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Sample records for eurasian mitochondrial haplogroups

  1. Eurasian and Sub-Saharan African mitochondrial DNA haplogroup influences pseudoexfoliation glaucoma development in Saudi patients.

    PubMed

    Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Cabrera, Vicente M; Larruga, José M; Osman, Essam A; González, Ana M; Al-Obeidan, Saleh A

    2011-02-19

    To investigate whether different mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups have a role on the development of pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEG) in the Saudi Arab population. The mtDNA regulatory region and coding regions comprising mtDNA haplogroup diagnostic polymorphisms were sequenced in patients with PEG (n=94), healthy matched controls (free of PEG; n=112) and a healthy Saudi Arab population group (n=810). The Eurasian haplogroup T and the Sub-Saharan African Haplogroup L2 confer susceptibility to PEG, whereas the Eurasian haplogroup N1 was associated with reduced risk to develop PEG in the Saudi Arab population. Mitochondrial haplogroups T and L2 may play a role in the development of PEG in the Saudi Arabian population.

  2. Mitochondrial haplogroup C in ancient mitochondrial DNA from Ukraine extends the presence of East Eurasian genetic lineages in Neolithic Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Nikitin, Alexey G; Newton, Jeremy R; Potekhina, Inna D

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies of ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages have revealed the presence of East Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups in the Central European Neolithic. Here we report the finding of East Eurasian lineages in ancient mtDNA from two Neolithic cemeteries of the North Pontic Region (NPR) in Ukraine. In our study, comprehensive haplotyping information was obtained for 7 out of 18 specimens. Although the majority of identified mtDNA haplogroups belonged to the traditional West Eurasian lineages of H and U, three specimens were determined to belong to the lineages of mtDNA haplogroup C. This find extends the presence of East Eurasian lineages in Neolithic Europe from the Carpathian Mountains to the northern shores of the Black Sea and provides the first genetic account of Neolithic mtDNA lineages from the NPR.

  3. Mutation rate switch inside Eurasian mitochondrial haplogroups: impact of selection and consequences for dating settlement in Europe.

    PubMed

    Pierron, Denis; Chang, Ivan; Arachiche, Amal; Heiske, Margit; Thomas, Olivier; Borlin, Marine; Pennarun, Erwan; Murail, Pacal; Thoraval, Didier; Rocher, Christophe; Letellier, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    R-lineage mitochondrial DNA represents over 90% of the European population and is significantly present all around the planet (North Africa, Asia, Oceania, and America). This lineage played a major role in migration "out of Africa" and colonization in Europe. In order to determine an accurate dating of the R lineage and its sublineages, we analyzed 1173 individuals and complete mtDNA sequences from Mitomap. This analysis revealed a new coalescence age for R at 54.500 years, as well as several limitations of standard dating methods, likely to lead to false interpretations. These findings highlight the association of a striking under-accumulation of synonymous mutations, an over-accumulation of non-synonymous mutations, and the phenotypic effect on haplogroup J. Consequently, haplogroup J is apparently not a Neolithic group but an older haplogroup (Paleolithic) that was subjected to an underestimated selective force. These findings also indicated an under-accumulation of synonymous and non-synonymous mutations localized on coding and non-coding (HVS1) sequences for haplogroup R0, which contains the major haplogroups H and V. These new dates are likely to impact the present colonization model for Europe and confirm the late glacial resettlement scenario.

  4. Mutation Rate Switch inside Eurasian Mitochondrial Haplogroups: Impact of Selection and Consequences for Dating Settlement in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Pierron, Denis; Chang, Ivan; Arachiche, Amal; Heiske, Margit; Thomas, Olivier; Borlin, Marine; Pennarun, Erwan; Murail, Pacal; Thoraval, Didier; Rocher, Christophe; Letellier, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    R-lineage mitochondrial DNA represents over 90% of the European population and is significantly present all around the planet (North Africa, Asia, Oceania, and America). This lineage played a major role in migration “out of Africa” and colonization in Europe. In order to determine an accurate dating of the R lineage and its sublineages, we analyzed 1173 individuals and complete mtDNA sequences from Mitomap. This analysis revealed a new coalescence age for R at 54.500 years, as well as several limitations of standard dating methods, likely to lead to false interpretations. These findings highlight the association of a striking under-accumulation of synonymous mutations, an over-accumulation of non-synonymous mutations, and the phenotypic effect on haplogroup J. Consequently, haplogroup J is apparently not a Neolithic group but an older haplogroup (Paleolithic) that was subjected to an underestimated selective force. These findings also indicated an under-accumulation of synonymous and non-synonymous mutations localized on coding and non-coding (HVS1) sequences for haplogroup R0, which contains the major haplogroups H and V. These new dates are likely to impact the present colonization model for Europe and confirm the late glacial resettlement scenario. PMID:21738700

  5. The history of the North African mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U6 gene flow into the African, Eurasian and American continents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome analyses have greatly improved the phylogeny and phylogeography of human mtDNA. Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U6 has been considered as a molecular signal of a Paleolithic return to North Africa of modern humans from southwestern Asia. Results Using 230 complete sequences we have refined the U6 phylogeny, and improved the phylogeographic information by the analysis of 761 partial sequences. This approach provides chronological limits for its arrival to Africa, followed by its spreads there according to climatic fluctuations, and its secondary prehistoric and historic migrations out of Africa colonizing Europe, the Canary Islands and the American Continent. Conclusions The U6 expansions and contractions inside Africa faithfully reflect the climatic fluctuations that occurred in this Continent affecting also the Canary Islands. Mediterranean contacts drove these lineages to Europe, at least since the Neolithic. In turn, the European colonization brought different U6 lineages throughout the American Continent leaving the specific sign of the colonizers origin. PMID:24885141

  6. Increased intrinsic mitochondrial function in humans with mitochondrial haplogroup H.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Steen; Díez-Sánchez, Carmen; Rabøl, Rasmus; Ara, Ignacio; Dela, Flemming; Helge, Jørn W

    2014-02-01

    It has been suggested that human mitochondrial variants influence maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Whether mitochondrial respiratory capacity per mitochondrion (intrinsic activity) in human skeletal muscle is affected by differences in mitochondrial variants is not known. We recruited 54 males and determined their mitochondrial haplogroup, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity (OXPHOS), mitochondrial content (citrate synthase (CS)) and VO2max. Intrinsic mitochondrial function is calculated as mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity divided by mitochondrial content (CS). Haplogroup H showed a 30% higher intrinsic mitochondrial function compared with the other haplo group U. There was no relationship between haplogroups and VO2max. In skeletal muscle from men with mitochondrial haplogroup H, an increased intrinsic mitochondrial function is present. © 2013.

  7. Mitochondrial haplogroups in Basque multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Otaegui, D; Sáenz, A; Martínez-Zabaleta, M; Villoslada, P; Fernández-Manchola, I; Alvarez de Arcaya, A; Emparanza, J I; López de Munain, A

    2004-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested that mitochondrial metabolism and/or mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) could be, in conjunction with other genetic or environmental factors, a risk factor for the development of multiple sclerosis (MS). One of these studies establishes that mitochondrial haplogroup JT is a risk factor for developing the disease, in particular the visual manifestations [optic neuritis (ON)]. Nevertheless, as distribution of these haplogroups varies between populations, the observed association may be due to a slanted sample with no physiopathological value. This hypothesis was checked with MS patients, originals from Basque country (this population has peculiar genetic characteristics) and from other Spanish regions. We concluded that such an association does not exist. By contrast, a decrease could be seen in the frequency of the JT haplogroup in the ON group and in the MS-Basque group. That trend could be a protective effect, which needs to be verified in further investigations.

  8. Mitochondrial haplogroups define two phenotypes of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Moreno, Mercedes; Soto-Hermida, Angel; Oreiro, Natividad; Pértega, Sonia; Fenández-López, Carlos; Rego-Pérez, Ignacio; Blanco, Francisco J

    2012-01-01

    To assess a mitochondrion-related phenotype in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Serum levels of the following OA-related biomarkers: matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1); MMP-3; MMP-13; myeloperoxidase (MPO); a peptide of the alpha-helical region of type II collagen, Coll2-1, and its nitrated form Coll2-1NO(2); a C-terminal neoepitope generated by the collagenase-mediated cleavage of collagen type II triple helix, C2C; the C-propeptide of collagen type II, CPII; hyaluronic acid (HA); human cartilage glycoprotein 39, YKL-40; cartilage oligomeric matrix protein; and cathepsin K were analyzed in 48 OA patients and 52 healthy controls carrying the haplogroups H and J. Logistic regression models and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed to predict the onset of OA. MMP-13 was the only biomarker significantly increased in OA patients compared to healthy controls in both haplogroups H and J. The collagen type II biomarkers, Coll2-1, Coll2-1NO(2), the Coll2-1NO(2)/Coll2-1 ratio, C2C, CPII, and the C2C:CPII ratio were significantly increased in OA patients carrying haplogroup H compared to OA carriers of the haplogroup J. Two logistic regression models for diagnosis were constructed and adjusted for age, gender, and body mass index. For haplogroup H, the biomarkers significantly associated with OA were MMP-13 and Coll2-1; the area under the curve (AUC) of the ROC curve for this model was 0.952 (95% CI = 0.892-1.012). For haplogroup J, the only biomarker significantly associated with OA was MMP-13; the AUC for this model was 0.895 (95% CI = 0.801-0.989). The mitochondrial DNA haplogroups are potential complementary candidates for biomarkers of OA; their genotyping in conjunction with the assessment of classical protein molecular markers is recommended.

  9. Functional Differences between Mitochondrial Haplogroup T and Haplogroup H in HEK293 Cybrid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Edith E.; Brunner, Susanne M.; Mayr, Johannes A.; Stanger, Olaf; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological case-control studies have revealed associations between mitochondrial haplogroups and the onset and/or progression of various multifactorial diseases. For instance, mitochondrial haplogroup T was previously shown to be associated with vascular diseases, including coronary artery disease and diabetic retinopathy. In contrast, haplogroup H, the most frequent haplogroup in Europe, is often found to be more prevalent in healthy control subjects than in patient study groups. However, justifications for the assumption that haplogroups are functionally distinct are rare. Therefore, we attempted to compare differences in mitochondrial function between haplogroup H and T cybrids. Methodology/Principal Findings Mitochondrial haplogroup H and T cybrids were generated by fusion of HEK293 cells devoid of mitochondrial DNA with isolated thrombocytes of individuals with the respective haplogroups. These cybrid cells were analyzed for oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzyme activities, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, growth rate and susceptibility to reactive oxygen species (ROS). We observed that haplogroup T cybrids have higher survival rate when challenged with hydrogen peroxide, indicating a higher capability to cope with oxidative stress. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study show that functional differences exist between HEK293 cybrid cells which differ in mitochondrial genomic background. PMID:23300652

  10. Functional differences between mitochondrial haplogroup T and haplogroup H in HEK293 cybrid cells.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Edith E; Brunner, Susanne M; Mayr, Johannes A; Stanger, Olaf; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological case-control studies have revealed associations between mitochondrial haplogroups and the onset and/or progression of various multifactorial diseases. For instance, mitochondrial haplogroup T was previously shown to be associated with vascular diseases, including coronary artery disease and diabetic retinopathy. In contrast, haplogroup H, the most frequent haplogroup in Europe, is often found to be more prevalent in healthy control subjects than in patient study groups. However, justifications for the assumption that haplogroups are functionally distinct are rare. Therefore, we attempted to compare differences in mitochondrial function between haplogroup H and T cybrids. Mitochondrial haplogroup H and T cybrids were generated by fusion of HEK293 cells devoid of mitochondrial DNA with isolated thrombocytes of individuals with the respective haplogroups. These cybrid cells were analyzed for oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzyme activities, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, growth rate and susceptibility to reactive oxygen species (ROS). We observed that haplogroup T cybrids have higher survival rate when challenged with hydrogen peroxide, indicating a higher capability to cope with oxidative stress. The results of this study show that functional differences exist between HEK293 cybrid cells which differ in mitochondrial genomic background.

  11. The Q2 mitochondrial haplogroup in Oceania.

    PubMed

    Corser, Chris A; McLenachan, Patricia A; Pierson, Melanie J; Harrison, G L Abby; Penny, David

    2012-01-01

    Many details surrounding the origins of the peoples of Oceania remain to be resolved, and as a step towards this we report seven new complete mitochondrial genomes from the Q2a haplogroup, from Papua New Guinea, Fiji and Kiribati. This brings the total to eleven Q2 genomes now available. The Q haplogroup (that includes Q2) is an old and diverse lineage in Near Oceania, and is reasonably common; within our sample set of 430, 97 are of the Q haplogroup. However, only 8 are Q2, and we report 7 here. The tree with all complete Q genomes is proven to be minimal. The dating estimate for the origin of Q2 (around 35 Kya) reinforces the understanding that humans have been in Near Oceania for tens of thousands of years; nevertheless the Polynesian maternal haplogroups remain distinctive. A major focus now, with regard to Polynesian ancestry, is to address the differences and timing of the 'Melanesian' contribution to the maternal and paternal lineages as people moved further and further into Remote Oceania. Input from other fields such as anthropology, history and linguistics is required for a better understanding and interpretation of the genetic data.

  12. The Q2 Mitochondrial Haplogroup in Oceania

    PubMed Central

    Corser, Chris A.; McLenachan, Patricia A.; Pierson, Melanie J.; Harrison, G. L. Abby; Penny, David

    2012-01-01

    Many details surrounding the origins of the peoples of Oceania remain to be resolved, and as a step towards this we report seven new complete mitochondrial genomes from the Q2a haplogroup, from Papua New Guinea, Fiji and Kiribati. This brings the total to eleven Q2 genomes now available. The Q haplogroup (that includes Q2) is an old and diverse lineage in Near Oceania, and is reasonably common; within our sample set of 430, 97 are of the Q haplogroup. However, only 8 are Q2, and we report 7 here. The tree with all complete Q genomes is proven to be minimal. The dating estimate for the origin of Q2 (around 35 Kya) reinforces the understanding that humans have been in Near Oceania for tens of thousands of years; nevertheless the Polynesian maternal haplogroups remain distinctive. A major focus now, with regard to Polynesian ancestry, is to address the differences and timing of the ‘Melanesian’ contribution to the maternal and paternal lineages as people moved further and further into Remote Oceania. Input from other fields such as anthropology, history and linguistics is required for a better understanding and interpretation of the genetic data. PMID:23284859

  13. Mitochondrial Haplogroups Define Two Phenotypes of Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Moreno, Mercedes; Soto-Hermida, Angel; Oreiro, Natividad; Pértega, Sonia; Fenández-López, Carlos; Rego-Pérez, Ignacio; Blanco, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess a mitochondrion-related phenotype in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: Serum levels of the following OA-related biomarkers: matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1); MMP-3; MMP-13; myeloperoxidase (MPO); a peptide of the alpha-helical region of type II collagen, Coll2-1, and its nitrated form Coll2-1NO2; a C-terminal neoepitope generated by the collagenase-mediated cleavage of collagen type II triple helix, C2C; the C-propeptide of collagen type II, CPII; hyaluronic acid (HA); human cartilage glycoprotein 39, YKL-40; cartilage oligomeric matrix protein; and cathepsin K were analyzed in 48 OA patients and 52 healthy controls carrying the haplogroups H and J. Logistic regression models and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed to predict the onset of OA. Results: MMP-13 was the only biomarker significantly increased in OA patients compared to healthy controls in both haplogroups H and J. The collagen type II biomarkers, Coll2-1, Coll2-1NO2, the Coll2-1NO2/Coll2-1 ratio, C2C, CPII, and the C2C:CPII ratio were significantly increased in OA patients carrying haplogroup H compared to OA carriers of the haplogroup J. Two logistic regression models for diagnosis were constructed and adjusted for age, gender, and body mass index. For haplogroup H, the biomarkers significantly associated with OA were MMP-13 and Coll2-1; the area under the curve (AUC) of the ROC curve for this model was 0.952 (95% CI = 0.892–1.012). For haplogroup J, the only biomarker significantly associated with OA was MMP-13; the AUC for this model was 0.895 (95% CI = 0.801–0.989). Conclusion: The mitochondrial DNA haplogroups are potential complementary candidates for biomarkers of OA; their genotyping in conjunction with the assessment of classical protein molecular markers is recommended. PMID:22593743

  14. Haplogrouping mitochondrial DNA sequences in Legal Medicine/Forensic Genetics.

    PubMed

    Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; van Oven, Mannis; Salas, Antonio

    2012-11-01

    Haplogrouping refers to the classification of (partial) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences into haplogroups using the current knowledge of the worldwide mtDNA phylogeny. Haplogroup assignment of mtDNA control-region sequences assists in the focused comparison with closely related complete mtDNA sequences and thus serves two main goals in forensic genetics: first is the a posteriori quality analysis of sequencing results and second is the prediction of relevant coding-region sites for confirmation or further refinement of haplogroup status. The latter may be important in forensic casework where discrimination power needs to be as high as possible. However, most articles published in forensic genetics perform haplogrouping only in a rudimentary or incorrect way. The present study features PhyloTree as the key tool for assigning control-region sequences to haplogroups and elaborates on additional Web-based searches for finding near-matches with complete mtDNA genomes in the databases. In contrast, none of the automated haplogrouping tools available can yet compete with manual haplogrouping using PhyloTree plus additional Web-based searches, especially when confronted with artificial recombinants still present in forensic mtDNA datasets. We review and classify the various attempts at haplogrouping by using a multiplex approach or relying on automated haplogrouping. Furthermore, we re-examine a few articles in forensic journals providing mtDNA population data where appropriate haplogrouping following PhyloTree immediately highlights several kinds of sequence errors.

  15. Mitochondrial Haplogroups Affect Severity But Not Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bregman, Jana A.; Herren, David J.; Estopinal, Christopher B.; Chocron, Isaac M.; Harlow, Paula A.; Warden, Cassandra; Brantley, Milam A.; Samuels, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We previously reported European mitochondrial haplogroup H to be a risk factor for and haplogroup UK to be protective against proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) among Caucasian patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR). The purpose of this study was to determine whether these haplogroups are also associated with the risk of having DR among Caucasian patients with diabetes. Methods Deidentified medical records for 637 Caucasian patients with diabetes (223 with DR) were obtained from BioVU, Vanderbilt University's electronic, deidentified DNA databank. An additional 197 Caucasian patients with diabetes (98 with DR) were enrolled from the Vanderbilt Eye Institute (VEI). We tested for an association between European mitochondrial haplogroups and DR status. Results The percentage of diabetes patients with DR did not differ across the haplogroups (P = 0.32). The percentage of patients with nonproliferative DR (NPDR; P = 0.0084) and with PDR (P = 0.027) significantly differed across the haplogroups. In logistic regressions adjusting for sex, age, diabetes type, duration of diabetes, and hemoglobin A1c, neither haplogroup H nor haplogroup UK had a significant effect on DR compared with diabetic controls. Haplogroup UK was a significant risk factor (OR = 1.72 [1.13–2.59], P = 0.010) for NPDR compared with diabetic controls in the unadjusted analysis, but not in the adjusted analysis (OR = 1.29 [0.79–2.10], P = 0.20). Conclusions Mitochondrial haplogroups H and UK were associated with severity, but not presence, of DR. These data argue that the effect of these haplogroups is related to ischemia and neovascularization, the defining features of PDR. PMID:28245487

  16. Mitochondrial Haplogroups as a Risk Factor for Herpes Zoster.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Rebecca T; Hulgan, Todd; Kalams, Spyros A; Fessel, Joshua P; Samuels, David C

    2016-10-01

    Background.  Herpes zoster, or shingles, is a common, painful reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus infection. Understanding host factors that predispose to herpes zoster may permit development of more effective prevention strategies. Our objective was to examine mitochondrial haplogroups as a potential host factor related to herpes zoster incidence. Methods.  Study participants were drawn from BioVU, a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) biobank connected to deidentified electronic medical records (EMRs) from Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Our study used 9691 Caucasian individuals with herpes zoster status determined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes 053-053.9. Cases and controls were matched on sex and date of birth within 5 years. Mitochondrial haplogroups were defined from mitochondrial DNA variants genotyped on the Illumina 660W or Illumina Infinium Human-Exome Beadchip. Sex and date of birth were extracted from the EMR. Results.  European mitochondrial haplogroup H had a protective association with herpes zoster status (odds ratio [OR] = .82; 95% confidence interval [CI], .71-.94; P = .005), whereas haplogroup clade IWX was a risk factor for herpes zoster status (OR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.07-1.77; P = .01). Conclusions.  Mitochondrial haplogroup influences herpes zoster risk. Knowledge of a patient's mitochondrial haplogroup could allow for a precision approach to the management of herpes zoster risk through vaccination strategies and management of other modifiable risk factors.

  17. Mitochondrial Haplogroups as a Risk Factor for Herpes Zoster

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Rebecca T.; Hulgan, Todd; Kalams, Spyros A.; Fessel, Joshua P.; Samuels, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Herpes zoster, or shingles, is a common, painful reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus infection. Understanding host factors that predispose to herpes zoster may permit development of more effective prevention strategies. Our objective was to examine mitochondrial haplogroups as a potential host factor related to herpes zoster incidence. Methods. Study participants were drawn from BioVU, a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) biobank connected to deidentified electronic medical records (EMRs) from Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Our study used 9691 Caucasian individuals with herpes zoster status determined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes 053–053.9. Cases and controls were matched on sex and date of birth within 5 years. Mitochondrial haplogroups were defined from mitochondrial DNA variants genotyped on the Illumina 660W or Illumina Infinium Human-Exome Beadchip. Sex and date of birth were extracted from the EMR. Results. European mitochondrial haplogroup H had a protective association with herpes zoster status (odds ratio [OR] = .82; 95% confidence interval [CI], .71–.94; P = .005), whereas haplogroup clade IWX was a risk factor for herpes zoster status (OR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.07–1.77; P = .01). Conclusions. Mitochondrial haplogroup influences herpes zoster risk. Knowledge of a patient's mitochondrial haplogroup could allow for a precision approach to the management of herpes zoster risk through vaccination strategies and management of other modifiable risk factors. PMID:27807590

  18. Mitochondrial Haplogroups Are Associated With Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Estopinal, Christopher B.; Chocron, Isaac M.; Parks, Megan B.; Wade, Emily A.; Roberson, Rachel M.; Burgess, L. Goodwin; Brantley, Milam A.; Samuels, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine if specific mitochondrial haplogroups associate with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Methods. Deidentified medical records for Caucasian patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR; 153 NPDR and 138 PDR) were obtained from BioVU, Vanderbilt University's electronic, deidentified DNA databank. An independent cohort of Caucasian patients with DR (44 NPDR and 57 PDR) from the Vanderbilt Eye Institute (VEI) was used for validation. We tested for an association between mitochondrial haplogroups and PDR among patients with DR. Results. In the BioVU cohort, PDR frequency among Caucasian DR patients differed significantly by mitochondrial haplogroup (P = 0.027). Replication in the VEI cohort confirmed this association (P = 0.0064). In the combined cohort, patients from the common haplogroup H were more likely to have PDR (odds ratio [OR] = 2.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3–3.0], P = 0.0012), while patients from haplogroup Uk were less likely to have PDR (OR = 0.5 [95% CI = 0.3–0.8], P = 0.0049). In logistic regression analyses, the addition of diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c (HgbA1c) levels, and hypertension had no effect on the associations of haplogroups H and Uk with PDR. Conclusions. In this study, DR patients from mitochondrial haplogroup H were more likely to have PDR, while DR patients from haplogroup Uk were less likely to have PDR. The association was independent of the major clinical variables affecting PDR. The mitochondrial haplogroups were as strong a risk factor for PDR as were elevated HgbA1c levels. PMID:25118268

  19. Association Between Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup and Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Poynter, Jenny N.; Richardson, Michaela; Langer, Erica; Hooten, Anthony J.; Roesler, Michelle; Hirsch, Betsy; Nguyen, Phuong L.; Cioc, Adina; Warlick, Erica; Ross, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphisms in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are used to group individuals into haplogroups reflecting human global migration and are associated with multiple diseases, including cancer. Here, we evaluate the association between mtDNA haplogroup and risk of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Cases were identified by the Minnesota Cancer Surveillance System (MCSS). Controls were identified through the Minnesota State driver’s license/identification card list. Because haplogroup frequencies vary by race and ethnicity, we restricted analyses to non-Hispanic whites. We genotyped 15 mtSNPs that capture common European mitochondrial haplogroup variation. We used SAS v.9.3 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC) to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) overall and stratified by MDS subtype and IPSS-R risk category. We were able to classify 215 cases with confirmed MDS and 522 controls into one of the 11 common European haplogroups. Due to small sample sizes in some subgroups, we combined mt haplogroups into larger bins based on the haplogroup evolutionary tree, including HV (H+V), JT (J+T), IWX (I+W+X), UK (U+K), and Z for comparisons of cases and controls. Using haplogroup HV as the reference group, we found a statistically significant association between haplogroup JT and MDS (OR=0.58, 95% CI 0.36, 0.92, P=0.02). No statistically significant heterogeneity was observed in subgroup analyses. In this population-based study of MDS, we observed an association between mtDNA haplogroup JT and risk of MDS. While previously published studies provide biological plausibility for the observed association, further studies of the relationship between mtDNA variation and MDS are warranted in larger sample sizes. PMID:27121678

  20. Association between mitochondrial DNA haplogroup and myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Poynter, Jenny N; Richardson, Michaela; Langer, Erica; Hooten, Anthony J; Roesler, Michelle; Hirsch, Betsy; Nguyen, Phuong L; Cioc, Adina; Warlick, Erica; Ross, Julie A

    2016-09-01

    Polymorphisms in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are used to group individuals into haplogroups reflecting human global migration and are associated with multiple diseases, including cancer. Here, we evaluate the association between mtDNA haplogroup and risk of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Cases were identified by the Minnesota Cancer Surveillance System. Controls were identified through the Minnesota State driver's license/identification card list. Because haplogroup frequencies vary by race and ethnicity, we restricted analyses to non-Hispanic whites. We genotyped 15 mtSNPs that capture common European mitochondrial haplogroup variation. We used SAS v.9.3 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC) to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) overall and stratified by MDS subtype and IPSS-R risk category. We were able to classify 215 cases with confirmed MDS and 522 controls into one of the 11 common European haplogroups. Due to small sample sizes in some subgroups, we combined mt haplogroups into larger bins based on the haplogroup evolutionary tree, including HV (H + V), JT (J + T), IWX (I + W + X), UK (U + K), and Z for comparisons of cases and controls. Using haplogroup HV as the reference group, we found a statistically significant association between haplogroup JT and MDS (OR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.36, 0.92, P = 0.02). No statistically significant heterogeneity was observed in subgroup analyses. In this population-based study of MDS, we observed an association between mtDNA haplogroup JT and risk of MDS. While previously published studies provide biological plausibility for the observed association, further studies of the relationship between mtDNA variation and MDS are warranted in larger sample sizes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Mitochondrial genomes from modern horses reveal the major haplogroups that underwent domestication.

