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Sample records for eugen sanger eminent

  1. Eugen Sänger: Eminent space pioneer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerstein, Aleksander; Matko, Drago

    2007-12-01

    In international literature on astronautics, three main space pioneers are mentioned: Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky, Robert H. Goddard and Hermann Oberth. There are other two space pioneers that are very rarely mentioned: Robert Esnault-Pelterie and Eugen Sänger. Pelterie is known particularly in Europe, and Sänger is mentioned in the second half of the 20th century normally only in connection with space shuttle flights. Taking a look at Sänger's work and heritage, it is obvious that he greatly influenced the development of astronautics in terms of purely theoretical dissertations on achievable limits of space research as well as in terms of technical approaches to achieving the short- and long-term goals of astronautics, and in terms of setting tasks for organizing mankind to achieve these goals. Sänger's book "The Technology of Rocket Flight" was the first study based not only on basic research, but also on the applied research that he conducted and the findings of which he published in various papers. Sänger was clearly connected with and influenced the development of two experimental research groups in the US in the 1930s, which resulted in two of the most significant companies in the US in the 1950s that manufactured liquid propellant rocket engines. Basic and applied research in the field of space planes resulted in construction of rocket planes such as the US space shuttle and Soviet Buran shuttle. Sänger's research on subsonic and supersonic ramjets in combination with a turbojet engine provided a basis for developing this promising propulsion for use in subsequent space planes designed for flights into low Earth orbits. His pioneering work on the photon rocket represents human achievements in reaching almost unimaginable limits of space research. By striving for a peaceful international approach to space research, Sänger participated in establishing the non-governmental organization IAF (International Astronautical Federation) and realized his idea that

  2. Was Margaret Sanger a racist?

    PubMed

    Valenza, C

    1985-01-01

    Margaret Sanger, as a young public health nurse, witnessed the sickness, disease and poverty caused by unwanted pregnancies. She spent the rest of her life trying to alleviate these conditions by bringing birth control to America. During the early 20th century, the idea of making contraceptives generally available was revolutionary. Contraceptive usage was considered a distinguishing feature of the 'haves.' In recent years, some revisionist biographers have portrayed Sanger as a eugenicist and a racist. This view has been widely publicized by critics of reproductive rights who have attempted to discredit Sanger's work by discrediting her personally. The basic concept of the eugenics movement in the 1920s and 1930s was that a better breed of humans would be created if the 'fit' had more children and the 'unfit' had fewer. This concept influenced a broad spectrum of thought, but there was little consensus on the definitions of fit and unfit. In theory, the movement was not racist--its message intended to cross race barriers for the overall advancement of mankind. Most eugenicists agreed that birth control would be a detriment to the human race and were opposed to it. Charges that Sanger's motives for promoting birth control were eugenic are not supported. In part of her most important work, "Pivot of Civilization," Sanger's dissent from eugenics was made clear. By examining extracts from her books, the author refutes the notion that Sanger was a eugenicist. Another unsupported argument raised by the anti-Sanger group was that Sanger, in her position as editor of "Birth Contol Review," published eugenicists' views. It would be more accurate to say that the review covered a wide range of opinions and research; the eugenicists views were included because they conferred respectability. David Kennedy, author of "Birth Control in America," does Sanger a grave injustice by falsely attributing to her the quotation: 'More children from the fit, less from the unfit--that is

  3. From state eugenics to private eugenics.

    PubMed

    Missa, J N

    1999-12-01

    Eugenics--or 'the cultivation of a race'--is a concept dating from the latter part of the 19th century. It preceded the new science of genetics by merely 25 years. Negative eugenics stressed especially the exclusion of negative characteristics and was associated with the practice and theory of radical eugenics between the two World Wars. In order to redress 'the decline of the race', reinforcement by positive eugenics was also advocated. After the atrocities committed by the Nazis there was a lull in the practice and discourse of eugenics. More recent technical advances in assisted reproduction techniques and the genome project, however, have revived the eugenics debate. State eugenics and eugenics as an individual choice ought to be distinguished.

  4. Sanger Center reaches out. Japan.

    PubMed

    1997-06-01

    In an interview with the Japanese Family Planning Association (FPA), Alexander Sanger, president of Margaret Sanger Center International (MSCI), Planned Parenthood of New York City (PPNYC), sketched the history of the clinic and research center founded by his grandmother, Margaret Sanger. The first person to come to the clinic from another country for training was Shidzue Kato of Japan. In addition to providing FP services and training, the clinic became known as a research center for new methods of contraception. After its 1973 merger with PPNYC, the clinic continued to function as an international training center with funding from the US Agency for International Development and the UN Population Fund. MSCI works with governments and nongovernmental organizations worldwide and focuses on 1) improving quality of care in FP clinics, 2) integrating FP into primary health-care centers, 3) promoting family life education, 4) improving male involvement in FP, 5) HIV/AIDS education, and 6) training FPAs in FP and women's rights advocacy. Sanger noted that FP advocates in the US were unsuccessful in lobbying to prevent a decrease in US funding of international FP programs (down to $385 million in 1996 from $548 million in 1994). Sanger called upon Japan and European countries to help make US politicians understand that providing FP funding is a responsibility of the most powerful nation in the world. Rather than cutting support, the US should be increasing funds for international FP efforts in conjunction with the US commitment to the International Conference on Population and Development's Program of Action.

  5. Greek theories on eugenics.

    PubMed

    Galton, D J

    1998-08-01

    With the recent developments in the Human Genome Mapping Project and the new technologies that are developing from it there is a renewal of concern about eugenic applications. Francis Galton (b1822, d1911), who developed the subject of eugenics, suggested that the ancient Greeks had contributed very little to social theories of eugenics. In fact the Greeks had a profound interest in methods of supplying their city states with the finest possible progeny. This paper therefore reviews the works of Plato (The Republic and Politics) and Aristotle (The Politics and The Athenian Constitution) which have a direct bearing on eugenic techniques and relates them to methods used in the present century.

  6. Propulsion by light: visions of the German pioneer Eugen Saenger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Willy L.

    2005-03-01

    Although the laser was not yet invented Eugen Sanger, one of the most prominent German personalities in the early development of hypersonic flight and rocket technology suggested to use photons for the propulsion of spacecrafts in the fifties. In contrast to current schemes which are mostly aimed at laser induced ablation processes, Eugen Sanger started with the idea of using the radiation pressure itself for propulsion purposes. A review of his pioneering work in that area will be supported by numerous historical documents and personal remembrance showing his effort to promote unconventional ideas. The paper also emphasizes how some of the original concepts are being revisited and partly implemented by using today's laser technology.

  7. Margaret Sanger: birth control's successful revolutionary.

    PubMed

    Wardell, D

    1980-07-01

    The year 1979 marked the centennial of Margaret Sanger, birth control pioneer. Sanger worked to secure two new human rights: the right to decide whether to have a child and the right of a child to be wanted. Beginning in 1873, antipornography crusader Anthony Comstock lobbied through Congress and the state legislatures laws forbidding the distribution of contraceptive devices and even information. He equated these with erotic postcards as "obscene, lewd, lascivious, filthy, indecent and disgusting." Sanger's strategy was to challenge the Comstock laws in the courts. She studied birth control methods abroad and published a pamphlet, Family Limitation, in 1914. It was the first modern marriage manual; it was also illegal. The publicity her trial generated was immense and highly sympathetic. The government dropped its case when it saw it could only make her a martyr. An obstetrical nurse, Sanger had seen the plight of factory women in the poorest sections of New York City. In order to provide the medical advice and supplies women clamored for, Sanger opened the first U.S. birth control clinic, in Brooklyn in 1916. The New York City Vice Squad raided and closed it, and jailed Sanger. Margaret Sanger underwent other trials, raids, and harassments, but each time won additional public support for her organization--Planned Parenthood--and her cause.

  8. Margaret Sanger: birth control's successful revolutionary.

    PubMed Central

    Wardell, D

    1980-01-01

    The year 1979 marked the centennial of Margaret Sanger, birth control pioneer. Sanger worked to secure two new human rights: the right to decide whether to have a child and the right of a child to be wanted. Beginning in 1873, antipornography crusader Anthony Comstock lobbied through Congress and the state legislatures laws forbidding the distribution of contraceptive devices and even information. He equated these with erotic postcards as "obscene, lewd, lascivious, filthy, indecent and disgusting." Sanger's strategy was to challenge the Comstock laws in the courts. She studied birth control methods abroad and published a pamphlet, Family Limitation, in 1914. It was the first modern marriage manual; it was also illegal. The publicity her trial generated was immense and highly sympathetic. The government dropped its case when it saw it could only make her a martyr. An obstetrical nurse, Sanger had seen the plight of factory women in the poorest sections of New York City. In order to provide the medical advice and supplies women clamored for, Sanger opened the first U.S. birth control clinic, in Brooklyn in 1916. The New York City Vice Squad raided and closed it, and jailed Sanger. Margaret Sanger underwent other trials, raids, and harassments, but each time won additional public support for her organization--Planned Parenthood--and her cause. Images p737-a p740-a p741-a PMID:6992603

  9. Education for Eminence: Some Childhood Traits May Predict Adult Eminence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.; Wynne, Edward A.

    1993-01-01

    This article distills from research five childhood activities typically associated with adult eminence, including working diligently, absorbing information, engaging others constructively, choosing goals carefully, and completing difficult tasks. Examples from the lives of eminent men and women are provided, such as Jane Adams, Thomas Jefferson,…

  10. [Sterilization and eugenics].

    PubMed

    Shasha, Shaul M

    2011-04-01

    The term "eugenics" was coined by Francis Galton in 1883 and was defined as the science of the improvement of the human race by better breeding. "Positive eugenics" referred to methods of encouraging the "most fit" to reproduce more often, while "negative eugenics" was related to ways of discouraging or preventing the "less fit" from reproducing by birth control and sterilization. Many western countries adopted eugenics programs including Britain, Canada, Norway, Australia, Switzerland and others. In Sweden more then 62,000 "unfits" were forcibly sterilized. Many states in the U.S.A. had adopted marriage laws with eugenics criteria including forced sterilization. Approximately 64,000 individuals were sterilized. Eugenics considerations also lay behind the adoption of the Immigration Restriction Act of 1924. The Largest plan on eugenics was adopted by the Nazi regime in Germany. Hundreds of thousands of people, who were viewed as being "unfit", were forcibly sterilized by different methods: Surgical sterilization or castration with severe complications and high mortality rates. X-ray irradiation. The method was suggested by Brack, and tested by Schuman using prisoners in Block No. 10 in Auschwitz and Birkenau. Experiments were also performed by Brack on prisoners using the "window method". "Klauberg method"--injection of irritating materials into the uterus. Experiments were conducted using the plant Caladium Seguinum which was believed to have sterilization and castration properties.

  11. [Eugenics and marriage].

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Luzia Aurelia

    2003-01-01

    This analysis of some eugenic strategies for "improving the race" through the control of marriages explores Victorian England's concern with matrimony as expressed in the works of Thomas Malthus, who was interested in population growth, and of Francis Galton, who proposed that eugenics be used as a science to "improve" the innate qualities of the race. The article also discusses how this matrimonial means of control was expressed within the Brazilian eugenics movement and how it influenced the drafting of the Brazilian Civil Code.

  12. Greek theories on eugenics.

    PubMed Central

    Galton, D J

    1998-01-01

    With the recent developments in the Human Genome Mapping Project and the new technologies that are developing from it there is a renewal of concern about eugenic applications. Francis Galton (b1822, d1911), who developed the subject of eugenics, suggested that the ancient Greeks had contributed very little to social theories of eugenics. In fact the Greeks had a profound interest in methods of supplying their city states with the finest possible progeny. This paper therefore reviews the works of Plato (The Republic and Politics) and Aristotle (The Politics and The Athenian Constitution) which have a direct bearing on eugenic techniques and relates them to methods used in the present century. PMID:9752630

  13. Suicide among eminent artists.

    PubMed

    Preti, A; Miotto, P

    1999-02-01

    To evaluate suicide risk by profession among eminent artists data from Garzanti's Encyclopedia, a broad biographical repertory, were used. Six categories in the visual and literary arts were compared: architects, painters, sculptors, writers, poets, and playwrights. Only people whose deaths occurred in the 1800s or 1900s were included since it is likely that underestimation of suicide has been lower in the more recent centuries. A total of 59 suicides were observed in a sample of 3,093 people: this corresponds to a ratio of 1.90%. Suicides were 51 among men (ratio 1.75%) and 8 among women (ratio 4.30%). The comparison by profession indicates that poets and writers exceed the mean suicide ratio of the sample. Painters and architects, conversely, have a clearly lower risk than the mean. Mean age of suicides was 44 yr. (SD = 12), with writers being slightly older (48 yr., SD = 12) than other artists. Artists who died of causes other than suicide reach a mean of 65 yr. (SD = 10). Suicide among artists seems to have a peculiar pattern, clearly different from the pattern of the general population, wherein suicide risk is higher among men and older people. Adverse financial circumstances and the stress attributed to rejection of personal products may contribute to the specific risk of suicide among artists. The link between mental disorders, such as manic-depression, which imply a higher risk of suicide, and creativeness is discussed as a contributing factor.

  14. Filming eugenics: teaching the history of eugenics through film.

    PubMed

    Ooten, Melissa; Trembanis, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    In teaching eugenics to undergraduate students and general public audiences, film should he considered as a provocative and fruitful medium that can generate important discussions about the intersections among eugenics, gender, class, race, and sexuality. This paper considers the use of two films, A Bill of Divorcement and The Lynchburg Story, as pedagogical tools for the history of eugenics. The authors provide background information on the films and suggestions for using the films to foster an active engagement with the historical eugenics movement.

  15. The politics of population: birth control and the eugenics movement.

    PubMed

    Gordon, L

    1974-01-01

    The birth control movement and the population control movement became inseparable in people's minds during the early years of the birth control movement, led by Margaret Sanger in 1915. Emma Goldman and Margaret Sanger defied obscenity laws by disseminating information on contraception. The birth control movement was concerned with individual choice and reproductive self determination. Population control referred to a large-scale social policy of limiting births throughout a whole society or in certain groups for the purpose of changing economic, ecological and/or political conditions. Population control ideas were dominated by eugenics and marred by racism and nativism in the United States. Unfortunately, eugenic ideas and population control were often confused with birth control, especially by poor, lower class women. Real democracy in population control requires that women, not men, have the reproductive choice. It is the material basis for liberation. If a woman's desire for children interferes with a reasonable and democratic social plan to lower birth rates, the woman should be offered educational and economic opportunities as an alternative to childbearing. Eugenics and imperialism were closely related in American and English history, focussing first on one group of immigrants then another.

  16. Medical Genetics Is Not Eugenics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Ruth Schwartz

    2008-01-01

    The connection that critics make between medical genetics and eugenics is historically fallacious. Activists on the political right are as mistaken as activists on the political left: Genetic screening was not eugenics in the past, is not eugenics in the present, and, unless its technological systems become radically transformed, will not be…

  17. Medical Genetics Is Not Eugenics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Ruth Schwartz

    2008-01-01

    The connection that critics make between medical genetics and eugenics is historically fallacious. Activists on the political right are as mistaken as activists on the political left: Genetic screening was not eugenics in the past, is not eugenics in the present, and, unless its technological systems become radically transformed, will not be…

  18. Can we learn from eugenics?

    PubMed Central

    Wikler, D

    1999-01-01

    Eugenics casts a long shadow over contemporary genetics. Any measure, whether in clinical genetics or biotechnology, which is suspected of eugenic intent is likely to be opposed on that ground. Yet there is little consensus on what this word signifies, and often only a remote connection to the very complex set of social movements which took that name. After a brief historical summary of eugenics, this essay attempts to locate any wrongs inherent in eugenic doctrines. Four candidates are examined and rejected. The moral challenge posed by eugenics for genetics in our own time, I argue, is to achieve social justice. PMID:10226926

  19. [Eugenics and human cloning].

    PubMed

    Boloz, W

    2001-01-01

    Because of legislative bans there are still no reports of human cloning. However eager public debate is currently running, concerning medical, legal, social and ethical aspects of human cloning. Arguments for and against human cloning are presented. An important argument against cloning is the danger of eugenic tendencies connected with cloning, which could lead to genetic discrimination.

  20. Eugene Filmore Stoermer

    EPA Science Inventory

    The St. Lawrence Great Lakes has lost a champion and prominent researcher with the passing of Eugene F. Stoermer, during the early winter of 2012, after a two-year battle with esophageal cancer. Indeed the international community of diatom and algal research has lost a scholar i...

  1. Eugene Filmore Stoermer

    EPA Science Inventory

    The St. Lawrence Great Lakes has lost a champion and prominent researcher with the passing of Eugene F. Stoermer, during the early winter of 2012, after a two-year battle with esophageal cancer. Indeed the international community of diatom and algal research has lost a scholar i...

  2. Delineation, characterization, and classification of topographic eminences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Gaurav

    Topographic eminences are defined as upwardly rising, convex shaped topographic landforms that are noticeably distinct in their immediate surroundings. As opposed to everyday objects, the properties of a topographic eminence are dependent not only on how it is conceptualized, but is also intrinsically related to its spatial extent and its relative location in the landscape. In this thesis, a system for automated detection, delineation and characterization of topographic eminences based on an analysis of digital elevation models is proposed. Research has shown that conceptualization of eminences (and other landforms) is linked to the cultural and linguistic backgrounds of people. However, the perception of stimuli from our physical environment is not subject to cultural or linguistic bias. Hence, perceptually salient morphological and spatial properties of the natural landscape can form the basis for generically applicable detection and delineation of topographic eminences. Six principles of cognitive eminence modeling are introduced to develop the philosophical foundation of this research regarding eminence delineation and characterization. The first step in delineating eminences is to automatically detect their presence within digital elevation models. This is achieved by the use of quantitative geomorphometric parameters (e.g., elevation, slope and curvature) and qualitative geomorphometric features (e.g., peaks, passes, pits, ridgelines, and valley lines). The process of eminence delineation follows that of eminence detection. It is posited that eminences may be perceived either as monolithic terrain objects, or as composites of morphological parts (e.g., top, bottom, slope). Individual eminences may also simultaneously be conceived as comprising larger, higher order eminence complexes (e.g., mountain ranges). Multiple algorithms are presented for the delineation of simple and complex eminences, and the morphological parts of eminences. The proposed eminence

  3. [Eugenics: morality or pragmatism].

    PubMed

    Gómez Fröde, Carina

    2013-01-01

    The subject of eugenics is as old as humanity itself, but since World War II it has been related almost automatically with the policies and practices implemented by the National Socialist regime. This happened despite the fact that these despicable practices were inspired by legislation in place in the United Sates since the 19th century and which, in some cases, were modified until the 1970's. Today, some state governments are still paying compensation to victims of these policies.

  4. [Eugenics: progress or backward movement?].

    PubMed

    González de Cancino, Emilssen

    2007-01-01

    Throughout this article there is a critical analysis of how genetics presents a dilemma for "human progress". So much so, that the legal world aims to create unequivocal norms and guarantees in relation with eugenics in order to avoid attempting against human dignity. The document makes the reader reflect on the ethical problems that eugenics can entail.

  5. Anton's Syndrome and Eugenics

    PubMed Central

    Frahm-Falkenberg, Siska

    2011-01-01

    Anton's syndrome is arguably the most striking form of anosognosia. Patients with this syndrome behave as if they can see despite their obvious blindness. Although best known for his description of asomatognosia and visual anosognosia, Gabriel Anton (1858-1933) made other significant contributions to the clinical neurosciences, including pioneering work in neurosurgery, neuropsychology, and child psychiatry. However, it has not been recognized in the English literature that Anton was also a dedicated advocate of eugenics and racial hygiene. This paper provides a case of Anton's syndrome and puts the works of Gabriel Anton into their historic context. PMID:21779298

  6. Down syndrome: coercion and eugenics.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Linda L; McCabe, Edward R B

    2011-08-01

    Experts agree that coercion by insurance companies or governmental authorities to limit reproductive choice constitutes a eugenic practice. We discuss discrimination against families of children with Down syndrome who chose not to have prenatal testing or chose to continue a pregnancy after a prenatal diagnosis. We argue that this discrimination represents economic and social coercion to limit reproductive choice, and we present examples of governmental rhetoric and policies condoning eugenics and commercial policies meeting criteria established by experts for eugenics. Our purpose is to sensitize the clinical genetics community to these issues as we attempt to provide the most neutral nondirective prenatal genetic counseling we can, and as we provide postnatal care and counseling to children with Down syndrome and their families. We are concerned that if eugenic policies and practices targeting individuals with Down syndrome and their families are tolerated by clinical geneticists and the broader citizenry, then we increase the probability of eugenics directed toward other individuals and communities.

  7. Eugenics--a side effect of progressivism? analysis of the role of scientific and medical elites in the rise and fall of eugenics in pre-war Poland.

    PubMed

    Blach, Olga

    2010-06-01

    The eminent geneticist, Benno Muller-Hill, described eugenics as"explosive mixture between something we might call hard science, that is, human genetics, and the sphere of political action. On the one hand, geneticists needed politicians to implement their ideas. On the other hand, Hitler and the Nazis needed scientists who could say that anti-Semitism has scientific theoretical foundations." For some Polish eugenicists, the Third Reich was not the home of the Nuremberg Laws, but a country that "boldly embarked on racial hygiene." This enthusiastic attitude of Polish intellectual circles towards Nazi eugenic laws was characteristic of the status of pre-war science in Poland, which in many areas, such as anthropology and psychiatry, remained strongly influenced by the paradigm of German science. While the professional and scientific context of the day promoted eugenic and racist ideas within the framework of the academic milieu and the curriculum of the medical and scientific community, eugenicists in Poland tended to refrain from anti-Semitic and racist phraseology. Indeed, the Polish eugenic movement was class- rather than race-orientated. The hybrid language of eugenics, combining social sensitivity with repulsion and contempt for the sick and the weak, illustrated the ambiguous stance of the Polish eugenicists on politics and science in Nazi Germany, for the Third Reich provided the German eugenicists with what had always been an unfulfilled dream to the Polish eugenicists--political power and the ability to implement their ideas.

  8. Human enhancement: The new eugenics

    PubMed Central

    Vizcarrondo, Felipe E.

    2014-01-01

    Supporters of human enhancement through genetic and other reproductive technologies claim that the new liberal eugenics, based on science and individual consent differs from the old eugenics which was unscientific and coercive. Supporters claim it is the parent's moral obligation to produce the best children possible. At this time, a defective gene that is identified in an unborn child cannot be repaired. To prevent the manifestation of the undesirable trait the unborn child is destroyed. The arguments in support of human enhancement are based on an ethic of consequence that could allow for nearly any means as long as the desired end is reached. Medical enhancement may affect the parent–child family unit; the parents’ love for the child may be conditioned on the expected results. The new eugenics, although based on science, continues to pursue the same goal as the old eugenics, the development of a superior individual and the elimination of those considered inferior. PMID:25249705

  9. Human enhancement: The new eugenics.

    PubMed

    Vizcarrondo, Felipe E

    2014-08-01

    Supporters of human enhancement through genetic and other reproductive technologies claim that the new liberal eugenics, based on science and individual consent differs from the old eugenics which was unscientific and coercive. Supporters claim it is the parent's moral obligation to produce the best children possible. At this time, a defective gene that is identified in an unborn child cannot be repaired. To prevent the manifestation of the undesirable trait the unborn child is destroyed. The arguments in support of human enhancement are based on an ethic of consequence that could allow for nearly any means as long as the desired end is reached. Medical enhancement may affect the parent-child family unit; the parents' love for the child may be conditioned on the expected results. The new eugenics, although based on science, continues to pursue the same goal as the old eugenics, the development of a superior individual and the elimination of those considered inferior.

  10. Eugenics and modern biology: critiques of eugenics, 1910-1945.

    PubMed

    Allen, Garland E

    2011-05-01

    Eugenics in most western countries in the first four decades of the 20th century was based on the idea that genes control most human phenotypic traits, everything from physical features such as polydactyly and eye colour to physiological conditions such as the A-B-O blood groups to mental and personality traits such as "feeblemindedness," alcoholism and pauperism. In assessing the development of the eugenics movement-its rise and decline between 1900 and 1950-it is important to recognise that its naïve assumptions and often flawed methodologies were openly criticised at the time by scientists and nonscientists alike. This paper will present a brief overview of the critiques launched against eugenicists' claims, particularly criticisms of the American school led by Charles B. Davenport. Davenport's approach to eugenics will be contrasted to his British counterpart, Karl Pearson, founder and first editor of the Annals of Eugenics. It was not the case that nearly everyone in the early 20th century accepted eugenic conclusions as the latest, cutting-edge science. There are lessons from this historical approach for dealing with similar naïve claims about genetics today. © 2011 The Author Annals of Human Genetics © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/University College London.

  11. Eugenics: The Threat of the Feeble Minded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winzer, Margaret; O'Connor, Anne

    1982-01-01

    The history of the eugenics movement is reviewed. The authors conclude that, despite changed terminology and a shifting emphasis, advocacy of eugenics and its discrimination against poor and mentally retarded persons still persists today. (MC)

  12. Eugenics: The Threat of the Feeble Minded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winzer, Margaret; O'Connor, Anne

    1982-01-01

    The history of the eugenics movement is reviewed. The authors conclude that, despite changed terminology and a shifting emphasis, advocacy of eugenics and its discrimination against poor and mentally retarded persons still persists today. (MC)

  13. Genetic services, economics, and eugenics.

    PubMed

    Paul, D B

    1998-01-01

    What are the aims of genetic services? Do any of these aims deserve to be labeled "eugenics"? Answers to these strenuously debated questions depend not just on the facts about genetic testing and screening but also on what is understood by "eugenics," a term with multiple and contested meanings. This paper explores the impact of efforts to label genetic services "eugenics" and argues that attempts to protect against the charge have seriously distorted discussion about their purpose(s). Following Ruth Chadwick, I argue that the existence of genetic services presupposes that genetic disease is undesirable and that means should be offered to reduce it. I further argue that the economic cost of such disease is one reason why governments and health care providers deem such services worthwhile. The important question is not whether such cost considerations constitute "eugenics," but whether they foster practices that are undesirable and, if so, what to do about them The wielding of the term "eugenics" as a weapon in a war over the expansion of genetic services, conjoined with efforts to dissociate such services from the abortion controversy, has produced a rhetoric about the aims of these services that is increasingly divorced from reality. Candor about these aims is a sine qua non of any useful debate over the legitimacy of the methods used to advance them.

  14. Scientific Eminence: Where Are the Women?

    PubMed

    Eagly, Alice H; Miller, David I

    2016-11-01

    Women are sparsely represented among psychologists honored for scientific eminence. However, most currently eminent psychologists started their careers when far fewer women pursued training in psychological science. Now that women earn the majority of psychology Ph.D.'s, will they predominate in the next generation's cadre of eminent psychologists? Comparing currently active female and male psychology professors on publication metrics such as the h index provides clues for answering this question. Men outperform women on the h index and its two components: scientific productivity and citations of contributions. To interpret these gender gaps, we first evaluate whether publication metrics are affected by gender bias in obtaining grant support, publishing papers, or gaining citations of published papers. We also consider whether women's chances of attaining eminence are compromised by two intertwined sets of influences: (a) gender bias stemming from social norms pertaining to gender and to science and (b) the choices that individual psychologists make in pursuing their careers.

  15. Human Eugenics: Whose Perception of Perfection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Parendi

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on the science of eugenics beginning in ancient Greece. Discusses the use of "racial hygiene" by the Nazis' Third Reich and its effect on eugenics. Addresses the pros and cons of eugenics and genetic engineering. Includes an annotated bibliography. (CMK)

  16. Eugenics in Education: Apologetics for Oppression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartlep, Nicholas D.

    2008-01-01

    For many people an esoteric educational topic is eugenics. This brief text analysis will provide a textual as well as contextual analysis of Dr. Ann Gibson Winfield's book (2007) Eugenics and Education in America: Institutionalized Racism and the Implications of History, Ideology, and Memory. Winfield objectively critiques eugenic apologetics.…

  17. Human Eugenics: Whose Perception of Perfection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Parendi

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on the science of eugenics beginning in ancient Greece. Discusses the use of "racial hygiene" by the Nazis' Third Reich and its effect on eugenics. Addresses the pros and cons of eugenics and genetic engineering. Includes an annotated bibliography. (CMK)

  18. Moderate eugenics and human enhancement.

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Though the reputation of eugenics has been tarnished by history, eugenics per se is not necessarily a bad thing. Many advocate a liberal new eugenics--where individuals are free to choose whether or not to employ genetic technologies for reproductive purposes. Though genetic interventions aimed at the prevention of severe genetic disorders may be morally and socially acceptable, reproductive liberty in the context of enhancement may conflict with equality. Enhancement could also have adverse effects on utility. The enhancement debate requires a shift in focus. What the equality and/or utility costs of enhancement will be is an empirical question. Rather than philosophical speculation, more social science research is needed to address it. Philosophers, meanwhile, should address head-on the question of how to strike a balance between liberty, equality, and utility in cases of conflict (in the context of genetics).

  19. From eugenics to scientometrics: Galton, Cattell, and men of science.

    PubMed

    Godin, Benoît

    2007-10-01

    In 1906, James McKeen Cattell, editor of Science, published a directory of men of science. American Men of Science was a collection of biographical sketches of thousands of men of science in the USA and was published periodically. It launched, and was used in, the very first systematic quantitative studies on science. Cattell used two concepts for his statistics: productivity, defined as the number of men of science a nation produces, and performance or merit, defined as scientific contributions to research as judged by peers. These are the two dimensions that still define measurement of scientific productivity today: quantity and quality. This paper analyzes the emergence of statistics on science and the very first uses to which they were put. It argues that the measurement of science emerged out of interest in great men, heredity and eugenics, and the contribution of eminent men to civilization. Among these eminent men were men of science, the population of whom was thought to be in decline and insufficiently appreciated and supported. Statistics on men of science thus came to be collected to document the case, and to contribute to the advancement of science and the scientific profession.

  20. "Eugenics talk" and the language of bioethics.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, S

    2008-06-01

    In bioethical discussions of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and prenatal screening, accusations of eugenics are commonplace, as are counter-claims that talk of eugenics is misleading and unhelpful. This paper asks whether "eugenics talk", in this context, is legitimate and useful or something to be avoided. It also looks at the extent to which this linguistic question can be answered without first answering relevant substantive moral questions. Its main conclusion is that the best and most non-partisan argument for avoiding eugenics talk is the Autonomy Argument. According to this, eugenics talk per se is not wrong, but there is something wrong with using its emotive power as a means of circumventing people's critical-rational faculties. The Autonomy Argument does not, however, tell against eugenics talk when such language is used to shock people into critical-rational thought. These conclusions do not depend on unique features of eugenics: similar considerations apply to emotive language throughout bioethics.

  1. Living History: F. Eugene Yates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urquhart, John

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History of Physiology Archival Program to recognize senior members who have made significant contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and the profession of physiology. During 2008, the APS Cardiovascular Section selected Francis Eugene Yates to be…

  2. Living History: F. Eugene Yates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urquhart, John

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History of Physiology Archival Program to recognize senior members who have made significant contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and the profession of physiology. During 2008, the APS Cardiovascular Section selected Francis Eugene Yates to be…

  3. Eugenics Past and Present: Remembering Buck v. Bell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Michael J.; Cruz, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Provides background information about the eugenics movement. Focuses on eugenics in the United States detailing the case, Buck v. Bell, and eugenics in Germany. Explores the present eugenic movement, focusing on "The Bell Curve," China's one child policy, and the use of eugenic sterilizations in the United States and Canada. Includes…

  4. Eugenics Past and Present: Remembering Buck v. Bell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Michael J.; Cruz, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Provides background information about the eugenics movement. Focuses on eugenics in the United States detailing the case, Buck v. Bell, and eugenics in Germany. Explores the present eugenic movement, focusing on "The Bell Curve," China's one child policy, and the use of eugenic sterilizations in the United States and Canada. Includes…

  5. Microfabricated bioprocessor for integrated nanoliter-scale Sanger DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Blazej, Robert G; Kumaresan, Palani; Mathies, Richard A

    2006-05-09

    An efficient, nanoliter-scale microfabricated bioprocessor integrating all three Sanger sequencing steps, thermal cycling, sample purification, and capillary electrophoresis, has been developed and evaluated. Hybrid glass-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) wafer-scale construction is used to combine 250-nl reactors, affinity-capture purification chambers, high-performance capillary electrophoresis channels, and pneumatic valves and pumps onto a single microfabricated device. Lab-on-a-chip-level integration enables complete Sanger sequencing from only 1 fmol of DNA template. Up to 556 continuous bases were sequenced with 99% accuracy, demonstrating read lengths required for de novo sequencing of human and other complex genomes. The performance of this miniaturized DNA sequencer provides a benchmark for predicting the ultimate cost and efficiency limits of Sanger sequencing.

  6. Eugen Bleuler and forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Möller, Arnulf; Hell, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The list of Eugen Bleuler's writings shows that he grappled with forensic issues quite early, even before he became a full professor in 1898. Bleuler regularly prepared forensic criminal expert's reports himself until emeritus status was conferred on him in 1927. Analysis of his writings indicates that his position remained explicitly deterministic. In Bleuler's later work, that position was integrated into the natural philosophy vitalistic theory of mnemism, itself part of a more comprehensive theory, without any corrections to its content. Eugen Bleuler always remained a critic of criminal law, although it can be seen from later expert's reports that he for the most part accepted the existing system for the administration of justice for practical reasons. However, Bleuler always defended the idea that punishment should not be based on the moral guilt of the perpetrator but rather on the prospect of curing him.

  7. Selling eugenics: the case of Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bjorkman, Maria; Widmalm, Sven

    2010-12-20

    This paper traces the early (1910s to 1920s) development of Swedish eugenics through a study of the social network that promoted it. The eugenics network consisted mainly of academics from a variety of disciplines, but with medicine and biology dominating; connections with German scientists who would later shape Nazi biopolitics were strong. The paper shows how the network used political lobbying (for example, using contacts with academically accomplished MPs) and various media strategies to gain scientific and political support for their cause, where a major goal was the creation of a eugenics institute (which opened in 1922). It also outlines the eugenic vision of the institute's first director, Herman Lundborg. In effect the network, and in particular Lundborg, promoted the view that politics should be guided by eugenics and by a genetically superior elite. The selling of eugenics in Sweden is an example of the co-production of science and social order.

  8. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis and the 'new' eugenics.

    PubMed Central

    King, D S

    1999-01-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PID) is often seen as an improvement upon prenatal testing. I argue that PID may exacerbate the eugenic features of prenatal testing and make possible an expanded form of free-market eugenics. The current practice of prenatal testing is eugenic in that its aim is to reduce the numbers of people with genetic disorders. Due to social pressures and eugenic attitudes held by clinical geneticists in most countries, it results in eugenic outcomes even though no state coercion is involved. I argue that technological advances may soon make PID widely accessible. Because abortion is not involved, and multiple embryos are available, PID is radically more effective as a tool of genetic selection. It will also make possible selection on the basis of non-pathological characteristics, leading, potentially, to a full-blown free-market eugenics. For these reasons, I argue that PID should be strictly regulated. PMID:10226925

  9. Evangelizing Eugenics: A Brief Historiography of Popular and Formal American Eugenics Education (1908-1948)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohlman, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the history of the American Eugenics movement's penetration into the formal and popular educational milieu during the first half of the 20th Century, and includes a review of some recent scholarly research on eugenic themes in education and popular culture. Apologists have dismissed the American Eugenics movement as a…

  10. Evangelizing Eugenics: A Brief Historiography of Popular and Formal American Eugenics Education (1908-1948)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohlman, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the history of the American Eugenics movement's penetration into the formal and popular educational milieu during the first half of the 20th Century, and includes a review of some recent scholarly research on eugenic themes in education and popular culture. Apologists have dismissed the American Eugenics movement as a…

  11. [The dispute over eugenics in interwar Poland].

    PubMed

    Kawalec, K

    2000-01-01

    The eugenic problem seems not as well known as it was in the period between the world wars. The word "eugenics" was introduced into the scientific language by the British biologist, Francis Galton at the end of the XIX century. In general, it means the study of the methods of protecting and improving the quality of the human race by selective breeding. Galton's remarks initiated a wider (social and political) movement, which was active in some countries. The eugenic tendency was visible in American immigration policy before the Great War - making it difficult for people suffering from particular diseases to enter the USA. After the war, the eugenic movement became much stronger. In some countries (e.g. Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark, Switzerland, Germany, and over half of the states of the USA) some components of the eugenic programme were introduced into legislation. The eugenic movement also appeared in reconstructed Poland. In 1918 it published it own magazine "Zagadnienia Rasy" (Problems of Human Race), later "Eugenika Polska" (Polish Eugenics). This did not imply however, that interest in the eugenic programme was generally very strong. In fact, it was limited by the influence of the Catholic Church. Another significant factor was lost Polish - German hostility. In the late thirties eugenic slogans lost popularity because of their use in Germany racist policy.

  12. [On the history of French eugenics].

    PubMed

    Drouard, A

    1998-01-01

    The French Eugenical Society was founded in 1913, but eugenics had been actively discussed already much earlier, although under varing names. The main protagonists of early French eugenics were Georges Vacher de Lapouge, who was inspired by Galton and socialism, Adolphe Pinard, who propagated the "puericulture", and Paul Robin, who represented neo-malthusianism in his country. Alexis Carrel's ideas on improving the human race became widespread especially through his book "Man, the Unknown", published simultaneously in French and English in 1935. In general, the French eugenicists were more in favour of positive eugenics than negative selection, including sterilization, but their general influence was weaker than in several other countries.

  13. Birth Control as Obscenity: Margaret Sanger and "The Woman Rebel."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masel-Walters, Lynne

    In spite of the negative aspects of her determination to be the sole motivator, controller, and martyr for the birth control movement, Margaret Sanger was a positive social force in testing and denouncing the Comstock law. The law, named for Anthony Comstock, a postal inspector who had lobbied Congress to forbid the distribution of obscene…

  14. Perspectives: Eugenics and Sterilization in the Heartland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    Noting the Governor of Virginia's recent apology for his state's participation in eugenics, this article reviews the history of the sterilization of people with epilepsy and mental retardation in several states, and the importance of the Buck v. Bell (1927) Supreme Court decision in the promotion of eugenics. (Contains references.) (CR)

  15. Eugenics and Curriculum: 1860-1929.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Steven

    1978-01-01

    Examines ideas about heredity, racism, and the development of the eugenics movement, which influenced curriculum thinkers in the period of the "naturalistic mind" and progressivism; the eugenics movement's influence upon education for the gifted; and continuing similar attitudes as to the limited effect of environment on individuals…

  16. Perspectives: Eugenics and Sterilization in the Heartland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    Noting the Governor of Virginia's recent apology for his state's participation in eugenics, this article reviews the history of the sterilization of people with epilepsy and mental retardation in several states, and the importance of the Buck v. Bell (1927) Supreme Court decision in the promotion of eugenics. (Contains references.) (CR)

  17. Eugenics and Curriculum: 1860-1929.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Steven

    1978-01-01

    Examines ideas about heredity, racism, and the development of the eugenics movement, which influenced curriculum thinkers in the period of the "naturalistic mind" and progressivism; the eugenics movement's influence upon education for the gifted; and continuing similar attitudes as to the limited effect of environment on individuals…

  18. [Sir Francis Galton: the father of eugenics].

    PubMed

    Aubert-Marson, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Not only was Sir Francis Galton a famous geographer and statistician, he also invented "eugenics" in 1883. Eugenics, defined as the science of improving racial stock, was developed from a new heredity theory, conceived by Galton himself, and from the evolution theory of Charles Darwin, transposed to human society by Herbert Spencer. Galton's eugenics was a program to artificially produce a better human race through regulating marriage and thus procreation. Galton put particular emphasis on "positive eugenics", aimed at encouraging the physically and mentally superior members of the population to choose partners with similar traits. In 1904, he presented his ideas in front of a vast audience of physicians and scientists in London. His widely-publicized lecture served as the starting point for the development of eugenics groups in Europe and the United States during the first half of the 20th century.

  19. Eugenics concept: from Plato to present.

    PubMed

    Güvercin, C H; Arda, B

    2008-01-01

    All prospective studies and purposes to improve cure and create a race that would be exempt of various diseases and disabilities are generally defined as eugenic procedures. They aim to create the "perfect" and "higher" human being by eliminating the "unhealthy" prospective persons. All of the supporting actions taken in order to enable the desired properties are called positive eugenic actions; the elimination of undesired properties are defined as negative eugenics. In addition, if such applications and approaches target the public as a whole, they are defined as macro-eugenics. On the other hand, if they only aim at individuals and/or families, they are called micro-eugenics. As generally acknowledged, Galton re-introduced eugenic proposals, but their roots stretch as far back as Plato. Eugenic thoughts and developments were widely accepted in many different countries beginning with the end of the 19th to the first half of the 20th centuries. Initially, the view of negative eugenics that included compulsory sterilizations of handicapped, diseased and "lower" classes, resulted in tens of thousands being exterminated especially in the period of Nazi Germany. In the 1930s, the type of micro positive eugenics movement found a place within the pro-natalist policies of a number of countries. However, it was unsuccessful since the policy was not able to become effective enough and totally disappeared in the 1960s. It was no longer a fashionable movement and left a deep impression on public opinion after the long years of war. However, developments in genetics and its related fields have now enabled eugenic thoughts to reappear under the spotlight and this is creating new moral dilemmas from an ethical perspective.

  20. Francis Galton: and eugenics today.

    PubMed

    Galton, D J; Galton, C J

    1998-04-01

    Eugenics can be defined as the use of science applied to the qualitative and quantitative improvement of the human genome. The subject was initiated by Francis Galton with considerable support from Charles Darwin in the latter half of the 19th century. Its scope has increased enormously since the recent revolution in molecular genetics. Genetic files can be easily obtained for individuals either antenatally or at birth; somatic gene therapy has been introduced for some rare inborn errors of metabolism; and gene manipulation of human germ-line cells will no doubt occur in the near future to generate organs for transplantation. The past history of eugenics has been appalling, with gross abuses in the USA between 1931 and 1945 when compulsory sterilization was practised; and in Germany between 1933 and 1945 when mass extermination and compulsory sterilization were performed. To prevent such abuses in the future statutory bodies, such as a genetics commission, should be established to provide guidance and rules of conduct for use of the new information and technologies as applied to the human genome.

  1. Francis Galton: and eugenics today.

    PubMed Central

    Galton, D J; Galton, C J

    1998-01-01

    Eugenics can be defined as the use of science applied to the qualitative and quantitative improvement of the human genome. The subject was initiated by Francis Galton with considerable support from Charles Darwin in the latter half of the 19th century. Its scope has increased enormously since the recent revolution in molecular genetics. Genetic files can be easily obtained for individuals either antenatally or at birth; somatic gene therapy has been introduced for some rare inborn errors of metabolism; and gene manipulation of human germ-line cells will no doubt occur in the near future to generate organs for transplantation. The past history of eugenics has been appalling, with gross abuses in the USA between 1931 and 1945 when compulsory sterilization was practised; and in Germany between 1933 and 1945 when mass extermination and compulsory sterilization were performed. To prevent such abuses in the future statutory bodies, such as a genetics commission, should be established to provide guidance and rules of conduct for use of the new information and technologies as applied to the human genome. PMID:9602996

  2. Eugenics visualized: the exhibit of the Third International Congress of Eugenics, 1932.

    PubMed

    Stillwell, Devon

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the exhibit of the Third International Congress of Eugenics, which was organized by Harry Hamilton Laughlin and showcased at the American Museum of Natural History in 1932. It argues that the exhibit's displays shaped popular eugenic ideology by connecting particular eugenic principles to specific visual representations that were experienced in relation to binaries such as the artistically traditional and the modern, the classical and the grotesque, and the scientific and the spectacle (or the "freak" and the medical specimen). These dichotomies were, in turn, experienced within the context of the exhibit's overall theme of eugenics as anchored in the past and the future and concern over the differential birthrate. The exhibit to the Third Congress provides insight into growing tensions within the eugenics movement of the 1930s, the importance of positive eugenics, the aesthetics of heredity, and how the "scientific truths" of a given era are publicized and perpetuated.

  3. CRISP-ID: decoding CRISPR mediated indels by Sanger sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Dehairs, Jonas; Talebi, Ali; Cherifi, Yacine; Swinnen, Johannes V.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of next generation gene editing technologies has revolutionized the fields of genome engineering in allowing the generation of gene knockout models and functional gene analysis. However, the screening of resultant clones remains challenging due to the simultaneous presence of different indels. Here, we present CRISP-ID, a web application which uses a unique algorithm for genotyping up to three alleles from a single Sanger sequencing trace, providing a robust and readily accessible platform to directly identify indels and significantly speed up the characterization of clones. PMID:27363488

  4. Leaders in Cardiovascular Medicine. Eugene Braunwald MD: an icon of the 20th century still going strong.

    PubMed

    Braunwald, Eugene; Nicholls, Mark

    2015-06-07

    Considered one of the pre-eminent cardiologists of our time, Dr Eugene Braunwald, MD, has extended knowledge of congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, and valvular heart disease. Having published hundreds of papers and medical articles, with his textbook Braunwald’s Heart Disease cited worldwide, Dr Braunwald has received numerous honours and awards. Born in Austria in 1929, his family emigrated to the USA during World War II and after his studies he began a long, successful and hugely-influential career as a cardiologist. Now well into his 80s, he still practices medicine and continues to contribute to the field of cardiology.

  5. Christianity and Eugenics: The Place of Religion in the British Eugenics Education Society and the American Eugenics Society, c.1907-1940.

    PubMed

    Baker, Graham J

    2014-05-01

    Historians have regularly acknowledged the significance of religious faith to the eugenics movement in Britain and the USA. However, much of this scholarship suggests a polarised relationship of either conflict or consensus. Where Christian believers participated in the eugenics movement this has been represented as an abandonment of 'orthodox' theology, and the impression has been created that eugenics was a secularising force. In contrast, this article explores the impact of religious values on two eugenics organisations: the British Eugenics Education Society, and the American Eugenics Society. It is demonstrated that concerns over religion resulted in both these organisations modifying and tempering the public work that they undertook. This act of concealing and minimising the visibly controversial aspects of eugenics is offered as an addition to the debate over 'mainline' versus 'reform' eugenics.

  6. Christianity and Eugenics: The Place of Religion in the British Eugenics Education Society and the American Eugenics Society, c.1907–1940

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Graham J.

    2014-01-01

    Historians have regularly acknowledged the significance of religious faith to the eugenics movement in Britain and the USA. However, much of this scholarship suggests a polarised relationship of either conflict or consensus. Where Christian believers participated in the eugenics movement this has been represented as an abandonment of ‘orthodox’ theology, and the impression has been created that eugenics was a secularising force. In contrast, this article explores the impact of religious values on two eugenics organisations: the British Eugenics Education Society, and the American Eugenics Society. It is demonstrated that concerns over religion resulted in both these organisations modifying and tempering the public work that they undertook. This act of concealing and minimising the visibly controversial aspects of eugenics is offered as an addition to the debate over ‘mainline’ versus ‘reform’ eugenics. PMID:24778464

  7. Eugenics and Involuntary Sterilization: 1907-2015.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Philip R

    2015-01-01

    In England during the late nineteenth century, intellectuals, especially Francis Galton, called for a variety of eugenic policies aimed at ensuring the health of the human species. In the United States, members of the Progressive movement embraced eugenic ideas, especially immigration restriction and sterilization. Indiana enacted the first eugenic sterilization law in 1907, and the US Supreme Court upheld such laws in 1927. State programs targeted institutionalized, mentally disabled women. Beginning in the late 1930s, proponents rationalized involuntary sterilization as protecting vulnerable women from unwanted pregnancy. By World War II, programs in the United States had sterilized approximately 60,000 persons. After the horrific revelations concerning Nazi eugenics (German Hereditary Health Courts approved at least 400,000 sterilization operations in less than a decade), eugenic sterilization programs in the United States declined rapidly. Simplistic eugenic thinking has faded, but coerced sterilization remains widespread, especially in China and India. In many parts of the world, involuntary sterilization is still intermittently used against minority groups.

  8. Eugenics and public health in American history.

    PubMed Central

    Pernick, M S

    1997-01-01

    Supporters of eugenics, the powerful early 20th-century movement for improving human heredity, often attacked that era's dramatic improvements in public health and medicine for preserving the lives of people they considered hereditarily unfit. Eugenics and public health also battled over whether heredity played a significant role in infectious diseases. However, American public health and eugenics had much in common as well. Eugenic methods often were modeled on the infection control techniques of public health. The goals, values, and concepts of disease of these two movements also often overlapped. This paper sketches some of the key similarities and differences between eugenics and public health in the United States, and it examines how their relationship was shaped by the interaction of science and culture. The results demonstrate that eugenics was not an isolated movement whose significance is confined to the histories of genetics and pseudoscience, but was instead an important and cautionary part of past public health and a general medical history as well. PMID:9366633

  9. Iowa and Eugene, Oregon, orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    Buckwalter, Joseph A

    2003-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, the commitment of orthopaedic surgeons to basic and clinical research and evaluation of treatment outcomes has made possible remarkable improvements in the care of people with injuries and diseases of the limbs and spine. A group of Oregon orthopaedic surgeons has had an important role in these advances, especially in the orthopaedic specialties of sports medicine and hip reconstruction. Since Don Slocum (Iowa Orthopaedic Resident, 1934-1937), started practice in Eugene, Oregon, in 1939, three orthopaedic surgeons, Denny Collis, Craig Mohler and Paul Watson, who received their orthopaedic residency education at the University of Iowa, and three orthopaedic surgeons, Stan James, Tom Wuest and Dan Fitzpatrick, who received their undergraduate, medical school and orthopaedic residency education at the University of Iowa, have joined the group Dr. Slocum founded. These individuals, and their partners, established and have maintained a successful growing practice that serves the people of the Willamette valley, but in addition, they have made important contributions to the advancement of orthopaedics.

  10. Iowa and Eugene, Oregon, Orthopaedics

    PubMed Central

    Buckwalter, Joseph A

    2003-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, the commitment of orthopaedic surgeons to basic and clinical research and evaluation of treatment outcomes has made possible remarkable improvements in the care of people with injuries and diseases of the limbs and spine. A group of Oregon orthopaedic surgeons has had an important role in these advances, especially in the orthopaedic specialties of sports medicine and hip reconstruction. Since Don Slocum (Iowa Orthopaedic Resident, 1934-1937), started practice in Eugene, Oregon, in 1939, three orthopaedic surgeons, Denny Collis, Craig Mohler and Paul Watson, who received their orthopaedic residency education at the University of Iowa, and three orthopaedic surgeons, Stan James, Tom Wuest and Dan Fitzpatrick, who received their undergraduate, medical school and orthopaedic residency education at the University of Iowa, have joined the group Dr. Slocum founded. These individuals, and their partners, established and have maintained a successful growing practice that serves the people of the Willamette valley, but in addition, they have made important contributions to the advancement of orthopaedics. PMID:14575262

  11. Eugen Steinach: the first neuroendocrinologist.

    PubMed

    Södersten, Per; Crews, David; Logan, Cheryl; Soukup, Rudolf Werner

    2014-03-01

    In 1936, Eugen Steinach and colleagues published a work that brought steroid biochemistry to the study of sexual behavior and, using synthetic androgens and estrogens, foreshadowed by an astonishing 4 decades the discovery of the central role of estrogen in the sexual behavior of male rats. We offer an English translation of that paper, accompanied by historical commentary that presents Steinach as a pioneer in reproductive neuroendocrinology. His work 1) established the interstitial cells as the main source of mammalian gonadal hormones; 2) launched the hypothesis that steroid hormones act on the brain to induce sexual behavior and that chronic gonadal transplants produce sexual reversals in physiology and behavior; 3) demonstrated the influence of sensory stimulation on testicular function; and finally 4) spearheaded the development of synthetic commercial hormones for clinical use in humans. Although its applications were controversial, Steinach's research was confirmed by many, and his concepts were applied to fields such as oncology and vascular disease. His contemporaries lauded his research, as indicated by his 7 Nobel Prize nominations. But Steinach's basic research was rarely acknowledged as the field flourished after 1950. The translation and our commentary attempt to reverse that neglect among behavioral neuroendocrinologists and clarify his central role as a founder of the neuroendocrinology of sexual behavior and reproduction.

  12. Social imaginaries: the literature of eugenics.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Alison

    2008-06-01

    This paper starts from a premise relating to the act of fictional writing about eugenics and the way it may be understood as the embodiment and enactment of social imaginaries. It proposes that literature (in the sense of fiction) frequently, if not habitually, expresses the underside of what is expressed in public discourse. That is, far from being the implement of state policy or intervention, it acts in counterpoint to the state, constituting a type of social fantasy in that it explores through the realm of the imagination what might happen. It becomes the arena for contestation, exploration, and nuancing as it essays how ideas from public, 'real' life, might transform when acted out. The paper considers two sorts of literary case. First it looks at that of 'naïve' literature, harnessed unashamedly to a specific sociological discourse of eugenics. Then, using primarily Ibsen, it considers a subset, the case of literature that does not set out to be explicitly in the service of the cause of eugenics, but is appropriated and disseminated from a platform of eugenics. Lastly, taking the example of Unamuno's Amor y pedagogía (1902) the paper considers literature that exists in a quite different sphere of public awareness. It shows awareness of the arguments and precepts of eugenics and related beliefs and practices, but acts as a transitional space (in the terms of Winnicott) to enable such ideas to be entertained and thought about, without a requirement of acceptance or belief.

  13. The public and private history of eugenics: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Burke, Chloe S; Castaneda, Christopher J

    2007-01-01

    Inspired by our experience addressing the legacy of eugenics at California State University, Sacramento, this special issue presents an array of articles representative of diverse approaches to the historical investigation of eugenics. This article provides an introduction to the history of eugenics and explores the ways in which public history is particularly well suited to shape the historical memory of eugenics and encourage dialogue about contemporary biotechnologies.

  14. Eugenics and the Social Construction of Merit, Race, and Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Steven

    2000-01-01

    Contends that eugenics is an example of normalization. Outlines an aspect of this process by analyzing: (1) the popular eugenic knowledge exhibited at U.S. state fairs; and (2) the mainstream eugenic knowledge found in the work of Leta S. Hollingworth who was an early leader in gifted education. (CMK)

  15. Eugenics and the Social Construction of Merit, Race, and Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Steven

    2000-01-01

    Contends that eugenics is an example of normalization. Outlines an aspect of this process by analyzing: (1) the popular eugenic knowledge exhibited at U.S. state fairs; and (2) the mainstream eugenic knowledge found in the work of Leta S. Hollingworth who was an early leader in gifted education. (CMK)

  16. Eugenics: past, present, and the future.

    PubMed Central

    Garver, K L; Garver, B

    1991-01-01

    During the past 20 years there has been a resurgence of interest in the history of the eugenics movements, particularly those of the United States and Germany. Unfortunately, most of these accounts have been published in nonmedical and nongenetic journals, so they are not readily available to geneticists or physicians. The authors of this article are concerned about the lack of information that geneticists, physicians, and students have concerning the origin and progress of these movements. This article provides a short history of the American and German eugenics programs and concludes with a review of their possible relations to our current practices. It is hoped that this will encourage institutions to include, in master's Ph.D., and M.D. programs in human genetics, lectures, seminars, and journal clubs on the topic of eugenics. PMID:1928094

  17. Eugenics in the community: gendered professions and eugenic sterilization in Alberta, 1928-1972.

    PubMed

    Samson, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Scholarship on Alberta's Sexual Sterilization Act (1928-1972) has focused on the high-level politics behind the legislation, its main administrative body, the Eugenics Board, and its legal legacy, overlooking the largely female-dominated professions that were responsible for operating the program outside of the provincial mental health institutions. This paper investigates the relationship between eugenics and the professions of teaching, public health nursing, and social work. It argues that the Canadian mental hygiene and eugenics movements, which were fundamentally connected, provided these professions with an opportunity to maintain and extend their professional authority.

