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Sample records for eukaryotic 80s ribosomes

  1. Coupled release of eukaryotic translation initiation factors 5B and 1A from 80S ribosomes following subunit joining.

    PubMed

    Fringer, Jeanne M; Acker, Michael G; Fekete, Christie A; Lorsch, Jon R; Dever, Thomas E

    2007-03-01

    The translation initiation GTPase eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5B (eIF5B) binds to the factor eIF1A and catalyzes ribosomal subunit joining in vitro. We show that rapid depletion of eIF5B in Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in the accumulation of eIF1A and mRNA on 40S subunits in vivo, consistent with a defect in subunit joining. Substituting Ala for the last five residues in eIF1A (eIF1A-5A) impairs eIF5B binding to eIF1A in cell extracts and to 40S complexes in vivo. Consistently, overexpression of eIF5B suppresses the growth and translation initiation defects in yeast expressing eIF1A-5A, indicating that eIF1A helps recruit eIF5B to the 40S subunit prior to subunit joining. The GTPase-deficient eIF5B-T439A mutant accumulated on 80S complexes in vivo and was retained along with eIF1A on 80S complexes formed in vitro. Likewise, eIF5B and eIF1A remained associated with 80S complexes formed in the presence of nonhydrolyzable GDPNP, whereas these factors were released from the 80S complexes in assays containing GTP. We propose that eIF1A facilitates the binding of eIF5B to the 40S subunit to promote subunit joining. Following 80S complex formation, GTP hydrolysis by eIF5B enables the release of both eIF5B and eIF1A, and the ribosome enters the elongation phase of protein synthesis.

  2. Disassembly of yeast 80S ribosomes into subunits is a concerted action of ribosome-assisted folding of denatured protein.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Biprashekhar; Bhakta, Sayan; Sengupta, Jayati

    2016-01-22

    It has been shown by several groups that ribosome can assist folding of denatured protein in vitro and the process is conserved across the species. Domain V of large ribosomal rRNA which occupies the intersubunit side of the large subunit was identified as the key player responsible for chaperoning the folding process. Thus, it is conceivable that denatured protein needs to access the intersubunit space of the ribosome in order to get folded. In this study, we have investigated the mechanism of release of the protein from the eukaryotic ribosome following reactivation. We have observed significant splitting of yeast 80S ribosome when incubated with the denatured BCAII protein. Energy-free disassembly mechanism functions in low Mg(+2) ion concentration for prokaryotic ribosomes. Eukaryotic ribosomes do not show significant splitting even at low Mg(+2) ion concentration. In this respect, denatured protein-induced disassembly of eukaryotic ribosome without the involvement of any external energy source is intriguing. For prokaryotic ribosomes, it was reported that the denatured protein induces ribosome splitting into subunits in order to access domain V-rRNA. In contrast, our results suggest an alternative mechanism for eukaryotic ribosomal rRNA-mediated protein folding and subsequent separation of the subunits by which release of the activated-protein occurs.

  3. Crystal structure of eukaryotic ribosome and its complexes with inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yusupova, Gulnara; Yusupov, Marat

    2017-03-19

    A high-resolution structure of the eukaryotic ribosome has been determined and has led to increased interest in studying protein biosynthesis and regulation of biosynthesis in cells. The functional complexes of the ribosome crystals obtained from bacteria and yeast have permitted researchers to identify the precise residue positions in different states of ribosome function. This knowledge, together with electron microscopy studies, enhances our understanding of how basic ribosome processes, including mRNA decoding, peptide bond formation, mRNA, and tRNA translocation and cotranslational transport of the nascent peptide, are regulated. In this review, we discuss the crystal structure of the entire 80S ribosome from yeast, which reveals its eukaryotic-specific features, and application of X-ray crystallography of the 80S ribosome for investigation of the binding mode for distinct compounds known to inhibit or modulate the protein-translation function of the ribosome. We also refer to a challenging aspect of the structural study of ribosomes, from higher eukaryotes, where the structures of major distinctive features of higher eukaryote ribosome-the high-eukaryote-specific long ribosomal RNA segments (about 1MDa)-remain unresolved. Presently, the structures of the major part of these high-eukaryotic expansion ribosomal RNA segments still remain unresolved.This article is part of the themed issue 'Perspectives on the ribosome'.

  4. Eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis at a glance.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Emma; Ferreira-Cerca, Sébastien; Hurt, Ed

    2013-11-01

    Ribosomes play a pivotal role in the molecular life of every cell. Moreover, synthesis of ribosomes is one of the most energetically demanding of all cellular processes. In eukaryotic cells, ribosome biogenesis requires the coordinated activity of all three RNA polymerases and the orchestrated work of many (>200) transiently associated ribosome assembly factors. The biogenesis of ribosomes is a tightly regulated activity and it is inextricably linked to other fundamental cellular processes, including growth and cell division. Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated that defects in ribosome biogenesis are associated with several hereditary diseases. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and the accompanying poster, we summarise the current knowledge on eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis, with an emphasis on the yeast model system.

  5. Requirement of rRNA Methylation for 80S Ribosome Assembly on a Cohort of Cellular Internal Ribosome Entry Sites▿

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Abhijit; Das, Priyanka; Chaudhuri, Sujan; Bevilacqua, Elena; Andrews, Joel; Barik, Sailen; Hatzoglou, Maria; Komar, Anton A.; Mazumder, Barsanjit

    2011-01-01

    Protein syntheses mediated by cellular and viral internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) are believed to have many features in common. Distinct mechanisms for ribosome recruitment and preinitiation complex assembly between the two processes have not been identified thus far. Here we show that the methylation status of rRNA differentially influenced the mechanism of 80S complex formation on IRES elements from the cellular sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) versus the hepatitis C virus mRNA. Translation initiation involves the assembly of the 48S preinitiation complex, followed by joining of the 60S ribosomal subunit and formation of the 80S complex. Abrogation of rRNA methylation did not affect the 48S complex but resulted in impairment of 80S complex assembly on the cellular, but not the viral, IRESs tested. Impairment of 80S complex assembly on the amino acid transporter SNAT2 IRES was rescued by purified 60S subunits containing fully methylated rRNA. We found that rRNA methylation did not affect the activity of any of the viral IRESs tested but affected the activity of numerous cellular IRESs. This work reveals a novel mechanism operating on a cohort of cellular IRESs that involves rRNA methylation for proper 80S complex assembly and efficient translation initiation. PMID:21930789

  6. Calcium-dependent interaction of calmodulin with human 80S ribosomes and polyribosomes.

    PubMed

    Behnen, Petra; Davis, Elizabeth; Delaney, Erin; Frohm, Birgitta; Bauer, Mikael; Cedervall, Tommy; O'Connell, David; Åkerfeldt, Karin S; Linse, Sara

    2012-08-28

    Ribosomes are the protein factories of every living cell. The process of protein translation is highly complex and tightly regulated by a large number of diverse RNAs and proteins. Earlier studies indicate that Ca(2+) plays a role in protein translation. Calmodulin (CaM), a ubiquitous Ca(2+)-binding protein, regulates a large number of proteins participating in many signaling pathways. Several 40S and 60S ribosomal proteins have been identified to interact with CaM, and here, we report that CaM binds with high affinity to 80S ribosomes and polyribosomes in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. No binding is observed in buffer with 6 mM Mg(2+) and 1 mM EGTA that chelates Ca(2+), suggesting high specificity of the CaM-ribosome interaction dependent on the Ca(2+) induced conformational change of CaM. The interactions between CaM and ribosomes are inhibited by synthetic peptides comprising putative CaM-binding sites in ribosomal proteins S2 and L14. Using a cell-free in vitro translation system, we further found that these synthetic peptides are potent inhibitors of protein synthesis. Our results identify an involvement of CaM in the translational activity of ribosomes.

  7. Eukaryotic Ribosome Assembly and Nuclear Export.

    PubMed

    Nerurkar, Purnima; Altvater, Martin; Gerhardy, Stefan; Schütz, Sabina; Fischer, Ute; Weirich, Christine; Panse, Vikram Govind

    2015-01-01

    Accurate translation of the genetic code into functional polypeptides is key to cellular growth and proliferation. This essential process is carried out by the ribosome, a ribonucleoprotein complex of remarkable size and intricacy. Although the structure of the mature ribosome has provided insight into the mechanism of translation, our knowledge regarding the assembly, quality control, and intracellular targeting of this molecular machine is still emerging. Assembly of the eukaryotic ribosome begins in the nucleolus and requires more than 350 conserved assembly factors, which transiently associate with the preribosome at specific maturation stages. After accomplishing their tasks, early-acting assembly factors are released, preparing preribosomes for nuclear export. Export competent preribosomal subunits are transported through nuclear pore complexes into the cytoplasm, where they undergo final maturation steps, which are closely connected to quality control, before engaging in translation. In this chapter, we focus on the final events that commit correctly assembled ribosomal subunits for translation.

  8. One core, two shells: bacterial and eukaryotic ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Melnikov, Sergey; Ben-Shem, Adam; Garreau de Loubresse, Nicolas; Jenner, Lasse; Yusupova, Gulnara; Yusupov, Marat

    2012-06-05

    Ribosomes are universally conserved enzymes that carry out protein biosynthesis. Bacterial and eukaryotic ribosomes, which share an evolutionarily conserved core, are thought to have evolved from a common ancestor by addition of proteins and RNA that bestow different functionalities to ribosomes from different domains of life. Recently, structures of the eukaryotic ribosome, determined by X-ray crystallography, have allowed us to compare these structures to previously determined structures of bacterial ribosomes. Here we describe selected bacteria- or eukaryote-specific structural features of the ribosome and discuss the functional implications of some of them.

  9. Mefloquine targets the Plasmodium falciparum 80S ribosome to inhibit protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wilson; Bai, Xiao-Chen; Sleebs, Brad E; Triglia, Tony; Brown, Alan; Thompson, Jennifer K; Jackson, Katherine E; Hanssen, Eric; Marapana, Danushka S; Fernandez, Israel S; Ralph, Stuart A; Cowman, Alan F; Scheres, Sjors H W; Baum, Jake

    2017-03-13

    Malaria control is heavily dependent on chemotherapeutic agents for disease prevention and drug treatment. Defining the mechanism of action for licensed drugs, for which no target is characterized, is critical to the development of their second-generation derivatives to improve drug potency towards inhibition of their molecular targets. Mefloquine is a widely used antimalarial without a known mode of action. Here, we demonstrate that mefloquine is a protein synthesis inhibitor. We solved a 3.2 Å cryo-electron microscopy structure of the Plasmodium falciparum 80S ribosome with the (+)-mefloquine enantiomer bound to the ribosome GTPase-associated centre. Mutagenesis of mefloquine-binding residues generates parasites with increased resistance, confirming the parasite-killing mechanism. Furthermore, structure-guided derivatives with an altered piperidine group, predicted to improve binding, show enhanced parasiticidal effect. These data reveal one possible mode of action for mefloquine and demonstrate the vast potential of cryo-electron microscopy to guide the development of mefloquine derivatives to inhibit parasite protein synthesis.

  10. Ribosomal RNA sequence suggest microsporidia are extremely ancient eukaryotes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vossbrinck, C. R.; Maddox, J. V.; Friedman, S.; Debrunner-Vossbrinck, B. A.; Woese, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    A comparative sequence analysis of the 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of the microsporidium Vairimorpha necatrix is presented. The results show that this rRNA sequence is more unlike those of other eukaryotes than any known eukaryote rRNA sequence. It is concluded that the lineage leading to microsporidia branched very early from that leading to other eukaryotes.

  11. Direct chemical probing of the conformation of the 3' functional domain of rabbit 18S rRNA in 40S subunits, 80S ribosomes and polyribosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Rubino, H.M.; Rairkar, A.; Lockard, R.E.

    1987-05-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the 3' minor domain of eukaryotic 18S rRNA, as in prokaryotes, is directly involved in protein biosynthesis. To determine regions of possible functional importance, they have probed the higher order structure of rabbit 18S rRNA in both 40S subunits and 80S ribosomes, as well as polyribosomes using the single-strand specific chemical probes dimethyl sulfate (DMS) and diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC) which react with unpaired guanosine and adenosine residues, respectively. The modified 18S rRNA was isolated from these particles and the resultant modified nucleotides identified on polyacrylamide sequencing gels upon either aniline-induced strand scission of /sup 32/P-end-labeled intact rRNA or by DNA primer extension using sequence specific deoxyoligomers with reverse transcriptase. Their results indicate a decreased reactivity of residue C-1692 in rabbit 18S rRNA (corresponding to C-1400 E. coli) within the putative tRNA contact site in polyribosomes as compared with 40S subunits and 80S ribosomes. They have also determined varying reactivities of a number of other residues within specific regions of the 3' functional domain when 40S, 80S, and polyribosomes are compared, which may be important for both subunit association as well as mRNA binding.

  12. Crystal Structure of Hypusine-Containing Translation Factor eIF5A Bound to a Rotated Eukaryotic Ribosome.

    PubMed

    Melnikov, Sergey; Mailliot, Justine; Shin, Byung-Sik; Rigger, Lukas; Yusupova, Gulnara; Micura, Ronald; Dever, Thomas E; Yusupov, Marat

    2016-09-11

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF5A promotes protein synthesis by resolving polyproline-induced ribosomal stalling. Here, we report a 3.25-Å resolution crystal structure of eIF5A bound to the yeast 80S ribosome. The structure reveals a previously unseen conformation of an eIF5A-ribosome complex and highlights a possible functional link between conformational changes of the ribosome during protein synthesis and the eIF5A-ribosome association.

  13. Dom34-Hbs1 mediated dissociation of inactive 80S ribosomes promotes restart of translation after stress.

    PubMed

    van den Elzen, Antonia M G; Schuller, Anthony; Green, Rachel; Séraphin, Bertrand

    2014-02-03

    Following translation termination, ribosomal subunits dissociate to become available for subsequent rounds of protein synthesis. In many translation-inhibiting stress conditions, e.g. glucose starvation in yeast, free ribosomal subunits reassociate to form a large pool of non-translating 80S ribosomes stabilized by the 'clamping' Stm1 factor. The subunits of these inactive ribosomes need to be mobilized for translation restart upon stress relief. The Dom34-Hbs1 complex, together with the Rli1 NTPase (also known as ABCE1), have been shown to split ribosomes stuck on mRNAs in the context of RNA quality control mechanisms. Here, using in vitro and in vivo methods, we report a new role for the Dom34-Hbs1 complex and Rli1 in dissociating inactive ribosomes, thereby facilitating translation restart in yeast recovering from glucose starvation stress. Interestingly, we found that this new role is not restricted to stress conditions, indicating that in growing yeast there is a dynamic pool of inactive ribosomes that needs to be split by Dom34-Hbs1 and Rli1 to participate in protein synthesis. We propose that this provides a new level of translation regulation.

  14. Eukaryotic ribosomes that lack a 5.8S RNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vossbrinck, C. R.; Woese, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    The 5.8S ribosomal RNA is believed to be a universal eukaryotic characteristic. It has no (size) counterpart among the prokaryotes, although its sequence is homologous with the first 150 or so nucleotides of the prokaryotic large subunit (23S) ribosomal RNA. An exception to this rule is reported here. The microsporidian Vairimorpha necatrix is a eukaryote that has no 5.8S rRNA. As in the prokaryotes, it has a single large subunit rRNA, whose 5-prime region corresponds to the 5.8S rRNA.

  15. Eukaryote-specific motif of ribosomal protein S15 neighbors A site codon during elongation and termination of translation.

    PubMed

    Khairulina, Julia; Graifer, Dmitri; Bulygin, Konstantin; Ven'yaminova, Aliya; Frolova, Ludmila; Karpova, Galina

    2010-07-01

    The eukaryotic ribosomal protein S15 is a key component of the decoding site in contrast to its prokaryotic counterpart, S19p, which is located away from the mRNA binding track on the ribosome. Here, we determined the oligopeptide of S15 neighboring the A site mRNA codon on the human 80S ribosome with the use of mRNA analogues bearing perfluorophenyl azide-modified nucleotides in the sense or stop codon targeted to the 80S ribosomal A site. The protein was cross-linked to mRNA analogues in specific ribosomal complexes that were obtained in the presence of eRF1 in the experiments with mRNAs bearing stop codon. Digestion of modified S15 with various specific proteolytic agents followed by identification of the resulting modified oligopeptides showed that cross-link was in C-terminal fragment in positions 131-145, most probably, in decapeptide 131-PGIGATHSSR-140. The position of cross-linking site on the S15 protein did not depend on the nature of the A site-bound codon (sense or stop codon) and on the presence of polypeptide chain release factor eRF1 in the ribosomal complexes with mRNA analogues bearing a stop codon. The results indicate an involvement of the mentioned decapeptide in the formation of the ribosomal decoding site during elongation and termination of translation. Alignment of amino acid sequences of eukaryotic S15 and its prokaryotic counterpart, S19p from eubacteria and archaea, revealed that decapeptide PGIGATHSSR in positions 131-140 is strongly conserved in eukaryotes and has minor variations in archaea but has no homology with any sequence in C-terminal part of eubacterial S19p, which suggests involvement of the decapeptide in the translation process in a eukaryote-specific manner.

  16. Effects of cations and cosolvents on eukaryotic ribosomal subunit conformation

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, M.N.; Spremulli, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of various cations and cosolvents on the conformation of wheat germ ribosomes and ribosomal subunits have been investigated by using the techniques of circular dichroism and differential hydrogen exchange. A class of hydrogens on both the 40S and 60S subunits exchange out more rapidly as the Mg/sup 2 +/ concentration is raised, indicating that Mg/sup 2 +/ causes a change in subunit conformation. Ca/sup 2 +/ and the polyamines produce a similar increase in the rate of hydrogen exchange. These results suggest that increases in cation concentrations permit a tightening of ribosome structure and a greater degree of internalization of the rRNA. The cosolvent glycerol causes an alteration in the CD spectrum of 80S ribosomes in both the nucleic acid and protein portions of the spectrum. Glycerol also causes a decrease in the rate of exchange of a number of hydrogens on both the 40S and 60S subunits. These results are interpreted to mean that glycerol favors a more native, less denatured structure in the ribosome.

  17. Functions of Ribosomal Proteins in Assembly of Eukaryotic Ribosomes In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The proteome of cells is synthesized by ribosomes, complex ribonucleoproteins that in eukaryotes contain 79–80 proteins and four ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) more than 5,400 nucleotides long. How these molecules assemble together and how their assembly is regulated in concert with the growth and proliferation of cells remain important unanswered questions. Here, we review recently emerging principles to understand how eukaryotic ribosomal proteins drive ribosome assembly in vivo. Most ribosomal proteins assemble with rRNA cotranscriptionally; their association with nascent particles is strengthened as assembly proceeds. Each subunit is assembled hierarchically by sequential stabilization of their subdomains. The active sites of both subunits are constructed last, perhaps to prevent premature engagement of immature ribosomes with active subunits. Late-assembly intermediates undergo quality-control checks for proper function. Mutations in ribosomal proteins that affect mostly late steps lead to ribosomopathies, diseases that include a spectrum of cell type–specific disorders that often transition from hypoproliferative to hyperproliferative growth. PMID:25706898

  18. Functions of ribosomal proteins in assembly of eukaryotic ribosomes in vivo.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, Jesús; Karbstein, Katrin; Woolford, John L

    2015-01-01

    The proteome of cells is synthesized by ribosomes, complex ribonucleoproteins that in eukaryotes contain 79-80 proteins and four ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) more than 5,400 nucleotides long. How these molecules assemble together and how their assembly is regulated in concert with the growth and proliferation of cells remain important unanswered questions. Here, we review recently emerging principles to understand how eukaryotic ribosomal proteins drive ribosome assembly in vivo. Most ribosomal proteins assemble with rRNA cotranscriptionally; their association with nascent particles is strengthened as assembly proceeds. Each subunit is assembled hierarchically by sequential stabilization of their subdomains. The active sites of both subunits are constructed last, perhaps to prevent premature engagement of immature ribosomes with active subunits. Late-assembly intermediates undergo quality-control checks for proper function. Mutations in ribosomal proteins that affect mostly late steps lead to ribosomopathies, diseases that include a spectrum of cell type-specific disorders that often transition from hypoproliferative to hyperproliferative growth.

  19. Prefabrication of a ribosomal protein subcomplex essential for eukaryotic ribosome formation

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Cohue; Schütz, Sabina; Fischer, Ute; Chang, Yiming; Panse, Vikram G

    2016-01-01

    Spatial clustering of ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) through tertiary interactions is a striking structural feature of the eukaryotic ribosome. However, the functional importance of these intricate inter-connections, and how they are established is currently unclear. Here, we reveal that a conserved ATPase, Fap7, organizes interactions between neighboring r-proteins uS11 and eS26 prior to their delivery to the earliest ribosome precursor, the 90S. In vitro, uS11 only when bound to Fap7 becomes competent to recruit eS26 through tertiary contacts found between these r-proteins on the mature ribosome. Subsequently, Fap7 ATPase activity unloads the uS11:eS26 subcomplex onto its rRNA binding site, and therefore ensures stoichiometric integration of these r-proteins into the 90S. Fap7-depletion in vivo renders uS11 susceptible to proteolysis, and precludes eS26 incorporation into the 90S. Thus, prefabrication of a native-like r-protein subcomplex drives efficient and accurate construction of the eukaryotic ribosome. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21755.001 PMID:27929371

  20. The CCA-end of P-tRNA Contacts Both the Human RPL36AL and the A-site Bound Translation Termination Factor eRF1 at the Peptidyl Transferase Center of the Human 80S Ribosome.

    PubMed

    Hountondji, Codjo; Bulygin, Konstantin; Créchet, Jean-Bernard; Woisard, Anne; Tuffery, Pierre; Nakayama, Jun-Ichi; Frolova, Ludmila; Nierhaus, Knud H; Karpova, Galina; Baouz, Soria

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated previously that the E-site specific protein RPL36AL present in human ribosomes can be crosslinked with the CCA-end of a P-tRNA in situ. Here we report the following: (i) We modeled RPL36AL into the structure of the archaeal ortholog RPL44E extracted from the known X-ray structure of the 50S subunit of Haloarcula marismortui. Superimposing the obtained RPL36AL structure with that of P/E tRNA observed in eukaryotic 80S ribosomes suggested that RPL36AL might in addition to its CCA neighbourhood interact with the inner site of the tRNA elbow similar to an interaction pattern known from tRNA•synthetase pairs. (ii) Accordingly, we detected that the isolated recombinant protein RPL36AL can form a tight binary complex with deacylated tRNA, and even tRNA fragments truncated at their CCA end showed a high affinity in the nanomolar range supporting a strong interaction outside the CCA end. (iii) We constructed programmed 80S complexes containing the termination factor eRF1 (stop codon UAA at the A-site) and a 2',3'-dialdehyde tRNA (tRNAox) analog at the P-site. Surprisingly, we observed a crosslinked ternary complex containing the tRNA, eRF1 and RPL36AL crosslinked both to the aldehyde groups of tRNAox at the 2'- and 3'-positions of the ultimate A. We also demonstrated that, upon binding to the ribosomal A-site, eRF1 induces an alternative conformation of the ribosome and/or the tRNA, leading to a novel crosslink of tRNAox to another large-subunit ribosomal protein (namely L37) rather than to RPL36AL, both ribosomal proteins being labeled in a mutually exclusive fashion. Since the human 80S ribosome in complex with P-site bound tRNAox and A-site bound eRF1 corresponds to the post-termination state of the ribosome, the results represent the first biochemical evidence for the positioning of the CCA-arm of the P-tRNA in close proximity to both RPL36AL and eRF1 at the end of the translation process.

  1. Quantitative studies of mRNA recruitment to the eukaryotic ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    The process of peptide bond synthesis by ribosomes is conserved between species, but the initiation step differs greatly between the three kingdoms of life. This is illustrated by the evolution of roughly an order of magnitude more initiation factor mass found in humans compared with bacteria. Eukaryotic initiation of translation is comprised of a number of sub-steps: (i) recruitment of an mRNA and initiator methionyl-tRNA to the 40S ribosomal subunit; (ii) migration of the 40S subunit along the 5′ UTR to locate the initiation codon; and (iii) recruitment of the 60S subunit to form the 80S initiation complex. Although the mechanism and regulation of initiation has been studied for decades, many aspects of the pathway remain unclear. In this review, I will focus discussion on what is known about the mechanism of mRNA selection and its recruitment to the 40S subunit. I will summarize how the 43S preinitiation complex (PIC) is formed and stabilized by interactions between its components. I will discuss what is known about the mechanism of mRNA selection by the eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) complex and how the selected mRNA is recruited to the 43S PIC. The regulation of this process by secondary structure located in the 5′ UTR of an mRNA will also be discussed. Finally, I present a possible kinetic model with which to explain the process of mRNA selection and recruitment to the eukaryotic ribosome. PMID:25742741

  2. A general procedure for the production of antibody reagents against eukaryotic ribosomal proteins.

    PubMed

    Dieci, Giorgio; Bottarelli, Lorena; Ottonello, Simone

    2005-08-01

    Despite recent progress in the structural and functional analysis of bacterial and archaeal ribosomes, the structure and biogenesis of eukaryotic ribosomes still awaits a detailed characterization. Ribosomal protein-specific antibodies would be valuable tools for such studies, but their production is commonly hindered by the poor expression and solubility of eukaryotic ribosomal proteins in E. coli. We report here an improved general procedure for the over-production of recombinant eukaryotic ribosomal proteins and for the generation of the corresponding polyclonal antibodies. The specificity and sensitivity of detection of the antibodies produced by this procedure are documented.

  3. Selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS)-binding protein 2 alters conformational dynamics of residues involved in tRNA accommodation in 80 S ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Caban, Kelvin; Copeland, Paul R

    2012-03-23

    Sec-tRNA(Sec) is site-specifically delivered at defined UGA codons in selenoprotein mRNAs. This recoding event is specified by the selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element and requires the selenocysteine (Sec)-specific elongation factor, eEFSec, and the SECIS binding protein, SBP2. Sec-tRNA(Sec) is delivered to the ribosome by eEFSec-GTP, but this ternary complex is not sufficient for Sec incorporation, indicating that its access to the ribosomal A-site is regulated. SBP2 stably associates with ribosomes, and mutagenic analysis indicates that this interaction is essential for Sec incorporation. However, the ribosomal function of SBP2 has not been elucidated. To shed light on the functional relevance of the SBP2-ribosome interaction, we screened the functional centers of the 28 S rRNA in translationally competent 80 S ribosomes using selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE). We demonstrate that SBP2 specifically alters the reactivity of specific residues in Helix 89 (H89) and expansion segment 31 (ES31). These results are indicative of a conformational change in response to SBP2 binding. Based on the known functions of H89 during translation, we propose that SBP2 allows Sec incorporation by either promoting Sec-tRNA(Sec) accommodation into the peptidyltransferase center and/or by stimulating the ribosome-dependent GTPase activity of eEFSec.

  4. Eukaryote-specific extensions in ribosomal proteins of the small subunit: Structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arnab; Komar, Anton A

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution structures of yeast ribosomes have improved our understanding of the architecture and organization of eukaryotic rRNA and proteins, as well as eukaryote-specific extensions present in some conserved ribosomal proteins. Despite this progress, assignment of specific functions to individual proteins and/or eukaryote-specific protein extensions remains challenging. It has been suggested that eukaryote-specific extensions of conserved proteins from the small ribosomal subunit may facilitate eukaryote-specific reactions in the initiation phase of protein synthesis. This review summarizes emerging data describing the structural and functional significance of eukaryote-specific extensions of conserved small ribosomal subunit proteins, particularly their possible roles in recruitment and spatial organization of eukaryote-specific initiation factors. PMID:26779416

  5. Structures of eukaryotic ribosomal stalk proteins and its complex with trichosanthin, and their implications in recruiting ribosome-inactivating proteins to the ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Andrew K H; Wong, Eddie C K; Lee, Ka-Ming; Wong, Kam-Bo

    2015-02-25

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIP) are RNA N-glycosidases that inactivate ribosomes by specifically depurinating a conserved adenine residue at the α-sarcin/ricin loop of 28S rRNA. Recent studies have pointed to the involvement of the C-terminal domain of the eukaryotic stalk proteins in facilitating the toxic action of RIPs. This review highlights how structural studies of eukaryotic stalk proteins provide insights into the recruitment of RIPs to the ribosomes. Since the C-terminal domain of eukaryotic stalk proteins is involved in specific recognition of elongation factors and some eukaryote-specific RIPs (e.g., trichosanthin and ricin), we postulate that these RIPs may have evolved to hijack the translation-factor-recruiting function of ribosomal stalk in reaching their target site of rRNA.

  6. Reconstitution of functional eukaryotic ribosomes from Dictyostelium discoideum ribosomal proteins and RNA.

    PubMed

    Mangiarotti, G; Chiaberge, S

    1997-08-08

    40 and 60 S ribosomal subunits have been reconstituted in vitro from purified ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins of Dictyostelium discoideum. The functionality of the reconstituted ribosomes was demonstrated in in vitro mRNA-directed protein synthesis. The reassembly proceeded well with immature precursors of ribosomal RNA but poorly if at all with mature cytoplasmic RNA species. Reassembly also required a preparation of small nuclear RNA(s), acting as morphopoietic factor(s).

  7. Nucleocytoplasmic transport of ribosomes in a eukaryotic system: Is there a facilitated transport process

    SciTech Connect

    Khanna-Gupta, A.; Ware, V.C. )

    1989-03-01

    The authors have examined the kinetics of the process by which ribosomes are exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm using Xenopus laevis oocytes microinjected into the germinal vesicle with radiolabeled ribosomes or ribosomal subunits from X. laevis, Tetrahymena thermophila, or Escherichia coli. Microinjected eukaryotic mature ribosomes are redistributed into the oocyte cytoplasm by an apparent carrier-mediated transport process that exhibits saturation kinetics as increasing amounts of ribosomes are injected. T. thermophila ribosomes are competent to traverse the Xenopus nuclear envelope, suggesting that the basic mechanism underlying ribosome transport is evolutionarily conserved. Microinjected E. coli ribosomes are not transported in this system, indicating that prokaryotic ribosomes lack the signals required for transport. Surprisingly, coinjected small (40S) and large (60S) subunits from T. thermophila are transported significantly faster than individual subunits. These observations support a facilitated transport model for the translocation of ribosomal subunits as separate units across the nuclear envelope whereby the transport rate of 60S or 40S subunits is enhanced by the presence of the partner subunit. Although the basic features of the transport mechanism have been preserved through evolution, other aspects of the process may be mediated through species-specific interactions. They hypothesize that a species-specific nuclear 40S-60S subunit association may expedite the transport of individual subunits across the nuclear envelope.

  8. A Small-Molecule Anti-secretagogue of PCSK9 Targets the 80S Ribosome to Inhibit PCSK9 Protein Translation.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Donna N; Hawkins, Julie; Ruangsiriluk, Wanida; Stevens, Kimberly A; Maguire, Bruce A; O'Connell, Thomas N; Rocke, Benjamin N; Boehm, Markus; Ruggeri, Roger B; Rolph, Tim; Hepworth, David; Loria, Paula M; Carpino, Philip A

    2016-11-17

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a secreted protein that downregulates low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDL-R) levels on the surface of hepatocytes, resulting in decreased clearance of LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C). Phenotypic screening of a small-molecule compound collection was used to identify an inhibitor of PCSK9 secretion, (R)-N-(isoquinolin-1-yl)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(piperidin-3-yl)propanamide (R-IMPP), which was shown to stimulate uptake of LDL-C in hepatoma cells by increasing LDL-R levels, without altering levels of secreted transferrin. Systematic investigation of the mode of action revealed that R-IMPP did not decrease PCSK9 transcription or increase PCSK9 degradation, but instead caused transcript-dependent inhibition of PCSK9 translation. In support of this surprising mechanism of action, we found that R-IMPP was able to selectively bind to human, but not E. coli, ribosomes. This study opens a new avenue for the development of drugs that modulate the activity of target proteins by mechanisms involving inhibition of eukaryotic translation.

  9. Combined eukaryotic and bacterial community fingerprinting of natural freshwater biofilms using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis.

    PubMed

    Fechner, Lise C; Vincent-Hubert, Françoise; Gaubert, Philippe; Bouchez, Théodore; Gourlay-Francé, Catherine; Tusseau-Vuillemin, Marie-Hélène

    2010-12-01

    Biofilms are complex communities playing an important role in aquatic ecosystems. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) has been used successfully to explore biofilm bacterial diversity. However, a gap remains to be filled as regards its application to biofilm eukaryotic populations. The aim of this study is to use ARISA to detect eukaryotic population shifts in biofilm. We designed a new set of primers to focus specifically on the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of diatoms and tested it on natural biofilms. Additionally, we tested universal primers, used previously to perform ARISA on fungal communities. Cloning and sequencing showed that the universal primer set amplified various eukaryotes, whereas the new set was diatom specific. The new set amplified a wider variety of diatoms. Therefore, the universal set is appropriate to study the general eukaryotic population shifts in biofilms, whereas the new set is more appropriate to study diatoms specifically. We used both primer sets, along with a bacterial set, to study the population shifts in natural river biofilms. Principal component analysis of the ARISA fingerprints revealed seasonal shifts that did not coincide for bacterial and eukaryotic communities. Therefore, the use of both eukaryotic and bacterial primers provides a useful insight to assess microbial succession in biofilms.

  10. The bacterial toxin RelE induces specific mRNA cleavage in the A site of the eukaryote ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Andreev, Dmitri; Hauryliuk, Vasili; Terenin, Ilya; Dmitriev, Sergey; Ehrenberg, Måns; Shatsky, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    RelE/RelB is a well-characterized toxin–anti-toxin pair involved in nutritional stress responses in Bacteria and Archae. RelE lacks any eukaryote homolog, but we demonstrate here that it efficiently and specifically cleaves mRNA in the A site of the eukaryote ribosome. The cleavage mechanism is similar to that in bacteria, showing the feasibility of A-site cleavage of mRNA for regulatory purposes also in eukaryotes. RelE cleavage in the A-site codon of a stalled eukaryote ribosome is precise and easily monitored, making “RelE printing” a useful complement to toeprinting to determine the exact mRNA location on the eukaryote ribosome and to probe the occupancy of its A site. PMID:18083838

  11. Ribosomal 18S rRNA base pairs with mRNA during eukaryotic translation initiation

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Franck; Ménétret, Jean-François; Simonetti, Angelita; Myasnikov, Alexander G.; Vicens, Quentin; Prongidi-Fix, Lydia; Natchiar, S. Kundhavai; Klaholz, Bruno P.; Eriani, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic mRNAs often contain a Kozak sequence that helps tether the ribosome to the AUG start codon. The mRNA of histone H4 (h4) does not undergo classical ribosome scanning but has evolved a specific tethering mechanism. The cryo-EM structure of the rabbit ribosome complex with mouse h4 shows that the mRNA forms a folded, repressive structure at the mRNA entry site on the 40S subunit next to the tip of helix 16 of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Toe-printing and mutational assays reveal that an interaction exists between a purine-rich sequence in h4 mRNA and a complementary UUUC sequence of helix h16. Together the present data establish that the h4 mRNA harbours a sequence complementary to an 18S rRNA sequence which tethers the mRNA to the ribosome to promote proper start codon positioning, complementing the interactions of the 40S subunit with the Kozak sequence that flanks the AUG start codon. PMID:27554013

  12. A comparison of the yeast and rabbit 80 S ribosome reveals the topology of the nascent chain exit tunnel, inter-subunit bridges and mammalian rRNA expansion segments.

    PubMed

    Morgan, D G; Ménétret, J F; Radermacher, M; Neuhof, A; Akey, I V; Rapoport, T A; Akey, C W

    2000-08-11

    Protein synthesis in eukaryotes is mediated by both cytoplasmic and membrane-bound ribosomes. During the co-translational translocation of secretory and membrane proteins, eukaryotic ribosomes dock with the protein conducting channel of the endoplasmic reticulum. An understanding of these processes will require the detailed structure of a eukaryotic ribosome. To this end, we have compared the three-dimensional structures of yeast and rabbit ribosomes at 24 A resolution. In general, we find that the active sites for protein synthesis and translocation have been highly conserved. It is interesting that a channel was visualized in the neck of the small subunit whose entrance is formed by a deep groove. By analogy with the prokaryotic small subunit, this channel may provide a conserved portal through which mRNA is threaded into the decoding center. In addition, both the small and large subunits are built around a dense tubular network. Our analysis further suggests that the nascent chain exit tunnel and the docking surface for the endoplasmic reticulum channel are formed by this network. We surmise that many of these features correspond to rRNA, based on biochemical and structural data. Ribosomal function is critically dependent on the specific association of small and large subunits. Our analysis of eukaryotic ribosomes reveals four conserved inter-subunit bridges with a geometry similar to that found in prokaryotes. In particular, a double-bridge connects the small subunit platform with the interface canyon on the large subunit. Moreover, a novel bridge is formed between the platform and the base of the L1 domain. Finally, size differences between mammalian and yeast large subunit rRNAs have been correlated with five expansion segments that form two large spines and three extended fingers. Overall, we find that expansion segments within the large subunit rRNA have been incorporated at positions distinct from the active sites for protein synthesis and translocation.

  13. Eukaryotic Cells Producing Ribosomes Deficient in Rpl1 Are Hypersensitive to Defects in the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Kerri B.; Bhattacharya, Arpita; Willis, Ian M.; Warner, Jonathan R.

    2011-01-01

    It has recently become clear that the misassembly of ribosomes in eukaryotic cells can have deleterious effects that go far beyond a simple shortage of ribosomes. In this work we find that cells deficient in ribosomal protein L1 (Rpl1; Rpl10a in mammals) produce ribosomes lacking Rpl1 that are exported to the cytoplasm and that can be incorporated into polyribosomes. The presence of such defective ribosomes leads to slow growth and appears to render the cells hypersensitive to lesions in the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Several genes that were reasonable candidates for degradation of 60S subunits lacking Rpl1 fail to do so, suggesting that key players in the surveillance of ribosomal subunits remain to be found. Interestingly, in spite of rendering the cells hypersensitive to the proteasome inhibitor MG132, shortage of Rpl1 partially suppresses the stress-invoked temporary repression of ribosome synthesis caused by MG132. PMID:21858174

  14. Eukaryotic cells producing ribosomes deficient in Rpl1 are hypersensitive to defects in the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Kerri B; Bhattacharya, Arpita; Willis, Ian M; Warner, Jonathan R

    2011-01-01

    It has recently become clear that the misassembly of ribosomes in eukaryotic cells can have deleterious effects that go far beyond a simple shortage of ribosomes. In this work we find that cells deficient in ribosomal protein L1 (Rpl1; Rpl10a in mammals) produce ribosomes lacking Rpl1 that are exported to the cytoplasm and that can be incorporated into polyribosomes. The presence of such defective ribosomes leads to slow growth and appears to render the cells hypersensitive to lesions in the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Several genes that were reasonable candidates for degradation of 60S subunits lacking Rpl1 fail to do so, suggesting that key players in the surveillance of ribosomal subunits remain to be found. Interestingly, in spite of rendering the cells hypersensitive to the proteasome inhibitor MG132, shortage of Rpl1 partially suppresses the stress-invoked temporary repression of ribosome synthesis caused by MG132.

  15. Insights into the mechanisms of eukaryotic translation gained with ribosome profiling

    PubMed Central

    Andreev, Dmitry E.; O'Connor, Patrick B. F.; Loughran, Gary; Dmitriev, Sergey E.; Baranov, Pavel V.; Shatsky, Ivan N.

    2017-01-01

    The development of Ribosome Profiling (RiboSeq) has revolutionized functional genomics. RiboSeq is based on capturing and sequencing of the mRNA fragments enclosed within the translating ribosome and it thereby provides a ‘snapshot’ of ribosome positions at the transcriptome wide level. Although the method is predominantly used for analysis of differential gene expression and discovery of novel translated ORFs, the RiboSeq data can also be a rich source of information about molecular mechanisms of polypeptide synthesis and translational control. This review will focus on how recent findings made with RiboSeq have revealed important details of the molecular mechanisms of translation in eukaryotes. These include mRNA translation sensitivity to drugs affecting translation initiation and elongation, the roles of upstream ORFs in response to stress, the dynamics of elongation and termination as well as details of intrinsic ribosome behavior on the mRNA after translation termination. As the RiboSeq method is still at a relatively early stage we will also discuss the implications of RiboSeq artifacts on data interpretation. PMID:27923997

  16. Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 6, an evolutionarily conserved regulator of ribosome biogenesis and protein translation

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jianjun; Jin, Zhaoqing; Yang, Xiaohan; Li, Jian-Feng; Chen, Jay

    2011-01-01

    We recently identified Receptor for Activated C Kinase 1 (RACK1) as one of the molecular links between abscisic acid (ABA) signaling and its regulation on protein translation. Moreover, we identified Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 6 (eIF6) as an interacting partner of RACK1. Because the interaction between RACK1 and eIF6 in mammalian cells is known to regulate the ribosome assembly step of protein translation initiation, it was hypothesized that the same process of protein translation in Arabidopsis is also regulated by RACK1 and eIF6. In this article, we analyzed the amino acid sequences of eIF6 in different species from different lineages and discovered some intriguing differences in protein phosphorylation sites that may contribute to its action in ribosome assembly and biogenesis. In addition, we discovered that, distinct from non-plant organisms in which eIF6 is encoded by a single gene, all sequenced plant genomes contain two or more copies of eIF6 genes. While one copy of plant eIF6 is expressed ubiquitously and might possess the conserved function in ribosome biogenesis and protein translation, the other copy seems to be only expressed in specific organs and therefore may have gained some new functions. We proposed some important studies that may help us better understand the function of eIF6 in plants.

  17. UtpA and UtpB chaperone nascent pre-ribosomal RNA and U3 snoRNA to initiate eukaryotic ribosome assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunziker, Mirjam; Barandun, Jonas; Petfalski, Elisabeth; Tan, Dongyan; Delan-Forino, Clémentine; Molloy, Kelly R.; Kim, Kelly H.; Dunn-Davies, Hywel; Shi, Yi; Chaker-Margot, Malik; Chait, Brian T.; Walz, Thomas; Tollervey, David; Klinge, Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    Early eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis involves large multi-protein complexes, which co-transcriptionally associate with pre-ribosomal RNA to form the small subunit processome. The precise mechanisms by which two of the largest multi-protein complexes--UtpA and UtpB--interact with nascent pre-ribosomal RNA are poorly understood. Here, we combined biochemical and structural biology approaches with ensembles of RNA-protein cross-linking data to elucidate the essential functions of both complexes. We show that UtpA contains a large composite RNA-binding site and captures the 5' end of pre-ribosomal RNA. UtpB forms an extended structure that binds early pre-ribosomal intermediates in close proximity to architectural sites such as an RNA duplex formed by the 5' ETS and U3 snoRNA as well as the 3' boundary of the 18S rRNA. Both complexes therefore act as vital RNA chaperones to initiate eukaryotic ribosome assembly.

  18. Integrative structural analysis of the UTPB complex, an early assembly factor for eukaryotic small ribosomal subunits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Sun, Qi; Chen, Rongchang; Chen, Xining; Lin, Jinzhong; Ye, Keqiong

    2016-09-06

    Ribosome assembly is an essential and conserved cellular process in eukaryotes that requires numerous assembly factors. The six-subunit UTPB complex is an essential component of the 90S precursor of the small ribosomal subunit. Here, we analyzed the molecular architecture of UTPB using an integrative structural biology approach. We mapped the major interactions that associate each of six UTPB proteins. Crystallographic studies showed that Utp1, Utp21, Utp12 and Utp13 are evolutionarily related and form a dimer of dimers (Utp1-Utp21, Utp12-Utp13) through their homologous helical C-terminal domains. Molecular docking with crosslinking restraints showed that the WD domains of Utp12 and Utp13 are associated, as are the WD domains of Utp1, Utp21 and Utp18. Electron microscopy images of the entire UTPB complex revealed that it predominantly adopts elongated conformations and possesses internal flexibility. We also determined crystal structures of the WD domain of Utp18 and the HAT and deviant HAT domains of Utp6. A structural model of UTPB was derived based on these data.

  19. The eukaryote-specific N-terminal extension of ribosomal protein S31 contributes to the assembly and function of 40S ribosomal subunits

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Pevida, Antonio; Martín-Villanueva, Sara; Murat, Guillaume; Lacombe, Thierry; Kressler, Dieter; de la Cruz, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The archaea-/eukaryote-specific 40S-ribosomal-subunit protein S31 is expressed as an ubiquitin fusion protein in eukaryotes and consists of a conserved body and a eukaryote-specific N-terminal extension. In yeast, S31 is a practically essential protein, which is required for cytoplasmic 20S pre-rRNA maturation. Here, we have studied the role of the N-terminal extension of the yeast S31 protein. We show that deletion of this extension partially impairs cell growth and 40S subunit biogenesis and confers hypersensitivity to aminoglycoside antibiotics. Moreover, the extension harbours a nuclear localization signal that promotes active nuclear import of S31, which associates with pre-ribosomal particles in the nucleus. In the absence of the extension, truncated S31 inefficiently assembles into pre-40S particles and two subpopulations of mature small subunits, one lacking and another one containing truncated S31, can be identified. Plasmid-driven overexpression of truncated S31 partially suppresses the growth and ribosome biogenesis defects but, conversely, slightly enhances the hypersensitivity to aminoglycosides. Altogether, these results indicate that the N-terminal extension facilitates the assembly of S31 into pre-40S particles and contributes to the optimal translational activity of mature 40S subunits but has only a minor role in cytoplasmic cleavage of 20S pre-rRNA at site D. PMID:27422873

  20. A functional involvement of ABCE1, eukaryotic ribosome recycling factor, in nonstop mRNA decay in Drosophila melanogaster cells.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Isao; Takahashi, Masaki; Hashimoto, Yoshifumi; Sakota, Eri; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Inada, Toshifumu

    2014-11-01

    When ribosomes encounter mRNAs lacking stop codons, two quality-control machineries, NSD for nonstop mRNA decay and ribosome quality control (RQC) for co-translational degradation of the nonstop protein by the proteasome, are triggered to eliminate aberrant molecules. In yeast, it is known that Dom34 (a homolog of eRF1) and Ltn1 (an E3 ubiquitin ligase) play crucial roles in NSD and RQC, respectively, by triggering ribosome rescue at the 3' end of nonstop mRNAs and proteasome-dependent polypeptide degradation. Here we confirmed the essential role of Ltn1 in RQC for nonstop products in Drosophila cells, and further uncovered a functional role of ABCE1, a eukaryotic ribosome recycling factor, in NSD in Drosophila cells.

  1. Characterization of Anti-Citrinin Specific ScFvs Selected from Non-Immunized Mouse Splenocytes by Eukaryotic Ribosome Display

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Haiwei; Chen, Yifei; Yang, Yi; Chen, Xueqiu; Guo, Xiaolu; Du, Aifang

    2015-01-01

    Single chain variable fragments (scFvs) against citrinin (CIT) were selected from a scFv library constructed from the splenocytes of non-immunized mice by an improved eukaryotic ribosome display technology in this study. Bovine serum albumin (BSA)/ CIT-BSA and ovalbumin (OVA)/ CIT-OVA were used as the antigens to select specific anti-CIT scFvs. Eukaryotic in situ RT-PCR method was used to recover the selected mRNA after every affinity selection. After six rounds of ribosome display, expression vector pTIG-TRX carrying specific scFv DNAs were constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) for protein expression. Thirteen positive clones were selected out of which three (designated 23, 68 and 109) showed high binding activity and specificity to CIT by indirect ELISA, while no clone showed binding activity with carrier proteins. The three scFvs showed high specificity to CIT and the cross reactivity with other mycotoxins was below 0.01% as determined by indirect competitive ELISA. These specific scFvs offer a potential novel immunoassay method for CIT residues. This study confirmed the effectiveness of the improved eukaryotic ribosome display system and could be used as a reference for the selection of scFvs specific to other small molecules using ribosome display. PMID:26131718

  2. Insights into remodeling events during eukaryotic large ribosomal subunit assembly provided by high resolution cryo-EM structures.

    PubMed

    Biedka, Stephanie; Wu, Shan; LaPeruta, Amber J; Gao, Ning; Woolford, John L

    2017-03-07

    Ribosomes are responsible for translating the genome, in the form of mRNA, into the proteome in all organisms. Biogenesis of ribosomes in eukaryotes is a complex process involving numerous remodeling events driven in part by the concerted actions of hundreds of protein assembly factors. A major challenge in studying eukaryotic ribosome assembly has, until recently, been a lack of structural data to facilitate understanding of the conformational and compositional changes the pre-ribosome undergoes during its construction. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has begun filling these gaps; recent advances in cryo-EM have enabled the determination of several high resolution pre-ribosome structures. This review focuses mainly on lessons learned from the study of pre-60S particles purified from yeast using the assembly factor Nog2 as bait. These Nog2 particles provide insight into many aspects of nuclear stages of 60S subunit assembly, including construction of major 60S subunit functional centers and processing of the ITS2 spacer RNA.

  3. Transcriptome-wide studies uncover the diversity of modes of mRNA recruitment to eukaryotic ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Shatsky, Ivan N; Dmitriev, Sergey E; Andreev, Dmitri E; Terenin, Ilya M

    2014-01-01

    The conventional paradigm of translation initiation in eukaryotes states that the cap-binding protein complex eIF4F (consisting of eIF4E, eIF4G and eIF4A) plays a central role in the recruitment of capped mRNAs to ribosomes. However, a growing body of evidence indicates that this paradigm should be revised. This review summarizes the data which have been mostly accumulated in a post-genomic era owing to revolutionary techniques of transcriptome-wide analysis. Unexpectedly, these techniques have uncovered remarkable diversity in the recruitment of cellular mRNAs to eukaryotic ribosomes. These data enable a preliminary classification of mRNAs into several groups based on their requirement for particular components of eIF4F. They challenge the widely accepted concept which relates eIF4E-dependence to the extent of secondary structure in the 5' untranslated regions of mRNAs. Moreover, some mRNA species presumably recruit ribosomes to their 5' ends without the involvement of either the 5' m(7)G-cap or eIF4F but instead utilize eIF4G or eIF4G-like auxiliary factors. The long-standing concept of internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-elements in cellular mRNAs is also discussed.

  4. Characterization of hibernating ribosomes in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Krokowski, Dawid; Gaccioli, Francesca; Majumder, Mithu; Mullins, Michael R; Yuan, Celvie L; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Merrick, William C; Komar, Anton A; Taylor, Derek; Hatzoglou, Maria

    2011-08-15

    Protein synthesis across kingdoms involves the assembly of 70S (prokaryotes) or 80S (eukaryotes) ribosomes on the mRNAs to be translated. 70S ribosomes are protected from degradation in bacteria during stationary growth or stress conditions by forming dimers that migrate in polysome profiles as 100S complexes. Formation of ribosome dimers in Escherichia coli is mediated by proteins, namely the ribosome modulation factor (RMF), which is induced in the stationary phase of cell growth. It is reported here a similar ribosomal complex of 110S in eukaryotic cells, which forms during nutrient starvation. The dynamic nature of the 110S ribosomal complex (mammalian equivalent of the bacterial 100S) was supported by the rapid conversion into polysomes upon nutrient-refeeding via a mechanism sensitive to inhibitors of translation initiation. Several experiments were used to show that the 110S complex is a dimer of nontranslating ribosomes. Cryo-electron microscopy visualization of the 110S complex revealed that two 80S ribosomes are connected by a flexible, albeit localized, interaction. We conclude that, similarly to bacteria, rat cells contain stress-induced ribosomal dimers. The identification of ribosomal dimers in rat cells will bring new insights in our thinking of the ribosome structure and its function during the cellular response to stress conditions.

  5. Mechanistic Insight into the Reactivation of BCAII Enzyme from Denatured and Molten Globule States by Eukaryotic Ribosomes and Domain V rRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Biprashekhar; Bhakta, Sayan; Sengupta, Jayati

    2016-01-01

    In all life forms, decoding of messenger-RNA into polypeptide chain is accomplished by the ribosome. Several protein chaperones are known to bind at the exit of ribosomal tunnel to ensure proper folding of the nascent chain by inhibiting their premature folding in the densely crowded environment of the cell. However, accumulating evidence suggests that ribosome may play a chaperone role in protein folding events in vitro. Ribosome-mediated folding of denatured proteins by prokaryotic ribosomes has been studied extensively. The RNA-assisted chaperone activity of the prokaryotic ribosome has been attributed to the domain V, a span of 23S rRNA at the intersubunit side of the large subunit encompassing the Peptidyl Transferase Centre. Evidently, this functional property of ribosome is unrelated to the nascent chain protein folding at the exit of the ribosomal tunnel. Here, we seek to scrutinize whether this unique function is conserved in a primitive kinetoplastid group of eukaryotic species Leishmania donovani where the ribosome structure possesses distinct additional features and appears markedly different compared to other higher eukaryotic ribosomes. Bovine Carbonic Anhydrase II (BCAII) enzyme was considered as the model protein. Our results manifest that domain V of the large subunit rRNA of Leishmania ribosomes preserves chaperone activity suggesting that ribosome-mediated protein folding is, indeed, a conserved phenomenon. Further, we aimed to investigate the mechanism underpinning the ribosome-assisted protein reactivation process. Interestingly, the surface plasmon resonance binding analyses exhibit that rRNA guides productive folding by directly interacting with molten globule-like states of the protein. In contrast, native protein shows no notable affinity to the rRNA. Thus, our study not only confirms conserved, RNA-mediated chaperoning role of ribosome but also provides crucial insight into the mechanism of the process. PMID:27099964

  6. Mechanistic Insight into the Reactivation of BCAII Enzyme from Denatured and Molten Globule States by Eukaryotic Ribosomes and Domain V rRNAs.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Biprashekhar; Bhakta, Sayan; Sengupta, Jayati

    2016-01-01

    In all life forms, decoding of messenger-RNA into polypeptide chain is accomplished by the ribosome. Several protein chaperones are known to bind at the exit of ribosomal tunnel to ensure proper folding of the nascent chain by inhibiting their premature folding in the densely crowded environment of the cell. However, accumulating evidence suggests that ribosome may play a chaperone role in protein folding events in vitro. Ribosome-mediated folding of denatured proteins by prokaryotic ribosomes has been studied extensively. The RNA-assisted chaperone activity of the prokaryotic ribosome has been attributed to the domain V, a span of 23S rRNA at the intersubunit side of the large subunit encompassing the Peptidyl Transferase Centre. Evidently, this functional property of ribosome is unrelated to the nascent chain protein folding at the exit of the ribosomal tunnel. Here, we seek to scrutinize whether this unique function is conserved in a primitive kinetoplastid group of eukaryotic species Leishmania donovani where the ribosome structure possesses distinct additional features and appears markedly different compared to other higher eukaryotic ribosomes. Bovine Carbonic Anhydrase II (BCAII) enzyme was considered as the model protein. Our results manifest that domain V of the large subunit rRNA of Leishmania ribosomes preserves chaperone activity suggesting that ribosome-mediated protein folding is, indeed, a conserved phenomenon. Further, we aimed to investigate the mechanism underpinning the ribosome-assisted protein reactivation process. Interestingly, the surface plasmon resonance binding analyses exhibit that rRNA guides productive folding by directly interacting with molten globule-like states of the protein. In contrast, native protein shows no notable affinity to the rRNA. Thus, our study not only confirms conserved, RNA-mediated chaperoning role of ribosome but also provides crucial insight into the mechanism of the process.

  7. Potential key bases of ribosomal RNA to kingdom-specific spectra of antibiotic susceptibility and the possible archaeal origin of eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qiang; Wang, Yanhui; Lin, Jinzhong; Qin, Yan; Wang, Ying; Bu, Wenjun

    2012-01-01

    In support of the hypothesis of the endosymbiotic origin of eukaryotes, much evidence has been found to support the idea that some organelles of eukaryotic cells originated from bacterial ancestors. Less attention has been paid to the identity of the host cell, although some biochemical and molecular genetic properties shared by archaea and eukaryotes have been documented. Through comparing 507 taxa of 16S-18S rDNA and 347 taxa of 23S-28S rDNA, we found that archaea and eukaryotes share twenty-six nucleotides signatures in ribosomal DNA. These signatures exist in all living eukaryotic organisms, whether protist, green plant, fungus, or animal. This evidence explicitly supports the archaeal origin of eukaryotes. In the ribosomal RNA, besides A2058 in Escherichia coli vs. G2400 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there still exist other twenties of sites, in which the bases are kingdom-specific. Some of these sites concentrate in the peptidyl transferase centre (PTC) of the 23S-28S rRNA. The results suggest potential key sites to explain the kingdom-specific spectra of drug resistance of ribosomes.

  8. ‘Ribozoomin’ – Translation Initiation from the Perspective of the Ribosome-bound Eukaryotic Initiation Factors (eIFs)

    PubMed Central

    Valášek, Leoš Shivaya

    2012-01-01

    Protein synthesis is a fundamental biological mechanism bringing the DNA-encoded genetic information into life by its translation into molecular effectors - proteins. The initiation phase of translation is one of the key points of gene regulation in eukaryotes, playing a role in processes from neuronal function to development. Indeed, the importance of the study of protein synthesis is increasing with the growing list of genetic diseases caused by mutations that affect mRNA translation. To grasp how this regulation is achieved or altered in the latter case, we must first understand the molecular details of all underlying processes of the translational cycle with the main focus put on its initiation. In this review I discuss recent advances in our comprehension of the molecular basis of particular initiation reactions set into the context of how and where individual eIFs bind to the small ribosomal subunit in the pre-initiation complex. I also summarize our current knowledge on how eukaryotic initiation factor eIF3 controls gene expression in the gene-specific manner via reinitiation. PMID:22708493

  9. Global eukaryote phylogeny: Combined small- and large-subunit ribosomal DNA trees support monophyly of Rhizaria, Retaria and Excavata.

    PubMed

    Moreira, David; von der Heyden, Sophie; Bass, David; López-García, Purificación; Chao, Ema; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2007-07-01

    Resolution of the phylogenetic relationships among the major eukaryotic groups is one of the most important problems in evolutionary biology that is still only partially solved. This task was initially addressed using a single marker, the small-subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA), although in recent years it has been shown that it does not contain enough phylogenetic information to robustly resolve global eukaryotic phylogeny. This has prompted the use of multi-gene analyses, especially in the form of long concatenations of numerous conserved protein sequences. However, this approach is severely limited by the small number of taxa for which such a large number of protein sequences is available today. We have explored the alternative approach of using only two markers but a large taxonomic sampling, by analysing a combination of SSU and large-subunit (LSU) rDNA sequences. This strategy allows also the incorporation of sequences from non-cultivated protists, e.g., Radiozoa (=radiolaria minus Phaeodarea). We provide the first LSU rRNA sequences for Heliozoa, Apusozoa (both Apusomonadida and Ancyromonadida), Cercozoa and Radiozoa. Our Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses for 91 eukaryotic combined SSU+LSU sequences yielded much stronger support than hitherto for the supergroup Rhizaria (Cercozoa plus Radiozoa plus Foraminifera) and several well-recognised groups and also for other problematic clades, such as the Retaria (Radiozoa plus Foraminifera) and, with more moderate support, the Excavata. Within opisthokonts, the combined tree strongly confirms that the filose amoebae Nuclearia are sisters to Fungi whereas other Choanozoa are sisters to animals. The position of some bikont taxa, notably Heliozoa and Apusozoa, remains unresolved. However, our combined trees suggest a more deeply diverging position for Ancyromonas, and perhaps also Apusomonas, than for other bikonts, suggesting that apusozoan zooflagellates may be central for understanding the early evolution of

  10. Accessing of recombinant human monoclonal antibodies from patient libraries by eukaryotic ribosome display.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jie; Wang, Lin; Markiv, Anatoliy; Jeffs, Simon A; Dreja, Hanna; McKnight, Áine; He, Mingyue; Kang, Angray S

    2012-01-01

    What are effective antibodies and when do they arise to prevent or delay disease onset during a natural infection or in the course of vaccination? To address these questions at a molecular level requires longitudinal studies, capturing and analyzing the antibody repertoire at regular intervals following exposure or sero-conversion. Such studies require a method that allows the rapid generation and evaluation of monoclonal antibodies from relatively small volumes of blood. Here we describe an approach for rapidly generating human monoclonal antibodies in vitro by directly screening single-chain antibody repertories derived from donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells using ribosome display. Two single-chain antibody libraries were constructed using RNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of two HIV-1 long-term non-progressor donors (K530 and M325). Both libraries were subjected to a single round of in vitro ribosome display for enrichment of human monoclonal antibodies against recombinant gp120(K530), derived from virus isolated from donor K530. This study has validated a novel, in vitro method for the rapid generation of human monoclonal antibodies. An antibody library could be constructed from as little as 3 μg of total RNA, the equivalent of 3-5 mL of human blood.

  11. Ribosomal protein L3 functions as a ‘rocker switch’ to aid in coordinating of large subunit-associated functions in eukaryotes and Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Meskauskas, Arturas

    2008-01-01

    Although ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) comprise the bulk of the ribosome and carry out its main functions, ribosomal proteins also appear to play important structural and functional roles. Many ribosomal proteins contain long, nonglobular domains that extend deep into the rRNA cores. In eukaryotes and Archaea, ribosomal protein L3 contains two such extended domains tethered to a common globular hub, thus providing an excellent model to address basic questions relating to ribosomal protein structure/function relationships. Previous work in our laboratory identified the central ‘W-finger’ extension of yeast L3 in helping to coordinate ribosomal functions. New studies on the ‘N-terminal’ extension in yeast suggest that it works with the W-finger to coordinate opening and closing of the corridor through which the 3′ end of aa-tRNA moves during the process of accommodation. Additionally, the effect of one of the L3 N-terminal extension mutants on the interaction between C75 of the aa-tRNA and G2921 (Escherichia coli G2553) of 25S rRNA provides the first evidence of the effect of a ribosomal protein on aa-tRNA positioning and peptidyltransfer, possibly through the induced fit model. A model is presented describing how all three domains of L3 may function together as a ‘rocker switch’ to coordinate the stepwise processes of translation elongation. PMID:18832371

  12. A prokaryotic-like mode of cytoplasmic eukaryotic ribosome binding to the initiation codon during internal translation initation of hepatitis C and classical swine fever virus RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Pestova, Tatyana V.; Shatsky, Ivan N.; Fletcher, Simon P.; Jackson, Richard J.; Hellen, Christopher U.T.

    1998-01-01

    Initiation of translation of hepatitis C virus and classical swine fever virus mRNAs results from internal ribosomal entry. We reconstituted internal ribosomal entry in vitro from purified translation components and monitored assembly of 48S ribosomal preinitiation complexes by toe-printing. Ribosomal subunits (40S) formed stable binary complexes on both mRNAs. The complex structure of these RNAs determined the correct positioning of the initiation codon in the ribosomal “P” site in binary complexes. Ribosomal binding and positioning on these mRNAs did not require the initiation factors eIF3, eIF4A, eIF4B, and eIF4F and translation of these mRNAs was not inhibited by a trans-dominant eIF4A mutant. Addition of Met–tRNAiMet, eIF2, and GTP to these binary ribosomal complexes resulted in formation of 48S preinitiation complexes. The striking similarities between this eukaryotic initiation mechanism and the mechanism of translation initiation in prokaryotes are discussed. PMID:9420332

  13. A small nucleolar RNP protein is required for pseudouridylation of eukaryotic ribosomal RNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet-Antonelli, C; Henry, Y; G'elugne, J P; Caizergues-Ferrer, M; Kiss, T

    1997-01-01

    Eukaryotic rRNAs possess numerous post-transcriptionally modified nucleotides. The most abundant modifications, 2'-O-ribose methylation and pseudouridylation, occur in the nucleolus during rRNA processing. The nucleolus contains a large number of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) most of which can be classified into two distinct families defined by conserved sequence boxes and common associated proteins. The C and D box-containing snoRNAs are associated with fibrillarin, and most of them function as guide RNAs in site-specific ribose methylation of rRNAs. The nucleolar function of the other class of snoRNAs, which share box H and ACA elements and are associated with a glycine- and arginine-rich nucleolar protein, Gar1p, remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gar1 snoRNP protein plays an essential and specific role in the overall pseudouridylation of yeast rRNAs. These results establish a novel function for Gar1 protein and indicate that the box H/ACA snoRNAs, or at least a subset of these snoRNAs, function in the site-specific pseudouridylation of rRNAs. PMID:9303321

  14. An overview of the secondary structure of the V4 region of eukaryotic small-subunit ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Nickrent, D L; Sargent, M L

    1991-01-01

    The V4 region of the small subunit (18S) ribosomal RNA was examined in 72 different sequences representing a broad sample eukaryotic diversity. This domain is the most variable region of the 18S rRNA molecule and ranges in length from ca. 230 to over 500 bases. Based upon comparative analysis, secondary structural models were constructed for all sequences and the resulting generalized model shows that most organisms possess seven helices for this region. The protists and two insects show from one to as many as four helices in addition to the above seven. In this report, we summarize secondary structure information presented elsewhere for the V4 region, describe the general features for helical and apical regions, and identify signature sequences useful in helix identification. Our model generally agrees with other current concepts; however, we propose modifications or alternative structures for the start of the V4 region, the large protist inserts, and the sector that may possibly contain a pseudoknot. PMID:2014163

  15. Linker 2 of the eukaryotic pre-ribosomal processing factor Mrd1p is an essential interdomain functionally coupled to upstream RNA Binding Domain 2 (RBD2).

    PubMed

    Lackmann, Fredrik; Belikov, Sergey; Wieslander, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Ribosome synthesis is an essential process in all cells. In Sacharomyces cerevisiae, the precursor rRNA, 35S pre-rRNA, is folded and assembled into a 90S pre-ribosomal complex. The 40S ribosomal subunit is processed from the pre-ribosomal complex. This requires concerted action of small nucleolar RNAs, such as U3 snoRNA, and a large number of trans-acting factors. Mrd1p, one of the essential small ribosomal subunit synthesis factors is required for cleavage of the 35S pre-rRNA to generate 18S rRNA of the small ribosomal subunit. Mrd1p is evolutionary conserved in all eukaryotes and in yeast it contains five RNA Binding Domains (RBDs) separated by linker regions. One of these linkers, Linker 2 between RBD2 and RBD3, is conserved in length, predicted to be structured and contains conserved clusters of amino acid residues. In this report, we have analysed Linker 2 mutations and demonstrate that it is essential for Mrd1p function during pre-ribosomal processing. Extensive changes of amino acid residues as well as specific changes of conserved clusters of amino acid residues were found to be incompatible with synthesis of pre-40S ribosomes and cell growth. In addition, gross changes in primary sequence of Linker 2 resulted in Mrd1p instability, leading to degradation of the N-terminal part of the protein. Our data indicates that Linker 2 is functionally coupled to RBD2 and argues for that these domains constitute a functional module in Mrd1p. We conclude that Linker 2 has an essential role for Mrd1p beyond just providing a defined length between RBD2 and RBD3.

  16. Cryo-EM structure of the spinach chloroplast ribosome reveals the location of plastid-specific ribosomal proteins and extensions.

    PubMed

    Graf, Michael; Arenz, Stefan; Huter, Paul; Dönhöfer, Alexandra; Nováček, Jiří; Wilson, Daniel N

    2016-12-15

    Ribosomes are the protein synthesizing machines of the cell. Recent advances in cryo-EM have led to the determination of structures from a variety of species, including bacterial 70S and eukaryotic 80S ribosomes as well as mitoribosomes from eukaryotic mitochondria, however, to date high resolution structures of plastid 70S ribosomes have been lacking. Here we present a cryo-EM structure of the spinach chloroplast 70S ribosome, with an average resolution of 5.4 Å for the small 30S subunit and 3.6 Å for the large 50S ribosomal subunit. The structure reveals the location of the plastid-specific ribosomal proteins (RPs) PSRP1, PSRP4, PSRP5 and PSRP6 as well as the numerous plastid-specific extensions of the RPs. We discover many features by which the plastid-specific extensions stabilize the ribosome via establishing additional interactions with surrounding ribosomal RNA and RPs. Moreover, we identify a large conglomerate of plastid-specific protein mass adjacent to the tunnel exit site that could facilitate interaction of the chloroplast ribosome with the thylakoid membrane and the protein-targeting machinery. Comparing the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome with that of the spinach chloroplast ribosome provides detailed insight into the co-evolution of RP and rRNA.

  17. Structure–function insights reveal the human ribosome as a cancer target for antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Myasnikov, Alexander G.; Kundhavai Natchiar, S.; Nebout, Marielle; Hazemann, Isabelle; Imbert, Véronique; Khatter, Heena; Peyron, Jean-François; Klaholz, Bruno P.

    2016-01-01

    Many antibiotics in clinical use target the bacterial ribosome by interfering with the protein synthesis machinery. However, targeting the human ribosome in the case of protein synthesis deregulations such as in highly proliferating cancer cells has not been investigated at the molecular level up to now. Here we report the structure of the human 80S ribosome with a eukaryote-specific antibiotic and show its anti-proliferative effect on several cancer cell lines. The structure provides insights into the detailed interactions in a ligand-binding pocket of the human ribosome that are required for structure-assisted drug design. Furthermore, anti-proliferative dose response in leukaemic cells and interference with synthesis of c-myc and mcl-1 short-lived protein markers reveals specificity of a series of eukaryote-specific antibiotics towards cytosolic rather than mitochondrial ribosomes, uncovering the human ribosome as a promising cancer target. PMID:27665925

  18. Diversity of microbial eukaryotes in sediment at a deep-sea methane cold seep: surveys of ribosomal DNA libraries from raw sediment samples and two enrichment cultures.

    PubMed

    Takishita, Kiyotaka; Yubuki, Naoji; Kakizoe, Natsuki; Inagaki, Yuji; Maruyama, Tadashi

    2007-07-01

    Recent culture-independent surveys of eukaryotic small-subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) from many environments have unveiled unexpectedly high diversity of microbial eukaryotes (microeukaryotes) at various taxonomic levels. However, such surveys were most probably biased by various technical difficulties, resulting in underestimation of microeukaryotic diversity. In the present study on oxygen-depleted sediment from a deep-sea methane cold seep of Sagami Bay, Japan, we surveyed the diversity of eukaryotic rDNA in raw sediment samples and in two enrichment cultures. More than half of all clones recovered from the raw sediment samples were of the basidiomycetous fungus Cryptococcus curvatus. Among other clones, phylotypes of eukaryotic parasites, such as Apicomplexa, Ichthyosporea, and Phytomyxea, were identified. On the other hand, we observed a marked difference in phylotype composition in the enrichment samples. Several phylotypes belonging to heterotrophic stramenopiles were frequently found in one enrichment culture, while a phylotype of Excavata previously detected at a deep-sea hydrothermal vent dominated the other. We successfully established a clonal culture of this excavate flagellate. Since these phylotypes were not identified in the raw sediment samples, the approach incorporating a cultivation step successfully found at least a fraction of the "hidden" microeukaryotic diversity in the environment examined.

  19. Identification of previously unrecognized common elements in eukaryotic promoters. A ribosomal RNA gene initiator element for RNA polymerase I.

    PubMed

    Radebaugh, C A; Gong, X; Bartholomew, B; Paule, M R

    1997-02-07

    A new ribosomal RNA promoter element with a functional role similar to the RNA polymerase II initiator (Inr) was identified. This sequence, which we dub the ribosomal Inr (rInr) is unusually conserved, even in normally divergent RNA polymerase I promoters. It functions in the recruitment of the fundamental, TATA-binding protein (TBP)-containing transcription factor, TIF-IB. All upstream elements of the exceptionally strong Acanthamoeba castellanii ribosomal RNA core promoter, to within 6 base pairs of the transcription initiation site (tis), can be deleted without loss of specific transcription initiation. Thus, the A. castellanii promoter can function in a manner similar to RNA polymerase II TATA-less promoters. Sequence-specific photo-cross-linking localizes a 96-kDa subunit of TIF-IB and the second largest RNA polymerase I subunit (A133) to the rInr sequence. A185 also photo-cross-links when polymerase is stalled at +7.