    PubMed

    Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Soares, Pedro; Lancioni, Hovirag; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Perego, Ugo A; Nergadze, Solomon G; Carossa, Valeria; Santagostino, Marco; Capomaccio, Stefano; Felicetti, Michela; Al-Achkar, Walid; Penedo, M Cecilia T; Verini-Supplizi, Andrea; Houshmand, Massoud; Woodward, Scott R; Semino, Ornella; Silvestrelli, Maurizio; Giulotto, Elena; Pereira, Luísa; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Torroni, Antonio

    2012-02-14

    Archaeological and genetic evidence concerning the time and mode of wild horse (Equus ferus) domestication is still debated. High levels of genetic diversity in horse mtDNA have been detected when analyzing the control region; recurrent mutations, however, tend to blur the structure of the phylogenetic tree. Here, we brought the horse mtDNA phylogeny to the highest level of molecular resolution by analyzing 83 mitochondrial genomes from modern horses across Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and the Americas. Our data reveal 18 major haplogroups (A-R) with radiation times that are mostly confined to the Neolithic and later periods and place the root of the phylogeny corresponding to the Ancestral Mare Mitogenome at ~130-160 thousand years ago. All haplogroups were detected in modern horses from Asia, but F was only found in E. przewalskii--the only remaining wild horse. Therefore, a wide range of matrilineal lineages from the extinct E. ferus underwent domestication in the Eurasian steppes during the Eneolithic period and were transmitted to modern E. caballus breeds. Importantly, now that the major horse haplogroups have been defined, each with diagnostic mutational motifs (in both the coding and control regions), these haplotypes could be easily used to (i) classify well-preserved ancient remains, (ii) (re)assess the haplogroup variation of modern breeds, including Thoroughbreds, and (iii) evaluate the possible role of mtDNA backgrounds in racehorse performance.

  2. Mitochondrial genomes from modern horses reveal the major haplogroups that underwent domestication

    PubMed Central

    Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Soares, Pedro; Lancioni, Hovirag; Kashani, Baharak Hooshiar; Perego, Ugo A.; Nergadze, Solomon G.; Carossa, Valeria; Santagostino, Marco; Capomaccio, Stefano; Felicetti, Michela; Al-Achkar, Walid; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; Verini-Supplizi, Andrea; Houshmand, Massoud; Woodward, Scott R.; Semino, Ornella; Silvestrelli, Maurizio; Giulotto, Elena; Pereira, Luísa; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Torroni, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Archaeological and genetic evidence concerning the time and mode of wild horse (Equus ferus) domestication is still debated. High levels of genetic diversity in horse mtDNA have been detected when analyzing the control region; recurrent mutations, however, tend to blur the structure of the phylogenetic tree. Here, we brought the horse mtDNA phylogeny to the highest level of molecular resolution by analyzing 83 mitochondrial genomes from modern horses across Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and the Americas. Our data reveal 18 major haplogroups (A–R) with radiation times that are mostly confined to the Neolithic and later periods and place the root of the phylogeny corresponding to the Ancestral Mare Mitogenome at ∼130–160 thousand years ago. All haplogroups were detected in modern horses from Asia, but F was only found in E. przewalskii—the only remaining wild horse. Therefore, a wide range of matrilineal lineages from the extinct E. ferus underwent domestication in the Eurasian steppes during the Eneolithic period and were transmitted to modern E. caballus breeds. Importantly, now that the major horse haplogroups have been defined, each with diagnostic mutational motifs (in both the coding and control regions), these haplotypes could be easily used to (i) classify well-preserved ancient remains, (ii) (re)assess the haplogroup variation of modern breeds, including Thoroughbreds, and (iii) evaluate the possible role of mtDNA backgrounds in racehorse performance. PMID:22308342

  3. Mitochondrial super-haplogroup U diversity in Serbians.

    PubMed

    Davidovic, Slobodan; Malyarchuk, Boris; Aleksic, Jelena; Derenko, Miroslava; Topalovic, Vladanka; Litvinov, Andrey; Skonieczna, Katarzyna; Rogalla, Urszula; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Stevanovic, Milena; Kovacevic-Grujicic, Natasa

    2017-08-01

    Available mitochondrial (mtDNA) data demonstrate genetic differentiation among South Slavs inhabiting the Balkan Peninsula. However, their resolution is insufficient to elucidate the female-specific aspects of the genetic history of South Slavs, including the genetic impact of various migrations which were rather common within the Balkans, a region having a turbulent demographic history. The aim was to thoroughly study complete mitogenomes of Serbians, a population linking westward and eastward South Slavs. Forty-six predominantly Serbian super-haplogroup U complete mitogenomes were analysed phylogenetically against ∼4000 available complete mtDNAs of modern and ancient Western Eurasians. Serbians share a number of U mtDNA lineages with Southern, Eastern-Central and North-Western Europeans. Putative Balkan-specific lineages (e.g. U1a1c2, U4c1b1, U5b3j, K1a4l and K1a13a1) and lineages shared among Serbians (South Slavs) and West and East Slavs were detected (e.g. U2e1b1, U2e2a1d, U4a2a, U4a2c, U4a2g1, U4d2b and U5b1a1). The exceptional diversity of maternal lineages found in Serbians may be associated with the genetic impact of both autochthonous pre-Slavic Balkan populations whose mtDNA gene pool was affected by migrations of various populations over time (e.g. Bronze Age pastoralists) and Slavic and Germanic newcomers in the early Middle Ages.

  4. Association Between Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup Variation and Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Chalkia, Dimitra; Singh, Larry N; Leipzig, Jeremy; Lvova, Maria; Derbeneva, Olga; Lakatos, Anita; Hadley, Dexter; Hakonarson, Hakon; Wallace, Douglas C

    2017-08-23

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairments in social interaction, communication, and repetitive or restrictive behavior. Although multiple physiologic and biochemical studies have reported defects in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in patients with ASD, the role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation has remained relatively unexplored. To assess what impact mitochondrial lineages encompassing ancient mtDNA functional polymorphisms, termed haplogroups, have on ASD risk. In this cohort study, individuals with autism and their families were studied using the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange cohort genome-wide association studies data previously generated at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. From October 2010 to January 2017, we analyzed the data and used the mtDNA single-nucleotide polymorphisms interrogated by the Illumina HumanHap 550 chip to determine the mtDNA haplogroups of the individuals. Taking into account the familial structure of the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange data, we then determined whether the mtDNA haplogroups correlate with ASD risk. Odds ratios of mitochondrial haplogroup as predictors of ASD risk. Of 1624 patients with autism included in this study, 1299 were boys (80%) and 325 were girls (20%). Families in the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange collection (933 families, encompassing 4041 individuals: 1624 patients with ASD and 2417 healthy parents and siblings) had been previously recruited in the United States with no restrictions on age, sex, race/ethnicity, or socioeconomic status. Relative to the most common European haplogroup HHV, European haplogroups I, J, K, O-X, T, and U were associated with increased risk of ASD, as were Asian and Native American haplogroups A and M, with odds ratios ranging from 1.55 (95% CI, 1.16-2.06) to 2.18 (95% CI, 1.59-3) (adjusted P < .04). Hence, mtDNA haplogroup variation is an important risk factor for ASD. Because haplogroups I, J, K, O-X, T, and U encompass 55% of the

  5. Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups and Neurocognitive Impairment During HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hulgan, Todd; Samuels, David C.; Bush, William; Ellis, Ronald J.; Letendre, Scott L.; Heaton, Robert K.; Franklin, Donald R.; Straub, Peter; Murdock, Deborah G.; Clifford, David B.; Collier, Ann C.; Gelman, Benjamin B.; Marra, Christina M.; McArthur, Justin C.; McCutchan, J. Allen; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David M.; Grant, Igor; Kallianpur, Asha R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) remains an important complication in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Ancestry-related mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups have been associated with outcomes of HIV infection and combination antiretroviral therapy (CART), and with neurodegenerative diseases. We hypothesize that mtDNA haplogroups are associated with NCI in HIV-infected adults and performed a genetic association study in the CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) cohort. Methods. CHARTER is an observational study of ambulatory HIV-infected adults. Haplogroups were assigned using mtDNA sequence, and principal components were derived from ancestry-informative nuclear DNA variants. Outcomes were cross-sectional global deficit score (GDS) as a continuous measure, GDS impairment (GDS ≥ 0.50), and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) using international criteria. Multivariable models were adjusted for comorbidity status (incidental vs contributing), current CART, plasma HIV RNA, reading ability, and CD4 cell nadir. Results. Haplogroups were available from 1027 persons; median age 43 years, median CD4 nadir 178 cells/mm3, 72% on CART, and 46% with HAND. The 102 (9.9%) persons of genetically determined admixed Hispanic ancestry had more impairment by GDS or HAND than persons of European or African ancestry (P < .001 for all). In multivariate models including persons of admixed Hispanic ancestry, those with haplogroup B had lower GDS (β = −0.34; P = .008) and less GDS impairment (odds ratio = 0.16; 95% confidence interval, .04, .63; P = .009) than other haplogroups. There were no significant haplogroup associations among persons of European or African ancestry. Conclusions. In these mostly CART-treated persons, mtDNA haplogroup B was associated with less NCI among persons of genetically determined Hispanic ancestry. mtDNA variation may represent an ancestry-specific factor influencing NCI in HIV

  6. Traces of early Eurasians in the Mansi of northwest Siberia revealed by mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Derbeneva, Olga A; Starikovskaya, Elena B; Wallace, Douglas C; Sukernik, Rem I

    2002-04-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 98 Mansi, an ancient group (formerly known as "Vogul") of Uralic-speaking fishers and hunters on the eastern slope of the northern Ural Mountains, were analyzed for sequence variants by restriction fragment--length polymorphism analysis, control-region sequencing, and sequencing of additional informative sites in the coding region. Although 63.3% of the mtDNA detected in the Mansi falls into western Eurasian lineages (e.g., haplogroups UK, TJ, and HV), the remaining 36.7% encompass a subset of eastern Eurasian lineages (e.g., haplogroups A, C, D, F, G, and M). Among the western Eurasian lineages, subhaplogroup U4 was found at a remarkable frequency of 16.3%, along with lineages U5, U7, and J2. This suggests that the aboriginal populations residing immediately to the east of the Ural Mountains may encompass remnants of the early Upper Paleolithic expansion from the Middle East/southeastern Europe. The added presence of eastern Eurasian mtDNA lineages in the Mansi introduces the possibilities that proto-Eurasians encompassed a range of macrohaplogroup M and N lineages that subsequently became geographically distributed and that the Paleolithic expansion may have reached this part of Siberia before it split into western and eastern human groups.

  7. Traces of Early Eurasians in the Mansi of Northwest Siberia Revealed by Mitochondrial DNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Derbeneva, Olga A.; Starikovskaya, Elena B.; Wallace, Douglas C.; Sukernik, Rem I.

    2002-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 98 Mansi, an ancient group (formerly known as “Vogul”) of Uralic-speaking fishers and hunters on the eastern slope of the northern Ural Mountains, were analyzed for sequence variants by restriction fragment–length polymorphism analysis, control-region sequencing, and sequencing of additional informative sites in the coding region. Although 63.3% of the mtDNA detected in the Mansi falls into western Eurasian lineages (e.g., haplogroups UK, TJ, and HV), the remaining 36.7% encompass a subset of eastern Eurasian lineages (e.g., haplogroups A, C, D, F, G, and M). Among the western Eurasian lineages, subhaplogroup U4 was found at a remarkable frequency of 16.3%, along with lineages U5, U7, and J2. This suggests that the aboriginal populations residing immediately to the east of the Ural Mountains may encompass remnants of the early Upper Paleolithic expansion from the Middle East/southeastern Europe. The added presence of eastern Eurasian mtDNA lineages in the Mansi introduces the possibilities that proto-Eurasians encompassed a range of macrohaplogroup M and N lineages that subsequently became geographically distributed and that the Paleolithic expansion may have reached this part of Siberia before it split into western and eastern human groups. PMID:11845409

  8. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms/haplogroups in hereditary spastic paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ferrero, Elena; Coto, Eliecer; Corao, Ana I; Díaz, Marta; Gámez, Josep; Esteban, Jesús; Gonzalo, Juan F; Pascual-Pascual, Samuel I; López De Munaín, Adolfo; Morís, Germán; Infante, Jon; Del Castillo, Emilia; Márquez, Celedonio; Alvarez, Victoria

    2012-02-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction could contribute to the development of spastic paraplegia. Among others, two of the genes implicated in hereditary spastic paraplegia encoded mitochondrial proteins and some of the clinical features frequently found in these patients resemble those observed in patients with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. We investigated the association between common mtDNA polymorphisms and spastic paraplegia. The ten mtDNA polymorphisms that defined the common European haplogroups were determined in 424 patients, 19% with a complicated phenotype. A rare haplogroup was associated with the disease in patients without a SPG3A, SPG4, or SPG7 mutation. Allele 10398G was more frequent among patients with a pure versus complicated phenotype. This mtDNA polymorphism was previously associated with the risk of developing other neurodegenerative diseases. In conclusion, some mtDNA polymorphisms could contribute to the development of spastic paraplegia or act as modifiers of the phenotype.

  9. Endothelial Cell Bioenergetics and Mitochondrial DNA Damage Differ in Humans Having African or West Eurasian Maternal Ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Krzywanski, David M.; Moellering, Douglas R.; Westbrook, David G.; Dunham-Snary, Kimberly J.; Brown, Jamelle; Bray, Alexander W.; Feeley, Kyle P.; Sammy, Melissa J.; Smith, Matthew R.; Schurr, Theodore G.; Vita, Joseph A.; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Calhoun, David; Dell’Italia, Louis; Ballinger, Scott W.

    2016-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that endothelial cells having distinct mitochondrial genetic backgrounds would show variation in mitochondrial function and oxidative stress markers concordant with known differential cardiovascular disease susceptibilities. To test this hypothesis, mitochondrial bioenergetics were determined in endothelial cells from healthy individuals with African versus European maternal ancestries. Methods and Results Bioenergetics and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage were assessed in single donor human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) belonging to mtDNA haplogroups H and L, representing West Eurasian and African maternal ancestry, respectively. HUVECs from haplogroup L utilized less oxygen for ATP production and had increased levels of mtDNA damage compared to those in haplogroup H. Differences in bioenergetic capacity were also observed in that HUVECs belonging to haplogroup L had decreased maximal bioenergetic capacities compared to haplogroup H. Analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from age-matched healthy controls with West Eurasian or African maternal ancestries showed that haplogroups sharing an A to G mtDNA mutation at nucleotide pair (np) 10,398 had increased mtDNA damage compared to those lacking this mutation. Further study of angiographically proven coronary artery disease patients and age-matched healthy controls revealed that mtDNA damage was associated with vascular function and remodeling, and that age of disease onset was later in individuals from haplogroups lacking the A to G mutation at np 10,398. Conclusions Differences in mitochondrial bioenergetics and mtDNA damage associated with maternal ancestry may contribute to endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease. PMID:26787433

  10. Endothelial Cell Bioenergetics and Mitochondrial DNA Damage Differ in Humans Having African or West Eurasian Maternal Ancestry.

    PubMed

    Krzywanski, David M; Moellering, Douglas R; Westbrook, David G; Dunham-Snary, Kimberly J; Brown, Jamelle; Bray, Alexander W; Feeley, Kyle P; Sammy, Melissa J; Smith, Matthew R; Schurr, Theodore G; Vita, Joseph A; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Calhoun, David; Dell'Italia, Louis; Ballinger, Scott W

    2016-02-01

    We hypothesized that endothelial cells having distinct mitochondrial genetic backgrounds would show variation in mitochondrial function and oxidative stress markers concordant with known differential cardiovascular disease susceptibilities. To test this hypothesis, mitochondrial bioenergetics were determined in endothelial cells from healthy individuals with African versus European maternal ancestries. Bioenergetics and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage were assessed in single-donor human umbilical vein endothelial cells belonging to mtDNA haplogroups H and L, representing West Eurasian and African maternal ancestries, respectively. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells from haplogroup L used less oxygen for ATP production and had increased levels of mtDNA damage compared with those in haplogroup H. Differences in bioenergetic capacity were also observed in that human umbilical vein endothelial cells belonging to haplogroup L had decreased maximal bioenergetic capacities compared with haplogroup H. Analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from age-matched healthy controls with West Eurasian or African maternal ancestries showed that haplogroups sharing an A to G mtDNA mutation at nucleotide pair 10398 had increased mtDNA damage compared with those lacking this mutation. Further study of angiographically proven patients with coronary artery disease and age-matched healthy controls revealed that mtDNA damage was associated with vascular function and remodeling and that age of disease onset was later in individuals from haplogroups lacking the A to G mutation at nucleotide pair 10398. Differences in mitochondrial bioenergetics and mtDNA damage associated with maternal ancestry may contribute to endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Origin and spread of human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U7

    PubMed Central

    Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Tamang, Rakesh; Kushniarevich, Alena; Francis, Amirtharaj; Costa, Marta D; Pathak, Ajai Kumar; Khachatryan, Zaruhi; Sharma, Indu; van Oven, Mannis; Parik, Jüri; Hovhannisyan, Hrant; Metspalu, Ene; Pennarun, Erwan; Karmin, Monika; Tamm, Erika; Tambets, Kristiina; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Reisberg, Tuuli; Reidla, Maere; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Gandini, Francesca; Perego, Ugo A.; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Houshmand, Massoud; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein; Soares, Pedro; Rai, Ekta; Šarac, Jelena; Šarić, Tena; Sharma, Varun; Pereira, Luisa; Fernandes, Veronica; Černý, Viktor; Farjadian, Shirin; Singh, Deepankar Pratap; Azakli, Hülya; Üstek, Duran; Ekomasova (Trofimova), Natalia; Kutuev, Ildus; Litvinov, Sergei; Bermisheva, Marina; Khusnutdinova, Elza K.; Rai, Niraj; Singh, Manvendra; Singh, Vijay Kumar; Reddy, Alla G.; Tolk, Helle-Viivi; Cvjetan, Svjetlana; Lauc, Lovorka Barac; Rudan, Pavao; Michalodimitrakis, Emmanuel N.; Anagnou, Nicholas P.; Pappa, Kalliopi I.; Golubenko, Maria V.; Orekhov, Vladimir; Borinskaya, Svetlana A; Kaldma, Katrin; Schauer, Monica A.; Simionescu, Maya; Gusar, Vladislava; Grechanina, Elena; Govindaraj, Periyasamy; Voevoda, Mikhail; Damba, Larissa; Sharma, Swarkar; Singh, Lalji; Semino, Ornella; Behar, Doron M.; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Richards, Martin B.; Metspalu, Mait; Kivisild, Toomas; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Endicott, Phillip; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Torroni, Antonio; Villems, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U is among the initial maternal founders in Southwest Asia and Europe and one that best indicates matrilineal genetic continuity between late Pleistocene hunter-gatherer groups and present-day populations of Europe. While most haplogroup U subclades are older than 30 thousand years, the comparatively recent coalescence time of the extant variation of haplogroup U7 (~16–19 thousand years ago) suggests that its current distribution is the consequence of more recent dispersal events, despite its wide geographical range across Europe, the Near East and South Asia. Here we report 267 new U7 mitogenomes that – analysed alongside 100 published ones – enable us to discern at least two distinct temporal phases of dispersal, both of which most likely emanated from the Near East. The earlier one began prior to the Holocene (~11.5 thousand years ago) towards South Asia, while the later dispersal took place more recently towards Mediterranean Europe during the Neolithic (~8 thousand years ago). These findings imply that the carriers of haplogroup U7 spread to South Asia and Europe before the suggested Bronze Age expansion of Indo-European languages from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe region. PMID:28387361

  12. Origin and spread of human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U7.

    PubMed

    Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Tamang, Rakesh; Kushniarevich, Alena; Francis, Amirtharaj; Costa, Marta D; Pathak, Ajai Kumar; Khachatryan, Zaruhi; Sharma, Indu; van Oven, Mannis; Parik, Jüri; Hovhannisyan, Hrant; Metspalu, Ene; Pennarun, Erwan; Karmin, Monika; Tamm, Erika; Tambets, Kristiina; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Reisberg, Tuuli; Reidla, Maere; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Gandini, Francesca; Perego, Ugo A; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Houshmand, Massoud; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein; Soares, Pedro; Rai, Ekta; Šarac, Jelena; Šarić, Tena; Sharma, Varun; Pereira, Luisa; Fernandes, Veronica; Černý, Viktor; Farjadian, Shirin; Singh, Deepankar Pratap; Azakli, Hülya; Üstek, Duran; Ekomasova Trofimova, Natalia; Kutuev, Ildus; Litvinov, Sergei; Bermisheva, Marina; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Rai, Niraj; Singh, Manvendra; Singh, Vijay Kumar; Reddy, Alla G; Tolk, Helle-Viivi; Cvjetan, Svjetlana; Lauc, Lovorka Barac; Rudan, Pavao; Michalodimitrakis, Emmanuel N; Anagnou, Nicholas P; Pappa, Kalliopi I; Golubenko, Maria V; Orekhov, Vladimir; Borinskaya, Svetlana A; Kaldma, Katrin; Schauer, Monica A; Simionescu, Maya; Gusar, Vladislava; Grechanina, Elena; Govindaraj, Periyasamy; Voevoda, Mikhail; Damba, Larissa; Sharma, Swarkar; Singh, Lalji; Semino, Ornella; Behar, Doron M; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Richards, Martin B; Metspalu, Mait; Kivisild, Toomas; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Endicott, Phillip; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Torroni, Antonio; Villems, Richard

    2017-04-07

    Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U is among the initial maternal founders in Southwest Asia and Europe and one that best indicates matrilineal genetic continuity between late Pleistocene hunter-gatherer groups and present-day populations of Europe. While most haplogroup U subclades are older than 30 thousand years, the comparatively recent coalescence time of the extant variation of haplogroup U7 (~16-19 thousand years ago) suggests that its current distribution is the consequence of more recent dispersal events, despite its wide geographical range across Europe, the Near East and South Asia. Here we report 267 new U7 mitogenomes that - analysed alongside 100 published ones - enable us to discern at least two distinct temporal phases of dispersal, both of which most likely emanated from the Near East. The earlier one began prior to the Holocene (~11.5 thousand years ago) towards South Asia, while the later dispersal took place more recently towards Mediterranean Europe during the Neolithic (~8 thousand years ago). These findings imply that the carriers of haplogroup U7 spread to South Asia and Europe before the suggested Bronze Age expansion of Indo-European languages from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe region.

  13. Sephardic signature in haplogroup T mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Bedford, Felice L

    2012-04-01

    A rare combination of mutations within mitochondrial DNA subhaplogroup T2e is identified as affiliated with Sephardic Jews, a group that has received relatively little attention. Four investigations were pursued: Search of the motif in 250 000 control region records across 8 databases, comparison of frequencies of T subhaplogroups (T1, T2b, T2c, T2e, T4, T(*)) across 11 diverse populations, creation of a phylogenic median-joining network from public T2e control region entries, and analysis of one Sephardic mitochondrial full genomic sequence with the motif. It was found that the rare motif belonged only to Sephardic descendents (Turkey, Bulgaria), to inhabitants of North American regions known for secret Spanish-Jewish colonization, or were consistent with Sephardic ancestry. The incidence of subhaplogroup T2e decreased from the Western Arabian Peninsula to Italy to Spain and into Western Europe. The ratio of sister subhaplogroups T2e to T2b was found to vary 40-fold across populations from a low in the British Isles to a high in Saudi Arabia with the ratio in Sephardim more similar to Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and Italy than to hosts Spain and Portugal. Coding region mutations of 2308G and 14499T may locate the Sephardic signature within T2e, but additional samples and reworking of current T2e phylogenetic branch structure is needed. The Sephardic Turkish community has a less pronounced founder effect than some Ashkenazi groups considered singly (eg, Polish), but other comparisons of interest await comparable averaging. Registries of signatures will benefit the study of populations with a large number of smaller-size founders.

  14. Sephardic signature in haplogroup T mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Bedford, Felice L

    2012-01-01

    A rare combination of mutations within mitochondrial DNA subhaplogroup T2e is identified as affiliated with Sephardic Jews, a group that has received relatively little attention. Four investigations were pursued: Search of the motif in 250 000 control region records across 8 databases, comparison of frequencies of T subhaplogroups (T1, T2b, T2c, T2e, T4, T*) across 11 diverse populations, creation of a phylogenic median-joining network from public T2e control region entries, and analysis of one Sephardic mitochondrial full genomic sequence with the motif. It was found that the rare motif belonged only to Sephardic descendents (Turkey, Bulgaria), to inhabitants of North American regions known for secret Spanish–Jewish colonization, or were consistent with Sephardic ancestry. The incidence of subhaplogroup T2e decreased from the Western Arabian Peninsula to Italy to Spain and into Western Europe. The ratio of sister subhaplogroups T2e to T2b was found to vary 40-fold across populations from a low in the British Isles to a high in Saudi Arabia with the ratio in Sephardim more similar to Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and Italy than to hosts Spain and Portugal. Coding region mutations of 2308G and 14499T may locate the Sephardic signature within T2e, but additional samples and reworking of current T2e phylogenetic branch structure is needed. The Sephardic Turkish community has a less pronounced founder effect than some Ashkenazi groups considered singly (eg, Polish), but other comparisons of interest await comparable averaging. Registries of signatures will benefit the study of populations with a large number of smaller-size founders. PMID:22108605

  15. Evaluating the forensic informativeness of mtDNA haplogroup H sub-typing on a Eurasian scale.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luísa; Richards, Martin; Goios, Ana; Alonso, Antonio; Albarrán, Cristina; Garcia, Oscar; Behar, Doron M; Gölge, Mukaddes; Hatina, Jiri; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Bradley, Daniel G; Macaulay, Vincent; Amorim, António

    2006-05-25

    The impact of phylogeographic information on mtDNA forensics has been limited to the quality control of published sequences and databases. In this work we use the information already available on Eurasian mtDNA phylogeography to guide the choice of coding-region SNPs for haplogroup H. This sub-typing is particularly important in forensics since, even when sequencing both HVRI and HVRII, the discriminating power is low in some Eurasian populations. We show that a small set (eight) of coding-region SNPs resolves a substantial proportion of the identical haplotypes, as defined by control-region variation alone. Moreover, this SNP set, while substantially increasing the discriminating efficiency in most Eurasian populations by roughly equal amounts, discloses population-specific profiles.

  16. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup H structure in North Africa.