  18. Project Coast: eugenics in apartheid South Africa.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jerome Amir

    2008-03-01

    It is a decade since the exposure of Project Coast, apartheid South Africa's covert chemical and biological warfare program. In that time, attention has been focused on several aspects of the program, particularly the production of narcotics and poisons for use against anti-apartheid activists and the proliferation of both chemical and biological weapons. The eugenic dimension of Project Coast has, by contrast, received scant attention. It is time to revisit the testimony that brought the suggestion of eugenic motives to light, reflect on some of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's findings and search for lessons that can be taken from this troubled chapter in South Africa's history.

  19. Eugene Dening: Young Artist from Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, James H.

    2009-01-01

    Eugene Dening, an emerging artist in Canada, recently earned his Bachelors degree at the Calvin College (Grand Rapids, MI). This essay on his artwork explores the value of art making to LGBT youth, those gay and lesbian artists who have influenced their work, and those queer and critical readings practices that one can apply to arts' viewing.…

  20. Interview: Public Alternative Schools in Eugene, Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edcentric, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Information from interviews with a parent coordinator at Eastside Elementary School, a teacher at Silver Lea Corridor School, and a student at Action High and the Planning Course is presented to show history, relationship and function with parents, teachers, students, and administrators in the Eugene, Oregon, public alternative school system. (JT)

  1. Concluding Commentary: Response to Eugene and Kiyo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, E. Jayne

    2014-01-01

    At the risk of speaking on his behalf I could almost swear I heard Bakhtin laughing gleefully over my shoulder as I read this fascinating dialogue between Eugene and Kiyo. His reason for this might be partly inspired by the glaring misunderstandings both men reveal through their associated interplay with key pedagogical concepts. While polemic in…

  2. Eugene Jolas: A Poet of Multilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelbert, Eugenia

    Eugene Jolas, the first-time publisher of James Joyce's Finnegans Wake (1939 / 2012), started his career as a translingual journalist and poet. A French-German bilingual, Jolas acquired English in adolescence, crossing the Atlantic to refashion himself as an American man of letters. A "Man from Babel," as he styles himself in his…

  3. Electrostatic Potential Maps and Natural Bond Orbital Analysis: Visualization and Conceptualization of Reactivity in Sanger's Reagent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mottishaw, Jeffery D.; Erck, Adam R.; Kramer, Jordan H.; Sun, Haoran; Koppang, Miles

    2015-01-01

    Frederick Sanger's early work on protein sequencing through the use of colorimetric labeling combined with liquid chromatography involves an important nucleophilic aromatic substitution (S[subscript N]Ar) reaction in which the N-terminus of a protein is tagged with Sanger's reagent. Understanding the inherent differences between this S[subscript…

  4. Electrostatic Potential Maps and Natural Bond Orbital Analysis: Visualization and Conceptualization of Reactivity in Sanger's Reagent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mottishaw, Jeffery D.; Erck, Adam R.; Kramer, Jordan H.; Sun, Haoran; Koppang, Miles

    2015-01-01

    Frederick Sanger's early work on protein sequencing through the use of colorimetric labeling combined with liquid chromatography involves an important nucleophilic aromatic substitution (S[subscript N]Ar) reaction in which the N-terminus of a protein is tagged with Sanger's reagent. Understanding the inherent differences between this S[subscript…

  5. The Hypothalamic Median Eminence and its Role in Reproductive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Weiling; Gore, Andrea C.

    2009-01-01

    The median eminence at the base of the hypothalamus serves as an interface between the neural and peripheral endocrine systems. It is the site where hypothalamic releasing hormones are released into the portal capillary bed to be transported to the anterior pituitary, which provides further signals to target endocrine systems. Of specific relevance to reproduction, a group of about 1000 neurons in mammals release the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) peptide from neuroterminals in the median eminence. During the life cycle, there are dramatic changes in reproductive demands, and we focus this review on how GnRH terminals in the median eminence change during reproductive senescence. We discuss morphological and functional properties of the median eminence, and how relationships among GnRH terminals and their microenvironment of nerve terminals, glial cells, and the portal capillary vasculature determine the ability of GnRH peptide to be secreted and to reach its target in the anterior pituitary gland. PMID:20738281

  6. Concordance between whole-exome sequencing and clinical Sanger sequencing: implications for patient care.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Alison; Tétreault, Martine; Dyment, David A; Zou, Ruobing; Kernohan, Kristin; Geraghty, Michael T; Hartley, Taila; Boycott, Kym M

    2016-09-01

    The clinical translation of next-generation sequencing has created a paradigm shift in the diagnostic assessment of individuals with suspected rare genetic diseases. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) simultaneously examines the majority of the coding portion of the genome and is rapidly becoming accepted as an efficient alternative to clinical Sanger sequencing for diagnosing genetically heterogeneous disorders. Among reports of the clinical and diagnostic utility of WES, few studies to date have directly compared its concordance to Sanger sequencing, which is considered the clinical "gold standard". We performed a direct comparison of 391 coding and noncoding polymorphisms and variants of unknown significance identified by clinical Sanger sequencing to the WES results of 26 patients. Of the 150 well-covered coding variants identified by Sanger sequencing, 146 (97.3%) were also reported by WES. Nine genes were excluded from the comparison due to consistently low coverage in WES, which might be attributed to the use of older exome capture kits. We performed confirmatory Sanger sequencing of discordant variants; including five variants with discordant bases and four with discordant zygosity. Confirmatory Sanger sequencing supported the original Sanger report for three of the five discordant bases, one was shown to be a false positive supporting the WES data, and one result differed from both the Sanger and WES data. Two of the discordant zygosity results supported Sanger and the other two supported WES data. We report high concordance for well-covered coding variants, supporting the use of WES as a screening tool for heterogeneous disorders, and recommend the use of supplementary Sanger sequencing for poorly-covered genes when the clinical suspicion is high. Importantly, despite remaining difficulties with achieving complete coverage of the whole exome, 10 (38.5%) of the 26 compared patients were diagnosed through WES.

  7. Advertising eugenics: Charles M. Goethe's campaign to improve the race.

    PubMed

    Schoenl, William; Peck, Danielle

    2010-06-01

    Over the last several decades historians have shown that the eugenics movement appealed to an extraordinarily wide constituency. Far from being the brainchild of the members of any one particular political ideology, eugenics made sense to a diverse range of Americans and was promoted by professionals ranging from geneticists and physicians to politicians and economists.(1) Seduced by promises of permanent fixes to national problems, and attracted to the idea of a scientifically legitimate form of social activism, eugenics quickly grew in popularity during the first decades of the twentieth century. Charles M. Goethe, the land developer, entrepreneur, conservationist and skilled advertiser who founded the Eugenics Society of Northern California, exemplifies the broad appeal of the eugenics movement. Goethe played an active role within the American eugenics movement at its peak in the 1920s. The last president of the Eugenics Research Association,(2) he also campaigned hard against Mexican immigration to the US and he continued open support for the Nazi regime's eugenic practices into the later 1930s.(3) This article examines Goethe's eugenic vision and, drawing on his correspondence with the leading geneticist Charles Davenport, explores the relationship between academic and non-academic advocates of eugenics in America. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Version 3.0 of EMINERS - Economic Mineral Resource Simulator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duval, Joseph S.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative mineral resource assessment, as developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), consists of three parts: (1) development of grade and tonnage mineral deposit models; (2) delineation of tracts permissive for each deposit type; and (3) probabilistic estimation of the numbers of undiscovered deposits for each deposit type. The estimate of the number of undiscovered deposits at different levels of probability is the input to the EMINERS (Economic Mineral Resource Simulator) program. EMINERS uses a Monte Carlo statistical process to combine probabilistic estimates of undiscovered mineral deposits with models of mineral deposit grade and tonnage to estimate mineral resources. Version 3.0 of the EMINERS program is available as this USGS Open-File Report 2004-1344. Changes from version 2.0 include updating 87 grade and tonnage models, designing new templates to produce graphs showing cumulative distribution and summary tables, and disabling economic filters. The economic filters were disabled because embedded data for costs of labor and materials, mining techniques, and beneficiation methods are out of date. However, the cost algorithms used in the disabled economic filters are still in the program and available for reference for mining methods and milling techniques. The release notes included with this report give more details on changes in EMINERS over the years. EMINERS is written in C++ and depends upon the Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 programming environment. The code depends heavily on the use of Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) for implementation of the Windows interface. The program works only on Microsoft Windows XP or newer personal computers. It does not work on Macintosh computers. For help in using the program in this report, see the "Quick-Start Guide for Version 3.0 of EMINERS-Economic Mineral Resource Simulator" (W.J. Bawiec and G.T. Spanski, 2012, USGS Open-File Report 2009-1057, linked at right). It demonstrates how to execute EMINERS software

  9. The Human Genome Project and eugenic concerns.

    PubMed

    Garver, K L; Garver, B

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Human Genome project is the largest scientific project funded by the federal government since the Apollo Moon Project. The overall effect from this project should be of great benefit to humankind because it will provide a better understanding both of single gene defects and multifactorial or familial diseases such as diabetes, arteriosclerosis, and cancer. At first this will lead to more exact ways of screening and diagnosing genetic disease, and later it will lead, in many if not most instances, to specific genetic cures. However, in the past, in both the U.S. and German eugenic movements genetic information has been misused. Hopefully, by remembering and understanding the past injustices and inhumanity of negative eugenics, further misuse of scientific information can be avoided.

  10. The Human Genome Project and eugenic concerns.

    PubMed Central

    Garver, K. L.; Garver, B.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Human Genome project is the largest scientific project funded by the federal government since the Apollo Moon Project. The overall effect from this project should be of great benefit to humankind because it will provide a better understanding both of single gene defects and multifactorial or familial diseases such as diabetes, arteriosclerosis, and cancer. At first this will lead to more exact ways of screening and diagnosing genetic disease, and later it will lead, in many if not most instances, to specific genetic cures. However, in the past, in both the U.S. and German eugenic movements genetic information has been misused. Hopefully, by remembering and understanding the past injustices and inhumanity of negative eugenics, further misuse of scientific information can be avoided. PMID:8279465

  11. Eugenics: some lessons from the past.

    PubMed

    Galton, D J

    2005-03-01

    Eugenics was first debated by the ancient Greeks, particularly Plato and Aristotle, developed in the nineteenth century by Francis Galton and Charles Darwin, and then abused in the twentieth century by right-wing politicians. With the new methods of assisted conception combined with the use of genetic markers, all the old problems of eugenics have resurfaced. Gender selection, embryo selection, preimplantation genetic diagnosis of common disease, and gene replacement techniques (somatic cells) have added greatly to the power of the modern eugenicist. How are these procedures to be monitored and regulated? What is the role of the State compared with individual families for the implementation of the new methodologies? Some of these issues will be discussed.

  12. A Canadian paradox: Tommy Douglas and eugenics.

    PubMed

    Shevell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Tommy Douglas is an icon of Canadian 20th Century political history and is considered by many as the "Father" of Medicare, a key component of our national identity. Throughout his career, he was associated at both the provincial and federal levels with progressive causes concerning disadvantaged populations. In his sociology Master's thesis written in the early 1930's, Douglas endorsed eugenic oriented solutions such as segregation and sterilization to address what was perceived to be an endemic and biologically determined problem. At first glance, this endorsement of eugenics appears to be paradoxical, but careful analysis revealed that this paradox has multiple roots in religion, political belief, historical exposure and our own desire to view our collective history in a favourable light.

  13. [Eugen Bleuler and Carl Gustav Jung's habilitation].

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, H R

    1996-01-01

    Eugen Bleuler's letter of recommendation for Carl Gustav Jung's appointment as a lecturer In January 1905, Eugen Bleuler (1857-1939) wrote a letter of recommendation to the Medical Faculty of the University of Zurich, urging them to accept the application of Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) as a lecturer there. Bleuler's letter mentions the contribution to Jung's writing made by Franz Riklin (1878-1938), although he does not define it precisely. It is safe to say that, judging from the way in which Bleuler expresses his opinions in this letter, this may be regarded at the very least as an early sign of his receptiveness to the psychoanalytical ideas of the time.

  14. The Human Genome Project and eugenic concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Garver, K.L.; Garver, B. )

    1994-01-01

    The US Human Genome Project is the largest scientific project funded by the federal government since the Apollo Moon Project. The overall effect from this project should be of great benefit to humankind because it will provide a better understanding both of single gene defects and multifactorial or familial diseases such as diabetes, arteriosclerosis, and cancer. At first this will lead to more exact ways of screening and diagnosing genetic disease, and later it will lead, in many if not most instances, to specific genetic cures. However, in the past, in both the US and German eugenic movements genetic information has been misused. Hopefully, by remembering and understanding the past injustices and inhumanity of negative eugenics, further misuse of scientific information can be avoided. 142 refs.

  15. Better science and better race? Social Darwinism and Chinese eugenics.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yuehtsen Juliette

    2014-12-01

    This essay explores the variegated roles played by racial, eugenic, and Social Darwinist discourse in China over roughly the last century. Using Japan as a parallel for comparison, it analyzes the introduction of the term "eugenics" into Japanese and Chinese. It then locates the deployment of eugenics and Social Darwinism as counterimperial discourse in East Asia. It offers a brief history of eugenics thinking in China across the twentieth century, focusing on the Chinese eugenicist Pan Guangdan, who used race as a category of analysis yet without any sense of hierarchy. He was critically aware of the scientific basis of eugenics and helped craft the study of eugenics in China, from biology to sociology, from economics to ethnology.

  16. Eugen Bleuler 150: Bleuler's reception of Freud.

    PubMed

    Dalzell, Thomas G

    2007-12-01

    On the 150th anniversary of Eugen Bleuler's birth, this article examines his reception of Sigmund Freud and his use of Freudian theory to understand the symptoms of schizophrenia. In addition, in contrast to earlier interpretations of Bleuler's relationship with Freud in terms of an eventual personal and theoretical incompatibility, the article demonstrates that, although Bleuler did distance himself from the psychoanalytic movement, he remained consistent in his views on Freud's theories.

  17. [Scandinavian eugenics: Nordic historians provide new approaches].

    PubMed

    Zylberman, Patrick

    2004-10-01

    Late disclosure of the large scale of sterilization practices in the Nordic countries created an outburst of scandal: did these policies rely on coercion? To what extent? Who in the end was responsible? Sterilization practices targeted underpriviledged people first. The mentally retarded and women were their first victims. Operations were very frequently determined by other people's manipulative or coercive influences. Should the blame be put on the Social-Democrats in power throughout the period (except in Finland and Estonia)? Apart from Denmark, perhaps, local physicians and local services, more than governments, seemed to have strongly supported sterilization practices. Teetotalers and feminists shared responsibilities. How can one explain that eugenics finally declined? Based on a sound application of the Hardy-Weinberg law, the science of the eugenicists was correct. Was it politics? But uncovering of the Nazi crimes had only a very small impact on eugenics. Some authors underline the fact that the Nordic scientific institutions were particularly suited to liberal values. Others point to the devastating effect on eugenics once hereditarist psychiatry fell from favour in the middle of the sixties.

  18. Donor insemination: eugenic and feminist implications.

    PubMed

    Hanson, F A

    2001-09-01

    One concern regarding developments in genetics is that, when techniques such as genetic engineering become safe and affordable, people will use them for positive eugenics: to "improve" their offspring by enpowering them with exceptional qualities. Another is whether new reproductive technologies are being used to improve the condition of women or as the tools of a patriarchal system that appropriates female functions to itself and exploits women to further its own ends. Donor insemination is relevant to both of these issues. The degree to which people have used donor insemination in the past for positive eugenic purposes may give some insight into the likelihood of developing technologies being so used in the future. Donor insemination provides women with the opportunity to reproduce with only the most remote involvement of a man. To what degree do women take advantage of this to liberate themselves from male dominance? Through questionnaires and interviews, women who have used donor insemination disclosed their criteria for selecting sperm donors. The results are analyzed for the prevalence of positive eugenic criteria in the selection process and women's attitudes toward minimizing the male role in reproduction.

  19. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer, September, 1961 EAST ELEVATION. - Church of the Immaculate Conception, Twelfth & Jefferson Streets, Brownsville, Cameron County, TX

  20. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer, September, 1961 DETAILS OF TOWER. - Church of the Immaculate Conception, Twelfth & Jefferson Streets, Brownsville, Cameron County, TX

  1. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer, September, 1961 NORTH ELEVATION. - Church of the Immaculate Conception, Twelfth & Jefferson Streets, Brownsville, Cameron County, TX

  2. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer, September, 1961 GENERAL VIEW FROM NORTHEAST. - Church of the Immaculate Conception, Twelfth & Jefferson Streets, Brownsville, Cameron County, TX

  3. Back to the future: eugenics--a bibliographic essay.

    PubMed

    Cullen, David

    2007-01-01

    The following essay is a review of the literature about the American eugenics movement produced by scholars over the last fifty years. The essay provides an explanation for today's renewed interest in the subject and for why the science of eugenics remains relevant to contemporary society. The essay examines the catalyst to re-examine the eugenics movement, the influence of Darwinian thought upon its development, the political and institutional support for its growth, the relationship between eugenics, sterilization, and sex, and how the twentieth-century promises of the science of better breeding was a precursor to the twenty-first-century promise of genetic engineering.

  4. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer June, 1961 PIONEER MOTHERS WINDOW, NORTH FACADE. - Gethsemane Lutheran Church, Sixteenth Street & Congress Avenue, Austin, Travis County, TX

  5. Hughes, Twain, Child, and Sanger: Four Who Locked Horns with the Censors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, Milton

    1969-01-01

    A look at the lives and conflicts of four writers--Langston Hughes, Mark Twain, Lydia Maria Child, and Margaret Sanger--who faced public criticism and censorship because oftheir views on controversial issues. (RM)

  6. Hughes, Twain, Child, and Sanger: Four Who Locked Horns with the Censors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, Milton

    1969-01-01

    A look at the lives and conflicts of four writers--Langston Hughes, Mark Twain, Lydia Maria Child, and Margaret Sanger--who faced public criticism and censorship because oftheir views on controversial issues. (RM)

  7. Obituary: Eugene Richard Tomer, 1932-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkl, Charles F.

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Eugene R. Tomer passed away on 2 July 2007 at his home in San Francisco, California. The cause of death was cancer. Tomer was a consulting applied mathematician with a wide range of interests in dynamical astronomy, electromagnetic theory for use in communications, and computational methods of applied mathematics. He was a member of AAS, and the Society for Applied and Industrial Mathematics [SIAM]. With K. H. Prendergast, he co-wrote the influential paper "Self-consistent Models of Elliptical Galaxies," published in the Astronomical Journal 75 (1970), 674-679. This paper has been cited over eighty times. Tomer was born on 13 June 1932. He earned the Ph.D. in Mathematics at the University of California-Berkeley in 1978 (title of dissertation: On the C*-algebra of the Hermite Operator). In 1996 he and A. F. Peterson wrote "Meeting the Challenges Presented by Computational Electromagnetics," a publication of the Naval Postgraduate School at Monterey, California. This writer met Eugene at the 1992 Annual SIAM meeting in Los Angeles in connection with the Activity Group on Orthogonal Polynomials and Special Functions, which the writer chaired at the time. Eugene volunteered to edit the Newsletter of the group, which he did from July 1992 to July 1995. Thanks to his skills and efforts, the Newsletter became a carefully edited, professional publication. Eugene not only organized a Problems Column, attracting questions in pure and applied mathematics, but he also designed the logo for the group. He gave much time and effort to this service, in an era when copy had to be physically assembled and mailed to SIAM Headquarters. Eventually he felt he had done what he could for the Activity Group. He told me that he hoped the Group would get seriously involved with applications such as in astronomy, physics, and sciences that use special function solutions of differential equations. During Tomer's editorship, we communicated mostly by e-mail, our homes being far apart. He

  8. Analysis of Quasispecies of Avain Leukosis Virus Subgroup J Using Sanger and High-throughput Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanfeng; Dong, Xuan; Hu, Tao; Liu, Yingnan; Zhao, Yingjie; Lv, Yanyan; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng; Cui, Zhizhong

    2016-06-27

    Avian leukosis viruses subgroup J (ALV-J) exists as a complex mixture of different, but closely related genomes named quasispecies subjected to continuous change according to the Principles of Darwinian evolution. The present study seeks to compare conventional Sanger sequencing with deep sequencing using MiSeq platform to study quasispecies dynamics of ALV-J. The accuracy and reproducibility of MiSeq sequencing was determined better than Sanger sequencing by running each experiment in duplicate. According to the mutational rate of single position and the ability to distinguish dominant quasispecies with two sequencing methods, conventional Sanger sequencing technique displayed high randomness due to few sequencing samples, while deep sequencing could reflect the composition of the quasispecies more accurately. In the mean time, the research of quasispecies via Sanger sequencing was simulated and analyzed with the aid of re-sampling strategy with replacement for 1000 times repeat from high-throughput sequencing data, which indicated that the higher antibody titer, the higher sequence entropy, the harder analyzing with the conventional Sanger sequencing, resulted in lower ratios of dominant variants. In sum, deep sequencing is better suited for detecting rare variants comprehensively. The simulation of Sanger sequencing that we propose here will also help to standardize quasispecies researching under different selection pressure based on next-generation sequencing data.

  9. Translating sanger-based routine DNA diagnostics into generic massive parallel ion semiconductor sequencing.

    PubMed

    Diekstra, Adinda; Bosgoed, Ermanno; Rikken, Alwin; van Lier, Bart; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Tychon, Marloes; Derks, Ronny C; van Soest, Ronald A; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Scheffer, Hans; Neveling, Kornelia; Nelen, Marcel R

    2015-01-01

    Dideoxy-based chain termination sequencing developed by Sanger is the gold standard sequencing approach and allows clinical diagnostics of disorders with relatively low genetic heterogeneity. Recently, new next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have found their way into diagnostic laboratories, enabling the sequencing of large targeted gene panels or exomes. The development of benchtop NGS instruments now allows the analysis of single genes or small gene panels, making these platforms increasingly competitive with Sanger sequencing. We developed a generic automated ion semiconductor sequencing work flow that can be used in a clinical setting and can serve as a substitute for Sanger sequencing. Standard amplicon-based enrichment remained identical to PCR for Sanger sequencing. A novel postenrichment pooling strategy was developed, limiting the number of library preparations and reducing sequencing costs up to 70% compared to Sanger sequencing. A total of 1224 known pathogenic variants were analyzed, yielding an analytical sensitivity of 99.92% and specificity of 99.99%. In a second experiment, a total of 100 patient-derived DNA samples were analyzed using a blind analysis. The results showed an analytical sensitivity of 99.60% and specificity of 99.98%, comparable to Sanger sequencing. Ion semiconductor sequencing can be a first choice mutation scanning technique, independent of the genes analyzed. © 2014 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  10. Science in the Publicity Laboratory: The Case of Eugenics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudill, Edward

    The eugenicists of the 1920s and 1930s aggressively pursued media attention and sought policy change for their cause of improving the human race by selective breeding. Eugenics gained momentum in the United States when the American Eugenics Society (AES) was organized in 1921. Policy formation and information dissemination were central to the…

  11. Rational subjects, marriage counselling and the conundrums of eugenics.

    PubMed

    Gerodetti, Natalia

    2008-06-01

    Against the background of degeneration and the perceived threat to the nation's health and stock, family politics came to constitute an important site for eugenic discourses and interventions. Eugenic regulation of reproductive sexuality and marriage was not only pursued through 'negative' eugenics but also through educational policies targeted at young adults and youth. Switzerland serves as a useful case to explore a general idea, namely the limitations for eugenicists of exploiting the concept of a rational subject in order to achieve their ends. Practices of 'positive eugenics' crucially hinged on the utilitarian principle of rationality underpinning positive eugenics which this paper seeks to elaborate. Eugenicists devised tools to deal efficiently with social problems on a collective as well as an individual basis by deploying technologies of government which conceived individuals to be members of a population who were each held responsible for the generation of healthy future generations. As a form of 'sustaining, multiplying and ordering life' eugenics thus relied on the premise that its ideas would be adopted through an appeal to rationality and, where this was insufficient, through a series of coercive measures. Relying on conviction and education about the merits of eugenics, however, posed particular problems to positive eugenic thinking and practice.

  12. Eugenics, Mental Deficiency and Fabian Socialism between the Wars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Eugenics was not exclusively the concern of conservatives; it also appealed to certain socialists, particularly those whose middle class status was dependent upon their expert services and who believed that social problems could be resolved scientifically. Reasons for the appeal of eugenics to this group are discussed. (IS)

  13. Eugenics, Mental Deficiency and Fabian Socialism between the Wars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Eugenics was not exclusively the concern of conservatives; it also appealed to certain socialists, particularly those whose middle class status was dependent upon their expert services and who believed that social problems could be resolved scientifically. Reasons for the appeal of eugenics to this group are discussed. (IS)

  14. What Contributes to Talent Development in Eminent Women?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronborg, Leonie

    2010-01-01

    The lives of ten eminent Australian women across seven talent domains were explored for factors that contributed to the development of their talent. Nine themes and related sub-themes emerged that were linked to the Model of Adult Female Talent Development (MAFTD) developed by Noble, Subotnik & Arnold (1996, 1999). Results provided support for…

  15. Morphine and endorphins modulate dopamine turnover in rat median eminence.

    PubMed Central

    Deyo, S N; Swift, R M; Miller, R J

    1979-01-01

    The is evidence that some of the actions of both endogenous and exogenous opioids (e.g., stimulation of prolactin release) are mediated by interaction with catecholaminergic systems. Morphine (1.67, 5, and 15 mg/kg of body weight, intraperitoneally) altered dopamine turnover as measured by the alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine method in the median eminence, neostriatum, and frontal cortex of male Sprague-Dawley rats. The turnover rate of dopamine was reduced in the median eminence and frontal cortex but accelerated in the neostriatum. In the frontal cortex all doses were effective in decreasing dopamine turnover; however, in the median eminence the lowest dose of morphine did not significantly alter dopamine turnover. All three doses accelerated dopamine turnover in the neostriatum. Naloxone effectively reversed the effects of morphine at all doses in all brain areas, whereas it had no effect on turnover when given alone. In the median eminence, neostriatum, and frontal cortex, intraventricular injection of [D-Ala2,D-Leu5]-enkephalin (25 micrograms) or beta-endorphin (15 micrograms) produced the same effects on dopamine turnover as morphine. The actions of these peptides were blocked by naloxone. It is hypothesized that opiates and opioid peptides increase prolactin release by reducing the activity of the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic system. PMID:288082

  16. Biomechanical evaluation of tibial eminence fractures using suture fixation.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Stephen K; Curtis, Stuart H

    2011-12-06

    This study evaluates the initial fixation strength of tibial eminence fracture repair using 1, 2, 3, and 4 sutures to determine the optimal number of sutures required to adequately secure the avulsed fragment to the tibia. Sixteen skeletally immature porcine knees were stripped of all soft tissues, isolating the femur-anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-tibia complex. Type III tibial eminence fractures were simulated in the specimens, and each specimen was randomly assigned to a repair group using 1, 2, 3, or 4 #2 FiberWire sutures (Arthrex, Inc, Naples, Florida). Initial fixation strength of the repair was measured by single cycle pull to failure testing using a materials testing machine (Instron, Norwood, Massachusetts). The mean ultimate failure force during anterior tibial translation was 389±128, 627±66, 703±77, and 802±29 N for 1, 2, 3, and 4 sutures, respectively. The lower limit of the 95% confidence interval was >500 N (estimated force of native ACL during activities of daily living) for each group with ≥2 sutures. In this study, at least 2 high-strength sutures were needed for tibial eminence fracture repairs to withstand potential forces seen across the ACL in the postoperative period. Suture fixation of tibial eminence fractures is a reproducible method requiring a minimum of 2 high-strength polyester sutures to resist forces seen during early rehabilitation.

  17. [Eugenics, an element of the literary plots of dystopia].

    PubMed

    Baum, Ewa; Musielak, Michał

    2007-01-01

    The work presents the ideas and assumptions of eugenics, a social philosophy established in 1883 by Francis Galton, which affected the social policies of numerous European countries in the first half of the 20th century. The work shows the effect of eugenics on the literary standards of European prose in the previous century. Two outstanding dystopian novels of the 20th century, The Brave New World by Aldous Huxley and 1984 by George Orwell, situate eugenics as a permanent element of the literary plot of dystopia. Apart from the typical features of this type of novel, for example: personal narration with a trace of irony, a totalitarian state and Newspeak, eugenics is an important element of the literary plot with is aim to exclude and marginalise certain social groups. Eugenics is also one of the main social ideas criticised by both the writers.

  18. [Eugen Bleulers propositions to psychiatric treatment].

    PubMed

    Möller, A; Scharfetter, Ch

    2002-04-01

    The historical review of Eugen Bleulers concepts and proposals to treatment in psychiatry, generally and especially for schizophrenia, covers the years between his inaugural lecture 1898 as professor of psychiatry at the University of Zurich to his last edition of his textbook 1937. Already at the beginning of his career as professor in Zurich, he had a very intimate knowledge of psychiatric patients from his 12 years as director of the Mental Hospital Rheinau (near Zurich) where he lived as a bachelor with his patients in the same building. In his inaugural lecture, Bleuler already discussed very practical problems of psychiatric service. e.g. work, employment, marriage, situation in patient's family, housing, occupational therapy etc. Working in the group of other patients should help to re-establish the relationship to the common reality and the society. Psychotherapy for schizophrenics was mentioned in 1911 as the only serious therapy, but was not further elaborated. In 1939, Bleuler was much more sceptical concerning the realistic possibilities of an efficient psychotherapy of schizophrenia. Psychoanalysis would only allow a psychological understanding of some symptoms in schizophrenia but would be unable to contribute to a theory of the underlying pathogenesis. In his view, schizophrenia has its own inherent development. This resignation concerning constructive and efficient therapy dominates his confession even in his last lecture when retiring 1927. Considering the paucity of therapeutic possibilities, Bleuler underlined the importance of prophylactic eugenic strategies.

  19. Eugenics talk” and the language of bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, S

    2008-01-01

    In bioethical discussions of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and prenatal screening, accusations of eugenics are commonplace, as are counter-claims that talk of eugenics is misleading and unhelpful. This paper asks whether “eugenics talk”, in this context, is legitimate and useful or something to be avoided. It also looks at the extent to which this linguistic question can be answered without first answering relevant substantive moral questions. Its main conclusion is that the best and most non-partisan argument for avoiding eugenics talk is the Autonomy Argument. According to this, eugenics talk per se is not wrong, but there is something wrong with using its emotive power as a means of circumventing people’s critical–rational faculties. The Autonomy Argument does not, however, tell against eugenics talk when such language is used to shock people into critical–rational thought. These conclusions do not depend on unique features of eugenics: similar considerations apply to emotive language throughout bioethics. PMID:18511622

  20. Artificial insemination and eugenics: celibate motherhood, eutelegenesis and germinal choice.

    PubMed

    Richards, Martin

    2008-06-01

    This paper traces the history of artificial insemination by selected donors (AID) as a strategy for positive eugenic improvement. While medical artificial insemination has a longer history, its use as a eugenic strategy was first mooted in late nineteenth-century France. It was then developed as 'scientific motherhood' for war widows and those without partners by Marion Louisa Piddington in Australia following the Great War. By the 1930s AID was being more widely used clinically in Britain (and elsewhere) as a medical solution to male infertility for married couples. In 1935 English postal clerk, Herbert Brewer, promoted AID (eutelegenesis) as the socialization of the germ plasm in a eugenic scheme. The next year Hermann Muller, American Drosophila geneticist and eugenicist, presented his plan for human improvement by AID to Stalin. Some twenty years later, Muller, together with Robert Klark Graham, began planning a Foundation for Germinal Choice in California. This was finally opened in 1980 as the first practical experiment in eugenic AID, producing some 215 babies over the twenty years it functioned. While AID appeared to be a means of squaring a eugenic circle by separating paternity from love relationships, and so allowing eugenic improvement without inhibiting individual choice in marriage, it found very little favour with those who might use it, not least because of a couple's desire to have their 'own' children has always seemed stronger than any eugenic aspirations. No state has ever contemplated using AID as a social policy.

  1. Eugen Bleuler's schizophrenia—a modern perspective

    PubMed Central

    Maatz, Anke; Hoff, Paul; Angst, Jules

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of the term and concept schizophrenia earned its inventor, Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler, worldwide fame. Prompted by the rejection of the main principle of Kraepelinian nosology, namely prognosis, Bleuler's belief in the clinical unity of what Kraepelin had described as dementia praecox required him to search for alternative characterizing features that would allow scientific description and classification. This led him to consider psychological, and to a lesser degree, social factors alongside an assumed underlying neurobiological disease process as constitutive of what he then termed schizophrenia, thus making him an early proponent of a bio-psycho-social understanding of mental illness. Reviewing Bleuler's conception of schizophrenia against the background of his overall clinical and theoretical work, this paper provides a critical overview of Bleuler's key nosological principles and links his work with present-day debates about naturalism, essentialism, and stigma. PMID:25987862

  2. Eugen Bleuler's schizophrenia--a modern perspective.

    PubMed

    Maatz, Anke; Hoff, Paul; Angst, Jules

    2015-03-01

    The introduction of the term and concept schizophrenia earned its inventor, Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler, worldwide fame. Prompted by the rejection of the main principle of Kraepelinian nosology, namely prognosis, Bleuler's belief in the clinical unity of what Kraepelin had described as dementia praecox required him to search for alternative characterizing features that would allow scientific description and classification. This led him to consider psychological, and to a lesser degree, social factors alongside an assumed underlying neurobiological disease process as constitutive of what he then termed schizophrenia, thus making him an early proponent of a bio-psycho-social understanding of mental illness. Reviewing Bleuler's conception of schizophrenia against the background of his overall clinical and theoretical work, this paper provides a critical overview of Bleuler's key nosological principles and links his work with present-day debates about naturalism, essentialism, and stigma.

  3. [UNESCO's bioethical norms to avoid eugenic practices].

    PubMed

    Cruz-Coke, R

    2000-06-01

    The author, member of the UNESCO Bioethics Committee, participated in the preparation of the Universal Declaration about Human Genome and Human Rights, in 1997. The aim of this work is to analyze the initial articles of such Declaration, defining the bioethical principles that defend human dignity, freedom and rights, against the madness of the present biotechnological revolution. The development of genetics for the benefit of mankind will be guaranteed if these principles are honored. Genetic discrimination, reductionism and determinism, are identified by the author as perversions that, if used by biotechnologists, can lead to the rebirth of eugenism and racism, that were condemned by the Code of Nuremberg, in 1947. Investigators must assume their responsibility, respecting the principles of human dignity, the real freedom of research and solidarity among people. This attitude will avoid the use of genetics for purposes other than the welfare of mankind.

  4. [Beyond eugenics: posthumanism as Homo patiens denials].

    PubMed

    Ballesteros Llompart, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Throughout history there have been attempts to overcome human limitations by means of technique. The novelty of the 20th century has been to try to extirpate all the faults, the suffering, the disease, and even the death. This power has been attributed successively to machines (the futurism), to the genetic information (the eugenism) and to the electronic information (the posthumanism). In all cases, it's unknown the distinction between inevitable faults, ontological deficiencies, as the reality of death, and avoidable ones, sociological deficiencies, as the deaths due to circumstances as lack of drinkable water, of medicaments, wars or any other type of violence. The due way of confronting the human faults is to try to eradicate their avoidable causes and at the same time to understand the sense of those that cannot be avoided, as occasion of the self-overcoming and the opening to the Transcendence.

  5. Reusable space systems (Eugen Saenger Lecture, 1987)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    The history and current status of reusable launch vehicle (RLV) development are surveyed, with emphases on the contributions of Eugen Saenger and ongoing NASA projects. Topics addressed include the capabilities and achievements of the Space Shuttle, the need to maintain a fleet with both ELVs and RLVs to meet different mission requirements, the X-30 testbed aircraft for the National Aerospace Plane program, current design concepts for Shuttle II (a 1000-ton fully reusable two-stage rocket-powered spacecraft capable of carrying 11,000 kg to Space Station orbit), proposals for dual-fuel-propulsion SSTO RLVs, and the Space Station Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and Orbital Transfer Vehicle. The importance of RLVs and of international cooperation in establishing the LEO infrastructure needed for planetary exploration missions is stressed.

  6. Reusable space systems (Eugen Saenger Lecture, 1987)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    The history and current status of reusable launch vehicle (RLV) development are surveyed, with emphases on the contributions of Eugen Saenger and ongoing NASA projects. Topics addressed include the capabilities and achievements of the Space Shuttle, the need to maintain a fleet with both ELVs and RLVs to meet different mission requirements, the X-30 testbed aircraft for the National Aerospace Plane program, current design concepts for Shuttle II (a 1000-ton fully reusable two-stage rocket-powered spacecraft capable of carrying 11,000 kg to Space Station orbit), proposals for dual-fuel-propulsion SSTO RLVs, and the Space Station Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and Orbital Transfer Vehicle. The importance of RLVs and of international cooperation in establishing the LEO infrastructure needed for planetary exploration missions is stressed.

  7. [Eugen Bleuler (1857-1939) and psychoanalysis].

    PubMed

    De Ridder, H; Corveleyn, J

    1992-01-01

    The relationship of Eugen Bleuler with psychoanalysis can be characterized as a history of overture and distance. In previous literature this relationship has been mainly studied from a historical and biographical point of view. In this article the authors review the history of Bleuler's attitude toward psychoanalysis from an ideengeschichtlich point of view. They distinguish and argue three periods. 1896-1906: the initial period was one of overt appreciation and positive rapprochement; 1906-1911: Bleulers initial positive attitude is more and more thwarted by fundamental theoretical disagreement and by his opposition against Freud's group building strategy; from 1912 on, Bleuler clearly dissociates himself from psychoanalytic theory and movement. An interpretation of this evolution is given in terms of personal and above all of theoretical incompatibility.

  8. "Shrill Squawk" or Strategic Innovation: A Rhetorical Reassessment of Margaret Sanger's "Woman Rebel."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuklanz, Lisa M.

    1995-01-01

    Critiques prior scholarship that argues Margaret Sanger's magazine "The Woman Rebel" was a failure. Argues that it was a strategic and rhetorical success, offering a coherent description of what is now socialist feminism, and addressing its primary audience of working-class women primarily through simplistic moral reasoning and…

  9. A comprehensive transcriptome assembly of pigeonpea (Cajanauscajan L.) using sanger and second-generation sequencing platforms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A comprehensive transcriptome assembly for pigeonpea has been developed by analyzing 128.9 million short Illumina GA IIx single end reads, 2.19 million single end FLX/454 reads, and 18,353 Sanger expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) from more than 16 genotypes. The resultant transcriptome assembly, refer...

  10. "Shrill Squawk" or Strategic Innovation: A Rhetorical Reassessment of Margaret Sanger's "Woman Rebel."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuklanz, Lisa M.

    1995-01-01

    Critiques prior scholarship that argues Margaret Sanger's magazine "The Woman Rebel" was a failure. Argues that it was a strategic and rhetorical success, offering a coherent description of what is now socialist feminism, and addressing its primary audience of working-class women primarily through simplistic moral reasoning and…

  11. The utility of direct specimen detection by Sanger sequencing in hospitalized pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Mongkolrattanothai, Kanokporn; Dien Bard, Jennifer

    2017-02-01

    Direct microbial DNA detection from clinical specimens by polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing has been developed to address the innate limitations of traditional culture-based work-up. We report our institution's experience with direct specimen sequencing, its clinical utility, and barriers to effective clinical implementation.

  12. 8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, OF MUSEUM GALLERY WITH EUGENE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, OF MUSEUM GALLERY WITH EUGENE ALLEN SMITH'S VEHICLE WITH WHICH HE AS STATE GEOLOGIST (FROM 1873 TO 1927) CONDUCTED SURVEYS OF DISTRICT MINERAL RESOURCES - Smith Hall, Capstone Drive at Sixth Avenue, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  13. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer, September, 1961 NORTHEAST ELEVATION (WITH MEMORIAL TOMB). - Church of the Immaculate Conception, Twelfth & Jefferson Streets, Brownsville, Cameron County, TX

  14. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer, September, 1961 EXTERIOR DETAILS OF EAST TRANSEPT. - Church of the Immaculate Conception, Twelfth & Jefferson Streets, Brownsville, Cameron County, TX

  15. Eugenics without the state: anarchism in Catalonia, 1900-1937.

    PubMed

    Cleminson, Richard

    2008-06-01

    Current historiography has considered eugenics to be an emanation from state structures or a movement which sought to appeal to the state in order to implement eugenic reform. This paper examines the limitations of that view and argues that it is necessary to expand our horizons to consider particularly working-class eugenics movements that were based on the dissemination of knowledge about sex and which did not aspire to positions of political power. The paper argues that anarchism, with its contradictory practice afforded by the convulsive social situation of the Civil War in Spain, allows us to assess critically the parameters of the social action of eugenics, its many alliances, and its struggle for existence in changing political circumstances not of its own making.

  16. Assisted procreation and its relationship to genetics and eugenics.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Mariella Lombardi

    2009-01-01

    The article below is intended to reflect on whether or not a eugenic tendency constitutes an intrinsic element of human fertilization in vitro. The author outlines ideas and circumstances which characterized the foundation and propagation of eugenics between the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. A brief discussion follows on some of the standard procedures of in vitro fertilization, and in particular, those which manifest a trace or hint of eugenics--heterologous fertilization and sperm banking, preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and embryo selection--practices which, nonetheless, are used on a large scale and shed light on both the essence of procreative medicine and on the current cultural environment. The objective of the article is to explore whether it is possible to eliminate the eugenic connotations without foregoing the benefits of technical and scientific progress.

  17. Eugenics in Buenos Aires: discourses, practices, and historiography.

    PubMed

    Armus, Diego

    2016-12-01

    Since the early 1990s, a series of studies underscored the overwhelming presence of positive eugenics in modern Argentina. These works emphasized the marginal role which discourse on eugenics took on violent methods for selection. In recent years, this point of view has shifted, emphasizing the conceptual viscosity of eugenics as well as the presence of negative eugenic discourses. This paper discusses these historiographic trends, and also dwells on the narratives that those perspectives articulated in relation to the question of sterilization and regulation of marriage of those who had tuberculosis in Buenos Aires during the first half of the twentieth century. This example stresses the need to examine discourse as well as practices in understanding and making sense of the past.

  18. What Was Wrong with Eugenics? Conflicting Narratives and Disputed Interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Diane B.

    2012-11-01

    Although it is often taken for granted that eugenics is odious, exactly what makes it so is far from obvious. The existence of considerable interpretative flexibility is evident in the disparate policy lessons for contemporary reproductive genetics (or "reprogenetics") that have been derived from essentially the same set of historical facts. In this paper, I will show how different—indeed, diametrically-opposed—morals have been drawn from the history of eugenics and link these contrasting messages both to different underlying conceptions of what constitutes the central wrong of eugenics and differing degrees of enthusiasm for reprogenetic technologies. I will then argue that, for several reasons, the history of eugenics simply cannot provide the kind of direct guidance that many participants in current debates would like. Although the history does have implications for policy, the insights to be gleaned are both subtle and indirect.

  19. Deep sequencing increases hepatitis C virus phylogenetic cluster detection compared to Sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Vincent; Olmstead, Andrea; Tang, Patrick; Cook, Darrel; Janjua, Naveed; Grebely, Jason; Jacka, Brendan; Poon, Art F Y; Krajden, Mel

    2016-09-01

    Effective surveillance and treatment strategies are required to control the hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic. Phylogenetic analyses are powerful tools for reconstructing the evolutionary history of viral outbreaks and identifying transmission clusters. These studies often rely on Sanger sequencing which typically generates a single consensus sequence for each infected individual. For rapidly mutating viruses such as HCV, consensus sequencing underestimates the complexity of the viral quasispecies population and could therefore generate different phylogenetic tree topologies. Although deep sequencing provides a more detailed quasispecies characterization, in-depth phylogenetic analyses are challenging due to dataset complexity and computational limitations. Here, we apply deep sequencing to a characterized population to assess its ability to identify phylogenetic clusters compared with consensus Sanger sequencing. For deep sequencing, a sample specific threshold determined by the 50th percentile of the patristic distance distribution for all variants within each individual was used to identify clusters. Among seven patristic distance thresholds tested for the Sanger sequence phylogeny ranging from 0.005-0.06, a threshold of 0.03 was found to provide the maximum balance between positive agreement (samples in a cluster) and negative agreement (samples not in a cluster) relative to the deep sequencing dataset. From 77 HCV seroconverters, 10 individuals were identified in phylogenetic clusters using both methods. Deep sequencing analysis identified an additional 4 individuals and excluded 8 other individuals relative to Sanger sequencing. The application of this deep sequencing approach could be a more effective tool to understand onward HCV transmission dynamics compared with Sanger sequencing, since the incorporation of minority sequence variants improves the discrimination of phylogenetically linked clusters.

  20. The Antibody Genetics of Multiple Sclerosis: Comparing Next-Generation Sequencing to Sanger Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Rounds, William H.; Ligocki, Ann J.; Levin, Mikhail K.; Greenberg, Benjamin M.; Bigwood, Douglas W.; Eastman, Eric M.; Cowell, Lindsay G.; Monson, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    We previously identified a distinct mutation pattern in the antibody genes of B cells isolated from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that can identify patients who have relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and patients with clinically isolated syndromes who will convert to RRMS. This antibody gene signature (AGS) was developed using Sanger sequencing of single B cells. While potentially helpful to patients, Sanger sequencing is not an assay that can be practically deployed in clinical settings. In order to provide AGS evaluations to patients as part of their diagnostic workup, we developed protocols to generate AGS scores using next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) on CSF-derived cell pellets without the need to isolate single cells. This approach has the potential to increase the coverage of the B-cell population being analyzed, reduce the time needed to generate AGS scores, and may improve the overall performance of the AGS approach as a diagnostic test in the future. However, no investigations have focused on whether NGS-based repertoires will properly reflect antibody gene frequencies and somatic hypermutation patterns defined by Sanger sequencing. To address this issue, we isolated paired CSF samples from eight patients who either had MS or were at risk to develop MS. Here, we present data that antibody gene frequencies and somatic hypermutation patterns are similar in Sanger and NGS-based antibody repertoires from these paired CSF samples. In addition, AGS scores derived from the NGS database correctly identified the patients who initially had or subsequently converted to RRMS, with precision similar to that of the Sanger sequencing approach. Further investigation of the utility of the AGS in predicting conversion to MS using NGS-derived antibody repertoires in a larger cohort of patients is warranted. PMID:25278930

  1. Eugenics in Japan: some ironies of modernity, 1883-1945.

    PubMed

    Otsubo, S; Bartholomew, J R

    1998-01-01

    Japanese eugenic discourse and institution building contrast sharply with comparable movements elsewhere. As a social-intellectual phenomenon, Anglo-American eugenics considered the Japanese racially inferior to Western peoples; yet eugenic ideals and policies achieved a remarkable popularity in Japan. Most of mainstream Japanese genetics was derived from orthodox Mendelian roots in Germany and (to a lesser degree) the United States. But French-style Lamarckian notions of the inheritability of acquired characters held surprising popularity among enthusiasts of eugenics. Japanese eugenicists could condemn the actions of foreign eugenicists like Charles Davenport in the United States for their efforts to forbid Japanese immigration in the 1920s, yet appeal to these same eugenicists as a source of legitimacy in Japan. These paradoxes can partly be explained against a background of relative isolation in a period of profound social change. Few Japanese eugenicists had close personal contact with foreign eugenicists, and most of their knowledge was acquired through reading rather than direct exposure. The eugenic ideal of ethnic purity was attractive to a society long accustomed to monoracial self-imagery. The need to defend national independence in an era of high imperialism seemed to require the most up-to-date policies and ideas. And Japan's own acquisition of an overseas empire seemed to demand a population management philosophy ostensibly based on scientific principles. These and other forces supported the implementation of eugenic policies and prescriptions among the Japanese people in the first half of the twentieth century.

  2. EUGENE'HOM: A generic similarity-based gene finder using multiple homologous sequences.

    PubMed

    Foissac, Sylvain; Bardou, Philippe; Moisan, Annick; Cros, Marie-Josée; Schiex, Thomas

    2003-07-01

    EUGENE'HOM is a gene prediction software for eukaryotic organisms based on comparative analysis. EUGENE'HOM is able to take into account multiple homologous sequences from more or less closely related organisms. It integrates the results of TBLASTX analysis, splice site and start codon prediction and a robust coding/non-coding probabilistic model which allows EUGENE'HOM to handle sequences from a variety of organisms. The current target of EUGENE'HOM is plant sequences. The EUGENE'HOM web site is available at http://genopole.toulouse.inra.fr/bioinfo/eugene/EuGeneHom/cgi-bin/EuGeneHom.pl.

  3. Eugene Wigner and Symmetries In Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshinsky, Marcos

    2002-04-01

    Concepts of symmetry in physics have had a long history, particularly if they are of a geometric or crystallographic origin, yet in classical physics they had a somewhat esoteric position. This situation changed radically when in the XX Century we passed from classical to quantum mechanics. In the former a state for a system of particles was given by a number of points in phase space and the transformation groups related with symmetries mainly gave the invariance of concepts such as energy or angular momentum. In the latter the state is characterized by a vector in Hilbert space in which the transformations had a representation. Eugene Wigner was the right man (for his mathematical ability and physical intuition) at the right place and time (Germany, in the twenties) to take full advantage of this new situation. His first interest was atomic spectroscopy (then a very active field) and the fact that its basic states were related with irreducible representation of the orthogonal group in three dimensions O(3). The German version of his book on ``Group theory and Application" published in 1931 established, as he quotes ``that almost all rules of spectroscopy follow from the symmetry of the problem". His later extension to the direct product of two or more representations led to his development of the 3-j symbol, that he explicitly derived, and his interest in the properties of 6-j, 9-j, etc. His awareness of the time inversion as an antiunitary operator, and the analysis of its combination with the unitary representations of other symmetries, proved fundamental for deriving the features of time reversed reactions from their direct behavior. His interest in space reflection and the concept of parity led to important selection rules, and was of relevance even in weak interactions where parity is not a good symmetry. His later interest in nuclear physics, solid state, elementary particles etc., was almost never without a component of the role of symmetry in these

  4. Reflections on the Historiography of American Eugenics: Trends, Fractures, Tensions.

    PubMed

    Paul, Diane B

    2016-12-01

    By the 1950s, eugenics had lost its scientific status; it now belonged to the context rather than to the content of science. Interest in the subject was also at low ebb. But that situation would soon change dramatically. Indeed, in an essay-review published in 1993, Philip Pauly commented that a "eugenics industry" had come to rival the "Darwin industry" in importance, although the former seemed less integrated than the latter. Since then, the pace of publication on eugenics, including American eugenics, has only accelerated, while the field has become even more fractured, moving in multiple and even contradictory directions. This essay explores the trajectory of work on the history of American eugenics since interest in the subject revived in the 1960s, noting trends and also fractures. The latter are seen to result partly from the fact that professional historians no longer own the subject, which has attracted the interest of scholars in several other disciplines as well as scientists, political activists, and journalists, and also from the fact that the history of eugenics has almost always been policy-oriented. Historians' desire to be policy-relevant and at the same time attentive to context, complexity, and contingency has generated tensions at several levels: within individuals, among historians, and between professional historians and others who also engage with the history of eugenics. That these tensions are resolved differently by different authors and even by the same authors at different times helps explain why the fragmentation that Pauly noted is not likely to be overcome anytime soon.

  5. Beyondism: Raymond B. Cattell and the new eugenics.

    PubMed

    Mehler, B

    1997-01-01

    A significant confusion has arisen out of the mass of work done on the history of eugenics in the last two decades. Early scholars of the subject treated eugenics as a marginalized or obsolete movement of the radical right. Subsequent research has shown that eugenic ideas were adopted in diverse national settings by very different groups, including--among others--liberals, communists and Catholics, as well as radical rightists. This complexity is sometimes taken to mean that eugenic has no special ideological associations, that it is historically and potentially a beast of a thousand heads. It is not. Although people of varied ideological commitments have been attracted to eugenics, ideologues of the radical right, and above all interwar fascists, have been uniquely and centrally involved in its development. Fascism and the radical right are also complex entities, but for all the heterogeneity of both eugenics and fascism, the special historical relationship between the two cannot be ignored. This relationship is exemplified in the work of the influential psychologist, Raymond B. Cattell. Cattell was an early supporter of German national socialism and his work should be understood in the context of interwar fascism. The new religious movement that he founded, 'Beyondism', is a neo-fascist contrivance. Cattell now promulgates ideas that he formulated within a demimonde of radical eugenists and neo-fascists that includes such as associates as Revilo Oliver, Roger Pearson, Wilmot Robertson and Robert K. Graham. These ideas and Cattell's role in the history of eugenics deserve deeper analysis than they have hitherto received. Far from being of merely antiquarian interest, his work currently encourages the propagation of radical eugenist ideology. It is unconscionable for scholars to permit these ideas to go unchallenged, and indeed honored and emulated by a new generation of ideologues and academicians whose work helps to dignify the most destructive political ideas of

  6. Online Diagnosis System: a webserver for analysis of Sanger sequencing-based genetic testing data.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kun; Yuen, Yuet-Ping; Wang, Huating; Sun, Hao

    2014-10-01

    Sanger sequencing is a well-established molecular technique for diagnosis of genetic diseases. In these tests, DNA sequencers produce vast amounts of data that need to be examined and annotated within a short period of time. To achieve this goal, an online bioinformatics platform that can automate the process is essential. However, to date, there is no such integrated bioinformatics platform available. To fulfill this gap, we developed the Online Diagnosis System (ODS), which is a freely available webserver and supports the commonly used file format of Sanger sequencing data. ODS seamlessly integrates base calling, single nucleotide variation (SNV) identification, and SNV annotation into one single platform. It also allows laboratorians to manually inspect the quality of the identified SNVs in the final report. ODS can significantly reduce the data analysis time therefore allows Sanger sequencing-based genetic testing to be finished in a timely manner. ODS is freely available at http://sunlab.lihs.cuhk.edu.hk/ODS/. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Testing and Militarization of K-12 Education: Eugenic Assault on Urban School Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartlep, Nicholas Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to discuss eugenics in education and how this eugenic legacy continues to haunt American schooling and nonwhite students. Eugenic praxes and pedagogy continue to proliferate inside the American school systems' teachers may be unaware that they are teaching in such a way that maintains this ethos. This paper and seminar's…

  8. Eugen Goldstein and his Laboratory Work at the Berlin Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedenus, Michael

    At the end of the 19th century the astronomer and director of the Berlin Observatory, Wilhelm Foerster, started an extraordinary research project: He asked the physicist Eugen Goldstein to examine the nature of electricity in space experimentally. Eugen Goldstein (1850-1930) was one of the most deserving pioneers in the field of electricity, e. g. he discovered the canal rays and he introduced the term ``cathode ray''. He became assistent at the Berlin Observatory and his official duty was the research on relations between electricity and cosmic phenomena. As a result Goldstein successfully reproduced comet tails in gas discharge tubes. My speech is about the biography of Eugen Goldstein and his work at the Berlin Observatory. I will discuss some of his experiments and show a reproduction of his artificial comet tails.