  20. RNA chaperones stimulate formation and yield of the U3 snoRNA-pre-rRNA duplexes needed for eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gérczei, Tímea; Shah, Binal N.; Manzo, Anthony J.; Walter, Nils G.; Correll, Carl C.

    2010-01-01

    To satisfy the high demand for ribosome synthesis in rapidly growing eukaryotic cells, short duplexes between the U3 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) and the precursor ribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA) must form quickly and with high yield. These interactions, designated the U3-ETS and U3-18S duplexes, are essential to initiate the processing of small subunit rRNA. Previously, we showed in vitro that duplexes corresponding to those in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are only observed after addition of one of two proteins: Imp3p or Imp4p. Here, we used fluorescence-based and other in vitro assays to determine whether these proteins possess RNA chaperone activities and to assess whether these activities are sufficient to satisfy the duplex yield and rate requirements expected in vivo. Assembly of both proteins with the U3 snoRNA into a chaperone complex destabilizes a U3-stem structure, apparently to expose its 18S base-pairing site. As a result, the chaperone complex accelerates formation of the U3-18S duplex from an undetectable rate to one comparable to the intrinsic rate observed for hybridizing short duplexes. The chaperone complex also stabilizes the U3-ETS duplex by 2.7 kcal/mol. These chaperone activities provide high U3-ETS duplex yield and rapid U3-18S duplex formation over a broad concentration range to help ensure that the U3-pre-rRNA interactions limit neither ribosome biogenesis nor rapid cell growth. The thermodynamic and kinetic framework used is general and thus suitable to investigate the mechanism of action of other RNA chaperones. PMID:19482034

  1. The structure of Erb1-Ytm1 complex reveals the functional importance of a high-affinity binding between two β-propellers during the assembly of large ribosomal subunits in eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Wegrecki, Marcin; Rodríguez-Galán, Olga; de la Cruz, Jesús; Bravo, Jeronimo

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is one of the most essential pathways in eukaryotes although it is still not fully characterized. Given the importance of this process in proliferating cells, it is obvious that understanding the macromolecular details of the interactions that take place between the assembly factors, ribosomal proteins and nascent pre-rRNAs is essentially required for the development of new non-genotoxic treatments for cancer. Herein, we have studied the association between the WD40-repeat domains of Erb1 and Ytm1 proteins. These are essential factors for the biogenesis of 60S ribosomal subunits in eukaryotes that form a heterotrimeric complex together with the also essential Nop7 protein. We provide the crystal structure of a dimer formed by the C-terminal part of Erb1 and Ytm1 from Chaetomium thermophilum at 2.1 Å resolution. Using a multidisciplinary approach we show that the β-propeller domains of these proteins interact in a novel manner that leads to a high-affinity binding. We prove that a point mutation within the interface of the complex impairs the interaction between the two proteins and negatively affects growth and ribosome production in yeast. Our study suggests insights into the association of the Erb1-Ytm1 dimer with pre-ribosomal particles. PMID:26476442

  2. The structure of Erb1-Ytm1 complex reveals the functional importance of a high-affinity binding between two β-propellers during the assembly of large ribosomal subunits in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Wegrecki, Marcin; Rodríguez-Galán, Olga; de la Cruz, Jesús; Bravo, Jeronimo

    2015-12-15

    Ribosome biogenesis is one of the most essential pathways in eukaryotes although it is still not fully characterized. Given the importance of this process in proliferating cells, it is obvious that understanding the macromolecular details of the interactions that take place between the assembly factors, ribosomal proteins and nascent pre-rRNAs is essentially required for the development of new non-genotoxic treatments for cancer. Herein, we have studied the association between the WD40-repeat domains of Erb1 and Ytm1 proteins. These are essential factors for the biogenesis of 60S ribosomal subunits in eukaryotes that form a heterotrimeric complex together with the also essential Nop7 protein. We provide the crystal structure of a dimer formed by the C-terminal part of Erb1 and Ytm1 from Chaetomium thermophilum at 2.1 Å resolution. Using a multidisciplinary approach we show that the β-propeller domains of these proteins interact in a novel manner that leads to a high-affinity binding. We prove that a point mutation within the interface of the complex impairs the interaction between the two proteins and negatively affects growth and ribosome production in yeast. Our study suggests insights into the association of the Erb1-Ytm1 dimer with pre-ribosomal particles.

  3. rRNA suppressor of a eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5B/initiation factor 2 mutant reveals a binding site for translational GTPases on the small ribosomal subunit.

    PubMed

    Shin, Byung-Sik; Kim, Joo-Ran; Acker, Michael G; Maher, Kathryn N; Lorsch, Jon R; Dever, Thomas E

    2009-02-01

    The translational GTPases promote initiation, elongation, and termination of protein synthesis by interacting with the ribosome. Mutations that impair GTP hydrolysis by eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5B/initiation factor 2 (eIF5B/IF2) impair yeast cell growth due to failure to dissociate from the ribosome following subunit joining. A mutation in helix h5 of the 18S rRNA in the 40S ribosomal subunit and intragenic mutations in domain II of eIF5B suppress the toxic effects associated with expression of the eIF5B-H480I GTPase-deficient mutant in yeast by lowering the ribosome binding affinity of eIF5B. Hydroxyl radical mapping experiments reveal that the domain II suppressors interface with the body of the 40S subunit in the vicinity of helix h5. As the helix h5 mutation also impairs elongation factor function, the rRNA and eIF5B suppressor mutations provide in vivo evidence supporting a functionally important docking of domain II of the translational GTPases on the body of the small ribosomal subunit.

  4. Intoxicants, Human Development, and the 80s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Ken

    1980-01-01

    Major developments in learning technologies, particularly interactive television systems, will result in increases in self-defeating behaviors. They might be used to deepen our hypnotic preoccupation with high impact diversions. If this happens, counselors and students of the 80s can look forward to higher levels of destructive dependencies,…

  5. Education in the 80's: Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Mary Budd, Ed.

    Designed to serve as a resource for science teachers, kindergarten through college, this publication contains 10 chapters, each focused on a topic of interest to science teachers working in the 1980's. Chapter titles and their authors are: (1) Understanding Science as a Cultural Phenomenon - Mission for the 80's, Drew Christianson; (2) What…

  6. Expanding the ribosomal universe.

    PubMed

    Dinman, Jonathan D; Kinzy, Terri Goss

    2009-12-09

    In this issue of Structure, Taylor et al. (2009) present the most complete model of an eukaryotic ribosome to date. This achievement represents a critical milestone along the path to structurally defining the unique aspects of the eukaryotic protein synthetic machinery.

  7. Metaxa: a software tool for automated detection and discrimination among ribosomal small subunit (12S/16S/18S) sequences of archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes, mitochondria, and chloroplasts in metagenomes and environmental sequencing datasets.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Johan; Eriksson, K Martin; Hartmann, Martin; Wang, Zheng; Shenoy, Belle Damodara; Grelet, Gwen-Aëlle; Abarenkov, Kessy; Petri, Anna; Rosenblad, Magnus Alm; Nilsson, R Henrik

    2011-10-01

    The ribosomal small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene has emerged as an important genetic marker for taxonomic identification in environmental sequencing datasets. In addition to being present in the nucleus of eukaryotes and the core genome of prokaryotes, the gene is also found in the mitochondria of eukaryotes and in the chloroplasts of photosynthetic eukaryotes. These three sets of genes are conceptually paralogous and should in most situations not be aligned and analyzed jointly. To identify the origin of SSU sequences in complex sequence datasets has hitherto been a time-consuming and largely manual undertaking. However, the present study introduces Metaxa ( http://microbiology.se/software/metaxa/ ), an automated software tool to extract full-length and partial SSU sequences from larger sequence datasets and assign them to an archaeal, bacterial, nuclear eukaryote, mitochondrial, or chloroplast origin. Using data from reference databases and from full-length organelle and organism genomes, we show that Metaxa detects and scores SSU sequences for origin with very low proportions of false positives and negatives. We believe that this tool will be useful in microbial and evolutionary ecology as well as in metagenomics.

  8. Paradigms of ribosome synthesis: Lessons learned from ribosomal proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gamalinda, Michael; Woolford, John L

    2015-01-01

    The proteome in all cells is manufactured via the intricate process of translation by multimolecular factories called ribosomes. Nevertheless, these ribonucleoprotein particles, the largest of their kind, also have an elaborate assembly line of their own. Groundbreaking discoveries that bacterial ribosomal subunits can be self-assembled in vitro jumpstarted studies on how ribosomes are constructed. Until recently, ribosome assembly has been investigated almost entirely in vitro with bacterial small subunits under equilibrium conditions. In light of high-resolution ribosome structures and a more sophisticated toolkit, the past decade has been defined by a burst of kinetic studies in vitro and, importantly, also a shift to examining ribosome maturation in living cells, especially in eukaryotes. In this review, we summarize the principles governing ribosome assembly that emerged from studies focusing on ribosomal proteins and their interactions with rRNA. Understanding these paradigms has taken center stage, given the linkage between anomalous ribosome biogenesis and proliferative disorders. PMID:26779413

  9. BALANCED PRODUCTION OF RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Robert P.

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic ribosomes contain one molecule each of 79 different proteins. The genes encoding these proteins are usually at widely scattered loci and have distinctive promoters with certain common features. This minireview discusses the means by which cells manage to balance the production of ribosomal proteins so as to end up with equimolar quantities in the ribosome. Regulation at all levels of gene expression, from transcription to protein turnover, is considered. PMID:17689889

  10. All Ribosomes Are Created Equal. Really?

    PubMed

    Preiss, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Ribosomes are generally thought of as molecular machines with a constitutive rather than regulatory role during protein synthesis. A study by Slavov et al.[1] now shows that ribosomes of distinct composition and functionality exist within eukaryotic cells, giving credence to the concept of 'specialized' ribosomes.

  11. Structure and 3D arrangement of endoplasmic reticulum membrane-associated ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Stefan; Brandt, Florian; Hrabe, Thomas; Lang, Sven; Eibauer, Matthias; Zimmermann, Richard; Förster, Friedrich

    2012-09-05

    In eukaryotic cells, cotranslational protein translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane requires an elaborate macromolecular machinery. While structural details of ribosomes bound to purified and solubilized constituents of the translocon have been elucidated in recent years, little structural knowledge of ribosomes bound to the complete ER protein translocation machinery in a native membrane environment exists. Here, we used cryoelectron tomography to provide a three-dimensional reconstruction of 80S ribosomes attached to functional canine pancreatic ER microsomes in situ. In the resulting subtomogram average at 31 Å resolution, we observe direct contact of ribosomal expansion segment ES27L and the membrane and distinguish several membrane-embedded and lumenal complexes, including Sec61, the TRAP complex and another large complex protruding 90 Å into the lumen. Membrane-associated ribosomes adopt a preferred three-dimensional arrangement that is likely specific for ER-associated polyribosomes and may explain the high translation efficiency of ER-associated ribosomes compared to their cytosolic counterparts.

  12. Chromatographic purification of highly active yeast ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Meskauskas, Arturas; Leshin, Jonathan A; Dinman, Jonathan D

    2011-10-24

    Eukaryotic ribosomes are much more labile as compared to their eubacterial and archael counterparts, thus posing a significant challenge to researchers. Particularly troublesome is the fact that lysis of cells releases a large number of proteases and nucleases which can degrade ribosomes. Thus, it is important to separate ribosomes from these enzymes as quickly as possible. Unfortunately, conventional differential ultracentrifugation methods leaves ribosomes exposed to these enzymes for unacceptably long periods of time, impacting their structural integrity and functionality. To address this problem, we utilize a chromatographic method using a cysteine charged Sulfolink resin. This simple and rapid application significantly reduces co-purifying proteolytic and nucleolytic activities, producing high yields of intact, highly biochemically active yeast ribosomes. We suggest that this method should also be applicable to mammalian ribosomes. The simplicity of the method, and the enhanced purity and activity of chromatographically purified ribosome represents a significant technical advancement for the study of eukaryotic ribosomes.

  13. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 plays distinct roles at the mRNA entry and exit channels of the ribosomal preinitiation complex

    PubMed Central

    Aitken, Colin Echeverría; Beznosková, Petra; Vlčkova, Vladislava; Chiu, Wen-Ling; Zhou, Fujun; Valášek, Leoš Shivaya; Hinnebusch, Alan G; Lorsch, Jon R

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) is a central player in recruitment of the pre-initiation complex (PIC) to mRNA. We probed the effects on mRNA recruitment of a library of S. cerevisiae eIF3 functional variants spanning its 5 essential subunits using an in vitro-reconstituted system. Mutations throughout eIF3 disrupt its interaction with the PIC and diminish its ability to accelerate recruitment to a native yeast mRNA. Alterations to the eIF3a CTD and eIF3b/i/g significantly slow mRNA recruitment, and mutations within eIF3b/i/g destabilize eIF2•GTP•Met-tRNAi binding to the PIC. Using model mRNAs lacking contacts with the 40S entry or exit channels, we uncovered a critical role for eIF3 requiring the eIF3a NTD, in stabilizing mRNA interactions at the exit channel, and an ancillary role at the entry channel requiring residues of the eIF3a CTD. These functions are redundant: defects at each channel can be rescued by filling the other channel with mRNA. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20934.001 PMID:27782884

  14. Structural characterization of ribosome recruitment and translocation by type IV IRES.

    PubMed

    Murray, Jason; Savva, Christos G; Shin, Byung-Sik; Dever, Thomas E; Ramakrishnan, V; Fernández, Israel S

    2016-05-09

    Viral mRNA sequences with a type IV IRES are able to initiate translation without any host initiation factors. Initial recruitment of the small ribosomal subunit as well as two translocation steps before the first peptidyl transfer are essential for the initiation of translation by these mRNAs. Using electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) we have structurally characterized at high resolution how the Cricket Paralysis Virus Internal Ribosomal Entry Site (CrPV-IRES) binds the small ribosomal subunit (40S) and the translocation intermediate stabilized by elongation factor 2 (eEF2). The CrPV-IRES restricts tvhe otherwise flexible 40S head to a conformation compatible with binding the large ribosomal subunit (60S). Once the 60S is recruited, the binary CrPV-IRES/80S complex oscillates between canonical and rotated states (Fernández et al., 2014; Koh et al., 2014), as seen for pre-translocation complexes with tRNAs. Elongation factor eEF2 with a GTP analog stabilizes the ribosome-IRES complex in a rotated state with an extra ~3 degrees of rotation. Key residues in domain IV of eEF2 interact with pseudoknot I (PKI) of the CrPV-IRES stabilizing it in a conformation reminiscent of a hybrid tRNA state. The structure explains how diphthamide, a eukaryotic and archaeal specific post-translational modification of a histidine residue of eEF2, is involved in translocation.

  15. Four translation initiation pathways employed by the leaderless mRNA in eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Akulich, Kseniya A.; Andreev, Dmitry E.; Terenin, Ilya M.; Smirnova, Victoria V.; Anisimova, Aleksandra S.; Makeeva, Desislava S.; Arkhipova, Valentina I.; Stolboushkina, Elena A.; Garber, Maria B.; Prokofjeva, Maria M.; Spirin, Pavel V.; Prassolov, Vladimir S.; Shatsky, Ivan N.; Dmitriev, Sergey E.

    2016-01-01

    mRNAs lacking 5′ untranslated regions (leaderless mRNAs) are molecular relics of an ancient translation initiation pathway. Nevertheless, they still represent a significant portion of transcriptome in some taxons, including a number of eukaryotic species. In bacteria and archaea, the leaderless mRNAs can bind non-dissociated 70 S ribosomes and initiate translation without protein initiation factors involved. Here we use the Fleeting mRNA Transfection technique (FLERT) to show that translation of a leaderless reporter mRNA is resistant to conditions when eIF2 and eIF4F, two key eukaryotic translation initiation factors, are inactivated in mammalian cells. We report an unconventional translation initiation pathway utilized by the leaderless mRNA in vitro, in addition to the previously described 80S-, eIF2-, or eIF2D-mediated modes. This mechanism is a bacterial-like eIF5B/IF2-assisted initiation that has only been reported for hepatitis C virus-like internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs). Therefore, the leaderless mRNA is able to take any of four different translation initiation pathways in eukaryotes. PMID:27892500

  16. Structural insights into ribosome translocation

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Clarence

    2016-01-01

    During protein synthesis, tRNA and mRNA are translocated from the A to P to E sites of the ribosome thus enabling the ribosome to translate one codon of mRNA after the other. Ribosome translocation along mRNA is induced by the universally conserved ribosome GTPase, elongation factor G (EF‐G) in bacteria and elongation factor 2 (EF‐2) in eukaryotes. Recent structural and single‐molecule studies revealed that tRNA and mRNA translocation within the ribosome is accompanied by cyclic forward and reverse rotations between the large and small ribosomal subunits parallel to the plane of the intersubunit interface. In addition, during ribosome translocation, the ‘head’ domain of small ribosomal subunit undergoes forward‐ and back‐swiveling motions relative to the rest of the small ribosomal subunit around the axis that is orthogonal to the axis of intersubunit rotation. tRNA/mRNA translocation is also coupled to the docking of domain IV of EF‐G into the A site of the small ribosomal subunit that converts the thermally driven motions of the ribosome and tRNA into the forward translocation of tRNA/mRNA inside the ribosome. Despite recent and enormous progress made in the understanding of the molecular mechanism of ribosome translocation, the sequence of structural rearrangements of the ribosome, EF‐G and tRNA during translocation is still not fully established and awaits further investigation. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:620–636. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1354 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27117863

  17. Insights into the Mechanism of Ribosomal Incorporation of Mammalian L13a Protein during Ribosome Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Das, Priyanka; Basu, Abhijit; Biswas, Aditi; Poddar, Darshana; Andrews, Joel; Barik, Sailen; Komar, Anton A.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to prokaryotes, the precise mechanism of incorporation of ribosomal proteins into ribosomes in eukaryotes is not well understood. For the majority of eukaryotic ribosomal proteins, residues critical for rRNA binding, a key step in the hierarchical assembly of ribosomes, have not been well defined. In this study, we used the mammalian ribosomal protein L13a as a model to investigate the mechanism(s) underlying eukaryotic ribosomal protein incorporation into ribosomes. This work identified the arginine residue at position 68 of L13a as being essential for L13a binding to rRNA and incorporation into ribosomes. We also demonstrated that incorporation of L13a takes place during maturation of the 90S preribosome in the nucleolus, but that translocation of L13a into the nucleolus is not sufficient for its incorporation into ribosomes. Incorporation of L13a into the 90S preribosome was required for rRNA methylation within the 90S complex. However, mutations abolishing ribosomal incorporation of L13a did not affect its ability to be phosphorylated or its extraribosomal function in GAIT element-mediated translational silencing. These results provide new insights into the mechanism of ribosomal incorporation of L13a and will be useful in guiding future studies aimed at fully deciphering mammalian ribosome biogenesis. PMID:23689135

  18. Ribosome recycling induces optimal translation rate at low ribosomal availability.

    PubMed

    Marshall, E; Stansfield, I; Romano, M C

    2014-09-06

    During eukaryotic cellular protein synthesis, ribosomal translation is made more efficient through interaction between the two ends of the messenger RNA (mRNA). Ribosomes reaching the 3' end of the mRNA can thus recycle and begin translation again on the same mRNA, the so-called 'closed-loop' model. Using a driven diffusion lattice model of translation, we study the effects of ribosome recycling on the dynamics of ribosome flow and density on the mRNA. We show that ribosome recycling induces a substantial increase in ribosome current. Furthermore, for sufficiently large values of the recycling rate, the lattice does not transition directly from low to high ribosome density, as seen in lattice models without recycling. Instead, a maximal current phase becomes accessible for much lower values of the initiation rate, and multiple phase transitions occur over a wide region of the phase plane. Crucially, we show that in the presence of ribosome recycling, mRNAs can exhibit a peak in protein production at low values of the initiation rate, beyond which translation rate decreases. This has important implications for translation of certain mRNAs, suggesting that there is an optimal concentration of ribosomes at which protein synthesis is maximal, and beyond which translational efficiency is impaired.

  19. 13-Deoxytedanolide, a marine sponge-derived antitumor macrolide, binds to the 60S large ribosomal subunit.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Shinichi; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Yoshida, Minoru; Hirota, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Fusetani, Nobuhiro

    2005-01-17

    13-Deoxytedanolide is a potent antitumor macrolide isolated from the marine sponge Mycale adhaerens. In spite of its remarkable activity, the mode of action of 13-deoxytedanolide has not been elucidated. [11-3H]-(11S)-13-Deoxydihydrotedanolide derived from the macrolide was used for identifying the target molecule from the yeast cell lysate. Fractionation of the binding protein revealed that the labeled 13-deoxytedanolide derivative strongly bound to the 80S ribosome as well as to the 60S large subunit, but not to the 40S small subunit. In agreement with this observation, 13-deoxytedanolide efficiently inhibited the polypeptide elongation. Interestingly, competition studies demonstrated that 13-deoxytedanolide shared the binding site on the 60S large subunit with pederin and its marine-derived analogues. These results indicate that 13-deoxytedanolide is a potent protein synthesis inhibitor and is the first macrolide to inhibit the eukaryotic ribosome.

  20. Dynamics of ribosome scanning and recycling revealed by translation complex profiling.

    PubMed

    Archer, Stuart K; Shirokikh, Nikolay E; Beilharz, Traude H; Preiss, Thomas

    2016-07-28

    Regulation of messenger RNA translation is central to eukaryotic gene expression control. Regulatory inputs are specified by them RNA untranslated regions (UTRs) and often target translation initiation. Initiation involves binding of the 40S ribosomal small subunit (SSU) and associated eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs)near the mRNA 5′ cap; the SSU then scans in the 3′ direction until it detects the start codon and is joined by the 60S ribosomal large subunit (LSU) to form the 80S ribosome. Scanning and other dynamic aspects of the initiation model have remained as conjectures because methods to trap early intermediates were lacking. Here we uncover the dynamics of the complete translation cycle in live yeast cells using translation complex profile sequencing (TCP-seq), a method developed from the ribosome profiling approach. We document scanning by observing SSU footprints along 5′ UTRs. Scanning SSU have 5′-extended footprints (up to~75 nucleotides), indicative of additional interactions with mRNA emerging from the exit channel, promoting forward movement. We visualized changes in initiation complex conformation as SSU footprints coalesced into three major sizes at start codons (19, 29 and 37 nucleotides). These share the same 5′ start site but differ at the 3′ end, reflecting successive changes at the entry channel from an open to a closed state following start codon recognition. We also observe SSU 'lingering' at stop codons after LSU departure. Our results underpin mechanistic models of translation initiation and termination, built on decades of biochemical and structural investigation, with direct genome-wide in vivo evidence. Our approach captures ribosomal complexes at all phases of translation and will aid in studying translation dynamics in diverse cellular contexts. Dysregulation of translation is common in disease and, for example, SSU scanning is a target of anti-cancer drug development. TCP-seq will prove useful in discerning differences

  1. Ribosome-associated protein quality control

    PubMed Central

    Brandman, Onn; Hegde, Ramanujan S

    2016-01-01

    Protein synthesis by the ribosome can fail for numerous reasons including faulty mRNA, insufficient availability of charged tRNAs and genetic errors. All organisms have evolved mechanisms to recognize stalled ribosomes and initiate pathways for recycling, quality control and stress signaling. Here we review the discovery and molecular dissection of the eukaryotic ribosome-associated quality-control pathway for degradation of nascent polypeptides arising from interrupted translation. PMID:26733220

  2. Structural insights into ribosomal rescue by Dom34 and Hbs1 at near-atomic resolution

    PubMed Central

    Hilal, Tarek; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Loerke, Justus; Bürger, Jörg; Mielke, Thorsten; Spahn, Christian M.T.

    2016-01-01

    The surveillance of mRNA translation is imperative for homeostasis. Monitoring the integrity of the message is essential, as the translation of aberrant mRNAs leads to stalling of the translational machinery. During ribosomal rescue, arrested ribosomes are specifically recognized by the conserved eukaryotic proteins Dom34 and Hbs1, to initiate their recycling. Here we solve the structure of Dom34 and Hbs1 bound to a yeast ribosome programmed with a nonstop mRNA at 3.3 Å resolution using cryo-electron microscopy. The structure shows that Domain N of Dom34 is inserted into the upstream mRNA-binding groove via direct stacking interactions with conserved nucleotides of 18S rRNA. It senses the absence of mRNA at the A-site and part of the mRNA entry channel by direct competition. Thus, our analysis establishes the structural foundation for the recognition of aberrantly stalled 80S ribosomes by the Dom34·Hbs1·GTP complex during Dom34-mediated mRNA surveillance pathways. PMID:27995908

  3. Quantitative studies of ribosome conformational dynamics.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Christopher S; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2007-05-01

    The ribosome is a dynamic machine that undergoes many conformational rearrangements during the initiation of protein synthesis. Significant differences exist between the process of protein synthesis initiation in eubacteria and eukaryotes. In particular, the initiation of eukaryotic protein synthesis requires roughly an order of magnitude more initiation factors to promote efficient mRNA recruitment and ribosomal recognition of the start codon than are needed for eubacterial initiation. The mechanisms by which these initiation factors promote ribosome conformational changes during stages of initiation have been studied using cross-linking, footprinting, site-directed probing, cryo-electron microscopy, X-ray crystallography, fluorescence spectroscopy and single-molecule techniques. Here, we review how the results of these different approaches have begun to converge to yield a detailed molecular understanding of the dynamic motions that the eukaryotic ribosome cycles through during the initiation of protein synthesis.

  4. Hold on to your friends: Dedicated chaperones of ribosomal proteins: Dedicated chaperones mediate the safe transfer of ribosomal proteins to their site of pre-ribosome incorporation.

    PubMed

    Pillet, Benjamin; Mitterer, Valentin; Kressler, Dieter; Pertschy, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic ribosomes are assembled from their components, the ribosomal RNAs and ribosomal proteins, in a tremendously complex, multi-step process, which primarily takes place in the nuclear compartment. Therefore, most ribosomal proteins have to travel from the cytoplasm to their incorporation site on pre-ribosomes within the nucleus. However, due to their particular characteristics, such as a highly basic amino acid composition and the presence of unstructured extensions, ribosomal proteins are especially prone to aggregation and degradation in their unassembled state, hence specific mechanisms must operate to ensure their safe delivery. Recent studies have uncovered a group of proteins, termed dedicated chaperones, specialized in accompanying and guarding individual ribosomal proteins. In this essay, we review how these dedicated chaperones utilize different folds to interact with their ribosomal protein clients and how they ensure their soluble expression and interconnect their intracellular transport with their efficient assembly into pre-ribosomes.

  5. Energy in the '80s: a call for leadership

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The theme of this conference - Energy in the '80s: A Call for Leadership - was selected to focus attention on what was believed to be what America needs now - to get on with the tasks at hand. This proceedings of the Public Awareness Symposium, held on February 19, featured six speakers; the address of Senator Jackson at the banquet on February 20, which concluded the conference is also included; a separate abstract was prepared for each of these seven presentations. Also, the society-sponsored technical session papers are listed in Appendix A, and the Engineering/Communication scholarships are noted in Appendix B.

  6. Cryo-EM structure of Hepatitis C virus IRES bound to the human ribosome at 3.9-Å resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quade, Nick; Boehringer, Daniel; Leibundgut, Marc; van den Heuvel, Joop; Ban, Nenad

    2015-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a widespread human pathogen, is dependent on a highly structured 5'-untranslated region of its mRNA, referred to as internal ribosome entry site (IRES), for the translation of all of its proteins. The HCV IRES initiates translation by directly binding to the small ribosomal subunit (40S), circumventing the need for many eukaryotic translation initiation factors required for mRNA scanning. Here we present the cryo-EM structure of the human 40S ribosomal subunit in complex with the HCV IRES at 3.9 Å resolution, determined by focused refinement of an 80S ribosome-HCV IRES complex. The structure reveals the molecular details of the interactions between the IRES and the 40S, showing that expansion segment 7 (ES7) of the 18S rRNA acts as a central anchor point for the HCV IRES. The structural data rationalizes previous biochemical and genetic evidence regarding the initiation mechanism of the HCV and other related IRESs.

  7. Evolution of prokaryote and eukaryote lines inferred from sequence evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, L. T.; George, D. G.; Yeh, L.-S.; Dayhoff, M. O.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of prokaryotes and early eukaryotes, including their symbiotic relationships, as inferred from phylogenetic trees of bacterial ferredoxin, 5S ribosomal RNA, ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase large chain, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase polypeptide II.

  8. Structure-function insights into prokaryotic and eukaryotic translation initiation.

    PubMed

    Myasnikov, Alexander G; Simonetti, Angelita; Marzi, Stefano; Klaholz, Bruno P

    2009-06-01

    Translation initiation is the rate-limiting and most complexly regulated step of protein synthesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In the last few years, cryo-electron microscopy has provided several novel insights into the universal process of translation initiation. Structures of prokaryotic 30S and 70S ribosomal initiation complexes with initiator transfer RNA (tRNA), messenger RNA (mRNA), and initiation factors have recently revealed the mechanism of initiator tRNA recruitment to the assembling ribosomal machinery, involving molecular rearrangements of the ribosome and associated factors. First three-dimensional pictures of the particularly complex eukaryotic translation initiation machinery have been obtained, revealing how initiation factors tune the ribosome for recruiting the mRNA. A comparison of the available prokaryotic and eukaryotic structures shows that--besides significant differences--some key ribosomal features are universally conserved.

  9. Structural characterization of ribosome recruitment and translocation by type IV IRES

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Jason; Savva, Christos G; Shin, Byung-Sik; Dever, Thomas E; Ramakrishnan, V; Fernández, Israel S

    2016-01-01

    Viral mRNA sequences with a type IV IRES are able to initiate translation without any host initiation factors. Initial recruitment of the small ribosomal subunit as well as two translocation steps before the first peptidyl transfer are essential for the initiation of translation by these mRNAs. Using electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) we have structurally characterized at high resolution how the Cricket Paralysis Virus Internal Ribosomal Entry Site (CrPV-IRES) binds the small ribosomal subunit (40S) and the translocation intermediate stabilized by elongation factor 2 (eEF2). The CrPV-IRES restricts the otherwise flexible 40S head to a conformation compatible with binding the large ribosomal subunit (60S). Once the 60S is recruited, the binary CrPV-IRES/80S complex oscillates between canonical and rotated states (Fernández et al., 2014; Koh et al., 2014), as seen for pre-translocation complexes with tRNAs. Elongation factor eEF2 with a GTP analog stabilizes the ribosome-IRES complex in a rotated state with an extra ~3 degrees of rotation. Key residues in domain IV of eEF2 interact with pseudoknot I (PKI) of the CrPV-IRES stabilizing it in a conformation reminiscent of a hybrid tRNA state. The structure explains how diphthamide, a eukaryotic and archaeal specific post-translational modification of a histidine residue of eEF2, is involved in translocation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13567.001 PMID:27159451

  10. Ribosomal Protein Methyltransferases in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Roles in Ribosome Biogenesis and Translation

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hadid, Qais; White, Jonelle; Clarke, Steven

    2016-01-01

    A significant percentage of the methyltransferasome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and higher eukaryotes is devoted to methylation of the translational machinery. Methylation of the RNA components of the translational machinery has been studied extensively and is important for structure stability, ribosome biogenesis, and translational fidelity. However, the functional effects of ribosomal protein methylation by their cognate methyltransferases are still largely unknown. Previous work has shown that the ribosomal protein Rpl3 methyltransferase, histidine protein methyltransferase 1 (Hpm1), is important for ribosome biogenesis and translation elongation fidelity. In this study, yeast strains deficient in each of the ten ribosomal protein methyltransferases in S. cerevisiae were examined for potential defects in ribosome biogenesis and translation. Like Hpm1-deficient cells, loss of four of the nine other ribosomal protein methyltransferases resulted in defects in ribosomal subunit synthesis. All of the mutant strains exhibited resistance to the ribosome inhibitors anisomycin and/or cycloheximide in plate assays, but not in liquid culture. Translational fidelity assays measuring stop codon readthrough, amino acid misincorporation, and programmed −1 ribosomal frameshifting, revealed that eight of the ten enzymes are important for translation elongation fidelity and the remaining two are necessary for translation termination efficiency. Altogether, these results demonstrate that ribosomal protein methyltransferases in S. cerevisiae play important roles in ribosome biogenesis and translation. PMID:26801560

  11. Ribosomal protein methyltransferases in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Roles in ribosome biogenesis and translation.

    PubMed

    Al-Hadid, Qais; White, Jonelle; Clarke, Steven

    2016-02-12

    A significant percentage of the methyltransferasome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and higher eukaryotes is devoted to methylation of the translational machinery. Methylation of the RNA components of the translational machinery has been studied extensively and is important for structure stability, ribosome biogenesis, and translational fidelity. However, the functional effects of ribosomal protein methylation by their cognate methyltransferases are still largely unknown. Previous work has shown that the ribosomal protein Rpl3 methyltransferase, histidine protein methyltransferase 1 (Hpm1), is important for ribosome biogenesis and translation elongation fidelity. In this study, yeast strains deficient in each of the ten ribosomal protein methyltransferases in S. cerevisiae were examined for potential defects in ribosome biogenesis and translation. Like Hpm1-deficient cells, loss of four of the nine other ribosomal protein methyltransferases resulted in defects in ribosomal subunit synthesis. All of the mutant strains exhibited resistance to the ribosome inhibitors anisomycin and/or cycloheximide in plate assays, but not in liquid culture. Translational fidelity assays measuring stop codon readthrough, amino acid misincorporation, and programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting, revealed that eight of the ten enzymes are important for translation elongation fidelity and the remaining two are necessary for translation termination efficiency. Altogether, these results demonstrate that ribosomal protein methyltransferases in S. cerevisiae play important roles in ribosome biogenesis and translation.

  12. Rli1/ABCE1 Recycles Terminating Ribosomes and Controls Translation Reinitiation in 3'UTRs In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Young, David J; Guydosh, Nicholas R; Zhang, Fan; Hinnebusch, Alan G; Green, Rachel

    2015-08-13

    To study the function of Rli1/ABCE1 in vivo, we used ribosome profiling and biochemistry to characterize its contribution to ribosome recycling. When Rli1 levels were diminished, 80S ribosomes accumulated both at stop codons and in the adjoining 3'UTRs of most mRNAs. Frequently, these ribosomes reinitiated translation without the need for a canonical start codon, as small peptide products predicted by 3'UTR ribosome occupancy in all three reading frames were confirmed by western analysis and mass spectrometry. Eliminating the ribosome-rescue factor Dom34 dramatically increased 3'UTR ribosome occupancy in Rli1 depleted cells, indicating that Dom34 clears the bulk of unrecycled ribosomes. Thus, Rli1 is crucial for ribosome recycling in vivo and controls ribosome homeostasis. 3'UTR translation occurs in wild-type cells as well, and observations of elevated 3'UTR ribosomes during stress suggest that modulating recycling and reinitiation is involved in responding to environmental changes.

  13. Interrelationships between yeast ribosomal protein assembly events and transient ribosome biogenesis factors interactions in early pre-ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Jakob, Steffen; Ohmayer, Uli; Neueder, Andreas; Hierlmeier, Thomas; Perez-Fernandez, Jorge; Hochmuth, Eduard; Deutzmann, Rainer; Griesenbeck, Joachim; Tschochner, Herbert; Milkereit, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    Early steps of eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis require a large set of ribosome biogenesis factors which transiently interact with nascent rRNA precursors (pre-rRNA). Most likely, concomitant with that initial contacts between ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) and ribosome precursors (pre-ribosomes) are established which are converted into robust interactions between pre-rRNA and r-proteins during the course of ribosome maturation. Here we analysed the interrelationship between r-protein assembly events and the transient interactions of ribosome biogenesis factors with early pre-ribosomal intermediates termed 90S pre-ribosomes or small ribosomal subunit (SSU) processome in yeast cells. We observed that components of the SSU processome UTP-A and UTP-B sub-modules were recruited to early pre-ribosomes independently of all tested r-proteins. On the other hand, groups of SSU processome components were identified whose association with early pre-ribosomes was affected by specific r-protein assembly events in the head-platform interface of the SSU. One of these components, Noc4p, appeared to be itself required for robust incorporation of r-proteins into the SSU head domain. Altogether, the data reveal an emerging network of specific interrelationships between local r-protein assembly events and the functional interactions of SSU processome components with early pre-ribosomes. They point towards some of these components being transient primary pre-rRNA in vivo binders and towards a role for others in coordinating the assembly of major SSU domains.

  14. Isolation and mapping of the human eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5 to chromosome 14

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, D.M.; Wasco, W.; Murell, J.

    1994-09-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5 (eIF-5) is essential for the initiation of protein synthesis. eIF-5 catalyzes the hydrolysis of GTP on the 40S ribosomal initiation complex. Subsequent to GTP hydrolysis and the release of eIF-2-GDP, the 60S ribosomal subunit is joined to the 40S subunit to form an 80S initiation complex which can engage in peptide transfer. In an effort to isolate the major early-onset familial Alzheimer`s disease (FAD) gene on chromosome 14, we have isolated expressed sequences from this autosome in the form of exons `trapped` from chromosome 14-specific cosmids (library provided by L. Deaven, Los Alamos, NM). One cosmid yielded multiple exons displaying strong DNA and amino acid homology (>90%) with the rat eIF-5 gene. These exons were used to isolate full-length cDNAs from a human brain library. The eIF-5 message is approximately 3.6 kB in size and is ubiquitously expressed. The predicted amino acid sequence reveals multiple phosphorylation sites which may be involved in regulation of activity of eIF-5 and regions with homology to the GTPase superfamily, consistent with eIF-5`s role in GTP hydrolysis. Further studies are underway to determine whether the eIF-5 gene resides within the FAD minimal candidate region on chromosome 14q24.3.

  15. Cryo-EM structure of Hepatitis C virus IRES bound to the human ribosome at 3.9-Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    Quade, Nick; Boehringer, Daniel; Leibundgut, Marc; van den Heuvel, Joop; Ban, Nenad

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a widespread human pathogen, is dependent on a highly structured 5′-untranslated region of its mRNA, referred to as internal ribosome entry site (IRES), for the translation of all of its proteins. The HCV IRES initiates translation by directly binding to the small ribosomal subunit (40S), circumventing the need for many eukaryotic translation initiation factors required for mRNA scanning. Here we present the cryo-EM structure of the human 40S ribosomal subunit in complex with the HCV IRES at 3.9 Å resolution, determined by focused refinement of an 80S ribosome–HCV IRES complex. The structure reveals the molecular details of the interactions between the IRES and the 40S, showing that expansion segment 7 (ES7) of the 18S rRNA acts as a central anchor point for the HCV IRES. The structural data rationalizes previous biochemical and genetic evidence regarding the initiation mechanism of the HCV and other related IRESs. PMID:26155016

  16. Voices of Chinese Post-­80s Students in English Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Que, Hua; Li, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    This study looks into the changing voice of Chinese Post-80s' students in English academic writing. Data were collected qualitatively through interviews with four Chinese Post-80s overseas graduate students and through an examination of their English essays with a focus on discursive features. Findings indicate that Chinese Post-80s' voice is…

  17. Enhanced purity, activity and structural integrity of yeast ribosomes purified using a general chromatographic method.

    PubMed

    Leshin, Jonathan A; Rakauskaitė, Rasa; Dinman, Jonathan D; Meskauskas, Arturas

    2010-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing researchers working with eukaryotic ribosomes lies in their lability relative to their eubacterial and archael counterparts. In particular, lysis of cells and purification of eukaryotic ribosomes by conventional differential ultracentrifugation methods exposes them for long periods of time to a wide range of co-purifying proteases and nucleases, negatively impacting their structural integrity and functionality. A chromatographic method using a cysteine charged Sulfolink resin was adapted to address these problems. This fast and simple method significantly reduces co-purifying proteolytic and nucleolytic activities, producing good yields of highly biochemically active yeast ribosomes with fewer nicks in their rRNAs. In particular, the chromatographic purification protocol significantly improved the quality of ribosomes isolated from mutant cells. This method is likely applicable to mammalian ribosomes as well. The simplicity of the method, and the enhanced purity and activity of chromatographically purified ribosome represents a significant technical advancement for the study of eukaryotic ribosomes.

  18. Ribosome recycling: An essential process of protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kiel, Michael C; Kaji, Hideko; Kaji, Akira

    2007-01-01

    A preponderance of textbooks outlines cellular protein synthesis (translation) in three basic steps: initiation, elongation, and termination. However, researchers in the field of translation accept that a vital fourth step exists; this fourth step is called ribosome recycling. Ribosome recycling occurs after the nascent polypeptide has been released during the termination step. Despite the release of the polypeptide, ribosomes remain bound to the mRNA and tRNA. It is only during the fourth step of translation that ribosomes are ultimately released from the mRNA, split into subunits, and are free to bind new mRNA, thus the term "ribosome recycling." This step is essential to the viability of cells. In bacteria, it is catalyzed by two proteins, elongation factor G and ribosome recycling factor, a near perfect structural mimic of tRNA. Eukaryotic organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts possess ribosome recycling factor and elongation factor G homologues, but the nature of ribosome recycling in eukaryotic cytoplasm is still under investigation. In this review, the discovery of ribosome recycling and the basic mechanisms involved are discussed so that textbook writers and teachers can include this vital step, which is just as important as the three conventional steps, in sections dealing with protein synthesis.

  19. The RACK1 signal anchor protein from Trypanosoma brucei associates with eukaryotic elongation factor 1A: a role for translational control in cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Regmi, Sandesh; Rothberg, Karen G; Hubbard, James G; Ruben, Larry

    2008-01-01

    RACK1 is a WD-repeat protein that forms signal complexes at appropriate locations in the cell. RACK1 homologues are core components of ribosomes from yeast, plants and mammals. In contrast, a cryo-EM analysis of trypanosome ribosomes failed to detect RACK1, thus eliminating an important translational regulatory mechanism. Here we report that TbRACK1 from Trypanosoma brucei associates with eukaryotic translation elongation factor-1a (eEF1A) as determined by tandem MS of TAP-TbRACK1 affinity eluates, co-sedimentation in a sucrose gradient, and co-precipitation assays. Consistent with these observations, sucrose gradient purified 80S monosomes and translating polysomes each contained TbRACK1. When RNAi was used to deplete cells of TbRACK1, a shift in the polysome profile was observed, while the phosphorylation of a ribosomal protein increased. Under these conditions, cell growth became hypersensitive to the translational inhibitor anisomycin. The kinetoplasts and nuclei were misaligned in the postmitotic cells, resulting in partial cleavage furrow ingression during cytokinesis. Overall, these findings identify eEF1A as a novel TbRACK1 binding partner and establish TbRACK1 as a component of the trypanosome translational apparatus. The synergy between anisomycin and TbRACK1 RNAi suggests that continued translation is required for complete ingression of the cleavage furrow. PMID:18786142

  20. Active yeast ribosome preparation using monolithic anion exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Antonio M; Yourik, Paul; Rajagopal, Vaishnavi; Nanda, Jagpreet S; Lorsch, Jon R; Walker, Sarah E

    2017-02-01

    In vitro studies of translation provide critical mechanistic details, yet purification of large amounts of highly active eukaryotic ribosomes remains a challenge for biochemists and structural biologists. Here, we present an optimized method for preparation of highly active yeast ribosomes that could easily be adapted for purification of ribosomes from other species. The use of a nitrogen mill for cell lysis coupled with chromatographic purification of the ribosomes results in 10-fold-increased yield and less variability compared with the traditional approach, which relies on sedimentation through sucrose cushions. We demonstrate that these ribosomes are equivalent to those made using the traditional method in a host of in vitro assays, and that utilization of this new method will consistently produce high yields of active yeast ribosomes.

  1. Active yeast ribosome preparation using monolithic anion exchange chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, Antonio M.; Yourik, Paul; Rajagopal, Vaishnavi; Lorsch, Jon R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In vitro studies of translation provide critical mechanistic details, yet purification of large amounts of highly active eukaryotic ribosomes remains a challenge for biochemists and structural biologists. Here, we present an optimized method for preparation of highly active yeast ribosomes that could easily be adapted for purification of ribosomes from other species. The use of a nitrogen mill for cell lysis coupled with chromatographic purification of the ribosomes results in 10-fold-increased yield and less variability compared with the traditional approach, which relies on sedimentation through sucrose cushions. We demonstrate that these ribosomes are equivalent to those made using the traditional method in a host of in vitro assays, and that utilization of this new method will consistently produce high yields of active yeast ribosomes. PMID:27981882

  2. The role of the ribosome in the regulation of longevity and lifespan extension.

    PubMed

    MacInnes, Alyson W

    2016-01-01

    The most energy-consuming process that a cell must undertake to stay viable is the continuous biogenesis of ribosomes for the translation of RNA into protein. Given the inextricable links between energy consumption and cellular lifespan, it is not surprising that mutations and environmental cues that reduce ribosome biogenesis result in an extension of eukaryotic lifespan. This review goes into detail describing recent discoveries of different and often unexpected elements that play a role in the regulation of longevity by virtue of their ribosome biogenesis functions. These roles include controlling the transcription and processing of ribosomal RNA (rRNA), the translation of ribosomal protein (RP) genes, and the number of ribosomes overall. Together these findings suggest that a fundamental mechanism across eukaryotic species for extending lifespan is to slow down or halt the expenditure of cellular energy that is normally absorbed by the manufacturing and assembly of new ribosomes.

  3. Structural integrity of {alpha}-helix H12 in translation initiation factor eIF5B is critical for 80S complex stability.

    PubMed

    Shin, Byung-Sik; Acker, Michael G; Kim, Joo-Ran; Maher, Kathryn N; Arefin, Shamsul M; Lorsch, Jon R; Dever, Thomas E

    2011-04-01

    Translation initiation factor eIF5B promotes GTP-dependent ribosomal subunit joining in the final step of the translation initiation pathway. The protein resembles a chalice with the α-helix H12 forming the stem connecting the GTP-binding domain cup to the domain IV base. Helix H12 has been proposed to function as a rigid lever arm governing domain IV movements in response to nucleotide binding and as a molecular ruler fixing the distance between domain IV and the G domain of the factor. To investigate its function, helix H12 was lengthened or shortened by one or two turns. In addition, six consecutive residues in the helix were substituted by Gly to alter the helical rigidity. Whereas the mutations had minimal impacts on the factor's binding to the ribosome and its GTP binding and hydrolysis activities, shortening the helix by six residues impaired the rate of subunit joining in vitro and both this mutation and the Gly substitution mutation lowered the yield of Met-tRNA(i)(Met) bound to 80S complexes formed in the presence of nonhydrolyzable GTP. Thus, these two mutations, which impair yeast cell growth and enhance ribosome leaky scanning in vivo, impair the rate of formation and stability of the 80S product of subunit joining. These data support the notion that helix H12 functions as a ruler connecting the GTPase center of the ribosome to the P site where Met-tRNA(i)(Met) is bound and that helix H12 rigidity is required to stabilize Met-tRNA(i)(Met) binding.

  4. Dissecting functional similarities of ribosome-associated chaperones from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rauch, Thomas; Hundley, Heather A; Pfund, Chris; Wegrzyn, Renee D; Walter, William; Kramer, Günter; Kim, So-Young; Craig, Elizabeth A; Deuerling, Elke

    2005-07-01

    Ribosome-tethered chaperones that interact with nascent polypeptide chains have been identified in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. However, these ribosome-associated chaperones share no sequence similarity: bacterial trigger factors (TF) form an independent protein family while the yeast machinery is Hsp70-based. The absence of any component of the yeast machinery results in slow growth at low temperatures and sensitivity to aminoglycoside protein synthesis inhibitors. After establishing that yeast ribosomal protein Rpl25 is able to recruit TF to ribosomes when expressed in place of its Escherichia coli homologue L23, the ribosomal TF tether, we tested whether such divergent ribosome-associated chaperones are functionally interchangeable. E. coli TF was expressed in yeast cells that lacked the endogenous ribosome-bound machinery. TF associated with yeast ribosomes, cross-linked to yeast nascent polypeptides and partially complemented the aminoglycoside sensitivity, demonstrating that ribosome-associated chaperones from divergent organisms share common functions, despite their lack of sequence similarity.

  5. Principles of 60S ribosomal subunit assembly emerging from recent studies in yeast.

    PubMed

    Konikkat, Salini; Woolford, John L

    2017-01-15

    Ribosome biogenesis requires the intertwined processes of folding, modification, and processing of ribosomal RNA, together with binding of ribosomal proteins. In eukaryotic cells, ribosome assembly begins in the nucleolus, continues in the nucleoplasm, and is not completed until after nascent particles are exported to the cytoplasm. The efficiency and fidelity of ribosome biogenesis are facilitated by >200 assembly factors and ∼76 different small nucleolar RNAs. The pathway is driven forward by numerous remodeling events to rearrange the ribonucleoprotein architecture of pre-ribosomes. Here, we describe principles of ribosome assembly that have emerged from recent studies of biogenesis of the large ribosomal subunit in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae We describe tools that have empowered investigations of ribosome biogenesis, and then summarize recent discoveries about each of the consecutive steps of subunit assembly.

  6. RIBOSOME-MEMBRANE INTERACTION

    PubMed Central

    Adelman, M. R.; Sabatini, David D.; Blobel, Günter

    1973-01-01

    In a medium of high ionic strength, rat liver rough microsomes can be nondestructively disassembled into ribosomes and stripped membranes if nascent polypeptides are discharged from the bound ribosomes by reaction with puromycin. At 750 mM KCl, 5 mM MgCl2, 50 mM Tris·HCl, pH 7 5, up to 85% of all bound ribosomes are released from the membranes after incubation at room temperature with 1 mM puromycin. The ribosomes are released as subunits which are active in peptide synthesis if programmed with polyuridylic acid. The ribosome-denuded, or stripped, rough microsomes (RM) can be recovered as intact, essentially unaltered membranous vesicles Judging from the incorporation of [3H]puromycin into hot acid-insoluble material and from the release of [3H]leucine-labeled nascent polypeptide chains from bound ribosomes, puromycin coupling occurs almost as well at low (25–100 mM) as at high (500–1000 mM) KCl concentrations. Since puromycin-dependent ribosome release only occurs at high ionic strength, it appears that ribosomes are bound to membranes via two types of interactions: a direct one between the membrane and the large ribosomal subunit (labile at high KCl concentration) and an indirect one in which the nascent chain anchors the ribosome to the membrane (puromycin labile). The nascent chains of ribosomes specifically released by puromycin remain tightly associated with the stripped membranes. Some membrane-bound ribosomes (up to 40%) can be nondestructively released in high ionic strength media without puromycin; these appear to consist of a mixture of inactive ribosomes and ribosomes containing relatively short nascent chains. A fraction (∼15%) of the bound ribosomes can only be released from membranes by exposure of RM to ionic conditions which cause extensive unfolding of ribosomal subunits, the nature and significance of these ribosomes is not clear. PMID:4682341

  7. Isolation of Mitochondrial Ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Adam J

    2017-01-01

    Translation of mitochondrial encoded mRNAs by mitochondrial ribosomes is thought to play a major role in regulating the expression of mitochondrial proteins. However, the structure and function of plant mitochondrial ribosomes remains poorly understood. To study mitochondrial ribosomes, it is necessary to separate them from plastidic and cytosolic ribosomes that are generally present at much higher concentrations. Here, a straight forward protocol for the preparation of fractions highly enriched in mitochondrial ribosomes from plant cells is described. The method begins with purification of mitochondria followed by mitochondrial lysis and ultracentrifugation of released ribosomes through sucrose cushions and gradients. Dark-grown Arabidopsis cells were used in this example because of the ease with which good yields of pure mitochondria can be obtained from them. However, the steps for isolation of ribosomes from mitochondria could be applied to mitochondria obtained from other sources. Proteomic analyses of resulting fractions have confirmed strong enrichment of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins.

  8. Ribosome profiling: a Hi-Def monitor for protein synthesis at the genome-wide scale

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Audrey M; Baranov, Pavel V

    2013-01-01

    Ribosome profiling or ribo-seq is a new technique that provides genome-wide information on protein synthesis (GWIPS) in vivo. It is based on the deep sequencing of ribosome protected mRNA fragments allowing the measurement of ribosome density along all RNA molecules present in the cell. At the same time, the high resolution of this technique allows detailed analysis of ribosome density on individual RNAs. Since its invention, the ribosome profiling technique has been utilized in a range of studies in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Several studies have adapted and refined the original ribosome profiling protocol for studying specific aspects of translation. Ribosome profiling of initiating ribosomes has been used to map sites of translation initiation. These studies revealed the surprisingly complex organization of translation initiation sites in eukaryotes. Multiple initiation sites are responsible for the generation of N-terminally extended and truncated isoforms of known proteins as well as for the translation of numerous open reading frames (ORFs), upstream of protein coding ORFs. Ribosome profiling of elongating ribosomes has been used for measuring differential gene expression at the level of translation, the identification of novel protein coding genes and ribosome pausing. It has also provided data for developing quantitative models of translation. Although only a dozen or so ribosome profiling datasets have been published so far, they have already dramatically changed our understanding of translational control and have led to new hypotheses regarding the origin of protein coding genes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23696005

  9. The Ribosome Filter Redux

    PubMed Central

    Mauro, Vincent P.; Edelman, Gerald M.

    2010-01-01

    The ribosome filter hypothesis postulates that ribosomes are not simply translation machines but also function as regulatory elements that differentially affect or filter the translation of particular mRNAs. On the basis of new information, we take the opportunity here to review the ribosome filter hypothesis, suggest specific mechanisms of action, and discuss recent examples from the literature that support it. PMID:17890902

  10. DExD/H-box RNA helicases in ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Roman; Straub, Annika U.; Doebele, Carmen; Bohnsack, Markus T.

    2013-01-01

    Ribosome synthesis requires a multitude of cofactors, among them DExD/H-box RNA helicases. Bacterial RNA helicases involved in ribosome assembly are not essential, while eukaryotes strictly require multiple DExD/H-box proteins that are involved in the much more complex ribosome biogenesis pathway. Here, RNA helicases are thought to act in structural remodeling of the RNPs including the modulation of protein binding, and they are required for allowing access or the release of specific snoRNPs from pre-ribosomes. Interestingly, helicase action is modulated by specific cofactors that can regulate recruitment and enzymatic activity. This review summarizes the current knowledge and focuses on recent findings and open questions on RNA helicase function and regulation in ribosome synthesis. PMID:22922795

  11. Proteomic characterization of archaeal ribosomes reveals the presence of novel archaeal-specific ribosomal proteins.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Viter; Fröhlich, Thomas; Armache, Jean-Paul; Sohmen, Daniel; Dönhöfer, Alexandra; Mikolajka, Aleksandra; Berninghausen, Otto; Thomm, Michael; Beckmann, Roland; Arnold, Georg J; Wilson, Daniel N

    2011-02-04

    Protein synthesis occurs in macromolecular particles called ribosomes. All ribosomes are composed of RNA and proteins. While the protein composition of bacterial and eukaryotic ribosomes has been well-characterized, a systematic analysis of archaeal ribosomes has been lacking. Here we report the first comprehensive two-dimensional PAGE and mass spectrometry analysis of archaeal ribosomes isolated from the thermophilic Pyrobaculum aerophilum and the thermoacidophilic Sulfolobus acidocaldarius Crenarchaeota. Our analysis identified all 66 ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) of the P. aerophilum small and large subunits, as well as all but two (62 of 64; 97%) r-proteins of the S. acidocaldarius small and large subunits that are predicted genomically. Some r-proteins were identified with one or two lysine methylations and N-terminal acetylations. In addition, we identify three hypothetical proteins that appear to be bona fide r-proteins of the S. acidocaldarius large subunit. Dissociation of r-proteins from the S. acidocaldarius large subunit indicates that the novel r-proteins establish tighter interactions with the large subunit than some integral r-proteins. Furthermore, cryo electron microscopy reconstructions of the S. acidocaldarius and P. aerophilum 50S subunits allow for a tentative localization of the binding site of the novel r-proteins. This study illustrates not only the potential diversity of the archaeal ribosomes but also the necessity to experimentally analyze the archaeal ribosomes to ascertain their protein composition. The discovery of novel archaeal r-proteins and factors may be the first step to understanding how archaeal ribosomes cope with extreme environmental conditions.

  12. The Ribosomal RNA is a Useful Marker to Visualize Rhizobia Interacting with Legume Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaudi, Luciana; Isola, Maria C.; Giordano, Walter

    2004-01-01

    Symbiosis between rhizobia and leguminous plants leads to the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. In the present article, we recommend the use of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) isolated from legume nodules in an experimental class with the purpose of introducing students to the structure of eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes and of…

  13. Why is start codon selection so precise in eukaryotes?

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Katsura

    2014-01-01

    Translation generally initiates with the AUG codon. While initiation at GUG and UUG is permitted in prokaryotes (Archaea and Bacteria), cases of CUG initiation were recently reported in human cells. The varying stringency in translation initiation between eukaryotic and prokaryotic domains largely stems from a fundamental problem for the ribosome in recognizing a codon at the peptidyl-tRNA binding site. Initiation factors specific to each domain of life evolved to confer stringent initiation by the ribosome. The mechanistic basis for high accuracy in eukaryotic initiation is described based on recent findings concerning the role of the multifactor complex (MFC) in this process. Also discussed are whether non-AUG initiation plays any role in translational control and whether start codon accuracy is regulated in eukaryotes. PMID:26779403

  14. The Modular Adaptive Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Anupama; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Panda, Anshuman; Singh, Amartya; Sinha, Himanshu; Bhanot, Gyan

    2016-01-01

    The ribosome is an ancient machine, performing the same function across organisms. Although functionally unitary, recent experiments suggest specialized roles for some ribosomal proteins. Our central thesis is that ribosomal proteins function in a modular fashion to decode genetic information in a context dependent manner. We show through large data analyses that although many ribosomal proteins are essential with consistent effect on growth in different conditions in yeast and similar expression across cell and tissue types in mice and humans, some ribosomal proteins are used in an environment specific manner. The latter set of variable ribosomal proteins further function in a coordinated manner forming modules, which are adapted to different environmental cues in different organisms. We show that these environment specific modules of ribosomal proteins in yeast have differential genetic interactions with other pathways and their 5’UTRs show differential signatures of selection in yeast strains, presumably to facilitate adaptation. Similarly, we show that in higher metazoans such as mice and humans, different modules of ribosomal proteins are expressed in different cell types and tissues. A clear example is nervous tissue that uses a ribosomal protein module distinct from the rest of the tissues in both mice and humans. Our results suggest a novel stratification of ribosomal proteins that could have played a role in adaptation, presumably to optimize translation for adaptation to diverse ecological niches and tissue microenvironments. PMID:27812193

  15. The Modular Adaptive Ribosome.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Anupama; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Panda, Anshuman; Singh, Amartya; Sinha, Himanshu; Bhanot, Gyan

    2016-01-01

    The ribosome is an ancient machine, performing the same function across organisms. Although functionally unitary, recent experiments suggest specialized roles for some ribosomal proteins. Our central thesis is that ribosomal proteins function in a modular fashion to decode genetic information in a context dependent manner. We show through large data analyses that although many ribosomal proteins are essential with consistent effect on growth in different conditions in yeast and similar expression across cell and tissue types in mice and humans, some ribosomal proteins are used in an environment specific manner. The latter set of variable ribosomal proteins further function in a coordinated manner forming modules, which are adapted to different environmental cues in different organisms. We show that these environment specific modules of ribosomal proteins in yeast have differential genetic interactions with other pathways and their 5'UTRs show differential signatures of selection in yeast strains, presumably to facilitate adaptation. Similarly, we show that in higher metazoans such as mice and humans, different modules of ribosomal proteins are expressed in different cell types and tissues. A clear example is nervous tissue that uses a ribosomal protein module distinct from the rest of the tissues in both mice and humans. Our results suggest a novel stratification of ribosomal proteins that could have played a role in adaptation, presumably to optimize translation for adaptation to diverse ecological niches and tissue microenvironments.

  16. Ocean plankton. Eukaryotic plankton diversity in the sunlit ocean.

    PubMed

    de Vargas, Colomban; Audic, Stéphane; Henry, Nicolas; Decelle, Johan; Mahé, Frédéric; Logares, Ramiro; Lara, Enrique; Berney, Cédric; Le Bescot, Noan; Probert, Ian; Carmichael, Margaux; Poulain, Julie; Romac, Sarah; Colin, Sébastien; Aury, Jean-Marc; Bittner, Lucie; Chaffron, Samuel; Dunthorn, Micah; Engelen, Stefan; Flegontova, Olga; Guidi, Lionel; Horák, Aleš; Jaillon, Olivier; Lima-Mendez, Gipsi; Lukeš, Julius; Malviya, Shruti; Morard, Raphael; Mulot, Matthieu; Scalco, Eleonora; Siano, Raffaele; Vincent, Flora; Zingone, Adriana; Dimier, Céline; Picheral, Marc; Searson, Sarah; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Acinas, Silvia G; Bork, Peer; Bowler, Chris; Gorsky, Gabriel; Grimsley, Nigel; Hingamp, Pascal; Iudicone, Daniele; Not, Fabrice; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Pesant, Stephane; Raes, Jeroen; Sieracki, Michael E; Speich, Sabrina; Stemmann, Lars; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Weissenbach, Jean; Wincker, Patrick; Karsenti, Eric

    2015-05-22

    Marine plankton support global biological and geochemical processes. Surveys of their biodiversity have hitherto been geographically restricted and have not accounted for the full range of plankton size. We assessed eukaryotic diversity from 334 size-fractionated photic-zone plankton communities collected across tropical and temperate oceans during the circumglobal Tara Oceans expedition. We analyzed 18S ribosomal DNA sequences across the intermediate plankton-size spectrum from the smallest unicellular eukaryotes (protists, >0.8 micrometers) to small animals of a few millimeters. Eukaryotic ribosomal diversity saturated at ~150,000 operational taxonomic units, about one-third of which could not be assigned to known eukaryotic groups. Diversity emerged at all taxonomic levels, both within the groups comprising the ~11,200 cataloged morphospecies of eukaryotic plankton and among twice as many other deep-branching lineages of unappreciated importance in plankton ecology studies. Most eukaryotic plankton biodiversity belonged to heterotrophic protistan groups, particularly those known to be parasites or symbiotic hosts.

  17. Evidence that Yih1 resides in a complex with ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Waller, Tracey; Lee, Su Jung; Sattlegger, Evelyn

    2012-05-01

    Adjusting protein synthesis by phosphorylating eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) is a major mechanism by which eukaryotes adapt to and overcome stress. The eIF2α kinase Gcn2 is essential for overcoming amino acid starvation in all eukaryotes. We have shown that to sense starvation, the Gcn2 RWD domain must directly contact its effector protein, Gcn1, and both must bind to the ribosome, suggesting that starvation is sensed within a Gcn1-Gcn2-ribosome complex. The mammalian protein IMPACT, highly expressed in neurons, and its yeast orthologue yeast IMPACT homologue (Yih1) harbour an RWD domain with Gcn1-binding activity. We have shown that Yih1 downregulates Gcn2 by competing with Gcn2 for Gcn1-binding. Here, we provide evidence that Yih1 forms a complex with ribosomes. In velocity sedimentation assays, overexpressed glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged Yih1 cosedimented with polyribosomes independently of Gcn1. Reduction of polyribosomes to monosomes concomitantly decreased GST-Yih1 sedimentation in the heavy fractions where polyribosomes are normally found. Furthermore, GST-Yih1 coprecipitated large ribosomal protein Rpl39 independently of Gcn1. GST-Yih1 overexpression did not significantly affect Gcn1-ribosome or Gcn2-ribosome cosedimentation. myc-tagged Yih1 expressed from its own promoter cosedimented with polyribosomes independently of Gcn1, indicating that Yih1-ribosome interaction occurs under physiological conditions. GST-IMPACT cosedimented with yeast ribosomes and coprecipitated Rpl39 in a Gcn1-independent fashion, suggesting that Yih1/IMPACT-ribosome association is evolutionarily conserved. Moreover, GST-IMPACT coprecipitated actin as found for GST-Yih1. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that IMPACT/Yih1 associates with ribosomes and that these ribosomes may simultaneously carry Gcn1 and Gcn2. Close physical proximity of Yih1 to the Gcn1-Gcn2-ribosome complex would allow cells to quickly inhibit Gcn2 whenever or wherever

  18. Fragile X mental retardation protein regulates translation by binding directly to the ribosome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Eileen; Sharma, Manjuli R; Shi, Xinying; Agrawal, Rajendra K; Joseph, Simpson

    2014-05-08

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited mental retardation, and it is caused by loss of function of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP is an RNA-binding protein that is involved in the translational regulation of several neuronal mRNAs. However, the precise mechanism of translational inhibition by FMRP is unknown. Here, we show that FMRP inhibits translation by binding directly to the L5 protein on the 80S ribosome. Furthermore, cryoelectron microscopic reconstruction of the 80S ribosome⋅FMRP complex shows that FMRP binds within the intersubunit space of the ribosome such that it would preclude the binding of tRNA and translation elongation factors on the ribosome. These findings suggest that FMRP inhibits translation by blocking the essential components of the translational machinery from binding to the ribosome.

  19. rRNA maturation as a "quality" control step in ribosomal subunit assembly in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Mangiarotti, G; Chiaberge, S; Bulfone, S

    1997-10-31

    In Dictyostelium discoideum, newly assembled ribosomal subunits enter polyribosomes while they still contain immature rRNA. rRNA maturation requires the engagement of the subunits in protein synthesis and leads to stabilization of their structure. Maturation of pre-17 S rRNA occurs only after the newly formed 40 S ribosomal particle has entered an 80 S ribosome and participated at least in the formation of one peptide bond or in one translocation event; maturation of pre-26 S rRNA requires the presence on the 80 S particle of a peptidyl-tRNA containing at least 6 amino acids. Newly assembled particles that cannot fulfill these requirements for structural reasons are disassembled into free immature rRNA and ribosomal proteins.

  20. Futurism in the Education of the Deaf: Directions and Alternatives for the 80's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, William J. A.

    The author presents a rationale for the study of futurism in education and analyzes the effects of significant future changes upon deaf education in the 80s. The roles that change agents play in influencing the permanence of innovations within the school are examined: advocacy, information sharing, and organizational development training.…

  1. Therapeutic Discourse and ACOA Films of the '80s and '90s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Joan Driscoll

    2000-01-01

    Argues that many family melodramas in films of the '80s and '90s focus their narrative on the negative dynamics of the parental relationship. Identifies underlying generic patterns and ideas found in these films. Explores representations of mothers, fathers, and children; gender representation and codependency; and familial dysfunction. Broadens…

  2. Advertising for the 80's. Marketing and Distributive Education. Advertising. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, Craig; Elias, John

    This module contains a teacher's guide, student materials for a seminar on "advertising for the 80's" conducted for small business representatives, a 35mm slide presentation, and an audiocassette. The instructor guide contains an outline of the course, time plan, end-of-course critique, a script for the slide-tape presentation (with content on the…

  3. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Stm1p facilitates ribosome preservation during quiescence

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyke, Natalya; Chanchorn, Ekkawit; Van Dyke, Michael W.

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stm1p confers increased resistance to the macrolide starvation-mimic rapamycin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stm1p maintains 80S ribosome integrity during stationary phase-induced quiescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stm1p facilitates polysome formation following quiescence exit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stm1p facilitates protein synthesis following quiescence exit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stm1p is a ribosome preservation factor under conditions of nutrient deprivation. -- Abstract: Once cells exhaust nutrients from their environment, they enter an alternative resting state known as quiescence, whereby proliferation ceases and essential nutrients are obtained through internal stores and through the catabolism of existing macromolecules and organelles. One example of this is ribophagy, the degradation of ribosomes through the process of autophagy. However, some ribosomes need to be preserved for an anticipated recovery from nutrient deprivation. We found that the ribosome-associated protein Stm1p greatly increases the quantity of 80S ribosomes present in quiescent yeast cells and that these ribosomes facilitate increased protein synthesis rates once nutrients are restored. These findings suggest that Stm1p can act as a ribosome preservation factor under conditions of nutrient deprivation and restoration.

  4. Direct link between RACK1 function and localization at the ribosome in vivo.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Scott M; Gilbert, Wendy V; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2009-03-01

    The receptor for activated C-kinase (RACK1), a conserved protein implicated in numerous signaling pathways, is a stoichiometric component of eukaryotic ribosomes located on the head of the 40S ribosomal subunit. To test the hypothesis that ribosome association is central to the function of RACK1 in vivo, we determined the 2.1-A crystal structure of RACK1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Asc1p) and used it to design eight mutant versions of RACK1 to assess roles in ribosome binding and in vivo function. Conserved charged amino acids on one side of the beta-propeller structure were found to confer most of the 40S subunit binding affinity, whereas an adjacent conserved and structured loop had little effect on RACK1-ribosome association. Yeast mutations that confer moderate to strong defects in ribosome binding mimic some phenotypes of a RACK1 deletion strain, including increased sensitivity to drugs affecting cell wall biosynthesis and translation elongation. Furthermore, disruption of RACK1's position at the 40S ribosomal subunit results in the failure of the mRNA binding protein Scp160 to associate with actively translating ribosomes. These results provide the first direct evidence that RACK1 functions from the ribosome, implying a physical link between the eukaryotic ribosome and cell signaling pathways in vivo.

  5. Acidocalcisomes of eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Docampo, Roberto; Huang, Guozhong

    2016-08-01

    Acidocalcisomes are organelles rich in polyphosphate and cations and acidified by proton pumps. Although they have also been described in prokaryotes they have been better characterized in unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes. Eukaryotic acidocalcisomes belong to the group of lysosome-related organelles. They have a variety of functions, from the storage of cations and phosphorus to calcium signaling, autophagy, osmoregulation, blood coagulation, and inflammation. Acidocalcisomes of several unicellular eukaryotes possess a variety of transporters, channels and pumps implying a large energetic requirement for their maintenance and suggesting other important functions waiting to be discovered.

  6. Rapid cytoplasmic turnover of yeast ribosomes in response to rapamycin inhibition of TOR.

    PubMed

    Pestov, Dimitri G; Shcherbik, Natalia

    2012-06-01

    The target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway is the central regulator of cell growth in eukaryotes. Inhibition of TOR by rapamycin elicits changes in translation attributed mainly to altered translation initiation and repression of the synthesis of new ribosomes. Using quantitative analysis of rRNA, we found that the number of existing ribosomes present in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture during growth in rich medium rapidly decreases by 40 to 60% when the cells are treated with rapamycin. This process is not appreciably affected by a suppression of autophagy, previously implicated in degradation of ribosomes in eukaryotes upon starvation. Yeast cells deficient in the exosome function or lacking its cytoplasmic Ski cofactors show an abnormal pattern of rRNA degradation, particularly in the large ribosomal subunit, and accumulate rRNA fragments after rapamycin treatment and during diauxic shift. The exosome and Ski proteins are thus important for processing of rRNA decay intermediates, although they are probably not responsible for initiating rRNA decay. The role of cytoplasmic nucleases in rapamycin-induced rRNA degradation suggests mechanistic parallels of this process to nutrient-controlled ribosome turnover in prokaryotes. We propose that ribosome content is regulated dynamically in eukaryotes by TOR through both ribosome synthesis and the cytoplasmic turnover of mature ribosomes.

