CT scans were studied. For each patient, two data sets of theoretical gross tumor volumes were contoured. One set was determined using the chest CT only, and the second, done separately, was based on the co-registered FDG-PET/CT data. The disease stage of each patient was determined using the TNM staging system for three data sets: the CT scan only, FDG-PET/CT scan, and pathologic findings. Results: Pathologic examination altered the CT-determined stage in 22 (69%) of 32 patients and the PET-determined stage in 16 (50%) of 32 patients. The most significant alterations were related to the N stage. PET altered the TNM stage in 15 (44%) of 32 patients compared with CT alone, but only 7 of these 15 alterations were confirmed by the pathologic findings. With respect to contouring the tumor volume for radiotherapy, PET altered the contour in 18 (56%) of 32 cases compared with CT alone. Conclusion: The contour of the tumor volume of non-small-cell lung cancer patients with co-registered FDG-PET/CT resulted in >50% alterations compared with CT targeting, findings similar to those of other publications. However, the significance of this change is unknown. Furthermore, pathologic examination showed that PET is not always accurate and histologic examination should be obtained to confirm the findings of PET whenever possible.

  8. Right ventricular infarction: identification by hemodynamic measurements before and after volume loading and correlation with noninvasive techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Dell'Italia, L.J.; Starling, M.R.; Crawford, M.H.; Boros, B.L.; Chaudhuri, T.K.; O'Rourke, R.A.

    1984-11-01

    To evaluate the potential occurrence of right ventricular infarction, 53 patients with acute inferior transmural myocardial infarction were studied within 36 hours of symptoms by right heart catheterization, equilibrium radionuclide angiography and two-dimensional echocardiography. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy was performed 3 days after the onset of symptoms. The hemodynamic standard for right ventricular infarction was defined as both a right atrial pressure of 10 mm Hg or more and a right atrial/pulmonary artery wedge pressure ratio of 0.8 or more. Eight (15%) of the 53 patients had hemodynamic measurements at rest characteristic of right ventricular infarction, and 6 (11%) additional patients met these criteria after volume loading. Nineteen (37%) of the 51 patients who had radionuclide angiography had right ventricular dysfunction manifested by both a reduced right ventricular ejection fraction (less than 40%) and right ventricular regional wall motion abnormalities (akinesia or dyskinesia). An abnormal radionuclide angiogram was observed in 12 of 13 patients with hemodynamic measurements indicating right ventricular infarction. In 12 patients with an abnormal radionuclide angiographic study, right ventricular ejection fraction improved 6 to 12 weeks after infarction. Twenty-two (49%) of the 45 patients with adequate two-dimensional echocardiograms had a right ventricular regional wall motion abnormality. An abnormal two-dimensional echocardiogram was seen in 9 of 11 patients with hemodynamic measurements characteristic of right ventricular infarction. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy was positive for right ventricular infarction in 3 of 12 patients who had hemodynamic measurements indicating right ventricular infarction.

  9. Correlation between tumor size and blood volume in lung tumors: a prospective study on dual-energy gemstone spectral CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Masahiko; Takai, Yoshihiro; Narita, Yuichiro; Hirose, Katsumi; Sato, Mariko; Akimoto, Hiroyoshi; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Hatayama, Yoshiomi; Miura, Hiroyuki; Ono, Shuichi

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between tumor size and blood volume for patients with lung tumors, using dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) and a gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) viewer. During the period from March 2011 to March 2013, 50 patients with 57 medically inoperable lung tumors underwent DECT before stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of 50-60 Gy in 5-6 fractions. DECT was taken for pretreatment evaluation. The region-of-interest for a given spatial placement of the tumors was set, and averages for CT value, water density and iodine density were compared with tumor size. The average values for iodine density in tumors of ≤ 2 cm, 2-3 cm, and >3 cm maximum diameter were 24.7, 19.6 and 16.0 (100 µg/cm(3)), respectively. The average value of the iodine density was significantly lower in larger tumors. No significant correlation was detected between tumor size and average CT value or between tumor size and average water density. Both the average water density and the average CT value were affected by the amount of air in the tumor, but the average iodine density was not affected by air in the tumor. The average water density and the average CT value were significantly correlated, but the average iodine density and the average CT value showed no significant correlation. The blood volume of tumors can be indicated by the average iodine density more accurately than it can by the average CT value. The average iodine density as assessed by DECT might be a non-invasive and quantitative assessment of the radio-resistance ascribable to the hypoxic cell population in a tumor.

  10. Correlations among residual multiparticle entropy, local atomic-level pressure, free volume and the phase-ordering rule in several liquids.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qi-Long; Wang, Wei-Lu; Li, Y D; Liu, C S

    2011-01-28

    A modified Wang-Landau density-of-states sampling approach has been performed to calculate the excess entropy of liquid metals, Lennard-Jones (LJ) system and liquid Si under NVT conditions; and it is then the residual multiparticle entropy (S(RMPE)) is obtained by subtraction of the pair correlation entropy. The temperature dependence of S(RMPE) has been investigated along with the temperature dependence of the local atomic-level pressure and the pair correlation functions. Our results suggest that the temperature dependence of the pair correlation entropy is well described by T(-1) scaling while T(-0.4) scaling well describes the relationship between the excess entropy and temperature. For liquid metals and LJ system, the -S(RMPE) versus temperature curves show positive correlations and the -S(RMPE) of liquid Si is shown to have a negative correlation with temperature, the phase-ordering criterion (based on the S(RMPE)) for predicting freezing transition works in liquid metals and LJ but fails in liquid Si. The local atomic-level pressure scaled with the virial pressure (σ(al)/σ(av)) exhibits the much similar temperature dependence as -S(RMPE) for all studied systems, even though simple liquid metals and liquid Si exhibit opposite temperature dependence in both σ(al)/σ(av) and -S(RMPE). The further analysis shows that the competing properties of the two effects due to localization and free volume on the S(RMPE) exist in simple liquid metals and LJ system but disappear in liquid Si, which may be the critical reason of the failure of the phase-ordering criterion in liquid Si. PMID:21280749

  11. White and Gray Matter Volume Changes and Correlation with Visual Evoked Potential in Patients with Optic Neuritis: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xin; Zhang, Qiang; Hu, Pei-Hong; Zhong, Yu-Lin; Zhang, Ying; Wei, Rong; Xu, Ting-Ting; Shao, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate potential morphological alterations of gray and white matter in patients with optic neuritis (ON) and their relationship with behavioral performance, using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Material/Methods Twelve (4 males, 8 females) patients with ON and 12 (4 males, 8 females) age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Imaging data were analyzed using two-sample t tests to identify group differences in gray and white matter volume (GMV, WMV). Correlation analysis was used to explore relationships between observed GMV and WMV of different areas and visual evoked potential (VEP) in ON. Results Compared with HCs, ON patients had: significantly decreased GMV in the left postcentral gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, left anterior cingulate, left and right middle frontal gyrus, and right inferior parietal lobule; decreased WMV in the left middle frontal gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, left precentral gyrus and right inferior parietal lobule; and increased WMV in the left fusiform gyrus and left inferior parietal lobule. VEP latency of the right eye in ON correlated positively with WMV signal value of the left fusiform gyrus (r=0.726, p=0.008), and negatively with GMV signal value of the right inferior parietal lobule (r=−0.611, p=0.035). Duration of ON correlated negatively with WMV signal value of the right superior frontal gyrus (r=−0.662, p=0.019), while best-corrected visual acuity (VA) of the right eye correlated negatively with WMV signal value of the left middle frontal gyrus (r=−0.704, p=0.011). Conclusions These results suggest significant brain involvement in ON, which may reflect the underlying pathologic mechanism. Correlational results demonstrate that VEP in ON is closely associated with WMV and GMV atrophy in many brain regions. PMID:27045330

  12. The Gray Matter Volume of the Amygdala Is Correlated with the Perception of Melodic Intervals: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueting; Beuckelaer, Alain De; Guo, Jiahui; Ma, Feilong; Xu, Miao; Liu, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Music is not simply a series of organized pitches, rhythms, and timbres, it is capable of evoking emotions. In the present study, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was employed to explore the neural basis that may link music to emotion. To do this, we identified the neuroanatomical correlates of the ability to extract pitch interval size in a music segment (i.e., interval perception) in a large population of healthy young adults (N = 264). Behaviorally, we found that interval perception was correlated with daily emotional experiences, indicating the intrinsic link between music and emotion. Neurally, and as expected, we found that interval perception was positively correlated with the gray matter volume (GMV) of the bilateral temporal cortex. More important, a larger GMV of the bilateral amygdala was associated with better interval perception, suggesting that the amygdala, which is the neural substrate of emotional processing, is also involved in music processing. In sum, our study provides one of first neuroanatomical evidence on the association between the amygdala and music, which contributes to our understanding of exactly how music evokes emotional responses. PMID:24923421

  13. Correlation between mesopore volume of carbon supports and the immobilization of laccase from Trametes versicolor for the decolorization of Acid Orange 7.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Montoya, Luis A; Hernández-Montoya, Virginia; Montes-Morán, Miguel A; Cervantes, Francisco J

    2015-10-01

    Immobilization of laccase from Trametes versicolor was carried out using carbon supports prepared from different lignocellulosic wastes. Enzymes were immobilized by physical adsorption. Taguchi methodology was selected for the design of experiments regarding the preparation of the carbon materials, which included the use of activating agents for the promotion of mesoporosity. A good correlation between the mesopore volumes of the carbon supports and the corresponding laccase loadings attained was observed. Specifically, the chemical activation of pecan nut shell with FeCl3 led to a highly mesoporous material that also behaved as the most efficient support for the immobilization of laccase. This particular laccase/carbon support system was used as biocatalyst for the decolorization of aqueous solutions containing Acid Orange 7. Mass spectrometry coupled to a liquid chromatograph allowed us to identify the products of the dye degradation.

  14. In situ 19F MRS measurement of RIF-1 tumor blood volume: corroboration by radioisotope-labeled [125I]-albumin and correlation to tumor size.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, N J; Wang, Y; Ng, T C

    1996-01-01

    Tumor blood volume (TBV) is an important factor in the metabolism of a tumor and in its response to therapy. Until recently, the only methods to determine TBV were highly invasive and many involved radioisotopes. In this study, a perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsion, Oxypherol, was monitored by 19F magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). TBVs as determined by 19F MRS of in situ and excised radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF-1) tumors (n = 9), were strongly correlated with the TBV measured by a radioisotope labeled albumin method (slopes of 1.1 and 0.8 with R = 0.86 and 0.91, respectively, by linear regression). In general, the TBV as calculated from the in situ MRS measurements (n = 24) decreased from 28 to 5 ml/100 g tumor mass for tumors ranging in mass from 0.15 to 2 g. However, there was an indication of an initial increase of TBV in tumors smaller than 0.5 g.

  15. Correlation between mesopore volume of carbon supports and the immobilization of laccase from Trametes versicolor for the decolorization of Acid Orange 7.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Montoya, Luis A; Hernández-Montoya, Virginia; Montes-Morán, Miguel A; Cervantes, Francisco J

    2015-10-01

    Immobilization of laccase from Trametes versicolor was carried out using carbon supports prepared from different lignocellulosic wastes. Enzymes were immobilized by physical adsorption. Taguchi methodology was selected for the design of experiments regarding the preparation of the carbon materials, which included the use of activating agents for the promotion of mesoporosity. A good correlation between the mesopore volumes of the carbon supports and the corresponding laccase loadings attained was observed. Specifically, the chemical activation of pecan nut shell with FeCl3 led to a highly mesoporous material that also behaved as the most efficient support for the immobilization of laccase. This particular laccase/carbon support system was used as biocatalyst for the decolorization of aqueous solutions containing Acid Orange 7. Mass spectrometry coupled to a liquid chromatograph allowed us to identify the products of the dye degradation. PMID:26241936

  16. Archaeal community structure in leachate and solid waste is correlated to methane generation and volume reduction during biodegradation of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Fei, Xunchang; Zekkos, Dimitrios; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2015-02-01

    Duplicate carefully-characterized municipal solid waste (MSW) specimens were reconstituted with waste constituents obtained from a MSW landfill and biodegraded in large-scale landfill simulators for about a year. Repeatability and relationships between changes in physical, chemical, and microbial characteristics taking place during the biodegradation process were evaluated. Parameters such as rate of change of soluble chemical oxygen demand in the leachate (rsCOD), rate of methane generation (rCH4), rate of specimen volume reduction (rVt), DNA concentration in the leachate, and archaeal community structures in the leachate and solid waste were monitored during operation. The DNA concentration in the leachate was correlated to rCH4 and rVt. The rCH4 was related to rsCOD and rVt when waste biodegradation was intensive. The structures of archaeal communities in the leachate and solid waste of both simulators were very similar and Methanobacteriaceae were the dominant archaeal family throughout the testing period. Monitoring the chemical and microbial characteristics of the leachate was informative of the biodegradation process and volume reduction in the simulators, suggesting that leachate monitoring could be informative of the extent of biodegradation in a full-scale landfill.

  17. Noise exposure modulates cochlear inner hair cell ribbon volumes, correlating with changes in auditory measures in the FVB/nJ mouse

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Stephen T.; Gilels, Felicia; White, Patricia M.

    2016-01-01

    Cochlear neuropathy resulting from unsafe noise exposure is a life altering condition that affects many people. This hearing dysfunction follows a conserved mechanism where inner hair cell synapses are lost, termed cochlear synaptopathy. Here we investigate cochlear synaptopathy in the FVB/nJ mouse strain as a prelude for the investigation of candidate genetic mutations for noise damage susceptibility. We used measurements of auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) to assess hearing recovery in FVB/nJ mice exposed to two different noise levels. We also utilized confocal fluorescence microscopy in mapped whole mount cochlear tissue, in conjunction with deconvolution and three-dimensional modeling, to analyze numbers, volumes and positions of paired synaptic components. We find evidence for significant synapse reorganization in response to both synaptopathic and sub-synaptopathic noise exposures in FVB/nJ. Specifically, we find that the modulation in volume of very small synaptic ribbons correlates with the presence of reduced ABR peak one amplitudes in both levels of noise exposures. These experiments define the use of FVB/nJ mice for further genetic investigations into the mechanisms of noise damage. They further suggest that in the cochlea, neuronal-inner hair cell connections may dynamically reshape as part of the noise response. PMID:27162161

  18. The co-adaptive neural network approach to the Euclidean Travelling Salesman Problem.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, E M; Beasley, J E

    2003-12-01

    In this paper we consider the Euclidean Travelling Salesman Problem (ETSP). This is the problem of finding the shortest tour around a number of cities where the cities correspond to points in the Euclidean plane and the distances between cities are given by the usual Euclidean distance metric. We present a review of the literature with respect to neural network (NN) approaches for the ETSP, and the computational results that have been reported. Based upon this review we highlight two areas that are, in our judgement, currently neglected/lacking in the literature. These are: failure to make significant use of publicly available ETSP test problems in computational work, failure to address co-operation between neurons. Drawing upon our literature survey this paper presents a new Self-Organising NN approach, called the Co-Adaptive Net, which involves not just unsupervised learning to train neurons, but also allows neurons to co-operate and compete amongst themselves depending on their situation. Our Co-Adaptive Net algorithm also includes a number of algorithmic mechanisms that, based upon our literature review, we consider to have contributed to the computational success of previous algorithms. Results for 91 publicly available standard ETSP's are presented in this paper. The largest of these problems involves 85,900 cities. This paper presents: the most extensive computational evaluation of any NN approach on publicly available ETSP test problems that has been made to date in the literature, a NN approach that performs better, with respect to solution quality and/or computation time, than other NN approaches given previously in the literature. Drawing upon computational results produced as a result of the DIMACS TSP Challenge, we highlight the fact that none of the current NN approaches for the ETSP can compete with state of the art Operations Research heuristics. We discuss why we consider continuing to study and develop NN approaches for the ETSP to be of value.

  19. On the measure of conformal difference between Euclidean and Lobachevsky spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorich, Vladimir A.

    2011-12-01

    Euclidean space R^n and Lobachevsky space H^n are known to be not equivalent either conformally or quasiconformally. In this work we give exact asymptotics of the critical order of growth at infinity for the quasiconformality coefficient of a diffeomorphism f\\colon R^n\\to H^n for which such a mapping f is possible. We also consider the general case of immersions f\\colon M^n\\to N^n of conformally parabolic Riemannian manifolds. Bibliography: 17 titles.

  20. Dynamics of Euclideanized Einstein-Yang-Mills systems with arbitrary gauge groups

    SciTech Connect

    Bertolami, O.; Picken, R.F. ); Maurao, J.M. ); Volobujev, I.P. )

    1991-09-30

    This paper describes the dynamics of euclideanized SO(4)-symmetric Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) systems with arbitrary compact gauge groups K. For the case of SO(n) and SU(n) gauge groups and simple embeddings of the isotropy group in K, the authors show that in the resulting dynamical system, the Friedmann equation decouples from the Yang-Mills equations. Furthermore, the latter can be reduced to a system of two second-order differential equations. This allows the authors to find a broad class of instanton (wormhole) solutions of the EYM equations. These solutions are not afflicted by the giant-wormhole catastrophe.

  1. Emergence of Euclidean dynamical symmetry as a consequence of shape phase mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budaca, R.; Budaca, A. I.

    2016-08-01

    A hybrid model which combines γ-stable and γ-rigid collective conditions through a rigidity parameter, is used to study the critical point of the phase transition between spherical and axially symmetric shapes. The model in the equally mixed case, called X (4), exhibits properties of the Euclidean symmetry in four dimensions. The spectral properties of the new model are investigated in connection to the exact symmetry. Experimental realisation of the X (4) model is found in two N = 90 nuclei and two Pt isotopes in vicinity of experimentally observed critical point.

  2. Numerical generation of two-dimensional orthogonal curvilinear coordinates in an Euclidean space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warsi, Z. U. A.; Thompson, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    A noniterative method for the numerical generation of orthogonal curvilinear coordinates for plane annular regions between two arbitrary smooth closed curves was developed. The basic generating equation is the Gaussian equation for an Euclidean space which is solved analytically. The method is applied in many cases and these test results demonstrate that the proposed method can be readily applied to a wide variety of problems. The method can also be used for simply connected regions only by obtaining the solution of the linear equation under the changed boundary conditions.

  3. Area Spectrum of Btz Black Holes from the Periodicity in Euclidean Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrañaga, Alexis

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we analyze the area spectrum of BTZ three-dimensional black holes by considering an outgoing wave and relating its period of motion with the period of the gravitational system with respect to Euclidean time. The area spectra obtained for the rotating and non-rotating black holes are equally spaced and it is important to note that in this paper, we do not need to use the small angular momentum assumption which is necessary in the quasinormal mode approach for rotating black holes. The results suggest that the periodicity of the black hole gravitational system may be the origin of area quantization.

  4. Relation between Darboux and type-2 Bishop frames in Euclidean space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Amine; Özyilmaz, Emin

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we investigate relationships between Darboux and type-2 Bishop frames in Euclidean space. Then, we obtain the geodesic curvature of the spherical image curve of the Darboux vector of the type-2 Bishop frame. Also, we give transition matrix between the Darboux and type-2 Bishop frames of the type-2 Bishop frames of the spherical images of the edges N→1,N→2 and b→. Finally, we express some interesting relations and illustrate of the examples by the aid Maple programe.

  5. Study of the Gribov region in Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in the maximal Abelian gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Capri, M. A. L.; Gomez, A. J.; Lemes, V. E. R.; Sobreiro, R. F.; Sorella, S. P.

    2009-01-15

    The properties of the Gribov region in SU(2) Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in the maximal Abelian gauge are investigated. This region turns out to be bounded in all off-diagonal directions, while it is unbounded along the diagonal one. The soft breaking of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin invariance due to the restriction of the domain of integration in the path integral to the Gribov region is scrutinized. Owing to the unboundedness in the diagonal direction, the invariance with respect to Abelian transformations is preserved, a property which is at the origin of the local U(1) Ward identity of the maximal Abelian gauge.

  6. The correlation between the psoriasis area severity index and ischemia-modified albumin, mean platelet volume levels in patients with psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Işik, Selda; Öğretmen, Zerrin; Çakır, Dilek Ülker; Türkön, Hakan; Cevizci, Sibel; Hız, Meliha Merve

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), a novel ischemia marker, and mean platelet volume (MPV), a determinant of platelet activation, have been reported as elevated markers in cardiovascular risk factors such as atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, and dyslipidemia. As psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease having comorbidities, IMA and MPV can help determine the risk factors for psoriasis. Aim To investigate the correlation between the psoriasis area severity index (PASI), IMA and MPV levels in patients with psoriasis. Material and methods This cross-sectional, case-control study was performed between January 2014 and December 2014 at the University hospital in Çanakkale, Turkey. Forty-five patients with psoriasis and 44 healthy volunteers over 18 years of age were included in the study. In the psoriasis patient group, clinical features and PASI scores were recorded. Serum IMA and MPV concentrations were evaluated in both groups. Results The mean IMA values were 0.85 ±0.15 and 0.79 ±0.09 (in the psoriasis patients and control groups, respectively), and there was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.048). Ischemia-modified albumin levels were not correlated with PASI scores (r = 0.024; p = 0.889) but were correlated with disease duration (r = 0.323; p = 0.048). There was no statistically significant difference between the MPV values of the two groups (8.98 ±1.14 and 9.19 ±1.28 in the psoriasis patients and control groups, respectively) (p = 0.435). Conclusions Ischemia-modified albumin may be used as a marker for detecting oxidative stress in patients with psoriasis, especially those with a long disease duration. PMID:27605901

  7. The correlation between the psoriasis area severity index and ischemia-modified albumin, mean platelet volume levels in patients with psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Işik, Selda; Öğretmen, Zerrin; Çakır, Dilek Ülker; Türkön, Hakan; Cevizci, Sibel; Hız, Meliha Merve

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), a novel ischemia marker, and mean platelet volume (MPV), a determinant of platelet activation, have been reported as elevated markers in cardiovascular risk factors such as atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, and dyslipidemia. As psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease having comorbidities, IMA and MPV can help determine the risk factors for psoriasis. Aim To investigate the correlation between the psoriasis area severity index (PASI), IMA and MPV levels in patients with psoriasis. Material and methods This cross-sectional, case-control study was performed between January 2014 and December 2014 at the University hospital in Çanakkale, Turkey. Forty-five patients with psoriasis and 44 healthy volunteers over 18 years of age were included in the study. In the psoriasis patient group, clinical features and PASI scores were recorded. Serum IMA and MPV concentrations were evaluated in both groups. Results The mean IMA values were 0.85 ±0.15 and 0.79 ±0.09 (in the psoriasis patients and control groups, respectively), and there was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.048). Ischemia-modified albumin levels were not correlated with PASI scores (r = 0.024; p = 0.889) but were correlated with disease duration (r = 0.323; p = 0.048). There was no statistically significant difference between the MPV values of the two groups (8.98 ±1.14 and 9.19 ±1.28 in the psoriasis patients and control groups, respectively) (p = 0.435). Conclusions Ischemia-modified albumin may be used as a marker for detecting oxidative stress in patients with psoriasis, especially those with a long disease duration.

  8. Single and multiple object tracking using log-euclidean Riemannian subspace and block-division appearance model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiming; Li, Xi; Luo, Wenhan; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Maybank, Stephen; Zhang, Zhongfei

    2012-12-01

    Object appearance modeling is crucial for tracking objects, especially in videos captured by nonstationary cameras and for reasoning about occlusions between multiple moving objects. Based on the log-euclidean Riemannian metric on symmetric positive definite matrices, we propose an incremental log-euclidean Riemannian subspace learning algorithm in which covariance matrices of image features are mapped into a vector space with the log-euclidean Riemannian metric. Based on the subspace learning algorithm, we develop a log-euclidean block-division appearance model which captures both the global and local spatial layout information about object appearances. Single object tracking and multi-object tracking with occlusion reasoning are then achieved by particle filtering-based Bayesian state inference. During tracking, incremental updating of the log-euclidean block-division appearance model captures changes in object appearance. For multi-object tracking, the appearance models of the objects can be updated even in the presence of occlusions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed tracking algorithm obtains more accurate results than six state-of-the-art tracking algorithms. PMID:22331855

  9. Single and multiple object tracking using log-euclidean Riemannian subspace and block-division appearance model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiming; Li, Xi; Luo, Wenhan; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Maybank, Stephen; Zhang, Zhongfei

    2012-12-01

    Object appearance modeling is crucial for tracking objects, especially in videos captured by nonstationary cameras and for reasoning about occlusions between multiple moving objects. Based on the log-euclidean Riemannian metric on symmetric positive definite matrices, we propose an incremental log-euclidean Riemannian subspace learning algorithm in which covariance matrices of image features are mapped into a vector space with the log-euclidean Riemannian metric. Based on the subspace learning algorithm, we develop a log-euclidean block-division appearance model which captures both the global and local spatial layout information about object appearances. Single object tracking and multi-object tracking with occlusion reasoning are then achieved by particle filtering-based Bayesian state inference. During tracking, incremental updating of the log-euclidean block-division appearance model captures changes in object appearance. For multi-object tracking, the appearance models of the objects can be updated even in the presence of occlusions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed tracking algorithm obtains more accurate results than six state-of-the-art tracking algorithms.

  10. Correlation of magnetic resonance signal characteristics and perfusion parameters assessed by volume perfusion computed tomography in hepatocellular carcinoma: Impact on lesion characterization

    PubMed Central

    Grözinger, Gerd; Bitzer, Michael; Syha, Roland; Ketelsen, Dominik; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Lauer, Ulrich; Horger, Marius

    2016-01-01

    AIM To find out if magnetic resonance (MR)-signal characteristics of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) correlate with perfusion parameters assessed by volume perfusion computed tomography (VPCT). METHODS From October 2009 to January 2014, 26 (mean age, 69.3 years) patients with 36 HCC lesions who underwent both VPCT and MR liver imaging were analysed. We compared signal intensity in the T1w- and T2w-images and wash-in/wash-out kinetics on post-contrast MR images with mean values of blood flow (BF, mL/100 mL per minute), blood volume (BV, mL/100 mL), k-trans (mL/100 mL per minute), arterial liver perfusion (mL/100 mL per minute), portal venous perfusion and hepatic perfusion index (HPI, %) obtained by VPCT. Signal intensity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was classified hyper/iso/hypointense compared with surrounding liver parenchyma. RESULTS Signal intensity on native T1w- and T2w-images was hyper/iso/hypo in 4/16/16 and 21/14/1 lesions, respectively. Wash-in and wash-out contrast kinetics were found on MRI in 33 of 36 lesions (91.7%) and 25 of 36 lesions (69.4%), respectively. The latter was observed significantly more often in higher graded lesions (P < 0.005). HPI was 94.7% ± 6.5%. There was no significant relationship between lesion’s MR-signal intensity, MR signal combinations, size and any of the VPCT-perfusion parameters. However HPI was constantly high in all HCC lesions. CONCLUSION VPCT parameters add limited value to MR-lesion characterization. However in HCC lesions with atypical MR signal characteristics HPI can add a parameter to ensure HCC diagnosis. PMID:27551338

  11. Facial expression recognition based on image Euclidean distance-supervised neighborhood preserving embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li; Li, Yingjie; Li, Haibin

    2014-11-01

    High-dimensional data often lie on relatively low-dimensional manifold, while the nonlinear geometry of that manifold is often embedded in the similarities between the data points. These similar structures are captured by Neighborhood Preserving Embedding (NPE) effectively. But NPE as an unsupervised method can't utilize class information to guide the procedure of nonlinear dimensionality reduction. They ignore the geometrical structure information of local data points and the spatial information of pixels, which leads to the failure of classification. For this problem, a feature extraction method based on Image Euclidean Distance-Supervised NPE (IED-SNPE) is proposed, and is applied to facial expression recognition. Firstly, it employs Image Euclidean Distance (IED) to characterize the dissimilarity of data points. And then the neighborhood graph of the input data is constructed according to a certain kind of dissimilarity between data points. Finally, it fuses prior nonlinear facial expression manifold of facial expression images and class-label information to extract discriminative features for expression recognition. In the classification experiments on JAFFE facial expression database, IED-SNPE is used for feature extraction and compared with NPE, SNPE, and IED-NPE. The results reveal that IED-SNPE not only the local structure of expression manifold preserves well but also explicitly considers the spatial relationships among pixels in the images. So it excels NPE in feature extraction and is highly competitive with those well-known feature extraction methods.

  12. Human dental arch shape evaluated by euclidean-distance matrix analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Miani, A; Tartaglia, G

    1993-04-01

    Form differences between biological structures can be evaluated using several approaches. When landmark data are available, a recently proposed method (euclidean-distance matrix analysis) seems to be able to differentiate between size and shape differences. This method also localizes those areas which differ most between the two structures. We have applied it to analyze the sexual dimorphism in dental arch form in a sample of 50 men and 45 women. Subjects ranged in age between 20 and 27 years, and had sound dentitions. Fourteen landmarks, corresponding to the centers of gravity (centroids) of the occlusal surfaces of all permanent teeth (right second molar to left second molar), were individualized on the dental casts of subjects. All the possible linear distances between pairs of teeth were computed, thus creating four mean form matrices (one for each arch within sex). Gender differences were tested by using euclidean-distance matrix analysis. No significant differences were demonstrated in the shape of arches, while male arches proved to be slightly bigger than female arches.

  13. A simplified procedure for correcting both errors and erasures of a Reed-Solomon code using the Euclidean algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, T. K.; Hsu, I. S.; Eastman, W. L.; Reed, I. S.

    1987-01-01

    It is well known that the Euclidean algorithm or its equivalent, continued fractions, can be used to find the error locator polynomial and the error evaluator polynomial in Berlekamp's key equation needed to decode a Reed-Solomon (RS) code. A simplified procedure is developed and proved to correct erasures as well as errors by replacing the initial condition of the Euclidean algorithm by the erasure locator polynomial and the Forney syndrome polynomial. By this means, the errata locator polynomial and the errata evaluator polynomial can be obtained, simultaneously and simply, by the Euclidean algorithm only. With this improved technique the complexity of time domain RS decoders for correcting both errors and erasures is reduced substantially from previous approaches. As a consequence, decoders for correcting both errors and erasures of RS codes can be made more modular, regular, simple, and naturally suitable for both VLSI and software implementation. An example illustrating this modified decoding procedure is given for a (15, 9) RS code.

  14. Analysis of ochratoxin A in dried blood spots - Correlation between venous and finger-prick blood, the influence of hematocrit and spotted volume.

    PubMed

    Osteresch, Bernd; Cramer, Benedikt; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    We report the improvement of a method for the detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) and its thermal degradation product 2'R-ochratoxin A in dried blood spots (DBS) by high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The DBS technique was advanced for the analysis of these two compounds in DBS with unknown amounts of blood as well as varying hematocrit values. Furthermore the comparability of venous vs. capillary blood was investigated. Human whole blood samples were spotted, dried, and extracted with a solvent consisting of acetone, acetonitrile and water for analysis by HPLC-MS/MS. Quantification was carried out by stable isotope labelled internal standards. Blood samples of volunteers (n=50) were used to further optimize and simplify the procedure. Ochratoxin A and 2'R-ochratoxin A concentrations found in the entire spots (approx. 100 μL blood) were compared with punched DBS discs of 8.8mm size containing approximately 20 μL blood. As a result the amounts of both toxins in a punched 8.8mm disc correlate well with the entire DBS. Also the use of capillary blood from finger-pricks versus venous blood was evaluated. The analyte levels correlate as well indicating that the less invasive finger-prick sampling gives also reliable results. The influence of hematocrit was investigated in a range of 25-55% according to the hematocrit in the used real blood samples (34-46% hematocrit). However no significant hematocrit effect was observed for the utilized real blood samples. Moreover different blood volumes were spotted and punched as a minimal spot size is usually recommended for accurate analysis. In this experiment finger-prick samples typically consist of about 90 μL blood. Therefore spots of 75, 100 and 125 μL blood were prepared and analyzed. Similar to the hematocrit effect, no considerable influence was observed. PMID:27046696

  15. 3D mechanical analysis of aeronautical plain bearings: Validation of a finite element model from measurement of displacement fields by digital volume correlation and optical scanning tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germaneau, A.; Peyruseigt, F.; Mistou, S.; Doumalin, P.; Dupré, J.-C.

    2010-06-01

    On Airbus aircraft, spherical plain bearings are used on many components; in particular to link engine to pylon or pylon to wing. Design of bearings is based on contact pressure distribution on spherical surfaces. To determine this distribution, a 3D analysis of the mechanical behaviour of aeronautical plain bearing is presented in this paper. A numerical model has been built and validated from a comparison with 3D experimental measurements of kinematic components. For that, digital volume correlation (DVC) coupled with optical scanning tomography (OST) is employed to study the mechanical response of a plain bearing model made in epoxy resin. Experimental results have been compared with the ones obtained from the simulated model. This comparison enables us to study the influence of various boundary conditions to build the FE model. Some factors have been highlighted like the fitting behaviour which can radically change contact pressure distribution. This work shows the contribution of a representative mechanical environment to study precisely mechanical response of aeronautical plain bearings.

  16. Correlation between saturation magnetization, bandgap, and lattice volume of transition metal (M=Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, or Ni) doped Zn1-xMxO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghel, J.; Thurber, A.; Tenne, D. A.; Hanna, C. B.; Punnoose, A.

    2010-05-01

    This work reports on transition metal doped ZnO nanoparticles and compares the effects doping with different transition metal ions has on the structural, optical, and magnetic properties. Zn1-xMxO (M=Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, or Ni) nanoparticles were prepared by a chemical process for x=0.02 and 0.05 in powder form. The powders where characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), spectrophotometry, and magnetometry. The Zn1-xMxO samples showed a strong correlation between changes in the lattice parameters, bandgap energy, and the ferromagnetic saturation magnetization. Unit cell volume and bandgap, determined from XRD and spectrophotometry respectively, were maximized with Fe doping and decreased as the atomic number of the dopant moved away from Fe. Bandgap was generally lower at x=0.05 than x=0.02 for all dopants. The saturation magnetization reached a maximum of 6.38 memu/g for Zn0.95Fe0.05O.

  17. Quantum deformations of D = 4 Euclidean, Lorentz, Kleinian and quaternionic o⋆ (4) symmetries in unified o (4 ; C) setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowiec, A.; Lukierski, J.; Tolstoy, V. N.