  9. The sex reform movement and eugenics in interwar Poland.

    PubMed

    Gawin, Magdalena

    2008-06-01

    This paper focuses on the relations between a liberal group of sex reformers, consisting of writers and literary critics, and physicians from the Polish Eugenics Society in interwar Poland. It illustrates the paradoxes of the mutual co-operation between these two groups during the 1930s and analyses the reason why compulsory sterilisation was rejected by politicians. From the early 1930s two movements began to forge an alliance in Poland: the sexual reform movement which advocated freedom of the individual, and eugenics, which called for limiting the freedom of the individual for the collective good. This paper draws attention to several issues which emerged as part of this collaboration: population politics, the relationship between reformers, eugenicists and state institutions, and the question of how both movements--eugenics and sexual reform--perceived the question of sexuality, birth control and abortion. It will also focus on those aspects of their thinking that led to mutual co-operation.

  10. Eugenics, genetics, and mental illness stigma in Chinese Americans

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lawrence H.; Link, Bruce G.; Phelan, Jo C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The increasing interest in the genetic causes of mental disorders may exacerbate existing stigma if negative beliefs about a genetic illness are generally accepted. China’s history of policy-level eugenics and genetic discrimination in the workplace suggests that Chinese communities will view genetic mental illness less favorably than mental illness with non-genetic causes. The aim of this study is to identify differences between Chinese Americans and European Americans in eugenic beliefs and stigma toward people with genetic mental illness. Methods We utilized data from a 2003 national telephone survey designed to measure how public perceptions of mental illness differ if the illness is described as genetic. The Chinese American (n = 42) and European American (n = 428) subsamples were analyzed to compare their support of eugenic belief items and measures of stigma. Results Chinese Americans endorsed all four eugenic statements more strongly than European Americans. Ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between genetic attribution and three out of five stigma outcomes; however, genetic attribution actually appeared to be de-stigmatizing for Chinese Americans while it increased stigma or made no difference for European Americans. Conclusions Our findings show that while Chinese Americans hold more eugenic beliefs than European Americans, these attributions do not have the same effect on stigma as they do in Western cultures. These results suggest that future anti-stigma efforts must focus on eugenic attitudes as well as cultural beliefs for Chinese Americans, and that the effects of genetic attributions for mental illness should be examined relative to other social, moral, and religious attributions common in Chinese culture. PMID:21079911

  11. Eugenics, genetics, and mental illness stigma in Chinese Americans.

    PubMed

    WonPat-Borja, Ahtoy J; Yang, Lawrence H; Link, Bruce G; Phelan, Jo C

    2012-01-01

    The increasing interest in the genetic causes of mental disorders may exacerbate existing stigma if negative beliefs about a genetic illness are generally accepted. China's history of policy-level eugenics and genetic discrimination in the workplace suggests that Chinese communities will view genetic mental illness less favorably than mental illness with non-genetic causes. The aim of this study is to identify differences between Chinese Americans and European Americans in eugenic beliefs and stigma toward people with genetic mental illness. We utilized data from a 2003 national telephone survey designed to measure how public perceptions of mental illness differ if the illness is described as genetic. The Chinese American (n = 42) and European American (n = 428) subsamples were analyzed to compare their support of eugenic belief items and measures of stigma. Chinese Americans endorsed all four eugenic statements more strongly than European Americans. Ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between genetic attribution and three out of five stigma outcomes; however, genetic attribution actually appeared to be de-stigmatizing for Chinese Americans while it increased stigma or made no difference for European Americans. Our findings show that while Chinese Americans hold more eugenic beliefs than European Americans, these attributions do not have the same effect on stigma as they do in Western cultures. These results suggest that future anti-stigma efforts must focus on eugenic attitudes as well as cultural beliefs for Chinese Americans, and that the effects of genetic attributions for mental illness should be examined relative to other social, moral, and religious attributions common in Chinese culture.

  12. Designing a brave new world: eugenics, politics, and fiction.

    PubMed

    Woiak, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    Aldous Huxley composed Brave New World in the context of the Depression and the eugenics movement in Britain. Today his novel is best known as satirical and predictive, but an additional interpretation emerges from Huxley's nonfiction writings in which the liberal hurmanist expressed some surprising opinions about eugenics, citizenship, and meritocracy. He felt that his role as an artist and public intellectual was to formulate an evolving outlook on urgent social, scientific, and moral issues. His brave new world can therefore be understood as a serious design for social reform, as well as a commentary about the social uses of scientific knowledge.

  13. Eugen Goldstein and his laboratory work at Berlin Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedenus, M.

    2002-07-01

    At the end of the 19th century, the astronomer Wilhelm Foerster, director of Berlin Observatory, initiated an extraordinary research project: He asked the physicist Eugen Goldstein to examine experimentally the nature of electricity in space. Eugen Goldstein (1850-1930) was one of the most deserving pioneers in the field of electricity. He discovered, e.g., the canal rays, and he introduced the term cathode ray. He became assistent at Berlin Observatory, and his official duty was the research on relations between electricity and cosmic phenomena. As a result, Goldstein successfully reproduced comet tails in gas discharge tubes.

  14. Eminent Astronomers - Odessa University Graduates - In European Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volyanskaya, M. Yu.

    1998-09-01

    A brief description of scientific activity of some eminent astronomers - graduates of the Odessa University named after I.I. Mechnikov (earlier - Novorossiiski University) in European astronomy is given: * Stratonov V.V. (1869-1938), professor, wellknown specialist in stellar astronomy, who was exiled abroad in 1992 among many scientists and writers, lived in Germany and Prague, where died; * Gansky A.P. (1870-1908) - famous investagator of the Sun, worked at the Meudon Observatory, ascended 9 times to Mount Blanc to make observations, was awarded by P.Z.C. Jansen medal of the Paris Academy of Sciences; * Donitch N.N. (1874-1956) - wellknown investigator of the Solar system, one of the first Romanian astronomers, a brilliant personality of the astronomical community of his time, a honorary member of the Romanian Academy of Sciences, died in Nice (France); * Zalesky Bogdan (1887-1927), specialist in astrometry, which became a wellknown astronomer in Poland. One of the founders and the first director of the University Observatory in Poznan; * Witkowsky Josef (1892- 1976) - specialist in astrometry, practical astronomy, and tidal phenomena studies, history of astronomy. Professor, Director of the Astronomical Centre in Poznan; *Stoiko N.M. ((1894-1976) - investigator of the irregularities of the Earth's rotation, the Earth's poles motions and the universal time determination. A member of many scientific societies. He was awarded by prizes of the Paris Academy of Sciences, of the French astronomical society, of the Royal Academy of Belgium. He worked at the Paris Observatory and was one of the Directors of the International Time Service; * Jardecky (Zhardecky) Vietcheslaw (1896-1962), worked at the Department of Mathematics of the Beograd University; eminent specialist in the field of Mechanics of Fluids; After the Second World War he emmigrated to the USA, Professor of Geophysics at the Columbia Univeristy (New York), where died.

  15. Development of the stapedius muscle and pyramidal eminence in humans

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, J F

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to systematize the key developmental phases of the stapedius muscle and the pyramidal eminence to clarify their formation, as well as to understand the variations and anomalies that can affect these structures. Sixty human embryos and fetuses between 38 days and 17 weeks of development were studied. The stapedius muscle is formed by two anlagen, one for the tendon, which derives from the internal segment of the interhyale, and another for the belly, located in the second pharyngeal arch medial to the facial nerve and near the interhyale but forming a completely independent anlage. In the interhyale, two segments were differentiated, these forming an angle; at the vertex, the belly of the stapedius muscle is attached. The internal segment is located from the attachment of the belly of the stapedius muscle to the anlage of the stapes, forming the anlage of the tendon of the stapedius muscle. The external segment completely disappears at the beginning of the fetal period. The pyramidal eminence is formed by an anlage independent of Reichert’s cartilage, from the mesenchymal tissue of the tympanic cavity, which condenses around the belly of the stapedius muscle from 12 weeks of post-conception development. The length of the tendon of the stapedius muscle in adults varies, depending on the attachment site of the belly of the stapedius muscle in the interhyale, which would determine the length of the internal segment (anlage of the tendon) and consequently the tendon length. This variation depends on the greater or lesser persistence of the angulation observed during development, between the tendon and the belly of the stapedius muscle. PMID:19531086

  16. Development of the stapedius muscle and pyramidal eminence in humans.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, J F

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the study was to systematize the key developmental phases of the stapedius muscle and the pyramidal eminence to clarify their formation, as well as to understand the variations and anomalies that can affect these structures. Sixty human embryos and fetuses between 38 days and 17 weeks of development were studied. The stapedius muscle is formed by two anlagen, one for the tendon, which derives from the internal segment of the interhyale, and another for the belly, located in the second pharyngeal arch medial to the facial nerve and near the interhyale but forming a completely independent anlage. In the interhyale, two segments were differentiated, these forming an angle; at the vertex, the belly of the stapedius muscle is attached. The internal segment is located from the attachment of the belly of the stapedius muscle to the anlage of the stapes, forming the anlage of the tendon of the stapedius muscle. The external segment completely disappears at the beginning of the fetal period. The pyramidal eminence is formed by an anlage independent of Reichert's cartilage, from the mesenchymal tissue of the tympanic cavity, which condenses around the belly of the stapedius muscle from 12 weeks of post-conception development. The length of the tendon of the stapedius muscle in adults varies, depending on the attachment site of the belly of the stapedius muscle in the interhyale, which would determine the length of the internal segment (anlage of the tendon) and consequently the tendon length. This variation depends on the greater or lesser persistence of the angulation observed during development, between the tendon and the belly of the stapedius muscle.

  17. Modeling the biomechanics of articular eminence function in anthropoid primates.

    PubMed

    Terhune, Claire E

    2011-11-01

    One of the most prominent features of the cranial component of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is the articular eminence (AE). This bar of bone is the primary surface upon which the condyle translates and rotates during movements of the mandible, and is therefore the primary point at which forces are transmitted from the mandible to the cranium during loading of the masticatory apparatus. The shape of the AE is highly variable across primates, and the raised eminence of humans has often been considered a defining feature of the human TMJ, yet few data exist to address whether this variation is functionally significant. This study used a broad interspecific sample of anthropoid primates to elaborate upon and test the predictions of a previously proposed model of AE function. This model suggests that AE inclination acts to resist non-normal forces at the TMJ, thereby maximizing bite forces (BFs). AE inclination was predicted to covary with two specific features of the masticatory apparatus: height of the TMJ above the occlusal plane; and inclination of the masticatory muscles. A correlate of this model is that taxa utilizing more resistant food objects should also exhibit relatively more inclined AEs. Results of the correlation analyses found that AE inclination is strongly correlated with height of the TMJ above the occlusal plane, but less so with inclination of the masticatory muscles. Furthermore, pairwise comparisons of closely related taxa with documented dietary differences found that the AE is consistently more inclined in taxa that utilize more resistant food items. These data preliminarily suggest that variation in AE morphology across anthropoid primates is functionally related to maximizing BFs, and add to the growing dataset of masticatory morphologies linked to feeding behavior.

  18. Modeling the biomechanics of articular eminence function in anthropoid primates

    PubMed Central

    Terhune, Claire E

    2011-01-01

    One of the most prominent features of the cranial component of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is the articular eminence (AE). This bar of bone is the primary surface upon which the condyle translates and rotates during movements of the mandible, and is therefore the primary point at which forces are transmitted from the mandible to the cranium during loading of the masticatory apparatus. The shape of the AE is highly variable across primates, and the raised eminence of humans has often been considered a defining feature of the human TMJ, yet few data exist to address whether this variation is functionally significant. This study used a broad interspecific sample of anthropoid primates to elaborate upon and test the predictions of a previously proposed model of AE function. This model suggests that AE inclination acts to resist non-normal forces at the TMJ, thereby maximizing bite forces (BFs). AE inclination was predicted to covary with two specific features of the masticatory apparatus: height of the TMJ above the occlusal plane; and inclination of the masticatory muscles. A correlate of this model is that taxa utilizing more resistant food objects should also exhibit relatively more inclined AEs. Results of the correlation analyses found that AE inclination is strongly correlated with height of the TMJ above the occlusal plane, but less so with inclination of the masticatory muscles. Furthermore, pairwise comparisons of closely related taxa with documented dietary differences found that the AE is consistently more inclined in taxa that utilize more resistant food items. These data preliminarily suggest that variation in AE morphology across anthropoid primates is functionally related to maximizing BFs, and add to the growing dataset of masticatory morphologies linked to feeding behavior. PMID:21923720

  19. Comparison of base composition analysis and Sanger sequencing of mitochondrial DNA for four U.S. population groups.

    PubMed

    Kiesler, Kevin M; Coble, Michael D; Hall, Thomas A; Vallone, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    A set of 711 samples from four U.S. population groups was analyzed using a novel mass spectrometry based method for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) base composition profiling. Comparison of the mass spectrometry results with Sanger sequencing derived data yielded a concordance rate of 99.97%. Length heteroplasmy was identified in 46% of samples and point heteroplasmy was observed in 6.6% of samples in the combined mass spectral and Sanger data set. Using discrimination capacity as a metric, Sanger sequencing of the full control region had the highest discriminatory power, followed by the mass spectrometry base composition method, which was more discriminating than Sanger sequencing of just the hypervariable regions. This trend is in agreement with the number of nucleotides covered by each of the three assays.

  20. Bacterial Diversity and Composition in Oylat Cave (Turkey) with Combined Sanger/Pyrosequencing Approach.

    PubMed

    Gulecal-Pektas, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    The microbiology of caves is an important topic for better understanding subsurface biosphere diversity. The diversity and taxonomic composition of bacterial communities associated with cave walls of the Oylat Cave was studied first time by molecular cloning based on Sanger/pyrosequencing approach. Results showed an average of 1,822 operational taxonomic units per sample. Clones analyzed from Oylat Cave were found to belong to 10 common phyla within the domain Bacteria. Proteobacteria dominated the phyla, followed by Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and Nitrospirae. Shannon diversity index was between to 3.76 and 5.35. The robust analysis conducted for this study demonstrated high bacterial diversity on cave rock wall surfaces.

  1. Last Interview with W. Eugene Smith on the Photo Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobre, Ken

    An interview with W. Eugene Smith, well-known photographer and photographic essayist, is presented in this paper. The introductory section of the paper contains a biographical sketch of Smith and a discussion of his photographic essays on a number of topics, including World War II scenes, life in a Spanish village, the work of a black midwife in…

  2. Commentary on Eugene and Kiyo's "Dialogue on Dialogic Pedagogy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegerif, Rupert

    2014-01-01

    This fascinating dialogue raised many questions. In this commentary I will focus on just three questions that particularly stimulated me to further reflection: "why classification?"; "what is ontology?" and "where does agency come from?" [This article provides a commentary on Eugene Matusov and Kiyotaka Miyazaki's…

  3. Gemini 9 spacecraft during EVA as seen Astronaut Eugene Cernan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-05

    S66-38068 (5 June 1966) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan took this view of the Gemini-9A spacecraft and his umbilical cord (right) over California, Arizona, and Sonora, Mexico, during his extravehicular activity (EVA) on the Gemini-9A mission. Taken during the 32nd revolution of the flight. Photo credit: NASA

  4. Astronaut Eugene Cernan sits in Gemini boilerplate during water egress

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-04-09

    S66-29559 (9 April 1966) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, prime crew pilot of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration?s Gemini-9 spaceflight, sits in Gemini Boiler-plate during water egress training activity in the Gulf of Mexico. Photo credit: NASA

  5. Astronaut Eugene Cernan after suiting up for water egress training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-04-09

    S66-29485 (9 April 1966) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, prime crew pilot of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Gemini-9 spaceflight, stands on deck of the NASA Motor Vessel Retriever after suiting up for water egress training in the Gulf of Mexico. Photo credit: NASA

  6. Astronaut Eugene Cernan eating a meal aboard Apollo 17 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A fellow crewman took this photograph of Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, Apollo 17 mission commander, eating a meal under the weightless conditions of space during the final lunar landing mission in the Apollo program. Cernan appears to be eating chocolate pudding.

  7. Eugene Wigner - A Gedanken Pioneer of the Second Quantum Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeilinger, Anton

    2014-09-01

    Eugene Wigner pointed out very interesting consequences of quantum physics in elegant gedanken experiments. As a result of technical progress, these gedanken experiments have become real experiments and contribute to the development of novel concepts in quantum information science, often called the second quantum revolution.

  8. ASTRONAUT CERNAN, EUGENE A. - RECOVERY (GT-9A - WELCOME)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-06

    S66-34118 (6 June 1966) --- Astronauts Thomas Stafford (right) and Eugene Cernan wave to the crowd aboard the aircraft carrier USS Wasp as they emerge from their Gemini-9 capsule. John C. Stonesifer (far right), with the Manned Spacecraft Center's Landing and Recovery Division, was onboard to greet the astronauts. Photo credit: NASA

  9. Gemini 9 spacecraft during EVA as seen Astronaut Eugene Cernan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan took this view of the Gemini 9 spacecraft and his umbilical cord (right) over California, Arizona, and Sonora, Mexico, during his extravehicular activity on the Gemini 9 mission. Taken during the 32nd revolution of the flight.

  10. The Real "Toll" of A. G. Bell: Lessons about Eugenics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Brian H.

    2009-01-01

    Historian Brian Greenwald offers a revisionist interpretation of Bell. He reviews Bell's role and influence within the American eugenics movement and shows that Bell had the respect of the most prominent American eugenicists. His intimate knowledge of deafness, from personal experience with his mother and wife and from his studies of deaf people…

  11. Echoes of a Forgotten Past: Eugenics, Testing, and Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoskopf, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Review of the work of Goddard, Terman, and Thorndike and the role of eugenics and the intelligence quotient in testing points out dangers to be avoided in the current testing climate, such as use of the business model, single-number scores, and tracking. (Contains 42 references.) (SK)

  12. Chris Woodhead: A New Champion of Eugenic Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitty, Clyde

    2009-01-01

    Eugenic Theories are clearly alive and well in present-day society--or this is at least true of those theories relating to the passing on of abilities and talents from one generation to the next. This depressing thought was prompted by a reading of Chris Woodhead's latest book "A Desolation of Learning."

  13. What Was Wrong with Eugenics? Conflicting Narratives and Disputed Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Diane B.

    2014-01-01

    Although it is often taken for granted that eugenics is odious, exactly what makes it so is far from obvious. The existence of considerable interpretative flexibility is evident in the disparate policy lessons for contemporary reproductive genetics (or "reprogenetics") that have been derived from essentially the same set of historical…

  14. "The Bell Curve" and Carrie Buck: Eugenics Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David

    1995-01-01

    The 1994 publication of "The Bell Curve" by R. Herrnstein and C. Murray is compared to other examples of eugenic principles, including the sterilization of "feebleminded" Carrie Buck, family degeneracy studies focusing on lower class Caucasian families, and other works that view the poorest and least educated members of society…

  15. The Legitimizing Function of Judicial Rhetoric in the Eugenics Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasian, Marouf, Jr.; Croasmun, Earl

    1992-01-01

    Investigates the possibility that judicial policymaking is responsive to the situational exigencies created in part through public discourse. Investigates the elite and public perspectives regarding the eugenics controversy in the 1920s to explore the emergent relationship between the public and technical spheres of argument. (SR)

  16. Last Interview with W. Eugene Smith on the Photo Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobre, Ken

    An interview with W. Eugene Smith, well-known photographer and photographic essayist, is presented in this paper. The introductory section of the paper contains a biographical sketch of Smith and a discussion of his photographic essays on a number of topics, including World War II scenes, life in a Spanish village, the work of a black midwife in…

  17. Chris Woodhead: A New Champion of Eugenic Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitty, Clyde

    2009-01-01

    Eugenic Theories are clearly alive and well in present-day society--or this is at least true of those theories relating to the passing on of abilities and talents from one generation to the next. This depressing thought was prompted by a reading of Chris Woodhead's latest book "A Desolation of Learning."

  18. The Legitimizing Function of Judicial Rhetoric in the Eugenics Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasian, Marouf, Jr.; Croasmun, Earl

    1992-01-01

    Investigates the possibility that judicial policymaking is responsive to the situational exigencies created in part through public discourse. Investigates the elite and public perspectives regarding the eugenics controversy in the 1920s to explore the emergent relationship between the public and technical spheres of argument. (SR)

  19. "The Bell Curve" and Carrie Buck: Eugenics Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David

    1995-01-01

    The 1994 publication of "The Bell Curve" by R. Herrnstein and C. Murray is compared to other examples of eugenic principles, including the sterilization of "feebleminded" Carrie Buck, family degeneracy studies focusing on lower class Caucasian families, and other works that view the poorest and least educated members of society…

  20. What Was Wrong with Eugenics? Conflicting Narratives and Disputed Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Diane B.

    2014-01-01

    Although it is often taken for granted that eugenics is odious, exactly what makes it so is far from obvious. The existence of considerable interpretative flexibility is evident in the disparate policy lessons for contemporary reproductive genetics (or "reprogenetics") that have been derived from essentially the same set of historical…

  1. Echoes of a Forgotten Past: Eugenics, Testing, and Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoskopf, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Review of the work of Goddard, Terman, and Thorndike and the role of eugenics and the intelligence quotient in testing points out dangers to be avoided in the current testing climate, such as use of the business model, single-number scores, and tracking. (Contains 42 references.) (SK)

  2. The Real "Toll" of A. G. Bell: Lessons about Eugenics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Brian H.

    2009-01-01

    Historian Brian Greenwald offers a revisionist interpretation of Bell. He reviews Bell's role and influence within the American eugenics movement and shows that Bell had the respect of the most prominent American eugenicists. His intimate knowledge of deafness, from personal experience with his mother and wife and from his studies of deaf people…

  3. Eugenic utopias/dystopias, reprogenetics, and community genetics.

    PubMed

    Raz, Aviad E

    2009-05-01

    The impetus for this review is the intriguing realisation that eugenics, viewed as dystopian and authoritarian in most of the 20th century, is in the process of being reinterpreted today--in the context of reproductive genetics--as utopian and liberal. This review offers an analytical framework for mapping the growing literature on this subject in order to provide a summary for both teaching and research in medical sociology. Recent works are subsumed and explored in three areas: historical criticism of the 'old eugenics'; the continuation of this stream in the form of criticism of reprogenetics as a new, 'backdoor' eugenic regime of bio-governmentality--an area which also includes the application of Foucauldian and feminist perspectives; and the recent enthusiasm regarding 'liberal eugenics,' claiming that reprogenetic decisions should be left to individual consumers thus enhancing their options in the health market. The review concludes by discussing and illustrating potential research directions in this field, with a focus on the social and ethical aspects of 'community genetics' and its emerging networks of individuals genetically at risk.

  4. Hidden mutations in Cornelia de Lange syndrome limitations of sanger sequencing in molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Braunholz, Diana; Obieglo, Carolin; Parenti, Ilaria; Pozojevic, Jelena; Eckhold, Juliane; Reiz, Benedikt; Braenne, Ingrid; Wendt, Kerstin S; Watrin, Erwan; Vodopiutz, Julia; Rieder, Harald; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Kaiser, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a well-characterized developmental disorder. The genetic cause of CdLS is a mutation in one of five associated genes (NIPBL, SMC1A, SMC3, RAD21, and HDAC8) accounting for about 70% of cases. To improve our current molecular diagnostic and to analyze some of CdLS candidate genes, we developed and established a gene panel approach. Because recent data indicate a high frequency of mosaic NIPBL mutations that were not detected by conventional sequencing approaches of blood DNA, we started to collect buccal mucosa (BM) samples of our patients that were negative for mutations in the known CdLS genes. Here, we report the identification of three mosaic NIPBL mutations by our high-coverage gene panel sequencing approach that were undetected by classical Sanger sequencing analysis of BM DNA. All mutations were confirmed by the use of highly sensitive SNaPshot fragment analysis using DNA from BM, urine, and fibroblast samples. In blood samples, we could not detect the respective mutation. Finally, in fibroblast samples from all three patients, Sanger sequencing could identify all the mutations. Thus, our study highlights the need for highly sensitive technologies in molecular diagnostic of CdLS to improve genetic diagnosis and counseling of patients and their families. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  5. Evaluation of whole exome sequencing by targeted gene sequencing and Sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ya-Sian; Huang, Hsien-Da; Yeh, Kun-Tu; Chang, Jan-Gowth

    2017-08-01

    Targeted gene sequencing (TGS) and whole exome sequencing (WES) are being used in clinical testing in laboratories. We compared the performances of TGS and WES using the same DNA samples. DNA was extracted from 10 endometrial tumor tissue specimens. Sequencing were performed with an Illumina HiSeq 2000. We randomly selected variants to confirm through Sanger sequencing or mutant-enriched PCR with Sanger sequencing. We found that the variants identified in both TGS and WES were true positives (47/47), regardless of the sequencing depth. Most variants found in TGS only were true positives (34/40), and most of the variants found by WES only were false positives (8/18). From these results, we suggest that the sequencing depth may not play important role in the accuracy of NGS-based methods. After analysis, we found that WES had a sensitivity of 72.70%, specificity of 96.27%, precision of 99.44%, and accuracy of 75.03%. The results of NGS-based methods must currently be validated, especially for important reported variants regardless of the methods used, and for the use of WES in cancers a higher false negative rate must be considered. More sensitive methods should be used to confirm the NGS results in uneven cancer tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular characterization of human adenoviruses in urban wastewaters using next generation and Sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Iaconelli, M; Valdazo-González, B; Equestre, M; Ciccaglione, A R; Marcantonio, C; Della Libera, S; La Rosa, G

    2017-09-15

    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are of major public health importance and are associated with a variety of clinical manifestations, including gastroenteritis, respiratory, ocular and urinary tract infections. To study the occurrence, prevalence and diversity of HAdV species and types circulating in Italy, we conducted a large-scale molecular-epidemiological investigation, a yearlong monitoring of 22 wastewater treatment plants, covering 10 Italian regions, representative of northern, central, and southern Italy. A total of 141 raw sewage samples were collected from January to December 2013, and processed to detect and characterize by phylogenetic analysis a fragment of the hexon coding region of HAdVs. Nested PCR results showed the presence of HAdVs in 85 out of 141 samples (60% of samples). Fifty-nine samples were characterized by conventional Sanger sequencing as belonging to four HAdV species and four types: A (type 12, 5 samples), B (type 3, 8 samples), C (type 5, 1 sample) and F (type 41, 45 samples). The remaining 26 samples could not be characterized because of uninterpretable (mixed) electropherograms suggesting the presence of multiple species and/or types. Pools of characterized and uncharacterized PCR amplicons were further analyzed by next-generation sequencing (NGS). NGS results revealed a marked HAdV diversity with 16 additional types detected beyond the four types found by Sanger sequencing. Overall, 19 types were identified, belonging to HAdV species A-F: types 12 and 31 (species A), type 3 (species B), types 1, 2, and 5 (species C), types 9, 17, 24, 26, 37, 38, 42, 44, 48, and 70 (species D), type 4 (species E), and types 40 and 41(species F). An untypeable HAdV was also detected, showing similar percentages of identity with more than one prototype (types 15, 30, 56, and 59). Our findings documented the circulation of a wide variety of species and types in raw sewage, potentially able to affect other surface water environments and hence human health

  7. Performance evaluation of Sanger sequencing for the diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria and comparison with targeted next generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Emma L; Bagg, Eleanor A L; Mueller, Michael; Vandrovcova, Jana; Aitman, Timothy J; Rumsby, Gill

    2015-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria (PH) currently utilizes sequential Sanger sequencing of the AGXT, GRPHR, and HOGA1 genes but efficacy is unproven. This analysis is time-consuming, relatively expensive, and delays in diagnosis and inappropriate treatment can occur if not pursued early in the diagnostic work-up. We reviewed testing outcomes of Sanger sequencing in 200 consecutive patient samples referred for analysis. In addition, the Illumina Truseq custom amplicon system was evaluated for paralleled next-generation sequencing (NGS) of AGXT,GRHPR, and HOGA1 in 90 known PH patients. AGXT sequencing was requested in all patients, permitting a diagnosis of PH1 in 50%. All remaining patients underwent targeted exon sequencing of GRHPR and HOGA1 with 8% diagnosed with PH2 and 8% with PH3. Complete sequencing of both GRHPR and HOGA1 was not requested in 25% of patients referred leaving their diagnosis in doubt. NGS analysis showed 98% agreement with Sanger sequencing and both approaches had 100% diagnostic specificity. Diagnostic sensitivity of Sanger sequencing was 98% and for NGS it was 97%. NGS has comparable diagnostic performance to Sanger sequencing for the diagnosis of PH and, if implemented, would screen for all forms of PH simultaneously ensuring prompt diagnosis at decreased cost. PMID:25629080

  8. MutAid: Sanger and NGS Based Integrated Pipeline for Mutation Identification, Validation and Annotation in Human Molecular Genetics.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ram Vinay; Pabinger, Stephan; Kriegner, Albert; Weinhäusel, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Sanger sequencing as well as Next-Generation Sequencing have been used for the identification of disease causing mutations in human molecular research. The majority of currently available tools are developed for research and explorative purposes and often do not provide a complete, efficient, one-stop solution. As the focus of currently developed tools is mainly on NGS data analysis, no integrative solution for the analysis of Sanger data is provided and consequently a one-stop solution to analyze reads from both sequencing platforms is not available. We have therefore developed a new pipeline called MutAid to analyze and interpret raw sequencing data produced by Sanger or several NGS sequencing platforms. It performs format conversion, base calling, quality trimming, filtering, read mapping, variant calling, variant annotation and analysis of Sanger and NGS data under a single platform. It is capable of analyzing reads from multiple patients in a single run to create a list of potential disease causing base substitutions as well as insertions and deletions. MutAid has been developed for expert and non-expert users and supports four sequencing platforms including Sanger, Illumina, 454 and Ion Torrent. Furthermore, for NGS data analysis, five read mappers including BWA, TMAP, Bowtie, Bowtie2 and GSNAP and four variant callers including GATK-HaplotypeCaller, SAMTOOLS, Freebayes and VarScan2 pipelines are supported. MutAid is freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/mutaid.

  9. [Sanger sequencing for the diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy patients with survival motor neuron gene 1 compound heterozygous mutation].

    PubMed

    Yang, L; Cao, Y Y; Qu, Y J; Bai, J L; Wang, H; Jin, Y W; Han, Y L; Song, F

    2017-02-14

    Objective: To detect the subtle variant of survival motor neuron gene 1(SMN1) by Sanger sequencing, and to assess the value of Sanger sequencing for the diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy(SMA) with compound heterozygous mutation of SMN1. Methods: Fifty-two patients suspected SMA were recruited by the Capital Institute of Pediatrics from Jan.2014 to June.2016. PCR was used for amplifying exon7 of SMN1 and SMN2 in 52 patients. Natural different base peaks on the sequencing chromatogram in the SMN1 and SMN2 within the amplified segments were identified with Sanger DNA sequencing to detect the homozygous deletion or heterozygous deletion of SMN1. Then we screened the SMN1 subtle variants in heterozygous deletion patients by genomic Sanger sequencing for the other SMN exons. At last, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification(MLPA) was carried out to confirm the results of SMN1 heterozygous deletion, and T-A cloning confirmed the subtle variants were located in SMN1. Results: Forty-seven of 52 cases were homozygous deletion of SMN1, while 5 cases were heterozygous deletion which were confirmed by MLPA.Then, by genomic and T-A cloning sequencing, five SMN1 subtle mutations were separately identified in 5 cases of heterozygous deletion. Conclusion: Sanger sequencing is an effective method for the clinical diagnosis of compound heterozygous mutation of SMN1, and is meaningful for improving genetic diagnosis rate of SMA.

  10. A family-level Tree of Life for bivalves based on a Sanger-sequencing approach.

    PubMed

    Combosch, David J; Collins, Timothy M; Glover, Emily A; Graf, Daniel L; Harper, Elizabeth M; Healy, John M; Kawauchi, Gisele Y; Lemer, Sarah; McIntyre, Erin; Strong, Ellen E; Taylor, John D; Zardus, John D; Mikkelsen, Paula M; Giribet, Gonzalo; Bieler, Rüdiger

    2017-02-01

    The systematics of the molluscan class Bivalvia are explored using a 5-gene Sanger-based approach including the largest taxon sampling to date, encompassing 219 ingroup species spanning 93 (or 82%) of the 113 currently accepted bivalve families. This study was designed to populate the bivalve Tree of Life at the family level and to place many genera into a clear phylogenetic context, but also pointing to several major clades where taxonomic work is sorely needed. Despite not recovering monophyly of Bivalvia or Protobranchia-as in most previous Sanger-based approaches to bivalve phylogeny-our study provides increased resolution in many higher-level clades, and supports the monophyly of Autobranchia, Pteriomorphia, Heteroconchia, Palaeoheterodonta, Heterodonta, Archiheterodonta, Euheterodonta, Anomalodesmata, Imparidentia, and Neoheterodontei, in addition to many other lower clades. However, deep nodes within some of these clades, especially Pteriomorphia and Imparidentia, could not be resolved with confidence. In addition, many families are not supported, and several are supported as non-monophyletic, including Malletiidae, Nuculanidae, Yoldiidae, Malleidae, Pteriidae, Arcidae, Propeamussiidae, Iridinidae, Carditidae, Myochamidae, Lyonsiidae, Pandoridae, Montacutidae, Galeommatidae, Tellinidae, Semelidae, Psammobiidae, Donacidae, Mactridae, and Cyrenidae; Veneridae is paraphyletic with respect to Chamidae, although this result appears to be an artifact. The denser sampling however allowed testing specific placement of species, showing, for example, that the unusual Australian Plebidonax deltoides is not a member of Donacidae and instead nests within Psammobiidae, suggesting that major revision of Tellinoidea may be required. We also showed that Cleidothaerus is sister group to the cementing member of Myochamidae, suggesting that Cleidothaeridae may not be a valid family and that cementation in Cleidothaerus and Myochama may have had a single origin. These results

  11. Dopamine Modulates Cell Cycle in the Lateral Ganglionic Eminence

    PubMed Central

    Ohtani, Nobuyo; Goto, Tomohide; Waeber, Christian; Bhide, Pradeep G.

    2005-01-01

    Dopamine is a neuromodulator the functions of which in the regulation of complex behaviors such as mood, motivation, and attention are well known. Dopamine appears in the brain early in the embryonic period when none of those behaviors is robust, raising the possibility that dopamine may influence brain development. The effects of dopamine on specific developmental processes such as neurogenesis are not fully characterized. The neostriatum is a dopamine-rich region of the developing and mature brain. If dopamine influenced neurogenesis, the effects would likely be pronounced in the neostriatum. Therefore, we examined whether dopamine influenced neostriatal neurogenesis by influencing the cell cycle of progenitor cells in the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE), the neuroepithelial precursor of the neostriatum. We show that dopamine arrives in the LGE via the nigrostriatal pathway early in the embryonic period and that neostriatal neurogenesis progresses in a dopamine-rich milieu. Dopamine D1-like receptor activation reduces entry of progenitor cells from the G1-to S-phase of the cell cycle, whereas D2-like receptor activation produces the opposite effects by promoting G1- to S-phase entry. D1-like effects are prominent in the ventricular zone, and D2-like effects are prominent in the subventricular zone. The overall effects of dopamine on the cell cycle are D1-like effects, most likely because of the preponderance of D1-like binding sites in the embryonic neostriatum. These data reveal a novel developmental role for dopamine and underscore the relevance of dopaminergic signaling in brain development. PMID:12684471

  12. A Sanger/pyrosequencing hybrid approach for the generation of high-quality draft assemblies of marine microbial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Susanne M. D.; Johnson, Justin; Busam, Dana; Feldblyum, Tamara; Ferriera, Steve; Friedman, Robert; Halpern, Aaron; Khouri, Hoda; Kravitz, Saul A.; Lauro, Federico M.; Li, Kelvin; Rogers, Yu-Hui; Strausberg, Robert; Sutton, Granger; Tallon, Luke; Thomas, Torsten; Venter, Eli; Frazier, Marvin; Venter, J. Craig

    2006-01-01

    Since its introduction a decade ago, whole-genome shotgun sequencing (WGS) has been the main approach for producing cost-effective and high-quality genome sequence data. Until now, the Sanger sequencing technology that has served as a platform for WGS has not been truly challenged by emerging technologies. The recent introduction of the pyrosequencing-based 454 sequencing platform (454 Life Sciences, Branford, CT) offers a very promising sequencing technology alternative for incorporation in WGS. In this study, we evaluated the utility and cost-effectiveness of a hybrid sequencing approach using 3730xl Sanger data and 454 data to generate higher-quality lower-cost assemblies of microbial genomes compared to current Sanger sequencing strategies alone. PMID:16840556

  13. A Sanger/pyrosequencing hybrid approach for the generation of high-quality draft assemblies of marine microbial genomes.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Susanne M D; Johnson, Justin; Busam, Dana; Feldblyum, Tamara; Ferriera, Steve; Friedman, Robert; Halpern, Aaron; Khouri, Hoda; Kravitz, Saul A; Lauro, Federico M; Li, Kelvin; Rogers, Yu-Hui; Strausberg, Robert; Sutton, Granger; Tallon, Luke; Thomas, Torsten; Venter, Eli; Frazier, Marvin; Venter, J Craig

    2006-07-25

    Since its introduction a decade ago, whole-genome shotgun sequencing (WGS) has been the main approach for producing cost-effective and high-quality genome sequence data. Until now, the Sanger sequencing technology that has served as a platform for WGS has not been truly challenged by emerging technologies. The recent introduction of the pyrosequencing-based 454 sequencing platform (454 Life Sciences, Branford, CT) offers a very promising sequencing technology alternative for incorporation in WGS. In this study, we evaluated the utility and cost-effectiveness of a hybrid sequencing approach using 3730xl Sanger data and 454 data to generate higher-quality lower-cost assemblies of microbial genomes compared to current Sanger sequencing strategies alone.

  14. Quick-start guide for version 3.0 of EMINERS - Economic Mineral Resource Simulator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bawiec, Walter J.; Spanski, Gregory T.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative mineral resource assessment, as developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), consists of three parts: (1) development of grade and tonnage mineral deposit models; (2) delineation of tracts permissive for each deposit type; and (3) probabilistic estimation of the numbers of undiscovered deposits for each deposit type (Singer and Menzie, 2010). The estimate of the number of undiscovered deposits at different levels of probability is the input to the EMINERS (Economic Mineral Resource Simulator) program. EMINERS uses a Monte Carlo statistical process to combine probabilistic estimates of undiscovered mineral deposits with models of mineral deposit grade and tonnage to estimate mineral resources. It is based upon a simulation program developed by Root and others (1992), who discussed many of the methods and algorithms of the program. Various versions of the original program (called "MARK3" and developed by David H. Root, William A. Scott, and Lawrence J. Drew of the USGS) have been published (Root, Scott, and Selner, 1996; Duval, 2000, 2012). The current version (3.0) of the EMINERS program is available as USGS Open-File Report 2004-1344 (Duval, 2012). Changes from version 2.0 include updating 87 grade and tonnage models, designing new templates to produce graphs showing cumulative distribution and summary tables, and disabling economic filters. The economic filters were disabled because embedded data for costs of labor and materials, mining techniques, and beneficiation methods are out of date. However, the cost algorithms used in the disabled economic filters are still in the program and available for reference for mining methods and milling techniques included in Camm (1991). EMINERS is written in C++ and depends upon the Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 programming environment. The code depends heavily on the use of Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) for implementation of the Windows interface. The program works only on Microsoft Windows XP or newer

  15. Sir Francis Galton and the birth of eugenics.

    PubMed

    Gillham, N W

    2001-01-01

    The eugenics movement was initiated by Sir Francis Galton, a Victorian scientist. Galton's career can be divided into two parts. During the first, Galton was engaged in African exploration, travel writing, geography, and meteorology. The second part began after he read the Origin of Species by his cousin Charles Darwin. The book convinced Galton that humanity could be improved through selective breeding. During this part of his career he was interested in the factors that determine what he called human "talent and character" and its hereditary basis. Consequently, he delved into anthropometrics and psychology and played a major role in the development of fingerprinting. He also founded the field of biometrics, inventing such familiar statistical procedures as correlation and regression analysis. He constructed his own theory of inheritance in which nature and not nurture played the leading role. He actively began to promote eugenics and soon gained important converts.

  16. The history of eugenics and the future of gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Howell, Joel D

    1991-01-01

    In this commentary, I shall provide an overview of some recent histories of eugenics and suggest some lessons that this history may have for today. This commentary is not an argument against gene therapy. Rather, it is a plea for historical understanding of what has been done,..."in the name of eugenics."... There is a temptation to parody misgivings about gene therapy. I suggest that there are justified reasons to think about the social consequences of gene therapy. I do not hold that we ought to stop the program now, but I do believe that scientists, physicians, and the public ought to be aware of the slippery slope on which we as a society -- and we are all members of society -- have embarked.

  17. Arnold Gesell's progressive vision: child hygiene, socialism and eugenics.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ben

    2011-08-01

    In October 1913, The American Magazine published an article by Arnold Gesell that portrayed Alma, Wisconsin (his hometown) as overflowing with the mentally and morally unfit. In "The Village of a Thousand Souls", Gesell called for the observation and segregation of the unfit as a eugenic measure. This article explores the reasons behind this infamous article by someone who became a famous developmental psychologist and pediatrician. Gesell's papers at the Library of Congress reveal his socialist views of poverty, injustice, and human development. The archives of his father's photography studio at the Wisconsin Historical Society reveal his manipulation of the photographic record to fit his negative view of Alma. Typical of the era, Gesell's Progressive vision combined social control and negative eugenics with egalitarianism and the benevolent engineering of the environment.

  18. Duty or dream? Edwin G. Conklin's critique of eugenics and support for American individualism.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Kathy J

    2002-01-01

    This paper assesses ideas about moral and reproductive duty in American eugenics during the early twentieth century. While extreme eugenicists, including Charles Davenport and Paul Popenoe, argued that social leaders and biologists must work to prevent individuals who were "unfit" from reproducing, moderates, especially Edwin G. Conklin, presented a different view. Although he was sympathetic to eugenic goals and participated in eugenic organizations throughout his life, Conklin realized that eugenic ideas rarely could meet strict hereditary measures. Relying on his experience as an embryologist, Conklin instead attempted to balance more extreme eugenic claims - that emphasized the absolute limits posed by heredity - with his own view of "the possibilities of development." Through his critique he argued that most human beings never even begin to approach their hereditary potential; he moderated his own eugenic rhetoric so that it preserved individual opportunity and responsibility, or what has often been labeled the American Dream.

  19. Sanger Confirmation Is Required to Achieve Optimal Sensitivity and Specificity in Next-Generation Sequencing Panel Testing.

    PubMed

    Mu, Wenbo; Lu, Hsiao-Mei; Chen, Jefferey; Li, Shuwei; Elliott, Aaron M

    2016-11-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has rapidly replaced Sanger sequencing as the method of choice for diagnostic gene-panel testing. For hereditary-cancer testing, the technical sensitivity and specificity of the assay are paramount as clinicians use results to make important clinical management and treatment decisions. There is significant debate within the diagnostics community regarding the necessity of confirming NGS variant calls by Sanger sequencing, considering that numerous laboratories report having 100% specificity from the NGS data alone. Here we report our results from 20,000 hereditary-cancer NGS panels spanning 47 genes, in which all 7845 nonpolymorphic variants were Sanger- sequenced. Of these, 98.7% were concordant between NGS and Sanger sequencing and 1.3% were identified as NGS false-positives, located mainly in complex genomic regions (A/T-rich regions, G/C-rich regions, homopolymer stretches, and pseudogene regions). Simulating a false-positive rate of zero by adjusting the variant-calling quality-score thresholds decreased the sensitivity of the assay from 100% to 97.8%, resulting in the missed detection of 176 Sanger-confirmed variants, the majority in complex genomic regions (n = 114) and mosaic mutations (n = 7). The data illustrate the importance of setting quality thresholds for panel testing only after thousands of samples have been processed and the necessity of Sanger confirmation of NGS variants to maintain the highest possible sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Astronaut Eugene Cernan eating a meal aboard Apollo 17 spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-12-17

    AS17-163-24129 (7-19 Dec. 1972) --- A fellow crewman took this photograph of astronaut Eugene A. Cernan eating a meal under weightlessness conditions of space during the final lunar landing mission in NASA's Apollo program. Also, aboard the Apollo 17 spacecraft were astronaut Ronald E. Evans, command module pilot, and scientist-astronaut Harrison H. "Jack" Schmitt, lunar module pilot. Cernan was the mission commander.

  1. ASTRONAUT EUGENE A. CERNAN - MISC. - ELLINGTON AFB (EAFB), TX

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-06-10

    S66-32677 (10 June 1966) --- The Gemini-9A prime crew, astronaut Thomas P. Stafford (left), command pilot, and Eugene A. Cernan (right), pilot, express their feelings about being home to their families, MSC officials, newsmen, and well-wishers gathered at Ellington Air Force Base to welcome the astronauts home. Astronaut Stafford and Cernan completed their three-day mission in space on June 6, 1966. At right is George M. Low, MSC Deputy Director. Photo credit: NASA

  2. Astronaut Eugene Cernan sleeping aboard Apollo 17 spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-12-17

    AS17-162-24049 (7-19 Dec. 1972) --- A fellow crewman took this picture of astronaut Eugene A. Cernan dozing aboard the Apollo 17 spacecraft during the final lunar landing mission in NASA's Apollo program. Also, aboard Apollo 17 were astronaut Ronald E. Evans, command module pilot, and scientist-astronaut Harrison H. "Jack" Schmitt, lunar module pilot. Cernan was the mission commander.

  3. Candid photo of Astronaut Eugene Cernan aboard Apollo 17 spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-12-17

    AS17-163-24122 (7-19 Dec. 1972) --- This candid photograph of astronaut Eugene A. Cernan was taken by a fellow crewman aboard the Apollo 17 spacecraft during the final lunar landing mission in NASA's Apollo program. Cernan was the mission commander. Also, aboard Apollo 17 were astronaut Ronald E. Evans, command module pilot, and scientist-astronaut Harrison H. "Jack" Schmitt, lunar module pilot.

  4. ASTRONAUT CERNAN, EUGENE A. - RECOVERY (GT-9A - WELCOME) - ATLANTIC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-06

    S66-34109 (6 June 1966) --- Astronauts Thomas Stafford and Eugene Cernan (right) receive a warm welcome as they arrive aboard the prime recovery ship, the aircraft carrier USS Wasp. John C. Stonesifer, with the Manned Spacecraft Center's Landing and Recovery Division, stands next to microphone at left. The Gemini-9 spacecraft can be seen in the right background of the view. Photo credit: NASA

  5. ASTRONAUT EUGENE CERNAN [APOLLO 17] IN LUNAR ROVER TRAINING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Apollo 17 commander Eugene A. Cernan waves to NASA Tours bus passengers from Lunar Rover trainer during extravehicular activity [EVA] training at the Spaceport. Cernan was enroute to the Center's Lunar Rover training area as tour buses were departing the Flight Crew Training Building after passengers had viewed the trainers from a balcony. The Flight Crew Training Building is a regular stop on the NASA Tours route. Cernan, command module pilot is scheduled to liftoff sometime in December 1972.

  6. Psychopathology, adversity, and creativity: diversifying experiences in the development of eminent African Americans.

    PubMed

    Damian, Rodica Ioana; Simonton, Dean Keith

    2015-04-01

    Symptoms associated with mental illness have been hypothesized to relate to creative achievement because they act as diversifying experiences. However, this theory has only been tested on predominantly majority-culture samples. Do tendencies toward mental illness still predict eminent creativity when they coexist with other diversifying experiences, such as early parental death, minority-status, or poverty? These alternative diversifying experiences can be collectively referred to as examples of developmental adversity. This conjecture was tested on a significant sample of 291 eminent African Americans who, by the nature of their status as long-term minorities, would experience more developmental adversity. Replicating majority-culture patterns, African American artists showed higher mental illness rates than African American scientists. Yet the absolute percentages were significantly lower for the African Americans, regardless of profession. Furthermore, mental illness predicted higher eminence levels only for the African American artists, an effect that diminished when controlling for developmental adversity. Because the latter predicted eminence for both artists and scientists, the "madness-to-genius" link probably represents just 1 of several routes by which diversifying experiences can influence eminence. The same developmental ends can be attained by different means. This inference warrants further research using other eminent creators emerging from minority culture populations.

  7. Condyle Excursion Angle, Articular Eminence Inclination, and Temporomandibular Joint Morphologic Relations With Disc Displacement.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, Katharina Alves; Sousa Melo, Saulo Leonardo; Torres, Marianna Guanaes Gomes; Campos, Paulo Sérgio F; Bento, Patrícia Meira; Melo, Daniela Pita de

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relations of the condyle excursion angle (CEA) and the morphology and morphometry of the articular eminence to disc displacement (DD) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of symptomatic patients. MRIs of 199 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) were evaluated. Qualitative and quantitative morphologic analyses were performed with tools available in PACS 11.0 (Carestream Health, Inc, Rochester, NY). The articular eminence inclination (AEI), eminence height (EH), CEA, and articular eminence morphologic shape were evaluated. Statistical analyses were used to evaluate any possible association of the variables with DD in the closed- and open-mouth positions, age, and gender. The significance level was set at .05. Elderly women (>60 yr) presented higher prevalence values (43.26%). There was no statistical correlation between DD and gender (P = .4290). Higher mean values of the AEI and EH were associated with box-shaped eminences. The EH, AEI, and CEA were not related to the presence or absence of DD and the different types of DD. The AEI (P = .002) and CEA (P < .001) values were higher for TMJs with disc reduction in the open-mouth position. Disc position in the closed- and open-mouth positions is not influenced by articular eminence morphology; however, the AEI and CEA have an influence on disc reduction. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Application of case-based method in genetics and eugenics teaching].

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-Xuan; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Fei-Xiong; Hu, Ying-Kao; Yan, Yue-Ming; Cai, Min-Hua; Li, Xiao-Hui

    2012-05-01

    Genetics and Eugenics is a cross-discipline between genetics and eugenics. It is a common curriculum in many Chinese universities. In order to increase the learning interest, we introduced case teaching method and got a better teaching effect. Based on our teaching practices, we summarized some experiences about this subject. In this article, the main problem of case-based method applied in Genetics and Eugenics teaching was discussed.

  9. Women and eugenics in Britain: the case of Mary Scharlieb, Elizabeth Sloan Chesser, and Stella Browne.

    PubMed

    Jones, G

    1995-09-01

    Existing literature on eugenics only touches briefly upon the role played by women. This article sets out to examine the reason for the high participation of women in the British eugenics movement by focusing on the role of three individuals in the early part of the twentieth century. It concludes that an important objective of women in eugenics was the 'feminization' of its social agenda.

  10. [Eugenics and education in twentieth-century Brazil: an interview with Jerry Dávila].

    PubMed

    Dávila, Jerry; Carvalho, Leonardo Dallacqua de; Corrêa, Igor Nazareno da Conceição

    2016-12-01

    A Brazilianist, historian, and specialist in the relationships between eugenics, race, and education, the director of the Lemann Institute, Jerry Dávila, shares in this interview some of his experiences as a scholar of these subjects. In Diploma of whiteness, a book that had major repercussions and circulated widely amongst Brazilian researchers, he examined how race and eugenics influenced Brazilian education between 1917 and 1945. Dávila highlights the challenges facing eugenics research at the present time, his impressions of the seminar "History of eugenics: broadening perspectives" held by Casa de Oswaldo Cruz/Fiocruz in 2015, in which he took part, and his latest research interests.

  11. When The Time Seems Ripe: Eugenics, the Annals, and the subtle persistence of typological thinking

    PubMed Central

    WEISS, KENNETH M; LAMBERT, BRIAN W

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY This journal began in 1926 as the Annals of Eugenics. Much has changed since then. The original Editors’ primary eugenic objective was not achieved, and eugenics justifiably became notorious for racism and gross abuse of human rights. But one founding aim was to publish advances in statistical genetics, and that objective prospered in the journal’s pages from its beginning to the present day. The online availability of the original issues will be useful to those interested in the history of both eugenics and human genetics, and will provide a reminder of how the careless use of genetical concepts can go astray. PMID:21488850

  12. Comprehensive transcriptome assembly of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) using Sanger and next generation sequencing platforms: development and applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A high-quality transcriptome assembly for chickpea has been developed using ~135 million Illumina single-end reads, 7.12 million single-end FLX/454 reads, and 139 thousand Sanger expressed sequence tags (ESTs). This hybrid transcriptome assembly, which we refer to as the "Cicer arietinum Transcripto...

  13. Detection of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutations in Lung Adenocarcinoma: Comparing Cobas 4800 EGFR Assay With Sanger Bidirectional Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ardakani, Nima Mesbah; Giardina, Tindaro; Grieu-Iacopetta, Fabienne; Tesfai, Yordanos; Carrello, Amerigo; Taylor, Jeremy; Robinson, Cleo; Spagnolo, Dominic; Amanuel, Benhur

    2016-09-01

    Accurate detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations has a crucial role in the current treatment of patients with lung adenocarcinoma, and identification of clinically relevant mutations would qualify patients for treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Historically, Sanger sequencing has been used as the reference standard assay for EGFR mutational analysis; however, Cobas 4800 is a relatively new method. In the present study, we compared the performance of the Cobas assay against that of Sanger sequencing. A total of 493 consecutive formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of lung adenocarcinoma were simultaneously tested for EGFR mutations using both methods. After exclusion of the invalid results (n = 19), 474 samples from 455 patients were analyzed. The Cobas assay showed a mutation detection rate comparable to that of Sanger sequencing (18.1% vs. 17.9%, respectively; P < .05). Excellent agreement of 98.9% (κ, 0.964) was observed between the 2 methods. The Cobas assay is a fast and diagnostically robust platform with high analytical sensitivity; however, it is limited by its detection range and low tolerance to low DNA quality. Sanger sequencing is mostly affected by its lower analytic sensitivity. Ultimately, a dual testing strategy will be justified to increase the detection of novel mutations and reduce the false-negative results within an acceptable turnaround time. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of bacteria recovered from animals using the 16S ribosomal RNA gene with pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Deepanker; Cieply, Stephen; Livengood, Julia

    2011-11-01

    Bacterial identification using genetic sequencing is fast becoming a confirmatory tool for microbiologists. Its application in veterinary diagnostic laboratories is still growing. In addition to availability of Sanger sequencing, pyrosequencing has recently emerged as a unique method for short-read DNA sequencing for bacterial identifications. Its ease of use makes it possible to diagnose infections rapidly at a low cost even in smaller laboratories. In the current study, pyrosequencing was compared with Sanger sequencing for identification of the bacterial organisms. Fifty-four bacterial isolates spanning 23 different bacterial families encountered in veterinary diagnostic microbiology laboratories were sequenced using 16S ribosomal RNA gene with pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing. Pyrosequencing was able to identify 80% of isolates to the genus level, and 43% isolates to the species level. Sanger sequencing with approximately 500 bp performed better for both genus (100%) and species (87%) identification. Use of different sequence databases to identify bacteria isolated from animals showed relative importance of public databases compared to a validated commercial library. A time and limited cost comparison between pyrosequencing and genetic sequencing of 500 bp showed pyrosequencing was not only faster but also comparable in cost, making it a viable alternative for use in classifying bacteria isolated from animals.

  15. Protistan microbial observatory in the Cariaco Basin, Caribbean. I. Pyrosequencing vs Sanger insights into species richness.