  7. Homoiterons and expansion in ribosomal RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Michael S.; Sallee, Floyd R.; Park, Edwards A.; Parker, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Ribosomal RNAs in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes feature numerous repeats of three or more nucleotides with the same nucleobase (homoiterons). In prokaryotes these repeats are much more frequent in thermophile compared to mesophile or psychrophile species, and have similar frequency in both large RNAs. These features point to use of prokaryotic homoiterons in stabilization of both ribosomal subunits. The two large RNAs of eukaryotic cytoplasmic ribosomes have expanded to a different degree across the evolutionary ladder. The big RNA of the larger subunit (60S LSU) evolved expansion segments of up to 2400 nucleotides, and the smaller subunit (40S SSU) RNA acquired expansion segments of not more than 700 nucleotides. In the examined eukaryotes abundance of rRNA homoiterons generally follows size and nucleotide bias of the expansion segments, and increases with GC content and especially with phylogenetic rank. Both the nucleotide bias and frequency of homoiterons are much larger in metazoan and angiosperm LSU compared to the respective SSU RNAs. This is especially pronounced in the tetrapod vertebrates and seems to culminate in the hominid mammals. The stability of secondary structure in polyribonucleotides would significantly connect to GC content, and should also relate to G and C homoiteron content. RNA modeling points to considerable presence of homoiteron-rich double-stranded segments especially in vertebrate LSU RNAs, and homoiterons with four or more nucleotides in the vertebrate and angiosperm LSU RNAs are largely confined to the expansion segments. These features could mainly relate to protein export function and attachment of LSU to endoplasmic reticulum and other subcellular networks. PMID:26636029

  8. Homoiterons and expansion in ribosomal RNAs.

    PubMed

    Parker, Michael S; Sallee, Floyd R; Park, Edwards A; Parker, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Ribosomal RNAs in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes feature numerous repeats of three or more nucleotides with the same nucleobase (homoiterons). In prokaryotes these repeats are much more frequent in thermophile compared to mesophile or psychrophile species, and have similar frequency in both large RNAs. These features point to use of prokaryotic homoiterons in stabilization of both ribosomal subunits. The two large RNAs of eukaryotic cytoplasmic ribosomes have expanded to a different degree across the evolutionary ladder. The big RNA of the larger subunit (60S LSU) evolved expansion segments of up to 2400 nucleotides, and the smaller subunit (40S SSU) RNA acquired expansion segments of not more than 700 nucleotides. In the examined eukaryotes abundance of rRNA homoiterons generally follows size and nucleotide bias of the expansion segments, and increases with GC content and especially with phylogenetic rank. Both the nucleotide bias and frequency of homoiterons are much larger in metazoan and angiosperm LSU compared to the respective SSU RNAs. This is especially pronounced in the tetrapod vertebrates and seems to culminate in the hominid mammals. The stability of secondary structure in polyribonucleotides would significantly connect to GC content, and should also relate to G and C homoiteron content. RNA modeling points to considerable presence of homoiteron-rich double-stranded segments especially in vertebrate LSU RNAs, and homoiterons with four or more nucleotides in the vertebrate and angiosperm LSU RNAs are largely confined to the expansion segments. These features could mainly relate to protein export function and attachment of LSU to endoplasmic reticulum and other subcellular networks.

  9. Chaos and Hyperchaos in a Model of Ribosome Autocatalytic Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Likhoshvai, Vitaly A.; Kogai, Vladislav V.; Fadeev, Stanislav I.; Khlebodarova, Tamara M.

    2016-01-01

    Any vital activities of the cell are based on the ribosomes, which not only provide the basic machinery for the synthesis of all proteins necessary for cell functioning during growth and division, but for biogenesis itself. From this point of view, ribosomes are self-replicating and autocatalytic structures. In current work we present an elementary model in which the autocatalytic synthesis of ribosomal RNA and proteins, as well as enzymes ensuring their degradation are described with two monotonically increasing functions. For certain parameter values, the model, consisting of one differential equation with delayed argument, demonstrates both stationary and oscillatory dynamics of the ribosomal protein synthesis, which can be chaotic and hyperchaotic dependent on the value of the delayed argument. The biological interpretation of the modeling results and parameter estimation suggest the feasibility of chaotic dynamics in molecular genetic systems of eukaryotes, which depends only on the internal characteristics of functioning of the translation system. PMID:27941909

  10. The SSU Processome in Ribosome Biogenesis – Progress and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Phipps, Kathleen R.; Charette, J. Michael; Baserga, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    The small subunit (SSU) processome is a 2.2 MDa ribonucleoprotein complex involved in the processing, assembly and maturation of the SSU of eukaryotic ribosomes. The identities of many of the factors involved in SSU biogenesis have been elucidated over the past 40 years. However, as our understanding increases, so do the number of questions about the nature of this complicated process. Cataloguing the components is the first step towards understanding the molecular workings of a system. This review will focus on how identifying components of ribosome biogenesis has led to the knowledge of how these factors, protein and RNA alike, associate with one another into sub-complexes, with a concentration on the small ribosomal subunit. We will also explore how this knowledge of sub-complex assembly has informed our understanding of the workings of the ribosome synthesis system as a whole. PMID:21318072

  11. RNA Export through the NPC in Eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Masumi; Inose, Haruko; Masuda, Seiji

    2015-03-20

    In eukaryotic cells, RNAs are transcribed in the nucleus and exported to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex. The RNA molecules that are exported from the nucleus into the cytoplasm include messenger RNAs (mRNAs), ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), transfer RNAs (tRNAs), small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), micro RNAs (miRNAs), and viral mRNAs. Each RNA is transported by a specific nuclear export receptor. It is believed that most of the mRNAs are exported by Nxf1 (Mex67 in yeast), whereas rRNAs, snRNAs, and a certain subset of mRNAs are exported in a Crm1/Xpo1-dependent manner. tRNAs and miRNAs are exported by Xpot and Xpo5. However, multiple export receptors are involved in the export of some RNAs, such as 60S ribosomal subunit. In addition to these export receptors, some adapter proteins are required to export RNAs. The RNA export system of eukaryotic cells is also used by several types of RNA virus that depend on the machineries of the host cell in the nucleus for replication of their genome, therefore this review describes the RNA export system of two representative viruses. We also discuss the NPC anchoring-dependent mRNA export factors that directly recruit specific genes to the NPC.

  12. Bacterial and Eukaryotic Replisome Machines

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Nina; O’Donnell, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Cellular genomic DNA is replicated by a multiprotein replisome machine. The replisome contains numerous essential factors that unwind, prime and synthesize each of the two strands of duplex DNA. The antiparallel structure of DNA, and unidirectional activity of DNA polymerases, requires the two strands of DNA to be extended in opposite directions, and this structural feature requires distinctive processes for synthesis of the two strands. Genome duplication is of central importance to all cell types, and one may expect the replisome apparatus to be conserved from bacteria to human, as is the case with RNA polymerase driven transcription and ribosome mediated translation. However, it is known that the replication factors of bacteria are not homologous to those of archaea and eukaryotes, indicating that the replication process evolved twice, independently, rather than from a common ancestor cell. Thus, the different domains of life may exhibit significant differences in their mechanistic strategy of replication. In this review, we compare and contrast the different structures and mechanistic features of the cellular replication machinery in the three domains of life. PMID:28042596

  13. Symbiosis in eukaryotic evolution.

    PubMed

    López-García, Purificación; Eme, Laura; Moreira, David

    2017-02-28

    Fifty years ago, Lynn Margulis, inspiring in early twentieth-century ideas that put forward a symbiotic origin for some eukaryotic organelles, proposed a unified theory for the origin of the eukaryotic cell based on symbiosis as evolutionary mechanism. Margulis was profoundly aware of the importance of symbiosis in the natural microbial world and anticipated the evolutionary significance that integrated cooperative interactions might have as mechanism to increase cellular complexity. Today, we have started fully appreciating the vast extent of microbial diversity and the importance of syntrophic metabolic cooperation in natural ecosystems, especially in sediments and microbial mats. Also, not only the symbiogenetic origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts has been clearly demonstrated, but improvement in phylogenomic methods combined with recent discoveries of archaeal lineages more closely related to eukaryotes further support the symbiogenetic origin of the eukaryotic cell. Margulis left us in legacy the idea of 'eukaryogenesis by symbiogenesis'. Although this has been largely verified, when, where, and specifically how eukaryotic cells evolved are yet unclear. Here, we shortly review current knowledge about symbiotic interactions in the microbial world and their evolutionary impact, the status of eukaryogenetic models and the current challenges and perspectives ahead to reconstruct the evolutionary path to eukaryotes.

  14. Structural disorder in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Pancsa, Rita; Tompa, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Based on early bioinformatic studies on a handful of species, the frequency of structural disorder of proteins is generally thought to be much higher in eukaryotes than in prokaryotes. To refine this view, we present here a comparative prediction study and analysis of 194 fully described eukaryotic proteomes and 87 reference prokaryotes for structural disorder. We found that structural disorder does distinguish eukaryotes from prokaryotes, but its frequency spans a very wide range in the two superkingdoms that largely overlap. The number of disordered binding regions and different Pfam domain types also contribute to distinguish eukaryotes from prokaryotes. Unexpectedly, the highest levels--and highest variability--of predicted disorder is found in protists, i.e. single-celled eukaryotes, often surpassing more complex eukaryote organisms, plants and animals. This trend contrasts with that of the number of domain types, which increases rather monotonously toward more complex organisms. The level of structural disorder appears to be strongly correlated with lifestyle, because some obligate intracellular parasites and endosymbionts have the lowest levels, whereas host-changing parasites have the highest level of predicted disorder. We conclude that protists have been the evolutionary hot-bed of experimentation with structural disorder, in a period when structural disorder was actively invented and the major functional classes of disordered proteins established.

  15. An archaeal origin of eukaryotes supports only two primary domains of life.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tom A; Foster, Peter G; Cox, Cymon J; Embley, T Martin

    2013-12-12

    The discovery of the Archaea and the proposal of the three-domains 'universal' tree, based on ribosomal RNA and core genes mainly involved in protein translation, catalysed new ideas for cellular evolution and eukaryotic origins. However, accumulating evidence suggests that the three-domains tree may be incorrect: evolutionary trees made using newer methods place eukaryotic core genes within the Archaea, supporting hypotheses in which an archaeon participated in eukaryotic origins by founding the host lineage for the mitochondrial endosymbiont. These results provide support for only two primary domains of life--Archaea and Bacteria--because eukaryotes arose through partnership between them.

  16. Eukaryotic diversity at pH extremes

    PubMed Central

    Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.

    2013-01-01

    Extremely acidic (pH < 3) and extremely alkaline (pH > 9) environments support a diversity of single-cell and to a lesser extent, multicellular eukaryotic life. This study compared alpha and beta diversity in eukaryotic communities from seven diverse aquatic environments with pH values ranging from 2 to 11 using massively-parallel pyrotag sequencing targeting the V9 hypervariable region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. A total of 946 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were recovered at a 6% cut-off level (94% similarity) across the sampled environments. Hierarchical clustering of the samples segregated the communities into acidic and alkaline groups. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis followed by indicator OTU analysis (IOA) and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) were used to determine which characteristic groups of eukaryotic taxa typify acidic or alkaline extremes and the extent to which pH explains eukaryotic community structure in these environments. Spain's Rio Tinto yielded the fewest observed OTUs while Nebraska Sandhills alkaline lakes yielded the most. Distinct OTUs, including metazoan OTUs, numerically dominated pH extreme sites. Indicator OTUs included the diatom Pinnularia and unidentified opisthokonts (Fungi and Filasterea) in the extremely acidic environments, and the ciliate Frontonia across the extremely alkaline sites. Inferred from NMDS, pH explained only a modest fraction of the variation across the datasets, indicating that other factors influence the underlying community structure in these environments. The findings from this study suggest that the ability for eukaryotes to adapt to pH extremes over a broad range of values may be rare, but further study of taxa that can broadly adapt across diverse acidic and alkaline environments, respectively present good models for understanding adaptation and should be targeted for future investigations. PMID:23335919

  17. Regulation of ribosomal DNA amplification by the TOR pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Carmen V.; Cruz, Cristina; Hull, Ryan M.; Keller, Markus A.; Ralser, Markus; Houseley, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Repeated regions are widespread in eukaryotic genomes, and key functional elements such as the ribosomal DNA tend to be formed of high copy repeated sequences organized in tandem arrays. In general, high copy repeats are remarkably stable, but a number of organisms display rapid ribosomal DNA amplification at specific times or under specific conditions. Here we demonstrate that target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling stimulates ribosomal DNA amplification in budding yeast, linking external nutrient availability to ribosomal DNA copy number. We show that ribosomal DNA amplification is regulated by three histone deacetylases: Sir2, Hst3, and Hst4. These enzymes control homologous recombination-dependent and nonhomologous recombination-dependent amplification pathways that act in concert to mediate rapid, directional ribosomal DNA copy number change. Amplification is completely repressed by rapamycin, an inhibitor of the nutrient-responsive TOR pathway; this effect is separable from growth rate and is mediated directly through Sir2, Hst3, and Hst4. Caloric restriction is known to up-regulate expression of nicotinamidase Pnc1, an enzyme that enhances Sir2, Hst3, and Hst4 activity. In contrast, normal glucose concentrations stretch the ribosome synthesis capacity of cells with low ribosomal DNA copy number, and we find that these cells show a previously unrecognized transcriptional response to caloric excess by reducing PNC1 expression. PNC1 down-regulation forms a key element in the control of ribosomal DNA amplification as overexpression of PNC1 substantially reduces ribosomal DNA amplification rate. Our results reveal how a signaling pathway can orchestrate specific genome changes and demonstrate that the copy number of repetitive DNA can be altered to suit environmental conditions. PMID:26195783

  18. The ribosomal subunit assembly line

    PubMed Central

    Dlakić, Mensur

    2005-01-01

    Recent proteomic studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have identified nearly 200 proteins, other than the structural ribosomal proteins, that participate in the assembly of ribosomal subunits and their transport from the nucleus. In a separate line of research, proteomic studies of mature plant ribosomes have revealed considerable variability in the protein composition of individual ribosomes. PMID:16207363

  19. Evolutionary implications of intron-exon distribution and the properties and sequences of the RPL10A gene in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, Eva M; Casano, Leonardo M; Barreno, Eva

    2013-03-01

    The RPL10A gene encodes the RPL10 protein, required for joining 40S and 60S subunits into a functional 80S ribosome. This highly conserved gene, ubiquitous across all eukaryotic super-groups, is characterized by a variable number of spliceosomal introns, present in most organisms. These properties facilitate the recognition of orthologs among distant taxa and thus comparative studies of sequences as well as the distribution and properties of introns in taxonomically distant groups of eukaryotes. The present study examined the multiple ways in which RPL10A conservation vs. sequence changes in the gene over the course of evolution, including in exons, introns, and the encoded proteins, can be exploited for evolutionary analysis at different taxonomic levels. At least 25 different positions harboring introns within the RPL10A gene were determined in different taxa, including animals, plants, fungi, and alveolates. Generally, intron positions were found to be well conserved even across different kingdoms. However, certain introns seemed to be restricted to specific groups of organisms. Analyses of several properties of introns, including insertion site, phase, and length, along with exon and intron GC content and exon-intron boundaries, suggested biases within different groups of organisms. The use of a standard primer pair to analyze a portion of the intron-containing RPL10A gene in 12 genera of green algae within Chlorophyta is presented as a case study for evolutionary analyses of introns at intermediate and low taxonomic levels. Our study shows that phylogenetic reconstructions at different depths can be achieved using RPL10A nucleotide sequences from both exons and introns as well as the amino acid sequences of the encoded protein.

  20. When stable RNA becomes unstable: the degradation of ribosomes in bacteria and beyond.

    PubMed

    Maiväli, Ülo; Paier, Anton; Tenson, Tanel

    2013-07-01

    This review takes a comparative look at the various scenarios where ribosomes are degraded in bacteria and eukaryotes with emphasis on studies involving Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. While the molecular mechanisms of degradation in bacteria and yeast appear somewhat different, we argue that the underlying causes of ribosome degradation are remarkably similar. In both model organisms during ribosomal assembly, partially formed pre-ribosomal particles can be degraded by at least two different sequentially-acting quality control pathways and fully assembled but functionally faulty ribosomes can be degraded in a separate quality control pathway. In addition, ribosomes that are both structurally- and functionally-sound can be degraded as an adaptive measure to stress.

  1. RiboVision suite for visualization and analysis of ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Chad R; Petrov, Anton S; Waterbury, Chris C; Jett, James; Li, Fengbo; Freil, Larry E; Xiong, Xiao; Wang, Lan; Migliozzi, Blacki L R; Hershkovits, Eli; Xue, Yuzhen; Hsiao, Chiaolong; Bowman, Jessica C; Harvey, Stephen C; Grover, Martha A; Wartell, Zachary J; Williams, Loren Dean

    2014-01-01

    RiboVision is a visualization and analysis tool for the simultaneous display of multiple layers of diverse information on primary (1D), secondary (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) structures of ribosomes. The ribosome is a macromolecular complex containing ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins and is a key component of life responsible for the synthesis of proteins in all living organisms. RiboVision is intended for rapid retrieval, analysis, filtering, and display of a variety of ribosomal data. Preloaded information includes 1D, 2D, and 3D structures augmented by base-pairing, base-stacking, and other molecular interactions. RiboVision is preloaded with rRNA secondary structures, rRNA domains and helical structures, phylogeny, crystallographic thermal factors, etc. RiboVision contains structures of ribosomal proteins and a database of their molecular interactions with rRNA. RiboVision contains preloaded structures and data for two bacterial ribosomes (Thermus thermophilus and Escherichia coli), one archaeal ribosome (Haloarcula marismortui), and three eukaryotic ribosomes (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, and Homo sapiens). RiboVision revealed several major discrepancies between the 2D and 3D structures of the rRNAs of the small and large subunits (SSU and LSU). Revised structures mapped with a variety of data are available in RiboVision as well as in a public gallery (). RiboVision is designed to allow users to distill complex data quickly and to easily generate publication-quality images of data mapped onto secondary structures. Users can readily import and analyze their own data in the context of other work. This package allows users to import and map data from CSV files directly onto 1D, 2D, and 3D levels of structure. RiboVision has features in rough analogy with web-based map services capable of seamlessly switching the type of data displayed and the resolution or magnification of the display. RiboVision is available at .

  2. Conserved motifs in prokaryotic and eukaryotic polypeptide release factors: tRNA-protein mimicry hypothesis.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, K; Ebihara, K; Uno, M; Nakamura, Y

    1996-01-01

    Translation termination requires two codon-specific polypeptide release factors in prokaryotes and one omnipotent factor in eukaryotes. Sequences of 17 different polypeptide release factors from prokaryotes and eukaryotes were compared. The prokaryotic release factors share residues split into seven motifs. Conservation of many discrete, perhaps critical, amino acids is observed in eukaryotic release factors, as well as in the C-terminal portion of elongation factor (EF) G. Given that the C-terminal domains of EF-G interacts with ribosomes by mimicry of a tRNA structure, the pattern of conservation of residues in release factors may reflect requirements for a tRNA-mimicry for binding to the A site of the ribosome. This mimicry would explain why release factors recognize stop codons and suggests that all prokaryotic and eukaryotic release factors evolved from the progenitor of EF-G. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8643594

  3. Ribosome dynamics during decoding.

    PubMed

    Rodnina, Marina V; Fischer, Niels; Maracci, Cristina; Stark, Holger

    2017-03-19

    Elongation factors Tu (EF-Tu) and SelB are translational GTPases that deliver aminoacyl-tRNAs (aa-tRNAs) to the ribosome. In each canonical round of translation elongation, aa-tRNAs, assisted by EF-Tu, decode mRNA codons and insert the respective amino acid into the growing peptide chain. Stop codons usually lead to translation termination; however, in special cases UGA codons are recoded to selenocysteine (Sec) with the help of SelB. Recruitment of EF-Tu and SelB together with their respective aa-tRNAs to the ribosome is a multistep process. In this review, we summarize recent progress in understanding the role of ribosome dynamics in aa-tRNA selection. We describe the path to correct codon recognition by canonical elongator aa-tRNA and Sec-tRNA(Sec) and discuss the local and global rearrangements of the ribosome in response to correct and incorrect aa-tRNAs. We present the mechanisms of GTPase activation and GTP hydrolysis of EF-Tu and SelB and summarize what is known about the accommodation of aa-tRNA on the ribosome after its release from the elongation factor. We show how ribosome dynamics ensures high selectivity for the cognate aa-tRNA and suggest that conformational fluctuations, induced fit and kinetic discrimination play major roles in maintaining the speed and fidelity of translation.This article is part of the themed issue 'Perspectives on the ribosome'.

  4. Transition State Analogues Rescue Ribosomes from Saporin-L1 Ribosome Inactivating Protein†

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Matthew B.; Tyler, Peter C.; Evans, Gary B.; Schramm, Vern L.

    2009-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) catalyze the hydrolytic depurination of one or more adenosine residues from eukaryotic ribosomes. Depurination of the ribosomal sarcin-ricin tetraloop (GAGA) causes inhibition of protein synthesis and cellular death. We characterized the catalytic properties of saporin-L1 from Saponaria officinalis (soapwort) leaves and demonstrate robust activity against defined nucleic acid substrates and mammalian ribosomes. Transition state analogue mimics of small oligonucleotide substrates of saporin-L1 are powerful, slow-onset inhibitors when adenosine is replaced with the transition state mimic 9-deazaadenine-9-methylene-N-hydroxypyrrolidine (DADMeA). Linear, cyclic and stem-loop oligonucleotide inhibitors containing DADMeA and based on the GAGA sarcin-ricin tetraloop gave slow-onset tight-binding inhibition constants (Ki*) of 2.3 to 8.7 nM at physiological conditions and bind up to 40,000-fold tighter than RNA substrates. Saporin-L1 inhibition of rabbit reticulocyte translation was protected by these inhibitors. Transition state analogues of saporin-L1 have potential in cancer therapy that employs saporin-L1 linked immunotoxins. PMID:19764816

  5. Rates of synthesis and degradation of ribosomal ribonucleic acid during differentiation of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed Central

    Mangiarotti, G; Altruda, F; Lodish, H F

    1981-01-01

    Synthesis of ribosomes and ribosomal ribonucleic acid (RNA) continued during differentiation of Dictyostelium discoideum concurrently with extensive turnover of ribosomes synthesized during both growth and developmental stages. We show here that the rate of synthesis of 26S and 17S ribosomal RNA during differentiation was less than 15% of that in growing cells, and by the time of sorocarp formation only about 25% of the cellular ribosomes had been synthesized during differentiation. Ribosomes synthesized during growth and differentiation were utilized in messenger RNA translation to the same extent; about 50% of each class were on polyribosomes. Ribosome degradation is apparently an all-or-nothing process, since virtually all 80S monosomes present in developing cells could be incorporated into polysomes when growth conditions were restored. By several criteria, ribosomes synthesized during growth and differentiation were functionally indistinguishable. Our data, together with previously published information on changes in the messenger RNA population during differentiation, indicate that synthesis of new ribosomes is not necessary for translation of developmentally regulated messenger RNA. We also establish that the overall rate of messenger RNA synthesis during differentiation is less than 15% of that in growing cells. PMID:6965093

  6. Rates of synthesis and degradation of ribosomal ribonucleic acid during differentiation of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Mangiarotti, G; Altruda, F; Lodish, H F

    1981-01-01

    Synthesis of ribosomes and ribosomal ribonucleic acid (RNA) continued during differentiation of Dictyostelium discoideum concurrently with extensive turnover of ribosomes synthesized during both growth and developmental stages. We show here that the rate of synthesis of 26S and 17S ribosomal RNA during differentiation was less than 15% of that in growing cells, and by the time of sorocarp formation only about 25% of the cellular ribosomes had been synthesized during differentiation. Ribosomes synthesized during growth and differentiation were utilized in messenger RNA translation to the same extent; about 50% of each class were on polyribosomes. Ribosome degradation is apparently an all-or-nothing process, since virtually all 80S monosomes present in developing cells could be incorporated into polysomes when growth conditions were restored. By several criteria, ribosomes synthesized during growth and differentiation were functionally indistinguishable. Our data, together with previously published information on changes in the messenger RNA population during differentiation, indicate that synthesis of new ribosomes is not necessary for translation of developmentally regulated messenger RNA. We also establish that the overall rate of messenger RNA synthesis during differentiation is less than 15% of that in growing cells.

  7. Histone deacetylase 6 associates with ribosomes and regulates de novo protein translation during arsenite stress.

    PubMed

    Kappeler, Kyle V; Zhang, Jack; Dinh, Thai Nho; Strom, Joshua G; Chen, Qin M

    2012-05-01

    Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is known as a cytoplasmic enzyme that regulates cell migration, cell adhesion, and degradation of misfolded proteins by deacetylating substrates such as α-tubulin and Hsp90. When HaCaT keratinocytes were exposed to 1-200μM sodium arsenite, we observed perinuclear localization of HDAC6 within 30 min. Although the overall level of HDAC6 protein did not change, sodium arsenite caused an increase of HDAC6 in ribosomal fractions. Separation of ribosomal subunits versus intact ribosomes or polysomes indicated that HDAC6 was mainly detected in 40/43S fractions containing the small ribosomal subunit in untreated cells but was associated with 40/43S and 60/80S ribosomal fractions in arsenite-treated cells. Immunocytochemistry studies revealed that arsenite caused colocalization of HDAC6 with the ribosomal large and small subunit protein L36a and S6. Both L36a and S6 were detected in the immunocomplex of HDAC6 isolated from arsenite-treated cells. The observed physical interaction of HDAC6 with ribosomes pointed to a role of HDAC6 in stress-induced protein translation. Among arsenite stress-induced proteins, de novo Nrf2 protein translation was inhibited by Tubastatin A. These data demonstrate that HDAC6 was recruited to ribosomes, physically interacted with ribosomal proteins, and regulated de novo protein translation in keratinocytes responding to arsenite stress.

  8. Analysis of plant ribosomes with asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Pitkänen, Leena; Tuomainen, Päivi; Eskelin, Katri

    2014-02-01

    Ribosome profiling is a technique used to separate ribosomal subunits, 80S ribosomes (monosomes), and polyribosomes (polysomes) from other RNA-protein complexes. It is traditionally performed in sucrose gradients. In this study, we used asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF) to characterize ribosome profiles of Nicotiana benthamiana plants. With the optimized running conditions, we were able to separate free molecules from ribosomal subunits and intact ribosomes. We used various chemical and enzymatic treatments to validate the positions of subunits, monosomes, and polysomes in the AsFlFFF fractograms. We also characterized the protein and RNA content of AsFlFFF fractions by gel electrophoresis and western blotting. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that ribosomes remained bound to messenger RNAs (mRNAs) during the analysis. Therefore, we conclude that AsFlFFF can be used for ribosome profiling to study the mRNAs that are being translated. It can also be used to study the protein composition of ribosomes that are active in translation at that particular moment.

  9. Eukaryotic Cell Panorama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodsell, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Diverse biological data may be used to create illustrations of molecules in their cellular context. This report describes the scientific results that support an illustration of a eukaryotic cell, enlarged by one million times to show the distribution and arrangement of macromolecules. The panoramic cross section includes eight panels that extend…

  10. Collodictyon—An Ancient Lineage in the Tree of Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Sen; Burki, Fabien; Bråte, Jon; Keeling, Patrick J.; Klaveness, Dag; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran

    2012-01-01

    The current consensus for the eukaryote tree of life consists of several large assemblages (supergroups) that are hypothesized to describe the existing diversity. Phylogenomic analyses have shed light on the evolutionary relationships within and between supergroups as well as placed newly sequenced enigmatic species close to known lineages. Yet, a few eukaryote species remain of unknown origin and could represent key evolutionary forms for inferring ancient genomic and cellular characteristics of eukaryotes. Here, we investigate the evolutionary origin of the poorly studied protist Collodictyon (subphylum Diphyllatia) by sequencing a cDNA library as well as the 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes. Phylogenomic trees inferred from 124 genes placed Collodictyon close to the bifurcation of the “unikont” and “bikont” groups, either alone or as sister to the potentially contentious excavate Malawimonas. Phylogenies based on rDNA genes confirmed that Collodictyon is closely related to another genus, Diphylleia, and revealed a very low diversity in environmental DNA samples. The early and distinct origin of Collodictyon suggests that it constitutes a new lineage in the global eukaryote phylogeny. Collodictyon shares cellular characteristics with Excavata and Amoebozoa, such as ventral feeding groove supported by microtubular structures and the ability to form thin and broad pseudopods. These may therefore be ancient morphological features among eukaryotes. Overall, this shows that Collodictyon is a key lineage to understand early eukaryote evolution. PMID:22319147

  11. Collodictyon--an ancient lineage in the tree of eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Sen; Burki, Fabien; Bråte, Jon; Keeling, Patrick J; Klaveness, Dag; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran

    2012-06-01

    The current consensus for the eukaryote tree of life consists of several large assemblages (supergroups) that are hypothesized to describe the existing diversity. Phylogenomic analyses have shed light on the evolutionary relationships within and between supergroups as well as placed newly sequenced enigmatic species close to known lineages. Yet, a few eukaryote species remain of unknown origin and could represent key evolutionary forms for inferring ancient genomic and cellular characteristics of eukaryotes. Here, we investigate the evolutionary origin of the poorly studied protist Collodictyon (subphylum Diphyllatia) by sequencing a cDNA library as well as the 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes. Phylogenomic trees inferred from 124 genes placed Collodictyon close to the bifurcation of the "unikont" and "bikont" groups, either alone or as sister to the potentially contentious excavate Malawimonas. Phylogenies based on rDNA genes confirmed that Collodictyon is closely related to another genus, Diphylleia, and revealed a very low diversity in environmental DNA samples. The early and distinct origin of Collodictyon suggests that it constitutes a new lineage in the global eukaryote phylogeny. Collodictyon shares cellular characteristics with Excavata and Amoebozoa, such as ventral feeding groove supported by microtubular structures and the ability to form thin and broad pseudopods. These may therefore be ancient morphological features among eukaryotes. Overall, this shows that Collodictyon is a key lineage to understand early eukaryote evolution.

  12. The elongation, termination, and recycling phases of translation in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Dever, Thomas E; Green, Rachel

    2012-07-01

    This work summarizes our current understanding of the elongation and termination/recycling phases of eukaryotic protein synthesis. We focus here on recent advances in the field. In addition to an overview of translation elongation, we discuss unique aspects of eukaryotic translation elongation including eEF1 recycling, eEF2 modification, and eEF3 and eIF5A function. Likewise, we highlight the function of the eukaryotic release factors eRF1 and eRF3 in translation termination, and the functions of ABCE1/Rli1, the Dom34:Hbs1 complex, and Ligatin (eIF2D) in ribosome recycling. Finally, we present some of the key questions in translation elongation, termination, and recycling that remain to be answered.

  13. Ribosomal protein uS19 mutants reveal its role in coordinating ribosome structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Alicia M; Musalgaonkar, Sharmishtha; Moomau, Christine A; Gulay, Suna P; Mirvis, Mary; Dinman, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies identified allosteric information pathways connecting functional centers in the large ribosomal subunit to the decoding center in the small subunit through the B1a and B1b/c intersubunit bridges in yeast. In prokaryotes a single SSU protein, uS13, partners with H38 (the A-site finger) and uL5 to form the B1a and B1b/c bridges respectively. In eukaryotes, the SSU component was split into 2 separate proteins during the course of evolution. One, also known as uS13, participates in B1b/c bridge with uL5 in eukaryotes. The other, called uS19 is the SSU partner in the B1a bridge with H38. Here, polyalanine mutants of uS19 involved in the uS19/uS13 and the uS19/H38 interfaces were used to elucidate the important amino acid residues involved in these intersubunit communication pathways. Two key clusters of amino acids were identified: one located at the junction between uS19 and uS13, and a second that appears to interact with the distal tip of H38. Biochemical analyses reveal that these mutations shift the ribosomal rotational equilibrium toward the unrotated state, increasing ribosomal affinity for tRNAs in the P-site and for ternary complex in the A-site, and inhibit binding of the translocase, eEF2. These defects in turn affect specific aspects of translational fidelity. These findings suggest that uS19 plays a critical role as a conduit of information exchange between the large and small ribosomal subunits directly through the B1a, and indirectly through the B1b/c bridges. PMID:26824029

  14. Molecular basis for protection of ribosomal protein L4 from cellular degradation

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Ferdinand M.; Hoelz, André

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis requires the nuclear import of ∼80 nascent ribosomal proteins and the elimination of excess amounts by the cellular degradation machinery. Assembly chaperones recognize nascent unassembled ribosomal proteins and transport them together with karyopherins to their nuclear destination. We report the crystal structure of ribosomal protein L4 (RpL4) bound to its dedicated assembly chaperone of L4 (Acl4), revealing extensive interactions sequestering 70 exposed residues of the extended RpL4 loop. The observed molecular recognition fundamentally differs from canonical promiscuous chaperone–substrate interactions. We demonstrate that the eukaryote-specific RpL4 extension harbours overlapping binding sites for Acl4 and the nuclear transport factor Kap104, facilitating its continuous protection from the cellular degradation machinery. Thus, Acl4 serves a dual function to facilitate nuclear import and simultaneously protect unassembled RpL4 from the cellular degradation machinery. PMID:28148929

  15. Rli1/ABCE1 recycles terminating ribosomes and controls translation reinitiation in 3′UTRs in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Young, David J.; Guydosh, Nicholas R.; Zhang, Fan; Hinnebusch, Alan G.; Green, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    To study the function of ABCE1/Rli1 in vivo, we used ribosome profiling and biochemistry to characterize its contribution to ribosome recycling. When Rli1 levels were diminished, 80S ribosomes accumulated both at stop codons and in the adjoining 3′UTRs of most messenger RNAs. Frequently these ribosomes reinitiated translation without the need for a canonical start codon, as small peptide products predicted by 3′UTR ribosome occupancy in all 3 reading frames were confirmed by Western analysis and mass spectrometry. Eliminating the ribosome-rescue factor Dom34 dramatically increased 3′UTR ribosome occupancy in Rli1 depleted cells, indicating that Dom34 clears the bulk of unrecycled ribosomes. Thus, Rli1 is crucial for ribosome recycling in vivo and controls ribosome homeostasis. 3′UTR translation occurs in wild-type cells as well, and observations of elevated 3′UTR ribosomes during stress suggest that modulating recycling and reinitiation is involved in responding to environmental changes. PMID:26276635

  16. Pokeweed antiviral protein region Gly209-Lys225 is critical for RNA N-glycosidase activity of the prokaryotic ribosome.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Yoshimi; Fujii, Kazuyuki; Yoshikawa, Takafumi; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Kondo, Toshiya

    2008-05-01

    Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) isolated from Phytolacca americana is a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) that has RNA N-glycosidase (RNG) activity towards both eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes. In contrast, karasurin-A (KRN), a RIP from Trichosanthes kirilowii var. japonica, is active only on eukaryotic ribosomes. Stepwise selection of chimera proteins between PAP and KRN indicated that the C-terminal region of PAP (residues 209-225) was critical for RNG activity toward prokaryotic ribosomes. When the region of PAP (residues 209-225) was replaced with the corresponding region of KRN the PAP chimera protein, like KRN, was active only on eukaryotic ribosomes. Furthermore, insertion of the region of PAP (residues 209-225) into the KRN chimera protein resulted not only in the detectable RNG activity toward prokaryotic ribosome, but also activity toward the eukaryotic ribosomes as well that was seven-fold higher than for the original KRN. In this study, the possibility of genetic manipulation of the activity and substrate specificity of RIPs is demonstrated.

  17. Ribosome maturation in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Silengo, L; Altruda, F; Dotto, G P; Lacquaniti, F; Perlo, C; Turco, E; Mangiarotti, G

    1977-01-01

    In vivo and in vitro experiments have shown that processing of ribosomal RNA is a late event in ribosome biogenesis. The precursor form of RNA is probably necessary to speed up the assembly of ribomal proteins. Newly formed ribosomal particles which have already entered polyribosomes differ from mature ribosomes not only in their RNA content but also in their susceptibility to unfolding in low Mg concentration and to RNase attack. Final maturation of new ribosomes is probably dependent on their functioning in protein synthesis. Thus only those ribosomes which have proven to be functional may be converted into stable cellular structures.

  18. Purification of 70S ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Maria C; Maguire, Bruce; Lake, James A

    2015-03-02

    Here we describe the further purification of prokaryotic ribosomal particles obtained after the centrifugation of a crude cell lysate through a sucrose cushion. In this final purification step, a fraction containing ribosomes, ribosomal subunits, and polysomes is centrifuged through a 7%-30% (w/w) linear sucrose gradient to isolate tight couple 70S ribosomes, as well as dissociated 30S and 50S subunits. The tight couples fraction, or translationally active ribosome fraction, is composed of intact vacant ribosomes that can be used in cell-free translation systems.

  19. Listerin-dependent nascent protein ubiquitination relies on ribosome subunit dissociation.

    PubMed

    Shao, Sichen; von der Malsburg, Karina; Hegde, Ramanujan S

    2013-06-06

    Quality control of defective mRNAs relies on their translation to detect the lesion. Aberrant proteins are therefore an obligate byproduct of mRNA surveillance and must be degraded to avoid disrupting protein homeostasis. These defective translation products are thought to be ubiquitinated at the ribosome, but the mechanism of ubiquitin ligase selectivity for these ribosomes is not clear. Here, we in vitro reconstitute ubiquitination of nascent proteins produced from aberrant mRNAs. Stalled 80S ribosome-nascent chain complexes are dissociated by the ribosome recycling factors Hbs1/Pelota/ABCE1 to a unique 60S-nascent chain-tRNA complex. The ubiquitin ligase Listerin preferentially recognizes 60S-nascent chains and triggers efficient nascent chain ubiquitination. Interfering with Hbs1 function stabilizes 80S complexes, precludes efficient Listerin recruitment, and reduces nascent chain ubiquitination. Thus, ribosome recycling factors control Listerin localization, explaining how translation products of mRNA surveillance are efficiently ubiquitinated while sparing translating ribosomes.

  20. Mechanisms of In Vivo Ribosome Maintenance Change in Response to Nutrient Signals*

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Andrew D.; Naylor, Bradley C.; Carson, Richard H.; Evans, Eric; Harwell, Justin; Knecht, Jared; Hexem, Eric; Peelor, Fredrick F.; Miller, Benjamin F.; Hamilton, Karyn L.; Transtrum, Mark K.; Bikman, Benjamin T.; Price, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Control of protein homeostasis is fundamental to the health and longevity of all organisms. Because the rate of protein synthesis by ribosomes is a central control point in this process, regulation, and maintenance of ribosome function could have amplified importance in the overall regulatory circuit. Indeed, ribosomal defects are commonly associated with loss of protein homeostasis, aging, and disease (1–4), whereas improved protein homeostasis, implying optimal ribosomal function, is associated with disease resistance and increased lifespan (5–7). To maintain a high-quality ribosome population within the cell, dysfunctional ribosomes are targeted for autophagic degradation. It is not known if complete degradation is the only mechanism for eukaryotic ribosome maintenance or if they might also be repaired by replacement of defective components. We used stable-isotope feeding and protein mass spectrometry to measure the kinetics of turnover of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and 71 ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) in mice. The results indicate that exchange of individual proteins and whole ribosome degradation both contribute to ribosome maintenance in vivo. In general, peripheral r-proteins and those with more direct roles in peptide-bond formation are replaced multiple times during the lifespan of the assembled structure, presumably by exchange with a free cytoplasmic pool, whereas the majority of r-proteins are stably incorporated for the lifetime of the ribosome. Dietary signals impact the rates of both new ribosome assembly and component exchange. Signal-specific modulation of ribosomal repair and degradation could provide a mechanistic link in the frequently observed associations among diminished rates of protein synthesis, increased autophagy, and greater longevity (5, 6, 8, 9). PMID:27932527

  1. Ribosome dynamics during decoding

    PubMed Central

    Maracci, Cristina; Stark, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Elongation factors Tu (EF-Tu) and SelB are translational GTPases that deliver aminoacyl-tRNAs (aa-tRNAs) to the ribosome. In each canonical round of translation elongation, aa-tRNAs, assisted by EF-Tu, decode mRNA codons and insert the respective amino acid into the growing peptide chain. Stop codons usually lead to translation termination; however, in special cases UGA codons are recoded to selenocysteine (Sec) with the help of SelB. Recruitment of EF-Tu and SelB together with their respective aa-tRNAs to the ribosome is a multistep process. In this review, we summarize recent progress in understanding the role of ribosome dynamics in aa-tRNA selection. We describe the path to correct codon recognition by canonical elongator aa-tRNA and Sec-tRNASec and discuss the local and global rearrangements of the ribosome in response to correct and incorrect aa-tRNAs. We present the mechanisms of GTPase activation and GTP hydrolysis of EF-Tu and SelB and summarize what is known about the accommodation of aa-tRNA on the ribosome after its release from the elongation factor. We show how ribosome dynamics ensures high selectivity for the cognate aa-tRNA and suggest that conformational fluctuations, induced fit and kinetic discrimination play major roles in maintaining the speed and fidelity of translation. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Perspectives on the ribosome’. PMID:28138068

  2. Subseabed Radioactive Waste Disposal Feasibility Program: ocean engineering challenges for the 80's

    SciTech Connect

    Talbert, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of the Subseabed Disposal Program is to assess the feasibility of disposing of high-level radioactive wastes or spent fuel in suitable geologic formations beneath the deep ocean floor. The program is entering a phase which will address engineering feasibility. While the current phase of the program to determine the scientific and environmental feasibility of the concept is not yet complete, activities to assess the engineering aspects are being initiated in parallel to facilitate the development of the concept on a time scale commensurate with other related programs both in the United States and abroad. It is anticipated that engineering aspects will become the central focus of the program during the early 80's and will continue so through the establishment of a pilot-plant level activity which could occur by the mid-90's.

  3. Autophagy in unicellular eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Kiel, Jan A K W

    2010-03-12

    Cells need a constant supply of precursors to enable the production of macromolecules to sustain growth and survival. Unlike metazoans, unicellular eukaryotes depend exclusively on the extracellular medium for this supply. When environmental nutrients become depleted, existing cytoplasmic components will be catabolized by (macro)autophagy in order to re-use building blocks and to support ATP production. In many cases, autophagy takes care of cellular housekeeping to sustain cellular viability. Autophagy encompasses a multitude of related and often highly specific processes that are implicated in both biogenetic and catabolic processes. Recent data indicate that in some unicellular eukaryotes that undergo profound differentiation during their life cycle (e.g. kinetoplastid parasites and amoebes), autophagy is essential for the developmental change that allows the cell to adapt to a new host or form spores. This review summarizes the knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of autophagy as well as the cytoplasm-to-vacuole-targeting pathway, pexophagy, mitophagy, ER-phagy, ribophagy and piecemeal microautophagy of the nucleus, all highly selective forms of autophagy that have first been uncovered in yeast species. Additionally, a detailed analysis will be presented on the state of knowledge on autophagy in non-yeast unicellular eukaryotes with emphasis on the role of this process in differentiation.

  4. A novel RNA-binding motif in omnipotent suppressors of translation termination, ribosomal proteins and a ribosome modification enzyme?

    PubMed

    Koonin, E V; Bork, P; Sander, C

    1994-06-11

    Using computer methods for database search, multiple alignment, protein sequence motif analysis and secondary structure prediction, a putative new RNA-binding motif was identified. The novel motif is conserved in yeast omnipotent translation termination suppressor SUP1, the related DOM34 protein and its pseudogene homologue; three groups of eukaryotic and archaeal ribosomal proteins, namely L30e, L7Ae/S6e and S12e; an uncharacterized Bacillus subtilis protein related to the L7A/S6e group; and Escherichia coli ribosomal protein modification enzyme RimK. We hypothesize that a new type of RNA-binding domain may be utilized to deliver additional activities to the ribosome.

  5. Use of 16S Ribosomal RNA Sequences to Infer Relationships among Archaebacteria.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-16

    FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Archaebacteria; Eubacteria ; Eukaryotes; 16S Ribosomal RNA; 08 I Phylogeny; rRNA; RNA Sequencing; Molecular Clock; Urkingdoms; r...16S rRNA data were used to infer the relat onships among the archaebacteria, and of the archaebacteria to the eubacteria and eukaryotes. ur programs for...been published (1, 2, 16, 18). The analyses render untenable the suggestions of Lake and colleagues (Lake et al., 1985) that the eubacteria derive from

  6. A translation-like cycle is a quality control checkpoint for maturing 40S ribosome subunits.

    PubMed

    Strunk, Bethany S; Novak, Megan N; Young, Crystal L; Karbstein, Katrin

    2012-07-06

    Assembly factors (AFs) prevent premature translation initiation on small (40S) ribosomal subunit assembly intermediates by blocking ligand binding. However, it is unclear how AFs are displaced from maturing 40S ribosomes, if or how maturing subunits are assessed for fidelity, and what prevents premature translation initiation once AFs dissociate. Here we show that maturation involves a translation-like cycle whereby the translation factor eIF5B, a GTPase, promotes joining of large (60S) subunits with pre-40S subunits to give 80S-like complexes, which are subsequently disassembled by the termination factor Rli1, an ATPase. The AFs Tsr1 and Rio2 block the mRNA channel and initiator tRNA binding site, and therefore 80S-like ribosomes lack mRNA or initiator tRNA. After Tsr1 and Rio2 dissociate from 80S-like complexes Rli1-directed displacement of 60S subunits allows for translation initiation. This cycle thus provides a functional test of 60S subunit binding and the GTPase site before ribosomes enter the translating pool.

  7. Structural basis for stop codon recognition in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alan; Shao, Sichen; Murray, Jason; Hegde, Ramanujan S; Ramakrishnan, V

    2015-08-27

    Termination of protein synthesis occurs when a translating ribosome encounters one of three universally conserved stop codons: UAA, UAG or UGA. Release factors recognize stop codons in the ribosomal A-site to mediate release of the nascent chain and recycling of the ribosome. Bacteria decode stop codons using two separate release factors with differing specificities for the second and third bases. By contrast, eukaryotes rely on an evolutionarily unrelated omnipotent release factor (eRF1) to recognize all three stop codons. The molecular basis of eRF1 discrimination for stop codons over sense codons is not known. Here we present cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures at 3.5-3.8 Å resolution of mammalian ribosomal complexes containing eRF1 interacting with each of the three stop codons in the A-site. Binding of eRF1 flips nucleotide A1825 of 18S ribosomal RNA so that it stacks on the second and third stop codon bases. This configuration pulls the fourth position base into the A-site, where it is stabilized by stacking against G626 of 18S rRNA. Thus, eRF1 exploits two rRNA nucleotides also used during transfer RNA selection to drive messenger RNA compaction. In this compacted mRNA conformation, stop codons are favoured by a hydrogen-bonding network formed between rRNA and essential eRF1 residues that constrains the identity of the bases. These results provide a molecular framework for eukaryotic stop codon recognition and have implications for future studies on the mechanisms of canonical and premature translation termination.

  8. Origin and diversification of eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Katz, Laura A

    2012-01-01

    The bulk of the diversity of eukaryotic life is microbial. Although the larger eukaryotes-namely plants, animals, and fungi-dominate our visual landscapes, microbial lineages compose the greater part of both genetic diversity and biomass, and contain many evolutionary innovations. Our understanding of the origin and diversification of eukaryotes has improved substantially with analyses of molecular data from diverse lineages. These data have provided insight into the nature of the genome of the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). Yet, the origin of key eukaryotic features, namely the nucleus and cytoskeleton, remains poorly understood. In contrast, the past decades have seen considerable refinement in hypotheses on the major branching events in the evolution of eukaryotic diversity. New insights have also emerged, including evidence for the acquisition of mitochondria at the time of the origin of eukaryotes and data supporting the dynamic nature of genomes in LECA.

  9. [Similar features in mechanisms of translation initiation of mRNAs in eukaryotic and prokaryotic systems].

    PubMed

    Andreev, D E; Terenin, I M; Dmitriev, S E; Shatskiĭ, I N

    2006-01-01

    Using as examples non-canonical features of translation initiation for some bacterial and mammalian mRNAs with unusual 5'- untranslated regions (5'-UTR) or lacking these regions (leaderless mRNAs), the authors of this review discuss similarities in mechanisms of translation initiation on prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomes.

  10. Ribosome profiling reveals pervasive translation outside of annotated protein-coding genes.

    PubMed

    Ingolia, Nicholas T; Brar, Gloria A; Stern-Ginossar, Noam; Harris, Michael S; Talhouarne, Gaëlle J S; Jackson, Sarah E; Wills, Mark R; Weissman, Jonathan S

    2014-09-11

    Ribosome profiling suggests that ribosomes occupy many regions of the transcriptome thought to be noncoding, including 5' UTRs and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Apparent ribosome footprints outside of protein-coding regions raise the possibility of artifacts unrelated to translation, particularly when they occupy multiple, overlapping open reading frames (ORFs). Here, we show hallmarks of translation in these footprints: copurification with the large ribosomal subunit, response to drugs targeting elongation, trinucleotide periodicity, and initiation at early AUGs. We develop a metric for distinguishing between 80S footprints and nonribosomal sources using footprint size distributions, which validates the vast majority of footprints outside of coding regions. We present evidence for polypeptide production beyond annotated genes, including the induction of immune responses following human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. Translation is pervasive on cytosolic transcripts outside of conserved reading frames, and direct detection of this expanded universe of translated products enables efforts at understanding how cells manage and exploit its consequences.

  11. The Sec translocon mediated protein transport in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Denks, Kärt; Vogt, Andreas; Sachelaru, Ilie; Petriman, Narcis-Adrian; Kudva, Renuka; Koch, Hans-Georg

    2014-01-01

    Protein transport via the Sec translocon represents an evolutionary conserved mechanism for delivering cytosolically-synthesized proteins to extra-cytosolic compartments. The Sec translocon has a three-subunit core, termed Sec61 in Eukaryotes and SecYEG in Bacteria. It is located in the endoplasmic reticulum of Eukaryotes and in the cytoplasmic membrane of Bacteria where it constitutes a channel that can be activated by multiple partner proteins. These partner proteins determine the mechanism of polypeptide movement across the channel. During SRP-dependent co-translational targeting, the ribosome threads the nascent protein directly into the Sec channel. This pathway is in Bacteria mainly dedicated for membrane proteins but in Eukaryotes also employed by secretory proteins. The alternative pathway, leading to post-translational translocation across the Sec translocon engages an ATP-dependent pushing mechanism by the motor protein SecA in Bacteria and a ratcheting mechanism by the lumenal chaperone BiP in Eukaryotes. Protein transport and biogenesis is also assisted by additional proteins at the lateral gate of SecY/Sec61α and in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum or in the periplasm of bacterial cells. The modular assembly enables the Sec complex to transport a vast array of substrates. In this review we summarize recent biochemical and structural information on the prokaryotic and eukaryotic Sec translocons and we describe the remarkably complex interaction network of the Sec complexes.

  12. Isolation of ribosomes and polysomes.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Maria C; Maguire, Bruce; Lake, James A

    2015-03-02

    Here we describe a preparative differential centrifugation protocol for the isolation of ribosomes from a crude cell homogenate. The subcellular fraction obtained is enriched in ribosome monomers and polysomes. The protocol has been optimized for the homogenization and collection of the ribosomal fraction from prokaryotic cells, mammalian and plant tissues, reticulocytes, and chloroplasts. The quality of the ribosomal preparation is enhanced by the removal of the remaining cellular components and adsorbed proteins by pelleting through a sucrose cushion with a high concentration of monovalent salts, NH4Cl or KCl. The different components of the ribosomal fraction isolated using this protocol can be further purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation.

  13. Eukaryotic mechanosensitive channels.

    PubMed

    Arnadóttir, Jóhanna; Chalfie, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Mechanosensitive ion channels are gated directly by physical stimuli and transduce these stimuli into electrical signals. Several criteria must apply for a channel to be considered mechanically gated. Mechanosensitive channels from bacterial systems have met these criteria, but few eukaryotic channels have been confirmed by the same standards. Recent work has suggested or confirmed that diverse types of channels, including TRP channels, K(2P) channels, MscS-like proteins, and DEG/ENaC channels, are mechanically gated. Several studies point to the importance of the plasma membrane for channel gating, but intracellular and/or extracellular structures may also be required.

  14. Specialized yeast ribosomes: a customized tool for selective mRNA translation.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Johann W; Brandl, Clemens; Haubenreisser, Olaf; Wimmer, Bjoern; Weber, Manuela; Karl, Thomas; Klausegger, Alfred; Breitenbach, Michael; Hintner, Helmut; von der Haar, Tobias; Tuite, Mick F; Breitenbach-Koller, Lore

    2013-01-01

    Evidence is now accumulating that sub-populations of ribosomes - so-called specialized ribosomes - can favour the translation of subsets of mRNAs. Here we use a large collection of diploid yeast strains, each deficient in one or other copy of the set of ribosomal protein (RP) genes, to generate eukaryotic cells carrying distinct populations of altered 'specialized' ribosomes. We show by comparative protein synthesis assays that different heterologous mRNA reporters based on luciferase are preferentially translated by distinct populations of specialized ribosomes. These mRNAs include reporters carrying premature termination codons (PTC) thus allowing us to identify specialized ribosomes that alter the efficiency of translation termination leading to enhanced synthesis of the wild-type protein. This finding suggests that these strains can be used to identify novel therapeutic targets in the ribosome. To explore this further we examined the translation of the mRNA encoding the extracellular matrix protein laminin β3 (LAMB3) since a LAMB3-PTC mutant is implicated in the blistering skin disease Epidermolysis bullosa (EB). This screen identified specialized ribosomes with reduced levels of RP L35B as showing enhanced synthesis of full-length LAMB3 in cells expressing the LAMB3-PTC mutant. Importantly, the RP L35B sub-population of specialized ribosomes leave both translation of a reporter luciferase carrying a different PTC and bulk mRNA translation largely unaltered.

  15. Ribosomes slide on lysine-encoding homopolymeric A stretches.

    PubMed

    Koutmou, Kristin S; Schuller, Anthony P; Brunelle, Julie L; Radhakrishnan, Aditya; Djuranovic, Sergej; Green, Rachel

    2015-02-19

    Protein output from synonymous codons is thought to be equivalent if appropriate tRNAs are sufficiently abundant. Here we show that mRNAs encoding iterated lysine codons, AAA or AAG, differentially impact protein synthesis: insertion of iterated AAA codons into an ORF diminishes protein expression more than insertion of synonymous AAG codons. Kinetic studies in E. coli reveal that differential protein production results from pausing on consecutive AAA-lysines followed by ribosome sliding on homopolymeric A sequence. Translation in a cell-free expression system demonstrates that diminished output from AAA-codon-containing reporters results from premature translation termination on out of frame stop codons following ribosome sliding. In eukaryotes, these premature termination events target the mRNAs for Nonsense-Mediated-Decay (NMD). The finding that ribosomes slide on homopolymeric A sequences explains bioinformatic analyses indicating that consecutive AAA codons are under-represented in gene-coding sequences. Ribosome 'sliding' represents an unexpected type of ribosome movement possible during translation.

  16. Endosymbiotic theories for eukaryote origin

    PubMed Central

    Martin, William F.; Garg, Sriram; Zimorski, Verena

    2015-01-01

    For over 100 years, endosymbiotic theories have figured in thoughts about the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. More than 20 different versions of endosymbiotic theory have been presented in the literature to explain the origin of eukaryotes and their mitochondria. Very few of those models account for eukaryotic anaerobes. The role of energy and the energetic constraints that prokaryotic cell organization placed on evolutionary innovation in cell history has recently come to bear on endosymbiotic theory. Only cells that possessed mitochondria had the bioenergetic means to attain eukaryotic cell complexity, which is why there are no true intermediates in the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition. Current versions of endosymbiotic theory have it that the host was an archaeon (an archaebacterium), not a eukaryote. Hence the evolutionary history and biology of archaea increasingly comes to bear on eukaryotic origins, more than ever before. Here, we have compiled a survey of endosymbiotic theories for the origin of eukaryotes and mitochondria, and for the origin of the eukaryotic nucleus, summarizing the essentials of each and contrasting some of their predictions to the observations. A new aspect of endosymbiosis in eukaryote evolution comes into focus from these considerations: the host for the origin of plastids was a facultative anaerobe. PMID:26323761

  17. Endosymbiotic theories for eukaryote origin.

    PubMed

    Martin, William F; Garg, Sriram; Zimorski, Verena

    2015-09-26

    For over 100 years, endosymbiotic theories have figured in thoughts about the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. More than 20 different versions of endosymbiotic theory have been presented in the literature to explain the origin of eukaryotes and their mitochondria. Very few of those models account for eukaryotic anaerobes. The role of energy and the energetic constraints that prokaryotic cell organization placed on evolutionary innovation in cell history has recently come to bear on endosymbiotic theory. Only cells that possessed mitochondria had the bioenergetic means to attain eukaryotic cell complexity, which is why there are no true intermediates in the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition. Current versions of endosymbiotic theory have it that the host was an archaeon (an archaebacterium), not a eukaryote. Hence the evolutionary history and biology of archaea increasingly comes to bear on eukaryotic origins, more than ever before. Here, we have compiled a survey of endosymbiotic theories for the origin of eukaryotes and mitochondria, and for the origin of the eukaryotic nucleus, summarizing the essentials of each and contrasting some of their predictions to the observations. A new aspect of endosymbiosis in eukaryote evolution comes into focus from these considerations: the host for the origin of plastids was a facultative anaerobe.

  18. Compilation of small ribosomal subunit RNA structures.

    PubMed Central

    Neefs, J M; Van de Peer, Y; De Rijk, P; Chapelle, S; De Wachter, R

    1993-01-01

    The database on small ribosomal subunit RNA structure contained 1804 nucleotide sequences on April 23, 1993. This number comprises 365 eukaryotic, 65 archaeal, 1260 bacterial, 30 plastidial, and 84 mitochondrial sequences. These are stored in the form of an alignment in order to facilitate the use of the database as input for comparative studies on higher-order structure and for reconstruction of phylogenetic trees. The elements of the postulated secondary structure for each molecule are indicated by special symbols. The database is available on-line directly from the authors by ftp and can also be obtained from the EMBL nucleotide sequence library by electronic mail, ftp, and on CD ROM disk. PMID:8332525

  19. Ribosomal Database Project II

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) provides ribosome related data and services to the scientific community, including online data analysis and aligned and annotated Bacterial small-subunit 16S rRNA sequences. As of March 2008, RDP Release 10 is available and currently (August 2009) contains 1,074,075 aligned 16S rRNA sequences. Data that can be downloaded include zipped GenBank and FASTA alignment files, a histogram (in Excel) of the number of RDP sequences spanning each base position, data in the Functional Gene Pipeline Repository, and various user submitted data. The RDP-II website also provides numerous analysis tools.[From the RDP-II home page at http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/index.jsp

  20. THE NATURE AND PROCESSING OF RIBOSOMAL RIBONUCLEIC ACID IN A DINOFLAGELLATE

    PubMed Central

    Rae, Peter M. M.

    1970-01-01

    Certain features of the dinoflagellate nucleus suggest that it represents a primitive form of eukaryotic nucleus. For this reason, it was of interest to characterize dinoflagellate ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and its mode of synthesis to determine if it also deviated from typical eukaryotic patterns. Gyrodinium cohnii was chosen for this examination. Gyrodinium ribosomal RNA species are 16 and 25s as judged by their sedimentation velocities in isokinetic sucrose gradients. These values are typical of higher plants. In addition, the RNA cosedimented precisely with rRNA from the ciliate Tetrahymena. Nucleotide ratio analyses revealed a GMP + CMP content of 46% for both species of rRNA. The kinetics of incorporation of a radioactive precursor into ribosomal RNA have also been studied, and it seems likely that the maturation of rRNA starts with the synthesis of a 38s molecule. This serves as precursor to the 16s species, and, after a 27s intermediate, the 25s ribosomal component. The process is similar to that in other eukaryotes. The structure of the nucleolus has also been examined, and is seen to be typically eukaryotic. PMID:5459003

  1. The evolution of the ribosome biogenesis pathway from a yeast perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ebersberger, Ingo; Simm, Stefan; Leisegang, Matthias S.; Schmitzberger, Peter; Mirus, Oliver; von Haeseler, Arndt; Bohnsack, Markus T.; Schleiff, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is fundamental for cellular life, but surprisingly little is known about the underlying pathway. In eukaryotes a comprehensive collection of experimentally verified ribosome biogenesis factors (RBFs) exists only for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Far less is known for other fungi, animals or plants, and insights are even more limited for archaea. Starting from 255 yeast RBFs, we integrated ortholog searches, domain architecture comparisons and, in part, manual curation to investigate the inventories of RBF candidates in 261 eukaryotes, 26 archaea and 57 bacteria. The resulting phylogenetic profiles reveal the evolutionary ancestry of the yeast pathway. The oldest core comprising 20 RBF lineages dates back to the last universal common ancestor, while the youngest 20 factors are confined to the Saccharomycotina. On this basis, we outline similarities and differences of ribosome biogenesis across contemporary species. Archaea, so far a rather uncharted domain, possess 38 well-supported RBF candidates of which some are known to form functional sub-complexes in yeast. This provides initial evidence that ribosome biogenesis in eukaryotes and archaea follows similar principles. Within eukaryotes, RBF repertoires vary considerably. A comparison of yeast and human reveals that lineage-specific adaptation via RBF exclusion and addition characterizes the evolution of this ancient pathway. PMID:24234440

  2. Evaluation of ribosomal RNA removal protocols for Salmonella RNA-Seq projects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Next generation sequencing is a powerful technology and its application to sequencing entire RNA populations of food-borne pathogens will provide valuable insights. A problem unique to prokaryotic RNA-Seq is the massive abundance of ribosomal RNA. Unlike eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA), bacterial ...

  3. The eukaryotic RNA exosome.

    PubMed

    Januszyk, Kurt; Lima, Christopher D

    2014-02-01

    The eukaryotic RNA exosome is an essential multi-subunit ribonuclease complex that contributes to the degradation or processing of nearly every class of RNA in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. Its nine-subunit core shares structural similarity to phosphorolytic exoribonucleases such as bacterial PNPase. PNPase and the RNA exosome core feature a central channel that can accommodate single stranded RNA although unlike PNPase, the RNA exosome core is devoid of ribonuclease activity. Instead, the core associates with Rrp44, an endoribonuclease and processive 3'→5' exoribonuclease, and Rrp6, a distributive 3'→5' exoribonuclease. Recent biochemical and structural studies suggest that the exosome core is essential because it coordinates Rrp44 and Rrp6 recruitment, RNA can pass through the central channel, and the association with the core modulates Rrp44 and Rrp6 activities.

  4. Structural basis for stop codon recognition in eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Jason; Hegde, Ramanujan S.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2015-01-01

    Termination of protein synthesis occurs when a translating ribosome encounters one of three universally conserved stop codons: UGA, UAA, or UAG. Release factors recognise stop codons in the ribosomal A site to mediate release of the nascent chain and recycling of the ribosome. Bacteria decode stop codons using two separate release factors with differing specificities for the second and third bases1. By contrast, eukaryotes rely on an evolutionarily unrelated omnipotent release factor (eRF1) to recognise all three stop codons2. The molecular basis of eRF1 discrimination for stop codons over sense codons is not known. Here, we present electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) structures at 3.5 – 3.8 Å resolution of mammalian ribosomal complexes containing eRF1 interacting with each of the three stop codons in the A site. Binding of eRF1 flips nucleotide A1825 of 18S rRNA so that it stacks on the second and third stop codon bases. This configuration pulls the fourth position base into the A site, where it is stabilised by stacking against G626 of 18S rRNA. Thus, eRF1 exploits two rRNA nucleotides also used during tRNA selection to drive mRNA compaction. Stop codons are favoured in this compacted mRNA conformation by a hydrogen-bonding network with essential eRF1 residues that constrains the identity of the bases. These results provide a molecular framework for eukaryotic stop codon recognition and have implications for future studies on the mechanisms of canonical and premature translation termination3,4. PMID:26245381

  5. Suppression of eukaryotic translation termination by selected RNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Carnes, J; Frolova, L; Zinnen, S; Drugeon, G; Phillippe, M; Justesen, J; Haenni, A L; Leinwand, L; Kisselev, L L; Yarus, M

    2000-01-01

    Using selection-amplification, we have isolated RNAs with affinity for translation termination factors eRF1 and eRF1.eRF3 complex. Individual RNAs not only bind, but inhibit eRF1-mediated release of a model nascent chain from eukaryotic ribosomes. There is also significant but weaker inhibition of eRF1-stimulated eRF3 GTPase and eRF3 stimulation of eRF1 release activity. These latter selected RNAs therefore hinder eRF1.eRF3 interactions. Finally, four RNA inhibitors of release suppress a UAG stop codon in mammalian extracts dependent for termination on eRF1 from several metazoan species. These RNAs are therefore new specific inhibitors for the analysis of eukaryotic termination, and potentially a new class of omnipotent termination suppressors with possible therapeutic significance. PMID:11073222

  6. Isolation of ribosomes by chromatography.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Bruce A

    2015-04-01

    Mixed-mode chromatography on cysteine-SulfoLink resin efficiently separates ribosomes from cell lysates and is particularly effective at rapidly removing endogenous proteases and nucleases, resulting in ribosomes of improved purity, integrity, and activity. Binding occurs partly by anion exchange of the RNA of the ribosomes, so that cells must be lysed in a buffer of moderate ionic strength (conductivity no more than 20 mS for chromatography of bacterial ribosomes) without any highly charged additives (e.g., heparin, which is used to inhibit RNases in yeast). A robust protocol for Escherichia coli is given here as an example.

  7. Ribonuclease selection for ribosome profiling

    PubMed Central

    Gerashchenko, Maxim V.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2017-01-01

    Ribosome profiling has emerged as a powerful method to assess global gene translation, but methodological and analytical challenges often lead to inconsistencies across labs and model organisms. A critical issue in ribosome profiling is nuclease treatment of ribosome–mRNA complexes, as it is important to ensure both stability of ribosomal particles and complete conversion of polysomes to monosomes. We performed comparative ribosome profiling in yeast and mice with various ribonucleases including I, A, S7 and T1, characterized their cutting preferences, trinucleotide periodicity patterns and coverage similarities across coding sequences, and showed that they yield comparable estimations of gene expression when ribosome integrity is not compromised. However, ribosome coverage patterns of individual transcripts had little in common between the ribonucleases. We further examined their potency at converting polysomes to monosomes across other commonly used model organisms, including bacteria, nematodes and fruit flies. In some cases, ribonuclease treatment completely degraded ribosome populations. Ribonuclease T1 was the only enzyme that preserved ribosomal integrity while thoroughly converting polysomes to monosomes in all examined species. This study provides a guide for ribonuclease selection in ribosome profiling experiments across most common model systems. PMID:27638886

  8. Origins of eukaryotic sexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, Ursula; Heitman, Joseph

    2014-03-01

    Sexual reproduction is a nearly universal feature of eukaryotic organisms. Given its ubiquity and shared core features, sex is thought to have arisen once in the last common ancestor to all eukaryotes. Using the perspectives of molecular genetics and cell biology, we consider documented and hypothetical scenarios for the instantiation and evolution of meiosis, fertilization, sex determination, uniparental inheritance of organelle genomes, and speciation.

  9. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Jason W; Cropp, T Ashton; Anderson, J Christopher; Schultz, Peter G

    2012-02-14

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  10. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2013-01-22

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  11. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Jason W; Cropp, T Ashton; Anderson, J Christopher; Schultz, Peter G

    2012-05-08

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  12. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    DOEpatents

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2009-12-01

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  13. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    DOEpatents

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2009-10-27

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  14. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    DOEpatents

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2017-02-28

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  15. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    DOEpatents

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2010-09-14

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  16. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    DOEpatents

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2009-11-17

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  17. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Jason W; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G

    2015-02-03

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  18. Structures and stabilization of kinetoplastid-specific split rRNAs revealed by comparing leishmanial and human ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xing; Lai, Mason; Chang, Winston; Yu, Iris; Ding, Ke; Mrazek, Jan; Ng, Hwee L.; Yang, Otto O.; Maslov, Dmitri A.; Zhou, Z. Hong

    2016-01-01

    The recent success in ribosome structure determination by cryoEM has opened the door to defining structural differences between ribosomes of pathogenic organisms and humans and to understand ribosome-targeting antibiotics. Here, by direct electron-counting cryoEM, we have determined the structures of the Leishmania donovani and human ribosomes at 2.9 Å and 3.6 Å, respectively. Our structure of the leishmanial ribosome elucidates the organization of the six fragments of its large subunit rRNA (as opposed to a single 28S rRNA in most eukaryotes, including humans) and reveals atomic details of a unique 20 amino acid extension of the uL13 protein that pins down the ends of three of the rRNA fragments. The structure also fashions many large rRNA expansion segments. Direct comparison of our human and leishmanial ribosome structures at the decoding A-site sheds light on how the bacterial ribosome-targeting drug paromomycin selectively inhibits the eukaryotic L. donovani, but not human, ribosome. PMID:27752045

  19. N(α)-Acetylation of yeast ribosomal proteins and its effect on protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kamita, Masahiro; Kimura, Yayoi; Ino, Yoko; Kamp, Roza M; Polevoda, Bogdan; Sherman, Fred; Hirano, Hisashi

    2011-04-01

    N(α)-Acetyltransferases (NATs) cause the N(α)-acetylation of the majority of eukaryotic proteins during their translation, although the functions of this modification have been largely unexplored. In yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), four NATs have been identified: NatA, NatB, NatC, and NatD. In this study, the N(α)-acetylation status of ribosomal protein was analyzed using NAT mutants combined with two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry (MS). A total of 60 ribosomal proteins were identified, of which 17 were N(α)-acetylated by NatA, and two by NatB. The N(α)-acetylation of two of these, S17 and L23, by NatA was not previously observed. Furthermore, we tested the effect of ribosomal protein N(α)-acetylation on protein synthesis using the purified ribosomes from each NAT mutant. It was found that the protein synthesis activities of ribosomes from NatA and NatB mutants were decreased by 27% and 23%, respectively, as compared to that of the normal strain. Furthermore, we have shown that ribosomal protein N(α)-acetylation by NatA influences translational fidelity in the presence of paromomycin. These results suggest that ribosomal protein N(α)-acetylation is necessary to maintain the ribosome's protein synthesis function.