    PubMed

    Ennafaa, Hajer; Cabrera, Vicente M; Abu-Amero, Khaled K; González, Ana M; Amor, Mohamed B; Bouhaha, Rym; Dzimiri, Nduna; Elgaaïed, Amel B; Larruga, José M

    2009-02-25

    The Strait of Gibraltar separating the Iberian Peninsula from North Africa is thought to be a stronger barrier to gene flow for male than for female lineages. However, the recent subdivision of the haplogroup H at mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) level has revealed greater genetic differentiation among geographic regions than previously detected. The dissection of the mtDNA haplogroup H in North Africa, and its comparison with the Iberian Peninsula and Near-East profiles would help clarify the relative affinities among these regions. Like the Iberian Peninsula, the dominant mtDNA haplogroup H subgroups in North Africa are H1 (42%) and H3 (13%). The similarity between these regions is stronger in the North-West edge affecting mainly Moroccan Arabs, West Saharans and Mauritanians, and decreases eastwards probably due to gene flow from Near East as attested for the higher frequencies of H4, H5, H7, H8 and H11 subgroups. Moroccan Berbers show stronger affinities with Tunisian and Tunisian Berbers than with Moroccan Arabs. Coalescence ages for H1 (11 +/- 2 ky) and H3 (11 +/- 4 ky) in North Africa point to the possibility of a late Palaeolithic settlement for these lineages similar to those found for other mtDNA haplogroups. Total and partial mtDNA genomic sequencing unveiled stronger mtDNA differentiation among regions than previously found using HVSI mtDNA based analysis. The subdivision of the mtDNA haplogroup H in North Africa has confirmed that the genetic differentiation found among Western and Eastern populations is mainly due to geographical rather than cultural barriers. It also shows that the historical Arabian role on the region had more a cultural than a demic effect. Whole mtDNA sequencing of identical H haplotypes based on HVSI and RFLP information has unveiled additional mtDNA differences between North African and Iberian Peninsula lineages, pointing to an older mtDNA genetic flow between regions than previously thought. Based on this new information, it seems

  17. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup H structure in North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ennafaa, Hajer; Cabrera, Vicente M; Abu-Amero, Khaled K; González, Ana M; Amor, Mohamed B; Bouhaha, Rym; Dzimiri, Nduna; Elgaaïed, Amel B; Larruga, José M

    2009-01-01

    Background The Strait of Gibraltar separating the Iberian Peninsula from North Africa is thought to be a stronger barrier to gene flow for male than for female lineages. However, the recent subdivision of the haplogroup H at mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) level has revealed greater genetic differentiation among geographic regions than previously detected. The dissection of the mtDNA haplogroup H in North Africa, and its comparison with the Iberian Peninsula and Near-East profiles would help clarify the relative affinities among these regions. Results Like the Iberian Peninsula, the dominant mtDNA haplogroup H subgroups in North Africa are H1 (42%) and H3 (13%). The similarity between these regions is stronger in the North-West edge affecting mainly Moroccan Arabs, West Saharans and Mauritanians, and decreases eastwards probably due to gene flow from Near East as attested for the higher frequencies of H4, H5, H7, H8 and H11 subgroups. Moroccan Berbers show stronger affinities with Tunisian and Tunisian Berbers than with Moroccan Arabs. Coalescence ages for H1 (11 ± 2 ky) and H3 (11 ± 4 ky) in North Africa point to the possibility of a late Palaeolithic settlement for these lineages similar to those found for other mtDNA haplogroups. Total and partial mtDNA genomic sequencing unveiled stronger mtDNA differentiation among regions than previously found using HVSI mtDNA based analysis. Conclusion The subdivision of the mtDNA haplogroup H in North Africa has confirmed that the genetic differentiation found among Western and Eastern populations is mainly due to geographical rather than cultural barriers. It also shows that the historical Arabian role on the region had more a cultural than a demic effect. Whole mtDNA sequencing of identical H haplotypes based on HVSI and RFLP information has unveiled additional mtDNA differences between North African and Iberian Peninsula lineages, pointing to an older mtDNA genetic flow between regions than previously thought. Based on this

  18. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups in 1526 unrelated individuals from 11 Departments of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Yunis, Juan J; Yunis, Emilio J

    2013-09-01

    The frequencies of four mitochondrial Native American DNA haplogroups were determined in 1526 unrelated individuals from 11 Departments of Colombia and compared to the frequencies previously obtained for Amerindian and Afro-Colombian populations. Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups ranged from 74% to 97%. The lowest frequencies were found in Departments on the Caribbean coast and in the Pacific region, where the frequency of Afro-Colombians is higher, while the highest mtDNA Amerindian haplogroup frequencies were found in Departments that historically have a strong Amerindian heritage. Interestingly, all four mtDNA haplogroups were found in all Departments, in contrast to the complete absence of haplogroup D and high frequencies of haplogroup A in Amerindian populations in the Caribbean region of Colombia. Our results indicate that all four Native American mtDNA haplogroups were widely distributed in Colombia at the time of the Spanish conquest.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups in 1526 unrelated individuals from 11 Departments of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Yunis, Juan J.; Yunis, Emilio J.

    2013-01-01

    The frequencies of four mitochondrial Native American DNA haplogroups were determined in 1526 unrelated individuals from 11 Departments of Colombia and compared to the frequencies previously obtained for Amerindian and Afro-Colombian populations. Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups ranged from 74% to 97%. The lowest frequencies were found in Departments on the Caribbean coast and in the Pacific region, where the frequency of Afro-Colombians is higher, while the highest mtDNA Amerindian haplogroup frequencies were found in Departments that historically have a strong Amerindian heritage. Interestingly, all four mtDNA haplogroups were found in all Departments, in contrast to the complete absence of haplogroup D and high frequencies of haplogroup A in Amerindian populations in the Caribbean region of Colombia. Our results indicate that all four Native American mtDNA haplogroups were widely distributed in Colombia at the time of the Spanish conquest. PMID:24130438

  20. Association of mitochondrial haplogroups H and R with keratoconus in Saudi Arabian patients.

    PubMed

    Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Azad, Taif Anwar; Sultan, Tahira; Kalantan, Hatem; Kondkar, Altaf A; Al-Muammar, Abdulrahman M

    2014-05-01

    Keratoconic corneas exhibit more mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage than do normal corneas and thus mtDNA may represent a potential candidate for genetic susceptibility studies in keratoconus. To test this hypothesis we determined mitochondrial haplogroups in Saudi patients with keratoconus and healthy controls of same ethnicity. Mitochondrial haplogrouping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-based automated Sanger sequencing in 114 patients with keratoconus and 552 healthy controls. Mitochondrial haplogroups H and R were significantly overrepresented in patients with keratoconus (28.9% vs. 8.5%, P < 0.0001 and 17.5% vs. 3.1%, P < 0.0001, respectively) as compared to healthy controls. Our data suggest that individuals with mitochondrial haplogroups H and R are at increased risk to develop keratoconus. In addition, the results provide further evidence for a plausible role of mtDNA in keratoconus etiology.

  1. Development of a multiplex single base extension assay for mitochondrial DNA haplogroup typing.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Tahnee M; Just, Rebecca S; Loreille, Odile; Schanfield, Moses S; Podini, Daniele

    2007-08-01

    To provide a screening tool to reduce time and sample consumption when attempting mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup typing. A single base primer extension assay was developed to enable typing, in a single reaction, of twelve mtDNA haplogroup specific polymorphisms. For validation purposes a total of 147 samples were tested including 73 samples successfully haplogroup typed using mtDNA control region (CR) sequence data, 20 samples inconclusively haplogroup typed by CR sequence data, 21 samples previously haplogroup typed using RFLP analysis, and 31 samples of known ancestral origin without previous haplogroup typing. Additionally, two highly degraded human bones embalmed and buried in the early 1950s were analyzed using the SNP multiplex. When the SNP multiplex was used to type the 96 previously CR sequenced specimens, an increase in haplogroup or macrohaplogroup assignment relative to conventional CR sequence analysis was observed. The single base extension assay was also successfully used to assign a haplogroup to decades-old, embalmed skeletal remains dating to World War II. The SNP multiplex was successfully used to obtain haplogroup status of highly degraded human bones, and demonstrated the ability to eliminate possible contributors. The SNP multiplex provides a low-cost, high throughput method for typing of mtDNA haplogroups A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, L1/L2, L3, M, and N that could be useful for screening purposes for human identification efforts and anthropological studies.

  2. Septic patients with mitochondrial DNA haplogroup JT have higher respiratory complex IV activity and survival rate.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Leonardo; Martín, María M; López-Gallardo, Ester; Ferreres, José; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Labarta, Lorenzo; Díaz, César; Jiménez, Alejandro; Montoya, Julio; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo

    2016-06-01

    The influence of mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) haplogroup or oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) function on survival of septic patients has been scarcely studied. However, the association between mtDNA haplogroup, OXPHOS capacity at diagnosis of severe sepsis, and survival has been not previously reported, and that was the objective of the present study. This was a prospective, multicenter, observational study. Blood samples from 198 patients at diagnosis of severe sepsis were analyzed to determine mtDNA haplogroup and platelet respiratory complex IV (CIV) specific activity. The end point of the study was 30-day survival. Septic patients with mtDNA haplogroup JT showed higher 30-day survival than those with mtDNA haplogroup non-JT (31/38 [81.6%] vs 99/160 [61.9%]; P= .02). Septic patients with mtDNA haplogroup JT showed higher platelet CIV specific activity than those with mtDNA haplogroup non-JT (P= .002). The main novel finding of our study, including the largest series providing data on platelet CIV specific activity according to mtDNA haplogroup in severe septic patients, was that those with mtDNA haplogroup JT showed higher survival and higher platelet CIV specific activity at diagnosis of severe sepsis than patients with mtDNA haplogroup non-JT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mitochondrial Haplogroup Influences Motor Function in Long-Term HIV-1-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Azar, Ashley; Giovannetti, Tania; Pirrone, Vanessa; Nonnemacher, Michael R.; Passic, Shendra; Kercher, Katherine; Williams, Jean W.; Wigdahl, Brian; Dampier, William; Libon, David J.; Sell, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary divergence of the mitochondrial genome has given rise to distinct haplogroups. These haplogroups have arisen in specific geographical locations and are responsible for subtle functional changes in the mitochondria that may provide an evolutionary advantage in a given environment. Based on these functional differences, haplogroups could define disease susceptibility in chronic settings. In this study, we undertook a detailed neuropsychological analysis of a cohort of long-term HIV-1-infected individuals in conjunction with sequencing of their mitochondrial genomes. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the best model for predicting both working memory and declarative memory were age and years since diagnosis. In contrast, years since diagnosis and sub-haplogroup were significantly predictive of psychomotor speed. Consistent with this, patients with haplogroup L3e obtained better scores on psychomotor speed and dexterity tasks when compared to the remainder of the cohort, suggesting that this haplogroup provides a protective advantage when faced with the combined stress of HIV-1 infection and long-term antiretroviral therapies. Differential performance on declarative memory tasks was noted for individuals with other sub-L haplogroups, but these differences were not as robust as the association between L3e and psychomotor speed and dexterity tasks. This work provides evidence that mitochondrial haplogroup is related to neuropsychological test performance among patients in chronic disease settings such as HIV-1 infection. PMID:27711166

  4. Mitochondrial Haplogroup Influences Motor Function in Long-Term HIV-1-Infected Individuals.

    PubMed

    Azar, Ashley; Devlin, Kathryn; Mell, Joshua Chang; Giovannetti, Tania; Pirrone, Vanessa; Nonnemacher, Michael R; Passic, Shendra; Kercher, Katherine; Williams, Jean W; Jacobson, Jeffery M; Wigdahl, Brian; Dampier, William; Libon, David J; Sell, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary divergence of the mitochondrial genome has given rise to distinct haplogroups. These haplogroups have arisen in specific geographical locations and are responsible for subtle functional changes in the mitochondria that may provide an evolutionary advantage in a given environment. Based on these functional differences, haplogroups could define disease susceptibility in chronic settings. In this study, we undertook a detailed neuropsychological analysis of a cohort of long-term HIV-1-infected individuals in conjunction with sequencing of their mitochondrial genomes. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the best model for predicting both working memory and declarative memory were age and years since diagnosis. In contrast, years since diagnosis and sub-haplogroup were significantly predictive of psychomotor speed. Consistent with this, patients with haplogroup L3e obtained better scores on psychomotor speed and dexterity tasks when compared to the remainder of the cohort, suggesting that this haplogroup provides a protective advantage when faced with the combined stress of HIV-1 infection and long-term antiretroviral therapies. Differential performance on declarative memory tasks was noted for individuals with other sub-L haplogroups, but these differences were not as robust as the association between L3e and psychomotor speed and dexterity tasks. This work provides evidence that mitochondrial haplogroup is related to neuropsychological test performance among patients in chronic disease settings such as HIV-1 infection.

  5. Neolithic mitochondrial haplogroup H genomes and the genetic origins of Europeans.

    PubMed

    Brotherton, Paul; Haak, Wolfgang; Templeton, Jennifer; Brandt, Guido; Soubrier, Julien; Jane Adler, Christina; Richards, Stephen M; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ganslmeier, Robert; Friederich, Susanne; Dresely, Veit; van Oven, Mannis; Kenyon, Rosalie; Van der Hoek, Mark B; Korlach, Jonas; Luong, Khai; Ho, Simon Y W; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Behar, Doron M; Meller, Harald; Alt, Kurt W; Cooper, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Haplogroup H dominates present-day Western European mitochondrial DNA variability (>40%), yet was less common (~19%) among Early Neolithic farmers (~5450 BC) and virtually absent in Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. Here we investigate this major component of the maternal population history of modern Europeans and sequence 39 complete haplogroup H mitochondrial genomes from ancient human remains. We then compare this 'real-time' genetic data with cultural changes taking place between the Early Neolithic (~5450 BC) and Bronze Age (~2200 BC) in Central Europe. Our results reveal that the current diversity and distribution of haplogroup H were largely established by the Mid Neolithic (~4000 BC), but with substantial genetic contributions from subsequent pan-European cultures such as the Bell Beakers expanding out of Iberia in the Late Neolithic (~2800 BC). Dated haplogroup H genomes allow us to reconstruct the recent evolutionary history of haplogroup H and reveal a mutation rate 45% higher than current estimates for human mitochondria.

  6. Characterization of mitochondrial haplogroups in a large population-based sample from the United States.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sabrina L; Goodloe, Robert; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Pendergrass, Sarah A; Murdock, Deborah G; Crawford, Dana C

    2014-07-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups are valuable for investigations in forensic science, molecular anthropology, and human genetics. In this study, we developed a custom panel of 61 mtDNA markers for high-throughput classification of European, African, and Native American/Asian mitochondrial haplogroup lineages. Using these mtDNA markers, we constructed a mitochondrial haplogroup classification tree and classified 18,832 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date characterizing mitochondrial haplogroups in a population-based sample from the United States, and the first study characterizing mitochondrial haplogroup distributions in self-identified Mexican Americans separately from Hispanic Americans of other descent. We observed clear differences in the distribution of maternal genetic ancestry consistent with proposed admixture models for these subpopulations, underscoring the genetic heterogeneity of the United States Hispanic population. The mitochondrial haplogroup distributions in the other self-identified racial/ethnic groups within NHANES were largely comparable to previous studies. Mitochondrial haplogroup classification was highly concordant with self-identified race/ethnicity (SIRE) in non-Hispanic whites (94.8 %), but was considerably lower in admixed populations including non-Hispanic blacks (88.3 %), Mexican Americans (81.8 %), and other Hispanics (61.6 %), suggesting SIRE does not accurately reflect maternal genetic ancestry, particularly in populations with greater proportions of admixture. Thus, it is important to consider inconsistencies between SIRE and genetic ancestry when performing genetic association studies. The mitochondrial haplogroup data that we have generated, coupled with the epidemiologic variables in NHANES, is a valuable resource for future studies investigating the contribution of mtDNA variation to human health and disease.

  7. Survival and mitochondrial function in septic patients according to mitochondrial DNA haplogroup

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction We recently found that platelet cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activities and quantities in 6-month-survival septic patients are significantly higher than those of patients who died before 6 months. Other studies suggested that the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genotype could play a major role in sepsis survival. Given that COX catalytic subunits are encoded by mtDNA, the objective of the present study was to explore whether mtDNA population genetic variation could affect COX activity and quantity and favors sepsis survival. Methods A prospective, multicenter, observational study was carried out in six Spanish ICUs. We included 96 patients with severe sepsis. We determined the mtDNA haplogroup, the COX specific activity/citrate synthase specific activity (COXa/CSa) ratio and the COX quantity/citrate synthase specific activity (COXq/CSa) ratio in circulating platelets at the time of diagnosis, day 4 and day 8. We used survival at 1 and 6 months as endpoints. Results Patients with the JT mtDNA haplogroup (n = 15) showed higher COXq/CSa ratio at day 4 (P = 0.04) and day 8 (P = 0.02) than those with other haplogroups (n = 81). Logistic regression analysis showed that the JT mtDNA haplogroup (odds ratio = 0.18; 95% confidence interval = 0.04 to 0.94; P = 0.04) and COXq/CSa ratio (odds ratio = 0.53; 95% confidence interval = 0.30 to 0.93; P = 0.03) were associated with 1-month survival after controlling for age and lactic acid levels. Conclusions The novel findings of our study are that 1-month surviving septic patients showed higher COXq/CSa ratio than nonsurviving individuals, that patients from the JT mtDNA haplogroup showed a higher COXq/CSa ratio and that JT patients had a higher 1-month survival than patients from other mtDNA haplogroups. PMID:22251664

  8. Survival and mitochondrial function in septic patients according to mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Leonardo; Iceta, Ruth; Martín, María M; López-Gallardo, Esther; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Labarta, Lorenzo; Díaz, César; Jiménez, Alejandro; Montoya, Julio; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo

    2012-01-17

    We recently found that platelet cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activities and quantities in 6-month-survival septic patients are significantly higher than those of patients who died before 6 months. Other studies suggested that the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genotype could play a major role in sepsis survival. Given that COX catalytic subunits are encoded by mtDNA, the objective of the present study was to explore whether mtDNA population genetic variation could affect COX activity and quantity and favors sepsis survival. A prospective, multicenter, observational study was carried out in six Spanish ICUs. We included 96 patients with severe sepsis. We determined the mtDNA haplogroup, the COX specific activity/citrate synthase specific activity (COXa/CSa) ratio and the COX quantity/citrate synthase specific activity (COXq/CSa) ratio in circulating platelets at the time of diagnosis, day 4 and day 8. We used survival at 1 and 6 months as endpoints. Patients with the JT mtDNA haplogroup (n=15) showed higher COXq/CSa ratio at day 4 (P=0.04) and day 8 (P=0.02) than those with other haplogroups (n=81). Logistic regression analysis showed that the JT mtDNA haplogroup (odds ratio=0.18; 95% confidence interval=0.04 to 0.94; P=0.04) and COXq/CSa ratio (odds ratio=0.53; 95% confidence interval=0.30 to 0.93; P=0.03) were associated with 1-month survival after controlling for age and lactic acid levels. The novel findings of our study are that 1-month surviving septic patients showed higher COXq/CSa ratio than nonsurviving individuals, that patients from the JT mtDNA haplogroup showed a higher COXq/CSa ratio and that JT patients had a higher 1-month survival than patients from other mtDNA haplogroups.

  9. Analysis of European mitochondrial haplogroups with Alzheimer disease risk.

    PubMed

    van der Walt, Joelle M; Dementieva, Yulia A; Martin, Eden R; Scott, William K; Nicodemus, Kristin K; Kroner, Charles C; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A; Saunders, Ann M; Roses, Allen D; Small, Gary W; Schmechel, Donald E; Murali Doraiswamy, P; Gilbert, John R; Haines, Jonathan L; Vance, Jeffery M; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A

    2004-07-15

    We examined the association of mtDNA variation with Alzheimer disease (AD) risk in Caucasians (989 cases and 328 controls) testing the effect of individual haplogroups and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Logistic regression analyses were used to assess risk of haplogroups and SNPs with AD in both main effects and interaction models. Males classified as haplogroup U showed an increase in risk (OR = 2.30; 95% CI, 1.03-5.11; P = 0.04) of AD relative to the most common haplogroup H, while females demonstrated a significant decrease in risk with haplogroup U (OR = 0.44 ; 95% CI, 0.24-0.80; P = 0.007). Our results were independent of APOE genotype, demonstrating that the effect of mt variation is not confounded by APOE4 carrier status. We suggest that variations within haplogroup U may be involved in AD expression in combination with environmental exposures or nuclear proteins other than APOE.

  10. Concept for estimating mitochondrial DNA haplogroups using a maximum likelihood approach (EMMA).

    PubMed

    Röck, Alexander W; Dür, Arne; van Oven, Mannis; Parson, Walther

    2013-12-01

    The assignment of haplogroups to mitochondrial DNA haplotypes contributes substantial value for quality control, not only in forensic genetics but also in population and medical genetics. The availability of Phylotree, a widely accepted phylogenetic tree of human mitochondrial DNA lineages, led to the development of several (semi-)automated software solutions for haplogrouping. However, currently existing haplogrouping tools only make use of haplogroup-defining mutations, whereas private mutations (beyond the haplogroup level) can be additionally informative allowing for enhanced haplogroup assignment. This is especially relevant in the case of (partial) control region sequences, which are mainly used in forensics. The present study makes three major contributions toward a more reliable, semi-automated estimation of mitochondrial haplogroups. First, a quality-controlled database consisting of 14,990 full mtGenomes downloaded from GenBank was compiled. Together with Phylotree, these mtGenomes serve as a reference database for haplogroup estimates. Second, the concept of fluctuation rates, i.e. a maximum likelihood estimation of the stability of mutations based on 19,171 full control region haplotypes for which raw lane data is available, is presented. Finally, an algorithm for estimating the haplogroup of an mtDNA sequence based on the combined database of full mtGenomes and Phylotree, which also incorporates the empirically determined fluctuation rates, is brought forward. On the basis of examples from the literature and EMPOP, the algorithm is not only validated, but both the strength of this approach and its utility for quality control of mitochondrial haplotypes is also demonstrated. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Concept for estimating mitochondrial DNA haplogroups using a maximum likelihood approach (EMMA)☆

    PubMed Central

    Röck, Alexander W.; Dür, Arne; van Oven, Mannis; Parson, Walther

    2013-01-01

    The assignment of haplogroups to mitochondrial DNA haplotypes contributes substantial value for quality control, not only in forensic genetics but also in population and medical genetics. The availability of Phylotree, a widely accepted phylogenetic tree of human mitochondrial DNA lineages, led to the development of several (semi-)automated software solutions for haplogrouping. However, currently existing haplogrouping tools only make use of haplogroup-defining mutations, whereas private mutations (beyond the haplogroup level) can be additionally informative allowing for enhanced haplogroup assignment. This is especially relevant in the case of (partial) control region sequences, which are mainly used in forensics. The present study makes three major contributions toward a more reliable, semi-automated estimation of mitochondrial haplogroups. First, a quality-controlled database consisting of 14,990 full mtGenomes downloaded from GenBank was compiled. Together with Phylotree, these mtGenomes serve as a reference database for haplogroup estimates. Second, the concept of fluctuation rates, i.e. a maximum likelihood estimation of the stability of mutations based on 19,171 full control region haplotypes for which raw lane data is available, is presented. Finally, an algorithm for estimating the haplogroup of an mtDNA sequence based on the combined database of full mtGenomes and Phylotree, which also incorporates the empirically determined fluctuation rates, is brought forward. On the basis of examples from the literature and EMPOP, the algorithm is not only validated, but both the strength of this approach and its utility for quality control of mitochondrial haplotypes is also demonstrated. PMID:23948335

  12. Mitochondrial haplogroup X is associated with successful aging in the Amish.

    PubMed

    Courtenay, Monique D; Gilbert, John R; Jiang, Lan; Cummings, Anna C; Gallins, Paul J; Caywood, Laura; Reinhart-Mercer, Lori; Fuzzell, Denise; Knebusch, Claire; Laux, Renee; McCauley, Jacob L; Jackson, Charles E; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Haines, Jonathan L; Scott, William K

    2012-02-01

    Avoiding disease, maintaining physical and cognitive function, and continued social engagement in long-lived individuals describe successful aging (SA). Mitochondrial lineages described by patterns of common genetic variants ("haplogroups") have been associated with increased longevity in different populations. We investigated the influence of mitochondrial haplogroups on SA in an Amish community sample. Cognitively intact volunteers aged ≥80 years (n = 261) were enrolled in a door-to-door survey of Amish communities in Indiana and Ohio. Individuals scoring in the top third for lower extremity function, needing little assistance with self-care tasks, having no depression symptoms, and expressing high life satisfaction were considered SA (n = 74). The remainder (n = 187) were retained as controls. These individuals descend from 51 matrilines in a single 13-generation pedigree. Mitochondrial haplogroups were assigned using the ten mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs) defining the nine most common European haplogroups. An additional 17 mtSNPs from a genome-wide association panel were also investigated. Associations between haplogroups, mtSNPs, and SA were determined by logistic regression models accounting for sex, age, body mass index, and matriline via generalized estimating equations. SA cases were more likely to carry Haplogroup X (OR = 7.56, p = 0.0015), and less likely to carry Haplogroup J (OR = 0.40, p = 0.0003). Our results represent a novel association of Haplogroup X with SA and suggest that variants in the mitochondrial genome may promote maintenance of both physical and cognitive function in older adults.

  13. Mitochondrial haplogroup background may influence Southeast Asian G11778A Leber hereditary optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Kaewsutthi, Supannee; Phasukkijwatana, Nopasak; Joyjinda, Yutthana; Chuenkongkaew, Wanicha; Kunhapan, Bussaraporn; Tun, Aung Win; Suktitipat, Bhoom; Lertrit, Patcharee

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the role of mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) background on the expression of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) in Southeast Asian carriers of the G11778A mutation. Complete mtDNA sequences were analyzed from 53 unrelated Southeast Asian G11778A LHON pedigrees in Thailand and 105 normal Thai controls, and mtDNA haplogroups were determined. Clinical phenotypes were tested for association with mtDNA haplogroup, with adjustment for potential confounders such as sex and age at onset. mtDNA subhaplogroup B was significantly associated with LHON. Follow-up analysis narrowed the association down to subhaplogroup B5a1 (P = 0.008). Survival analyses with Cox's proportional hazards modeling on 469 samples (91 affected and 378 unaffected), adjusted for sex and heteroplasmy, revealed that haplogroup B5a1 tended to increase the risk of visual loss, but the trend was not statistically significant. Conversely, haplogroup F, the second most common haplogroup in the control population, was the least frequent haplogroup in LHON. This negative association was narrowed down to subhaplogroup F1 (P = 0.00043), suggesting that haplogroup F1 confers a protective effect. The distributions of sex, age at onset and heteroplasmy were not significantly different among haplogroups. The specific mtDNA background B5a1 was significantly associated with Southeast Asian G11778A LHON and appeared to modify the risk of visual loss.

  14. Mitochondrial haplogroups and hypervariable region polymorphisms in schizophrenia: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-xia; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Yun-tao; Dong, Yu-shu; Lv, Zhuang-wei; Sun, Mao; Wu, Dan; Wu, Yuan-ming

    2013-10-30

    Previous studies have detected associations between mitochondrial haplogroups and schizophrenia (SZ). However, no study has examined the relationship between major mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups and SZ in the Chinese population. The aim of this study was to assess the association between mtDNA haplogroups and SZ genesis in the Chinese Han population. We used a case-control study and sequenced the mtDNA hypervariable regions (HVR1, HVR2, and HVR3) in the Han population. We analyzed mtDNA haplogroups and HVR polymorphisms in 298 SZ patients and 298 controls. The haplotypes were classified into 10 major haplogroups: A, B, CZ, D, F, G, M, N, N9a, and R. Statistical analysis revealed that only N9a showed a nominally significant association with protection from SZ [1.68% vs. 6.38%, p=0.004, OR=0.251 (0.092-0.680); after adjustment for age and sex: p=0.006, OR=0.246 (0.090-0.669)]. Three HVR polymorphisms were found to be nominally significantly different between subjects with SZ and controls, and all except one (m.204T>C) are linked to the N9a haplogroup. Our results indicate that mtDNA haplogroup N9a might be a protective factor for SZ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 1A.06: MITOCHONDRIAL DNA HAPLOGROUP H IS ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLINICAL CAROTID ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN RUSSIAN POPULATION.