    PubMed

    Edgcomb, Virginia; Orsi, William; Bunge, John; Jeon, Sunok; Christen, Richard; Leslin, Chesley; Holder, Mark; Taylor, Gordon T; Suarez, Paula; Varela, Ramon; Epstein, Slava

    2011-08-01

    Microbial diversity and distribution are topics of intensive research. In two companion papers in this issue, we describe the results of the Cariaco Microbial Observatory (Caribbean Sea, Venezuela). The Basin contains the largest body of marine anoxic water, and presents an opportunity to study protistan communities across biogeochemical gradients. In the first paper, we survey 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence diversity using both Sanger- and pyrosequencing-based approaches, employing multiple PCR primers, and state-of-the-art statistical analyses to estimate microbial richness missed by the survey. Sampling the Basin at three stations, in two seasons, and at four depths with distinct biogeochemical regimes, we obtained the largest, and arguably the least biased collection of over 6000 nearly full-length protistan rRNA gene sequences from a given oceanographic regime to date, and over 80,000 pyrosequencing tags. These represent all major and many minor protistan taxa, at frequencies globally similar between the two sequence collections. This large data set provided, via the recently developed parametric modeling, the first statistically sound prediction of the total size of protistan richness in a large and varied environment, such as the Cariaco Basin: over 36,000 species, defined as almost full-length 18S rRNA gene sequence clusters sharing over 99% sequence homology. This richness is a small fraction of the grand total of known protists (over 100,000-500,000 species), suggesting a degree of protistan endemism.

  16. Noncontinuously binding loop-out primers for avoiding problematic DNA sequences in PCR and sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Kelli; Swensen, Jeffrey J; Procter, Melinda; Jama, Mohamed; Wooderchak-Donahue, Whitney; Lewis, Tracey; Fong, Michael; Hubley, Lindsey; Schwarz, Monica; Ha, Youna; Paul, Eleri; Brulotte, Benjamin; Lyon, Elaine; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar; Mao, Rong; Pont-Kingdon, Genevieve; Best, D Hunter

    2014-09-01

    We present a method in which noncontinuously binding (loop-out) primers are used to exclude regions of DNA that typically interfere with PCR amplification and/or analysis by Sanger sequencing. Several scenarios were tested using this design principle, including M13-tagged PCR primers, non-M13-tagged PCR primers, and sequencing primers. With this technique, a single oligonucleotide is designed in two segments that flank, but do not include, a short region of problematic DNA sequence. During PCR amplification or sequencing, the problematic region is looped-out from the primer binding site, where it does not interfere with the reaction. Using this method, we successfully excluded regions of up to 46 nucleotides. Loop-out primers were longer than traditional primers (27 to 40 nucleotides) and had higher melting temperatures. This method allows the use of a standardized PCR protocol throughout an assay, keeps the number of PCRs to a minimum, reduces the chance for laboratory error, and, above all, does not interrupt the clinical laboratory workflow.

  17. A distinctive oral phenotype points to FAM20A mutations not identified by Sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Poulter, James A; Smith, Claire E L; Murrillo, Gina; Silva, Sandra; Feather, Sally; Howell, Marianella; Crinnion, Laura; Bonthron, David T; Carr, Ian M; Watson, Christopher M; Inglehearn, Chris F; Mighell, Alan J

    2015-11-01

    Biallelic FAM20A mutations cause two conditions where Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI) is the presenting feature: Amelogenesis Imperfecta and Gingival Fibromatosis Syndrome; and Enamel Renal Syndrome. A distinctive oral phenotype is shared in both conditions. On Sanger sequencing of FAM20A in cases with that phenotype, we identified two probands with single, likely pathogenic heterozygous mutations. Given the recessive inheritance pattern seen in all previous FAM20A mutation-positive families and the potential for renal disease, further screening was carried out to look for a second pathogenic allele. Reverse transcriptase-PCR on cDNA was used to determine transcript levels. CNVseq was used to screen for genomic insertions and deletions. In one family, FAM20A cDNA screening revealed only a single mutated FAM20A allele with the wild-type allele not transcribed. In the second family, CNV detection by whole genome sequencing (CNVseq) revealed a heterozygous 54.7 kb duplication encompassing exons 1 to 4 of FAM20A. This study confirms the link between biallelic FAM20A mutations and the characteristic oral phenotype. It highlights for the first time examples of FAM20A mutations missed by the most commonly used mutation screening techniques. This information informed renal assessment and ongoing clinical care.

  18. Exceptional achievement and early parental loss: the phaeton effect in American writers, presidents, and eminent individuals.

    PubMed

    Standing, Lionel G; Aikins, Shari; Madigan, Brent; Nohl, Willa

    2015-01-01

    This study explored predictions made from Lucille Iremonger's Phaeton theory (1970), which argues that individuals who show exceptional personal achievement in certain fields frequently have experienced childhoods that were marked by parental loss through death and desertion. Three groups were examined: eminent American writers, presidents of the USA, and the 100 Americans who were judged by Life magazine to have been the most influential in 20th century society. Bereavement was common in the childhoods of these outstanding individuals, but was also high, or even higher, for those individuals who achieved somewhat less eminence (less successful writers, and presidential also-rans). More than half the total set of the presidents and also-rans were orphans. Eminent Americans showed substantial although lower levels of parental loss, and nearly three-quarters had experienced difficult childhoods that were marked by some form of loss. Eminent Americans, like the presidents, tended to be first-borns; they also showed elevated levels of divorce, suicide, and name changing. The results provide support for the Phaeton theory, but suggest that the child's struggle to overcome other losses than bereavement may also promote eminence, as may the presence of significant mentors.

  19. A Cabinet of Mathematical Curiosities at Teachers College: David Eugene Smith's Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Diane R.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a history of David Eugene Smith's collection of historical books, manuscripts, portraits, and instruments related to mathematics. The study analyzes surviving documents, images, objects, college announcements and catalogs, and secondary sources related to Smith's collection. David Eugene Smith (1860-1944) travelled…

  20. Science and Society in the Eugenic Thought of H. J. Muller

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Garland E.

    1970-01-01

    Traces the growth of theories of eugenics during the twentieth century, focussing on the work of H. J. Muller. Concludes that "Muller's lasting contribution was to write the hereditarian attitudes associated with traditional eugenics and the environmentalist's viewpoint associated with modern sociology to obtain a humane and reasoned approach to…

  1. Resistance in School and Society: Public and Pedagogical Debates about Eugenics, 1900-1947.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Steven

    1988-01-01

    This article reviews positions of scientists, educators and publicists who resisted eugenics and determinism. The nature nurture controversy is discussed, as well as the impact of eugenics on American classrooms. Specific attention is given to four resisters: Dewey, Bagley, Jennings, and Lippmann. (IAH)

  2. Science and Society in the Eugenic Thought of H. J. Muller

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Garland E.

    1970-01-01

    Traces the growth of theories of eugenics during the twentieth century, focussing on the work of H. J. Muller. Concludes that "Muller's lasting contribution was to write the hereditarian attitudes associated with traditional eugenics and the environmentalist's viewpoint associated with modern sociology to obtain a humane and reasoned approach to…

  3. Resistance in School and Society: Public and Pedagogical Debates about Eugenics, 1900-1947.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Steven

    1988-01-01

    This article reviews positions of scientists, educators and publicists who resisted eugenics and determinism. The nature nurture controversy is discussed, as well as the impact of eugenics on American classrooms. Specific attention is given to four resisters: Dewey, Bagley, Jennings, and Lippmann. (IAH)

  4. [Orthodoxy against heretics. Correspondence of Gaupp and Kretschmer to Eugen Bleuler].

    PubMed

    Scharfetter, C

    1999-04-01

    A letter of R. Gaupp to Eugen Bleuler (1906) illustrates the contradictory reception of psychoanalysis. Letters from E. Kretschmer to Eugen Bleuler (1920) reflect the devalorization of Kretschmer by E. Kraepelin. The orthodox systems of the authorities are intolerant towards heretics.

  5. A Cabinet of Mathematical Curiosities at Teachers College: David Eugene Smith's Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Diane R.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a history of David Eugene Smith's collection of historical books, manuscripts, portraits, and instruments related to mathematics. The study analyzes surviving documents, images, objects, college announcements and catalogs, and secondary sources related to Smith's collection. David Eugene Smith (1860-1944) travelled…

  6. Eugenics and education: Implications of ideology, memory, and history for education in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winfield, Ann Gibson

    Eugenics has been variously described "as an ideal, as a doctrine, as a science (applied human genetics), as a set of practices (ranging from birth control to euthanasia), and as a social movement" (Paul 1998 p. 95). "Race Suicide" (Roosevelt 1905) and the ensuing national phobia regarding the "children of worm eaten stock" (Bobbitt 1909) prefaced an era of eugenic ideology whose influence on education has been largely ignored until recently. Using the concept of collective memory, I examine the eugenics movement, its progressive context, and its influence on the aims, policy and practice of education. Specifically, this study examines the ideology of eugenics as a specific category and set of distinctions, and the role of collective memory in providing the mechanism whereby eugenic ideology may shape and fashion interpretation and action in current educational practice. The formation of education as a distinct academic discipline, the eugenics movement, and the Progressive era coalesced during the first decades of the twentieth century to form what has turned out to be a lasting alliance. This alliance has had a profound impact on public perception of the role of schools, how students are classified and sorted, degrees and definitions of intelligence, attitudes and beliefs surrounding multiculturalism and a host of heretofore unexplored ramifications. My research is primarily historical and theoretical and uses those material and media cultural artifacts generated by the eugenics movement to explore the relationship between eugenic ideology and the institution of education.

  7. 77 FR 64349 - Notice of Availability of the Draft West Eugene Wetlands Resource Management Plan/Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Draft West Eugene Wetlands Resource Management...) for the West Eugene Wetlands and by this notice is announcing the opening of the comment period. DATES... releases, and/or mailings. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments related to the West Eugene Wetlands Draft...

  8. KRAS Mutation Test in Korean Patients with Colorectal Carcinomas: A Methodological Comparison between Sanger Sequencing and a Real-Time PCR-Based Assay

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Hak; Chung, Arthur Minwoo; Lee, Ahwon; Oh, Woo Jin; Choi, Yeong Jin; Lee, Youn-Soo; Jung, Eun Sun

    2017-01-01

    Background Mutations in the KRAS gene have been identified in approximately 50% of colorectal cancers (CRCs). KRAS mutations are well established biomarkers in anti–epidermal growth factor receptor therapy. Therefore, assessment of KRAS mutations is needed in CRC patients to ensure appropriate treatment. Methods We compared the analytical performance of the cobas test to Sanger sequencing in 264 CRC cases. In addition, discordant specimens were evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing. Results KRAS mutations for codons 12/13 were detected in 43.2% of cases (114/264) by Sanger sequencing. Of 257 evaluable specimens for comparison, KRAS mutations were detected in 112 cases (43.6%) by Sanger sequencing and 118 cases (45.9%) by the cobas test. Concordance between the cobas test and Sanger sequencing for each lot was 93.8% positive percent agreement (PPA) and 91.0% negative percent agreement (NPA) for codons 12/13. Results from the cobas test and Sanger sequencing were discordant for 20 cases (7.8%). Twenty discrepant cases were subsequently subjected to 454 pyrosequencing. After comprehensive analysis of the results from combined Sanger sequencing–454 pyrosequencing and the cobas test, PPA was 97.5% and NPA was 100%. Conclusions The cobas test is an accurate and sensitive test for detecting KRAS-activating mutations and has analytical power equivalent to Sanger sequencing. Prescreening using the cobas test with subsequent application of Sanger sequencing is the best strategy for routine detection of KRAS mutations in CRC. PMID:28013534

  9. Astronaut Eugene Cernan walks toward LRV during EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-12-13

    AS17-140-21388 (7-19 Dec. 1972) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, mission commander, walks toward the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) during extravehicular activity (EVA) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site of NASA's sixth and final Apollo lunar landing mission. The photograph was taken by astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt, lunar module pilot. While astronauts Cernan and Schmitt descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Challenger" to explore the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon, astronaut Ronald E. Evans, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "America" in lunar orbit.

  10. [Collective health, the new genetics, and market eugenics].

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Maria Helena Cabral de Almeida; Castiel, Luis David

    2003-01-01

    Due to constant advances in genetic manipulation, the field of public health is faced with the possible emergence of a reductionist genomic emphasis, beyond socio-cultural influences. Under such circumstances, the main focus of public health interventions would shift towards a genomic approach to "individuals" and their "families", to the detriment of their consecrated object - "populations", thereby moving away from the current central priority of efforts (and resources) aimed at reducing ill-health due to socioeconomic inequalities. Even admitting the benefits of genetic knowledge, a new eugenic practice may emerge from the availability of genetic tests on the marketplace aimed at individuals that can afford to consume them.

  11. Eugen von Gothard and His X-Ray Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincze, Ildikó J.; Jankovics, István

    2010-03-01

    Eugen von Gothard (1857-1909) made significant contributions to astrophysics and founded the Astrophysical Observatory in Herény, Hungary, in 1881. He also was a gifted instrument maker who designed and produced the apparatus and equipment he needed to carry out his researches, which enabled him to respond immediately to Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen’s astonishing discovery of X rays. Von Gothard took his first X-ray photograph on January 23, 1896, thus inaugurating his first series of experiments, which ended on May 26, 1896. He carried out a second series of experiments on June 21-22, 1905, four years before his premature death at age 51.

  12. The Emergence of Genetic Counseling in Sweden: Examples from Eugenics and Medical Genetics.

    PubMed

    Björkman, Maria

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines the intertwined relations between eugenics and medical genetics from a Swedish perspective in the 1940s and 1950s. The Swedish case shows that a rudimentary form of genetic counseling emerged within eugenic practices in the applications of the Swedish Sterilization Act of 1941, here analyzed from the phenomenon of "heredophobia" (ärftlighetsskräck). At the same time genetic counseling also existed outside eugenic practices, within the discipline of medical genetics. The paper argues that a demand for genetic counseling increased in the 1940s and 1950s in response to a sense of reproductive responsibility engendered by earlier eugenic discourse. The paper also questions the claim made by theoreticians of biopolitics that biological citizens have emerged only during the last decades, especially in neoliberal societies. From the Swedish case it is possible to argue that this had already happened earlier in relation to the proliferation of various aspects of eugenics to the public.

  13. Implementing a genomic data management system using iRODS in the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasingly large amounts of DNA sequencing data are being generated within the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (WTSI). The traditional file system struggles to handle these increasing amounts of sequence data. A good data management system therefore needs to be implemented and integrated into the current WTSI infrastructure. Such a system enables good management of the IT infrastructure of the sequencing pipeline and allows biologists to track their data. Results We have chosen a data grid system, iRODS (Rule-Oriented Data management systems), to act as the data management system for the WTSI. iRODS provides a rule-based system management approach which makes data replication much easier and provides extra data protection. Unlike the metadata provided by traditional file systems, the metadata system of iRODS is comprehensive and allows users to customize their own application level metadata. Users and IT experts in the WTSI can then query the metadata to find and track data. The aim of this paper is to describe how we designed and used (from both system and user viewpoints) iRODS as a data management system. Details are given about the problems faced and the solutions found when iRODS was implemented. A simple use case describing how users within the WTSI use iRODS is also introduced. Conclusions iRODS has been implemented and works as the production system for the sequencing pipeline of the WTSI. Both biologists and IT experts can now track and manage data, which could not previously be achieved. This novel approach allows biologists to define their own metadata and query the genomic data using those metadata. PMID:21906284

  14. Beyond eugenics: the forgotten scandal of hybridizing humans and apes.

    PubMed

    Etkind, Alexander

    2008-06-01

    This paper examines the available evidence on one of the most radical ideas in the history of eugenics and utopianism. In the mid-1920s, the zoology professor Ilia Ivanov submitted to the Soviet government a project for hybridizing humans and apes by means of artificial insemination. He received substantial financing and organized expeditions to Africa to catch apes for his experiments. His project caused an international sensation. The American Association for the Advancement of Atheism announced its fund-raising campaign to support Ivanov's project but gave it a scandalously racist interpretation. Ivanov's own motivation remained unclear, as did the motivation of those in the Bolshevik government who supported Ivanov until his arrest in 1930. This paper discusses three hypothetical reasons for Ivanov's adventure: first, hybridization between humans and apes, should it be successful, would support the atheist propaganda of the Bolsheviks; second, regardless of the success of hybridization, Ivanov would catch and bring to Russia apes, which were necessary for the rejuvenation programs that were fashionable among the Bolshevik elite; and third, hybridization, should it be successful, would pave the way to the New Socialist Man whose 'construction by scientific means' was the official purpose of the Bolsheviks. Ivanov's ideas were arguably important for the American proponent of reform eugenics, Herman Muller, and for the Soviet anthropologist Boris Porshnev.

  15. Huntington's disease: do future physicians and lawyers think eugenically?

    PubMed

    Elger, B; Harding, T

    2003-10-01

    The availability of presymptomatic and prenatal genetic tests could give rise to societal pressures on persons at risk for Huntington's disease (HD). The objective of this study was to identify future lawyers' and physicians' views on eugenics and genetic testing for HD. Five-hundred and ninety-nine Swiss law students and advanced medical students from 11 courses received teaching about HD and patient autonomy. They filled out questionnaires after having seen an audio/video recording of an interview with an HD mutation carrier. Participation rates were 68-97%. Attitudes of future lawyers and physicians were significantly different for most questions: 73.2% of law students vs 39.4% of medical students agreed that society should do everything possible to diminish the frequency of HD, including non-governmental pressure on carriers to undergo systematic genetic testing and recommendation of sterilization; 94% of all students agreed to the systematic proposal of prenatal testing to all women at risk; and 83.4% of medical students, but only 40.3% of law students, agreed that the wishes of a person at risk not to have her/himself and future children tested must be entirely respected. More education is needed to discourage eugenic pressures and discrimination of persons at risk of HD and other genetic diseases.

  16. [Scientific psychology in the works of Eugen Bleuler].

    PubMed

    Möller, A; Hell, D

    1999-07-01

    The name of Eugen Bleuler is usually known in the context of the definition and conceptualization of schizophrenic disorders. Main other topics, less known in literature, are alcoholism, forensic psychiatry and general psychological topics of meaning of consclousness, formation of motive and will. Bleulers point of view presents itself as an empirically-based and anti-philosophic one, definitely deterministic concerning the topic of human "freedom of will". Eugen Bleuler refers to an already (especially by Richard Semon) systematically developed theory called "mnemism" that he interpreted and applied to the psychological circumstances mentioned above. That theory of "mnemism", that can be most adequately described as a biogenetic-vitalistic theory, is assuming, that all organic life--independent of the possibility of a self-reflecting consciousness--is able to learn experiences made by analysis of environment and to pass it on following generations. Pattern of stimulus reactions are in the sense of this theory memorized and reactivated under similar situational circumstances by the psychological mode of association. The influence of psychoanalytical theories, especially the presumed importance of infantil sexuality, on Bleulers understanding of a medical psychology seems to fade over the years.

  17. HLA-C locus allelic dropout in Sanger sequence-based typing due to intronic single nucleotide polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Christopher; Kashi, Zahra Mehdizadeh; Martin, Russell; Woodruff, Gillian; Dinauer, David; Agostini, Tina

    2014-12-01

    We report a novel HLA-C allele that was identified during routine HLA typing using sequence-based methods. The patient was initially typed as a C*06:02, 06:04 with two nucleotide mismatches in exon 3, (C to T and T to G changes) which would have resulted in a non-synonymous mutation of a leucine residue being replaced with tryptophan. Further resolution of the patient's type by using sequence-specific primers (SSP) revealed that the companion allele to C*06:02 was a novel C*17:01. Confirmation of the existence of the new allele was performed across multiple platforms: Sanger sequencing, SSP, and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) on the original sample and allele-specific clones for the entire HLA-C locus. The investigation revealed a single nucleotide mismatch within the Sanger sequencing primer binding site in intron 3. The mutation caused the initial C*17 dropout in exons 2 and 3. Further analysis of the Sanger and NGS data revealed that the C*17 had two additional unique positions in introns 2 and 7. The companion C*06:02 allele also possessed a novel position at intron 3. On August 31, 2013, the WHO nomenclature committee officially named the novel C*17:01 allele sequence as C*17:01:01:03 and the novel C*06:02 allele sequence as C*06:02:01:03.

  18. "A century of civilization under the influence of eugenics": Dr. Enrique Diego Madrazo, socialism and scientific progress.

    PubMed

    Cleminson, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the thought of one of the pioneers of eugenics in Spain, Dr. Enrique Diego Madrazo. In particular, it analyses his 1930 essay Un siglo de civilización bajo la influencia eugenésica [A Century of Civilization under the Influence of Eugenics], as the most explicit work on the eugenic utopia he advocated. This work, because of its breadth, was also one of the most extensive and detailed accounts of the steps to be taken towards the eugenic society that was produced. The present analysis of his work assesses the degree to which his thought, which has been described as "utopian socialist", in fact corresponded to that epithet, given the politically authoritarian nature and the gender bias of some aspects of his one-hundred year plan for the creation of a eugenic society. The article also places Madrazo's thought in the context of his time and other national currents of eugenic thought.

  19. Sterilization and birth control in the shadow of eugenics: married, middle-class women in Alberta, 1930-1960s.

    PubMed

    Dyck, Erika

    2014-01-01

    The history of eugenic sterilization connotes draconian images of coerced and involuntary procedures robbing men and women of their reproductive health. While eugenics programs often fit this characterization, there is another, smaller, and less obvious legacy of eugenics that arguably contributed to a more empowering image of reproductive health. Sexual sterilization surgeries as a form of contraception began to gather momentum alongside eugenics programs in the middle of the 20th century and experiences among prairie women serve as an illustrative example. Alberta maintained its eugenics program from 1929 to 1972 and engaged in thousands of eugenic sterilizations, but by the 1940s middle-class married women pressured their Albertan physicians to provide them with sterilization surgeries to control fertility, as a matter of choice. The multiple meanings and motivations behind this surgery introduced a moral quandary for physicians, which encourages medical historians to revisit the history of eugenics and its relationship to the contemporaneous birth control movement.

  20. Eugenic sterilization and a qualified Nazi analogy: the United States and Germany, 1930-1945.

    PubMed

    Sofair, A N; Kaldjian, L C

    2000-02-15

    In the United States and Germany before World War II, physicians participated in state-authorized eugenic sterilization programs in an attempt to prevent persons deemed to possess undesirable heritable characteristics from propagating. A comparison of U.S. and German histories reveals similarities that argue against easy dismissal of a Nazi analogy. On the basis of a review of editorials in New England Journal of Medicine and Journal of the American Medical Association from 1930 to 1945 it is difficult to accept the suggestion that the alliance between the medical profession and the eugenics movement in the United States was short-lived. Comparison of the histories of the eugenic sterilization campaigns in the United States and Nazi Germany reveals important similarities of motivation, intent, and strategy and differences that explain why support for eugenic sterilization in the United States gradually weakened. The eugenics movement in Germany was influenced by economic crisis, radical nationalism, Hitler's totalitarianism, and the medical profession's willing participation and attraction to Nazism for financial and ideological reasons. In the United States, a combination of public unease, Roman Catholic opposition, federal democracy, judicial review, and critical scrutiny by the medical profession reversed the momentum of the eugenics movement and led to the conclusion that eugenic sterilization should be voluntary.

  1. The strength of a loosely defined movement: eugenics and medicine in imperial Russia.

    PubMed

    Krementsov, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines the 'infiltration' of eugenics into Russian medical discourse during the formation of the eugenics movement in western Europe and North America in 1900-17. It describes the efforts of two Russian physicians, the bacteriologist and hygienist Nikolai Gamaleia (1859-1949) and the psychiatrist Tikhon Iudin (1879-1949), to introduce eugenics to the Russian medical community, analysing in detail what attracted these representatives of two different medical specialties to eugenic ideas, ideals, and policies advocated by their western colleagues. On the basis of a close examination of the similarities and differences in Gamaleia's and Iudin's attitudes to eugenics, the essay argues that lack of cohesiveness gave the early eugenics movement a unique strength. The loose mix of widely varying ideas, ideals, methods, policies, activities and proposals covered by the umbrella of eugenics offered to a variety of educated professionals in Russia and elsewhere the possibility of choosing, adopting and adapting particular elements to their own national, professional, institutional and disciplinary contexts, interests and agendas.

  2. Confronting the stigma of eugenics: genetics, demography and the problems of population.

    PubMed

    Ramsden, Edmund

    2009-12-01

    Building upon the work of Thomas Gieryn and Erving Goffman, this paper will explore how the concepts of stigma and boundary work can be usefully applied to history of population science. Having been closely aligned to eugenics in the early 20th century, from the 1930s both demographers and geneticists began to establish a boundary between their own disciplines and eugenic ideology. The eugenics movement responded to this process of stigmatization. Through strategies defined by Goffman as 'disclosure' and 'concealment', stigma was managed, and a limited space for eugenics was retained in science and policy. Yet by the 1960s, a revitalized eugenics movement was bringing leading social and biological scientists together through the study of the genetic demography of characteristics such as intelligence. The success of this programme of 'stigma transformation' resulted from its ability to allow geneticists and demographers to conceive of eugenic improvement in ways that seemed consistent with the ideals of individuality, diversity and liberty. In doing so, it provided them with an alternative, and a challenge, to more radical and controversial programmes to realize an optimal genotype and population. The processes of stigma attribution and management are, however, ongoing, and since the rise of the nature-nurture controversy in the 1970s, the use of eugenics as a 'stigma symbol' has prevailed.

  3. The Strength of a Loosely Defined Movement: Eugenics and Medicine in Imperial Russia

    PubMed Central

    Krementsov, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines the ‘infiltration’ of eugenics into Russian medical discourse during the formation of the eugenics movement in western Europe and North America in 1900–17. It describes the efforts of two Russian physicians, the bacteriologist and hygienist Nikolai Gamaleia (1859–1949) and the psychiatrist Tikhon Iudin (1879–1949), to introduce eugenics to the Russian medical community, analysing in detail what attracted these representatives of two different medical specialties to eugenic ideas, ideals, and policies advocated by their western colleagues. On the basis of a close examination of the similarities and differences in Gamaleia’s and Iudin’s attitudes to eugenics, the essay argues that lack of cohesiveness gave the early eugenics movement a unique strength. The loose mix of widely varying ideas, ideals, methods, policies, activities and proposals covered by the umbrella of eugenics offered to a variety of educated professionals in Russia and elsewhere the possibility of choosing, adopting and adapting particular elements to their own national, professional, institutional and disciplinary contexts, interests and agendas. PMID:25498435

  4. What the Study of Eminence Can Teach Us: Presidential Address to Division 10 of the American Psychological Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Robert S.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a revised theory of what eminence is, its relation to productivity, its measurement, and the markers for it. The Bronte family is used for illustration. Concludes that persons who are truly eminent (who create original and significant work) and persons who are simply high achievers, tend to come from different families entirely and that…

  5. Eminence-Focused Gifted Education: Concerns about Forward Movement Void of an Equity Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantham, Tarek C.

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on Grantham's commentary on an eminence-focused gifted education model developed by Subotnik, Olszewski-Kubilius, and Worrell. Grantham primarily reviews the model from an equity perspective, taking into account the changing demographics in the nation's public schools. Specifically, Grantham asserts that education leaders…

  6. Alternative Pathways to Talent Development in Music: The Narrative of an Eminent Filipino Singer-Songwriter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garces-Bacsal, Rhoda Myra

    2014-01-01

    The narrative of an eminent Filipino singer-songwriter, Noel Cabangon, provides a description of an alternative pathway to musical talent development. Most theories on talent development assume that a young artist would have access to the resources required for one to advance in the domain. The results of multiple in-depth interviews suggested…

  7. Is Mandibular Fossa Morphology and Articular Eminence Inclination Associated with Temporomandibular Dysfunction?

    PubMed Central

    Paknahad, Maryam; Shahidi, Shoaleh; Akhlaghian, Marzieh; Abolvardi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Finding a significant relationship between temporomandibular joint (TMJ) morphology and the incidence of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) may help early prediction and prevention of these problems. Purpose The purpose of the present study was to determine the morphology of mandibular fossa and the articular eminence inclination in patients with TMD and in control group using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Method The CBCT data of bilateral TMJs of 40 patients with TMD and 23 symptom-free cases were evaluated. The articular eminence inclination, as well as the glenoid fossa depth and width of the mandibular fossa were measured. The paired t-test was used to compare these values between two groups. Results The articular eminence inclination and glenoid fossa width and depth were significantly higher in patients with TMD than in the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusion The articular eminence inclination was steeper in patients with TMD than in the control group. Glenoid fossa width and depth were higher in patients with TMD than that in the control group. This information may shed light on the relationship between TMJ morphology and the incidence of TMD. PMID:27284559

  8. Linking Extreme Precocity and Adult Eminence: A Study of Eight Prodigies at International Chess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    Do prodigies have extraordinary innate talent or do they just start very early and get much practice? Why do relatively few become eminent as adults? Is it because early and later success often need somewhat different abilities and gatekeepers rule? International chess is a good test domain for both issues because it has objective longitudinal…

  9. Eminence-Focused Gifted Education: Concerns about Forward Movement Void of an Equity Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantham, Tarek C.

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on Grantham's commentary on an eminence-focused gifted education model developed by Subotnik, Olszewski-Kubilius, and Worrell. Grantham primarily reviews the model from an equity perspective, taking into account the changing demographics in the nation's public schools. Specifically, Grantham asserts that education leaders…

  10. Childhood Giftedness and Adulthood Genius: A Historiometric Analysis of 291 Eminent African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2008-01-01

    Although the association between giftedness and genius has been the subject of several retrospective, longitudinal, and historiometric studies, this research concentrated on majority-culture samples. In the current study, Cox's (1926) findings regarding 301 geniuses were replicated on a sample of 291 eminent African Americans. Relative genius was…

  11. Alternative Pathways to Talent Development in Music: The Narrative of an Eminent Filipino Singer-Songwriter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garces-Bacsal, Rhoda Myra

    2014-01-01

    The narrative of an eminent Filipino singer-songwriter, Noel Cabangon, provides a description of an alternative pathway to musical talent development. Most theories on talent development assume that a young artist would have access to the resources required for one to advance in the domain. The results of multiple in-depth interviews suggested…

  12. Childhood Giftedness and Adulthood Genius: A Historiometric Analysis of 291 Eminent African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2008-01-01

    Although the association between giftedness and genius has been the subject of several retrospective, longitudinal, and historiometric studies, this research concentrated on majority-culture samples. In the current study, Cox's (1926) findings regarding 301 geniuses were replicated on a sample of 291 eminent African Americans. Relative genius was…

  13. Linking Extreme Precocity and Adult Eminence: A Study of Eight Prodigies at International Chess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    Do prodigies have extraordinary innate talent or do they just start very early and get much practice? Why do relatively few become eminent as adults? Is it because early and later success often need somewhat different abilities and gatekeepers rule? International chess is a good test domain for both issues because it has objective longitudinal…

  14. [Constant or break? On the relations between human genetics and eugenics in the Twentieth Century].

    PubMed

    Germann, Pascal

    2015-07-01

    The history of human genetics has been a neglected topic in history of science and medicine for a long time. Only recently, have medical historians begun to pay more attention to the history of human heredity. An important research question deals with the interconnections between human genetics and eugenics. This paper addresses this question: By focusing on a Swiss case study, the investigation of the heredity of goiter, I will argue that there existed close but also ambiguous relations between heredity research and eugenics in the twentieth century. Studies on human heredity often produced evidence that challenged eugenic aims and ideas. Concurrently, however, these studies fostered visions of genetic improvement of human populations.

  15. [Therapeutic and eugenic termination of pregnancy: technical indications].

    PubMed

    Faguer, C; Chouraqui, A; Najali, B

    1986-12-01

    131 therapeutic and eugenic abortions performed at the Saint-Antoine Hospital in Paris between July 1977 and December 1984 are analyzed. There were 6.5 therapeutic and eugenic abortions and 2106 abortions for social reasons per 1000 live births during the period. The number of therapeutic and eugenic abortions per complete year has ranged from 11 to 19 except for an unexplained peak of 32 in 1983. 30 of the 131 abortions were for maternal indications, including 8 cases each of psychiatric and cardiac disorders, 4 each of digestive and respiratory disorders, and 1 each of ophthalmologic disorder, breast cancer, hydronephrosis, hemolytic anemia, cerebral motor infirmity, and rape. Among fetal indications, there were 38 cases of chromosomal anomalies, 29 of fetal malformations, 18 of infection including rubeola and toxoplasmosis, 9 of irradiation early in pregnancy, and 7 of presumed risks of medications. The number of abortions for fetal malformations diagnosed by sonography has been steadily increasing. 25 of the abortions for maternal indications were performed before the 15th week of gestation. All except 1 abortion for chromosomal anomalies diagnosed by amniocentesis occurred around 21 weeks of pregnancy. All except 3 abortions for fetal malformations occurred between 15 and 28 weeks. 6 for infection occurred before and 12 after 15 weeks of pregnancy. All abortions for irradiation and 6 of 7 for presumed risks of drugs occurred before 15 weeks. The abortion technique utilized was a function of gestational age and the year the abortion occurred. All 32 abortions before 12 weeks were by dilatation and aspiration. 7 hysterotomies were performed in cases of scarred uterus or failure of abortifacient agents. Intraamniotic injection of saline solution was replaced in October 1980 by use of prostaglandin F2 alpha, which was used until March 1983 when prostaglandin E2 was substituted. The data show a clear decline in the number of abortions for maternal indications

  16. [The association between thenar eminence and I-gel™ dimensions in paediatric patients].

    PubMed

    Cuvas Apan, Ozgun; Apan, Alparslan

    2016-01-01

    A practical anatomic landmark may be helpful to perform the appropriate size of the airway devices easily in paediatric patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between thenar eminence and I-gel dimensions in children. After Institutional Ethics Committee approval, two hundred and seventy ASA Class I-II patients between 0 and 12 years old, who were scheduled for elective procedures under general anaesthesia not requiring tracheal intubation, were recruited to the study. The size of the I-gel selected was based on the patient's body weight according to the manufacturer's recommendation. After successful insertion of the I-gel, thenar eminence dimensions were determined. Long-axis (Th-l) was measured from junction point of the thumb to wrist curl and short-axis (Th-w) constitutes the largest portion of the thenar eminence from lateral end of the thumb to the first hand line. The manufacturer's dimensions of the I-gel which was inserted into the patients were compared with the measurements obtained from thenar eminence. The mean (SD) values for (Ig-w) and (Ig-l) were 2.98cm (0.53) and 4.54cm (0.82), and the mean (SD) values for (Th-w) and (Th-l) were 2.99cm (0.60) and 3.88cm (0.93), respectively. There was a statistically significant correlation between Th-w and Ig-w (r=0.794, p<0.001), and between Th-l and Ig-l (r=0.820, p<0.001). The dimensions of thenar eminence were fitted to that of the weight based size of I-gel and this anatomic landmark may be a practical tool to assess appropriate size for paediatric patients. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Differences in articular-eminence inclination between medieval and contemporary human populations.

    PubMed

    Kranjčić, Josip; Vojvodić, Denis; Žabarović, Domagoj; Vodanović, Marin; Komar, Daniel; Mehulić, Ketij

    2012-08-01

    The articular-eminence inclination is an important element in the biomechanics of the temporomandibular joint and the entire masticatory system; however, very little is known about this inclination in archaeological human populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the values of, in addition to the differences between, the articular-eminence inclination in medieval and contemporary human populations. The study was carried out on two dry skull groups. The first group consisted of 14 dry skulls from the medieval culture group Bijelo Brdo (BB) of East Croatia, and the other consisted of 137 recent dry skulls from the osteologic collection of the Institute of Anatomy (IA) in Zagreb. All BB skulls were dentulous, whereas the IA skulls were divided into dentulous and edentulous groups. The articular-eminence inclination was measured in relation to the Frankfurt horizontal plane on digital images of the skull's two lateral views using AutoCAD computer software. The mean value of the articular-eminence inclination in the BB sample group (49.57°) was lower, with a statistical significance (p<0.01), than those of the IA dentulous (61.56°), the IA edentulous (62.54°), and all the combined IA (61.99°) specimens. Because the values of the articular-eminence inclination can vary a lot with reference to the number of specimens and the different methods used for measuring, the obtained values yield only orientational information. Further investigations including a larger number of medieval specimens are needed to confirm the results obtained from this study.

  18. An attempt at unmasking Eugene O'Neill.

    PubMed

    Dimitrijevic, Aleksandar

    2005-01-01

    Masks appear in several of Eugene O'Neill's early plays, serving not as a mere technical innovation, but rather as a way to explore "hidden conflicts" of human nature. This article explores three factors that could have provoked this sensitivity to the motif of masking. First is the influence of Greek tragedy--itself a domain of "the masked God"--which O'Neill tried to restore through several of his plays. Second is O'Neill's insight into the connection between modern man's selfhood and the process of masking, several decades before psychoanalysts have approached it scientifically, in complete accordance with Kohut's hypothesis about the "anticipatory function of art". The final factor consists of both his early development and his later life--especially his three marriages--as revealed through extensive biographies, correspondence, and plays. The article suggests that the most important influence on O'Neill's sensitivity to motif of masking was his mother's morphine addiction.

  19. Inbreeding, eugenics, and Helen Dean King (1869-1955).

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, Marilyn Bailey

    2007-01-01

    Helen Dean King's scientific work focused on inbreeding using experimental data collected from standardized laboratory rats to elucidate problems in human heredity. The meticulous care with which she carried on her inbreeding experiments assured that her results were dependable and her theoretical explanations credible. By using her nearly homozygous rats as desired commodities, she also was granted access to venues and people otherwise unavailable to her as a woman. King's scientific career was made possible through her life experiences. She earned a doctorate from Bryn Mawr College under Thomas Hunt Morgan and spent a productive career at the Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology in Philadelphia where she had access to the experimental subjects which made her career possible. In this paper I examine King's work on inbreeding, her participation in the debates over eugenics, her position at the Wistar Institute, her status as a woman working with mostly male scientists, and her involvement with popular science.

  20. Quality babies. China's "eugenics" guidelines are as old as civilization.

    PubMed

    1994-01-12

    Inaccurate translations inadvertently misrepresent policy directives from China. Professional moralizers respond to the new laws with indignation. For example, an editorial in a US newspaper said that Americans objected to China's eugenic guidelines to prevent inferior quality infants. Yet, in the US and other developed countries, parents, and adult siblings do no allow their mentally retarded family members to procreate. Quiet abortions occur. In the US, deformed newborns are classified as stillborns. In the 1950s in the US, state governments allowed sterilization of handicapped people and even alcoholics. The moralizers expect China to accomplish in 10 years what developed countries did in 100 years. China has a one-child policy to which many so-called human rights advocates object. Yet, China cannot sustain a population of 2 billion with the living standards to which it aspires. Granted, however, that China does create its own image problems. It needs to invest more in public relations, maybe employ image-building professionals from the US and Europe to circumvent the unintentional use of emotionally charged, historically loaded, or inappropriate terms and, therefore, to prevent the international media from overreacting. Nevertheless, moral dilemmas do exist with eugenics policies. Genetic markers can detect chromosomal abnormalities leading to mental retardation as well as later-life abnormalities; e.g., colon cancer. Markers may perhaps someday detect a propensity to criminal behavior, homosexuality, or alcoholism. Governments could forbid all genetic testing, resulting in families accepting whatever nature sends, but with the advancement of science, this is unrealistic. If it is banned in one country, people will go to a country where it is available. Since parents in both the US and China want healthy, good-looking and intelligent children US editorialists should not moralize about China while US couples have access to the most up-to-date genetic technology.

  1. Eugenics, sexual pedagogy and social change: constructing the responsible subject of governmentality in the Spanish Second Republic.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Alonso, Belén

    2008-06-01

    This study focuses on eugenics in Spain, and more specifically on the 'official' eugenics whose platform was the Primeras Jornadas Eugénicas Españolas (First Spanish Eugenic Days, FSED). The aim of this paper is to relate eugenics to 'governmentality' rather than to State politics alone and to 'Latin eugenics' rather than to 'mainline eugenics'. On the one hand, the FSED were largely centred on the development of a new sexual code which would set Catholic sexual morality aside. For this reason, sexual pedagogy was one of the most relevant topics during the FSED, personal responsibility becoming the first step to social change. The concern about making people play an active role in their own self-regulation is typical of governmentality. The latter refers to societies where power is decentered and where the objective is to structure the field of action of others (the conduct of conduct). On the other hand, the FSED emphasised preventive eugenics such as welfare programmes and health campaigns rather than negative eugenics such as the sterilisation of the unfit. The situation in Spain was mirrored in countries such as Brazil, Argentina and Mexico, which allows us to think about them in terms of 'Latin eugenics' rather than 'mainline eugenics' from countries such as Great Britain, Germany and the USA.

  2. Astronaut Eugene Cernan prepares to mount ladder to lunar module ascent stage

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-12-13

    Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, Apollo 17 commander, prepares to mount ladder to lunar module ascent stage. Note the plaque attached to the ladder which will be left with the descent stage when the mission lifts off from the lunar surface.

  3. From nation to family: two careers in the recasting of eugenics.

    PubMed

    Slavishak, Edward

    2009-01-01

    By examining the professional lives of two popularizers of eugenic thought from the 1910s to the 1940s, this study illustrates the broader change from "mainline" to "reform" eugenics in the United States. Roswell Hill Johnson's university teaching, laboratory research, and later marriage counseling work contrasted greatly with George Seibel's forays into eugenic theater moral reform, and mass physical fitness movements. Yet both men shifted from a strict position of mandating other people's behavior in the name of national health and racial integrity to a more therapeutic stance that cast individual decisions in the context of managed family life. This study shows that for some, the transformation of eugenics in the 1930s meant adapting the traditional focus on superiority, inferiority, and reproduction by design to the language of a commercial marketplace.

  4. When the time seems ripe: eugenics, the annals, and the subtle persistence of typological thinking.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Kenneth M; Lambert, Brian W

    2011-05-01

    This journal began in 1925 as the Annals of Eugenics. Much has changed since then. The original Editors' primary eugenic objective was not achieved, and eugenics justifiably became notorious for racism and gross abuse of human rights. But one founding aim was to publish advances in statistical genetics, and that objective prospered in the journal's pages from its beginning to the present day. The online availability of the original issues will be useful to those interested in the history of both eugenics and human genetics and will provide a reminder of how the careless use of genetical concepts can go astray. © 2010 The Authors Annals of Human Genetics © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/University College London.

  5. Progressing from eugenics to human genetics. celebrating the 70th birthday of professor Newton E. Morton.

    PubMed

    Li, C C

    2000-01-01

    Eugenics, unlike science, involves decision making on various issues, and decision making involves the risk of making errors. This communication first clarifies the nature and seriousness of making errors known as type II in the statistical literature, i.e. the error of punishing a person when he is not guilty of the crime attributed to him. Eugenic laws in China and the eugenic movements in England and the United States are briefly reviewed. The explosive advances made in medical and population genetics in the last 40 years are replacing the conventional eugenics programs by new approaches. Modern genetic counseling has been introduced as the intermediate agent between the scientist and the family that needs advice. It is stressed that individual rights must be respected under all circumstances.

  6. Sanger and Next-Generation Sequencing data for characterization of CTL epitopes in archived HIV-1 proviral DNA.

    PubMed

    Tumiotto, Camille; Riviere, Lionel; Bellecave, Pantxika; Recordon-Pinson, Patricia; Vilain-Parce, Alice; Guidicelli, Gwenda-Line; Fleury, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    One of the strategies for curing viral HIV-1 is a therapeutic vaccine involving the stimulation of cytotoxic CD8-positive T cells (CTL) that are Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA)-restricted. The lack of efficiency of previous vaccination strategies may have been due to the immunogenic peptides used, which could be different from a patient's virus epitopes and lead to a poor CTL response. To counteract this lack of specificity, conserved epitopes must be targeted. One alternative is to gather as many data as possible from a large number of patients on their HIV-1 proviral archived epitope variants, taking into account their genetic background to select the best presented CTL epitopes. In order to process big data generated by Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) of the DNA of HIV-infected patients, we have developed a software package called TutuGenetics. This tool combines an alignment derived either from Sanger or NGS files, HLA typing, target gene and a CTL epitope list as input files. It allows automatic translation after correction of the alignment obtained between the HxB2 reference and the reads, followed by automatic calculation of the MHC IC50 value for each epitope variant and the HLA allele of the patient by using NetMHCpan 3.0, resulting in a csv file as output result. We validated this new tool by comparing Sanger and NGS (454, Roche) sequences obtained from the proviral DNA of patients at success of ART included in the Provir Latitude 45 study and showed a 90% correlation between the quantitative results of NGS and Sanger. This automated analysis combined with complementary samples should yield more data regarding the archived CTL epitopes according to the patients' HLA alleles and will be useful for screening epitopes that in theory are presented efficiently to the HLA groove, thus constituting promising immunogenic peptides for a therapeutic vaccine.

  7. A simplified Sanger sequencing method for full genome sequencing of multiple subtypes of human influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yi-Mo; Spirason, Natalie; Iannello, Pina; Jelley, Lauren; Lau, Hilda; Barr, Ian G

    2015-07-01

    Full genome sequencing of influenza A viruses (IAV), including those that arise from annual influenza epidemics, is undertaken to determine if reassorting has occurred or if other pathogenic traits are present. Traditionally IAV sequencing has been biased toward the major surface glycoproteins haemagglutinin and neuraminidase, while the internal genes are often ignored. Despite the development of next generation sequencing (NGS), many laboratories are still reliant on conventional Sanger sequencing to sequence IAV. To develop a minimal and robust set of primers for Sanger sequencing of the full genome of IAV currently circulating in humans. A set of 13 primer pairs was designed that enabled amplification of the six internal genes of multiple human IAV subtypes including the recent avian influenza A(H7N9) virus from China. Specific primers were designed to amplify the HA and NA genes of each IAV subtype of interest. Each of the primers also incorporated a binding site at its 5'-end for either a forward or reverse M13 primer, such that only two M13 primers were required for all subsequent sequencing reactions. This minimal set of primers was suitable for sequencing the six internal genes of all currently circulating human seasonal influenza A subtypes as well as the avian A(H7N9) viruses that have infected humans in China. This streamlined Sanger sequencing protocol could be used to generate full genome sequence data more rapidly and easily than existing influenza genome sequencing protocols. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Eugene – A Domain Specific Language for Specifying and Constraining Synthetic Biological Parts, Devices, and Systems

    PubMed Central

    Bilitchenko, Lesia; Liu, Adam; Cheung, Sherine; Weeding, Emma; Xia, Bing; Leguia, Mariana; Anderson, J. Christopher; Densmore, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Background Synthetic biological systems are currently created by an ad-hoc, iterative process of specification, design, and assembly. These systems would greatly benefit from a more formalized and rigorous specification of the desired system components as well as constraints on their composition. Therefore, the creation of robust and efficient design flows and tools is imperative. We present a human readable language (Eugene) that allows for the specification of synthetic biological designs based on biological parts, as well as provides a very expressive constraint system to drive the automatic creation of composite Parts (Devices) from a collection of individual Parts. Results We illustrate Eugene's capabilities in three different areas: Device specification, design space exploration, and assembly and simulation integration. These results highlight Eugene's ability to create combinatorial design spaces and prune these spaces for simulation or physical assembly. Eugene creates functional designs quickly and cost-effectively. Conclusions Eugene is intended for forward engineering of DNA-based devices, and through its data types and execution semantics, reflects the desired abstraction hierarchy in synthetic biology. Eugene provides a powerful constraint system which can be used to drive the creation of new devices at runtime. It accomplishes all of this while being part of a larger tool chain which includes support for design, simulation, and physical device assembly. PMID:21559524

  9. When Harvard said no to eugenics: the J. Ewing Mears Bequest, 1927.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    James Ewing Mears (1838-1919) was a founding member of the Philadelphia Academy of Surgery. His 1910 book, The Problem of Race Betterment, laid the groundwork for later authors to explore the uses of surgical sterilization as a eugenic measure. Mears left $60,000 in his will to Harvard University to support the teaching of eugenics. Although numerous eugenic activists were on the Harvard faculty, and two of its Presidents were also associated with the eugenics movement, Harvard refused the Mears gift. The bequest was eventually awarded to Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia. This article explains why Harvard turned its back on a donation that would have supported instruction in a popular subject. Harvard's decision illustrates the range of opinion that existed on the efficacy of eugenic sterilization at the time. The Mears case also highlights a powerful irony: the same week Harvard turned down the Mears legacy, the U.S. Supreme Court endorsed eugenic sterilization in the landmark case of Buck v. Bell. Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., graduate of Harvard and former member of its law faculty wrote the opinion in that case, including the famous conclusion: "Three generations of imbeciles are enough."

  10. Loss of COUP-TFI alters the balance between caudal ganglionic eminence- and medial ganglionic eminence-derived cortical interneurons and results in resistance to epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lodato, Simona; Tomassy, Giulio Srubek; De Leonibus, Elvira; Uzcategui, Yoryani G; Andolfi, Gennaro; Armentano, Maria; Touzot, Audrey; Gaztelu, Jose M; Arlotta, Paola; Menendez de la Prida, Liset; Studer, Michèle

    2011-03-23

    In rodents, cortical interneurons originate from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) and caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE) according to precise temporal schedules. The mechanisms controlling the specification of CGE-derived interneurons and their role in cortical circuitry are still unknown. Here, we show that COUP-TFI expression becomes restricted to the dorsal MGE and CGE at embryonic day 13.5 in the basal telencephalon. Conditional loss of function of COUP-TFI in subventricular precursors and postmitotic cells leads to a decrease of late-born, CGE-derived, VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide)- and CR (calretinin)-expressing bipolar cortical neurons, compensated by the concurrent increase of early-born MGE-derived, PV (parvalbumin)-expressing interneurons. Strikingly, COUP-TFI mutants are more resistant to pharmacologically induced seizures, a phenotype that is dependent on GABAergic signaling. Together, our data indicate that COUP-TFI controls the delicate balance between MGE- and CGE-derived cortical interneurons by regulating intermediate progenitor divisions and ultimately affecting the activity of the cortical inhibitory circuitry.

  11. Eugenics discourse and racial improvement in Republican China (1911-1949).

    PubMed

    Sihn, Kyu-hwan

    2010-12-31

    This paper aimed to examine the advent of eugenics and its characteristics in republican China. Although eugenics was introduced into China as a discourse to preserve and improve race by the 1898 reformers such as Yan Fu (1854-1921) and Yi Nai (1875-?) in the late imperial period, it was not until the republican period that eugenics discourse started to combine with the discourse and movement related to social reform. The May 4th intellectuals put forward criticisms of Confucian patriarchy, propagating science and democracy. They pointed out that the large family system was a source of every social evil, and argued the need for a small family system based on monogamy. The aim of the small family system was to improve both the race and the environment. Such thinkers argued that freedom of love and the liberation of individuality were necessary for this end. Zhou Jianren (1888-1984), Lu Xun's youngest brother and representative eugenicist in the May 4th period, combined eugenics with freedom of love and the liberation of individuality. Pan Guangdan (1899-1967) and Zhou Jianren debated the eugenics controversy in the 1920s. They raised the freedom of love and the liberation of individuality as central issues related to the eugenics controversy. The eugenics debate was developed into the controversy between biological determinism and environmentalism in the late 1920s. However, these issues did not continue to be brought up in the 1930s. The main issues concerning the eugenics controversy in the 1930s were cultural identity and the population problem. Particularly in the 1930s, the scope of birth control as the solution to the population problem was extended from the individual person and family to nation and race. For eugenicists like Pan Guangdan, birth control violated the aim of eugenics and brought about the degeneration of the race. However, such theorists did not deny the value of birth control itself. The supporters of birth control thought that selecting

  12. The meaning of eugenics: reflections on the government of genetic knowledge in the past and the present.

    PubMed

    Koch, Lene

    2004-09-01

    The recent development of molecular genetics has created concern that society may experience a new eugenics. Notions about eugenics and what took place in the 1930s and 1940s are actively shaping questions about which uses of new genetics should be considered illegitimate. Drawing upon a body of historiographical literature on Scandinavian eugenics, this paper argues that the dominant view of eugenics as morally and scientifically illegitimate is not tenable when it comes to the uses of compulsion, political motivation, and scientific acceptability. In spite of a general condemnation of eugenics, health authorities today are trying to prevent individuals with deviant behavior from reproducing or at least from rearing children. This may not be argued with reference to the risk of transmitting defective genes, but rather the risk of producing undesirable social problems. Drawing on a Foucauldian approach, the paper concludes that eugenics and new genetics should be seen as two historically specific forms of biopower.

  13. [Development, dissemination and effectiveness of eugenic (racial public health) ideas in the abuse of the prevention concept in medicine].

    PubMed

    Schneck, P

    1989-02-01

    The scientific social hygiene and the eugenics (racial hygiene) based on biologistical concepts nearly simultaneously developed by the turn from 19th to 20th century. Whereas the prophylaxis has been a centralized social-hygienic request, the eugenics has been orientated on the transfer of the principle of selection and the regulations of the human procreation. The intermixture of partial aspects of both these concepts by uptake of eugenic ideas into social-hygienic samples and the declaration of the eugenics to be the "generative prophylaxis" or "hygiene of procreation" during the first third of the 20th century caused a temporary abuse of the term prophylaxis in the medicine. The modern efforts at a genetic prophylaxis differ by their exact and individual performance and the principle of an absolute voluntariness from eugenic conceptions of any provenance. There term eugenics has for objective, ethical and historical reasons no longer its basis of existence to characterize this purpose of the medicine.

  14. In search of Aristotle: temperament, human nature, melancholia, creativity and eminence.

    PubMed

    Akiskal, Hagop S; Akiskal, Kareen K

    2007-06-01

    Is suffering associated with melancholia and "madness" necessary for artistic creativity and eminence? Or do creativity and leadership have something to do with the temperaments associated with affective disease? We integrate concepts dating back to Greek psychological medicine and philosophy--especially work attributed to Aristotle--with modern data-based examination of the role of cyclothymic and related temperaments in the interface between mixity, the bipolar spectrum and normality. We place our query within the general framework of evolutionary biology and human nature. In doing so, we propose that affective disease--including mania and associated psychotic states--exist because they serve as the genetic reservoir for adaptive temperaments and the genes for genius. Affective disorder can therefore be regarded as the price of exceptional greatness. Thus, creative and eminent individuals, by virtue of their being exceptional, occupy a somewhat unstable terrain between temperament and affective disease.

  15. Forty lives in the bebop business: mental health in a group of eminent jazz musicians.

    PubMed

    Wills, Geoffrey I

    2003-09-01

    Above-average levels of psychopathology have been demonstrated convincingly in groups of outstanding individuals working in the arts. Currently, jazz musicians have not been studied in this regard. To investigate any evidence of psychopathology in a group of eminent jazz musicians. Biographical material relating to 40 eminent American modern jazz musicians was reviewed and an attempt was made to formulate diagnoses using DSM-IV. Evidence was provided of levels of psychopathology in the sample of jazz musicians similar to those found in other previously investigated creative groups, with the exception of substance related problems. An interesting connection between creativity and sensation-seeking was highlighted. The link between psychopathology and creativity in the arts was given further weight. Future studies of jazz musicians using larger samples and making comparison with groups from different eras of music would give greater clarification to this area.