    2016-03-01

    We employ new calculational technique and present complete list of classical r-matrices for D = 4 complex homogeneous orthogonal Lie algebra o (4 ; C), the rotational symmetry of four-dimensional complex space-time. Further applying reality conditions we obtain the classical r-matrices for all possible real forms of o (4 ; C): Euclidean o (4), Lorentz o (3 , 1), Kleinian o (2 , 2) and quaternionic o⋆ (4) Lie algebras. For o (3 , 1) we get known four classical D = 4 Lorentz r-matrices, but for other real Lie algebras (Euclidean, Kleinian, quaternionic) we provide new results and mention some applications.

  18. Phase retrieval by Euclidean distance in self-calibrating generalized phase-shifting interferometry of three steps.

    PubMed

    Meneses-Fabian, Cruz; Lara-Cortes, Francisco Alejandro

    2015-05-18

    This paper presents a novel algorithm for phase extraction based on the computation of the Euclidean distance from a point to an ellipse. The idea consists in extracting the intensities from a data row or column in three interferograms to form points of intensity and then fitting them to an ellipse by the method of least squares. The Euclidean distance for each intensity point is computed to find a parametric phase whose value is associated to the object phase. The main advantage of the present method is to avoid the use of tangent function, reducing the error in the desired phase computation.

  19. ILP, the Blind, and the Elephant: Euclidean Embedding of Co-proven Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Hannes; Kersting, Kristian; Karwath, Andreas

    Relational data is complex. This complexity makes one of the basic steps of ILP difficult: understanding the data and results. If the user cannot easily understand it, he draws incomplete conclusions. The situation is very much as in the parable of the blind men and the elephant that appears in many cultures. In this tale the blind work independently and with quite different pieces of information, thereby drawing very different conclusions about the nature of the beast. In contrast, visual representations make it easy to shift from one perspective to another while exploring and analyzing data. This paper describes a method for embedding interpretations and queries into a single, common Euclidean space based on their co-proven statistics. We demonstrate our method on real-world datasets showing that ILP results can indeed be captured at a glance.

  20. Unstable spiral waves and local Euclidean symmetry in a model of cardiac tissue.

    PubMed

    Marcotte, Christopher D; Grigoriev, Roman O

    2015-06-01

    This paper investigates the properties of unstable single-spiral wave solutions arising in the Karma model of two-dimensional cardiac tissue. In particular, we discuss how such solutions can be computed numerically on domains of arbitrary shape and study how their stability, rotational frequency, and spatial drift depend on the size of the domain as well as the position of the spiral core with respect to the boundaries. We also discuss how the breaking of local Euclidean symmetry due to finite size effects as well as the spatial discretization of the model is reflected in the structure and dynamics of spiral waves. This analysis allows identification of a self-sustaining process responsible for maintaining the state of spiral chaos featuring multiple interacting spirals. PMID:26117110

  1. Three-frame generalized phase-shifting interferometry by a Euclidean matrix norm algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yawei; Ji, Ying; Han, Hao; Jin, Weifeng

    2016-09-01

    Generalized phase-shifting interferometry (GPSI) is one of the most effective techniques in imaging of a phase object, in which phase retrieval is an essential and important procedure. In this paper, a simple and rapid algorithm for retrieval of the unknown phase shifts in three-frame GPSI is proposed. Using this algorithm, the value of phase shift can be calculated by a determinate formula consisting of three different Euclidean matrix norms of the intensity difference between two phase shifted interferograms, and then the phase can be retrieved easily. The algorithm has the advantages of freeing from the background elimination and less computation, since it only needs three phase-shifted interferograms without no extra measurements, the iterative procedure or the integral transformation. The reliability and accuracy of this algorithm were demonstrated by simulation and experimental results.

  2. Non-perturbative BRST quantization of Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in Curci-Ferrari gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, A. D.; Sobreiro, R. F.; Sorella, S. P.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we address the issue of the non-perturbative quantization of Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in the Curci-Ferrari gauge. In particular, we construct a refined Gribov-Zwanziger action for this gauge, which takes into account the presence of gauge copies as well as the dynamical formation of dimension-two condensates. This action enjoys a non-perturbative BRST symmetry recently proposed in Capri et al. (Phys. Rev. D 92(4), 045039. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevD.92.045039 arXiv:1506.06995 [hep-th], 2015). Finally, we pay attention to the gluon propagator in different space-time dimensions.

  3. Unstable spiral waves and local Euclidean symmetry in a model of cardiac tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Marcotte, Christopher D.; Grigoriev, Roman O.

    2015-06-15

    This paper investigates the properties of unstable single-spiral wave solutions arising in the Karma model of two-dimensional cardiac tissue. In particular, we discuss how such solutions can be computed numerically on domains of arbitrary shape and study how their stability, rotational frequency, and spatial drift depend on the size of the domain as well as the position of the spiral core with respect to the boundaries. We also discuss how the breaking of local Euclidean symmetry due to finite size effects as well as the spatial discretization of the model is reflected in the structure and dynamics of spiral waves. This analysis allows identification of a self-sustaining process responsible for maintaining the state of spiral chaos featuring multiple interacting spirals.

  4. Distributed stochastic multi-vehicle routing in the Euclidean plane with no communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrabissa, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for the multi-vehicle routing problem with no communications among the vehicles. The scenario consists in a convex Euclidean mission space, where targets are generated according to a Poisson distribution in time and to a generic continuous spatial distribution. The targets must be visited by the vehicles, which, therefore, must act in coordination. Even if no communications are required, the proposed routing strategy succeeds in effectively partitioning the mission space among the vehicles: at low target generation rates, the algorithm leads to the well-known centroidal Voronoi tessellation, whereas at high target generation rates, simulation results show that it has better performances with respect to a reference algorithm with no communications among vehicles.

  5. Application of Euclidean distance measurement and principal component analysis for gene identification.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Antara; Barman, Soma

    2016-06-01

    Gene systems are extremely complex, heterogeneous, and noisy in nature. Many statistical tools which are used to extract relevant feature from genes provide fuzzy and ambiguous information. High-dimensional gene expression database available in public domain usually contains thousands of genes. Efficient prediction method is demanding nowadays for accurate identification of such database. Euclidean distance measurement and principal component analysis methods are applied on such databases to identify the genes. In both methods, prediction algorithm is based on homology search approach. Digital Signal Processing technique along with statistical method is used for analysis of genes in both cases. A two-level decision logic is used for gene classification as healthy or cancerous. This binary logic minimizes the prediction error and improves prediction accuracy. Superiority of the method is judged by receiver operating characteristic curve. PMID:26877227

  6. New efficient algorithm for the isometric embedding of 2-surface metrics in three dimensional Euclidean space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichy, Wolfgang; McDonald, Jonathan R.; Miller, Warner A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new numerical method for the isometric embedding of 2-geometries specified by their 2-metrics in three-dimensional Euclidean space. Our approach is to directly solve the fundamental embedding equation supplemented by six conditions that fix translations and rotations of the embedded surface. This set of equations is discretized by means of a pseudospectral collocation point method. The resulting nonlinear system of equations are then solved by a Newton-Raphson scheme. We explain our numerical algorithm in detail. By studying several examples we show that our method converges provided we start the Newton-Raphson scheme from a suitable initial guess. Our novel method is very efficient for smooth 2-metrics.

  7. Application of Euclidean distance measurement and principal component analysis for gene identification.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Antara; Barman, Soma

    2016-06-01

    Gene systems are extremely complex, heterogeneous, and noisy in nature. Many statistical tools which are used to extract relevant feature from genes provide fuzzy and ambiguous information. High-dimensional gene expression database available in public domain usually contains thousands of genes. Efficient prediction method is demanding nowadays for accurate identification of such database. Euclidean distance measurement and principal component analysis methods are applied on such databases to identify the genes. In both methods, prediction algorithm is based on homology search approach. Digital Signal Processing technique along with statistical method is used for analysis of genes in both cases. A two-level decision logic is used for gene classification as healthy or cancerous. This binary logic minimizes the prediction error and improves prediction accuracy. Superiority of the method is judged by receiver operating characteristic curve.

  8. Artificial immune system via Euclidean Distance Minimization for anomaly detection in bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montechiesi, L.; Cocconcelli, M.; Rubini, R.

    2016-08-01

    In recent years new diagnostics methodologies have emerged, with particular interest into machinery operating in non-stationary conditions. In fact continuous speed changes and variable loads make non-trivial the spectrum analysis. A variable speed means a variable characteristic fault frequency related to the damage that is no more recognizable in the spectrum. To overcome this problem the scientific community proposed different approaches listed in two main categories: model-based approaches and expert systems. In this context the paper aims to present a simple expert system derived from the mechanisms of the immune system called Euclidean Distance Minimization, and its application in a real case of bearing faults recognition. The proposed method is a simplification of the original process, adapted by the class of Artificial Immune Systems, which proved to be useful and promising in different application fields. Comparative results are provided, with a complete explanation of the algorithm and its functioning aspects.

  9. Finite Size and Dimensional Dependence in the Euclidean Traveling Salesman Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percus, Allon G.; Martin, Olivier C.

    1996-02-01

    We consider the Euclidean traveling salesman problem for N cities randomly distributed in the unit d-dimensional hypercube, and investigate the finite size scaling of the mean optimal tour length LE. With toroidal boundary conditions we find, motivated by a remarkable universality in the kth nearest neighbor distribution, that LE\\(d = 2\\) = \\(0.7120+/-0.0002\\) N1/2 [1+O\\(1/N\\)] and LE\\(d = 3\\) = \\(0.6979+/-0.0002\\) N2/3[1+O\\(1/N\\)]. We then consider a mean-field approach in the limit N-->∞ which we find to be a good approximation (the error being less than 2.1% at d = 1,2, and 3), and which suggests that LE\\(d\\) = N1-1/dd/2πe \\(πd\\)1/2d[1+O\\(1/d\\)] at large d.

  10. Preservice Mathematics Teachers' Perceptions of Using a Web 2.0 Technology as a Supportive Teaching-Learning Tool in a College Euclidean Geometry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Md. Mokter

    2012-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined preservice secondary mathematics teachers' perceptions of a blogging activity used as a supportive teaching-learning tool in a college Euclidean Geometry course. The effect of a 12-week blogging activity that was a standard component of a college Euclidean Geometry course offered for preservice secondary…

  11. Correlation of Hsp70 Serum Levels with Gross Tumor Volume and Composition of Lymphocyte Subpopulations in Patients with Squamous Cell and Adeno Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gunther, Sophie; Ostheimer, Christian; Stangl, Stefan; Specht, Hanno M.; Mozes, Petra; Jesinghaus, Moritz; Vordermark, Dirk; Combs, Stephanie E.; Peltz, Friedhelm; Jung, Max P.; Multhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is frequently found on the plasma membrane of a large number of malignant tumors including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and gets released into the blood circulation in lipid vesicles. On the one hand, a membrane (m)Hsp70-positive phenotype correlates with a high aggressiveness of the tumor; on the other hand, mHsp70 serves as a target for natural killer (NK) cells that had been pre-stimulated with Hsp70-peptide TKD plus low-dose interleukin-2 (TKD/IL-2). Following activation, NK cells show an up-regulated expression of activatory C-type lectin receptors, such as CD94/NKG2C, NKG2D, and natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs; NKp44, NKp46, and NKp30) and thereby gain the capacity to kill mHsp70-positive tumor cells. With respect to these results, the efficacy of ex vivo TKD/IL-2 stimulated, autologous NK cells is currently tested in a proof-of-concept phase II clinical trial in patients with squamous cell NSCLC after radiochemotherapy (RCT) at the TUM. Inclusion criteria are histological proven, non-resectable NSCLC in stage IIIA/IIIB, clinical responses to RCT and a mHsp70-positive tumor phenotype. The mHsp70 status is determined in the serum of patients using the lipHsp70 ELISA test, which enables the quantification of liposomal and free Hsp70. Squamous cell and adeno NSCLC patients had significantly higher serum Hsp70 levels than healthy controls. A significant correlation of serum Hsp70 levels with the gross tumor volume was shown for adeno and squamous cell NSCLC. However, significantly elevated ratios of activated CD69+/CD94+ NK cells that are associated with low serum Hsp70 levels were observed only in patients with squamous cell lung cancer. These data might provide a first hint that squamous cell NSCLC is more immunogenic than adeno NSCLC. PMID:26579130

  12. Quasi-minimal Lorentz surfaces with pointwise 1-type Gauss map in pseudo-Euclidean 4-space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milousheva, Velichka; Turgay, Nurettin Cenk

    2016-08-01

    A Lorentz surface in the four-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space with neutral metric is called quasi-minimal if its mean curvature vector is lightlike at each point. In the present paper we obtain the complete classification of quasi-minimal Lorentz surfaces with pointwise 1-type Gauss map.

  13. Linear correlation between the number of olfactory sensory neurons expressing a given mouse odorant receptor gene and the total volume of the corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Bressel, Olaf Christian; Khan, Mona

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chemosensory specificity in the main olfactory system of the mouse relies on the expression of ∼1,100 odorant receptor (OR) genes across millions of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE), and on the coalescence of OSN axons into ∼3,600 glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. A traditional approach for visualizing OSNs and their axons consists of tagging an OR gene genetically with an axonal marker that is cotranslated with the OR by virtue of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Here we report full cell counts for 15 gene‐targeted strains of the OR‐IRES‐marker design coexpressing a fluorescent protein. These strains represent 11 targeted OR genes, a 1% sample of the OR gene repertoire. We took an empirical, “count every cell” strategy: we counted all fluorescent cell profiles with a nuclear profile within the cytoplasm, on all serial coronal sections under a confocal microscope, a total of 685,673 cells in 56 mice at postnatal day 21. We then applied a strain‐specific Abercrombie correction to these OSN counts in order to obtain a closer approximation of the true OSN numbers. We found a 17‐fold range in the average (corrected) OSN number across these 11 OR genes. In the same series of coronal sections, we then determined the total volume of the glomeruli (TGV) formed by coalescence of the fluorescent axons. We found a strong linear correlation between OSN number and TGV, suggesting that TGV can be used as a surrogate measurement for estimating OSN numbers in these gene‐targeted strains. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:199–209, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26100963

  14. Potential models and lattice correlators for quarkonia at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Alberico, W. M.; De Pace, A.; Molinari, A.; Beraudo, A.

    2008-01-01

    We update our recent calculation of quarkonium Euclidean correlators at finite temperatures in a potential model by including the effect of zero modes in the lattice spectral functions. These contributions cure most of the previously observed discrepancies with lattice calculations, supporting the use of potential models at finite temperature as an important tool to complement lattice studies.

  15. Topological charge correlators, spectral bounds, and contact terms

    SciTech Connect

    F.X. Lee; S.J. Dong; T. Draper; I. Horvath; K.F. Liu; H. Thacker; J.B. Zhang

    2003-05-01

    The structure of topological charge fluctuations in the QCD vacuum is strongly restricted by the spectral negativity of the Euclidean correlator for x = 0 and the presence of a positive contact term. Some examples are considered which illustrate the physical origin of these properties.

  16. Hierarchical clustering using correlation metric and spatial continuity constraint

    DOEpatents

    Stork, Christopher L.; Brewer, Luke N.

    2012-10-02

    Large data sets are analyzed by hierarchical clustering using correlation as a similarity measure. This provides results that are superior to those obtained using a Euclidean distance similarity measure. A spatial continuity constraint may be applied in hierarchical clustering analysis of images.

  17. Determination of lung segments in computed tomography images using the Euclidean distance to the pulmonary artery

    SciTech Connect

    Stoecker, Christina; Moltz, Jan H.; Lassen, Bianca; Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin; Krass, Stefan; Welter, Stefan; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: Computed tomography (CT) imaging is the modality of choice for lung cancer diagnostics. With the increasing number of lung interventions on sublobar level in recent years, determining and visualizing pulmonary segments in CT images and, in oncological cases, reliable segment-related information about the location of tumors has become increasingly desirable. Computer-assisted identification of lung segments in CT images is subject of this work.Methods: The authors present a new interactive approach for the segmentation of lung segments that uses the Euclidean distance of each point in the lung to the segmental branches of the pulmonary artery. The aim is to analyze the potential of the method. Detailed manual pulmonary artery segmentations are used to achieve the best possible segment approximation results. A detailed description of the method and its evaluation on 11 CT scans from clinical routine are given.Results: An accuracy of 2–3 mm is measured for the segment boundaries computed by the pulmonary artery-based method. On average, maximum deviations of 8 mm are observed. 135 intersegmental pulmonary veins detected in the 11 test CT scans serve as reference data. Furthermore, a comparison of the presented pulmonary artery-based approach to a similar approach that uses the Euclidean distance to the segmental branches of the bronchial tree is presented. It shows a significantly higher accuracy for the pulmonary artery-based approach in lung regions at least 30 mm distal to the lung hilum.Conclusions: A pulmonary artery-based determination of lung segments in CT images is promising. In the tests, the pulmonary artery-based determination has been shown to be superior to the bronchial tree-based determination. The suitability of the segment approximation method for application in the planning of segment resections in clinical practice has already been verified in experimental cases. However, automation of the method accompanied by an evaluation on a larger

  18. Pearson's Correlation between Three Variables; Using Students' Basic Knowledge of Geometry for an Exercise in Mathematical Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vos, Pauline

    2009-01-01

    When studying correlations, how do the three bivariate correlation coefficients between three variables relate? After transforming Pearson's correlation coefficient r into a Euclidean distance, undergraduate students can tackle this problem using their secondary school knowledge of geometry (Pythagoras' theorem and similarity of triangles).…

  19. The Specific Volumes and Viscosities of the Ni-Zr Liquid Alloys and their Correlation with the Glass Formability of the Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohsaka, K.; Chung, S. K.; Rhim, W. K.

    1997-01-01

    The specific volumes and viscosities of the Ni-Zr liquid alloys as a function of temperature are determined by employing a digitizing technique and numeric analysis methods applied to the optical images of the electrostatically levitated liquid alloys.

  20. O(N) model in Euclidean de Sitter space: beyond the leading infrared approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nacir, Diana López; Mazzitelli, Francisco D.; Trombetta, Leonardo G.

    2016-09-01

    We consider an O( N) scalar field model with quartic interaction in d-dimensional Euclidean de Sitter space. In order to avoid the problems of the standard perturbative calculations for light and massless fields, we generalize to the O( N) theory a systematic method introduced previously for a single field, which treats the zero modes exactly and the nonzero modes perturbatively. We compute the two-point functions taking into account not only the leading infrared contribution, coming from the self-interaction of the zero modes, but also corrections due to the interaction of the ultraviolet modes. For the model defined in the corresponding Lorentzian de Sitter spacetime, we obtain the two-point functions by analytical continuation. We point out that a partial resummation of the leading secular terms (which necessarily involves nonzero modes) is required to obtain a decay at large distances for massless fields. We implement this resummation along with a systematic double expansion in an effective coupling constant √{λ } and in 1 /N . We explicitly perform the calculation up to the next-to-next-to-leading order in √{λ } and up to next-to-leading order in 1 /N . The results reduce to those known in the leading infrared approximation. We also show that they coincide with the ones obtained directly in Lorentzian de Sitter spacetime in the large N limit, provided the same renormalization scheme is used.

  1. Programs for kriging and sequential Gaussian simulation with locally varying anisotropy using non-Euclidean distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Jeff B.; Deutsch, Clayton V.

    2011-04-01

    Geological deposits display nonlinear features such as veins, channels or folds that result in complex spatial anisotropies that are difficult to model with currently available geostatistical techniques. The methodology presented in this paper for incorporating locally varying anisotropy in kriging or sequential Gaussian simulation is based on modifying how locations in space are related. Normally, the straight line path is used; however, when nonlinear features exist the appropriate path between locations follows along the features. The Dijkstra algorithm is used to determine the shortest path/distance between locations and a conventional covariance or variogram function is used. This nonlinear path is a non-Euclidean distance metric and positive definiteness of the resulting kriging system of equations is not guaranteed. Multidimensional scaling (landmark isometric mapping) is used to ensure positive definiteness. In addition to the variogram, the only parameters required for the implementation of kriging or sequential Gaussian simulation with locally varying anisotropy are (1) the local orientation and magnitude of anisotropy and (2) the number of dimensions required for multidimensional scaling. This paper presents a suite of programs that can be used to krige or simulate practically sized geostatistical models with locally varying anisotropy. The programs kt3d_LVA, SGS_LVA and gamv_LVA are provided.

  2. Optimization of the Multi-Spectral Euclidean Distance Calculation for FPGA-based Spaceborne Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cristo, Alejandro; Fisher, Kevin; Perez, Rosa M.; Martinez, Pablo; Gualtieri, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the high quantity of operations that spaceborne processing systems must carry out in space, new methodologies and techniques are being presented as good alternatives in order to free the main processor from work and improve the overall performance. These include the development of ancillary dedicated hardware circuits that carry out the more redundant and computationally expensive operations in a faster way, leaving the main processor free to carry out other tasks while waiting for the result. One of these devices is SpaceCube, a FPGA-based system designed by NASA. The opportunity to use FPGA reconfigurable architectures in space allows not only the optimization of the mission operations with hardware-level solutions, but also the ability to create new and improved versions of the circuits, including error corrections, once the satellite is already in orbit. In this work, we propose the optimization of a common operation in remote sensing: the Multi-Spectral Euclidean Distance calculation. For that, two different hardware architectures have been designed and implemented in a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA, the same model of FPGAs used by SpaceCube. Previous results have shown that the communications between the embedded processor and the circuit create a bottleneck that affects the overall performance in a negative way. In order to avoid this, advanced methods including memory sharing, Native Port Interface (NPI) connections and Data Burst Transfers have been used.

  3. a Euclidean Formulation of Interior Orientation Costraints Imposed by the Fundamental Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalisperakis, I.; Karras, G.; Petsa, E.

    2016-06-01

    Epipolar geometry of a stereopair can be expressed either in 3D, as the relative orientation (i.e. translation and rotation) of two bundles of optical rays in case of calibrated cameras or, in case of unclalibrated cameras, in 2D as the position of the epipoles on the image planes and a projective transformation that maps points in one image to corresponding epipolar lines on the other. The typical coplanarity equation describes the first case; the Fundamental matrix describes the second. It has also been proven in the Computer Vision literature that 2D epipolar geometry imposes two independent constraints on the parameters of camera interior orientation. In this contribution these constraints are expressed directly in 3D Euclidean space by imposing the equality of the dihedral angle of epipolar planes defined by the optical axes of the two cameras or by suitably chosen corresponding epipolar lines. By means of these constraints, new closed form algorithms are proposed for the estimation of a variable or common camera constant value given the fundamental matrix and the principal point position of a stereopair.

  4. Dental arch asymmetry in young healthy human subjects evaluated by Euclidean distance matrix analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Miani, A; Serrao, G

    1993-03-01

    Form differences between biological structures can be evaluated using several approaches. A recently proposed method (Euclidean distance matrix analysis; EDMA) seems to be able to differentiate between size and shape differences. Here it has been applied to study the asymmetry of mandibular and maxillary arches in 50 men and 45 women with sound dentitions. The centres of gravity (centroids) of the occlusal surfaces of all permanent teeth (right second molar to left second molar) were individualized on the dental casts of subjects. The form of the right and left maxillary and mandibular hemi-arches was separately assessed by calculating all the possible linear distances between pairs of teeth within arch and side. Side differences were tested by EDMA. In men, the maxillary and the mandibular arches were both symmetrical (i.e. there were no significant differences in size or shape between the left and right hemi-arches). In women, the mandibular arch was symmetrical, but in the maxillary arch the two antimeres had a significantly different shape. No size differences were found between the left and right female hemi-arches.

  5. Failure mode and effects analysis using intuitionistic fuzzy hybrid weighted Euclidean distance operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hu-Chen; Liu, Long; Li, Ping

    2014-10-01

    Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) has shown its effectiveness in examining potential failures in products, process, designs or services and has been extensively used for safety and reliability analysis in a wide range of industries. However, its approach to prioritise failure modes through a crisp risk priority number (RPN) has been criticised as having several shortcomings. The aim of this paper is to develop an efficient and comprehensive risk assessment methodology using intuitionistic fuzzy hybrid weighted Euclidean distance (IFHWED) operator to overcome the limitations and improve the effectiveness of the traditional FMEA. The diversified and uncertain assessments given by FMEA team members are treated as linguistic terms expressed in intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (IFNs). Intuitionistic fuzzy weighted averaging (IFWA) operator is used to aggregate the FMEA team members' individual assessments into a group assessment. IFHWED operator is applied thereafter to the prioritisation and selection of failure modes. Particularly, both subjective and objective weights of risk factors are considered during the risk evaluation process. A numerical example for risk assessment is given to illustrate the proposed method finally.

  6. Non-Hermitian systems of Euclidean Lie algebraic type with real energy spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sanjib; Fring, Andreas; Mathanaranjan, Thilagarajah

    2014-07-01

    We study several classes of non-Hermitian Hamiltonian systems, which can be expressed in terms of bilinear combinations of Euclidean-Lie algebraic generators. The classes are distinguished by different versions of antilinear (PT)-symmetries exhibiting various types of qualitative behaviour. On the basis of explicitly computed non-perturbative Dyson maps we construct metric operators, isospectral Hermitian counterparts for which we solve the corresponding time-independent Schrödinger equation for specific choices of the coupling constants. In these cases general analytical expressions for the solutions are obtained in the form of Mathieu functions, which we analyze numerically to obtain the corresponding energy spectra. We identify regions in the parameter space for which the corresponding spectra are entirely real and also domains where the PT symmetry is spontaneously broken and sometimes also regained at exceptional points. In some cases it is shown explicitly how the threshold region from real to complex spectra is characterized by the breakdown of the Dyson maps or the metric operator. We establish the explicit relationship to models currently under investigation in the context of beam dynamics in optical lattices.

  7. Random Coulomb antiferromagnets: From diluted spin liquids to Euclidean random matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehn, J.; Sen, Arnab; Andreanov, A.; Damle, Kedar; Moessner, R.; Scardicchio, A.

    2015-08-01

    We study a disordered classical Heisenberg magnet with uniformly antiferromagnetic interactions which are frustrated on account of their long-range Coulomb form, i.e., J (r )˜-A lnr in d =2 and J (r )˜A /r in d =3 . This arises naturally as the T →0 limit of the emergent interactions between vacancy-induced degrees of freedom in a class of diluted Coulomb spin liquids (including the classical Heisenberg antiferromagnets in checkerboard, SCGO, and pyrochlore lattices) and presents a novel variant of a disordered long-range spin Hamiltonian. Using detailed analytical and numerical studies we establish that this model exhibits a very broad paramagnetic regime that extends to very large values of A in both d =2 and d =3 . In d =2 , using the lattice-Green-function-based finite-size regularization of the Coulomb potential (which corresponds naturally to the underlying low-temperature limit of the emergent interactions between orphans), we find evidence that freezing into a glassy state occurs only in the limit of strong coupling, A =∞ , while no such transition seems to exist in d =3 . We also demonstrate the presence and importance of screening for such a magnet. We analyze the spectrum of the Euclidean random matrices describing a Gaussian version of this problem and identify a corresponding quantum mechanical scattering problem.

  8. Robust Automatic Pectoral Muscle Segmentation from Mammograms Using Texture Gradient and Euclidean Distance Regression.

    PubMed

    Bora, Vibha Bafna; Kothari, Ashwin G; Keskar, Avinash G

    2016-02-01

    In computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of mediolateral oblique (MLO) view of mammogram, the accuracy of tissue segmentation highly depends on the exclusion of pectoral muscle. Robust methods for such exclusions are essential as the normal presence of pectoral muscle can bias the decision of CAD. In this paper, a novel texture gradient-based approach for automatic segmentation of pectoral muscle is proposed. The pectoral edge is initially approximated to a straight line by applying Hough transform on Probable Texture Gradient (PTG) map of the mammogram followed by block averaging with the aid of approximated line. Furthermore, a smooth pectoral muscle curve is achieved with proposed Euclidean Distance Regression (EDR) technique and polynomial modeling. The algorithm is robust to texture and overlapping fibro glandular tissues. The method is validated with 340 MLO views from three databases-including 200 randomly selected scanned film images from miniMIAS, 100 computed radiography images and 40 full-field digital mammogram images. Qualitatively, 96.75 % of the pectoral muscles are segmented with an acceptable pectoral score index. The proposed method not only outperforms state-of-the-art approaches but also accurately quantifies the pectoral edge. Thus, its high accuracy and relatively quick processing time clearly justify its suitability for CAD.

  9. Euclidean geodesic loops on high-genus surfaces applied to the morphometry of vestibular systems.

    PubMed

    Xin, Shi-Qing; He, Ying; Fu, Chi-Wing; Wang, Defeng; Lin, Shi; Chu, Winnie C W; Cheng, Jack C Y; Gu, Xianfeng; Lui, Lok Ming

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel algorithm to extract feature landmarks on the vestibular system (VS), for the analysis of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) disease. AIS is a 3-D spinal deformity commonly occurred in adolescent girls with unclear etiology. One popular hypothesis was suggested to be the structural changes in the VS that induce the disturbed balance perception, and further cause the spinal deformity. The morphometry of VS to study the geometric differences between the healthy and AIS groups is of utmost importance. However, the VS is a genus-3 structure situated in the inner ear. The high-genus topology of the surface poses great challenge for shape analysis. In this work, we present a new method to compute exact geodesic loops on the VS. The resultant geodesic loops are in Euclidean metric, thus characterizing the intrinsic geometric properties of the VS based on the real background geometry. This leads to more accurate results than existing methods, such as the hyperbolic Ricci flow method. Furthermore, our method is fully automatic and highly efficient, e.g., one order of magnitude faster than. We applied our algorithm to the VS of normal and AIS subjects. The promising experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of our method and reveal more statistically significant shape difference in the VS between right-thoracic AIS and normal subjects.

  10. Multi-resolutional brain network filtering and analysis via wavelets on non-Euclidean space.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Hwa; Adluru, Nagesh; Chung, Moo K; Charchut, Sylvia; GadElkarim, Johnson J; Altshuler, Lori; Moody, Teena; Kumar, Anand; Singh, Vikas; Leow, Alex D

    2013-01-01

    Advances in resting state fMRI and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) have led to much interest in studies that evaluate hypotheses focused on how brain connectivity networks show variations across clinically disparate groups. However, various sources of error (e.g., tractography errors, magnetic field distortion, and motion artifacts) leak into the data, and make downstream statistical analysis problematic. In small sample size studies, such noise have an unfortunate effect that the differential signal may not be identifiable and so the null hypothesis cannot be rejected. Traditionally, smoothing is often used to filter out noise. But the construction of convolving with a Gaussian kernel is not well understood on arbitrarily connected graphs. Furthermore, there are no direct analogues of scale-space theory for graphs--ones which allow to view the signal at multiple resolutions. We provide rigorous frameworks for performing 'multi-resolutional' analysis on brain connectivity graphs. These are based on the recent theory of non-Euclidean wavelets. We provide strong evidence, on brain connectivity data from a network analysis study (structural connectivity differences in adult euthymic bipolar subjects), that the proposed algorithm allows identifying statistically significant network variations, which are clinically meaningful, where classical statistical tests, if applied directly, fail.

  11. Confidence analysis of standard deviational ellipse and its extension into higher dimensional euclidean space.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Shi, Wenzhong; Miao, Zelang

    2015-01-01

    Standard deviational ellipse (SDE) has long served as a versatile GIS tool for delineating the geographic distribution of concerned features. This paper firstly summarizes two existing models of calculating SDE, and then proposes a novel approach to constructing the same SDE based on spectral decomposition of the sample covariance, by which the SDE concept is naturally generalized into higher dimensional Euclidean space, named standard deviational hyper-ellipsoid (SDHE). Then, rigorous recursion formulas are derived for calculating the confidence levels of scaled SDHE with arbitrary magnification ratios in any dimensional space. Besides, an inexact-newton method based iterative algorithm is also proposed for solving the corresponding magnification ratio of a scaled SDHE when the confidence probability and space dimensionality are pre-specified. These results provide an efficient manner to supersede the traditional table lookup of tabulated chi-square distribution. Finally, synthetic data is employed to generate the 1-3 multiple SDEs and SDHEs. And exploratory analysis by means of SDEs and SDHEs are also conducted for measuring the spread concentrations of Hong Kong's H1N1 in 2009.

  12. Euclidean distance and Kolmogorov-Smirnov analyses of multi-day auditory event-related potentials: a longitudinal stability study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durato, M. V.; Albano, A. M.; Rapp, P. E.; Nawang, S. A.

    2015-06-01

    The validity of ERPs as indices of stable neurophysiological traits is partially dependent on their stability over time. Previous studies on ERP stability, however, have reported diverse stability estimates despite using the same component scoring methods. This present study explores a novel approach in investigating the longitudinal stability of average ERPs—that is, by treating the ERP waveform as a time series and then applying Euclidean Distance and Kolmogorov-Smirnov analyses to evaluate the similarity or dissimilarity between the ERP time series of different sessions or run pairs. Nonlinear dynamical analysis show that in the absence of a change in medical condition, the average ERPs of healthy human adults are highly longitudinally stable—as evaluated by both the Euclidean distance and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test.

  13. Soft learning vector quantization and clustering algorithms based on non-Euclidean norms: single-norm algorithms.

    PubMed

    Karayiannis, Nicolaos B; Randolph-Gips, Mary M

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents the development of soft clustering and learning vector quantization (LVQ) algorithms that rely on a weighted norm to measure the distance between the feature vectors and their prototypes. The development of LVQ and clustering algorithms is based on the minimization of a reformulation function under the constraint that the generalized mean of the norm weights be constant. According to the proposed formulation, the norm weights can be computed from the data in an iterative fashion together with the prototypes. An error analysis provides some guidelines for selecting the parameter involved in the definition of the generalized mean in terms of the feature variances. The algorithms produced from this formulation are easy to implement and they are almost as fast as clustering algorithms relying on the Euclidean norm. An experimental evaluation on four data sets indicates that the proposed algorithms outperform consistently clustering algorithms relying on the Euclidean norm and they are strong competitors to non-Euclidean algorithms which are computationally more demanding.