  20. Structural insights into the interaction of the ribosomal P stalk protein P2 with a type II ribosome-inactivating protein ricin

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaojiao; Zhu, Yuwei; Wang, Chongyuan; Niu, Liwen; Teng, Maikun; Li, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Ricin is a type II ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) that depurinates A4324 at the sarcin-ricin loop of 28 S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), thus inactivating the ribosome by preventing elongation factors from binding to the GTPase activation centre. Recent studies have disclosed that the conserved C-terminal domain (CTD) of eukaryotic ribosomal P stalk proteins is involved in the process that RIPs target ribosome. However, the details of the molecular interaction between ricin and P stalk proteins remain unknown. Here, we report the structure of ricin-A chain (RTA) in a complex with the CTD of the human ribosomal protein P2. The structure shows that the Phe111, Leu113 and Phe114 residues of P2 insert into a hydrophobic pocket formed by the Tyr183, Arg235, Phe240 and Ile251 residues of RTA, while Asp115 of P2 forms hydrogen bonds with Arg235 of RTA. The key residues in RTA and P2 for complex formation were mutated, and their importance was determined by pull-down assays. The results from cell-free translation assays further confirmed that the interaction with P stalk proteins is essential for the inhibition of protein synthesis by RTA. Taken together, our results provide a structural basis that will improve our understanding of the process by which ricin targets the ribosome, which will benefit the development of effective small-molecule inhibitors for use as therapeutic agents. PMID:27886256

  1. Diverse roles of assembly factors revealed by structures of late nuclear pre-60S ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shan; Tutuncuoglu, Beril; Yan, Kaige; Brown, Hailey; Zhang, Yixiao; Tan, Dan; Gamalinda, Michael; Yuan, Yi; Li, Zhifei; Jakovljevic, Jelena; Ma, Chengying; Lei, Jianlin; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Woolford, John L; Gao, Ning

    2016-06-02

    Ribosome biogenesis is a highly complex process in eukaryotes, involving temporally and spatially regulated ribosomal protein (r-protein) binding and ribosomal RNA remodelling events in the nucleolus, nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. Hundreds of assembly factors, organized into sequential functional groups, facilitate and guide the maturation process into productive assembly branches in and across different cellular compartments. However, the precise mechanisms by which these assembly factors function are largely unknown. Here we use cryo-electron microscopy to characterize the structures of yeast nucleoplasmic pre-60S particles affinity-purified using the epitope-tagged assembly factor Nog2. Our data pinpoint the locations and determine the structures of over 20 assembly factors, which are enriched in two areas: an arc region extending from the central protuberance to the polypeptide tunnel exit, and the domain including the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) that separates 5.8S and 25S ribosomal RNAs. In particular, two regulatory GTPases, Nog2 and Nog1, act as hub proteins to interact with multiple, distant assembly factors and functional ribosomal RNA elements, manifesting their critical roles in structural remodelling checkpoints and nuclear export. Moreover, our snapshots of compositionally and structurally different pre-60S intermediates provide essential mechanistic details for three major remodelling events before nuclear export: rotation of the 5S ribonucleoprotein, construction of the active centre and ITS2 removal. The rich structural information in our structures provides a framework to dissect molecular roles of diverse assembly factors in eukaryotic ribosome assembly.

  2. Following the signal sequence from ribosomal tunnel exit to signal recognition particle.

    PubMed

    Halic, Mario; Blau, Michael; Becker, Thomas; Mielke, Thorsten; Pool, Martin R; Wild, Klemens; Sinning, Irmgard; Beckmann, Roland

    2006-11-23

    Membrane and secretory proteins can be co-translationally inserted into or translocated across the membrane. This process is dependent on signal sequence recognition on the ribosome by the signal recognition particle (SRP), which results in targeting of the ribosome-nascent-chain complex to the protein-conducting channel at the membrane. Here we present an ensemble of structures at subnanometre resolution, revealing the signal sequence both at the ribosomal tunnel exit and in the bacterial and eukaryotic ribosome-SRP complexes. Molecular details of signal sequence interaction in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic complexes were obtained by fitting high-resolution molecular models. The signal sequence is presented at the ribosomal tunnel exit in an exposed position ready for accommodation in the hydrophobic groove of the rearranged SRP54 M domain. Upon ribosome binding, the SRP54 NG domain also undergoes a conformational rearrangement, priming it for the subsequent docking reaction with the NG domain of the SRP receptor. These findings provide the structural basis for improving our understanding of the early steps of co-translational protein sorting.

  3. Endosymbiosis and Eukaryotic Cell Evolution.

    PubMed

    Archibald, John M

    2015-10-05

    Understanding the evolution of eukaryotic cellular complexity is one of the grand challenges of modern biology. It has now been firmly established that mitochondria and plastids, the classical membrane-bound organelles of eukaryotic cells, evolved from bacteria by endosymbiosis. In the case of mitochondria, evidence points very clearly to an endosymbiont of α-proteobacterial ancestry. The precise nature of the host cell that partnered with this endosymbiont is, however, very much an open question. And while the host for the cyanobacterial progenitor of the plastid was undoubtedly a fully-fledged eukaryote, how - and how often - plastids moved from one eukaryote to another during algal diversification is vigorously debated. In this article I frame modern views on endosymbiotic theory in a historical context, highlighting the transformative role DNA sequencing played in solving early problems in eukaryotic cell evolution, and posing key unanswered questions emerging from the age of comparative genomics.

  4. Ribosomal vaccines. I. Immunogenicity of ribosomal fractions isolated from Salmonella typhimurium and Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, W

    1972-06-01

    The immunogenicity of ribosomes and ribosomal subfractions isolated from Yersina pestis and Salmonella typhimurium has been studied. Ribosomes and ribosomal protein isolated from S. typhimurium protected mice against lethal challenge. Ribosomal ribonucleic acid isolated by phenol extraction failed to induce any significant level of protection in mice. None of the ribosomes or ribosomal subfractions isolated from Y. pestis were effective in inducing immunity to lethal challenge. These results suggest that the immunogen of the ribosomal vaccine is protein.

  5. A congruent phylogenomic signal places eukaryotes within the Archaea.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tom A; Foster, Peter G; Nye, Tom M W; Cox, Cymon J; Embley, T Martin

    2012-12-22

    Determining the relationships among the major groups of cellular life is important for understanding the evolution of biological diversity, but is difficult given the enormous time spans involved. In the textbook 'three domains' tree based on informational genes, eukaryotes and Archaea share a common ancestor to the exclusion of Bacteria. However, some phylogenetic analyses of the same data have placed eukaryotes within the Archaea, as the nearest relatives of different archaeal lineages. We compared the support for these competing hypotheses using sophisticated phylogenetic methods and an improved sampling of archaeal biodiversity. We also employed both new and existing tests of phylogenetic congruence to explore the level of uncertainty and conflict in the data. Our analyses suggested that much of the observed incongruence is weakly supported or associated with poorly fitting evolutionary models. All of our phylogenetic analyses, whether on small subunit and large subunit ribosomal RNA or concatenated protein-coding genes, recovered a monophyletic group containing eukaryotes and the TACK archaeal superphylum comprising the Thaumarchaeota, Aigarchaeota, Crenarchaeota and Korarchaeota. Hence, while our results provide no support for the iconic three-domain tree of life, they are consistent with an extended eocyte hypothesis whereby vital components of the eukaryotic nuclear lineage originated from within the archaeal radiation.

  6. Synchronization of Eukaryotic Flagella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2012-11-01

    From unicellular organisms as small as a few microns to the largest vertebrates on earth we find groups of beating flagella or cilia that exhibit striking spatio-temporal organization. This may take the form of precise frequency and phase locking as frequently found in the swimming of green algae, or beating with long-wavelength phase modulations known as metachronal waves, seen in ciliates and in our respiratory systems. The remarkable similarity in the underlying molecular structure of flagella across the whole eukaryotic world leads naturally to the hypothesis that a similarly universal mechanism might be responsible for synchronization. Although this mechanism is poorly understood, one appealing hypothesis is that it results from hydrodynamic interactions between flagella. In this talk I will describe a synthesis of recent experimental and theoretical studies of this issue that have provided the strongest evidence to date for the hydrodynamic origin of flagellar synchronization. At the unicellular level this includes studies of the beating of the two flagella of the wild type unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in their native state and under conditions of regrowth following autotomy, and of the flagellar dominance mutant ptx1, which displays unusual anti-phase synchronization. Analysis of the related multicellular organism Volvox carteri shows it to be an ideal model organism for the study of metachronal waves. Supported by BBSRC, EPSRC, ERC, and The Wellcome Trust.

  7. Cytokinesis in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Guertin, David A.; Trautmann, Susanne; McCollum, Dannel

    2002-01-01

    Cytokinesis is the final event of the cell division cycle, and its completion results in irreversible partition of a mother cell into two daughter cells. Cytokinesis was one of the first cell cycle events observed by simple cell biological techniques; however, molecular characterization of cytokinesis has been slowed by its particular resistance to in vitro biochemical approaches. In recent years, the use of genetic model organisms has greatly advanced our molecular understanding of cytokinesis. While the outcome of cytokinesis is conserved in all dividing organisms, the mechanism of division varies across the major eukaryotic kingdoms. Yeasts and animals, for instance, use a contractile ring that ingresses to the cell middle in order to divide, while plant cells build new cell wall outward to the cortex. As would be expected, there is considerable conservation of molecules involved in cytokinesis between yeast and animal cells, while at first glance, plant cells seem quite different. However, in recent years, it has become clear that some aspects of division are conserved between plant, yeast, and animal cells. In this review we discuss the major recent advances in defining cytokinesis, focusing on deciding where to divide, building the division apparatus, and dividing. In addition, we discuss the complex problem of coordinating the division cycle with the nuclear cycle, which has recently become an area of intense research. In conclusion, we discuss how certain cells have utilized cytokinesis to direct development. PMID:12040122

  8. The initiation of eukaryotic and prokaryotic protein synthesis: a selective accessibility and multisubstrate enzyme reaction.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Tokumasa

    2007-11-15

    An extension of our unique accessibility hypothesis for the initiation of protein synthesis is proposed following a review of the initiation of protein synthesis. The E. coli model initiation sequence generated by computer from 68 initiation sequences and the eukaryotic consensus initiation sequence derived by non-computer analysis of 211 initiation sequences do not contain a specific base in any position; they are only assigned preferred bases. The initiation site, in other words, is a varied sequence of preferred bases and its sequence is non-unique. This indicates that the ribosomal recognition of the initiation site may be the result of multiple interactions that are cooperative and cumulative and typical of multisubstrate enzymes. Because of this characteristic, the model of multisubstrate enzymes with broad substrate specificity is proposed as a paradigm for the initiation of protein synthesis. As predicted by this model, changes in the leader and downstream sequences that improve the agreement with the preferred base sequence do indeed enhance the rate of protein synthesis. The eukaryotic/prokaryotic hybrid studies show a considerable overlap in the specificities of the two groups of ribosomes. The scanning of the mRNA from the 5'-end postulated by the scanning hypothesis is not a necessary step since eukaryotic ribosomes are able to bind to internal mRNA sites and initiate synthesis. Our unique accessibility hypothesis, which is extended by coupling cooperative and cumulative specificity in ribosomal function, is referred to for brevity as the cumulative specificity hypothesis. The hypothesis actually postulates a selective accessibility and cooperative-cumulative specificity mechanism; it is able to account for the behavior of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic initiation of protein synthesis. From another perspective, the hypothesis can be regarded as providing a mechanism that enables ribosomes to recognize the IS in the absence of a unique initiation

  9. N(6)-methyladenine DNA modification in the unicellular eukaryotic organism Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Sheng, Yalan; Liu, Yongqiang; Pan, Bo; Huang, Jie; Warren, Alan; Gao, Shan

    2016-12-23

    N(6)-methyladenine DNA (6mA) modification exists in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes in which it plays a crucial role in regulating numerous biological processes. In prokaryotes, 6mA is a marker to distinguish self from foreign DNA. Its role in eukaryotes, however, remains elusive. Ciliates were among the first eukaryotes reported to contain 6mA. In the model organism T. thermophila, cellular localization and features of 6mA have been extensively studied, especially in ribosomal DNA (rDNA) molecules. Here, we summarize the features and potential functions of 6mA in Tetrahymena thermophila and other ciliates, and the major findings and contributions of the Tetrahymena model in studies of 6mA methylation. We also discuss other questions in order to improve understanding of the function and evolution of 6mA in eukaryotes.

  10. Proteomic profiling of the mitochondrial ribosome identifies Atp25 as a composite mitochondrial precursor protein

    PubMed Central

    Woellhaf, Michael W.; Sommer, Frederik; Schroda, Michael; Herrmann, Johannes M.

    2016-01-01

    Whereas the structure and function of cytosolic ribosomes are well characterized, we only have a limited understanding of the mitochondrial translation apparatus. Using SILAC-based proteomic profiling, we identified 13 proteins that cofractionated with the mitochondrial ribosome, most of which play a role in translation or ribosomal biogenesis. One of these proteins is a homologue of the bacterial ribosome-silencing factor (Rsf). This protein is generated from the composite precursor protein Atp25 upon internal cleavage by the matrix processing peptidase MPP, and in this respect, it differs from all other characterized mitochondrial proteins of baker’s yeast. We observed that cytosolic expression of Rsf, but not of noncleaved Atp25 protein, is toxic. Our results suggest that eukaryotic cells face the challenge of avoiding negative interference from the biogenesis of their two distinct translation machineries. PMID:27582385

  11. Protein quality control at the ribosome: focus on RAC, NAC and RQC.

    PubMed

    Gamerdinger, Martin

    2016-10-15

    The biogenesis of new polypeptides by ribosomes and their subsequent correct folding and localization to the appropriate cellular compartments are essential key processes to maintain protein homoeostasis. These complex mechanisms are governed by a repertoire of protein biogenesis factors that directly bind to the ribosome and chaperone nascent polypeptide chains as soon as they emerge from the ribosomal tunnel exit. This nascent chain 'welcoming committee' regulates multiple co-translational processes including protein modifications, folding, targeting and degradation. Acting at the front of the protein production line, these ribosome-associated protein biogenesis factors lead the way in the cellular proteostasis network to ensure proteome integrity. In this article, I focus on three different systems in eukaryotes that are critical for the maintenance of protein homoeostasis by controlling the birth, life and death of nascent polypeptide chains.

  12. Proteomic profiling of the mitochondrial ribosome identifies Atp25 as a composite mitochondrial precursor protein.

    PubMed

    Woellhaf, Michael W; Sommer, Frederik; Schroda, Michael; Herrmann, Johannes M

    2016-10-15

    Whereas the structure and function of cytosolic ribosomes are well characterized, we only have a limited understanding of the mitochondrial translation apparatus. Using SILAC-based proteomic profiling, we identified 13 proteins that cofractionated with the mitochondrial ribosome, most of which play a role in translation or ribosomal biogenesis. One of these proteins is a homologue of the bacterial ribosome-silencing factor (Rsf). This protein is generated from the composite precursor protein Atp25 upon internal cleavage by the matrix processing peptidase MPP, and in this respect, it differs from all other characterized mitochondrial proteins of baker's yeast. We observed that cytosolic expression of Rsf, but not of noncleaved Atp25 protein, is toxic. Our results suggest that eukaryotic cells face the challenge of avoiding negative interference from the biogenesis of their two distinct translation machineries.

  13. Reprogramming the genetic code: the emerging role of ribosomal frameshifting in regulating cellular gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Advani, Vivek M.; Dinman, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Reading frame maintenance is a critical property of ribosomes. However, a number of genetic elements have been described that can induce ribosomes to shift on mRNAs, the most well understood of which are a class that directs ribosomal slippage by one base in 5′ (-1) direction. This is referred to as programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting (-1 PRF). Recently, a new -1 PRF promoting element was serendipitously discovered in a study examining the effects of stretches of adenosines in the coding sequences of mRNAs. Here, we discuss this finding, recent studies describing how -1 PRF is used to control gene expression in eukaryotes, and how -1 PRF is itself regulated. The implications of dysregulation of -1 PRF on human health are examined, as are possible new areas in which novel -1 PRF promoting elements might be discovered. PMID:26661048

  14. Three distinct ribosome assemblies modulated by translation are the building blocks of polysomes

    PubMed Central

    Lunelli, Lorenzo; Passerini, Andrea; Bianchini, Paolo; Gilbert, Robert J.; Bernabò, Paola; Tebaldi, Toma; Diaspro, Alberto; Pederzolli, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Translation is increasingly recognized as a central control layer of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. The overall organization of mRNA and ribosomes within polysomes, as well as the possible role of this organization in translation are poorly understood. Here we show that polysomes are primarily formed by three distinct classes of ribosome assemblies. We observe that these assemblies can be connected by naked RNA regions of the transcript. We show that the relative proportions of the three classes of ribosome assemblies reflect, and probably dictate, the level of translational activity. These results reveal the existence of recurrent supra-ribosomal building blocks forming polysomes and suggest the presence of unexplored translational controls embedded in the polysome structure. PMID:25713412

  15. The unfolded protein response triggers site-specific regulatory ubiquitylation of 40S ribosomal proteins

    PubMed Central

    Rising, Lisa; Mak, Raymond; Webb, Kristofor; Kaiser, Stephen E.; Zuzow, Nathan; Riviere, Paul; Yang, Bing; Fenech, Emma; Tang, Xin; Lindsay, Scott A.; Christianson, John C.; Hampton, Randolph Y.; Wasserman, Steven A.; Bennett, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Insults to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis activate the unfolded protein response (UPR), which elevates protein folding and degradation capacity and attenuates protein synthesis. While a role for ubiquitin in regulating the degradation of misfolded ER-resident proteins is well described, ubiquitin-dependent regulation of translational reprogramming during the UPR remains uncharacterized. Using global quantitative ubiquitin proteomics, we identify evolutionarily conserved, site-specific regulatory ubiquitylation of 40S ribosomal proteins. We demonstrate that these events occur on assembled cytoplasmic ribosomes and are stimulated by both UPR activation and translation inhibition. We further show that ER stress-stimulated regulatory 40S ribosomal ubiquitylation occurs on a timescale similar to eIF2α phosphorylation, is dependent upon PERK signaling, and is required for optimal cell survival during chronic UPR activation. In total, these results reveal regulatory 40S ribosomal ubiquitylation as a previously uncharacterized and important facet of eukaryotic translational control. PMID:26051182

  16. The pathway of hepatitis C virus mRNA recruitment to the human ribosome.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Christopher S; Hershey, John W B; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2009-04-01

    Eukaryotic protein synthesis begins with mRNA positioning in the ribosomal decoding channel in a process typically controlled by translation-initiation factors. Some viruses use an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) in their mRNA to harness ribosomes independently of initiation factors. We show here that a ribosome conformational change that is induced upon hepatitis C viral IRES binding is necessary but not sufficient for correct mRNA positioning. Using directed hydroxyl radical probing to monitor the assembly of IRES-containing translation-initiation complexes, we have defined a crucial step in which mRNA is stabilized upon initiator tRNA binding. Unexpectedly, however, this stabilization occurs independently of the AUG codon, underscoring the importance of initiation factor-mediated interactions that influence the configuration of the decoding channel. These results reveal how an IRES RNA supplants some, but not all, of the functions normally carried out by protein factors during initiation of protein synthesis.

  17. Parallel Structural Evolution of Mitochondrial Ribosomes and OXPHOS Complexes.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, Eli O; Bauerschmitt, Heike; Becker, Thomas; Mielke, Thorsten; Frauenfeld, Jens; Berninghausen, Otto; Neupert, Walter; Herrmann, Johannes M; Beckmann, Roland

    2015-04-09

    The five macromolecular complexes that jointly mediate oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in mitochondria consist of many more subunits than those of bacteria, yet, it remains unclear by which evolutionary mechanism(s) these novel subunits were recruited. Even less well understood is the structural evolution of mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes): while it was long thought that their exceptionally high protein content would physically compensate for their uniquely low amount of ribosomal RNA (rRNA), this hypothesis has been refuted by structural studies. Here, we present a cryo-electron microscopy structure of the 73S mitoribosome from Neurospora crassa, together with genomic and proteomic analyses of mitoribosome composition across the eukaryotic domain. Surprisingly, our findings reveal that both structurally and compositionally, mitoribosomes have evolved very similarly to mitochondrial OXPHOS complexes via two distinct phases: A constructive phase that mainly acted early in eukaryote evolution, resulting in the recruitment of altogether approximately 75 novel subunits, and a reductive phase that acted during metazoan evolution, resulting in gradual length-reduction of mitochondrially encoded rRNAs and OXPHOS proteins. Both phases can be well explained by the accumulation of (slightly) deleterious mutations and deletions, respectively, in mitochondrially encoded rRNAs and OXPHOS proteins. We argue that the main role of the newly recruited (nuclear encoded) ribosomal- and OXPHOS proteins is to provide structural compensation to the mutationally destabilized mitochondrially encoded components. While the newly recruited proteins probably provide a selective advantage owing to their compensatory nature, and while their presence may have opened evolutionary pathways toward novel mitochondrion-specific functions, we emphasize that the initial events that resulted in their recruitment was nonadaptive in nature. Our framework is supported by population genetic

  18. Ribosome binding to a 5' translational enhancer is altered in the presence of the 3' untranslated region in cap-independent translation of turnip crinkle virus.

    PubMed

    Stupina, Vera A; Yuan, Xuefeng; Meskauskas, Arturas; Dinman, Jonathan D; Simon, Anne E

    2011-05-01

    Plus-strand RNA viruses without 5' caps require noncanonical mechanisms for ribosome recruitment. A translational enhancer in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) contains an internal T-shaped structure (TSS) that binds to 60S ribosomal subunits. We now report that the 63-nucleotide (nt) 5' UTR of TCV contains a 19-nt pyrimidine-rich element near the initiation codon that supports translation of an internal open reading frame (ORF) independent of upstream 5' UTR sequences. Addition of 80S ribosomes to the 5' UTR reduced the flexibility of the polypyrimidine residues and generated a toeprint consistent with binding to this region. Binding of salt-washed 40S ribosomal subunits was reduced 6-fold when the pyrimidine-rich sequence was mutated. 40S subunit binding generated the same toeprint as 80S ribosomes but also additional ones near the 5' end. Generation of out-of-frame AUGs upstream of the polypyrimidine region reduced translation, which suggests that 5'-terminal entry of 40S subunits is followed by scanning and that the polypyrimidine region is needed for an alternative function that requires ribosome binding. No evidence for RNA-RNA interactions between 5' and 3' sequences was found, suggesting that TCV utilizes an alternative means for circularizing its genome. Combining 5' and 3' UTR fragments in vitro had no discernible effect on the structures of the RNAs. In contrast, when 80S ribosomes were added to both fragments, structural changes were found in the 5' UTR polypyrimidine tract that were not evident when ribosomes interacted with the individual fragments. This suggests that ribosomes can promote an interaction between the 5' and 3' UTRs of TCV.

  19. Length-dependent translation of messenger RNA by ribosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valleriani, Angelo; Zhang, Gong; Nagar, Apoorva; Ignatova, Zoya; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2011-04-01

    A simple measure for the efficiency of protein synthesis by ribosomes is provided by the steady state amount of protein per messenger RNA (mRNA), the so-called translational ratio, which is proportional to the translation rate. Taking the degradation of mRNA into account, we show theoretically that both the translation rate and the translational ratio decrease with increasing mRNA length, in agreement with available experimental data for the prokaryote Escherichia coli. We also show that, compared to prokaryotes, mRNA degradation in eukaryotes leads to a less rapid decrease of the translational ratio. This finding is consistent with the fact that, compared to prokaryotes, eukaryotes tend to have longer proteins.

  20. Ribosomal Peptide Natural Products: Bridging the Ribosomal and Nonribosomal Worlds

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, John A.; Donia, Mohamed S.; Schmidt, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    Ribosomally synthesized bacterial natural products rival the nonribosomal peptides in their structural and functional diversity. The last decade has seen substantial progress in the identification and characterization of biosynthetic pathways leading to ribosomal peptide natural products with new and unusual structural motifs. In some of these cases, the motifs are similar to those found in nonribosomal peptides, and many are constructed by convergent or even paralogous enzymes. Here, we summarize the major structural and biosynthetic categories of ribosomally synthesized bacterial natural products and, where applicable, compare them to their homologs from nonribosomal biosynthesis. PMID:19642421

  1. Reconstitution of a Minimal Ribosome-Associated Ubiquitination Pathway with Purified Factors

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Sichen; Hegde, Ramanujan S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Ribosomes stalled on aberrant mRNAs engage quality control mechanisms that degrade the partially translated nascent polypeptide. Ubiquitination of the nascent protein is mediated by the E3 ligase Listerin via a mechanism involving ribosome subunit dissociation. Here, we reconstitute ribosome-associated ubiquitination with purified factors to define the minimal components and essential steps in this process. We find that the primary role of the ribosome splitting factors Hbs1, Pelota, and ABCE1 is to permit Listerin access to the nascent chain. Listerin alone can discriminate 60S- from 80S-nascent chain complexes to selectively ubiquitinate the former. Splitting factors can be bypassed by artificially removing the 40S subunit, suggesting that mere steric hindrance impedes Listerin recruitment. This was illustrated by a cryo-EM reconstruction of the 60S-Listerin complex that identifies a binding interface that clashes with the 40S ribosomal subunit. These results reveal the mechanistic logic of the core steps in a ribosome-associated quality control pathway. PMID:25132172

  2. Origins of Eukaryotic Sexual Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sexual reproduction is a nearly universal feature of eukaryotic organisms. Given its ubiquity and shared core features, sex is thought to have arisen once in the last common ancestor to all eukaryotes. Using the perspectives of molecular genetics and cell biology, we consider documented and hypothetical scenarios for the instantiation and evolution of meiosis, fertilization, sex determination, uniparental inheritance of organelle genomes, and speciation. PMID:24591519

  3. Structural basis for translational surveillance by the large ribosomal subunit-associated protein quality control complex

    PubMed Central

    Lyumkis, Dmitry; Oliveira dos Passos, Dario; Tahara, Erich B.; Webb, Kristofor; Bennett, Eric J.; Vinterbo, Staal; Potter, Clinton S.; Carragher, Bridget; Joazeiro, Claudio A. P.

    2014-01-01

    All organisms have evolved mechanisms to manage the stalling of ribosomes upon translation of aberrant mRNA. In eukaryotes, the large ribosomal subunit-associated quality control complex (RQC), composed of the listerin/Ltn1 E3 ubiquitin ligase and cofactors, mediates the ubiquitylation and extraction of ribosome-stalled nascent polypeptide chains for proteasomal degradation. How RQC recognizes stalled ribosomes and performs its functions has not been understood. Using single-particle cryoelectron microscopy, we have determined the structure of the RQC complex bound to stalled 60S ribosomal subunits. The structure establishes how Ltn1 associates with the large ribosomal subunit and properly positions its E3-catalytic RING domain to mediate nascent chain ubiquitylation. The structure also reveals that a distinguishing feature of stalled 60S particles is an exposed, nascent chain-conjugated tRNA, and that the Tae2 subunit of RQC, which facilitates Ltn1 binding, is responsible for selective recognition of stalled 60S subunits. RQC components are engaged in interactions across a large span of the 60S subunit surface, connecting the tRNA in the peptidyl transferase center to the distally located nascent chain tunnel exit. This work provides insights into a mechanism linking translation and protein degradation that targets defective proteins immediately after synthesis, while ignoring nascent chains in normally translating ribosomes. PMID:25349383

  4. Sequential domain assembly of ribosomal protein S3 drives 40S subunit maturation

    PubMed Central

    Mitterer, Valentin; Murat, Guillaume; Réty, Stéphane; Blaud, Magali; Delbos, Lila; Stanborough, Tamsyn; Bergler, Helmut; Leulliot, Nicolas; Kressler, Dieter; Pertschy, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic ribosomes assemble by association of ribosomal RNA with ribosomal proteins into nuclear precursor particles, which undergo a complex maturation pathway coordinated by non-ribosomal assembly factors. Here, we provide functional insights into how successive structural re-arrangements in ribosomal protein S3 promote maturation of the 40S ribosomal subunit. We show that S3 dimerizes and is imported into the nucleus with its N-domain in a rotated conformation and associated with the chaperone Yar1. Initial assembly of S3 with 40S precursors occurs via its C-domain, while the N-domain protrudes from the 40S surface. Yar1 is replaced by the assembly factor Ltv1, thereby fixing the S3 N-domain in the rotated orientation and preventing its 40S association. Finally, Ltv1 release, triggered by phosphorylation, and flipping of the S3 N-domain into its final position results in the stable integration of S3. Such a stepwise assembly may represent a new paradigm for the incorporation of ribosomal proteins. PMID:26831757

  5. Structural basis for translational surveillance by the large ribosomal subunit-associated protein quality control complex.

    PubMed

    Lyumkis, Dmitry; Oliveira dos Passos, Dario; Tahara, Erich B; Webb, Kristofor; Bennett, Eric J; Vinterbo, Staal; Potter, Clinton S; Carragher, Bridget; Joazeiro, Claudio A P

    2014-11-11

    All organisms have evolved mechanisms to manage the stalling of ribosomes upon translation of aberrant mRNA. In eukaryotes, the large ribosomal subunit-associated quality control complex (RQC), composed of the listerin/Ltn1 E3 ubiquitin ligase and cofactors, mediates the ubiquitylation and extraction of ribosome-stalled nascent polypeptide chains for proteasomal degradation. How RQC recognizes stalled ribosomes and performs its functions has not been understood. Using single-particle cryoelectron microscopy, we have determined the structure of the RQC complex bound to stalled 60S ribosomal subunits. The structure establishes how Ltn1 associates with the large ribosomal subunit and properly positions its E3-catalytic RING domain to mediate nascent chain ubiquitylation. The structure also reveals that a distinguishing feature of stalled 60S particles is an exposed, nascent chain-conjugated tRNA, and that the Tae2 subunit of RQC, which facilitates Ltn1 binding, is responsible for selective recognition of stalled 60S subunits. RQC components are engaged in interactions across a large span of the 60S subunit surface, connecting the tRNA in the peptidyl transferase center to the distally located nascent chain tunnel exit. This work provides insights into a mechanism linking translation and protein degradation that targets defective proteins immediately after synthesis, while ignoring nascent chains in normally translating ribosomes.

  6. Principles of start codon recognition in eukaryotic translation initiation

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Christoffer; Åqvist, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Selection of the correct start codon during initiation of translation on the ribosome is a key event in protein synthesis. In eukaryotic initiation, several factors have to function in concert to ensure that the initiator tRNA finds the cognate AUG start codon during mRNA scanning. The two initiation factors eIF1 and eIF1A are known to provide important functions for the initiation process and codon selection. Here, we have used molecular dynamics free energy calculations to evaluate the energetics of initiator tRNA binding to different near-cognate codons on the yeast 40S ribosomal subunit, in the presence and absence of these two initiation factors. The results show that eIF1 and eIF1A together cause a relatively uniform and high discrimination against near-cognate codons. This works such that eIF1 boosts the discrimination against a first position near-cognate G-U mismatch, and also against a second position A-A base pair, while eIF1A mainly acts on third codon position. The computer simulations further reveal the structural basis of the increased discriminatory effect caused by binding of eIF1 and eIF1A to the 40S ribosomal subunit. PMID:27280974

  7. Segregation of the polypeptide translocation apparatus to regions of the endoplasmic reticulum containing ribophorins and ribosomes. I. Functional tests on rat liver microsomal subfractions

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    A preparation of rat liver microsomes containing 70% of the total cellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes was subfractionated by isopycnic density centrifugation. Twelve subfractions of different ribosome content ranging in density from 1.06 to 1.29 were obtained and analyzed with respect to marker enzymes, RNA, and protein content, as well as the capacity of these membranes to bind 80S ribosomes in vitro. After removal of native polysomes from these microsomal subfractions by puromycin in a buffer of high ionic strength their capacity to rebind 80S ribosomes approached levels found in the corresponding native membranes before ribosome stripping. This indicates that in vitro rebinding of ribosomes occurs to the same sites occupied in the cell by membrane-bound polysomes. Microsomes in the microsomal subfractions were also tested for their capacity to effect the translocation of nascent secretory proteins into the microsomal lumen utilizing a rabbit reticulocyte translation system programmed with mRNA coding for the precursor of human placental lactogen. Membranes from microsomes with the higher isopycnic density and a high ribosome content showed the highest translocation activity, whereas membranes derived from smooth microsomes had only a very low translocation activity. These results indicate the membranes of the rough and smooth portions of the endoplasmic reticulum are functionally differentiated so that sites for ribosome binding and the translocation of nascent polypeptides are segregated to the rough domain of the organelle. PMID:6501423

  8. Ribosomal crystallography: peptide bond formation, chaperone assistance and antibiotics activity.

    PubMed

    Yonath, Ada

    2005-08-31

    The peptidyl transferase center (PTC) is located in a protein free environment, thus confirming that the ribosome is a ribozyme. This arched void has dimensions suitable for accommodating the 3' ends of the A-and the P-site tRNAs, and is situated within a universal sizable symmetry-related region that connects all ribosomal functional centers involved in amino-acid polymerization. The linkage between the elaborate PTC architecture and the A-site tRNA position revealed that the A- to P-site passage of the tRNA 3' end is performed by a rotatory motion, which leads to stereochemistry suitable for peptide bond formation and for substrate mediated catalysis, thus suggesting that the PTC evolved by gene-fusion. Adjacent to the PTC is the entrance of the protein exit tunnel, shown to play active roles in sequence-specific gating of nascent chains and in responding to cellular signals. This tunnel also provides a site that may be exploited for local co-translational folding and seems to assist in nascent chain trafficking into the hydrophobic space formed by the first bacterial chaperone, the trigger factor. Many antibiotics target ribosomes. Although the ribosome is highly conserved, subtle sequence and/or conformational variations enable drug selectivity, thus facilitating clinical usage. Comparisons of high-resolution structures of complexes of antibiotics bound to ribosomes from eubacteria resembling pathogens, to an archaeon that shares properties with eukaryotes and to its mutant that allows antibiotics binding, demonstrated the unambiguous difference between mere binding and therapeutical effectiveness. The observed variability in antibiotics inhibitory modes, accompanied by the elucidation of the structural basis to antibiotics mechanism justifies expectations for structural based improved properties of existing compounds as well as for the development of novel drugs.

  9. Variation in the ribosome interacting loop of the Sec61α from Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Abhishek; Ray, Atrayee; Ganguly, Sandipan; Ghosh Dastidar, Shubhra; Sarkar, Srimonti

    2015-09-30

    The interaction between the ribosome and the endoplasmic reticulum-located Sec61 protein translocon is mediated through an arginine residue of Sec61α, which is conserved in all prokaryotic and eukaryotic orthologues characterized to date. Using in silico approaches we report that instead of arginine, this ribosome-interaction function is most likely discharged by a lysine residue in the protist Giardia lamblia. This functional substitution of the R with a K in GlSec61α may have taken place to accommodate a G-rich rRNA.

  10. Recent advances in the uses and applications of ribosome-inactivating proteins from plants.

    PubMed

    Girbés, T; Ferreras, J M; Iglesias, R; Citores, L; De Torre, C; Carbajales, M L; Jiménez, P; De Benito, F M; Muñoz, R

    1996-06-01

    Plant ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are inhibitors present in all parts of plants that irreversibly inactivate eukaryotic ribosomes, thus impairing protein synthesis. RIPs are enzymes with N-glycosidase activity on the large rRNA. Their powerful inhibitory activity has been made use of advantageously to construct conjugates with suitable carriers targeted to altered specific cells. RIPs may be used to inhibit replication of both animal and plant viruses. The introduction of genes coding for RIPs into the genome of plants leads to an increase in resistance towards fungal pathogens and viruses. RIPs are important tools for the treatment of cancer and AIDS and for the protection of crop production.

  11. Crystal structures of complexes containing domains from two viral internal ribosome entry site (IRES) RNAs bound to the 70S ribosome

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Jianyu; Korostelev, Andrei; Costantino, David A.; Donohue, John P.; Noller, Harry F.; Kieft, Jeffrey S.

    2011-08-24

    Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) RNAs are elements of viral or cellular mRNAs that bypass steps of canonical eukaryotic cap-dependent translation initiation. Understanding of the structural basis of IRES mechanisms is limited, partially due to a lack of high-resolution structures of IRES RNAs bound to their cellular targets. Prompted by the universal phylogenetic conservation of the ribosomal P site, we solved the crystal structures of proposed P site binding domains from two intergenic region IRES RNAs bound to bacterial 70S ribosomes. The structures show that these IRES domains nearly perfectly mimic a tRNA-mRNA interaction. However, there are clear differences in the global shape and position of this IRES domain in the intersubunit space compared to those of tRNA, supporting a mechanism for IRES action that invokes hybrid state mimicry to drive a noncanonical mode of translocation. These structures suggest how relatively small structured RNAs can manipulate complex biological machines.

  12. Targeting ricin to the ribosome.

    PubMed

    May, Kerrie L; Yan, Qing; Tumer, Nilgun E

    2013-07-01

    The plant toxin ricin is highly toxic for mammalian cells and is of concern for bioterrorism. Ricin belongs to a family of functionally related toxins, collectively referred to as ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs), which disable ribosomes and halt protein synthesis. Currently there are no specific antidotes against ricin or related RIPs. The catalytic subunit of ricin is an N-glycosidase that depurinates a universally conserved adenine residue within the sarcin/ricin loop (SRL) of the 28S rRNA. This depurination activity inhibits translation and its biochemistry has been intensively studied. Yet, recent developments paint a more complex picture of toxicity, with ribosomal proteins and cellular signaling pathways contributing to the potency of ricin. In particular, several studies have now established the importance of the ribosomal stalk structure in facilitating the depurination activity and ribosome specificity of ricin and other RIPs. This review highlights recent developments defining toxin-ribosome interactions and examines the significance of these interactions for toxicity and therapeutic intervention.

  13. Ribosome dynamics and the evolutionary history of ribosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, George E.; Paci, Maxim; Tran, Quyen; Petrov, Anton S.; Williams, Loren D.

    2015-09-01

    The ribosome is a dynamic nanomachine responsible for coded protein synthesis. Its major subsystems were essentially in place at the time of the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). Ribosome evolutionary history thus potentially provides a window into the pre- LUCA world. This history begins with the origins of the peptidyl transferase center where the actual peptide is synthesized and then continues over an extended timeframe as additional functional centers including the GTPase center are added. The large ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) have grown over time by an accretion process and a model exists that proposes a relative age of each accreted element. We have compared atomic resolution ribosome structures before and after EF-G bound GTP hydrolysis and thereby identified the location of 23 pivot points in the large rRNAs that facilitate ribosome dynamics. Pivots in small subunit helices h28 and h44 appear to be especially central to the process and according to the accretion model significantly older than the other helices containing pivots. Overall, the results suggest that ribosomal dynamics occurred in two phases. In the first phase, an inherently mobile h28/h44 combination provided the flexibility needed to create a dynamic ribosome that was essentially a Brownian machine. This addition likely made coded peptide synthesis possible by facilitating movement of a primitive mRNA. During the second phase, addition of pivoting elements and the creation of a factor binding site allowed the regulation of the inherent motion created by h28/h44. All of these events likely occurred before LUCA.

  14. Drug resistance in eukaryotic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Fairlamb, Alan H; Gow, Neil A R; Matthews, Keith R; Waters, Andrew P

    2016-06-24

    Eukaryotic microbial pathogens are major contributors to illness and death globally. Although much of their impact can be controlled by drug therapy as with prokaryotic microorganisms, the emergence of drug resistance has threatened these treatment efforts. Here, we discuss the challenges posed by eukaryotic microbial pathogens and how these are similar to, or differ from, the challenges of prokaryotic antibiotic resistance. The therapies used for several major eukaryotic microorganisms are then detailed, and the mechanisms that they have evolved to overcome these therapies are described. The rapid emergence of resistance and the restricted pipeline of new drug therapies pose considerable risks to global health and are particularly acute in the developing world. Nonetheless, we detail how the integration of new technology, biological understanding, epidemiology and evolutionary analysis can help sustain existing therapies, anticipate the emergence of resistance or optimize the deployment of new therapies.

  15. Drug resistance in eukaryotic microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Fairlamb, Alan H.; Gow, Neil A. R.; Matthews, Keith R.; Waters, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic microbial pathogens are major contributors to illness and death globally. Although much of their impact can be controlled by drug therapy as with prokaryotic microorganisms, the emergence of drug resistance has threatened these treatment efforts. Here, we discuss the challenges posed by eukaryotic microbial pathogens and how these are similar to, or differ from, the challenges of prokaryotic antibiotic resistance. The therapies used for several major eukaryotic microorganisms are then detailed, and the mechanisms that they have evolved to overcome these therapies are described. The rapid emergence of resistance and the restricted pipeline of new drug therapies pose considerable risks to global health and are particularly acute in the developing world. Nonetheless, we detail how the integration of new technology, biological understanding, epidemiology and evolutionary analysis can help sustain existing therapies, anticipate the emergence of resistance or optimize the deployment of new therapies. PMID:27572976

  16. The revised classification of eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Adl, Sina M; Simpson, Alastair G B; Lane, Christopher E; Lukeš, Julius; Bass, David; Bowser, Samuel S; Brown, Matthew W; Burki, Fabien; Dunthorn, Micah; Hampl, Vladimir; Heiss, Aaron; Hoppenrath, Mona; Lara, Enrique; Le Gall, Line; Lynn, Denis H; McManus, Hilary; Mitchell, Edward A D; Mozley-Stanridge, Sharon E; Parfrey, Laura W; Pawlowski, Jan; Rueckert, Sonja; Shadwick, Laura; Shadwick, Lora; Schoch, Conrad L; Smirnov, Alexey; Spiegel, Frederick W

    2012-09-01

    This revision of the classification of eukaryotes, which updates that of Adl et al. [J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 52 (2005) 399], retains an emphasis on the protists and incorporates changes since 2005 that have resolved nodes and branches in phylogenetic trees. Whereas the previous revision was successful in re-introducing name stability to the classification, this revision provides a classification for lineages that were then still unresolved. The supergroups have withstood phylogenetic hypothesis testing with some modifications, but despite some progress, problematic nodes at the base of the eukaryotic tree still remain to be statistically resolved. Looking forward, subsequent transformations to our understanding of the diversity of life will be from the discovery of novel lineages in previously under-sampled areas and from environmental genomic information.

  17. [Ribosomal RNA Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    It is generally believed that an RNA World existed at an early stage in the history of life. During this early period, RNA molecules are seen to be potentially involved in both catalysis and the storage of genetic information. Translation presents several interrelated themes of inquiry for exobiology. First, it is essential, for understanding the very origin of life, how peptides and eventually proteins might have come to be made on the early Earth in a template directed manner. Second, it is necessary to understand how a machinery of similar complexity to that found in the ribosomes of modern organisms came to exist by the time of the last common ancestor (as detected by 16S rRNA sequence studies). Third, the ribosomal RNAs themselves likely had a very early origin and studies of their history may be very informative about the nature of the RNA World. Moreover, studies of these RNAs will contribute to a better understanding of the potential roles of RNA in early evolution.During the past year we have ave conducted a comparative study of four completely sequenced bacterial genoames. We have focused initially on conservation of gene order. The second component of the project continues to build on the model system for studying the validity of variant 5S rRNA sequences in the vicinity of the modern Vibrio proteolyticus 5S rRNA that we established earlier. This system has made it possible to conduct a detailed and extensive analysis of a local portion of the sequence space. These core methods have been used to construct numerous mutants during the last several years. Although it has been a secondary focus, this work has continued over the last year such that we now have in excess of 125 V. proteolyticus derived constructs which have been made and characterized. We have also continued high resolution NMR work on RNA oligomers originally initiated by G. Kenneth Smith who was funded by a NASA Graduate Student Researcher's Fellowship Award until May of 1996. Mr. Smith

  18. The kissing-loop T-shaped structure translational enhancer of Pea enation mosaic virus can bind simultaneously to ribosomes and a 5' proximal hairpin.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Gulay, Suna P; Kasprzak, Wojciech; Dinman, Jonathan D; Shapiro, Bruce A; Simon, Anne E

    2013-11-01

    The Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV) 3' translational enhancer, known as the kissing-loop T-shaped structure (kl-TSS), binds to 40S subunits, 60S subunits, and 80S ribosomes, whereas the Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) TSS binds only to 60S subunits and 80S ribosomes. Using electrophoretic mobility gel shift assay (EMSA)-based competition assays, the kl-TSS was found to occupy a different site in the ribosome than the P-site-binding TCV TSS, suggesting that these two TSS employ different mechanisms for enhancing translation. The kl-TSS also engages in a stable, long-distance RNA-RNA kissing-loop interaction with a 12-bp 5'-coding-region hairpin that does not alter the structure of the kl-TSS as revealed by molecular dynamics simulations. Addition of the kl-TSS in trans to a luciferase reporter construct containing either wild-type or mutant 5' and 3' PEMV sequences suppressed translation, suggesting that the kl-TSS is required in cis to function, and both ribosome-binding and RNA interaction activities of the kl-TSS contributed to translational inhibition. Addition of the kl-TSS was more detrimental for translation than an adjacent eIF4E-binding 3' translational enhancer known as the PTE, suggesting that the PTE may support the ribosome-binding function of the kl-TSS. Results of in-line RNA structure probing, ribosome filter binding, and high-throughput selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (hSHAPE) of rRNAs within bound ribosomes suggest that kl-TSS binding to ribosomes and binding to the 5' hairpin are compatible activities. These results suggest a model whereby posttermination ribosomes/ribosomal subunits bind to the kl-TSS and are delivered to the 5' end of the genome via the associated RNA-RNA interaction, which enhances the rate of translation reinitiation.

  19. Yeast Asc1p and Mammalian RACK1 Are Functionally Orthologous Core 40S Ribosomal Proteins That Repress Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Gerbasi, Vincent R.; Weaver, Connie M.; Hill, Salisha; Friedman, David B.; Link, Andrew J.

    2004-01-01

    Translation of mRNA into protein is a fundamental step in eukaryotic gene expression requiring the large (60S) and small (40S) ribosome subunits and associated proteins. By modern proteomic approaches, we previously identified a novel 40S-associated protein named Asc1p in budding yeast and RACK1 in mammals. The goals of this study were to establish Asc1p or RACK1 as a core conserved eukaryotic ribosomal protein and to determine the role of Asc1p or RACK1 in translational control. We provide biochemical, evolutionary, genetic, and functional evidence showing that Asc1p or RACK1 is indeed a conserved core component of the eukaryotic ribosome. We also show that purified Asc1p-deficient ribosomes have increased translational activity compared to that of wild-type yeast ribosomes. Further, we demonstrate that asc1Δ null strains have increased levels of specific proteins in vivo and that this molecular phenotype is complemented by either Asc1p or RACK1. Our data suggest that one of Asc1p's or RACK1's functions is to repress gene expression. PMID:15340087

  20. Yeast Asc1p and mammalian RACK1 are functionally orthologous core 40S ribosomal proteins that repress gene expression.

    PubMed

    Gerbasi, Vincent R; Weaver, Connie M; Hill, Salisha; Friedman, David B; Link, Andrew J

    2004-09-01

    Translation of mRNA into protein is a fundamental step in eukaryotic gene expression requiring the large (60S) and small (40S) ribosome subunits and associated proteins. By modern proteomic approaches, we previously identified a novel 40S-associated protein named Asc1p in budding yeast and RACK1 in mammals. The goals of this study were to establish Asc1p or RACK1 as a core conserved eukaryotic ribosomal protein and to determine the role of Asc1p or RACK1 in translational control. We provide biochemical, evolutionary, genetic, and functional evidence showing that Asc1p or RACK1 is indeed a conserved core component of the eukaryotic ribosome. We also show that purified Asc1p-deficient ribosomes have increased translational activity compared to that of wild-type yeast ribosomes. Further, we demonstrate that asc1Delta null strains have increased levels of specific proteins in vivo and that this molecular phenotype is complemented by either Asc1p or RACK1. Our data suggest that one of Asc1p's or RACK1's functions is to repress gene expression.

  1. Pan-eukaryote ITS2 homologies revealed by RNA secondary structure

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Annette W.

    2007-01-01

    For evolutionary comparisons, phylogenetics and evaluation of potential interbreeding taxa of a species, various loci have served for animals and plants and protistans. One [second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA] is highly suitable for all. Its sequence is species specific. It has already been used extensively and very successfully for plants and some protistans, and a few animals (where historically, the mitochondrial genes have dominated species studies). Despite initial impressions that ITS2 is too variable, it has proven to provide useful biological information at higher taxonomic levels, even across all eukaryotes, thanks to the conserved aspects of its transcript secondary structure. The review of all eukaryote groups reveals that ITS2 is expandable, but always retains in its RNA transcript a common core structure of two helices with hallmark characteristics important for ribosomal RNA processing. This aspect of its RNA transcript secondary structure can rescue difficult alignment problems, making the ITS2 a more powerful tool for phylogenetics. Equally important, the recognition of eukaryote-wide homology regions provides extensive and detailed information to test experimental studies of ribosomal rRNA processing. PMID:17459886

  2. Neuron-Like Networks Between Ribosomal Proteins Within the Ribosome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirot, Olivier; Timsit, Youri

    2016-05-01

    From brain to the World Wide Web, information-processing networks share common scale invariant properties. Here, we reveal the existence of neural-like networks at a molecular scale within the ribosome. We show that with their extensions, ribosomal proteins form complex assortative interaction networks through which they communicate through tiny interfaces. The analysis of the crystal structures of 50S eubacterial particles reveals that most of these interfaces involve key phylogenetically conserved residues. The systematic observation of interactions between basic and aromatic amino acids at the interfaces and along the extension provides new structural insights that may contribute to decipher the molecular mechanisms of signal transmission within or between the ribosomal proteins. Similar to neurons interacting through “molecular synapses”, ribosomal proteins form a network that suggest an analogy with a simple molecular brain in which the “sensory-proteins” innervate the functional ribosomal sites, while the “inter-proteins” interconnect them into circuits suitable to process the information flow that circulates during protein synthesis. It is likely that these circuits have evolved to coordinate both the complex macromolecular motions and the binding of the multiple factors during translation. This opens new perspectives on nanoscale information transfer and processing.

  3. Characterization of silk gland ribosomes from a bivoltine caddisfly, Stenopsyche marmorata: translational suppression of a silk protein in cold conditions.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Takaomi; Ito, Miho; Kanamori, Mai; Shigeno, Yuta; Uchiumi, Toshio; Arai, Ryoichi; Tsukada, Masuhiro; Hirabayashi, Kimio; Ohkawa, Kousaku

    2016-01-08

    Larval Stenopsyche marmorata constructs food capture nets and fixed retreats underwater using self-produced proteinaceous silk fibers. In the Chikuma River (Nagano Prefecture, Japan) S. marmorata has a bivoltine life cycle; overwintering larvae grow slowly with reduced net spinning activity in winter. We recently reported constant transcript abundance of S. marmorata silk protein 1 (Smsp-1), a core S. marmorata silk fiber component, in all seasons, implying translational suppression in the silk gland during winter. Herein, we prepared and characterized silk gland ribosomes from seasonally collected S. marmorata larvae. Ribosomes from silk glands immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen (LN2) after dissection exhibited comparable translation elongation activity in spring, summer, and autumn. Conversely, silk glands obtained in winter did not contain active ribosomes and Smsp-1. Ribosomes from silk glands immersed in ice-cold physiological saline solution for approximately 4 h were translationally inactive, despite summer collection and Smsp-1 expression. The ribosomal inactivation occurs because of defects in the formation of 80S ribosomes, presumably due to splitting of 60S subunits containing 28S rRNA with central hidden break, in response to cold stress. These results suggest a novel-type ribosome-regulated translation control mechanism.

  4. Dynamic evolution of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins in Holozoa.

    PubMed

    Scheel, Bettina M; Hausdorf, Bernhard

    2014-07-01

    We studied the highly dynamic evolution of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPs) in Holozoa. Most major clades within Holozoa are characterized by gains and/or losses of MRPs. The usefulness of gains of MRPs as rare genomic changes in phylogenetics is undermined by the high frequency of secondary losses. However, phylogenetic analyses of the MRP sequences provide evidence for the Acrosomata hypothesis, a sister group relationship between Ctenophora and Bilateria. An extensive restructuring of the mitochondrial genome and, as a consequence, of the mitochondrial ribosomes occurred in the ancestor of metazoans. The last MRP genes encoded in the mitochondrial genome were either moved to the nuclear genome or were lost. The strong decrease in size of the mitochondrial genome was probably caused by selection for rapid replication of mitochondrial DNA during oogenesis in the metazoan ancestor. A phylogenetic analysis of MRPL56 sequences provided evidence for a horizontal gene transfer of the corresponding MRP gene between metazoans and Dictyostelidae (Amoebozoa). The hypothesis that the requisition of additional MRPs compensated for a loss of rRNA segments in the mitochondrial ribosomes is corroborated by a significant negative correlation between the number of MRPs and length of the rRNA. Newly acquired MRPs evolved faster than bacterial MRPs and positions in eukaryote-specific MRPs were more strongly affected by coevolution than positions in prokaryotic MRPs in accordance with the necessity to fit these proteins into the pre-existing structure of the mitoribosome.

  5. Preparation and proteomic analysis of chloroplast ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    Proteomics of chloroplast ribosomes in spinach and Chlamydomonas revealed unique protein composition and structures of plastid ribosomes. These studies have suggested the presence of some ribosomal proteins unique to plastid ribosomes which may be involved in plastid-unique translation regulation. Considering the strong background of genetic analysis and molecular biology in Arabidopsis, the in-depth proteomic characterization of Arabidopsis plastid ribosomes would facilitate further understanding of plastid translation in higher plants. Here, I describe simple and rapid methods for the preparation of plastid ribosomes from Chlamydomonas and Arabidopsis using sucrose gradients. I also describe purity criteria and methods for yield estimation of the purified plastid ribosomes and subunits, methods for the preparation of plastid ribosomal proteins, as well as the identification of some Arabidopsis plastid ribosomal proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

  6. Chloroplast ribosomes and protein synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, E H; Boynton, J E; Gillham, N W

    1994-01-01

    Consistent with their postulated origin from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, chloroplasts of plants and algae have ribosomes whose component RNAs and proteins are strikingly similar to those of eubacteria. Comparison of the secondary structures of 16S rRNAs of chloroplasts and bacteria has been particularly useful in identifying highly conserved regions likely to have essential functions. Comparative analysis of ribosomal protein sequences may likewise prove valuable in determining their roles in protein synthesis. This review is concerned primarily with the RNAs and proteins that constitute the chloroplast ribosome, the genes that encode these components, and their expression. It begins with an overview of chloroplast genome structure in land plants and algae and then presents a brief comparison of chloroplast and prokaryotic protein-synthesizing systems and a more detailed analysis of chloroplast rRNAs and ribosomal proteins. A description of the synthesis and assembly of chloroplast ribosomes follows. The review concludes with discussion of whether chloroplast protein synthesis is essential for cell survival. PMID:7854253

  7. The early eukaryotic fossil record.

    PubMed

    Javaux, Emmanuelle J

    2007-01-01

    The Precambrian era records the evolution of the domain Eucarya. Although the taxonomy of fossils is often impossible to resolve beyond the level of domain, their morphology and chemistry indicate the evolution of major biological innovations. The late Archean record for eukaryotes is limited to trace amounts of biomarkers. Morphological evidence appears in late Paleoproterozoic and early Mesoproterozoic (1800-1300 Ma) rocks. The moderate diversity of preservable eukaryotic organisms includes cell walls without surface ornament (but with complex ultrastructure), with regularly distributed surface ornamentation, and with irregularly or regularly arranged processes. Collectively, these fossils suggest that eukaryotes with flexible membranes and cytoskeletons existed in mid-Proterozoic oceans. The late Mesoproterozoic-early Neoproterozoic (1300-750 Ma) is a time of diversification and evolution when direct evidence for important biological innovations occurs in the fossil record such as multicellularity, sex, photosynthesis, biomineralization, predation, and heterotrophy. Members of extant clades can be recognized and include bangiophyte red algae, xanthophyte algae, cladophorale green algae, euglyphid, lobose, and filose amoebae and possible fungi. In the late Neoproterozoic, besides more diversification of ornamented fossils, florideophyte red algae and brown algae diversify, and animals take the stage. The record of biological innovations documented by the fossils shows that eukaryotes had evolved most cytological and molecular complexities very early in the Proterozoic but environmental conditions delayed their diversification within clades until oxygen level and predation pressure increased significantly.

  8. Changing ideas about eukaryotic origins.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tom A; Embley, T Martin

    2015-09-26

    The origin of eukaryotic cells is one of the most fascinating challenges in biology, and has inspired decades of controversy and debate. Recent work has led to major upheavals in our understanding of eukaryotic origins and has catalysed new debates about the roles of endosymbiosis and gene flow across the tree of life. Improved methods of phylogenetic analysis support scenarios in which the host cell for the mitochondrial endosymbiont was a member of the Archaea, and new technologies for sampling the genomes of environmental prokaryotes have allowed investigators to home in on closer relatives of founding symbiotic partners. The inference and interpretation of phylogenetic trees from genomic data remains at the centre of many of these debates, and there is increasing recognition that trees built using inadequate methods can prove misleading, whether describing the relationship of eukaryotes to other cells or the root of the universal tree. New statistical approaches show promise for addressing these questions but they come with their own computational challenges. The papers in this theme issue discuss recent progress on the origin of eukaryotic cells and genomes, highlight some of the ongoing debates, and suggest possible routes to future progress.

  9. Changing ideas about eukaryotic origins

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Tom A.; Embley, T. Martin

    2015-01-01

    The origin of eukaryotic cells is one of the most fascinating challenges in biology, and has inspired decades of controversy and debate. Recent work has led to major upheavals in our understanding of eukaryotic origins and has catalysed new debates about the roles of endosymbiosis and gene flow across the tree of life. Improved methods of phylogenetic analysis support scenarios in which the host cell for the mitochondrial endosymbiont was a member of the Archaea, and new technologies for sampling the genomes of environmental prokaryotes have allowed investigators to home in on closer relatives of founding symbiotic partners. The inference and interpretation of phylogenetic trees from genomic data remains at the centre of many of these debates, and there is increasing recognition that trees built using inadequate methods can prove misleading, whether describing the relationship of eukaryotes to other cells or the root of the universal tree. New statistical approaches show promise for addressing these questions but they come with their own computational challenges. The papers in this theme issue discuss recent progress on the origin of eukaryotic cells and genomes, highlight some of the ongoing debates, and suggest possible routes to future progress. PMID:26323752

  10. A protein inventory of human ribosome biogenesis reveals an essential function of exportin 5 in 60S subunit export.

    PubMed

    Wild, Thomas; Horvath, Peter; Wyler, Emanuel; Widmann, Barbara; Badertscher, Lukas; Zemp, Ivo; Kozak, Karol; Csucs, Gabor; Lund, Elsebet; Kutay, Ulrike

    2010-10-26

    The assembly of ribosomal subunits in eukaryotes is a complex, multistep process so far mostly studied in yeast. In S. cerevisiae, more than 200 factors including ribosomal proteins and trans-acting factors are required for the ordered assembly of 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits. To date, only few human homologs of these yeast ribosome synthesis factors have been characterized. Here, we used a systematic RNA interference (RNAi) approach to analyze the contribution of 464 candidate factors to ribosomal subunit biogenesis in human cells. The screen was based on visual readouts, using inducible, fluorescent ribosomal proteins as reporters. By performing computer-based image analysis utilizing supervised machine-learning techniques, we obtained evidence for a functional link of 153 human proteins to ribosome synthesis. Our data show that core features of ribosome assembly are conserved from yeast to human, but differences exist for instance with respect to 60S subunit export. Unexpectedly, our RNAi screen uncovered a requirement for the export receptor Exportin 5 (Exp5) in nuclear export of 60S subunits in human cells. We show that Exp5, like the known 60S exportin Crm1, binds to pre-60S particles in a RanGTP-dependent manner. Interference with either Exp5 or Crm1 function blocks 60S export in both human cells and frog oocytes, whereas 40S export is compromised only upon inhibition of Crm1. Thus, 60S subunit export is dependent on at least two RanGTP-binding exportins in vertebrate cells.

  11. A tRNA methyltransferase paralog is important for ribosome stability and cell division in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Ian M. C.; Paris, Zdeněk; Gaston, Kirk W.; Balakrishnan, R.; Fredrick, Kurt; Rubio, Mary Anne T.; Alfonzo, Juan D.

    2016-01-01

    Most eukaryotic ribosomes contain 26/28S, 5S, and 5.8S large subunit ribosomal RNAs (LSU rRNAs) in addition to the 18S rRNA of the small subunit (SSU rRNA). However, in kinetoplastids, a group of organisms that include medically important members of the genus Trypanosoma and Leishmania, the 26/28S large subunit ribosomal RNA is uniquely composed of 6 rRNA fragments. In addition, recent studies have shown the presence of expansion segments in the large ribosomal subunit (60S) of Trypanosoma brucei. Given these differences in structure, processing and assembly, T. brucei ribosomes may require biogenesis factors not found in other organisms. Here, we show that one of two putative 3-methylcytidine methyltransferases, TbMTase37 (a homolog of human methyltransferase-like 6, METTL6), is important for ribosome stability in T. brucei. TbMTase37 localizes to the nucleolus and depletion of the protein results in accumulation of ribosomal particles lacking srRNA 4 and reduced levels of polysome associated ribosomes. We also find that TbMTase37 plays a role in cytokinesis, as loss of the protein leads to multi-flagellated and multi-nucleated cells. PMID:26888608

  12. Maize reas1 Mutant Stimulates Ribosome Use Efficiency and Triggers Distinct Transcriptional and Translational Responses1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Weiwei; Zhu, Jie; Wu, Qiao; Wang, Qun; Li, Xia; Yao, Dongsheng; Jin, Ying; Wang, Gang; Wang, Guifeng

    2016-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a fundamental cellular process in all cells. Impaired ribosome biogenesis causes developmental defects; however, its molecular and cellular bases are not fully understood. We cloned a gene responsible for a maize (Zea mays) small seed mutant, dek* (for defective kernel), and found that it encodes Ribosome export associated1 (ZmReas1). Reas1 is an AAA-ATPase that controls 60S ribosome export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm after ribosome maturation. dek* is a weak mutant allele with decreased Reas1 function. In dek* cells, mature 60S ribosome subunits are reduced in the nucleus and cytoplasm, but the proportion of actively translating polyribosomes in cytosol is significantly increased. Reduced phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α and the increased elongation factor 1α level indicate an enhancement of general translational efficiency in dek* cells. The mutation also triggers dramatic changes in differentially transcribed genes and differentially translated RNAs. Discrepancy was observed between differentially transcribed genes and differentially translated RNAs, indicating distinct cellular responses at transcription and translation levels to the stress of defective ribosome processing. DNA replication and nucleosome assembly-related gene expression are selectively suppressed at the translational level, resulting in inhibited cell growth and proliferation in dek* cells. This study provides insight into cellular responses due to impaired ribosome biogenesis. PMID:26645456

  13. Universal and domain-specific sequences in 23S–28S ribosomal RNA identified by computational phylogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Doris, Stephen M.; Smith, Deborah R.; Beamesderfer, Julia N.; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Nathanson, Judith A.; Gerbi, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative analysis of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences has elucidated phylogenetic relationships. However, this powerful approach has not been fully exploited to address ribosome function. Here we identify stretches of evolutionarily conserved sequences, which correspond with regions of high functional importance. For this, we developed a structurally aligned database, FLORA (full-length organismal rRNA alignment) to identify highly conserved nucleotide elements (CNEs) in 23S–28S rRNA from each phylogenetic domain (Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea). Universal CNEs (uCNEs) are conserved in sequence and structural position in all three domains. Those in regions known to be essential for translation validate our approach. Importantly, some uCNEs reside in areas of unknown function, thus identifying novel sequences of likely great importance. In contrast to uCNEs, domain-specific CNEs (dsCNEs) are conserved in just one phylogenetic domain. This is the first report of conserved sequence elements in rRNA that are domain-specific; they are largely a eukaryotic phenomenon. The locations of the eukaryotic dsCNEs within the structure of the ribosome suggest they may function in nascent polypeptide transit through the ribosome tunnel and in tRNA exit from the ribosome. Our findings provide insights and a resource for ribosome function studies. PMID:26283689

  14. Balanced Production of Ribosome Components Is Required for Proper G1/S Transition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae *

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Herreros, Fernando; Rodríguez-Galán, Olga; Morillo-Huesca, Macarena; Maya, Douglas; Arista-Romero, María; de la Cruz, Jesús; Chávez, Sebastián; Muñoz-Centeno, Mari Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Cell cycle regulation is a very accurate process that ensures cell viability and the genomic integrity of daughter cells. A fundamental part of this regulation consists in the arrest of the cycle at particular points to ensure the completion of a previous event, to repair cellular damage, or to avoid progression in potentially risky situations. In this work, we demonstrate that a reduction in nucleotide levels or the depletion of RNA polymerase I or III subunits generates a cell cycle delay at the G1/S transition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This delay is concomitant with an imbalance between ribosomal RNAs and proteins which, among others, provokes an accumulation of free ribosomal protein L5. Consistently with a direct impact of free L5 on the G1/S transition, rrs1 mutants, which weaken the assembly of L5 and L11 on pre-60S ribosomal particles, enhance both the G1/S delay and the accumulation of free ribosomal protein L5. We propose the existence of a surveillance mechanism that couples the balanced production of yeast ribosomal components and cell cycle progression through the accumulation of free ribosomal proteins. This regulatory pathway resembles the p53-dependent nucleolar-stress checkpoint response described in human cells, which indicates that this is a general control strategy extended throughout eukaryotes. PMID:24043628

  15. Assembling the archaeal ribosome: roles for translation-factor-related GTPases.

    PubMed

    Blombach, Fabian; Brouns, Stan J J; van der Oost, John

    2011-01-01

    The assembly of ribosomal subunits from their individual components (rRNA and ribosomal proteins) requires the assistance of a multitude of factors in order to control and increase the efficiency of the assembly process. GTPases of the TRAFAC (translation-factor-related) class constitute a major type of ribosome-assembly factor in Eukaryota and Bacteria. They are thought to aid the stepwise assembly of ribosomal subunits through a 'molecular switch' mechanism that involves conformational changes in response to GTP hydrolysis. Most conserved TRAFAC GTPases are involved in ribosome assembly or other translation-associated processes. They typically interact with ribosomal subunits, but in many cases, the exact role that these GTPases play remains unclear. Previous studies almost exclusively focused on the systems of Bacteria and Eukaryota. Archaea possess several conserved TRAFAC GTPases as well, with some GTPase families being present only in the archaeo-eukaryotic lineage. In the present paper, we review the occurrence of TRAFAC GTPases with translation-associated functions in Archaea.

  16. Studies on the Assembly Characteristics of Large Subunit Ribosomal Proteins in S. cerevisae

    PubMed Central

    Ohmayer, Uli; Gamalinda, Michael; Sauert, Martina; Ossowski, Julius; Pöll, Gisela; Linnemann, Jan; Hierlmeier, Thomas; Perez-Fernandez, Jorge; Kumcuoglu, Beril; Leger-Silvestre, Isabelle; Faubladier, Marlène; Griesenbeck, Joachim; Woolford, John; Tschochner, Herbert; Milkereit, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    During the assembly process of ribosomal subunits, their structural components, the ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and the ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) have to join together in a highly dynamic and defined manner to enable the efficient formation of functional ribosomes. In this work, the assembly of large ribosomal subunit (LSU) r-proteins from the eukaryote S. cerevisiae was systematically investigated. Groups of LSU r-proteins with specific assembly characteristics were detected by comparing the protein composition of affinity purified early, middle, late or mature LSU (precursor) particles by semi-quantitative mass spectrometry. The impact of yeast LSU r-proteins rpL25, rpL2, rpL43, and rpL21 on the composition of intermediate to late nuclear LSU precursors was analyzed in more detail. Effects of these proteins on the assembly states of other r-proteins and on the transient LSU precursor association of several ribosome biogenesis factors, including Nog2, Rsa4 and Nop53, are discussed. PMID:23874617

  17. Active eukaryotes in microbialites from Highborne Cay, Bahamas, and Hamelin Pool (Shark Bay), Australia

    PubMed Central

    Edgcomb, Virginia P; Bernhard, Joan M; Summons, Roger E; Orsi, William; Beaudoin, David; Visscher, Pieter T

    2014-01-01

    Microbialites are organosedimentary structures that are formed through the interaction of benthic microbial communities and sediments and include mineral precipitation. These lithifying microbial mat structures include stromatolites and thrombolites. Exuma Sound in the Bahamas, and Hamelin Pool in Shark Bay, Western Australia, are two locations where significant stands of modern microbialites exist. Although prokaryotic diversity in these structures is reasonably well documented, little is known about the eukaryotic component of these communities and their potential to influence sedimentary fabrics through grazing, binding and burrowing activities. Accordingly, comparisons of eukaryotic communities in modern stromatolitic and thrombolitic mats can potentially provide insight into the coexistence of both laminated and clotted mat structures in close proximity to one another. Here we examine this possibility by comparing eukaryotic diversity based on Sanger and high-throughput pyrosequencing of small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) genes. Analyses were based on total RNA extracts as template to minimize input from inactive or deceased organisms. Results identified diverse eukaryotic communities particularly stramenopiles, Alveolata, Metazoa, Amoebozoa and Rhizaria within different mat types at both locations, as well as abundant and diverse signatures of eukaryotes with <80% sequence similarity to sequences in GenBank. This suggests the presence of significant novel eukaryotic diversity, particularly in hypersaline Hamelin Pool. There was evidence of vertical structuring of protist populations and foraminiferal diversity was highest in bioturbated/clotted thrombolite mats of Highborne Cay. PMID:23924782

  18. The Arabidopsis TOR Kinase Specifically Regulates the Expression of Nuclear Genes Coding for Plastidic Ribosomal Proteins and the Phosphorylation of the Cytosolic Ribosomal Protein S6

    PubMed Central

    Dobrenel, Thomas; Mancera-Martínez, Eder; Forzani, Céline; Azzopardi, Marianne; Davanture, Marlène; Moreau, Manon; Schepetilnikov, Mikhail; Chicher, Johana; Langella, Olivier; Zivy, Michel; Robaglia, Christophe; Ryabova, Lyubov A.; Hanson, Johannes; Meyer, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Protein translation is an energy consuming process that has to be fine-tuned at both the cell and organism levels to match the availability of resources. The target of rapamycin kinase (TOR) is a key regulator of a large range of biological processes in response to environmental cues. In this study, we have investigated the effects of TOR inactivation on the expression and regulation of Arabidopsis ribosomal proteins at different levels of analysis, namely from transcriptomic to phosphoproteomic. TOR inactivation resulted in a coordinated down-regulation of the transcription and translation of nuclear-encoded mRNAs coding for plastidic ribosomal proteins, which could explain the chlorotic phenotype of the TOR silenced plants. We have identified in the 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of this set of genes a conserved sequence related to the 5′ terminal oligopyrimidine motif, which is known to confer translational regulation by the TOR kinase in other eukaryotes. Furthermore, the phosphoproteomic analysis of the ribosomal fraction following TOR inactivation revealed a lower phosphorylation of the conserved Ser240 residue in the C-terminal region of the 40S ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6). These results were confirmed by Western blot analysis using an antibody that specifically recognizes phosphorylated Ser240 in RPS6. Finally, this antibody was used to follow TOR activity in plants. Our results thus uncover a multi-level regulation of plant ribosomal genes and proteins by the TOR kinase. PMID:27877176

  19. Selective ribosome profiling as a tool to study the interaction of chaperones and targeting factors with nascent polypeptide chains and ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Annemarie H.; Oh, Eugene; Weissman, Jonathan S.; Kramer, Günter; Bukau, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    A plethora of factors is involved in the maturation of newly synthesized proteins, including chaperones, membrane targeting factors, and enzymes. Many factors act cotranslationally through association with ribosome-nascent chain complexes (RNCs), but their target specificities and modes of action remain poorly understood. We developed selective ribosome profiling (SeRP) to identify substrate pools and points of RNC engagement of these factors. SeRP is based on sequencing mRNA fragments covered by translating ribosomes (general ribosome profiling, RP), combined with a procedure to selectively isolate RNCs whose nascent polypeptides are associated with the factor of interest. Factor–RNC interactions are stabilized by crosslinking, the resulting factor–RNC adducts are then nuclease-treated to generate monosomes, and affinity-purified. The ribosome-extracted mRNA footprints are converted to DNA libraries for deep sequencing. The protocol is specified for general RP and SeRP in bacteria. It was first applied to the chaperone trigger factor and is readily adaptable to other cotranslationally acting factors, including eukaryotic factors. Factor–RNC purification and sequencing library preparation takes 7–8 days, sequencing and data analysis can be completed in 5–6 days. PMID:24136347

  20. The Arabidopsis TOR Kinase Specifically Regulates the Expression of Nuclear Genes Coding for Plastidic Ribosomal Proteins and the Phosphorylation of the Cytosolic Ribosomal Protein S6.