    PubMed

    Zhelankin, A; Khasanova, Z; Barinova, L; Sazonova, M; Postnov, A; Sobenin, I

    2015-06-01

    It is known that type of mitochondrial haplogroup, based on the combination of inherited mtDNA mutations, may influence the progression of various multifactorial diseases. For example, belonging to haplogroup H is associated with early myocardial infarction in the population of Asturias (northern Spain). Aim of this study was to identify the relationship between the type of mitochondrial haplogroup and presence of subclinical atherosclerosis and hypertension in Russian population. A total of 80 persons from Moscow region (Russia) were included in the study. 45 study participants without CHD or myocardial infarction had ultrasonographically detected atherosclerotic lesions of the carotid arteries, others were controls without atherosclerosis. 32 patients had arterial hypertension. DNA was isolated from blood and the enrichment of mitochondrial DNA was performed. Detection of mtDNA haplogroups was made on the basis of Phylotree and MITOMAP databases and using Mitotool software on the data of mtDNA full sequences obtained by high-throughput sequencing of the mitochondrial genome using Roche 454 technology with GS Junior Titanium system. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics v.21.0 software. Mitochondrial haplogroups H, U, T and J were the most common in the observed sample (85.7% of cases), what corresponds to the general Russian population data. It was found that belonging to haplogroup H is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis (x2 = 3.97, p = 0.046; OR = 2.76, 95 % CI 1.01-7.58). 2706A and 7028C variants, that are markers of mitochondrial haplogroup H, were more common in atherosclerotic patients (p < 0.05), which proofs the role of this haplogroup as a marker for suspectability to atherosclerotic-related diseases. There were no statistically significant evidence that any other haplogroups are associated with atherosclerosis and hypertension in the observed sample. Results of our study based on NGS data showed

  16. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups modulate the serum levels of biomarkers in patients with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Rego-Pérez, I; Fernández-Moreno, M; Deberg, M; Pértega, S; Fenández-López, C; Oreiro, N; Henrotin, Y; Blanco, F J

    2010-05-01

    To analyse the influence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups on serum levels of molecular biomarkers in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Serum levels of molecular biomarkers of cartilage metabolism (collagen type II markers: C-terminal neoepitope generated by the collagenase-mediated cleavage of collagen type II triple helix (C2C), collagen type II (Coll2-1, and its nitrated form, Coll2-1NO(2)), procollagen type II (CPII)), synovial metabolism (hyaluronic acid (HA)) and cartilage and synovial turnover (cartilage glycoprotein 39 (YKL-40)) were analysed in 73 patients with OA and 77 healthy controls using ELISAs. All participants had been previously genotyped for the mtDNA haplogroups J, U and H. Non-parametric and multivariate analysis were performed to test the effects of the clinical variables, including gender, age, smoking status, diagnosis, mtDNA haplogroups and radiological Kellgren and Lawrence (K/L) grade on the serum levels of the molecular markers. Non-parametric analysis found increased serum levels of HA in patients with OA, while the values for C2C and the C2C/CPII ratio were significantly higher in the healthy controls. A multiple regression analysis showed a relationship between the mtDNA haplogroups and serum levels of the typical collagen type II markers. Carriers of the mtDNA haplogroup H had higher levels while carriers of the mtDNA haplogroup J showed lower levels. Statistically significant interactions between mtDNA haplogroups and diagnosis and between mtDNA haplogroups and radiological K/L grade in the serum levels of molecular markers were also found. A new role for mtDNA haplogroups emerges from this work. The results suggest that the mtDNA haplogroups interact significantly with the serum levels of OA-related molecular markers, suggesting the possibility of their use as a complementary assay with these molecular markers.

  17. Mitochondrial DNA of ancient Cumanians: culturally Asian steppe nomadic immigrants with substantially more western Eurasian mitochondrial DNA lineages.

    PubMed

    Bogácsi-Szabó, Erika; Kalmár, Tibor; Csányi, Bernadett; Tömöry, Gyöngyvér; Czibula, Agnes; Priskin, Katalin; Horváth, Ferenc; Downes, Christopher Stephen; Raskó, István

    2005-10-01

    The Cumanians were originally Asian pastoral nomads who in the 13th century migrated to Hungary. We have examined mitochondrial DNA from members of the earliest Cumanian population in Hungary from two archeologically well-documented excavations and from 74 modern Hungarians from different rural locations in Hungary. Haplogroups were defined based on HVS I sequences and examinations of haplogroup-associated polymorphic sites of the protein coding region and of HVS II. To exclude contamination, some ancient DNA samples were cloned. A database was created from previously published mtDNA HVS I sequences (representing 2,615 individuals from different Asian and European populations) and 74 modem Hungarian sequences from the present study. This database was used to determine the relationships between the ancient Cumanians, modern Hungarians, and Eurasian populations and to estimate the genetic distances between these populations. We attempted to deduce the genetic trace of the migration of Cumanians. This study is the first ancient DNA characterization of an eastern pastoral nomad population that migrated into Europe. The results indicate that, while still possessing a Central Asian steppe culture, the Cumanians received a large admixture of maternal genes from more westerly populations before arriving in Hungary. A similar dilution of genetic, but not cultural, factors may have accompanied the settlement of other Asian nomads in Europe.

  18. Mitochondrial Haplogroup X is Associated with Successful Aging in the Amish

    PubMed Central

    Courtenay, Monique D.; Gilbert, John R.; Jiang, Lan; Cummings, Anna C.; Gallins, Paul J.; Caywood, Laura; Reinhart-Mercer, Lori; Fuzzell, Denise; Knebusch, Claire; Laux, Renee; McCauley, Jacob L.; Jackson, Charles E.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Scott, William K.

    2016-01-01

    Avoiding disease, maintaining physical and cognitive function, and continued social engagement in long-lived individuals describe successful aging (SA). Mitochondrial lineages described by patterns of common genetic variants (“haplogroups”) have been associated with increased longevity in different populations. We investigated the influence of mitochondrial haplogroups on SA in an Amish community sample. Cognitively intact volunteers aged ≥80 (n=261) were enrolled in a door-to-door survey of Amish communities in Indiana and Ohio. Individuals scoring in the top third for lower extremity function, needing little assistance with self-care tasks, having no depression symptoms, and expressing high life satisfaction were considered SA (n=74). The remainder (n=187) were retained as controls. These individuals descend from 51 matrilines in a single 13 generation pedigree. Mitochondrial haplogroups were assigned using the 10 mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs) defining the nine most common European haplogroups. An additional 17 mtSNPs from a genome-wide association panel were also investigated. Associations between haplogroups, mtSNPs, and SA were determined by logistic regression models accounting for sex, age, body mass index, and matriline via generalized estimating equations. SA cases were more likely to carry Haplogroup X (OR=7.56, p=0.0015), and less likely to carry Haplogroup J (OR=0.40, p=0.0003). Our results represent a novel association of Haplogroup X with SA and suggest that variants in the mitochondrial genome may promote maintenance of both physical and cognitive function in older adults. PMID:21750925

  19. Relationship between mitochondrial haplogroup and physiological responses to hypobaric hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Motoi, Midori; Nishimura, Takayuki; Egashira, Yuka; Kishida, Fumi; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2016-04-29

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between mtDNA polymorphism and physiological responses to hypobaric hypoxia. The study included 28 healthy male students, consisting of 18 students in haplogroup D and 10 in haplogroup M7+G. Measurement sensors were attached to the participants for approximately 30 min in an environment with a temperature of 28 °C. After resting for 15 min, the programmed operation of the hypobaric chamber decreased the atmospheric pressure by 11.9 Torr every minute to simulate an increase in altitude of 150 m until 9.7 Torr (equivalent to 2500 m) and then decreased 9.7 Torr every minute until 465 Torr (equivalent to 4000 m). At each altitude, the pressure was maintained for 15 min and various measurements were taken. Haplogroup D showed higher SpO2 (p < 0.05) and significantly higher SpO2 during the pressure recovery period when compared with haplogroup M7+G. The distal skin temperature was higher in haplogroup D when compared with M7+G. These results suggested that haplogroup D maintained SpO2 at a higher level with higher peripheral blood flow during acute hypobaric exposure.

  20. Phy-Mer: a novel alignment-free and reference-independent mitochondrial haplogroup classifier.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Gomez, Daniel; Leipzig, Jeremy; Shen, Lishuang; Lott, Marie; Stassen, Alphons P M; Wallace, Douglas C; Wiggs, Janey L; Falk, Marni J; van Oven, Mannis; Gai, Xiaowu

    2015-04-15

    All current mitochondrial haplogroup classification tools require variants to be detected from an alignment with the reference sequence and to be properly named according to the canonical nomenclature standards for describing mitochondrial variants, before they can be compared with the haplogroup determining polymorphisms. With the emergence of high-throughput sequencing technologies and hence greater availability of mitochondrial genome sequences, there is a strong need for an automated haplogroup classification tool that is alignment-free and agnostic to reference sequence. We have developed a novel mitochondrial genome haplogroup-defining algorithm using a k-mer approach namely Phy-Mer. Phy-Mer performs equally well as the leading haplogroup classifier, HaploGrep, while avoiding the errors that may occur when preparing variants to required formats and notations. We have further expanded Phy-Mer functionality such that next-generation sequencing data can be used directly as input. Phy-Mer is publicly available under the GNU Affero General Public License v3.0 on GitHub (https://github.com/danielnavarrogomez/phy-mer). Xiaowu_Gai@meei.harvard.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup R predicts survival advantage in severe sepsis in the Han population.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Shou, Zhangfei; Zhang, Ping; He, Qiang; Xiao, Huaying; Xu, Yifang; Li, Chunmei; Chen, Jianghua

    2008-03-01

    To determine whether the main mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups of the Han people have an impact on long-term clinical outcome. We prospectively studied 181 individuals who were sequentially admitted to the intensive care unit. Demographic and clinical data were recorded along with clinical outcome over 180 days. Follow-up was completed for all study participants. We then determined the mtDNA haplogroups of the patients and 570 healthy, age-matched Han people from Zhejiang province, Southeast China, by analyzing sequences of hypervariable mtDNA segments and testing diagnostic polymorphisms in the mtDNA coding region with DNA probes. The frequency of the main subhaplogroups of the Han population in the study cohort did not differ significantly from the control group. mtDNA haplogroup R, one of the three main mtDNA haplogroups of the Han people, was a strong independent predictor for the outcome of severe sepsis, conferring a 4.68-fold (95% CI 1.903-10.844, P = 0.001) increased chance of survival at 180 days compared with those without the haplogroup R. In the Han population, mtDNA haplogroup R was a strong independent predictor for the outcome of severe sepsis, conferring an increased chance of long-term survival compared with individuals without the R haplogroup.

  2. Large-Scale Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of the Domestic Goat Reveals Six Haplogroups with High Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Naderi, Saeid; Rezaei, Hamid-Reza; Taberlet, Pierre; Zundel, Stéphanie; Rafat, Seyed-Abbas; Naghash, Hamid-Reza; El-Barody, Mohamed A. A.; Ertugrul, Okan; Pompanon, François

    2007-01-01

    Background From the beginning of domestication, the transportation of domestic animals resulted in genetic and demographic processes that explain their present distribution and genetic structure. Thus studying the present genetic diversity helps to better understand the history of domestic species. Methodology/Principal Findings The genetic diversity of domestic goats has been characterized with 2430 individuals from all over the old world, including 946 new individuals from regions poorly studied until now (mainly the Fertile Crescent). These individuals represented 1540 haplotypes for the HVI segment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. This large-scale study allowed the establishment of a clear nomenclature of the goat maternal haplogroups. Only five of the six previously defined groups of haplotypes were divergent enough to be considered as different haplogroups. Moreover a new mitochondrial group has been localized around the Fertile Crescent. All groups showed very high haplotype diversity. Most of this diversity was distributed among groups and within geographic regions. The weak geographic structure may result from the worldwide distribution of the dominant A haplogroup (more than 90% of the individuals). The large-scale distribution of other haplogroups (except one), may be related to human migration. The recent fragmentation of local goat populations into discrete breeds is not detectable with mitochondrial markers. The estimation of demographic parameters from mismatch analyses showed that all groups had a recent demographic expansion corresponding roughly to the period when domestication took place. But even with a large data set it remains difficult to give relative dates of expansion for different haplogroups because of large confidence intervals. Conclusions/Significance We propose standard criteria for the definition of the different haplogroups based on the result of mismatch analysis and on the use of sequences of reference. Such a

  3. Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups influence lipoatrophy after Highly Active Anti-retroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickson, Sher L.; Kingsley, Lawrence A.; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; Poole, Jason C.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Palella, Frank J.; Bream, Jay H.; Wallace, Douglas C.; O’Brien, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Although highly active retroviral therapy (HAART) has been extremely effective in lowering AIDS incidence among patients infected with HIV, certain drugs included in HAART can cause serious mitochondrial toxicities. One of the most frequent adverse events is lipoatrophy, which is the loss of subcutaneous fat in the face, arms, buttocks and/or legs as an adverse reaction to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). The clinical symptoms of lipoatrophy resemble those of inherited mitochondrial diseases, which suggests that host mitochondrial genotype may play a role in susceptibility. We analyzed the association between mitochondrial haplogroup and severity of lipoatrophy in HIV-infected European American patients on HAART in the Multicenter AIDS cohort Study (MACS) and found that mitochondrial haplogroup H was strongly associated with increased atrophy (arms: p = 0.007, OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.17–2.69 legs: p = 0.037, OR = 1.54 95% CI = 1.03–2.31, and buttocks: p = 0.10, OR = 1.41 95% CI = 0.94–2.12). We also saw borderline significance for haplogroup T as protective against lipoatrophy (p = 0.05, OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.20–1.00). These data suggest that mitochondrial DNA haplogroup may influence the propensity for lipoatrophy in patients receiving NRTIs. PMID:19339895

  4. Mitochondrial Haplogroup T Is Associated with Obesity in Austrian Juveniles and Adults.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Sabine; Mangge, Harald; Langhof, Helmut; Halle, Martin; Siegrist, Monika; Aigner, Elmar; Paulmichl, Katharina; Paulweber, Bernhard; Datz, Christian; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara; Weghuber, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Recent publications have reported contradictory data regarding mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation and its association with body mass index. The aim of the present study was to compare the frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups as well as control region (CR) polymorphisms of obese juveniles (n = 248) and obese adults (n = 1003) versus normal weight controls (njuvenile = 266, nadults = 595) in a well-defined, ethnically homogenous, age-matched comparative cohort of Austrian Caucasians. Using SNP analysis and DNA sequencing, we identified the nine major European mitochondrial haplogroups and CR polymorphisms. Of these, only the T haplogroup frequency was increased in the juvenile obese cohort versus the control subjects [11.7% in obese vs. 6.4% in controls], although statistical significance was lost after adjustment for sex and age. Similar data were observed in a local adult cohort, in which haplogroup T was found at a significantly higher frequency in the overweight and obese subjects than in the normal weight group [9.7% vs. 6.2%, p = 0.012, adjusted for sex and age]. When all obese subjects were considered together, the difference in the frequency of haplogroup T was even more clearly seen [10.1% vs. 6.3%, p = 0.002, OR (95% CI) 1.71 (1.2-2.4), adjusted for sex and age]. The frequencies of the T haplogroup-linked CR polymorphisms C16294T and the C16296T were found to be elevated in both the juvenile and the adult obese cohort compared to the controls. Nevertheless, no mtDNA haplogroup or CR polymorphism was robustly associated with any of several investigated metabolic and cardiovascular parameters (e.g., blood pressure, blood glucose concentration, triglycerides, cholesterol) in all obese subjects. By investigation of this large ethnically and geographically homogenous cohort of Middle European Caucasians, only mtDNA haplogroup T was identified as an obesity risk factor.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and short-term neurological outcomes of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Biyang; Zhang, Zhizhong; Liu, Keting; Fan, Wenping; Zhang, Yumeng; Xie, Xia; Dai, Minhui; Cao, Liping; Bai, Wen; Du, Juan; Dai, Qiliang; Zhou, Shuyu; Zhang, Hao; Zhu, Wusheng; Ma, Minmin; Liu, Wenhua; Liu, Xinfeng; Xu, Gelin

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and long-term disability worldwide. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a potential contributor for the sex differences of ischemic stroke heritability. Although mtDNA haplogroups were associated with stroke onset, their impacts on stroke outcomes remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the impacts of mtDNA haplogroups on short-term outcomes of neurological functions in patients with ischemic stroke. A total of 303 patients were included, and their clinical data and mtDNA sequences were analyzed. Based on the changes between baseline and 14-day follow-up stroke severity, our results showed that haplogroup N9 was an independent protective factor against neurological worsening in acute ischemic stroke patients. These findings supported that mtDNA variants play a role in post-stroke neurological recovery, thus providing evidences for future pharmacological intervention in mitochondrial function. PMID:25993529

  6. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup B5 confers genetic susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Bi, Rui; Zhang, Wen; Yu, Dandan; Li, Xiao; Wang, Hui-Zhen; Hu, Qiu-Xiang; Zhang, Chen; Lu, Weihong; Ni, Jianliang; Fang, Yiru; Li, Tao; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2015-03-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been widely reported in psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. We aimed to investigate the association between matrilineal structures of Han Chinese populations and Alzheimer's disease (AD) by a 2-stage case-control study: A total of 341 AD patients and 435 normal individuals from Southwest China were analyzed for mitochondrial DNA sequence variations and were classified into respective haplogroups. A total of 371 AD patients and 470 normal individuals from East China, as validation samples, were genotyped for the variants defining the risk haplogroup. Haplogroup B5 had a significantly higher frequency in AD patients (7.33%) than in control subjects (3.68%) from Southwest China, and we found a similar pattern of higher frequency of B5 in patients in the case-control sample from East China. In the combined population, association of haplogroup B5 with AD risk was strengthened (p = 0.02; odds ratio = 1.74; 95% confidence interval = 1.10-2.76). In lymphoblastoid cell lines belonging to haplogroup B5a, we observed significantly increased reactive oxygen species and decreased mitochondrial mass. Hela cells with stable expression of the MT-ATP6 gene with B5-defining variant m.8584G>A also showed a significantly decreased mitochondrial function. Taken together, our results indicated that haplogroup B5 conferred genetic susceptibility to AD in Han Chinese, and this effect was most likely mediated by ancient variant m.8584G>A. The predisposing effect of B5 to AD is consistent with the ancestral-susceptibility model of complex diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup Y is associated to Leigh syndrome in Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiao-Dan; Yang, Yan-Ling; Tang, Nelson Leung Sang; Kong, Qing-Peng; Wu, Shi-Fang; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2013-01-10

    Although Leigh syndrome (LS) is a well characterized clinical mitochondrial disorder; the exact mutation is not found in all cases and it is not clear whether matrilineal background has contributed to this disease. To address this issue, we extensively studied and compared the haplogroup composition of a sample of 171 Chinese LS patients with that of 1597 controls. Our results show that haplogroup Y may increase the risk of LS in Chinese by 2.867 fold (95% CI=1.135-7.240, P=0.020). Haplogroup B5 has also this trend (1.737 fold, 95% CI=0.961-3.139), but with a borderline P-value (P=0.065). Both haplogroups belong to macro-haplogroup N and share a common reverse mutation on nucleotide position 10398 (A10398G). In fact, the combined haplogroup N with 10398G is also associated with an increased risk for LS (OR=1.882, 95% CI=1.134-3.124, P=0.013). Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup R in the Han population and recovery from septic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Zhang, Ping; Lv, Rong; He, Qiang; Zhu, Yiling; Yang, Xianghong; Chen, Jianghua

    2011-10-01

    To determine whether the main mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups of the Han people are associated with neurological recovery from septic encephalopathy. We studied 137 individuals with septic encephalopathy who were sequentially admitted to the intensive care unit or the emergency intensive care unit at the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, and the People's Hospital of Zhejiang Province. Demographic and clinical data were recorded along with clinical outcome over 28 days. The Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score was calculated daily until it reached 15 or until the patient died during the 28-day period. Follow-up was completed for all study participants. We then determined the mtDNA haplogroups of the patients by analyzing sequences of hypervariable mtDNA segments and testing diagnostic polymorphisms in the mtDNA coding region with DNA probes. MtDNA haplogroup R, one of the main mtDNA haplogroups of the Han people, was a strong independent predictor of outcome following septic encephalopathy, conferring a 4.053-fold (95% CI 1.803-9.110, p = 0.001) increased chance of neurological recovery within 28 days compared with those with a non-R mtDNA haplogroup. In the Han population, mtDNA haplogroup R is a strong independent predictor of the outcome of septic encephalopathy, conferring an increased chance of neurological recovery compared with individuals with a non-R haplogroup. Our results provide potential insights into the mechanisms involved in septic encephalopathy, and reveal that the mtDNA haplogroup R is an independent predictor of the outcome of septic encephalopathy.

  9. Mitochondrial haplogroup H1 is protective for ischemic stroke in Portuguese patients

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Alexandra; Fonseca, Benedita V; Krug, Tiago; Manso, Helena; Gouveia, Liliana; Albergaria, Isabel; Gaspar, Gisela; Correia, Manuel; Viana-Baptista, Miguel; Simões, Rita Moiron; Pinto, Amélia Nogueira; Taipa, Ricardo; Ferreira, Carla; Fontes, João Ramalho; Silva, Mário Rui; Gabriel, João Paulo; Matos, Ilda; Lopes, Gabriela; Ferro, José M; Vicente, Astrid M; Oliveira, Sofia A

    2008-01-01

    Background The genetic contribution to stroke is well established but it has proven difficult to identify the genes and the disease-associated alleles mediating this effect, possibly because only nuclear genes have been intensely investigated so far. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been implicated in several disorders having stroke as one of its clinical manifestations. The aim of this case-control study was to assess the contribution of mtDNA polymorphisms and haplogroups to ischemic stroke risk. Methods We genotyped 19 mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) defining the major European haplogroups in 534 ischemic stroke patients and 499 controls collected in Portugal, and tested their allelic and haplogroup association with ischemic stroke risk. Results Haplogroup H1 was found to be significantly less frequent in stroke patients than in controls (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.45–0.83, p = 0.001), when comparing each clade against all other haplogroups pooled together. Conversely, the pre-HV/HV and U mtDNA lineages emerge as potential genetic factors conferring risk for stroke (OR = 3.14, 95% CI = 1.41–7.01, p = 0.003, and OR = 2.87, 95% CI = 1.13–7.28, p = 0.021, respectively). SNPs m.3010G>A, m.7028C>T and m.11719G>A strongly influence ischemic stroke risk, their allelic state in haplogroup H1 corroborating its protective effect. Conclusion Our data suggests that mitochondrial haplogroup H1 has an impact on ischemic stroke risk in a Portuguese sample. PMID:18593462

  10. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup diversity in Basques: a reassessment based on HVI and HVII polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Alfonso-Sánchez, M A; Cardoso, S; Martínez-Bouzas, C; Peña, J A; Herrera, R J; Castro, A; Fernández-Fernández, I; De Pancorbo, M M

    2008-01-01

    This study provides a more complete characterization of the mitochondrial genome variability of the Basques, including data on the hypervariable segment HVII of the D-loop region, which remains relatively unknown. To that end, genomic DNA from 55 healthy men living in the Arratia Valley (Biscay province) and the Goiherri region (Guipúzcoa province) was examined by direct sequencing. Three-generation pedigree charts were compiled to ensure the collection from autochthonous individuals. The most notable findings emerging from the analysis of haplogroup composition are: (i) lack of U8a mitochondrial lineage, a rare subhaplogroup recently identified in Basques and proposed as a Paleolithic marker, (ii) low frequency of haplogroup V, which conflicts with results of earlier analyses describing high frequencies in southwestern Europe, and (iii) high frequency of haplogroup J, especially subhaplogroups J1c1 and J2a. The frequency of haplogroup J does not coincide with previous mtDNA studies in present-day Basques, but is congruent with frequencies found in prehistoric and historic Basque populations. In explaining divergence in haplogroup composition between modern Basque samples, we hypothesized spatial heterogeneity promoted by population fragmentation due to extreme limitation of dispersal opportunities during the Pleistocene glaciations. Similarities between extinct and extant Basque populations as for the high frequency of lineage J, as well as the abundance of this haplogroup in northern Spain endorse a shift in the focus of attention of mtDNA analysts. A refined dissection of haplogroup J might provide more solid evidence about the process of postglacial recolonization of Europe, and thus about the shaping of the European gene pool.

  11. Mitochondrial haplogroup H1 is protective for ischemic stroke in Portuguese patients.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Alexandra; Fonseca, Benedita V; Krug, Tiago; Manso, Helena; Gouveia, Liliana; Albergaria, Isabel; Gaspar, Gisela; Correia, Manuel; Viana-Baptista, Miguel; Simões, Rita Moiron; Pinto, Amélia Nogueira; Taipa, Ricardo; Ferreira, Carla; Fontes, João Ramalho; Silva, Mário Rui; Gabriel, João Paulo; Matos, Ilda; Lopes, Gabriela; Ferro, José M; Vicente, Astrid M; Oliveira, Sofia A

    2008-07-01

    The genetic contribution to stroke is well established but it has proven difficult to identify the genes and the disease-associated alleles mediating this effect, possibly because only nuclear genes have been intensely investigated so far. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been implicated in several disorders having stroke as one of its clinical manifestations. The aim of this case-control study was to assess the contribution of mtDNA polymorphisms and haplogroups to ischemic stroke risk. We genotyped 19 mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) defining the major European haplogroups in 534 ischemic stroke patients and 499 controls collected in Portugal, and tested their allelic and haplogroup association with ischemic stroke risk. Haplogroup H1 was found to be significantly less frequent in stroke patients than in controls (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.45-0.83, p = 0.001), when comparing each clade against all other haplogroups pooled together. Conversely, the pre-HV/HV and U mtDNA lineages emerge as potential genetic factors conferring risk for stroke (OR = 3.14, 95% CI = 1.41-7.01, p = 0.003, and OR = 2.87, 95% CI = 1.13-7.28, p = 0.021, respectively). SNPs m.3010G>A, m.7028C>T and m.11719G>A strongly influence ischemic stroke risk, their allelic state in haplogroup H1 corroborating its protective effect. Our data suggests that mitochondrial haplogroup H1 has an impact on ischemic stroke risk in a Portuguese sample.