  14. New family of tilings of three-dimensional Euclidean space by tetrahedra and octahedra.

    PubMed

    Conway, John H; Jiao, Yang; Torquato, Salvatore

    2011-07-01

    It is well known that two regular tetrahedra can be combined with a single regular octahedron to tile (complete fill) three-dimensional Euclidean space . This structure was called the "octet truss" by Buckminster Fuller. It was believed that such a tiling, which is the Delaunay tessellation of the face-centered cubic (fcc) lattice, and its closely related stacking variants, are the only tessellations of that involve two different regular polyhedra. Here we identify and analyze a unique family comprised of a noncountably infinite number of periodic tilings of whose smallest repeat tiling unit consists of one regular octahedron and six smaller regular tetrahedra. We first derive an extreme member of this unique tiling family by showing that the "holes" in the optimal lattice packing of octahedra, obtained by Minkowski over a century ago, are congruent tetrahedra. This tiling has 694 distinct concave (i.e., nonconvex) repeat units, 24 of which possess central symmetry, and hence is distinctly different and combinatorically richer than the fcc tetrahedra-octahedra tiling, which only has two distinct tiling units. Then we construct a one-parameter family of octahedron packings that continuously spans from the fcc to the optimal lattice packing of octahedra. We show that the "holes" in these packings, except for the two extreme cases, are tetrahedra of two sizes, leading to a family of periodic tilings with units composed four small tetrahedra and two large tetrahedra that contact an octahedron. These tilings generally possess 2,068 distinct concave tiling units, 62 of which are centrally symmetric.

  15. New family of tilings of three-dimensional Euclidean space by tetrahedra and octahedra

    PubMed Central

    Conway, John H.; Jiao, Yang; Torquato, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that two regular tetrahedra can be combined with a single regular octahedron to tile (complete fill) three-dimensional Euclidean space . This structure was called the “octet truss” by Buckminster Fuller. It was believed that such a tiling, which is the Delaunay tessellation of the face-centered cubic (fcc) lattice, and its closely related stacking variants, are the only tessellations of that involve two different regular polyhedra. Here we identify and analyze a unique family comprised of a noncountably infinite number of periodic tilings of whose smallest repeat tiling unit consists of one regular octahedron and six smaller regular tetrahedra. We first derive an extreme member of this unique tiling family by showing that the “holes” in the optimal lattice packing of octahedra, obtained by Minkowski over a century ago, are congruent tetrahedra. This tiling has 694 distinct concave (i.e., nonconvex) repeat units, 24 of which possess central symmetry, and hence is distinctly different and combinatorically richer than the fcc tetrahedra-octahedra tiling, which only has two distinct tiling units. Then we construct a one-parameter family of octahedron packings that continuously spans from the fcc to the optimal lattice packing of octahedra. We show that the “holes” in these packings, except for the two extreme cases, are tetrahedra of two sizes, leading to a family of periodic tilings with units composed four small tetrahedra and two large tetrahedra that contact an octahedron. These tilings generally possess 2,068 distinct concave tiling units, 62 of which are centrally symmetric. PMID:21690370

  16. Investigation of difficult component effects on finite element model vibration prediction for the Bell AG-1G helicopter. Volume 2: Correlation results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dompka, R. V.

    1989-01-01

    Under the NASA-sponsored DAMVIBS (Design Analysis Methods for VIBrationS) program, a series of ground vibration tests and NASTRAN finite element model (FEM) correlations were conducted on the Bell AH-1G helicopter gunship to investigate the effects of difficult components on the vibration response of the airframe. Previous correlations of the AG-1G showed good agreement between NASTRAN and tests through 15 to 20 Hz, but poor agreement in the higher frequency range of 20 to 30 Hz. Thus, this effort emphasized the higher frequency airframe vibration response correlations and identified areas that need further R and T work. To conduct the investigations, selected difficult components (main rotor pylon, secondary structure, nonstructural doors/panels, landing gear, engine, furl, etc.) were systematically removed to quantify their effects on overall vibratory response of the airframe. The entire effort was planned and documented, and the results reviewed by NASA and industry experts in order to ensure scientific control of the testing, analysis, and correlation exercise. In particular, secondary structure and damping had significant effects on the frequency response of the airframe above 15 Hz. Also, the nonlinear effects of thrust stiffening and elastomer mounts were significant on the low frequency pylon modes below main rotor 1p (5.4 Hz). The results of the NASTRAN FEM correlations are given.

  17. The system H 2O-NaCl. Part II: Correlations for molar volume, enthalpy, and isobaric heat capacity from 0 to 1000 °C, 1 to 5000 bar, and 0 to 1 XNaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driesner, Thomas

    2007-10-01

    A set of correlations for the volumetric properties and enthalpies of phases in the system H 2O-NaCl as a function of temperature, pressure, and composition has been developed that yields accurate values from 0 to 1000 °C, 1 to 5000 bar, and 0 to 1 XNaCl. The volumetric properties of all fluid phases from low-density vapor to hydrous salt melts and single-phase binary fluids at high pressures and temperatures, can be described by a simple equation V(T,P,X)=VO(n1+n2T,P) i.e., for a given pressure and composition, the molar volume of the solution is related to the molar volume of pure water at the same pressure by a linear scaling of temperature. The parameters n1 and n2 are simple functions of pressure and composition. This linear relation could be demonstrated for all ( P, XNaCl) pairs where accurate volumetric data are available over a sufficiently large temperature interval. Extrapolations over as much as 300 °C predict high temperature data within their experimental uncertainty of 1-2%. With a simple fit of parameters n1 and n2, the vast majority of several thousand experimental data points from the literature can be reproduced within experimental error, including dilute solutions in the compressible region. Although a strict theoretical foundation is lacking, this behavior can phenomenologically be rationalized as reflecting the relation between the linear to near-linear isochores of binary fluids to those of pure water. Accordingly, small deviations from linearity that amount to 0.1-0.2% error in molar volume occur only at low temperatures where the pure water isochores behave non-linearly. This effect is accounted for by introducing a deviation function. Given its high accuracy, the formulation for the molar volumes could be integrated along isotherms-isobars to generate data for the specific enthalpy of binary solutions. In order to allow direct computation rather than numerical integration, a correlation scheme was developed that is mathematically similar

  18. Dynamic virtual fixture on the Euclidean group for admittance-type manipulator in deforming environments

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In a deforming anatomic environment, the motion of an instrument suffers from complex geometrical and dynamic constraints, robot assisted minimally invasive surgery therefore requires more sophisticated skills for surgeons. This paper proposes a novel dynamic virtual fixture (DVF) to enhance the surgical operation accuracy of admittance-type medical robotics in the deforming environment. Methods A framework for DVF on the Euclidean Group SE(3) is presented, which unites rotation and translation in a compact form. First, we constructed the holonomic/non-holonomic constraints, and then searched for the corresponded reference to make a distinction between preferred and non-preferred directions. Second, different control strategies are employed to deal with the tasks along the distinguished directions. The desired spatial compliance matrix is synthesized from an allowable motion screw set to filter out the task unrelated components from manual input, the operator has complete control over the preferred directions; while the relative motion between the surgical instrument and the anatomy structures is actively tracked and cancelled, the deviation relative to the reference is compensated jointly by the operator and DVF controllers. The operator, haptic device, admittance-type proxy and virtual deforming environment are involved in a hardware-in-the-loop experiment, human-robot cooperation with the assistance of DVF controller is carried out on a deforming sphere to simulate beating heart surgery, performance of the proposed DVF on admittance-type proxy is evaluated, and both human factors and control parameters are analyzed. Results The DVF can improve the dynamic properties of human-robot cooperation in a low-frequency (0 ~ 40 rad/sec) deforming environment, and maintain synergy of orientation and translation during the operation. Statistical analysis reveals that the operator has intuitive control over the preferred directions, human and the DVF

  19. Sex Difference in Cue Strategy in a Modified Version of the Morris Water Task: Correlations between Brain and Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Keeley, Robin J.; Tyndall, Amanda V.; Scott, Gavin A.; Saucier, Deborah M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sex differences in spatial memory function have been reported with mixed results in the literature, with some studies showing male advantages and others showing no differences. When considering estrus cycle in females, results are mixed at to whether high or low circulating estradiol results in an advantage in spatial navigation tasks. Research involving humans and rodents has demonstrated males preferentially employ Euclidean strategies and utilize geometric cues in order to spatially navigate, whereas females employ landmark strategies and cues in order to spatially navigate. Methodology/Principal Findings This study used the water-based snowcone maze in order to assess male and female preference for landmark or geometric cues, with specific emphasis placed on the effects of estrus cycle phase for female rat. Performance and preference for the geometric cue was examined in relation to total hippocampal and hippocampal subregions (CA1&2, CA3 and dentate gyrus) volumes and entorhinal cortex thickness in order to determine the relation between strategy and spatial performance and brain area size. The study revealed that males outperformed females overall during training trials, relied on the geometric cue when the platform was moved and showed significant correlations between entorhinal cortex thickness and spatial memory performance. No gross differences in behavioural performance was observed within females when accounting for cyclicity, and only total hippocampal volume was correlated with performance during the learning trials. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates the sex-specific use of cues and brain areas in a spatial learning task. PMID:23874990

  20. Bivalve fouling of nuclear power plant service-water systems. Volume 1. Correlation of bivalve biological characteristics and raw-water system design

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A.; Johnson, K.I.; Page, T.L.; Young, J.S.; Daling, P.M.

    1984-12-01

    Fouling of raw-water systems in nuclear power plants in the US can affect the safe operation of a power plant. This report describes correlations between the biology of bivalve organisms and the design and operation of power plants that allow bivalves to enter and reside in nuclear power plants. Discussions are focused on safety-related raw-water systems subject to fouling by the Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea), the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), and the American oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Score sheets to rate fouling potential of power plant systems and components are provided.

  1. Multi-resolutional shape features via non-Euclidean wavelets: Applications to statistical analysis of cortical thickness

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won Hwa; Singh, Vikas; Chung, Moo K.; Hinrichs, Chris; Pachauri, Deepti; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Johnson, Sterling C.

    2014-01-01

    Statistical analysis on arbitrary surface meshes such as the cortical surface is an important approach to understanding brain diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Surface analysis may be able to identify specific cortical patterns that relate to certain disease characteristics or exhibit differences between groups. Our goal in this paper is to make group analysis of signals on surfaces more sensitive. To do this, we derive multi-scale shape descriptors that characterize the signal around each mesh vertex, i.e., its local context, at varying levels of resolution. In order to define such a shape descriptor, we make use of recent results from harmonic analysis that extend traditional continuous wavelet theory from the Euclidean to a non-Euclidean setting (i.e., a graph, mesh or network). Using this descriptor, we conduct experiments on two different datasets, the Alzheimer’s Disease NeuroImaging Initiative (ADNI) data and images acquired at the Wisconsin Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center (W-ADRC), focusing on individuals labeled as having Alzheimer’s disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls. In particular, we contrast traditional univariate methods with our multi-resolution approach which show increased sensitivity and improved statistical power to detect a group-level effects. We also provide an open source implementation. PMID:24614060

  2. Data correlation and analysis of arc tunnel and wind tunnel tests of RSI joints and gaps, phase 2. Volume 1: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cristensen, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    Heat transfer data measured in gaps representative of those being employed for joints in the space shuttle reusable surface insulation (RSI) thermal protection systems (TPS) were assimilated, analyzed, and correlated. Several types of gap were investigated with emphasis on simple butt joints. Gap widths ranged from 0.0 to 0.76 cm and depths ranged from 1 to 6 cm. Laminar, transitional, and turbulent boundary layer flows over the gap opening were investigated. The angle between gap axis and external flow was varied between 0 and pi/2 radians. The contoured cross section gap performed significantly better than all other wide gaps and slightly better than all other narrow gap geometries. Three dimensional heating variations were observed within gaps in the absence of external flow pressure gradients. Interactions between heating within gaps and heating of adjacent top tile surfaces were observed. Gaps aligned with the flow were observed to promote boundary layer transition. Heat transfer correlation equations were obtained for many of the tests. The TPS thickness requirements with and without gaps were computed for a current shuttle entry trajectory. Experimental data employed in the study are summarized. A description of each test facility, run schedule and test conditions, model descriptive information, and heat flux data are included.

  3. Correlators at large c without information loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galliani, Andrea; Giusto, Stefano; Moscato, Emanuele; Russo, Rodolfo

    2016-09-01

    We study a simple class of correlators with two heavy and two light operators both in the D1D5 CFT and in the dual AdS3 × S 3 × T 4 description. On the CFT side we focus on the free orbifold point and discuss how these correlators decompose in terms of conformal blocks, showing that they are determined by protected quantities. On the gravity side, the heavy states are described by regular, asymptotically AdS3 × S 3 × T 4 solutions and the correlators are obtained by studying the wave equation in these backgrounds. We find that the CFT and the gravity results agree and that, even in the large central charge limit, these correlators do not have (Euclidean) spurious singularities. We suggest that this is indeed a general feature of the heavy-light correlators in unitary CFTs, which can be relevant for understanding how information is encoded in black hole microstates.

  4. Population-based estimation of renal function in healthy young Indian adults based on body mass index and sex correlating renal volume, serum creatinine, and cystatin C

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, Prashanth; Abraham, Georgi; Reddy, Yuvaram NV; Lakshmanasami, Ravivarman; Prakash, ML; Reddy, Yogesh NV

    2016-01-01

    This population-based prospective study was undertaken in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College to estimate the renal function in young healthy Indian adults. A young healthy heterogeneous Indian cohort comprising 978 individuals, predominantly medical students, was assessed by a detailed questionnaire, and variables such as height, weight, body mass index (BMI), birth weight, and blood pressure were documented. Laboratory investigations included serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, blood sugar, urine protein, and imaging of the kidneys with ultrasound. The mean age of the cohort was 25±6 years, comprising 672 males and 306 females. The estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) by the Cockcroft–Gault formula for BMI <18.5 kg/m2, 18.5–24.99 kg/m2, 25–29.99 kg/m2, and ≥30 kg/m2 were 71.29±10.45 mL/min, 86.38±13.46 mL/min, 98.88±15.29 mL/min, and 109.13±21.57 mL/min, respectively; the eGFRs using cystatin C for the four groups of BMI were 84.53±18.14 mL/min, 84.01±40.11 mL/min, 79.18±13.46 mL/min, and 77.30±10.90 mL/min, respectively. This study attempts to establish a normal range of serum creatinine and cystatin C values for the Indian population and shows that in young healthy Indian adults, eGFR and kidney volume vary by BMI and sex. PMID:27729810

  5. Wavelet-Based 3D Reconstruction of Microcalcification Clusters from Two Mammographic Views: New Evidence That Fractal Tumors Are Malignant and Euclidean Tumors Are Benign

    PubMed Central

    Batchelder, Kendra A.; Tanenbaum, Aaron B.; Albert, Seth; Guimond, Lyne; Kestener, Pierre; Arneodo, Alain; Khalil, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The 2D Wavelet-Transform Modulus Maxima (WTMM) method was used to detect microcalcifications (MC) in human breast tissue seen in mammograms and to characterize the fractal geometry of benign and malignant MC clusters. This was done in the context of a preliminary analysis of a small dataset, via a novel way to partition the wavelet-transform space-scale skeleton. For the first time, the estimated 3D fractal structure of a breast lesion was inferred by pairing the information from two separate 2D projected mammographic views of the same breast, i.e. the cranial-caudal (CC) and mediolateral-oblique (MLO) views. As a novelty, we define the “CC-MLO fractal dimension plot”, where a “fractal zone” and “Euclidean zones” (non-fractal) are defined. 118 images (59 cases, 25 malignant and 34 benign) obtained from a digital databank of mammograms with known radiologist diagnostics were analyzed to determine which cases would be plotted in the fractal zone and which cases would fall in the Euclidean zones. 92% of malignant breast lesions studied (23 out of 25 cases) were in the fractal zone while 88% of the benign lesions were in the Euclidean zones (30 out of 34 cases). Furthermore, a Bayesian statistical analysis shows that, with 95% credibility, the probability that fractal breast lesions are malignant is between 74% and 98%. Alternatively, with 95% credibility, the probability that Euclidean breast lesions are benign is between 76% and 96%. These results support the notion that the fractal structure of malignant tumors is more likely to be associated with an invasive behavior into the surrounding tissue compared to the less invasive, Euclidean structure of benign tumors. Finally, based on indirect 3D reconstructions from the 2D views, we conjecture that all breast tumors considered in this study, benign and malignant, fractal or Euclidean, restrict their growth to 2-dimensional manifolds within the breast tissue. PMID:25222610

  6. Automated detection and interpretation of spectral information using cross-correlation, millilitre volumes, pneumatic nebulization sample introduction and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry with photodiode array detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanassios, V.; Drouin, P. J.; Spiers, G. A.

    1998-08-01

    A method for automated detection and interpretation of spectral information from ˜230 nm spectral windows, millilitre volume samples for 15 elements is presented. The basic approach involves cross-correlation of a spectral pattern obtained by running laboratory prepared multi-element `unknowns' with a reference spectral pattern obtained by running a single element standard. From the resultant cross-correlogram, it can be decided whether or not the sought-for reference spectral pattern (and the corresponding element) are present in the unknown. Spectral patterns were acquired using an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) system equipped with a linear, 1024-element, photo-diode array (Leco, Plasmarray). Reference spectral patterns for Al, Au, Be, Cd, Cu, Ga, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pd, Si, Sc, Y, Sr and Zn were converted to noise-free and interference-free binary software masks and, subsequently, to analogue software masks. Cross-correlation of the analogue masks with spectral patterns acquired by running multi-element unknowns is discussed, an algorithm that does not rely on fast Fourier transforms (FFT) to calculate cross-correlations is presented and a context-sensitive, colour-coded and interrogatable periodic table graphical user-interface that presents the likely composition of an unknown on the computer screen is described in detail.

  7. Correlation spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Pfeifer, Kent B.; Flemming, Jeb H.; Jones, Gary D.; Tigges, Chris P.

    2010-04-13

    A correlation spectrometer can detect a large number of gaseous compounds, or chemical species, with a species-specific mask wheel. In this mode, the spectrometer is optimized for the direct measurement of individual target compounds. Additionally, the spectrometer can measure the transmission spectrum from a given sample of gas. In this mode, infrared light is passed through a gas sample and the infrared transmission signature of the gasses present is recorded and measured using Hadamard encoding techniques. The spectrometer can detect the transmission or emission spectra in any system where multiple species are present in a generally known volume.

  8. Critical probability of percolation over bounded region in N-dimensional Euclidean space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roubin, Emmanuel; Colliat, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-03-01

    Following Tomita and Murakami (Research of Pattern Formation ed R Takaki (Tokyo: KTK Scientific Publishers) pp 197-203) we propose an analytical model to predict the critical probability of percolation. It is based on the excursion set theory which allows us to consider N-dimensional bounded regions. Details are given for the three-dimensional (3D) case and statistically representative volume elements are calculated. Finally, generalisation to the N-dimensional case is made.

  9. Integrative Analysis of mRNA, microRNA, and Protein Correlates of Relative Cerebral Blood Volume Values in GBM Reveals the Role for Modulators of Angiogenesis and Tumor Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Arvind; Manyam, Ganiraju; Rao, Ganesh; Jain, Rajan

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is routinely used to provide hemodynamic assessment of brain tumors as a diagnostic as well as a prognostic tool. Recently, it was shown that the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), obtained from the contrast-enhancing as well as -nonenhancing portion of glioblastoma (GBM), is strongly associated with overall survival. In this study, we aim to characterize the genomic correlates (microRNA, messenger RNA, and protein) of this vascular parameter. This study aims to provide a comprehensive radiogenomic and radioproteomic characterization of the hemodynamic phenotype of GBM using publicly available imaging and genomic data from the Cancer Genome Atlas GBM cohort. Based on this analysis, we identified pathways associated with angiogenesis and tumor proliferation underlying this hemodynamic parameter in GBM. PMID:27053917

  10. Maxillary versus mandibular arch form differences in human permanent dentition assessed by Euclidean-distance matrix analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Miani, A; Tartaglia, G

    1994-02-01

    Euclidean-distance matrix analysis (EDMA) was used to analyse the dental arch form in 50 men and 45 women aged 20-27 yr with sound dentitions. Fourteen landmarks, corresponding to the centres of gravity (centroids) of the occlusal surfaces of all permanent teeth (right second molar to left second molar), were identified on the dental casts of subjects. All the possible linear distances between pairs of teeth were computed and maxillary/mandibular arch differences within sex were tested by EDMA. In both sexes, the maxillary arch was larger than the mandibular arch; arch shape was also significantly different. All teeth contributed to the shape difference between arches regardless of gender. EDMA also separated the influence of anterior and posterior teeth in the determination of upper/lower arch characteristics.

  11. Classification of normal and epileptic seizure EEG signals using wavelet transform, phase-space reconstruction, and Euclidean distance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hong; Lim, Joon S; Kim, Jae-Kwon; Yang, Junggi; Lee, Youngho

    2014-08-01

    This paper proposes new combined methods to classify normal and epileptic seizure EEG signals using wavelet transform (WT), phase-space reconstruction (PSR), and Euclidean distance (ED) based on a neural network with weighted fuzzy membership functions (NEWFM). WT, PSR, ED, and statistical methods that include frequency distributions and variation, were implemented to extract 24 initial features to use as inputs. Of the 24 initial features, 4 minimum features with the highest accuracy were selected using a non-overlap area distribution measurement method supported by the NEWFM. These 4 minimum features were used as inputs for the NEWFM and this resulted in performance sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 96.33%, 100%, and 98.17%, respectively. In addition, the area under Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was used to measure the performances of NEWFM both without and with feature selections.

  12. Correlative Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, T. L.; McDonald, S. A.; Gholinia, A.; Geurts, R.; Janus, M.; Slater, T.; Haigh, S. J.; Ornek, C.; Almuaili, F.; Engelberg, D. L.; Thompson, G. E.; Withers, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly researchers are looking to bring together perspectives across multiple scales, or to combine insights from different techniques, for the same region of interest. To this end, correlative microscopy has already yielded substantial new insights in two dimensions (2D). Here we develop correlative tomography where the correlative task is somewhat more challenging because the volume of interest is typically hidden beneath the sample surface. We have threaded together x-ray computed tomography, serial section FIB-SEM tomography, electron backscatter diffraction and finally TEM elemental analysis all for the same 3D region. This has allowed observation of the competition between pitting corrosion and intergranular corrosion at multiple scales revealing the structural hierarchy, crystallography and chemistry of veiled corrosion pits in stainless steel. With automated correlative workflows and co-visualization of the multi-scale or multi-modal datasets the technique promises to provide insights across biological, geological and materials science that are impossible using either individual or multiple uncorrelated techniques. PMID:24736640

  13. Correlative Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, T. L.; McDonald, S. A.; Gholinia, A.; Geurts, R.; Janus, M.; Slater, T.; Haigh, S. J.; Ornek, C.; Almuaili, F.; Engelberg, D. L.; Thompson, G. E.; Withers, P. J.

    2014-04-01

    Increasingly researchers are looking to bring together perspectives across multiple scales, or to combine insights from different techniques, for the same region of interest. To this end, correlative microscopy has already yielded substantial new insights in two dimensions (2D). Here we develop correlative tomography where the correlative task is somewhat more challenging because the volume of interest is typically hidden beneath the sample surface. We have threaded together x-ray computed tomography, serial section FIB-SEM tomography, electron backscatter diffraction and finally TEM elemental analysis all for the same 3D region. This has allowed observation of the competition between pitting corrosion and intergranular corrosion at multiple scales revealing the structural hierarchy, crystallography and chemistry of veiled corrosion pits in stainless steel. With automated correlative workflows and co-visualization of the multi-scale or multi-modal datasets the technique promises to provide insights across biological, geological and materials science that are impossible using either individual or multiple uncorrelated techniques.

  14. Discrete color-based Euclidean-invariant signatures for feature tracking in a DIET breast cancer screening system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. G.; Hann, C. E.; Chase, J. Geoffrey; Ray, L. A.

    2007-03-01

    A Digital Image-based Elasto-Tomography (DIET) system for breast cancer screening has been proposed in which the elastic properties of breast tissue are recovered by solving an inverse problem on the surface motion of a breast under low frequency (50-100 Hz) mechanical actuation. The proposed means for capturing the surface motion of the breast in 3D is to use a stroboscope to capture images from multiple digital cameras at preselected phase angles. Photogrammetric techniques are then used to reconstruct matched point features in 3D. Since human skin lacks high contrast visual features, it is necessary to introduce artificial fiducials which can be easily extracted from digital images. The chosen fiducials are points in three different colours in differing proportions randomly applied to the skin surface. A three-dimensional signature which is invariant to locally Euclidean transformations between images is defined on the points of the lowest proportion colour. The approximate local Euclidean invariance between adjacent frames enables these points to be matched using this signature. The remaining points are matched by interpolating the transformation of the matched points. This algorithm has significant performance gains over conventional gradient-based tracking algorithms because it utilises the intrinsic problem geometry. Successful results are presented for simulated image sequences and for images of a mechanically actuated viscoelastic gel phantom with tracking errors within 3 pixels. The errors in the phantom sequence correspond to less than 0.3 mm error in space, which is more than sufficient accuracy for the DIET system.

  15. Effects of Selected Filmic Coding Elements of TV on the Development of the Euclidean Concepts of Horizontality and Verticality in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Beth Eloise

    This study was conducted to determine whether the filmic coding elements of split screen, slow motion, generated line cues, the zoom of a camera, and rotation could aid in the development of the Euclidean space concepts of horizontality and verticality, and to explore presence and development of spatial skills involving these two concepts in…

  16. Large volume behaviour of Yang-Mills propagators

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Christian S. Maas, Axel; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Smekal, Lorenz von

    2007-12-15

    We investigate finite volume effects in the propagators of Landau gauge Yang-Mills theory using Dyson-Schwinger equations on a 4-dimensional torus. In particular, we demonstrate explicitly how the solutions for the gluon and the ghost propagator tend towards their respective infinite volume forms in the corresponding limit. This solves an important open problem of previous studies where the infinite volume limit led to an apparent mismatch, especially of the infrared behaviour, between torus extrapolations and the existing infinite volume solutions obtained in 4-dimensional Euclidean space-time. However, the correct infinite volume limit is approached rather slowly. The typical scales necessary to see the onset of the leading infrared behaviour emerging already imply volumes of at least 10-15 fm in lengths. To reliably extract the infrared exponents of the infinite volume solutions requires even much larger ones. While the volumes in the Monte-Carlo simulations available at present are far too small to facilitate that, we obtain a good qualitative agreement of our torus solutions with recent lattice data in comparable volumes.

  17. Volumic visual perception: principally novel concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Valery

    1996-01-01

    The general concept of volumic view (VV) as a universal property of space is introduced. VV exists in every point of the universe where electromagnetic (EM) waves can reach and a point or a quasi-point receiver (detector) of EM waves can be placed. Classification of receivers is given for the first time. They are classified into three main categories: biological, man-made non-biological, and mathematically specified hypothetical receivers. The principally novel concept of volumic perception is introduced. It differs chiefly from the traditional concept which traces back to Euclid and pre-Euclidean times and much later to Leonardo da Vinci and Giovanni Battista della Porta's discoveries and practical stereoscopy as introduced by C. Wheatstone. The basic idea of novel concept is that humans and animals acquire volumic visual data flows in series rather than in parallel. In this case the brain is free from extremely sophisticated real time parallel processing of two volumic visual data flows in order to combine them. Such procedure seems hardly probable even for humans who are unable to combine two primitive static stereoscopic images in one quicker than in a few seconds. Some people are unable to perform this procedure at all.

  18. Constitutive secretion of soluble interleukin-2 receptor by human T cell lymphoma xenografted into SCID mice. Correlation of tumor volume with concentration of tumor-derived soluble interleukin-2 receptor in body fluids of the host mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wasik, M. A.; Sioutos, N.; Tuttle, M.; Butmarc, J. R.; Kaplan, W. D.; Kadin, M. E.

    1994-01-01

    Increased serum concentration of soluble alpha-chain receptor for interleukin-2 (sIL-2R) has been noted in patients with a variety of inflammatory conditions and lymphoid malignancies including T cell leukemia and lymphoma. Elevated sIL-2R serum levels seen in lymphoid malignancies appear to correlate with the clinical stage of disease. However, because sIL-2R is produced by normal activated lymphocytes, it has been uncertain whether serum sIL-2R in such conditions is derived from tumor cells or normal immune cells responding to the tumor. To address this question, we used a model of human (CD30+) anaplastic, large T cell lymphoma transplanted into immunodeficient SCID mice. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of tumor RNA showed that the tumor, designated mJB6, contains mRNA for alpha-chain of human IL-2R. Furthermore, 15 to 25% of tumor cells stained with anti-human IL-2R alpha-chain mAb. Solid phase ELISA analysis of serum samples from mice bearing mJB6 lymphoma showed high concentrations of human sIL-2R. None of the control mice without lymphoma or with human nonlymphoid tumors (prostatic carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, and glioblastoma multiforme) showed detectable human sIL-2R. The sIL-2R serum titers of mJB6-bearing mice correlated strongly with tumor volume (P < 0.0001). Tumors as small as 0.4 to 0.8 mm3 could be detected by this method. The sensitivity of sIL-2R ELISA exceeded at least 150 times the sensitivity of conventional radioisotopic tumor detection. Total resection of mJB6 tumors resulted in complete clearance of sIL-2R from the murine serum within 48 hours with a half-life of 6 hours. Accordingly, partial resection led to a significant decrease in sIL-2R followed by gradual increase with tumor regrowth. sIL-2R was also detected in the urine of mJB6-transplanted mice. As in serum, urine concentrations of sIL-2R were proportional to tumor mass (P < 0.02). Based on these findings we postulate that malignant cells are a major source of serum

  19. Drug dosage in isolated limb perfusion: evaluation of a limb volume model for extremity volume calculation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Exact drug dosing in isolated limb perfusion (ILP) and infusion (ILI) is essential. We developed and evaluated a model for calculating the volume of extremities and compared this model with body weight- and height-dependent parameters. Methods The extremity was modeled by a row of coupled truncated cones. The sizes of the truncated cone bases were derived from the circumference measurements of the extremity at predefined levels (5 cm). The resulting volumes were added. This extremity volume model was correlated to the computed tomography (CT) volume data of the extremity (total limb volume). The extremity volume was also correlated with the patient’s body weight, body mass index (BMI) and ideal body weight (IBW). The no-fat CT limb volume was correlated with the circumference-measured limb volume corrected by the ideal-body-weight to actual-body-weight ratio (IBW corrected-limb-volume). Results The correlation between the CT volume and the volume measured by the circumference was high and significant. There was no correlation between the limb volume and the bare body weight, BMI or IBW. The correlation between the no-fat CT volume and IBW-corrected limb volume was high and significant. Conclusions An appropriate drug dosing in ILP can be achieved by combining the limb volume with the simple circumference measurements and the IBW to body-weight ratio. PMID:24684972

  20. Shaping of arm configuration space by prescription of non-Euclidean metrics with applications to human motor control.

    PubMed

    Biess, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The study of the kinematic and dynamic features of human arm movements provides insights into the computational strategies underlying human motor control. In this paper a differential geometric approach to movement control is taken by endowing arm configuration space with different non-Euclidean metric structures to study the predictions of the generalized minimum-jerk (MJ) model in the resulting Riemannian manifold for different types of human arm movements. For each metric space the solution of the generalized MJ model is given by reparametrized geodesic paths. This geodesic model is applied to a variety of motor tasks ranging from three-dimensional unconstrained movements of a four degree of freedom arm between pointlike targets to constrained movements where the hand location is confined to a surface (e.g., a sphere) or a curve (e.g., an ellipse). For the latter speed-curvature relations are derived depending on the boundary conditions imposed (periodic or nonperiodic) and the compatibility with the empirical one-third power law is shown. Based on these theoretical studies and recent experimental findings, I argue that geodesics may be an emergent property of the motor system and that the sensorimotor system may shape arm configuration space by learning metric structures through sensorimotor feedback.

  1. Shaping of arm configuration space by prescription of non-Euclidean metrics with applications to human motor control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biess, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The study of the kinematic and dynamic features of human arm movements provides insights into the computational strategies underlying human motor control. In this paper a differential geometric approach to movement control is taken by endowing arm configuration space with different non-Euclidean metric structures to study the predictions of the generalized minimum-jerk (MJ) model in the resulting Riemannian manifold for different types of human arm movements. For each metric space the solution of the generalized MJ model is given by reparametrized geodesic paths. This geodesic model is applied to a variety of motor tasks ranging from three-dimensional unconstrained movements of a four degree of freedom arm between pointlike targets to constrained movements where the hand location is confined to a surface (e.g., a sphere) or a curve (e.g., an ellipse). For the latter speed-curvature relations are derived depending on the boundary conditions imposed (periodic or nonperiodic) and the compatibility with the empirical one-third power law is shown. Based on these theoretical studies and recent experimental findings, I argue that geodesics may be an emergent property of the motor system and that the sensorimotor system may shape arm configuration space by learning metric structures through sensorimotor feedback.

  2. The perception of minimal structures: performance on open and closed versions of visually presented Euclidean travelling salesperson problems.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Douglas; Bovet, Pierre; Lee, Michael D; Hughes, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The planar Euclidean version of the travelling salesperson problem (TSP) requires finding a tour of minimal length through a two-dimensional set of nodes. Despite the computational intractability of the TSP, people can produce rapid, near-optimal solutions to visually presented versions of such problems. To explain this, MacGregor et al (1999, Perception 28 1417-1428) have suggested that people use a global-to-local process, based on a perceptual tendency to organise stimuli into convex figures. We review the evidence for this idea and propose an alternative, local-to-global hypothesis, based on the detection of least distances between the nodes in an array. We present the results of an experiment in which we examined the relationships between three objective measures and performance measures of optimality and response uncertainty in tasks requiring participants to construct a closed tour or an open path. The data are not well accounted for by a process based on the convex hull. In contrast, results are generally consistent with a locally focused process based initially on the detection of nearest-neighbour clusters. Individual differences are interpreted in terms of a hierarchical process of constructing solutions, and the findings are related to a more general analysis of the role of nearest neighbours in the perception of structure and motion. PMID:12974572

  3. Multi-resolution Shape Analysis via Non-Euclidean Wavelets: Applications to Mesh Segmentation and Surface Alignment Problems.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Hwa; Chung, Moo K; Singh, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of 3-D shape meshes is a fundamental problem in computer vision, graphics, and medical imaging. Frequently, the needs of the application require that our analysis take a multi-resolution view of the shape's local and global topology, and that the solution is consistent across multiple scales. Unfortunately, the preferred mathematical construct which offers this behavior in classical image/signal processing, Wavelets, is no longer applicable in this general setting (data with non-uniform topology). In particular, the traditional definition does not allow writing out an expansion for graphs that do not correspond to the uniformly sampled lattice (e.g., images). In this paper, we adapt recent results in harmonic analysis, to derive Non-Euclidean Wavelets based algorithms for a range of shape analysis problems in vision and medical imaging. We show how descriptors derived from the dual domain representation offer native multi-resolution behavior for characterizing local/global topology around vertices. With only minor modifications, the framework yields a method for extracting interest/key points from shapes, a surprisingly simple algorithm for 3-D shape segmentation (competitive with state of the art), and a method for surface alignment (without landmarks). We give an extensive set of comparison results on a large shape segmentation benchmark and derive a uniqueness theorem for the surface alignment problem.