  16. Arthroscopic treatment of displaced tibial eminence fractures using a suspensory fixation

    PubMed Central

    Loriaut, Philippe; Moreau, Pierre-Emmanuel; Loriaut, Patrick; Boyer, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Background: Avulsion fractures of the tibial intercondylar eminence are fairly common injuries requiring surgery for the optimal functional outcome. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical and radiological outcomes of an arthroscopic treatment of displaced tibial intercondylar eminence fractures using a suspensory device. Material and Methods: Five patients with type 2 and 3 displaced tibial intercondylar eminence fractures who received an arthroscopically assisted fixation using a double button device were enrolled from 2011 to 2012. Clinical assessment included the patient demographics, cause of injury, the delay before surgery, time for surgery, time to return to work and sport, the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) and Lysholm knee scores. Stability was measured with the KT-2000 arthrometer with a force of 134 N. A side to side difference on the KT-2000 examination superior to 3 mm was considered as a significant and abnormal increase in the anterior translation. Radiological examination consisted of anteroposterior and lateral radiographs, as well as computed tomography (CT) scan of the affected knee. Clinical and radiological followup was done at 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively and at final followup. CT-scan was performed before surgery and at 3 months followup. Results: The median age of patients was 31 years. Mean followup was 27 ± 5.1 months. The average delay before surgery was 3 days. At final followup, the mean IKDC and Lysholm knee scores were, 93.9 and 94.5 respectively. All patients had a complete functional recovery and were able to return to work and to resume their sport activities. No secondary surgeries were required to remove hardware. No complication was noted. Bony union was achieved in all patients. Conclusion: The arthroscopic treatment of displaced tibial intercondylar eminence fractures using a suspensory system provided a satisfactory clinical and radiological outcome at a followup of 2 years. PMID

  17. Arthrofibrosis after surgical fixation of tibial eminence fractures in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vander Have, Kelly L; Ganley, Theodore J; Kocher, Mininder S; Price, Charles T; Herrera-Soto, Jose A

    2010-02-01

    Tibial eminence fractures are rare injuries in children and adolescents. Displaced fractures require reduction and fixation. Operative stabilization can be accomplished with either open or arthroscopic reduction and fixation. Whereas loss of extension has been reported, there are no reports in the literature that quantify loss of motion or provide guidance for treatment. To report a series of patients who developed knee stiffness after operative treatment for displaced tibial eminence fractures. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Review of medical records and imaging studies of pediatric patients with displaced tibial eminence fractures who developed arthrofibrosis after surgical intervention. Thirty-two patients were identified. Twenty-four required reoperation for loss of flexion (n = 9), loss of extension (n = 4), or both (n = 11). Manipulation under anesthesia resulted in distal femoral fractures and subsequent growth arrest in 3 patients. Twenty-nine patients were able to achieve near full knee motion at final follow-up. Children with tibial spine fractures are at risk for arthrofibrosis. Stabilization of the fracture is important to allow early postoperative rehabilitation. Should stiffness occur, manipulation of the knee should be performed only in conjunction with lysis of adhesions.

  18. Speed-Bridge arthroscopic reinsertion of tibial eminence fracture (complementary to the adjustable button fixation technique).

    PubMed

    Hardy, A; Casabianca, L; Grimaud, O; Meyer, A

    2017-02-01

    In comminuted fractures of the intercondyloid eminence of the tibial spine, the quality of the reduction and the arthroscopic fixation, notably adjustable suture button fixation, is sometimes disappointing with reduction defects of the anterior bone block. In the Speed-Bridge technique, the two traction sutures of the adjustable button fixation are replaced with two braided sutures of different colors. After the button is placed above the eminence, reduction is obtained by tightening the loop of the button. The accessory communitive fragments are then packed in the depression around the main fragment. A second row provides bone suturing for these accessory fragments; traction sutures of the button are attached anteromedially and laterally with knotless anchors to obtain a Speed-Bridge-type inverted-V bone suture. The Speed-Bridge arthroscopic reinsertion technique of the tibial eminence effectively completes the adjustable button bone suture technique for communitive fractures to obtain better reduction and good stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparing Whole-Genome Sequencing with Sanger Sequencing for spa Typing of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Andreas; Worning, Peder; Nielsen, Jesper Boye; Larner-Svensson, Hanna; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Andersen, Leif Percival; Jarløv, Jens Otto; Boye, Kit; Larsen, Anders Rhod; Westh, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    spa typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has traditionally been done by PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing of the spa repeat region. At Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of all MRSA isolates has been performed routinely since January 2013, and an in-house analysis pipeline determines the spa types. Due to national surveillance, all MRSA isolates are sent to Statens Serum Institut, where the spa type is determined by PCR and Sanger sequencing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the spa types obtained by 150-bp paired-end Illumina WGS. MRSA isolates from new MRSA patients in 2013 (n = 699) in the capital region of Denmark were included. We found a 97% agreement between spa types obtained by the two methods. All isolates achieved a spa type by both methods. Nineteen isolates differed in spa types by the two methods, in most cases due to the lack of 24-bp repeats in the whole-genome-sequenced isolates. These related but incorrect spa types should have no consequence in outbreak investigations, since all epidemiologically linked isolates, regardless of spa type, will be included in the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. This will reveal the close relatedness of the spa types. In conclusion, our data show that WGS is a reliable method to determine the spa type of MRSA. PMID:25297335

  20. Single nucleotide repeat analysis of B. anthracis isolates in Canada through comparison of pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Kristen R; Janzen, Timothy W; Thomas, Matthew C; Shields, Michael J; Goji, Noriko; Valle, Edith; Amoako, Kingsley K

    2014-03-14

    Several technology platforms have been developed to resolve the phylogenetic placement of B. anthracis. However, these methods lack the resolution to identify differences between closely related strains within an outbreak due to the highly clonal nature of B. anthracis. Single Nucleotide Repeats (SNRs) are a type of rapidly evolving genetic marker that can be used to track epidemiological distribution in the event of an outbreak. Four SNR targets were used to detect and type 35 B. anthracis isolates in our collection; 18 from across Canada obtained between 1972 and 2005 and 17 from the 2006 Anthrax outbreak in north eastern Saskatchewan. A control sequence was developed for pyrosequencing which yielded consistent and accurate reads of SNRs. However, when DNA from the isolates was tested using pyrosequencing the results were inconsistent and did not reflect the number of SNRs obtained by Sanger sequencing. The SNR numbers derived from the Sanger sequencing show two of the four SNR loci could provide information on subtype, whereas the other two were not discriminatory. There is variation in SNRs between strains isolated from different outbreaks, the subset of 2006 outbreak strains showed very little difference in SNR number, and thus suggests low diversity among the strains sampled from the same outbreak.

  1. Comparing whole-genome sequencing with Sanger sequencing for spa typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Petersen, Andreas; Worning, Peder; Nielsen, Jesper Boye; Larner-Svensson, Hanna; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Andersen, Leif Percival; Jarløv, Jens Otto; Boye, Kit; Larsen, Anders Rhod; Westh, Henrik

    2014-12-01

    spa typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has traditionally been done by PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing of the spa repeat region. At Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of all MRSA isolates has been performed routinely since January 2013, and an in-house analysis pipeline determines the spa types. Due to national surveillance, all MRSA isolates are sent to Statens Serum Institut, where the spa type is determined by PCR and Sanger sequencing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the spa types obtained by 150-bp paired-end Illumina WGS. MRSA isolates from new MRSA patients in 2013 (n = 699) in the capital region of Denmark were included. We found a 97% agreement between spa types obtained by the two methods. All isolates achieved a spa type by both methods. Nineteen isolates differed in spa types by the two methods, in most cases due to the lack of 24-bp repeats in the whole-genome-sequenced isolates. These related but incorrect spa types should have no consequence in outbreak investigations, since all epidemiologically linked isolates, regardless of spa type, will be included in the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. This will reveal the close relatedness of the spa types. In conclusion, our data show that WGS is a reliable method to determine the spa type of MRSA. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Leilani Muir versus the philosopher king: eugenics on trial in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Wahlsten, D

    1997-01-01

    The Province of Alberta in Canada was the only jurisdiction in the British Empire where a eugenic sterilization law was passed (in 1928) and vigorously implemented. The pace of sterilization orders accelerated during the Nazi era and remained high after World War II, terminating only in 1972 when the Sexual Sterilization Act was repealed. The Alberta Eugenics Board operated away from public and legislative scrutiny, and many things done in the name of eugenics were clearly illegal. Eugenics was put on trial in Alberta in 1995 and a judge of the Court of Queen's Bench ruled in 1996 that the government had wrongly sterilized Leilani Muir. After hearing evidence about the history of the eugenics movement, the origins of Alberta's Sexual Sterilization Act, the operation of the Eugenics Board, and details of Muir's life, Madam Justice Joanne B. Veit found that 'the damage inflicted by the operation was catastrophic', the 'wrongful stigmatization of Ms. Muir as a moron ... has humiliated Ms. Muir every day of her life', and 'the circumstances of Ms. Muir's sterilization were so high-handed and so contemptuous of the statutory authority to effect sterilization, and were undertaken in an atmosphere that so little respected Ms. Muir's human dignity that the community's, and the court's, sense of decency is offended'. Veit awarded Muir damages of $740,780 CAD and legal costs of $230,000 CAD. The order for Muir's sterilization was signed by John M. MacEachran, founder of the Department of Philosophy and Psychology at the University of Alberta and chairman of the Eugenics Board from 1929 to 1965. An exponent of Platonic idealism, MacEachran believed sterilization of children with a low IQ test score was a means of 'raising and safeguarding the purity of the race'. However, the Alberta Sterilization Act was passed and implemented with cavalier disregard for the principles of genetics as well as the rights of children.

  3. In memoriam: Eugene Pleasants Odum, 1913-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyers, J.M.; Johnston, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    Eugene Pleasants Odum, a Life Member of the AOU since 1932, an Elective Member since 1943, and a Fellow since 1951, died 10 August 2002 of an apparent heart attack while tending his garden. Gene was born in New Hampshire on 17 September 1913 and spent most of his childhood and college days in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. He developed a keen interest in birds and natural history during grade school, encouraged by his cousin, Dr. George Mayfield of the Tennessee Ornithological Society. At high school, Gene and his friend Coit Coker started a bird magazine and a newspaper column called “Bird Life in Chapel Hill.” Gene never tired of teaching and used every opportunity to inform people enthusiastically about birds and the environment. While at home on breaks from graduate school, he taught his younger brother Howard Thomas Odum (1924–2002), then in high school, much of the ecology that he learned from pioneers such as Victor E. Shelford and his major professor S. Charles Kendeigh. Howard, known as H.T. or Tom, described Gene as one of his five great teachers. Gene developed his holistic vision of science in part from the sociological teachings and interdisciplinary approaches of his father, sociologist Howard W. Odum.

  4. [Eugen Bleuler (1857-1939) and German psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Tölle, R

    2008-01-01

    Eugen Bleuler was born 150 years ago, and about 100 years ago he published his "Schizophrenia" for the very first time-giving rise to a retrospective view especially concerning German psychiatry. Together with Emil Kraepelin, who was more or less of the same epoch as Freud, E. Bleuler is one of the fathers of modern psychiatry. From the broad spectrum of his psychiatry with many findings, two achievements are particularly meaningful: the schizophrenia monography of 1911 and the first edition of his educational manual from 1916. Psychiatry owes two achievements to E. Bleuler: "deepened" psychopathology, which depicted schizophrenic symptoms and their relation, and the importance of psychoanalysis for psychiatry. Bleuler was not a psychoanalyst himself but rather a pluridimensional psychiatrist in the best sense of the word and at the same time sympathetic to psychoanalysis. The reception and historical effect of Bleuler's work are described. Another important subject that Bleuler himself regarded as the central field in his work is pointed out: the fight against alcoholism.

  5. Epistemological aspects of Eugen Bleuler's conception of schizophrenia in 1911.

    PubMed

    Stotz-Ingenlath, G

    2000-01-01

    Eugen Bleuler, in 1911, renamed the group of mental disorders with poor prognosis which Emil Kraepelin had called "dementia praecox" "group of schizophrenias", because for him the splitting of personality was the main symptom. Biographical, scientific and methodological influences on Bleuler's concept of schizophrenia are shown with special reference to Kraepelin and Freud. Bleuler was a passionate and very experienced clinician. He lived with his patients, taking care of them and writing down his observations. Methodologically he was an empiricist and an eclecticist with a wide reading knowledge. In an impaired association of ideas, in disordered affectivity, in marked ambivalence and autism Bleuler saw the main symptoms of schizophrenia. For him these so-called pathological phenomena actually seemed to be only exaggerations of normal psychic functions. So there were only a quantitative, not a qualitative difference between schizophrenia and normal psychic processes and studies on schizophrenic "pathology"--seen as a disturbance, not as a disease--might analogously illustrate normal psychic reactions and vice versa. In etiology as well as in therapy Bleuler took into account psychological and (neuro)physiological (somatic) mechanisms--thus combining organicism and dynamic psychiatry and coming very close to modern concepts, e.g. the one of stress and vulnerability. Bleuler's main merit is the stressing on an idiographic "understanding" of the patient and a plausible and subtle explanation of schizophrenia which helped to reduce the alienation of the affected persons.

  6. Karl Pearson and eugenics: personal opinions and scientific rigor.

    PubMed

    Delzell, Darcie A P; Poliak, Cathy D

    2013-09-01

    The influence of personal opinions and biases on scientific conclusions is a threat to the advancement of knowledge. Expertise and experience does not render one immune to this temptation. In this work, one of the founding fathers of statistics, Karl Pearson, is used as an illustration of how even the most talented among us can produce misleading results when inferences are made without caution or reference to potential bias and other analysis limitations. A study performed by Pearson on British Jewish schoolchildren is examined in light of ethical and professional statistical practice. The methodology used and inferences made by Pearson and his coauthor are sometimes questionable and offer insight into how Pearson's support of eugenics and his own British nationalism could have potentially influenced his often careless and far-fetched inferences. A short background into Pearson's work and beliefs is provided, along with an in-depth examination of the authors' overall experimental design and statistical practices. In addition, portions of the study regarding intelligence and tuberculosis are discussed in more detail, along with historical reactions to their work.

  7. [Neurocosmetics, transhumanism and eliminative materialism: toward new ways of eugenics].

    PubMed

    Echarte Alonso, Luis E

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I present similarities and connections between Transhumanism and Eliminative Materialism. Concretely, I study the arguments with which in both positions it is defended a merely instrumental idea of human body and, because of that, one infinitely mouldable. First, I show the social relevance of this idea and its projections in phenomena as medicalization of human condition and, especially, cosmetic psychopharmacology. Besides, I denounce that such influences are caused by illegitimate transference of authority between philosophical and scientific forums. Second, according to my analysis, these new postmodern fashions of chemical sentimentalism (related with radical changes on personal identity and human nature) drive to new eugenic forms what I name autoeugenics. Finally, I call attention to the important role of utopian speeches about the science of tomorrow and super-human civilization in a Carpe Diem society. In my conclusions, I claim that historical reasoning or warnings about what is coming are not efficient strategies to control neither new psychopharmacological habits nor passivity generated by them. Returning social confidence in the power of reason to achieve reality (and other human beings) is, in my opinion, the best way to rehabilitate a more and more devalued human action.

  8. IROme, a new high-throughput molecular tool for the diagnosis of inherited retinal dystrophies-a price comparison with Sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Schorderet, Daniel F; Bernasconi, Maude; Tiab, Leila; Favez, Tatiana; Escher, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The molecular diagnosis of retinal dystrophies (RD) is difficult because of genetic and clinical heterogeneity. Previously, the molecular screening of genes was done one by one, sometimes in a scheme based on the frequency of sequence variants and the number of exons/length of the candidate genes. Payment for these procedures was complicated and the sequential billing of several genes created endless paperwork. We therefore evaluated the costs of generating and sequencing a hybridization-based DNA library enriched for the 64 most frequently mutated genes in RD, called IROme, and compared them to the costs of amplifying and sequencing these genes by the Sanger method. The production cost generated by the high-throughput (HT) sequencing of IROme was established at CHF 2,875.75 per case. Sanger sequencing of the same exons cost CHF 69,399.02. Turnaround time of the analysis was 3 days for IROme. For Sanger sequencing, it could only be estimated, as we never sequenced all 64 genes in one single patient. Sale cost for IROme calculated on the basis of the sale cost of one exon by Sanger sequencing is CHF 8,445.88, which corresponds to the sale price of 40 exons. In conclusion, IROme is cheaper and faster than Sanger sequencing and therefore represents a sound approach for the diagnosis of RD, both scientifically and economically. As a drop in the costs of HT sequencing is anticipated, target resequencing might become the new gold standard in the molecular diagnosis of RD.

  9. From 'beastly philosophy' to medical genetics: eugenics in Russia and the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Krementsov, Nikolai

    2011-01-01

    This essay offers an overview of the three distinct periods in the development of Russian eugenics: Imperial (1900-1917), Bolshevik (1917-1929), and Stalinist (1930-1939). Began during the Imperial era as a particular discourse on the issues of human heredity, diversity, and evolution, in the early years of the Bolshevik rule eugenics was quickly institutionalized as a scientific discipline--complete with societies, research establishments, and periodicals--that aspired an extensive grassroots following, generated lively public debates, and exerted considerable influence on a range of medical, public health, and social policies. In the late 1920s, in the wake of Joseph Stalin's 'Great Break', eugenics came under intense critique as a 'bourgeois' science and its proponents quickly reconstituted their enterprise as 'medical genetics'. Yet, after a brief period of rapid growth during the early 1930s, medical genetics was dismantled as a 'fascist science' towards the end of the decade. Based on published and original research, this essay examines the factors that account for such an unusual--as compared to the development of eugenics in other locales during the same period--historical trajectory of Russian eugenics.

  10. Eugenics, politics and the state: social democracy and the Swiss 'gardening state'.

    PubMed

    Mottier, Véronique

    2008-06-01

    This article explores the connections between eugenics, politics and the state, taking the Swiss case as a particular focus. It is argued that Switzerland provides a historical example of what Bauman [Bauman, Z. (1989). Modernity and the Holocaust. Cambridge: Polity Press.] describes as 'gardening states': states that are concerned with eliminating the 'bad weeds' from the national garden and thereby constructing sharply exclusionary national identities. The Swiss experiments with eugenics (1920s-1960s) can be seen as an example of an ongoing struggle against 'difference'. Against this backdrop I will examine, first, the ways in which state regulation of reproductive sexuality, and other eugenic measures, became central mechanisms for dealing with cultural and other 'differences' in the Swiss nation. Second, I will analyse the gendered nature of such mechanisms, as well as the preoccupation with racial 'difference' exemplified by eugenic policies towards 'Gypsies'. To conclude, I will examine the impact of political institutions and political ideology, in particular, social democracy, on these eugenic gardening efforts.

  11. Eugenics from the New Deal to the Great Society: genetics, demography and population quality.

    PubMed

    Ramsden, Edmund

    2008-12-01

    The relationship between biological and social scientists as regards the study of human traits and behavior has often been perceived in terms of mutual distrust, even antipathy. In the interwar period, population study seemed an area that might allow for closer relations between them-united as they were by a concern to improve the eugenic quality of populations. Yet these relations were in tension: by the early post-war era, social demographers were denigrating the contributions of biologists to the study of population problems as embodying the elitist ideology of eugenics. In response to this loss of credibility, the eugenics movement pursued a simultaneous program of withdrawal and expansion: its leaders helped focus concern with biological quality onto the developing field of medical genetics, while at the same moment, extended their scope to improving the social quality of populations through birth control policies, guided by demography. While this approach maintained boundaries between the social and the biological, in the 1960s, a revitalized American Eugenics Society helped reunite leading demographers and geneticists. This paper will assess the reasons for this period of influence for eugenics, and explore its implications for the social and biological study of human populations.

  12. Prenatal diagnosis as a tool and support for eugenics: myth or reality in contemporary French society?

    PubMed

    Gaille, Marie; Viot, Géraldine

    2013-02-01

    Today, French public debate and bioethics research reflect an ongoing controversy about eugenics. The field of reproductive medicine is often targeted as pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), prenatal diagnosis, and prenatal detection are accused of drifting towards eugenics or being driven by eugenics considerations. This article aims at understanding why the charge against eugenics came at the forefront of the ethical debate. Above all, it aims at showing that the charge against prenatal diagnosis is groundless. The point of view presented in this article has been elaborated jointly by a geneticist and a philosopher. Besides a survey of the medical, bioethical, philosophical and social sciences literature on the topic, the methodology is founded on a joint analysis of geneticist's various consults. Evidence from office visits demonstrated that prenatal diagnosis leads to case-by-case decisions. As we have suggested, this conclusion does not mean that prenatal diagnosis is devoid of ethical issues, and we have identified at least two. The first is related to the evaluation of a decision to abort. The second line of ethical questions arises from the fact that the claim for "normality" hardly hides normative and ambiguous views about disability. As a conclusion, ethical dilemmas keep being noticeable in the field of reproductive medicine and genetic counselling, but an enquiry about eugenic tendencies probably does not allow us to understand them in the proper way.

  13. 33 CFR 207.170a - Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.170a Section 207.170a... REGULATIONS § 207.170a Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.;...

  14. Antibodies obtained by xenotransplantation of organ-cultured median eminence specifically recognize hypothalamic tanycytes.

    PubMed

    Blázquez, Juan Luis; Guerra, Montserrat; Pastor, Francisco; Peruzzo, Bruno; Amat, Pedro; Rodríguez, Esteban Martín

    2002-05-01

    Tanycytes are specialized ependymal cells lining the infundibular recess of the third ventricle of the cerebrum. Early and recent investigations involve tanycytes in the mechanism of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release to the portal blood. The present investigation was performed to obtain a specific immunological marker of tanycytes and to identify the compound(s) responsible for this labeling. After 30 days of organ culture, explants of bovine median eminence formed spherical structures mostly constituted by tanycytes. These tanycyte spheres were xenotransplanted to rats, and the antibodies raised by the host animals against the transplanted living tanycytes were used for immunochemical studies of the bovine and rat median eminence. This antiserum immunoreacted with two compounds of 60 kDa and 85 kDa present in extracts of bovine and rat median eminence. The individual immunoblotting analysis of rat medial basal hypothalami showed a decrease in the amount of the 85-kDa compound in castrated rats as compared to control rats processed at oestrus and dioestrus. The antiserum, labeled as anti-P85, when used for immunostaining of sections throughout the rat central nervous system, immunoreacted specifically with the hypothalamic tanycytes. Within tanycytes, P-85 immunoreactivity was exclusively present in the basal processes. It is suggested that the 85-kDa and 60-kDa compounds correspond to two novel proteins selectively expressed by tanycytes. The possibility that they are secretory proteins involved in GnRH release is discussed. Anti-P85 appears to be the first specific marker of hypothalamic tanycytes.

  15. Aoteaoroa/New Zealand nursing: from eugenics to cultural safety...

    PubMed

    Richardson, Sandy

    2004-03-01

    The concept of cultural safety offers a unique approach to nursing practice, based on recognition of the power differentials inherent in any interaction. It is from within the context of nursing in Aoteaoroa/New Zealand (A/NZ) that the concept developed and was subsequently integrated into nursing education. Cultural safety is based within a framework of biculturalism, and is congruent with the tenets of the nation's founding document, the Treaty of Waitangi. Clarification of the concept is offered, together with a review of the historical shift in nursing attitudes that has led to the emergence of "cultural safety" as a viable and valued component of nursing practice. The argument is made that cultural safety has allowed for a more reflective, critical understanding of the actions of nursing to develop. This includes recognition that nurses' attitudes and values have inevitably been influenced by social and political forces, and as such are in part reflective of those within the wider community. Comparison between the support given by nurses in the early 1900s to the theory of eugenics and the current acceptance of cultural safety is used to highlight this point. An examination of the literature identifies that ideological and conceptual changes have occurred in the approach of A/NZ nurses to issues with cultural implications for practice. A review of background factors relating to Maori health status and the Treaty of Waitangi is presented as a necessary context to the overall discussion. The discussion concludes with an acknowledgement that while the rhetoric of cultural safety is now part of nursing culture in New Zealand, there is no firm evidence to evaluate its impact in practice. Issues identified as impacting on the ability to assess/research a concept, such as cultural safety, are discussed. For cultural safety to become recognised as a credible (and indispensable) tool, it is necessary to further examine the "end-point" or "outcomes" of the process.

  16. Comparison of pyrosequencing, Sanger sequencing, and melting curve analysis for detection of low-frequency macrolide-resistant mycoplasma pneumoniae quasispecies in respiratory specimens.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kwok-Hung; To, Kelvin K W; Chan, Betsy W K; Li, Clara P Y; Chiu, Susan S; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Ho, Pak-Leung

    2013-08-01

    Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MRMP) is emerging worldwide and has been associated with treatment failure. In this study, we used pyrosequencing to detect low-frequency MRMP quasispecies in respiratory specimens, and we compared the findings with those obtained by Sanger sequencing and SimpleProbe PCR coupled with a melting curve analysis (SimpleProbe PCR). Sanger sequencing, SimpleProbe PCR, and pyrosequencing were successfully performed for 96.7% (88/91), 96.7% (88/91), and 93.4% (85/91) of the M. pneumoniae-positive specimens, respectively. The A-to-G transition at position 2063 was the only mutation identified. Pyrosequencing identified A2063G MRMP quasispecies populations in 78.8% (67/88) of the specimens. Only 38.8% (26/67) of these specimens with the A2063G quasispecies detected by pyrosequencing were found to be A2063G quasispecies by Sanger sequencing or SimpleProbe PCR. The specimens that could be detected by SimpleProbe PCR and Sanger sequencing had higher frequencies of MRMP quasispecies (51% to 100%) than those that could not be detected by those two methods (1% to 44%). SimpleProbe PCR correctly categorized all specimens that were identified as wild type or mutant by Sanger sequencing. The clinical characteristics of the patients were not significantly different when they were grouped by the presence or absence of MRMP quasispecies, while patients with MRMP identified by Sanger sequencing more often required a switch from macrolides to an alternative M. pneumoniae-targeted therapy. The clinical significance of mutant quasispecies should be investigated further with larger patient populations and with specimens obtained before and after macrolide therapy.

  17. Galton and the birth of differential psychology and eugenics: social, political, and economic forces.

    PubMed

    Buss, A R

    1976-01-01

    The social, political, and economic forces operative in nineteenth-century Britain are briefly described. This permits tracing the birth of both the scientific study of individual differences and the field of eugenics to the infrastructure of society at that time. The distinction is made between the normative doctrine of individualism and the factual study of individual differences. It is argued that democratic--liberal--capitalistic--individualism, in part, conditioned the beginning of differential psychology and eugenics. In this process, Galton's liberal views concerning individual freedom and opportunity for full development became transformed into their dialectic--totalitarian--collectivism--a vision of an ideal state which did not come into being. It is paradoxically concluded that those same social forces which helped bring about the birth of differential psychology and the entailing eugenics ideology prevented the latter from being accepted and implemented.

  18. Authoritarianism and punitive eugenics: racial hygiene and national Catholicism during Francoism, 1936-1945.

    PubMed

    Campos, Ricardo

    2016-12-01

    This paper examines some of the main elements that shaped eugenic discourse and practices during the first decades of the Franco regime. It primarily addresses the ideological basis of racial hygiene stemming from Francoist medicine and psychiatry, examining its relationship with the concept of Spanishness (Hispanidad). It shows that Francoist eugenics had punitive and coercive aspects and outlines the role it played in the brutal repression unleashed against the regime's political enemies, constructing its anti-Spanish identity. The paper also explores how the Catholic Church accepted eugenics as long as it was not linked to neo-Malthusianism and did not propagate sterilization, contraception, and abortion. In this respect, the paper examines the Catholic Church's position on the premarital certificate and counseling.

  19. Emancipation through interaction--how eugenics and statistics converged and diverged.

    PubMed

    Louçã, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses the scope and influence of eugenics in defining the scientific programme of statistics and the impact of the evolution of biology on social scientists. It argues that eugenics was instrumental in providing a bridge between sciences, and therefore created both the impulse and the institutions necessary for the birth of modern statistics in its applications first to biology and then to the social sciences. Looking at the question from the point of view of the history of statistics and the social sciences, and mostly concentrating on evidence from the British debates, the paper discusses how these disciplines became emancipated from eugenics precisely because of the inspiration of biology. It also relates how social scientists were fascinated and perplexed by the innovations taking place in statistical theory and practice.

  20. Open Versus Arthroscopic Reduction for Tibial Eminence Fracture Fixation in Children.

    PubMed

    Watts, Chad D; Larson, A Noelle; Milbrandt, Todd A

    2016-01-01

    Stiffness is a common complication following surgically treated tibial eminence fractures. Fractures can be addressed with either open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) or arthroscopic reduction and internal fixation (ARIF). We sought to evaluate the effects of surgical approach and other modifiable perioperative factors on postoperative arthrofibrosis. We hypothesized that ARIF would result in a lower risk of arthrofibrosis. We retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients aged 18 years and below treated for tibial eminence fractures at our institution from 1998 to 2014. All patients were treated by either pediatric or sports fellowship-trained orthopaedic surgeons and followed until radiographic union and return of range of motion or treatment for arthrofibrosis (minimum 3 mo). Thirty-one patients were included in our analysis, 13 in the ORIF group and 18 in the ARIF group. The groups were similar in regards to sex, age, fracture type, fixation method, and length of postoperative immobilization. However, when compared with the ORIF group, patients in the ARIF group had significantly longer time from injury to surgery (4.2 vs. 6.3 d, P=0.03), operative time (98 vs. 141 min, P=0.02), and tourniquet time (76 vs. 100 min, P=0.006). In the ARIF group, 6 (33.3%) patients acquired arthrofibrosis compared with only 1 (7.7%) patient in the ORIF group. Delaying surgery ≥7 days from injury [hazard ratio (HR)=4.7, P=0.04] and operative time ≥120 minutes (HR=9.1, P=0.03) were risk factors for arthrofibrosis. ARIF was a risk factor in univariate (HR=4.0, P=0.04), but not in multivariate (1.4, P=0.77) analysis. Delayed surgery (≥7 d from injury) and prolonged operative times (≥120 min) were significant risk factors for arthrofibrosis. Although ARIF was not an independent risk factor, these patients were exposed to markedly longer wait times before surgery and operative times when compared with ORIF patients. ORIF is a reasonable option for treatment of

  1. The eminent need for an academic program in universities to teach nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Juan Manuel; Vélez, Juan Jesus

    2011-01-01

    Nanomedicine is on the cutting edge of technology applied to medical and biological sciences. Nanodevices, nanomaterials, nanoinstruments, nanotechnologies, and nanotechniques (laboratory methods and procedures) are important for the modern practice of medicine and essential for research that could stimulate the discovery of new medical advances. Accordingly, there is an eminent need for implementing an academic program in universities to teach this indispensable and pragmatic discipline, especially in the departments of graduate studies and research in the areas of pharmacology, genetic engineering, proteomics, and molecular and cellular biology.

  2. The eminent need for an academic program in universities to teach nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Juan Manuel; Vélez, Juan Jesus

    2011-01-01

    Nanomedicine is on the cutting edge of technology applied to medical and biological sciences. Nanodevices, nanomaterials, nanoinstruments, nanotechnologies, and nanotechniques (laboratory methods and procedures) are important for the modern practice of medicine and essential for research that could stimulate the discovery of new medical advances. Accordingly, there is an eminent need for implementing an academic program in universities to teach this indispensable and pragmatic discipline, especially in the departments of graduate studies and research in the areas of pharmacology, genetic engineering, proteomics, and molecular and cellular biology. PMID:21984868

  3. [Unwanted memory, the Polish eugenic movement in between-the-wars period: side-notes to Krzysztof Kawalec's article].

    PubMed

    Gawin, M

    2001-01-01

    A polemical response to Krzysztof Kawalec's article 'Dispute over Eugenics in 1918-1939', published in 'Medycyna Nowizytna' ['Modern Medicine'], 2000, vol. 7, fascicle 2. In his article Krzysztof Kawalec overlooks the issue of race, which had been at the centre of the eugenic ideology, and then erroneously situates eugenicists on the political spectrum. The eugenicists were not radicals or totalitarians but constituted a group of leftist-liberal intellectuals. Their views were rejected by the Polish government circles in power at that time, not without the deterring influence of Nazi racism and the opposition of the Catholic Church. The main reason why eugenic notions suffered a defeat in pre-war Poland was the isolation and political weakness of eugenic circles. Therefore, issues relating to Polish eugenics during the two decades between the two World Wars should be consigned to a much greater degree to the realm of learning and social movements rather than to the political sphere.

  4. [Three historical examples of eugenics before Galton (1883): Plato, Soranus and Vandermonde (part II)].

    PubMed

    Ajavon, François-Xavier

    2006-06-01

    The first part of this paper explored the origins of the idea of Eugenics in Plato's work in the 4th Century BC. This second part looks at the development of the concept, notably in the writings of Soranus of Ephesus in Rome in the 1st century AD and Charles-Augustin Vandermonde, a French doctor of the 18th Century, before it was described and named by Francis Galton in 1883. We will be reminded that these three separate glimpses into the prehistory of Eugenics do not demonstrate a logically linked continuum, but do show a long-standing preoccupation with controlling life.

  5. [Three historical examples of eugenics before Galton (1883): Plato, Soranus and Vandermonde (part 1)].

    PubMed

    Ajavon, François-Xavier

    2005-12-01

    There is a pre-history of Eugenics as well as a history. Although the concept was introduced by Galton in 1883, there were, before this, numerous texts, both philosophical and medical, which put forward theories aimed at standardising or improving man. From Ancient Greek times to the Enlightenment of the 18th Century, many authors have wished to influence human reproduction, to improve results. Plato in Athens, Soranus of Ephesus in Rome and Charles-Augustin Vandermonde in Paris are three examples from this pre-history of Eugenics. This article is published in two parts, with the second in the next edition of the journal.

  6. The influence of the human TMJ eminence inclination on predicted masticatory muscle forces.

    PubMed

    Marková, Michala; Gallo, Luigi M

    2016-10-01

    Aim of this paper was to investigate the change in masticatory muscle forces and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) reaction forces simulated by inverse dynamics when thesteepness of the anterior fossa slope was varied. We used the model by de Zee et al. (2007) created in AnyBody™. The model was equipped with 24musculotendon actuators. Mandibular movement was governed by thetrajectory of theincisal point. The TMJ was modelled as a planar constraint canted 5°medially and thecaudal inclination relative to the occlusal plane was varied from 10° to 70°. Our models showed that for the two simulated movements (empty chewing and unilateral clenching) the joint reaction forces were smallest for the eminence inclination of 30° and 40° and highest for 70°. The muscle forces were relatively insensitive to change of the eminence inclination for the angles between 20° and 50°. This did not hold for the pterygoid muscle, for which the muscle forces increased continually with increasing fossa inclination. For empty chewing the muscle force reached smaller values than for clenching. During clenching, the muscle forces changed by up to 200N. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Retinoic acid influences neuronal migration from the ganglionic eminence to the cerebral cortex

    PubMed Central

    Crandall, James E.; Goodman, Timothy; McCarthy, Deirdre M.; Duester, Gregg; Bhide, Pradeep G.; Dräger, Ursula C.; McCaffery, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The ganglionic eminence contributes cells to several forebrain structures including the cerebral cortex, for which it provides GABAergic interneurons. Migration of neuronal precursors from the retinoic-acid rich embryonic ganglionic eminence to the cerebral cortex is known to be regulated by several factors, but retinoic acid has not been previously implicated. We found retinoic acid to potently inhibit cell migration in slice preparations of embryonic mouse forebrains, which was reversed by an antagonist of the dopamine-D2 receptor, whose gene is transcriptionally regulated by retinoic acid. Histonedeacetylase inhibitors, which amplify nuclear receptor-mediated transcription, potentiated the inhibitory effect of retinoic acid. Surprisingly, when retinoic acid signalling was completely blocked with a pan-retinoic acid receptor antagonist, this also decreased cell migration into the cortex, implying that a minimal level of endogenous retinoic acid is necessary for tangential migration. Given these opposing effects of retinoic acid in vitro, the in vivo contribution of retinoic acid to migration was tested by counting GABAergic interneurons in cortices of adult mice with experimental reductions in retinoic acid signalling: a range of perturbations resulted in significant reductions in the numerical density of some GABAergic interneuron subpopulations. These observations suggest functions of retinoic acid in interneuron diversity and organization of cortical excitatory–inhibitory balance. PMID:21895658

  8. Characterization of melatonin binding sites in the Harderian gland and median eminence of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Gonzalez, M.A.; Calvo, J.R.; Rubio, A.; Goberna, R.; Guerrero, J.M. )

    1991-01-01

    The characterization of specific melatonin binding sites in the Harderian gland (HG) and median eminence (ME) of the rat was studied using ({sup 125}I)melatonin. Binding of melatonin to membrane crude preparations of both tissues was dependent on time and temperature. Thus, maximal binding was obtained at 37{degree}C after 30-60 min incubation. Binding was also dependent on protein concentration. The specific binding of ({sup 125}I)melatonin was saturable, exhibiting only the class of binding sites in both tissues. The dissociation constants (Kd) were 170 and 190 pM for ME and HG, respectively. The concentration of the binding sites in ME was 8 fmol/mg protein, and in the HG 4 fmol/mg protein. In competition studies, binding of ({sup 125}I)melatonin to ME or HG was inhibited by increasing concentration of native melatonin; 50% inhibition was observed at about 702 and 422 nM for ME and HG, respectively. Additionally, the ({sup 125}I)melatonin binding to the crude membranes was not affected by the addition of different drugs such as norepinephrine, isoproterenol, phenylephrine, propranolol, or prazosin. The results confirm the presence of melatonin binding sites in median eminence and show, for the first time, the existence of melatonin binding sites in the Harderian gland.

  9. Neuropeptides in the hypothalamo-hypophyseal system: lateral retrochiasmatic area as a common gate for neuronal fibers towards the median eminence.

    PubMed

    Palkovits, M

    1984-01-01

    The source and topography of neuropeptide-containing axons in the median eminence are summarized. Several of these neuropeptide-containing neurons (thyrotropin-releasing hormone, corticotropin-releasing hormone, vasopressin, oxytocin, cholecystokinin) are localized in the paraventricular nucleus. The periventricular and medial preoptic nuclei constitute the main sources of somatostatin and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone axons in the median eminence, respectively. Dynorphins and alpha-neo-endorphin-synthetizing neurons in the supraoptic nucleus also project to the median eminence. Wherever they originate, the projections may follow a common organization pattern and use a common gate--the lateral retrochiasmatic area--to enter the median eminence.

  10. Comparison of four techniques on facility of two-hand Bag-valve-mask (BVM) ventilation: E-C, Thenar Eminence, Thenar Eminence (Dominant hand)-E-C (non-dominant hand) and Thenar Eminence (non-dominant hand) – E-C (dominant hand)

    PubMed Central

    Soleimanpour, Maryam; Rahmani, Farzad; Ala, Alireza; Morteza Bagi, Hamid Reza; Mahmoodpoor, Ata; Golzari, Samad EJ; Zahmatyar, Fatemeh; Mehdizadeh Esfanjani, Robab; Soleimanpour, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Bag-valve-mask (BVM) ventilation is the first and important part of the airway management. The aim of present study was to evaluate the quality of four different BVM ventilation techniques – E-C, Thenar Eminence, Thenar Eminence (Dominant hand)-E-C (Non dominant hand), and Thenar Eminence (Non dominant hand)-E-C (Dominant hand) – among two novice and experienced groups. Methods: In a case-control and mannequin based study that was conducted in Tabriz University of medical sciences, 120 volunteers were recruited and divided into two groups. 60 participants in experienced and other 60 as novice group who observed BVM ventilation but hadn’t practical experience about BVM ventilation. Every participant in both groups performed 4 BVM ventilation techniques under the supervision of an experienced assessor. Quality of mannequin chest expansion was recorded by two other experienced assessors who were blind to ventilation process. The data were analyzed with SPSS 17.0. Results: In novice group, when evaluating each technique performance, they did Thenar Eminence (non-dominant hand) - E-C (dominant hand) technique much better than the others (P<0.0001). But in the experienced group, there was no meaningful difference between the all four techniques (P= 0.102). Conclusion: Novice participants did Thenar Eminence (non-dominant hand) - E-C (dominant hand) technique better than the others. Therefore, it is recommended that training of this technique was placed in educational program of medical students. PMID:28210469

  11. Obituary: Harding Eugene (Gene) Smith, Jr., 1947-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonsdale, Carol; Soifer, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Harding Eugene Smith Junior, or Gene, as he was known to family, friends, and colleagues, passed away after an automobile accident in Encinitas, California, on 16 August 2007. He was 60 years old. Gene had recently retired from UCSD after thirty years of service. A memorial service was held at Quail Botanical Gardens in Encinitas, California, on 23 August 2007. A web page is dedicated to his memory at http://harding.smith.muchloved.com, where contributions of memories are invited. Gene was born in San Jose, California in 1947, to Harding Eugene Smith Senior, and Bernice Smith (nee Smith). Harding Smith Senior was an air-force navigator; therefore Gene spent his childhood moving from one air-force base to another. Although an only child, Gene was very close to his cousin Meg, whom he lived nearby to in Gilroy for a time, and the two were like brother and sister. The elder Harding Smith was lost in action over Cambodia in the mid-sixties. Gene was a dedicated student, a boy scout, and a Presidential Scholar. He majored in Physics at Caltech, where he also took a lively interest in the football team and the Glee Club, and was elected a House Officer. To his close friends, he was known at Caltech as Smitty, and the closest of them was Rob Drew, who gave a glimpse into that period of Gene's life at the memorial: "Gene arrived early at campus his first year, in response to an invitation to join the football team. Gene's size and features reminded the head coach of a long-forgotten player named 'Johnson.' After a few days of confusion, Gene simply replaced the name on his helmet. 'Johnson!' coach would yell, 'get in there!' If Johnson was going to get to play, Gene was going to be the best Johnson available!" Gene spent the summer of 1966 working at Kitt Peak, where his lifetime love of observing with ground-based telescopes began, though he learned some things the hard way, such as the fact that trying to squeeze 40,000 numbers onto a computer that stored only 32

  12. ASTRONAUT CERNAN, EUGENE A. - MISC. (WALK AWAY FROM PAD - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 POSTPONED) - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-05-17

    S66-34559 (17 May 1966) --- Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford (left), command pilot, and Eugene A. Cernan, pilot, walk away from Pad 19 after the Gemini-9 mission was postponed. Failure of the Agena Target Vehicle to achieve orbit caused the postponement of the mission. Photo credit: NASA

  13. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 TEST - ASTRONAUT EUGENE A. WHITE -- PERSONAL - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1964-06-03

    S66-34051 (3 June 1966) --- Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford and Eugene A. Cernan arrive in the White Room atop Pad 19 at the Kennedy Space Center in preparation for the launch of the Gemini-9 spaceflight. Photo credit: NASA

  14. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 TEST - ASTRONAUT EUGENE A. CERNAN - TRAINING - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-05-19

    S66-27376 (19 Feb. 1966) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, pilot of the Gemini-9 spaceflight, practices with the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit during tests in Chamber B, Environmental Test Laboratory, Building 32. The AMU consists of a chest pack and a backpack. It is scheduled for use during Gemini-9 extravehicular activity (EVA). Photo credit: NASA

  15. Eugene F. Kranz wears special vest to celebrate 41-C mission landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Eugene F. Kranz, Director of Mission Operations, wears special red, white and blue striped vest to celebrate 41-C mission landing. He stands at the rear row of consoles in the Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) of JSC's Mission Control Center.

  16. Creating Conditions for Effective Teaching: Proceedings of a Conference (Eugene, Oregon, July 17-18, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Kenneth, Ed.; And Others

    A conference held at the Center for Educational Policy and Management, Eugene (Oregon), in July 1981 addressed the topic of "Creating Conditions for Effective Teaching." The subjects covered include the implications of research on teacher effectiveness, collective bargaining, and school governance. At each of these three sessions, a paper was…

  17. ASTRONAUTS EUGENE CERNAN AND HARRISON SCHMITT CONDUCT TESTS ON THE LUNAR ROVING VEHICLE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center launch team is continuing the checkout of Apollo 17 flight hardware for the final lunar exploration mission of Project Apollo. Participating in the test were prime crew members Harrison H. Schmitt, Lunar Module Pilot, and Eugene A. Cernan, Commander.

  18. [Creating a 'Germanic' public health: national-socialism, human genetics, and eugenics in the Netherlands].

    PubMed

    Snelders, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The consequences of the uses of concepts of heredity in society and health care are not simply determined. This is demonstrated by a study of Dutch National Socialist doctors and biologists in the Second World War. During the German occupation of the Netherlands SS-biologist W.F.H. Stroër (1907-1979) and SS-doctor J.A. van der Hoeven (1912-1998) attempted to create a eugenic research and health care institute in the Netherlands. Heredity was accorded a key role in National Socialist plans for reorganization of Dutch health care. The ideas of the SS-eugenicists were closely related to those of leading geneticists and eugenicists in the Netherlands. Eugenic ideas were spread among all political ideologies. As late as November 1942 cooperation between the SS and non-Nazi geneticists was still discussed. The hardening of the political climate during the war created more explicit dividing lines between them. The SS-researchers did not believe in the existence of well-defined and separated races. They rejected a purely genetic determinism and advocated measures of social hygiene next to a positive and negative eugenics in the creation of a more healthy Germanic people and a purer race. Racial and genetic concepts were not exclusively translated into eugenic policies directed at human reproduction.

  19. 75 FR 22622 - Notice of Public Meetings for the Eugene District, Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meetings for the Eugene District, Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008, Title VI, Secure Schools and Community Self...

  20. The Hunt for Disability: The New Eugenics and the Normalization of School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bernadette

    2002-01-01

    Examines issues of sameness, difference, equality, and democracy in present public school systems, focusing on the question of (dis)ability and implications of rethinking (dis)ability as an ontological issue before its inscription as an educational one concerning the politics of inclusion. The paper analyzes old and new discourses of eugenics as…

  1. Education Policy and Biological Science: Genetics, Eugenics, and the College Textbook, c. 1908-1931.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Steven

    1985-01-01

    A revolution in genetics is occurring, but when looking ahead, we must not romanticize the past. The social history of genetics, and American education's association with eugenics, make it necessary that we understand that both education and science are informed by social attitudes. (MT)

  2. The Human Genome Project and Eugenics: Identifying the Impact on Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuna, Jason

    2001-01-01

    This article explores the impact of the mapping work of the Human Genome Project on individuals with mental retardation and the negative effects of genetic testing. The potential to identify disabilities and the concept of eugenics are discussed, along with ethical issues surrounding potential genetic therapies. (Contains references.) (CR)

  3. A not-so-new eugenics. Harris and Savulescu on human enhancement.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Robert

    2011-01-01

    John Harris and Julian Savulescu, leading figures in the "new' eugenics, argue that parents are morally obligated to use genetic and other technologies to enhance their children. But the argument they give leads to conclusions even more radical than they acknowledge. Ultimately, the world it would lead to is not all that different from that championed by eugenicists one hundred years ago.

  4. The Killing Thought in the Eugenic Era and Today: A Commentary on Hollander's Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfensberger, Wolf

    1989-01-01

    Two responses to Hollander (EC 220 057) and the author's counter-response note similarities between "mercy killing" of people with mental retardation and deliberate abortion of the unborn, misuse of the history of eugenics, and a defense of the author's historical scholarship. (DB)

  5. Professionalization and the Null Curriculum: The Case of the Popular Eugenics Movement and American Educational Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Steven

    1987-01-01

    Presents an essay review of three recent books on eugenics, a once popular quasiscientific and politically conservative social movement devoted to the improvement of humankind through programs of selective breeding and marriage restriction. States that educators must study and come to grips with the meaning of this movement in order to appreciate…

  6. Reflections on Mental Retardation and Eugenics, Old and New: Mensa and the Human Genome Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David

    1994-01-01

    This article addresses the moral and ethical issues of mental retardation and a continuing legacy of belief in eugenics. It discusses the involuntary sterilization of Carrie Buck in 1927, support for legalized killing of subnormal infants by 47% of respondents to a Mensa survey, and implications of the Human Genome Project for the field of mental…

  7. Eugenics and Education: A Note on the Origins of the Intelligence Testing Movement in England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Roy

    1980-01-01

    Examines influence of Francis Galton and the Eugenics Education Society in the intelligence testing movement in England (early 1900s). For eugenicists, the central issue confronting society was the problem of racial deterioration. They responded with modification of the Binet-Simon tests and developed tests to examine the whole ability range.…

  8. Eugenics for the doctors: medicine and social control in 1930s Turkey.

    PubMed

    Salgirli, Sanem Güvenç

    2011-07-01

    This article aims to add a new dimension to the analysis of the relationship between medicine and eugenics via a discussion of the community of Turkish physicians in the period between the two World Wars. It argues that even though the relationship between the two fields has been discussed before in terms of the professional ideology of doctors, the medical community itself has not come under scrutiny by scholars. It is the purpose of this article to show eugenics as the main unifying edifice of that community and argue that eugenics is to be found in the patterns of social reproduction of the doctors as part of the professional middle class in addition to being those who transfer knowledge of medicine. As can be seen in Turkey in the 1930s, the doctors, in their efforts to construct themselves as the pioneers of modern scientific medicine, as well as the new ruling class of the country, used eugenics extensively both as a means of self-identification, and as a way to build a professional class "fit" to rule the country. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  9. Hereditarian Ideas and Eugenic Ideals at the National Deaf-Mute College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, William Thomas, III

    2015-01-01

    For the past two centuries deaf people in the United States have faced more or less intense skepticism about their marriages to each other, largely due to fears of inherited deafness. These fears, while always present, have waxed and waned over time, becoming most prominent during the eugenics era of the late nineteenth and early twentieth…

  10. Thoughts on the Changing Meaning of Disability: New Eugenics or New Wholeness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the impact of eugenics on people with disabilities and the danger that they will be further devalued in a world of increasing genetic manipulation. Margaret Mead's concept of providing opportunities for all people to learn how to participate wholly in society and the need for an ethical revolution are discussed. (CR)

  11. The Eugenics Movement and Its Impact on Art Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter-Doniger, Tracey

    2017-01-01

    This article argues that the eugenics movement has had three major influences on education in the United States, and reveals how these influences have had an impact on visual arts education in particular. The first influence began with a debate between John Dewey and David Snedden that resulted in a two-tiered tracking system that separated…

  12. Conscious and Unconscious Intent in the Creative Process: A Letter from Eugene Ionesco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Ingrid H.

    1981-01-01

    Introduces a letter written by Eugene Ionesco in answer to questions on the interpretation of his plays. In his letter Ionesco discusses the creative process as a blend of ideological and emotional motifs, seen, respectively, as the expression of the conscious and the unconscious (or subconscious) mind. (MES)

  13. Eugene F. Kranz wears special vest to celebrate 41-C mission landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Eugene F. Kranz, Director of Mission Operations, wears special red, white and blue striped vest to celebrate 41-C mission landing. He stands at the rear row of consoles in the Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) of JSC's Mission Control Center.

  14. Thoughts on the Changing Meaning of Disability: New Eugenics or New Wholeness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the impact of eugenics on people with disabilities and the danger that they will be further devalued in a world of increasing genetic manipulation. Margaret Mead's concept of providing opportunities for all people to learn how to participate wholly in society and the need for an ethical revolution are discussed. (CR)

  15. Education Policy and Biological Science: Genetics, Eugenics, and the College Textbook, c. 1908-1931.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Steven

    1985-01-01

    A revolution in genetics is occurring, but when looking ahead, we must not romanticize the past. The social history of genetics, and American education's association with eugenics, make it necessary that we understand that both education and science are informed by social attitudes. (MT)

  16. The Human Genome Project and Eugenics: Identifying the Impact on Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuna, Jason

    2001-01-01

    This article explores the impact of the mapping work of the Human Genome Project on individuals with mental retardation and the negative effects of genetic testing. The potential to identify disabilities and the concept of eugenics are discussed, along with ethical issues surrounding potential genetic therapies. (Contains references.) (CR)

  17. Reflections on Mental Retardation and Eugenics, Old and New: Mensa and the Human Genome Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David

    1994-01-01

    This article addresses the moral and ethical issues of mental retardation and a continuing legacy of belief in eugenics. It discusses the involuntary sterilization of Carrie Buck in 1927, support for legalized killing of subnormal infants by 47% of respondents to a Mensa survey, and implications of the Human Genome Project for the field of mental…

  18. Professionalization and the Null Curriculum: The Case of the Popular Eugenics Movement and American Educational Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Steven

    1987-01-01

    Presents an essay review of three recent books on eugenics, a once popular quasiscientific and politically conservative social movement devoted to the improvement of humankind through programs of selective breeding and marriage restriction. States that educators must study and come to grips with the meaning of this movement in order to appreciate…

  19. The Hunt for Disability: The New Eugenics and the Normalization of School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bernadette

    2002-01-01

    Examines issues of sameness, difference, equality, and democracy in present public school systems, focusing on the question of (dis)ability and implications of rethinking (dis)ability as an ontological issue before its inscription as an educational one concerning the politics of inclusion. The paper analyzes old and new discourses of eugenics as…

  20. Eugenics and Education: A Note on the Origins of the Intelligence Testing Movement in England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Roy

    1980-01-01

    Examines influence of Francis Galton and the Eugenics Education Society in the intelligence testing movement in England (early 1900s). For eugenicists, the central issue confronting society was the problem of racial deterioration. They responded with modification of the Binet-Simon tests and developed tests to examine the whole ability range.…

  1. Hereditarian Ideas and Eugenic Ideals at the National Deaf-Mute College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, William Thomas, III

    2015-01-01

    For the past two centuries deaf people in the United States have faced more or less intense skepticism about their marriages to each other, largely due to fears of inherited deafness. These fears, while always present, have waxed and waned over time, becoming most prominent during the eugenics era of the late nineteenth and early twentieth…

  2. The Killing Thought in the Eugenic Era and Today: A Commentary on Hollander's Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfensberger, Wolf

    1989-01-01

    Two responses to Hollander (EC 220 057) and the author's counter-response note similarities between "mercy killing" of people with mental retardation and deliberate abortion of the unborn, misuse of the history of eugenics, and a defense of the author's historical scholarship. (DB)

  3. [On the medical and publishing activities of the community of Saint Eugene].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the role the physicians played in organization and functioning of the Community of Saint Eugene in St. Petersburg in 1882-1918. The typography production of the Community being of interest for history of medicine is examined.

  4. Insights into bacterioplankton community structure from Sundarbans mangrove ecoregion using Sanger and Illumina MiSeq sequencing approaches: A comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anwesha; Bhadury, Punyasloke

    2017-03-01

    Next generation sequencing using platforms such as Illumina MiSeq provides a deeper insight into the structure and function of bacterioplankton communities in coastal ecosystems compared to traditional molecular techniques such as clone library approach which incorporates Sanger sequencing. In this study, structure of bacterioplankton communities was investigated from two stations of Sundarbans mangrove ecoregion using both Sanger and Illumina MiSeq sequencing approaches. The Illumina MiSeq data is available under the BioProject ID PRJNA35180 and Sanger sequencing data under accession numbers KX014101-KX014140 (Stn1) and KX014372-KX014410 (Stn3). Proteobacteria-, Firmicutes- and Bacteroidetes-like sequences retrieved from both approaches appeared to be abundant in the studied ecosystem. The Illumina MiSeq data (2.1 GB) provided a deeper insight into the structure of bacterioplankton communities and revealed the presence of bacterial phyla such as Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Tenericutes, Verrucomicrobia which were not recovered based on Sanger sequencing. A comparative analysis of bacterioplankton communities from both stations highlighted the presence of genera that appear in both stations and genera that occur exclusively in either station. However, both the Sanger sequencing and Illumina MiSeq data were coherent at broader taxonomic levels. Pseudomonas, Devosia, Hyphomonas and Erythrobacter-like sequences were the abundant bacterial genera found in the studied ecosystem. Both the sequencing methods showed broad coherence although as expected the Illumina MiSeq data helped identify rarer bacterioplankton groups and also showed the presence of unassigned OTUs indicating possible presence of novel bacterioplankton from the studied mangrove ecosystem.