    PubMed

    Dobrenel, Thomas; Mancera-Martínez, Eder; Forzani, Céline; Azzopardi, Marianne; Davanture, Marlène; Moreau, Manon; Schepetilnikov, Mikhail; Chicher, Johana; Langella, Olivier; Zivy, Michel; Robaglia, Christophe; Ryabova, Lyubov A; Hanson, Johannes; Meyer, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Protein translation is an energy consuming process that has to be fine-tuned at both the cell and organism levels to match the availability of resources. The target of rapamycin kinase (TOR) is a key regulator of a large range of biological processes in response to environmental cues. In this study, we have investigated the effects of TOR inactivation on the expression and regulation of Arabidopsis ribosomal proteins at different levels of analysis, namely from transcriptomic to phosphoproteomic. TOR inactivation resulted in a coordinated down-regulation of the transcription and translation of nuclear-encoded mRNAs coding for plastidic ribosomal proteins, which could explain the chlorotic phenotype of the TOR silenced plants. We have identified in the 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) of this set of genes a conserved sequence related to the 5' terminal oligopyrimidine motif, which is known to confer translational regulation by the TOR kinase in other eukaryotes. Furthermore, the phosphoproteomic analysis of the ribosomal fraction following TOR inactivation revealed a lower phosphorylation of the conserved Ser240 residue in the C-terminal region of the 40S ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6). These results were confirmed by Western blot analysis using an antibody that specifically recognizes phosphorylated Ser240 in RPS6. Finally, this antibody was used to follow TOR activity in plants. Our results thus uncover a multi-level regulation of plant ribosomal genes and proteins by the TOR kinase.

  1. Crystal Structure of Ribosome-Inactivating Protein Ricin A Chain in Complex with the C-Terminal Peptide of the Ribosomal Stalk Protein P2

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wei-Wei; Tang, Yun-Sang; Sze, See-Yuen; Zhu, Zhen-Ning; Wong, Kam-Bo; Shaw, Pang-Chui

    2016-01-01

    Ricin is a type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), containing a catalytic A chain and a lectin-like B chain. It inhibits protein synthesis by depurinating the N-glycosidic bond at α-sarcin/ricin loop (SRL) of the 28S rRNA, which thereby prevents the binding of elongation factors to the GTPase activation center of the ribosome. Here, we present the 1.6 Å crystal structure of Ricin A chain (RTA) complexed to the C-terminal peptide of the ribosomal stalk protein P2, which plays a crucial role in specific recognition of elongation factors and recruitment of eukaryote-specific RIPs to the ribosomes. Our structure reveals that the C-terminal GFGLFD motif of P2 peptide is inserted into a hydrophobic pocket of RTA, while the interaction assays demonstrate the structurally untraced SDDDM motif of P2 peptide contributes to the interaction with RTA. This interaction mode of RTA and P protein is in contrast to that with trichosanthin (TCS), Shiga-toxin (Stx) and the active form of maize RIP (MOD), implying the flexibility of the P2 peptide-RIP interaction, for the latter to gain access to ribosome. PMID:27754366

  2. Apramycin Recognition by the Human Ribosomal Decoding Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann,T.; Tereshko, V.; Skripkin, E.; Patel, D.

    2007-01-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics bind specifically to the bacterial ribosomal decoding-site RNA and thereby interfere with fidelity but not efficiency of translation. Apramycin stands out among aminoglycosides for its mechanism of action which is based on blocking translocation and its ability to bind also to the eukaryotic decoding site despite differences in key residues required for apramycin recognition by the bacterial target. To elucidate molecular recognition of the eukaryotic decoding site by apramycin we have determined the crystal structure of an oligoribonucleotide containing the human sequence free and in complex with the antibiotic at 1.5 {angstrom} resolution. The drug binds in the deep groove of the RNA which forms a continuously stacked helix comprising non-canonical C{center_dot}A and G{center_dot}A base pairs and a bulged-out adenine. The binding mode of apramycin at the human decoding-site RNA is distinct from aminoglycoside recognition of the bacterial target, suggesting a molecular basis for the actions of apramycin in eukaryotes and bacteria.

  3. Challenges in describing ribosome dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Kien; Whitford, Paul Charles

    2017-04-01

    For decades, protein folding and functional dynamics have been described in terms of diffusive motion across an underlying energy landscape. With continued advances in structural biology and high-performance computing, the field is positioned to extend these approaches to large biomolecular assemblies. Through the application of energy landscape techniques to the ribosome, one may work towards establishing a comprehensive description of the dynamics, which will bridge theoretical concepts and experimental observations. In this perspective, we discuss a few of the challenges that will need to be addressed as we extend the application of landscape principles to the ribosome.

  4. Signal recognition particle-ribosome binding is sensitive to nascent chain length.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Thomas R; Tsai, Albert; Elvekrog, Margaret M; Petrov, Alexey; Neher, Saskia B; Chen, Jin; Bradshaw, Niels; Puglisi, Joseph D; Walter, Peter

    2014-07-11

    The signal recognition particle (SRP) directs ribosome-nascent chain complexes (RNCs) displaying signal sequences to protein translocation channels in the plasma membrane of prokaryotes and endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotes. It was initially proposed that SRP binds the signal sequence when it emerges from an RNC and that successful binding becomes impaired as translation extends the nascent chain, moving the signal sequence away from SRP on the ribosomal surface. Later studies drew this simple model into question, proposing that SRP binding is unaffected by nascent chain length. Here, we reinvestigate this issue using two novel and independent fluorescence resonance energy transfer assays. We show that the arrival and dissociation rates of SRP binding to RNCs vary according to nascent chain length, resulting in the highest affinity shortly after a functional signal sequence emerges from the ribosome. Moreover, we show that SRP binds RNCs in multiple and interconverting conformations, and that conversely, RNCs exist in two conformations distinguished by SRP interaction kinetics.

  5. Structure of Monomeric Yeast and Mammalian Sec61 Complexes Interacting with the Translating Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Thomas; Bhushan, Shashi; Jarasch, Alexander; Armache, Jean-Paul; Funes, Soledad; Jossinet, Fabrice; Gumbart, James; Mielke, Thorsten; Berninghausen, Otto; Schulten, Klaus; Westhof, Eric; Gilmore, Reid; Mandon, Elisabet; Beckmann, Roland

    2010-01-01

    The trimeric Sec61/SecY complex is a protein-conducting channel (PCC) for secretory and membrane proteins. Although Sec complexes can form oligomers, it has been suggested that a single copy may serve as an active PCC. We determined sub-nanometer resolution cryo-electron microscopy structures of eukaryotic ribosome-Sec61 complexes. In combination with biochemical data we found that in both idle and active states, the Sec complex is not oligomeric and interacts mainly via two cytoplasmic loops with the universal ribosomal adaptor site. In the active state the ribosomal tunnel and a central pore of the monomeric PCC were occupied by the nascent chain contacting loop 6 of the Sec complex. This provides a structural basis for the activity of a solitary Sec complex in cotranslational protein translocation. PMID:19933108

  6. Distinct types of translation termination generate substrates for ribosome-associated quality control.

    PubMed

    Shcherbik, Natalia; Chernova, Tatiana A; Chernoff, Yury O; Pestov, Dimitri G

    2016-08-19

    Cotranslational degradation of polypeptide nascent chains plays a critical role in quality control of protein synthesis and the rescue of stalled ribosomes. In eukaryotes, ribosome stalling triggers release of 60S subunits with attached nascent polypeptides, which undergo ubiquitination by the E3 ligase Ltn1 and proteasomal degradation facilitated by the ATPase Cdc48. However, the identity of factors acting upstream in this process is less clear. Here, we examined how the canonical release factors Sup45-Sup35 (eRF1-eRF3) and their paralogs Dom34-Hbs1 affect the total population of ubiquitinated nascent chains associated with yeast ribosomes. We found that the availability of the functional release factor complex Sup45-Sup35 strongly influences the amount of ubiquitinated polypeptides associated with 60S ribosomal subunits, while Dom34-Hbs1 generate 60S-associated peptidyl-tRNAs that constitute a relatively minor fraction of Ltn1 substrates. These results uncover two separate pathways that target nascent polypeptides for Ltn1-Cdc48-mediated degradation and suggest that in addition to canonical termination on stop codons, eukaryotic release factors contribute to cotranslational protein quality control.

  7. Distinct types of translation termination generate substrates for ribosome-associated quality control

    PubMed Central

    Shcherbik, Natalia; Chernova, Tatiana A.; Chernoff, Yury O.; Pestov, Dimitri G.

    2016-01-01

    Cotranslational degradation of polypeptide nascent chains plays a critical role in quality control of protein synthesis and the rescue of stalled ribosomes. In eukaryotes, ribosome stalling triggers release of 60S subunits with attached nascent polypeptides, which undergo ubiquitination by the E3 ligase Ltn1 and proteasomal degradation facilitated by the ATPase Cdc48. However, the identity of factors acting upstream in this process is less clear. Here, we examined how the canonical release factors Sup45–Sup35 (eRF1–eRF3) and their paralogs Dom34-Hbs1 affect the total population of ubiquitinated nascent chains associated with yeast ribosomes. We found that the availability of the functional release factor complex Sup45–Sup35 strongly influences the amount of ubiquitinated polypeptides associated with 60S ribosomal subunits, while Dom34-Hbs1 generate 60S-associated peptidyl-tRNAs that constitute a relatively minor fraction of Ltn1 substrates. These results uncover two separate pathways that target nascent polypeptides for Ltn1-Cdc48-mediated degradation and suggest that in addition to canonical termination on stop codons, eukaryotic release factors contribute to cotranslational protein quality control. PMID:27325745

  8. Evolution: Steps on the road to eukaryotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Embley, T. Martin; Williams, Tom A.

    2015-05-01

    A new archaeal phylum represents the closest known relatives of eukaryotes, the group encompassing all organisms that have nucleated cells. The discovery holds promise for a better understanding of eukaryotic origins. See Article p.173

  9. Satratoxin G interaction with 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits precedes apoptosis in the macrophage

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Hee Kyong; Shinozuka, Junko; Islam, Zahidul; Pestka, James J.

    2009-06-01

    Satratoxin G (SG) and other macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxins are potent inhibitors of eukaryotic translation that are potentially immunosuppressive. The purpose of this research was to test the hypothesis that SG-induced apoptosis in the macrophage correlates with binding of this toxin to the ribosome. Exposure of RAW 264.7 murine macrophages to SG at concentrations of 10 to 80 ng/ml induced DNA fragmentation within 4 h that was indicative of apoptosis. To relate these findings to ribosome binding of SG, RAW cells were exposed to different toxin concentrations for various time intervals, ribosomal fractions isolated by sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation and resultant fractions analyzed for SG by competitive ELISA. SG was found to specifically interact with 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits as early as 5 min and that, at high concentrations or extended incubation times, the toxin induced polysome disaggregation. While co-incubation with the simple Type B trichothecene DON had no effect on SG uptake into cell cytoplasm, it inhibited SG binding to the ribosome, suggesting that the two toxins bound to identical sites and that SG binding was reversible. Although both SG and DON induced mobilization of p38 and JNK 1/2 to the ribosome, phosphorylation of ribosomal bound MAPKs occurred only after DON treatment. SG association with the 40S and 60S subunits was also observed in the PC-12 neuronal cell model which is similarly susceptible to apoptosis. To summarize, SG rapidly binds small and large ribosomal subunits in a concentration- and time-dependent manner that was consistent with induction of apoptosis.

  10. Cytonuclear interactions and relaxed selection accelerate sequence evolution in organelle ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Daniel B; Triant, Deborah A; Wu, Martin; Taylor, Douglas R

    2014-03-01

    Many mitochondrial and plastid protein complexes contain subunits that are encoded in different genomes. In animals, nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins often exhibit rapid sequence evolution, which has been hypothesized to result from selection for mutations that compensate for changes in interacting subunits encoded in mutation-prone animal mitochondrial DNA. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed nuclear genes encoding cytosolic and organelle ribosomal proteins in flowering plants. The model angiosperm genus Arabidopsis exhibits low organelle mutation rates, typical of most plants. Nevertheless, we found that (nuclear-encoded) subunits of organelle ribosomes in Arabidopsis have higher amino acid sequence polymorphism and divergence than their counterparts in cytosolic ribosomes, suggesting that organelle ribosomes experience relaxed functional constraint. However, the observed difference between organelle and cytosolic ribosomes was smaller than in animals and could be partially attributed to rapid evolution in N-terminal organelle-targeting peptides that are not involved in ribosome function. To test the role of organelle mutation more directly, we used transcriptomic data from an angiosperm genus (Silene) with highly variable rates of organelle genome evolution. We found that Silene species with unusually fast-evolving mitochondrial and plastid DNA exhibited increased amino acid sequence divergence in ribosomal proteins targeted to the organelles but not in those that function in cytosolic ribosomes. Overall, these findings support the hypothesis that rapid organelle genome evolution has selected for compensatory mutations in nuclear-encoded proteins. We conclude that coevolution between interacting subunits encoded in different genomic compartments within the eukaryotic cell is an important determinant of variation in rates of protein sequence evolution.

  11. Ribosomal oxygenases are structurally conserved from prokaryotes to humans.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Rasheduzzaman; Sekirnik, Rok; Brissett, Nigel C; Krojer, Tobias; Ho, Chia-Hua; Ng, Stanley S; Clifton, Ian J; Ge, Wei; Kershaw, Nadia J; Fox, Gavin C; Muniz, Joao R C; Vollmar, Melanie; Phillips, Claire; Pilka, Ewa S; Kavanagh, Kathryn L; von Delft, Frank; Oppermann, Udo; McDonough, Michael A; Doherty, Aidan J; Schofield, Christopher J

    2014-06-19

    2-Oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent oxygenases have important roles in the regulation of gene expression via demethylation of N-methylated chromatin components and in the hydroxylation of transcription factors and splicing factor proteins. Recently, 2OG-dependent oxygenases that catalyse hydroxylation of transfer RNA and ribosomal proteins have been shown to be important in translation relating to cellular growth, TH17-cell differentiation and translational accuracy. The finding that ribosomal oxygenases (ROXs) occur in organisms ranging from prokaryotes to humans raises questions as to their structural and evolutionary relationships. In Escherichia coli, YcfD catalyses arginine hydroxylation in the ribosomal protein L16; in humans, MYC-induced nuclear antigen (MINA53; also known as MINA) and nucleolar protein 66 (NO66) catalyse histidine hydroxylation in the ribosomal proteins RPL27A and RPL8, respectively. The functional assignments of ROXs open therapeutic possibilities via either ROX inhibition or targeting of differentially modified ribosomes. Despite differences in the residue and protein selectivities of prokaryotic and eukaryotic ROXs, comparison of the crystal structures of E. coli YcfD and Rhodothermus marinus YcfD with those of human MINA53 and NO66 reveals highly conserved folds and novel dimerization modes defining a new structural subfamily of 2OG-dependent oxygenases. ROX structures with and without their substrates support their functional assignments as hydroxylases but not demethylases, and reveal how the subfamily has evolved to catalyse the hydroxylation of different residue side chains of ribosomal proteins. Comparison of ROX crystal structures with those of other JmjC-domain-containing hydroxylases, including the hypoxia-inducible factor asparaginyl hydroxylase FIH and histone N(ε)-methyl lysine demethylases, identifies branch points in 2OG-dependent oxygenase evolution and distinguishes between JmjC-containing hydroxylases and demethylases

  12. Inhibitors of Ribosome Rescue Arrest Growth of Francisella tularensis at All Stages of Intracellular Replication

    PubMed Central

    Goralski, Tyler D. P.; Dewan, Kalyan K.; Alumasa, John N.; Avanzato, Victoria; Place, David E.; Markley, Rachel L.; Katkere, Bhuvana; Rabadi, Seham M.; Bakshi, Chandra Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria require at least one pathway to rescue ribosomes stalled at the ends of mRNAs. The primary pathway for ribosome rescue is trans-translation, which is conserved in >99% of sequenced bacterial genomes. Some species also have backup systems, such as ArfA or ArfB, which can rescue ribosomes in the absence of sufficient trans-translation activity. Small-molecule inhibitors of ribosome rescue have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against bacteria grown in liquid culture. These compounds were tested against the tier 1 select agent Francisella tularensis to determine if they can limit bacterial proliferation during infection of eukaryotic cells. The inhibitors KKL-10 and KKL-40 exhibited exceptional antimicrobial activity against both attenuated and fully virulent strains of F. tularensis in vitro and during ex vivo infection. Addition of KKL-10 or KKL-40 to macrophages or liver cells at any time after infection by F. tularensis prevented further bacterial proliferation. When macrophages were stimulated with the proinflammatory cytokine gamma interferon before being infected by F. tularensis, addition of KKL-10 or KKL-40 reduced intracellular bacteria by >99%, indicating that the combination of cytokine-induced stress and a nonfunctional ribosome rescue pathway is fatal to F. tularensis. Neither KKL-10 nor KKL-40 was cytotoxic to eukaryotic cells in culture. These results demonstrate that ribosome rescue is required for F. tularensis growth at all stages of its infection cycle and suggest that KKL-10 and KKL-40 are good lead compounds for antibiotic development. PMID:26953190

  13. Eukaryotic evolution: early origin of canonical introns.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Alastair G B; MacQuarrie, Erin K; Roger, Andrew J

    2002-09-19

    Spliceosomal introns, one of the hallmarks of eukaryotic genomes, were thought to have originated late in evolution and were assumed not to exist in eukaryotes that diverged early -- until the discovery of a single intron with an aberrant splice boundary in the primitive 'protozoan' Giardia. Here we describe introns from a close relative of Giardia, Carpediemonas membranifera, that have boundary sequences of the normal eukaryotic type, indicating that canonical introns are likely to have arisen very early in eukaryotic evolution.

  14. The molecular structure of the left-handed supra-molecular helix of eukaryotic polyribosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myasnikov, Alexander G.; Afonina, Zhanna A.; Ménétret, Jean-François; Shirokov, Vladimir A.; Spirin, Alexander S.; Klaholz, Bruno P.

    2014-11-01

    During protein synthesis, several ribosomes bind to a single messenger RNA (mRNA) forming large macromolecular assemblies called polyribosomes. Here we report the detailed molecular structure of a 100 MDa eukaryotic poly-ribosome complex derived from cryo electron tomography, sub-tomogram averaging and pseudo-atomic modelling by crystal structure fitting. The structure allowed the visualization of the three functional parts of the polysome assembly, the central core region that forms a rather compact left-handed supra-molecular helix, and the more open regions that harbour the initiation and termination sites at either ends. The helical region forms a continuous mRNA channel where the mRNA strand bridges neighbouring exit and entry sites of the ribosomes and prevents mRNA looping between ribosomes. This structure provides unprecedented insights into protein- and RNA-mediated inter-ribosome contacts that involve conserved sites through 40S subunits and long protruding RNA expansion segments, suggesting a role in stabilizing the overall polyribosomal assembly.

  15. The revised classification of eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Adl, Sina M.; Simpson, Alastair. G.; Lane, Christopher E.; Lukeš, Julius; Bass, David; Bowser, Samuel S.; Brown, Matt; Burki, Fabien; Dunthorn, Micah; Hampl, Vladimir; Heiss, Aaron; Hoppenrath, Mona; Lara, Enrique; leGall, Line; Lynn, Denis H.; McManus, Hilary; Mitchell, Edward A. D.; Mozley-Stanridge, Sharon E.; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Pawlowski, Jan; Rueckert, Sonja; Shadwick, Lora; Schoch, Conrad; Smirnov, Alexey; Spiegel, Frederick W.

    2012-01-01

    This revision of the classification of eukaryotes, which updates that of Adl et al. (2005), retains an emphasis on the protists and incorporates changes since 2005 that have resolved nodes and branches in phylogenetic trees. Whereas the previous revision was successful in re-introducing name stability to the classification, this revision provides a classification for lineages that were then still unresolved. The supergroups have withstood phylogenetic hypothesis testing with some modifications, but despite some progress, problematic nodes at the base of the eukaryotic tree still remain to be statistically resolved. Looking forward, subsequent transformations to our understanding of the diversity of life will be from the discovery of novel lineages in previously under-sampled areas and from environmental genomic information. PMID:23020233

  16. Replicating damaged DNA in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Nimrat; Siede, Wolfram

    2013-12-01

    DNA damage is one of many possible perturbations that challenge the mechanisms that preserve genetic stability during the copying of the eukaryotic genome in S phase. This short review provides, in the first part, a general introduction to the topic and an overview of checkpoint responses. In the second part, the mechanisms of error-free tolerance in response to fork-arresting DNA damage will be discussed in some detail.

  17. AMPLIFICATION OF RIBOSOMAL RNA SEQUENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book chapter offers an overview of the use of ribosomal RNA sequences. A history of the technology traces the evolution of techniques to measure bacterial phylogenetic relationships and recent advances in obtaining rRNA sequence information. The manual also describes procedu...

  18. Defensins: antifungal lessons from eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Patrícia M.; Gonçalves, Sónia; Santos, Nuno C.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last years, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been the focus of intense research toward the finding of a viable alternative to current antifungal drugs. Defensins are one of the major families of AMPs and the most represented among all eukaryotic groups, providing an important first line of host defense against pathogenic microorganisms. Several of these cysteine-stabilized peptides present a relevant effect against fungi. Defensins are the AMPs with the broader distribution across all eukaryotic kingdoms, namely, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia, and were recently shown to have an ancestor in a bacterial organism. As a part of the host defense, defensins act as an important vehicle of information between innate and adaptive immune system and have a role in immunomodulation. This multidimensionality represents a powerful host shield, hard for microorganisms to overcome using single approach resistance strategies. Pathogenic fungi resistance to conventional antimycotic drugs is becoming a major problem. Defensins, as other AMPs, have shown to be an effective alternative to the current antimycotic therapies, demonstrating potential as novel therapeutic agents or drug leads. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on some eukaryotic defensins with antifungal action. An overview of the main targets in the fungal cell and the mechanism of action of these AMPs (namely, the selectivity for some fungal membrane components) are presented. Additionally, recent works on antifungal defensins structure, activity, and cytotoxicity are also reviewed. PMID:24688483

  19. Defensins: antifungal lessons from eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Silva, Patrícia M; Gonçalves, Sónia; Santos, Nuno C

    2014-01-01

    Over the last years, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been the focus of intense research toward the finding of a viable alternative to current antifungal drugs. Defensins are one of the major families of AMPs and the most represented among all eukaryotic groups, providing an important first line of host defense against pathogenic microorganisms. Several of these cysteine-stabilized peptides present a relevant effect against fungi. Defensins are the AMPs with the broader distribution across all eukaryotic kingdoms, namely, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia, and were recently shown to have an ancestor in a bacterial organism. As a part of the host defense, defensins act as an important vehicle of information between innate and adaptive immune system and have a role in immunomodulation. This multidimensionality represents a powerful host shield, hard for microorganisms to overcome using single approach resistance strategies. Pathogenic fungi resistance to conventional antimycotic drugs is becoming a major problem. Defensins, as other AMPs, have shown to be an effective alternative to the current antimycotic therapies, demonstrating potential as novel therapeutic agents or drug leads. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on some eukaryotic defensins with antifungal action. An overview of the main targets in the fungal cell and the mechanism of action of these AMPs (namely, the selectivity for some fungal membrane components) are presented. Additionally, recent works on antifungal defensins structure, activity, and cytotoxicity are also reviewed.

  20. Analysis of two domains with novel RNA-processing activities throws light on the complex evolution of ribosomal RNA biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Burroughs, A. Maxwell; Aravind, L.

    2014-01-01

    Ribosomal biogenesis has been extensively investigated, especially to identify the elusive nucleases and cofactors involved in the complex rRNA processing events in eukaryotes. Large-scale screens in yeast identified two biochemically uncharacterized proteins, TSR3 and TSR4, as being key players required for rRNA maturation. Using multiple computational approaches we identify the conserved domains comprising these proteins and establish sequence and structural features providing novel insights regarding their roles. TSR3 is unified with the DTW domain into a novel superfamily of predicted enzymatic domains, with the balance of the available evidence pointing toward an RNase role with the archaeo-eukaryotic TSR3 proteins processing rRNA and the bacterial versions potentially processing tRNA. TSR4, its other eukaryotic homologs PDCD2/rp-8, PDCD2L, Zfrp8, and trus, the predominantly bacterial DUF1963 proteins, and other uncharacterized proteins are unified into a new domain superfamily, which arose from an ancient duplication event of a strand-swapped, dimer-forming all-beta unit. We identify conserved features mediating protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and propose a potential chaperone-like function. While contextual evidence supports a conserved role in ribosome biogenesis for the eukaryotic TSR4-related proteins, there is no evidence for such a role for the bacterial versions. Whereas TSR3-related proteins can be traced to the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) with a well-supported archaeo-eukaryotic branch, TSR4-related proteins of eukaryotes are derived from within the bacterial radiation of this superfamily, with archaea entirely lacking them. This provides evidence for “systems admixture,” which followed the early endosymbiotic event, playing a key role in the emergence of the uniquely eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis process. PMID:25566315

  1. Does higher education expansion promote educational homogamy? Evidence from married couples of the post-80s generation in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Anning; Qian, Zhenchao

    2016-11-01

    The expansion of higher education witnessed in many societies influences the pattern of educational assortative mating. Structural transition theory predicts growing educational homogamy due to increasing preference for highly-educated partners who become more widely available. In contrast, social closure theory suggests depressed educational homogamy because the inflation of the education elite circle fosters the openness of marriage market, reducing the preference for a highly-educated mate and increasing the penetrability across social-status boundaries. Capitalizing the survey data that are representative of the post-80s one-child generation collected in Shanghai, China, we test the hypotheses derived from the two theories. Empirical results suggest that, with increasing availability of highly educated individuals, the extent of educational homogamy by birth cohort reveals a U-shaped pattern. This U-shaped pattern demonstrates increasing levels of educational homogamy and lends support to structural transition theory.

  2. The origin of nucleus: rebuild from the prokaryotic ancestors of ribosome export factors.

    PubMed

    Ohyanagi, Hajime; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi

    2008-11-01

    Various hypotheses have been proposed on the evolutionary origin of eukaryotic nucleus. Because one of the major cargoes in the nucleocytoplasmic export in the eukaryotic cell is the ribosome, its stimulating proteins called Ribosome Export Factors (REFs) might have an evolutionary history of inscribing the origin of eukaryotic nucleus. With the aim of understanding the evolutionary origin of the nucleus, here we employed the yeast REFs and searched for their evolutionary origin in more than 500 genomes of archaea and eubacteria by the PSI-BLAST search. Our results showed that the non-membranous REFs (non-mREFs) originated exclusively from eubacterial proteins, whereas the membranous REFs (mREFs) are from both archaeal and eubacterial proteins. Since the non-mREFs just work inside the nucleus while the mREFs shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, these results suggest that the extant REFs working inside the nucleus have derived exclusively from eubacterial proteins, implying that the nucleus arose in a cell that contained chromosomes possessing a substantial fraction of eubacterial genes, in line with the predictions of several models entailing endosymbiosis at eukaryote origins.

  3. Sequence of the 16S ribosomal RNA from Halobacterium volcanii, an archaebacterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, R.; Lanter, J. M.; Woese, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    The sequence of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) from the archaebacterium Halobacterium volcanii has been determined by DNA sequencing methods. The archaebacterial rRNA is similar to its eubacterial counterpart in secondary structure. Although it is closer in sequence to the eubacterial 16S rRNA than to the eukaryotic 16S-like rRNA, the H. volcanii sequence also shows certain points of specific similarity to its eukaryotic counterpart. Since the H. volcanii sequence is closer to both the eubacterial and the eukaryotic sequences than these two are to one another, it follows that the archaebacterial sequence resembles their common ancestral sequence more closely than does either of the other two versions.

  4. The ribosomal protein Asc1/RACK1 is required for efficient translation of short mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Mary K; Rojas-Duran, Maria F; Gangaramani, Paritosh; Gilbert, Wendy V

    2016-01-01

    Translation is a core cellular process carried out by a highly conserved macromolecular machine, the ribosome. There has been remarkable evolutionary adaptation of this machine through the addition of eukaryote-specific ribosomal proteins whose individual effects on ribosome function are largely unknown. Here we show that eukaryote-specific Asc1/RACK1 is required for efficient translation of mRNAs with short open reading frames that show greater than average translational efficiency in diverse eukaryotes. ASC1 mutants in S. cerevisiae display compromised translation of specific functional groups, including cytoplasmic and mitochondrial ribosomal proteins, and display cellular phenotypes consistent with their gene-specific translation defects. Asc1-sensitive mRNAs are preferentially associated with the translational ‘closed loop’ complex comprised of eIF4E, eIF4G, and Pab1, and depletion of eIF4G mimics the translational defects of ASC1 mutants. Together our results reveal a role for Asc1/RACK1 in a length-dependent initiation mechanism optimized for efficient translation of genes with important housekeeping functions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11154.001 PMID:27117520

  5. GTPases involved in bacterial ribosome maturation.

    PubMed

    Goto, Simon; Muto, Akira; Himeno, Hyouta

    2013-05-01

    The ribosome is an RNA- and protein-based macromolecule having multiple functional domains to facilitate protein synthesis, and it is synthesized through multiple steps including transcription, stepwise cleavages of the primary transcript, modifications of ribosomal proteins and RNAs and assemblies of ribosomal proteins with rRNAs. This process requires dozens of trans-acting factors including GTP- and ATP-binding proteins to overcome several energy-consuming steps. Despite accumulation of genetic, biochemical and structural data, the entire process of bacterial ribosome synthesis remains elusive. Here, we review GTPases involved in bacterial ribosome maturation.

  6. Structure of Ribosomal Silencing Factor Bound to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ribosome.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojun; Sun, Qingan; Jiang, Cai; Yang, Kailu; Hung, Li-Wei; Zhang, Junjie; Sacchettini, James C

    2015-10-06

    The ribosomal silencing factor RsfS slows cell growth by inhibiting protein synthesis during periods of diminished nutrient availability. The crystal structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) RsfS, together with the cryo-electron microscopy (EM) structure of the large subunit 50S of Mtb ribosome, reveals how inhibition of protein synthesis by RsfS occurs. RsfS binds to the 50S at L14, which, when occupied, blocks the association of the small subunit 30S. Although Mtb RsfS is a dimer in solution, only a single subunit binds to 50S. The overlap between the dimer interface and the L14 binding interface confirms that the RsfS dimer must first dissociate to a monomer in order to bind to L14. RsfS interacts primarily through electrostatic and hydrogen bonding to L14. The EM structure shows extended rRNA density that it is not found in the Escherichia coli ribosome, the most striking of these being the extended RNA helix of H54a.

  7. Ribosomal targets for antibiotic drug discovery

    DOEpatents

    Blanchard, Scott C.; Feldman, Michael Brian; Wang, Leyi; Doudna Cate, James H.; Pulk, Arto; Altman, Roger B.; Wasserman, Michael R

    2016-09-13

    The present invention relates to methods to identify molecules that binds in the neomycin binding pocket of a bacterial ribosome using structures of an intact bacterial ribosome that reveal how the ribosome binds tRNA in two functionally distinct states, determined by x-ray crystallography. One state positions tRNA in the peptidyl-tRNA binding site. The second, a fully rotated state, is stabilized by ribosome recycling factor (RRF) and binds tRNA in a highly bent conformation in a hybrid peptidyl/exit (P/E) site. Additionally, the invention relates to various assays, including single-molecule assay for ribosome recycling, and methods to identify compounds that interfere with ribosomal function by detecting newly identified intermediate FRET states using known and novel FRET pairs on the ribosome. The invention also provides vectors and compositions with an N-terminally tagged S13 protein.

  8. The ribosome quality control pathway can access nascent polypeptides stalled at the Sec61 translocon.

    PubMed

    von der Malsburg, Karina; Shao, Sichen; Hegde, Ramanujan S

    2015-06-15

    Cytosolic ribosomes that stall during translation are split into subunits, and nascent polypeptides trapped in the 60S subunit are ubiquitinated by the ribosome quality control (RQC) pathway. Whether the RQC pathway can also target stalls during cotranslational translocation into the ER is not known. Here we report that listerin and NEMF, core RQC components, are bound to translocon-engaged 60S subunits on native ER membranes. RQC recruitment to the ER in cultured cells is stimulated by translation stalling. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that translocon-targeted nascent polypeptides that subsequently stall are polyubiquitinated in 60S complexes. Ubiquitination at the translocon requires cytosolic exposure of the polypeptide at the ribosome-Sec61 junction. This exposure can result from either failed insertion into the Sec61 channel or partial backsliding of translocating nascent chains. Only Sec61-engaged nascent chains early in their biogenesis were relatively refractory to ubiquitination. Modeling based on recent 60S-RQC and 80S-Sec61 structures suggests that the E3 ligase listerin accesses nascent polypeptides via a gap in the ribosome-translocon junction near the Sec61 lateral gate. Thus the RQC pathway can target stalled translocation intermediates for degradation from the Sec61 channel.

  9. Ribosome mediated specificity in Hox mRNA translation and vertebrate tissue patterning

    PubMed Central

    Kondrashov, Nadya; Shimizu, Kunihiko; Hsieh, Andrew C.; Ishijima, Junko; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Barna, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Historically, the ribosome has been viewed as a complex ribozyme with constitutive rather than regulatory capacity in mRNA translation. Here we identify mutations of the Ribosomal Protein L38 (Rpl38) gene in mice exhibiting surprising tissue specific patterning defects, including pronounced homeotic transformations of the axial skeleton. In Rpl38 mutant embryos, global protein synthesis is unchanged however the translation of a select subset of Homeobox mRNAs is perturbed. Our data reveal that RPL38 facilitates 80S complex formation on these mRNAs as a regulatory component of the ribosome to confer transcript-specific translational control. We further show that Rpl38 expression is markedly enriched in regions of the embryo where loss-of-function phenotypes occur. Unexpectedly, a ribosomal protein (RP) expression screen reveals dynamic regulation of individual RPs within the vertebrate embryo. Collectively, these findings suggest that RP activity may be highly regulated to impart a new layer of specificity in the control of gene expression and mammalian development. PMID:21529712

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis 135 ribosomal protein.

    PubMed

    Jesuino, Rosália S A; Pereira, Maristela; Felipe, M Sueli S; Azevedo, Maristella O; Soares, Célia M A

    2004-06-01

    A 630 bp cDNA encoding an L35 ribosomal protein of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, designated as Pbl35, was cloned from a yeast expression library. Pbl35 encodes a polypeptide of 125 amino acids, with a predicted molecular mass of 14.5 kDa and a pI of 11.0. The deduced PbL35 shows significant conservation in respect to other described ribosomal L35 proteins from eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Motifs of ribosomal proteins are present in PbL35, including a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) that could be related to the protein addressing to the nucleolus for the ribosomal assembly. The mRNA for PbL35, about 700 nucleotides in length, is expressed at a high level in P. brasiliensis. The PbL35 and the deduced amino acid sequence constitute the first description of a ribosomal protein in P. brasiliensis. The cDNA was deposited in GenBank under accession number AF416509.

  11. PTRF/Cavin-1 promotes efficient ribosomal RNA transcription in response to metabolic challenges

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Libin; Pilch, Paul F

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA transcription mediated by RNA polymerase I represents the rate-limiting step in ribosome biogenesis. In eukaryotic cells, nutrients and growth factors regulate ribosomal RNA transcription through various key factors coupled to cell growth. We show here in mature adipocytes, ribosomal transcription can be acutely regulated in response to metabolic challenges. This acute response is mediated by PTRF (polymerase I transcription and release factor, also known as cavin-1), which has previously been shown to play a critical role in caveolae formation. The caveolae–independent rDNA transcriptional role of PTRF not only explains the lipodystrophy phenotype observed in PTRF deficient mice and humans, but also highlights its crucial physiological role in maintaining adipocyte allostasis. Multiple post-translational modifications of PTRF provide mechanistic bases for its regulation. The role of PTRF in ribosomal transcriptional efficiency is likely relevant to many additional physiological situations of cell growth and organismal metabolism. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17508.001 PMID:27528195

  12. Dosage Sensitivity of RPL9 and Concerted Evolution of Ribosomal Protein Genes in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Devis, Deborah; Firth, Sue M.; Liang, Zhe; Byrne, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    The ribosome in higher eukaryotes is a large macromolecular complex composed of four rRNAs and eighty different ribosomal proteins. In plants, each ribosomal protein is encoded by multiple genes. Duplicate genes within a family are often necessary to provide a threshold dose of a ribosomal protein but in some instances appear to have non-redundant functions. Here, we addressed whether divergent members of the RPL9 gene family are dosage sensitive or whether these genes have non-overlapping functions. The RPL9 family in Arabidopsis thaliana comprises two nearly identical members, RPL9B and RPL9C, and a more divergent member, RPL9D. Mutations in RPL9C and RPL9D genes lead to delayed growth early in development, and loss of both genes is embryo lethal, indicating that these are dosage-sensitive and redundant genes. Phylogenetic analysis of RPL9 as well as RPL4, RPL5, RPL27a, RPL36a, and RPS6 family genes in the Brassicaceae indicated that multicopy ribosomal protein genes have been largely retained following whole genome duplication. However, these gene families also show instances of tandem duplication, small scale deletion, and evidence of gene conversion. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of RPL9 genes in angiosperm species showed that genes within a species are more closely related to each other than to RPL9 genes in other species, suggesting ribosomal protein genes undergo convergent evolution. Our analysis indicates that ribosomal protein gene retention following whole genome duplication contributes to the number of genes in a family. However, small scale rearrangements influence copy number and likely drive concerted evolution of these dosage-sensitive genes. PMID:26734020

  13. Signal processing in eukaryotic chemotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segota, Igor; Rachakonda, Archana; Franck, Carl

    2013-03-01

    Unlike inanimate condensed matter, living cells depend upon the detection of chemical signals for their existence. First, we experimentally determined the chemotaxis response of eukaryotic Dictyostelium cells to static folic acid gradients and show that they can respond to gradients as shallow as 0.2% across the cell body. Second, using Shannon's information theory, we showed that the information cells receive about the gradient exceeds the theoretically predicted information at the receptor-ligand binding step, resulting in the violation of the data processing inequality. Finally, we analyzed how eukaryotic cells can affect the gradient signals by secreting enzymes that degrade the signal. We analyzed this effect with a focus on a well described Dictyostelium cAMP chemotaxis system where cAMP signals are affected by an extracellular cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) and its inhibitor (PDI). Using a reaction-diffusion model of this set of interactions in the extracellular space, we show that cells can effectively sense much steeper chemical gradients than naively expected (up to a factor of 12). We also found that the rough estimates of experimental PDE and PDI secretion rates are close to the optimal values for gradient sensing as predicted by our model.

  14. Through the '80s: thinking globally, acting locally. [Combined Canadian Futures Society and Third General Assembly of World Future Society

    SciTech Connect

    Feather, F.

    1980-01-01

    This volume was prepared in conjunction with the First Global Conference on the Future, held in Toronto, Canada, July 20-24, 1980. The conference combined the Third General Assembly of the World Future Society and the fifth annual conference of the Canadian Futures Society. The 59 papers presented here were selected from the very large number submitted to the conference committee; space limitations permitted only a small number of papers to be published in this volume. Included also are: the foreword, Mystery of the Future, by Edward R. Schreyer, Governor General of Canada; preface, A Time for Action, by Maurice F. Strong; introduction, Transition to Harmonic Globalism, by Frank Feather; conclusion, What We Must Do: An Agenda for Futurists; and postscript, The Challenge of the '80s, by Aurelio Peccei. The papers were presented under the following topics: The Trauma of Change (4); A Global Perspective (7); Inventorying Our Resources (7); The International Context (8); Economics: Getting Down to Business (9); Human Values: Personal, Social, Religious (6); Communications: Connecting Ourselves Together (4); Education: Learning to Meet Tomorrow (4); Health: New Approaches to Staying Fit (3); Futurism as a Way of Life (5); and Dreams into Action: Methods and Real-Life Experience (2).

  15. Ribosome engineering to promote new crystal forms

    SciTech Connect

    Selmer, Maria; Gao, Yong-Gui; Weixlbaumer, Albert; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2012-05-01

    Truncation of ribosomal protein L9 in T. thermophilus allows the generation of new crystal forms and the crystallization of ribosome–GTPase complexes. Crystallographic studies of the ribosome have provided molecular details of protein synthesis. However, the crystallization of functional complexes of ribosomes with GTPase translation factors proved to be elusive for a decade after the first ribosome structures were determined. Analysis of the packing in different 70S ribosome crystal forms revealed that regardless of the species or space group, a contact between ribosomal protein L9 from the large subunit and 16S rRNA in the shoulder of a neighbouring small subunit in the crystal lattice competes with the binding of GTPase elongation factors to this region of 16S rRNA. To prevent the formation of this preferred crystal contact, a mutant strain of Thermus thermophilus, HB8-MRCMSAW1, in which the ribosomal protein L9 gene has been truncated was constructed by homologous recombination. Mutant 70S ribosomes were used to crystallize and solve the structure of the ribosome with EF-G, GDP and fusidic acid in a previously unobserved crystal form. Subsequent work has shown the usefulness of this strain for crystallization of the ribosome with other GTPase factors.

  16. Crystallization of the two-domain N-terminal fragment of the archaeal ribosomal protein L10(P0) in complex with a specific fragment of 23S rRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Kravchenko, O. V.; Mitroshin, I. V.; Gabdulkhakov, A. G.; Nikonov, S. V.; Garber, M. B.

    2011-07-15

    Lateral L12-stalk (P1-stalk in Archaea, P1/P2-stalk in eukaryotes) is an obligatory morphological element of large ribosomal subunits in all organisms studied. This stalk is composed of the complex of ribosomal proteins L10(P0) and L12(P1) and interacts with 23S rRNA through the protein L10(P0). L12(P1)-stalk is involved in the formation of GTPase center of the ribosome and plays an important role in the ribosome interaction with translation factors. High mobility of this stalk puts obstacles in determination of its structure within the intact ribosome. Crystals of a two-domain N-terminal fragment of ribosomal protein L10(P0) from the archaeon Methanococcus jannaschii in complex with a specific fragment of rRNA from the same organism have been obtained. The crystals diffract X-rays at 3.2 Angstrom-Sign resolution.

  17. Molecular evolution of the mammalian ribosomal protein gene, RPS14.

    PubMed

    Rhoads, D D; Roufa, D J

    1991-07-01

    Ribosomal protein S14 genes (RPS14) in eukaryotic species from protozoa to primates exhibit dramatically different intron-exon structures yet share homologous polypeptide-coding sequences. To recognize common features of RPS14 gene architectures in closely related mammalian species and to evaluate similarities in their noncoding DNA sequences, we isolated the intron-containing S14 locus from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell DNA by using a PCR strategy and compared it with human RPS14. We found that rodent and primate S14 genes are composed of identical protein-coding exons interrupted by introns at four conserved DNA sites. However, the structures of corresponding CHO and human RPS14 introns differ significantly. Nonetheless, individual intron splice donor, splice acceptor, and upstream flanking motifs have been conserved within mammalian S14 homologues as well as within RPS14 gene fragments PCR amplified from other vertebrate genera (birds and bony fish). Our data indicate that noncoding, intronic DNA sequences within highly conserved, single-copy ribosomal protein genes are useful molecular landmarks for phylogenetic analysis of closely related vertebrate species.

  18. The relative ages of eukaryotes and akaryotes.

    PubMed

    Penny, David; Collins, Lesley J; Daly, Toni K; Cox, Simon J

    2014-12-01

    The Last Eukaryote Common Ancestor (LECA) appears to have the genetics required for meiosis, mitosis, nucleus and nuclear substructures, an exon/intron gene structure, spliceosomes, many centres of DNA replication, etc. (and including mitochondria). Most of these features are not generally explained by models for the origin of the Eukaryotic cell based on the fusion of an Archeon and a Bacterium. We find that the term 'prokaryote' is ambiguous and the non-phylogenetic term akaryote should be used in its place because we do not yet know the direction of evolution between eukaryotes and akaryotes. We use the term 'protoeukaryote' for the hypothetical stem group ancestral eukaryote that took up a bacterium as an endosymbiont that formed the mitochondrion. It is easier to make detailed models with a eukaryote to an akaryote transition, rather than vice versa. So we really are at a phylogenetic impasse in not being confident about the direction of change between eukaryotes and akaryotes.

  19. Open Questions on the Origin of Eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    López-García, Purificación; Moreira, David

    2015-11-01

    Despite recent progress, the origin of the eukaryotic cell remains enigmatic. It is now known that the last eukaryotic common ancestor was complex and that endosymbiosis played a crucial role in eukaryogenesis at least via the acquisition of the alphaproteobacterial ancestor of mitochondria. However, the nature of the mitochondrial host is controversial, although the recent discovery of an archaeal lineage phylogenetically close to eukaryotes reinforces models proposing archaea-derived hosts. We argue that, in addition to improved phylogenomic analyses with more comprehensive taxon sampling to pinpoint the closest prokaryotic relatives of eukaryotes, determining plausible mechanisms and selective forces at the origin of key eukaryotic features, such as the nucleus or the bacterial-like eukaryotic membrane system, is essential to constrain existing models.

  20. Synthesis of ribosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Warner, J R

    1989-01-01

    The assembly of a eucaryotic ribosome requires the synthesis of four ribosomal ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules and more than 75 ribosomal proteins. It utilizes all three RNA polymerases; it requires the cooperation of the nucleus and the cytoplasm, the processing of RNA, and the specific interaction of RNA and protein molecules. It is carried out efficiently and is exquisitely sensitive to the needs of the cell. Our current understanding of this process in the genetically tractable yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reviewed. The ribosomal RNA genes are arranged in a tandem array of 100 to 200 copies. This tandem array has led to unique ways of carrying out a number of functions. Replication is asymmetric and does not initiate from every autonomously replicating sequence. Recombination is suppressed. Transcription of the major ribosomal RNA appears to involve coupling between adjacent transcription units, which are separated by the 5S RNA transcription unit. Genes for many ribosomal proteins have been cloned and sequenced. Few are linked; most are duplicated; most have an intron. There is extensive homology between yeast ribosomal proteins and those of other species. Most, but not all, of the ribosomal protein genes have one or two sites that are essential for their transcription and that bind a common transcription factor. This factor binds also to many other places in the genome, including the telomeres. There is coordinated transcription of the ribosomal protein genes under a variety of conditions. However, the cell seems to possess no mechanism for regulating the transcription of individual ribosomal protein genes in response either to a deficiency or an excess of a particular ribosomal protein. A deficiency causes slow growth. Any excess ribosomal protein is degraded very rapidly, with a half-life of 1 to 5 min. Unlike most types of cells, yeast cells appear not to regulate the translation of ribosomal proteins. However, in the case of ribosomal protein L32

  1. Metabolic symbiosis at the origin of eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    López-Garćia, P; Moreira, D

    1999-03-01

    Thirty years after Margulis revived the endosymbiosis theory for the origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts, two novel symbiosis hypotheses for the origin of eukaryotes have been put forward. Both propose that eukaryotes arose through metabolic symbiosis (syntrophy) between eubacteria and methanogenic Archaea. They also propose that this was mediated by interspecies hydrogen transfer and that, initially, mitochondria were anaerobic. These hypotheses explain the mosaic character of eukaryotes (i.e. an archaeal-like genetic machinery and a eubacterial-like metabolism), as well as distinct eukaryotic characteristics (which are proposed to be products of symbiosis). Combined data from comparative genomics, microbial ecology and the fossil record should help to test their validity.

  2. The Ribosome Modulates Nascent Protein Folding

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Christian M.; Goldman, Daniel H.; Chodera, John D.; Tinoco, Ignacio; Bustamante, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Proteins are synthesized by the ribosome and generally must fold to become functionally active. Although it is commonly assumed that the ribosome affects the folding process, this idea has been extremely difficult to demonstrate. We have developed an experimental system to investigate the folding of single ribosome-bound stalled nascent polypeptides with optical tweezers. In T4 lysozyme, synthesized in a reconstituted in vitro translation system, the ribosome slows the formation of stable tertiary interactions and the attainment of the native state relative to the free protein. Incomplete T4 lysozyme polypeptides misfold and aggregate when free in solution, but they remain folding-competent near the ribosomal surface. Altogether, our results suggest that the ribosome not only decodes the genetic information and synthesizes polypeptides, but also promotes efficient de novo attainment of the native state. PMID:22194581

  3. How eukaryotic genes are transcribed

    PubMed Central

    Venters, Bryan J.; Pugh, B. Franklin

    2009-01-01

    Summary Regulation of eukaryotic gene expression is far more complex than one might have imagined thirty years ago. However, progress towards understanding gene regulatory mechanisms has been rapid and comprehensive, which has made the integration of detailed observations into broadly connected concepts a challenge. This review attempts to integrate the following concepts: 1) a well-defined organization of nucleosomes and modification states at most genes, 2) regulatory networks of sequence-specific transcription factors, 3) chromatin remodeling coupled to promoter assembly of the general transcription factors and RNA polymerase II, and 4) phosphorylation states of RNA polymerase II coupled to chromatin modification states during transcription. The wealth of new insights arising from the tools of biochemistry, genomics, cell biology, and genetics is providing a remarkable view into the mechanics of gene regulation. PMID:19514890

  4. Ribosome Biogenesis in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Woolford, John L.; Baserga, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    Ribosomes are highly conserved ribonucleoprotein nanomachines that translate information in the genome to create the proteome in all cells. In yeast these complex particles contain four RNAs (>5400 nucleotides) and 79 different proteins. During the past 25 years, studies in yeast have led the way to understanding how these molecules are assembled into ribosomes in vivo. Assembly begins with transcription of ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus, where the RNA then undergoes complex pathways of folding, coupled with nucleotide modification, removal of spacer sequences, and binding to ribosomal proteins. More than 200 assembly factors and 76 small nucleolar RNAs transiently associate with assembling ribosomes, to enable their accurate and efficient construction. Following export of preribosomes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, they undergo final stages of maturation before entering the pool of functioning ribosomes. Elaborate mechanisms exist to monitor the formation of correct structural and functional neighborhoods within ribosomes and to destroy preribosomes that fail to assemble properly. Studies of yeast ribosome biogenesis provide useful models for ribosomopathies, diseases in humans that result from failure to properly assemble ribosomes. PMID:24190922

  5. The Structures of Antibiotics Bound to the E Site Region of the 50 S Ribosomal Subunit of Haloarcula marismortui: 13-Deoxytedanolide and Girodazole

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder,S.; Blaha, G.; Tirado-Rives, J.; Steitz, T.; Moore, P.

    2007-01-01

    Crystal structures of the 50 S ribosomal subunit from Haloarcula marismortui complexed with two antibiotics have identified new sites at which antibiotics interact with the ribosome and inhibit protein synthesis. 13-Deoxytedanolide binds to the E site of the 50 S subunit at the same location as the CCA of tRNA, and thus appears to inhibit protein synthesis by competing with deacylated tRNAs for E site binding. Girodazole binds near the E site region, but is somewhat buried and may inhibit tRNA binding by interfering with conformational changes that occur at the E site. The specificity of 13-deoxytedanolide for eukaryotic ribosomes is explained by its extensive interactions with protein L44e, which is an E site component of archaeal and eukaryotic ribosomes, but not of eubacterial ribosomes. In addition, protein L28, which is unique to the eubacterial E site, overlaps the site occupied by 13-deoxytedanolide, precluding its binding to eubacterial ribosomes. Girodazole is specific for eukarytes and archaea because it makes interactions with L15 that are not possible in eubacteria.

  6. Toxin effect on protein biosynthesis in eukaryotic cells: a simple kinetic model.

    PubMed

    Skakauskas, Vladas; Katauskis, Pranas; Skvortsov, Alex; Gray, Peter

    2015-03-01

    A model for toxin inhibition of protein synthesis inside eukaryotic cells is presented. Mitigation of this effect by introduction of an antibody is also studied. Antibody and toxin (ricin) initially are delivered outside the cell. The model describes toxin internalization from the extracellular into the intracellular domain, its transport to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the cleavage inside the ER into the RTA and RTB chains, the release of RTA into the cytosol, inactivation (depurination) of ribosomes, and the effect on translation. The model consists of a set of ODEs which are solved numerically. Numerical results are illustrated by figures and discussed.

  7. Role for RNA:DNA hybrids in origin-independent replication priming in a eukaryotic system

    PubMed Central

    Stuckey, Ruth; García-Rodríguez, Néstor; Aguilera, Andrés; Wellinger, Ralf Erik

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication initiates at defined replication origins along eukaryotic chromosomes, ensuring complete genome duplication within a single S-phase. A key feature of replication origins is their ability to control the onset of DNA synthesis mediated by DNA polymerase-α and its intrinsic RNA primase activity. Here, we describe a novel origin-independent replication process that is mediated by transcription. RNA polymerase I transcription constraints lead to persistent RNA:DNA hybrids (R-loops) that prime replication in the ribosomal DNA locus. Our results suggest that eukaryotic genomes have developed tools to prevent R-loop–mediated replication events that potentially contribute to copy number variation, particularly relevant to carcinogenesis. PMID:25902524

  8. Biology wars: the eukaryotes strike back.

    PubMed

    Dunning Hotopp, Julie C; Estes, Anne M

    2014-12-10

    It is increasingly clear that eukaryotes have acquired bacterial DNA and function through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Chou et al. (2014) and Metcalf et al. (2014) report multiple HGTs of bacterial tae and lysozyme genes, respectively, to diverse eukaryotic and archaeal hosts that may complement their response to bacteria.

  9. Identification of the binding site of Rlp7 on assembling 60S ribosomal subunits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Dembowski, Jill A.; Ramesh, Madhumitha; McManus, C. Joel; Woolford, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic ribosome assembly requires over 200 assembly factors that facilitate rRNA folding, ribosomal protein binding, and pre-rRNA processing. One such factor is Rlp7, an essential RNA binding protein required for consecutive pre-rRNA processing steps for assembly of yeast 60S ribosomal subunits: exonucleolytic processing of 27SA3 pre-rRNA to generate the 5′ end of 5.8S rRNA and endonucleolytic cleavage of the 27SB pre-rRNA to initiate removal of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2). To better understand the functions of Rlp7 in 27S pre-rRNA processing steps, we identified where it crosslinks to pre-rRNA. We found that Rlp7 binds at the junction of ITS2 and the ITS2-proximal stem, between the 3′ end of 5.8S rRNA and the 5′ end of 25S rRNA. Consistent with Rlp7 binding to this neighborhood during assembly, two-hybrid and affinity copurification assays showed that Rlp7 interacts with other assembly factors that bind to or near ITS2 and the proximal stem. We used in vivo RNA structure probing to demonstrate that the proximal stem forms prior to Rlp7 binding and that Rlp7 binding induces RNA conformational changes in ITS2 that may chaperone rRNA folding and regulate 27S pre-rRNA processing. Our findings contradict the hypothesis that Rlp7 functions as a placeholder for ribosomal protein L7, from which Rlp7 is thought to have evolved in yeast. The binding site of Rlp7 is within eukaryotic-specific RNA elements, which are not found in bacteria. Thus, we propose that Rlp7 coevolved with these RNA elements to facilitate eukaryotic-specific functions in ribosome assembly and pre-rRNA processing. PMID:24129494

  10. Arterio-Venous Fistula: Is it Critical for Prolonged Survival in the over 80's Starting Haemodialysis?

    PubMed Central

    Jakes, Adam D.; Jani, Poonam; Allgar, Victoria; Lamplugh, Archie; Zeidan, Ahmed; Bhandari, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Background Dialysis in elderly patients (>80-years-old) carries a poor prognosis, but little is known about the most effective vascular access method in this age group. An arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is both time-consuming and initially expensive, requiring surgical insertion. A central venous catheter (CVC) is initially a cheaper alternative, but carries a higher risk of infection. We examined whether vascular access affected 1-year and 2-year mortality in elderly patients commencing haemodialysis. Methods Initial vascular access, demographic and survival data for elective haemodialysis patients >80-years was collated using regional databases. A cohort of conservatively managed patients was included for comparison. A log-rank test was used to compare survival between groups and a chi-square test was used to compare 1-year and 2-year survival. Results 167 patients (61% male) were included: CVC (101), AVF (25) and conservative management (41). Mean age (median) of starting haemodialysis (eGFR ≤10mL/min/1.73m2): CVC; 83.4 (2.3) and AVF; 82.3 (1.8). Mean age of conservatively managed patients reaching an eGFR ≤10mL/min/1.73m2 was 85.8 (3.6). Mean (median) survival on dialysis was 2.2 (1.8) years for AVF patients, 2.1 (1.2) for CVC patients, and 1.5 (0.9) for conservatively managed patients (p = 0.107, controlling for age/sex p = 0.519). 1-year and 2-year mortality: AVF (28%/52%); CVC (49%/57%), and conservative management (54%/68%). There was no significant difference between the groups at 1-year (p = 0.108) or 2-years (p = 0.355). Conclusion These results suggest that there is no significant survival benefit over a 2-year period when comparing vascular access methods. In comparison to conservative management, survival benefit was marginal. The decision of whether and how (choice of their vascular access method) to dialysis the over 80s is multifaceted and requires a tailored, multidisciplinary approach. PMID:27684071

  11. [Highest level of division in the organism classification. 1. Prokaryotes and eukaryotes].

    PubMed

    Shatalkin, A I

    2004-01-01

    The works on the general classification of all organisms are considered as a convenient opportunity to sum up numerous data obtained in organic world studying. The present stage is characterized by rapid development of the molecular reconstructions that have already caused considerable changes in our classification practice. These changes look especially impressive at studying the organism cellular structure. The great massive of new data allow us to compare Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes on the nucleic acids and especially proteins whose number in Eukaryote cell approaches to several thousands. Basing on the structure of macromolecules one can hypothesize with great certainty about Prokaryote or Eukaryotes origin. The article presents the detailed characteristic of Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes with the emphasis placed on the comparative analysis of biological macromolecules. Among specially considered cellular structures and processes are cell wall, intracellular components, cellular cycle, nucleus, DNA compactness, replication, genome organization, transcription, posttranscriptional modifications, introns, ribosomes and translation, cytoskeleton, mitosis, cytokinesis, cellular organelles, intracellular membranes systems, modes of nutrition, sexual condition. The macromolecular analysis let to carry out the homology of structures and to find out some new connections. It was shown that typology considered as a search for morphological patterns within the biodiversity structure has almost exhausted the subject. It was directed mostly to distinguishing "main" group in contrast with intermediate and aberrant ones, which were considered as minor phenomenon. At present due to macromolecules systematics it is able to estimate the whole diversity of forms including typologically transitive.

  12. In Silico Resurrection of the Major Vault Protein Suggests It Is Ancestral in Modern Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Toni K.; Sutherland-Smith, Andrew J.; Penny, David

    2013-01-01

    Vaults are very large oligomeric ribonucleoproteins conserved among a variety of species. The rat vault 3D structure shows an ovoid oligomeric particle, consisting of 78 major vault protein monomers, each of approximately 861 amino acids. Vaults are probably the largest ribonucleoprotein structures in eukaryote cells, being approximately 70 nm in length with a diameter of 40 nm—the size of three ribosomes and with a lumen capacity of 50 million Å3. We use both protein sequences and inferred ancestral sequences for in silico virtual resurrection of tertiary and quaternary structures to search for vaults in a wide variety of eukaryotes. We find that the vault’s phylogenetic distribution is widespread in eukaryotes, but is apparently absent in some notable model organisms. Our conclusion from the distribution of vaults is that they were present in the last eukaryote common ancestor but they have apparently been lost from a number of groups including fungi, insects, and probably plants. Our approach of inferring ancestral 3D and quaternary structures is expected to be useful generally. PMID:23887922

  13. In silico resurrection of the major vault protein suggests it is ancestral in modern eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Daly, Toni K; Sutherland-Smith, Andrew J; Penny, David

    2013-01-01

    Vaults are very large oligomeric ribonucleoproteins conserved among a variety of species. The rat vault 3D structure shows an ovoid oligomeric particle, consisting of 78 major vault protein monomers, each of approximately 861 amino acids. Vaults are probably the largest ribonucleoprotein structures in eukaryote cells, being approximately 70 nm in length with a diameter of 40 nm--the size of three ribosomes and with a lumen capacity of 50 million Å(3). We use both protein sequences and inferred ancestral sequences for in silico virtual resurrection of tertiary and quaternary structures to search for vaults in a wide variety of eukaryotes. We find that the vault's phylogenetic distribution is widespread in eukaryotes, but is apparently absent in some notable model organisms. Our conclusion from the distribution of vaults is that they were present in the last eukaryote common ancestor but they have apparently been lost from a number of groups including fungi, insects, and probably plants. Our approach of inferring ancestral 3D and quaternary structures is expected to be useful generally.

  14. Asc1, homolog of human RACK1, prevents frameshifting in yeast by ribosomes stalled at CGA codon repeats

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Andrew S.; Grayhack, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Quality control systems monitor and stop translation at some ribosomal stalls, but it is unknown if halting translation at such stalls actually prevents synthesis of abnormal polypeptides. In yeast, ribosome stalling occurs at Arg CGA codon repeats, with even two consecutive CGA codons able to reduce translation by up to 50%. The conserved eukaryotic Asc1 protein limits translation through internal Arg CGA codon repeats. We show that, in the absence of Asc1 protein, ribosomes continue translating at CGA codons, but undergo substantial frameshifting with dramatically higher levels of frameshifting occurring with additional repeats of CGA codons. Frameshifting depends upon the slow or inefficient decoding of these codons, since frameshifting is suppressed by increased expression of the native tRNAArg(ICG) that decodes CGA codons by wobble decoding. Moreover, the extent of frameshifting is modulated by the position of the CGA codon repeat relative to the translation start site. Thus, translation fidelity depends upon Asc1-mediated quality control. PMID:25792604

  15. How many novel eukaryotic 'kingdoms'? Pitfalls and limitations of environmental DNA surveys

    PubMed Central

    Berney, Cédric; Fahrni, José; Pawlowski, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Background Over the past few years, the use of molecular techniques to detect cultivation-independent, eukaryotic diversity has proven to be a powerful approach. Based on small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene analyses, these studies have revealed the existence of an unexpected variety of new phylotypes. Some of them represent novel diversity in known eukaryotic groups, mainly stramenopiles and alveolates. Others do not seem to be related to any molecularly described lineage, and have been proposed to represent novel eukaryotic kingdoms. In order to review the evolutionary importance of this novel high-level eukaryotic diversity critically, and to test the potential technical and analytical pitfalls and limitations of eukaryotic environmental DNA surveys (EES), we analysed 484 environmental SSU rRNA gene sequences, including 81 new sequences from sediments of the small river, the Seymaz (Geneva, Switzerland). Results Based on a detailed screening of an exhaustive alignment of eukaryotic SSU rRNA gene sequences and the phylogenetic re-analysis of previously published environmental sequences using Bayesian methods, our results suggest that the number of novel higher-level taxa revealed by previously published EES was overestimated. Three main sources of errors are responsible for this situation: (1) the presence of undetected chimeric sequences; (2) the misplacement of several fast-evolving sequences; and (3) the incomplete sampling of described, but yet unsequenced eukaryotes. Additionally, EES give a biased view of the diversity present in a given biotope because of the difficult amplification of SSU rRNA genes in some taxonomic groups. Conclusions Environmental DNA surveys undoubtedly contribute to reveal many novel eukaryotic lineages, but there is no clear evidence for a spectacular increase of the diversity at the kingdom level. After re-analysis of previously published data, we found only five candidate lineages of possible novel high-level eukaryotic

  16. The other lives of ribosomal proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that ribosomal proteins are the constituents of an organelle that is present in every cell, they show a surprising level of regulation, and several of them have also been shown to have other extra-ribosomal functions, such in replication, transcription, splicing or even ageing. This review provides a comprehensive summary of these important aspects. PMID:20650820

  17. Regulation of Eukaryotic Flagellar Motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, David R.

    2005-03-01

    The central apparatus is essential for normal eukaryotic flagellar bend propagation as evidenced by the paralysis associated with mutations that prevent central pair (CP) assembly. Interactions between doublet-associated radial spokes and CP projections are thought to modulate spoke-regulated protein kinases and phosphatases on outer doublets, and these enzymes in turn modulate dynein activity. To better understand CP control mechanisms, we determined the three-dimensional structure of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CP complex and analyzed CP orientation during formation and propagation of flagellar bending waves. We show that a single CP microtubule, C1, is near the outermost doublet in curved regions of the flagellum, and this orientation is maintained by twists between successive principal and reverse bends. The Chlamydomonas CP is inherently twisted; twists are not induced by bend formation, and do not depend on forces or signals transmitted through spoke-central pair interactions. We hypothesize that CP orientation passively responds to bend formation, and that bend propagation drives rotation of the CP and maintains a constant CP orientation in bends, which in turn permits signal transduction between specific CP projections and specific doublet-associated dyneins through radial spokes. The central pair kinesin, Klp1, although essential for normal motility, is therefore not the motor that drives CP rotation. The CP also acts as a scaffold for enzymes that maintain normal intraflagellar ATP concentration.

  18. A Ribosomal Protein AgRPS3aE from Halophilic Aspergillus glaucus Confers Salt Tolerance in Heterologous Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xilong; Liu, Yiling; Xie, Lixia; Liu, Xiaodan; Wei, Yi; Zhou, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Shihong

    2015-01-01

    High salt in soils is one of the abiotic stresses that significantly reduces crop yield, although saline lands are considered potential resources arable for agriculture. Currently, genetic engineering for enhancing salt tolerance is being tested as an efficient and viable strategy for crop improvement. We previously characterized a large subunit of the ribosomal protein RPL44, which is involved in osmotic stress in the extremely halophilic fungus Aspergillus glaucus. Here, we screened another ribosomal protein (AgRPS3aE) that also produced high-salt tolerance in yeast. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that AgRPS3aE encodes a 29.2 kDa small subunit of a ribosomal protein belonging to the RPS3Ae family in eukaryotes. To further confirm its protective function against salinity, we expressed AgRPS3aE in three heterologous systems, the filamentous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and two model plants Arabidopsis and tobacco. Overexpression of AgRPS3aE in all tested transformants significantly alleviated stress symptoms compared with controls, suggesting that AgRPS3aE functions not only in fungi but also in plants. Considering that ribosomal proteins are housekeeping components in organisms from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, we propose that AgRPS3aE is one of the optimal genes for improving high-salt tolerance in crops. PMID:25642759

  19. Molecular architecture of the 90S small subunit pre-ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qi; Zhu, Xing; Qi, Jia; An, Weidong; Lan, Pengfei; Tan, Dan; Chen, Rongchang; Wang, Bing; Zheng, Sanduo; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Xining; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Jing; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Ye, Keqiong

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic small ribosomal subunits are first assembled into 90S pre-ribosomes. The complete 90S is a gigantic complex with a molecular mass of approximately five megadaltons. Here, we report the nearly complete architecture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae 90S determined from three cryo-electron microscopy single particle reconstructions at 4.5 to 8.7 angstrom resolution. The majority of the density maps were modeled and assigned to specific RNA and protein components. The nascent ribosome is assembled into isolated native-like substructures that are stabilized by abundant assembly factors. The 5' external transcribed spacer and U3 snoRNA nucleate a large subcomplex that scaffolds the nascent ribosome. U3 binds four sites of pre-rRNA, including a novel site on helix 27 but not the 3' side of the central pseudoknot, and crucially organizes the 90S structure. The 90S model provides significant insight into the principle of small subunit assembly and the function of assembly factors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22086.001 PMID:28244370

  20. TIF-IA: An oncogenic target of pre-ribosomal RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Rui; Zhou, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Cancer cells devote the majority of their energy consumption to ribosome biogenesis, and pre-ribosomal RNA transcription accounts for 30-50% of all transcriptional activity. This aberrantly elevated biological activity is an attractive target for cancer therapeutic intervention if approaches can be developed to circumvent the development of side effects in normal cells. TIF-IA is a transcription factor that connects RNA polymerase I with the UBF/SL-1 complex to initiate the transcription of pre-ribosomal RNA. Its function is conserved in eukaryotes from yeast to mammals, and its activity is promoted by the phosphorylation of various oncogenic kinases in cancer cells. The depletion of TIF-IA induces cell death in lung cancer cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts but not in several other normal tissue types evaluated in knock-out studies. Furthermore, the nuclear accumulation of TIF-IA under UTP down-regulated conditions requires the activity of LKB1 kinase, and LKB1-inactivated cancer cells are susceptible to cell death under such stress conditions. Therefore, TIF-IA may be a unique target to suppress ribosome biogenesis without significantly impacting the survival of normal tissues.

  1. Phosphorylated proteins of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome: implications in protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jennifer L.; Cimen, Huseyin; Koc, Hasan; Koc, Emine C.

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondria, the powerhouse of eukaryotic cells, have their own translation machinery that is solely responsible for synthesis of 13 mitochondrially-encoded protein subunits of oxidative phosphorylation complexes. Phosphorylation is a well-known post-translational modification in regulation of many processes in mammalian mitochondria including oxidative phosphorylation. However, there is still very limited knowledge on phosphorylation of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and their role(s) in ribosome function. In this study, we have identified the mitochondrial ribosomal proteins that are phosphorylated at serine, threonine or tyrosine residues. Twenty-four phosphorylated proteins were visualized by phosphorylation-specific techniques including in vitro radiolabeling, residue specific antibodies for phosphorylated residues, or ProQ phospho dye and identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Translation assays with isolated ribosomes that were phosphorylated in vitro by kinases PKA, PKCδ, or Abl Tyr showed up to 30% inhibition due to phosphorylation. Findings from this study should serve as the framework for future studies addressing the regulation mechanisms of mitochondrial translation machinery by phosphorylation and other post-translational modifications. PMID:19702336

  2. A conserved quality-control pathway that mediates degradation of unassembled ribosomal proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Min-Kyung; Porras-Yakushi, Tanya R; Reitsma, Justin M; Huber, Ferdinand M; Sweredoski, Michael J; Hoelz, André; Hess, Sonja; Deshaies, Raymond J

    2016-01-01

    Overproduced yeast ribosomal protein (RP) Rpl26 fails to assemble into ribosomes and is degraded in the nucleus/nucleolus by a ubiquitin-proteasome system quality control pathway comprising the E2 enzymes Ubc4/Ubc5 and the ubiquitin ligase Tom1. tom1 cells show reduced ubiquitination of multiple RPs, exceptional accumulation of detergent-insoluble proteins including multiple RPs, and hypersensitivity to imbalances in production of RPs and rRNA, indicative of a profound perturbation to proteostasis. Tom1 directly ubiquitinates unassembled RPs primarily via residues that are concealed in mature ribosomes. Together, these data point to an important role for Tom1 in normal physiology and prompt us to refer to this pathway as ERISQ, for excess ribosomal protein quality control. A similar pathway, mediated by the Tom1 homolog Huwe1, restricts accumulation of overexpressed hRpl26 in human cells. We propose that ERISQ is a key element of the quality control machinery that sustains protein homeostasis and cellular fitness in eukaryotes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19105.001 PMID:27552055

  3. X-ray Analyses of the Ribosomal A-Site Molecular Switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Jiro

    The aminoacyl-tRNA decoding site (A-site) on the small ribosomal subunit is an RNA molecular switch guaranteeing high translation fidelity. Due to the similarity of the secondary structure of the A-site, it has long been believed that the functional characteristics and tertiary structure of the A-site molecular switch are basically conserved in three main cell types, bacteria, mitochondria and eukaryotic cytoplasm. However, these three cell types are noticeably different in their biological properties such as life cycle, genome size, structural component of ribosome and number of tRNA species. In our structural studies, we have shown how a small difference of nucleotide sequences affects the dynamics of the A-site molecular switches underlying the decoding mechanism adapted to their biological properties and environments. The observed structural insights into the decoding process allowed us to understand molecular mechanisms of non-syndromic hearing loss and toxicity mechanism of aminoglycoside antibiotics.