  12. Relationship between European Mitochondrial Haplogroups and Chronic Renal Allograft Rejection in Patients with Kidney Transplant

    PubMed Central

    JIMÉNEZ-SOUSA, María Angeles; TAMAYO, Eduardo; GUZMÁN-FULGENCIO, María; FERNÁNDEZ-RODRÍGUEZ, Amanda; HEREDIA-RODRIGUEZ, María; GARCÍA-ÁLVAREZ, Mónica; BERMEJO-MARTIN, Jesús F; PINEDA-TENOR, Daniel; RUIZ-GRANADO, Patricia; ALVAREZ-FUENTE, Elisa; GÓMEZ-SANCHEZ, Esther; GÓMEZ-HERRERAS, José I; RESINO, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA variants may contribute to differences in mitochondrial function, leading to an altered immune system. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between mtDNA haplogroups and the development of chronic allograft dysfunction in patients with kidney transplant. A retrospective observational study was carried out on 261 patients who received kidney transplant (114 had stable transplant and 147 patients developed chronic allograft dysfunction). DNA samples were genotyped for 14 mtDNA polymorphisms by using Sequenom's MassARRAY platform (San Diego, CA, USA). Only European white patients within the N macro-cluster were included. Patients with haplogroups V (odds ratio (OR)=0.32; p=0.037) and J (OR=0.36; p=0.038) showed lower odds for developing CRAD than patients with haplogroup H. After adjusting for the most significant variables, haplogroups V and J tended to statistical significance (p=0.091 and p=0.067 respectively). This is a preliminary study in which mtDNA haplogroups seem to be implicated in susceptibility or protection for developing chronic allograft dysfunction. PMID:25170295

  13. Mitochondrial haplogroup B4 may be a protective factor to oral lichen planus susceptibility in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wu, D; Cheng, S; Chen, X; Sun, M; Wang, G; Fu, S; Dong, G; Wang, L; Wu, Y

    2014-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common inflammatory disorder with a higher prevalence among women than men. The pathogenesis of OLP is still unclear, and its heredity is not well characterized. Maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) indicates its importance in human ethnic group classification as well disease susceptibility. So, this study was conducted to find whether mtDNA haplogroup associates with OLP susceptibility in Chinese, and determine the influence of C-stretch structure of mtDNA on OLP susceptibility. We sequenced three hypervariable regions of mtDNA from 242 patients with OLP and 237 healthy controls. The association between mtDNA haplogroups and OLP is tested by chi-square test. Seventeen kinds of haplogroups were identified, and the frequency of haplogroup B4 was significantly higher in control group than that of the OLP group (P = 0.013, OR=0.429). In female samples, B4 declared even more significance (P = 0.003, OR=0.296). Meanwhile, the haplotypes of C-stretch in mtDNA did not have any significant difference between case-control groups. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup B4 might have a protective effect to OLP, and its protective effect resides predominantly in women. However, the association between C-stretch haplotype and OLP susceptibility still needs more patients for evaluation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A mitochondrial haplogroup is associated with decreased longevity in a historic new world population.

    PubMed

    Castri, Loredana; Luiselli, Donata; Pettener, Davide; Melendez-Obando, Mauricio; Villegas-Palma, Ramón; Barrantes, Ramiro; Madrigal, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    Interest in mitochondrial influences on extended longevity has been mounting, as evidenced by a growing literature. Such work has demonstrated that some haplogroups are associated with increased longevity and that such associations are population specific. Most previous work, however, suffers from the methodological shortcoming that long-lived individuals are compared with "controls" who are born decades after the aged individuals. The only true controls of the elderly are people who were born in the same time period but who did not have extended longevity. Here we present results of a study in which we are able to test whether longevity is independent of haplogroup type, controlling for time period, by using mtDNA genealogies. Since mtDNA does not recombine, we know the mtDNA haplogroup of the maternal ancestors of our living participants. Thus, we can compare the haplogroup of people with and without extended longevity who were born during the same time period. Our sample is an admixed New World population that has haplogroups of Amerindian, European, and African origin. We show that women who belong to Amerindian, European, and African haplogroups do not differ in their mean longevity. Therefore, to the extent that ethnicity was tied in this population to mtDNA make-up, such ethnicity did not impact longevity. In support of previous suggestions that the link between mtDNA haplogroups and longevity is specific to the population being studied, we found an association between haplogroup C and decreased longevity. Interestingly, the lifetime reproductive success and the number of grandchildren produced via a daughter of women with haplogroup C are not reduced. Our diachronic approach to the mtDNA and longevity link allowed us to determine that the same haplogroup is associated with decreased longevity during different time periods and allowed us to compare the haplogroup of short- and long-lived individuals born during the same time period. By controlling for time

  15. Sisters' curse: sexually antagonistic effects constrain the spread of a mitochondrial haplogroup superior in sperm competition

    PubMed Central

    Padua, Michael V.; Zeh, David W.; Bonilla, Melvin M.; Zeh, Jeanne A.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal inheritance of mitochondria creates a sex-specific selective sieve with implications for male longevity, disease susceptibility and infertility. Because males are an evolutionary dead end for mitochondria, mitochondrial mutations that are harmful or beneficial to males but not females cannot respond directly to selection. Although the importance of this male/female asymmetry in evolutionary response depends on the extent to which mitochondrial mutations exert antagonistic effects on male and female fitness, few studies have documented sex-specific selection acting on mitochondria. Here, we exploited the discovery of two highly divergent mitochondrial haplogroups (A and B2) in central Panamanian populations of the pseudoscorpion Cordylochernes scorpioides. Next-generation sequencing and phylogenetic analyses suggest that selection on the ND4 and ND4L mitochondrial genes may partially explain sexually antagonistic mitochondrial effects on reproduction. Males carrying the rare B2 mitochondrial haplogroup enjoy a marked advantage in sperm competition, but B2 females are significantly less sexually receptive at second mating than A females. This reduced propensity for polyandry is likely to significantly reduce female lifetime reproductive success, thereby limiting the spread of the male beneficial B2 haplogroup. Our findings suggest that maternal inheritance of mitochondria and sexually antagonistic selection can constrain male adaptation and sexual selection in nature. PMID:25377452

  16. Mitochondrial Haplogroup N9a Confers Resistance against Type 2 Diabetes in Asians

    PubMed Central

    Fuku, Noriyuki; Park, Kyong Soo; Yamada, Yoshiji; Nishigaki, Yutaka; Cho, Young Min; Matsuo, Hitoshi; Segawa, Tomonori; Watanabe, Sachiro; Kato, Kimihiko; Yokoi, Kiyoshi; Nozawa, Yoshinori; Lee, Hong Kyu; Tanaka, Masashi

    2007-01-01

    Because mitochondria play pivotal roles in both insulin secretion from the pancreatic β cells and insulin resistance of skeletal muscles, we performed a large-scale association study to identify mitochondrial haplogroups that may confer resistance against or susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The study population comprised 2,906 unrelated Japanese individuals, including 1,289 patients with T2DM and 1,617 controls, and 1,365 unrelated Korean individuals, including 732 patients with T2DM and 633 controls. The genotypes for 25 polymorphisms in the coding region of the mitochondrial genome were determined, and the haplotypes were classified into 10 major haplogroups (i.e., F, B, A, N9a, M7a, M7b, G, D4a, D4b, and D5). Multivariate logistic-regression analysis with adjustment for age and sex revealed that the mitochondrial haplogroup N9a was significantly associated with resistance against T2DM (P=.0002) with an odds ratio of 0.55 (95% confidence interval 0.40–0.75). Even in the modern environment, which is often characterized by satiety and physical inactivity, this haplogroup might confer resistance against T2DM. PMID:17273962

  17. Mitochondrial Haplogroups and Control Region Polymorphisms in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Eder, Waltraud; Mayr, Johannes A.; Egger, Stefan F.; Nischler, Christian; Oberkofler, Hannes; Reitsamer, Herbert A.; Patsch, Wolfgang; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Background Onset and development of the multifactorial disease age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are highly interrelated with mitochondrial functions such as energy production and free radical turnover. Mitochondrial dysfunction and overproduction of reactive oxygen species may contribute to destruction of the retinal pigment epithelium, retinal atrophy and choroidal neovascularization, leading to AMD. Consequently, polymorphisms of the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) are postulated to be susceptibility factors for this disease. Previous studies from Australia and the United States detected associations of mitochondrial haplogroups with AMD. The aim of the present study was to test these associations in Middle European Caucasians. Methodology/Principal Findings Mitochondrial haplogroups (combinations of mtDNA polymorphisms) and mitochondrial CR polymorphisms were analyzed in 200 patients with wet AMD (choroidal neovascularization, CNV), in 66 patients with dry AMD, and in 385 controls from Austria by means of multiplex primer extension analysis and sequencing, respectively. In patients with CNV, haplogroup H was found to be significantly less frequent compared to controls, and haplogroup J showed a trend toward a higher frequency compared to controls. Five CR polymorphisms were found to differ significantly in the two study populations compared to controls, and all, except one (T152C), are linked to those haplogroups. Conclusions/Significance It can be concluded that haplogroup J is a risk factor for AMD, whereas haplogroup H seems to be protective for AMD. PMID:22348027

  18. Parental diabetes status reveals association of mitochondrial DNA haplogroup J1 with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Feder, Jeanette; Ovadia, Ofer; Blech, Ilana; Cohen, Josef; Wainstein, Julio; Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Glaser, Benjamin; Mishmar, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Background Although mitochondrial dysfunction is consistently manifested in patients with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the association of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variants with T2DM varies among populations. These differences might stem from differing environmental influences among populations. However, other potentially important considerations emanate from the very nature of mitochondrial genetics, namely the notable high degree of partitioning in the distribution of human mtDNA variants among populations, as well as the interaction of mtDNA and nuclear DNA-encoded factors working in concert to govern mitochondrial function. We hypothesized that association of mtDNA genetic variants with T2DM could be revealed while controlling for the effect of additional inherited factors, reflected in family history information. Methods To test this hypothesis we set out to investigate whether mtDNA genetic variants will be differentially associated with T2DM depending on the diabetes status of the parents. To this end, association of mtDNA genetic backgrounds (haplogroups) with T2DM was assessed in 1055 Jewish patients with and without T2DM parents ('DP' and 'HP', respectively). Results Haplogroup J1 was found to be 2.4 fold under-represented in the 'HP' patients (p = 0.0035). These results are consistent with a previous observation made in Finnish T2DM patients. Moreover, assessing the haplogroup distribution in 'DP' versus 'HP' patients having diabetic siblings revealed that haplogroup J1 was virtually absent in the 'HP' group. Conclusion These results imply the involvement of inherited factors, which modulate the susceptibility of haplogroup J1 to T2DM. PMID:19534826

  19. Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup Background Affects LHON, but Not Suspected LHON, in Chinese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Rui; Salas, Antonio; Li, Shiqiang; Xiao, Xueshan; Wang, Panfeng; Guo, Xiangming; Kong, Qing-Peng; Zhang, Qingjiong; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that mtDNA background could affect the clinical expression of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). We analyzed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation of 304 Chinese patients with m.11778G>A (sample #1) and of 843 suspected LHON patients who lack the three primary mutations (sample #2) to discern mtDNA haplogroup effect on disease onset. Haplogroup frequencies in the patient group was compared to frequencies in the general Han Chinese population (n = 1,689; sample #3). The overall matrilineal composition of the suspected LHON population resembles that of the general Han Chinese population, suggesting no association with mtDNA haplogroup. In contrast, analysis of these LHON patients confirms mtDNA haplogroup effect on LHON. Specifically, the LHON sample significantly differs from the general Han Chinese and suspected LHON populations by harboring an extremely lower frequency of haplogroup R9, in particular of its main sub-haplogroup F (#1 vs. #3, P-value = 1.46×10−17, OR = 0.051, 95% CI: 0.016–0.162; #1 vs. #2, P-value = 4.44×10−17, OR = 0.049, 95% CI: 0.015–0.154; in both cases, adjusted P-value <10−5) and higher frequencies of M7b (#1 vs. #3, adjusted P-value = 0.001 and #1 vs. #2, adjusted P-value = 0.004). Our result shows that mtDNA background affects LHON in Chinese patients with m.11778G>A but not suspected LHON. Haplogroup F has a protective effect against LHON, while M7b is a risk factor. PMID:22110754

  20. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup background affects LHON, but not suspected LHON, in Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, A-Mei; Jia, Xiaoyun; Bi, Rui; Salas, Antonio; Li, Shiqiang; Xiao, Xueshan; Wang, Panfeng; Guo, Xiangming; Kong, Qing-Peng; Zhang, Qingjiong; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that mtDNA background could affect the clinical expression of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). We analyzed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation of 304 Chinese patients with m.11778G>A (sample #1) and of 843 suspected LHON patients who lack the three primary mutations (sample #2) to discern mtDNA haplogroup effect on disease onset. Haplogroup frequencies in the patient group was compared to frequencies in the general Han Chinese population (n = 1,689; sample #3). The overall matrilineal composition of the suspected LHON population resembles that of the general Han Chinese population, suggesting no association with mtDNA haplogroup. In contrast, analysis of these LHON patients confirms mtDNA haplogroup effect on LHON. Specifically, the LHON sample significantly differs from the general Han Chinese and suspected LHON populations by harboring an extremely lower frequency of haplogroup R9, in particular of its main sub-haplogroup F (#1 vs. #3, P-value = 1.46×10(-17), OR = 0.051, 95% CI: 0.016-0.162; #1 vs. #2, P-value = 4.44×10(-17), OR = 0.049, 95% CI: 0.015-0.154; in both cases, adjusted P-value <10(-5)) and higher frequencies of M7b (#1 vs. #3, adjusted P-value = 0.001 and #1 vs. #2, adjusted P-value = 0.004). Our result shows that mtDNA background affects LHON in Chinese patients with m.11778G>A but not suspected LHON. Haplogroup F has a protective effect against LHON, while M7b is a risk factor.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and highly active antiretroviral therapy-related lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Nasi, Milena; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Orlando, Gabriella; Durante, Caterina; Pinti, Marcello; Nemes, Elisa; Nardini, Giulia; Passarino, Giuseppe; Cocchi, Marina; Esposito, Roberto; Mussini, Cristina; Cossarizza, Andrea

    2008-10-01

    The combination of different point mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which are defined as haplogroups, may cause modification in organelle function and may be involved in several pathologies. We analyzed the distribution of mtDNA polymorphisms in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with lipodystrophy, a relevant adverse event caused by highly active antiretroviral therapy, and their correlation with metabolic and viroimmunologic parameters. The frequency of the 9 most common European haplogroups was investigated in 346 white, HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy. Haplogroups were identified on the basis of classic methods. Statistical analysis was performed with use of 1-way analysis of variance, the chi(2) test, and principal-components analysis. The distribution of mtDNA haplogroups among patients with lipodystrophy was similar to that among the general European population. We found no differences between patients with different haplogroups with regard to viroimmunologic results (plasma HIV load, CD4(+) T cell count, and nadir CD4(+) T cell count), glucose data (glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glycosylated hemoglobin concentrations and insulin resistance), lipid data (levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoproteins, and apolipoprotein A1 and B), acid-base balance parameters (lactate level and anion gap), or anthropometric measures (weight, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio). No differences were observed in trunk fat levels, leg-fat ratio (which was determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), or exposure to different drug classes. Principal-components analysis confirmed that the spatial distribution of patients belonging to a given haplogroup was not influenced by different clinical parameters. Our study indicates that, in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy, mtDNA haplogroups are not related to major metabolic changes or to particular viroimmunologic features.

  2. European Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups are Associated with Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers of Inflammation in HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, David C.; Kallianpur, Asha R.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Bush, William S.; Letendre, Scott; Franklin, Donald; Grant, Igor; Hulgan, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups are ancestry-related patterns of single-nucleotide polymorphisms that are associated with differential mitochondrial function in model systems, neurodegenerative diseases in HIV-negative populations, and chronic complications of HIV infection, including neurocognitive impairment. We hypothesized that mtDNA haplogroups are associated with neuroinflammation in HIV-infected adults. Methods CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) is a US-based observational study of HIV-infected adults who underwent standardized neurocognitive assessments. Participants who consented to DNA collection underwent whole blood mtDNA sequencing, and a subset also underwent lumbar puncture. IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α (high-sensitivity), and IP-10 were measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by immunoassay. Multivariable regression of mtDNA haplogroups and log-transformed CSF biomarkers were stratified by genetic ancestry using whole-genome nuclear DNA genotyping (European [EA], African [AA], or Hispanic ancestry [HA]), and adjusted for age, sex, antiretroviral therapy (ART), detectable CSF HIV RNA, and CD4 nadir. A total of 384 participants had both CSF cytokine measures and genetic data (45% EA, 44% AA, 11% HA, 22% female, median age 43 years, 74% on ART). Results In analyses stratified by the 3 continental ancestry groups, no haplogroups were significantly associated with the 4 biomarkers. In the subgroup of participants with undetectable plasma HIV RNA on ART, European haplogroup H participants had significantly lower CSF TNF-α (P = 0.001). Conclusions Lower CSF TNF-α may indicate lower neuroinflammation in the haplogroup H participants with well-controlled HIV on ART. PMID:28317034

  3. Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup R Confers a Genetic Risk Factor for Intrauterine Adhesion in Han Women Population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Zhu, Libo; Huang, Xiufeng; Xu, Ping; Chen, Zhengyun; Huang, Qiongshi; Zhang, Xinmei

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether a specific mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup is implicated in the pathogenesis of intrauterine adhesion (IUA). Peripheral blood samples were collected from 486 women with (case group, n = 154) and without IUA (control group, n = 332) at the Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood, and the mtDNA haplogroups of Han women M, N and R were determined by sequencing hypervariable mtDNA segments and testing diagnostic polymorphisms in the mtDNA coding region. Women with mtDNA haplogroup R had an independently increased genetic risk factor for IUA with an OR 1.77 (95% CI 1.16-2.70, p = 0.009) compared with women without. Moreover, repeated intrauterine surgery within 1 month and number of intrauterine operations were both significantly associated with IUA (p < 0.001). These results suggest that mtDNA haplogroup R, one of the main mtDNA haplogroups in Han population, is a strong independent genetic risk factor for women with IUA. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup confers genetic susceptibility to nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Chaoshanese from Guangdong, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Sheng-Ping; Du, Ju-Ping; Li, De-Rui; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown association of mtDNA background with cancer development. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region variation of 201 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and of 201 normal controls from Chaoshan Han Chinese to discern mtDNA haplogroup effect on the disease onset. Binary logistic regression analysis with adjustment for gender and age revealed that the haplogroup R9 (P = 0.011, OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.16-3.16), particularly its sub-haplogroup F1 (P = 0.015, OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.18-5.00), were associated significantly with increased NPC risk. These haplogroups were further confirmed to confer high NPC risk in males and/or individuals ≥ 40 years of age, but not in females or in subjects <40 years old. Our results indicated that mtDNA background confers genetic susceptibility to NPC in Chaoshan Han Chinese, and R9, particularly its sub-haplogroup F1, is a risk factor for NPC.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup associated with sperm motility in the Han population.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guo-Fang; Zhang, Jing; Feng, Li-Min; Shen, Nai-Xian; Li, Le-Jun; Zhu, Yi-Min

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine whether the main mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups of the Han people have an impact on spermatozoa motility. We recruited 312 men who were consecutively admitted to two affiliated hospitals of College of Medicine, Zhejiang University from May 2011 to April 2012 as part of fertility investigations. Semen and whole blood samples were collected from the men. We determined the mtDNA haplogroups by analysing the sequences of mtDNA hypervariable segment I and testing diagnostic polymorphisms in the mtDNA coding region with DNA probes. No significant differences were found in the clinical characteristics of the mtDNA haplogroup R and non-R (P>0.05). Our results suggest that mtDNA haplogroup R is a strong independent predictor of sperm motility in the Han population, conferring a 2.97-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.74-4.48, P<0.001) decreased chance of asthenozoospermia compared with those without haplogroup R.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup Confers Genetic Susceptibility to Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Chaoshanese from Guangdong, China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Sheng-Ping; Du, Ju-Ping; Li, De-Rui; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown association of mtDNA background with cancer development. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region variation of 201 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and of 201 normal controls from Chaoshan Han Chinese to discern mtDNA haplogroup effect on the disease onset. Binary logistic regression analysis with adjustment for gender and age revealed that the haplogroup R9 (P = 0.011, OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.16–3.16), particularly its sub-haplogroup F1 (P = 0.015, OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.18–5.00), were associated significantly with increased NPC risk. These haplogroups were further confirmed to confer high NPC risk in males and/or individuals ≥40 years of age, but not in females or in subjects <40 years old. Our results indicated that mtDNA background confers genetic susceptibility to NPC in Chaoshan Han Chinese, and R9, particularly its sub-haplogroup F1, is a risk factor for NPC. PMID:24498198

  7. HaploGrep: a fast and reliable algorithm for automatic classification of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups.

    PubMed

    Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Pacher, Dominic; Schönherr, Sebastian; Weissensteiner, Hansi; Binna, Robert; Specht, Günther; Kronenberg, Florian

    2011-01-01

    An ongoing source of controversy in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) research is based on the detection of numerous errors in mtDNA profiles that led to erroneous conclusions and false disease associations. Most of these controversies could be avoided if the samples' haplogroup status would be taken into consideration. Knowing the mtDNA haplogroup affiliation is a critical prerequisite for studying mechanisms of human evolution and discovering genes involved in complex diseases, and validating phylogenetic consistency using haplogroup classification is an important step in quality control. However, despite the availability of Phylotree, a regularly updated classification tree of global mtDNA variation, the process of haplogroup classification is still time-consuming and error-prone, as researchers have to manually compare the polymorphisms found in a population sample to those summarized in Phylotree, polymorphism by polymorphism, sample by sample. We present HaploGrep, a fast, reliable and straight-forward algorithm implemented in a Web application to determine the haplogroup affiliation of thousands of mtDNA profiles genotyped for the entire mtDNA or any part of it. HaploGrep uses the latest version of Phylotree and offers an all-in-one solution for quality assessment of mtDNA profiles in clinical genetics, population genetics and forensics. HaploGrep can be accessed freely at http://haplogrep.uibk.ac.at.

  8. Haplogroup T Is an Obesity Risk Factor: Mitochondrial DNA Haplotyping in a Morbid Obese Population from Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Liguori, Rosario; Mazzaccara, Cristina; Pezzuti, Massimo; Contaldo, Franco; Pasanisi, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups have been associated with the expression of mitochondrial-related diseases and with metabolic alterations, but their role has not yet been investigated in morbid obese Caucasian subjects. Therefore, we investigated the association between mitochondrial haplogroups and morbid obesity in patients from southern Italy. The mtDNA D-loop of morbid obese patients (n = 500; BMI > 40 kg/m2) and controls (n = 216; BMI < 25 kg/m2) was sequenced to determine the mtDNA haplogroups. The T and J haplogroup frequencies were higher and lower, respectively, in obese subjects than in controls. Women bearing haplogroup T or J had twice or half the risk of obesity. Binomial logistic regression analysis showed that haplogroup T and systolic blood pressure are risk factors for a high degree of morbid obesity, namely, BMI > 45 kg/m2 and in fact together account for 8% of the BMI. In conclusion, our finding that haplogroup T increases the risk of obesity by about two-fold, suggests that, besides nuclear genome variations and environmental factors, the T haplogroup plays a role in morbid obesity in our study population from southern Italy. PMID:23936828

  9. Haplogroup T is an obesity risk factor: mitochondrial DNA haplotyping in a morbid obese population from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Nardelli, Carmela; Labruna, Giuseppe; Liguori, Rosario; Mazzaccara, Cristina; Ferrigno, Maddalena; Capobianco, Valentina; Pezzuti, Massimo; Castaldo, Giuseppe; Farinaro, Eduardo; Contaldo, Franco; Buono, Pasqualina; Sacchetti, Lucia; Pasanisi, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups have been associated with the expression of mitochondrial-related diseases and with metabolic alterations, but their role has not yet been investigated in morbid obese Caucasian subjects. Therefore, we investigated the association between mitochondrial haplogroups and morbid obesity in patients from southern Italy. The mtDNA D-loop of morbid obese patients (n = 500; BMI > 40 kg/m(2)) and controls (n = 216; BMI < 25 kg/m(2)) was sequenced to determine the mtDNA haplogroups. The T and J haplogroup frequencies were higher and lower, respectively, in obese subjects than in controls. Women bearing haplogroup T or J had twice or half the risk of obesity. Binomial logistic regression analysis showed that haplogroup T and systolic blood pressure are risk factors for a high degree of morbid obesity, namely, BMI > 45 kg/m(2) and in fact together account for 8% of the BMI. In conclusion, our finding that haplogroup T increases the risk of obesity by about two-fold, suggests that, besides nuclear genome variations and environmental factors, the T haplogroup plays a role in morbid obesity in our study population from southern Italy.

  10. Mitochondrial Haplogroup H1 in North Africa: An Early Holocene Arrival from Iberia

    PubMed Central

    Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Achilli, Alessandro; Martínez-Labarga, Cristina; Biondi, Gianfranco; Torroni, Antonio; Rickards, Olga

    2010-01-01

    The Tuareg of the Fezzan region (Libya) are characterized by an extremely high frequency (61%) of haplogroup H1, a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup that is common in all Western European populations. To define how and when H1 spread from Europe to North Africa up to the Central Sahara, in Fezzan, we investigated the complete mitochondrial genomes of eleven Libyan Tuareg belonging to H1. Coalescence time estimates suggest an arrival of the European H1 mtDNAs at about 8,000–9,000 years ago, while phylogenetic analyses reveal three novel H1 branches, termed H1v, H1w and H1x, which appear to be specific for North African populations, but whose frequencies can be extremely different even in relatively close Tuareg villages. Overall, these findings support the scenario of an arrival of haplogroup H1 in North Africa from Iberia at the beginning of the Holocene, as a consequence of the improvement in climate conditions after the Younger Dryas cold snap, followed by in situ formation of local H1 sub-haplogroups. This process of autochthonous differentiation continues in the Libyan Tuareg who, probably due to isolation and recent founder events, are characterized by village-specific maternal mtDNA lineages. PMID:20975840

  11. Fine Dissection of Human Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup HV Lineages Reveals Paleolithic Signatures from European Glacial Refugia.

    PubMed

    De Fanti, Sara; Barbieri, Chiara; Sarno, Stefania; Sevini, Federica; Vianello, Dario; Tamm, Erika; Metspalu, Ene; van Oven, Mannis; Hübner, Alexander; Sazzini, Marco; Franceschi, Claudio; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata

    2015-01-01

    Genetic signatures from the Paleolithic inhabitants of Eurasia can be traced from the early divergent mitochondrial DNA lineages still present in contemporary human populations. Previous studies already suggested a pre-Neolithic diffusion of mitochondrial haplogroup HV*(xH,V) lineages, a relatively rare class of mtDNA types that includes parallel branches mainly distributed across Europe and West Asia with a certain degree of structure. Up till now, variation within haplogroup HV was addressed mainly by analyzing sequence data from the mtDNA control region, except for specific sub-branches, such as HV4 or the widely distributed haplogroups H and V. In this study, we present a revised HV topology based on full mtDNA genome data, and we include a comprehensive dataset consisting of 316 complete mtDNA sequences including 60 new samples from the Italian peninsula, a previously underrepresented geographic area. We highlight points of instability in the particular topology of this haplogroup, reconstructed with BEAST-generated trees and networks. We also confirm a major lineage expansion that probably followed the Late Glacial Maximum and preceded Neolithic population movements. We finally observe that Italy harbors a reservoir of mtDNA diversity, with deep-rooting HV lineages often related to sequences present in the Caucasus and the Middle East. The resulting hypothesis of a glacial refugium in Southern Italy has implications for the understanding of late Paleolithic population movements and is discussed within the archaeological cultural shifts occurred over the entire continent.