  5. Empirical power of very rare variants for common traits and disease: results from sanger sequencing 1998 individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ladouceur, Martin; Zheng, Hou-Feng; Greenwood, Celia M T; Richards, J Brent

    2013-01-01

    The optimal study design for identifying rare variants associated with common disease is not yet clear and researchers have to decide whether to prioritize lower sequencing coverage on larger sample sizes, or higher coverage on smaller sample sizes. High-coverage sequencing affords several advantages, such as genotype accuracy and improved identification of very rare variants, but this comes at increased cost. However, the magnitude of the contribution of very rare variants to the statistical power of gene-based association tests is unknown. By using Sanger sequence data on seven genes from 1998 subjects with simulated phenotypes, we provide evidence that excluding very rare variants, in general, reduces the statistical power of rare variant association tests only modestly. However, if the probability of being causal and the effect size of the causal variants are inversely related to the minor allele frequency, then very rare variants do contribute to some power, however the absolute power remains low. As very rare variants constitute the majority of variants identified in sequencing studies, these findings suggest that careful attention need to be placed on the plausible relationship that exist between very rare variants and common disease. PMID:23321613

  6. The Empirical Power of Rare Variant Association Methods: Results from Sanger Sequencing in 1,998 Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ladouceur, Martin; Dastani, Zari; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Greenwood, Celia M. T.; Richards, J. Brent

    2012-01-01

    The role of rare genetic variation in the etiology of complex disease remains unclear. However, the development of next-generation sequencing technologies offers the experimental opportunity to address this question. Several novel statistical methodologies have been recently proposed to assess the contribution of rare variation to complex disease etiology. Nevertheless, no empirical estimates comparing their relative power are available. We therefore assessed the parameters that influence their statistical power in 1,998 individuals Sanger-sequenced at seven genes by modeling different distributions of effect, proportions of causal variants, and direction of the associations (deleterious, protective, or both) in simulated continuous trait and case/control phenotypes. Our results demonstrate that the power of recently proposed statistical methods depend strongly on the underlying hypotheses concerning the relationship of phenotypes with each of these three factors. No method demonstrates consistently acceptable power despite this large sample size, and the performance of each method depends upon the underlying assumption of the relationship between rare variants and complex traits. Sensitivity analyses are therefore recommended to compare the stability of the results arising from different methods, and promising results should be replicated using the same method in an independent sample. These findings provide guidance in the analysis and interpretation of the role of rare base-pair variation in the etiology of complex traits and diseases. PMID:22319458

  7. A Comprehensive Transcriptome Assembly of Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) using Sanger and Second-Generation Sequencing Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Kudapa, Himabindu; Bharti, Arvind K.; Cannon, Steven B.; Farmer, Andrew D.; Mulaosmanovic, Benjamin; Kramer, Robin; Bohra, Abhishek; Weeks, Nathan T.; Crow, John A.; Tuteja, Reetu; Shah, Trushar; Dutta, Sutapa; Gupta, Deepak K.; Singh, Archana; Gaikwad, Kishor; Sharma, Tilak R.; May, Gregory D.; Singh, Nagendra K.; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive transcriptome assembly for pigeonpea has been developed by analyzing 128.9 million short Illumina GA IIx single end reads, 2.19 million single end FLX/454 reads, and 18 353 Sanger expressed sequenced tags from more than 16 genotypes. The resultant transcriptome assembly, referred to as CcTA v2, comprised 21 434 transcript assembly contigs (TACs) with an N50 of 1510 bp, the largest one being ∼8 kb. Of the 21 434 TACs, 16 622 (77.5%) could be mapped on to the soybean genome build 1.0.9 under fairly stringent alignment parameters. Based on knowledge of intron junctions, 10 009 primer pairs were designed from 5033 TACs for amplifying intron spanning regions (ISRs). By using in silico mapping of BAC-end-derived SSR loci of pigeonpea on the soybean genome as a reference, putative mapping positions at the chromosome level were predicted for 6284 ISR markers, covering all 11 pigeonpea chromosomes. A subset of 128 ISR markers were analyzed on a set of eight genotypes. While 116 markers were validated, 70 markers showed one to three alleles, with an average of 0.16 polymorphism information content (PIC) value. In summary, the CcTA v2 transcript assembly and ISR markers will serve as a useful resource to accelerate genetic research and breeding applications in pigeonpea. PMID:22241453

  8. Homozygosity Mapping and Targeted Sanger Sequencing Identifies Three Novel CRB1 (Crumbs homologue 1) Mutations in Iranian Retinal Degeneration Families

    PubMed

    Ghofrani, Mohammad; Yahyaei, Mahin; Brunner, Han G.; Cremers, Frans P.M.; Movasat, Morteza; Imran Khan, Muhammad; Keramatipour, Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs) are a group of genetic disorders with high degrees of clinical, genetic and allelic heterogeneity. IRDs generally show progressive retinal cell death resulting in gradual vision loss. IRDs constitute a broad spectrum of disorders including retinitis pigmentosa and Leber congenital amaurosis. In this study, we performed genotyping studies to identify the underlying mutations in three Iranian families. Having employed homozygosity mapping and Sanger sequencing, we identified the underlying mutations in the crumbs homologue 1 gene. The CRB1 protein is a part of a macromolecular complex with a vital role in retinal cell polarity, morphogenesis, and maintenance. We identified a novel homozygous variant (c.1053_1061del; p.Gly352_Cys354del) in one family, a combination of a novel (c.2086T>C; p.Cys696Arg) and a known variant (c.2234C>T, p.Thr745Met) in another family and a homozygous novel variant (c.3090T>A; p.Asn1030Lys) in a third family. This study shows that mutations in CRB1 are relatively common in Iranian non-syndromic IRD patients.

  9. Homozygosity Mapping and Targeted Sanger Sequencing Identifies Three Novel CRB1 (Crumbs homologue 1) Mutations in Iranian Retinal Degeneration Families

    PubMed Central

    Ghofrani, Mohammad; Yahyaei, Mahin; Brunner, Han G.; Cremers, Frans P.M.; Movasat, Morteza; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Keramatipour, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Background: Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs) are a group of genetic disorders with high degrees of clinical, genetic and allelic heterogeneity. IRDs generally show progressive retinal cell death resulting in gradual vision loss. IRDs constitute a broad spectrum of disorders including retinitis pigmentosa and Leber congenital amaurosis. In this study, we performed genotyping studies to identify the underlying mutations in three Iranian families. Methods: Having employed homozygosity mapping and Sanger sequencing, we identified the underlying mutations in the crumbs homologue 1 gene. The CRB1 protein is a part of a macromolecular complex with a vital role in retinal cell polarity, morphogenesis, and maintenance. Results: We identified a novel homozygous variant (c.1053_1061del; p.Gly352_Cys354del) in one family, a combination of a novel (c.2086T>C; p.Cys696Arg) and a known variant (c.2234C>T, p.Thr745Met) in another family and a homozygous novel variant (c.3090T>A; p.Asn1030Lys) in a third family. Conclusion: This study shows that mutations in CRB1 are relatively common in Iranian non-syndromic IRD patients.

  10. The amygdaloid complex and the medial and lateral ventricular eminences in staged human embryos.

    PubMed

    Müller, Fabiola; O'Rahilly, Ronan

    2006-05-01

    The amygdaloid complex was investigated in 36 serially sectioned staged human embryos, including 20 impregnated with silver. This is the first such account based on graphic reconstructions, 28 of which were prepared. Significant findings in the human include the following. (1) The medial (first) and (then) lateral ventricular eminences arise independently at stages 14 and 15, and unite only at stage 18 to form the floor of the lateral ventricle. (2) The future amygdaloid region is discernible at stage 14 and the amygdaloid primordium at stage 15. (3) The anterior amygdaloid area and the corticomedial and basolateral complexes appear at stage 16. (4) These three major divisions arise initially from the medial ventricular eminence, which is diencephalic. (5) Individual nuclei begin to be detectable at stages 17-21, the central nucleus at stage 23 and the lateral nucleus shortly thereafter. (6) The ontogenetic findings in the human embryonic period accord best with the classification used by Humphrey. (7) The lateral eminence, which is telencephalic, contributes to the cortical nucleus at stage 18. (8) The primordial plexiform layer develops independently of the cortical nucleus. (9) Spatial changes of the nuclei within the amygdaloid complex and of the complex as a whole begin in the embryonic period and continue during the fetal period, during the early part of which the definitive amygdaloid topography in relation to the corpus striatum is attained. (10) The developing amygdaloid nuclei are closely related to the medial forebrain bundle, which has already appeared in stage 15. (11) Fibre connections develop successively between the amygdaloid nuclei and the septal, hippocampal and diencephalic formations, constituting the beginning of the limbic system before the end of the embryonic period. Although the nucleus accumbens also appears relatively early (stage 19), connections between it and the amygdaloid complex are not evident during the embryonic period. (12

  11. Watching the 'eugenic experiment' unfold: the mixed views of British eugenicists toward Nazi Germany in the early 1930s.

    PubMed

    Hart, Bradley W

    2012-01-01

    Historians of the eugenics movement have long been ambivalent in their examination of the links between British hereditary researchers and Nazi Germany. While there is now a clear consensus that American eugenics provided significant material and ideological support for the Germans, the evidence remains less clear in the British case where comparatively few figures openly supported the Nazi regime and the left-wing critique of eugenics remained particularly strong. After the Second World War British eugenicists had to push back against the accusation that their science was intrinsically dictatorial or totalitarian and, as a result, many of their early perceptions of the Nazis were ignored or rationalised away. Further, historians in recent years have focused more directly on the social reformist elements of eugenics, discussing the links between hereditary science and the birth control and feminist movements in addition to others. While undoubtedly making valuable contributions to the scholarly understanding of the eugenic milieu in the interwar years, these studies have neglected to recontextualize the sentiments of British eugenicists who did indeed view the Nazi government positively in the early years of the 1930s. This article argues that there was a significant, though not numerically sizable, faction in the British eugenics movement, though mostly outside the Eugenics Society itself, in the early 1930s that viewed the Nazi Germany as an admirable state for its implementation of eugenic principles. One of these figures was later interned by his own government for being too closely aligned with the German regime, though he argued that this affinity was driven by the quest for scientific truth rather than politics. Eugenics in Britain thus contained a greater diversity of views toward Germany than scholars have previously assumed, warranting more research into the individuals and organizations harbouring these views.

  12. Development of a 350ppm community carbon budget in Eugene, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, A. L.; McRae, M.

    2016-12-01

    In the absence of national greenhouse gas emissions regulations, cities and county agencies across the United States have pursued a patchwork of emissions reduction targets and approaches to achieve those targeted goals. Some regions currently aim to meet efforts in mitigation with ambitious reduction targets that go beyond those pursued at national or international levels (e.g., UNFCCC, Paris, 2015). In 2014 The City of Eugene (Oregon, USA) City Council passed the Climate Recovery Ordinance which, in addition to outlining City emissions targets for 2020 and 2030, requested a proposal to adopt a community greenhouse gas reduction target consistent with achieving a global atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration of 350ppm by the year 2100. A 350ppm 2100 target, if achieved, could keep global average temperature rise to within 1°C by century-end but would necessarily limit cumulative fossil fuel carbon emissions to 500GtC (currently 375GtC). In contrast to historically-based approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation targets typically established by cities, the request of a community target based on a 350ppm target required the development of new methods by the City of Eugene. Collaborating with a Thriving Earth Exchange (TEX) scientist and working with a peer review team of regional analysts, the City of Eugene City Manager's Office produced a report which described a methodology for establishing a 350ppm community carbon budget and led a multi-session dialog with Eugene City Council members on possible action towards this goal. Here, we describe the methods developed and the collaborative effort which made it possible. The work led to the recent Eugene City Council adoption of an ambitious community-wide greenhouse gas emission reduction goal of 7.6% per year, consistent with global emissions reductions needed to achieve an atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration 350ppm by 2100.

  13. The Curious Case of Thalidomide and the Absent Eugenic Clause in Canada's Amended Abortion Law of 1969.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This essay traces the role of the drug thalidomide in the reform of Canadian abortion law during the late 1960s. Like elsewhere in the British Commonwealth, discussion of the "thalidomide disaster" of the early 1960s intensified leading up to the debates that culminated in the 1969 amendment to Canadian abortion law. Although thalidomide was a rallying point for advocates of eugenic abortion, a majority of Canadian MPs, unlike their British and Commonwealth counterparts, rejected this argument. Widespread public and political considerations of the thalidomide tragedy were thus unable to inspire support for a eugenic clause in Canada's new abortion law, in spite of the nation's infamous eugenic past.

  14. Single-cell RNA sequencing identifies distinct mouse medial ganglionic eminence cell types

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Jiun J.; Friedman, Brad A.; Ha, Connie; Durinck, Steffen; Liu, Jinfeng; Rubenstein, John L.; Seshagiri, Somasekar; Modrusan, Zora

    2017-01-01

    Many subtypes of cortical interneurons (CINs) are found in adult mouse cortices, but the mechanism generating their diversity remains elusive. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing on the mouse embryonic medial ganglionic eminence (MGE), the major birthplace for CINs, and on MGE-like cells differentiated from embryonic stem cells. Two distinct cell types were identified as proliferating neural progenitors and immature neurons, both of which comprised sub-populations. Although lineage development of MGE progenitors was reconstructed and immature neurons were characterized as GABAergic, cells that might correspond to precursors of different CINs were not identified. A few non-neuronal cell types were detected, including microglia. In vitro MGE-like cells resembled bona fide MGE cells but expressed lower levels of Foxg1 and Epha4. Together, our data provide detailed understanding of the embryonic MGE developmental program and suggest how CINs are specified. PMID:28361918

  15. Successful stabilisation of a type III paediatric tibial eminence fracture using a tensioned wire technique.

    PubMed

    Archer, Matthew; Parkin, Tom; Latimer, Mark David

    2016-09-19

    We report the case of an 11-year-old boy presenting with a type III tibial eminence fracture. The fracture fragment was reduced arthroscopically. Two 1.6 mm retrograde K-wires were inserted from the tibial metaphysis across the physis and into the fracture fragment using a standard anterior cruciate ligament tibial tunnel guide. Once the wires were clearly visible within the joint the tips were bent over by ∼120°. The wires were then tensioned around a single small fragment screw inserted into the tibial metaphysis. An exceptionally strong fixation was achieved. The boy was mobilised without a brace. The wires were removed at 12 weeks and he returned to full activity at 14 weeks.

  16. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of the thenar eminence in anesthesia and intensive care

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy of the thenar eminence (NIRSth) is a noninvasive bedside method for assessing tissue oxygenation. The NIRS probe emits light with several wavelengths in the 700- to 850-nm interval and measures the reflected light mainly from a predefined depth. Complex physical models then allow the measurement of the relative concentrations of oxy and deoxyhemoglobin, and thus tissue saturation (StO2), as well as an approximation of the tissue hemoglobin, given as tissue hemoglobin index. Here we review of current knowledge of the application of NIRSth in anesthesia and intensive care. We performed an analytical and descriptive review of the literature using the terms “near-infrared spectroscopy” combined with “anesthesia,” “anesthesiology,” “intensive care,” “critical care,” “sepsis,” “bleeding,” “hemorrhage,” “surgery,” and “trauma” with particular focus on all NIRS studies involving measurement at the thenar eminence. We found that NIRSth has been applied as clinical research tool to perform both static and dynamic assessment of StO2. Specifically, a vascular occlusion test (VOT) with a pressure cuff can be used to provide a dynamic assessment of the tissue oxygenation response to ischemia. StO2 changes during such induced ischemia-reperfusion yield information on oxygen consumption and microvasculatory reactivity. Some evidence suggests that StO2 during VOT can detect fluid responsiveness during surgery. In hypovolemic shock, StO2 can help to predict outcome, but not in septic shock. In contrast, NIRS parameters during VOT increase the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy in both hypovolemic and septic shock. Minimal data are available on static or dynamic StO2 used to guide therapy. Although the available data are promising, further studies are necessary before NIRSth can become part of routine clinical practice. PMID:22569165

  17. Prediction of the articular eminence shape in a patient with unilateral hypoplasia of the right mandibular ramus before and after distraction osteogenesis-A simulation study.

    PubMed

    de Zee, Mark; Cattaneo, Paolo M; Svensson, Peter; Pedersen, Thomas K; Melsen, Birte; Rasmussen, John; Dalstra, Michel

    2009-05-29

    The aim of this work was to predict the shape of the articular eminence in a patient with unilateral hypoplasia of the right mandibular ramus before and after distraction osteogenesis (DO). Using a patient-specific musculoskeletal model of the mandible the hypothesis that the observed differences in this patient in the left and right articular eminence inclinations were consistent with minimisation of joint loads was tested. Moreover, a prediction was made of the final shape of the articular eminence after DO when the expected remodelling has reached a steady state. The individual muscle forces and the average TMJ loading were computed for each combination of articular eminence angles both before and after DO. This exhaustive parameter study provides a full overview of average TMJ loading depending on the angles of the articular eminences. Before DO the parameter study resulted in different articular eminence inclinations between left and right sides consistent with patient data obtained from CT scans, indicating that in this patient the articular eminence shapes result from minimisation of joint loads. The simulation model predicts development of almost equal articular eminence shapes after DO. The same tendency was observed in cone beam CT scans (NewTom) of the patient taken 6.5 years after surgery.

  18. Comparison of Sanger and next generation sequencing performance for genotyping Cryptosporidium isolates at the 18S rRNA and actin loci.

    PubMed

    Paparini, Andrea; Gofton, Alexander; Yang, Rongchang; White, Nicole; Bunce, Michael; Ryan, Una M

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is an important enteric pathogen that infects a wide range of humans and animals. Rapid and reliable detection and characterisation methods are essential for understanding the transmission dynamics of the parasite. Sanger sequencing, and high-throughput sequencing (HTS) on an Ion Torrent platform, were compared with each other for their sensitivity and accuracy in detecting and characterising 25 Cryptosporidium-positive human and animal faecal samples. Ion Torrent reads (n = 123,857) were obtained at both 18S rRNA and actin loci for 21 of the 25 samples. Of these, one isolate at the actin locus (Cattle 05) and three at the 18S rRNA locus (HTS 10, HTS 11 and HTS 12), suffered PCR drop-out (i.e. PCR failures) when using fusion-tagged PCR. Sanger sequences were obtained for both loci for 23 of the 25 samples and showed good agreement with Ion Torrent-based genotyping. Two samples both from pythons (SK 02 and SK 05) produced mixed 18S and actin chromatograms by Sanger sequencing but were clearly identified by Ion Torrent sequencing as C. muris. One isolate (SK 03) was typed as C. muris by Sanger sequencing but was identified as a mixed C. muris and C. tyzzeri infection by HTS. 18S rRNA Type B sequences were identified in 4/6 C. parvum isolates when deep sequenced but were undetected in Sanger sequencing. Sanger was cheaper than Ion Torrent when sequencing a small numbers of samples, but when larger numbers of samples are considered (n = 60), the costs were comparative. Fusion-tagged amplicon based approaches are a powerful way of approaching mixtures, the only draw-back being the loss of PCR efficiency on low-template samples when using primers coupled to MID tags and adaptors. Taken together these data show that HTS has excellent potential for revealing the "true" composition of species/types in a Cryptosporidium infection, but that HTS workflows need to be carefully developed to ensure sensitivity, accuracy and contamination are

  19. Down to the Bone: The Essential Thinking and Productivity of Professor Phillip Tobias, Eminent Paleoanthropologist from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Eminent individuals have made significant contributions to their fields that have impacted on fundamental knowledge and practices around the world, a description that aptly describes the world-known South African paleoanthropologist and scientist, Professor Phillip Tobias. This article presents evidence from his early childhood and schooling that…

  20. Music and Affective Phenomena: A 20-Year Content and Bibliometric Analysis of Research in Three Eminent Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Frank M.; Silveira, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish trends in the study of music and affective phenomena through a content and bibliometric analysis of three eminent music research journals, the "Journal of Research in Music Education", "Psychology of Music", and "Music Perception", for the years 1990 through 2009. Excluding…

  1. Music and Affective Phenomena: A 20-Year Content and Bibliometric Analysis of Research in Three Eminent Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Frank M.; Silveira, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish trends in the study of music and affective phenomena through a content and bibliometric analysis of three eminent music research journals, the "Journal of Research in Music Education", "Psychology of Music", and "Music Perception", for the years 1990 through 2009. Excluding…

  2. Analysis on the spatial structure and characteristics of the eminent tourism resources in south Jiangsu based on GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Jie; Ran, Jiang

    2007-06-01

    This paper includes three parts. Firstly, it evaluates tourism resources of South Jiangsu based on the "Chinese tourist resources general survey norm". Then it analyzes the quantity and the spatial characteristics of the eminent tourism resources of south Jiangsu based on GIS. The result of comprehensive evaluation and spatial analysis showed that the humanity tourism resources play fundamental roles in the structure of the eminent tourism resources, and the natural tourism resources are important parts; and in the spatial distribution, the tourism resources show the characteristics of "strap" and "circle", and disequilibrium distribution in region. Secondly, it makes use of the graph theory to analyze the spatial structure of the eminent tourist resources and analyzes the topological properties of the tourism resources network using several indexes such as β, γ indexes, accessibility index, average directory length and the shortest path matrix, etc. In the end, the paper pays attention to the spatial structure of tourism resources -city relations. Non-equilibrium index and geographical relation ratio are used to observe the spatial structure between the eminent tourism resources and the five cities in south Jiangsu.

  3. Down to the Bone: The Essential Thinking and Productivity of Professor Phillip Tobias, Eminent Paleoanthropologist from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Eminent individuals have made significant contributions to their fields that have impacted on fundamental knowledge and practices around the world, a description that aptly describes the world-known South African paleoanthropologist and scientist, Professor Phillip Tobias. This article presents evidence from his early childhood and schooling that…

  4. Identification of novel BRCA founder mutations in Middle Eastern breast cancer patients using capture and Sanger sequencing analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Rong; Siraj, Abdul K.; Al‐Obaisi, Khadija A.S.; Beg, Shaham; Al Hazmi, Mohsen; Ajarim, Dahish; Tulbah, Asma; Al‐Dayel, Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic differences of breast cancer genomics have prompted us to investigate the spectra of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in different populations. The prevalence and effect of BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 mutations in Middle Eastern population is not fully explored. To characterize the prevalence of BRCA mutations in Middle Eastern breast cancer patients, BRCA mutation screening was performed in 818 unselected breast cancer patients using Capture and/or Sanger sequencing. 19 short tandem repeat (STR) markers were used for founder mutation analysis. In our study, nine different types of deleterious mutation were identified in 28 (3.4%) cases, 25 (89.3%) cases in BRCA 1 and 3 (10.7%) cases in BRCA 2. Seven recurrent mutations identified accounted for 92.9% (26/28) of all the mutant cases. Haplotype analysis was performed to confirm c.1140 dupG and c.4136_4137delCT mutations as novel putative founder mutation, accounting for 46.4% (13/28) of all BRCA mutant cases and 1.6% (13/818) of all the breast cancer cases, respectively. Moreover, BRCA 1 mutation was significantly associated with BRCA 1 protein expression loss (p = 0.0005). Our finding revealed that a substantial number of BRCA mutations were identified in clinically high risk breast cancer from Middle East region. Identification of the mutation spectrum, prevalence and founder effect in Middle Eastern population facilitates genetic counseling, risk assessment and development of cost‐effective screening strategy. PMID:27082205

  5. Detection of hepatitis B virus genotypic resistance mutations by coamplification at lower denaturation temperature-PCR coupled with sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Can; Lin, Jinpiao; Chen, Huijuan; Shang, Hongyan; Jiang, Ling; Chen, Jing; Ye, Yang; Yang, Bin; Ou, Qishui

    2014-08-01

    Mutations in the reverse transcriptase (rt) region of the DNA polymerase gene are the primary cause of hepatitis B virus (HBV) drug resistance. In this study, we established a novel method that couples coamplification at lower denaturation temperature (COLD)-PCR and Sanger sequencing, and we applied it to the detection of known and unknown HBV mutations. Primers were designed based on the common mutations in the HBV rt sequence at positions 180 to 215. The critical denaturation temperature (Tc) was established as a denaturing temperature for both fast and full COLD-PCR procedures. For single mutations, when a melting temperature (Tm)-reducing mutation occurred (e.g., C-G → T-A), the sensitivities of fast and full COLD-PCR for mutant detection were 1% and 2%, respectively; when the mutation caused no change in Tm (e.g., C-G → G-C) or raised Tm (e.g., T-A → C-G), only full COLD-PCR improved the sensitivity for mutant detection (2%). For combination mutations, the sensitivities of both full and fast COLD-PCR were increased to 0.5%. The limits of detection for fast and full COLD-PCR were 50 IU/ml and 100 IU/ml, respectively. In 30 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) cases, no mutations were detected by conventional PCR, whereas 18 mutations were successfully detected by COLD-PCR, including low-prevalence mutations (<10%), as confirmed by ultradeep pyrosequencing. In conclusion, COLD-PCR provides a highly sensitive, simple, inexpensive, and practical tool for significantly improving amplification efficacy and detecting low-level mutations in clinical CHB cases. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Identification of novel BRCA founder mutations in Middle Eastern breast cancer patients using capture and Sanger sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Bu, Rong; Siraj, Abdul K; Al-Obaisi, Khadija A S; Beg, Shaham; Al Hazmi, Mohsen; Ajarim, Dahish; Tulbah, Asma; Al-Dayel, Fouad; Al-Kuraya, Khawla S

    2016-09-01

    Ethnic differences of breast cancer genomics have prompted us to investigate the spectra of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in different populations. The prevalence and effect of BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 mutations in Middle Eastern population is not fully explored. To characterize the prevalence of BRCA mutations in Middle Eastern breast cancer patients, BRCA mutation screening was performed in 818 unselected breast cancer patients using Capture and/or Sanger sequencing. 19 short tandem repeat (STR) markers were used for founder mutation analysis. In our study, nine different types of deleterious mutation were identified in 28 (3.4%) cases, 25 (89.3%) cases in BRCA 1 and 3 (10.7%) cases in BRCA 2. Seven recurrent mutations identified accounted for 92.9% (26/28) of all the mutant cases. Haplotype analysis was performed to confirm c.1140 dupG and c.4136_4137delCT mutations as novel putative founder mutation, accounting for 46.4% (13/28) of all BRCA mutant cases and 1.6% (13/818) of all the breast cancer cases, respectively. Moreover, BRCA 1 mutation was significantly associated with BRCA 1 protein expression loss (p = 0.0005). Our finding revealed that a substantial number of BRCA mutations were identified in clinically high risk breast cancer from Middle East region. Identification of the mutation spectrum, prevalence and founder effect in Middle Eastern population facilitates genetic counseling, risk assessment and development of cost-effective screening strategy. © 2016 UICC.

  7. Comprehensive transcriptome assembly of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) using sanger and next generation sequencing platforms: development and applications.

    PubMed

    Kudapa, Himabindu; Azam, Sarwar; Sharpe, Andrew G; Taran, Bunyamin; Li, Rong; Deonovic, Benjamin; Cameron, Connor; Farmer, Andrew D; Cannon, Steven B; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive transcriptome assembly of chickpea has been developed using 134.95 million Illumina single-end reads, 7.12 million single-end FLX/454 reads and 139,214 Sanger expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from >17 genotypes. This hybrid transcriptome assembly, referred to as Cicer arietinumTranscriptome Assembly version 2 (CaTA v2, available at http://data.comparative-legumes.org/transcriptomes/cicar/lista_cicar-201201), comprising 46,369 transcript assembly contigs (TACs) has an N50 length of 1,726 bp and a maximum contig size of 15,644 bp. Putative functions were determined for 32,869 (70.8%) of the TACs and gene ontology assignments were determined for 21,471 (46.3%). The new transcriptome assembly was compared with the previously available chickpea transcriptome assemblies as well as to the chickpea genome. Comparative analysis of CaTA v2 against transcriptomes of three legumes - Medicago, soybean and common bean, resulted in 27,771 TACs common to all three legumes indicating strong conservation of genes across legumes. CaTA v2 was also used for identification of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and intron spanning regions (ISRs) for developing molecular markers. ISRs were identified by aligning TACs to the Medicago genome, and their putative mapping positions at chromosomal level were identified using transcript map of chickpea. Primer pairs were designed for 4,990 ISRs, each representing a single contig for which predicted positions are inferred and distributed across eight linkage groups. A subset of randomly selected ISRs representing all eight chickpea linkage groups were validated on five chickpea genotypes and showed 20% polymorphism with average polymorphic information content (PIC) of 0.27. In summary, the hybrid transcriptome assembly developed and novel markers identified can be used for a variety of applications such as gene discovery, marker-trait association, diversity analysis etc., to advance genetics research and breeding applications in

  8. Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Genotypic Resistance Mutations by Coamplification at Lower Denaturation Temperature-PCR Coupled with Sanger Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Can; Lin, Jinpiao; Chen, Huijuan; Shang, Hongyan; Jiang, Ling; Chen, Jing; Ye, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the reverse transcriptase (rt) region of the DNA polymerase gene are the primary cause of hepatitis B virus (HBV) drug resistance. In this study, we established a novel method that couples coamplification at lower denaturation temperature (COLD)-PCR and Sanger sequencing, and we applied it to the detection of known and unknown HBV mutations. Primers were designed based on the common mutations in the HBV rt sequence at positions 180 to 215. The critical denaturation temperature (Tc) was established as a denaturing temperature for both fast and full COLD-PCR procedures. For single mutations, when a melting temperature (Tm)-reducing mutation occurred (e.g., C-G→T-A), the sensitivities of fast and full COLD-PCR for mutant detection were 1% and 2%, respectively; when the mutation caused no change in Tm (e.g., C-G→G-C) or raised Tm (e.g., T-A→C-G), only full COLD-PCR improved the sensitivity for mutant detection (2%). For combination mutations, the sensitivities of both full and fast COLD-PCR were increased to 0.5%. The limits of detection for fast and full COLD-PCR were 50 IU/ml and 100 IU/ml, respectively. In 30 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) cases, no mutations were detected by conventional PCR, whereas 18 mutations were successfully detected by COLD-PCR, including low-prevalence mutations (<10%), as confirmed by ultradeep pyrosequencing. In conclusion, COLD-PCR provides a highly sensitive, simple, inexpensive, and practical tool for significantly improving amplification efficacy and detecting low-level mutations in clinical CHB cases. PMID:24899029

  9. "Hopelessly entangled in Nordic pre-suppositions": Catholic participation in the American Eugenics Society in the 1920s.

    PubMed

    Leon, Sharon M

    2004-01-01

    While American Catholics stand out as some of the few voices of cultural opposition to the eugenics movement in the United States, Catholics and eugenicists actively engaged in conversational exchanges during the late 1920s. In association with the Committee on Cooperation with Clergymen of the American Eugenics Society, John A. Ryan and John Montgomery Cooper engaged in a process that Sander Gilman and Nancy Leys Stepan call "recontextualization," whereby they challenged the social and scientific basis for eugenics policy initiatives while constantly urging American eugenicists to rid their movement of racial and class prejudice. In the process, they participated in a revealing debate on immigration restriction, charity, racial hierarchies, feminism, birth control, and sterilization that points to both the instances of convergence and divergence of Catholic and eugenic visions for the national community.

  10. Proceedings of the National Silviculture Workshop: Density of Stocking Control; Eugene, Oregon; October 13-15, 1976

    Treesearch

    Jack H. Usher; Daniel B. Jones; A. R. Stage; Benjamin A. Roach; Gilbert B. Schubert; Darrell W. Crawford; Gilbert H. Schubert; Walter Fox; Edward A. Smith; Richard E. Lowrey Sofes; Richard F. Watt

    1976-01-01

    The 1976 National Silviculture Workshop was held in Eugene, Oregon, on October 13-15, 1976. The objectives were to discuss second growth management of individual stands, with particular emphasis on the control of stand density.

  11. Three-dimensional properties of GnRH neuroterminals in the median eminence of young and old rats1

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Weiling; Mendenhall, John M.; Monita, Monique; Gore, Andrea C.

    2010-01-01

    The decapeptide GnRH that regulates reproduction in all vertebrates is stored in, and secreted from, large dense-core secretory vesicles in nerve terminals in the median eminence. GnRH is released from these terminals with biological rhythms that are critical for the maintenance of normal reproduction. During reproductive aging in female rats, there is a loss of GnRH pulses and a diminution of the GnRH surge. However, information about the specific role of GnRH nerve terminals is lacking, particularly in the context of aging. We sought to gain novel ultrastructural information about GnRH neuroterminals by performing three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of GnRH neuroterminals and their surrounding microenvironment in the median eminence of young (4-5 month) and old (22-24 month) ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley female rats. Median eminence tissues were freeze-plunge embedded, and serial ultrathin sections were collected on slot grids for immunogold labeling of GnRH immunoreactivity. Sequential images were used to create 3D models of GnRH terminals. These reconstructions provided novel perspectives into the morphological properties of GnRH terminals, and their neural and glial environment. We also noted that the cytoarchitectural features of the median eminence became disorganized with aging. Quantitative measures showed a significant decrease in the apposition between GnRH terminal membranes and glial cells. Our data suggest reproductive aging in rats is characterized by structural organizational changes to the GnRH terminal microenvironment in the median eminence. PMID:19757493

  12. Eugenic sterilization: a discussion of certain legal, medical, and moral aspects of present practices in our public mental institutions.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, M

    1961-03-18

    Eugenic sterilization is defined as sterilization of a person who is either mentally ill or mentally defective and will either severely handicap any future offspring through heredity or is unable to properly care for a child. When an institutionalized mentally disordered person of reproductive age reaches a stage when he is able to return to the community, 3 possibilities arise: 1) eugenic surgical sterilization; 2) eugenic institutional sterilization, where the patient is effectively sterilized by being kept in the institution; and 3) discharge without eugenic sterilization. 3 cases of patients discharged without sterilization are presented. A review of the law of eugenic surgical sterilization reveals that 22 states have laws that permit compulsory eugenic sterilization without patient consent. Even though a state does not specifically authorize eugenic sterilization, it does not mean that such a procedure cannot be done legally. However, fewer and fewer eugenic sterilizations are being performed. Decisions relating to sterilization more often are made by medical men than by judges. Medically, the Committee of the American Neurological Association for the Investigation of Eugenical Sterilization, in a report made 25 years ago, condemned on both medical and philosophical grounds widespread eugenic surgical sterilizations except in certain cases. Morally, the author believes that patients and physicians are incapable of acting as moral beings in dealing with the question of eugenic sterilization because of 1) lack of proper facilities to allow freedom of choice, and 2) lack of knowledge of available relevant facts. With respect to the 3 alternatives for dealing with mental patients who are capable of reproducing, the author asks: Is it morally just to sterilize a person without first offering adequate treatment, rehabilitation, and follow-up that a well-equipped institution could offer? Is it just to incarcerate a patient without offering the personnel and

  13. Hitler's bible: an analysis of the relationship between American and German eugenics in pre-war Nazi Germany.

    PubMed

    Brown, Susan

    2009-06-01

    Throughout the last century the wellbeing of those with disability has been threatened by the idea of eugenics. The most notable and extreme example of this could be considered to have been carried out during World WarTwo, within Nazi eugenic programmes. These resulted in the sterilisation and killing of hundreds of thousands of disabled people. Through research of a wide range of sources it has been established that much of the inspiration and encouragement for this rapidly progressing movement in Germany initially came from America, most notably from California. American eugenicists expressed interest, and at times jealousy, at the speed of the progression in German eugenics. German Sterilisation laws were drafted following careful study of American experiments and research, while financial support from a number of American individuals encouraged further German research. Correspondence between influential leaders, including Hitler, Grant and Whitney, Verschuer and Popenoe, on both sides also added to the developing relationship. In conclusion, although there are a number of vital differences between the progress of the eugenics programme in America and in pre-war Nazi Germany, and eugenics in America never produced the massive genocide that occurred in Germany, it is clear that the research, encouragement and enthusiasm from America had a profound influence on the rapidly growing Nazi eugenics movement.

  14. Massively Parallel Sequencing Detected a Mutation in the MFN2 Gene Missed by Sanger Sequencing Due to a Primer Mismatch on an SNP Site.

    PubMed

    Neupauerová, Jana; Grečmalová, Dagmar; Seeman, Pavel; Laššuthová, Petra

    2016-05-01

    We describe a patient with early onset severe axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT2) with dominant inheritance, in whom Sanger sequencing failed to detect a mutation in the mitofusin 2 (MFN2) gene because of a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2236057) under the PCR primer sequence. The severe early onset phenotype and the family history with severely affected mother (died after delivery) was very suggestive of CMT2A and this suspicion was finally confirmed by a MFN2 mutation. The mutation p.His361Tyr was later detected in the patient by massively parallel sequencing with a gene panel for hereditary neuropathies. According to this information, new primers for amplification and sequencing were designed which bind away from the polymorphic sites of the patient's DNA. Sanger sequencing with these new primers then confirmed the heterozygous mutation in the MFN2 gene in this patient. This case report shows that massively parallel sequencing may in some rare cases be more sensitive than Sanger sequencing and highlights the importance of accurate primer design which requires special attention.

  15. From political economy to sociology: Francis Galton and the social-scientific origins of eugenics.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Chris

    2011-09-01

    Having coined the word 'eugenics' and inspired leading biologists and statisticians of the early twentieth century, Francis Galton is often studied for his contributions to modern statistical biology. However, whilst documenting this part of his work, historians have frequently neglected crucial aspects of what motivated Galton to establish his eugenics research programme. Arguing that his work was shaped more by social than by biological science, this paper addresses these oversights by tracing the development of Galton's programme, from its roots in a debate about political economy to his appeals for it to be taken up by sociologists. In so doing, the paper not only returns Galton's ideas to their original context but also provides a reason to reflect on the place of the social sciences in history-of-science scholarship.

  16. From species ethics to social concerns: Habermas's critique of "liberal eugenics" evaluated.

    PubMed

    Árnason, Vilhjálmur

    2014-10-01

    Three arguments of Habermas against "liberal eugenics" -- the arguments from consent, responsibility, and instrumentalization -- are critically evaluated and explicated in the light of his discourse ethics and social theory. It is argued that these arguments move partly at a too deep level and are in part too individualistic and psychological to sufficiently counter the liberal position that he sets out to criticize. This is also due to limitations that prevent discourse ethics from connecting effectively to the moral and political domains, e.g., through a discussion of justice. In spite of these weaknesses, Habermas's thesis is of major relevance and brings up neglected issues in the discussion about eugenic reproductive practices. This relevance has not been duly recognized in bioethics, largely because of the depth of his speculations of philosophical anthropology. It is argued that Habermas's notion of the colonization of the lifeworld could provide the analytical tool needed to build that bridge to the moral and political domain.

  17. 'These pushful days': time and disability in the age of eugenics.

    PubMed

    Baynton, Douglas C

    2011-01-01

    At the turn of the twentieth century, social attitudes toward disability turned sharply negative. An international eugenics movement brought about restrictive immigration laws in the United States and other immigrant nations. One cause was the changing understanding of time, both historical and quotidian, that accompanied the advent of evolutionary theory and a competitive industrial economy. As analogies of competition became culturally ubiquitous, new words to talk about disability such as 'handicapped', 'retarded', 'abnormal', 'degenerate', and 'defective', came into everyday use, all of them explicitly or implicitly rooted in new ways of thinking about time. The intense fear of disability that characterised the eugenics movement grew, in good part, from this new and unsettling vision of time.

  18. Propulsion by light: a tribute to the German pioneer Eugen Saenger (Plenary Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Willy L.

    2004-09-01

    Although the laser was not yet invented Eugen Saenger, one of the most prominent German personalities in the early development of rocket science and technology suggested to use photons for the propulsion of spacecrafts in the fifties. In contrast to current schemes which are basically aimed at laser induced ablation processes, Eugen Saenger started with the idea of using the radiation pressure itself for propulsion purposes. A review of his pioneering work in that area will be supported by numerous historical documents and personal remembrance showing his effort to promote unconventional ideas. The paper also emphasizes how some of the original concepts are being revisited and partly implemented by using today"s laser technology.

  19. Phorbol esters potentiate rapid dopamine release from median eminence and striatal synaptosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, C.; Selmanoff, M.

    1988-06-01

    In the present study, we investigated the ability of phorbol esters to potentiate Ca2+-dependent depolarization-induced release of tritium-labeled dopamine ((3H)DA) from median eminence and striatal synaptosomes. Phorbol esters potentiated (3H)DA release in a concentration-dependent manner in both kinds of dopaminergic nerve terminals and with a potency series similar to that reported for stimulation of protein kinase-C (PKC) activity in other cell systems. Evoked (3H)DA release was increased by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA; 10(-7) M) after 1, 3, 5, and 10 sec of depolarization. The effect of TPA was suppressed by sphingosine, a PKC inhibitor. TPA enhanced (3H)DA release evoked by high K+, veratridine or the Ca2+ ionophore A23187. Phorbol ester potentiation was found to be depolarization dependent, as it was present from 30-75 mM, but not at 5-20 mM external K+. Potentiation was seen at all external Ca2+ concentrations studied between 0.01-3 mM. However, in the absence of external free Ca2+ (i.e. with 0.1 mM EGTA), the phorbol effect was not present. These data indicate that an increase in intrasynaptosomal Ca2+ concentration is necessary for the enhancement of (3H)DA release by phorbol esters to occur. The combination of TPA and the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 does not show the marked synergism observed in some other systems, that is maximal release was not reinstated. This suggests that in dopaminergic nerve terminals, activation of PKC has a modulatory, rather than a mediating, effect on release. Recently, we have shown that hyperprolactinemia stimulated (3H)DA release from median eminence synaptosomes by an external Ca2+-independent mechanism which might involve the PKC pathway. However, in the present work we found that the TPA and PRL effects on evoked (3H)DA release were additive, suggesting that two independent mechanisms are involved.

  20. Astronaut Eugene Cernan drives the Lunar Roving Vehicle during first EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-12-10

    AS17-147-22523 (11 Dec. 1972) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan is seen test driving the "stripped down" Lunar Rover Vehicle (LRV) prior to loading the LRV up. Equipment later loaded onto the LRV included the ground controlled television assembly, the lunar communications relay unit, the hi-gain antenna, the low-gain antenna, aft tool pallet, and lunar tools and scientific gear.

  1. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 TEST - ASTRONAUT EUGENE A. CERNAN - TRAINING - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-05-19

    S66-27375 (19 Feb. 1966) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, pilot of the Gemini-9 spaceflight, has his suit adjusted by NASA suit technician Al Rochford during preparations for tests with the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU). The tests were conducted in Chamber B, Environmental Test Laboratory, Building 32. The AMU, which consists of a chest pack and backpack, will be used for extravehicular activity (EVA) on the Gemini-9 mission. Photo credit: NASA

  2. Astronaut Eugene Cernan inside the lunar module on lunar surface after EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-12-12

    AS17-145-22224 (12 Dec. 1972) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, Apollo 17 commander, is photographed inside the lunar module on the lunar surface following the second extravehicular activity (EVA) of his mission. Note lunar dust on his suit. The photograph was taken by astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt, lunar module pilot, using a 70mm handheld Hasselblad camera and S0-368 film.

  3. Astronaut Eugene Cernan drives the Lunar Roving Vehicle during first EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-12-10

    AS17-147-22527 (11 Dec. 1972) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, Apollo 17 mission commander, makes a short checkout of the Lunar Roving Vehicle during the early part of the first Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. The Lunar Module is in the background. This photograph was taken by scientist-astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt, lunar module pilot.

  4. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 TEST - ASTRONAUT EUGENE A. CERNAN - TRAINING - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-05-19

    S66-27377 (19 Feb. 1966) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, pilot of the Gemini-9 spaceflight, is suited up in preparation for tests with the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU). The tests are conducted in Chamber B, Environmental Test Laboratory, Building 32. The AMU, which consists of a chest pack and a backpack, will be used for extravehicular activity (EVA) on the Gemini-9 mission. Photo credit: NASA

  5. In memory of Eugene (Jenő) von Gothard: a pioneering nineteenth century Hungarian astrophysicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincze, Ildikő J.; Jankovics, István

    2012-07-01

    Eugene von Gothard was a Hungarian engineer/scientist, instrument-maker and astrophysicist who founded the Herény Astrophysical Observatory in 1881 and carried out pioneering work in astronomical photography and spectroscopy. In this paper we provide biographical material about von Gothard and describe his observatory, before discussing his astronomical observations and the contribution that hemade to the early development of astrophysics.

  6. ASTRONAUT CERNAN, EUGENE A. - RECOVERY (GEMINI-TITAN [GT]-9A) - ATLANTIC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-06

    S66-34111 (6 June 1966) --- Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford (left) and Eugene A. Cernan talk to President Lyndon B. Johnson via ship-to-shore telephone from aboard the aircraft carrier USS Wasp. Gemini-9A splashed down only 3.5 miles from the recovery ship at 9 a.m. (EST), June 6, 1966, 345 miles east of Cape Kennedy, to conclude a 72-hour, 21-minute mission in space. Photo credit: NASA

  7. Fear of a female planet: how John Harris came to endorse eugenic social engineering.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I respond to criticisms by John Harris, contained in a commentary on my article "Harris, harmed states, and sexed bodies", which appeared in the Journal of Medical Ethics, volume 37, number 5. I argue that Harris's response to my criticisms exposes the strong eugenic tendencies in his own thought, when he suggests that the reproductive obligations of parents should be determined with reference to a claim about what would enhance 'society' or 'the species'.

  8. [Agnes Bluhm, the woman scientist among the eugenics specialists, and the women's movement].

    PubMed

    Bleker, Johanna

    2007-01-01

    The paper tries to assess the early female physician Agnes Bluhm (1862-1943) as one of the outstanding German female scientists of her time and draws up a connection from her achievements in early genetics to her commitments in eugenics and feminism. This leads to a more precise judgement on her position within the German racial hygiene and allows to correct misunderstandings that have assigned Bluhm to the right wing in the German women's movement.

  9. Eugen Bleuler: Centennial Anniversary of His 1911 Publication of Dementia Praecox or the Group of Schizophrenias

    PubMed Central

    McGlashan, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    In 1911, a book was published in Europe by Eugen Bleuler describing in detail asylum patients under his care who met clinical criteria for the psychotic disorder named Dementia Praecox by Emil Kraepelin. Bleuler's voluminous publication, now a classic to world psychiatry, validated Kraepelin's observations and extended them in ways that remain familiar to us a full century later in how we describe, diagnose, treat, and understand psychosis. PMID:22013082

  10. Eugen Bleuler: centennial anniversary of his 1911 publication of Dementia Praecox or the group of schizophrenias.

    PubMed

    McGlashan, Thomas H

    2011-11-01

    In 1911, a book was published in Europe by Eugen Bleuler describing in detail asylum patients under his care who met clinical criteria for the psychotic disorder named Dementia Praecox by Emil Kraepelin. Bleuler's voluminous publication, now a classic to world psychiatry, validated Kraepelin's observations and extended them in ways that remain familiar to us a full century later in how we describe, diagnose, treat, and understand psychosis.

  11. Bioinformatic analysis of ESTs collected by Sanger and pyrosequencing methods for a keystone forest tree species: oak

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Fagaceae family comprises about 1,000 woody species worldwide. About half belong to the Quercus family. These oaks are often a source of raw material for biomass wood and fiber. Pedunculate and sessile oaks, are among the most important deciduous forest tree species in Europe. Despite their ecological and economical importance, very few genomic resources have yet been generated for these species. Here, we describe the development of an EST catalogue that will support ecosystem genomics studies, where geneticists, ecophysiologists, molecular biologists and ecologists join their efforts for understanding, monitoring and predicting functional genetic diversity. Results We generated 145,827 sequence reads from 20 cDNA libraries using the Sanger method. Unexploitable chromatograms and quality checking lead us to eliminate 19,941 sequences. Finally a total of 125,925 ESTs were retained from 111,361 cDNA clones. Pyrosequencing was also conducted for 14 libraries, generating 1,948,579 reads, from which 370,566 sequences (19.0%) were eliminated, resulting in 1,578,192 sequences. Following clustering and assembly using TGICL pipeline, 1,704,117 EST sequences collapsed into 69,154 tentative contigs and 153,517 singletons, providing 222,671 non-redundant sequences (including alternative transcripts). We also assembled the sequences using MIRA and PartiGene software and compared the three unigene sets. Gene ontology annotation was then assigned to 29,303 unigene elements. Blast search against the SWISS-PROT database revealed putative homologs for 32,810 (14.7%) unigene elements, but more extensive search with Pfam, Refseq_protein, Refseq_RNA and eight gene indices revealed homology for 67.4% of them. The EST catalogue was examined for putative homologs of candidate genes involved in bud phenology, cuticle formation, phenylpropanoids biosynthesis and cell wall formation. Our results suggest a good coverage of genes involved in these traits. Comparative orthologous

  12. Comprehensive Transcriptome Assembly of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Using Sanger and Next Generation Sequencing Platforms: Development and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Andrew G.; Taran, Bunyamin; Li, Rong; Deonovic, Benjamin; Cameron, Connor; Farmer, Andrew D.; Cannon, Steven B.; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive transcriptome assembly of chickpea has been developed using 134.95 million Illumina single-end reads, 7.12 million single-end FLX/454 reads and 139,214 Sanger expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from >17 genotypes. This hybrid transcriptome assembly, referred to as Cicer arietinum Transcriptome Assembly version 2 (CaTA v2, available at http://data.comparative-legumes.org/transcriptomes/cicar/lista_cicar-201201), comprising 46,369 transcript assembly contigs (TACs) has an N50 length of 1,726 bp and a maximum contig size of 15,644 bp. Putative functions were determined for 32,869 (70.8%) of the TACs and gene ontology assignments were determined for 21,471 (46.3%). The new transcriptome assembly was compared with the previously available chickpea transcriptome assemblies as well as to the chickpea genome. Comparative analysis of CaTA v2 against transcriptomes of three legumes - Medicago, soybean and common bean, resulted in 27,771 TACs common to all three legumes indicating strong conservation of genes across legumes. CaTA v2 was also used for identification of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and intron spanning regions (ISRs) for developing molecular markers. ISRs were identified by aligning TACs to the Medicago genome, and their putative mapping positions at chromosomal level were identified using transcript map of chickpea. Primer pairs were designed for 4,990 ISRs, each representing a single contig for which predicted positions are inferred and distributed across eight linkage groups. A subset of randomly selected ISRs representing all eight chickpea linkage groups were validated on five chickpea genotypes and showed 20% polymorphism with average polymorphic information content (PIC) of 0.27. In summary, the hybrid transcriptome assembly developed and novel markers identified can be used for a variety of applications such as gene discovery, marker-trait association, diversity analysis etc., to advance genetics research and breeding applications in

  13. Eugenic World Building and Disability: The Strange World of Kazuo Ishiguro's Never Let Me Go.

    PubMed

    Garland-Thomson, Rosemarie

    2017-06-01

    A crucial challenge for critical disability studies is developing an argument for why disabled people should inhabit our democratic, shared public sphere. The ideological and material separation of citizens into worthy and unworthy based on physiological variations imagined as immutable differences is what I call eugenic world building. It is justified by the idea that social improvement and freedom of choice require eliminating devalued human traits in the interest of reducing human suffering, increasing life quality, and building a more desirable citizenry. In this essay, I outline the logic of inclusive and eugenic world building, define and explain the role of the "normate" in eugenic logic, and provide a critical disability studies reading of the 2005 novel Never Let Me Go by Kazuo Ishiguro and its 2010 film adaptation. I argue that the ways of being in the world we think of as disabilities must be understood as the natural variations, abilities, and limitations inherent in human embodiment. When this happens, disability will be understood not as a problem to be eliminated but, rather, as a valid way of being in the world that must be accommodated through a sustaining and sustainable environment designed to afford access for a wide range of human variations.

  14. [Eugenics' extension in the Spanish health care system through the prenatal diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Martín, Esteban

    2012-01-01

    The wide implantation of strategies of sifted or prenatal selection close to laws that protect the destruction of the human life before the childbirth in the whole world, they are giving place to an increasing number of eugenic abortions. In Spain, the law 2/2010 of the sexual and reproductive health and voluntary interruption of pregnancy there has supposed the liberalization of the eugenic abortion without term limit. In we make concrete, the sanitary national and international policies of prenatal selection of Down's Syndrome, which they chase to facilitate the total or partial destruction before the childbirth of this human group, submitting it to a few particular conditions of existence during his prenatal life in those who will be an object of a series of technologies of selection, they might be qualified of genocidal policies if we consider the definition of genocide given by United Nations. In consequence, the sanitary agent who takes part without objection in the above mentioned programs promoted by the principal agents, meets turned into a necessary cooperator of the abortion who justifies itself in the supposition of "foetal risk". We can conclude that we are present at an eugenic drift of the prenatal diagnosis that is opposite to the ethical beginning of the medical profession.

  15. The doers of good. Scandinavian historians revise the social history of eugenics(1997-2001).

    PubMed

    Zylberman, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Late disclosure of the large scale of sterilization practices in the Nordic countries created an outburst of scandal: did these policies rely on coercion? To what extent? Who in the end was responsible? Sterilization practices targeted underprivileged people first. The mentally retarded and women were their first victims. Operations were very frequently determined by other people's manipulative or coercive influences. Should the blame be put on the Social-Democrats in power throughout the period (except in Finland and Estonia)? Apart from Denmark, perhaps, local physicians and local services, more than governments, seemed to have strongly supported sterilization practices. Teetotalers and feminists shared responsibilities. How can one explain that eugenics finally declined? Based on a sound application of the Hardy-Weinberg law, the science of the eugenicists was correct. Was it politics? But uncovering of the Nazi crimes had only a very small impact on eugenics. Some authors underline the fact that the Nordic scientific institutions were particularly suited to liberal values. Others point to the devastating effect on eugenics once hereditarist psychiatry fell from favor in the middle of the sixties.

  16. The economics of race and eugenic sterilization in North Carolina: 1958-1968.

    PubMed

    Price, Gregory N; Darity, William A

    2010-07-01

    Theoretical justifications for state-sanctioned sterilization of individuals provided by Irving Fisher rationalized its racialization on grounds that certain non-white racial groups, particularly blacks due to their dysgenic biological and behavioral traits, retarded economic growth and should be bred out of existence. Fisher's rationale suggests that national or state level eugenic policies that sterilized the so-called biological and genetically unfit could have been racist in both design and effect by disproportionately targeting black Americans. We empirically explore this with data on eugenic sterilizations in the State of North Carolina between 1958 and 1968. Count data parameter estimates from a cross-county population allocation model of sterilization reveal that the probability of non-institutional and total sterilizations increased with a county's black population share-an effect not found for any other racial group in the population. Our results suggest that in North Carolina, eugenic sterilization policies were racially biased and genocidal. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Viral-mediated Labeling and Transplantation of Medial Ganglionic Eminence (MGE) Cells for In Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Daniel; Wu, Pei-Rung; Sorrells, Shawn F.; Arnold, Christine; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Rubenstein, John L. R.

    2015-01-01

    GABAergic cortical interneurons, derived from the embryonic medial and caudal ganglionic eminences (MGE and CGE), are functionally and morphologically diverse. Inroads have been made in understanding the roles of distinct cortical interneuron subgroups, however, there are still many mechanisms to be worked out that may contribute to the development and maturation of different types of GABAergic cells. Moreover, altered GABAergic signaling may contribute to phenotypes of autism, schizophrenia and epilepsy. Specific Cre-driver lines have begun to parcel out the functions of unique interneuron subgroups. Despite the advances in mouse models, it is often difficult to efficiently study GABAergic cortical interneuron progenitors with molecular approaches in vivo. One important technique used to study the cell autonomous programming of these cells is transplantation of MGE cells into host cortices. These transplanted cells migrate extensively, differentiate, and functionally integrate. In addition, MGE cells can be efficiently transduced with lentivirus immediately prior to transplantation, allowing for a multitude of molecular approaches. Here we detail a protocol to efficiently transduce MGE cells before transplantation for in vivo analysis, using available Cre-driver lines and Cre-dependent expression vectors. This approach is advantageous because it combines precise genetic manipulation with the ability of these cells to disperse after transplantation, permitting greater cell-type specific resolution in vivo. PMID:25938985

  18. Human heredity and politics: A comparative institutional study of the Eugenics Record Office at Cold Spring Harbor (United States), the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics (Germany), and the Maxim Gorky Medical Genetics Institute (USSR).