  4. Analytical properties of the quark propagator from a truncated Dyson-Schwinger equation in complex Euclidean space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorkin, S. M.; Kaptari, L. P.; Hilger, T.; Kämpfer, B.

    2014-03-01

    In view of the mass spectrum of heavy mesons in vacuum, the analytical properties of the solutions of the truncated Dyson-Schwinger equation for the quark propagator within the rainbow approximation are analyzed in some detail. In Euclidean space, the quark propagator is not an analytical function possessing, in general, an infinite number of singularities (poles) which hamper solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation. However, for light mesons (with masses Mqq ¯≤1 GeV) all singularities are located outside the region within which the Bethe-Salpeter equation is defined. With an increase of the considered meson masses this region enlarges and already at masses ≥1 GeV, the poles of propagators of u, d, and s quarks fall within the integration domain of the Bethe-Salpeter equation. Nevertheless, it is established that for meson masses up to Mqq ¯≃3 GeV only the first, mutually complex conjugated poles contribute to the solution. We argue that, by knowing the position of the poles and their residues, a reliable parametrization of the quark propagators can be found and used in numerical procedures of solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation. Our analysis is directly related to the future physics program at FAIR with respect to open charm degrees of freedom.

  5. On complexity of the mixed volume of parallelograms

    SciTech Connect

    Gurvits, Leonid

    2009-01-01

    Let K = (K{sub 1}...K{sub n}) be a n-tuple of convex compact subsets in the Euclidean space R{sup n}, and let V({center_dot}) be the Euclidean volume in R{sup n}. It is well known Herman Minkowski result (see for instance 5), that the value of the V{sub K}({gamma}{sub 1}K{sub 1} + ... {gamma}{sub n}K{sub n}) is a homogeneous polynomial of degree n, called the Minkowski polynomial, in nonnegative variables {gamma}{sub 1}...{gamma}{sub n1}, where '+' denotes Minkowski sum, and {gamma}K denotes the dilatation of K with coefficient {gamma}. The coefficient V(K{sub 1}...K{sub n}) of {gamma}{sub 1}{center_dot}{gamma}{sub 2}...{center_dot}{gamma}{sub n} is called the mixed volume of K{sub 1}...K{sub n}. Alternatively, V(K{sub 1}...K{sub n}) = ({partial_derivative}{sup n} / {partial_derivative}{gamma}{sub 1}...{partial_derivative}{gamma}{sub n})V{sub K}({gamma}{sub 1}K{sub 1}+...{gamma}{sub n}K{sub n}).

  6. Euclidean time formulation for the superstring ensembles: Perturbative canonical ensemble with Neveu-Schwarz B -field backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Shyamoli

    2014-12-01

    We derive the Euclidean time formulation for the equilibrium canonical ensemble of the type IIA and type IIB superstrings, and the spin(32 )/Z2 heterotic string. We compactify on R8×T2 , and twist by the Neveu-Schwarz sector antisymmetric 2-form B -field potential, spontaneously breaking supersymmetry at low temperatures, while preserving the tachyon-free low-energy gravitational field theory limit. We verify that the super partners of the massless dilaton-graviton multiplet obtain a mass which is linear in the temperature. In addition, we show that the free energy for the superstring canonical ensemble at weak coupling is always strongly convergent in the ultraviolet, high-temperature, regime dominated by the highest mass level number states. We derive the precise form of the exponential suppression as a linear power of the mass level, which erases the exponential Hagedorn growth of the degeneracies as the square root of mass level number. Finally, we close a gap in previous research giving an unambiguous derivation of the normalization of the one-loop vacuum energy density of the spin(32 )/Z2 perturbative heterotic string theory. Invoking the O(32) type IB-heterotic strong-weak duality, we match the normalization of the one loop vacuum energy densities of the T -dual O(32) type IA open and closed string with that of the spin(32 )/Z2 heterotic string on R9×S1 , for values of the compactification radius, R[O (32 )] , RIB≫ α'1 /2 , with RIA<α'1 /2 . We show that the type IA thermal solitonic winding spectrum is a simple model for finite temperature pure QCD, transitioning above the critical duality phase transformation temperature to the deconfined ensemble of thermally excited IB gluons.

  7. Quantum volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, V. A.

    2015-08-01

    Quantum systems in a mechanical embedding, the breathing mode of a small particles, optomechanical system, etc. are far not the full list of examples in which the volume exhibits quantum behavior. Traditional consideration suggests strain in small systems as a result of a collective movement of particles, rather than the dynamics of the volume as an independent variable. The aim of this work is to show that some problem here might be essentially simplified by introducing periodic boundary conditions. At this case, the volume is considered as the independent dynamical variable driven by the internal pressure. For this purpose, the concept of quantum volume based on Schrödinger’s equation in 𝕋3 manifold is proposed. It is used to explore several 1D model systems: An ensemble of free particles under external pressure, quantum manometer and a quantum breathing mode. In particular, the influence of the pressure of free particle on quantum oscillator is determined. It is shown also that correction to the spectrum of the breathing mode due to internal degrees of freedom is determined by the off-diagonal matrix elements of the quantum stress. The new treatment not using the “force” theorem is proposed for the quantum stress tensor. In the general case of flexible quantum 3D dynamics, quantum deformations of different type might be introduced similarly to monopole mode.

  8. Euclidean Geometry via Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filimonov, Rossen; Kreith, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Plane Geometry System computer software developed at the Educational Computer Systems laboratory in Sofia, Bulgaria. The system enables students to use the concept of "algorithm" to correspond to the process of "deductive proof" in the development of plane geometry. Provides an example of the software's capability and compares it to…

  9. Estimation of myocardial volume at risk from CT angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liangjia; Gao, Yi; Mohan, Vandana; Stillman, Arthur; Faber, Tracy; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2011-03-01

    The determination of myocardial volume at risk distal to coronary stenosis provides important information for prognosis and treatment of coronary artery disease. In this paper, we present a novel computational framework for estimating the myocardial volume at risk in computed tomography angiography (CTA) imagery. Initially, epicardial and endocardial surfaces, and coronary arteries are extracted using an active contour method. Then, the extracted coronary arteries are projected onto the epicardial surface, and each point on this surface is associated with its closest coronary artery using the geodesic distance measurement. The likely myocardial region at risk on the epicardial surface caused by a stenosis is approximated by the region in which all its inner points are associated with the sub-branches distal to the stenosis on the coronary artery tree. Finally, the likely myocardial volume at risk is approximated by the volume in between the region at risk on the epicardial surface and its projection on the endocardial surface, which is expected to yield computational savings over risk volume estimation using the entire image volume. Furthermore, we expect increased accuracy since, as compared to prior work using the Euclidean distance, we employ the geodesic distance in this work. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach on pig heart CTA datasets.

  10. Associative memory architecture for word-parallel smallest Euclidean distance search using distance mapping into clock-number domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akazawa, Toshinobu; Sasaki, Seiryu; Jürgen Mattausch, Hans

    2014-01-01

    A scalable word-parallel associative memory for smallest Euclidean distance (ED) search is presented. Due to the applied concept of distance to clock-number mapping, the reported architecture is digital in nature and scalable to advanced technology. Furthermore, the reference data of feature vectors can be scaled in principle to any vector dimension and number. Handling of the numerical complexity of the ED without large consumption of Silicon area is achieved by an area-efficient circuit, which uses the same adder for absolute-difference calculation of vector components and subsequent square calculation by sequential addition of partial products. Additionally, a clock-number minimization algorithm is proposed to significantly reduce the clock-number needed for the search when the smallest ED is a large value. The concept of the proposed architecture has been experimentally verified by measurement results from real chips fabricated in a 180 nm CMOS technology, in which the architecture is configured for parallel smallest ED search among 32 reference vectors with each vector having 16 8-bit elements. For the application example of codebook-based data compression, the fabricated test chip achieved 1.19 µs average search time, 5.77 µs worst-case search time and low power consumption of 8.75 mW at the maximum clock frequency of 47 MHz and nominal power supply voltage Vdd = 1.8 V. At reduced power supply voltage Vdd = 1.2 V, a smaller power consumption of 2.80 mW at an also smaller maximum clock frequency of 24 MHz is measured. In comparison to previous analog-digital architecture, a reduction of the normalized power-delay product per matching operation by about a factor 1.6 at Vdd = 1.8 V (about factor 2.5 at Vdd = 1.2 V) is obtained with best-case data for the analog-digital architecture and average-case data for the proposed fully-digital architecture.

  11. Intensity Thresholds on Raw Acceleration Data: Euclidean Norm Minus One (ENMO) and Mean Amplitude Deviation (MAD) Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Bakrania, Kishan; Yates, Thomas; Rowlands, Alex V.; Esliger, Dale W.; Bunnewell, Sarah; Sanders, James; Davies, Melanie; Khunti, Kamlesh; Edwardson, Charlotte L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (1) To develop and internally-validate Euclidean Norm Minus One (ENMO) and Mean Amplitude Deviation (MAD) thresholds for separating sedentary behaviours from common light-intensity physical activities using raw acceleration data collected from both hip- and wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometers; and (2) to compare and evaluate the performances between the ENMO and MAD metrics. Methods Thirty-three adults [mean age (standard deviation (SD)) = 27.4 (5.9) years; mean BMI (SD) = 23.9 (3.7) kg/m2; 20 females (60.6%)] wore four accelerometers; an ActiGraph GT3X+ and a GENEActiv on the right hip; and an ActiGraph GT3X+ and a GENEActiv on the non-dominant wrist. Under laboratory-conditions, participants performed 16 different activities (11 sedentary behaviours and 5 light-intensity physical activities) for 5 minutes each. ENMO and MAD were computed from the raw acceleration data, and logistic regression and receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analyses were implemented to derive thresholds for activity discrimination. Areas under ROC curves (AUROC) were calculated to summarise performances and thresholds were assessed via executing leave-one-out-cross-validations. Results For both hip and wrist monitor placements, in comparison to the ActiGraph GT3X+ monitors, the ENMO and MAD values derived from the GENEActiv devices were observed to be slightly higher, particularly for the lower-intensity activities. Monitor-specific hip and wrist ENMO and MAD thresholds showed excellent ability for separating sedentary behaviours from motion-based light-intensity physical activities (in general, AUROCs >0.95), with validation indicating robustness. However, poor classification was experienced when attempting to isolate standing still from sedentary behaviours (in general, AUROCs <0.65). The ENMO and MAD metrics tended to perform similarly across activities and accelerometer brands. Conclusions Researchers can utilise these robust monitor-specific hip and wrist ENMO and MAD

  12. Correlation metric for generalized feature extraction.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yun; Yan, Shuicheng; Huang, Thomas S

    2008-12-01

    Beyond conventional linear and kernel-based feature extraction, we propose in this paper the generalized feature extraction formulation based on the so-called Graph Embedding framework. Two novel correlation metric based algorithms are presented based on this formulation. Correlation Embedding Analysis (CEA), which incorporates both correlational mapping and discriminating analysis, boosts the discriminating power by mapping data from a high-dimensional hypersphere onto another low-dimensional hypersphere and preserving the intrinsic neighbor relations with local graph modeling. Correlational Principal Component Analysis (CPCA) generalizes the conventional Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm to the case with data distributed on a high-dimensional hypersphere. Their advantages stem from two facts: 1) tailored to normalized data, which are often the outputs from the data preprocessing step, and 2) directly designed with correlation metric, which shows to be generally better than Euclidean distance for classification purpose. Extensive comparisons with existing algorithms on visual classification experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. PMID:18988954

  13. Validation of origins of tea samples using partial least squares analysis and Euclidean distance method with near-infrared spectroscopy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wei; Zhou, Jian; Cheng, Hao; Wang, Liyuan; Wei, Kang; Wang, Weifeng; Li, Xinghui

    2012-02-01

    In today's global food markets, the ability to trace the origins of agricultural products is becoming increasingly important. We developed an efficient procedure for validating the authenticity and origin of tea samples where Partial Least Squares and Euclidean Distance methods, based on near-infrared spectroscopy data, were combined to classify tea samples from different tea producing areas. Four models for identification of authenticity of tea samples were constructed and utilized in our two-step procedure. High accuracy rates of 98.60%, 97.90%, 97.55%, and 99.83% for the calibration set, and 97.19%, 97.54%, 97.83%, 100% for test set, were achieved. After the first identification step, employing the four origin authenticity models, followed by the second step using the Euclidean Distance method, accuracy rates for specific origin identification were 98.43% in the calibration set and 96.84% in the test set. This method, employing two-step analysis of multi-origin model, accurately identified the origin of tea samples collected in four different areas. This study provided a potential reference method for the detection of "geographical indication" of agricultural products' and is available for use in traceability of origin studies.

  14. Correlation of full-scale drag predictions with flight measurements on the C-141A aircraft : Phase 2: Wind tunnel tests, analysis, and prediction techniques. Volume 2: Wind tunnel test and basic data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macwilkinson, D. G.; Blackerby, W. T.; Paterson, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    A research program has been conducted to determine the degree of cruise drag correlation on the C-141A aircraft between predictions based on wind tunnel test data, and flight test results. Information is presented on the wind tunnel test program and basic aerodynamic data on the C-141A wind-tunnel model used in the correlation studies.

  15. The newly developed three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) thyroid ultrasound are strongly correlated, but 2D overestimates thyroid volume in the presence of nodules.

    PubMed

    Rago, T; Bencivelli, W; Scutari, M; Di Cosmo, C; Rizzo, C; Berti, P; Miccoli, P; Pinchera, A; Vitti, P

    2006-05-01

    The newly developed three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) thyroid ultrasound (US) were compared in assessing thyroid volume (TV) in 104 patients: 53 had an isolated thyroid nodule, 32 toxic diffuse goiter, 17 non-toxic multinodular goiter, 1 toxic multinodular goiter and 1 a toxic adenoma. A real-time Technos apparatus (Esaote SpA, Italy) with a 7,5 MHz linear transducer was used. The volume of thyroid lobes by 2D was calculated according to the ellipsoid formula. In the same session, TV by 3D US was calculated using a probe tracking system (in vivo ScanNT Esaote 3.4 MedCom. Darmasdt) and software to reconstruct 3D images, directly giving the lobe volume. There was a very good agreement between 2D and 3D, but in 94/208 lobes with nodular lesions 2D showed a 10% systematic overestimation compared to 3D, the percentage error being higher in lobes with lower volumes. A possible explanation for this result is the inadequacy of the ellipsoid formula in forecasting the correct lobe profile in the presence of nodules. This intrinsic defect of 2D US should be taken into account when evaluating TV in patients with nodular goiter.

  16. Analytical estimation of the correlation dimension of integer lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Lacasa, Lucas; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2014-12-01

    Recently [L. Lacasa and J. Gómez-Gardeñes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 168703 (2013)], a fractal dimension has been proposed to characterize the geometric structure of networks. This measure is an extension to graphs of the so called correlation dimension, originally proposed by Grassberger and Procaccia to describe the geometry of strange attractors in dissipative chaotic systems. The calculation of the correlation dimension of a graph is based on the local information retrieved from a random walker navigating the network. In this contribution, we study such quantity for some limiting synthetic spatial networks and obtain analytical results on agreement with the previously reported numerics. In particular, we show that up to first order, the correlation dimension β of integer lattices ℤ{sup d} coincides with the Haussdorf dimension of their coarsely equivalent Euclidean spaces, β = d.

  17. Cochlear labyrinth volume in Krapina Neandertals.

    PubMed

    Beals, Michaela E; Frayer, David W; Radovčić, Jakov; Hill, Cheryl A

    2016-01-01

    Research with extant primate taxa suggests that cochlear labyrinth volume is functionally related to the range of audible frequencies. Specifically, cochlear volume is negatively correlated with both the high and low frequency limits of hearing so that the smaller the cochlea, the higher the normal range of audible frequencies. The close anatomical relationship between the membranous cochlea and the bony cochlear labyrinth allows for the determination of cochlear size from fossil specimens. This study compares Krapina Neandertal cochlear volumes to extant taxa cochlear volumes. Cochlear volumes were acquired from high-resolution computed tomography scans of temporal bones of Krapina Neandertals, chimpanzees, gorillas, and modern humans. We find that Krapina Neandertals' cochlear volumes are similar to modern Homo sapiens and are significantly larger than chimpanzee and gorilla cochlear volumes. The measured cochlear volume in Krapina Neandertals suggests they had a range of audible frequencies similar to the modern human range. PMID:26603101

  18. Correlation of Gas Permeability in a Metal-Organic Framework MIL-101(Cr)–Polysulfone Mixed-Matrix Membrane with Free Volume Measurements by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS)

    PubMed Central

    Jeazet, Harold B. Tanh; Koschine, Tönjes; Staudt, Claudia; Raetzke, Klaus; Janiak, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Hydrothermally stable particles of the metal-organic framework MIL-101(Cr) were incorporated into a polysulfone (PSF) matrix to produce mixed-matrix or composite membranes with excellent dispersion of MIL-101 particles and good adhesion within the polymer matrix. Pure gas (O2, N2, CO2 and CH4) permeation tests showed a significant increase of gas permeabilities of the mixed-matrix membranes without any loss in selectivity. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) indicated that the increased gas permeability is due to the free volume in the PSF polymer and the added large free volume inside the MIL-101 particles. The trend of the gas transport properties of the composite membranes could be reproduced by a Maxwell model. PMID:24957061

  19. Simulating the Euclidean time Schroedinger equations using an Intel iPSC/860 hypercube: Application to the t-J model of high-{Tc} superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Kovarik, M.D.; Barnes, T. |

    1993-10-01

    We describe a Monte Carlo simulation of a dynamical fermion problem in two spatial dimensions on an Intel iPSC/860 hypercube. The problem studied is the determination of the dispersion relation of a dynamical hole in the t-J model of the high temperature superconductors. Since this problem involves the motion of many fermions in more than one spatial dimensions, it is representative of the class of systems that suffer from the ``minus sign problem`` of dynamical fermions which has made Monte Carlo simulation very difficult. We demonstrate that for small values of the hole hopping parameter one can extract the entire hole dispersion relation using the GRW Monte Carlo algorithm, which is a simulation of the Euclidean time Schroedinger equation, and present results on 4 {times} 4 and 6 {times} 6 lattices. Generalization to physical hopping parameter values wig only require use of an improved trial wavefunction for importance sampling.

  20. Superadditive correlation.

    PubMed

    Giraud, B G; Heumann, J M; Lapedes, A S

    1999-05-01

    The fact that correlation does not imply causation is well known. Correlation between variables at two sites does not imply that the two sites directly interact, because, e.g., correlation between distant sites may be induced by chaining of correlation between a set of intervening, directly interacting sites. Such "noncausal correlation" is well understood in statistical physics: an example is long-range order in spin systems, where spins which have only short-range direct interactions, e.g., the Ising model, display correlation at a distance. It is less well recognized that such long-range "noncausal" correlations can in fact be stronger than the magnitude of any causal correlation induced by direct interactions. We call this phenomenon superadditive correlation (SAC). We demonstrate this counterintuitive phenomenon by explicit examples in (i) a model spin system and (ii) a model continuous variable system, where both models are such that two variables have multiple intervening pathways of indirect interaction. We apply the technique known as decimation to explain SAC as an additive, constructive interference phenomenon between the multiple pathways of indirect interaction. We also explain the effect using a definition of the collective mode describing the intervening spin variables. Finally, we show that the SAC effect is mirrored in information theory, and is true for mutual information measures in addition to correlation measures. Generic complex systems typically exhibit multiple pathways of indirect interaction, making SAC a potentially widespread phenomenon. This affects, e.g., attempts to deduce interactions by examination of correlations, as well as, e.g., hierarchical approximation methods for multivariate probability distributions, which introduce parameters based on successive orders of correlation. PMID:11969452

  1. Soot Volume Fraction Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Paul S.; Ku, Jerry C.

    1994-01-01

    A new technique is described for the full-field determination of soot volume fractions via laser extinction measurements. This technique differs from previously reported point-wise methods in that a two-dimensional array (i.e., image) of data is acquired simultaneously. In this fashion, the net data rate is increased, allowing the study of time-dependent phenomena and the investigation of spatial and temporal correlations. A telecentric imaging configuration is employed to provide depth-invariant magnification and to permit the specification of the collection angle for scattered light. To improve the threshold measurement sensitivity, a method is employed to suppress undesirable coherent imaging effects. A discussion of the tomographic inversion process is provided, including the results obtained from numerical simulation. Results obtained with this method from an ethylene diffusion flame are shown to be in close agreement with those previously obtained by sequential point-wise interrogation.

  2. Long-Term Climatic Variations in the Almati Oblast in Central Asian Kazakhstan: Correlations between National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Reanalysis II Results and Oblast Meteorological Station Data from 1949 to the Present. Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welker, Jean E.; Au, Andrew Y.

    2003-01-01

    As part of a larger analysis of country systems described elsewhere, named a Crop Country Inventory, CCI, large variations in annual crop yield for selected climate sensitive agricultural regions or sub-regions within a country have been studied over extended periods in decades. These climate sensitive regions, principally responsible for large annual variations in an entire country s crop production, generally are characterized by distinctive patterns of atmospheric circulation and synoptic processes that result in large seasonal fluctuations in temperature, precipitation and soil moisture as well as other climate properties. The immediate region of interest is drought prone Kazakhstan in Central Asia, part of the Former Soviet Union, FSU. As a partial validation test in a dry southern region of Kazakhstan, the Almati Oblast was chosen. The Almati Oblast, a sub-region of Kazakhstan located in its southeast corner, is one of 14 oblasts within the Republic of Kazahstan. The climate data set used to characterize this region was taken from the results of the current maturely developed Global Climate Model, GCM. In this paper, the GCM results have been compared to the meteorological station data at the station locations, over various periods. If the empirical correlation of the data sets from both the GCM and station data is sufficiently significant, this would validate the use of the superior GCM profile mapping and integration for the climatic characterization of a sub-region. Precipitation values interpolated from NCEP Reanalysis II data, a global climate database spanning over 5 decades since 1949, have been statistically correlated with monthly-averaged station data from 1949 through 1993, and with daily station data from April through August, 1990 for the Almati Oblast in Kazakhstan. The resultant correlation is significant, which implies that the methodology may be extended to different regions globally for Crop Country Inventory studies.

  3. Morphological changes in gray matter volume correlate with catechol-O-methyl transferase gene Val158Met polymorphism in first-episode treatment-naïve patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Li; Xiang, Bo; Li, Yin-Fei; Hu, Xun; Wang, Qiang; Guo, Wan-Jun; Lei, Wei; Huang, Chao-Hua; Zhao, Lian-Sheng; Li, Na; Ren, Hong-Yan; Wang, Hui-Yao; Ma, Xiao-Hong; Deng, Wei; Li, Tao

    2015-02-01

    The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is a schizophrenia susceptibility gene. A common functional polymorphism of this gene, Val158/158Met, has been proposed to influence gray matter volume (GMV). However, the effects of this polymorphism on cortical thickness/surface area in schizophrenic patients are less clear. In this study, we explored the relationship between the Val158Met polymorphism of the COMT gene and the GMV/cortical thickness/cortical surface area in 150 first-episode treatment-naïve patients with schizophrenia and 100 healthy controls. Main effects of diagnosis were found for GMV in the cerebellum and the visual, medial temporal, parietal, and middle frontal cortex. Patients with schizophrenia showed reduced GMVs in these regions. And main effects of genotype were detected for GMV in the left superior frontal gyrus. Moreover, a diagnosis × genotype interaction was found for the GMV of the left precuneus, and the effect of the COMT gene on GMV was due mainly to cortical thickness rather than cortical surface area. In addition, a pattern of increased GMV in the precuneus with increasing Met dose found in healthy controls was lost in patients with schizophrenia. These findings suggest that the COMTMet variant is associated with the disruption of dopaminergic influence on gray matter in schizophrenia, and the effect of the COMT gene on GMV in schizophrenia is mainly due to changes in cortical thickness rather than in cortical surface area. PMID:25564193

  4. Optimizing multi-resolution segmentation scale using empirical methods: Exploring the sensitivity of the supervised discrepancy measure Euclidean distance 2 (ED2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witharana, Chandi; Civco, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Multiresolution segmentation (MRS) has proven to be one of the most successful image segmentation algorithms in the geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) framework. This algorithm is relatively complex and user-dependent; scale, shape, and compactness are the main parameters available to users for controlling the algorithm. Plurality of segmentation results is common because each parameter may take a range of values within its parameter space or different combinations of values among parameters. Finding optimal parameter values through a trial-and-error process is commonly practiced at the expense of time and labor, thus, several alternative supervised and unsupervised methods for supervised automatic parameter setting have been proposed and tested. In the case of supervised empirical assessments, discrepancy measures are employed for computing measures of dissimilarity between a reference polygon and an image object candidate. Evidently the reliability of the optimal-parameter prediction heavily relies on the sensitivity of the segmentation quality metric. The idea behind pursuing optimal parameter setting is that, for instance, a given scale setting provides image object candidates different from the other scale setting; thus, by design the supervised quality metric should capture this difference. In this exploratory study, we selected the Euclidean distance 2 (ED2) metric, a recently proposed supervised metric, whose main design goal is to optimize the geometrical discrepancy (potential segmentation error (PSE)) and arithmetic discrepancy between image objects and reference polygons (number-of segmentation ratio (NSR)) in two dimensional Euclidean space, as a candidate to investigate the validity and efficacy of empirical discrepancy measures for finding the optimal scale parameter setting of the MRS algorithm. We chose test image scenes from four different space-borne sensors with varying spatial resolutions and scene contents and systematically

  5. Euclidean Closed Linear Transformations of Complex Spacetime and generally of Complex Spaces of dimension four endowed with the Same or Different Metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vossos, Spyridon; Vossos, Elias

    2016-08-01

    Relativity Theory and the corresponding Relativistic Quantum Mechanics are the fundamental theories of physics. Special Relativity (SR) relates the frames of Relativistic Inertial observers (RIOs), through Linear Spacetime Transformation (LSTT) of linear spacetime. Classic Special Relativity uses real spacetime endowed with Lorentz metric and the frames of two RIOs with parallel spatial axes are always related through Lorentz Boost (LB). This cancels the transitive attribute in parallelism, when three RIOs are related, because LB is not closed transformation, causing Thomas Rotation. In this presentation, we consider closed LSTT of Complex Spacetime, so there is no necessity for spatial axes rotation and all the frames are chosen having parallel spatial axes. The solution is expressed by a 4x4 matrix (Λ) containing components of the complex velocity of one Observer wrt another and two functions depended by the metric of Spacetime. Demanding isometric transformation, it emerges a class of metrics that are in accordance with the closed LSTT and the transformation matrix contains one parameter ω depended by the metric of Spacetime. In case that we relate RIOs with steady metric, it emerges one steady number (ωI ) depended by the metric of Spacetime of the specific SR. If ωI is an imaginary number, the elements of the Λ are complex numbers, so the corresponding spacetime is necessarily complex and there exists real Universal Speed (UI). The specific value ωI =±i gives Vossos transformation (VT) endowed with Lorentz metric (for gii=1) of complex spacetime and invariant spacetime interval (or equivalently invariant speed of light in vacuum), which produce the theory of Euclidean Complex Relativistic Mechanics (ECRMs). If ωI is a real number (ωI #0) the elements of the Λ are real numbers, so the corresponding spacetime is real, but there exist imaginary UI. The specific value ωI =0 gives Galileo Transformation (GT) with the invariant time, in which any other

  6. Correaltion of full-scale drag predictions with flight measurements on the C-141A aircraft. Phase 2: Wind tunnel test, analysis, and prediction techniques. Volume 1: Drag predictions, wind tunnel data analysis and correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macwilkinson, D. G.; Blackerby, W. T.; Paterson, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    The degree of cruise drag correlation on the C-141A aircraft is determined between predictions based on wind tunnel test data, and flight test results. An analysis of wind tunnel tests on a 0.0275 scale model at Reynolds number up to 3.05 x 1 million/MAC is reported. Model support interference corrections are evaluated through a series of tests, and fully corrected model data are analyzed to provide details on model component interference factors. It is shown that predicted minimum profile drag for the complete configuration agrees within 0.75% of flight test data, using a wind tunnel extrapolation method based on flat plate skin friction and component shape factors. An alternative method of extrapolation, based on computed profile drag from a subsonic viscous theory, results in a prediction four percent lower than flight test data.

  7. Handbook of Parenting. Volume 2: Biology and Ecology of Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.

    Concerned with social settings and correlates of parenting, this volume, the second of four volumes on parenting deals specifically with the biology and the ecology of parenting. The volume consists of 12 chapters as follows: (1) "Hormonal Basis of Parenting in Mammals" (Jay S. Rosenblatt); (2) "Parenting in Primates" (Kim A. Bard); (3)…

  8. Control volume based hydrocephalus research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Benjamin; Voorhees, Abram; Wei, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is a disease involving excess amounts of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. Recent research has shown correlations to pulsatility of blood flow through the brain. However, the problem to date has presented as too complex for much more than statistical analysis and understanding. This talk will highlight progress on developing a fundamental control volume approach to studying hydrocephalus. The specific goals are to select physiologically control volume(s), develop conservation equations along with the experimental capabilities to accurately quantify terms in those equations. To this end, an in vitro phantom is used as a simplified model of the human brain. The phantom's design consists of a rigid container filled with a compressible gel. The gel has a hollow spherical cavity representing a ventricle and a cylindrical passage representing the aquaducts. A computer controlled piston pump supplies pulsatile volume fluctuations into and out of the flow phantom. MRI is used to measure fluid velocity, and volume change as functions of time. Independent pressure measurements and flow rate measurements are used to calibrate the MRI data. These data are used as a framework for future work with live patients.

  9. Quantum Correlations and the Measurement Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bub, Jeffrey

    2014-10-01

    The transition from classical to quantum mechanics rests on the recognition that the structure of information is not what we thought it was: there are operational, i.e., phenomenal, probabilistic correlations that lie outside the polytope of local correlations. Such correlations cannot be simulated with classical resources, which generate classical correlations represented by the points in a simplex, where the vertices of the simplex represent joint deterministic states that are the common causes of the correlations. The `no go' hidden variable theorems tell us that we can't shoe-horn phenomenal correlations outside the local polytope into a classical simplex by supposing that something has been left out of the story. The replacement of the classical simplex by the quantum convex set as the structure representing probabilistic correlations is the analogue for quantum mechanics of the replacement of Newton's Euclidean space and time by Minkowski spacetime in special relativity. The nonclassical features of quantum mechanics, including the irreducible information loss on measurement, are generic features of correlations that lie outside the classical simplex. This paper is an elaboration of these ideas, which have their source in work by Pitowsky (J. Math. Phys. 27:1556, 1986; Math. Program. 50:395, 1991; Phys. Rev. A 77:062109, 2008), Garg and Mermin (Found. Phys. 14:1-39, 1984), Barrett (Phys. Rev. A 75:032304, 2007; Phys. Rev. A 7:022101, 2005) and others, e.g., Brunner et al. (arXiv:1303.2849, 2013), but the literature goes back to Boole (An Investigation of the Laws of Thought, Dover, New York, 1951). The final section looks at the measurement problem of quantum mechanics in this context. A large part of the problem is removed by seeing that the inconsistency in reconciling the entangled state at the end of a quantum measurement process with the definiteness of the macroscopic pointer reading and the definiteness of the correlated value of the measured micro

  10. Intracranial Volume and Whole Brain Volume in Infants With Unicoronal Craniosynostosis

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Cheryl A.; Vaddi, S.; Moffitt, Amanda; Kane, A.A.; Marsh, Jeffrey L.; Panchal, Jayesh; Richtsmeier, Joan T.; Aldridge, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Objective Craniosynostosis has been hypothesized to result in alterations of the brain and cerebral blood flow due to reduced intracranial volume, potentially leading to cognitive deficits. In this study we test the hypothesis that intracranial volume and whole brain volume in infants with unilateral coronal synostosis differs from those in unaffected infants. Design Our study sample consists of magnetic resonance images acquired from 7- to 72-week-old infants with right unilateral coronal synostosis prior to surgery (n = 10) and age-matched unaffected infants (n = 10). We used Analyze 9.0 software to collect three cranial volume measurements. We used nonparametric tests to determine whether the three measures differ between the two groups. Correlations were calculated between age and the three volume measures in each group to determine whether the growth trajectory of the measurements differ between children with right unicoronal synostosis and unaffected infants. Results Our results show that the three volume measurements are not reduced in infants with right unicoronal synostosis relative to unaffected children. Correlation analyses between age and various volume measures show similar correlations in infants with right unicoronal synostosis compared with unaffected children. Conclusions Our results show that the relationship between brain size and intracranial size in infants with right unicoronal synostosis is similar to that in unaffected children, suggesting that reduced intracranial volume is not responsible for alterations of the brain in craniosynostosis. PMID:20815706

  11. Correlative microscopy.

    PubMed

    Loussert Fonta, Céline; Humbel, Bruno M

    2015-09-01

    In recent years correlative microscopy, combining the power and advantages of different imaging system, e.g., light, electrons, X-ray, NMR, etc., has become an important tool for biomedical research. Among all the possible combinations of techniques, light and electron microscopy, have made an especially big step forward and are being implemented in more and more research labs. Electron microscopy profits from the high spatial resolution, the direct recognition of the cellular ultrastructure and identification of the organelles. It, however, has two severe limitations: the restricted field of view and the fact that no live imaging can be done. On the other hand light microscopy has the advantage of live imaging, following a fluorescently tagged molecule in real time and at lower magnifications the large field of view facilitates the identification and location of sparse individual cells in a large context, e.g., tissue. The combination of these two imaging techniques appears to be a valuable approach to dissect biological events at a submicrometer level. Light microscopy can be used to follow a labelled protein of interest, or a visible organelle such as mitochondria, in time, then the sample is fixed and the exactly same region is investigated by electron microscopy. The time resolution is dependent on the speed of penetration and fixation when chemical fixatives are used and on the reaction time of the operator for cryo-fixation. Light microscopy can also be used to identify cells of interest, e.g., a special cell type in tissue or cells that have been modified by either transfections or RNAi, in a large population of non-modified cells. A further application is to find fluorescence labels in cells on a large section to reduce searching time in the electron microscope. Multiple fluorescence labelling of a series of sections can be correlated with the ultrastructure of the individual sections to get 3D information of the distribution of the marked proteins: array

  12. Correlative microscopy.

    PubMed

    Loussert Fonta, Céline; Humbel, Bruno M

    2015-09-01

    In recent years correlative microscopy, combining the power and advantages of different imaging system, e.g., light, electrons, X-ray, NMR, etc., has become an important tool for biomedical research. Among all the possible combinations of techniques, light and electron microscopy, have made an especially big step forward and are being implemented in more and more research labs. Electron microscopy profits from the high spatial resolution, the direct recognition of the cellular ultrastructure and identification of the organelles. It, however, has two severe limitations: the restricted field of view and the fact that no live imaging can be done. On the other hand light microscopy has the advantage of live imaging, following a fluorescently tagged molecule in real time and at lower magnifications the large field of view facilitates the identification and location of sparse individual cells in a large context, e.g., tissue. The combination of these two imaging techniques appears to be a valuable approach to dissect biological events at a submicrometer level. Light microscopy can be used to follow a labelled protein of interest, or a visible organelle such as mitochondria, in time, then the sample is fixed and the exactly same region is investigated by electron microscopy. The time resolution is dependent on the speed of penetration and fixation when chemical fixatives are used and on the reaction time of the operator for cryo-fixation. Light microscopy can also be used to identify cells of interest, e.g., a special cell type in tissue or cells that have been modified by either transfections or RNAi, in a large population of non-modified cells. A further application is to find fluorescence labels in cells on a large section to reduce searching time in the electron microscope. Multiple fluorescence labelling of a series of sections can be correlated with the ultrastructure of the individual sections to get 3D information of the distribution of the marked proteins: array

  13. High-volume centers.

    PubMed

    Vespa, P; Diringer, Michael N

    2011-09-01

    Outcome from trauma, surgery, and a variety of other medical conditions has been shown to be positively affected by providing treatment at facilities experiencing a high volume of patients with those conditions. An electronic literature search was made to identify English-language articles available through March 2011, addressing the effect of patient treatment volume on outcome for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Limited data were identified, with 16 citations included in the current review. Over 60% of hospitals fall into the lowest case-volume quartile. Outcome is influenced by patient volume, with better outcome occurring in high-volume centers treating >60 cases per year. Patients treated at low-volume hospitals are less likely to experience definitive treatment. Furthermore, transfer to high-volume centers may be inadequately arranged. Several factors may influence the better outcome at high-volume centers, including the availability of neurointensivists and interventional neuroradiologists. PMID:21792754

  14. Study of the maximal Abelian gauge in SU(2) Euclidean Yang-Mills theory in the presence of the Gribov horizon

    SciTech Connect

    Capri, M. A. L.; Lemes, V. E. R.; Sobreiro, R. F.; Sorella, S. P.; Thibes, R.