  12. Fine Dissection of Human Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup HV Lineages Reveals Paleolithic Signatures from European Glacial Refugia

    PubMed Central

    Sarno, Stefania; Sevini, Federica; Vianello, Dario; Tamm, Erika; Metspalu, Ene; van Oven, Mannis; Hübner, Alexander; Sazzini, Marco; Franceschi, Claudio; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata

    2015-01-01

    Genetic signatures from the Paleolithic inhabitants of Eurasia can be traced from the early divergent mitochondrial DNA lineages still present in contemporary human populations. Previous studies already suggested a pre-Neolithic diffusion of mitochondrial haplogroup HV*(xH,V) lineages, a relatively rare class of mtDNA types that includes parallel branches mainly distributed across Europe and West Asia with a certain degree of structure. Up till now, variation within haplogroup HV was addressed mainly by analyzing sequence data from the mtDNA control region, except for specific sub-branches, such as HV4 or the widely distributed haplogroups H and V. In this study, we present a revised HV topology based on full mtDNA genome data, and we include a comprehensive dataset consisting of 316 complete mtDNA sequences including 60 new samples from the Italian peninsula, a previously underrepresented geographic area. We highlight points of instability in the particular topology of this haplogroup, reconstructed with BEAST-generated trees and networks. We also confirm a major lineage expansion that probably followed the Late Glacial Maximum and preceded Neolithic population movements. We finally observe that Italy harbors a reservoir of mtDNA diversity, with deep-rooting HV lineages often related to sequences present in the Caucasus and the Middle East. The resulting hypothesis of a glacial refugium in Southern Italy has implications for the understanding of late Paleolithic population movements and is discussed within the archaeological cultural shifts occurred over the entire continent. PMID:26640946

  13. Severe Septic Patients with Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup JT Show Higher Survival Rates: A Prospective, Multicenter, Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Martín, María M.; López-Gallardo, Esther; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Labarta, Lorenzo; Díaz, César; Borreguero-León, Juan María; Jiménez, Alejandro; Montoya, Julio; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Objective In a previous cohort study (n=96), we found an association between mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplogroup JT and increased survival of severe septic patients, after controlling for age and serum lactic acid levels. The aim of this research was to increase the predictive accuracy and to control for more confounder variables in a larger cohort (n=196) of severe septic patients, to confirm whether mtDNA haplogroup JT influences short and medium-term survival in these patients. Methods We conducted a prospective, multicenter, observational study in six Spanish Intensive Care Units. We determined 30-day and 6-month survival and mtDNA haplogroup in this second cohort of 196 patients and in the global cohort (first and second cohorts combined) with 292 severe septic patients. Multiple logistic regression and Cox regression analyses were used to test for the association of mtDNA haplogroups JT with survival at 30-days and 6-months, controlling for age, sex, serum interleukin-6 levels and SOFA score. Results Logistic and Cox regression analyses showed no differences in 30-day and 6-month survival between patients with mtDNA haplogroup JT and other haplogroups in the first cohort (n=96). In the second cohort (n=196), these analyses showed a trend to higher 30-day and 6-month survival in those with haplogroup JT. In the global cohort (n=292), logistic and Cox regression analyses showed higher 30-day and 6-month survival for haplogroup JT. There were no significant differences between J and T sub-haplogroups in 30-day and 6-month survival. Conclusions The global cohort study (first and second cohorts combined), the largest to date reporting on mtDNA haplogroups in septic patients, confirmed that haplogroup JT patients showed increased 30-day and 6-month survival. This finding may be due to single nucleotide polymorphism defining the whole haplogroup JT and not separately for J or T sub-haplogroups. PMID:24069186

  14. Severe septic patients with mitochondrial DNA haplogroup JT show higher survival rates: a prospective, multicenter, observational study.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Leonardo; Iceta, Ruth; Martín, María M; López-Gallardo, Esther; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Labarta, Lorenzo; Díaz, César; Borreguero-León, Juan María; Jiménez, Alejandro; Montoya, Julio; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    In a previous cohort study (n=96), we found an association between mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplogroup JT and increased survival of severe septic patients, after controlling for age and serum lactic acid levels. The aim of this research was to increase the predictive accuracy and to control for more confounder variables in a larger cohort (n=196) of severe septic patients, to confirm whether mtDNA haplogroup JT influences short and medium-term survival in these patients. We conducted a prospective, multicenter, observational study in six Spanish Intensive Care Units. We determined 30-day and 6-month survival and mtDNA haplogroup in this second cohort of 196 patients and in the global cohort (first and second cohorts combined) with 292 severe septic patients. Multiple logistic regression and Cox regression analyses were used to test for the association of mtDNA haplogroups JT with survival at 30-days and 6-months, controlling for age, sex, serum interleukin-6 levels and SOFA score. Logistic and Cox regression analyses showed no differences in 30-day and 6-month survival between patients with mtDNA haplogroup JT and other haplogroups in the first cohort (n=96). In the second cohort (n=196), these analyses showed a trend to higher 30-day and 6-month survival in those with haplogroup JT. In the global cohort (n=292), logistic and Cox regression analyses showed higher 30-day and 6-month survival for haplogroup JT. There were no significant differences between J and T sub-haplogroups in 30-day and 6-month survival. The global cohort study (first and second cohorts combined), the largest to date reporting on mtDNA haplogroups in septic patients, confirmed that haplogroup JT patients showed increased 30-day and 6-month survival. This finding may be due to single nucleotide polymorphism defining the whole haplogroup JT and not separately for J or T sub-haplogroups.

  15. Mitochondrial Haplogroup T Is Associated with Obesity in Austrian Juveniles and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ebner, Sabine; Mangge, Harald; Langhof, Helmut; Halle, Martin; Siegrist, Monika; Aigner, Elmar; Paulmichl, Katharina; Paulweber, Bernhard; Datz, Christian; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara; Weghuber, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent publications have reported contradictory data regarding mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation and its association with body mass index. The aim of the present study was to compare the frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups as well as control region (CR) polymorphisms of obese juveniles (n = 248) and obese adults (n = 1003) versus normal weight controls (njuvenile = 266, nadults = 595) in a well-defined, ethnically homogenous, age-matched comparative cohort of Austrian Caucasians. Methodology and Principal Findings Using SNP analysis and DNA sequencing, we identified the nine major European mitochondrial haplogroups and CR polymorphisms. Of these, only the T haplogroup frequency was increased in the juvenile obese cohort versus the control subjects [11.7% in obese vs. 6.4% in controls], although statistical significance was lost after adjustment for sex and age. Similar data were observed in a local adult cohort, in which haplogroup T was found at a significantly higher frequency in the overweight and obese subjects than in the normal weight group [9.7% vs. 6.2%, p = 0.012, adjusted for sex and age]. When all obese subjects were considered together, the difference in the frequency of haplogroup T was even more clearly seen [10.1% vs. 6.3%, p = 0.002, OR (95% CI) 1.71 (1.2–2.4), adjusted for sex and age]. The frequencies of the T haplogroup-linked CR polymorphisms C16294T and the C16296T were found to be elevated in both the juvenile and the adult obese cohort compared to the controls. Nevertheless, no mtDNA haplogroup or CR polymorphism was robustly associated with any of several investigated metabolic and cardiovascular parameters (e.g., blood pressure, blood glucose concentration, triglycerides, cholesterol) in all obese subjects. Conclusions and Significance By investigation of this large ethnically and geographically homogenous cohort of Middle European Caucasians, only mtDNA haplogroup T was identified as an obesity risk factor. PMID:26322975

  16. Associations of Mitochondrial Haplogroups B4 and E with Biliary Atresia and Differential Susceptibility to Hydrophobic Bile Acid

    PubMed Central

    Tiao, Mao-Meng; Liou, Chia-Wei; Huang, Li-Tung; Wang, Pei-Wen; Lin, Tsu-Kung; Chen, Jin-Bor; Chou, Yao-Min; Huang, Ying-Hsien; Lin, Hung-Yu; Chen, Chao-Long; Chuang, Jiin-Haur

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of biliary atresia (BA). This study aimed to determine whether a specific mitochondrial DNA haplogroup is implicated in the pathogenesis and prognosis of BA. We determined 40 mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms in 15 major mitochondrial haplogroups by the use of 24-plex PCR and fluorescent beads combined with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes in 71 patients with BA and in 200 controls in the Taiwanese population of ethnic Chinese background. The haplogroup B4 and E prevalence were significantly lower and higher respectively, in the patients with BA than in the controls (odds ratios, 0.82 [p = 0.007] and 7.36 [p = 0.032] respectively) in multivariate logistic-regression analysis. The 3-year survival rate with native liver was significantly lower in haplogroup E than the other haplogroups (P = 0.037). A cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) was obtained from human 143B osteosarcoma cells devoid of mtDNA (ρ0 cell) and was fused with specific mtDNA bearing E and B4 haplogroups donated by healthy Taiwanese subjects. Chenodeoxycholic acid treatment resulted in significantly lower free radical production, higher mitochondrial membrane potential, more viable cells, and fewer apoptotic cybrid B4 cells than parental 143B and cybrid E cells. Bile acid treatment resulted in a significantly greater protective mitochondrial reaction with significantly higher mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitofusin 1 and 2 concentrations in cybrid B4 and parental cells than in cybrid E cells. The results of the study suggested that the specific mitochondrial DNA haplogroups B4 and E were not only associated with lower and higher prevalence of BA respectively, in the study population, but also with differential susceptibility to hydrophobic bile acid in the cybrid harboring different haplogroups. PMID:23966875

  17. Mitochondrial haplogroup D4 confers resistance and haplogroup B is a genetic risk factor for high-altitude pulmonary edema among Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Luo, Y J; Gao, W X; Li, S Z; Huang, X W; Chen, Y; Liu, F Y; Huang, Q Y; Gao, Y Q

    2012-10-09

    High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a life-threatening condition caused by acute exposure to high altitude. Accumulating evidence suggests that genetic factors play an important role in the etiology of HAPE. However, conclusions from association studies have been hindered by limited sample size due to the rareness of this disease. It is known that mitochondria are critical for hypoxic adaptation, and mitochondrial malfunction can be an important factor in HAPE development. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and polymorphisms affect HAPE susceptibility. We recruited 204 HAPE patients and 174 healthy controls in Tibet (3658 m above sea level), all Han Chinese, constituting the largest sample size of all HAPE vulnerability studies. Among mtDNA haplogroups, we found that haplogroup D4 is associated with resistance to HAPE, while haplogroup B is a genetic risk factor for this condition. Haplogroup D4 (tagged by 3010A) may enhance the stability of 16S rRNA, resulting in reduced oxidative stress and protection against HAPE. Within haplogroup B, subhaplogroup B4c (tagged by 15436A and 1119C) was associated with increased risk for HAPE, while subhaplogroup B4b may protect against HAPE. We indicate that there are differences in HAPE susceptibility among mtDNA haplogroups. We conclude that mitochondria are involved in adverse reactions to acute hypoxic exposure; our finding of differences in susceptibility as a function of mitochondrial DNA haplotype may shed light on the pathogenesis of other disorders associated with hypoxia, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  18. Origin and Spread of Bos taurus: New Clues from Mitochondrial Genomes Belonging to Haplogroup T1

    PubMed Central

    Bonfiglio, Silvia; Ginja, Catarina; De Gaetano, Anna; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Colli, Licia; Tesfaye, Kassahun; Agha, Saif Hassan; Gama, Luis T.; Cattonaro, Federica; Penedo, M. Cecilia T; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Torroni, Antonio; Ferretti, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Background Most genetic studies on modern cattle have established a common origin for all taurine breeds in the Near East, during the Neolithic transition about 10 thousand years (ka) ago. Yet, the possibility of independent and/or secondary domestication events is still debated and is fostered by the finding of rare mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups like P, Q and R. Haplogroup T1, because of its geographic distribution, has been the subject of several investigations pointing to a possible independent domestication event in Africa and suggesting a genetic contribution of African cattle to the formation of Iberian and Creole cattle. Whole mitochondrial genome sequence analysis, with its proven effectiveness in improving the resolution of phylogeographic studies, is the most appropriate tool to investigate the origin and structure of haplogroup T1. Methodology A survey of >2200 bovine mtDNA control regions representing 28 breeds (15 European, 10 African, 3 American) identified 281 subjects belonging to haplogroup T1. Fifty-four were selected for whole mtDNA genome sequencing, and combined with ten T1 complete sequences from previous studies into the most detailed T1 phylogenetic tree available to date. Conclusions Phylogenetic analysis of the 64 T1 mitochondrial complete genomes revealed six distinct sub-haplogroups (T1a–T1f). Our data support the overall scenario of a Near Eastern origin of the T1 sub-haplogroups from as much as eight founding T1 haplotypes. However, the possibility that one sub-haplogroup (T1d) arose in North Africa, in domesticated stocks, shortly after their arrival from the Near East, can not be ruled out. Finally, the previously identified “African-derived American" (AA) haplotype turned out to be a sub-clade of T1c (T1c1a1). This haplotype was found here for the first time in Africa (Egypt), indicating that it probably originated in North Africa, reached the Iberian Peninsula and sailed to America, with the first European settlers

  19. Origin and spread of Bos taurus: new clues from mitochondrial genomes belonging to haplogroup T1.

    PubMed

    Bonfiglio, Silvia; Ginja, Catarina; De Gaetano, Anna; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Colli, Licia; Tesfaye, Kassahun; Agha, Saif Hassan; Gama, Luis T; Cattonaro, Federica; Penedo, M Cecilia T; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Torroni, Antonio; Ferretti, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Most genetic studies on modern cattle have established a common origin for all taurine breeds in the Near East, during the Neolithic transition about 10 thousand years (ka) ago. Yet, the possibility of independent and/or secondary domestication events is still debated and is fostered by the finding of rare mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups like P, Q and R. Haplogroup T1, because of its geographic distribution, has been the subject of several investigations pointing to a possible independent domestication event in Africa and suggesting a genetic contribution of African cattle to the formation of Iberian and Creole cattle. Whole mitochondrial genome sequence analysis, with its proven effectiveness in improving the resolution of phylogeographic studies, is the most appropriate tool to investigate the origin and structure of haplogroup T1. A survey of >2200 bovine mtDNA control regions representing 28 breeds (15 European, 10 African, 3 American) identified 281 subjects belonging to haplogroup T1. Fifty-four were selected for whole mtDNA genome sequencing, and combined with ten T1 complete sequences from previous studies into the most detailed T1 phylogenetic tree available to date. Phylogenetic analysis of the 64 T1 mitochondrial complete genomes revealed six distinct sub-haplogroups (T1a-T1f). Our data support the overall scenario of a Near Eastern origin of the T1 sub-haplogroups from as much as eight founding T1 haplotypes. However, the possibility that one sub-haplogroup (T1d) arose in North Africa, in domesticated stocks, shortly after their arrival from the Near East, can not be ruled out. Finally, the previously identified "African-derived American" (AA) haplotype turned out to be a sub-clade of T1c (T1c1a1). This haplotype was found here for the first time in Africa (Egypt), indicating that it probably originated in North Africa, reached the Iberian Peninsula and sailed to America, with the first European settlers.

  20. Mitochondrial polymorphism A10398G and Haplogroup I are associated with Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Ju; Minear, Mollie A; Qin, Xuejun; Rimmler, Jacqueline; Hauser, Michael A; Allingham, R Rand; Igo, Robert P; Lass, Jonathan H; Iyengar, Sudha K; Klintworth, Gordon K; Afshari, Natalie A; Gregory, Simon G

    2014-06-10

    We investigated whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants affect the susceptibility of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). Ten mtDNA variants defining European haplogroups were genotyped in a discovery dataset consisting of 530 cases and 498 controls of European descent from the Duke FECD cohort. Association tests for mtDNA markers and haplogroups were performed using logistic regression models with adjustment of age and sex. Subset analyses included controlling for additional effects of either the TCF4 SNP rs613872 or cigarette smoking. Our replication dataset was derived from the genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the FECD Genetics Consortium, where genotypes for three of 10 mtDNA markers were available. Replication analyses were performed to compare non-Duke cases to all GWAS controls (GWAS1, N = 3200), and to non-Duke controls (GWAS2, N = 3043). The variant A10398G was significantly associated with FECD (odds ratio [OR] = 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.53, 0.98]; P = 0.034), and remains significant after adjusting for smoking status (min P = 0.012). This variant was replicated in GWAS1 (P = 0.019) and GWAS2 (P = 0.036). Haplogroup I was significantly associated with FECD (OR = 0.46; 95% CI = [0.22, 0.97]; P = 0.041) and remains significant after adjusting for the effect of smoking (min P = 0.008) or rs613872 (P = 0.034). The 10398G allele and Haplogroup I appear to confer significant protective effects for FECD. The effect of A10398G and Haplogroup I to FECD is likely independent of the known TCF4 variant. More data are needed to decipher the interaction between smoking and mtDNA haplogroups. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  1. Mitochondrial haplogroups and polymorphisms reveal no association with sporadic prostate cancer in a southern European population.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Cubero, María Jesús; Saiz Guinaldo, María; Martínez-González, Luís Javier; Álvarez Merino, Juan Carlos; Cózar Olmo, José Manuel; Acosta, José Antonio Lorente

    2012-01-01

    It is known that mitochondria play an important role in certain cancers (prostate, renal, breast, or colorectal) and coronary disease. These organelles play an essential role in apoptosis and the production of reactive oxygen species; in addition, mtDNA also reveals the history of populations and ancient human migration. All these events and variations in the mitochondrial genome are thought to cause some cancers, including prostate cancer, and also help us to group individuals into common origin groups. The aim of the present study is to analyze the different haplogroups and variations in the sequence in the mitochondrial genome of a southern European population consisting of subjects affected (n = 239) and non-affected (n = 150) by sporadic prostate cancer. Using primer extension analysis and DNA sequencing, we identified the nine major European haplogroups and CR polymorphisms. The frequencies of the haplogroups did not differ between patients and control cohorts, whereas the CR polymorphism T16356C was significantly higher in patients with PC compared to the controls (p = 0.029). PSA, staging, and Gleason score were associated with none of the nine major European haplogroups. The CR polymorphisms G16129A (p = 0.007) and T16224C (p = 0.022) were significantly associated with Gleason score, whereas T16311C (p = 0.046) was linked with T-stage. Our results do not suggest that mtDNA haplogroups could be involved in sporadic prostate cancer etiology and pathogenesis as previous studies performed in middle Europe population. Although some significant associations have been obtained in studying CR polymorphisms, further studies should be performed to validate these results.

  2. Mitochondrial Haplogroups and Polymorphisms Reveal No Association with Sporadic Prostate Cancer in a Southern European Population

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Cubero, María Jesús; Saiz Guinaldo, María; Martínez-González, Luís Javier; Álvarez Merino, Juan Carlos; Cózar Olmo, José Manuel; Acosta, José Antonio Lorente

    2012-01-01

    Background It is known that mitochondria play an important role in certain cancers (prostate, renal, breast, or colorectal) and coronary disease. These organelles play an essential role in apoptosis and the production of reactive oxygen species; in addition, mtDNA also reveals the history of populations and ancient human migration. All these events and variations in the mitochondrial genome are thought to cause some cancers, including prostate cancer, and also help us to group individuals into common origin groups. The aim of the present study is to analyze the different haplogroups and variations in the sequence in the mitochondrial genome of a southern European population consisting of subjects affected (n = 239) and non-affected (n = 150) by sporadic prostate cancer. Methodology and Principal Findings Using primer extension analysis and DNA sequencing, we identified the nine major European haplogroups and CR polymorphisms. The frequencies of the haplogroups did not differ between patients and control cohorts, whereas the CR polymorphism T16356C was significantly higher in patients with PC compared to the controls (p = 0.029). PSA, staging, and Gleason score were associated with none of the nine major European haplogroups. The CR polymorphisms G16129A (p = 0.007) and T16224C (p = 0.022) were significantly associated with Gleason score, whereas T16311C (p = 0.046) was linked with T-stage. Conclusions and Significance Our results do not suggest that mtDNA haplogroups could be involved in sporadic prostate cancer etiology and pathogenesis as previous studies performed in middle Europe population. Although some significant associations have been obtained in studying CR polymorphisms, further studies should be performed to validate these results. PMID:22815971

  3. Association of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and vascular complications of diabetes mellitus: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Martikainen, Mika H; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Majamaa, Kari

    2015-07-01

    We investigated whether mitochondrial (mtDNA) haplogroups and maternal family history of diabetes mellitus were associated with vascular diabetes mellitus complications in a population-based cohort of 299 Finnish diabetes mellitus patients with disease onset in young adult age. We found that haplogroup U was more prevalent among patients with no vascular diabetes mellitus complications than among those with at least one complication (p = 0.038). Haplogroup U was also more prevalent among the patients who reported maternal family history of diabetes mellitus than among those who did not (p = 0.0013). Furthermore, haplogroup U was more prevalent among patients with maternal family history of diabetes mellitus but no vascular diabetes mellitus complications than among those with at least one vascular diabetes mellitus complication but no maternal family history of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.0003 for difference). These findings suggest that different mtDNA-related factors may influence the risk of diabetes mellitus per se and the risk of vascular diabetes mellitus complications. Further studies are, however, warranted to replicate and elaborate on these results.

  4. Association of primary open-angle glaucoma with mitochondrial variants and haplogroups common in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Gudiseva, Harini V.; Trachtman, Benjamin; Bowman, Anita S.; Sagaser, Anna; Sankar, Prithvi; Miller-Ellis, Eydie; Lehman, Amanda; Addis, Victoria; O'Brien, Joan M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the population frequencies of all common mitochondrial variants and ancestral haplogroups among 1,999 subjects recruited for the Primary Open-Angle African American Glaucoma Genetics (POAAGG) Study, including 1,217 primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) cases and 782 controls, and to identify ancestral subpopulations and mitochondrial mutations as potential risk factors for POAG susceptibility. Methods Subject classification by characteristic glaucomatous optic nerve findings and corresponding visual field defects, as defined by enrolling glaucoma specialists, stereo disc photography, phlebotomy, extraction of total DNA from peripheral blood or saliva, DNA quantification and normalization, PCR amplification of whole mitochondrial genomes, Ion Torrent deep semiconductor DNA sequencing on DNA pools (“Pool-seq”), Sanger sequencing of 3,479 individual mitochondrial DNAs, and bioinformatic analysis. Results The distribution of common African haplogroups within the POAAGG study population was broadly similar to prior surveys of African Americans. However, the POAG case population was found to be enriched in L1c2 haplogroups, which are defined in part by missense mutations m.6150G>A (Val83Ile, odds ratio [OR] 1.8, p=0.01), m.6253C>T (Met117Thr, rs200165736, OR 1.6, p=0.04), and m.6480G>A (Val193Ile, rs199476128, OR 4.6, p=0.04) in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (MT-CO1) gene and by a variant, m.2220A>G (OR 2.0, p=0.01), in MT-RNR2, which encodes the mitochondrial ribosomal 16s RNA gene. L2 haplogroups were predicted to be overrepresented in the POAG case population by Pool-seq, and the difference was confirmed to be significant with Sanger sequencing, that targeted the L2-associated variants m.2416T>C (rs28358580, OR 1.2, p=0.02) and m.2332C>T (OR 1.2, p=.02) in MT-RNR2. Another variant within MT-RNR2, m.3010G>A (rs3928306), previously implicated in sensitivity to the optic neuropathy-associated antibiotic linezolid, and arising on D4 and J1

  5. Mitochondrial DNA sequence data reveals association of haplogroup U with psychosis in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Frye, Mark A; Ryu, Euijung; Nassan, Malik; Jenkins, Gregory D; Andreazza, Ana C; Evans, Jared M; McElroy, Susan L; Oglesbee, Devin; Highsmith, W Edward; Biernacka, Joanna M

    2017-01-01

    Converging genetic, postmortem gene-expression, cellular, and neuroimaging data implicate mitochondrial dysfunction in bipolar disorder. This study was conducted to investigate whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups and single nucleotide variants (SNVs) are associated with sub-phenotypes of bipolar disorder. MtDNA from 224 patients with Bipolar I disorder (BPI) was sequenced, and association of sequence variations with 3 sub-phenotypes (psychosis, rapid cycling, and adolescent illness onset) was evaluated. Gene-level tests were performed to evaluate overall burden of minor alleles for each phenotype. The haplogroup U was associated with a higher risk of psychosis. Secondary analyses of SNVs provided nominal evidence for association of psychosis with variants in the tRNA, ND4 and ND5 genes. The association of psychosis with ND4 (gene that encodes NADH dehydrogenase 4) was further supported by gene-level analysis. Preliminary analysis of mtDNA sequence data suggests a higher risk of psychosis with the U haplogroup and variation in the ND4 gene implicated in electron transport chain energy regulation. Further investigation of the functional consequences of this mtDNA variation is encouraged. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The mitochondrial ancestor of bonobos and the origin of their major haplogroups.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Hiroyuki; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Higuchi, Shoko; Makinose, Emiko; Hart, John A; Hart, Térese B; Sakamaki, Tetsuya; Tokuyama, Nahoko; Reinartz, Gay E; Guislain, Patrick; Dupain, Jef; Cobden, Amy K; Mulavwa, Mbangi N; Yangozene, Kumugo; Darroze, Serge; Devos, Céline; Furuichi, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    We report here where the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of bonobos (Pan paniscus) ranged and how they dispersed throughout their current habitat. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecular dating to analyze the time to MRCA (TMRCA) and the major mtDNA haplogroups of wild bonobos were performed using new estimations of divergence time of bonobos from other Pan species to investigate the dispersal routes of bonobos over the forest area of the Congo River's left bank. The TMRCA of bonobos was estimated to be 0.64 or 0.95 million years ago (Ma). Six major haplogroups had very old origins of 0.38 Ma or older. The reconstruction of the ancestral area revealed the mitochondrial ancestor of the bonobo populations ranged in the eastern area of the current bonobos' habitat. The haplogroups may have been formed from either the riparian forests along the Congo River or the center of the southern Congo Basin. Fragmentation of the forest refugia during the cooler periods may have greatly affected the formation of the genetic structure of bonobo populations.

  7. The mitochondrial ancestor of bonobos and the origin of their major haplogroups

    PubMed Central

    Takemoto, Hiroyuki; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Higuchi, Shoko; Makinose, Emiko; Furuichi, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    We report here where the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of bonobos (Pan paniscus) ranged and how they dispersed throughout their current habitat. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecular dating to analyze the time to MRCA (TMRCA) and the major mtDNA haplogroups of wild bonobos were performed using new estimations of divergence time of bonobos from other Pan species to investigate the dispersal routes of bonobos over the forest area of the Congo River’s left bank. The TMRCA of bonobos was estimated to be 0.64 or 0.95 million years ago (Ma). Six major haplogroups had very old origins of 0.38 Ma or older. The reconstruction of the ancestral area revealed the mitochondrial ancestor of the bonobo populations ranged in the eastern area of the current bonobos’ habitat. The haplogroups may have been formed from either the riparian forests along the Congo River or the center of the southern Congo Basin. Fragmentation of the forest refugia during the cooler periods may have greatly affected the formation of the genetic structure of bonobo populations. PMID:28467422

  8. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup D4b is a protective factor for ischemic stroke in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongzhi; Wang, Qing; Shi, Yunshu; Fan, Yujia; Zheng, Hong-Xiang; Song, Guoying; Feng, Qingchuan; Zheng, Hong; He, Ying

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups affect the assembly and stability of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which is potentially related to susceptibility to ischemic stroke (IS). However, the role of mtDNA in IS has not been comprehensively studied. The purpose of this study was to explore whether mtDNA polymorphisms and haplogroups are involved in the etiology of IS in the Chinese Han population. We recruited 200 patients with IS and 200 matched controls and genotyped them for 18 mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms defining the major Eastern Asian haplogroups by SNaPshot minisequencing. We also sequenced the hypervariable segment I (HVS-I), position 16051-16400. The prevalence of haplogroup D4b was significantly lower in IS patients than in healthy controls (0 and 8 %, respectively, corrected P = 2 × 10(-5), odds ratio = 0.028, 95 % confidence interval = 0.002-0.468).The positive association between haplogroup D4b and IS may be related to the protective effect of haplogroup D4b against oxidative damage, which decreases the risk of IS. Our study provides the first evidence that haplogroup D4b is a potential genetic protective factor for IS in the Chinese Han population.