  4. Complementary roles of initiation factor 1 and ribosome recycling factor in 70S ribosome splitting

    PubMed Central

    Pavlov, Michael Y; Antoun, Ayman; Lovmar, Martin; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that ribosomes containing a messenger RNA (mRNA) with a strong Shine–Dalgarno sequence are rapidly split into subunits by initiation factors 1 (IF1) and 3 (IF3), but slowly split by ribosome recycling factor (RRF) and elongation factor G (EF-G). Post-termination-like (PTL) ribosomes containing mRNA and a P-site-bound deacylated transfer RNA (tRNA) are split very rapidly by RRF and EF-G, but extremely slowly by IF1 and IF3. Vacant ribosomes are split by RRF/EF-G much more slowly than PTL ribosomes and by IF1/IF3 much more slowly than mRNA-containing ribosomes. These observations reveal complementary splitting of different ribosomal complexes by IF1/IF3 and RRF/EF-G, and suggest the existence of two major pathways for ribosome splitting into subunits in the living cell. We show that the identity of the deacylated tRNA in the PTL ribosome strongly affects the rate by which it is split by RRF/EF-G and that IF3 is involved in the mechanism of ribosome splitting by IF1/IF3 but not by RRF/EF-G. With support from our experimental data, we discuss the principally different mechanisms of ribosome splitting by IF1/IF3 and by RRF/EF-G. PMID:18497739

  5. Comparative Genomics and Molecular Dynamics of DNA Repeats in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Guy-Franck; Kerrest, Alix; Dujon, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Repeated elements can be widely abundant in eukaryotic genomes, composing more than 50% of the human genome, for example. It is possible to classify repeated sequences into two large families, “tandem repeats” and “dispersed repeats.” Each of these two families can be itself divided into subfamilies. Dispersed repeats contain transposons, tRNA genes, and gene paralogues, whereas tandem repeats contain gene tandems, ribosomal DNA repeat arrays, and satellite DNA, itself subdivided into satellites, minisatellites, and microsatellites. Remarkably, the molecular mechanisms that create and propagate dispersed and tandem repeats are specific to each class and usually do not overlap. In the present review, we have chosen in the first section to describe the nature and distribution of dispersed and tandem repeats in eukaryotic genomes in the light of complete (or nearly complete) available genome sequences. In the second part, we focus on the molecular mechanisms responsible for the fast evolution of two specific classes of tandem repeats: minisatellites and microsatellites. Given that a growing number of human neurological disorders involve the expansion of a particular class of microsatellites, called trinucleotide repeats, a large part of the recent experimental work on microsatellites has focused on these particular repeats, and thus we also review the current knowledge in this area. Finally, we propose a unified definition for mini- and microsatellites that takes into account their biological properties and try to point out new directions that should be explored in a near future on our road to understanding the genetics of repeated sequences. PMID:19052325

  6. New Universal Rules of Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Zur, Hadas; Tuller, Tamir

    2013-01-01

    The accepted model of eukaryotic translation initiation begins with the scanning of the transcript by the pre-initiation complex from the 5′end until an ATG codon with a specific nucleotide (nt) context surrounding it is recognized (Kozak rule). According to this model, ATG codons upstream to the beginning of the ORF should affect translation. We perform for the first time, a genome-wide statistical analysis, uncovering a new, more comprehensive and quantitative, set of initiation rules for improving the cost of translation and its efficiency. Analyzing dozens of eukaryotic genomes, we find that in all frames there is a universal trend of selection for low numbers of ATG codons; specifically, 16–27 codons upstream, but also 5–11 codons downstream of the START ATG, include less ATG codons than expected. We further suggest that there is selection for anti optimal ATG contexts in the vicinity of the START ATG. Thus, the efficiency and fidelity of translation initiation is encoded in the 5′UTR as required by the scanning model, but also at the beginning of the ORF. The observed nt patterns suggest that in all the analyzed organisms the pre-initiation complex often misses the START ATG of the ORF, and may start translation from an alternative initiation start-site. Thus, to prevent the translation of undesired proteins, there is selection for nucleotide sequences with low affinity to the pre-initiation complex near the beginning of the ORF. With the new suggested rules we were able to obtain a twice higher correlation with ribosomal density and protein levels in comparison to the Kozak rule alone (e.g. for protein levels r = 0.7 vs. r = 0.31; p<10−12). PMID:23874179

  7. Import of ribosomal proteins into yeast mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Woellhaf, Michael W; Hansen, Katja G; Garth, Christoph; Herrmann, Johannes M

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondrial ribosomes of baker's yeast contain at least 78 protein subunits. All but one of these proteins are nuclear-encoded, synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes, and imported into the matrix for biogenesis. The import of matrix proteins typically relies on N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequences that form positively charged amphipathic helices. Interestingly, the N-terminal regions of many ribosomal proteins do not closely match the characteristics of matrix targeting sequences, suggesting that the import processes of these proteins might deviate to some extent from the general import route. So far, the biogenesis of only two ribosomal proteins, Mrpl32 and Mrp10, was studied experimentally and indeed showed surprising differences to the import of other preproteins. In this review article we summarize the current knowledge on the transport of proteins into the mitochondrial matrix, and thereby specifically focus on proteins of the mitochondrial ribosome.

  8. Differential Stoichiometry among Core Ribosomal Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Slavov, Nikolai; Semrau, Stefan; Airoldi, Edoardo; Budnik, Bogdan; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Summary Understanding the regulation and structure of ribosomes is essential to understanding protein synthesis and its dysregulation in disease. While ribosomes are believed to have a fixed stoichiometry among their core ribosomal proteins (RPs), some experiments suggest a more variable composition. Testing such variability requires direct and precise quantification of RPs. We used mass spectrometry to directly quantify RPs across monosomes and polysomes of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) and budding yeast. Our data show that the stoichiometry among core RPs in wild-type yeast cells and ESC depends both on the growth conditions and on the number of ribosomes bound per mRNA. Furthermore, we find that the fitness of cells with a deleted RP-gene is inversely proportional to the enrichment of the corresponding RP in polysomes. Together, our findings support the existence of ribosomes with distinct protein composition and physiological function. PMID:26565899

  9. Interaction of Chloramphenicol Tripeptide Analogs with Ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Tereshchenkov, A G; Shishkina, A V; Tashlitsky, V N; Korshunova, G A; Bogdanov, A A; Sumbatyan, N V

    2016-04-01

    Chloramphenicol amine peptide derivatives containing tripeptide fragments of regulatory "stop peptides" - MRL, IRA, IWP - were synthesized. The ability of the compounds to form ribosomal complexes was studied by displacement of the fluorescent erythromycin analog from its complex with E. coli ribosomes. It was found that peptide chloramphenicol analogs are able to bind to bacterial ribosomes. The dissociation constants were 4.3-10 µM, which is 100-fold lower than the corresponding values for chloramphenicol amine-ribosome complex. Interaction of the chloramphenicol peptide analogs with ribosomes was simulated by molecular docking, and the most probable contacts of "stop peptide" motifs with the elements of nascent peptide exit tunnel were identified.

  10. RPL39L is an example of a recently evolved ribosomal protein paralog that shows highly specific tissue expression patterns and is upregulated in ESCs and HCC tumors.

    PubMed

    Wong, Queenie Wing-Lei; Li, Jia; Ng, Sheng Rong; Lim, Seng Gee; Yang, Henry; Vardy, Leah A

    2014-01-01

    Ribosomal proteins (RPs) have been shown to be able to impart selectivity on the translating ribosome implicating them in gene expression control. Many ribosomal proteins are highly conserved and recently a number of ribosomal protein paralogs have been described in mammals. We examined the expression pattern of RPs in differentiating mouse Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs), paying particular attention to the RP paralogs. We find the RP paralog Rpl39l is highly expressed in ESC and its expression strongly correlates with hepatocellular carcinoma tumor (HCC) samples with high tumor grading and alpha-fetoprotein level giving it diagnostic potential. We further screen the expression pattern of all RPs and their paralogs across 22 different tissues. We find that the more recently evolved RP paralogs show a much greater level of tissue-specific expression. We propose that these RP paralogs evolved more recently to provide a greater level of gene expression control to higher eukaryotes.

  11. Protein synthesis by ribosomes with tethered subunits.

    PubMed

    Orelle, Cédric; Carlson, Erik D; Szal, Teresa; Florin, Tanja; Jewett, Michael C; Mankin, Alexander S

    2015-08-06

    The ribosome is a ribonucleoprotein machine responsible for protein synthesis. In all kingdoms of life it is composed of two subunits, each built on its own ribosomal RNA (rRNA) scaffold. The independent but coordinated functions of the subunits, including their ability to associate at initiation, rotate during elongation, and dissociate after protein release, are an established model of protein synthesis. Furthermore, the bipartite nature of the ribosome is presumed to be essential for biogenesis, since dedicated assembly factors keep immature ribosomal subunits apart and prevent them from translation initiation. Free exchange of the subunits limits the development of specialized orthogonal genetic systems that could be evolved for novel functions without interfering with native translation. Here we show that ribosomes with tethered and thus inseparable subunits (termed Ribo-T) are capable of successfully carrying out protein synthesis. By engineering a hybrid rRNA composed of both small and large subunit rRNA sequences, we produced a functional ribosome in which the subunits are covalently linked into a single entity by short RNA linkers. Notably, Ribo-T was not only functional in vitro, but was also able to support the growth of Escherichia coli cells even in the absence of wild-type ribosomes. We used Ribo-T to create the first fully orthogonal ribosome-messenger RNA system, and demonstrate its evolvability by selecting otherwise dominantly lethal rRNA mutations in the peptidyl transferase centre that facilitate the translation of a problematic protein sequence. Ribo-T can be used for exploring poorly understood functions of the ribosome, enabling orthogonal genetic systems, and engineering ribosomes with new functions.

  12. Bacterial proteins pinpoint a single eukaryotic root

    PubMed Central

    Derelle, Romain; Torruella, Guifré; Klimeš, Vladimír; Brinkmann, Henner; Kim, Eunsoo; Vlček, Čestmír; Lang, B. Franz; Eliáš, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The large phylogenetic distance separating eukaryotic genes and their archaeal orthologs has prevented identification of the position of the eukaryotic root in phylogenomic studies. Recently, an innovative approach has been proposed to circumvent this issue: the use as phylogenetic markers of proteins that have been transferred from bacterial donor sources to eukaryotes, after their emergence from Archaea. Using this approach, two recent independent studies have built phylogenomic datasets based on bacterial sequences, leading to different predictions of the eukaryotic root. Taking advantage of additional genome sequences from the jakobid Andalucia godoyi and the two known malawimonad species (Malawimonas jakobiformis and Malawimonas californiana), we reanalyzed these two phylogenomic datasets. We show that both datasets pinpoint the same phylogenetic position of the eukaryotic root that is between “Unikonta” and “Bikonta,” with malawimonad and collodictyonid lineages on the Unikonta side of the root. Our results firmly indicate that (i) the supergroup Excavata is not monophyletic and (ii) the last common ancestor of eukaryotes was a biflagellate organism. Based on our results, we propose to rename the two major eukaryotic groups Unikonta and Bikonta as Opimoda and Diphoda, respectively. PMID:25646484

  13. How natural a kind is "eukaryote?".

    PubMed

    Doolittle, W Ford

    2014-06-02

    Systematics balances uneasily between realism and nominalism, uncommitted as to whether biological taxa are discoveries or inventions. If the former, they might be taken as natural kinds. I briefly review some philosophers' concepts of natural kinds and then argue that several of these apply well enough to "eukaryote." Although there are some sticky issues around genomic chimerism and when eukaryotes first appeared, if we allow for degrees in the naturalness of kinds, existing eukaryotes rank highly, higher than prokaryotes. Most biologists feel this intuitively: All I attempt to do here is provide some conceptual justification.

  14. [Posttranscriptional messenger RNA modifications in eukaryotes].

    PubMed

    Laptev, I G; Golovina, A Ya; Sergiev, P V; Dontsova, O A

    2015-01-01

    Genomewide mapping of posttranscriptional modification in eukaryotic RNA allowed to reveal tens of thousands modification sites. Among modified nucleotides of eukaryotic RNA 6-methyladenosine, 5-methylcytidine, pseudouridine, inosine, and others. Many modification sites are conserved, many are regulated. Function is known for a small subset of modified nucleotides, while the role of majority of them is still obscure. Global character of mRNA modifications allowed scientists to coin a new term, RNA epigenetics. The review is about posttranscriptional messenger RNA modifications in eukaryotes. Main modifications, their role in cell, their mapping techniques and proteins, that are responsible for such RNA modifications are observed.

  15. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic unicellular chronomics

    PubMed Central

    Halberg, F.; Cornélissen, G.; Faraone, P.; Poeggeler, B.; Hardeland, R.; Katinas, G.; Schwartzkopff, O.; Otsuka, K.; Bakken, E. E.

    2008-01-01

    An impeccable time series, published in 1930, consisting of hourly observations on colony advance in a fluid culture of E. coli, was analyzed by a periodogram and power spectrum in 1961. While the original senior author had emphasized specifically periodicity with no estimate of period length, he welcomed further analyses. After consulting his technician, he knew of no environmental periodicity related to human schedules other than an hourly photography. A periodogram analysis in 1961 showed a 20.75-h period. It was emphasized that “… the circadian period disclosed is not of exactly 24-h length.” Confirmations notwithstanding, a committee ruled out microbial circadian rhythms based on grounds that could have led to a different conclusion, namely first, the inability of some committee members to see (presumably by eyeballing) the rhythms in their own data, and second, what hardly follows, that there were “too many analyses” in the published papers. Our point in dealing with microbes and humans is that analyses are indispensable for quantification and for discovering a biologically novel spectrum of cyclicities, matching physical ones. The scope of circadian organization estimated in 1961 has become broader, including about 7-day, about half-yearly, about-yearly and ex-yearly and decadal periodisms, among others. Microbial circadians have become a field of their own with eyeballing, yet time-microscopy can quantify characteristics with their uncertainties and can assess broad chronomes (time structures) with features beyond circadians. As yet only suggestive differences between eukaryotes and prokaryotes further broaden the perspective and may lead to life’s sites of origin and to new temporal aspects of life’ s development as a chronomic tree by eventual rhythm dating in ontogeny and phylogeny. PMID:16275493

  16. The Dedicated Chaperone Acl4 Escorts Ribosomal Protein Rpl4 to Its Nuclear Pre-60S Assembly Site

    PubMed Central

    Pillet, Benjamin; García-Gómez, Juan J.; Pausch, Patrick; Falquet, Laurent; Bange, Gert; de la Cruz, Jesús; Kressler, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Ribosomes are the highly complex macromolecular assemblies dedicated to the synthesis of all cellular proteins from mRNA templates. The main principles underlying the making of ribosomes are conserved across eukaryotic organisms and this process has been studied in most detail in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast ribosomes are composed of four ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and 79 ribosomal proteins (r-proteins). Most r-proteins need to be transported from the cytoplasm to the nucleus where they get incorporated into the evolving pre-ribosomal particles. Due to the high abundance and difficult physicochemical properties of r-proteins, their correct folding and fail-safe targeting to the assembly site depends largely on general, as well as highly specialized, chaperone and transport systems. Many r-proteins contain universally conserved or eukaryote-specific internal loops and/or terminal extensions, which were shown to mediate their nuclear targeting and association with dedicated chaperones in a growing number of cases. The 60S r-protein Rpl4 is particularly interesting since it harbours a conserved long internal loop and a prominent C-terminal eukaryote-specific extension. Here we show that both the long internal loop and the C-terminal eukaryote-specific extension are strictly required for the functionality of Rpl4. While Rpl4 contains at least five distinct nuclear localization signals (NLS), the C-terminal part of the long internal loop associates with a specific binding partner, termed Acl4. Absence of Acl4 confers a severe slow-growth phenotype and a deficiency in the production of 60S subunits. Genetic and biochemical evidence indicates that Acl4 can be considered as a dedicated chaperone of Rpl4. Notably, Acl4 localizes to both the cytoplasm and nucleus and it has the capacity to capture nascent Rpl4 in a co-translational manner. Taken together, our findings indicate that the dedicated chaperone Acl4 accompanies Rpl4 from the cytoplasm to its pre-60S

  17. The Dedicated Chaperone Acl4 Escorts Ribosomal Protein Rpl4 to Its Nuclear Pre-60S Assembly Site.

    PubMed

    Pillet, Benjamin; García-Gómez, Juan J; Pausch, Patrick; Falquet, Laurent; Bange, Gert; de la Cruz, Jesús; Kressler, Dieter

    2015-10-01

    Ribosomes are the highly complex macromolecular assemblies dedicated to the synthesis of all cellular proteins from mRNA templates. The main principles underlying the making of ribosomes are conserved across eukaryotic organisms and this process has been studied in most detail in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast ribosomes are composed of four ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and 79 ribosomal proteins (r-proteins). Most r-proteins need to be transported from the cytoplasm to the nucleus where they get incorporated into the evolving pre-ribosomal particles. Due to the high abundance and difficult physicochemical properties of r-proteins, their correct folding and fail-safe targeting to the assembly site depends largely on general, as well as highly specialized, chaperone and transport systems. Many r-proteins contain universally conserved or eukaryote-specific internal loops and/or terminal extensions, which were shown to mediate their nuclear targeting and association with dedicated chaperones in a growing number of cases. The 60S r-protein Rpl4 is particularly interesting since it harbours a conserved long internal loop and a prominent C-terminal eukaryote-specific extension. Here we show that both the long internal loop and the C-terminal eukaryote-specific extension are strictly required for the functionality of Rpl4. While Rpl4 contains at least five distinct nuclear localization signals (NLS), the C-terminal part of the long internal loop associates with a specific binding partner, termed Acl4. Absence of Acl4 confers a severe slow-growth phenotype and a deficiency in the production of 60S subunits. Genetic and biochemical evidence indicates that Acl4 can be considered as a dedicated chaperone of Rpl4. Notably, Acl4 localizes to both the cytoplasm and nucleus and it has the capacity to capture nascent Rpl4 in a co-translational manner. Taken together, our findings indicate that the dedicated chaperone Acl4 accompanies Rpl4 from the cytoplasm to its pre-60S

  18. Quantitative determination of ribosome nascent chain stability

    PubMed Central

    Samelson, Avi J.; Jensen, Madeleine K.; Soto, Randy A.; Cate, Jamie H. D.; Marqusee, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Accurate protein folding is essential for proper cellular and organismal function. In the cell, protein folding is carefully regulated; changes in folding homeostasis (proteostasis) can disrupt many cellular processes and have been implicated in various neurodegenerative diseases and other pathologies. For many proteins, the initial folding process begins during translation while the protein is still tethered to the ribosome; however, most biophysical studies of a protein’s energy landscape are carried out in isolation under idealized, dilute conditions and may not accurately report on the energy landscape in vivo. Thus, the energy landscape of ribosome nascent chains and the effect of the tethered ribosome on nascent chain folding remain unclear. Here we have developed a general assay for quantitatively measuring the folding stability of ribosome nascent chains, and find that the ribosome exerts a destabilizing effect on the polypeptide chain. This destabilization decreases as a function of the distance away from the peptidyl transferase center. Thus, the ribosome may add an additional layer of robustness to the protein-folding process by avoiding the formation of stable partially folded states before the protein has completely emerged from the ribosome. PMID:27821780

  19. Paleobiological Perspectives on Early Eukaryotic Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Knoll, Andrew H.

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic organisms radiated in Proterozoic oceans with oxygenated surface waters, but, commonly, anoxia at depth. Exceptionally preserved fossils of red algae favor crown group emergence more than 1200 million years ago, but older (up to 1600–1800 million years) microfossils could record stem group eukaryotes. Major eukaryotic diversification ∼800 million years ago is documented by the increase in the taxonomic richness of complex, organic-walled microfossils, including simple coenocytic and multicellular forms, as well as widespread tests comparable to those of extant testate amoebae and simple foraminiferans and diverse scales comparable to organic and siliceous scales formed today by protists in several clades. Mid-Neoproterozoic establishment or expansion of eukaryophagy provides a possible mechanism for accelerating eukaryotic diversification long after the origin of the domain. Protists continued to diversify along with animals in the more pervasively oxygenated oceans of the Phanerozoic Eon. PMID:24384569

  20. Origins and evolution of eukaryotic RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Shabalina, Svetlana A.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2009-01-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and genome-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) silence genes via complementary interactions with mRNAs. With thousands of miRNA genes identified and genome sequences of diverse eukaryotes available for comparison, the opportunity emerges for insights into origin and evolution of RNA interference (RNAi). The miRNA repertoires of plants and animals appear to have evolved independently. However, conservation of the key proteins involved in RNAi suggests that the last common ancestor of modern eukaryotes possessed siRNA-based mechanisms. Prokaryotes have a RNAi-like defense system that is functionally analogous but not homologous to eukaryotic RNAi. The protein machinery of eukaryotic RNAi seems to have been pieced together from ancestral proteins of archaeal, bacterial and phage origins that are involved in DNA repair and RNA-processing pathways. PMID:18715673

  1. The Eukaryotic Replisome Goes Under the Microscope

    DOE PAGES

    O'Donnell, Mike; Li, Huilin

    2016-03-21

    The machinery at the eukaryotic replication fork has seen many new structural advances using EM and crystallography. Recent structures of eukaryotic replisome components include the Mcm2-7 complex, the CMG helicase, DNA polymerases, a Ctf4 trimer hub and the first look at a core replisome of 20 different proteins containing the helicase, primase, leading polymerase and a lagging strand polymerase. The eukaryotic core replisome shows an unanticipated architecture, with one polymerase sitting above the helicase and the other below. Additionally, structures of Mcm2 bound to an H3/H4 tetramer suggest a direct role of the replisome in handling nucleosomes, which are importantmore » to DNA organization and gene regulation. This review provides a summary of some of the many recent advances in the structure of the eukaryotic replisome.« less

  2. The Eukaryotic Replisome Goes Under the Microscope

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Mike; Li, Huilin

    2016-01-01

    The machinery at the eukaryotic replication fork has seen many new structural advances using electron microscopy and crystallography. Recent structures of eukaryotic replisome components include the Mcm2-7 complex, the CMG helicase, DNA polymerases, a Ctf4 trimer hub and the first look at a core replisome of 20 different proteins containing the helicase, primase, leading polymerase and a lagging strand polymerase. The eukaryotic core replisome shows an unanticipated architecture, with one polymerase sitting above the helicase and the other below. Additionally, structures of Mcm2 bound to an H3/H4 tetramer suggest a direct role of the replisome in handling nucleosomes, which are important to DNA organization and gene regulation. This review provides a summary of some of the many recent advances in the structure of the eukaryotic replisome. PMID:27003891

  3. The Eukaryotic Replisome Goes Under the Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    O'Donnell, Mike; Li, Huilin

    2016-03-21

    The machinery at the eukaryotic replication fork has seen many new structural advances using EM and crystallography. Recent structures of eukaryotic replisome components include the Mcm2-7 complex, the CMG helicase, DNA polymerases, a Ctf4 trimer hub and the first look at a core replisome of 20 different proteins containing the helicase, primase, leading polymerase and a lagging strand polymerase. The eukaryotic core replisome shows an unanticipated architecture, with one polymerase sitting above the helicase and the other below. Additionally, structures of Mcm2 bound to an H3/H4 tetramer suggest a direct role of the replisome in handling nucleosomes, which are important to DNA organization and gene regulation. This review provides a summary of some of the many recent advances in the structure of the eukaryotic replisome.

  4. Identification of an additional gene required for eukaryotic nonsense mRNA turnover.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, B S; Culbertson, M R

    1995-01-01

    Loss of function of any one of three UPF genes prevents the accelerated decay of nonsense mRNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We report the identification and DNA sequence of UPF3, which is present in one nonessential copy on chromosome VII. Upf3 contains three putative nuclear localization signal sequences, suggesting that it may be located in a different compartment than the cytoplasmic Upf1 protein. Epitope-tagged Upf3 (FLAG-Upf3) does not cofractionate with polyribosomes or 80S ribosomal particles. Double disruptions of UPF1 and UPF3 affect nonsense mRNA decay in a manner indistinguishable from single disruptions. These results suggest that the Upf proteins perform related functions in a common pathway. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:7479783

  5. Metabolic Constraints on the Eukaryotic Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2009-04-01

    Mutualism, obligate mutualism, symbiosis, and the eukaryotic ‘fusion’ of Serial Endosymbiosis Theory represent progressively more rapid and less distorted real-time communication between biological structures instantiating information sources. Such progression in accurate information transmission requires, in turn, progressively greater channel capacity that, through the homology between information source uncertainty and free energy density, requires ever more energetic metabolism. The eukaryotic transition, according to this model, may have been entrained by an ecosystem resilience shift from anaerobic to aerobic metabolism.

  6. Sex and the eukaryotic cell cycle is consistent with a viral ancestry for the eukaryotic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Bell, Philip John Livingstone

    2006-11-07

    The origin of the eukaryotic cell cycle, including mitosis, meiosis, and sex are as yet unresolved aspects of the evolution of the eukaryotes. The wide phylogenetic distribution of both mitosis and meiosis suggest that these processes are integrally related to the origin of the earliest eukaryotic cells. According to the viral eukaryogenesis (VE) hypothesis, the eukaryotes are a composite of three phylogenetically unrelated organisms: a viral lysogen that evolved into the nucleus, an archaeal cell that evolved into the eukaryotic cytoplasm, and an alpha-proteobacterium that evolved into the mitochondria. In the extended VE hypothesis presented here, the eukaryotic cell cycle arises as a consequence of the derivation of the nucleus from a lysogenic DNA virus.

  7. A new system for naming ribosomal proteins.

    PubMed

    Ban, Nenad; Beckmann, Roland; Cate, Jamie H D; Dinman, Jonathan D; Dragon, François; Ellis, Steven R; Lafontaine, Denis L J; Lindahl, Lasse; Liljas, Anders; Lipton, Jeffrey M; McAlear, Michael A; Moore, Peter B; Noller, Harry F; Ortega, Joaquin; Panse, Vikram Govind; Ramakrishnan, V; Spahn, Christian M T; Steitz, Thomas A; Tchorzewski, Marek; Tollervey, David; Warren, Alan J; Williamson, James R; Wilson, Daniel; Yonath, Ada; Yusupov, Marat

    2014-02-01

    A system for naming ribosomal proteins is described that the authors intend to use in the future. They urge others to adopt it. The objective is to eliminate the confusion caused by the assignment of identical names to ribosomal proteins from different species that are unrelated in structure and function. In the system proposed here, homologous ribosomal proteins are assigned the same name, regardless of species. It is designed so that new names are similar enough to old names to be easily recognized, but are written in a format that unambiguously identifies them as 'new system' names.

  8. Transfer of DNA from Bacteria to Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Historically, the members of the Agrobacterium genus have been considered the only bacterial species naturally able to transfer and integrate DNA into the genomes of their eukaryotic hosts. Yet, increasing evidence suggests that this ability to genetically transform eukaryotic host cells might be more widespread in the bacterial world. Indeed, analyses of accumulating genomic data reveal cases of horizontal gene transfer from bacteria to eukaryotes and suggest that it represents a significant force in adaptive evolution of eukaryotic species. Specifically, recent reports indicate that bacteria other than Agrobacterium, such as Bartonella henselae (a zoonotic pathogen), Rhizobium etli (a plant-symbiotic bacterium related to Agrobacterium), or even Escherichia coli, have the ability to genetically transform their host cells under laboratory conditions. This DNA transfer relies on type IV secretion systems (T4SSs), the molecular machines that transport macromolecules during conjugative plasmid transfer and also during transport of proteins and/or DNA to the eukaryotic recipient cells. In this review article, we explore the extent of possible transfer of genetic information from bacteria to eukaryotic cells as well as the evolutionary implications and potential applications of this transfer. PMID:27406565

  9. Structural snapshot of cytoplasmic pre-60S ribosomal particles bound by Nmd3, Lsg1, Tif6 and Reh1.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chengying; Wu, Shan; Li, Ningning; Chen, Yan; Yan, Kaige; Li, Zhifei; Zheng, Lvqin; Lei, Jianlin; Woolford, John L; Gao, Ning

    2017-03-01

    A key step in ribosome biogenesis is the nuclear export of pre-ribosomal particles. Nmd3, a highly conserved protein in eukaryotes, is a specific adaptor required for the export of pre-60S particles. Here we used cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to characterize Saccharomyces cerevisiae pre-60S particles purified with epitope-tagged Nmd3. Our structural analysis indicates that these particles belong to a specific late stage of cytoplasmic pre-60S maturation in which ribosomal proteins uL16, uL10, uL11, eL40 and eL41 are deficient, but ribosome assembly factors Nmd3, Lsg1, Tif6 and Reh1 are present. Nmd3 and Lsg1 are located near the peptidyl-transferase center (PTC). In particular, Nmd3 recognizes the PTC in its near-mature conformation. In contrast, Reh1 is anchored to the exit of the polypeptide tunnel, with its C terminus inserted into the tunnel. These findings pinpoint a structural checkpoint role for Nmd3 in PTC assembly, and provide information about functional and mechanistic roles of these assembly factors in the maturation of the 60S ribosomal subunit.

  10. The ribosome as a missing link in prebiotic evolution II: Ribosomes encode ribosomal proteins that bind to common regions of their own mRNAs and rRNAs.

    PubMed

    Root-Bernstein, Robert; Root-Bernstein, Meredith

    2016-05-21

    We have proposed that the ribosome may represent a missing link between prebiotic chemistries and the first cells. One of the predictions that follows from this hypothesis, which we test here, is that ribosomal RNA (rRNA) must have encoded the proteins necessary for ribosomal function. In other words, the rRNA also functioned pre-biotically as mRNA. Since these ribosome-binding proteins (rb-proteins) must bind to the rRNA, but the rRNA also functioned as mRNA, it follows that rb-proteins should bind to their own mRNA as well. This hypothesis can be contrasted to a "null" hypothesis in which rb-proteins evolved independently of the rRNA sequences and therefore there should be no necessary similarity between the rRNA to which rb-proteins bind and the mRNA that encodes the rb-protein. Five types of evidence reported here support the plausibility of the hypothesis that the mRNA encoding rb-proteins evolved from rRNA: (1) the ubiquity of rb-protein binding to their own mRNAs and autogenous control of their own translation; (2) the higher-than-expected incidence of Arginine-rich modules associated with RNA binding that occurs in rRNA-encoded proteins; (3) the fact that rRNA-binding regions of rb-proteins are homologous to their mRNA binding regions; (4) the higher than expected incidence of rb-protein sequences encoded in rRNA that are of a high degree of homology to their mRNA as compared with a random selection of other proteins; and (5) rRNA in modern prokaryotes and eukaryotes encodes functional proteins. None of these results can be explained by the null hypothesis that assumes independent evolution of rRNA and the mRNAs encoding ribosomal proteins. Also noteworthy is that very few proteins bind their own mRNAs that are not associated with ribosome function. Further tests of the hypothesis are suggested: (1) experimental testing of whether rRNA-encoded proteins bind to rRNA at their coding sites; (2) whether tRNA synthetases, which are also known to bind to their

  11. Differences in soil micro-eukaryotic communities over soil pH gradients are strongly driven by parasites and saprotrophs.

    PubMed

    Dupont, A Ö C; Griffiths, R I; Bell, T; Bass, D

    2016-06-01

    A recent large-scale assessment of bacterial communities across a range of UK soil types showed that bacterial community structure was strongly determined by soil pH. We analysed a data set of eukaryotic 454 sequencing 18S rDNA from the surveyed samples and showed significant differences in eukaryotic assemblages according to pH class, mostly between low pH and higher pH soils. Soil eukaryote communities (per sample) differed most at the taxonomic rank approximating to order level. Taxonomies assigned with the Protist Ribosomal Reference and the Silva 119 databases were taxonomically inconsistent, mostly due to differing 18S annotations, although general structure and composition according to pH were coherent. A relatively small number of lineages, mostly putative parasitic protists and fungi, drive most differences between pH classes, with weaker contributions from bacterivores and autotrophs. Overall, soil parasites included a large diversity of alveolates, in particular apicomplexans. Phylogenetic analysis of alveolate lineages demonstrates a large diversity of unknown gregarines, novel perkinsids, coccidians, colpodellids and uncharacterized alveolates. Other novel and/or divergent lineages were revealed across the eukaryote tree of life. Our study provides an in-depth taxonomic evaluation of micro-eukaryotic diversity, and reveals novel lineages and insights into their relationships with environmental variables across soil gradients.

  12. Next-Generation Sequencing Assessment of Eukaryotic Diversity in Oil Sands Tailings Ponds Sediments and Surface Water.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Maria; Richardson, Elisabeth; Tan, BoonFei; Walker, Giselle; Dunfield, Peter F; Bass, David; Nesbø, Camilla; Foght, Julia; Dacks, Joel B

    2016-11-01

    Tailings ponds in the Athabasca oil sands (Canada) contain fluid wastes, generated by the extraction of bitumen from oil sands ores. Although the autochthonous prokaryotic communities have been relatively well characterized, almost nothing is known about microbial eukaryotes living in the anoxic soft sediments of tailings ponds or in the thin oxic layer of water that covers them. We carried out the first next-generation sequencing study of microbial eukaryotic diversity in oil sands tailings ponds. In metagenomes prepared from tailings sediment and surface water, we detected very low numbers of sequences encoding eukaryotic small subunit ribosomal RNA representing seven major taxonomic groups of protists. We also produced and analysed three amplicon-based 18S rRNA libraries prepared from sediment samples. These revealed a more diverse set of taxa, 169 different OTUs encompassing up to eleven higher order groups of eukaryotes, according to detailed classification using homology searching and phylogenetic methods. The 10 most abundant OTUs accounted for > 90% of the total of reads, vs. large numbers of rare OTUs (< 1% abundance). Despite the anoxic and hydrocarbon-enriched nature of the environment, the tailings ponds harbour complex communities of microbial eukaryotes indicating that these organisms should be taken into account when studying the microbiology of the oil sands.

  13. Regulation of ribosomal protein synthesis in an Escherichia coli mutant missing ribosomal protein L1.

    PubMed Central

    Jinks-Robertson, S; Nomura, M

    1981-01-01

    In an Escherichia coli B strain missing ribosomal protein L1, the synthesis rate of L11 is 50% greater than that of other ribosomal proteins. This finding is in agreement with the previous conclusion that L1 regulates synthesis of itself and L11 and indicates that this regulation is important for maintaining the balanced synthesis of ribosomal proteins under physiological conditions. PMID:7009590

  14. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Schoch, Conrad L.; Seifert, Keith A.; Huhndorf, Sabine; Robert, Vincent; Spouge, John L.; Levesque, C. André; Chen, Wen; Bolchacova, Elena; Voigt, Kerstin; Crous, Pedro W.; Miller, Andrew N.; Wingfield, Michael J.; Aime, M. Catherine; An, Kwang-Deuk; Bai, Feng-Yan; Barreto, Robert W.; Begerow, Dominik; Bergeron, Marie-Josée; Blackwell, Meredith; Boekhout, Teun; Bogale, Mesfin; Boonyuen, Nattawut; Burgaz, Ana R.; Buyck, Bart; Cai, Lei; Cai, Qing; Cardinali, G.; Chaverri, Priscila; Coppins, Brian J.; Crespo, Ana; Cubas, Paloma; Cummings, Craig; Damm, Ulrike; de Beer, Z. Wilhelm; de Hoog, G. Sybren; Del-Prado, Ruth; Dentinger, Bryn; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier; Divakar, Pradeep K.; Douglas, Brian; Dueñas, Margarita; Duong, Tuan A.; Eberhardt, Ursula; Edwards, Joan E.; Elshahed, Mostafa S.; Fliegerova, Katerina; Furtado, Manohar; García, Miguel A.; Ge, Zai-Wei; Griffith, Gareth W.; Griffiths, K.; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Groenewald, Marizeth; Grube, Martin; Gryzenhout, Marieka; Guo, Liang-Dong; Hagen, Ferry; Hambleton, Sarah; Hamelin, Richard C.; Hansen, Karen; Harrold, Paul; Heller, Gregory; Herrera, Cesar; Hirayama, Kazuyuki; Hirooka, Yuuri; Ho, Hsiao-Man; Hoffmann, Kerstin; Hofstetter, Valérie; Högnabba, Filip; Hollingsworth, Peter M.; Hong, Seung-Beom; Hosaka, Kentaro; Houbraken, Jos; Hughes, Karen; Huhtinen, Seppo; Hyde, Kevin D.; James, Timothy; Johnson, Eric M.; Johnson, Joan E.; Johnston, Peter R.; Jones, E.B. Gareth; Kelly, Laura J.; Kirk, Paul M.; Knapp, Dániel G.; Kõljalg, Urmas; Kovács, Gábor M.; Kurtzman, Cletus P.; Landvik, Sara; Leavitt, Steven D.; Liggenstoffer, Audra S.; Liimatainen, Kare; Lombard, Lorenzo; Luangsa-ard, J. Jennifer; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten; Maganti, Harinad; Maharachchikumbura, Sajeewa S. N.; Martin, María P.; May, Tom W.; McTaggart, Alistair R.; Methven, Andrew S.; Meyer, Wieland; Moncalvo, Jean-Marc; Mongkolsamrit, Suchada; Nagy, László G.; Nilsson, R. Henrik; Niskanen, Tuula; Nyilasi, Ildikó; Okada, Gen; Okane, Izumi; Olariaga, Ibai; Otte, Jürgen; Papp, Tamás; Park, Duckchul; Petkovits, Tamás; Pino-Bodas, Raquel; Quaedvlieg, William; Raja, Huzefa A.; Redecker, Dirk; Rintoul, Tara L.; Ruibal, Constantino; Sarmiento-Ramírez, Jullie M.; Schmitt, Imke; Schüßler, Arthur; Shearer, Carol; Sotome, Kozue; Stefani, Franck O.P.; Stenroos, Soili; Stielow, Benjamin; Stockinger, Herbert; Suetrong, Satinee; Suh, Sung-Oui; Sung, Gi-Ho; Suzuki, Motofumi; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Tedersoo, Leho; Telleria, M. Teresa; Tretter, Eric; Untereiner, Wendy A.; Urbina, Hector; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Vialle, Agathe; Vu, Thuy Duong; Walther, Grit; Wang, Qi-Ming; Wang, Yan; Weir, Bevan S.; Weiß, Michael; White, Merlin M.; Xu, Jianping; Yahr, Rebecca; Yang, Zhu L.; Yurkov, Andrey; Zamora, Juan-Carlos; Zhang, Ning; Zhuang, Wen-Ying; Schindel, David

    2012-01-01

    Six DNA regions were evaluated as potential DNA barcodes for Fungi, the second largest kingdom of eukaryotic life, by a multinational, multilaboratory consortium. The region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 used as the animal barcode was excluded as a potential marker, because it is difficult to amplify in fungi, often includes large introns, and can be insufficiently variable. Three subunits from the nuclear ribosomal RNA cistron were compared together with regions of three representative protein-coding genes (largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, and minichromosome maintenance protein). Although the protein-coding gene regions often had a higher percent of correct identification compared with ribosomal markers, low PCR amplification and sequencing success eliminated them as candidates for a universal fungal barcode. Among the regions of the ribosomal cistron, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region has the highest probability of successful identification for the broadest range of fungi, with the most clearly defined barcode gap between inter- and intraspecific variation. The nuclear ribosomal large subunit, a popular phylogenetic marker in certain groups, had superior species resolution in some taxonomic groups, such as the early diverging lineages and the ascomycete yeasts, but was otherwise slightly inferior to the ITS. The nuclear ribosomal small subunit has poor species-level resolution in fungi. ITS will be formally proposed for adoption as the primary fungal barcode marker to the Consortium for the Barcode of Life, with the possibility that supplementary barcodes may be developed for particular narrowly circumscribed taxonomic groups. PMID:22454494

  15. Ribosome Inactivating Proteins from Rosaceae.

    PubMed

    Shang, Chenjing; Rougé, Pierre; Van Damme, Els J M

    2016-08-22

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are widespread among higher plants of different taxonomic orders. In this study, we report on the RIP sequences found in the genome/transcriptome of several important Rosaceae species, including many economically important edible fruits such as apple, pear, peach, apricot, and strawberry. All RIP domains from Rosaceae share high sequence similarity with conserved residues in the catalytic site and the carbohydrate binding sites. The genomes of Malus domestica and Pyrus communis contain both type 1 and type 2 RIP sequences, whereas for Prunus mume, Prunus persica, Pyrus bretschneideri, and Pyrus communis a complex set of type 1 RIP sequences was retrieved. Heterologous expression and purification of the type 1 as well as the type 2 RIP from apple allowed to characterize the biological activity of the proteins. Both RIPs from Malus domestica can inhibit protein synthesis. Furthermore, molecular modelling suggests that RIPs from Rosaceae possess three-dimensional structures that are highly similar to the model proteins and can bind to RIP substrates. Screening of the recombinant type 2 RIP from apple on a glycan array revealed that this type 2 RIP interacts with terminal sialic acid residues. Our data suggest that the RIPs from Rosaceae are biologically active proteins.

  16. Potential extra-ribosomal functions of ribosomal proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui; Zhu, Yi-Fei; Xiong, Juan; Wang, Rong; Jia, Zhengping

    2015-08-01

    Ribosomal proteins (RPs), are essential components of the ribosomes, the molecular machines that turn mRNA blueprints into proteins, as they serve to stabilize the structure of the rRNA, thus improving protein biosynthesis. In addition, growing evidence suggests that RPs can function in other cellular roles. In the present review, we summarize several potential extra-ribosomal functions of RPs in ribosomal biogenesis, transcription activity, translation process, DNA repair, replicative life span, adhesive growth, and morphological transformation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the future in-depth studies are needed to identify these novel secondary functions of RPs in S. cerevisiae.

  17. Ribonuclease Sensitivity of Escherichia coli Ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Santer, Melvin; Smith, Josephine R.

    1966-01-01

    Santer, Melvin (Haverford College, Haverford, Pa.), and Josephine R. Smith. Ribonuclease sensitivity of Escherichia coli ribosomes. J. Bacteriol. 92:1099–1110. 1966.—The ribonucleic acid (RNA) contained in 70S ribosomes and in 50S and 30S subunits was hydrolyzed by pancreatic ribonuclease. A 7% amount of the RNA was removed from the 70S particle; at 10−4m magnesium concentration, a maximum of 24 and 30% of the RNA in the 50S and the 30S fractions, respectively, was removed by ribonuclease. At the two lower magnesium ion concentrations, 50S ribosomes did not lose any protein, whereas 30S ribosomes lost protein as a result of ribonuclease treatment. A number of proteins were removed from the 30S particles by ribonuclease, and these proteins were antigenically related to proteins present in 50S ribosomes. The differential effect of ribonuclease on 50S and 30S ribosomes suggested that they have structural dissimilarities. Images PMID:5332866

  18. Atomic mutagenesis at the ribosomal decoding site.

    PubMed

    Schrode, Pius; Huter, Paul; Clementi, Nina; Erlacher, Matthias

    2017-01-02

    Ribosomal decoding is an essential process in every living cell. During protein synthesis the 30S ribosomal subunit needs to accomplish binding and accurate decoding of mRNAs. From mutational studies and high-resolution crystal structures nucleotides G530, A1492 and A1493 of the 16S rRNA came into focus as important elements for the decoding process. Recent crystallographic data challenged the so far accepted model for the decoding mechanism. To biochemically investigate decoding in greater detail we applied an in vitro reconstitution approach to modulate single chemical groups at A1492 and A1493. The modified ribosomes were subsequently tested for their ability to efficiently decode the mRNA. Unexpectedly, the ribosome was rather tolerant toward modifications of single groups either at the base or at the sugar moiety in terms of translation activity. Concerning translation fidelity, the elimination of single chemical groups involved in a hydrogen bonding network between the tRNA, mRNA and rRNA did not change the accuracy of the ribosome. These results indicate that the contribution of those chemical groups and the formed hydrogen bonds are not crucial for ribosomal decoding.

  19. Atomic mutagenesis at the ribosomal decoding site

    PubMed Central

    Schrode, Pius; Huter, Paul; Clementi, Nina; Erlacher, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ribosomal decoding is an essential process in every living cell. During protein synthesis the 30S ribosomal subunit needs to accomplish binding and accurate decoding of mRNAs. From mutational studies and high-resolution crystal structures nucleotides G530, A1492 and A1493 of the 16S rRNA came into focus as important elements for the decoding process. Recent crystallographic data challenged the so far accepted model for the decoding mechanism. To biochemically investigate decoding in greater detail we applied an in vitro reconstitution approach to modulate single chemical groups at A1492 and A1493. The modified ribosomes were subsequently tested for their ability to efficiently decode the mRNA. Unexpectedly, the ribosome was rather tolerant toward modifications of single groups either at the base or at the sugar moiety in terms of translation activity. Concerning translation fidelity, the elimination of single chemical groups involved in a hydrogen bonding network between the tRNA, mRNA and rRNA did not change the accuracy of the ribosome. These results indicate that the contribution of those chemical groups and the formed hydrogen bonds are not crucial for ribosomal decoding. PMID:27841727

  20. A recent intermezzo at the Ribosome Club.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Michael Y; Liljas, Anders; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2017-03-19

    Two sets of ribosome structures have recently led to two different interpretations of what limits the accuracy of codon translation by transfer RNAs. In this review, inspired by this intermezzo at the Ribosome Club, we briefly discuss accuracy amplification by energy driven proofreading and its implementation in genetic code translation. We further discuss general ways by which the monitoring bases of 16S rRNA may enhance the ultimate accuracy (d-values) and how the codon translation accuracy is reduced by the actions of Mg(2+) ions and the presence of error inducing aminoglycoside antibiotics. We demonstrate that complete freezing-in of cognate-like tautomeric states of ribosome-bound nucleotide bases in transfer RNA or messenger RNA is not compatible with recent experiments on initial codon selection by transfer RNA in ternary complex with elongation factor Tu and GTP. From these considerations, we suggest that the sets of 30S subunit structures from the Ramakrishnan group and 70S structures from the Yusupov/Yusupova group may, after all, reflect two sides of the same coin and how the structurally based intermezzo at the Ribosome Club may be resolved simply by taking the dynamic aspects of ribosome function into account.This article is part of the themed issue 'Perspectives on the ribosome'.

  1. An inhibitor of eIF2 activity in the sRNA pool of eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Centrella, Michael; Porter, David L; McCarthy, Thomas L

    2011-08-15

    Eukaryotic protein synthesis is a multi-step and highly controlled process that includes an early initiation complex containing eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2), GTP, and methionine-charged initiator methionyl-tRNA (met-tRNAi). During studies to reconstruct formation of the ternary complex containing these molecules, we detected a potent inhibitor in low molecular mass RNA (sRNA) preparations of eukaryotic tRNA. The ternary complex inhibitor (TCI) was retained in the total sRNA pool after met-tRNAi was charged by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, co-eluted with sRNA by size exclusion chromatography, but resolved from met-tRNAi by ion exchange chromatography. The adverse effect of TCI was not overcome by high GTP or magnesium omission and was independent of GTP regeneration. Rather, TCI suppressed the rate of ternary complex formation, and disrupted protein synthesis and the accumulation of heavy polymeric ribosomes in reticulocyte lysates in vitro. Lastly, a component or components in ribosome depleted cell lysate significantly reversed TCI activity. Since assembly of the met-tRNAi/eIF2/GTP ternary complex is integral to protein synthesis, awareness of TCI is important to avoid confusion in studies of translation initiation. A clear definition of TCI may also allow a better appreciation of physiologic or pathologic situations, factors, and events that control protein synthesis in vivo.

  2. Natural history of eukaryotic DNA methylation systems.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Abhiman, Saraswathi; Aravind, L

    2011-01-01

    Methylation of cytosines and adenines in DNA is a widespread epigenetic mark in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In eukaryotes, it has a profound influence on chromatin structure and dynamics. Recent advances in genomics and biochemistry have considerably elucidated the functions and provenance of these DNA modifications. DNA methylases appear to have emerged first in bacterial restriction-modification (R-M) systems from ancient RNA-modifying enzymes, in transitions that involved acquisition of novel catalytic residues and DNA-recognition features. DNA adenine methylases appear to have been acquired by ciliates, heterolobosean amoeboflagellates, and certain chlorophyte algae. Six distinct clades of cytosine methylases, including the DNMT1, DNMT2, and DNMT3 clades, were acquired by eukaryotes through independent lateral transfer of their precursors from bacteria or bacteriophages. In addition to these, multiple adenine and cytosine methylases were acquired by several families of eukaryotic transposons. In eukaryotes, the DNA-methylase module was often combined with distinct modified and unmodified peptide recognition domains and other modules mediating specialized interactions, for example, the RFD module of DNMT1 which contains a permuted Sm domain linked to a helix-turn-helix domain. In eukaryotes, the evolution of DNA methylases appears to have proceeded in parallel to the elaboration of histone-modifying enzymes and the RNAi system, with functions related to counter-viral and counter-transposon defense, and regulation of DNA repair and differential gene expression being their primary ancestral functions. Diverse DNA demethylation systems that utilize base-excision repair via DNA glycosylases and cytosine deaminases appear to have emerged in multiple eukaryotic lineages. Comparative genomics suggests that the link between cytosine methylation and DNA glycosylases probably emerged first in a novel R-M system in bacteria. Recent studies suggest that the 5mC is not

  3. Reading the Evolution of Compartmentalization in the Ribosome Assembly Toolbox: The YRG Protein Family.

    PubMed

    Mier, Pablo; Pérez-Pulido, Antonio J; Reynaud, Emmanuel G; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A

    2017-01-01

    Reconstructing the transition from a single compartment bacterium to a highly compartmentalized eukaryotic cell is one of the most studied problems of evolutionary cell biology. However, timing and details of the establishment of compartmentalization are unclear and difficult to assess. Here, we propose the use of molecular markers specific to cellular compartments to set up a framework to advance the understanding of this complex intracellular process. Specifically, we use a protein family related to ribosome biogenesis, YRG (YlqF related GTPases), whose evolution is linked to the establishment of cellular compartments, leveraging the current genomic data. We analyzed orthologous proteins of the YRG family in a set of 171 proteomes for a total of 370 proteins. We identified ten YRG protein subfamilies that can be associated to six subcellular compartments (nuclear bodies, nucleolus, nucleus, cytosol, mitochondria, and chloroplast), and which were found in archaeal, bacterial and eukaryotic proteomes. Our analysis reveals organism streamlining related events in specific taxonomic groups such as Fungi. We conclude that the YRG family could be used as a compartmentalization marker, which could help to trace the evolutionary path relating cellular compartments with ribosome biogenesis.

  4. S18 family of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins: evolutionary history and Gly132 polymorphism in colon carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Muhammad; Ali, Raja Hashim; Kashuba, Vladimir; Klein, George; Kashuba, Elena

    2016-08-23

    S18 family of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPS18, S18) consists of three members, S18-1 to -3. Earlier, we found that overexpression of S18-2 protein resulted in immortalization and eventual transformation of primary rat fibroblasts. The S18-1 and -3 have not exhibited such abilities. To understand the differences in protein properties, the evolutionary history of S18 family was analyzed. The S18-3, followed by S18-1 and S18-2 emerged as a result of ancient gene duplication in the root of eukaryotic species tree, followed by two metazoan-specific gene duplications. However, the most conserved metazoan S18 homolog is the S18-1; it shares the most sequence similarity with S18 proteins of bacteria and of other eukaryotic clades. Evolutionarily conserved residues of S18 proteins were analyzed in various cancers. S18-2 is mutated at a higher rate, compared with S18-1 and -3 proteins. Moreover, the evolutionarily conserved residue, Gly132 of S18-2, shows genetic polymorphism in colon adenocarcinomas that was confirmed by direct DNA sequencing.Concluding, S18 family represents the yet unexplored important mitochondrial ribosomal proteins.

  5. S18 family of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins: evolutionary history and Gly132 polymorphism in colon carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, Muhammad; Ali, Raja Hashim; Kashuba, Vladimir; Klein, George; Kashuba, Elena

    2016-01-01

    S18 family of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPS18, S18) consists of three members, S18-1 to −3. Earlier, we found that overexpression of S18-2 protein resulted in immortalization and eventual transformation of primary rat fibroblasts. The S18-1 and −3 have not exhibited such abilities. To understand the differences in protein properties, the evolutionary history of S18 family was analyzed. The S18-3, followed by S18-1 and S18-2 emerged as a result of ancient gene duplication in the root of eukaryotic species tree, followed by two metazoan-specific gene duplications. However, the most conserved metazoan S18 homolog is the S18-1; it shares the most sequence similarity with S18 proteins of bacteria and of other eukaryotic clades. Evolutionarily conserved residues of S18 proteins were analyzed in various cancers. S18-2 is mutated at a higher rate, compared with S18-1 and −3 proteins. Moreover, the evolutionarily conserved residue, Gly132 of S18-2, shows genetic polymorphism in colon adenocarcinomas that was confirmed by direct DNA sequencing. Concluding, S18 family represents the yet unexplored important mitochondrial ribosomal proteins. PMID:27489352

  6. Reading the Evolution of Compartmentalization in the Ribosome Assembly Toolbox: The YRG Protein Family

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Pulido, Antonio J.; Reynaud, Emmanuel G.; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.

    2017-01-01

    Reconstructing the transition from a single compartment bacterium to a highly compartmentalized eukaryotic cell is one of the most studied problems of evolutionary cell biology. However, timing and details of the establishment of compartmentalization are unclear and difficult to assess. Here, we propose the use of molecular markers specific to cellular compartments to set up a framework to advance the understanding of this complex intracellular process. Specifically, we use a protein family related to ribosome biogenesis, YRG (YlqF related GTPases), whose evolution is linked to the establishment of cellular compartments, leveraging the current genomic data. We analyzed orthologous proteins of the YRG family in a set of 171 proteomes for a total of 370 proteins. We identified ten YRG protein subfamilies that can be associated to six subcellular compartments (nuclear bodies, nucleolus, nucleus, cytosol, mitochondria, and chloroplast), and which were found in archaeal, bacterial and eukaryotic proteomes. Our analysis reveals organism streamlining related events in specific taxonomic groups such as Fungi. We conclude that the YRG family could be used as a compartmentalization marker, which could help to trace the evolutionary path relating cellular compartments with ribosome biogenesis. PMID:28072865

  7. Evolution of Proteasome Regulators in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Fort, Philippe; Kajava, Andrey V.; Delsuc, Fredéric; Coux, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    All living organisms require protein degradation to terminate biological processes and remove damaged proteins. One such machine is the 20S proteasome, a specialized barrel-shaped and compartmentalized multicatalytic protease. The activity of the 20S proteasome generally requires the binding of regulators/proteasome activators (PAs), which control the entrance of substrates. These include the PA700 (19S complex), which assembles with the 20S and forms the 26S proteasome and allows the efficient degradation of proteins usually labeled by ubiquitin tags, PA200 and PA28, which are involved in proteolysis through ubiquitin-independent mechanisms and PI31, which was initially identified as a 20S inhibitor in vitro. Unlike 20S proteasome, shown to be present in all Eukaryotes and Archaea, the evolutionary history of PAs remained fragmentary. Here, we made a comprehensive survey and phylogenetic analyses of the four types of regulators in 17 clades covering most of the eukaryotic supergroups. We found remarkable conservation of each PA700 subunit in all eukaryotes, indicating that the current complex PA700 structure was already set up in the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). Also present in LECA, PA200, PA28, and PI31 showed a more contrasted evolutionary picture, because many lineages have subsequently lost one or two of them. The paramount conservation of PA700 composition in all eukaryotes and the dynamic evolution of PA200, PA28, and PI31 are discussed in the light of current knowledge on their physiological roles. PMID:25943340

  8. Comparative genomics and evolution of eukaryotic phospholipidbiosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lykidis, Athanasios

    2006-12-01

    Phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes produce diverse molecular structures and are often present in multiple forms encoded by different genes. This work utilizes comparative genomics and phylogenetics for exploring the distribution, structure and evolution of phospholipid biosynthetic genes and pathways in 26 eukaryotic genomes. Although the basic structure of the pathways was formed early in eukaryotic evolution, the emerging picture indicates that individual enzyme families followed unique evolutionary courses. For example, choline and ethanolamine kinases and cytidylyltransferases emerged in ancestral eukaryotes, whereas, multiple forms of the corresponding phosphatidyltransferases evolved mainly in a lineage specific manner. Furthermore, several unicellular eukaryotes maintain bacterial-type enzymes and reactions for the synthesis of phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin. Also, base-exchange phosphatidylserine synthases are widespread and ancestral enzymes. The multiplicity of phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes has been largely generated by gene expansion in a lineage specific manner. Thus, these observations suggest that phospholipid biosynthesis has been an actively evolving system. Finally, comparative genomic analysis indicates the existence of novel phosphatidyltransferases and provides a candidate for the uncharacterized eukaryotic phosphatidylglycerol phosphate phosphatase.

  9. Atypical mitochondrial inheritance patterns in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Breton, Sophie; Stewart, Donald T

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is predominantly maternally inherited in eukaryotes. Diverse molecular mechanisms underlying the phenomenon of strict maternal inheritance (SMI) of mtDNA have been described, but the evolutionary forces responsible for its predominance in eukaryotes remain to be elucidated. Exceptions to SMI have been reported in diverse eukaryotic taxa, leading to the prediction that several distinct molecular mechanisms controlling mtDNA transmission are present among the eukaryotes. We propose that these mechanisms will be better understood by studying the deviations from the predominating pattern of SMI. This minireview summarizes studies on eukaryote species with unusual or rare mitochondrial inheritance patterns, i.e., other than the predominant SMI pattern, such as maternal inheritance of stable heteroplasmy, paternal leakage of mtDNA, biparental and strictly paternal inheritance, and doubly uniparental inheritance of mtDNA. The potential genes and mechanisms involved in controlling mitochondrial inheritance in these organisms are discussed. The linkage between mitochondrial inheritance and sex determination is also discussed, given that the atypical systems of mtDNA inheritance examined in this minireview are frequently found in organisms with uncommon sexual systems such as gynodioecy, monoecy, or andromonoecy. The potential of deviations from SMI for facilitating a better understanding of a number of fundamental questions in biology, such as the evolution of mtDNA inheritance, the coevolution of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and, perhaps, the role of mitochondria in sex determination, is considerable.

  10. Evolution of proteasome regulators in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Fort, Philippe; Kajava, Andrey V; Delsuc, Fredéric; Coux, Olivier

    2015-05-04

    All living organisms require protein degradation to terminate biological processes and remove damaged proteins. One such machine is the 20S proteasome, a specialized barrel-shaped and compartmentalized multicatalytic protease. The activity of the 20S proteasome generally requires the binding of regulators/proteasome activators (PAs), which control the entrance of substrates. These include the PA700 (19S complex), which assembles with the 20S and forms the 26S proteasome and allows the efficient degradation of proteins usually labeled by ubiquitin tags, PA200 and PA28, which are involved in proteolysis through ubiquitin-independent mechanisms and PI31, which was initially identified as a 20S inhibitor in vitro. Unlike 20S proteasome, shown to be present in all Eukaryotes and Archaea, the evolutionary history of PAs remained fragmentary. Here, we made a comprehensive survey and phylogenetic analyses of the four types of regulators in 17 clades covering most of the eukaryotic supergroups. We found remarkable conservation of each PA700 subunit in all eukaryotes, indicating that the current complex PA700 structure was already set up in the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). Also present in LECA, PA200, PA28, and PI31 showed a more contrasted evolutionary picture, because many lineages have subsequently lost one or two of them. The paramount conservation of PA700 composition in all eukaryotes and the dynamic evolution of PA200, PA28, and PI31 are discussed in the light of current knowledge on their physiological roles.

  11. Large variability of bathypelagic microbial eukaryotic communities across the world's oceans.

    PubMed

    Pernice, Massimo C; Giner, Caterina R; Logares, Ramiro; Perera-Bel, Júlia; Acinas, Silvia G; Duarte, Carlos M; Gasol, Josep M; Massana, Ramon

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we study the diversity of bathypelagic microbial eukaryotes (0.8-20 μm) in the global ocean. Seawater samples from 3000 to 4000 m depth from 27 stations in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans were analyzed by pyrosequencing the V4 region of the 18S ribosomal DNA. The relative abundance of the most abundant operational taxonomic units agreed with the results of a parallel metagenomic analysis, suggesting limited PCR biases in the tag approach. Although rarefaction curves for single stations were seldom saturated, the global analysis of all sequences together suggested an adequate recovery of bathypelagic diversity. Community composition presented a large variability among samples, which was poorly explained by linear geographic distance. In fact, the similarity between communities was better explained by water mass composition (26% of the variability) and the ratio in cell abundance between prokaryotes and microbial eukaryotes (21%). Deep diversity appeared dominated by four taxonomic groups (Collodaria, Chrysophytes, Basidiomycota and MALV-II) appearing in different proportions in each sample. Novel diversity amounted to 1% of the pyrotags and was lower than expected. Our study represents an essential step in the investigation of bathypelagic microbial eukaryotes, indicating dominating taxonomic groups and suggesting idiosyncratic assemblages in distinct oceanic regions.

  12. Mapping the interaction of SmpB with ribosomes by footprinting of ribosomal RNA

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Natalia; Pavlov, Michael Y.; Bouakaz, Elli; Ehrenberg, Måns; Schiavone, Lovisa Holmberg

    2005-01-01

    In trans-translation transfer messenger RNA (tmRNA) and small protein B (SmpB) rescue ribosomes stalled on truncated or in other ways problematic mRNAs. SmpB promotes the binding of tmRNA to the ribosome but there is uncertainty about the number of participating SmpB molecules as well as their ribosomal location. Here, the interaction of SmpB with ribosomal subunits and ribosomes was studied by isolation of SmpB containing complexes followed by chemical modification of ribosomal RNA with dimethyl sulfate, kethoxal and hydroxyl radicals. The results show that SmpB binds 30S and 50S subunits with 1:1 molar ratios and the 70S ribosome with 2:1 molar ratio. SmpB-footprints are similar on subunits and the ribosome. In the 30S subunit, SmpB footprints nucleotides that are in the vicinity of the P-site facing the E-site, and in the 50S subunit SmpB footprints nucleotides that are located below the L7/L12 stalk in the 3D structure of the ribosome. Based on these results, we suggest a mechanism where two molecules of SmpB interact with tmRNA and the ribosome during trans-translation. The first SmpB molecule binds near the factor-binding site on the 50S subunit helping tmRNA accommodation on the ribosome, whereas the second SmpB molecule may functionally substitute for a missing anticodon stem–loop in tmRNA during later steps of trans-translation. PMID:15972795

  13. What was the real contribution of endosymbionts to the eukaryotic nucleus? Insights from photosynthetic eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Moreira, David; Deschamps, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are composed of genes of different evolutionary origins. This is especially true in the case of photosynthetic eukaryotes, which, in addition to typical eukaryotic genes and genes of mitochondrial origin, also contain genes coming from the primary plastids and, in the case of secondary photosynthetic eukaryotes, many genes provided by the nuclei of red or green algal endosymbionts. Phylogenomic analyses have been applied to detect those genes and, in some cases, have led to proposing the existence of cryptic, no longer visible endosymbionts. However, detecting them is a very difficult task because, most often, those genes were acquired a long time ago and their phylogenetic signal has been heavily erased. We revisit here two examples, the putative cryptic endosymbiosis of green algae in diatoms and chromerids and of Chlamydiae in the first photosynthetic eukaryotes. We show that the evidence sustaining them has been largely overestimated, and we insist on the necessity of careful, accurate phylogenetic analyses to obtain reliable results.

  14. An HflX-type GTPase from Sulfolobus solfataricus binds to the 50S ribosomal subunit in all nucleotide-bound states.

    PubMed

    Blombach, Fabian; Launay, Helene; Zorraquino, Violeta; Swarts, Daan C; Cabrita, Lisa D; Benelli, Dario; Christodoulou, John; Londei, Paola; van der Oost, John

    2011-06-01

    HflX GTPases are found in all three domains of life, the Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. HflX from Escherichia coli has been shown to bind to the 50S ribosomal subunit in a nucleotide-dependent manner, and this interaction strongly stimulates its GTPase activity. We recently determined the structure of an HflX ortholog from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus (SsoHflX). It revealed the presence of a novel HflX domain that might function in RNA binding and is linked to a canonical G domain. This domain arrangement is common to all archaeal, bacterial, and eukaryotic HflX GTPases. This paper shows that the archaeal SsoHflX, like its bacterial orthologs, binds to the 50S ribosomal subunit. This interaction does not depend on the presence of guanine nucleotides. The HflX domain is sufficient for ribosome interaction. Binding appears to be restricted to free 50S ribosomal subunits and does not occur with 70S ribosomes engaged in translation. The fingerprint (1)H-(15)N heteronuclear correlation nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of SsoHflX reveals a large number of well-resolved resonances that are broadened upon binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit. The GTPase activity of SsoHflX is stimulated by crude fractions of 50S ribosomal subunits, but this effect is lost with further high-salt purification of the 50S ribosomal subunits, suggesting that the stimulation depends on an extrinsic factor bound to the 50S ribosomal subunit. Our results reveal common properties but also marked differences between archaeal and bacterial HflX proteins.

  15. The Upper Temperature Limit for Eukaryotic Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Tansey, Michael R.; Brock, Thomas D.

    1972-01-01

    An upper temperature limit near 60° for eukaryotic organisms is documented by results of a systematic search for fungi able to grow at higher temperatures. Samples from hot springs, thermal soils, self-heating coal waste piles, and other natural and man-made heated habitats did not yield fungi when enrichments were done at 62°, whereas fungi able to grow at 55-60° can be readily isolated from such habitats. Earlier work had shown that eukaryotic algae are also absent from environments with temperatures above 55-60°. It is suggested that the failure of eukaryotes to evolve members able to grow at higher temperatures is due to their inability to form organellar membranes that are both thermostable and functional. PMID:4506763

  16. Osmosensing and osmoregulation in unicellular eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Suescún-Bolívar, Luis Parmenio; Thomé, Patricia Elena

    2015-03-01

    Eukaryotic microorganisms possess mechanisms to detect osmotic variations in their surroundings, from specialized receptors and membrane transporters, to sophisticated systems such as two-component histidine kinases. Osmotic stimuli are transduced through conserved phosphorylation cascades that result in a rapid response to mitigate stress. This response allows for the maintenance of an optimal biochemical environment for cell functioning, as well as a suitable recovery in suboptimal environments that would otherwise endanger cell survival. The molecular basis of these responses has been largely studied in yeasts and bacteria. However, fewer studies have been published concerning the molecular basis of osmoregulation in other eukaryotic microorganisms such as protozoans and microalgae. Here, we review the main osmosensors reported in unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms (yeasts, microalgae and protozoa) and the pathways that maintain homeostasis in cells encountering hyperosmotic challenges.

  17. Mitochondrion-related organelles in eukaryotic protists.

    PubMed

    Shiflett, April M; Johnson, Patricia J

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of mitochondrion-type genes in organisms thought to lack mitochondria led to the demonstration that hydrogenosomes share a common ancestry with mitochondria, as well as the discovery of mitosomes in multiple eukaryotic lineages. No examples of examined eukaryotes lacking a mitochondrion-related organelle exist, implying that the endosymbiont that gave rise to the mitochondrion was present in the first eukaryote. These organelles, known as hydrogenosomes, mitosomes, or mitochondrion-like organelles, are typically reduced, both structurally and biochemically, relative to classical mitochondria. However, despite their diversification and adaptation to different niches, all appear to play a role in Fe-S cluster assembly, as observed for mitochondria. Although evidence supports the use of common protein targeting mechanisms in the biogenesis of these diverse organelles, divergent features are also apparent. This review examines the metabolism and biogenesis of these organelles in divergent unicellular microbes, with a focus on parasitic protists.

  18. Structure and function of eukaryotic chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Hennig, W.

    1987-01-01

    Contents: Introduction; Polytene Chromosomel Giant Chromosomes in Ciliates; The sp-I Genes in the Balbiani Rings of Chironomus Salivary Glands; The White Locus of Drosophila Melanogaster; The Genetic and Molecular Organization of the Dense Cluster of Functionally Related Vital Genes in the DOPA Decarboxylase Region of the Drosophila melanogaster Genome; Heat Shock Puffs and Response to Environmental Stress; The Y Chromosomal Lampbrush Loops of Drosophila; Contributions of Electron Microscopic Spreading Preparations (''Miller Spreads'') to the Analysis of Chromosome Structure; Replication of DNA in Eukaryotic Chromosomes; Gene Amplification in Dipteran Chromosomes; The Significance of Plant Transposable Elements in Biologically Relevant Processes; Arrangement of Chromosomes in Interphase Cell Nuclei; Heterochromatin and the Phenomenon of Chromosome Banding; Multiple Nonhistone Protein-DNA Complexes in Chromatin Regulate the Cell- and Stage-Specific Activity of an Eukaryotic Gene; Genetics of Sex Determination in Eukaryotes; Application of Basic Chromosome Research in Biotechnology and Medicine. This book presents an overview of various aspects of chromosome research.

  19. Eukaryotes first: how could that be?

    PubMed Central

    Mariscal, Carlos; Doolittle, W. Ford

    2015-01-01

    In the half century since the formulation of the prokaryote : eukaryote dichotomy, many authors have proposed that the former evolved from something resembling the latter, in defiance of common (and possibly common sense) views. In such ‘eukaryotes first’ (EF) scenarios, the last universal common ancestor is imagined to have possessed significantly many of the complex characteristics of contemporary eukaryotes, as relics of an earlier ‘progenotic’ period or RNA world. Bacteria and Archaea thus must have lost these complex features secondarily, through ‘streamlining’. If the canonical three-domain tree in which Archaea and Eukarya are sisters is accepted, EF entails that Bacteria and Archaea are convergently prokaryotic. We ask what this means and how it might be tested. PMID:26323754

  20. Distribution of dwell times of a ribosome: effects of infidelity, kinetic proofreading and ribosome crowding.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ajeet K; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2011-04-01

    Ribosome is a molecular machine that polymerizes a protein where the sequence of the amino acid residues, the monomers of the protein, is dictated by the sequence of codons (triplets of nucleotides) on a messenger RNA (mRNA) that serves as the template. The ribosome is a molecular motor that utilizes the template mRNA strand also as the track. Thus, in each step the ribosome moves forward by one codon and, simultaneously, elongates the protein by one amino acid. We present a theoretical model that captures most of the main steps in the mechanochemical cycle of a ribosome. The stochastic movement of the ribosome consists of an alternating sequence of pause and translocation; the sum of the durations of a pause and the following translocation is the time of dwell of the ribosome at the corresponding codon. We derive the analytical expression for the distribution of the dwell times of a ribosome in our model. Wherever experimental data are available, our theoretical predictions are consistent with those results. We suggest appropriate experiments to test the new predictions of our model, particularly the effects of the quality control mechanism of the ribosome and that of their crowding on the mRNA track.

  1. Reproduction, symbiosis, and the eukaryotic cell

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey-Smith, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a conceptual framework for addressing questions about reproduction, individuality, and the units of selection in symbiotic associations, with special attention to the origin of the eukaryotic cell. Three kinds of reproduction are distinguished, and a possible evolutionary sequence giving rise to a mitochondrion-containing eukaryotic cell from an endosymbiotic partnership is analyzed as a series of transitions between each of the three forms of reproduction. The sequence of changes seen in this “egalitarian” evolutionary transition is compared with those that apply in “fraternal” transitions, such as the evolution of multicellularity in animals. PMID:26286983

  2. Reproduction, symbiosis, and the eukaryotic cell.

    PubMed

    Godfrey-Smith, Peter

    2015-08-18

    This paper develops a conceptual framework for addressing questions about reproduction, individuality, and the units of selection in symbiotic associations, with special attention to the origin of the eukaryotic cell. Three kinds of reproduction are distinguished, and a possible evolutionary sequence giving rise to a mitochondrion-containing eukaryotic cell from an endosymbiotic partnership is analyzed as a series of transitions between each of the three forms of reproduction. The sequence of changes seen in this "egalitarian" evolutionary transition is compared with those that apply in "fraternal" transitions, such as the evolution of multicellularity in animals.