    2006-11-15

    We pursue the study of SU(2) Euclidean Yang-Mills theory in the maximal Abelian gauge by taking into account the effects of the Gribov horizon. The Gribov approximation, previously introduced in [M. A. L. Capri, V. E. R. Lemes, R. F. Sobreiro, S. P. Sorella, and R. Thibes, Phys. Rev. D 72, 085021 (2005).], is improved through the introduction of the horizon function, which is constructed under the requirements of localizability and renormalizability. By following Zwanziger's treatment of the horizon function in the Landau gauge, we prove that, when cast in local form, the horizon term of the maximal Abelian gauge leads to a quantized theory which enjoys multiplicative renormalizability, a feature which is established to all orders by means of the algebraic renormalization. Furthermore, it turns out that the horizon term is compatible with the local residual U(1) Ward identity, typical of the maximal Abelian gauge, which is easily derived. As a consequence, the nonrenormalization theorem, Z{sub g}Z{sub A}{sup 1/2}=1, relating the renormalization factors of the gauge coupling constant Z{sub g} and of the diagonal gluon field Z{sub A}, still holds in the presence of the Gribov horizon. Finally, we notice that a generalized dimension two gluon operator can be also introduced. It is BRST invariant on-shell, a property which ensures its multiplicative renormalizability. Its anomalous dimension is not an independent parameter of the theory, being obtained from the renormalization factors of the gauge coupling constant and of the diagonal antighost field.

  15. Navajo History. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazzie, Ethelou, Ed.

    This volume, an account of the prerecorded history of the Navajos, is the first of a series of two volumes. (Volume 2 will take up recorded history.) From the knowledge of verbal literature supplied by Navajos themselves, this composite was completed to help alleviate the lack of materials on Navajo culture. Consensus, the authors point out, was…

  16. Variable volume maser techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhardt, V. S.

    1977-01-01

    The frequency stability of hydrogen masers in variable volume storage bulbs is discussed in terms of wall shift. Variable volume devices discussed include: Brenner flexible bulb, Debely device, and the concertina hydrogen maser. A flexible cone variable volume element outside the cavity is described.

  17. Interplay of the sign problem and the infinite volume limit: Gauge theories with a theta term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yiming; Cohen, Thomas; Goldbloom-Helzner, Ari; McPeak, Brian

    2016-06-01

    QCD and related gauge theories have a sign problem when a θ term is included; this complicates the extraction of physical information from Euclidean-space calculations as one would do in lattice studies. The sign problem arises in this system because the partition function for configurations with fixed topological charge Q , ZQ, are summed weighted by exp (i Q θ ) to obtain the partition function for fixed θ , Z (θ ). The sign problem gets exponentially worse numerically as the space-time volume is increased. Here it is shown that, apart from the practical numerical issues associated with large volumes, there are some interesting issues of principle. A key quantity is the energy density as a function of θ , ɛ (θ )=-log (Z (θ ) )/V . This is expected to be well defined in the large four-volume limit. Similarly, one expects the energy density for a fixed topological density ɛ ˜(Q /V )=-log (ZQ )/V to be well defined in the limit of large four volumes. Intuitively, one might expect that if one had the infinite volume expression for ɛ ˜(Q /V ) to arbitrary accuracy, then one could reconstruct ɛ (θ ) by directly summing over the topological sectors of the partition function. We show here that there are circumstances where this is not the case. In particular, this occurs in regions where the curvature of ɛ (θ ) is negative.

  18. Non-Euclidean Ideal Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sá Earp, Henrique N.; Sicca, Vladmir; Kyotoku, Bernardo B. C.

    2016-09-01

    We describe the mathematical scheme for an anomaly-free ideal spectrometer, based on a 2-dimensional plane medium with conical regions of bounded slope. Moreover, the construction may be realised in many different configurations.

  19. Value of volume weighted mean nuclear volume in grading and prognosis of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Artacho-Pérula, E; Roldán-Villalobos, R; Martínez-Cuevas, J F

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To perform stereological quantitation of volume weighted mean nuclear volume in renal cell carcinomas; and to correlate the data obtained with recognised clinical and pathological variables and determine their prognostic value. METHODS--The point-sampled intercepts method was used to estimate mean nuclear volume in 63 cases of clear cell renal carcinoma diagnosed between 1980 and 1988. New paraffin wax embedded histological sections were analysed after systematic sampling and the test systems superimposed on a projected microscopic image to measure nuclear intercept lengths. After mathematical estimation of mean nuclear volume, statistical analyses of the data in relation to clinical and pathological variables as well as the prognostic impact were investigated. RESULTS--The mean nuclear volume was significantly associated with tumour dedifferentiation. However, mean nuclear volume showed no statistical differences with sex, age, and clinical stage. The prognostic value of mean nuclear volume, nuclear grading, and clinical stage in renal cell carcinomas was high: mean nuclear volume greater than 140 micron3 was associated with short term survival. CONCLUSIONS--Measurement of mean nuclear volume was useful as a guide to objective grading of renal cell carcinomas, though there was an overlap between tumour grades. Based on the limited number of cases analysed, the mean nuclear volume is proposed as an additional prognostic indicator. Images PMID:8027369

  20. Automatic volume calibration system

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, A.J.; Aaron, C.C.

    1985-05-06

    The Automatic Volume Calibration System presently consists of three independent volume-measurement subsystems and can possibly be expanded to five subsystems. When completed, the system will manually or automatically perform the sequence of valve-control and data-acquisition operations required to measure given volumes. An LSI-11 minicomputer controls the vacuum and pressure sources and controls solenoid control valves to open and close various volumes. The input data are obtained from numerous displacement, temperature, and pressure sensors read by the LSI-11. The LSI-11 calculates the unknown volume from the data acquired during the sequence of valve operations. The results, based on the Ideal Gas Law, also provide information for feedback and control. This paper describes the volume calibration system, its subsystems, and the integration of the various instrumentation used in the system's design and development. 11 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Front Matter: Volume 8454

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SPIE, Proceedings of

    2012-05-01

    This PDF file contains the front matter associated with SPIE Proceedings Volume 8454, including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, Introduction, and Conference Committee listing.

  2. Precision volume measurement system.

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Erin E.; Shugard, Andrew D.

    2004-11-01

    A new precision volume measurement system based on a Kansas City Plant (KCP) design was built to support the volume measurement needs of the Gas Transfer Systems (GTS) department at Sandia National Labs (SNL) in California. An engineering study was undertaken to verify or refute KCP's claims of 0.5% accuracy. The study assesses the accuracy and precision of the system. The system uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) in a temperature and computer controlled environment to ratio a known volume to an unknown volume.

  3. Accuracy of radionuclide ventriculography for estimation of left ventricular volume changes and end-systolic pressure-volume relations

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, M.W.; Parrish, M.D.; Jenkins, D.W. Jr.; Sandler, M.P.; Friesinger, G.C.

    1985-11-01

    Estimation of left ventricular end-systolic pressure-volume relations depends on the accurate measurement of small changes in ventricular volume. To study the accuracy of radionuclide ventriculography, paired radionuclide and contrast ventriculograms were obtained in seven dogs during a control period and when blood pressure was increased in increments of 30 mm Hg by phenylephrine infusion. The heart rate was held constant by atropine infusion. The correlation between radionuclide and contrast ventriculography was excellent. The systolic pressure-volume relations were linear for both radionuclide and contrast ventriculography. The mean slope for radionuclide ventriculography was lower than the mean slope for contrast ventriculography; however, the slopes correlated well. The radionuclide-contrast volume relation was compared using background subtraction, attenuation correction, neither of these or both. By each method, radionuclide ventriculography was valid for measuring small changes in left ventricular volume and for defining end-systolic pressure-volume relations.

  4. Reduced placental volume and flow in severe growth restricted fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Abulé, Renata Montes Dourado; Bernardes, Lisandra Stein; Doro, Giovana Farina; Miyadahira, Seizo; Francisco, Rossana Pulcinelli Vieira

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate placental volume and vascular indices in pregnancies with severe fetal growth restriction and determine their correlations to normal reference ranges and Doppler velocimetry results of uterine and umbilical arteries. METHODS: Twenty-seven fetuses with estimated weights below the 3rd percentile for gestational age were evaluated. Placental volume and vascular indices, including vascularization, flow, and vascularization flow indices, were measured by three-dimensional ultrasound using a rotational technique and compared to a previously described nomogram. The observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for gestational age and observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for fetal weight were calculated. Placental parameters correlated with the Doppler velocimetry results of uterine and umbilical arteries. RESULTS: The mean uterine artery pulsatility index was negatively correlated with the observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for gestational age, vascularization index and vascularization flow index. The observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for gestational age and observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for fetal weight and vascularization index were significantly lower in the group with a bilateral protodiastolic notch. No placental parameter correlated with the umbilical artery pulsatility index. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancies complicated by severe fetal growth restriction are associated with reduced placental volume and vascularization. These findings are related to changes in uterine artery Doppler velocimetry. Future studies on managing severe fetal growth restriction should focus on combined results of placental three-dimensional ultrasound and Doppler studies of uterine arteries. PMID:27438567

  5. Using n-Dimensional Volumes for Mathematical Applications in Spectral Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemann, Amanda K.

    The ability to detect an object or activity -- such as a military vehicle, construction area, campsite, or vehicle tracks -- is highly important to both military and civilian applications. Sensors that process multi and hyperspectral images provide a medium for performing such tasks. Hyperspectral imaging is a technique for collecting and processing imagery at a large number of visible and non-visible wavelengths. Different materials exhibit different trends in their spectra, which can be used to analyze the image. For an image collected at n different wavelengths, the spectrum of each pixel can be mathematically represented as an n-element vector. The algorithm established in this work, the Simplex Volume Estimation algorithm (SVE), focuses specifically on change detection and large area search. In hyperspectral image analysis, a set of pixels constitutes a data cloud, with each pixel corresponding to a vector endpoint in Euclidean space. The SVE algorithm takes a geometrical approach to image analysis based on the linear mixture model, which describes each pixel in an image collected at n spectral bands as a linear combination of n+1 pure-material component spectra (known as endmembers). Iterative endmember identification is used to construct a volume function, where the Gram matrix is used to calculate the hypervolume of the data at each iteration as the endmembers are considered in Euclidean spaces of increasing dimensionality. Linear algebraic theory substantiates that the volume function accurately characterizes the inherent dimensionality of a set of data, and supports that the volume function provides a tool for identifying the subspace in which the magnitude of the spread of the data is the greatest. A metric is extracted from the volume function, and is used to quantify the relative complexity within a single image or the change in complexity across multiple images. The SVE algorithm was applied to hyperspectral images for the tasks of change detection

  6. Shoreline change as a proxy for subaerial beach volume change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farris, Amy S.; List, Jeffrey H.

    2007-01-01

    It is difficult and expensive to calculate changes in sediment volume for large sections of sandy beaches. Shoreline change could be a useful proxy for volume change because it can be collected quickly and relatively easily over long distances. In this paper, we summarize several studies that find a high correlation between shoreline change and subaerial volume change. We also examine three new data sets. On Cape Cod, Massachusetts, the correlation coefficients between the time series of shoreline change and subaerial volume change at two locations are 0.73 and 0.96. On Assateague Island, the correlation coefficient between along-coast variations in shoreline change and subaerial volume change is 0.71. On the Outer Banks of North Carolina, the average correlation coefficient between temporal variations in shoreline change and subaerial volume change is 0.84. For spatial variations, the average correlation coefficient is 0.88. It is therefore concluded that shoreline change is a useful proxy for subaerial volume change.

  7. Finite volume QCD at fixed topological charge

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Sinya; Fukaya, Hidenori; Hashimoto, Shoji; Onogi, Tetsuya

    2007-09-01

    In finite volume the partition function of QCD with a given {theta} is a sum of different topological sectors with a weight primarily determined by the topological susceptibility. If a physical observable is evaluated only in a fixed topological sector, the result deviates from the true expectation value by an amount proportional to the inverse space-time volume 1/V. Using the saddle point expansion, we derive formulas to express the correction due to the fixed topological charge in terms of a 1/V expansion. Applying this formula, we propose a class of methods to determine the topological susceptibility in QCD from various correlation functions calculated in a fixed topological sector.

  8. Stereometric body volume measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The following studies are reported: (1) effects of extended space flight on body form of Skylab astronauts using biostereometrics; (2) comparison of body volume determinations using hydrostatic weighing and biostereometrics; and (3) training of technicians in biostereometric principles and procedures.

  9. Free volume under shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, Moumita; Vinutha, H. A.; Sastry, Srikanth; Heussinger, Claus

    2015-10-01

    Using an athermal quasistatic simulation protocol, we study the distribution of free volumes in sheared hard-particle packings close to, but below, the random-close packing threshold. We show that under shear, and independent of volume fraction, the free volumes develop features similar to close-packed systems — particles self-organize in a manner as to mimick the isotropically jammed state. We compare athermally sheared packings with thermalized packings and show that thermalization leads to an erasure of these structural features. The temporal evolution in particular the opening-up and the closing of free-volume patches is associated with the single-particle dynamics, showing a crossover from ballistic to diffusive behavior.

  10. Free volume under shear.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Moumita; Vinutha, H A; Sastry, Srikanth; Heussinger, Claus

    2015-10-14

    Using an athermal quasistatic simulation protocol, we study the distribution of free volumes in sheared hard-particle packings close to, but below, the random-close packing threshold. We show that under shear, and independent of volume fraction, the free volumes develop features similar to close-packed systems - particles self-organize in a manner as to mimick the isotropically jammed state. We compare athermally sheared packings with thermalized packings and show that thermalization leads to an erasure of these structural features. The temporal evolution in particular the opening-up and the closing of free-volume patches is associated with the single-particle dynamics, showing a crossover from ballistic to diffusive behavior.

  11. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  12. Toward optimal organ at risk sparing in complex volumetric modulated arc therapy: An exponential trade-off with target volume dose homogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Tol, Jim P. Dahele, Max; Doornaert, Patricia; Slotman, Ben J.; Verbakel, Wilko F. A. R.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Conventional radiotherapy typically aims for homogenous dose in the planning target volume (PTV) while sparing organs at risk (OAR). The authors quantified and characterized the trade-off between PTV dose inhomogeneity (IH) and OAR sparing in complex head and neck volumetric modulated arc therapy plans. Methods: Thirteen simultaneous integrated boost plans were created per patient, for ten patients. PTV boost{sub (B)}/elective{sub (E)} optimization priorities were systematically increased. IH{sub B} and IH{sub E}, defined as (100% − V95%) + V107%, were evaluated against the average of the mean dose to the combined composite swallowing and combined salivary organs (D-OAR{sub comp}). To investigate the influence of OAR size and position with respect to PTV{sub B/E}, OAR dose was evaluated against a modified Euclidean distance (DM{sub B}/DM{sub E}) between OAR and PTV. Results: Although the achievable D-OAR{sub comp} for a given level of PTV IH differed between patients, excellent logarithmic fits described the D-OAR{sub comp}/IH{sub B} and IH{sub E} relationship in all patients (mean R{sup 2} of 0.98 and 0.97, respectively). Allowing an increase in average IH{sub B} and IH{sub E} over a clinically acceptable range, e.g., from 0.4% ± 0.5% to 2.0% ± 2.0% and 6.9% ± 2.8% to 14.8% ± 2.7%, respectively, corresponded to a decrease in average dose to the composite salivary and swallowing structures from 30.3 ± 6.5 to 23.6 ± 4.7 Gy and 32.5 ± 8.3 to 26.8 ± 9.3 Gy. The increase in PTV{sub E} IH was mainly accounted for by an increase in V107, by on average 5.9%, rather than a reduction in V95, which was on average only 2%. A linear correlation was found between the OAR dose to composite swallowing structures and contralateral parotid and submandibular gland, with DM{sub E} (R{sup 2} = 0.83, 0.88, 0.95). Only mean ipsilateral parotid dose correlated with DM{sub B} (R{sup 2} = 0.87). Conclusions: OAR sparing is highly dependent on the permitted PTV{sub B

  13. Geomagnetism. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The latest attempt to summarise the wealth of knowledge now available on geomagnetic phenomena has resulted in this multi-volume treatise, with contributions and reviews from many scientists. The first volume in the series contains a thorough review of all existing information on measuring the Earth's magnetic field, both on land and at sea, and includes a comparative analysis of the techniques available for this purpose.

  14. Precision volume measuring system

    SciTech Connect

    Klevgard, P.A.

    1984-11-01

    An engineering study was undertaken to calibrate and certify a precision volume measurement system that uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) to ratio a known to an unknown volume. The constant-temperature, computer-controlled system was tested for thermodynamic instabilities, for precision (0.01%), and for bias (0.01%). Ratio scaling was used to optimize the quartz crystal pressure transducer calibration.

  15. IVUS coronary volume alignment for distinct phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Monica Mitiko Soares; Lemos, Pedro Alves; Furuie, Sergio Shiguemi

    2009-02-01

    Image-based intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) cardiac phase detection allows coronary volume reconstruction in different phases. Consecutive volumes are not necessarily spatially aligned due to longitudinal movement of the catheter. Besides ordinary pullback velocity, there is a relative longitudinal movement of the heart vessel walls and the transducer, due to myocardial contraction. In this manuscript, we aim to spatially align cardiac phase coronary IVUS volumes. In addition, we want to investigate this non-linear longitudinal catheter movement. With this purpose, we have analyzed 120 simulated IVUS images and 10 real IVUS pullbacks. We implemented the following methodology. Firstly, we built IVUS volume for each distinct phase. Secondly, each IVUS volume was transformed into a parametric signal of average frame intensity. We have used these signals to make correlation in space with a reference one. Then we estimated the spatial distance between the distinct IVUS volumes and the reference. We have tested in simulated images and real examinations. We have also observed similar pattern in real IVUS examinations. This spatial alignment method is feasible and useful as a step towards dynamic studies of IVUS examination.

  16. The Stochastic Elastica and Excluded-Volume Perturbations of DNA Conformational Ensembles

    PubMed Central

    Chirikjian, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    A coordinate-free Lie-group formulation for generating ensembles of DNA conformations in solution is presented. In this formulation, stochastic differential equations define sample paths on the Euclidean motion group. The ensemble of these paths exhibits the same behavior as solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation for the stochastically forced elastica. Longer chains for which the effects of excluded volume become important are handled by piecing together shorter chains and modeling their interactions. It is assumed that the final chain lengths of interest are long enough for excluded volume effects to become important, but not so long that the semi-flexible nature of the chain is lost. The effect of excluded volume is then taken into account by grouping short self-avoiding conformations into ‘bundles’ with common end constraints and computing average interaction effects between bundles. The accuracy of this approximation is shown to be good when using a numerically generated ensemble of self-avoiding sample paths as the baseline for comparison. PMID:20228889

  17. Volume quantification by contrast-enhanced ultrasound: an in-vitro comparison with true volumes and thermodilution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has recently been proposed as a minimally- invasive, alternative method for blood volume measurement. This study aims at comparing the accuracy of CEUS and the classical thermodilution techniques for volume assessment in an in-vitro set-up. Methods The in-vitro set-up consisted of a variable network between an inflow and outflow tube and a roller pump. The inflow and outflow tubes were insonified with an ultrasound array transducer and a thermistor was placed in each tube. Indicator dilution curves were made by injecting indicator which consisted of an ultrasound-contrast-agent diluted in ice-cold saline. Both acoustic intensity- and thermo-dilution curves were used to calculate the indicator mean transit time between the inflow and outflow tube. The volumes were derived by multiplying the estimated mean transit time by the flow rate. We compared the volumes measured by CEUS with the true volumes of the variable network and those measured by thermodilution by Bland-Altman and intraclass-correlation analysis. Results The measurements by CEUS and thermodilution showed a very strong correlation (rs = 0.94) with a modest volume underestimation by CEUS of −40 ± 28 mL and an overestimation of 84 ± 62 mL by thermodilution compared with the true volumes. Both CEUS and thermodilution showed a high statistically significant correlation with the true volume (rs = 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95 - 0.98; P<0.0001) and rs = 0.96 (95% CI, 0.94 - 0.98; P<0.0001, respectively). Conclusions CEUS volume estimation provides a strong correlation with both the true volumes in-vitro and volume estimation by thermodilution. It may therefore represent an interesting alternative to the standard, invasive thermodilution technique. PMID:24134671

  18. Volume transmission signalling via astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hirase, Hajime; Iwai, Youichi; Takata, Norio; Shinohara, Yoshiaki; Mishima, Tsuneko

    2014-01-01

    The influence of astrocytes on synaptic function has been increasingly studied, owing to the discovery of both gliotransmission and morphological ensheathment of synapses. While astrocytes exhibit at best modest membrane potential fluctuations, activation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) leads to a prominent elevation of intracellular calcium which has been reported to correlate with gliotransmission. In this review, the possible role of astrocytic GPCR activation is discussed as a trigger to promote synaptic plasticity, by affecting synaptic receptors through gliotransmitters. Moreover, we suggest that volume transmission of neuromodulators could be a biological mechanism to activate astrocytic GPCRs and thereby to switch synaptic networks to the plastic mode during states of attention in cerebral cortical structures. PMID:25225097

  19. Neural network predicts carrot volume with only three images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Federico; Sanchez, Sergio

    1998-09-01

    A mechanism turned a vision camera around a fixed carrot taking 100 images of it. A 3D reconstruction finite element algorithm reproduced the volume using finite area triangles and morphological operations to optimize memory utilization. Volume from several carrots were calculated and correlated against real volume achieving a 98% success rate. Three images 120 degrees apart were acquired and the main features extracted. A neural network system was trained using the features, increasing the measuring speed and obtaining together with a regression algorithm an accuracy of 95% in predicting the real volume.

  20. Volume strain within the Geysers geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Mossop, Antony; Segall, Paul

    1999-12-10

    During the 1970s and 1980s. The Geysers geothermal region was rapidly developed as a site of geothermal power production. The likelihood that this could cause significant strain within the reservoir, with corresponding surface displacements, led to a series of deformation monitoring surveys. In 1973, 1975, 1977, and 1980, The Geysers region was surveyed using first-order, class I, spirit leveling. In 1994, 1995, and 1996, many of the leveling control monuments were resurveyed using high-precision Global Positioning System receivers. The two survey methods are reconciled using the GEOID96 geoid model. The displacements are inverted to determine volume strain within the reservoir. For the period 1980-1994, peak volume strains in excess of 5x10{sup -4} are imaged. There is an excellent correlation between the observed changes in reservoir steam pressures and the imaged volume strain. If reservoir pressure changes are inducing volume strain, then the reservoir quasi-static bulk modulus K must be <4.6x10{sup 9} Pa. However, seismic velocities indicate a much stiffer reservoir with K=3.4x10{sup 10} Pa. This apparent discrepancy is shown to be consistent with predicted frequency dependence in K for fractured and water-saturated rock. Inversion of surface deformation data therefore appears to be a powerful method for imaging pressure change within the body of the reservoir. Correlation between induced seismicity at The Geysers and volume strain is observed. However, earthquake distribution does not appear to have a simple relationship with volume strain rate. (c) 1999 American Geophysical Union.

  1. Volume MLS ray casting.

    PubMed

    Ledergerber, Christian; Guennebaud, Gaël; Meyer, Miriah; Bächer, Moritz; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2008-01-01

    The method of Moving Least Squares (MLS) is a popular framework for reconstructing continuous functions from scattered data due to its rich mathematical properties and well-understood theoretical foundations. This paper applies MLS to volume rendering, providing a unified mathematical framework for ray casting of scalar data stored over regular as well as irregular grids. We use the MLS reconstruction to render smooth isosurfaces and to compute accurate derivatives for high-quality shading effects. We also present a novel, adaptive preintegration scheme to improve the efficiency of the ray casting algorithm by reducing the overall number of function evaluations, and an efficient implementation of our framework exploiting modern graphics hardware. The resulting system enables high-quality volume integration and shaded isosurface rendering for regular and irregular volume data.

  2. Aperiodic Volume Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, Tim D.

    Presented in this thesis is an investigation into aperiodic volume optical devices. The three main topics of research and discussion are the aperiodic volume optical devices that we call computer-generated volume holograms (CGVH), defects within periodic 3D photonic crystals, and non-periodic, but ordered 3D quasicrystals. The first of these devices, CGVHs, are designed and investigated numerically and experimentally. We study the performance of multi-layered amplitude computer-generated volume holograms in terms of efficiency and angular/frequency selectivity. Simulation results show that such aperiodic devices can increase diffraction efficiency relative to periodic amplitude volume holograms while maintaining angular and wavelength selectivity. CGVHs are also designed as voxelated volumes using a new projection optimization algorithm. They are investigated using a volumetric diffraction simulation and a standard 3D beam propagation technique as well as experimentally. Both simulation and experiment verify that the structures function according to their design. These represent the first diffractive structures that have the capacity for generating arbitrary transmission and reflection wave fronts and that provide the ability for multiplexing arbitrary functionality given different illumination conditions. Also investigated and discussed in this thesis are 3D photonic crystals and quasicrystals. We demonstrate that these devices can be fabricated using a femtosecond laser direct writing system that is particularly appropriate for fabrication of such arbitrary 3D structures. We also show that these devices can provide 3D partial bandgaps which could become complete bandgaps if fabricated using high index materials or by coating lower index materials with high index metals. Our fabrication method is particularly suited to the fabrication of engineered defects within the periodic or quasi-periodic systems. We demonstrate the potential for fabricating defects within

  3. Multifractal cross-correlation analysis in electricity spot market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Qingju; Li, Dan

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the multiscale cross-correlations between electricity price and trading volume in Czech market based on a newly developed algorithm, called Multifractal Cross-Correlation Analysis (MFCCA). The new algorithm is a natural multifractal generalization of the Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (DCCA), and is sensitive to cross-correlation structure and free from limitations of other algorithms. By considering the original sign of the cross-covariance, it allows us to properly quantify and detect the subtle characteristics of two simultaneous recorded time series. First, the multifractality and the long range anti-persistent auto-correlations of price return and trading volume variation are confirmed using Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MF-DFA). Furthermore, we show that there exist long-range anti-persistent cross-correlations between price return and trading volume variation by MFCCA. And we also identify that the cross-correlations disappear on the level of relative small fluctuations. In order to obtain deeper insight into the dynamics of the electricity market, we analyze the relation between generalized Hurst exponent and the multifractal cross-correlation scaling exponent λq. We find that the difference between the generalized Hurst exponent and the multifractal cross-correlation scaling exponent is significantly different for smaller fluctuation, which indicates that the multifractal character of cross-correlations resembles more each other for electricity price and trading volume on the level of large fluctuations and weakens for the smaller ones.

  4. Handbook of Parenting. Volume 2: Biology and Ecology of Parenting. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.

    Concerned with social settings and correlates of parenting, this volume, the second of five volumes on parenting, deals specifically with the biological and the contextual influences on parenting. The volume consists of the following 12 chapters: (1) "The Evolution of Parenting and Evolutionary Approaches to Childrearing" (David F. Bjorklund,…

  5. Coupled temperature dependences of volume and compressibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, A. C.; Ledbetter, H.

    2011-04-01

    We present a new method for understanding the changes with temperature of the volume and compressibility of solids. These changes depend on five parameters: V 0, B 0, Θ, γ G and δ T. V 0 and B 0 are the atomic volume and bulk modulus at T = 0 K, Θ is the Debye temperature, γ G is the Grüneisen parameter, and δ T is the Anderson-Grüneisen parameter. Equations for the temperature-dependent volume, bulk modulus and thermal expansion are given, and examples of the use of these equations are provided, with particular emphasis on the light actinides. For the elements, we examine the relationship between experimental values of γ G and δ T, and find no clear correlation. In particular, Swenson's rule, which states that the bulk modulus does not change with temperature if the volume is held constant, is a poor approximation to the data. We reveal a new useful approximate relationship between dB/dP and γ G. We find that the thermodynamic quantity q, which describes the variation in γ G with volume, distributes around 2, not around 1, as often assumed. We show that the thermal- expansion behavior of Si and Ge (including negative thermal expansion at low temperatures) are well described with the use of a two-level invar model.

  6. Effects of nasal-airway volume and body temperature on intranasal chemosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Nordin, S; Lötsch, J; Kobal, G; Murphy, C

    1998-02-01

    Interrelations between intranasal detection sensitivity for odor (H2S) and pain (CO2), nasal-airway volume (acoustic rhinometry), and body temperature were studied in young, healthy men across the diurnal cycle. The results showed a weak but statistically significant negative correlation between nasal volume and odor threshold and a weak but positive correlation between body temperature and odor threshold.

  7. Deafness Annual, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Arthur G., Ed.

    Presented is the second of two volumes on deafness which contains 12 papers and a review of programs or grants sponsored by the federal government and other groups. Larry Stewart identifies the deaf in "A Truly Silent Minority". In the "Seven-Faces of Deafness", G. Loyd tells what deafness means to seven people. E. Mindel maintains that parents…

  8. Children's Literature. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Francelia, Ed.; Brockman, Bennett A., Ed.

    This volume applies critical literary standards to the field of children's literature in a long-range effort to improve its quality and teaching. Contributors and editors represent international scholarship in all of the humanities, as well as in the specific area of children's literature. Articles span topics from European children's literature…

  9. Liter - Metric Volume.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisk, Diane

    This autoinstructional program, developed as part of a general science course, is offered for students in the middle schools. Mathematics of fractions and decimals is considered to be prerequisite knowledge. The behavioral objectives are directed toward mastery of determining volumes of solid objects using the water displacement method as well as…

  10. Strategic Plan. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the strategic plan and associated organizational structure that the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) will utilize to achieve the defined mission and objectives provided by NASA. Much of the information regarding the background and establishment of the NSBRI by NASA has been provided in other documentation and will not be repeated in this Strategic Plan. This Strategic Plan is presented in two volumes. Volume I (this volume) begins with an Introduction (Section 2) that provides the Institute's NASA-defined mission and objectives, and the organizational structure adopted to implement these through three Strategic Programs: Countermeasure Research; Education, Training and Outreach; and Cooperative Research and Development. These programs are described in Sections 3 to 5. Each program is presented in a similar way, using four subsections: Goals and Objectives; Current Strategies; Gaps and Modifications; and Resource Requirements. Section 6 provides the administrative infrastructure and total budget required to implement the Strategic Programs and assures that they form a single cohesive plan. This plan will ensure continued success of the Institute for the next five years. Volume II of the Strategic Plan provides an in-depth analysis of the current and future strategic programs of the 12 current NSBRI teams, including their goals, objectives, mutual interactions and schedules.

  11. Introduction to the Volume.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emihovich, Catherine; Schroder, Barbara; Panofsky, Carolyn P.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a volume that examines the issue of critical thinking and whether or not it is culturally specific, discussing recent research on the subject. The papers focus on critical thinking and culture, historical consciousness and critical thinking, critical thinking as cultural-historical practice, culture and the development of critical…

  12. Volunteer Voice. Volume IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volunteer Voice, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This document consists of the three volume IX issues of "Volunteer Voice," a newsletter of the Tacoma Community House Training Project. The first issue consists of one teacher's personal account of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teaching and includes the following: an annotated list of ESL text books, a list of activities resources,…

  13. Volume measuring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oele, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Chamber is designed to be airtight; it includes face mask for person to breathe outside air so that he does not disturb chamber environment. Chamber includes piston to vary air volume inside. Also included are two microphone transducers which record pressure information inside chamber.