    PubMed

    Adams, Mark B; Allen, Garland E; Weiss, Sheila Faith

    2005-01-01

    Despite the fact that much has been written in recent years about the science of heredity under the Third Reich, there is as yet no satisfying analysis of two central questions: What, if anything, was peculiarly "Nazi" about human genetics under National Socialism? How, under whatever set of causes, did at least some of Germany's most well-known and leading biomedical practioners become engaged in entgrenzte Wissenschaft (science without moral boundaries)? This paper attempts to provide some answers to these two questions comparing three institutes that studied eugenics and human heredity in the 1920s and 1930s: the Eugenics Record Office at Cold Spring Harbor, New York, directed by Charles B. Davenport; the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics, in Berlin, directed by Eugen Fischer; and the Maxim Gorky Medical Genetics Institute in Moscow, directed by Solomon G. Levit. The institutes are compared on the basis of the kind and quality of their research in eugenics and medical genetics, organizational structure, leadership, patronage (private or state), and the economic-social-political context in which they functioned.

  19. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuroterminals and their microenvironment in the median eminence: effects of aging and estradiol treatment.

    PubMed

    Yin, Weiling; Wu, Di; Noel, Megan L; Gore, Andrea C

    2009-12-01

    The GnRH decapeptide controls reproductive function through its release from neuroendocrine terminals in the median eminence, a site where there is a convergence of numerous nerve terminals and glial cells. Previous work showed dynamic changes in the GnRH-glial-capillary network in the median eminence under different physiological conditions. Because aging in rats is associated with a diminution of GnRH release and responsiveness to estradiol feedback, we examined effects of age and estradiol treatment on these anatomical interactions. Rats were ovariectomized at young (4 months), middle-aged (11 months), or old (22-23 months) ages, allowed 4 wk to recover, and then treated with vehicle or estradiol for 72 h followed by perfusion. Immunofluorescence of GnRH was measured, and immunogold electron microscopic analyses were performed to study the ultrastructural properties of GnRH neuroterminals and their microenvironment. Although the GnRH immunofluorescent signal showed no significant changes with age and estradiol treatment, we found that the median eminence underwent both qualitative and quantitative structural changes with age, including a disorganization of cytoarchitecture with aging and a decrease in the apposition of GnRH neuroterminals to glia with age and estradiol treatment. Thus, although GnRH neurons can continue to synthesize and transport peptide, changes in the GnRH neuroterminal-glial-capillary machinery occur during reproductive senescence in a manner consistent with a disconnection of these elements and a potential dysregulation of GnRH neurosecretion.

  20. Comparison of high-resolution melting analysis, TaqMan Allelic discrimination assay, and sanger sequencing for Clopidogrel efficacy genotyping in routine molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lina; Cui, Guanglin; Li, Zongzhe; Wang, Haoran; Ding, Hu; Wang, Dao Wen

    2013-09-01

    Clopidogrel, as a routine antiplatelet drug, is widely used in patients to reduce cardiovascular events following percutaneous coronary intervention. Because of genetic variation, patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention show differing responses to clopidogrel therapy. Recently, five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within CYP2C19 (rs4244285, rs4986893, rs12248560), ABCB1 (rs1045642), and ITGB3 (rs5918) were identified that contribute prominently to variability in response to clopidogrel. Given that Sanger sequencing is labor intensive and time consuming, rapid genotyping methods for SNP detection are urgently required before clopidogrel therapy. Accordingly, we developed a high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) and TaqMan allelic discrimination assay (TaqMan) to genotype those five SNPs, and compared these two assays with Sanger sequencing on accuracy of genotyping as well as operational characteristics. These two assays showed high accuracy (0.995, 95% CI 0.991 to 0.998 for HRMA; 0.997, 95% CI 0.994 to 0.999 for TaqMan, respectively), sensitivity (0.996, 95% CI 0.989 to 1.002 for HRMA; 0.998, 95% CI 0.993 to 1.002 for TaqMan, respectively), and specificity (0.995, 95% CI 0.991 to 0.999 for HRMA; 0.996, 95% CI 0.993 to 1.000 for TaqMan, respectively). Our study indicates that HRMA and TaqMan are easier to operate and obviously faster than Sanger sequencing. In conclusion, HRMA and TaqMan are rapid, convenient, and reliable assays for clopidogrel efficacy genotyping.

  1. [Comparative analysis of real-time quantitative PCR-Sanger sequencing method and TaqMan probe method for detection of KRAS/BRAF mutation in colorectal carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xun; Wang, Yuehua; Gao, Ning; Wang, Jinfen

    2014-02-01

    To compare the application values of real-time quantitative PCR-Sanger sequencing and TaqMan probe method in the detection of KRAS and BRAF mutations, and to correlate KRAS/BRAF mutations with the clinicopathological characteristics in colorectal carcinomas. Genomic DNA of the tumor cells was extracted from formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples of 344 colorectal carcinomas by microdissection. Real-time quantitative PCR-Sanger sequencing and TaqMan probe method were performed to detect the KRAS/BRAF mutations. The frequency and types of KRAS/BRAF mutations, clinicopathological characteristics and survival time were analyzed. KRAS mutations were detected in 39.8% (137/344) and 38.7% (133/344) of 344 colorectal carcinomas by using real-time quantitative PCR-Sanger sequencing and TaqMan probe method, respectively. BRAF mutation was detected in 4.7% (16/344) and 4.1% (14/344), respectively. There was no significant correlation between the two methods. The frequency of the KRAS mutation in female was higher than that in male (P < 0.05). The frequency of the BRAF mutation in colon was higher than that in rectum. The frequency of the BRAF mutation in stage III-IV cases was higher than that in stageI-II cases. The frequency of the BRAF mutation in signet ring cell carcinoma was higher than that in mucinous carcinoma and nonspecific adenocarcinoma had the lowest mutation rate. The frequency of the BRAF mutation in grade III cases was higher than that in grade II cases (P < 0.05). The overall concordance for the two methods of KRAS/BRAF mutation detection was 98.8% (kappa = 0.976). There was statistic significance between BRAF and KRAS mutations for the survival time of colorectal carcinomas (P = 0.039). There were no statistic significance between BRAF mutation type and BRAF/KRAS wild type (P = 0.058). (1) Compared with real-time quantitative PCR-Sanger sequencing, TaqMan probe method is better with regard to handling time, efficiency, repeatability, cost

  2. Inherently Undesirable: American Identity and the Role of Negative Eugenics in the Education of Visually Impaired and Blind Students in Ohio, 1870-1930

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Free, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    To date, studies of eugenics artificially confine their focus to the movement's application to race, socio-economic status, and the forced sterilization of the so-called feebleminded. However, the segregationist aspect of the eugenics design in the United States brought with it damaging policies toward individuals with physical and mental…

  3. Inherently Undesirable: American Identity and the Role of Negative Eugenics in the Education of Visually Impaired and Blind Students in Ohio, 1870-1930

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Free, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    To date, studies of eugenics artificially confine their focus to the movement's application to race, socio-economic status, and the forced sterilization of the so-called feebleminded. However, the segregationist aspect of the eugenics design in the United States brought with it damaging policies toward individuals with physical and mental…

  4. Throwing the baby out with the bathwater: a critique of Sparrow's inclusive definition of the term 'in vitro eugenics'.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Misao; Yashiro, Yoshimi; Suzuki, Mika

    2014-11-01

    Sparrow highlights three potential applications of in vitro eugenics, that is, (a) research into the heredity of genetic disorders, (b) production of cell lines with specific genotypes, and (c) breeding better babies, and points to the need for researchers to discuss in advance the potential ethical problems that may emerge if the realization of this technology occurs in the near future. In this commentary, we pose a question for the sake of discussion. Is it, in fact, appropriate to label all three applications raised by Sparrow as eugenics? By doing so, an unnecessary level of concern might be borne among the public, and as a result, the sound development of this specialized technology would be affected. If the label of eugenics is to be applied to all three of these applications, then Sparrow must justify how he perceives (a) and (b) as not inherently different from (c).

  5. Eugenics and migration: a case study of Salvation Army literature about Canada and Britain, c.1890-1921.

    PubMed

    Baker, Graham J

    2014-01-01

    The eugenics movement attracted a wide range of supporters. This article explores this theme with relation to literature about the charitable work of the Salvation Army in Britain and Canada c.1890-1921, with a focus upon the emigration scheme outlined in William Booth's book In Darkest England and the Way Out. These writings indicate the widespread dispersal of eugenic ideology, and demonstrate the flexibility with which these theories were interpreted in this period. It will be shown that the Salvation Army adopted elements of both hereditarian and environmentalist views regarding racial health. These arguments were unified by the claim that the work of the organization made a worthy contribution to public health, both in the present and in the future. This case study sheds new light upon the history of a prominent evangelical Christian organization and upon the development of the international eugenics movement.

  6. Eugenics as Indian removal: sociohistorical processes and the de(con)struction of American Indians in the southeast.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Angela; Kertész, Judy; Tayac, Gabrielle

    2007-01-01

    Although research on the history of the eugenics movement in the United States is legion, its impact on state policies that identified and defined American Indians has yet to be fully addressed. The exhibit, Our Lives: Comtemporary Life and Identities (ongoing until September 21, 2014) at the National Museum of the American Indian provides a provocative vehicle for examining how eugenics-informed public policy during the first quarter of the twentieth century served to "remove" from official records Native peoples throughout the Southeast. One century after Indian Removal of the antebellum era, Native peoples in the American Southeast provide an important but often overlooked example of how racial policies, this time rooted in eugenics, effected a documentary erasure of Native peoples and communities.

  7. Racial science in social context: John R. Baker on eugenics, race, and the public role of the scientist.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Michael G

    2004-09-01

    In 1974 a British biologist, John Randal Baker (1900-1984), published a large and controversial book simply entitled Race that reiterated persistent eugenicist themes concerning the relation between race, intelligence, and progress. The history of Baker's book is a case study in the politics of scientific publishing, and his ideas influenced scholars associated with later works such as The Bell Curve. Baker, a student of Julian Huxley, was a longtime participant in the British eugenics movement and opponent of what he took to be a facile belief in human equality. In 1942, together with Michael Polanyi, he founded the Society for Freedom in Science to oppose those who advocated the central planning of scientific research. Baker's eugenics, political activities, and views on race express an elitist individualism, associated with the conservative wing of the eugenics movement, that this paper explores in the context of his career as a whole.

  8. View of Astronaut Eugene Cernan beside lunar roving vehicle during EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-12-13

    AS17-134-20476 (13 Dec. 1972) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, Apollo 17 commander, approaches the parked Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) on the lunar surface during the flight's third period of extravehicular activity (EVA). South Massif can be seen in the background. The photograph was taken with a hand-held Hasselblad camera by scientist-astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt, lunar module pilot. While the two explored the surface of the moon, astronaut Ronald E. Evans remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit.

  9. Eugene P. Wigner's Visionary Contributions to Generations-I through IV Fission Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carré, Frank

    2014-09-01

    Among Europe's greatest scientists who fled to Britain and America in the 1930s, Eugene P. Wigner made instrumental advances in reactor physics, reactor design and technology, and spent nuclear fuel processing for both purposes of developing atomic weapons during world-war II and nuclear power afterwards. Wigner who had training in chemical engineering and self-education in physics first gained recognition for his remarkable articles and books on applications of Group theory to Quantum mechanics, Solid state physics and other topics that opened new branches of Physics.

  10. Nervous diseases and eugenics of the Jews: a view from 1918.

    PubMed

    Falk, Raphael

    The Jewish physician, specializing in psychiatry in Warsaw, Poland, Shneor Zalman Bychowski (1865-1934) was deeply involved in public affairs, and especially in Zionist activity. Although he supported the need for eugenic means to avert the degenerative trends among Eastern Jewish populations, he insisted that the notorious neuropathies of these Jews were not hereditary, but rather induced by the social and economic conditions to which these individuals were exposed. An abridged and annotated trans- lation of Bychowski's Hebrew article in the periodical Ha-Tekufah is presented.

  11. [Towards social eugenics. Ideology and bioethics in the construction of the social policy].

    PubMed

    Fernández Riquelme, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    The social eugenics is the real face of the biomedical application of an ideological paradigm, self-styled like "progressive", that claims the radical transformation of the western society from laicist and utilitarians positions. This article tries to decipher the historical roots, the bioethical language and the political - social implications of this paradigm, which questions the essential dignity of any human life in benefit of "new rights", constructed ex professo. For it, it exposes three analytical dimensions of his "historical possibilities" (retrospective, perspective and Forward studies), taking as an example the role of the social Policy, and especially, the doctrinal and institutional paradoxes of the "Welfare state" in Spain.

  12. Contraception or eugenics? Sterilization and "mental retardation" in the 1970s and 1980s.

    PubMed

    Ladd-Taylor, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Nonconsensual sterilization is usually seen as the by-product of a classist and racist society; disability is ignored. This article examines the 1973 sterilization of two young black girls from Alabama and other precedent-setting court cases involving the sterilization of "mentally retarded" white women to make disability more central to the historical analysis of sterilization. It analyzes the concept of mental retardation and the appeal of a surgical solution to birth control, assesses judicial deliberations over the "right to choose" contraceptive sterilization when the capacity to consent is in doubt, and reflects on the shadow of eugenics that hung over the sterilization debate in the 1970s and 1980s.

  13. [Psychiatry and psychoanalysis--Eugen Bleuler's "dementia praecox or group of schizophrenias" (1911)].

    PubMed

    Scherbaum, N

    1992-08-01

    Unlike many psychiatrists around 1900, Eugen Bleuler had a friendly, even partly affirmative attitude towards psychoanalysis. In his famous book "Dementia Praecox or Group of Schizophrenias" (1911) he emphasized the influence of psychoanalysis on his theory about schizophrenia. In this article we describe Bleuler's fundamental thoughts on psychology and psychotherapy in order to look for a special disposition to accept psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysis seemed to him to be one of the most promising attempts to develop a systematic psychotherapy founded on a scientific psychology. In particular, Freud's hypothesis about the wish-fulfilling character of dreams influenced Bleuler's understanding of delusion and other symptoms of schizophrenia.

  14. The reception of Eugen Bleuler in British psychiatry, 1892-1954.

    PubMed

    Dalzell, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    This article draws on over 60 years of British medical journals and psychiatry textbooks to indicate the chronological stages of the reception of Eugen Bleuler in British psychiatry. Bleuler was already well known in Britain before his schizophrenia book appeared, with the journals containing numerous references, mainly positive, to his work. The psychiatry textbooks, however, were slower to integrate his contribution. This paper argues that this was not due to Bleuler's placing Freud on a par with Kraepelin, but because of the early negative reaction to Kraepelin's dementia praecox concept, despite Bleuler's wider and less ominous conception of the illness.

  15. Brazilian eugenics and its international connections: an analysis based on the controversies between Renato Kehl and Edgard Roquette-Pinto, 1920-1930.

    PubMed

    Souza, Vanderlei Sebastião de

    2016-12-01

    In this article, I analyze the dialogue and exchanges between Brazilian eugenicists and their counterparts abroad in the early decades of the twentieth century. Through an examination of Renato Kehl's and Edgard Roquette-Pinto's eugenics projects and the controversies between these two leaders of the eugenics movement in Brazil, I investigate their contact with the movements in countries like the United States, Germany, England, Sweden, and Norway and show that the ties that the two researchers maintained with so-called mainline eugenic thought were broader and more extensive than first believed. The result was the shaping of different brands of Brazilian eugenics, expanding the international circulation of ideas and extrapolating the borders of "Latin eugenics."

  16. Very high resolution single pass HLA genotyping using amplicon sequencing on the 454 next generation DNA sequencers: Comparison with Sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, F; Höglund, B; Fernandez-Vina, M; Tyan, D; Rastrou, M; Williams, T; Moonsamy, P; Goodridge, D; Anderson, M; Erlich, H A; Holcomb, C L

    2015-12-01

    Compared to Sanger sequencing, next-generation sequencing offers advantages for high resolution HLA genotyping including increased throughput, lower cost, and reduced genotype ambiguity. Here we describe an enhancement of the Roche 454 GS GType HLA genotyping assay to provide very high resolution (VHR) typing, by the addition of 8 primer pairs to the original 14, to genotype 11 HLA loci. These additional amplicons help resolve common and well-documented alleles and exclude commonly found null alleles in genotype ambiguity strings. Simplification of workflow to reduce the initial preparation effort using early pooling of amplicons or the Fluidigm Access Array™ is also described. Performance of the VHR assay was evaluated on 28 well characterized cell lines using Conexio Assign MPS software which uses genomic, rather than cDNA, reference sequence. Concordance was 98.4%; 1.6% had no genotype assignment. Of concordant calls, 53% were unambiguous. To further assess the assay, 59 clinical samples were genotyped and results compared to unambiguous allele assignments obtained by prior sequence-based typing supplemented with SSO and/or SSP. Concordance was 98.7% with 58.2% as unambiguous calls; 1.3% could not be assigned. Our results show that the amplicon-based VHR assay is robust and can replace current Sanger methodology. Together with software enhancements, it has the potential to provide even higher resolution HLA typing. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Two-round coamplification at lower denaturation temperature-PCR (COLD-PCR)-based sanger sequencing identifies a novel spectrum of low-level mutations in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Milbury, Coren A; Li, Cheng; Makrigiorgos, G Mike

    2009-11-01

    Reliable identification of cancer-related mutations in TP53 is often problematic, as these mutations can be randomly distributed throughout numerous codons and their relative abundance in clinical samples can fall below the sensitivity limits of conventional sequencing. To ensure the highest sensitivity in mutation detection, we adapted the recently described coamplification at lower denaturation temperature-PCR (COLD-PCR) method to employ two consecutive rounds of COLD-PCR followed by Sanger sequencing. Using this highly sensitive approach we screened 48 nonmicrodissected lung adenocarcinoma samples for TP53 mutations. Twenty-four missense/frameshift TP53 mutations throughout exons 5 to 8 were identified in 23 out of 48 (48%) lung adenocarcinoma samples examined, including eight low-level mutations at an abundance of approximately 1 to 17%, most of which would have been missed using conventional methodologies. The identified alterations include two rare lung adenocarcinoma mutations, one of which is a "disruptive" mutation currently undocumented in the lung cancer mutation databases. A sample harboring a low-level mutation ( approximately 2% abundance) concurrently with a clonal mutation (80% abundance) revealed intratumoral TP53 mutation heterogeneity. The ability to identify and sequence low-level mutations in the absence of elaborate microdissection, via COLD-PCR-based Sanger sequencing, provides a platform for accurate mutation profiling in clinical specimens and the use of TP53 as a prognostic/predictive biomarker, evaluation of cancer risk, recurrence, and further understanding of cancer biology.

  18. Neuropeptide Y regulation of LHRH release in the median eminence: immunocytochemical and physiological evidence in hens.

    PubMed

    Contijoch, A M; Malamed, S; McDonald, J K; Advis, J P

    1993-01-01

    It has been suggested that hypothalamic median eminence (ME) might be a control site for luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) release. Thus, stimulatory and/or inhibitory inputs acting at this site might be involved in regulating LHRH release from the ME and, therefore, luteinizing hormone (LH) release from the anterior pituitary. Since a role for neuropeptide Y (NPY) on LH release has been suggested, we have hypothesized that NPY might act in the ME to control preovulatory LHRH release in hens. To examine this possibility we have determined: (a) the immunocytochemical distribution of LHRH and NPY in the ME of the hen, (b) the basal and NPY-stimulated release of LHRH in vitro from the ME of hens undergoing a natural or a premature preovulatory surge of LH, and (c) the tissue content of LHRH and NPY in microdissected MEs, at various times before and during a natural or a premature preovulatory surge of LH. A potential role for NPY on LHRH release in the ME is suggested for the following reasons. (a) There are opportunities for synaptic interactions between NPY and LHRH-containing axons at this site. LHRH-containing cell bodies localized in the anterior hypothalamus/medial preoptic area project to the ME. NPY-containing perikarya, concentrated in the ventromedial aspect of the arcuate nucleus, might contact LHRH processes going to the ME and/or might themselves send axons to the ME, (b) Addition of NPY to the incubation media increases LHRH release from microdissected ME tissue of hens killed at the time of the natural preovulatory surge of LH, but not in hens killed 7 h before the occurrence of this surge. However, the stimulatory effect of NPY on LHRH release can be induced at this latter time when a premature LH surge is elicited. While the natural preovulatory surge of LH occurs 4 h before the second ovulation in a sequence (C2 ovulation), administration of progesterone (P4) 10-14 h before the expected natural C2 ovulation advances the natural LH surge by

  19. Biotypology, Endocrinology, and Sterilization: The Practice of Eugenics in the Treatment of Argentinian Women during the 1930s

    PubMed Central

    ERASO, YOLANDA

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY This article looks at medical approaches to women’s fertility in Argentina in the 1930s and explores the ways in which eugenics encouraged the reproduction of the fit and attempted to avoid the reproduction of the unfit. The analysis concentrates on three main aspects: biotypology (the scientific classification of bodies), endocrine therapy, and sterilization. The article concludes by suggesting that a eugenically oriented obstetrical and gynecological practice encouraged both endocrine treatments (to achieve the ideal fertile woman) and sterilization, which, in spite of being legally banned, found a subtle application. PMID:18084107

  20. From the 'Village of a Thousand Souls' to 'Race Crossing in Jamaica': Arnold Gesell, eugenics and child development.

    PubMed

    Weizmann, Fredric

    2010-01-01

    Perhaps best known for providing age-related norms in early development, norms that are still used as a basis for measures of developmental maturity, Arnold Gesell was a key figure in developmental psychology from the 1920s through the 1950s. After examining Gesell's reputation and status in the field, we explore Gesell's changing relationship to eugenics, both in terms of Gesell's often contradictory attitudes about the role of hereditary and environmental influences in development, and in terms of the broader relationship between the eugenics movement and science.

  1. Tibial Eminence Involvement With Tibial Plateau Fracture Predicts Slower Recovery and Worse Postoperative Range of Knee Motion.

    PubMed

    Konda, Sanjit R; Driesman, Adam; Manoli, Arthur; Davidovitch, Roy I; Egol, Kenneth A

    2017-07-01

    To examine 1-year functional and clinical outcomes in patients with tibial plateau fractures with tibial eminence involvement. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. Academic Medical Center. All patients who presented with a tibial plateau fracture (Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) 41-B and 41-C). Patients were divided into fractures with a tibial eminence component (+TE) and those without (-TE) cohorts. All patients underwent similar surgical approaches and fixation techniques for fractures. No tibial eminence fractures received fixation specifically. Short musculoskeletal functional assessment (SMFA), pain (Visual Analogue Scale), and knee range-of-motion (ROM) were evaluated at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively and compared between cohorts. Two hundred ninety-three patients were included for review. Patients with OTA 41-C fractures were more likely to have an associated TE compared with 41-B fractures (63% vs. 28%, P < 0.01). At 3 months postoperatively, the +TE cohort was noted to have worse knee ROM (75.16 ± 51 vs. 86.82 ± 53 degree, P = 0.06). At 6 months, total SMFA and knee ROM was significantly worse in the +TE cohort (29 ± 17 vs. 21 ± 18, P ≤ 0.01; 115.6 ± 20 vs. 124.1 ± 15, P = 0.01). By 12 months postoperatively, only knee ROM remained significantly worse in the +TE cohort (118.7 ± 15 vs. 126.9 ± 13, P < 0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed that tibial eminence involvement was a significant predictor of ROM at 6 and 12 months and SFMA at 6 months. Body mass index was found to be a significant predictor of ROM and age was a significant predictor of total SMFA at all time points. Knee ROM remains worse throughout the postoperative period in the +TE cohort. Functional outcome improves less rapidly in the +TE cohort but achieves similar results by 1 year. Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  2. Maintaining Masculinity in Mid-Twentieth-Century American Psychology: Edwin Boring, Scientific Eminence, and the "Woman Problem".

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Using mid-twentieth-century American psychology as my focus, I explore how scientific psychology was constructed as a distinctly masculine enterprise and was navigated by those who did not conform easily to this masculine ideal. I show how women emerged as problems for science through the vigorous gatekeeping activities and personal and professional writings of disciplinary figurehead Edwin G. Boring. I trace Boring's intellectual and professional socialization into masculine science and his efforts to understand women's apparent lack of scientific eminence, efforts that were clearly undergirded by preexisting and widely shared assumptions about men's and women's capacities and preferences.

  3. [Eugenic abortion could explain the lower infant mortality in Cuba compared to that in Chile].

    PubMed

    Donoso S, Enrique; Carvajal C, Jorge A

    2012-08-01

    Cuba and Chile have the lower infant mortality rates of Latin America. Infant mortality rate in Cuba is similar to that of developed countries. Chilean infant mortality rate is slightly higher than that of Cuba. To investigate if the lower infant mortality rate in Cuba, compared to Chile, could be explained by eugenic abortion, considering that abortion is legal in Cuba but not in Chile. We compared total and congenital abnormalities related infant mortality in Cuba and Chile during 2008, based on vital statistics of both countries. In 2008, infant mortality rates in Chile were significantly higher than those of Cuba (7.8 vs. 4.7 per 1,000 live born respectively, odds ratio (OR) 1.67; 95% confidence intervals (Cl) 1.52-1.83). Congenital abnormalities accounted for 33.8 and 19.2% of infant deaths in Chile and Cuba, respectively. Discarding infant deaths related to congenital abnormalities, infant mortality rate continued to be higher in Chile than in Cuba (5.19 vs. 3.82 per 1000 live born respectively, OR 1.36; 95%CI 1.221.52). Considering that antenatal diagnosis is widely available in both countries, but abortion is legal in Cuba but not in Chile, we conclude that eugenic abortion may partially explain the lower infant mortality rate observed in Cuba compared to that observed in Chile.

  4. From eugenics to lysenkoism: the evolution of Stanisław Skowron.

    PubMed

    Dejong-Lambert, William

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the relationship between Polish geneticist Stanisław Skowron's views on eugenics during the interwar period, his experiences in Nazi concentration camps during World War II, and his response to Trofim D. Lysenko's ban on genetic research in Soviet-allied states after 1948. Skowron was educated at the Jagiellonian University in Krakow and received funding from the Rockefeller Foundation to study in the United States, Italy, Denmark, and Great Britain from 1924 to 1926. His exposure to research being conducted outside of Poland made him an important figure in Polish genetics. During this time Skowron also began to believe that an understanding of biological principles of heredity could play an important role in improving Polish society and became a supporter of eugenics. In 1939 he was arrested along with other faculty members at the Jagiellonian and sent to Sachsenhausen and Dachau. In 1947 he published the first book updating Polish biologists on recent developments in genetics; however, after learning of the outcome of the 1948 session of the Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Moscow, Skowron emerged as on of the most vocal advocates for Michurinism. I argue that Skowron's conversion to Lysenkoism was motivated by more than fear or opportunism, and is better understood as the product of his need to rationalize his own support for a theory he could not possibly have believed was correct.

  5. The surgical solution: the writings of activist physicians in the early days of eugenical sterilization.

    PubMed

    Reilly, P

    1983-01-01

    A belief in the heritability of degeneracy and the extreme fecundity of degenerate persons emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Concern that an ever-greater proportion of the population would be burdened with defective germ plasm and an ever-rising portion of the nation's wealth would be diverted to covering the costs of the behavior and institutional care of these persons led to the formulation of 4 alternative solutions: marriage restriction laws, indefinite segregation in institutions, castration, and sterilization. This paper examines the role played by physicians in the development of a eugenical sterilization policy. In the 1907-13 period, 12 states (Indiana, Washington, California, Connecticut, Nevada, Iowa, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Michigan, Kansas, and Wisconsin) enacted sterilization laws. A review of the medical journals from this period suggests that a handful of activist physicians were outspoken lobbyists for involuntary sterilization. They educated their profession about the need for social control measures to stop the spread of defective germ plasm and frequently exaggerated the curative powers of vasectomy in this regard. Despite physicians' efforts, only 1422 sterilizations of institutionalized persons were performed pursuant to state law in 1907-17, and all eugenic sterilization laws were declared invalid in 1918.

  6. 75 FR 34049 - FM Table of Allotments (The Dalles, Tualatin, Eugene, Albany, Lebanon, Paisley, and Diamond Lake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 FM Table of Allotments (The Dalles, Tualatin, Eugene, Albany, Lebanon, Paisley, and Diamond Lake, Oregon and Goldendale, WA) AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission ACTION: Final...

  7. Preserving Precious Instruments in Mathematics History: The Educational Museum of Teachers College and David Eugene Smith's Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Diane R.

    2011-01-01

    A history is given of the Educational Museum of Teachers College, which began in 1886, and David Eugene Smith's extensive collection of mathematical tools used in the Museum's exhibits is discussed. Historic mathematical instruments including, the astrolabe, abacus and counting rods, and the slide rule are examined. The author uses digitized…

  8. 76 FR 33341 - Notice of Intent to prepare a Resource Management Plan for the West Eugene Wetlands Planning Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... Wetlands Planning Area in the State of Oregon and Associated Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Bureau... Wetlands Planning Area and by this notice is announcing the beginning of the scoping process to solicit public comments and identify issues. The West Eugene Wetlands Planning Area comprises approximately...

  9. Proceedings of the National Silviculture Workshop: Economics Of Silvicultural Investments; Eugene, OR; May 16-20, 1983

    Treesearch

    Clark Row; Charles Palmer; Robert M. Randall; Tom Ortman; James P. Merzenich; Gary Manning; George Howe; Jim McDivitt; Chris Hansen; Willard R. Fey; Vernon L. Robinson; K. E. Sleavin; K. N. Johnson; Roger D. Fight; L. O. (Pete) Stanger; Lee Medema; Christopher D. Risbrudt; Richard W. Guldin; Richard Greenhalgh; Mike Skinner; John Fiske; Thomas J. Mills; John H. Beuter

    1983-01-01

    The 1983 Silviculture Workshop was held in Eugene, Oregon, and the Willamette National Forest. The purpose of the workshop was to review and discuss the requirements by laws, regulations, and Forest Service policy of the need for and uses of economic analyses in silvicultural program planning and development.

  10. Preserving Precious Instruments in Mathematics History: The Educational Museum of Teachers College and David Eugene Smith's Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Diane R.

    2011-01-01

    A history is given of the Educational Museum of Teachers College, which began in 1886, and David Eugene Smith's extensive collection of mathematical tools used in the Museum's exhibits is discussed. Historic mathematical instruments including, the astrolabe, abacus and counting rods, and the slide rule are examined. The author uses digitized…

  11. 33 CFR 207.170a - Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.170a Section 207.170a Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION...

  12. 33 CFR 207.170a - Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.170a Section 207.170a Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION...

  13. 33 CFR 207.170a - Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.170a Section 207.170a Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION...

  14. 33 CFR 207.170a - Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eugene J. Burrell Navigation Lock in Haines Creek near Lisbon, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.170a Section 207.170a Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION...

  15. To what extent were ideas and beliefs about eugenics held in Nazi Germany shared in Britain and the United States prior to the second world war?

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Emily

    2004-06-01

    The term eugenics was first coined by Darwin's cousin, Francis Galton, in 1883. The eugenic movement gained public popularity across Europe and North America at the end of the Victorian era, fuelled by the concept of 'social Darwinism' and public fear of a decline in the number of ideal citizens. The origins of eugenic legislation can be found in the USA's immigration acts of the early 1880's. Indiana was the first state to pass sterilisation laws, in 1907. The laws that followed were used as templates by the Nazis, thirty years later. In Britain the Wood Committee (1924) and the Brock Committee (1931) both put pressure on parliament to introduce eugenic laws but were defeated. The anti-eugenics movement was stronger than in other protestant European countries and eugenics fell out of favour as the 1930's progressed. In the USA however, support remained strong, leading one activist to comment in 1934, 'The Germans are beating us at our own game'. There appears to have been little emphasis on eugenics in the Weimar Parliament, but the Nazi's legislation, on coming to power in 1933, surpassed anything conceived on either side of the Atlantic at the outbreak of war in 1939.

  16. Embryonic interneurons from the medial, but not the caudal ganglionic eminence trigger ocular dominance plasticity in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Isstas, Marcel; Teichert, Manuel; Bolz, Jürgen; Lehmann, Konrad

    2017-01-01

    The maturation of cortical inhibition provided by parvalbumin-containing basket cells derived from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) is a key event in starting the enhanced visual cortical plasticity during the critical period. Although it is generally assumed that a further increase in inhibition closes the critical period again, it was recently shown that embryonic interneurons derived from the MGE can induce an additional, artificial critical period when injected into the visual cortex of young mice. It has, however, remained open whether this effect was indeed specific for MGE-derived cells, and whether critical period-like plasticity could also be induced in fully adult animals. To clarify these issues, we injected explants from either the MGE or the caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE) into the visual cortices of fully adult mice, and performed monocular deprivation 33 days later for 4 days. Animals implanted with MGE cells, but not with CGE cells, showed marked ocular dominance plasticity. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that the injected cells from both sources migrated far in the host cortex, that most developed into neurons producing GABA, and that only cells from the MGE expressed parvalbumin. Thus, our results confirm that the plasticity-inducing effect of embryonic interneurons is specific for cells from the MGE, and is independent of the host animal's age.

  17. Comparing species tree estimation with large anchored phylogenomic and small Sanger-sequenced molecular datasets: an empirical study on Malagasy pseudoxyrhophiine snakes.

    PubMed

    Ruane, Sara; Raxworthy, Christopher J; Lemmon, Alan R; Lemmon, Emily Moriarty; Burbrink, Frank T

    2015-10-12

    Using molecular data generated by high throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) platforms to infer phylogeny is becoming common as costs go down and the ability to capture loci from across the genome goes up. While there is a general consensus that greater numbers of independent loci should result in more robust phylogenetic estimates, few studies have compared phylogenies resulting from smaller datasets for commonly used genetic markers with the large datasets captured using NGS. Here, we determine how a 5-locus Sanger dataset compares with a 377-locus anchored genomics dataset for understanding the evolutionary history of the pseudoxyrhophiine snake radiation centered in Madagascar. The Pseudoxyrhophiinae comprise ~86 % of Madagascar's serpent diversity, yet they are poorly known with respect to ecology, behavior, and systematics. Using the 377-locus NGS dataset and the summary statistics species-tree methods STAR and MP-EST, we estimated a well-supported species tree that provides new insights concerning intergeneric relationships for the pseudoxyrhophiines. We also compared how these and other methods performed with respect to estimating tree topology using datasets with varying numbers of loci. Using Sanger sequencing and an anchored phylogenomics approach, we sequenced datasets comprised of 5 and 377 loci, respectively, for 23 pseudoxyrhophiine taxa. For each dataset, we estimated phylogenies using both gene-tree (concatenation) and species-tree (STAR, MP-EST) approaches. We determined the similarity of resulting tree topologies from the different datasets using Robinson-Foulds distances. In addition, we examined how subsets of these data performed compared to the complete Sanger and anchored datasets for phylogenetic accuracy using the same tree inference methodologies, as well as the program *BEAST to determine if a full coalescent model for species tree estimation could generate robust results with fewer loci compared to the summary statistics species

  18. Comparison of three human papillomavirus DNA detection methods: Next generation sequencing, multiplex-PCR and nested-PCR followed by Sanger based sequencing.

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, Allex Jardim; Galvão, Renata Silva; Miranda, Angelica Espinosa; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Chen, Zigui

    2016-05-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance for HPV infection using three laboratorial techniques. Ninty-five cervicovaginal samples were randomly selected; each was tested for HPV DNA and genotypes using 3 methods in parallel: Multiplex-PCR, the Nested PCR followed by Sanger sequencing, and the Next_Gen Sequencing (NGS) with two assays (NGS-A1, NGS-A2). The study was approved by the Brazilian National IRB (CONEP protocol 16,800). The prevalence of HPV by the NGS assays was higher than that using the Multiplex-PCR (64.2% vs. 45.2%, respectively; P = 0.001) and the Nested-PCR (64.2% vs. 49.5%, respectively; P = 0.003). NGS also showed better performance in detecting high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) and HPV16. There was a weak interobservers agreement between the results of Multiplex-PCR and Nested-PCR in relation to NGS for the diagnosis of HPV infection, and a moderate correlation for HR-HPV detection. Both NGS assays showed a strong correlation for detection of HPVs (k = 0.86), HR-HPVs (k = 0.91), HPV16 (k = 0.92) and HPV18 (k = 0.91). NGS is more sensitive than the traditional Sanger sequencing and the Multiplex PCR to genotype HPVs, with promising ability to detect multiple infections, and may have the potential to establish an alternative method for the diagnosis and genotyping of HPV.

  19. Disagreement in genotyping results of drug resistance alleles of the Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) gene by allele-specific PCR (ASPCR) assays and Sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Divya; Lather, Manila; Dykes, Cherry L; Dang, Amita S; Adak, Tridibes; Singh, Om P

    2016-01-01

    The rapid spread of antimalarial drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum over the past few decades has necessitated intensive monitoring of such resistance for an effective malaria control strategy. P. falciparum dihydropteroate synthase (Pfdhps) and P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) genes act as molecular markers for resistance against the antimalarial drugs sulphadoxine and pyrimethamine, respectively. Resistance to pyrimethamine which is used as a partner drug in artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) is associated with several mutations in the Pfdhfr gene, namely A16V, N51I, C59R, S108N/T and I164L. Therefore, routine monitoring of Pfdhfr-drug-resistant alleles in a population may help in effective drug resistance management. Allele-specific PCR (ASPCR) is one of the commonly used methods for molecular genotyping of these alleles. In this study, we genotyped 55 samples of P. falciparum for allele discrimination at four codons of Pfdhfr (N51, C59, S108 and I164) by ASPCR using published methods and by Sanger's DNA sequencing method. We found that the ASPCR identified a significantly higher number of mutant alleles as compared to the DNA sequencing method. Such discrepancies arise due to the non-specificity of some of the allele-specific primer sets and due to the lack of sensitivity of Sanger's DNA sequencing method to detect minor alleles present in multiple clone infections. This study reveals the need of a highly specific and sensitive method for genotyping and detecting minor drug-resistant alleles present in multiple clonal infections.

  20. Maltreatment of people with serious mental illness in the early 20th century: a focus on Nazi Germany and eugenics in America.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Bernard A

    2012-12-01

    Prejudice and stigma against people with mental illness can be seen throughout history. The worst instance of this prejudice was connected to the rise of the eugenics movement in the early 20th century. Although the Nazi German T-4 program of killing people with mental illness was the most egregious culmination of this philosophy, the United States has its own dark eugenics history-nearing a slippery slope all too similar to that of the Nazis. Mental health care clinicians need to examine this period to honor the memory of the victims of eugenics and to guarantee that nothing like this will ever happen again.

  1. Astronaut Eugene Cernan drives the Lunar Roving Vehicle during first EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-12-10

    AS17-147-22526 (11 Dec. 1972) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, commander, makes a short checkout of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) during the early part of the first Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. This view of the "stripped down" LRV is prior to loading up. Equipment later loaded onto the LRV included the ground-controlled television assembly, the lunar communications relay unit, hi-gain antenna, low-gain antenna, aft tool pallet, lunar tools and scientific gear. This photograph was taken by scientist-astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt, lunar module pilot. The mountain in the right background is the east end of South Massif. While astronauts Cernan and Schmitt descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Challenger" to explore the moon, astronaut Ronald E. Evans, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "America" in lunar orbit.

  2. Vessels of progressivism? Tasmanian state girls and eugenics, 1900-1940.

    PubMed

    Evans, C; Parry, N

    2001-01-01

    In the early twentieth century the notion of state children as a "burden on the state", born of a liberal bourgeois philanthropic tradition, was gradually replaced in Tasmania by a modernising notion of intervention in the name of national efficiency. Eugenic principles can be shown to have influenced child welfare ideas and laws, notably the Tasmanian Mental Deficiency Act (1920). However, despite public debate and legislative changes, the bureaucrats in charge of state children maintained their liberal philanthropic practices. In many cases the Children of the State Department clashed with the Mental Deficiency Board. State direction of children was also frustrated by children's agency. Girls were the target of many eugenicist (and liberal evangelical) reforms, but they resisted attempts to control their sexuality and make them "useful". In Tasmania, the modernising impetus of progressive arguments was offset by bureaucratic stasis, and the agency of the subjects.

  3. [Prenuptial medical exams in debate: a proposed eugenic intervention in Brazil, 1910-1940].

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Priscila Bermudes

    2016-12-01

    This text results from research undertaken for a master's degree that focused on the proposed introduction of prenuptial medical exams in the early 1900s in Brazil. This was strongly defended by Brazilian eugenicists as a much-needed means of bringing about the racial improvement of the population. The exam would help prevent the marriage and reproduction of individuals considered degenerate or inferior, seen as inadequate for the eugenic development of future generations. The debate in Brazil between doctors and intellectuals who supported the introduction of a law that would make a prenuptial medical exam mandatory is analyzed, as are the controversies and objections voiced by its critics, ultimately helping ensure it was not adopted in the country.

  4. Eugen Bleuler's concept of schizophrenia and its relevance to present-day psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper links the historical perspective with the actual debate on the concept of schizophrenia. By this, two aims shall be accomplished. First, to prove that Eugen Bleuler's (1857-1939) concept of 'schizophrenia' in its central parts was a clear step forward, as compared to previous approaches, especially the notion of 'dementia praecox', proposed and favored by French authors like Bénédict Augustin Morel (1809-1873) and, in Germany, by Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926). Bleuler considerably reduced the epistemological presuppositions of Kraepelin's nosological model and coined the term 'group of schizophrenias', which was markedly broader and, as for prognosis, much less pessimistic. The second aim of this paper is to argue in favor of a continuous reflection upon psychiatry's historical and epistemological basis which is regarded not just as 'l'art pour l'art', but as an indispensable component of psychiatry, clinically and scientifically.

  5. Eugenics and racial biology in Sweden and the USSR: contacts across the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Rudling, Per Anders

    2014-01-01

    The 1920s saw a significant exchange between eugenicists in Sweden and the young Soviet state. Sweden did not take part in World War I, and during the years following immediately upon the Versailles peace treaty, Swedish scholars came to serve as an intermediary link between, on the one hand, Soviet Russia and Weimar Germany, and, on the other hand, Western powers. Swedish eugenicists organized conferences, lecture tours, visits, scholarly exchanges, and transfers and translation of eugenic research. Herman Lundborg, the director of the world's first State Institute of Racial Biology, was an old-fashioned, deeply conservative, and anti-communist "scientific" racist, who somewhat paradoxically came to serve as something of a Western liaison for Soviet eugenicists. Whereas the contacts were disrupted in 1930, Swedish eugenicists had a lasting impact on Soviet physical anthropologists, who cited their works well into the 1970s, long after they had been discredited in Sweden.

  6. Neuroscience in Nazi Europe part I: eugenics, human experimentation, and mass murder.

    PubMed

    Zeidman, Lawrence A

    2011-09-01

    The Nazi regime in Germany from 1933 to 1945 waged a veritable war throughout Europe to eliminate neurologic disease from the gene pool. Fueled by eugenic policies on racial hygiene, the Nazis first undertook a sterilization campaign against "mental defectives," which included neurologic patients with epilepsy and other disorders, as well as psychiatric patients. From 1939-41 the Nazis instead resorted to "euthanasia" of many of the same patients. Some neuroscientists were collaborators in this program, using patients for research, or using extracted brains following their murder. Other reviews have focused on Hallervorden, Spatz, Schaltenbrand, Scherer, and Gross, but in this review the focus is on neuroscientists not well described in the neurology literature, including Scholz, Ostertag, Schneider, Nachtsheim, and von Weizsäcker. Only by understanding the actions of neuroscientists during this dark period can we learn from the slippery slope down which they traveled, and prevent history from repeating itself.

  7. "More than just boots! The eugenic and commercial concerns behind A. R. Kaufman's birth controlling activities".

    PubMed

    Revie, Linda

    2006-01-01

    A. R. Kaufman (1885-1979), founder of the Kitchener-based Kaufman Rubber Company, was nicknamed "Canada's Mr. Birth Control" because he established the Parents' Information Bureau (PIB)-a birth control information centre that functioned out of his factory office. Besides creating mail order/home visiting services, Kaufman also funded birth control clinics. Because he was a rubber manufacturer, it was widely believed that commercial concerns were behind his activities. This article examines recently archived material, local newspaper accounts, and court transcripts to connect A. R. Kaufman and the PIB with the manufacture of contraceptive products. It also outlines Kaufman's involvement with the eugenics movement, especially his dealings with medical practitioners who carried out sterilization procedures for the PIB.

  8. "A visitation of providence:" Public health and eugenic reform in the wake of the Halifax disaster.

    PubMed

    Baker, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    The Halifax Explosion provided the opportunity for an "experiment in public health" that was meant not only to restore but also to improve the city and its population in the process. The restructuring that occurred during the restoration was influenced by pre-existing ideals and prejudices which were reflected in the goals of the newly formed committees in charge of the reconstruction. The primary emphasis on improvement as well as control was the result of existing regional concerns regarding the emigration of the province's most "desirable" stock, in the form of healthy, educated young men and women, to central Canada and the eastern United States. Public health reforms reflected the eugenic goal of improving the overall quality of the population through education, surveillance, and inspection, resorting finally to institutionalizing people who public health officials determined were genuinely deficient.

  9. [The social understanding of Eugen Bleuler - his viewpoint outside of the psychiatric clinic].

    PubMed

    Möller, A; Hell, D

    2003-12-01

    Based on writings from different periods in the life of Eugen Bleuler, the present work represents a consistent recognizable concept of ethics, social order and race hygiene in his scientific work. These subjects are set by Bleuler in a more general connection of nature and culture; it can be shown that the scientific understanding of social and cultural phenomena is founded on principles which can be easily identified by looking at nature. Bleuler's position is a clear-cut deterministic and materialistic one; the crisis of the post-world-war era can be solved only by rational reasonable ethics rules of a science applied on social questions. Bleuler outlines the general importance of race hygiene; practical consequences of this position remain unaffected. Euthanasia is to be planed in certain cases of difficult and incurable disease - including also mental illness; mental deficiency as such does not legitimize a such step yet.

  10. [The early reception of the notion of schizophrenia of Eugen Bleuler in Austria].

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Eberhard

    2012-01-01

    The 100th anniversary of Eugen Bleulers "Dementia praecox oder Gruppe der Schizophrenien" (Dementia praecox oder Gruppe der Schizophrenien. Leipzig: Deuticke; 1911) motivates a retrospective description of the early reception of the word and its meaning. It occurred in two phases: 1911-1914 (focus of that paper) and 1918-1929. The protagonists were Erwin Stransky (mainly in the first phase), Josef Berze (mainly in the second), Julius Wagner-Jauregg and Carl Meyer, leading motives criticisms of the further expansion of the earlier Kraepelinian notion of dementia praecox and of Bleulers' psychoanalytical interpreting of the disorder, but acceptance of the neologism 'schizophrenia' because of its meaning ("dissociative character") and the possibility to derive an adjective. The new word replaced the old denomination after world war I during the 1920s.

  11. Disability, gene therapy and eugenics--a challenge to John Harris.

    PubMed

    Reindal, S M

    2000-04-01

    This article challenges the view of disability presented by Harris in his article, "Is gene therapy a form of eugenics?" It is argued that his definition of disability rests on an individual model of disability, where disability is regarded as a product of biological determinism or "personal tragedy" in the individual. Within disability theory this view is often called "the medical model" and it has been criticised for not being able to deal with the term "disability", but only with impairment. The individual model of disability presupposes a necessary causal link between a certain condition in the individual and disablement. The shortcomings of such a view of disability are stated and it is argued that in order to have an adequate ethical discourse on gene therapy perspectives from disability research need to be taken into consideration.

  12. "Our power to remodel civilization": the development of eugenic feminism in Alberta, 1909-1921.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    In addition to being a prominent political figure in equal rights legislation, Emily Murphy was a vital contributor to programs which sought to improve the human race through forced sterilization. These negative aspects of this period in feminist history tend to be described as outside of the women's sphere, representing instead the patriarchal realm of men. However, both eugenics and the first-wave feminist ambitions for equal political rights were connected through an agrarian construction of "mothers of the race." As "mothers of the race," women in Alberta were responsible for the physical and moral betterment of the nation, and were directly engaged in concepts of intelligent motherhood, healthy childhood, and an overarching moral philosophy that was politically driven.

  13. "I ain't been reading while on parole": experts, mental tests, and eugenic commitment law in Illinois, 1890-1940.

    PubMed

    Rembis, Michael A

    2004-08-01

    This article analyzes professional challenges to the 1915 commitment law and the ultimate demise of eugenic institutionalization in Illinois. It reveals the pivotal role of psychologists and intelligence testing in the debate over the necessity and viability of a state-sponsored system of eugenic commitment. It focuses primarily, but not exclusively, on a specific group of young female test subjects and the female professionals who attempted to measure their intelligence. The article relies on published studies as well as case records chosen at random from the Illinois State Training School for Girls at Geneva to explain and analyze the complex relationships among mental testing, feeblemindedness, and eugenics. Focusing on Geneva enables the author to highlight and evaluate previously underanalyzed social and environmental factors that affected testing as well as the experience of women in both eugenics and intelligence testing.

  14. OTX2 Transcription Factor Controls Regional Patterning within the Medial Ganglionic Eminence and Regional Identity of the Septum.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Renée V; Lindtner, Susan; Price, James D; Rubenstein, John L R

    2015-07-21

    The Otx2 homeodomain transcription factor is essential for gastrulation and early neural development. We generated Otx2 conditional knockout (cKO) mice to investigate its roles in telencephalon development after neurulation (approximately embryonic day 9.0). We conducted transcriptional profiling and in situ hybridization to identify genes de-regulated in Otx2 cKO ventral forebrain. In parallel, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing to identify enhancer elements, the OTX2 binding motif, and de-regulated genes that are likely direct targets of OTX2 transcriptional regulation. We found that Otx2 was essential in septum specification, regulation of Fgf signaling in the rostral telencephalon, and medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) patterning, neurogenesis, and oligodendrogenesis. Within the MGE, Otx2 was required for ventral, but not dorsal, identity, thus controlling the production of specific MGE derivatives.

  15. [Eugenics and Discrimination in Colombia: the Role of Medicine and Psychiatry in Immigration Policy at the Beginning of the 20th Century].

    PubMed

    Moog, Jaime Carrizosa

    2014-03-01

    With the Theory of Evolution, eugenics had its beginnings during the last decades of the 19th century. Academics discussed the results obtained from their observations, and progressively had influence on the promulgation of laws and norms related to ethnic hygiene and improvement of race. Such principles were the fundamentals to order eugenic and discriminatory laws. Colombia was not outside that discussion and developed immigration laws congruent to that thinking during the first half of the 20th century.

  16. Hypoglycemia enhances turnover of corticotropin-releasing factor and of vasopressin in the zona externa of the rat median eminence.

    PubMed

    Berkenbosch, F; De Goeij, D C; Tilders, F J

    1989-07-01

    Insulin administration to overnight fasted rats causes a dose-dependent decline in plasma glucose concentrations and a dose-dependent increase in plasma ACTH concentrations. The ACTH response, but not the glucose response, was blocked by treatment with chlorpromazine-morphine-pentobarbital, indicating that the main factors triggering the ACTH response are of central, rather than peripheral, origin. To study whether insulin affected the turnover of CRF and vasopressin (AVP) in the zona externa of the median eminence (ZEME), we determined the rate of decline of both hypophysiotropic factors in rats with or without blockade of axonal transport by colchicine. In the ZEME, the concentrations of CRF and AVP were assessed by quantitative immunocytochemistry (QICC) in tissue sections or by RIA in median eminence extracts. QICC allows selective quantification of AVP and other peptides within the ZEME. The changes in the CRF content, as measured by QICC and RIA, were linearly correlated (r = 0.99), demonstrating that changes in peptide-staining intensity reflect changes in peptide content. Colchicine, when given intracisternally in a nontoxic dose of 5 micrograms, had no marked effect on resting plasma levels of ACTH and only slightly reduced the ACTH response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. In the ZEME, CRF and AVP concentrations at rest were not affected by colchicine. In colchicine-treated rats insulin-induced hypoglycemia resulted in a prominent decline in CRF and AVP concentrations in the ZEME. The CRF concentration declined at a rate of 23%/h over a period of 3 h. The AVP concentration declined to a similar extent as CRF over the first hour, but tended to fall at the later time points. We conclude that hypoglycemia increases turnover of both CRF and AVP in the ZEME. However, the turnover rates of both hypophysiotropic peptides do not appear to be quantitatively coupled.