  3. Recombinant vector and eukaryotic host transformed thereby

    SciTech Connect

    Sugden, W.M.

    1987-08-11

    A recombinant plasmid is described comprising: a segment from a first plasmid which is not a lymphotrophic herpes virus segment and which facilitates the replication of the recombinant plasmid in a prokaryotic host; a segment from a lymphotrophic herpes virus which is linked to the first plasmid segment such that is a capable of assisting in maintaining the recombinant plasmid as a plasmid if the recombinant plasmid is inserted into a eukaryotic host that has been transformed by the lymphotrophic herpes virus; and a foreign eukaryotic gene component linked as part of the recombinant plasmid.

  4. Substitution rate calibration of small subunit ribosomal RNA identifies chlorarachniophyte endosymbionts as remnants of green algae.

    PubMed Central

    Van de Peer, Y; Rensing, S A; Maier, U G; De Wachter, R

    1996-01-01

    Chlorarachniophytes are amoeboid algae with chlorophyll a and b containing plastids that are surrounded by four membranes instead of two as in plants and green algae. These extra membranes form important support for the hypothesis that chlorarachniophytes have acquired their plastids by the ingestion of another eukaryotic plastid-containing alga. Chlorarachniophytes also contain a small nucleus-like structure called the nucleomorph situated between the two inner and the two outer membranes surrounding the plastid. This nucleomorph is a remnant of the endosymbiont's nucleus and encodes, among other molecules, small subunit ribosomal RNA. Previous phylogenetic analyses on the basis of this molecule provided unexpected and contradictory evidence for the origin of the chlorarachniophyte endosymbiont. We developed a new method for measuring the substitution rates of the individual nucleotides of small subunit ribosomal RNA. From the resulting substitution rate distribution, we derived an equation that gives a more realistic relationship between sequence dissimilarity and evolutionary distance than equations previously available. Phylogenetic trees constructed on the basis of evolutionary distances computed by this new method clearly situate the chlorarachniophyte nucleomorphs among the green algae. Moreover, this relationship is confirmed by transversion analysis of the Chlorarachnion plastid small subunit ribosomal RNA. PMID:8755544

  5. Ribosome-Associated Mba1 Escorts Cox2 from Insertion Machinery to Maturing Assembly Intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzi, Isotta; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Ronsör, Christin; Bareth, Bettina; Warscheid, Bettina; Dennerlein, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The three conserved core subunits of the cytochrome c oxidase are encoded by mitochondria in close to all eukaryotes. The Cox2 subunit spans the inner membrane twice, exposing the N and C termini to the intermembrane space. For this, the N terminus is exported cotranslationally by Oxa1 and subsequently undergoes proteolytic maturation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Little is known about the translocation of the C terminus, but Cox18 has been identified to be a critical protein in this process. Here we find that the scaffold protein Cox20, which promotes processing of Cox2, is in complex with the ribosome receptor Mba1 and translating mitochondrial ribosomes in a Cox2-dependent manner. The Mba1-Cox20 complex accumulates when export of the C terminus of Cox2 is blocked by the loss of the Cox18 protein. While Cox20 engages with Cox18, Mba1 is no longer present at this stage. Our analyses indicate that Cox20 associates with nascent Cox2 and Mba1 to promote Cox2 maturation cotranslationally. We suggest that Mba1 stabilizes the Cox20-ribosome complex and supports the handover of Cox2 to the Cox18 tail export machinery. PMID:27550809

  6. A ribosome-bound quality control complex triggers degradation of nascent peptides and signals translation stress.

    PubMed

    Brandman, Onn; Stewart-Ornstein, Jacob; Wong, Daisy; Larson, Adam; Williams, Christopher C; Li, Gene-Wei; Zhou, Sharleen; King, David; Shen, Peter S; Weibezahn, Jimena; Dunn, Joshua G; Rouskin, Silvi; Inada, Toshifumi; Frost, Adam; Weissman, Jonathan S

    2012-11-21

    The conserved transcriptional regulator heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1) is a key sensor of proteotoxic and other stress in the eukaryotic cytosol. We surveyed Hsf1 activity in a genome-wide loss-of-function library in Saccaromyces cerevisiae as well as ~78,000 double mutants and found Hsf1 activity to be modulated by highly diverse stresses. These included disruption of a ribosome-bound complex we named the Ribosome Quality Control Complex (RQC) comprising the Ltn1 E3 ubiquitin ligase, two highly conserved but poorly characterized proteins (Tae2 and Rqc1), and Cdc48 and its cofactors. Electron microscopy and biochemical analyses revealed that the RQC forms a stable complex with 60S ribosomal subunits containing stalled polypeptides and triggers their degradation. A negative feedback loop regulates the RQC, and Hsf1 senses an RQC-mediated translation-stress signal distinctly from other stresses. Our work reveals the range of stresses Hsf1 monitors and elucidates a conserved cotranslational protein quality control mechanism.

  7. Crystal structure of bacillus subtilis YdaF protein : a putative ribosomal N-acetyltransferase.

    SciTech Connect

    Brunzelle, J. S.; Wu, R.; Korolev, S. V.; Collart, F. R.; Joachimiak, A.; Anderson, W. F.; Biosciences Division; Northwestern Univ.; Saint Louis Univ. School of Medicine

    2004-12-01

    Comparative sequence analysis suggests that the ydaF gene encodes a protein (YdaF) that functions as an N-acetyltransferase, more specifically, a ribosomal N-acetyltransferase. Sequence analysis using basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) suggests that YdaF belongs to a large family of proteins (199 proteins found in 88 unique species of bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes). YdaF also belongs to the COG1670, which includes the Escherichia coli RimL protein that is known to acetylate ribosomal protein L12. N-acetylation (NAT) has been found in all kingdoms. NAT enzymes catalyze the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) to a primary amino group. For example, NATs can acetylate the N-terminal {alpha}-amino group, the {epsilon}-amino group of lysine residues, aminoglycoside antibiotics, spermine/speridine, or arylalkylamines such as serotonin. The crystal structure of the alleged ribosomal NAT protein, YdaF, from Bacillus subtilis presented here was determined as a part of the Midwest Center for Structural Genomics. The structure maintains the conserved tertiary structure of other known NATs and a high sequence similarity in the presumed AcCoA binding pocket in spite of a very low overall level of sequence identity to other NATs of known structure.

  8. c-Myc co-ordinates mRNA cap methylation and ribosomal RNA production

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Sianadh; Lombardi, Olivia; Cowling, Victoria H.

    2017-01-01

    The mRNA cap is a structure added to RNA pol II transcripts in eukaryotes, which recruits factors involved in RNA processing, nuclear export and translation initiation. RNA guanine-7 methyltransferase (RNMT)–RNA-activating miniprotein (RAM), the mRNA cap methyltransferase complex, completes the basic functional mRNA cap structure, cap 0, by methylating the cap guanosine. Here, we report that RNMT–RAM co-ordinates mRNA processing with ribosome production. Suppression of RNMT–RAM reduces synthesis of the 45S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) precursor. RNMT–RAM is required for c-Myc expression, a major regulator of RNA pol I, which synthesises 45S rRNA. Constitutive expression of c-Myc restores rRNA synthesis when RNMT–RAM is suppressed, indicating that RNMT–RAM controls rRNA production predominantly by controlling c-Myc expression. We report that RNMT–RAM is recruited to the ribosomal DNA locus, which may contribute to rRNA synthesis in certain contexts. PMID:27934633

  9. c-Myc co-ordinates mRNA cap methylation and ribosomal RNA production.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Sianadh; Lombardi, Olivia; Cowling, Victoria H

    2017-02-01

    The mRNA cap is a structure added to RNA pol II transcripts in eukaryotes, which recruits factors involved in RNA processing, nuclear export and translation initiation. RNA guanine-7 methyltransferase (RNMT)-RNA-activating miniprotein (RAM), the mRNA cap methyltransferase complex, completes the basic functional mRNA cap structure, cap 0, by methylating the cap guanosine. Here, we report that RNMT-RAM co-ordinates mRNA processing with ribosome production. Suppression of RNMT-RAM reduces synthesis of the 45S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) precursor. RNMT-RAM is required for c-Myc expression, a major regulator of RNA pol I, which synthesises 45S rRNA. Constitutive expression of c-Myc restores rRNA synthesis when RNMT-RAM is suppressed, indicating that RNMT-RAM controls rRNA production predominantly by controlling c-Myc expression. We report that RNMT-RAM is recruited to the ribosomal DNA locus, which may contribute to rRNA synthesis in certain contexts.

  10. The CRM domain: an RNA binding module derived from an ancient ribosome-associated protein.

    PubMed

    Barkan, Alice; Klipcan, Larik; Ostersetzer, Oren; Kawamura, Tetsuya; Asakura, Yukari; Watkins, Kenneth P

    2007-01-01

    The CRS1-YhbY domain (also called the CRM domain) is represented as a stand-alone protein in Archaea and Bacteria, and in a family of single- and multidomain proteins in plants. The function of this domain is unknown, but structural data and the presence of the domain in several proteins known to interact with RNA have led to the proposal that it binds RNA. Here we describe a phylogenetic analysis of the domain, its incorporation into diverse proteins in plants, and biochemical properties of a prokaryotic and eukaryotic representative of the domain family. We show that a bacterial member of the family, Escherichia coli YhbY, is associated with pre-50S ribosomal subunits, suggesting that YhbY functions in ribosome assembly. GFP fused to a single-domain CRM protein from maize localizes to the nucleolus, suggesting that an analogous activity may have been retained in plants. We show further that an isolated maize CRM domain has RNA binding activity in vitro, and that a small motif shared with KH RNA binding domains, a conserved "GxxG" loop, contributes to its RNA binding activity. These and other results suggest that the CRM domain evolved in the context of ribosome function prior to the divergence of Archaea and Bacteria, that this function has been maintained in extant prokaryotes, and that the domain was recruited to serve as an RNA binding module during the evolution of plant genomes.

  11. The mRNA of human cytoplasmic arginyl-tRNA synthetase recruits prokaryotic ribosomes independently.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang; Ji, Quan-Quan; Ruan, Liang-Liang; Ye, Qing; Wang, En-Duo

    2014-07-25

    There are two isoforms of cytoplasmic arginyl-tRNA synthetase (hcArgRS) in human cells. The long form is a component of the multiple aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex, and the other is an N-terminal truncated form (NhcArgRS), free in the cytoplasm. It has been shown that the two forms of ArgRS arise from alternative translational initiation in a single mRNA. The short form is produced from the initiation at a downstream, in-frame AUG start codon. Interestingly, our data suggest that the alternative translational initiation of hcArgRS mRNA also takes place in Escherichia coli transformants. When the gene encoding full-length hcArgRS was overexpressed in E. coli, two forms of hcArgRS were observed. The N-terminal sequencing experiment identified that the short form was identical to the NhcArgRS in human cytoplasm. By constructing a bicistronic system, our data support that the mRNA encoding the N-terminal extension of hcArgRS has the capacity of independently recruiting E. coli ribosomes. Furthermore, two critical elements for recruiting prokaryotic ribosomes were identified, the “AGGA” core of the Shine-Dalgarno sequence and the “A-rich” sequence located just proximal to the alternative in-frame initiation site. Although the mechanisms of prokaryotic and eukaryotic translational initiation are distinct, they share some common features. The ability of the hcArgRS mRNA to recruit the prokaryotic ribosome may provide clues for shedding light on the mechanism of alternative translational initiation of hcArgRS mRNA in eukaryotic cells.

  12. The structure of ribosome-lankacidin complex reveals ribosomal sites for synergistic antibiotics

    SciTech Connect

    Auerbach, Tamar; Mermershtain, Inbal; Davidovich, Chen; Bashan, Anat; Belousoff, Matthew; Wekselman, Itai; Zimmerman, Ella; Xiong, Liqun; Klepacki, Dorota; Arakawa, Kenji; Kinashi, Haruyasu; Mankin, Alexander S.; Yonath, Ada

    2010-04-26

    Crystallographic analysis revealed that the 17-member polyketide antibiotic lankacidin produced by Streptomyces rochei binds at the peptidyl transferase center of the eubacterial large ribosomal subunit. Biochemical and functional studies verified this finding and showed interference with peptide bond formation. Chemical probing indicated that the macrolide lankamycin, a second antibiotic produced by the same species, binds at a neighboring site, at the ribosome exit tunnel. These two antibiotics can bind to the ribosome simultaneously and display synergy in inhibiting bacterial growth. The binding site of lankacidin and lankamycin partially overlap with the binding site of another pair of synergistic antibiotics, the streptogramins. Thus, at least two pairs of structurally dissimilar compounds have been selected in the course of evolution to act synergistically by targeting neighboring sites in the ribosome. These results underscore the importance of the corresponding ribosomal sites for development of clinically relevant synergistic antibiotics and demonstrate the utility of structural analysis for providing new directions for drug discovery.

  13. HflX is a ribosome-splitting factor rescuing stalled ribosomes under stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanqing; Mandava, Chandra Sekhar; Cao, Wei; Li, Xiaojing; Zhang, Dejiu; Li, Ningning; Zhang, Yixiao; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Qin, Yan; Mi, Kaixia; Lei, Jianlin; Sanyal, Suparna; Gao, Ning

    2015-11-01

    Adverse cellular conditions often lead to nonproductive translational stalling and arrest of ribosomes on mRNAs. Here, we used fast kinetics and cryo-EM to characterize Escherichia coli HflX, a GTPase with unknown function. Our data reveal that HflX is a heat shock-induced ribosome-splitting factor capable of dissociating vacant as well as mRNA-associated ribosomes with deacylated tRNA in the peptidyl site. Structural data demonstrate that the N-terminal effector domain of HflX binds to the peptidyl transferase center in a strikingly similar manner as that of the class I release factors and induces dramatic conformational changes in central intersubunit bridges, thus promoting subunit dissociation. Accordingly, loss of HflX results in an increase in stalled ribosomes upon heat shock. These results suggest a primary role of HflX in rescuing translationally arrested ribosomes under stress conditions.

  14. Initiation factor 2 crystal structure reveals a different domain organization from eukaryotic initiation factor 5B and mechanism among translational GTPases.

    PubMed

    Eiler, Daniel; Lin, Jinzhong; Simonetti, Angelita; Klaholz, Bruno P; Steitz, Thomas A

    2013-09-24

    The initiation of protein synthesis uses initiation factor 2 (IF2) in prokaryotes and a related protein named eukaryotic initiation factor 5B (eIF5B) in eukaryotes. IF2 is a GTPase that positions the initiator tRNA on the 30S ribosomal initiation complex and stimulates its assembly to the 50S ribosomal subunit to make the 70S ribosome. The 3.1-Å resolution X-ray crystal structures of the full-length Thermus thermophilus apo IF2 and its complex with GDP presented here exhibit two different conformations (all of its domains except C2 domain are visible). Unlike all other translational GTPases, IF2 does not have an effecter domain that stably contacts the switch II region of the GTPase domain. The domain organization of IF2 is inconsistent with the "articulated lever" mechanism of communication between the GTPase and initiator tRNA binding domains that has been proposed for eIF5B. Previous cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions, NMR experiments, and this structure show that IF2 transitions from being flexible in solution to an extended conformation when interacting with ribosomal complexes.

  15. [Study of the surface of Escherichia coli ribosomes and ribosomal particles by the tritium bombardment method].

    PubMed

    Iusupov, M M; Spirin, A S

    1986-11-01

    A new technique of atomic tritium bombardment has been used to study the surface topography of Escherichia coli ribosomes and ribosomal subunits. The technique provides for the labeling of proteins exposed on the surface of ribosomal particles, the extent of protein labeling being proportional to the degree of exposure. The following proteins were considerably tritiated in the 70S ribosomes: S1, S4, S7, S9 and/or S11, S12 and/or L20, S13, S18, S20, S21, L1, L5, L6, L7/L12, L10, L11, L16, L17, L24, L26 and L27. A conclusion is drawn that these proteins are exposed on the ribosome surface to an essentially greater extent than the others. Dissociation of 70S ribosomes into the ribosomal subunits by decreasing Mg2+ concentration does not lead to the exposure of additional ribosomal proteins. This implies that there are no proteins on the contacting surfaces of the subunits. However, if a mixture of subunits has been subjected to centrifugation in a low Mg2+ concentration at high concentrations of a monovalent cation, proteins S3, S5, S7, S14, S18 and L16 are more exposed on the surface of the isolated 30S and 50S subunits than in the subunit mixture or in the 70S ribosomes. The exposure of additional proteins is explained by distortion of the native quaternary structure of ribosomal subunits as a result of the separation procedure. Reassociation of isolated subunits at high Mg2+ concentration results in shielding of proteins S3, S5, S7 and S18 and can be explained by reconstitution of the intact 30S subunit structure.

  16. High-resolution structure of the Escherichia coli ribosome

    DOE PAGES

    Noeske, Jonas; Wasserman, Michael R.; Terry, Daniel S.; ...

    2015-03-16

    Protein synthesis by the ribosome is highly dependent on the ionic conditions in the cellular environment, but the roles of ribosome solvation remain poorly understood. Moreover, the function of modifications to ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins are unclear. Here we present the structure of the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome to 2.4 Å resolution. The structure reveals details of the ribosomal subunit interface that are conserved in all domains of life, and suggest how solvation contributes to ribosome integrity and function. The structure also suggests how the conformation of ribosomal protein uS12 likely impacts its contribution to messenger RNA decoding. Inmore » conclusion, this structure helps to explain the phylogenetic conservation of key elements of the ribosome, including posttranscriptional and posttranslational modifications and should serve as a basis for future antibiotic development.« less

  17. Mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPs) of yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Graack, H R; Wittmann-Liebold, B

    1998-01-01

    Mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPs) are the counterparts in that organelle of the cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins in the host. Although the MRPs fulfil similar functions in protein biosynthesis, they are distinct in number, features and primary structures from the latter. Most progress in the eludication of the properties of individual MRPs, and in the characterization of the corresponding genes, has been made in baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). To date, 50 different MRPs have been determined, although biochemical data and mutational analysis propose a total number which is substantially higher. Surprisingly, only a minority of the MRPs that have been characterized show significant sequence similarities to known ribosomal proteins from other sources, thus limiting the deduction of their functions by simple comparison of amino acid sequences. Further, individual MRPs have been characterized functionally by mutational studies, and the regulation of expression of MRP genes has been described. The interaction of the mitochondrial ribosomes with transcription factors specific for individual mitochondrial mRNAs, and the communication between mitochondria and the nucleus for the co-ordinated expression of ribosomal constituents, are other aspects of current MRP research. Although the mitochondrial translational system is still far from being described completely, the yeast MRP system serves as a model for other organisms, including that of humans. PMID:9445368

  18. A recent intermezzo at the Ribosome Club

    PubMed Central

    Pavlov, Michael Y.; Liljas, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Two sets of ribosome structures have recently led to two different interpretations of what limits the accuracy of codon translation by transfer RNAs. In this review, inspired by this intermezzo at the Ribosome Club, we briefly discuss accuracy amplification by energy driven proofreading and its implementation in genetic code translation. We further discuss general ways by which the monitoring bases of 16S rRNA may enhance the ultimate accuracy (d-values) and how the codon translation accuracy is reduced by the actions of Mg2+ ions and the presence of error inducing aminoglycoside antibiotics. We demonstrate that complete freezing-in of cognate-like tautomeric states of ribosome-bound nucleotide bases in transfer RNA or messenger RNA is not compatible with recent experiments on initial codon selection by transfer RNA in ternary complex with elongation factor Tu and GTP. From these considerations, we suggest that the sets of 30S subunit structures from the Ramakrishnan group and 70S structures from the Yusupov/Yusupova group may, after all, reflect two sides of the same coin and how the structurally based intermezzo at the Ribosome Club may be resolved simply by taking the dynamic aspects of ribosome function into account. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Perspectives on the ribosome’. PMID:28138071

  19. Functional Importance of Mobile Ribosomal Proteins.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kai-Chun; Wen, Jin-Der; Yang, Lee-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Although the dynamic motions and peptidyl transferase activity seem to be embedded in the rRNAs, the ribosome contains more than 50 ribosomal proteins (r-proteins), whose functions remain largely elusive. Also, the precise forms of some of these r-proteins, as being part of the ribosome, are not structurally solved due to their high flexibility, which hinders the efforts in their functional elucidation. Owing to recent advances in cryo-electron microscopy, single-molecule techniques, and theoretical modeling, much has been learned about the dynamics of these r-proteins. Surprisingly, allosteric regulations have been found in between spatially separated components as distant as those in the opposite sides of the ribosome. Here, we focus on the functional roles and intricate regulations of the mobile L1 and L12 stalks and L9 and S1 proteins. Conformational flexibility also enables versatile functions for r-proteins beyond translation. The arrangement of r-proteins may be under evolutionary pressure that fine-tunes mass distributions for optimal structural dynamics and catalytic activity of the ribosome.

  20. The yeast omnipotent suppressor SUP46 encodes a ribosomal protein which is a functional and structural homolog of the Escherichia coli S4 ram protein.

    PubMed

    Vincent, A; Liebman, S W

    1992-10-01

    The accurate synthesis of proteins is crucial to the existence of a cell. In yeast, several genes that affect the fidelity of translation have been identified (e.g., omnipotent suppressors, antisuppressors and allosuppressors). We have found that the dominant omnipotent suppressor SUP46 encodes the yeast ribosomal protein S13. S13 is encoded by two similar genes, but only the sup46 copy of the gene is able to fully complement the recessive phenotypes of SUP46 mutations. Both copies of the S13 genes contain introns. Unlike the introns of other duplicated ribosomal protein genes which are highly diverged, the duplicated S13 genes have two nearly identical DNA sequences of 25 and 31 bp in length within their introns. The SUP46 protein has significant homology to the S4 ribosomal protein in prokaryotic-type ribosomes. S4 is encoded by one of the ram (ribosomal ambiguity) genes in Escherichia coli which are the functional equivalent of omnipotent suppressors in yeast. Thus, SUP46 and S4 demonstrate functional as well as sequence conservation between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomal proteins. SUP46 and S4 are most similar in their central amino acid sequences. Interestingly, the alterations resulting from the SUP46 mutations and the segment of the S4 protein involved in binding to the 16S rRNA are within this most conserved region.

  1. The eukaryotic translation initiation regulator CDC123 defines a divergent clade of ATP-grasp enzymes with a predicted role in novel protein modifications.

    PubMed

    Burroughs, A Maxwell; Zhang, Dapeng; Aravind, L

    2015-05-15

    Deciphering the origin of uniquely eukaryotic features of sub-cellular systems, such as the translation apparatus, is critical in reconstructing eukaryogenesis. One such feature is the highly conserved, but poorly understood, eukaryotic protein CDC123, which regulates the abundance of the eukaryotic translation initiation eIF2 complex and binds one of its components eIF2γ. We show that the eukaryotic protein CDC123 defines a novel clade of ATP-grasp enzymes distinguished from all other members of the superfamily by a RAGNYA domain with two conserved lysines (henceforth the R2K clade). Combining the available biochemical and genetic data on CDC123 with the inferred enzymatic function, we propose that the eukaryotic CDC123 proteins are likely to function as ATP-dependent protein-peptide ligases which modify proteins by ribosome-independent addition of an oligopeptide tag. We also show that the CDC123 family emerged first in bacteria where it appears to have diversified along with the two other families of the R2K clade. The bacterial CDC123 family members are of two distinct types, one found as part of type VI secretion systems which deliver polymorphic toxins and the other functioning as potential effectors delivered to amoeboid eukaryotic hosts. Representatives of the latter type have also been independently transferred to phylogenetically unrelated amoeboid eukaryotes and their nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses. Similarly, the two other prokaryotic R2K clade families are also proposed to participate in biological conflicts between bacteriophages and their hosts. These findings add further evidence to the recently proposed hypothesis that the horizontal transfer of enzymatic effectors from the bacterial endosymbionts of the stem eukaryotes played a fundamental role in the emergence of the characteristically eukaryotic regulatory systems and sub-cellular structures.

  2. Rapid quantification and taxonomic classification of environmentalDNA from both prokaryotic and eukaryotic origins using a microarray

    SciTech Connect

    DeSantis, Todd Z.; Stone, Carol E.; Murray, Sonya R.; Moberg,Jordan P.; Andersen, Gary L.

    2005-02-22

    A microarray has been designed using 62,358 probes matched to both prokaryotic and eukaryotic small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes. The array categorized environmental DNA to specific phylogenetic clusters in under 9 h. To a background of DNA generated from natural outdoor aerosols, known quantities of rRNA gene copies from distinct organisms were added producing corresponding hybridization intensity scores that correlated well with their concentrations (r=0.917). Reproducible differences in microbial community composition were observed by altering the genomic DNA extraction method. Notably, gentle extractions produced peak intensities for Mycoplasmatales and Burkholderiales, whereas a vigorous disruption produced peak intensities for Vibrionales,Clostridiales, and Bacillales.

  3. Eukaryotic-Like Virus Budding in Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Quemin, Emmanuelle R. J.; Chlanda, Petr; Sachse, Martin; Forterre, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Similar to many eukaryotic viruses (and unlike bacteriophages), viruses infecting archaea are often encased in lipid-containing envelopes. However, the mechanisms of their morphogenesis and egress remain unexplored. Here, we used dual-axis electron tomography (ET) to characterize the morphogenesis of Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 1 (SSV1), the prototype of the family Fuselloviridae and representative of the most abundant archaea-specific group of viruses. Our results show that SSV1 assembly and egress are concomitant and occur at the cellular cytoplasmic membrane via a process highly reminiscent of the budding of enveloped viruses that infect eukaryotes. The viral nucleoprotein complexes are extruded in the form of previously unknown rod-shaped intermediate structures which have an envelope continuous with the host membrane. Further maturation into characteristic spindle-shaped virions takes place while virions remain attached to the cell surface. Our data also revealed the formation of constricted ring-like structures which resemble the budding necks observed prior to the ESCRT machinery-mediated membrane scission during egress of various enveloped viruses of eukaryotes. Collectively, we provide evidence that archaeal spindle-shaped viruses contain a lipid envelope acquired upon budding of the viral nucleoprotein complex through the host cytoplasmic membrane. The proposed model bears a clear resemblance to the egress strategy employed by enveloped eukaryotic viruses and raises important questions as to how the archaeal single-layered membrane composed of tetraether lipids can undergo scission. PMID:27624130

  4. Construction of bacteria-eukaryote synthetic mutualism.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Isao; Hosoda, Kazufumi; Suzuki, Shingo; Yamamoto, Kayo; Kihara, Kumiko; Mori, Kotaro; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2013-08-01

    Mutualism is ubiquitous in nature but is known to be intrinsically vulnerable with regard to both population dynamics and evolution. Synthetic ecology has indicated that it is feasible for organisms to establish novel mutualism merely through encountering each other by showing that it is feasible to construct synthetic mutualism between organisms. However, bacteria-eukaryote mutualism, which is ecologically important, has not yet been constructed. In this study, we synthetically constructed mutualism between a bacterium and a eukaryote by using two model organisms. We mixed a bacterium, Escherichia coli (a genetically engineered glutamine auxotroph), and an amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum, in 14 sets of conditions in which each species could not grow in monoculture but potentially could grow in coculture. Under a single condition in which the bacterium and amoeba mutually compensated for the lack of required nutrients (lipoic acid and glutamine, respectively), both species grew continuously through several subcultures, essentially establishing mutualism. Our results shed light on the establishment of bacteria-eukaryote mutualism and indicate that a bacterium and eukaryote pair in nature also has a non-negligible possibility of establishing novel mutualism if the organisms are potentially mutualistic.

  5. The origin of the eukaryotic cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, H.

    1984-01-01

    The endosymbiotic hypothesis for the origin of the eukaryotic cell has been applied to the origin of the mitochondria and chloroplasts. However as has been pointed out by Mereschowsky in 1905, it should also be applied to the nucleus as well. If the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts are endosymbionts, then it is likely that the organism that did the engulfing was not a DNA-based organism. In fact, it is useful to postulate that this organism was a primitive RNA-based organism. This hypothesis would explain the preponderance of RNA viruses found in eukaryotic cells. The centriole and basal body do not have a double membrane or DNA. Like all MTOCs (microtubule organising centres), they have a structural or morphic RNA implicated in their formation. This would argue for their origin in the early RNA-based organism rather than in an endosymbiotic event involving bacteria. Finally, the eukaryotic cell uses RNA in ways quite unlike bacteria, thus pointing to a greater emphasis of RNA in both control and structure in the cell. The origin of the eukaryotic cell may tell us why it rather than its prokaryotic relative evolved into the metazoans who are reading this paper.

  6. Mitochondrial Genome Structure of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Yurina, N P; Odintsova, M S

    2016-02-01

    Current ideas of plant mitochondrial genome organization are presented. Data on the size and structural organization of mtDNA, gene content, and peculiarities are summarized. Special emphasis is given to characteristic features of the mitochondrial genomes of land plants and photosynthetic algae that distinguish them from the mitochondrial genomes of other eukaryotes. The data published before the end of 2014 are reviewed.

  7. Eukaryotes in Arctic and Antarctic cyanobacterial mats.

    PubMed

    Jungblut, Anne D; Vincent, Warwick F; Lovejoy, Connie

    2012-11-01

    Cyanobacterial mats are commonly found in freshwater ecosystems throughout the polar regions. Most mats are multilayered three-dimensional structures with the filamentous cyanobacteria embedded in a gel-like matrix. Although early descriptions mentioned the presence of larger organisms including metazoans living in the mats, there have been few studies specifically focused on the microbial eukaryotes, which are often small cells with few morphological features suitable for identification by microscopy. Here, we applied 18S rRNA gene clone library analysis to identify eukaryotes in cyanobacterial mat communities from both the Antarctic and the extreme High Arctic. We identified 39 ribotypes at the level of 99% sequence similarity. These consisted of taxa within algal and other protist groups including Chlorophyceae, Prasinophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Ciliophora, and Cercozoa. Fungi were also recovered, as were 21 metazoan ribotypes. The eukaryotic taxa appeared habitat-specific with little overlap between lake, pond, and ice shelf communities. Some ribotypes were common to both Arctic and Antarctic mats, suggesting global dispersal of these taxa and similarity in the environmental filters acting on protist communities. Many of these eukaryotic taxa likely benefit from protected, nutrient-rich microhabitats within the cyanobacterial mat environment.

  8. Eukaryotic acquisition of a bacterial operon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the champions of basic biomedical research due to its compact eukaryotic genome and ease of experimental manipulation. Despite these immense strengths, its impact on understanding the genetic basis of natural phenotypic variation has been limited by strai...

  9. Analysis of gene order conservation in eukaryotes identifies transcriptionally and functionally linked genes.

    PubMed

    Dávila López, Marcela; Martínez Guerra, Juan José; Samuelsson, Tore

    2010-05-14

    The order of genes in eukaryotes is not entirely random. Studies of gene order conservation are important to understand genome evolution and to reveal mechanisms why certain neighboring genes are more difficult to separate during evolution. Here, genome-wide gene order information was compiled for 64 species, representing a wide variety of eukaryotic phyla. This information is presented in a browser where gene order may be displayed and compared between species. Factors related to non-random gene order in eukaryotes were examined by considering pairs of neighboring genes. The evolutionary conservation of gene pairs was studied with respect to relative transcriptional direction, intergenic distance and functional relationship as inferred by gene ontology. The results show that among gene pairs that are conserved the divergently and co-directionally transcribed genes are much more common than those that are convergently transcribed. Furthermore, highly conserved pairs, in particular those of fungi, are characterized by a short intergenic distance. Finally, gene pairs of metazoa and fungi that are evolutionary conserved and that are divergently transcribed are much more likely to be related by function as compared to poorly conserved gene pairs. One example is the ribosomal protein gene pair L13/S16, which is unusual as it occurs both in fungi and alveolates. A specific functional relationship between these two proteins is also suggested by the fact that they are part of the same operon in both eubacteria and archaea. In conclusion, factors associated with non-random gene order in eukaryotes include relative gene orientation, intergenic distance and functional relationships. It seems likely that certain pairs of genes are conserved because the genes involved have a transcriptional and/or functional relationship. The results also indicate that studies of gene order conservation aid in identifying genes that are related in terms of transcriptional control.

  10. Analysis of Gene Order Conservation in Eukaryotes Identifies Transcriptionally and Functionally Linked Genes

    PubMed Central

    Dávila López, Marcela; Martínez Guerra, Juan José; Samuelsson, Tore

    2010-01-01

    The order of genes in eukaryotes is not entirely random. Studies of gene order conservation are important to understand genome evolution and to reveal mechanisms why certain neighboring genes are more difficult to separate during evolution. Here, genome-wide gene order information was compiled for 64 species, representing a wide variety of eukaryotic phyla. This information is presented in a browser where gene order may be displayed and compared between species. Factors related to non-random gene order in eukaryotes were examined by considering pairs of neighboring genes. The evolutionary conservation of gene pairs was studied with respect to relative transcriptional direction, intergenic distance and functional relationship as inferred by gene ontology. The results show that among gene pairs that are conserved the divergently and co-directionally transcribed genes are much more common than those that are convergently transcribed. Furthermore, highly conserved pairs, in particular those of fungi, are characterized by a short intergenic distance. Finally, gene pairs of metazoa and fungi that are evolutionary conserved and that are divergently transcribed are much more likely to be related by function as compared to poorly conserved gene pairs. One example is the ribosomal protein gene pair L13/S16, which is unusual as it occurs both in fungi and alveolates. A specific functional relationship between these two proteins is also suggested by the fact that they are part of the same operon in both eubacteria and archaea. In conclusion, factors associated with non-random gene order in eukaryotes include relative gene orientation, intergenic distance and functional relationships. It seems likely that certain pairs of genes are conserved because the genes involved have a transcriptional and/or functional relationship. The results also indicate that studies of gene order conservation aid in identifying genes that are related in terms of transcriptional control. PMID:20498846

  11. Genome Mining for Ribosomally Synthesized Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Velásquez, Juan E.; van der Donk, Wilfred

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the number of known peptide natural products that are synthesized via the ribosomal pathway has rapidly grown. Taking advantage of sequence homology among genes encoding precursor peptides or biosynthetic proteins, in silico mining of genomes combined with molecular biology approaches has guided the discovery of a large number of new ribosomal natural products, including lantipeptides, cyanobactins, linear thiazole/oxazole-containing peptides, microviridins, lasso peptides, amatoxins, cyclotides, and conopeptides. In this review, we describe the strategies used for the identification of these ribosomally-synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs) and the structures of newly identified compounds. The increasing number of chemical entities and their remarkable structural and functional diversity may lead to novel pharmaceutical applications. PMID:21095156

  12. Structural snapshots of actively translating human ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Behrmann, Elmar; Loerke, Justus; Budkevich, Tatyana V; Yamamoto, Kaori; Schmidt, Andrea; Penczek, Pawel A; Vos, Matthijn R; Bürger, Jörg; Mielke, Thorsten; Scheerer, Patrick; Spahn, Christian M T

    2015-05-07

    Macromolecular machines, such as the ribosome, undergo large-scale conformational changes during their functional cycles. Although their mode of action is often compared to that of mechanical machines, a crucial difference is that, at the molecular dimension, thermodynamic effects dominate functional cycles, with proteins fluctuating stochastically between functional states defined by energetic minima on an energy landscape. Here, we have used cryo-electron microscopy to image ex-vivo-derived human polysomes as a source of actively translating ribosomes. Multiparticle refinement and 3D variability analysis allowed us to visualize a variety of native translation intermediates. Significantly populated states include not only elongation cycle intermediates in pre- and post-translocational states, but also eEF1A-containing decoding and termination/recycling complexes. Focusing on the post-translocational state, we extended this assessment to the single-residue level, uncovering striking details of ribosome-ligand interactions and identifying both static and functionally important dynamic elements.

  13. Ribosome-dependent activation of stringent control

    PubMed Central

    Gordiyenko, Yuliya; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2016-01-01

    In order to survive, bacteria continually sense, and respond to, environmental fluctuations. Stringent control represents a key bacterial stress response to nutrient starvation1,2 that leads to a rapid and comprehensive reprogramming of metabolic and transcriptional patterns3. In general, transcription of genes for growth and proliferation are down-regulated, while those important for survival and virulence are favored4. Amino acid starvation is sensed by depletion of the aminoacyl-tRNA pools5, which results in accumulation of ribosomes stalled with non-aminoacylated (uncharged) tRNA in the ribosomal A-site6,7. RelA is recruited to stalled ribosomes, and activated to synthesize a hyperphosphorylated guanosine analog, (p)ppGpp8, which acts as a pleiotropic second messenger. However, structural information for how RelA recognizes stalled ribosomes and discriminates against aminoacylated tRNAs is missing. Here, we present the electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of RelA bound to the bacterial ribosome stalled with uncharged tRNA. The structure reveals that RelA utilizes a distinct binding site compared to the translational factors, with a multi-domain architecture that wraps around a highly distorted A-site tRNA. The TGS domain of RelA binds the CCA tail to orient the free 3’ hydroxyl group of the terminal adenosine towards a β-strand, such that an aminoacylated tRNA at this position would be sterically precluded. The structure supports a model where association of RelA with the ribosome suppresses auto-inhibition to activate synthesis of (p)ppGpp and initiate the stringent response. Since stringent control is responsible for the survival of pathogenic bacteria under stress conditions, and contributes to chronic infections and antibiotic tolerance, RelA represents a good target for the development of novel antibacterial therapeutics. PMID:27279228

  14. Anaerobic energy metabolism in unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Atteia, Ariane; van Lis, Robert; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Martin, William F

    2013-02-01

    Anaerobic metabolic pathways allow unicellular organisms to tolerate or colonize anoxic environments. Over the past ten years, genome sequencing projects have brought a new light on the extent of anaerobic metabolism in eukaryotes. A surprising development has been that free-living unicellular algae capable of photoautotrophic lifestyle are, in terms of their enzymatic repertoire, among the best equipped eukaryotes known when it comes to anaerobic energy metabolism. Some of these algae are marine organisms, common in the oceans, others are more typically soil inhabitants. All these species are important from the ecological (O(2)/CO(2) budget), biotechnological, and evolutionary perspectives. In the unicellular algae surveyed here, mixed-acid type fermentations are widespread while anaerobic respiration, which is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs, appears to be rare. The presence of a core anaerobic metabolism among the algae provides insights into its evolutionary origin, which traces to the eukaryote common ancestor. The predicted fermentative enzymes often exhibit an amino acid extension at the N-terminus, suggesting that these proteins might be compartmentalized in the cell, likely in the chloroplast or the mitochondrion. The green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella NC64 have the most extended set of fermentative enzymes reported so far. Among the eukaryotes with secondary plastids, the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana has the most pronounced anaerobic capabilities as yet. From the standpoints of genomic, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies, anaerobic energy metabolism in C. reinhardtii remains the best characterized among photosynthetic protists. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The evolutionary aspects of bioenergetic systems.

  15. Sequestration of Ribosome during Protein Aggregate Formation: Contribution of ribosomal RNA

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Bani K.; Mondal, Surojit; Banerjee, Senjuti; Ghosh, Amar Nath; Barat, Chandana

    2017-01-01

    An understanding of the mechanisms underlying protein aggregation and cytotoxicity of the protein aggregates is crucial in the prevention of several diseases in humans. Ribosome, the cellular protein synthesis machine is capable of acting as a protein folding modulator. The peptidyltransferase center residing in the domain V of large ribosomal subunit 23S rRNA is the centre for the protein folding ability of the ribosome and is also the cellular target of several antiprion compounds. Our in vitro studies unexpectedly reveal that the partial unfolding or aggregation of lysozyme under reducing conditions in presence of the ribosome can induce aggregation of ribosomal components. Electrostatic interactions complemented by specific rRNA-protein interaction drive the ribosome-protein aggregation process. Under similar conditions the rRNA, especially the large subunit rRNA and in vitro transcribed RNA corresponding to domain V of 23S rRNA (bDV RNA) stimulates lysozyme aggregation leading to RNA-protein aggregate formation. Protein aggregation during the refolding of non-disulfide containing protein BCAII at high concentrations also induces ribosome aggregation. BCAII aggregation was also stimulated in presence of the large subunit rRNA. Our observations imply that the specific sequestration of the translation machine by aggregating proteins might contribute to their cytotoxicity. PMID:28169307

  16. Studies on structural stability of thermophilic Sulfolobus acidocaldarius ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Yangala, Kalavathi; Suryanarayana, Tangirala

    2007-02-01

    Structural stability of thermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius ribosomes, with respect their susceptibility to pancreatic RNase A and stability to temperature (deltaTm), on treatment with various stabilizing (polyamines) and destabilizing (sulfhydryl and intercalating) agents were studied and compared with mesophilic E. coli ribosomes, to understand the structural differences between thermophilic and mesophilic ribosomes. Thermophilic archaeal ribosomes and their subunits were 10-times less susceptible to pancreatic RNase A, compared to mesophilic ribosomes, showing the presence of strong and compact structural organization in them. Thermophilic ribosomes treated with destabilizing agents, such as sulfhydryl reagents [5,5'-Dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid), N-ethylmaleimide and p-hydroxymercurybenzoate) and intercalating agents (ethidium bromide, EtBr) showed higher stability to RNase A, compared to similarly treated mesophilic ribosomes, indicating the unavailability of thiol-reactive groups and the presence of strong solvent inaccessible inner core. Higher stability of thermophilic ribosomes compared to mesophilic ribosomes to unfolding agents like urea further supported the presence of strong inner core particle. Thermophilic ribosomes treated with intercalating agents, such as EtBr were less susceptible to RNase A, though they bound to more reagent, showing the rigidity or resilience of their macromolecular structure to alterations caused by destabilizing agents. Overall, these results indicated that factors such as presence of strong solvent inaccessible inner core and rigidity of ribosome macromolecular structure contributed stability of thermophilic ribosomes to RNase A and other destabilizing agents, when compared to mesophilic ribosomes.

  17. Contribution of the 80s loop of HIV-1 protease to the multidrug-resistance mechanism: crystallographic study of MDR769 HIV-1 protease variants

    PubMed Central

    Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Proteasa, Georghe; Martinez, Jorge L.; Vickrey, John F.; Martin, Philip D.; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Liu, Zhigang; Kovari, Iulia A.; Kovari, Ladislau C.

    2011-01-01

    The flexible flaps and the 80s loops (Pro79–Ile84) of HIV-1 protease are crucial in inhibitor binding. Previously, it was reported that the crystal structure of multidrug-resistant 769 (MDR769) HIV-1 protease shows a wide-open conformation of the flaps owing to conformational rigidity acquired by the accumulation of mutations. In the current study, the effect of mutations on the conformation of the 80s loop of MDR769 HIV-1 protease variants is reported. Alternate conformations of Pro81 (proline switch) with a root-mean-square deviation of 3–4.8 Å in the Cα atoms of the I10V mutant and a side chain with a ‘flipped-out’ conformation in the A82F mutant cause distortion in the S1/S1′ binding pockets that affects inhibitor binding. The A82S and A82T mutants show local changes in the electrostatics of inhibitor binding owing to the mutation from nonpolar to polar residues. In summary, the crystallo­graphic studies of four variants of MDR769 HIV-1 protease presented in this article provide new insights towards understanding the drug-resistance mechanism as well as a basis for design of future protease inhibitors with enhanced potency. PMID:21636892

  18. Contribution of the 80s loop of HIV-1 protease to the multidrug-resistance mechanism: crystallographic study of MDR769 HIV-1 protease variants

    SciTech Connect

    Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Proteasa, Georghe; Martinez, Jorge L.; Vickrey, John F.; Martin, Philip D.; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Liu, Zhigang; Kovari, Iulia A.; Kovari, Ladislau C.

    2011-09-06

    The flexible flaps and the 80s loops (Pro79-Ile84) of HIV-1 protease are crucial in inhibitor binding. Previously, it was reported that the crystal structure of multidrug-resistant 769 (MDR769) HIV-1 protease shows a wide-open conformation of the flaps owing to conformational rigidity acquired by the accumulation of mutations. In the current study, the effect of mutations on the conformation of the 80s loop of MDR769 HIV-1 protease variants is reported. Alternate conformations of Pro81 (proline switch) with a root-mean-square deviation of 3-4.8 {angstrom} in the C{alpha} atoms of the I10V mutant and a side chain with a 'flipped-out' conformation in the A82F mutant cause distortion in the S1/S1' binding pockets that affects inhibitor binding. The A82S and A82T mutants show local changes in the electrostatics of inhibitor binding owing to the mutation from nonpolar to polar residues. In summary, the crystallographic studies of four variants of MDR769 HIV-1 protease presented in this article provide new insights towards understanding the drug-resistance mechanism as well as a basis for design of future protease inhibitors with enhanced potency.

  19. Convergent evolution led ribosome inactivating proteins to interact with ribosomal stalk.

    PubMed

    Lapadula, Walter J; Sanchez-Puerta, M Virginia; Ayub, Maximiliano Juri

    2012-03-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) inhibit protein synthesis by depurinating an adenine on the sarcin-ricin loop (SRL) of the large subunit ribosomal RNA. Several RIPs interact with the C-terminal end of ribosomal stalk P proteins, and this interaction is required for their full activity. In contrast, the activity of Pokeweed Antiviral Protein is not affected by blocking this stalk component. Here, we provide evidence from phylogenetic analyses and sequence alignments suggesting that the interaction with the C-terminal end of P proteins evolved independently in different RIPs by convergent evolution.

  20. Ribosome-stalk biogenesis is coupled with recruitment of nuclear-export factor to the nascent 60S subunit.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Anshuk; Pech, Markus; Thoms, Matthias; Beckmann, Roland; Hurt, Ed

    2016-12-01

    Nuclear export of preribosomal subunits is a key step during eukaryotic ribosome formation. To efficiently pass through the FG-repeat meshwork of the nuclear pore complex, the large pre-60S subunit requires several export factors. Here we describe the mechanism of recruitment of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA-export receptor Mex67-Mtr2 to the pre-60S subunit at the proper time. Mex67-Mtr2 binds at the premature ribosomal-stalk region, which later during translation serves as a binding platform for translational GTPases on the mature ribosome. The assembly factor Mrt4, a structural homolog of cytoplasmic-stalk protein P0, masks this site, thus preventing untimely recruitment of Mex67-Mtr2 to nuclear pre-60S particles. Subsequently, Yvh1 triggers Mrt4 release in the nucleus, thereby creating a narrow time window for Mex67-Mtr2 association at this site and facilitating nuclear export of the large subunit. Thus, a spatiotemporal mark on the ribosomal stalk controls the recruitment of an RNA-export receptor to the nascent 60S subunit.

  1. Peter Pan functions independently of its role in ribosome biogenesis during early eye and craniofacial cartilage development in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Bugner, Verena; Tecza, Aleksandra; Gessert, Susanne; Kühl, Michael

    2011-06-01

    The Xenopus oocyte possesses a large maternal store of ribosomes, thereby uncoupling early development from the de novo ribosome biosynthesis required for cell growth. Brix domain-containing proteins, such as Peter Pan (PPan), are essential for eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis. In this study, we demonstrate that PPan is expressed maternally as well as in the eye and cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) during early Xenopus laevis development. Depletion of PPan and interference with rRNA processing using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides resulted in eye and cranial cartilage malformations. Loss of PPan, but not interference with rRNA processing, led to an early downregulation of specific marker genes of the eye, including Rx1 and Pax6, and of NCCs, such as Twist, Slug and FoxD3. We found that PPan protein is localized in the nucleoli and mitochondria and that loss of PPan results in increased apoptosis. These findings indicate a novel function of PPan that is independent of its role in ribosome biogenesis.

  2. Challenges for the 80's

    SciTech Connect

    Lesch, J.R.

    1980-09-01

    Finding and developing the necessary petroleum reserves in the 1980's will require drilling deeper wells in more hostile environments, drilling in increasing water depths, drilling in hostile Arctic areas and in waters where icebergs must be dealt with, and exploring deeper onshore horizons in more difficult topographical areas. These conditions impose severe demands on drilling and production equipment. The deeper wells will challenge drilling and production capabilities because of higher down-hole temperatures, greater capacity requirements on surface equipment, and more critical demands on the associated down-hole equipment. Drilling fluids, tools, and elastomers will need to withstand higher temperatures and greater stresses. Drilling in deeper waters will require the development and refinement of better and more economical drilling and production platforms. Increased drilling from platforms will necessitate improved drilling fluids to minimize torque, drill string, and casing wear in highly deviated holes. Another technological challenge is rig automation to minimize the physical work and injury factors associated with tripping and to reduce personnel requirements on the drilling rig.

  3. Origin and Evolution of the Eukaryotic SSU Processome Revealed by a Comprehensive Genomic Analysis and Implications for the Origin of the Nucleolus

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jin-Mei; Tian, Hai-Feng; Wen, Jian-Fan

    2013-01-01

    As a nucleolar complex for small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA processing, SSU processome has been extensively studied mainly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae but not in diverse organisms, leaving open the question of whether it is a ubiquitous mechanism across eukaryotes and how it evolved in the course of the evolution of eukaryotes. Genome-wide survey and identification of SSU processome components showed that the majority of all 77 yeast SSU processome proteins possess homologs in almost all of the main eukaryotic lineages, and 14 of them have homologs in archaea but few in bacteria, suggesting that the complex is ubiquitous in eukaryotes, and its evolutionary history began with abundant protein homologs being present in archaea and then a fairly complete form of the complex emerged in the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that ancient gene duplication and functional divergence of the protein components of the complex occurred frequently during the evolutionary origin of the LECA from prokaryotes. We found that such duplications not only increased the complex’s components but also produced some new functional proteins involved in other nucleolar functions, such as ribosome biogenesis and even some nonnucleolar (but nuclear) proteins participating in pre-mRNA splicing, implying the evolutionary emergence of the subnuclear compartment—the nucleolus—has occurred in the LECA. Therefore, the LECA harbored not only complicated SSU processomes but also a nucleolus. Our analysis also revealed that gene duplication, innovation, and loss, caused further divergence of the complex during the divergence of eukaryotes. PMID:24214024

  4. Dom34 rescues ribosomes in 3' untranslated regions.

    PubMed

    Guydosh, Nicholas R; Green, Rachel

    2014-02-27

    Ribosomes that stall before completing peptide synthesis must be recycled and returned to the cytoplasmic pool. The protein Dom34 and cofactors Hbs1 and Rli1 can dissociate stalled ribosomes in vitro, but the identity of targets in the cell is unknown. Here, we extend ribosome profiling methodology to reveal a high-resolution molecular characterization of Dom34 function in vivo. Dom34 removes stalled ribosomes from truncated mRNAs, but, in contrast, does not generally dissociate ribosomes on coding sequences known to trigger stalling, such as polyproline. We also show that Dom34 targets arrested ribosomes near the ends of 3' UTRs. These ribosomes appear to gain access to the 3' UTR via a mechanism that does not require decoding of the mRNA. These results suggest that ribosomes frequently enter downstream noncoding regions and that Dom34 carries out the important task of rescuing them.

  5. Late-assembly of human ribosomal protein S20 in the cytoplasm is essential for the functioning of the small subunit ribosome

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Lin-Ru; Chou, Chang-Wei; Wu, Jing-Ying; Kirby, Ralph; Lin, Alan

    2013-11-15

    Using immuno-fluorescent probing and Western blotting analysis, we reveal the exclusive cytoplasm nature of the small subunit ribosomal protein S20. To illustrate the importance of the cellular compartmentation of S20 to the function of small subunit 40S, we created a nuclear resident S20{sub NLS} mutant gene and examined polysome profile of cells that had been transfected with the S20{sub NLS} gene. As a result, we observed the formation of recombinant 40S carried S20{sub NLS} but this recombinant 40S was never found in the polysome, suggesting such a recombinant 40S was translation incompetent. Moreover, by the tactic of the energy depletion and restoration, we were able to restrain the nuclear-resided S20{sub NLS} in the cytoplasm. Yet, along a progressive energy restoration, we observed the presence of recombinant 40S subunits carrying the S20{sub NLS} in the polysome. This proves that S20 needs to be cytoplasmic in order to make a functional 40S subunit. Furthermore, it also implies that the assembly order of ribosomal protein in eukaryote is orderly regulated. - Highlights: • The step of S20 assembled on 40S is happened in the cytoplasm. • A small subunit assembled with a nuclear S20{sub NLS} is translational incompetence. • Using energy depletion and recovery to manipulate the cellular compartment of S20{sub NLS}. • Cytoplasm-retained S20{sub NLS} is crucial for creating a functional small subunit.

  6. Archaeal ribosomal stalk protein interacts with translation factors in a nucleotide-independent manner via its conserved C terminus

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Naoko; Honda, Takayoshi; Baba, Kentaro; Naganuma, Takao; Tanzawa, Takehito; Arisaka, Fumio; Noda, Masanori; Uchiyama, Susumu; Tanaka, Isao; Yao, Min; Uchiumi, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Protein synthesis on the ribosome requires translational GTPase factors to bind to the ribosome in the GTP-bound form, take individual actions that are coupled with GTP hydrolysis, and dissociate, usually in the GDP-bound form. The multiple copies of the flexible ribosomal stalk protein play an important role in these processes. Using biochemical approaches and the stalk protein from a hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus horikoshii, we here provide evidence that the conserved C terminus of the stalk protein aP1 binds directly to domain I of the elongation factor aEF-2, irrespective of whether aEF-2 is bound to GTP or GDP. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that four hydrophobic amino acids at the C terminus of aP1, Leu-100, 103, 106, and Phe-107, are crucial for the direct binding. P1 was also found to bind to the initiation factor aIF5B, as well as aEF-1α, but not aIF2γ, via its C terminus. Moreover, analytical ultracentrifugation and gel mobility shift analyses showed that a heptameric complex of aP1 and aP0, aP0(aP1)2(aP1)2(aP1)2, can bind multiple aEF-2 molecules simultaneously, which suggests that individual copies of the stalk protein are accessible to the factor. The functional significance of the C terminus of the stalk protein was also shown using the eukaryotic proteins P1/P2 and P0. It is likely that the conserved C terminus of the stalk proteins of archaea and eukaryotes can bind to translation factors both before and after GTP hydrolysis. This consistent binding ability of the stalk protein may contribute to maintaining high concentrations of translation factors around the ribosome, thus promoting translational efficiency. PMID:22355137

  7. Peptide Bond Formation Mechanism Catalyzed by Ribosome.

    PubMed

    Świderek, Katarzyna; Marti, Sergio; Tuñón, Iñaki; Moliner, Vicent; Bertran, Juan

    2015-09-23

    In this paper we present a study of the peptide bond formation reaction catalyzed by ribosome. Different mechanistic proposals have been explored by means of Free Energy Perturbation methods within hybrid QM/MM potentials, where the chemical system has been described by the M06-2X functional and the environment by means of the AMBER force field. According to our results, the most favorable mechanism in the ribosome would proceed through an eight-membered ring transition state, involving a proton shuttle mechanism through the hydroxyl group of the sugar and a water molecule. This transition state is similar to that described for the reaction in solution (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 8708-8719), but the reaction mechanisms are noticeably different. Our simulations reproduce the experimentally determined catalytic effect of ribosome that can be explained by the different behavior of the two environments. While the solvent reorganizes during the chemical process involving an entropic penalty, the ribosome is preorganized in the formation of the Michaelis complex and does not suffer important changes along the reaction, dampening the charge redistribution of the chemical system.

  8. Diamond-Blackfan anemia, ribosome and erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Costa, L. Da; Moniz, H.; Simansour, M.; Tchernia, G.; Mohandas, N.; Leblanc, T.

    2010-01-01

    Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a rare inherited bone marrow failure syndrome (5 to 7 cases/million live births) characterized by an are generative, usually macrocytic anemia with an absence or less than 5% of erythroid precursors (erythroblastopenia) in an otherwise normal bone marrow. The platelet and the white cell counts are usually normal but neutropenia, thrombopenia or thrombocytosis have been noted at diagnosis. In 40 to 50% of DBA patients, congenital abnormalities mostly in the cephalic area and in thumbs and upper limbs have been described. Recent analysis did show a phenotype/genotype correlation. Congenital erythroblastopenia of DBA is the first human disease identified to result from defects in ribosomal biogenesis. The first ribosomal gene involved in DBA, ribosomal protein (RP) gene S19 (RPS19 gene), was identified in 1999. Subsequently, mutations in 12 other RP genes out of a total of 78 RP genes have been identified in DBA. All RP gene mutations described to date are heterozygous and dominant inheritance has been documented in 40 to 45% of affected individuals. As RP mutations are yet to be identified in approximately 50% of DBA cases, it is likely that other yet to be identified genes involved in ribosomal biogenesis or other pathways may be responsible for DBA phenotype. PMID:20655265

  9. Peptide Bond Formation Mechanism Catalyzed by Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Świderek, Katarzyna; Marti, Sergio; Tuñón, Iñaki; Moliner, Vicent; Bertran, Juan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a study of the peptide bond formation reaction catalyzed by ribosome. Different mechanistic proposals have been explored by means of Free Energy Perturbation methods within hybrid QM/MM potentials, where the chemical system has been described by the M06-2X functional and the environment by means of the AMBER force field. According to our results, the most favourable mechanism in the ribosome would proceed through an eight-membered ring transition state, involving a proton shuttle mechanism through the hydroxyl group of the sugar and a water molecule. This transition state is similar to that described for the reaction in solution (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 8708–8719) but the reaction mechanisms are noticeable different. Our simulations reproduce the experimentally determined catalytic effect of ribosome that can be explained by the different behaviour of the two environments. While the solvent reorganizes during the chemical process involving an entropic penalty, the ribosome is preorganized in the formation of the Michaelis complex and does not suffer important changes along the reaction, dampening the charge redistribution of the chemical system. PMID:26325003

  10. Eukaryotic algal phytochromes span the visible spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Rockwell, Nathan C.; Duanmu, Deqiang; Martin, Shelley S.; Bachy, Charles; Price, Dana C.; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Worden, Alexandra Z.; Lagarias, J. Clark

    2014-01-01

    Plant phytochromes are photoswitchable red/far-red photoreceptors that allow competition with neighboring plants for photosynthetically active red light. In aquatic environments, red and far-red light are rapidly attenuated with depth; therefore, photosynthetic species must use shorter wavelengths of light. Nevertheless, phytochrome-related proteins are found in recently sequenced genomes of many eukaryotic algae from aquatic environments. We examined the photosensory properties of seven phytochromes from diverse algae: four prasinophyte (green algal) species, the heterokont (brown algal) Ectocarpus siliculosus, and two glaucophyte species. We demonstrate that algal phytochromes are not limited to red and far-red responses. Instead, different algal phytochromes can sense orange, green, and even blue light. Characterization of these previously undescribed photosensors using CD spectroscopy supports a structurally heterogeneous chromophore in the far-red–absorbing photostate. Our study thus demonstrates that extensive spectral tuning of phytochromes has evolved in phylogenetically distinct lineages of aquatic photosynthetic eukaryotes. PMID:24567382

  11. Symbiosis and the origin of eukaryotic motility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.; Hinkle, G.

    1991-01-01

    Ongoing work to test the hypothesis of the origin of eukaryotic cell organelles by microbial symbioses is discussed. Because of the widespread acceptance of the serial endosymbiotic theory (SET) of the origin of plastids and mitochondria, the idea of the symbiotic origin of the centrioles and axonemes for spirochete bacteria motility symbiosis was tested. Intracellular microtubular systems are purported to derive from symbiotic associations between ancestral eukaryotic cells and motile bacteria. Four lines of approach to this problem are being pursued: (1) cloning the gene of a tubulin-like protein discovered in Spirocheata bajacaliforniesis; (2) seeking axoneme proteins in spirochets by antibody cross-reaction; (3) attempting to cultivate larger, free-living spirochetes; and (4) studying in detail spirochetes (e.g., Cristispira) symbiotic with marine animals. Other aspects of the investigation are presented.

  12. Rolling-circle transposons in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Kapitonov, V V; Jurka, J

    2001-07-17

    All eukaryotic DNA transposons reported so far belong to a single category of elements transposed by the so-called "cut-and-paste" mechanism. Here, we report a previously unknown category of eukaryotic DNA transposons, Helitron, which transpose by rolling-circle replication. Autonomous Helitrons encode a 5'-to-3' DNA helicase and nuclease/ligase similar to those encoded by known rolling-circle replicons. Helitron-like transposons have conservative 5'-TC and CTRR-3' termini and do not have terminal inverted repeats. They contain 16- to 20-bp hairpins separated by 10--12 nucleotides from the 3'-end and transpose precisely between the 5'-A and T-3', with no modifications of the AT target sites. Together with their multiple diverged nonautonomous descendants, Helitrons constitute approximately 2% of both the Arabidopsis thaliana and Caenorhabditis elegans genomes and also colonize the Oriza sativa genome. Sequence conservation suggests that Helitrons continue to be transposed.

  13. Eukaryotic expression: developments for structural proteomics.

    PubMed

    Aricescu, A R; Assenberg, R; Bill, R M; Busso, D; Chang, V T; Davis, S J; Dubrovsky, A; Gustafsson, L; Hedfalk, K; Heinemann, U; Jones, I M; Ksiazek, D; Lang, C; Maskos, K; Messerschmidt, A; Macieira, S; Peleg, Y; Perrakis, A; Poterszman, A; Schneider, G; Sixma, T K; Sussman, J L; Sutton, G; Tarboureich, N; Zeev-Ben-Mordehai, T; Jones, E Yvonne

    2006-10-01

    The production of sufficient quantities of protein is an essential prelude to a structure determination, but for many viral and human proteins this cannot be achieved using prokaryotic expression systems. Groups in the Structural Proteomics In Europe (SPINE) consortium have developed and implemented high-throughput (HTP) methodologies for cloning, expression screening and protein production in eukaryotic systems. Studies focused on three systems: yeast (Pichia pastoris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae), baculovirus-infected insect cells and transient expression in mammalian cells. Suitable vectors for HTP cloning are described and results from their use in expression screening and protein-production pipelines are reported. Strategies for co-expression, selenomethionine labelling (in all three eukaryotic systems) and control of glycosylation (for secreted proteins in mammalian cells) are assessed.

  14. Towards New Antifolates Targeting Eukaryotic Opportunistic Infections

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.; Bolstad, D; Bolstad, E; Wright, D; Anderson, A

    2009-01-01

    Trimethoprim, an antifolate commonly prescribed in combination with sulfamethoxazole, potently inhibits several prokaryotic species of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). However, several eukaryotic pathogenic organisms are resistant to trimethoprim, preventing its effective use as a therapeutic for those infections. We have been building a program to reengineer trimethoprim to more potently and selectively inhibit eukaryotic species of DHFR as a viable strategy for new drug discovery targeting several opportunistic pathogens. We have developed a series of compounds that exhibit potent and selective inhibition of DHFR from the parasitic protozoa Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma as well as the fungus Candida glabrata. A comparison of the structures of DHFR from the fungal species Candida glabrata and Pneumocystis suggests that the compounds may also potently inhibit Pneumocystis DHFR.

  15. The architecture of a eukaryotic replisome

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jingchuan; Yuan, Zuanning; Shi, Yi; Georgescu, Roxana E.; Chait, Brian T.; Li, Huilin; O'Donnell, Michael E.

    2015-11-02

    At the eukaryotic DNA replication fork, it is widely believed that the Cdc45–Mcm2–7–GINS (CMG) helicase is positioned in front to unwind DNA and that DNA polymerases trail behind the helicase. Here we used single-particle EM to directly image a Saccharomyces cerevisiae replisome. Contrary to expectations, the leading strand Pol ε is positioned ahead of CMG helicase, whereas Ctf4 and the lagging-strand polymerase (Pol) α–primase are behind the helicase. This unexpected architecture indicates that the leading-strand DNA travels a long distance before reaching Pol ε, first threading through the Mcm2–7 ring and then making a U-turn at the bottom and reaching Pol ε at the top of CMG. Lastly, our work reveals an unexpected configuration of the eukaryotic replisome, suggests possible reasons for this architecture and provides a basis for further structural and biochemical replisome studies.

  16. Supertrees and symbiosis in eukaryote genome evolution.

    PubMed

    Esser, Christian; Martin, William

    2007-10-01

    If we took all of the single copy genes in all sequenced genomes, made phylogenetic trees from them individually, and then made the supertree of those trees, what would we get? Recently, David Pisani and colleagues did that experiment and their results are likely to spark much discussion. Their prokaryote tree looks very familiar, but the genome history of eukaryotes appears dominated by genes of cyanobacterial (plastid) and alpha-proteobacterial (mitochondrial) origin, while the host component branches within the archaebacteria.

  17. [Defensins - natural peptide antibiotics of higher eukaryotes].

    PubMed

    Grishin, D V; Sokolov, N N

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this review is to characterize defensins representing an evolutionary the most ancient family of antimicrobial peptides. It gives general information on functional and structural features of defensins as the main components of the first-line defense of higher eukaryote organisms against infectious agents. The review considers not only current situation in the defensin research but also perspectives of creation of recombinant antimicrobial peptides of biomedical application.

  18. The Evolution of Silicon Transport in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Marron, Alan O.; Ratcliffe, Sarah; Wheeler, Glen L.; Goldstein, Raymond E.; King, Nicole; Not, Fabrice; de Vargas, Colomban; Richter, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Biosilicification (the formation of biological structures from silica) occurs in diverse eukaryotic lineages, plays a major role in global biogeochemical cycles, and has significant biotechnological applications. Silicon (Si) uptake is crucial for biosilicification, yet the evolutionary history of the transporters involved remains poorly known. Recent evidence suggests that the SIT family of Si transporters, initially identified in diatoms, may be widely distributed, with an extended family of related transporters (SIT-Ls) present in some nonsilicified organisms. Here, we identify SITs and SIT-Ls in a range of eukaryotes, including major silicified lineages (radiolarians and chrysophytes) and also bacterial SIT-Ls. Our evidence suggests that the symmetrical 10-transmembrane-domain SIT structure has independently evolved multiple times via duplication and fusion of 5-transmembrane-domain SIT-Ls. We also identify a second gene family, similar to the active Si transporter Lsi2, that is broadly distributed amongst siliceous and nonsiliceous eukaryotes. Our analyses resolve a distinct group of Lsi2-like genes, including plant and diatom Si-responsive genes, and sequences unique to siliceous sponges and choanoflagellates. The SIT/SIT-L and Lsi2 transporter families likely contribute to biosilicification in diverse lineages, indicating an ancient role for Si transport in eukaryotes. We propose that these Si transporters may have arisen initially to prevent Si toxicity in the high Si Precambrian oceans, with subsequent biologically induced reductions in Si concentrations of Phanerozoic seas leading to widespread losses of SIT, SIT-L, and Lsi2-like genes in diverse lineages. Thus, the origin and diversification of two independent Si transporter families both drove and were driven by ancient ocean Si levels. PMID:27729397

  19. Endosymbiotic origin and differential loss of eukaryotic genes.

    PubMed

    Ku, Chuan; Nelson-Sathi, Shijulal; Roettger, Mayo; Sousa, Filipa L; Lockhart, Peter J; Bryant, David; Hazkani-Covo, Einat; McInerney, James O; Landan, Giddy; Martin, William F

    2015-08-27

    Chloroplasts arose from cyanobacteria, mitochondria arose from proteobacteria. Both organelles have conserved their prokaryotic biochemistry, but their genomes are reduced, and most organelle proteins are encoded in the nucleus. Endosymbiotic theory posits that bacterial genes in eukaryotic genomes entered the eukaryotic lineage via organelle ancestors. It predicts episodic influx of prokaryotic genes into the eukaryotic lineage, with acquisition corresponding to endosymbiotic events. Eukaryotic genome sequences, however, increasingly implicate lateral gene transfer, both from prokaryotes to eukaryotes and among eukaryotes, as a source of gene content variation in eukaryotic genomes, which predicts continuous, lineage-specific acquisition of prokaryotic genes in divergent eukaryotic groups. Here we discriminate between these two alternatives by clustering and phylogenetic analysis of eukaryotic gene families having prokaryotic homologues. Our results indicate (1) that gene transfer from bacteria to eukaryotes is episodic, as revealed by gene distributions, and coincides with major evolutionary transitions at the origin of chloroplasts and mitochondria; (2) that gene inheritance in eukaryotes is vertical, as revealed by extensive topological comparison, sparse gene distributions stemming from differential loss; and (3) that continuous, lineage-specific lateral gene transfer, although it sometimes occurs, does not contribute to long-term gene content evolution in eukaryotic genomes.

  20. Eukaryotic evolution: getting to the root of the problem.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Alastair G B; Roger, Andrew J

    2002-10-15

    Comparative analyses of multiple genes suggest most known eukaryotes can be classified into half a dozen 'super-groups'. A new investigation of the distribution of a fused gene pair amongst these 'super-groups' has greatly narrowed the possible positions of the root of the eukaryote tree, clarifying the broad outlines of early eukaryote evolution.

  1. A RanGTP-independent mechanism allows ribosomal protein nuclear import for ribosome assembly

    PubMed Central

    Schütz, Sabina; Fischer, Ute; Altvater, Martin; Nerurkar, Purnima; Peña, Cohue; Gerber, Michaela; Chang, Yiming; Caesar, Stefanie; Schubert, Olga T; Schlenstedt, Gabriel; Panse, Vikram G

    2014-01-01

    Within a single generation time a growing yeast cell imports ∼14 million ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) into the nucleus for ribosome production. After import, it is unclear how these intrinsically unstable and aggregation-prone proteins are targeted to the ribosome assembly site in the nucleolus. Here, we report the discovery of a conserved nuclear carrier Tsr2 that coordinates transfer of the r-protein eS26 to the earliest assembling pre-ribosome, the 90S. In vitro studies revealed that Tsr2 efficiently dissociates importin:eS26 complexes via an atypical RanGTP-independent mechanism that terminates the import process. Subsequently, Tsr2 binds the released eS26, shields it from proteolysis, and ensures its safe delivery to the 90S pre-ribosome. We anticipate similar carriers—termed here escortins—to securely connect the nuclear import machinery with pathways that deposit r-proteins onto developing pre-ribosomal particles. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03473.001 PMID:25144938

  2. Ribosomal Protein S14 Unties the MDM2-p53 Loop Upon Ribosomal Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiang; Hao, Qian; Liao, Jun-ming; Zhang, Qi; Lu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    The MDM2-p53 feedback loop is crucially important for restricting p53 level and activity during normal cell growth and proliferation, and is thus subjected to dynamic regulation in order for cells to activate p53 upon various stress signals. Several ribosomal proteins, such as RPL11, RPL5, RPL23, RPL26, or RPS7, have been shown to play a role in regulation of this feedback loop in response to ribosomal stress. Here, we identify another ribosomal protein S14, which is highly associated with 5q-syndrome, as a novel activator of p53 by inhibiting MDM2 activity. We found that RPS14, but not RPS19, binds to the central acidic domain of MDM2, like RPL5 and RPL23, and inhibits its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity toward p53. This RPS14-MDM2 binding was induced upon ribosomal stress caused by actinomycin D or mycophenolic acid. Overexpression of RPS14, but not RPS19, elevated p53 level and activity, leading to G1 or G2 arrest. Conversely, knockdown of RPS14 alleviated p53 induction by these two reagents. Interestingly, knockdown of either RPS14 or RPS19 caused a ribosomal stress that led to p53 activation, which was impaired by further knocking down the level of RPL11 or RPL5. Together, our results demonstrate that RPS14 and RPS19 play distinct roles in regulating the MDM2-p53 feedback loop in response to ribosomal stress. PMID:22391559

  3. Single-cell transcriptomics for microbial eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Kolisko, Martin; Boscaro, Vittorio; Burki, Fabien; Lynn, Denis H; Keeling, Patrick J

    2014-11-17

    One of the greatest hindrances to a comprehensive understanding of microbial genomics, cell biology, ecology, and evolution is that most microbial life is not in culture. Solutions to this problem have mainly focused on whole-community surveys like metagenomics, but these analyses inevitably loose information and present particular challenges for eukaryotes, which are relatively rare and possess large, gene-sparse genomes. Single-cell analyses present an alternative solution that allows for specific species to be targeted, while retaining information on cellular identity, morphology, and partitioning of activities within microbial communities. Single-cell transcriptomics, pioneered in medical research, offers particular potential advantages for uncultivated eukaryotes, but the efficiency and biases have not been tested. Here we describe a simple and reproducible method for single-cell transcriptomics using manually isolated cells from five model ciliate species; we examine impacts of amplification bias and contamination, and compare the efficacy of gene discovery to traditional culture-based transcriptomics. Gene discovery using single-cell transcriptomes was found to be comparable to mass-culture methods, suggesting single-cell transcriptomics is an efficient entry point into genomic data from the vast majority of eukaryotic biodiversity.