  14. Leadership Abstracts, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide brief discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 10 for 1997 contains the following 12 abstracts: (1) "On Community College Renewal" (Nathan L. Hodges and Mark D. Milliron); (2) "The Community College Niche in a…

  15. Wind-forcing of volume transport through Lancaster Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Ingrid; Hamilton, James; Prinsenberg, Simon; Pettipas, Roger

    2012-11-01

    Volume and freshwater transport through Lancaster Sound are estimated from mooring measurements collected in eastern Barrow Strait for 13 years between 1998 and 2011. Estimates from 2006 to 2011 confirm the relationship between surface wind and volume transport derived from data collected between 1998 and 2006. Volume transport through Barrow Strait along the Northwest Passage is significantly correlated with northeastward winds in the Beaufort Sea, parallel to the western coasts of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, at monthly to interannual time scales. The location and wind direction for which there is maximum correlation are consistent with the flow being driven by a sea level difference between opposite ends of the Passage, and the difference being determined by setup caused by alongshore winds in the Beaufort Sea. Monthly alongshore wind anomalies account for 43% of the variance of the transport anomalies (p < 0.01). Examination of the residuals, after subtracting the volume transport driven by the Beaufort Sea winds from the total transport, showed that they are not significantly correlated with winds in Baffin Bay (p > 0.05). The annual cycles of the total volume transport and its part attributed to the Beaufort Sea wind both have peaks in the summer and are lowest in the autumn. Correlations of the volume transport anomaly with ice velocity anomalies are lower than with surface wind anomalies.

  16. Correlation in instruments - Cross correlation flowmeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    The principles of cross-correlation flowmeters are presented demonstrating methods of identifying dynamic properties of telecommunication, structural, and process systems. The flowmeters are designed for measurements of the transit time of a tagging signal such as turbulence or clumps of particles in the flow between two axially separated sensors; the transit time is measured by a cross-correlator. Cross-correlation flowmeters can reduce large scale integrated circuit costs and will be applied to environmental and industrial measurement problems.

  17. Iron supplementation, maternal packed cell volume, and fetal growth.

    PubMed Central

    Hemminki, E; Rimpelä, U

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies have found that there is a correlation between mothers' haemoglobin concentration or packed cell volume and infants' birth weight, and that iron supplementation increases mothers' haemoglobin concentration. The purpose of this study, using the data of a large randomised trial on iron prophylaxis during pregnancy, was to find out whether iron supplementation causes fetal growth to deteriorate. At their first antenatal visit, 2912 pregnant women were randomised into non-routine iron and routine iron supplementation. The mean length of gestation was shorter in the non-routine group. Birth weight did not differ between the groups, but due to longer gestations boys in the group receiving routine iron were taller than in the non-routine group. In both groups, whether studied by various values of packed cell volume or correlation coefficients, the lower the packed cell volume, the heavier and taller the infant and heavier the placenta. These negative correlations could be seen even with a packed cell volume measured early in pregnancy. Standardising for blood pressure did not influence the correlation coefficients. The correlation between a high ratio for packed cell volume and poor fetal growth thus may not be caused by iron supplementation, nor mediated by blood pressure, but by some other mechanism. PMID:2025036

  18. The GABRB1 gene is associated with thalamus volume and modulates the association between thalamus volume and intelligence.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bi; Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui; Lei, Xuemei; Li, Jin; Moyzis, Robert K; Dong, Qi; Lin, Chongde

    2014-11-15

    The GABRB1 gene encodes the beta 1 subunit of the gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABA A receptor), which is responsible for mediating inhibitory neurotransmission in the thalamus. Potential relationships between the GABRB1 gene, thalamus volume, and intelligence have been suggested by previous clinical studies, but have not been directly examined among nonclinical samples. The current study collected structural MRI, genetic, and behavioral data from 316 healthy Chinese adults (including 187 females and 129 males), and examined associations between GABRB1 variants, thalamus volume, and intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised). After controlling for intracranial volume, sex, and age, GABRB1 genetic polymorphism at the SNP rs7435958 had the strongest association with thalamus volume (p = 0.002 and 0.00008 for left and right thalamus volumes, respectively), with GG homozygotes having smaller bilateral thalamus volumes than the other genotypes. Furthermore, there were positive correlations between bilateral thalamus volumes and intelligence, especially for GABRB1 rs7435958 GG female homozygotes (r's = 0.31 and 0.29, p < 0.01, for the correlations of intelligence with left and right thalamus volumes, respectively). This study provides the first evidence for the involvement of the GABRB1 gene in the thalamus structure and their interactive effects on intelligence. Future studies of the thalamus-intelligence associations should consider genetic factors as potential moderators.

  19. Shared Genetic Factors Influence Amygdala Volumes and Risk for Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Dager, Alecia D; McKay, D Reese; Kent, Jack W; Curran, Joanne E; Knowles, Emma; Sprooten, Emma; Göring, Harald HH; Dyer, Thomas D; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Olvera, Rene L; Fox, Peter T; Lovallo, William R; Duggirala, Ravi; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence (alcohol use disorders, AUDs) are associated with brain shrinkage. Subcortical structures including the amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, dorsal striatum, and thalamus subserve reward functioning and may be particularly vulnerable to alcohol-related damage. These structures may also show pre-existing deficits impacting the development and maintenance of AUD. It remains unclear whether there are common genetic features underlying both subcortical volumes and AUD. In this study, structural brain images were acquired from 872 Mexican-American individuals from extended pedigrees. Subcortical volumes were obtained using FreeSurfer, and quantitative genetic analyses were performed in SOLAR. We hypothesized the following: (1) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with lifetime AUD relative to unrelated controls; (2) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with current relative to past AUD; (3) in non-AUD individuals, reduced subcortical volumes in those with a family history of AUD compared to those without; and (4) evidence for common genetic underpinnings (pleiotropy) between AUD risk and subcortical volumes. Results showed that individuals with lifetime AUD showed larger ventricular and smaller amygdala volumes compared to non-AUD individuals. For the amygdala, there were no differences in volume between current vs past AUD, and non-AUD individuals with a family history of AUD demonstrated reductions compared to those with no such family history. Finally, amygdala volume was genetically correlated with the risk for AUD. Together, these results suggest that reduced amygdala volume reflects a pre-existing difference rather than alcohol-induced neurotoxic damage. Our genetic correlation analysis provides evidence for a common genetic factor underlying both reduced amygdala volumes and AUD risk. PMID:25079289

  20. Variable volume calibration apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Hallman, R.L. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for determining the volume of a closed chamber. The apparatus includes a body having a cylindrical cavity therein including a threaded rear portion and a closed front end, and a piston having a threaded portion which mates with threaded rear portion of the cavity and which reciprocates in the cavity. A gas-impermeable seal, which is carried by the piston in one embodiment, forms a closed chamber in the front end of the cavity. A linear-movement indicator, attached to the rear end of the piston, measures the reciprocating movement of the piston in the cavity, while a pressure sensing device, connected to the front end of the cavity, determines the pressure in the closed system. In use, a vessel, having a volume enclosing experimental materials, is also connected to the front end of the cavity, and pressure and piston movement measurements are made which enable calculation of a volume change in the vessels. The design and operation of this instrument are presented. 7 figs.

  1. Apodized Volume Bragg Gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhov, Sergiy

    2015-03-01

    Reflective and transmissive volume Bragg grating (VBGs) are widely used in high power laser applications because of their large operational aperture and robustness. They are fabricated in photosensitive material through holographic recording of uniform interference pattern of two overlapping coherent waves obtained by splitting a flat-top shaped laser beam. The following thermal treatment produces permanent refractive index modulation (RIM). Reflective VBGs have fringes parallel to operational anti-reflective coated surfaces and they demonstrate narrow reflection bandwidth. Transmissive VBGs are cut with fringes perpendicular to surfaces and they are characterized by narrow angular selectivity. Uniform RIM causes secondary lobes in corresponding reflection and transmission spectra due to sharp boundary conditions for volume Bragg diffraction. We propose to create apodization of RIM by recording two interference patterns with slightly different parameters in the same volume which would create slow varying moire envelope of amplitude of RIM. Cutting the specimen at zeros of moire envelope with one sine semi-period thickness will produce VBGs apodized at sides which will reduce parasitic secondary lobes in spectra. In reflection geometry, two patterns of the same orientation with slightly different periods are required for apodization along Bragg wave vector. In transmission case, recording of the same interference patterns with small mutual rotation angle provides apodization in direction perpendicular to Bragg wave vector. Modeling results show significant improvement in selective properties of VBGs with such moire apodization.

  2. Stochastic simulation of spatially correlated geo-processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christakos, G.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, developments in the theory of stochastic simulation are discussed. The unifying element is the notion of Radon projection in Euclidean spaces. This notion provides a natural way of reconstructing the real process from a corresponding process observable on a reduced dimensionality space, where analysis is theoretically easier and computationally tractable. Within this framework, the concept of space transformation is defined and several of its properties, which are of significant importance within the context of spatially correlated processes, are explored. The turning bands operator is shown to follow from this. This strengthens considerably the theoretical background of the geostatistical method of simulation, and some new results are obtained in both the space and frequency domains. The inverse problem is solved generally and the applicability of the method is extended to anisotropic as well as integrated processes. Some ill-posed problems of the inverse operator are discussed. Effects of the measurement error and impulses at origin are examined. Important features of the simulated process as described by geomechanical laws, the morphology of the deposit, etc., may be incorporated in the analysis. The simulation may become a model-dependent procedure and this, in turn, may provide numerical solutions to spatial-temporal geologic models. Because the spatial simu??lation may be technically reduced to unidimensional simulations, various techniques of generating one-dimensional realizations are reviewed. To link theory and practice, an example is computed in detail. ?? 1987 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  3. Impact of monitoring blood volume in the BD BACTEC™ FX blood culture system: virtual volume versus actual volume.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jeonghyun; Park, Jeong Su; Park, Sookja; Choi, Byeonghoo; Yoon, Nam Seop; Sung, Heungsup; Kim, Mi-Na

    2015-02-01

    The BACTEC™ FX (BD, USA) has been recently upgraded to measure virtual blood volume (VV) in batches of 25 PLUS Aerobic/F bottles. VVs were compared with manually measured actual volumes (AVs). The mean AV was larger in anaerobic bottles: 2.6±1.9mL in 2995 Aerobic/F bottles and 3.3±1.8mL in 3053 Lytic/10 Anaerobic/F bottles (P<0.001). The VV of Aerobic/F bottles was 2.4±1.4mL, and there was a significant correlation between the VVs and AVs of each department (P<0.001). The potential positivity in aerobic bottles increased 1.2-fold with a 1-mL increase in the AV (P<0.001). AV and VV were consistently less than adequate. Although the proportional effect of volume on positivity can be proven only with the AV, VVs are a reliable substitute for AVs to monitor the overall blood volumes and provide feedback to the individual departments or locations.

  4. Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, James P; Fout, Nathaniel; Ma, Kwan - Liu

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the

  5. Volume registration of interventional MRI data using needle paths and point landmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazebnik, Roee S.; Breen, Michael S.; Lancaster, Tanya L.; Nour, Sherif G.; Lewin, Jonathan S.; Wilson, David L.

    2002-05-01

    We created a method for three-dimensional registration of medical scanner image volumes to images of physical tissue sections or other volumes, and evaluated its accuracy. The method is applicable for many animal experiments, and we are applying it to evaluate interventional MRI imaging of thermal ablation and to quantify in vivo drug release from a new device for localized, controlled release. The method computes an optimum set of rigid body registration parameters by iterative minimization of the Euclidean distances between automatically generated correspondence points, along manually selected fiducial needle paths, and optional point landmarks. For numerically simulated registrations, using two needle paths over a range of needle orientations, median voxel displacement errors depended only on needle localization error when the angle between needles was at least 15 degrees. For parameters typical of our in vivo experiments, the median error was volume with another MR volume and tissue section photographs, using various combinations of needle and point landmarks. Registration error was always

  6. Amniotic fluid volume and fetal swallowing rate in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Tomoda, S.; Brace, R.A.; Longo, L.D.

    1985-07-01

    To investigate amniotic fluid (AF) dynamics and volume regulatory mechanisms, the authors measured the concentration of radioiodinated (/sup 125/I) serum albumin (RISA), /sup 51/Cr-labeled red blood cells (Cr-RBC), and /sup 103/Ru-labeled microspheres after injection into the amniotic cavity and determined AF volume and fetal swallowing rate in 22 singleton pregnant sheep. Under normal conditions 2-3 h were required for complete mixing of RISA and Cr-RBC within AF; however, when the fetus was dead only 3-5 h were required. AF volume of 17 sheep on the 5th postoperative day averaged 975 +/- 128 ml by RISA and 986 +/- 130 ml by Cr-RBC. AF volume determined with RISA and Cr-RBC correlated well. In contrast, AF volume measurement with microspheres produced erratic results. The disappearance rate of the labels in 17 ewes on the 5th postoperative day averaged 4.9 +/- 0.7%/h for RISA and 5.5 +/- 0.7 for Cr-RBC, and the calculated rates of fetal swallowing were 935 +/- 78 ml/day by RISA and 1,085 +/- 102 by Cr-RBC. In dead fetuses the disappearance rates were almost zero, suggesting that the labels disappear mainly by swallowing. Absolute volume swallowed and swallowed volume per fetal weight correlated with gestational age. AF volume correlated with fetal weight. Radiolabeled albumin or red blood cells may be used to simultaneously measure amniotic fluid volume and the rate of fetal swallowing. Furthermore it appears that fetal swallowing increases with gestational age.

  7. Change in Seroma Volume During Whole-Breast Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Rajiv; Spierer, Marnee Mutyala, Subhakar; Thawani, Nitika; Cohen, Hillel W.; Hong, Linda; Garg, Madhur K.; Kalnicki, Shalom

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: After breast-conserving surgery, a seroma often forms in the surgical cavity. If not drained, it may affect the volume of tumor bed requiring a boost after whole-breast radiation therapy (WBRT). Our objective was to evaluate the change in seroma volume that occurs during WBRT, before boost planning. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was performed of women receiving breast-conserving therapy with evidence of seroma at the time of WBRT planning. Computed tomography (CT) simulation was performed before WBRT and before the tumor bed boost. All patients received either a hypofractionated (42.4 Gy/16 fraction + 9.6 Gy/4 fraction boost) or standard fractionated (50.4 Gy/28 fraction + 10 Gy/5 fraction boost) regimen. Seroma volumes were contoured and compared on CT at the time of WBRT simulation and tumor bed boost planning. Results: Twenty-four patients with evidence of seroma were identified and all patients received WBRT without drainage of the seroma. Mean seroma volume before WBRT and at boost planning were significantly different at 65.7 cm{sup 3} (SD, 50.5 cm{sup 3}) and 35.6 cm{sup 3} (SD, 24.8 cm{sup 3}), respectively (p < 0.001). Mean and median reduction in seroma volume during radiation were 39.6% (SD, 23.8%) and 46.2% (range, 10.7-76.7%), respectively. Fractionation schedule was not correlated with change in seroma volume. Length of time from surgery to start of radiation therapy showed an inverse correlation with change in seroma volume (Pearson correlation r = -0.53, p < 0.01). Conclusions: The volume of seroma changes significantly during WBRT. Consequently, the accuracy of breast boost planning is likely affected, as is the volume of normal breast tissue irradiated. CT-based boost planning before boost irradiation is suggested to ensure appropriate coverage.

  8. Right ventricular volume analysis by angiography in right ventricular cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Indik, Julia H; Dallas, William J; Gear, Kathleen; Tandri, Harikrishna; Bluemke, David A; Moukabary, Talal; Marcus, Frank I

    2012-06-01

    Imaging of the right ventricle (RV) for the diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D) is commonly performed by echocardiography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Angiography is an alternative modality, particularly when MRI cannot be performed. We hypothesized that RV volume and ejection fraction computed by angiography would correlate with these quantities as computed by MRI. RV volumes and ejection fraction were computed for subjects enrolled in the North American ARVC/D Registry, with both RV angiography and MRI studies. Angiography was performed in the 30° right anterior oblique (RAO) and 60° left anterior oblique (LAO) views. Angiographic volumes were computed by RAO view and two-view (RAO and LAO) formulae. 17 subjects were analyzed (11 men and 6 women), with 15 subjects classified as affected, and two as unaffected by modified Task Force criteria. The correlation coefficient of MRI to the two-view angiographic analysis was 0.72 (P = 0.003) for end-diastolic volume and 0.68 (P = 0.005) for ejection fraction. Angiographically derived volumes were larger than MRI derived volume (P = 0.009) and with the slope in a linear relationship equal to 0.8 for end diastolic volume, and 0.9 for RV ejection fraction (P < 0.001), computed by the two view formula. End-diastolic volumes and ejection fractions of the RV obtained by dual view angiography correlate with these quantities by MRI. RV end-diastolic volumes are larger by RV angiography in comparison with MRI.

  9. Evaluating volumes for magma chambers and magma withdrawn for caldera collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geshi, Nobuo; Ruch, Joel; Acocella, Valerio

    2014-06-01

    We develop an analytical model to infer the total volume of a magma chamber associated with caldera collapse and the critical volume of magma that must be withdrawn to induce caldera collapse. The diameter of caldera border fault, depth to the magma chamber, and volumes of magma erupted before the onset of collapse and of entire eruption are compiled for 14 representative calderas. The volume of erupted magma at the onset of collapse aligns between the total erupted volume of the other representative caldera-forming eruptions and the volume of eruptions without collapse during the post-caldera stage, correlating with the structural diameter of the calderas. The total volume of magma chamber is evaluated using a piston-cylinder collapse model, in which the competition between the decompression inside magma chamber and friction along the caldera fault controls the collapse. Estimated volumes of the magma chambers associated with caldera collapse are 3-10 km3 for Vesuvius 79 A.D. to 3000-10 500 km3 for Long Valley, correlating with the cube of caldera diameters. The estimated volumes of magma chamber are always larger than the total volume of erupted magma for caldera formation, suggesting that the magma chambers are never completely emptied by the caldera-forming eruptions. The minimum volumes of erupted magma to trigger collapse are calculated from the correlation between the caldera diameters and the evaluated volume of magma chambers. The minimum eruptive volume for the collapse correlates with the square of the caldera radius r and the square of the depth to the magma chamber h, and inversely correlates with the bulk modulus of magma, which is mainly controlled by the bubble fraction in the magma. A bubble fraction between 5 and 10% at the onset of collapse may explain the distribution of the erupted volumes at the onset of collapse of the calderas in nature.

  10. Subcortical correlates of individual differences in aptitude.

    PubMed

    Jung, Rex E; Ryman, Sephira G; Vakhtin, Andrei A; Carrasco, Jessica; Wertz, Chris; Flores, Ranee A

    2014-01-01

    The study of individual differences encompasses broad constructs including intelligence, creativity, and personality. However, substantially less research is devoted to the study of specific aptitudes in spite of their importance to educational, occupational, and avocational success. We sought to determine subcortical brain structural correlates of several broad aptitudes including Math, Vocabulary, Foresight, Paper Folding, and Inductive Reasoning in a large (N = 107), healthy, young (age range  = 16-29) cohort. Subcortical volumes were measured using an automated technique (FreeSurfer) across structures including bilateral caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, and five equal regions of the corpus callosum. We found that performance on measures of each aptitude was predicted by different subcortical structures: Math--higher right nucleus accumbens volume; Vocabulary--higher left hippocampus volume; Paper Folding--higher right thalamus volume; Foresight--lower right thalamus and higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume; Inductive Reasoning--higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume. Our results support general findings, within the cognitive neurosciences, showing lateralization of structure-function relationships, as well as more specific relationships between individual structures (e.g., left hippocampus) and functions relevant to particular aptitudes (e.g., Vocabulary).

  11. Fast robust correlation.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Alistair J; Kadyrov, Alexander; Christmas, William J; Kittler, Josef

    2005-08-01

    A new, fast, statistically robust, exhaustive, translational image-matching technique is presented: fast robust correlation. Existing methods are either slow or non-robust, or rely on optimization. Fast robust correlation works by expressing a robust matching surface as a series of correlations. Speed is obtained by computing correlations in the frequency domain. Computational cost is analyzed and the method is shown to be fast. Speed is comparable to conventional correlation and, for large images, thousands of times faster than direct robust matching. Three experiments demonstrate the advantage of the technique over standard correlation.

  12. Mapping gray matter volume and cortical thickness in Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Li, Ziyi; Chen, Kewei; Yao, Li; Wang, Zhiqun; Li, Kuncheng

    2010-03-01

    Gray matter volume and cortical thickness are two important indices widely used to detect neuropathological changes in brain structural magnetic resonance imaging. Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) protocol and surface-based cortical thickness measure, this study comprehensively investigated the regional changes in cortical gray matter volume and cortical thickness in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thirteen patients with AD and fourteen age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Results showed that voxel-based gray matter volume and cortical thickness reductions were highly correlated in the temporal lobe and its medial structure in AD. Moreover significant reduced cortical regions of gray matter volume were obviously more than that of cortical thickness. These findings suggest that gray matter volume and cortical thickness, as two important imaging markers, are effective indices for detecting the neuroanatomical alterations and help us understand the neuropathology from different views in AD.

  13. Subcortical intelligence: caudate volume predicts IQ in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Grazioplene, Rachael G; G Ryman, Sephira; Gray, Jeremy R; Rustichini, Aldo; Jung, Rex E; DeYoung, Colin G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the association between size of the caudate nuclei and intelligence. Based on the central role of the caudate in learning, as well as neuroimaging studies linking greater caudate volume to better attentional function, verbal ability, and dopamine receptor availability, we hypothesized the existence of a positive association between intelligence and caudate volume in three large independent samples of healthy adults (total N = 517). Regression of IQ onto bilateral caudate volume controlling for age, sex, and total brain volume indicated a significant positive correlation between caudate volume and intelligence, with a comparable magnitude of effect across each of the three samples. No other subcortical structures were independently associated with IQ, suggesting a specific biological link between caudate morphology and intelligence.

  14. Free volume distribution of nearly jammed hard sphere packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, Moumita; Sastry, Srikanth

    2014-07-01

    We calculate the free volume distributions of nearly jammed packings of monodisperse and bidisperse hard sphere configurations. These distributions differ qualitatively from those of the fluid, displaying a power law tail at large free volumes, which constitutes a distinct signature of nearly jammed configurations, persisting for moderate degrees of decompression. We reproduce and explain the observed distribution by considering the pair correlation function within the first coordination shell for jammed hard sphere configurations. We analyze features of the equation of state near jamming, and discuss the significance of observed asphericities of the free volumes to the equation of state.

  15. Environmental Report 1996, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1996, prepared for the US Department of Energy. Volume 2 supports Volume 1 summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Volume 2 includes information on monitoring of air, air effluents, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance.

  16. Accuracy of spirometric and flow-volume indices obtained by digitizing volume-time tracings.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, C R; Sneddon, S L; Schenker, M; Garshick, E; Speizer, F E; Mead, J

    1987-07-01

    We tested the accuracy of a new system for deriving standard spirometric indices, maximal expiratory flow rates, and slope ratios from volume-time tracings. A computer-based technique employing a hand-operated cursor was used to put discrete values of volume and time into a memory array. Spirometric values obtained on 102 subjects using the computer system were compared with the corresponding "hand-read" values. The difference between the 2 measuring techniques were not significant for the FVC, the FEV75, and the FEF25-75; however, the average FEV1 differed by 6.7 ml (SD, 20.3 ml), which was significant. In addition, 10 subjects performed FVC maneuvers through a spirometer and flowmeter connected in series. Flows and slope ratios obtained from the volume-time tracings were compared with those obtained directly from the flowmeter. There was a high degree of correlation between the 2 types of flow measurements (r = 0.989), whereas slope ratios were less well correlated (r = 0.589). Configurational detail such as the presence of "bumps" on slope ratio versus volume plots were recovered with the computer technique. Using this new system, it is possible for 1 operator to process 10 to 12 sets of spirometry tracings per hour. PMID:3605826

  17. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION, VOLUME 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME 2 OF A TWO-VOLUME SET PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE UNITS COVERED IN THIS VOLUME ARE (1) REFLECTION OF LIGHT, (2) PHOTOMETRY, (3) POLARIZATION, (4) REFRACTION OF LIGHT, (5) SNELL'S LAW, (6) LENSES, FOCUS, AND FOCAL POINTS, (7) IMAGE FORMATION, AND (8) ABERRATIONS, THE EYE, AND MAGNIFICATION. THE INTRODUCTION AND UNITS ON…

  18. Calculus Students' Understanding of Volume

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorko, Allison; Speer, Natasha M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have documented difficulties that elementary school students have in understanding volume. Despite its importance in higher mathematics, we know little about college students' understanding of volume. This study investigated calculus students' understanding of volume. Clinical interview transcripts and written responses to volume…

  19. New volume and inverse volume operators for loop quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinsong; Ma, Yongge

    2016-08-01

    A new alternative volume operator is constructed for loop quantum gravity by using the so-called cotriad operators as building blocks. It is shown that the new volume operator shares the same qualitative properties with the standard volume operator. Moreover, a new alternative inverse volume operator is also constructed in the light of the construction of the alternative volume operator, which is possessed of the same qualitative properties as those of the alternative volume operator. The new inverse volume operator can be employed to construct the Hamiltonian operator of matter fields, which may lead to an anomaly-free on-shell quantum constraint algebra without any special restriction on the regularization procedure for gravity coupled to matter fields.

  20. Spleen volume on CT and the effect of abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Romero, Cinthia; Agarwal, Sheela; Abujudeh, Hani H; Thrall, James; Hahn, Peter F

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the magnitude of change in spleen volume on CT in subjects sustaining blunt abdominal trauma without hemorrhage relative to patients without disease and how the spleen volumes are distributed. Sixty-seven subjects with blunt abdominal trauma and 101 control subjects were included in this retrospective single-center, IRB-approved, and HIPAA-compliant study. Patients with an injured spleen were excluded. Using a semiautomatic segmentation program, two readers computed spleen volumes from CT. Spleen volume distribution in male and female trauma and control cohorts were compared nonparametrically. Spleen volume plotted against height, weight, and age were analyzed by linear regression. The number of females and males are, respectively, 35 and 32 in trauma subjects and 69 and 32 among controls. Female trauma patients (49.6 years) were older than males (39.8 years) (p = 0.02). Distributions of spleen volume were not normal, skewed above their means, requiring a nonparametric comparison. Spleen volumes in trauma patients were smaller than those in controls with medians of 230 vs 294 mL in males(p < 0.006) and 163 vs 191 mL in females(p < 0.04). Spleen volume correlated positively with weight in females and with height in male controls, and negatively with age in male controls (p < 0.01). Variation in reproducibility and repeatability was acceptable at 1.5 and 4.9 %, respectively. Reader variation was 1.7 and 4.6 % for readers 1 and 2, respectively. The mean spleen volume in controls was 245 mL, the largest ever reported. Spleen volume decreases in response to blunt abdominal trauma. Spleen volumes are not normally distributed. Our population has the largest spleen volume reported in the literature, perhaps a consequence of the obesity epidemic. PMID:27166964

  1. Spleen volume on CT and the effect of abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Romero, Cinthia; Agarwal, Sheela; Abujudeh, Hani H; Thrall, James; Hahn, Peter F

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the magnitude of change in spleen volume on CT in subjects sustaining blunt abdominal trauma without hemorrhage relative to patients without disease and how the spleen volumes are distributed. Sixty-seven subjects with blunt abdominal trauma and 101 control subjects were included in this retrospective single-center, IRB-approved, and HIPAA-compliant study. Patients with an injured spleen were excluded. Using a semiautomatic segmentation program, two readers computed spleen volumes from CT. Spleen volume distribution in male and female trauma and control cohorts were compared nonparametrically. Spleen volume plotted against height, weight, and age were analyzed by linear regression. The number of females and males are, respectively, 35 and 32 in trauma subjects and 69 and 32 among controls. Female trauma patients (49.6 years) were older than males (39.8 years) (p = 0.02). Distributions of spleen volume were not normal, skewed above their means, requiring a nonparametric comparison. Spleen volumes in trauma patients were smaller than those in controls with medians of 230 vs 294 mL in males(p < 0.006) and 163 vs 191 mL in females(p < 0.04). Spleen volume correlated positively with weight in females and with height in male controls, and negatively with age in male controls (p < 0.01). Variation in reproducibility and repeatability was acceptable at 1.5 and 4.9 %, respectively. Reader variation was 1.7 and 4.6 % for readers 1 and 2, respectively. The mean spleen volume in controls was 245 mL, the largest ever reported. Spleen volume decreases in response to blunt abdominal trauma. Spleen volumes are not normally distributed. Our population has the largest spleen volume reported in the literature, perhaps a consequence of the obesity epidemic.

  2. Measuring industrial energy efficiency: Physical volume versus economic value

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, S.L.; Niefer, M.J.; Roop, J.M.

    1996-12-01

    This report examines several different measures of industrial output for use in constructing estimates of industrial energy efficiency and discusses some reasons for differences between the measures. Estimates of volume-based measures of output, as well as 3 value-based measures of output (value of production, value of shipments, and value added), are evaluated for 15 separate 4-digit industries. Volatility, simple growth rate, and trend growth rate estimates are made for each industry and each measure of output. Correlations are made between the volume- and value-based measures of output. Historical energy use data are collected for 5 of the industries for making energy- intensity estimates. Growth rates in energy use, energy intensity, and correlations between volume- and value-based measures of energy intensity are computed. There is large variability in growth trend estimates both long term and from year to year. While there is a high correlation between volume- and value-based measures of output for a few industries, typically the correlation is low, and this is exacerbated for estimates of energy intensity. Analysis revealed reasons for these low correlations. It appears that substantial work must be done before reliable measures of trends in the energy efficiency of industry can be accurately characterized.

  3. IAA Correlator Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surkis, Igor; Ken, Voitsekh; Melnikov, Alexey; Mishin, Vladimir; Sokolova, Nadezda; Shantyr, Violet; Zimovsky, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    The activities of the six-station IAA RAS correlator include regular processing of national geodetic VLBI programs Ru-E, Ru-U, and Ru-F. The Ru-U sessions have been transferred in e-VLBI mode and correlated in the IAA Correlator Center automatically since 2011. The DiFX software correlator is used at the IAA in some astrophysical experiments.

  4. Correlates of Intellectual Ability with Morphology of the Hippocampus and Amygdala in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amat, Jose A.; Bansal, Ravi; Whiteman, Ronald; Haggerty, Rita; Royal, Jason; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    Several prior imaging studies of healthy adults have correlated volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala with measures of general intelligence (IQ), with variable results. In this study, we assessed correlations between volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala and full-scale IQ scores (FSIQ) using a method of image analysis that permits detailed…

  5. Transparent volume imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wixson, Steve E.

    1990-07-01

    Transparent Volume Imaging began with the stereo xray in 1895 and ended for most investigators when radiation safety concerns eliminated the second view. Today, similiar images can be generated by the computer without safety hazards providing improved perception and new means of image quantification. A volumetric workstation is under development based on an operational prototype. The workstation consists of multiple symbolic and numeric processors, binocular stereo color display generator with large image memory and liquid crystal shutter, voice input and output, a 3D pointer that uses projection lenses so that structures in 3 space can be touched directly, 3D hard copy using vectograph and lenticular printing, and presentation facilities using stereo 35mm slide and stereo video tape projection. Volumetric software includes a volume window manager, Mayo Clinic's Analyze program and our Digital Stereo Microscope (DSM) algorithms. The DSM uses stereo xray-like projections, rapidly oscillating motion and focal depth cues such that detail can be studied in the spatial context of the entire set of data. Focal depth cues are generated with a lens and apeture algorithm that generates a plane of sharp focus, and multiple stereo pairs each with a different plane of sharp focus are generated and stored in the large memory for interactive selection using a physical or symbolic depth selector. More recent work is studying non-linear focussing. Psychophysical studies are underway to understand how people perce ive images on a volumetric display and how accurately 3 dimensional structures can be quantitated from these displays.

  6. What Is Strong Correlation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozak, Marcin

    2009-01-01

    Interpretation of correlation is often based on rules of thumb in which some boundary values are given to help decide whether correlation is non-important, weak, strong or very strong. This article shows that such rules of thumb may do more harm than good, and instead of supporting interpretation of correlation--which is their aim--they teach a…

  7. Environmental report 1995. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1995. This volume is intended to support summary data from Volume 1 and is essentially a detailed data report that provides additional data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in Volume 2, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. Volume 2 includes information in eight chapters on monitoring of air, air effluent, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation, as well as three chapters on ground water protection, compliance self-monitoring and quality assurance.

  8. Reduced cardiac volumes in chronic fatigue syndrome associate with plasma volume but not length of disease: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Julia L; Finkelmeyer, Andreas; Petrides, George; Frith, James; Hodgson, Tim; Maclachlan, Laura; MacGowan, Guy; Blamire, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore potential mechanisms that underpin the cardiac abnormalities seen in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) using non-invasive cardiac impedance, red cell mass and plasma volume measurements. Methods Cardiac MR (MR) examinations were performed using 3 T Philips Intera Achieva scanner (Best, NL) in participants with CFS (Fukuda; n=47) and matched case-by-case controls. Total volume (TV), red cell volume (RCV) and plasma volume (PV) measurements were performed (41 CFS and 10 controls) using the indicator dilution technique using simultaneous 51-chromium labelling of red blood cells and 125-iodine labelling of serum albumin. Results The CFS group length of history (mean±SD) was 14±10 years. Patients with CFS had significantly reduced end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes together with reduced end-diastolic wall masses (all p<0.0001). Mean±SD RCV was 1565±443 mL with 26/41 (63%) having values below 95% of expected. PV was 2659±529 mL with 13/41 (32%) <95% expected. There were strong positive correlations between TV, RCV and PV and cardiac end-diastolic wall mass (all p<0.0001; r2=0.5). Increasing fatigue severity correlated negatively with lower PV (p=0.04; r2=0.2). There were no relationships between any MR or volume measurements and length of history, suggesting that deconditioning was unlikely to be the cause of these abnormalities. Conclusions This study confirms an association between reduced cardiac volumes and blood volume in CFS. Lack of relationship between length of disease, cardiac and plasma volumes suggests findings are not secondary to deconditioning. The relationship between plasma volume and severity of fatigue symptoms suggests a potential therapeutic target in CFS. PMID:27403329

  9. Structural brain correlates of human sleep oscillations.

    PubMed

    Saletin, Jared M; van der Helm, Els; Walker, Matthew P

    2013-12-01

    Sleep is strongly conserved within species, yet marked and perplexing inter-individual differences in sleep physiology are observed. Combining EEG sleep recordings and high-resolution structural brain imaging, here we demonstrate that the morphology of the human brain offers one explanatory factor of such inter-individual variability. Gray matter volume in interoceptive and exteroceptive cortices correlated with the expression of slower NREM sleep spindle frequencies, supporting their proposed role in sleep protection against conscious perception. Conversely, and consistent with an involvement in declarative memory processing, gray matter volume in bilateral hippocampus was associated with faster NREM sleep spindle frequencies. In contrast to spindles, gray matter volume in the homeostatic sleep-regulating center of the basal forebrain/hypothalamus, together with the medial prefrontal cortex, accounted for individual differences in NREM slow wave oscillations. Together, such findings indicate that the qualitative and quantitative expression of human sleep physiology is significantly related to anatomically specific differences in macroscopic brain structure.