  9. Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup A may confer a genetic susceptibility to AIDS group from Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua-Wei; Xu, Yu; Miao, Ying-Lei; Luo, Hua-You; Wang, Kun-Hua

    2016-05-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans was one of the chronic infections caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the interactions between viral infection and mitochondrial energetic implicated that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation(s) may effect genetic susceptibility to AIDS. Thus, to illustrate the maternal genetic structure and further identify whether mtDNA variation(s) can effect HIV infection among southwest Chinese AIDS group, the whole mtDNA control region sequences of 70 AIDS patients and 480 health individuals from southwest China were analyzed here. Our results indicated the plausible recent genetic admixture results of AIDS group; comparison of matrilineal components between AIDS and matched Han groups showed that mtDNA haplogroup A (p = 0.048, OR = 3.006, 95% CI = 1.109-8.145) has a significant higher difference between the two groups; further comparison illustrated that mtDNA mutations 16,209 (p = 0.046, OR = 2.607, 95% CI = 0.988-6.876) and 16,319 (p = 0.009, OR = 2.965, 95% CI = 1.278-6.876) have significant differences between AIDS and matched control groups, and both of which were the defining variations of mtDNA haplogroup A, they further confirmed that mtDNA haplogroup A may confer genetic susceptibility to AIDS. Our results suggested that haplogroup A may confer a genetic susceptibility to AIDS group from Southwest China.

  10. HaploGrep 2: mitochondrial haplogroup classification in the era of high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Weissensteiner, Hansi; Pacher, Dominic; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Forer, Lukas; Specht, Günther; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Kronenberg, Florian; Salas, Antonio; Schönherr, Sebastian

    2016-07-08

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) profiles can be classified into phylogenetic clusters (haplogroups), which is of great relevance for evolutionary, forensic and medical genetics. With the extensive growth of the underlying phylogenetic tree summarizing the published mtDNA sequences, the manual process of haplogroup classification would be too time-consuming. The previously published classification tool HaploGrep provided an automatic way to address this issue. Here, we present the completely updated version HaploGrep 2 offering several advanced features, including a generic rule-based system for immediate quality control (QC). This allows detecting artificial recombinants and missing variants as well as annotating rare and phantom mutations. Furthermore, the handling of high-throughput data in form of VCF files is now directly supported. For data output, several graphical reports are generated in real time, such as a multiple sequence alignment format, a VCF format and extended haplogroup QC reports, all viewable directly within the application. In addition, HaploGrep 2 generates a publication-ready phylogenetic tree of all input samples encoded relative to the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence. Finally, new distance measures and optimizations of the algorithm increase accuracy and speed-up the application. HaploGrep 2 can be accessed freely and without any registration at http://haplogrep.uibk.ac.at. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. HaploGrep 2: mitochondrial haplogroup classification in the era of high-throughput sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Weissensteiner, Hansi; Pacher, Dominic; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Forer, Lukas; Specht, Günther; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Kronenberg, Florian; Salas, Antonio; Schönherr, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) profiles can be classified into phylogenetic clusters (haplogroups), which is of great relevance for evolutionary, forensic and medical genetics. With the extensive growth of the underlying phylogenetic tree summarizing the published mtDNA sequences, the manual process of haplogroup classification would be too time-consuming. The previously published classification tool HaploGrep provided an automatic way to address this issue. Here, we present the completely updated version HaploGrep 2 offering several advanced features, including a generic rule-based system for immediate quality control (QC). This allows detecting artificial recombinants and missing variants as well as annotating rare and phantom mutations. Furthermore, the handling of high-throughput data in form of VCF files is now directly supported. For data output, several graphical reports are generated in real time, such as a multiple sequence alignment format, a VCF format and extended haplogroup QC reports, all viewable directly within the application. In addition, HaploGrep 2 generates a publication-ready phylogenetic tree of all input samples encoded relative to the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence. Finally, new distance measures and optimizations of the algorithm increase accuracy and speed-up the application. HaploGrep 2 can be accessed freely and without any registration at http://haplogrep.uibk.ac.at. PMID:27084951

  12. [The application of minisequencing reactions for haplogroup assignment of mitochondrial DNA].

    PubMed

    Daca, Patrycja; Mielnik, Marta; Rogalla, Urszula; Skonieczna, Katarzyna; Linkowska, Katarzyna; Grzybowski, Tomasz

    2008-01-01

    In the last few years, one could observe an increased interest in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as a result of their numerous applications in population genetics and forensic science. Continuous progress in molecular technologies together with an increasing body of phylogenetic knowledge, based mainly on complete mitochondrial genome sequencing, allows both for selection and accurate typing of many SNPs in mitochondrial DNA. Among the SNP typing techniques, due to its high sensitivity and promptness of determinations, minisequencing appears to be one of the fastest and most frequently applied methods in forensic laboratories. This review presents currently available minisequencing systems used for haplogroup assignment of mtDNA in European, East Asian and Native American populations.

  13. Multiplex APLP System for High-Resolution Haplogrouping of Extremely Degraded East-Asian Mitochondrial DNAs

    PubMed Central

    Kakuda, Tsuneo; Shojo, Hideki; Tanaka, Mayumi; Nambiar, Phrabhakaran; Minaguchi, Kiyoshi; Umetsu, Kazuo; Adachi, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) serves as a powerful tool for exploring matrilineal phylogeographic ancestry, as well as for analyzing highly degraded samples, because of its polymorphic nature and high copy numbers per cell. The recent advent of complete mitochondrial genome sequencing has led to improved techniques for phylogenetic analyses based on mtDNA, and many multiplex genotyping methods have been developed for the hierarchical analysis of phylogenetically important mutations. However, few high-resolution multiplex genotyping systems for analyzing East-Asian mtDNA can be applied to extremely degraded samples. Here, we present a multiplex system for analyzing mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs), which relies on a novel amplified product-length polymorphisms (APLP) method that uses inosine-flapped primers and is specifically designed for the detailed haplogrouping of extremely degraded East-Asian mtDNAs. We used fourteen 6-plex polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) and subsequent electrophoresis to examine 81 haplogroup-defining SNPs and 3 insertion/deletion sites, and we were able to securely assign the studied mtDNAs to relevant haplogroups. Our system requires only 1×10−13 g (100 fg) of crude DNA to obtain a full profile. Owing to its small amplicon size (<110 bp), this new APLP system was successfully applied to extremely degraded samples for which direct sequencing of hypervariable segments using mini-primer sets was unsuccessful, and proved to be more robust than conventional APLP analysis. Thus, our new APLP system is effective for retrieving reliable data from extremely degraded East-Asian mtDNAs. PMID:27355212

  14. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup M is associated with late onset of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    GUO, ZHANJUN; YANG, HUA; WANG, CUIJU; LIU, SHUFENG

    2012-01-01

    The accumulation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the displacement loop (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been associated with various types of cancer. The association of SNPs with cancer risk and disease outcome has been exhaustively studied. In this study, we investigated the association of age-at-onset and SNPs in the mitochondrial D-loop using a population-based series of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Haplogroup M (489C) and allele 235G were identified for their association with the late onset of HCC by the log-rank test. In an overall multivariate analysis, haplogroup M (489C) was identified as an independent predictive factor for the age-at-onset of HCC at borderline significant levels [relative risk, 1.736; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.967–3.115; p=0.065]. Genetic polymorphisms in the D-loop are predictive markers for age-at-onset in HCC patients. Accordingly, the analysis of genetic polymorphisms in the mitochondrial D-loop may help to identify HCC patient subgroups at high risk of early onset of the disease. PMID:22969918

  15. Effects of mitochondrial haplogroup N9a on type 2 diabetes mellitus and its associated complications.

    PubMed

    Niu, Qing; Zhang, Wanlin; Wang, Hailing; Guan, Xiaomin; Lu, Jianxin; Li, Wei

    2015-11-01

    A case-control study was conducted with the aim of identifying the predominant haplogroups associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its complications. In addition, the role of N9a in T2DM risk and complications was analyzed. Sequencing of the entire mitochondrial DNA was conducted in 235 patients and 244 controls in cohort 1, and six haplogroups (F, B4, D4, D5, M8a and N9a) associated with T2DM were classified. The frequency of N9a was further determined in cohort 2 (440 patients and 244 controls) and examined in two combined cohorts, including 675 patients with T2DM and 649 non-diabetic controls. Multivariate logistic regression analysis and association analysis were performed to investigate the association between genotypes, T2DM and diabetic nephropathy. M8a [P=0.011; odds ratio (OR), 3.49; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.26-9.69] and haplogroup N9a (P=0.023; OR, 2.60; 95% CI, 1.11-6.05) were associated with an increased risk of T2DM. The frequency of N9a was higher in T2DM patients compared with that in the controls (6.2% vs. 4.3%) and associated with a mild risk (P=0.10; OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.92-2.49). N9a was significantly associated with an increased risk of diabetic nephropathy (P=0.024; OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.11-4.19). Previous findings of N9a being protective against T2DM were not replicated in the present study, although this haplogroup was associated with an increased risk of diabetic nephropathy.

  16. Mitochondrial haplogroup M9a1a1c1b is associated with hypoxic adaptation in the Tibetans.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Lin, Keqin; Sun, Hao; Liu, Shuyuan; Huang, Kai; Huang, Xiaoqin; Chu, Jiayou; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2016-12-01

    While hypoxic environment at high altitude remains a major challenge for travelers from low-altitude areas, Tibetans have adapted to the high-altitude environment. Mitochondria are the energy conversion and supplement centers in eukaryotic cells. In recent years, studies have found that the diversity of the mitochondrial genome may have a role in the adaptation to hypoxia in Tibetans. In this study, mitochondrial haplogroup classification and variant genotyping were performed in Tibetan and Han Chinese populations living at different altitudes. The frequencies of mitochondrial haplogroups B and M7 in the high-altitude population were significantly lower compared with those in the low-altitude population (P=0.003 and 0.029, respectively), whereas the frequencies of haplogroups G and M9a1a1c1b in the high-altitude group were significantly higher compared with those in the low-altitude group (P=0.01 and 0.002, respectively). The frequencies of T3394C and G7697A, which are the definition sites of haplogroup M9a1a1c1b, were significantly higher in the high-altitude group compared with that in the low-altitude group (P=0.012 and 0.02, respectively). Our results suggest that mitochondrial haplogroups B and M7 are associated with inadaptability to hypoxic environments, whereas haplogroups G and M9a1a1c1b may be associated with hypoxic adaptation. In particular, the T3394C and G7697A variants on haplogroup M9a1a1c1b may be the primary cause of adaptation to hypoxia.

  17. The structure of diversity within New World mitochondrial DNA haplogroups: implications for the prehistory of North America.

    PubMed

    Malhi, Ripan S; Eshleman, Jason A; Greenberg, Jonathan A; Weiss, Deborah A; Schultz Shook, Beth A; Kaestle, Frederika A; Lorenz, Joseph G; Kemp, Brian M; Johnson, John R; Smith, David Glenn

    2002-04-01

    The mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and hypervariable segment I (HVSI) sequences of 1,612 and 395 Native North Americans, respectively, were analyzed to identify major prehistoric population events in North America. Gene maps and spatial autocorrelation analyses suggest that populations with high frequencies of haplogroups A, B, and X experienced prehistoric population expansions in the North, Southwest, and Great Lakes region, respectively. Haplotype networks showing high levels of reticulation and high frequencies of nodal haplotypes support these results. The haplotype networks suggest the existence of additional founding lineages within haplogroups B and C; however, because of the hypervariability exhibited by the HVSI data set, similar haplotypes exhibited in Asia and America could be due to convergence rather than common ancestry. The hypervariability and reticulation preclude the use of estimates of genetic diversity within haplogroups to argue for the number of migrations to the Americas.

  18. The Structure of Diversity within New World Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups: Implications for the Prehistory of North America

    PubMed Central

    Malhi, Ripan S.; Eshleman, Jason A.; Greenberg, Jonathan A.; Weiss, Deborah A.; Shook, Beth A. Schultz; Kaestle, Frederika A.; Lorenz, Joseph G.; Kemp, Brian M.; Johnson, John R.; Smith, David Glenn

    2002-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and hypervariable segment I (HVSI) sequences of 1,612 and 395 Native North Americans, respectively, were analyzed to identify major prehistoric population events in North America. Gene maps and spatial autocorrelation analyses suggest that populations with high frequencies of haplogroups A, B, and X experienced prehistoric population expansions in the North, Southwest, and Great Lakes region, respectively. Haplotype networks showing high levels of reticulation and high frequencies of nodal haplotypes support these results. The haplotype networks suggest the existence of additional founding lineages within haplogroups B and C; however, because of the hypervariability exhibited by the HVSI data set, similar haplotypes exhibited in Asia and America could be due to convergence rather than common ancestry. The hypervariability and reticulation preclude the use of estimates of genetic diversity within haplogroups to argue for the number of migrations to the Americas. PMID:11845406

  19. Subdivisions of haplogroups U and C encompass mitochondrial DNA lineages of Eneolithic-Early Bronze Age Kurgan populations of western North Pontic steppe.

    PubMed

    Nikitin, Alexey G; Ivanova, Svetlana; Kiosak, Dmytro; Badgerow, Jessica; Pashnick, Jeff

    2017-02-02

    Prehistoric Europe experienced a marked cultural and economic shift around 4000 years ago, when the established Neolithic agriculture-based economy was replaced by herding-pastoralist industry. In recent years new data about the genetic structure of human communities living during this transition period began to emerge. At the same time, the genetic identities of the Eneolithic and Early Bronze Age (EBA) inhabitants from a prehistoric cultural crossroad in western North Pontic steppe region remain understudied. This report presents results of the investigation of maternal genetic lineages of individuals buried in kurgans constructed during the Eneolithic-EBA transition in the western part of the North Pontic Region (NPR). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages from the interments belonging to the Eneolithic as well as the EBA cultures such as Yamna (Pit Grave), Catacomb and Babino (Mnogovalikovaya or KMK) were examined. In the 12 successfully haplotyped specimens, 75% of mtDNA lineages consisted of west Eurasian haplogroup U and its U4 and U5 sublineages. Furthermore, we identified a subgroup of east Eurasian haplogroup C in two representatives of the Yamna culture in one of the studied kurgans. Our results indicate the persistence of Mesolithic hunter-gatherer mtDNA lineages in western NPR through the EBA, as well as suggesting a mtDNA lineage continuum connecting the western NPR inhabitants of the Early Metal Ages to the North Pontic Neolithic population groups.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 2 February 2017; doi:10.1038/jhg.2017.12.

  20. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup phylogeny of the dog: Proposal for a cladistic nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Fregel, Rosa; Suárez, Nicolás M; Betancor, Eva; González, Ana M; Cabrera, Vicente M; Pestano, José

    2015-05-01

    Canis lupus familiaris mitochondrial DNA analysis has increased in recent years, not only for the purpose of deciphering dog domestication but also for forensic genetic studies or breed characterization. The resultant accumulation of data has increased the need for a normalized and phylogenetic-based nomenclature like those provided for human maternal lineages. Although a standardized classification has been proposed, haplotype names within clades have been assigned gradually without considering the evolutionary history of dog mtDNA. Moreover, this classification is based only on the D-loop region, proven to be insufficient for phylogenetic purposes due to its high number of recurrent mutations and the lack of relevant information present in the coding region. In this study, we design 1) a refined mtDNA cladistic nomenclature from a phylogenetic tree based on complete sequences, classifying dog maternal lineages into haplogroups defined by specific diagnostic mutations, and 2) a coding region SNP analysis that allows a more accurate classification into haplogroups when combined with D-loop sequencing, thus improving the phylogenetic information obtained in dog mitochondrial DNA studies.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA copy number, but not haplogroup is associated with keratoconus in Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiao-Dan; Chen, Peng; Wang, Ye; Li, Su-Xia; Xie, Li-Xin

    2015-03-01

    Oxidative stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of keratoconus (KC). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is closely related to mitochondrion function, and variations may affect the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and be involved in the pathogenesis of KC. To test whether mtDNA background and copy number confer genetic susceptibility to KC in the Han Chinese population, we performed this association study. We analyzed mtDNA sequence variations in 210 KC patients and 309 matched individuals from China, and classified each subject by haplogroup. Mitochondrial DNA copy number was measured in a subset of these subjects (193 patients and 103 controls). Comparison of matrilineal components of the cases and control populations revealed no significant difference. However, measurement of mtDNA copy number showed that KC patients had significantly lower mtDNA copy numbers than controls (P = 0.0002), even when age, gender, and mtDNA background were considered. Our results suggest that mtDNA copy number, but not haplogroup, is associated with keratoconus, and may contribute to its pathogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Peopling of Europe from the Mitochondrial Haplogroup U5 Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Perkova, Maria; Rogalla, Urszula; Vanecek, Tomas; Tsybovsky, Iosif

    2010-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the most ancient European mitochondrial haplogroup, U5, has evolved essentially in Europe. To resolve the phylogeny of this haplogroup, we completely sequenced 113 mitochondrial genomes (79 U5a and 34 U5b) of central and eastern Europeans (Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Russians and Belorussians), and reconstructed a detailed phylogenetic tree, that incorporates previously published data. Molecular dating suggests that the coalescence time estimate for the U5 is ∼25–30 thousand years (ky), and ∼16–20 and ∼20–24 ky for its subhaplogroups U5a and U5b, respectively. Phylogeographic analysis reveals that expansions of U5 subclusters started earlier in central and southern Europe, than in eastern Europe. In addition, during the Last Glacial Maximum central Europe (probably, the Carpathian Basin) apparently represented the area of intermingling between human flows from refugial zones in the Balkans, the Mediterranean coastline and the Pyrenees. Age estimations amounting for many U5 subclusters in eastern Europeans to ∼15 ky ago and less are consistent with the view that during the Ice Age eastern Europe was an inhospitable place for modern humans. PMID:20422015

  3. Timing and deciphering mitochondrial DNA macro-haplogroup R0 variability in Central Europe and Middle East

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Nearly half of the West Eurasian assemblage of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is fractioned into numerous sub-lineages of the predominant haplogroup (hg) R0. Several hypotheses have been proposed on the origin and the expansion times of some R0 sub-lineages, which were partially inconsistent with each other. Here we describe the phylogenetic structure and genetic variety of hg R0 in five European populations and one population from the Middle East. Results Our analysis of 1,350 mtDNA haplotypes belonging to R0, including entire control region sequences and 45 single nucleotide polymorphisms from the coding region, revealed significant differences in the distribution of different sub-hgs even between geographically closely located regions. Estimates of coalescence times that were derived using diverse algorithmic approaches consistently affirmed that the major expansions of the different R0 hgs occurred in the terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene. Conclusion Given an estimated coalescence time of the distinct lineages of 10 – 18 kya, the differences in the distributions could hint to either limited maternal gene flow after the Last Glacial Maximum due to the alpine nature of the regions involved or to a stochastic loss of diversity due to environmental events and/or disease episodes occurred at different times and in distinctive regions. Our comparison of two different ways of obtaining the timing of the most recent common ancestor confirms that the time of a sudden expansion can be adequately recovered from control region data with valid confidence intervals. For reliable estimates, both procedures should be applied in order to cross-check the results for validity and soundness. PMID:18601722

  4. Molecular and Bioenergetic Differences between Cells with African versus European Inherited Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups: Implications for Population Susceptibility to Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, M. Cristina; Chwa, Marilyn; Atilano, Shari R.; Falatoonzadeh, Payam; Ramirez, Claudio; Malik, Deepika; Tarek, Mohamed; Cáceres del Carpio, Javier; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Boyer, David S.; Kuppermann, Baruch D.; Vawter, Marquis P.; Jazwinski, S. Michal; Miceli, Michael V.; Wallace, Douglas C.; Udar, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    The geographic origins of populations can be identified by their maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups. This study compared human cybrids (cytoplasmic hybrids), which are cell lines with identical nuclei but mitochondria from different individuals with mtDNA from either the H haplogroup or L haplogroup backgrounds. The most common European haplogroup is H while individuals of maternal African origin are of the L haplogroup. Despite lower mtDNA copy numbers, L cybrids had higher expression levels for nine mtDNA-encoded respiratory complex genes, decreased ATP turnover rates and lower levels of ROS production, parameters which are consistent with more efficient oxidative phosphorylation. Surprisingly, GeneChip arrays showed that the L and H cybrids had major differences in expression of genes of the canonical complement system (5 genes), dermatan/chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis (5 genes) and CCR3 signaling (9 genes). Quantitative nuclear gene expression studies confirmed that L cybrids had (a) lower expression levels of complement pathway and innate immunity genes and (b) increased levels of inflammation-related signaling genes, which are critical in human diseases. Our data support the hypothesis that mtDNA haplogroups representing populations from different geographic origins may play a role in differential susceptibilities to diseases. PMID:24200652

  5. Multiple sclerosis in Gypsies from southern Spain: prevalence, mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and HLA class II association.

    PubMed

    Fernández, O; Fernández, V; Martinez-Cabrera, V; Mayorga, C; Alonso, A; León, A; Arnal, C; Hens, M; Luque, G; de Ramón, E; Caballero, A; Leyva, L

    2008-05-01

    Occasional reports have mentioned the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) among Gypsies, and no studies have examined to date the prevalence of MS or human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genetics associations in the Spanish Gypsy population. We decided to study the prevalence, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups and HLA class II distribution among gypsies with MS in southern Spain. We searched for Gypsy MS patients and studied HLA class II alleles by polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific oligonucleotide (PCR/SSO) probe hybridization or sequence-specific primers amplification. An additional study of the mtDNA haplogroups by sequencing of the hypervariable segments of the control region was also performed to provide details of their ethnic origin. Estimated prevalence of MS in the Gypsy population in Malaga was 52/100,000. No significant differences were found in mtDNA between Gypsy MS patients and Gypsy controls. DRB1*1501, DQB1*0602 and DQB1*0608 alleles were the only positive HLA association with MS. The Gypsies in our series have the same anthropological origin as other European gypsy groups, as shown by mtDNA haplogroups. Although interpreted with great caution because of the small sample size, we found that the prevalence of MS in Gypsies in Malaga is not as low as that in Central Europe, although it is significantly less than that found in Caucasians from Spain (75-79/100,000). DQB1*0602 was the strongest positive association found with Gypsy MS patients, and DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 was the most frequent haplotype in this group.

  6. The other genome: a systematic review of studies of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and outcomes of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Hart, Anna B; Samuels, David C; Hulgan, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial toxicity is implicated in some treatment-limiting antiretroviral therapy complications, and reports of mitochondrial dysfunction in untreated HIV infection suggest antiretroviral therapy independent effects of HIV. Several studies have explored associations between mtDNA haplogroups (patterns of mtDNA polymorphisms) and outcomes of HIV infection and/or antiretroviral therapy, but findings have been inconsistent. We systematically reviewed published studies examining mtDNA haplogroups in HIV-infected persons to summarize reported outcome associations, and to highlight potential future research directions. We identified 21 articles published from 2005-2013. Multiple different phenotypes were studied; most were antiretroviral therapy associated metabolic outcomes (e.g. lipodystrophy, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia). Haplogroup H was associated with the most outcomes, including AIDS progression, CD4 T-cell recovery, cirrhosis (in hepatitis C coinfection), and metabolic outcomes. This review is the first to focus on the emerging area of mtDNA haplogroups in HIV, and summarizes the published literature on associations between mtDNA haplogroups and clinical outcomes in populations of European and African descent. Several reported associations require replication and ideally biological verification before definitive conclusions can be drawn, but research in this area has the potential to explain outcome disparities and impact clinical management of patients.

  7. The Mitochondrial DNA Northeast Asia CZD Haplogroup Is Associated with Good Disease-Free Survival among Male Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chih-Hsiung; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Chen, I-How; Liao, Chun-Ta; Wang, Hung-Ming; Hsieh, Ling-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Reprogramming of energy metabolism in cancer cells has been directly/indirectly linked to mitochondria and mitochondrial functional defects and these changes seem to contribute to the development and progression of cancer. Studies have indicated that mitochondrial DNA haplogroups are associated with risk in relation to various diseases including cancer. However, few studies have examined the effect of haplogroups on cancer prognosis outcome. In order to explore the role of haplogroups on oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) prognosis, the mitochondrial genomes of 300 male OSCC patients were comprehensively analyzed by direct sequencing. They were then haplotyped and grouped into four major geographic haplogroups, namely the East Asia AN, Southeast Asia RBF, East Asia MGE and Northeast Asia CZD groups. The Kaplan-Meier plot analysis indicated that individuals who were members of the CZD haplogroup showed a significant association with better disease-free survival (DFS) than the other three haplogroups and this phenomenon still existed after adjusting for tumor stage, differentiation and age at diagnosis (hazard ratio = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.36–0.84). In addition, an interaction between membership of the RBF haplogroup and radiotherapy/chemo-radiotherapy in DFS was also identified. The results strongly support the hypothesis that an individual’s haplogroup, by defining their genomic background, plays an important role in tumor behavior and mitochondrially-targeted anticancer drugs are promising future therapeutic approaches. PMID:23185408

  8. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup K as a contributor to protection against thyroid cancer in a population from southeast Europe.

    PubMed

    Cocoş, Relu; Schipor, Sorina; Badiu, Corin; Raicu, Florina

    2017-08-26

    We aimed to analyze the contribution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups of the mtDNA control region to thyroid cancer risk in a population from southeastern Europe consisting of 235 thyroid tumor patients, including 114 patients with thyroid follicular adenoma, 121 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma, and 419 healthy controls. Binary logistic regression with adjustment for age and gender revealed that mtDNA haplogroup K was significantly associated with a protective role for thyroid cancer in the combined tumor group versus controls. These results indicate a potential role for mtDNA haplogroups as important candidate susceptibility markers for the patients with thyroid nodules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Colonizing the High Arctic: Mitochondrial DNA Reveals Common Origin of Eurasian Archipelagic Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

    PubMed Central

    Kvie, Kjersti S.; Heggenes, Jan; Anderson, David G.; Kholodova, Marina V.; Sipko, Taras; Mizin, Ivan; Røed, Knut H.

    2016-01-01

    In light of current debates on global climate change it has become important to know more on how large, roaming species have responded to environmental change in the past. Using the highly variable mitochondrial control region, we revisit theories of Rangifer colonization and propose that the High Arctic archipelagos of Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, and Novaia Zemlia were colonized by reindeer from the Eurasian mainland after the last glacial maximum. Comparing mtDNA control region sequences from the three Arctic archipelagos showed a strong genetic connection between the populations, supporting a common origin in the past. A genetic connection between the three archipelagos and two Russian mainland populations was also found, suggesting colonization of the Eurasian high Arctic archipelagos from the Eurasian mainland. The age of the Franz Josef Land material (>2000 years before present) implies that Arctic indigenous reindeer colonized the Eurasian Arctic archipelagos through natural dispersal, before humans approached this region. PMID:27880778

  10. Colonizing the High Arctic: Mitochondrial DNA Reveals Common Origin of Eurasian Archipelagic Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus).

    PubMed

    Kvie, Kjersti S; Heggenes, Jan; Anderson, David G; Kholodova, Marina V; Sipko, Taras; Mizin, Ivan; Røed, Knut H

    2016-01-01

    In light of current debates on global climate change it has become important to know more on how large, roaming species have responded to environmental change in the past. Using the highly variable mitochondrial control region, we revisit theories of Rangifer colonization and propose that the High Arctic archipelagos of Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, and Novaia Zemlia were colonized by reindeer from the Eurasian mainland after the last glacial maximum. Comparing mtDNA control region sequences from the three Arctic archipelagos showed a strong genetic connection between the populations, supporting a common origin in the past. A genetic connection between the three archipelagos and two Russian mainland populations was also found, suggesting colonization of the Eurasian high Arctic archipelagos from the Eurasian mainland. The age of the Franz Josef Land material (>2000 years before present) implies that Arctic indigenous reindeer colonized the Eurasian Arctic archipelagos through natural dispersal, before humans approached this region.