  4. Archaeal and eukaryotic homologs of Hfq

    PubMed Central

    Mura, Cameron; Randolph, Peter S.; Patterson, Jennifer; Cozen, Aaron E.

    2013-01-01

    Hfq and other Sm proteins are central in RNA metabolism, forming an evolutionarily conserved family that plays key roles in RNA processing in organisms ranging from archaea to bacteria to human. Sm-based cellular pathways vary in scope from eukaryotic mRNA splicing to bacterial quorum sensing, with at least one step in each of these pathways being mediated by an RNA-associated molecular assembly built upon Sm proteins. Though the first structures of Sm assemblies were from archaeal systems, the functions of Sm-like archaeal proteins (SmAPs) remain murky. Our ignorance about SmAP biology, particularly vis-à-vis the eukaryotic and bacterial Sm homologs, can be partly reduced by leveraging the homology between these lineages to make phylogenetic inferences about Sm functions in archaea. Nevertheless, whether SmAPs are more eukaryotic (RNP scaffold) or bacterial (RNA chaperone) in character remains unclear. Thus, the archaeal domain of life is a missing link, and an opportunity, in Sm-based RNA biology. PMID:23579284

  5. Earth's earliest non-marine eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Strother, Paul K; Battison, Leila; Brasier, Martin D; Wellman, Charles H

    2011-05-26

    The existence of a terrestrial Precambrian (more than 542 Myr ago) biota has been largely inferred from indirect chemical and geological evidence associated with palaeosols, the weathering of clay minerals and microbially induced sedimentary structures in siliciclastic sediments. Direct evidence of fossils within rocks of non-marine origin in the Precambrian is exceedingly rare. The most widely cited example comprises a single report of morphologically simple mineralized tubes and spheres interpreted as cyanobacteria, obtained from 1,200-Myr-old palaeokarst in Arizona. Organic-walled microfossils were first described from the non-marine Torridonian (1.2-1.0 Gyr ago) sequence of northwest Scotland in 1907. Subsequent studies found few distinctive taxa-a century later, the Torridonian microflora is still being characterized as primarily nondescript "leiospheres". We have comprehensively sampled grey shales and phosphatic nodules throughout the Torridonian sequence. Here we report the recovery of large populations of diverse organic-walled microfossils extracted by acid maceration, complemented by studies using thin sections of phosphatic nodules that yield exceptionally detailed three-dimensional preservation. These assemblages contain multicellular structures, complex-walled cysts, asymmetric organic structures, and dorsiventral, compressed organic thalli, some approaching one millimetre in diameter. They offer direct evidence of eukaryotes living in freshwater aquatic and subaerially exposed habitats during the Proterozoic era. The apparent dominance of eukaryotes in non-marine settings by 1 Gyr ago indicates that eukaryotic evolution on land may have commenced far earlier than previously thought.

  6. Structural Changes Enable Start Codon Recognition by the Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Complex

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Tanweer; Llácer, Jose L.; Fernández, Israel S.; Munoz, Antonio; Martin-Marcos, Pilar; Savva, Christos G.; Lorsch, Jon R.; Hinnebusch, Alan G.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2014-01-01

    Summary During eukaryotic translation initiation, initiator tRNA does not insert fully into the P decoding site on the 40S ribosomal subunit. This conformation (POUT) is compatible with scanning mRNA for the AUG start codon. Base pairing with AUG is thought to promote isomerization to a more stable conformation (PIN) that arrests scanning and promotes dissociation of eIF1 from the 40S subunit. Here, we present a cryoEM reconstruction of a yeast preinitiation complex at 4.0 Å resolution with initiator tRNA in the PIN state, prior to eIF1 release. The structure reveals stabilization of the codon-anticodon duplex by the N-terminal tail of eIF1A, changes in the structure of eIF1 likely instrumental in its subsequent release, and changes in the conformation of eIF2. The mRNA traverses the entire mRNA cleft and makes connections to the regulatory domain of eIF2α, eIF1A, and ribosomal elements that allow recognition of context nucleotides surrounding the AUG codon. PMID:25417110

  7. Identification and characterization of a Dictyostelium discoideum ribosomal protein gene.

    PubMed Central

    Szymkowski, D E; Deering, R A

    1990-01-01

    We have identified a developmentally repressed large-subunit ribosomal protein gene of Dictyostelium discoideum based on sequence similarity to other ribosomal proteins. Protein rpl7 is homologous to large subunit ribosomal proteins from the rat and possibly to Mycoplasma capricolum and Escherichia coli, but is not similar to three sequenced ribosomal proteins in Dictyostelium. The rpl7 gene is present at one copy per genome, as are six other cloned Dictyostelium ribosomal proteins. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms exist for ribosomal protein genes rpl7, rp1024, and rp110 in strain HU182; most Dictyostelium ribosomal protein genes examined are linked no closer than 30-100 kb to each other in the genome. Dictyostelium ribosomal proteins are known to be developmentally regulated, and levels of rpl7 transcript gradually decrease during the 24-hour development cycle. This drop correlates with that of rp1024, indicating these and other ribosomal protein genes may be coordinately regulated. To determine the cellular location of the protein, we raised antibodies to an rpl7-derived branched synthetic peptide. These antibodies cross-reacted with one protein of the expected size in a ribosomal protein fraction of Dictyostelium, indicating that the product of gene rpl7 is localized in the ribosome. Images PMID:1975664

  8. Pyrosequencing assessment of prokaryotic and eukaryotic diversity in biofilm communities from a French river

    PubMed Central

    Bricheux, Geneviève; Morin, Loïc; Le Moal, Gwenaël; Coffe, Gérard; Balestrino, Damien; Charbonnel, Nicolas; Bohatier, Jacques; Forestier, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent and significant increase in the study of aquatic microbial communities, little is known about the microbial diversity of complex ecosystems such as running waters. This study investigated the biodiversity of biofilm communities formed in a river with 454 Sequencing™. This river has the particularity of integrating both organic and microbiological pollution, as receiver of agricultural pollution in its upstream catchment area and urban pollution through discharges of the wastewater treatment plant of the town of Billom. Different regions of the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene were targeted using nine pairs of primers, either universal or specific for bacteria, eukarya, or archaea. Our aim was to characterize the widest range of rDNA sequences using different sets of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. A first look at reads abundance revealed that a large majority (47–48%) were rare sequences (<5 copies). Prokaryotic phyla represented the species richness, and eukaryotic phyla accounted for a small part. Among the prokaryotic phyla, Proteobacteria (beta and alpha) predominated, followed by Bacteroidetes together with a large number of nonaffiliated bacterial sequences. Bacillariophyta plastids were abundant. The remaining bacterial phyla, Verrucomicrobia and Cyanobacteria, made up the rest of the bulk biodiversity. The most abundant eukaryotic phyla were annelid worms, followed by Diatoms, and Chlorophytes. These latter phyla attest to the abundance of plastids and the importance of photosynthetic activity for the biofilm. These findings highlight the existence and plasticity of multiple trophic levels within these complex biological systems. PMID:23520129

  9. Pyrosequencing assessment of prokaryotic and eukaryotic diversity in biofilm communities from a French river.

    PubMed

    Bricheux, Geneviève; Morin, Loïc; Le Moal, Gwenaël; Coffe, Gérard; Balestrino, Damien; Charbonnel, Nicolas; Bohatier, Jacques; Forestier, Christiane

    2013-06-01

    Despite the recent and significant increase in the study of aquatic microbial communities, little is known about the microbial diversity of complex ecosystems such as running waters. This study investigated the biodiversity of biofilm communities formed in a river with 454 Sequencing™. This river has the particularity of integrating both organic and microbiological pollution, as receiver of agricultural pollution in its upstream catchment area and urban pollution through discharges of the wastewater treatment plant of the town of Billom. Different regions of the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene were targeted using nine pairs of primers, either universal or specific for bacteria, eukarya, or archaea. Our aim was to characterize the widest range of rDNA sequences using different sets of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. A first look at reads abundance revealed that a large majority (47-48%) were rare sequences (<5 copies). Prokaryotic phyla represented the species richness, and eukaryotic phyla accounted for a small part. Among the prokaryotic phyla, Proteobacteria (beta and alpha) predominated, followed by Bacteroidetes together with a large number of nonaffiliated bacterial sequences. Bacillariophyta plastids were abundant. The remaining bacterial phyla, Verrucomicrobia and Cyanobacteria, made up the rest of the bulk biodiversity. The most abundant eukaryotic phyla were annelid worms, followed by Diatoms, and Chlorophytes. These latter phyla attest to the abundance of plastids and the importance of photosynthetic activity for the biofilm. These findings highlight the existence and plasticity of multiple trophic levels within these complex biological systems.

  10. A universal strategy for regulating mRNA translation in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jicong; Arha, Manish; Sudrik, Chaitanya; Mukherjee, Abhirup; Wu, Xia; Kane, Ravi S

    2015-04-30

    We describe a simple strategy to control mRNA translation in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells which relies on a unique protein-RNA interaction. Specifically, we used the Pumilio/FBF (PUF) protein to repress translation by binding in between the ribosome binding site (RBS) and the start codon (in Escherichia coli), or by binding to the 5' untranslated region of target mRNAs (in mammalian cells). The design principle is straightforward, the extent of translational repression can be tuned and the regulator is genetically encoded, enabling the construction of artificial signal cascades. We demonstrate that this approach can also be used to regulate polycistronic mRNAs; such regulation has rarely been achieved in previous reports. Since the regulator used in this study is a modular RNA-binding protein, which can be engineered to target different 8-nucleotide RNA sequences, our strategy could be used in the future to target endogenous mRNAs for regulating metabolic flows and signaling pathways in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

  11. Deep Sequencing of Subseafloor Eukaryotic rRNA Reveals Active Fungi across Marine Subsurface Provinces

    PubMed Central

    Orsi, William; Biddle, Jennifer F.; Edgcomb, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The deep marine subsurface is a vast habitat for microbial life where cells may live on geologic timescales. Because DNA in sediments may be preserved on long timescales, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is suggested to be a proxy for the active fraction of a microbial community in the subsurface. During an investigation of eukaryotic 18S rRNA by amplicon pyrosequencing, unique profiles of Fungi were found across a range of marine subsurface provinces including ridge flanks, continental margins, and abyssal plains. Subseafloor fungal populations exhibit statistically significant correlations with total organic carbon (TOC), nitrate, sulfide, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). These correlations are supported by terminal restriction length polymorphism (TRFLP) analyses of fungal rRNA. Geochemical correlations with fungal pyrosequencing and TRFLP data from this geographically broad sample set suggests environmental selection of active Fungi in the marine subsurface. Within the same dataset, ancient rRNA signatures were recovered from plants and diatoms in marine sediments ranging from 0.03 to 2.7 million years old, suggesting that rRNA from some eukaryotic taxa may be much more stable than previously considered in the marine subsurface. PMID:23418556

  12. Deep sequencing of subseafloor eukaryotic rRNA reveals active Fungi across marine subsurface provinces.

    PubMed

    Orsi, William; Biddle, Jennifer F; Edgcomb, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The deep marine subsurface is a vast habitat for microbial life where cells may live on geologic timescales. Because DNA in sediments may be preserved on long timescales, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is suggested to be a proxy for the active fraction of a microbial community in the subsurface. During an investigation of eukaryotic 18S rRNA by amplicon pyrosequencing, unique profiles of Fungi were found across a range of marine subsurface provinces including ridge flanks, continental margins, and abyssal plains. Subseafloor fungal populations exhibit statistically significant correlations with total organic carbon (TOC), nitrate, sulfide, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). These correlations are supported by terminal restriction length polymorphism (TRFLP) analyses of fungal rRNA. Geochemical correlations with fungal pyrosequencing and TRFLP data from this geographically broad sample set suggests environmental selection of active Fungi in the marine subsurface. Within the same dataset, ancient rRNA signatures were recovered from plants and diatoms in marine sediments ranging from 0.03 to 2.7 million years old, suggesting that rRNA from some eukaryotic taxa may be much more stable than previously considered in the marine subsurface.

  13. An epigenetic toolkit allows for diverse genome architectures in eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Maurer-Alcalá, Xyrus X.; Katz, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Genome architecture varies considerably among eukaryotes in terms of both size and structure (e.g. distribution of sequences within the genome, elimination of DNA during formation of somatic nuclei). The diversity in eukaryotic genome architectures and the dynamic processes that they undergo are only possible due to the well-developed nature of an epigenetic toolkit, which likely existed in the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor (LECA). This toolkit may have arisen as a means of navigating the genomic conflict that arose from the expansion of transposable elements within the ancestral eukaryotic genome. This toolkit has been coopted to support the dynamic nature of genomes in lineages across the eukaryotic tree of life. Here we highlight how the changes in genome architecture in diverse eukaryotes are regulated by epigenetic processes by focusing on DNA elimination, genome rearrangements, and adaptive changes to genome architecture. The ability to epigenetically modify and regulate genomes has contributed greatly to the diversity of eukaryotes observed today. PMID:26649755

  14. Complex archaea that bridge the gap between prokaryotes and eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Martijn, Joran; Lind, Anders E.; van Eijk, Roel; Schleper, Christa; Guy, Lionel; Ettema, Thijs J. G.

    2015-01-01

    The origin of the eukaryotic cell remains one of the most contentious puzzles in modern biology. Recent studies have provided support for the emergence of the eukaryotic host cell from within the archaeal domain of life, but the identity and nature of the putative archaeal ancestor remain a subject of debate. Here we describe the discovery of ‘Lokiarchaeota’, a novel candidate archaeal phylum, which forms a monophyletic group with eukaryotes in phylogenomic analyses, and whose genomes encode an expanded repertoire of eukaryotic signature proteins that are suggestive of sophisticated membrane remodelling capabilities. Our results provide strong support for hypotheses in which the eukaryotic host evolved from a bona fide archaeon, and demonstrate that many components that underpin eukaryote-specific features were already present in that ancestor. This provided the host with a rich genomic ‘starter-kit’ to support the increase in the cellular and genomic complexity that is characteristic of eukaryotes. PMID:25945739

  15. An epigenetic toolkit allows for diverse genome architectures in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Maurer-Alcalá, Xyrus X; Katz, Laura A

    2015-12-01

    Genome architecture varies considerably among eukaryotes in terms of both size and structure (e.g. distribution of sequences within the genome, elimination of DNA during formation of somatic nuclei). The diversity in eukaryotic genome architectures and the dynamic processes are only possible due to the well-developed epigenetic toolkit, which probably existed in the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor (LECA). This toolkit may have arisen as a means of navigating the genomic conflict that arose from the expansion of transposable elements within the ancestral eukaryotic genome. This toolkit has been coopted to support the dynamic nature of genomes in lineages across the eukaryotic tree of life. Here we highlight how the changes in genome architecture in diverse eukaryotes are regulated by epigenetic processes, such as DNA elimination, genome rearrangements, and adaptive changes to genome architecture. The ability to epigenetically modify and regulate genomes has contributed greatly to the diversity of eukaryotes observed today.

  16. Horizontal gene transfer in eukaryotes: The weak-link model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jinling

    2013-01-01

    The significance of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in eukaryotic evolution remains controversial. Although many eukaryotic genes are of bacterial origin, they are often interpreted as being derived from mitochondria or plastids. Because of their fixed gene pool and gene loss, however, mitochondria and plastids alone cannot adequately explain the presence of all, or even the majority, of bacterial genes in eukaryotes. Available data indicate that no insurmountable barrier to HGT exists, even in complex multicellular eukaryotes. In addition, the discovery of both recent and ancient HGT events in all major eukaryotic groups suggests that HGT has been a regular occurrence throughout the history of eukaryotic evolution. A model of HGT is proposed that suggests both unicellular and early developmental stages as likely entry points for foreign genes into multicellular eukaryotes. PMID:24037739

  17. Complex archaea that bridge the gap between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Spang, Anja; Saw, Jimmy H; Jørgensen, Steffen L; Zaremba-Niedzwiedzka, Katarzyna; Martijn, Joran; Lind, Anders E; van Eijk, Roel; Schleper, Christa; Guy, Lionel; Ettema, Thijs J G

    2015-05-14

    The origin of the eukaryotic cell remains one of the most contentious puzzles in modern biology. Recent studies have provided support for the emergence of the eukaryotic host cell from within the archaeal domain of life, but the identity and nature of the putative archaeal ancestor remain a subject of debate. Here we describe the discovery of 'Lokiarchaeota', a novel candidate archaeal phylum, which forms a monophyletic group with eukaryotes in phylogenomic analyses, and whose genomes encode an expanded repertoire of eukaryotic signature proteins that are suggestive of sophisticated membrane remodelling capabilities. Our results provide strong support for hypotheses in which the eukaryotic host evolved from a bona fide archaeon, and demonstrate that many components that underpin eukaryote-specific features were already present in that ancestor. This provided the host with a rich genomic 'starter-kit' to support the increase in the cellular and genomic complexity that is characteristic of eukaryotes.

  18. Horizontal gene transfer in eukaryotes: the weak-link model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinling

    2013-10-01

    The significance of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in eukaryotic evolution remains controversial. Although many eukaryotic genes are of bacterial origin, they are often interpreted as being derived from mitochondria or plastids. Because of their fixed gene pool and gene loss, however, mitochondria and plastids alone cannot adequately explain the presence of all, or even the majority, of bacterial genes in eukaryotes. Available data indicate that no insurmountable barrier to HGT exists, even in complex multicellular eukaryotes. In addition, the discovery of both recent and ancient HGT events in all major eukaryotic groups suggests that HGT has been a regular occurrence throughout the history of eukaryotic evolution. A model of HGT is proposed that suggests both unicellular and early developmental stages as likely entry points for foreign genes into multicellular eukaryotes.

  19. Direct Activation of Ribosome-Associated Double-Stranded RNA-Dependent Protein Kinase (PKR) by Deoxynivalenol, Anisomycin and Ricin: A New Model for Ribotoxic Stress Response Induction

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hui-Ren; He, Kaiyu; Landgraf, Jeff; Pan, Xiao; Pestka, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR) is a critical upstream mediator of the ribotoxic stress response (RSR) to the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) and other translational inhibitors. Here, we employed HeLa cell lysates to: (1) characterize PKR’s interactions with the ribosome and ribosomal RNA (rRNA); (2) demonstrate cell-free activation of ribosomal-associated PKR and (3) integrate these findings in a unified model for RSR. Robust PKR-dependent RSR was initially confirmed in intact cells. PKR basally associated with 40S, 60S, 80S and polysome fractions at molar ratios of 7, 2, 23 and 3, respectively. Treatment of ATP-containing HeLa lysates with DON or the ribotoxins anisomycin and ricin concentration-dependently elicited phosphorylation of PKR and its substrate eIF2α. These phosphorylations could be blocked by PKR inhibitors. rRNA immunoprecipitation (RNA-IP) of HeLa lysates with PKR-specific antibody and sequencing revealed that in the presence of DON or not, the kinase associated with numerous discrete sites on both the 18S and 28S rRNA molecules, a number of which contained double-stranded hairpins. These findings are consistent with a sentinel model whereby multiple PKR molecules basally associate with the ribosome positioning them to respond to ribotoxin-induced alterations in rRNA structure by dimerizing, autoactivating and, ultimately, evoking RSR. PMID:25521494

  20. An S18 ribosomal protein gene copy at the Arabidopsis PFL locus affects plant development by its specific expression in meristems.

    PubMed Central

    Van Lijsebettens, M; Vanderhaeghen, R; De Block, M; Bauw, G; Villarroel, R; Van Montagu, M

    1994-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, mutation at PFL causes pointed first leaves, reduced fresh weight and growth retardation. We have cloned the wild-type PFL gene by T-DNA tagging, and demonstrate that it complements the mutant phenotype. PFL codes for ribosomal protein S18, based on the high homology with rat S18 and on purification of S18-equivalent peptides from plant ribosomes. pfl represents the first mutation in eukaryotic S18 proteins or their S13 prokaryotic counterparts, involved in translation initiation. Arabidopsis contains three S18 gene copies dispersed in the genetic map; they are all transcribed and code for completely identical proteins. No transcript is detected from the mutated gene, S18A. The activity of the S18A promoter is restricted to meristems, with a markedly high expression at the embryonic heart stage, and to wounding sites. This means that plants activate an extra copy of this ribosomal protein gene in tissues with cell division activity. We postulate that in meristematic tissues plants use transcriptional control to synthesize extra ribosomes to increase translational efficiency. In analogy with this, an additional, developmentally regulated gene copy might be expected for all ribosomal proteins. Images PMID:7913892

  1. Initiation factor eIF2γ promotes eIF2-GTP-Met-tRNAi(Met) ternary complex binding to the 40S ribosome.

    PubMed

    Shin, Byung-Sik; Kim, Joo-Ran; Walker, Sarah E; Dong, Jinsheng; Lorsch, Jon R; Dever, Thomas E

    2011-10-16

    In contrast to prokaryotic elongation factor EF-Tu, which delivers aminoacyl-tRNAs to the ribosomal A-site, eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2 binds methionyl initiator transfer RNA (Met-tRNA(i)(Met)) to the P-site of the 40S ribosomal subunit. The results of directed hydroxyl radical probing experiments to map binding of Saccharomyces cerevisiae eIF2 on the ribosome and on Met-tRNA(i)(Met) revealed that eIF2γ primarily contacts the acceptor stem of Met-tRNA(i)(Met) and identified a key binding interface between domain III of eIF2γ and 18S rRNA helix h44 on the 40S subunit. Whereas the analogous domain III of EF-Tu contacts the T stem of tRNAs, biochemical analyses demonstrated that eIF2γ domain III is important for ribosome, not Met-tRNA(i)(Met). Thus, despite their structural similarity, eIF2 and EF-Tu bind tRNAs in substantially different manners, and we propose that the tRNA-binding domain III of EF-Tu has acquired a new ribosome-binding function in eIF2γ.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of eukaryotes using heat-shock protein Hsp90.

    PubMed

    Stechmann, Alexandra; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2003-10-01

    Most eukaryote molecular phylogenies have been based on small-subunit ribosomal RNA as its database includes the most species, but serious problems have been encountered that can make these trees misleading. More recent studies using concatenated protein sequences have increased the data per organism, reducing misleading signals from a single sequence, but taxon sampling is limited. To increase the database of protein-coding genes we sequenced the cytosolic form of heat-shock protein Hsp90 from a broad variety of previously unsampled eukaryote groups: protozoan flagellates (phyla Choanozoa, Apusozoa, Cercozoa) and all three groups of chromists (Cryptophyta, Heterokonta, Haptophyta). Gamma-corrected distance trees robustly show three groups: bacterial sequences are sister to all eukaryote sequences, which are cleanly subdivided into the cytosolic sequences and a clade comprising the chloroplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Hsp90 sequences. The eukaryote cytosolic sequences comprise a robust opisthokont clade (animals/Choanozoa/fungi), a bikont clade, and an amoebozoan branch. However their topology is not robust. When the cytosolic sequences are rooted using only the ER/ chloroplast clade as outgroup the amoebozoan Dictyostelium is sister to the opisthokonts forming a unikont clade in the distance tree. Congruence of this tree with that for concatenated mitochondrial proteins suggests that the root of the eukaryote tree is between unikonts and bikonts. Gamma-corrected maximum likelihood analyses of cytosolic sequences alone (519 unambiguously aligned amino acid positions) show bikonts as a clade, as do least-squares distance trees, but with other distance methods and parsimony the sole amoebozoan species branches weakly within bikonts. Choanozoa are clearly sisters to animals. Some major bikont groups (e.g. green plants, alveolates, Euglenozoa) are consistently recovered, but others (e.g. discicristates, chromalveolates) appear only in some trees; the backbone of

  3. IRESite—a tool for the examination of viral and cellular internal ribosome entry sites

    PubMed Central

    Mokrejš, Martin; Mašek, Tomáš; Vopálenský, Václav; Hlubuček, Petr; Delbos, Philippe; Pospíšek, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The IRESite (http://www.iresite.org) presents carefully curated experimental evidence of many eukaryotic viral and cellular internal ribosome entry site (IRES) regions. At the time of submission, IRESite stored >600 records. The IRESite gradually evolved into a robust tool providing (i) biologically meaningful information regarding the IRESs and their experimental background (including annotation of IRES secondary structures and IRES trans-acting factors) as well as (ii) thorough concluding remarks to stored database entries and regularly updated evaluation of the reported IRES function. A substantial portion of the IRESite data results purely from in-house bioinformatic analyses of currently available sequences, in silico attempts to repeat published cloning experiments, DNA sequencing and restriction endonuclease verification of received plasmid DNA. We also present a newly implemented tool for displaying RNA secondary structures and for searching through the structures currently stored in the database. The supplementary material contains an updated list of reported IRESs. PMID:19917642

  4. Tertiary interactions within the ribosomal exit tunnel.

    PubMed

    Kosolapov, Andrey; Deutsch, Carol

    2009-04-01

    Although tertiary folding of whole protein domains is prohibited by the cramped dimensions of the ribosomal tunnel, dynamic tertiary interactions may permit folding of small elementary units within the tunnel. To probe this possibility, we used a beta-hairpin and an alpha-helical hairpin from the cytosolic N terminus of a voltage-gated potassium channel and determined a probability of folding for each at defined locations inside and outside the tunnel. Minimalist tertiary structures can form near the exit port of the tunnel, a region that provides an entropic window for initial exploration of local peptide conformations. Tertiary subdomains of the nascent peptide fold sequentially, but not independently, during translation. These studies offer an approach for diagnosing the molecular basis for folding defects that lead to protein malfunction and provide insight into the role of the ribosome during early potassium channel biogenesis.

  5. Evolutionary history of "early-diverging" eukaryotes: the excavate taxon Carpediemonas is a close relative of Giardia.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Alastair G B; Roger, Andrew J; Silberman, Jeffrey D; Leipe, Detlef D; Edgcomb, Virginia P; Jermiin, Lars S; Patterson, David J; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2002-10-01

    Diplomonads, such as Giardia, and their close relatives retortamonads have been proposed as early-branching eukaryotes that diverged before the acquisition-retention of mitochondria, and they have become key organisms in attempts to understand the evolution of eukaryotic cells. In this phylogenetic study we focus on a series of eukaryotes suggested to be relatives of diplomonads on morphological grounds, the "excavate taxa". Phylogenies of small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes, alpha-tubulin, beta-tubulin, and combined alpha- + beta-tubulin all scatter the various excavate taxa across the diversity of eukaryotes. But all phylogenies place the excavate taxon Carpediemonas as the closest relative of diplomonads (and, where data are available, retortamonads). This novel relationship is recovered across phylogenetic methods and across various taxon-deletion experiments. Statistical support is strongest under maximum-likelihood (ML) (when among-site rate variation is modeled) and when the most divergent diplomonad sequences are excluded, suggesting a true relationship rather than an artifact of long-branch attraction. When all diplomonads are excluded, our ML SSU rRNA tree actually places retortamonads and Carpediemonas away from the base of the eukaryotes. The branches separating excavate taxa are mostly not well supported (especially in analyses of SSU rRNA data). Statistical tests of the SSU rRNA data, including an "expected likelihood weights" approach, do not reject trees where excavate taxa are constrained to be a clade (with or without parabasalids and Euglenozoa). Although diplomonads and retortamonads lack any mitochondria-like organelle, Carpediemonas contains double membrane-bounded structures physically resembling hydrogenosomes. The phylogenetic position of Carpediemonas suggests that it will be valuable in interpreting the evolutionary significance of many molecular and cellular peculiarities of diplomonads.

  6. Selection of IgE-binding aptameric green fluorescent protein (Ap-GFP) by the ribosome display (RD) platform

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.-S. Yang Yongmin; Barankiewicz, Teresa J.

    2008-09-26

    GFP-C{kappa} fusion protein was previously shown selectable on ribosome display platform with solid phase antibodies against GFP determinant [Y.-M. Yang, T.J. Barankiewicz, M. He, M. Taussig, S.-S. Chen, Selection of antigenic markers on a GFP-C{kappa} fusion scaffold with high sensitivity by eukaryotic ribosome display, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 359 (2007) 251-257]. Herein, we show that members of aptameric peptide library constructed within the site 6 and site 8/9 loops of GFP of the ribosome display construct are selectable upon binding to the solid phase IgE antigen. An input of 1.0 {mu}g of the dual site aptameric GFP library exhibiting a diversity of 7.5 x 10{sup 11} was transcribed, translated and incubated with solid phase IgE. RT-PCR products were amplified from mRNA of the aptamer-ribosome-mRNA (ARM) complex captured on the solid phase IgE. Clones of aptameric GFP were prepared from RT-PCR product of ARM complex following repetitive selection. Recombinant aptameric GFP proteins from the selected clones bind IgE coated on the 96-well plate, and the binding was abrogated by incubation with soluble human IgE but not human IgG. Selected aptameric GFP proteins also exhibit binding to three different sources of human IgE (IgE PS, BED, and JW8) but not irrelevant proteins. These observations indicate that appropriately selected aptameric GFP on a solid phase ligand by ribosome display may serve as an affinity reagent for blocking reactivity of a biological ligand.

  7. Sequence homologies between eukaryotic 5.8S rRNA and the 5' end of prokaryotic 23S rRNa: evidences for a common evolutionary origin.

    PubMed Central

    Jacq, B

    1981-01-01

    The question of the evolutionary origin of eukaryotic 5.8S rRNA was re-examined after the recent publication of the E. coli 23S rRNA sequence (26,40). A region of the 23S RNA located at its 5' end was found to be approximately 50% homologous to four different eukaryotic 5.8S rRNAs. A computer comparison analysis indicates that no other region of the E. coli ribosomal transcription unit (greater than 5 000 nucleotides in length) shares a comparable homology with 5.8S rRNA. Homology between the 5' end of e. coli 23S and four different eukaryotic 5.8S rRNAs falls within the same range as that between E. coli 5S RNA from the same four eukaryotic species. All these data strongly suggest that the 5' end of prokaryotic 23S rRNA and eukaryotic 5.8S RNA have a common evolutionary origin. Secondary structure models are proposed for the 5' region of E. coli 23S RNA. Images PMID:7024907

  8. Prokaryotes Versus Eukaryotes: Who is Hosting Whom?

    PubMed

    Tellez, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms represent the largest component of biodiversity in our world. For millions of years, prokaryotic microorganisms have functioned as a major selective force shaping eukaryotic evolution. Microbes that live inside and on animals outnumber the animals' actual somatic and germ cells by an estimated 10-fold. Collectively, the intestinal microbiome represents a "forgotten organ," functioning as an organ inside another that can execute many physiological responsibilities. The nature of primitive eukaryotes was drastically changed due to the association with symbiotic prokaryotes facilitating mutual coevolution of host and microbe. Phytophagous insects have long been used to test theories of evolutionary diversification; moreover, the diversification of a number of phytophagous insect lineages has been linked to mutualisms with microbes. From termites and honey bees to ruminants and mammals, depending on novel biochemistries provided by the prokaryotic microbiome, the association helps to metabolize several nutrients that the host cannot digest and converting these into useful end products (such as short-chain fatty acids), a process, which has huge impact on the biology and homeostasis of metazoans. More importantly, in a direct and/or indirect way, the intestinal microbiota influences the assembly of gut-associated lymphoid tissue, helps to educate immune system, affects the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier, modulates proliferation and differentiation of its epithelial lineages, regulates angiogenesis, and modifies the activity of enteric as well as the central nervous system. Despite these important effects, the mechanisms by which the gut microbial community influences the host's biology remain almost entirely unknown. Our aim here is to encourage empirical inquiry into the relationship between mutualism and evolutionary diversification between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which encourage us to postulate: who is hosting whom?

  9. Prokaryotes Versus Eukaryotes: Who is Hosting Whom?

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms represent the largest component of biodiversity in our world. For millions of years, prokaryotic microorganisms have functioned as a major selective force shaping eukaryotic evolution. Microbes that live inside and on animals outnumber the animals’ actual somatic and germ cells by an estimated 10-fold. Collectively, the intestinal microbiome represents a “forgotten organ,” functioning as an organ inside another that can execute many physiological responsibilities. The nature of primitive eukaryotes was drastically changed due to the association with symbiotic prokaryotes facilitating mutual coevolution of host and microbe. Phytophagous insects have long been used to test theories of evolutionary diversification; moreover, the diversification of a number of phytophagous insect lineages has been linked to mutualisms with microbes. From termites and honey bees to ruminants and mammals, depending on novel biochemistries provided by the prokaryotic microbiome, the association helps to metabolize several nutrients that the host cannot digest and converting these into useful end products (such as short-chain fatty acids), a process, which has huge impact on the biology and homeostasis of metazoans. More importantly, in a direct and/or indirect way, the intestinal microbiota influences the assembly of gut-associated lymphoid tissue, helps to educate immune system, affects the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier, modulates proliferation and differentiation of its epithelial lineages, regulates angiogenesis, and modifies the activity of enteric as well as the central nervous system. Despite these important effects, the mechanisms by which the gut microbial community influences the host’s biology remain almost entirely unknown. Our aim here is to encourage empirical inquiry into the relationship between mutualism and evolutionary diversification between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which encourage us to postulate: who is hosting whom? PMID

  10. The ribosome challenge to the RNA world.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Jessica C; Hud, Nicholas V; Williams, Loren Dean

    2015-04-01

    An RNA World that predated the modern world of polypeptide and polynucleotide is one of the most widely accepted models in origin of life research. In this model, the translation system shepherded the RNA World into the extant biology of DNA, RNA, and protein. Here, we examine the RNA World Hypothesis in the context of increasingly detailed information available about the origins, evolution, functions, and mechanisms of the translation system. We conclude that the translation system presents critical challenges to RNA World Hypotheses. Firstly, a timeline of the RNA World is problematic when the ribosome is incorporated. The mechanism of peptidyl transfer of the ribosome appears distinct from evolved enzymes, signaling origins in a chemical rather than biological milieu. Secondly, we have no evidence that the basic biochemical toolset of life is subject to substantive change by Darwinian evolution, as required for the transition from the RNA world to extant biology. Thirdly, we do not see specific evidence for biological takeover of ribozyme function by protein enzymes. Finally, we can find no basis for preservation of the ribosome as ribozyme or the universality of translation, if it were the case that other information transducing ribozymes, such as ribozyme polymerases, were replaced by protein analogs and erased from the phylogenetic record. We suggest that an updated model of the RNA World should address the current state of knowledge of the translation system.

  11. Quantitative profiling of initiating ribosomes in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiangwei; Wan, Ji; Liu, Botao; Ma, Ming; Shen, Ben; Qian, Shu-Bing

    2015-02-01

    Cells have evolved exquisite mechanisms to fine-tune the rate of protein synthesis in response to stress. Systemic mapping of start-codon positions and precise measurement of the corresponding initiation rate would transform our understanding of translational control. Here we present quantitative translation initiation sequencing (QTI-seq), with which the initiating ribosomes can be profiled in real time at single-nucleotide resolution. Resultant initiation maps not only delineated variations of start-codon selection but also highlighted a dynamic range of initiation rates in response to nutrient starvation. The integrated data set provided unique insights into principles of alternative translation and mechanisms controlling different aspects of translation initiation. With RiboTag mice, QTI-seq permitted tissue-specific profiling of initiating ribosomes in vivo. Liver cell-specific ribosome profiling uncovered a robust translational reprogramming of the proteasome system in fasted mice. Our findings illuminated the prevalence and dynamic nature of translational regulation pivotal to physiological adaptation in vivo.

  12. The interaction of the chaperonin tailless complex polypeptide 1 (TCP1) ring complex (TRiC) with ribosome-bound nascent chains examined using photo-cross-linking.

    PubMed

    McCallum, C D; Do, H; Johnson, A E; Frydman, J

    2000-05-01

    The eukaryotic chaperonin tailless complex polypeptide 1 (TCP1) ring complex (TRiC) (also called chaperonin containing TCP1 [CCT]) is a hetero-oligomeric complex that facilitates the proper folding of many cellular proteins. To better understand the manner in which TRiC interacts with newly translated polypeptides, we examined its association with nascent chains using a photo-cross-linking approach. To this end, a series of ribosome-bound nascent chains of defined lengths was prepared using truncated mRNAs. Photoactivatable probes were incorporated into these (35)S- labeled nascent chains during translation. Upon photolysis, TRiC was cross-linked to ribosome-bound polypeptides exposing at least 50-90 amino acids outside the ribosomal exit channel, indicating that the chaperonin associates with much shorter nascent chains than indicated by previous studies. Cross-links were observed for nascent chains of the cytosolic proteins actin, luciferase, and enolase, but not to ribosome-bound preprolactin. The pattern of cross-links became more complex as the nascent chain increased in length. These results suggest a chain length-dependent increase in the number of TRiC subunits involved in the interaction that is consistent with the idea that the substrate participates in subunit-specific contacts with the chaperonin. Both ribosome isolation by centrifugation through sucrose cushions and immunoprecipitation with anti-puromycin antibodies demonstrated that the photoadducts form on ribosome-bound polypeptides. Our results indicate that TRiC/CCT associates with the translating polypeptide shortly after it emerges from the ribosome and suggest a close association between the chaperonin and the translational apparatus.

  13. Functional divergence between the two P1-P2 stalk dimers on the ribosome in their interaction with ricin A chain.

    PubMed

    Grela, Przemysław; Li, Xiao-Ping; Tchórzewski, Marek; Tumer, Nilgun E

    2014-05-15

    The eukaryotic stalk, which is responsible for the recruitment of translation factors, is a pentamer containing two P1-P2 dimers with unclear modes of action. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, P1/P2 proteins (individual P1 and P2 proteins) are organized into two distinct dimers, P1A-P2B and P1B-P2A. To investigate the functional contribution of each dimer on the ribosome, RTA (ricin A chain), which binds to the stalk to depurinate the SRL (sarcin/ricin loop), was used as a molecular probe in yeast mutants in which the binding site for one or the other dimer on P0 was deleted. Ribosome depurination and toxicity of RTA were greatly reduced in mutants containing only P1A-P2B on the ribosome, whereas those with only P1B-P2A were reduced less in depurination and were unaffected in toxicity. Ribosomes bearing P1B-P2A were depurinated by RTA at a similar level as wild-type, but ribosomes bearing P1A-P2B were depurinated at a much lower level in vitro. The latter ribosomes showed the lowest association and almost no dissociation with RTA by surface plasmon resonance. These results indicate that the P1B-P2A dimer is more critical for facilitating the access of RTA to the SRL, providing the first in vivo evidence for functional divergence between the two stalk dimers on the ribosome.

  14. De novo translation initiation on membrane-bound ribosomes as a mechanism for localization of cytosolic protein mRNAs to the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Jagannathan, Sujatha; Reid, David W; Cox, Amanda H; Nicchitta, Christopher V

    2014-10-01

    The specialized protein synthesis functions of the cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum compartments are conferred by the signal recognition particle (SRP) pathway, which directs the cotranslational trafficking of signal sequence-encoding mRNAs from the cytosol to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Although subcellular mRNA distributions largely mirror the binary pattern predicted by the SRP pathway model, studies in mammalian cells, yeast, and Drosophila have also demonstrated that cytosolic protein-encoding mRNAs are broadly represented on ER-bound ribosomes. A mechanism for such noncanonical mRNA localization remains, however, to be identified. Here, we examine the hypothesis that de novo translation initiation on ER-bound ribosomes serves as a mechanism for localizing cytosolic protein-encoding mRNAs to the ER. As a test of this hypothesis, we performed single molecule RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization studies of subcellular mRNA distributions and report that a substantial fraction of mRNAs encoding the cytosolic protein GAPDH resides in close proximity to the ER. Consistent with these data, analyses of subcellular mRNA and ribosome distributions in multiple cell lines demonstrated that cytosolic protein mRNA-ribosome distributions were strongly correlated, whereas signal sequence-encoding mRNA-ribosome distributions were divergent. Ribosome footprinting studies of ER-bound polysomes revealed a substantial initiation codon read density enrichment for cytosolic protein-encoding mRNAs. We also demonstrate that eukaryotic initiation factor 2α is bound to the ER via a salt-sensitive, ribosome-independent mechanism. Combined, these data support ER-localized translation initiation as a mechanism for mRNA recruitment to the ER.

  15. Molecular coevolution among cryptically simple expansion segments of eukaryotic 26S/28S rRNAs.

    PubMed

    Hancock, J M; Dover, G A

    1988-07-01

    The set of "expansion segments" of any eukaryotic 26S/28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene is responsible for the bulk of the difference in length between the prokaryotic 23S rRNA gene and the eukaryotic 26S/28S rRNA gene. The expansion segments are also responsible for interspecific fluctuations in length during eukaryotic evolution. They show a consistent bias in base composition in any species; for example, they are AT rich in Drosophila melanogaster and GC rich in vertebrate species. Dot-matrix comparisons of sets of expansion segments reveal high similarities between members of a set within any 28S rRNA gene of a species, in contrast to the little or spurious similarity that exists between sets of expansion segments from distantly related species. Similarities among members of a set of expansion segments within any 28S rRNA gene cannot be accounted for by their base-compositional bias alone. In contrast, no significant similarity exists within a set of "core" segments (regions between expansion segments) of any 28S rRNA gene, although core segments are conserved between species. The set of expansion segments of a 26S/28S gene is coevolving as a unit in each species, at the same time as the family of 28S rRNA genes, as a whole, is undergoing continual homogenization, making all sets of expansion segments from all ribosomal DNA (rDNA) arrays in a species similar in sequence. Analysis of DNA simplicity of 26S/28S rRNA genes shows a direct correlation between significantly high relative simplicity factors (RSFs) and sequence similarity among a set of expansion segments. A similar correlation exists between RSF values, overall rDNA lengths, and the lengths of individual expansion segments. Such correlations suggest that most length fluctuations reflect the gain and loss of simple sequence motifs by slippage-like mechanisms. We discuss the molecular coevolution of expansion segments, which takes place against a background of slippage-like and unequal crossing

  16. A beginner's guide to eukaryotic genome annotation.

    PubMed

    Yandell, Mark; Ence, Daniel

    2012-04-18

    The falling cost of genome sequencing is having a marked impact on the research community with respect to which genomes are sequenced and how and where they are annotated. Genome annotation projects have generally become small-scale affairs that are often carried out by an individual laboratory. Although annotating a eukaryotic genome assembly is now within the reach of non-experts, it remains a challenging task. Here we provide an overview of the genome annotation process and the available tools and describe some best-practice approaches.

  17. Amplification and characterization of eukaryotic structural genes.

    PubMed

    Maniatis, T; Efstratiadis, A; Sim, G K; Kafatos, F

    1978-05-01

    An approach to the study of eukaryotic structural genes which are differentially expressed during development is described. This approach involves the isolation and amplification of mRNA sequences by in vitro conversion of mRNA to double-stranded cDNA followed by molecular cloning in bacterial plasmids. This procedure provides highly specific hybridization probes that can be used to identify genes and their contiguous DNA sequences in genomic DNA, and to detect specific RNA transcripts during development. The nature of the method allows the isolation of individual mRNA sequences from a complex population of molecules at different stages of development.

  18. Expression of eukaryotic polypeptides in chloroplasts

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen P

    2013-06-04

    The present invention relates to a gene expression system in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, preferably plant cells and intact plants. In particular, the invention relates to an expression system having a RB47 binding site upstream of a translation initiation site for regulation of translation mediated by binding of RB47 protein, a member of the poly(A) binding protein family. Regulation is further effected by RB60, a protein disulfide isomerase. The expression system is capable of functioning in the nuclear/cytoplasm of cells and in the chloroplast of plants. Translation regulation of a desired molecule is enhanced approximately 100 fold over that obtained without RB47 binding site activation.

  19. Polyamines in Eukaryotes, Bacteria, and Archaea.

    PubMed

    Michael, Anthony J

    2016-07-15

    Polyamines are primordial polycations found in most cells and perform different functions in different organisms. Although polyamines are mainly known for their essential roles in cell growth and proliferation, their functions range from a critical role in cellular translation in eukaryotes and archaea, to bacterial biofilm formation and specialized roles in natural product biosynthesis. At first glance, the diversity of polyamine structures in different organisms appears chaotic; however, biosynthetic flexibility and evolutionary and ecological processes largely explain this heterogeneity. In this review, I discuss the biosynthetic, evolutionary, and physiological processes that constrain or expand polyamine structural and functional diversity.

  20. Asgard archaea illuminate the origin of eukaryotic cellular complexity.

    PubMed

    Zaremba-Niedzwiedzka, Katarzyna; Caceres, Eva F; Saw, Jimmy H; Bäckström, Disa; Juzokaite, Lina; Vancaester, Emmelien; Seitz, Kiley W; Anantharaman, Karthik; Starnawski, Piotr; Kjeldsen, Kasper U; Stott, Matthew B; Nunoura, Takuro; Banfield, Jillian F; Schramm, Andreas; Baker, Brett J; Spang, Anja; Ettema, Thijs J G

    2017-01-19

    The origin and cellular complexity of eukaryotes represent a major enigma in biology. Current data support scenarios in which an archaeal host cell and an alphaproteobacterial (mitochondrial) endosymbiont merged together, resulting in the first eukaryotic cell. The host cell is related to Lokiarchaeota, an archaeal phylum with many eukaryotic features. The emergence of the structural complexity that characterizes eukaryotic cells remains unclear. Here we describe the 'Asgard' superphylum, a group of uncultivated archaea that, as well as Lokiarchaeota, includes Thor-, Odin- and Heimdallarchaeota. Asgard archaea affiliate with eukaryotes in phylogenomic analyses, and their genomes are enriched for proteins formerly considered specific to eukaryotes. Notably, thorarchaeal genomes encode several homologues of eukaryotic membrane-trafficking machinery components, including Sec23/24 and TRAPP domains. Furthermore, we identify thorarchaeal proteins with similar features to eukaryotic coat proteins involved in vesicle biogenesis. Our results expand the known repertoire of 'eukaryote-specific' proteins in Archaea, indicating that the archaeal host cell already contained many key components that govern eukaryotic cellular complexity.

  1. Horizontal transfer and evolution of prokaryote transposable elements in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Clément; Cordaux, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal transfer (HT) of transposable elements (TEs) plays a key role in prokaryotic evolution, and mounting evidence suggests that it has also had an important impact on eukaryotic evolution. Although many prokaryote-to-prokaryote and eukaryote-to-eukaryote HTs of TEs have been characterized, only few cases have been reported between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Here, we carried out a comprehensive search for all major groups of prokaryotic insertion sequences (ISs) in 430 eukaryote genomes. We uncovered a total of 80 sequences, all deriving from the IS607 family, integrated in the genomes of 14 eukaryote species belonging to four distinct phyla (Amoebozoa, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, and Stramenopiles). Given that eukaryote IS607-like sequences are most closely related to cyanobacterial IS607 and that their phylogeny is incongruent with that of their hosts, we conclude that the presence of IS607-like sequences in eukaryotic genomes is the result of several HT events. Selection analyses further suggest that our ability to detect these prokaryote TEs today in eukaryotes is because HT of these sequences occurred recently and/or some IS607 elements were domesticated after HT, giving rise to new eukaryote genes. Supporting the recent age of some of these HTs, we uncovered intact full-length, potentially active IS607 copies in the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellani. Overall, our study shows that prokaryote-to-eukaryote HT of TEs occurred at relatively low frequency during recent eukaryote evolution and it sets IS607 as the most widespread TE (being present in prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and viruses).

  2. Ribosomal History Reveals Origins of Modern Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Harish, Ajith; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the ribosome is central to our understanding of the cellular world. Most hypotheses posit that the ribosome originated in the peptidyl transferase center of the large ribosomal subunit. However, these proposals do not link protein synthesis to RNA recognition and do not use a phylogenetic comparative framework to study ribosomal evolution. Here we infer evolution of the structural components of the ribosome. Phylogenetic methods widely used in morphometrics are applied directly to RNA structures of thousands of molecules and to a census of protein structures in hundreds of genomes. We find that components of the small subunit involved in ribosomal processivity evolved earlier than the catalytic peptidyl transferase center responsible for protein synthesis. Remarkably, subunit RNA and proteins coevolved, starting with interactions between the oldest proteins (S12 and S17) and the oldest substructure (the ribosomal ratchet) in the small subunit and ending with the rise of a modern multi-subunit ribosome. Ancestral ribonucleoprotein components show similarities to in vitro evolved RNA replicase ribozymes and protein structures in extant replication machinery. Our study therefore provides important clues about the chicken-or-egg dilemma associated with the central dogma of molecular biology by showing that ribosomal history is driven by the gradual structural accretion of protein and RNA structures. Most importantly, results suggest that functionally important and conserved regions of the ribosome were recruited and could be relics of an ancient ribonucleoprotein world. PMID:22427882

  3. Polar bears, antibiotics, and the evolving ribosome (Nobel Lecture).

    PubMed

    Yonath, Ada

    2010-06-14

    High-resolution structures of ribosomes, the cellular machines that translate the genetic code into proteins, revealed the decoding mechanism, detected the mRNA path, identified the sites of the tRNA molecules in the ribosome, elucidated the position and the nature of the nascent proteins exit tunnel, illuminated the interactions of the ribosome with non-ribosomal factors, such as the initiation, release and recycling factors, and provided valuable information on ribosomal antibiotics, their binding sites, modes of action, principles of selectivity and the mechanisms leading to their resistance. Notably, these structures proved that the ribosome is a ribozyme whose active site, namely where the peptide bonds are being formed, is situated within a universal symmetrical region that is embedded in the otherwise asymmetric ribosome structure. As this symmetrical region is highly conserved and provides the machinery required for peptide bond formation and for ribosome polymerase activity, it may be the remnant of the proto-ribosome, a dimeric prebiotic machine that formed peptide bonds and non-coded polypeptide chains. Structures of complexes of ribosomes with antibiotics targeting them revealed the principles allowing for their clinical use, identified resistance mechanisms and showed the structural bases for discriminating pathogenic bacteria from hosts, hence providing valuable structural information for antibiotics improvement and for the design of novel compounds that can serve as antibiotics.

  4. Role of a ribosome-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase in protein quality control.

    PubMed

    Bengtson, Mario H; Joazeiro, Claudio A P

    2010-09-23

    Messenger RNA lacking stop codons ('non-stop mRNA') can arise from errors in gene expression, and encode aberrant proteins whose accumulation could be deleterious to cellular function. In bacteria, these 'non-stop proteins' become co-translationally tagged with a peptide encoded by ssrA/tmRNA (transfer-messenger RNA), which signals their degradation by energy-dependent proteases. How eukaryotic cells eliminate non-stop proteins has remained unknown. Here we show that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ltn1 RING-domain-type E3 ubiquitin ligase acts in the quality control of non-stop proteins, in a process that is mechanistically distinct but conceptually analogous to that performed by ssrA: Ltn1 is predominantly associated with ribosomes, and it marks nascent non-stop proteins with ubiquitin to signal their proteasomal degradation. Ltn1-mediated ubiquitylation of non-stop proteins seems to be triggered by their stalling in ribosomes on translation through the poly(A) tail. The biological relevance of this process is underscored by the finding that loss of Ltn1 function confers sensitivity to stress caused by increased non-stop protein production. We speculate that defective protein quality control may underlie the neurodegenerative phenotype that results from mutation of the mouse Ltn1 homologue Listerin.

  5. Concerted copy number variation balances ribosomal DNA dosage in human and mouse genomes

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, John G.; Branco, Alan T.; Godinho, Susana A.; Yu, Shoukai; Lemos, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    Tandemly repeated ribosomal DNA (rDNA) arrays are among the most evolutionary dynamic loci of eukaryotic genomes. The loci code for essential cellular components, yet exhibit extensive copy number (CN) variation within and between species. CN might be partly determined by the requirement of dosage balance between the 5S and 45S rDNA arrays. The arrays are nonhomologous, physically unlinked in mammals, and encode functionally interdependent RNA components of the ribosome. Here we show that the 5S and 45S rDNA arrays exhibit concerted CN variation (cCNV). Despite 5S and 45S rDNA elements residing on different chromosomes and lacking sequence similarity, cCNV between these loci is strong, evolutionarily conserved in humans and mice, and manifested across individual genotypes in natural populations and pedigrees. Finally, we observe that bisphenol A induces rapid and parallel modulation of 5S and 45S rDNA CN. Our observations reveal a novel mode of genome variation, indicate that natural selection contributed to the evolution and conservation of cCNV, and support the hypothesis that 5S CN is partly determined by the requirement of dosage balance with the 45S rDNA array. We suggest that human disease variation might be traced to disrupted rDNA dosage balance in the genome. PMID:25583482

  6. 18S Ribosomal RNA Evaluation as Preanalytical Quality Control for Animal DNA

    PubMed Central

    Meli, Marina L.; Novacco, Marilisa; Borel, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene is present in all eukaryotic cells. In this study, we evaluated the use of this gene to verify the presence of PCR-amplifiable host (animal) DNA as an indicator of sufficient sample quality for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis. We compared (i) samples from various animal species, tissues, and sample types, including swabs; (ii) multiple DNA extraction methods; and (iii) both fresh and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples. Results showed that 18S ribosomal RNA gene amplification was possible from all tissue samples evaluated, including avian, reptile, and FFPE samples and most swab samples. A single swine rectal swab, which showed sufficient DNA quantity and the demonstrated lack of PCR inhibitors, nonetheless was negative by 18S qPCR. Such a sample specifically illustrates the improvement of determination of sample integrity afforded by inclusion of 18S rRNA gene qPCR analysis in addition to spectrophotometric analysis and the use of internal controls for PCR inhibition. Other possible applications for the described 18S rRNA qPCR are preselection of optimal tissue specimens for studies or preliminary screening of archived samples prior to acceptance for biobanking projects. PMID:27672657

  7. Analysis of tetra- and hepta-nucleotides motifs promoting -1 ribosomal frameshifting in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Virag; Prère, Marie-Françoise; Canal, Isabelle; Firth, Andrew E.; Atkins, John F.; Baranov, Pavel V.; Fayet, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Programmed ribosomal -1 frameshifting is a non-standard decoding process occurring when ribosomes encounter a signal embedded in the mRNA of certain eukaryotic and prokaryotic genes. This signal has a mandatory component, the frameshift motif: it is either a Z_ZZN tetramer or a X_XXZ_ZZN heptamer (where ZZZ and XXX are three identical nucleotides) allowing cognate or near-cognate repairing to the -1 frame of the A site or A and P sites tRNAs. Depending on the signal, the frameshifting frequency can vary over a wide range, from less than 1% to more than 50%. The present study combines experimental and bioinformatics approaches to carry out (i) a systematic analysis of the frameshift propensity of all possible motifs (16 Z_ZZN tetramers and 64 X_XXZ_ZZN heptamers) in Escherichia coli and (ii) the identification of genes potentially using this mode of expression amongst 36 Enterobacteriaceae genomes. While motif efficiency varies widely, a major distinctive rule of bacterial -1 frameshifting is that the most efficient motifs are those allowing cognate re-pairing of the A site tRNA from ZZN to ZZZ. The outcome of the genomic search is a set of 69 gene clusters, 59 of which constitute new candidates for functional utilization of -1 frameshifting. PMID:24875478

  8. Alpha-momorcharin: a ribosome-inactivating protein from Momordica charantia, possessing DNA cleavage properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuzhen; Zheng, Yinzhen; Yan, Junjie; Zhu, Zhixuan; Wu, Zhihua; Ding, Yi

    2013-11-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) function to inhibit protein synthesis through the removal of specific adenine residues from eukaryotic ribosomal RNA and rending the 60S subunit unable to bind elongation factor 2. They have received much attention in biological and biomedical research due to their unique activities toward tumor cells, as well as the important roles in plant defense. Alpha-momorcharin (α-MC), a member of the type I family of RIPs, is rich in the seeds of Momordica charantia L. Previous studies demonstrated that α-MC is an effective antifungal and antibacterial protein. In this study, a detailed analysis of the DNase-like activity of α-MC was conducted. Results showed that the DNase-like activity toward plasmid DNA was time-dependent, temperature-related, and pH-stable. Moreover, a requirement for divalent metal ions in the catalytic domain of α-MC was confirmed. Additionally, Tyr(93) was found to be a critical residue for the DNase-like activity, while Tyr(134), Glu(183), Arg(186), and Trp(215) were activity-related residues. This study on the chemico-physical properties and mechanism of action of α-MC will improve its utilization in scientific research, as well as its potential industrial uses. These results may also assist in the characterization and elucidation of the DNase-like enzymatic properties of other RIPs.

  9. Connexins and Cap-independent translation: role of internal ribosome entry sites.

    PubMed

    Ul-Hussain, Mahboob; Dermietzel, Rolf; Zoidl, Georg

    2012-12-03

    Cap-independent translation using an internal ribosome entry site instead of the 5'-Cap structure has been discovered in positive-sense RNA viruses and eukaryotic genomes including a subset of gap junction forming connexins genes. With a growing number of mutations found in human connexin genes and studies on genetically modified mouse models mechanisms highlighting the important role of gap junctional communication in multicellular organism it is obvious that mechanism need to be in place to preserve this critical property even under conditions when Cap-mediated translation is scrutinized. To ensure sustained gap junctional communication, rapid initiation of translation of preexisting connexin mRNAs is one possibility, and the presence of internal ribosome entry sites in gap junction genes comply with such a requirement. In this review, we will summarize past and recent findings to build a case for IRES mediated translation as an alternative regulatory pathway facilitating gap junctional communication. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Electrical Synapses.

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of the porcine ribosomal protein L21.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wu-Sheng; Chun, Ju-Lan; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Ahn, Jin-Seop; Kim, Min-Kyu; Hwang, In-Sul; Kwon, Dae-Jin; Hwang, Seong-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Woong

    2017-01-04

    Ribosomal protein L21 (RPL21) is a structural component of the 60S subunit of the eukaryotic ribosome. This protein plays an important role in protein synthesis and the occurrence of hereditary diseases. Pig is a common laboratory model, however, to the best of our knowledge, its RPL21 gene has not been cloned to date. In this study, we cloned and identified the full-length sequence of the pig RPL21 gene for the first time. Then we studied its expression pattern and function by overexpression or knockdown approach. As a result, we obtained a 604-bp segment that contains a 483-bp open reading frame encoding 160 amino acids. We found the pig RPL21 gene is located in the "+" strand of chromosome 11, which spans 2167 bp from 4199792 to 4201958. Pig RPL21 protein has nine strands and two helices in its secondary structure. Pig RPL21 is predominantly expressed in the ovary and lung compared to the kidney, small intestine and skin but expressed at lower levels in the heart and liver. Furthermore, we found RPL21 expression level is closely connected with cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest. These results are intended to provide valid information for the further study of pig RPL21.

  11. Bactobolin Resistance Is Conferred by Mutations in the L2 Ribosomal Protein

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Josephine R.; Truong, Thao T.; Silva, Patricia M.; Seyedsayamdost, Mohammad R.; Carr, Gavin; Radey, Matthew; Jacobs, Michael A.; Sims, Elizabeth H.; Clardy, Jon; Greenberg, E. Peter

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Burkholderia thailandensis produces a family of polyketide-peptide molecules called bactobolins, some of which are potent antibiotics. We found that growth of B. thailandensis at 30°C versus that at 37°C resulted in increased production of bactobolins. We purified the three most abundant bactobolins and determined their activities against a battery of bacteria and mouse fibroblasts. Two of the three compounds showed strong activities against both bacteria and fibroblasts. The third analog was much less potent in both assays. These results suggested that the target of bactobolins might be conserved across bacteria and mammalian cells. To learn about the mechanism of bactobolin activity, we isolated four spontaneous bactobolin-resistant Bacillus subtilis mutants. We used genomic sequencing technology to show that each of the four resistant variants had mutations in rplB, which codes for the 50S ribosome-associated L2 protein. Ectopic expression of a mutant rplB gene in wild-type B. subtilis conferred bactobolin resistance. Finally, the L2 mutations did not confer resistance to other antibiotics known to interfere with ribosome function. Our data indicate that bactobolins target the L2 protein or a nearby site and that this is not the target of other antibiotics. We presume that the mammalian target of bactobolins involves the eukaryotic homolog of L2 (L8e). PMID:23249812

  12. A cobalt-containing eukaryotic nitrile hydratase.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Salette; Yang, Xinhang; Bennett, Brian; Holz, Richard C

    2017-01-01

    Nitrile hydratase (NHase), an industrially important enzyme that catalyzes the hydration of nitriles to their corresponding amides, has only been characterized from prokaryotic microbes. The putative NHase from the eukaryotic unicellular choanoflagellate organism Monosiga brevicollis (MbNHase) was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The resulting enzyme expressed as a single polypeptide with fused α- and β-subunits linked by a seventeen-histidine region. Size-exclusion chromatography indicated that MbNHase exists primarily as an (αβ)2 homodimer in solution, analogous to the α2β2 homotetramer architecture observed for prokaryotic NHases. The NHase enzyme contained its full complement of Co(III) and was fully functional without the co-expression of an activator protein or E. coli GroES/EL molecular chaperones. The homology model of MbNHase was developed identifying Cys400, Cys403, and Cys405 as active site ligands. The results presented here provide the first experimental data for a mature and active eukaryotic NHase with fused subunits. Since this new member of the NHase family is expressed from a single gene without the requirement of an activator protein, it represents an alternative biocatalyst for industrial syntheses of important amide compounds.

  13. Being right on Q: shaping eukaryotic evolution

    PubMed Central

    Speijer, Dave

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation by mitochondria is an incompletely understood eukaryotic process. I proposed a kinetic model [BioEssays (2011) 33, 88–94] in which the ratio between electrons entering the respiratory chain via FADH2 or NADH (the F/N ratio) is a crucial determinant of ROS formation. During glucose breakdown, the ratio is low, while during fatty acid breakdown, the ratio is high (the longer the fatty acid, the higher is the ratio), leading to higher ROS levels. Thus, breakdown of (very-long-chain) fatty acids should occur without generating extra FADH2 in mitochondria. This explains peroxisome evolution. A potential ROS increase could also explain the absence of fatty acid oxidation in long-lived cells (neurons) as well as other eukaryotic adaptations, such as dynamic supercomplex formation. Effective combinations of metabolic pathways from the host and the endosymbiont (mitochondrion) allowed larger varieties of substrates (with different F/N ratios) to be oxidized, but high F/N ratios increase ROS formation. This might have led to carnitine shuttles, uncoupling proteins, and multiple antioxidant mechanisms, especially linked to fatty acid oxidation [BioEssays (2014) 36, 634–643]. Recent data regarding peroxisome evolution and their relationships with mitochondria, ROS formation by Complex I during ischaemia/reperfusion injury, and supercomplex formation adjustment to F/N ratios strongly support the model. I will further discuss the model in the light of experimental findings regarding mitochondrial ROS formation. PMID:27834740

  14. Protein acetylation in archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Soppa, Jörg

    2010-09-16

    Proteins can be acetylated at the alpha-amino group of the N-terminal amino acid (methionine or the penultimate amino acid after methionine removal) or at the epsilon-amino group of internal lysines. In eukaryotes the majority of proteins are N-terminally acetylated, while this is extremely rare in bacteria. A variety of studies about N-terminal acetylation in archaea have been reported recently, and it was revealed that a considerable fraction of proteins is N-terminally acetylated in haloarchaea and Sulfolobus, while this does not seem to apply for methanogenic archaea. Many eukaryotic proteins are modified by differential internal acetylation, which is important for a variety of processes. Until very recently, only two bacterial proteins were known to be acetylation targets, but now 125 acetylation sites are known for E. coli. Knowledge about internal acetylation in archaea is extremely limited; only two target proteins are known, only one of which--Alba--was used to study differential acetylation. However, indications accumulate that the degree of internal acetylation of archaeal proteins might be underestimated, and differential acetylation has been shown to be essential for the viability of haloarchaea. Focused proteomic approaches are needed to get an overview of the extent of internal protein acetylation in archaea.

  15. Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cytoskeletons: Structure and Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinathan, Ajay

    2013-03-01

    The eukaryotic cytoskeleton is an assembly of filamentous proteins and a host of associated proteins that collectively serve functional needs ranging from spatial organization and transport to the production and transmission of forces. These systems can exhibit a wide variety of non-equilibrium, self-assembled phases depending on context and function. While much recent progress has been made in understanding the self-organization, rheology and nonlinear mechanical properties of such active systems, in this talk, we will concentrate on some emerging aspects of cytoskeletal physics that are promising. One such aspect is the influence of cytoskeletal network topology and its dynamics on both active and passive intracellular transport. Another aspect we will highlight is the interplay between chirality of filaments, their elasticity and their interactions with the membrane that can lead to novel conformational states with functional implications. Finally we will consider homologs of cytoskeletal proteins in bacteria, which are involved in templating cell growth, segregating genetic material and force production, which we will discuss with particular reference to contractile forces during cell division. These prokaryotic structures function in remarkably similar yet fascinatingly different ways from their eukaryotic counterparts and can enrich our understanding of cytoskeletal functioning as a whole.

  16. The autoregulation of a eukaryotic DNA transposon

    PubMed Central

    Claeys Bouuaert, Corentin; Lipkow, Karen; Andrews, Steven S; Liu, Danxu; Chalmers, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    How do DNA transposons live in harmony with their hosts? Bacteria provide the only documented mechanisms for autoregulation, but these are incompatible with eukaryotic cell biology. Here we show that autoregulation of Hsmar1 operates during assembly of the transpososome and arises from the multimeric state of the transposase, mediated by a competition for binding sites. We explore the dynamics of a genomic invasion using a computer model, supported by in vitro and in vivo experiments, and show that amplification accelerates at first but then achieves a constant rate. The rate is proportional to the genome size and inversely proportional to transposase expression and its affinity for the transposon ends. Mariner transposons may therefore resist post-transcriptional silencing. Because regulation is an emergent property of the reaction it is resistant to selfish exploitation. The behavior of distantly related eukaryotic transposons is consistent with the same mechanism, which may therefore be widely applicable. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00668.001 PMID:23795293

  17. Compositional differences within and between eukaryotic genomes.

    PubMed

    Karlin, S; Mrázek, J

    1997-09-16

    Eukaryotic genome similarity relationships are inferred using sequence information derived from large aggregates of genomic sequences. Comparisons within and between species sample sequences are based on the profile of dinucleotide relative abundance values (The profile is rho*XY = f*XY/f*Xf*Y for all XY, where f*X denotes the frequency of the nucleotide X and f*XY denotes the frequency of the dinucleotide XY, both computed from the sequence concatenated with its inverted complement). Previous studies with respect to prokaryotes and this study document that profiles of different DNA sequence samples (sample size >/=50 kb) from the same organism are generally much more similar to each other than they are to profiles from other organisms, and that closely related organisms generally have more similar profiles than do distantly related organisms. On this basis we refer to the collection (rho*XY) as the genome signature. This paper identifies rho*XY extremes and compares genome signature differences for a diverse range of eukaryotic species. Interpretations on the mechanisms maintaining these profile differences center on genome-wide replication, repair, DNA structures, and context-dependent mutational biases. It is also observed that mitochondrial genome signature differences between species parallel the corresponding nuclear genome signature differences despite large differences between corresponding mitochondrial and nuclear signatures. The genome signature differences also have implications for contrasts between rodents and other mammals, and between monocot and dicot plants, as well as providing evidence for similarities among fungi and the diversity of protists.

  18. Consistent mutational paths predict eukaryotic thermostability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Proteomes of thermophilic prokaryotes have been instrumental in structural biology and successfully exploited in biotechnology, however many proteins required for eukaryotic cell function are absent from bacteria or archaea. With Chaetomium thermophilum, Thielavia terrestris and Thielavia heterothallica three genome sequences of thermophilic eukaryotes have been published. Results Studying the genomes and proteomes of these thermophilic fungi, we found common strategies of thermal adaptation across the different kingdoms of Life, including amino acid biases and a reduced genome size. A phylogenetics-guided comparison of thermophilic proteomes with those of other, mesophilic Sordariomycetes revealed consistent amino acid substitutions associated to thermophily that were also present in an independent lineage of thermophilic fungi. The most consistent pattern is the substitution of lysine by arginine, which we could find in almost all lineages but has not been extensively used in protein stability engineering. By exploiting mutational paths towards the thermophiles, we could predict particular amino acid residues in individual proteins that contribute to thermostability and validated some of them experimentally. By determining the three-dimensional structure of an exemplar protein from C. thermophilum (Arx1), we could also characterise the molecular consequences of some of these mutations. Conclusions The comparative analysis of these three genomes not only enhances our understanding of the evolution of thermophily, but also provides new ways to engineer protein stability. PMID:23305080

  19. Viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae.

    PubMed Central

    Van Etten, J L; Lane, L C; Meints, R H

    1991-01-01

    Until recently there was little interest or information on viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae. However, this situation is changing. In the past decade many large double-stranded DNA-containing viruses that infect two culturable, unicellular, eukaryotic green algae have been discovered. These viruses can be produced in large quantities, assayed by plaque formation, and analyzed by standard bacteriophage techniques. The viruses are structurally similar to animal iridoviruses, their genomes are similar to but larger (greater than 300 kbp) than that of poxviruses, and their infection process resembles that of bacteriophages. Some of the viruses have DNAs with low levels of methylated bases, whereas others have DNAs with high concentrations of 5-methylcytosine and N6-methyladenine. Virus-encoded DNA methyltransferases are associated with the methylation and are accompanied by virus-encoded DNA site-specific (restriction) endonucleases. Some of these enzymes have sequence specificities identical to those of known bacterial enzymes, and others have previously unrecognized specificities. A separate rod-shaped RNA-containing algal virus has structural and nucleotide sequence affinities to higher plant viruses. Quite recently, viruses have been associated with rapid changes in marine algal populations. In the next decade we envision the discovery of new algal viruses, clarification of their role in various ecosystems, discovery of commercially useful genes in these viruses, and exploitation of algal virus genetic elements in plant and algal biotechnology. Images PMID:1779928

  20. The architecture of a eukaryotic replisome

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Jingchuan; Yuan, Zuanning; Shi, Yi; ...

    2015-11-02

    At the eukaryotic DNA replication fork, it is widely believed that the Cdc45–Mcm2–7–GINS (CMG) helicase is positioned in front to unwind DNA and that DNA polymerases trail behind the helicase. Here we used single-particle EM to directly image a Saccharomyces cerevisiae replisome. Contrary to expectations, the leading strand Pol ε is positioned ahead of CMG helicase, whereas Ctf4 and the lagging-strand polymerase (Pol) α–primase are behind the helicase. This unexpected architecture indicates that the leading-strand DNA travels a long distance before reaching Pol ε, first threading through the Mcm2–7 ring and then making a U-turn at the bottom and reachingmore » Pol ε at the top of CMG. Lastly, our work reveals an unexpected configuration of the eukaryotic replisome, suggests possible reasons for this architecture and provides a basis for further structural and biochemical replisome studies.« less