  10. Reproducible Volume Restoration and Efficient Long-term Volume Retention after Point-of-care Standardized Cell-enhanced Fat Grafting in Breast Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Dos Anjos, Severiano; Matas-Palau, Aina; Mercader, Josep; Katz, Adam J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lipoaspirated fat grafts are used to reconstruct volume defects in breast surgery. Although intraoperative treatment decisions are influenced by volume changes observed immediately after grafting, clinical effect and patient satisfaction are dependent on volume retention over time. The study objectives were to determine how immediate breast volume changes correlate to implanted graft volumes, to understand long-term adipose graft volume changes, and to study the “dose” effect of adding autologous stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells to fat grafts on long-term volume retention. Methods: A total of 74 patients underwent 77 cell-enhanced fat grafting procedures to restore breast volume deficits associated with cosmetic and reconstructive indications. Although all procedures used standardized fat grafts, 21 of the fat grafts were enriched with a low dose of SVF cells and 56 were enriched with a high SVF cell dose. Three-dimensional imaging was used to quantify volume retention over time Results: For each milliliter of injected fat graft, immediate changes in breast volume were shown to be lower than the actual volume implanted for all methods and clinical indications treated. Long-term breast volume changes stabilize by 90–120 days after grafting. Final volume retention in the long-term was higher with high cell-enhanced fat grafts. Conclusions: Intraoperative immediate breast volume changes do not correspond with implanted fat graft volumes. In the early postoperative period (7–21 days), breast volume increases more than the implanted volume and then rapidly decreases in the subsequent 30–60 days. High-dose cell-enhanced fat grafts decrease early postsurgical breast edema and significantly improve long-term volume retention. PMID:26579353

  11. Optical correlator tracking nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Don A.; Kirsch, James C.; Johnson, John L.

    1987-01-01

    A limitation observed in the tracking ability of optical correlators is reported. It is shown by calculations that an inherent nonlinearity exists in many optical correlator configurations, with the problem manifesting itself in a mismatch of the input scene with the position of the correlation signal. Results indicate that some care must be given to the selection of components and their configuration in constructing an optical correlator which exhibits true translational invariance. An input test scene is shown along with the correlation spot and cross hairs from a contrast detector; the offset is apparent.

  12. Correlations in Werner States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Shun-Long; Li, Nan

    2008-02-01

    Werner states are paradigmatic examples of quantum states and play an innovative role in quantum information theory. In investigating the correlating capability of Werner states, we find the curious phenomenon that quantum correlations, as quantified by the entanglement of formation, may exceed the total correlations, as measured by the quantum mutual information. Consequently, though the entanglement of formation is so widely used in quantifying entanglement, it cannot be interpreted as a consistent measure of quantum correlations per se if we accept the folklore that total correlations are measured (or rather upper bounded) by the quantum mutual information.

  13. The influence of trading volume on market efficiency: The DCCA approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukpitak, Jessada; Hengpunya, Varagorn

    2016-09-01

    For a single market, the cross-correlation between market efficiency and trading volume, which is an indicator of market liquidity, is attentively analysed. The study begins with creating time series of market efficiency by applying time-varying Hurst exponent with one year sliding window to daily closing prices. The time series of trading volume corresponding to the same time period used for the market efficiency is derived from one year moving average of daily trading volume. Subsequently, the detrended cross-correlation coefficient is employed to quantify the degree of cross-correlation between the two time series. It was found that values of cross-correlation coefficient of all considered stock markets are close to 0 and are clearly out of range in which correlation being considered significant in almost every time scale. Obtained results show that the market liquidity in term of trading volume hardly has effect on the market efficiency.

  14. Long-term prediction of emergency department revenue and visitor volume using autoregressive integrated moving average model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chieh-Fan; Ho, Wen-Hsien; Chou, Huei-Yin; Yang, Shu-Mei; Chen, I-Te; Shi, Hon-Yi

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed meteorological, clinical and economic factors in terms of their effects on monthly ED revenue and visitor volume. Monthly data from January 1, 2005 to September 30, 2009 were analyzed. Spearman correlation and cross-correlation analyses were performed to identify the correlation between each independent variable, ED revenue, and visitor volume. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was used to quantify the relationship between each independent variable, ED revenue, and visitor volume. The accuracies were evaluated by comparing model forecasts to actual values with mean absolute percentage of error. Sensitivity of prediction errors to model training time was also evaluated. The ARIMA models indicated that mean maximum temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, non-trauma, and trauma visits may correlate positively with ED revenue, but mean minimum temperature may correlate negatively with ED revenue. Moreover, mean minimum temperature and stock market index fluctuation may correlate positively with trauma visitor volume. Mean maximum temperature, relative humidity and stock market index fluctuation may correlate positively with non-trauma visitor volume. Mean maximum temperature and relative humidity may correlate positively with pediatric visitor volume, but mean minimum temperature may correlate negatively with pediatric visitor volume. The model also performed well in forecasting revenue and visitor volume.

  15. Long-term prediction of emergency department revenue and visitor volume using autoregressive integrated moving average model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chieh-Fan; Ho, Wen-Hsien; Chou, Huei-Yin; Yang, Shu-Mei; Chen, I-Te; Shi, Hon-Yi

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed meteorological, clinical and economic factors in terms of their effects on monthly ED revenue and visitor volume. Monthly data from January 1, 2005 to September 30, 2009 were analyzed. Spearman correlation and cross-correlation analyses were performed to identify the correlation between each independent variable, ED revenue, and visitor volume. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was used to quantify the relationship between each independent variable, ED revenue, and visitor volume. The accuracies were evaluated by comparing model forecasts to actual values with mean absolute percentage of error. Sensitivity of prediction errors to model training time was also evaluated. The ARIMA models indicated that mean maximum temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, non-trauma, and trauma visits may correlate positively with ED revenue, but mean minimum temperature may correlate negatively with ED revenue. Moreover, mean minimum temperature and stock market index fluctuation may correlate positively with trauma visitor volume. Mean maximum temperature, relative humidity and stock market index fluctuation may correlate positively with non-trauma visitor volume. Mean maximum temperature and relative humidity may correlate positively with pediatric visitor volume, but mean minimum temperature may correlate negatively with pediatric visitor volume. The model also performed well in forecasting revenue and visitor volume. PMID:22203886

  16. Is the difference in the volume of the pharyngeal space, as measured by acoustic pharyngometry, before and after tonsillectomy proportional to the volume of the excised tonsils?

    PubMed Central

    Di Francesco, Renata C.; Kreibich, Mariana Schmidt

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Adenotonsillectomy is recognized as an effective therapy for snoring and sleep disorders in children. It is important to understand whether adenotonsillectomy significantly increases the volume of the pharyngeal space. The goal of this study was to evaluate the change in oropharyngeal volume after adenotonsillectomy and the correlation of this change with the objective volume of the tonsils and body mass index. METHODS: We included 27 subjects (14 males) with snoring caused by tonsil and adenoid hypertrophy. The mean age of the subjects was 7.92 (±2.52) years. Children with craniofacial malformations or neuromuscular diseases or syndromes were excluded. The parents/caregivers answered an adapted questionnaire regarding sleep-disordered breathing. All patients were subjected to weight and height measurements and body mass index was calculated. The subjects underwent pharyngometry before and after adenotonsillectomy and the volume of both excised tonsils together was measured in cm3 in the operating room. RESULTS: Pharyngometric analysis showed that the mean pharyngeal volume was 28.63 (±5.57) cm3 before surgery and 31.23 (±6.76) cm3 after surgery; the volume of the oropharynx was significantly increased post-surgery (p=0.015, Wilcoxon test). No correlation was found between the objective tonsil volume and the post-surgical volume increase (p=0.6885). There was a fair correlation between the oropharyngeal volume and body mass index (p=0.0224). CONCLUSION: Adenotonsillectomy increases the volume of the pharyngeal space, but this increase does not correlate with the objective tonsil size. Furthermore, greater BMI was associated with a smaller increase in the pharyngeal volume. Oropharyngeal structures and craniofacial morphology may also play a role in the increase in oropharyngeal volume. PMID:27276399

  17. High-resolution correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, D. J.

    2007-09-01

    In the basic correlation process a sequence of time-lag-indexed correlation coefficients are computed as the inner or dot product of segments of two signals. The time-lag(s) for which the magnitude of the correlation coefficient sequence is maximized is the estimated relative time delay of the two signals. For discrete sampled signals, the delay estimated in this manner is quantized with the same relative accuracy as the clock used in sampling the signals. In addition, the correlation coefficients are real if the input signals are real. There have been many methods proposed to estimate signal delay to more accuracy than the sample interval of the digitizer clock, with some success. These methods include interpolation of the correlation coefficients, estimation of the signal delay from the group delay function, and beam forming techniques, such as the MUSIC algorithm. For spectral estimation, techniques based on phase differentiation have been popular, but these techniques have apparently not been applied to the correlation problem . We propose a phase based delay estimation method (PBDEM) based on the phase of the correlation function that provides a significant improvement of the accuracy of time delay estimation. In the process, the standard correlation function is first calculated. A time lag error function is then calculated from the correlation phase and is used to interpolate the correlation function. The signal delay is shown to be accurately estimated as the zero crossing of the correlation phase near the index of the peak correlation magnitude. This process is nearly as fast as the conventional correlation function on which it is based. For real valued signals, a simple modification is provided, which results in the same correlation accuracy as is obtained for complex valued signals.

  18. Variable-volume turbocharger

    SciTech Connect

    Nakazawa, N.; Matsura, Y.; Takemoto, T.; Kohketsu, S.

    1988-01-19

    A variable-volume turbocharger device is described comprising a turbine housing having at least first and second exhaust gas passages divided by a partition wall provided in the housing. The first exhaust gas passage has a large flow characteristic and the second exhaust gas passage has a small flow characteristic. A first valve means operable to open and shut the first exhaust gas passage, and a second valve means operative to open and shut the second exhaust gas passage independently from the first valve means, each of the valve means having a valve member which cooperates with a valve seat to open and shut the corresponding exhaust gas passage, the valve members being arranged so as to open toward the upstream side of the flowing direction of exhaust gas with respect to the valve seats.

  19. Striatal volume predicts level of video game skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kirk I; Boot, Walter R; Basak, Chandramallika; Neider, Mark B; Prakash, Ruchika S; Voss, Michelle W; Graybiel, Ann M; Simons, Daniel J; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Kramer, Arthur F

    2010-11-01

    Video game skills transfer to other tasks, but individual differences in performance and in learning and transfer rates make it difficult to identify the source of transfer benefits. We asked whether variability in initial acquisition and of improvement in performance on a demanding video game, the Space Fortress game, could be predicted by variations in the pretraining volume of either of 2 key brain regions implicated in learning and memory: the striatum, implicated in procedural learning and cognitive flexibility, and the hippocampus, implicated in declarative memory. We found that hippocampal volumes did not predict learning improvement but that striatal volumes did. Moreover, for the striatum, the volumes of the dorsal striatum predicted improvement in performance but the volumes of the ventral striatum did not. Both ventral and dorsal striatal volumes predicted early acquisition rates. Furthermore, this early-stage correlation between striatal volumes and learning held regardless of the cognitive flexibility demands of the game versions, whereas the predictive power of the dorsal striatal volumes held selectively for performance improvements in a game version emphasizing cognitive flexibility. These findings suggest a neuroanatomical basis for the superiority of training strategies that promote cognitive flexibility and transfer to untrained tasks.

  20. Intravascular volume in cirrhosis. Reassessment using improved methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, W.G. Jr.; Ibarra, F.

    1988-04-01

    Previous studies of blood volume (BV) in cirrhosis have either not adjusted BV properly for body size; determined plasma volume from the dilution of labeled albumin 10-20 min postinjection, when some extravascular redistribution has already occurred; and/or not used the correct whole body-peripheral hematocrit ratio (0.82) in calculating whole BV from plasma volume and the peripheral hematocrit. We measured BV with attention to these considerations in 19 patients with cirrhosis and reexamined the determinants of vascular volume and the relationship between vascular volume and sodium retention. BV was calculated as plasma volume (determined from extrapolated plasma activity of intravenously injected (/sup 131/I)+albumin at time 0) divided by (peripheral hematocrit X 0.82). The result was expressed per kilogram dry body weight, determined by subtracting the mass of ascites (measured by isotope dilution; 1 liter = 1 kg) from the actual body weight of nonedematous patients. Measured and expressed in this way, BV correlated strongly with esophageal variceal size (r = 0.87, P less than 0.05), although not with net portal, right atrial, inferior vena caval, or arterial pressure, and was significantly greater in patients with sodium retention as compared to patients without sodium retention. The principal modifier of vascular volume in cirrhosis is vascular capacity, which is probably mainly determined by the extent of the portasystemic collateral circulation. Increased vascular volume in patients with sodium retention as compared to patients without sodium retention supports the overflow theory of ascites formation.

  1. Modified non-Euclidean transformation on the SO(2N+2) U(N+1) Grassmannian and SO(2N + 1) random phase approximation for unified description of Bose and Fermi type collective excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Seiya; da Providência, João

    2016-02-01

    In a slight different way from the previous one, we propose a modified non-Euclidean transformation on the SO(2N+2) U(N+1) Grassmannian which gives the projected SO(2N+1) Tamm-Dancoff equation. We derive a classical time-dependent (TD) SO(2N + 1) Lagrangian which, through the Euler-Lagrange equation of motion for SO(2N+2) U(N+1) coset variables, brings another form of the previous extended-TD Hartree-Bogoliubov (HB) equation. The SO(2N + 1) random phase approximation (RPA) is derived using Dyson representation for paired and unpaired operators. In the SO(2N) HB case, one boson and two boson excited states are realized. We, however, stress non-existence of a higher RPA vacuum. An integrable system is given by a geometrical concept of zero-curvature, i.e. integrability condition of connection on the corresponding Lie group. From the group theoretical viewpoint, we show the existence of a symplectic two-form ω.

  2. Quantitative prediction of respiratory tidal volume based on the external torso volume change: a potential volumetric surrogate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guang; Arora, Naveen C.; Xie, Huchen; Ning, Holly; Lu, Wei; Low, Daniel; Citrin, Deborah; Kaushal, Aradhana; Zach, Leor; Camphausen, Kevin; Miller, Robert W.

    2009-04-01

    An external respiratory surrogate that not only highly correlates with but also quantitatively predicts internal tidal volume should be useful in guiding four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT), as well as 4D radiation therapy (4DRT). A volumetric surrogate should have advantages over external fiducial point(s) for monitoring respiration-induced motion of the torso, which deforms in synchronization with a patient-specific breathing pattern. This study establishes a linear relationship between the external torso volume change (TVC) and lung air volume change (AVC) by validating a proposed volume conservation hypothesis (TVC = AVC) throughout the respiratory cycle using 4DCT and spirometry. Fourteen patients' torso 4DCT images and corresponding spirometric tidal volumes were acquired to examine this hypothesis. The 4DCT images were acquired using dual surrogates in ciné mode and amplitude-based binning in 12 respiratory stages, minimizing residual motion artifacts. Torso and lung volumes were calculated using threshold-based segmentation algorithms and volume changes were calculated relative to the full-exhalation stage. The TVC and AVC, as functions of respiratory stages, were compared, showing a high correlation (r = 0.992 ± 0.005, p < 0.0001) as well as a linear relationship (slope = 1.027 ± 0.061, R2 = 0.980) without phase shift. The AVC was also compared to the spirometric tidal volumes, showing a similar linearity (slope = 1.030 ± 0.092, R2 = 0.947). In contrast, the thoracic and abdominal heights measured from 4DCT showed relatively low correlation (0.28 ± 0.44 and 0.82 ± 0.30, respectively) and location-dependent phase shifts. This novel approach establishes the foundation for developing an external volumetric respiratory surrogate.

  3. Mean Platelet Volume in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Young; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Hee Joo; Park, Tae Sung

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Mean platelet volume (MPV) has been thought as a useful index of platelet activation. It is supposed that MPV is also associated with several inflammatory and infectious diseases. Korea still has a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to investigate MPV as an inflammatory marker in TB patients. Materials and Methods. MPV were determined in 221 patients with TB and 143 individuals for control group. MPV was estimated by an Advia 2120 (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Tarrytown, NY, USA). Results. In the TB patient group, a positive correlation was found between CRP and MPV. Age and MPV had a positive correlation in TB patient group. Conclusions. We conclude that there is a significant relation between MPV and inflammatory conditions. MPV can be an inflammatory marker to determine the disease activity in TB patients. PMID:27419136

  4. Low-grade toxicity after conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer-impact of bladder volume

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkawa, Michael . E-mail: mpinkawa@ukaachen.de; Fischedick, Karin; Asadpour, Branka; Gagel, Bernd; Piroth, Marc D.; Eble, Michael J.

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of dose-volume histogram parameters on low-grade toxicity after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Eighty patients have been surveyed prospectively before (time A), at the last day (B), 2 months after (C), and 16 months (median) after (D) radiotherapy (70.2 Gy) using a validated questionnaire (Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite). Dose-volume histograms were correlated with urinary and bowel function/bother scores. Results: The initial bladder volume and the percentage of the bladder volume receiving 10%-90% of the prescription dose significantly correlated with urinary function/bother scores (significant cutoff levels found for all dose levels). Pain with urination proved to be mainly an acute problem, subsiding faster for patients with larger bladder volumes and smaller volumes inside particular isodose lines. At time D, persisting problems with smaller initial bladder volumes were a weak stream and an increased frequency of urination. Though bladder volume and planning target volume both independently have an influence on dose-volume histogram parameters for the bladder, bladder volume plays the decisive role for urinary toxicity. Conclusions: The patient's ability to fill the bladder has a major impact on the dose-volume histogram and both acute and late urinary toxicity.

  5. Fusiform Correlates of Facial Memory in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Trontel, Haley G.; Duffield, Tyler C.; Bigler, Erin D.; Froehlich, Alyson; Prigge, Molly B.D.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Cooperrider, Jason R.; Cariello, Annahir N.; Travers, Brittany G.; Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Zielinski, Brandon A.; Alexander, Andrew; Lange, Nicholas; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that performance on standardized measures of memory in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is substantially reduced in comparison to matched typically developing controls (TDC). Given reported deficits in face processing in autism, the current study compared performance on an immediate and delayed facial memory task for individuals with ASD and TDC. In addition, we examined volumetric differences in classic facial memory regions of interest (ROI) between the two groups, including the fusiform, amygdala, and hippocampus. We then explored the relationship between ROI volume and facial memory performance. We found larger volumes in the autism group in the left amygdala and left hippocampus compared to TDC. In contrast, TDC had larger left fusiform gyrus volumes when compared with ASD. Interestingly, we also found significant negative correlations between delayed facial memory performance and volume of the left and right fusiform and the left hippocampus for the ASD group but not for TDC. The possibility of larger fusiform volume as a marker of abnormal connectivity and decreased facial memory is discussed. PMID:24761228

  6. Using neural networks to describe tracer correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lary, D. J.; Müller, M. D.; Mussa, H. Y.

    2003-11-01

    Neural networks are ideally suited to describe the spatial and temporal dependence of tracer-tracer correlations. The neural network performs well even in regions where the correlations are less compact and normally a family of correlation curves would be required. For example, the CH4-N2O correlation can be well described using a neural 5 network trained with the latitude, pressure, time of year, and CH4 volume mixing ratio (v.m.r.). In this study a neural network using Quickprop learning and one hidden layer with eight nodes was able to reproduce the CH4-N2O correlation with a correlation co-efficient of 0.9995. Such an accurate representation of tracer-tracer correlations allows more use to be made of long-term datasets to constrain chemical models. Such as the 10 dataset from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) which has continuously observed CH4 (but not N2O) from 1991 till the present. The neural network Fortran code used is available for download

  7. Using neural networks to describe tracer correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lary, D. J.; Müller, M. D.; Mussa, H. Y.

    2004-01-01

    Neural networks are ideally suited to describe the spatial and temporal dependence of tracer-tracer correlations. The neural network performs well even in regions where the correlations are less compact and normally a family of correlation curves would be required. For example, the CH4-N2O correlation can be well described using a neural network trained with the latitude, pressure, time of year, and methane volume mixing ratio (v.m.r.). In this study a neural network using Quickprop learning and one hidden layer with eight nodes was able to reproduce the CH4-N2O correlation with a correlation coefficient between simulated and training values of 0.9995. Such an accurate representation of tracer-tracer correlations allows more use to be made of long-term datasets to constrain chemical models. Such as the dataset from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) which has continuously observed CH4 (but not N2O) from 1991 till the present. The neural network Fortran code used is available for download.

  8. Using Neural Networks to Describe Tracer Correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lary, D. J.; Mueller, M. D.; Mussa, H. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Neural networks are ideally suited to describe the spatial and temporal dependence of tracer-tracer correlations. The neural network performs well even in regions where the correlations are less compact and normally a family of correlation curves would be required. For example, the CH4-N2O correlation can be well described using a neural network trained with the latitude, pressure, time of year, and CH4 volume mixing ratio (v.m.r.). In this study a neural network using Quickprop learning and one hidden layer with eight nodes was able to reproduce the CH4-N2O correlation with a correlation co- efficient of 0.9995. Such an accurate representation of tracer-tracer correlations allows more use to be made of long-term datasets to constrain chemical models. Such as the dataset from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) which has continuously observed CH4, (but not N2O) from 1991 till the present. The neural network Fortran code used is available for download.

  9. Derivation of flow-volume and time domain spirometric indices by digitisation of volume-time spirograms.

    PubMed

    Chia, K S; Lim, T K; Ng, T P

    1990-09-01

    All the information regarding the forced expiratory manoeuvre are contained in the simple volume-time spirogram. Flow-volume and time-domain indices could be derived by digitising the volume-time spirogram. This paper describes an electronic means of digitising the spirogram and demonstrates its capability in deriving flow-volume and time-domain spirometric indices. The spirograms of 118 granite quarry workers were digitised using an electronic digitising pen. The volume and time data are stored in a micro-computer and a programme written in dBASEIII Plus is used to smoothen and derive the standard volume-time, flow-volume and time domain indices. There was good agreement between digitised and hand-read values (intraclass correlation coefficients, rI, greater than 0.9) for the forced expiratory flow in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) irrespective of the pulmonary status. There was a small but statistically significant difference between digitised and hand-read FEV1 for those with normal and restrictive pulmonary function groups (-115 ml/sec and 19 ml/sec respectively). There was however, no evidence of systematic bias between the two methods. The technique described herein provides a rapid and accurate means for deriving flow-volume and time domain indices from a volume-time spirogram. It also provides the opportunity to reanalyse previously collected volume-time spirograms and allow for the assessment of small airways function of these subjects using newer flow-volume and time domain indices.

  10. Price-volume multifractal analysis and its application in Chinese stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ying; Zhuang, Xin-tian; Liu, Zhi-ying

    2012-06-01

    An empirical research on Chinese stock markets is conducted using statistical tools. First, the multifractality of stock price return series, ri(ri=ln(Pt+1)-ln(Pt)) and trading volume variation series, vi(vi=ln(Vt+1)-ln(Vt)) is confirmed using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. Furthermore, a multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis between stock price return and trading volume variation in Chinese stock markets is also conducted. It is shown that the cross relationship between them is also found to be multifractal. Second, the cross-correlation between stock price Pi and trading volume Vi is empirically studied using cross-correlation function and detrended cross-correlation analysis. It is found that both Shanghai stock market and Shenzhen stock market show pronounced long-range cross-correlations between stock price and trading volume. Third, a composite index R based on price and trading volume is introduced. Compared with stock price return series ri and trading volume variation series vi, R variation series not only remain the characteristics of original series but also demonstrate the relative correlation between stock price and trading volume. Finally, we analyze the multifractal characteristics of R variation series before and after three financial events in China (namely, Price Limits, Reform of Non-tradable Shares and financial crisis in 2008) in the whole period of sample to study the changes of stock market fluctuation and financial risk. It is found that the empirical results verified the validity of R.

  11. Heliophysics 3 Volume Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2010-11-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Prologue Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Introduction to heliophysics Thomas J. Bogdan; 3. Creation and destruction of magnetic field Matthias Rempel; 4. Magnetic field topology Dana W. Longcope; 5. Magnetic reconnection Terry G. Forbes; 6. Structures of the magnetic field Mark B. Moldwin, George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 7. Turbulence in space plasmas Charles W. Smith; 8. The solar atmosphere Viggo H. Hansteen; 9. Stellar winds and magnetic fields Viggo H. Hansteen; 10. Fundamentals of planetary magnetospheres Vytenis M. Vasyliūnas; 11. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling: an MHD perspective Frank R. Toffoletto and George L. Siscoe; 12. On the ionosphere and chromosphere Tim Fuller-Rowell and Carolus J. Schrijver; 13. Comparative planetary environments Frances Bagenal; Bibliography; Index. Volume 2: Preface; 1. Perspective on heliophysics George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 2. Introduction to space storms and radiation Sten Odenwald; 3. In-situ detection of energetic particles George Gloeckler; 4. Radiative signatures of energetic particles Tim Bastian; 5. Observations of solar and stellar eruptions, flares, and jets Hugh Hudson; 6. Models of coronal mass ejections and flares Terry Forbes; 7. Shocks in heliophysics Merav Opher; 8. Particle acceleration in shocks Dietmar Krauss-Varban; 9. Energetic particle transport Joe Giacalone; 10. Energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres Vytenis Vasyliūnas; 11. Energization of trapped particles Janet Green; 12. Flares, CMEs, and atmospheric responses Tim Fuller-Rowell and Stanley C. Solomon; 13. Energetic particles and manned spaceflight 358 Stephen Guetersloh and Neal Zapp; 14. Energetic particles and technology Alan Tribble; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index. Volume 3: Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun

  12. Nanoscale volume confinement and fluorescence enhancement with double nanohole aperture

    PubMed Central

    Regmi, Raju; Al Balushi, Ahmed A.; Rigneault, Hervé; Gordon, Reuven; Wenger, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Diffraction ultimately limits the fluorescence collected from a single molecule, and sets an upper limit to the maximum concentration to isolate a single molecule in the detection volume. To overcome these limitations, we introduce here the use of a double nanohole structure with 25 nm gap, and report enhanced detection of single fluorescent molecules in concentrated solutions exceeding 20 micromolar. The nanometer gap concentrates the light into an apex volume down to 70 zeptoliter (10−21 L), 7000-fold below the diffraction-limited confocal volume. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and time-correlated photon counting, we measure fluorescence enhancement up to 100-fold, together with local density of optical states (LDOS) enhancement of 30-fold. The distinctive features of double nanoholes combining high local field enhancement, efficient background screening and relative nanofabrication simplicity offer new strategies for real time investigation of biochemical events with single molecule resolution at high concentrations. PMID:26511149

  13. RHIC DATA CORRELATION METHODOLOGY.

    SciTech Connect

    MICHNOFF,R.; D'OTTAVIO,T.; HOFF,L.; MACKAY,W.; SATOGATA,T.

    1999-03-29

    A requirement for RHIC data plotting software and physics analysis is the correlation of data from all accelerator data gathering systems. Data correlation provides the capability for a user to request a plot of multiple data channels vs. time, and to make meaningful time-correlated data comparisons. The task of data correlation for RHIC requires careful consideration because data acquisition triggers are generated from various asynchronous sources including events from the RHIC Event Link, events from the two Beam Sync Links, and other unrelated clocks. In order to correlate data from asynchronous acquisition systems a common time reference is required. The RHIC data correlation methodology will allow all RHIC data to be converted to a common wall clock time, while still preserving native acquisition trigger information. A data correlation task force team, composed of the authors of this paper, has been formed to develop data correlation design details and provide guidelines for software developers. The overall data correlation methodology will be presented in this paper.

  14. Big-Brained People are Smarter: A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between In Vivo Brain Volume and Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between brain volume and intelligence has been a topic of a scientific debate since at least the 1830s. To address the debate, a meta-analysis of the relationship between in vivo brain volume and intelligence was conducted. Based on 37 samples across 1530 people, the population correlation was estimated at 0.33. The correlation is…

  15. The Occupational Thesaurus: Volume 1 and Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teal, Everett A.

    Presented in two volumes, the job guide handbook can be used by high school and college counselors, students, recruiters for business and industry, and parents in determining areas of employment which are compatible with a student's or potential employee's interests, abilities, and preparation. Volume 1 lists job areas for students majoring in…

  16. Healthy People 2010: Conference Edition, Volume I [and] Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

    This document contains the two volumes of the Conference Edition of Healthy People 2010, a comprehensive, nationwide health promotion and disease prevention agenda. The first section of Volume I, "Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health," includes "Introduction,""Leading Health Indicators," and "Bibliography. The second section,…

  17. Volume to value.

    PubMed

    Leaver, William B

    2013-01-01

    Traditional fee-for-service medicine has put physicians on an unsustainable treadmill of volume that escalates healthcare costs regardless of the quality of care they provide. This article shares the experience of UnityPoint Health (formerly Iowa Health System) in designing and implementing patient-centered, physician-led, coordinated care as a building block for transforming the delivery system. Keys to the effort's success include aligning physicians, hospitals, and home care delivery in terms of organizational goals and having the ability to gather, analyze, and share data to manage population health. On April 16, 2013, Iowa Health System became UnityPoint Health, dedicated to transforming the delivery of care through a coordinated system that offers regional, organized systems of care in most of our markets in Iowa and Illinois. These capabilities allowed the system to enter into value-based accountable care organization contracts that cover more than 220,000 lives. The transition ultimately will lead to population health-driven approaches in which compensation will be based on the management of specific populations or chronic diseases over a specified period. As increased value from care coordination becomes clear, the external environment will demand this better system, and patients will expect it. PMID:23858985

  18. Cordoba Durchmusterung, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The 'Cordoba Durchmusterung' (CD) is a visual survey of southern stars in the declination zones -22 to -89 deg, carried out as an extension to the 'Bonner Durchmusterung' (BD) catalogs of Argelander and Schoenfeld. This volume covers the declination range -22 deg through -30 deg. The survey was performed using techniques similar to those used for the BD; i.e., the stars were cataloged by allowing the telescope to drift along the mean declination of each zone and recording the positions and magnitudes of stars crossing the transit line of the field. The goal of the survey was to obtain a position and estimated visual magnitude for every star down to 10.0 magnitude inclusive, but the faint limit was confirmed from comparisons with other catalogs, to be somewhat below 10. The positions are given to 0.1 s in right ascension and 0.1 min in declination for the equinox 1875. The positional uncertainties quoted in the original publications are plus or minus 0.42 s and plus or minus 0.23 min for zones -22 deg to -32 deg. A list of all corrections made to the original data as a result of published corrigenda is presented. No other corrections or changes were incorporated into the original data, e.g., from more modern positions and magnitudes or comparison with the 'Cape Photographic Durchmusterung'.

  19. Cordoba Durchmusterung, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The 'Cordoba Durchmusterung' (CD) is a visual survey of southern stars in the declination zones -22 to -89 deg, carried out as an extension to the 'Bonner Durchmusterung' (BD) catalogs of Argelander and Schoenfeld. This volume covers the declination range -40 deg through -49 deg. The survey was performed using techniques similar to those used for the BD; i.e., the stars were cataloged by allowing the telescope to drift along the mean declination of each zone and recording the positions and magnitudes of stars crossing the transit line of the field. The goal of the survey was to obtain a position and estimated visual magnitude for every star down to 10.0 magnitude inclusive, but the faint limit was confirmed from comparisons with other catalogs, to be somewhat below 10. The positions are given to 0.1 s in right ascension and 0.1 min in declination for the equinox 1875. The positional uncertainties quoted in the original publications are plus or minus 0.42 sec and plus or minus 0.23 min for zones -22 deg to -32 deg. A list of all corrections made to the original data as a result of published corrigenda is presented. No other corrections or changes were incorporated into the original data, e.g., from more modern positions and magnitudes or comparison with the 'Cape Photographic Durchmusterung'.

  20. The Utility of 3D Left Atrial Volume and Mitral Flow Velocities as Guides for Acute Volume Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Santosa, Claudia M; Rose, David D; Fleming, Neal W

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) is the foundation of cardiac function assessment. Because of difficulties and risks associated with its direct measurement, correlates of LVEDP derived by pulmonary artery (PA) catheterization or transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) are commonly adopted. TEE has the advantage of being less invasive; however TEE-based estimation of LVEDP using correlates such as left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) has technical difficulties that limit its clinical usefulness. Using intraoperative acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) as a controlled hemorrhagic model, we examined various mitral flow parameters and three-dimensional reconstructions of left atrial volume as surrogates of LVEDP. Our results demonstrate that peak E wave velocity and left atrial end-diastolic volume (LAEDV) correlated with known changes in intravascular volume associated with ANH. Although left atrial volumetric analysis was done offline in our study, recent advances in echocardiographic software may allow for continuous display and real-time calculation of LAEDV. Along with the ease and reproducibility of acquiring Doppler images of flow across the mitral valve, these two correlates of LVEDP may justify a more widespread use of TEE to optimize intraoperative fluid management. The clinical applicability of peak E wave velocity and LAEDV still needs to be validated during uncontrolled resuscitation.

  1. Tissue classification by wavelet modified generic Fourier descriptor and their recognition using hybrid correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Raj Bahadur; Gupta, Arun K.

    2010-02-01

    Segmentation in Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images is a widely studied problem, and techniques (supervised and unsupervised) are discussed in the literature. The basic approaches to image segmentation are based upon: (a) boundary representation, (b) regional characteristics and (c) a combination of boundary and region-based features. In this paper, we report classification of brain tissue based objects employing one of combination of boundary and region-based features as wavelet modified generic Fourier descriptor (WGFD) technique. This technique have been applied to a database consisting of 3 different class's tissues, each class consist of 50 shapes. The Euclidean distance has been calculated as a similarity measure parameter for tissue shape classification. The classification results have been carried out and it is inferred that WGFD performs for brain tissue classification. For brain tissue recognition, a simulation experiment employing hybrid correlator architecture has been carried out. We have used Wavelet modified maximum average correlation hight (MACH) filter for hybrid correlator. Mexican-hat wavelet has used to synthesize the wavelet MACH filter for simulation experiment.