  17. Prox1 Regulates the Subtype-Specific Development of Caudal Ganglionic Eminence-Derived GABAergic Cortical Interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Young, Allison; Petros, Timothy; Karayannis, Theofanis; McKenzie Chang, Melissa; Lavado, Alfonso; Iwano, Tomohiko; Nakajima, Miho; Taniguchi, Hiroki; Huang, Z. Josh; Heintz, Nathaniel; Oliver, Guillermo; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Machold, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Neurogliaform (RELN+) and bipolar (VIP+) GABAergic interneurons of the mammalian cerebral cortex provide critical inhibition locally within the superficial layers. While these subtypes are known to originate from the embryonic caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE), the specific genetic programs that direct their positioning, maturation, and integration into the cortical network have not been elucidated. Here, we report that in mice expression of the transcription factor Prox1 is selectively maintained in postmitotic CGE-derived cortical interneuron precursors and that loss of Prox1 impairs the integration of these cells into superficial layers. Moreover, Prox1 differentially regulates the postnatal maturation of each specific subtype originating from the CGE (RELN, Calb2/VIP, and VIP). Interestingly, Prox1 promotes the maturation of CGE-derived interneuron subtypes through intrinsic differentiation programs that operate in tandem with extrinsically driven neuronal activity-dependent pathways. Thus Prox1 represents the first identified transcription factor specifically required for the embryonic and postnatal acquisition of CGE-derived cortical interneuron properties. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Despite the recognition that 30% of GABAergic cortical interneurons originate from the caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE), to date, a specific transcriptional program that selectively regulates the development of these populations has not yet been identified. Moreover, while CGE-derived interneurons display unique patterns of tangential and radial migration and preferentially populate the superficial layers of the cortex, identification of a molecular program that controls these events is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that the homeodomain transcription factor Prox1 is expressed in postmitotic CGE-derived cortical interneuron precursors and is maintained into adulthood. We found that Prox1 function is differentially required during both embryonic and postnatal stages of development to

  18. A combined strategy involving Sanger and 454 pyrosequencing increases genomic resources to aid in the management of reproduction, disease control and genetic selection in the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Ribas, Laia; Pardo, Belén G; Fernández, Carlos; Alvarez-Diós, José Antonio; Gómez-Tato, Antonio; Quiroga, María Isabel; Planas, Josep V; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Martínez, Paulino; Piferrer, Francesc

    2013-03-15

    Genomic resources for plant and animal species that are under exploitation primarily for human consumption are increasingly important, among other things, for understanding physiological processes and for establishing adequate genetic selection programs. Current available techniques for high-throughput sequencing have been implemented in a number of species, including fish, to obtain a proper description of the transcriptome. The objective of this study was to generate a comprehensive transcriptomic database in turbot, a highly priced farmed fish species in Europe, with potential expansion to other areas of the world, for which there are unsolved production bottlenecks, to understand better reproductive- and immune-related functions. This information is essential to implement marker assisted selection programs useful for the turbot industry. Expressed sequence tags were generated by Sanger sequencing of cDNA libraries from different immune-related tissues after several parasitic challenges. The resulting database ("Turbot 2 database") was enlarged with sequences generated from a 454 sequencing run of brain-hypophysis-gonadal axis-derived RNA obtained from turbot at different development stages. The assembly of Sanger and 454 sequences generated 52,427 consensus sequences ("Turbot 3 database"), of which 23,661 were successfully annotated. A total of 1,410 sequences were confirmed to be related to reproduction and key genes involved in sex differentiation and maturation were identified for the first time in turbot (AR, AMH, SRY-related genes, CYP19A, ZPGs, STAR FSHR, etc.). Similarly, 2,241 sequences were related to the immune system and several novel key immune genes were identified (BCL, TRAF, NCK, CD28 and TOLLIP, among others). The number of genes of many relevant reproduction- and immune-related pathways present in the database was 50-90% of the total gene count of each pathway. In addition, 1,237 microsatellites and 7,362 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs

  19. A combined strategy involving Sanger and 454 pyrosequencing increases genomic resources to aid in the management of reproduction, disease control and genetic selection in the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genomic resources for plant and animal species that are under exploitation primarily for human consumption are increasingly important, among other things, for understanding physiological processes and for establishing adequate genetic selection programs. Current available techniques for high-throughput sequencing have been implemented in a number of species, including fish, to obtain a proper description of the transcriptome. The objective of this study was to generate a comprehensive transcriptomic database in turbot, a highly priced farmed fish species in Europe, with potential expansion to other areas of the world, for which there are unsolved production bottlenecks, to understand better reproductive- and immune-related functions. This information is essential to implement marker assisted selection programs useful for the turbot industry. Results Expressed sequence tags were generated by Sanger sequencing of cDNA libraries from different immune-related tissues after several parasitic challenges. The resulting database (“Turbot 2 database”) was enlarged with sequences generated from a 454 sequencing run of brain-hypophysis-gonadal axis-derived RNA obtained from turbot at different development stages. The assembly of Sanger and 454 sequences generated 52,427 consensus sequences (“Turbot 3 database”), of which 23,661 were successfully annotated. A total of 1,410 sequences were confirmed to be related to reproduction and key genes involved in sex differentiation and maturation were identified for the first time in turbot (AR, AMH, SRY-related genes, CYP19A, ZPGs, STAR FSHR, etc.). Similarly, 2,241 sequences were related to the immune system and several novel key immune genes were identified (BCL, TRAF, NCK, CD28 and TOLLIP, among others). The number of genes of many relevant reproduction- and immune-related pathways present in the database was 50–90% of the total gene count of each pathway. In addition, 1,237 microsatellites and 7,362 single

  20. [Associative disorder. On the relationship between the interpretation of disorder and society in the early writings of Eugen Bleuler].

    PubMed

    Bernet, Brigitta

    2006-01-01

    Around 1900 the Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler developed a new interpretative model of mental illnesses: schizophrenia. He named the breaking of associative threads of thought as the core symptom of the disorder. Shortly after the publication of his "Dementia Praecox or the Groups of Schizophrenias" in 1911, the concept quickly gained popularity outside the discipline of psychiatry. His contempories noticed early on the peculiar relationship that existed between the crisis diagnosed as schizophrenia and the broader societal "crisis of modernity" around 1900. The author shows in what ways this seeming relationship between the interpretation of the disorder and society was already preconfigured in Eugen Bleuler's early writings by reconstructing and contextualising his theory of schizophrenia as developed in the years from 1890 to 1910.

  1. ASTRONAUT CERNAN, EUGENE A. - RECOVERY (GT-9A)(S/C IN WATER W/HATCHES OPEN)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-06

    S66-34110 (6 June 1966) --- Astronauts Thomas Stafford (right) and Eugene Cernan wave to those aboard the aircraft carrier USS Wasp as the recovery ship approaches. U.S. Navy frogmen assist in the recovery operations. Gemini-9A splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean only 3.5 miles from the USS Wasp. Gemini-9 splashed down 345 miles east of Cape Kennedy at 9 a.m. (EST), June 6, 1966. Photo credit: NASA

  2. Nursing, obedience, and complicity with eugenics: a contextual interpretation of nursing morality at the turn of the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Berghs, M; Dierckx de Casterlé, B; Gastmans, C

    2006-02-01

    This paper uses Margaret Urban Walker's "expressive collaborative" method of moral inquiry to examine and illustrate the morality of nurses in Great Britain from around 1860 to 1915, as well as nursing complicity in one of the first eugenic policies. The authors aim to focus on how context shapes and limits morality and agency in nurses and contributes to a better understanding of debates in nursing ethics both in the past and present.

  3. Nursing, obedience, and complicity with eugenics: a contextual interpretation of nursing morality at the turn of the twentieth century

    PubMed Central

    Berghs, M; de Casterlé, B Dierckx; Gastmans, C

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses Margaret Urban Walker's “expressive collaborative” method of moral inquiry to examine and illustrate the morality of nurses in Great Britain from around 1860 to 1915, as well as nursing complicity in one of the first eugenic policies. The authors aim to focus on how context shapes and limits morality and agency in nurses and contributes to a better understanding of debates in nursing ethics both in the past and present. PMID:16446419

  4. Sanger Sequencing for BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del Mutation Screen on Pap Smear Cytology Samples.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sin Hang; Zhou, Shaoxia; Zhou, Tianjun; Hong, Guofan

    2016-02-08

    Three sets of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed for heminested PCR amplification of the target DNA fragments in the human genome which include the site of BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del respectively, to prepare the templates for direct Sanger sequencing screen of these three founder mutations. With a robust PCR mixture, crude proteinase K digestate of the fixed cervicovaginal cells in the liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap) cytology specimens can be used as the sample for target DNA amplification without pre-PCR DNA extraction, purification and quantitation. The post-PCR products can be used directly as the sequencing templates without further purification or quantitation. By simplifying the frontend procedures for template preparation, the cost for screening these three founder mutations can be reduced to about US $200 per test when performed in conjunction with human papillomavirus (HPV) assays now routinely ordered for cervical cancer prevention. With this projected price structure, selective patients in a high-risk population can be tested and each provided with a set of DNA sequencing electropherograms to document the absence or presence of these founder mutations in her genome to help assess inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer in this era of precision molecular personalized medicine.

  5. "One of the Most Uniform Races of the Entire World": Creole Eugenics and the Myth of Chilean Racial Homogeneity.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    This article illuminates why Nicolás Palacios's 1904 monograph, Raza chilena: Libro escrito por un Chileno i para los Chilenos [Chilean Race: A Book Written by a Chilean for Chileans], is central to the creation of a myth of Chilean racial homogeneity at the turn of the twentieth century. Placing Palacios in the context of Latin American eugenic discourse, it demonstrates how he selected a specific racial origin story in order to accommodate his belief in racial hierarchy while also depicting race mixing in a positive light. Specifically, the article highlights how the myth of Chilean racial homogeneity elided the difference between the term "mestizo," which was applied to people of mixed racial heritage, and "white." I contend that Palacios sought to differentiate Chileans from other Latin Americans by emphasizing their racial distinctiveness. The article therefore highlights that Latin American eugenics was concerned with the creation of national narratives that historicized particular racial mixtures in order to reify and affirm national differences. As such, it connects to literature regarding the history of eugenics, race, nation, and the creation of whiteness.

  6. Ground water in the Eugene-Springfield area, southern Willamette Valley, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, F.J.

    1973-01-01

    The cities of Eugene and Springfield and their outlying suburban and rural districts constitute an area of rapid population growth where progressively greater volumes of ground water are being required for irrigation and industrial and public supplies. The area is also one of diverse geologic and hydrologic conditions. As used in this report, the Eugene-Springfield area covers about 450 square miles and includes a part of the lower foothills of the Coast and Cascade Ranges and a strip of the main valley plain of the southern Willamette Valley. Volcanic and sedimentary rock units exposed in the foothills range in age from Eocene to Miocene. In the main valley plain the older units are overlain by Pleistocene and Holocene alluvial deposits. Marine-deposited sandstone, siltstone, shale, and mudstone of the older sedimentary units are fine grained and poorly permeable and yield water slowly to wells. The volcanic rocks, primarily of dacitic and andesitic composition, yield small quantities of water that are generally adequate only for domestic use. The alluvial deposits (sand and gravel) of the valley plain (central lowland) contain the most productive aquifers in the area and are considered to be the only ground-water reservoir for which large-scale development of ground-water supplies is feasible. Aquifers in the area are recharged principally by direct infiltration of precipitation. Most of the precipitation, which averages about 4C inches per year, occurs during late autumn and winter. Minimum recharge by infiltration of precipitation to the alluvial aquifers beneath the valley plain is estimated to be about 100,000 acre-feet. Ground water is discharged naturally from the central lowland by seepage and spring flow to small streams, by subsurface outflow to adjacent areas, and by evapotranspiration. Storage capacity of the central lowland in the Eugene-Springfield area is estimated to be about 2.1 million acre-feet in the zone 10-150 feet below land surface. The

  7. [Essay on the history of population policy in modern Japan. 2. Population policy on quality and quantity in National Eugenic Law (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hirosima, K

    1981-10-01

    Following the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese war in 1937, the Japanese government established the Ministry of Health and Welfare and adopted, in 1938, the policy of population increase. The government began at once to formulate the National Eugenic Law which was promulgated in 1940 and put into force in 1941. The original draft of the law was first prepared by the members of the Imperial Diet since 1934. It included no prohibition concerning abortion or sterilization, but before the government submitted the bill to the Diet, and even after its enforcement, the restriction on birth control had gradually been strengthened. The law not only allowed sterilization to prevent reproduction of inferior descendants but prohibited sterilization and strictly limited induced abortion. At the same time, it was used as a means of strong support for the suppression of contraception. The eugenic movement did not advocate contraception as a means of eugenic control because it feared counterselection through the diffusion of contraception only among the intelligent or superior elements in the population. During the 1920s, the eugenic movement in Japan advocated contraceptives as a means of practicing eugenics, but then it adapted policies concerning population increase and assisted in the suppression of birth control. Eugenic measures became law when they were combined with a policy of population increase, and policy concerning population increase became realized as eugenic law. Many criticisms and objections were posed by the members of the Imperial Diet. Some were opposed to the principle of eugenics in the context of Shintoism. This law created tension between obstetricians and the government with regard to induced abortion. The Japanese Association of Obstetrics made the standard for medical application of induced abortion in 1943 and the government altered the judging authority from police administration to that of hygiene in 1942. The Eugenic Protection Law which was published

  8. The Genomic Revolution and Beliefs about Essential Racial Differences: A Backdoor to Eugenics?

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Jo C.; Link, Bruce G.; Feldman, Naumi M.

    2014-01-01

    Could the explosion of genetic research in recent decades affect our conceptions of race? In Backdoor to Eugenics, Duster argues that reports of specific racial differences in genetic bases of disease, in part because they are presented as objective facts whose social implications are not readily apparent, may heighten public belief in more pervasive racial differences. We tested this hypothesis with a multi-method study. A content analysis showed that news articles discussing racial differences in genetic bases of disease increased significantly between 1985 and 2008 and were significantly less likely than non–health-related articles about race and genetics to discuss social implications. A survey experiment conducted with a nationally representative sample of 559 adults found that a news-story vignette reporting a specific racial difference in genetic risk for heart attacks (the Backdoor Vignette) produced significantly greater belief in essential racial differences than did a vignette portraying race as a social construction or a no-vignette condition. The Backdoor Vignette produced beliefs in essential racial differences that were virtually identical to those produced by a vignette portraying race as a genetic reality. These results suggest that an unintended consequence of the genomic revolution may be the reinvigoration of age-old beliefs in essential racial differences. PMID:24855321

  9. A multilocus analysis provides evidence for more than one species within Eugenes fulgens (Aves: Trochilidae).

    PubMed

    Zamudio-Beltrán, Luz E; Hernández-Baños, Blanca E

    2015-09-01

    The status of subspecies in systematic zoology is the focus of controversy. Recent studies use DNA sequences to evaluate the status of subspecies within species complexes and to recognize and delimit species. Here, we assessed the phylogenetic relationships, the taxonomic status of the proposed subspecies, and the species limits of the monotypic hummingbird genus Eugenes (E. fulgens with traditionally recognized subspecies E. f. fulgens, E. f. viridiceps, and E. f. spectabilis), using nuclear (Beta Fibrinogen BFib, Ornithine Decarboxylase ODC, and Muscle Skeletal Receptor Tyrosine Kinase MUSK) and mitochondrial (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 ND2, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 ND4, and Control Region CR) markers. We performed Bayesian and Bayesian Phylogenetics and Phylogeography analyses and found genetic differences between the three groups, suggesting the existence of two cryptic species (E. fulgens and E. viridiceps) and one phenotypically differentiated species (E. spectabilis). Our analyses show that the E. viridiceps and E. fulgens groups are more closely related with one another than with E. spectabilis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Eugen Bleuler's Dementia Praecox or the Group of Schizophrenias (1911): A Centenary Appreciation and Reconsideration

    PubMed Central

    Moskowitz, Andrew; Heim, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    On the 100th anniversary of the publication of Eugen Bleuler's Dementia Praecox or the Group of Schizophrenias, his teachings on schizophrenia from that seminal book are reviewed and reassessed, and implications for the current revision of the category of schizophrenia, with its emphasis on psychotic symptoms, drawn. Bleuler's methods are contrasted with Kraepelin's, and 4 myths about his concept of schizophrenia addressed. We demonstrate that (1) Bleuler's concept of schizophrenia has close ties to historical and contemporary concepts of dissociation and as such the public interpretation of schizophrenia as split personality has some historical basis; (2) Bleuler's concept of loosening of associations does not refer narrowly to a disorder of thought but broadly to a core organically based psychological deficit which underlies the other symptoms of schizophrenia; (3) the “4 A's,” for association, affect, ambivalence, and autism, do not adequately summarize Bleuler's teachings on schizophrenia and marginalize the central role of splitting in his conception; and (4) Bleuler's ideas were more powerfully influenced by Pierre Janet, particularly with regard to his diagnostic category Psychasthenia, than by Sigmund Freud. We conclude that Bleuler's ideas on schizophrenia warrant reexamination in the light of current criticism of the emphasis on psychotic symptoms in the schizophrenia diagnosis and argue for the recognition of the dissociative roots of this most important psychiatric category. PMID:21505113

  11. Eugenics, environment, and acclimatizing to Manchukuo: psychiatric studies of Japanese colonists.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Janice

    2010-09-01

    Both the advocates and critics of what has been called "the new imperial history," which may be characterized by its focus on how colonies were not simply influenced by but also exercised an influence on a dominating foreign state, have inspired this article. The article addresses the production and dissemination of medical knowledge in its examination of psychiatric research conducted in the 1930s in Japan's unofficial colony of Manchukuo. It highlights the political dimension of studies of psychosomatic disorders, syphilis, and alcoholism among colonists by placing it in the context of contending theories of racial improvement and growing official support for mass migration, especially to northeast China. Moreover, it inquires into restrictions on the flow of ideas from the colonies by examining how these studies were received in Japan. While interest in the colonies ensured that psychiatrists in Manchukuo were able to publish their research in leading Japanese medical journals, their findings jeopardized too many political and professional interests to become more public. In much-publicized debates stimulated by the impeding establishment of eugenic sterilization legislation, their colleagues in Japan in the late 1930s who championed the argument of environment over heredity were conspicuously silent about conditions among Japanese colonists, using instead examples of European and North American colonists to make their case.

  12. How the Anatomische Gesellschaft excluded unwanted members after 1945-among them Eugen Fischer and Max Clara.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The Anatomische Gesellschaft, an international Germany-based association of anatomists, was closed down in 1945, after the end of the "Third Reich". It was eventually re-founded in 1949, continuing its tradition from its foundation in 1886, based in large part on the membership prior to 1945. Newly available archival material reveals, however, that at least six members were explicitly prevented from re-joining the society. This includes Max Clara, who was accused of plagiarism and, at least implicitly, of basing his career on Nazi party support. It also includes Eugen Fischer, a leading anthropologist of the Nazi period, who was seen to be indirectly responsible for Nazi crimes like forced sterilisation or extermination of "anthropologically defined" groups of people. Therefore, Fischer's honorary membership, which had already been published in the membership directory, was revoked after a heated internal debate. Nevertheless, these exclusions cannot be interpreted as a self-directed "denazification" of the Anatomische Gesellschaft, as political activity in line with the Nazis was not the main criterion for these exclusions. Incidentally, the archival sources also reveal that Wolfgang Bargmann, who had been elected as the first post-war secretary of the Gesellschaft in 1949, resigned from this post after only one year in office because his management of this "Fischer affair" was felt to be too autocratic.

  13. NASA names unique solar mission after University of Chicago physicist Eugene Parker

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-31

    On May 31, NASA renamed humanity’s first mission to fly a spacecraft directly into the sun’s atmosphere in honor of Professor Eugene Parker, a pioneering physicist at the University of Chicago. This is the first time in agency history a spacecraft has been named for a living individual. Parker, the S. Chandrasekhar Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus in Physics, is best known for developing the concept of solar wind—the stream of electrically charged particles emitted by the sun. Previously named Solar Probe Plus, the Parker Solar Probe will launch in summer 2018. Placed in orbit within four million miles of the sun’s surface, and facing heat and radiation unlike any spacecraft in history, the spacecraft will explore the sun’s outer atmosphere and make critical observations that will answer decades-old questions about the physics of how stars work. The resulting data will improve forecasts of major space weather events that impact life on Earth, as well as satellites and astronauts in space.

  14. More than a Mentor: Leonard Darwin's Contribution to the Assimilation of Mendelism into Eugenics and Darwinism.

    PubMed

    Serpente, Norberto

    2016-08-01

    This article discusses the contribution to evolutionary theory of Leonard Darwin (1850-1943), the eighth child of Charles Darwin. By analysing the correspondence Leonard Darwin maintained with Ronald Aylmer Fisher in conjunction with an assessment of his books and other written works between the 1910s and 1930s, this article argues for a more prominent role played by him than the previously recognised in the literature as an informal mentor of Fisher. The paper discusses Leonard's efforts to amalgamate Mendelism with both Eugenics and Darwinism in order for the first to base their policies on new scientific developments and to help the second in finding a target for natural selection. Without a formal qualification in biological sciences and as such mistrusted by some "formal" scientists, Leonard Darwin engaged with key themes of Darwinism such as mimicry, the role of mutations on speciation and the process of genetic variability, arriving at important conclusions concerning the usefulness of Mendelian genetics for his father's theory.

  15. Fluid migration in the Eugene Island block 330 area, offshore Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Nunn, J.A. ); Roberts, S.J. ); Cathles, L.M. III ); Anderson, R.N. )

    1996-01-01

    In a study funded by industry and the Department of Energy, the Global Basins Research Network has imaged fluid flow pathways that charged shallow, hydropressured, Plio-Pleistocene reservoirs in the Eugene Island 330 field, offshore Louisiana. Hydrocarbons appear to be derived from turbidite stacks within the salt withdrawal mini-basin buried deep within the geopressured zone. Fault zones, with pore pressure dependent permeability, provide conduits for episodic expulsion of fluids out of the geopressured zone. Imaging of present day fluid migration was accomplished using multiple three-dimensional seismic surveys done several years apart. Volume processing and attribute analysis algorithms are used to identify seismic amplitude interconnectivity and changes over time that result from active fluid migration. Pressures and temperatures are used to provide rate and timing constraints. Geochemical variability in reservoirs is attributed to mixing of oils. Using detailed hydrostratigraphic information constructed from seismic and well data, we have simulated the episodic expulsion of fluids from the geopressured zone along faults into individual thin sand layers in the overlying hydropressured zone. Our finite element model, Akcess.Basin[trademark], realistically simulates fluid flow, heat and solute transport and pore pressure dependent permeability of faults and strata. Our results documenting the existence of past and present migration events connecting shallow reservoirs to deep source rocks implies that large, heretofore undiscovered hydrocarbon reserves exist deep within the geopressured zone along the deep water continental shelf of the northern Gulf of Mexico.

  16. Fluid migration in the Eugene Island block 330 area, offshore Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Nunn, J.A.; Roberts, S.J.; Cathles, L.M. III; Anderson, R.N.

    1996-12-31

    In a study funded by industry and the Department of Energy, the Global Basins Research Network has imaged fluid flow pathways that charged shallow, hydropressured, Plio-Pleistocene reservoirs in the Eugene Island 330 field, offshore Louisiana. Hydrocarbons appear to be derived from turbidite stacks within the salt withdrawal mini-basin buried deep within the geopressured zone. Fault zones, with pore pressure dependent permeability, provide conduits for episodic expulsion of fluids out of the geopressured zone. Imaging of present day fluid migration was accomplished using multiple three-dimensional seismic surveys done several years apart. Volume processing and attribute analysis algorithms are used to identify seismic amplitude interconnectivity and changes over time that result from active fluid migration. Pressures and temperatures are used to provide rate and timing constraints. Geochemical variability in reservoirs is attributed to mixing of oils. Using detailed hydrostratigraphic information constructed from seismic and well data, we have simulated the episodic expulsion of fluids from the geopressured zone along faults into individual thin sand layers in the overlying hydropressured zone. Our finite element model, Akcess.Basin{trademark}, realistically simulates fluid flow, heat and solute transport and pore pressure dependent permeability of faults and strata. Our results documenting the existence of past and present migration events connecting shallow reservoirs to deep source rocks implies that large, heretofore undiscovered hydrocarbon reserves exist deep within the geopressured zone along the deep water continental shelf of the northern Gulf of Mexico.

  17. [The development of criminal psychology in the work of Eugen Bleuler].

    PubMed

    Möller, A; Hell, D

    1997-11-01

    The study refers to Eugen Bleuler's first systematic publications on "the natural born criminal" (1896) and his subsequent forensic-psychiatric expertise, written by Bleuler as Director of the psychiatric Department of Psychiatry of the University of Zurich ("Burghölzli"). It could be clearly shown that Bleuler was influenced by a deterministic understanding of human behaviour. He referred to the Anglo-American concept of "moral insanity" as a circumscribed defect of altruistic feelings despite other psychic functions being normal and tended to include this psychopathic deviation in psychiatry. Although this theoretic position remained unchanged, the elderly E. Beuler--under pragmatic points of view--accepted the traditional differentiation between mental illness in a narrower sense and "moral insanity" as a personality feature of most delinquents, falling under the responsibility of law and penal institutions. In his publications as emeritus (after 1927). Bleuler was influenced by the natural philosophic and vitalistic concept of the so-called "Minemism", which, however, still made him reject the postulate of "freedom of will".

  18. [Fundamentals of scientifically based ethics in the works of Eugen Bleuler].

    PubMed

    Möller, A; Hell, D

    2000-09-01

    The name Eugen Bleuler is almost exclusively linked with matters concerning the nosology of schizophrenia, general psychopathology, and the relationship of clinical psychiatry with psychoanalysis. His bibliography lists various works dealing with contemporary themes about legislation, the fight against alcoholism, and, for the most part from later years, with themes about general psychology. In this article, material from Bleuler's texts are reviewed, including some which have been inaccessible up to now, which either allow interpretative conclusions on ethical grounds or have this explicitly as a topic. In particular, the analysis focuses on Bleuler's work "The Scientific Fundamentals of Ethics", published in 1939. Written in a time widely viewed as disorientated, the author coherently and systemically comments on the issue of a 'new' ethic. The anti-religious and anti-philosophical positions already demonstrable in some of his earlier works will be shown. According to his conception of a scientifically based ethic, the idea of social suitability is of utmost importance and also recognisable in the animal world as a general principle of nature. Bleuler perceives the ethical 'instinct' as inherent; its absence characterises the image of an 'moral idiot', which was already a theme in his earlier works. His statements about matters concerning euthanasia are presented and, furthermore, it will be attempted to construct from his texts an underlying global view. Concerning these ethical issues, it also can be shown once more that the elderly Bleuler was hardly influenced by psychoanalytical perspectives.

  19. Eugen Bleuler's Dementia praecox or the group of schizophrenias (1911): a centenary appreciation and reconsideration.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, Andrew; Heim, Gerhard

    2011-05-01

    On the 100th anniversary of the publication of Eugen Bleuler's Dementia Praecox or the Group of Schizophrenias, his teachings on schizophrenia from that seminal book are reviewed and reassessed, and implications for the current revision of the category of schizophrenia, with its emphasis on psychotic symptoms, drawn. Bleuler's methods are contrasted with Kraepelin's, and 4 myths about his concept of schizophrenia addressed. We demonstrate that (1) Bleuler's concept of schizophrenia has close ties to historical and contemporary concepts of dissociation and as such the public interpretation of schizophrenia as split personality has some historical basis; (2) Bleuler's concept of loosening of associations does not refer narrowly to a disorder of thought but broadly to a core organically based psychological deficit which underlies the other symptoms of schizophrenia; (3) the "4 A's," for association, affect, ambivalence, and autism, do not adequately summarize Bleuler's teachings on schizophrenia and marginalize the central role of splitting in his conception; and (4) Bleuler's ideas were more powerfully influenced by Pierre Janet, particularly with regard to his diagnostic category Psychasthenia, than by Sigmund Freud. We conclude that Bleuler's ideas on schizophrenia warrant reexamination in the light of current criticism of the emphasis on psychotic symptoms in the schizophrenia diagnosis and argue for the recognition of the dissociative roots of this most important psychiatric category. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved.

  20. Schizophrenia, Self, and Person: Eugen Bleuler and Arthur Kronfeld on a Conceptual Alliance.

    PubMed

    Maatz, Anke; Hoff, Paul

    2017-08-26

    The conceptual history of schizophrenia is marked by considerable dissent about its nosological status, and the question of whether it represents a distinct disease entity remains hotly debated. Another recurring feature in the conceptual history of schizophrenia is the reference to concepts of self and person. This paper brings in connection these two debates by interrogating the nosological function of "self" and "person" by means of a fictitious dialogue between Eugen Bleuler, the inventor of schizophrenia, and his contemporary Arthur Kronfeld. Introducing their respective accounts of schizophrenia with a special focus on how concepts of self and person figure therein, our analysis suggests that these concepts are primarily employed in an attempt to guarantee the nosological unity of schizophrenia: mediated by the concept of a core disturbance, alterations of the self or the person thus become the essential core of schizophrenia. Yet, rather than providing an easy solution to the nosological problem of the unity of schizophrenia, the concepts of self and person and their assumed disturbances are themselves fraught with debates about unity. We discuss these conceptual challenges in light of present-day nosological debates and the currently abounding research on the self. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Characterization of insulin-like growth factor I receptors in the median eminence of the brain and their modulation by food restriction

    SciTech Connect

    Bohannon, N.J.; Corp, E.S.; Wilcox, B.J.; Figlewicz, D.P.; Dorsa, D.M.; Baskin, D.G.

    1988-05-01

    High affinity binding sites for 125I-labeled (Thr59)insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) were measured in rat median eminence by in vitro autoradiography with slide-mounted sections of frozen rat brain. Specific binding of 0.1 nM iodo-(Thr59)IGF-I to brain slices reached maximum by 12 h at 4 C and was unchanged at 24 h. Densitometry by computer digital image analysis of autoradiographic images indicated that specific binding of iodo-(Thr59)IGF-I to the median eminence was reversible. The specificity of binding was evaluated with competition of iodo-(Thr59)IGF-I with unlabeled (Thr59)IGF-I, rat IGF-II (multiplication-stimulating activity), and porcine insulin. All were recognized by the binding site, but the rank order of potency was (Thr59)IGF-I greater than IGF-II greater than insulin. Somatostatin was completely ineffective. Further, an antibody against the rat IGF-II receptor did not block binding of iodo-(Thr59)IGF-I to the median eminence. Fourteen days of food restriction (75% of food intake of controls) resulted in significant weight loss and reduction of plasma immunoreactive IGF-I in six food-restricted rats (0.9 +/- 0.1 U/ml) compared with values in six controls (2.6 +/- 0.5 U/ml; P less than 0.001). Binding of 125I-labeled (Thr59)IGF-I in the median eminence was significantly increased in the food-restricted rats, primarily due to an increase in the concentration of iodo-(Thr59)IGF-I-binding sites in the median eminence; the affinity (Kd) of binding was unchanged. The results indicate that the median eminence has type I IGF-I receptors, which become more numerous under metabolic conditions associated with decreased caloric intake and lowered plasma IGF-I levels.

  2. Changes of prolactin regulatory mechanisms in aging: 24-h rhythms of serum prolactin and median eminence and adenohypophysial concentration of dopamine, serotonin, (gamma-aminobutyric acid, taurine and somatostatin in young and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Esquifino, A I; Cano, P; Jimenez, V; Reyes Toso, C F; Cardinali, D P

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-four hour rhythmicity of serum prolactin and median eminence and anterior pituitary content of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5HT), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), taurine and somatostatin were examined in 2 months-old and 18-20 months-old Wistar male rats. The concentration of prolactin was higher in aged rats, with peaks in both groups of rats at the early phase of the activity span. Median eminence DA content of young rats attained its maximum at the middle of rest span and decreased as prolactin levels augmented while the lowest values of adenohypophysial DA were observed at the time of prolactin peak. DA rhythmicity disappeared in aged rats. GABA content of median eminence and adenohypophysis was lower in aged rats, with maximal values of median eminence GABA at light-dark transition in young rats and at the second half of activity span in aged rats. Serum prolactin correlated positively with median eminence GABA in young rats and negatively with pituitary GABA in young and aged rats. Median eminence somatostatin peaked at the beginning of the activity phase (young rats) or at the end of the rest phase (aged rats). Prolactin levels and somatostatin content correlated significantly in young rats only. Median eminence and pituitary 5HT and taurine content did not change with age. The results indicate disruption of prolactin regulatory mechanisms with aging in rats.

  3. Highly sensitive KRAS mutation detection from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsies and circulating tumour cells using wild-type blocking polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meggie Mo Chao; Leong, Sai Mun; Chua, Hui Wen; Tucker, Steven; Cheong, Wai Chye; Chiu, Lily; Li, Mo-Huang; Koay, Evelyn Siew-Chuan

    2014-08-01

    Among patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), KRAS mutations were reported to occur in 30-51 % of all cases. CRC patients with KRAS mutations were reported to be non-responsive to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody (MoAb) treatment in many clinical trials. Hence, accurate detection of KRAS mutations would be critical in guiding the use of anti-EGFR MoAb therapies in CRC. In this study, we carried out a detailed investigation of the efficacy of a wild-type (WT) blocking real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), employing WT KRAS locked nucleic acid blockers, and Sanger sequencing, for KRAS mutation detection in rare cells. Analyses were first conducted on cell lines to optimize the assay protocol which was subsequently applied to peripheral blood and tissue samples from patients with CRC. The optimized assay provided a superior sensitivity enabling detection of as little as two cells with mutated KRAS in the background of 10(4) WT cells (0.02 %). The feasibility of this assay was further investigated to assess the KRAS status of 45 colorectal tissue samples, which had been tested previously, using a conventional PCR sequencing approach. The analysis showed a mutational discordance between these two methods in 4 of 18 WT cases. Our results present a simple, effective, and robust method for KRAS mutation detection in both paraffin embedded tissues and circulating tumour cells, at single-cell level. The method greatly enhances the detection sensitivity and alleviates the need of exhaustively removing co-enriched contaminating lymphocytes.

  4. Novel High-Rank Phylogenetic Lineages within a Sulfur Spring (Zodletone Spring, Oklahoma), Revealed Using a Combined Pyrosequencing-Sanger Approach

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Noha; Steidley, Brandi L.

    2012-01-01

    The utilization of high-throughput sequencing technologies in 16S rRNA gene-based diversity surveys has indicated that within most ecosystems, a significant fraction of the community could not be assigned to known microbial phyla. Accurate determination of the phylogenetic affiliation of such sequences is difficult due to the short-read-length output of currently available high-throughput technologies. This fraction could harbor multiple novel phylogenetic lineages that have so far escaped detection. Here we describe our efforts in accurate assessment of the novelty and phylogenetic affiliation of selected unclassified lineages within a pyrosequencing data set generated from source sediments of Zodletone Spring, a sulfide- and sulfur-rich spring in southwestern Oklahoma. Lineage-specific forward primers were designed for 78 putatively novel lineages identified within the pyrosequencing data set, and representative nearly full-length small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences were obtained by pairing those primers with reverse universal bacterial primers. Of the 78 lineages tested, amplifiable products were obtained for 52, 32 of which had at least one nearly full-length sequence that was representative of the lineage targeted. Analysis of phylogenetic affiliation of the obtained Sanger sequences identified 5 novel candidate phyla and 10 novel candidate classes (within Fibrobacteres, Planctomycetes, and candidate phyla BRC1, GN12, TM6, TM7, LD1, WS2, and GN06) in the data set, in addition to multiple novel orders and families. The discovery of multiple novel phyla within a pilot study of a single ecosystem clearly shows the potential of the approach in identifying novel diversities within the rare biosphere. PMID:22307312

  5. Sanger Brown and Edward Schäfer before Heinrich Klüver and Paul Bucy: their observations on bilateral temporal lobe ablations.

    PubMed

    Vannemreddy, Prasad S S V; Stone, James L

    2017-09-01

    Fifty years before a report on the complete bitemporal lobectomy syndrome in primates, known as the Klüver-Bucy syndrome, was published, 2 talented investigators working at the University College in London, England-neurologist Sanger Brown and physiologist Edward Schäfer-also made this discovery. The title of their work was "An investigation into the functions of the occipital and temporal lobes of the monkey's brain," and it involved excisional brain surgery in 12 monkeys. They were particularly interested in the then-disputed primary cortical locations relating to vision and hearing. However, following extensive bilateral temporal lobe excisions in 2 monkeys, they noted peculiar behavior including apparent loss of memory and intelligence resembling "idiocy." These investigators recognized most of the behavioral findings that later came to be known as the Klüver-Bucy syndrome. However, they were working within the late-19th-century framework of cerebral cortical localizations of basic motor and sensory functions. Details of the Brown and Schäfer study and a glimpse of the neurological thinking of that period is presented. In the decades following the pivotal work of Klüver and Bucy in the late 1930s, in which they used a more advanced neurosurgical technique, tools of behavioral observations, and analysis of brain sections after euthanasia, investigators have elaborated the full components of the clinical syndrome and the extent of their resections. Other neuroscientists sought to isolate and determine the specific temporal neocortical, medial temporal, and deep limbic structures responsible for various visual and complex behavioral deficits. No doubt, Klüver and Bucy's contribution led to a great expansion in attention given to the limbic system's role in action, perception, emotion, and affect-a tide that continues to the present time.

  6. Effect of CRF injected into the median eminence on GH secretion in female rats under different steroid status.

    PubMed

    Puertas, A; Frias, J; Ruiz, E; Ortega, E

    1996-08-01

    To evaluate whether the median eminence (ME) is a site of action of CRF (corticotropin releasing factor) on GH secretion and to determine the possible role of estradiol and progesterone in modifying theses secretion, we injected CRF (0.25, 0.75, 1, and 1.5 nmol of peptide dissolved in 1 microliter of water) directly into the ME in three experimental groups of rats: Long-term ovariectomized (OVX); OVX primed by estradiol (OVX +/- E) and OVX primed by estradiol plus progesterone (OVX +/- EP). Blood was collected to determine GH (30, 60, 90, and 120 min postinjection). Serum T3, T4, and glucose levels were measured in OVX +/- E rats 30 min postinjection. CRF at all doses studied significantly decreased serum GH levels in the three experimental groups. Serum T3, T4, and glucose levels were unchanged after CRF administration. The results suggest that: CRF inhibits "per se" GH secretion, at least in part, by a central action in the ME. The inhibitory effect of CRF on GH is independent of the estrogen/progesterone status of the animal. CRF at ME levels may participate in a variety of stress-related responses, including growth inhibition, through GH suppression.

  7. EphA/ephrin A reverse signaling promotes the migration of cortical interneurons from the medial ganglionic eminence.

    PubMed

    Steinecke, André; Gampe, Christin; Zimmer, Geraldine; Rudolph, Judith; Bolz, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory interneurons control the flow of information and synchronization in the cerebral cortex at the circuit level. During embryonic development, multiple subtypes of cortical interneurons are generated in different regions of the ventral telencephalon, such as the medial and caudal ganglionic eminence (MGE and CGE), as well as the preoptic area (POA). These neurons then migrate over long distances towards their cortical target areas. Diverse families of diffusible and cell-bound signaling molecules, including the Eph/ephrin system, regulate and orchestrate interneuron migration. Ephrin A3 and A5, for instance, are expressed at the borders of the pathway of MGE-derived interneurons and prevent these cells from entering inappropriate regions via EphA4 forward signaling. We found that MGE-derived interneurons, in addition to EphA4, also express ephrin A and B ligands, suggesting Eph/ephrin forward and reverse signaling in the same cell. In vitro and in vivo approaches showed that EphA4-induced reverse signaling in MGE-derived interneurons promotes their migration and that this effect is mediated by ephrin A2 ligands. In EphA4 mutant mice, as well as after ephrin A2 knockdown using in utero electroporation, we found delayed interneuron migration at embryonic stages. Thus, besides functions in guiding MGE-derived interneurons to the cortex through forward signaling, here we describe a novel role of the ephrins in driving these neurons to their target via reverse signaling.

  8. Cytoarchitecture of the Lateral Ganglionic Eminence and Rostral Extension of the Lateral Ventricle in the Human Fetal Brain

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero-Cázares, Hugo; Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar; Soriano-Navarro, Mario; Zamora-Berridi, Grettel; García-Verdugo, José Manuel; Quinoñes-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    The fetal development of the anterior subventricular zone (SVZ) involves the transformation of radial glia into neural stem cells, in addition to the migration of neuroblasts from the SVZ towards different regions in the brain. In adult rodents this migration from the anterior SVZ is restricted to the olfactory bulb following a rostral migratory stream (RMS) formed by chains of migratory neuroblasts. Similar to rodents, an RMS has been suggested in the adult human brain, where the SVZ remains as an active proliferative region. Nevertheless, a human fetal RMS has not been described and the presence of migratory neuroblasts in the adult remains controversial. Here we describe the cytoarchitecture of the human SVZ at the lateral ganglionic eminence late in the second trimester of development (23–24 weeks postconception). Cell organization in this region is heterogeneous along the ventricular wall, with GFAP-positive cells aligned to the ventricle. These cells coexpress markers for radial glia like GFAPδ, nestin, and vimentin. We also show the presence of abundant migratory neuroblasts in the anterior horn SVZ forming structures here denominated cell throngs. Interestingly, a ventral extension of the lateral ventricle suggests the presence of a putative RMS. Nevertheless, in the olfactory bulb neuroblast throngs or chain-like structures were not observed. The lack of these structures closer to the olfactory bulb could indicate a destination for the migratory neuroblasts outside the olfactory bulb in the human brain. PMID:21344407

  9. Pneumatization of the articular eminence on cone beam computed tomography: prevalence, characteristics and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Miloglu, O; Yilmaz, A B; Yildirim, E; Akgul, H M

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of pneumatized articular eminence (PAT) by cone beam CT (CBCT) and to present a review of the PAT literature. Methods A retrospective study was performed using sagittal and coronal CBCT images of 514 patients in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Ataturk University, Turkey. Age and gender were recorded for all patients and, for the cases of PAT, laterality and types were also recorded. The χ2 test was used. Results Of the 514 patients, 41 (8.0%) had PAT, of whom 25 were female (61.0%) and 16 were male (39.0%). This difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The age range of the patients with PAT was 15–62 years (mean 30.6 ± 11.4). Of the 41 patients, 31 (75.6%) had unilateral and 10 (24.4%) had bilateral PAT. 17 (41.5%) PATs were unilocular and 24 (58.5%) were multilocular. Conclusions It is possible that PAT is a more frequent condition than is commonly perceived. In differential diagnosis of suspected cases or in cases for which surgical treatment is planned, panoramic radiographs should be supplemented with CBCT. PMID:21239574

  10. A comparison of high resolution melting, allele-specific priming and Sanger sequencing for the detection of BRAFV600E mutation in hairy cell leukaemia from different haematological specimens.

    PubMed

    So, Chi-Chiu; Chan, Amy; Chung, Lap-Ping; Siu, Lisa; Wong, Wai-Shan; Wong, Kit-Fai

    2014-10-01

    The BRAFV600E mutation is a highly sensitive and specific marker for the diagnosis of hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) and a potential therapeutic target. We assessed the performance of high resolution melting (HRM), allele-specific priming (ASP) and Sanger sequencing (SS) for BRAFV600E detection in 17 unenriched samples from 15 HCL patients: blood (n = 7), marrow aspirate (n = 3), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-decalcified trephine biopsy (n = 2), formic acid (FA)-decalcified trephine biopsy (n = 5). Our results showed that for blood and marrow aspirate samples, both HRM and ASP had a very high analytical sensitivity (1%) in clinical specimens and excellent diagnostic sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%) in analysable samples. Sanger sequencing had a lower analytical sensitivity (4%), resulting in false-negative analysis in samples with a low tumour cell percentage. High resolution melting was technically the simplest and had the shortest turn-around time (2 hours). Analysis of decalcified trephine biopsies was more difficult because of suboptimal DNA preservation. Although Sanger sequencing was least demanding on sample DNA quality for a successful analysis, none of the three techniques showed satisfactory diagnostic performance on trephine biopsies. Therefore, careful selection of a suitable sample type and testing platform is important to optimise the detection of this important mutation in HCL.

  11. Alternate cadmium exposure differentially affects the content of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex of male rats.

    PubMed

    Esquifino, A I; Seara, R; Fernández-Rey, E; Lafuente, A

    2001-05-01

    This work examines changes of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine contents in the hypothalamus, striatum and prefrontal cortex of the rat after an alternate schedule of cadmium administration. Age-associated changes were also evaluated, of those before puberty and after adult age. In control rats GABA content decreased with age in the median eminence and in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex and the striatum. Taurine content showed similar results with the exception of mediobasal hypothalamus and striatum, where no changes were detected. In pubertal rats treated with cadmium from 30 to 60 days of life, GABA content significantly decreased in all brain regions except in the striatum. When cadmium was administered from day 60 to 90 of life, GABA content was significantly changed in prefrontal cortex only compared with the age matched controls. Taurine content showed similar results in pubertal rats, with the exception of the median eminence and the mediobasal hypothalamus, neither of which showed a change. However, when cadmium was administered to rats from day 60 to 90 of life, taurine content only changed in prefrontal cortex compared with the age matched controls. These results suggest that cadmium differentially affects GABA and taurine contents within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex as a function of age.

  12. Development of neuroendocrine components of the thyroid axis in the direct-developing frog Eleutherodactylus coqui: formation of the median eminence and onset of pituitary TSH production.

    PubMed

    Jennings, David H; Evans, Bryce; Hanken, James

    2015-04-01

    Direct-developing frogs lack, wholly or in part, a wide range of larval features found in metamorphosing species and form adult-specific features precociously, during embryogenesis. Most information on thyroid regulation of direct development relies on hormone manipulations; the ontogeny of many thyroid axis components has not been fully described. This analysis examines differentiation of the median eminence of the hypothalamus and production of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) by the pituitary of the direct-developing frog Eleutherodactylus coqui. The median eminence is established two-thirds of the way through embryogenesis. Cells immunoreactive to human TSHβ antibodies are first detected during embryogenesis and quantitative changes in TSHβ-IR cells resemble those in metamorphosing amphibians. Formation of the median eminence of the hypothalamus and TSHβ production by the pituitary precede or coincide with morphological changes during embryogenesis that occur during metamorphosis in biphasic anurans. Thus, while the onset of neuroendocrine regulation has changed during the evolution of direct development, it is likely that these thyroid axis components still mediate the formation of adult features.

  13. In Genes We Trust: Germline Engineering, Eugenics, and the Future of the Human Genome.

    PubMed

    Powell, Russell

    2015-12-01

    Liberal proponents of genetic engineering maintain that developing human germline modification technologies is morally desirable because it will result in a net improvement in human health and well-being. Skeptics of germline modification, in contrast, fear evolutionary harms that could flow from intervening in the human germline, and worry that such programs, even if well intentioned, could lead to a recapitulation of the scientifically and morally discredited projects of the old eugenics. Some bioconservatives have appealed as well to the value of retaining our "given" human biological nature as a reason for restraining the development and use of human genetic modification technologies even where they would tend to increase well-being. In this article, I argue that germline intervention will be necessary merely to sustain the levels of genetic health that we presently enjoy for future generations-a goal that should appeal to bioliberals and bioconservatives alike. This is due to the population-genetic consequences of relaxed selection pressures in human populations caused by the increasing efficacy and availability of conventional medicine. This heterodox conclusion, which I present as a problem of intergenerational justice, has been overlooked in medicine and bioethics due to certain misconceptions about human evolution, which I attempt to rectify, as well as the sordid history of Darwinian approaches to medicine and social policy, which I distinguish from the present argument. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. An Evil Hitherto Unchecked: Eugenics and the 1917 Ontario Royal Commission on the Care and Control of the Mentally Defective and Feeble-Minded.

    PubMed

    Koester, C Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    In 1917, the Ontario government appointed the Royal Commission on the Care and Control of the Mentally Defective and Feeble-Minded, headed by Justice Frank Hodgins. Its final report made wide-ranging recommendations regarding the segregation of feeble-minded individuals, restrictions on marriage, the improvement of psychiatric facilities, and the reform of the court system, all matters of great concern to the eugenics movement. At the same time, however, it refrained from using explicitly eugenic vocabulary and ignored the question of sterilization. This article explores the role the commission played in the trajectory of eugenics in Ontario (including the province's failure to pass sterilization legislation) and considers why its recommendations were disregarded.

  15. Age and Long-Term Hormone Treatment Effects on the Ultrastructural Morphology of the Median Eminence of Female Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Naugle, Michelle M.; Lozano, Sateria A.; Guarraci, Fay A.; Lindsey, Larry F.; Kim, Ji E.; Morrison, John H.; Janssen, William G.M.; Yin, Weiling; Gore, Andrea C.

    2015-01-01

    The median eminence (ME) of the hypothalamus comprises the hypothalamic nerve terminals, glia (especially tanycytes) and the portal capillary vasculature that transports hypothalamic neurohormones to the anterior pituitary gland. The ultrastructure of the ME is dynamically regulated by hormones and undergoes organizational changes during development and reproductive cycles in adult females, but relatively little is known about the ME during aging, especially in non-human primates. Therefore, we used a novel transmission scanning electron microscopy (tSEM) technique to examine the cytoarchitecture of the ME of young and aged female rhesus macaques in a preclinical monkey model of menopausal hormone treatments. Rhesus macaques were ovariectomized and treated for 2 years with vehicle, estradiol, or estradiol + progesterone (E2 + P4). While the overall cytoarchitecture of the ME underwent relatively few changes with age and hormones, changes to some features of neural and glial components near the portal capillaries were observed. Specifically, large neuroterminal size was greater in aged compared to young adult animals, an effect that was mitigated or reversed by E2 alone but not E2 + P4 treatment. Overall glial size, and the density and tissue fraction of the largest subset of glia, were greater in aged monkeys, and in some cases reversed by E2 treatment. Mitochondrial size was decreased by E2, but not E2 + P4, only in aged macaques. These results contrast substantially with work in rodents, suggesting that the ME of aging macaques is less vulnerable to age-related disorganization, and that estradiol’s effects in the monkey ME are age-specific. PMID:26536204

  16. Effects of chronic NMDA-NR2b inhibition in the median eminence of the reproductive senescent female rat.

    PubMed

    Kermath, B A; Riha, P D; Sajjad, A; Gore, A C

    2013-10-01

    Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis drive reproductive function and undergo age-related decreases in activation during the transition to reproductive senescence. Decreased GnRH secretion from the median eminence (ME) partially arises from attenuated glutamatergic signalling via the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) and may be a result of changing NMDAR stoichiometry to favour NR2b over NR2a subunit expression with ageing. We have previously shown that the systemic inhibition of NR2b-containing receptors with ifenprodil, an NR2b-specific antagonist, stimulates parameters of luteinising hormone (used as a proxy for GnRH) release in both young and middle-aged females. In the present study, we chronically administered ifenprodil, an NR2b-specific antagonist, at the site of GnRH terminals in the ME or at GnRH perikarya in the preoptic area, in reproductively senescent middle-aged female rats, aiming to determine whether NR2b antagonism could restore aspects of reproductive functionality. Effects on oestrous cyclicity, serum hormones, and protein expression of GnRH, NR2b and phosphorylated NR2b (Tyr-1472) in the ME were measured. Chronic ifenprodil treatment in the ME (but not the preoptic area) altered oestrous cyclicity by increasing the percentage of days spent in pro-oestrus. This was accompanied by increased GnRH fluorescence intensity in the external ME zone and a greater proportion of GnRH terminals that co-labelled with pNR2b with treatment. We also observed changes in the relationships between protein immunofluorescence, serum hormone levels and other aspects of reproductive physiology in acyclic females, as revealed by bionetwork analysis. Together, these data support the hypothesis that NMDAR-NR2b expression and phosphorylation state play a role in reproductive senescence and highlight the ME as a major player in reproductive ageing.

  17. Changes in the kinetics of ( sup 3 H)dopamine release from median eminence and striatal synaptosomes during aging

    SciTech Connect

    Gregerson, K.A.; Selmanoff, M. )

    1990-01-01

    The release of preaccumulated tritium-labeled dopamine was examined in isolated nerve terminals prepared from the median eminence (ME) and corpus striatum (CS) of young, middle-aged, and old male rats. Fractional release of (3H)DA was measured over 1- to 10-sec time intervals under basal and depolarizing conditions in the presence of calcium. No differences in the rate of basal efflux between the age groups were observed in either ME or CS preparations. Fast-phase evoked (3H)DA release from CS synaptosomes was unchanged from young to middle-aged, but was decreased in old preparations. These data demonstrate that the nigrostriatal nerve terminal has a diminished ability to respond fully to depolarizing stimuli in advanced age. Mean serum PRL levels in old rats were 2.3-fold greater than those in both young and middle-aged rats, while serum LH levels were decreased 2.0-fold in middle-aged and old compared with those in young rats. The fact that LH levels were already decreased in middle-aged rats while PRL levels had not yet increased suggests that decreased gonadotropin titers in old rats do not result from the coincident hyperprolactinemia. In ME synaptosomes, depolarization-induced (3H)DA release was decreased at all time points in middle-aged preparations compared to that in young preparations. The reduced fractional release from the middle-aged ME synaptosomes was due to a depressed rate of release during the initial second of depolarization. Evoked release from ME terminals of old rats was comparable to that measured in the young group. Thus, there occurred an age-related biphasic change in the initial rate of evoked DA release from ME synaptosomes. Diminished response of ME dopaminergic terminals to depolarizing stimuli during middle age may be important in the later development of hyperprolactinemia in aging male rats.

  18. Human and monkey striatal interneurons are derived from the medial ganglionic eminence but not from the adult subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congmin; You, Yan; Qi, Dashi; Zhou, Xing; Wang, Lei; Wei, Song; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Huang, Weixi; Liu, Zhidong; Liu, Fang; Ma, Lan; Yang, Zhengang

    2014-08-13

    In adult rodent and monkey brains, newly born neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ) in the wall of the lateral ventricle migrate into the olfactory bulb (OB) via the rostral migratory stream (RMS). A recent study reported that interneurons are constantly generating in the adult human striatum from the SVZ. In contrast, by taking advantage of the continuous expression of Sp8 from the neuroblast stage through differentiation into mature interneurons, we found that the adult human SVZ does not generate new interneurons for the striatum. In the adult human SVZ and RMS, very few neuroblasts were observed, and most of them expressed the transcription factor Sp8. Neuroblasts in the adult rhesus monkey SVZ-RMS-OB pathway also expressed Sp8. In addition, we observed that Sp8 was expressed by most adult human and monkey OB interneurons. However, very few Sp8+ cells were in the adult human striatum. This suggests that neuroblasts in the adult human SVZ and RMS are likely destined for the OB, but not for the striatum. BrdU-labeling results also revealed few if any newly born neurons in the adult rhesus monkey striatum. Finally, on the basis of transcription factor expression, we provide strong evidence that the vast majority of interneurons in the human and monkey striatum are generated from the medial ganglionic eminence during embryonic developmental stages, as they are in rodents. We conclude that, although a small number of neuroblasts exist in the adult human SVZ, they do not migrate into the striatum and become mature striatal interneurons.

  19. Beta-endorphin regulation of LHRH release at the median eminence level: immunocytochemical and physiological evidence in hens.

    PubMed

    Contijoch, A M; Malamed, S; Sarkar, D K; Advis, J P

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effect that beta-endorphin (beta END) might have at the median eminence (ME) on luteinizing hormone (LH)-releasing hormone (LHRH) during the ovulatory cycle of domestic hens. Thus, we assessed (a) the immunocytochemical distribution of beta END and LHRH in the hen ME, (b) the temporal changes in ME and preoptic area (POA) LHRH and beta END content, in both a spontaneous and a premature C2 ovulatory model. The premature C2 ovulation occurs 6-7 h after the administration of progesterone (P4) injected 14 h before the spontaneous second (C2) ovulation of a sequence and therefore 7-8 h earlier than expected, (c) the ME in vitro release of beta END in both models, and (d) the effect of beta END and naloxone on in vitro ME-LHRH release in the two models. In the hen, beta END cell bodies are located in the periarcuate area with axons projecting to both the ME and the POA. LHRH perikarya are located in the medial POA and anterior hypothalamus and project to the ME and infundibulum through the ventrolateral hypothalamus. In the spontaneous C2 ovulatory model, both beta END and LHRH content in the ME remained unchanged during the 14 h preceding the C2 ovulation. However, POA-LHRH content was increasing at the time of the LH surge (4 h before the expected C2 ovulation) and remained elevated until the C2 ovulation occurred. In contrast, POA-beta END content was lowest at the time of the LH surge and remained low until the C2 ovulation occurred.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Differential Regulation of GnRH Secretion in the Preoptic Area (POA) and the Median Eminence (ME) in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Glanowska, Katarzyna M.

    2015-01-01

    GnRH release in the median eminence (ME) is the central output for control of reproduction. GnRH processes in the preoptic area (POA) also release GnRH. We examined region-specific regulation of GnRH secretion using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to detect GnRH release in brain slices from adult male mice. Blocking endoplasmic reticulum calcium reuptake to elevate intracellular calcium evokes GnRH release in both the ME and POA. This release is action potential dependent in the ME but not the POA. Locally applied kisspeptin induced GnRH secretion in both the ME and POA. Local blockade of inositol triphospate-mediated calcium release inhibited kisspeptin-induced GnRH release in the ME, but broad blockade was required in the POA. In contrast, kisspeptin-evoked secretion in the POA was blocked by local gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone, but broad gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone application was required in the ME. Although action potentials are required for GnRH release induced by pharmacologically-increased intracellular calcium in the ME and kisspeptin-evoked release requires inositol triphosphate-mediated calcium release, blocking action potentials did not inhibit kisspeptin-induced GnRH release in the ME. Kisspeptin-induced GnRH release was suppressed after blocking both action potentials and plasma membrane Ca2+ channels. This suggests that kisspeptin action in the ME requires both increased intracellular calcium and influx from the outside of the cell but not action potentials. Local interactions among kisspeptin and GnRH processes in the ME could thus stimulate GnRH release without involving perisomatic regions of GnRH neurons. Coupling between action potential generation and hormone release in GnRH neurons is thus likely physiologically labile and may vary with region. PMID:25314270