  2. MRI Volume Fusion Based on 3D Shearlet Decompositions

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Chang; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Xue Gang; Huang, Qi Hong

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays many MRI scans can give 3D volume data with different contrasts, but the observers may want to view various contrasts in the same 3D volume. The conventional 2D medical fusion methods can only fuse the 3D volume data layer by layer, which may lead to the loss of interframe correlative information. In this paper, a novel 3D medical volume fusion method based on 3D band limited shearlet transform (3D BLST) is proposed. And this method is evaluated upon MRI T2* and quantitative susceptibility mapping data of 4 human brains. Both the perspective impression and the quality indices indicate that the proposed method has a better performance than conventional 2D wavelet, DT CWT, and 3D wavelet, DT CWT based fusion methods. PMID:24817880

  3. Energy-dependent volume regulation in primary cultured cerebral astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Olson, J E; Sankar, R; Holtzman, D; James, A; Fleischhacker, D

    1986-08-01

    Cell volume regulation and energy metabolism were studied in primary cultured cerebral astrocytes during exposure to media of altered osmolarity. Cells suspended in medium containing 1/2 the normal concentration of NaCl (hypoosmotic) swell immediately to a volume 40-50% larger than cells suspended in isoosmotic medium. The cell volume in hypoosmotic medium then decreases over 30 min to a volume approximately 25% larger than cells in isoosmotic medium. In hyperosmotic medium (containing twice the normal concentration of NaCl), astrocytes shrink by 29%. Little volume change occurs following this initial shrinkage. Cells resuspended in isoosmotic medium after a 30 min incubation in hypoosmotic medium shrink immediately to a volume 10% less than the volume of cells incubated continuously in isoosmotic medium. Thus, the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) in hypoosmotic medium involves a net reduction of intracellular osmoles. The RVD is partially blocked by inhibitors of mitochondrial electron transport but is unaffected by an inhibitor of glycolysis or by an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. Inhibition of RVD by these metabolic agents is correlated with decreased cellular ATP levels. Ouabain, added immediately after hypoosmotic induced swelling, completely inhibits RVD, but does not alter cell volume if added after RVD has taken place. Ouabain also inhibits cell respiration 27% more in hypoosmotic medium than in isoosmotic medium indicating that the (Na,K)-ATPase-coupled ion pump is more active in the hypoosmotic medium. These data suggest that the cell volume response of astrocytes in hypoosmotic medium involves the net movement of osmoles by a mechanism dependent on cellular energy and tightly coupled to the (Na,K)-ATPase ion pump. This process may be important in the energy-dependent osmoregulation in the brain, a critical role attributed to the astrocyte in vivo. PMID:3015986

  4. ALMA correlator computer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, Jim; Amestica, Rodrigo; Perez, Jesus

    2004-09-01

    We present a design for the computer systems which control, configure, and monitor the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) correlator and process its output. Two distinct computer systems implement this functionality: a rack- mounted PC controls and monitors the correlator, and a cluster of 17 PCs process the correlator output into raw spectral results. The correlator computer systems interface to other ALMA computers via gigabit Ethernet networks utilizing CORBA and raw socket connections. ALMA Common Software provides the software infrastructure for this distributed computer environment. The control computer interfaces to the correlator via multiple CAN busses and the data processing computer cluster interfaces to the correlator via sixteen dedicated high speed data ports. An independent array-wide hardware timing bus connects to the computer systems and the correlator hardware ensuring synchronous behavior and imposing hard deadlines on the control and data processor computers. An aggregate correlator output of 1 gigabyte per second with 16 millisecond periods and computational data rates of approximately 1 billion floating point operations per second define other hard deadlines for the data processing computer cluster.

  5. Explorations in Statistics: Correlation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This sixth installment of "Explorations in Statistics" explores correlation, a familiar technique that estimates the magnitude of a straight-line relationship between two variables. Correlation is meaningful only when the…

  6. Comparison of Cerebral Blood Volume and Plasma Volume in Untreated Intracranial Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ramalho, Joana; Eldeniz, Cihat; An, Hongyu; Lee, Yueh Z.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Plasma volume and blood volume are imaging-derived parameters that are often used to evaluation intracranial tumors. Physiologically, these parameters are directly related, but their two different methods of measurements, T1-dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)- and T2-dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC)-MR utilize different model assumptions and approaches. This poses the question of whether the interchangeable use of T1-DCE-MRI derived fractionated plasma volume (vp) and relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) assessed using DSC-MRI, particularly in glioblastoma, is reliable, and if this relationship can be generalized to other types of brain tumors. Our goal was to examine the hypothetical correlation between these parameters in three most common intracranial tumor types. Methods Twenty-four newly diagnosed, treatment naïve brain tumor patients, who had undergone DCE- and DSC-MRI, were classified in three histologically proven groups: glioblastoma (n = 7), meningioma (n = 9), and intraparenchymal metastases (n = 8). The rCBV was obtained from DSC after normalization with the normal-appearing anatomically symmetrical contralateral white matter. Correlations between these parameters were evaluated using Pearson (r), Spearman's (ρ) and Kendall’s tau-b (τB) rank correlation coefficient. Results The Pearson, Spearman and Kendall’s correlation between vp with rCBV were r = 0.193, ρ = 0.253 and τB = 0.33 (p-Pearson = 0.326, p-Spearman = 0.814 and p-Kendall = 0.823) in glioblastoma, r = -0.007, ρ = 0.051 and τB = 0.135 (p-Pearson = 0.970, p-Spearman = 0.765 and p-Kendall = 0.358) in meningiomas, and r = 0.289, ρ = 0.228 and τB = 0.239 (p-Pearson = 0.109, p-Spearman = 0.210 and p-Kendall = 0.095) in metastasis. Conclusion Results indicate that no correlation exists between vp with rCBV in glioblastomas, meningiomas and intraparenchymal metastatic lesions. Consequently, these parameters, as calculated in this study, should not be used interchangeably in

  7. Relation of Surgical Volume to Outcome in Eight Common Operations

    PubMed Central

    Khuri, Shukri F.; Daley, Jennifer; Henderson, William; Hur, Kwan; Hossain, Monir; Soybel, David; Kizer, Kenneth W.; Aust, J. Bradley; Bell, Richard H.; Chong, Vernon; Demakis, John; Fabri, Peter J.; Gibbs, James O.; Grover, Frederick; Hammermeister, Karl; McDonald, Gerald; Passaro, Edward; Phillips, Lloyd; Scamman, Frank; Spencer, Jeannette; Stremple, John F.

    1999-01-01

    Objective To examine, in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), the relation between surgical volume and outcome in eight commonly performed operations of intermediate complexity. Summary Background Data In multihospital health care systems such as VHA, consideration is often given to closing low-volume surgical services, with the assumption that better surgical outcomes are achieved in hospitals with larger surgical volumes. Literature data to support this assumption in intermediate-complexity operations are either limited or controversial. Methods The VHA National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data on nonruptured abdominal aortic aneurysmectomy, vascular infrainguinal reconstruction, carotid endarterectomy (CEA), lung lobectomy/pneumonectomy, open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy, partial colectomy, and total hip arthroplasty were used. Pearson correlation, analysis of variance, mixed effects hierarchical logistic regression, and automatic interaction detection analysis were used to assess the association of annual procedure/specialty volume with risk-adjusted 30-day death (and stroke in CEA). Results Eight major surgical procedures (68,631 operations) were analyzed. No statistically significant associations between procedure or specialty volume and 30-day mortality rate (or 30-day stroke rate in CEA) were found. Conclusions In VHA hospitals, the procedure and surgical specialty volume in eight prevalent operations of intermediate complexity are not associated with risk-adjusted 30-day mortality rate from these operations, or with the risk-adjusted 30-day stroke rate from CEA. Volume of surgery in these operations should not be used as a surrogate for quality of surgical care. PMID:10493488

  8. Pituitary volumes are changed in patients with conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Atmaca, Murad; Baykara, Sema; Mermi, Osman; Yildirim, Hanefi; Akaslan, Unsal

    2016-03-01

    Our study group previously measured pituitary volumes and found a relationship between somatoform disoders and pituitary volumes. Therefore, in conversion disorder, another somatoform disorder, we hypothesized that pituitary gland volumes would be reduced. Twenty female patients and healthy controls were recruited to the present investigation. The volumes of the pituitary gland were determined by using a 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner. We found that the pituitary gland volumes of the patients with conversion disorder were significantly smaller than those of healthy control subjects. In the patients with conversion disorder but not in the healthy control group, a significant negative correlation between the duration of illness and pituitary gland volume was determined. In summary, in the present study, we suggest that the patients with conversion disorder have smaller pituitary volumes compared to those of healthy control subjects. Further studies should confirm our data and ascertain whether volumetric alterations determined in the patients with conversion disorder can be changed with treatment or if they change over time.

  9. Thyroid Volume and Its Relation to Anthropometric Measures in a Healthy Cuban Population

    PubMed Central

    Turcios, Silvia; Lence-Anta, Juan J.; Santana, Jose-Luis; Pereda, Celia M.; Velasco, Milagros; Chappe, Mae; Infante, Idalmis; Bustillo, Marlene; García, Anabel; Clero, Enora; Maillard, Stephane; Rodriguez, Regla; Xhaard, Constance; Ren, Yan; Rubino, Carole; Ortiz, Rosa M.; de Vathaire, Florent

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to describe the thyroid volume in healthy adults by ultrasound and to correlate this volume with some anthropometric measures and other differentiated thyroid cancer risk factors. Study Design Thyroid volume and anthropometric measures were recorded in a sample of 100 healthy adults, including 21 men and 79 women aged 18-50 years, living in a non-iodine-deficient area of Havana city. Results The average thyroid volume was 6.6 ± 0.26 ml; it was higher in men (7.3 ml) than in women (6.4 ml; p = 0.15). In the univariate analysis, thyroid volume was correlated with all anthropometric measures, but in the multivariate analysis, body surface area was found to be the only significant anthropometric parameter. Thyroid volume was also higher in current or former smokers and in persons with blood group AB or B. Conclusion Specific reference values of thyroid volume as a function of body surface area could be used for evaluating thyroid volume in clinical practice. The relation between body surface area and thyroid volume is coherent with what is known about the relation of thyroid volume to thyroid cancer risk, but the same is not true about the relation between thyroid volume and smoking habit. PMID:25960963

  10. Volume rendering for neurosurgical planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noordmans, Herke J.; Rutten, G. J. M.; Willems, Peter W. A.; van Veelen, C. W. M.; van Rijen, P. C.; Viergever, Max A.

    2001-01-01

    A volume rendering library is presented to interactively analyze volume data from modalities like CT, MR, PET, SPECT< and fMRI for the planning of nuerosurgical procedures. Current applications are logging of Penfield procedures, fMRI visualization, blood vessel visualization and interactive localization of EEG electrodes implanted in the subdural space of a patient with epilepsy.

  11. PDLE: Sustaining Professionalism. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Patricia, Ed.; Nelson, Gayle, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This third volume looks at ways that seasoned professionals continue to develop throughout their careers. The text includes descriptive accounts of professionals seeking to enhance their careers while remaining inspired to continue to develop professionally. This volume reveals how personal and professional lives are entwined. It proves that TESOL…

  12. Volume restoration and facial aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Glasgold, Mark J; Glasgold, Robert A; Lam, Samuel M

    2008-11-01

    This article discusses the rationale for the use of volume restoration to restore natural, youthful contours to an aging face. Topics discussed include the discrepancy that can exist between patients' stated wishes and optimal results and the concepts of framing the eye, creating highlights, and restoring facial shape and volume.

  13. Higher RBC EPA + DHA corresponds with larger total brain and hippocampal volumes

    PubMed Central

    Yaffe, Kristine; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Espeland, Mark A.; Wallace, Robert; Harris, William S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To test whether red blood cell (RBC) levels of marine omega-3 fatty acids measured in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study were related to MRI brain volumes measured 8 years later. Methods: RBC eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and MRI brain volumes were assessed in 1,111 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. The endpoints were total brain volume and anatomical regions. Linear mixed models included multiple imputations of fatty acids and were adjusted for hormone therapy, time since randomization, demographics, intracranial volume, and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Results: In fully adjusted models, a 1 SD greater RBC EPA + DHA (omega-3 index) level was correlated with 2.1 cm3 larger brain volume (p = 0.048). DHA was marginally correlated (p = 0.063) with total brain volume while EPA was less so (p = 0.11). There were no correlations between ischemic lesion volumes and EPA, DHA, or EPA + DHA. A 1 SD greater omega-3 index was correlated with greater hippocampal volume (50 mm3, p = 0.036) in fully adjusted models. Comparing the fourth quartile vs the first quartile of the omega-3 index confirmed greater hippocampal volume (159 mm3, p = 0.034). Conclusion: A higher omega-3 index was correlated with larger total normal brain volume and hippocampal volume in postmenopausal women measured 8 years later. While normal aging results in overall brain atrophy, lower omega-3 index may signal increased risk of hippocampal atrophy. Future studies should examine whether maintaining higher RBC EPA + DHA levels slows the rate of hippocampal or overall brain atrophy. PMID:24453077

  14. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    PubMed Central

    Sicat, Ronell; Krüger, Jens; Möller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs. PMID:26146475

  15. Tritium volume activity in the Baltic Sea in 1987-1989

    SciTech Connect

    Styro, D.B.; Korotkov, V.P.

    1994-11-01

    Tritium volume activities measured in the Baltic Sea are summarized in this paper. Activity levels were determined by the liquid scintillation method with a LS-1000 counter. The field investigations showed that the tritium volume activity in the Baltic Sea can change substantially in absolute magnitude. Therefore, average volume activity is used as an indicator of natural content. Correlations between calculated (averaged) tritium activity levels and the Chernobyl accident are very briefly discussed. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. New formulae for estimating lava flow volumes at Mt. Etna Volcano, Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, J. B.; Stevens, N. F.

    A new data set of Etna lava flows erupted since 1868 has been compiled from eight topographic maps of the volcano published at intervals since then. Volumes of 59 flows or groups of flows were measured from topographic difference maps. Most of these volumes are likely to be considerably more accurate than those published previously. We cut the number of flow volumes down to 25 by selecting those examples for which the volume of an individual eruption could be derived with the highest accuracy. This refined data set was searched for high correlations between flow volume and more directly measurable parameters. Only two parameters showed a correlation coefficient of 70% or greater: planimetric flow area A (70%) and duration of the eruption D (79%). If only short duration (<18 days) flows were used, flow length cubed, L3, had a correlation coefficient of 98%. Using combinations of measured parameters, much more significant correlations with volume were found. Dh had a correlation coefficient of 90% (h is the hydrostatic head of magma above the vent), and , 92% (where W is mean width and E is the degree of topographic enclosure), and a combination of the two , 97%. These latter formulae were used to derive volumes of all eruptions back to 1868 to compare with those from the complete data set. Values determined from the formulae were, on average, lower by 16% (Dh), 7% ( , and 19% .

  17. Haystack Observatory VLBI Correlator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titus, Mike; Cappallo, Roger; Corey, Brian; Dudevoir, Kevin; Niell, Arthur; Whitney, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Haystack Correlator during 2012. Highlights include finding a solution to the DiFX InfiniBand timeout problem and other DiFX software development, conducting a DBE comparison test following the First International VLBI Technology Workshop, conducting a Mark IV and DiFX correlator comparison, more broadband delay experiments, more u- VLBI Galactic Center observations, and conversion of RDV session processing to the Mark IV/HOPS path. Non-real-time e-VLBI transfers and engineering support of other correlators continued.

  18. Correlation Plenoptic Imaging.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Milena; Pepe, Francesco V; Garuccio, Augusto; Scarcelli, Giuliano

    2016-06-01

    Plenoptic imaging is a promising optical modality that simultaneously captures the location and the propagation direction of light in order to enable three-dimensional imaging in a single shot. However, in standard plenoptic imaging systems, the maximum spatial and angular resolutions are fundamentally linked; thereby, the maximum achievable depth of field is inversely proportional to the spatial resolution. We propose to take advantage of the second-order correlation properties of light to overcome this fundamental limitation. In this Letter, we demonstrate that the correlation in both momentum and position of chaotic light leads to the enhanced refocusing power of correlation plenoptic imaging with respect to standard plenoptic imaging. PMID:27314718

  19. Correlation Plenoptic Imaging.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Milena; Pepe, Francesco V; Garuccio, Augusto; Scarcelli, Giuliano

    2016-06-01

    Plenoptic imaging is a promising optical modality that simultaneously captures the location and the propagation direction of light in order to enable three-dimensional imaging in a single shot. However, in standard plenoptic imaging systems, the maximum spatial and angular resolutions are fundamentally linked; thereby, the maximum achievable depth of field is inversely proportional to the spatial resolution. We propose to take advantage of the second-order correlation properties of light to overcome this fundamental limitation. In this Letter, we demonstrate that the correlation in both momentum and position of chaotic light leads to the enhanced refocusing power of correlation plenoptic imaging with respect to standard plenoptic imaging.

  20. In vivo assessment of coronary artery angioplasty and stent deployment from balloon pressure-volume data.

    PubMed

    Olbrich, T; Williams, D O; Doig, J C; Murray, A

    2006-03-01

    This study assessed the clinical and practical value of angioplasty balloon pressure-volume data, obtained by a computer-controlled balloon inflation device, during standard percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures. Stent deployment was studied for 57 lesions in 34 patients. Angiographic predilation data were available in 9 patients. Vessel lumen improvement with pre-dilation was determined using the area difference under the pressure-volume curves of two consecutive inflations and compared to the angiographically determined lumen improvement. Stent opening pressure, the inflation volume needed to unfold the stent and the shape of the pressure-volume curve were assessed for differences between stent sizes (diameter, length) and manufacturer types. A Pearson correlation of 0.8 between the pressure-volume area difference and the angiographic lumen improvement was significant (p = 0.01), confirming that pressure-volume curves are useful in assessing lumen improvement after pre-dilation. There was a significant difference in stent opening pressure between stent types but not between different stent sizes (length, diameter). The inflation volume measured during the unfolding process of the stent correlated with the calculated stent lumen when deployed (Pearson correlation: 0.65, p = 0.001). The shape of the pressure-volume curve during stent deployment illustrated differences between different stent sizes (length, diameter) during inflation. Pressure-volume curves obtained from an automatic balloon inflation device have shown their usefulness in providing additional feedback about lumen improvement and the mechanical characteristics and quality of stent deployment.

  1. Ozone Correlative Measurements Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, E. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the necessary parameters for the correlation of data on Earth ozone. Topics considered were: (1) measurement accuracy; (2) equipment considerations (SBUV); and (3) ground based measurements to support satellite data.

  2. Extractable Work from Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perarnau-Llobet, Martí; Hovhannisyan, Karen V.; Huber, Marcus; Skrzypczyk, Paul; Brunner, Nicolas; Acín, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Work and quantum correlations are two fundamental resources in thermodynamics and quantum information theory. In this work, we study how to use correlations among quantum systems to optimally store work. We analyze this question for isolated quantum ensembles, where the work can be naturally divided into two contributions: a local contribution from each system and a global contribution originating from correlations among systems. We focus on the latter and consider quantum systems that are locally thermal, thus from which any extractable work can only come from correlations. We compute the maximum extractable work for general entangled states, separable states, and states with fixed entropy. Our results show that while entanglement gives an advantage for small quantum ensembles, this gain vanishes for a large number of systems.

  3. Photothermal absorption correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Octeau, Vivien; Cognet, Laurent; Duchesne, Laurence; Lasne, David; Schaeffer, Nicolas; Fernig, David G; Lounis, Brahim

    2009-02-24

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a popular technique, complementary to cell imaging for the investigation of dynamic processes in living cells. Based on fluorescence, this single molecule method suffers from artifacts originating from the poor fluorophore photophysics: photobleaching, blinking, and saturation. To circumvent these limitations we present here a new correlation method called photothermal absorption correlation spectroscopy (PhACS) which relies on the absorption properties of tiny nano-objects. PhACS is based on the photothermal heterodyne detection technique and measures akin FCS, the time correlation function of the detected signals. Application of this technique to the precise determination of the hydrodynamic sizes of different functionalized gold nanoparticles are presented, highlighting the potential of this method. PMID:19236070

  4. Personality correlates of homophobia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M E; Brems, C; Alford-Keating, P

    1997-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between homophobia and several personality traits (empathy, religiosity, and coping style) in the context of respondents' gender and age. The sample consisted of 714 college students who responded to the Homophobia Attitude Scale (HAS) and personality trait scales. Results revealed that women endorsed fewer homophobic attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors than men and that age was negatively correlated with homophobia. Empathic concern and perspective taking were significantly correlated with lower overall homophobic attitudes, less affect discomfort in regard to gays, and less likelihood to abridge the human rights of gays. Religiosity was significantly correlated with more biased beliefs about the origins of homophobia, greater affective discomfort around gays, less endorsement of human rights for gays, and greater homophobia. Use of denial and isolation as coping styles were positively related to homophobia and use of turning against style was negatively correlated.

  5. Alterations in gray matter volume due to unilateral hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingchao; Xu, Pengfei; Li, Peng; Wang, Zhenmin; Zhao, Fu; Gao, Zhixian; Xu, Lei; Luo, Yue-jia; Fan, Jin; Liu, Pinan

    2016-01-01

    Although extensive research on neural plasticity resulting from hearing deprivation has been conducted, the direct influence of compromised audition on the auditory cortex and the potential impact of long durations of incomplete sensory stimulation on the adult cortex are still not fully understood. In this study, using voxel-based morphometry, we evaluated gray matter (GM) volume changes that may be associated with reduced hearing ability and the duration of hearing impairment in 42 unilateral hearing loss (UHL) patients with acoustic neuromas compared to 24 normal controls. We found significant GM volume increases in the somatosensory and motor systems and GM volume decreases in the auditory (i.e., Heschl’s gyrus) and visual systems (i.e., the calcarine cortex) in UHL patients. The GM volume decreases in the primary auditory cortex (i.e., superior temporal gyrus and Heschl’s gyrus) correlated with reduced hearing ability. Meanwhile, the GM volume decreases in structures involving high-level cognitive control functions (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex) correlated positively with hearing loss duration. Our findings demonstrated that the severity and duration of UHL may contribute to the dissociated morphology of auditory and high-level neural structures, providing insight into the brain’s plasticity related to chronic, persistent partial sensory loss. PMID:27174521

  6. Tsukuba VLBI Correlator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurihara, Shinobu; Nozawa, Kentaro

    2013-01-01

    The K5/VSSP software correlator (Figure 1), located in Tsukuba, Japan, is operated by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI). It is fully dedicated to processing the geodetic VLBI sessions of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry. All of the weekend IVS Intensives (INT2) and the Japanese domestic VLBI observations organized by GSI were processed at the Tsukuba VLBI Correlator.

  7. 3D MRI volume sizing of knee meniscus cartilage.

    PubMed

    Stone, K R; Stoller, D W; Irving, S G; Elmquist, C; Gildengorin, G

    1994-12-01

    Meniscal replacement by allograft and meniscal regeneration through collagen meniscal scaffolds have been recently reported. To evaluate the effectiveness of a replaced or regrown meniscal cartilage, a method for measuring the size and function of the regenerated tissue in vivo is required. To solve this problem, we developed and evaluated a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique to measure the volume of meniscal tissues. Twenty-one intact fresh cadaver knees were evaluated and scanned with MRI for meniscal volume sizing. The sizing sequence was repeated six times for each of 21 lateral and 12 medial menisci. The menisci were then excised and measured by water volume displacement. Each volume displacement measurement was repeated six times. The MRI technique employed to measure the volume of the menisci was shown to correspond to that of the standard measure of volume and was just as precise. However, the MRI technique consistently underestimated the actual volume. The average of the coefficient of variation for lateral volumes was 0.04 and 0.05 for the water and the MRI measurements, respectively. For medial measurements it was 0.04 and 0.06. The correlation for the lateral menisci was r = 0.45 (p = 0.04) and for the medial menisci it was r = 0.57 (p = 0.05). We conclude that 3D MRI is precise and repeatable but not accurate when used to measure meniscal volume in vivo and therefore may only be useful for evaluating changes in meniscal allografts and meniscal regeneration templates over time.

  8. Postmortem validation of MRI cortical volume measurements in MS.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Veronica; Klaver, Roel; Versteeg, Adriaan; Voorn, Pieter; Twisk, Jos W R; Barkhof, Frederik; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Vrenken, Hugo

    2016-06-01

    Grey matter (GM) atrophy is a prominent aspect of multiple sclerosis pathology and an important outcome in studies. GM atrophy measurement requires accurate GM segmentation. Several methods are used in vivo for measuring GM volumes in MS, but assessing their validity in vivo remains challenging. In this postmortem study, we evaluated the correlation between postmortem MRI cortical volume or thickness and the cortical thickness measured on histological sections. Sixteen MS brains were scanned in situ using 3DT1-weighted MRI and these images were used to measure regional cortical volume using FSL-SIENAX, FreeSurfer, and SPM, and regional cortical thickness using FreeSurfer. Subsequently, cortical thickness was measured histologically in 5 systematically sampled cortical areas. Linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the relation between MRI regional cortical volume or thickness and histological cortical thickness to determine which postprocessing technique was most valid. After correction for multiple comparisons, we observed a significant correlation with the histological cortical thickness for FSL-SIENAX cortical volume with manual editing (std. β = 0.345, adjusted R(2)  = 0.105, P = 0.005), and FreeSurfer cortical volume with manual editing (std. β = 0.379, adjusted R(2)  = 0.129, P = 0.003). In addition, there was a significant correlation between FreeSurfer cortical thickness with manual editing and histological cortical thickness (std. β = 0.381, adjusted R(2)  = 0.130, P = 0.003). The results support the use of FSL-SIENAX and FreeSurfer in cases of severe MS pathology. Interestingly none of the methods were significant in automated mode, which supports the use of manual editing to improve the automated segmentation. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2223-2233, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26945922

  9. Comparison of the accuracy of multidetector computed tomography versus two-dimensional echocardiography to measure left atrial volume.

    PubMed

    Avelar, Erick; Durst, Ronen; Rosito, Guido A; Thangaroopan, Molly; Kumar, Simi; Tournoux, Francois; Chan, Raymond C; Hung, Judy; Hoffmann, Udo; Abbara, Suhny; Brady, Thomas; Cury, Ricardo C

    2010-07-01

    Left atrial (LA) volume is an important prognostic factor in cardiovascular disease. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is an emerging cardiac imaging modality; however, its accuracy in measuring the LA volume has not been well studied. The aim of our study was to determine the accuracy of MDCT in quantifying the LA volume. A total of 48 patients underwent MDCT and 2-dimensional (2D) echocardiography (2DE) on the same day. The area-length and Simpson's methods were used to obtain the 2D echocardiographic LA volume. The LA volume assessment by MDCT was obtained using the modified Simpson's method. Four artificial phantoms were created, and their true volume was assessed by an independent observer using both imaging modalities. The correlation between the LA volume by MDCT and 2DE was significant (r = 0.68). The mean 2D echocardiographic LA volume was lower than the LA volume obtained with MDCT (2DE 79 +/- 37 vs MDCT 103 +/- 32, p <0.05). In the phantom experiment, the volume obtained using MDCT and 2DE correlated significantly with the true volume (r = 0.97, p <0.05 vs r = 0.96, p <0.05, respectively). However, the mean 2D echocardiographic phantom volume was 16% lower than the true volume (2DE, Simpson's method 53 +/- 24 vs the true volume 61 +/- 24, p <0.05). The mean volume calculated using MDCT did not differ from the true volume (MDCT 60 +/- 21 vs true volume 61 +/- 24, p = NS). 2DE appeared to systematically underestimate the LA volume compared to phantom and cardiac MDCT, suggesting that different normal cutoff values should be used for each modality. In conclusion, LA volume quantification using MDCT is an accurate and feasible method. PMID:20609656

  10. What defines a high-volume hip or knee surgeon in the United States?

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Steven; Vail, Thomas P; Houman, Justin; Barnes, C Lowry

    2015-01-01

    The literature suggests that high-volume hip and knee surgeons have better patient outcomes. Therefore, clearly defining a high-volume or a low-volume surgeon is important. The definition of high-volume has been quite arbitrary, and numbers such as 50 surgeries per year have been used to define high-volume. The objective of this study was to show that, on the basis of data contained in the National Inpatient Sample database, using the quartile approach will quantify the increasing number of surgeries required per year to remain a high-volume joint surgeon. Using quartiles may provide a more consistent way to define what is meant by a low- or high-volume surgeon in the United States, and a clear definition of quartiles will aid future studies seeking to determine whether outcomes can be correlated with quartiles.

  11. Comparing proton conductivity of polymer electrolytes by percent conducting volume

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yu Seung; Pivovar, Bryan

    2009-01-01

    Proton conductivity of sulfonated polymers plays a key role in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Mass based water uptake and ion exchange capacity of sulfonated polymers have been failed to correlating their proton conductivity. In this paper, we report a length scale parameter, percent conductivity volume, which is rather simply obtained from the chemical structure of polymer to compare proton conductivity of wholly aromatic sulfonated polymer perflurosulfonic acid. Morphology effect on proton conductivity at lower RH conditions is discussed using the percent conductivity volume parameter.

  12. 4f electron delocalization and volume collapse in praseodymium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, Joseph A.; Moore, Kevin T.; Lipp, Magnus J.; Mattern, Brian A.; Pacold, Joseph I.; Seidler, Gerald T.; Chow, Paul; Rod, Eric; Xiao, Yuming; Evans, William J.

    2012-04-17

    We study the pressure evolution of the 4f electrons in elemental praseodymium metal compressed through several crystallographic phases, including the large volume-collapse transition at 20 GPa. Using resonant x-ray emission, we directly and quantitatively measure the development of multiple electronic configurations with differing 4f occupation numbers, the key quantum observable related to the delocalization of the strongly correlated 4f electrons. These results provide a high-fidelity test of prior predictions by dynamical mean-field theory, and support the hypothesis of a strong connection between electronic and structural degrees of freedom at the volume-collapse transition.

  13. A scattering function of star polymers including excluded volume effects

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Xin; Do, Changwoo; Liu, Yun; Sánchez-Diáz, Luis; Smith, Gregory; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2014-11-04

    In this work we present a new model for the form factor of a star polymer consisting of self-avoiding branches. This new model incorporates excluded volume effects and is derived from the two point correlation function for a star polymer.. We compare this model to small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements from polystyrene (PS) stars immersed in a good solvent, tetrahydrofuran (THF). It is shown that this model provides a good description of the scattering signature originating from the excluded volume effect and it explicitly elucidates the connection between the global conformation of a star polymer and the local stiffnessmore » of its constituent branch.« less

  14. A scattering function of star polymers including excluded volume effects

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xin; Do, Changwoo; Liu, Yun; Sánchez-Diáz, Luis; Smith, Gregory; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2014-11-04

    In this work we present a new model for the form factor of a star polymer consisting of self-avoiding branches. This new model incorporates excluded volume effects and is derived from the two point correlation function for a star polymer.. We compare this model to small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements from polystyrene (PS) stars immersed in a good solvent, tetrahydrofuran (THF). It is shown that this model provides a good description of the scattering signature originating from the excluded volume effect and it explicitly elucidates the connection between the global conformation of a star polymer and the local stiffness of its constituent branch.

  15. VOLUMNECT: measuring volumes with Kinect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintino Ferreira, Beatriz; Griné, Miguel; Gameiro, Duarte; Costeira, João. Paulo; Sousa Santos, Beatriz

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a solution to volume measurement object packing using 3D cameras (such as the Microsoft KinectTM). We target application scenarios, such as warehouses or distribution and logistics companies, where it is important to promptly compute package volumes, yet high accuracy is not pivotal. Our application auto- matically detects cuboid objects using the depth camera data and computes their volume and sorting it allowing space optimization. The proposed methodology applies to a point cloud simple computer vision and image processing methods, as connected components, morphological operations and Harris corner detector, producing encouraging results, namely an accuracy in volume measurement of 8mm. Aspects that can be further improved are identified; nevertheless, the current solution is already promising turning out to be cost effective for the envisaged scenarios.

  16. Volumetric measurement of tank volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Richard T. (Inventor); Vanbuskirk, Paul D. (Inventor); Weber, William F. (Inventor); Froebel, Richard C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method is disclosed for determining the volume of compressible gas in a system including incompressible substances in a zero-gravity environment consisting of measuring the change in pressure (delta P) for a known volume change rate (delta V/delta t) in the polytrophic region between isothermal and adiabatic conditions. The measurements are utilized in an idealized formula for determining the change in isothermal pressure (delta P sub iso) for the gas. From the isothermal pressure change (delta iso) the gas volume is obtained. The method is also applicable to determination of gas volume by utilizing work (W) in the compression process. In a passive system, the relationship of specific densities can be obtained.

  17. A urine volume measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppendiek, H. F.; Mouritzen, G.; Sabin, C. M.

    1972-01-01

    An improved urine volume measurement system for use in the unusual environment of manned space flight is reported. The system utilizes a low time-constant thermal flowmeter. The time integral of the transient response of the flowmeter gives the urine volume during a void as it occurs. In addition, the two phase flows through the flowmeter present no problem. Developments of the thermal flowmeter and a verification of the predicted performance characteristics are summarized.

  18. Midface volumization with injectable fillers.

    PubMed

    Tan, Marietta; Kontis, Theda C

    2015-05-01

    The aging midface has long been overlooked in cosmetic surgery. Our understanding of facial aging in terms of 3 dimensions has placed increased importance on volume restoration. Although an "off-label" indication for most fillers in this facial region, volumization of the midface with injectable fillers is usually a safe and straightforward procedure technically. Injectors, nevertheless, need to have an excellent understanding of facial anatomy and the characteristics of the injected products should problems arise.

  19. Black hole thermodynamics from Euclidean horizon constraints.

    PubMed

    Carlip, S

    2007-07-13

    To explain black hole thermodynamics in quantum gravity, one must introduce constraints to ensure that a black hole is actually present. I show that for a large class of black holes, such "horizon constraints" allow the use of conformal field theory techniques to compute the density of states, reproducing the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in a nearly model-independent manner. One standard string theory approach to black hole entropy arises as a special case, lending support to the claim that the mechanism may be "universal." I argue that the relevant degrees of freedom are Goldstone-boson-like excitations arising from the weak breaking of symmetry by the constraints. PMID:17678209

  20. Percolation threshold on planar Euclidean Gabriel graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norrenbrock, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    In the present article, numerical simulations have been performed to find the bond and site percolation thresholds on two-dimensional Gabriel graphs (GG) for Poisson point processes. GGs belong to the family of "proximity graphs" and are discussed, e.g., in context of the construction of backbones for wireless ad-hoc networks. Finite-size scaling analyses have been performed to find the critical points and critical exponents ν, β and γ. The critical exponents obtained this way verify that the associated universality class is that of standard 2D percolation.