  11. Mitochondrial DNA D-loop haplogroup contributions to the genetic diversity of East European domestic chickens from Russia.

    PubMed

    Dyomin, A G; Danilova, M I; Mwacharo, J M; Masharsky, A E; Panteleev, A V; Druzhkova, A S; Trifonov, V A; Galkina, S A

    2017-04-01

    To elucidate geographical and historical aspects of chicken dispersal across Eastern Europe, we analysed the complete mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequence of 86 representatives from chicken breeds traditionally raised in the territory of the East European Plain (Orloff, Pavlov, Russian White, Yurlov Crower, Uzbek Game and Naked Neck). From the 1231-1232 bp D-loop sequence, 35 variable sites that defined 22 haplotypes were identified in modern chicken. All populations, except Uzbek Game, exhibited high values of haplotype and nucleotide diversity suggesting a wide variation in maternal diversity. Inclusion of mtDNA sequences from other European and Asian countries revealed representatives from this study belonging to haplogroups A, E1 and C1. We also assessed fossil chicken material dated to the 9th-18th century from archaeological sites in Northern and Eastern Europe. Three haplotypes found in the fossil specimens belonged to haplogroup E1, while one sample dated to the 18th century was assigned to the C1 haplogroup. This is the first report of the occurrence of the C1 haplogroup in European chicken populations prior to the 20th century based on the fossil material. These results provide evidence for a relatively recent introduction of all haplotypes other than E1 into the East European chicken gene pool with the significant impact of the C1 haplogroup mainly distributed in Southern China. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Amerindian mitochondrial DNA haplogroups predominate in the population of Argentina: towards a first nationwide forensic mitochondrial DNA sequence database.

    PubMed

    Bobillo, Maria Cecilia; Zimmermann, Bettina; Sala, Andrea; Huber, Gabriela; Röck, Alexander; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Corach, Daniel; Parson, Walther

    2010-07-01

    The study presents South American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data from selected north (N = 98), central (N = 193) and south (N = 47) Argentinean populations. Sequence analysis of the complete mtDNA control region (CR, 16024-576) resulted in 288 unique haplotypes ignoring C-insertions around positions 16193, 309, and 573; the additional analysis of coding region single nucleotide polymorphisms enabled a fine classification of the described lineages. The Amerindian haplogroups were most frequent in the north and south representing more than 60% of the sequences. A slightly different situation was observed in central Argentina where the Amerindian haplogroups represented less than 50%, and the European contribution was more relevant. Particular clades of the Amerindian subhaplogroups turned out to be nearly region-specific. A minor contribution of African lineages was observed throughout the country. This comprehensive admixture of worldwide mtDNA lineages and the regional specificity of certain clades in the Argentinean population underscore the necessity of carefully selecting regional samples in order to develop a nationwide mtDNA database for forensic and anthropological purposes. The mtDNA sequencing and analysis were performed under EMPOP guidelines in order to attain high quality for the mtDNA database.

  13. The Creation of Cybrids Harboring Mitochondrial Haplogroups in the Taiwanese Population of Ethnic Chinese Background: An Extensive In Vitro Tool for the Study of Mitochondrial Genomic Variations

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tsu-Kung; Lin, Hung-Yu; Chen, Shang-Der; Chuang, Yao-Chung; Chuang, Jiin-Haur; Wang, Pei-Wen; Huang, Sheng-Teng; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Chen, Jin-Bor; Liou, Chia-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups may contribute to the development of aging-related diseases. A reliable in vitro cellular system for investigating the physiologic significance of mtDNA haplogroups is essential. This study aims to construct and characterize a series of cybrid cell lines harboring variant mtDNA haplogroups collected from healthy Taiwanese volunteers. Cybrid cells harboring different mtDNA haplogroups like B4a, B4b, B4c, B4d, B5, R, F1a, F2, D4e, D4a, D5b, D5a, E, M8, C, and N9a were prepared. Luminex 1000 and full-length mtDNA sequencing were used to confirm that mtDNA haplogroups of transmitochondrial cybrids were identical to their original donors. Cybrid B4b had a significantly lower oxygen consumption rate and higher mitochondrial membrane potential compared to F1a, B5, D5a, D4a, and N9a but had more susceptibility to H2O2-induced oxidative stress than cybrid F1a, D4a, and N9a. Cybrid N9a had better oxygen consumption and H2O2-challenged viability compared to B4b, F1a, B5, D5a, and D4a. A series of cybrid cells harboring the main haplogroups of the Taiwanese population with ethnic Chinese background has been developed in vitro. With this mtDNA haplogroup population, the underlying mechanisms of aging-related diseases may be better understood, and therapeutic interventions can be accelerated. PMID:23304256

  14. Inland post-glacial dispersal in East Asia revealed by mitochondrial haplogroup M9a'b.

    PubMed

    Peng, Min-Sheng; Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Yao, Yong-Gang; Mitra, Bikash; Cheng, Yao-Ting; Zhao, Mian; Liu, Jia; Wang, Hua-Wei; Pan, Hui; Wang, Wen-Zhi; Zhang, A-Mei; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Dong; Zou, Yang; Yang, Yang; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Kong, Qing-Peng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2011-01-10

    Archaeological studies have revealed a series of cultural changes around the Last Glacial Maximum in East Asia; whether these changes left any signatures in the gene pool of East Asians remains poorly indicated. To achieve deeper insights into the demographic history of modern humans in East Asia around the Last Glacial Maximum, we extensively analyzed mitochondrial DNA haplogroup M9a'b, a specific haplogroup that was suggested to have some potential for tracing the migration around the Last Glacial Maximum in East Eurasia. A total of 837 M9a'b mitochondrial DNAs (583 from the literature, while the remaining 254 were newly collected in this study) pinpointed from over 28,000 subjects residing across East Eurasia were studied here. Fifty-nine representative samples were further selected for total mitochondrial DNA sequencing so we could better understand the phylogeny within M9a'b. Based on the updated phylogeny, an extensive phylogeographic analysis was carried out to reveal the differentiation of haplogroup M9a'b and to reconstruct the dispersal histories. Our results indicated that southern China and/or Southeast Asia likely served as the source of some post-Last Glacial Maximum dispersal(s). The detailed dissection of haplogroup M9a'b revealed the existence of an inland dispersal in mainland East Asia during the post-glacial period. It was this dispersal that expanded not only to western China but also to northeast India and the south Himalaya region. A similar phylogeographic distribution pattern was also observed for haplogroup F1c, thus substantiating our proposition. This inland post-glacial dispersal was in agreement with the spread of the Mesolithic culture originating in South China and northern Vietnam.

  15. Inland post-glacial dispersal in East Asia revealed by mitochondrial haplogroup M9a'b

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Archaeological studies have revealed a series of cultural changes around the Last Glacial Maximum in East Asia; whether these changes left any signatures in the gene pool of East Asians remains poorly indicated. To achieve deeper insights into the demographic history of modern humans in East Asia around the Last Glacial Maximum, we extensively analyzed mitochondrial DNA haplogroup M9a'b, a specific haplogroup that was suggested to have some potential for tracing the migration around the Last Glacial Maximum in East Eurasia. Results A total of 837 M9a'b mitochondrial DNAs (583 from the literature, while the remaining 254 were newly collected in this study) pinpointed from over 28,000 subjects residing across East Eurasia were studied here. Fifty-nine representative samples were further selected for total mitochondrial DNA sequencing so we could better understand the phylogeny within M9a'b. Based on the updated phylogeny, an extensive phylogeographic analysis was carried out to reveal the differentiation of haplogroup M9a'b and to reconstruct the dispersal histories. Conclusions Our results indicated that southern China and/or Southeast Asia likely served as the source of some post-Last Glacial Maximum dispersal(s). The detailed dissection of haplogroup M9a'b revealed the existence of an inland dispersal in mainland East Asia during the post-glacial period. It was this dispersal that expanded not only to western China but also to northeast India and the south Himalaya region. A similar phylogeographic distribution pattern was also observed for haplogroup F1c, thus substantiating our proposition. This inland post-glacial dispersal was in agreement with the spread of the Mesolithic culture originating in South China and northern Vietnam. PMID:21219640

  16. Eurasian and African mitochondrial DNA influences in the Saudi Arabian population.

    PubMed

    Abu-Amero, Khaled K; González, Ana M; Larruga, Jose M; Bosley, Thomas M; Cabrera, Vicente M

    2007-03-01

    Genetic studies of the Arabian Peninsula are scarce even though the region was the center of ancient trade routes and empires and may have been the southern corridor for the earliest human migration from Africa to Asia. A total of 120 mtDNA Saudi Arab lineages were analyzed for HVSI/II sequences and for haplogroup confirmatory coding diagnostic positions. A phylogeny of the most abundant haplogroup (preHV)1 (R0a) was constructed based on 13 whole mtDNA genomes. The Saudi Arabian group showed greatest similarity to other Arabian Peninsula populations (Bedouin from the Negev desert and Yemeni) and to Levantine populations. Nearly all the main western Asia haplogroups were detected in the Saudi sample, including the rare U9 clade. Saudi Arabs had only a minority sub-Saharan Africa component (7%), similar to the specific North-African contribution (5%). In addition, a small Indian influence (3%) was also detected. The majority of the Saudi-Arab mitochondrial DNA lineages (85%) have a western Asia provenance. Although the still large confidence intervals, the coalescence and phylogeography of (preHV)1 haplogroup (accounting for 18 % of Saudi Arabian lineages) matches a Neolithic expansion in Saudi Arabia.

  17. Eurasian and African mitochondrial DNA influences in the Saudi Arabian population

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Amero, Khaled K; González, Ana M; Larruga, Jose M; Bosley, Thomas M; Cabrera, Vicente M

    2007-01-01

    Background Genetic studies of the Arabian Peninsula are scarce even though the region was the center of ancient trade routes and empires and may have been the southern corridor for the earliest human migration from Africa to Asia. A total of 120 mtDNA Saudi Arab lineages were analyzed for HVSI/II sequences and for haplogroup confirmatory coding diagnostic positions. A phylogeny of the most abundant haplogroup (preHV)1 (R0a) was constructed based on 13 whole mtDNA genomes. Results The Saudi Arabian group showed greatest similarity to other Arabian Peninsula populations (Bedouin from the Negev desert and Yemeni) and to Levantine populations. Nearly all the main western Asia haplogroups were detected in the Saudi sample, including the rare U9 clade. Saudi Arabs had only a minority sub-Saharan Africa component (7%), similar to the specific North-African contribution (5%). In addition, a small Indian influence (3%) was also detected. Conclusion The majority of the Saudi-Arab mitochondrial DNA lineages (85%) have a western Asia provenance. Although the still large confidence intervals, the coalescence and phylogeography of (preHV)1 haplogroup (accounting for 18 % of Saudi Arabian lineages) matches a Neolithic expansion in Saudi Arabia. PMID:17331239

  18. Population expansion in the North African Late Pleistocene signalled by mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U6

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The archaeology of North Africa remains enigmatic, with questions of population continuity versus discontinuity taking centre-stage. Debates have focused on population transitions between the bearers of the Middle Palaeolithic Aterian industry and the later Upper Palaeolithic populations of the Maghreb, as well as between the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Results Improved resolution of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup U6 phylogeny, by the screening of 39 new complete sequences, has enabled us to infer a signal of moderate population expansion using Bayesian coalescent methods. To ascertain the time for this expansion, we applied both a mutation rate accounting for purifying selection and one with an internal calibration based on four approximate archaeological dates: the settlement of the Canary Islands, the settlement of Sardinia and its internal population re-expansion, and the split between haplogroups U5 and U6 around the time of the first modern human settlement of the Near East. Conclusions A Bayesian skyline plot placed the main expansion in the time frame of the Late Pleistocene, around 20 ka, and spatial smoothing techniques suggested that the most probable geographic region for this demographic event was to the west of North Africa. A comparison with U6's European sister clade, U5, revealed a stronger population expansion at around this time in Europe. Also in contrast with U5, a weak signal of a recent population expansion in the last 5,000 years was observed in North Africa, pointing to a moderate impact of the late Neolithic on the local population size of the southern Mediterranean coast. PMID:21176127

  19. Population expansion in the North African late Pleistocene signalled by mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U6.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luísa; Silva, Nuno M; Franco-Duarte, Ricardo; Fernandes, Verónica; Pereira, Joana B; Costa, Marta D; Martins, Haidé; Soares, Pedro; Behar, Doron M; Richards, Martin B; Macaulay, Vincent

    2010-12-21

    The archaeology of North Africa remains enigmatic, with questions of population continuity versus discontinuity taking centre-stage. Debates have focused on population transitions between the bearers of the Middle Palaeolithic Aterian industry and the later Upper Palaeolithic populations of the Maghreb, as well as between the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Improved resolution of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup U6 phylogeny, by the screening of 39 new complete sequences, has enabled us to infer a signal of moderate population expansion using Bayesian coalescent methods. To ascertain the time for this expansion, we applied both a mutation rate accounting for purifying selection and one with an internal calibration based on four approximate archaeological dates: the settlement of the Canary Islands, the settlement of Sardinia and its internal population re-expansion, and the split between haplogroups U5 and U6 around the time of the first modern human settlement of the Near East. A Bayesian skyline plot placed the main expansion in the time frame of the Late Pleistocene, around 20 ka, and spatial smoothing techniques suggested that the most probable geographic region for this demographic event was to the west of North Africa. A comparison with U6's European sister clade, U5, revealed a stronger population expansion at around this time in Europe. Also in contrast with U5, a weak signal of a recent population expansion in the last 5,000 years was observed in North Africa, pointing to a moderate impact of the late Neolithic on the local population size of the southern Mediterranean coast.

  20. Relationship between mitochondrial haplogroup and seasonal changes of physiological responses to cold

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physiological responses to cold exhibit individual variation that can be affected by various factors, such as morphological characteristics, seasonal changes, and lifestyle; however, the genetic factors associated with this variation remain unclear. Recent studies have identified mtDNA as a potential genetic factor affecting cold adaptation. In addition, non-shivering thermogenesis (NST), a process closely related to mitochondrial dynamics, has also been suggested as an important factor affecting human response to cold. The present study aimed to clarify the relationship between mitochondrial haplogroup and NST during periods of mild cold exposure. Methods Seventeen healthy university students (D: n = 8, non-D: n = 9) participated in the present study during summer and winter. A climate chamber was programmed so that ambient temperature inside dropped from 28°C to 16°C over the course of an 80-minute period. Physiological parameters were recorded throughout the course of the experiments. Results Increases in VO2 were significantly greater during periods of cold exposure in winter than they were during periods of cold exposure in summer, and individuals from the D group exhibited greater winter values of ΔVO2 than individuals from the non-D group. Tre was significantly lower during periods of rest and cold exposure in winter; however, no significant difference was observed between Tre values of individuals in the D and non-D groups. In addition, although T¯dist was significantly lower during periods of rest in winter than it was during those same periods in summer, no significant seasonal differences in values of T¯dist were observed during periods of cold exposure. Conclusions Results of the present study indicated that NST was greater in winter, and that the D group exhibited greater NST than the non-D group during winter. Despite the differences between groups in NST, no significant differences in rectal and skin temperatures were found

  1. Mitochondrial haplogroup C4c: a rare lineage entering America through the ice-free corridor?

    PubMed

    Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Perego, Ugo A; Olivieri, Anna; Angerhofer, Norman; Gandini, Francesca; Carossa, Valeria; Lancioni, Hovirag; Semino, Ornella; Woodward, Scott R; Achilli, Alessandro; Torroni, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Recent analyses of mitochondrial genomes from Native Americans have brought the overall number of recognized maternal founding lineages from just four to a current count of 15. However, because of their relative low frequency, almost nothing is known for some of these lineages. This leaves a considerable void in understanding the events that led to the colonization of the Americas following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In this study, we identified and completely sequenced 14 mitochondrial DNAs belonging to one extremely rare Native American lineage known as haplogroup C4c. Its age and geographical distribution raise the possibility that C4c marked the Paleo-Indian group(s) that entered North America from Beringia through the ice-free corridor between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets. The similarities in ages andgeographical distributions for C4c and the previously analyzed X2a lineage provide support to the scenario of a dual origin for Paleo-Indians. Taking into account that C4c is deeply rooted in the Asian portion of the mtDNA phylogeny and is indubitably of Asian origin, the finding that C4c and X2a are characterized by parallel genetic histories definitively dismisses the controversial hypothesis of an Atlantic glacial entry route into North America.

  2. Neolithic mitochondrial haplogroup H genomes and the genetic origins of Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Jennifer; Brandt, Guido; Soubrier, Julien; Jane Adler, Christina; Richards, Stephen M.; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ganslmeier, Robert; Friederich, Susanne; Dresely, Veit; van Oven, Mannis; Kenyon, Rosalie; Van der Hoek, Mark B.; Korlach, Jonas; Luong, Khai; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Behar, Doron M.; Meller, Harald; Alt, Kurt W.; Cooper, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Haplogroup (hg) H dominates present-day Western European mitochondrial (mt) DNA variability (>40%), yet was less common (~19%) amongst Early Neolithic farmers (~5450 BC) and virtually absent in Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. Here we investigate this major component of the maternal population history of modern Europeans and sequence 39 complete hg H mitochondrial genomes from ancient human remains. We then compare this ‘real-time’ genetic data with cultural changes taking place between the Early Neolithic (~5450 BC) and Bronze Age (~2200 BC) in Central Europe. Our results reveal that the current diversity and distribution of hg H were largely established by the Mid-Neolithic (~4000 BC), but with substantial genetic contributions from subsequent pan-European cultures such as the Bell Beakers expanding out of Iberia in the Late Neolithic (~2800 BC). Dated hg H genomes allow us to reconstruct the recent evolutionary history of hg H and reveal a mutation rate 45% higher than current estimates for human mitochondria. PMID:23612305

  3. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups in the Czech population compared to other European countries.

    PubMed

    Vidrová, Vendula; Tesarová, Markéta; Trefilova, Eva; Honzík, Tomás; Magner, Martin; Zeman, Jirí

    2008-12-01

    The analysis of mtDNA haplogroup frequency in various populations is a tool for studying human history and population dynamics. The aim of this study is to map the frequency of major mtDNA haplogroups in 300 maternally unrelated individuals representing the Czech population of the central part of the Czech Republic. Eighteen polymorphic sites in the coding region of mtDNA were screened by PCR-RFLP to determine 11 mtDNA haplogroups and 5 subhaplogroups. The most frequent haplogroups were H (41%) and U (21%). Less frequent haplogroups were J and T, each with a frequency of 8%. Frequencies of other haplogroups (V, K, HV, W, preV, X, and I) did not exceed 5%. The results of our study reveal that the frequency of mtDNA haplogroups in the Czech population is similar to the frequencies obtained in other European countries, especially Poland, Germany, and Russia. On the contrary, significant differences in haplogroup frequency were found between the Czech and Finnish populations (haplogroups U, T, W) and populations from Bulgaria and Turkey (haplogroups H).

  4. Association of mitochondrial haplogroup D and risk of esophageal cancer in Taihang Mountain and Chaoshan areas in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Yun; Guo, Yu-Bai; Su, Min; Cheng, Lu; Lu, Zu-Hong; Tian, Dong-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Both the Taihang Mountain area in north-central China and Chaoshan area in the southeastern littoral of China are areas with high risk of esophageal cancer (EC). Our previous study confirmed that populations from the two areas might share similar matrilineal backgrounds and found that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup D, especially subhaplogroups D4a and D5a, might be genetic background markers of EC in Chaoshan area. Here, to further determine whether D4a, D5a, and D might be susceptibility markers for EC in the two high-risk areas, we performed a case-control study with larger samples and analyzed the distributions of these three haplogroups in subjects (controls [n = 898] and patients [n = 768]) from the two areas. D4a haplogroup was significantly associated with increased risk of EC in Taihang Mountain subjects, especially women. D5 haplogroup was associated with EC at the general population level in the Taihang Mountain area and in subjects ≤ 60 years, especially women ≤ 60 years, in the Chaoshan area. D haplogroup was associated with EC only in subjects ≤ 60 years, especially men ≤ 60 years, in the Chaoshan area. D4a and D5 showing positive association with EC in the Taihang Mountain area became the predominant subhaplogroups of D in Chaoshan controls. In conclusion, D, D4a, and D5 haplogroups might be susceptibility markers for EC in the two high-risk areas in China, particularly D4a and D5 for the Taihang Mountain area and D and D5 for the Chaoshan area. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Common European Mitochondrial Haplogroups in the Risk for Radiation-induced Subcutaneous Fibrosis in Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Terrazzino, S; Deantonio, L; Cargnin, S; Donis, L; Pisani, C; Masini, L; Gambaro, G; Canonico, P L; Genazzani, A A; Krengli, M

    2016-06-01

    The contribution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variations to clinical radiosensitivity is largely unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the association between mtDNA haplogroups and the risk of radiation-induced subcutaneous fibrosis after postoperative radiotherapy in breast cancer patients. Subcutaneous fibrosis was scored according to the Late Effects of Normal Tissue-Subjective Objective Management Analytical (LENT-SOMA) scale in 286 Italian breast cancer patients who received radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery. Eight mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms that define the nine major haplogroups in the European population were determined by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis on genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood. In a Kaplan-Meier analysis evaluated by the Log-rank test, carriers of haplogroup H were found to be at lower risk of grade ≥2 subcutaneous fibrosis (P = 0.018) compared with all other haplotypes combined. In the multivariate Cox regression analysis adjusted for clinical factors (body mass index, breast diameter, adjuvant treatment, dose per fraction, radiation type and acute skin toxicity), haplogroup H emerged as a protective factor for moderate to severe radiation-induced fibrosis at a nominal significance level (hazard ratio: 0.50, 95% confidence interval 0.27-0.92, P = 0.027), which did not survive correction for multiple testing. Our results suggest a protective effect of the mitochondrial haplogroup H in the development of radiation-induced fibrosis in breast cancer patients. However, the loss of statistical significance after correction for multiple comparisons and the lack of an independent validation cohort make our findings preliminary, requiring further confirmation in large-scale prospective studies. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A comparative analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra (Carnivora; Mustelidae).

    PubMed

    Ki, Jang-Seu; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Park, Tae-Jin; Han, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2010-04-01

    Otter populations are declining throughout the world and most otter species are considered endangered. Molecular methods are suitable tools for population genetic research on endangered species. In the present study, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra. The mitochondrial DNA sequence of the Eurasian otter is 16,505 bp in length and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, and a control region (CR). The CR sequence of otters from Europe and Asia showed nearly identical numbers and nucleotide sequences of minisatellites. Phylogenetic analysis of Mustelidae mitogenomes, including individual genes, revealed that Lutrinae and Mustelinae form a clade, and that L. lutra and Enhydra lutris are sister taxa within the Lutrinae. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that of the 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes, ND5 is the most reliable marker for analysis of phylogenetic relationships within the Mustelidae.

  7. The Genetic Diversity of the Nguni Breed of African Cattle (Bos spp.): Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of Haplogroup T1

    PubMed Central

    Horsburgh, K. Ann; Prost, Stefan; Gosling, Anna; Stanton, Jo-Ann; Rand, Christy; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Domesticated cattle were commonplace in northern Africa by about 7,000 years ago. Archaeological evidence, however, suggests they were not established in southern Africa until much later, no earlier than 2,000 years ago. Genetic reconstructions have started to shed light on the movement of African cattle, but efforts have been frustrated by a lack of data south of Ethiopia and the nature of the mitochondrial haplogroup T1 which is almost fixed across the continent. We sequenced 35 complete mitochondrial genomes from a South African herd of Nguni cattle, a breed historically associated with Bantu speaking farmers who were among the first to bring cattle to southern Africa. As expected, all individuals in the study were found to be members of haplogroup T1. Only half of the sub-haplogroups of T1 (T1a-T1f) are represented in our sample and the overwhelming majority (94%) in this study belong to subhaplogroup T1b. A previous study of African cattle found frequencies of T1b of 27% in Egypt and 69% in Ethiopia. These results are consistent with serial multiple founder effects significantly shaping the gene pool as cattle were moved from north to south across the continent. Interestingly, these mitochondrial data give no indication that the impacts of the founder effects were ameliorated by gene flow from recently introduced Indian cattle breeds. PMID:23977187

  8. The genetic diversity of the Nguni breed of African Cattle (Bos spp.): complete mitochondrial genomes of haplogroup T1.

    PubMed

    Horsburgh, K Ann; Prost, Stefan; Gosling, Anna; Stanton, Jo-Ann; Rand, Christy; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    Domesticated cattle were commonplace in northern Africa by about 7,000 years ago. Archaeological evidence, however, suggests they were not established in southern Africa until much later, no earlier than 2,000 years ago. Genetic reconstructions have started to shed light on the movement of African cattle, but efforts have been frustrated by a lack of data south of Ethiopia and the nature of the mitochondrial haplogroup T1 which is almost fixed across the continent. We sequenced 35 complete mitochondrial genomes from a South African herd of Nguni cattle, a breed historically associated with Bantu speaking farmers who were among the first to bring cattle to southern Africa. As expected, all individuals in the study were found to be members of haplogroup T1. Only half of the sub-haplogroups of T1 (T1a-T1f) are represented in our sample and the overwhelming majority (94%) in this study belong to subhaplogroup T1b. A previous study of African cattle found frequencies of T1b of 27% in Egypt and 69% in Ethiopia. These results are consistent with serial multiple founder effects significantly shaping the gene pool as cattle were moved from north to south across the continent. Interestingly, these mitochondrial data give no indication that the impacts of the founder effects were ameliorated by gene flow from recently introduced Indian cattle breeds.

  9. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of medieval sheep (Ovis aries) in central Italy reveals the predominance of haplogroup B already in the Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Gabbianelli, F; Gargani, M; Pariset, L; Mariotti, M; Alhaique, F; De Minicis, E; Barelli, L; Ciammetti, E; Redi, F; Valentini, A

    2015-06-01

    We retrieved 34 medieval ovicaprine remains, from three archaeological sites of central Italy dating to about 1000 years old, and analyzed them using mitochondrial DNA. We compared the reconstructed haplogroups with modern sheep samples from Europe and the Middle East and sequences from the literature. In modern sheep, haplogroup HA is present in countries with access to the Mediterranean and close to the domestication center, whereas it is very rare or absent in the rest of Europe. The haplogroup HB was predominant in ancient samples (90%), whereas haplogroup HA was found at 10%. Ancient haplogroups match the present distribution in modern sheep in Italy, indicating that the current proportion of HA/HB was already established in the Middle Ages and is not the result of subsequent events such as selective breeding practices. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  10. [The analysis of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and variants for Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy in Chinese families carrying the m.14484T >C mutation].

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangjuan; Zhu, Jinping; Gao, Min; Zhang, Sai; Zhao, Fuxin; Zhang, Juanjuan; Liu, Xiaoling; Wei, Qiping; Tong, Yi; Zhang, Minglian; Qu, Jia; Guan, Minxin

    2014-04-01

    The m.14484T>C mutation in mitochondrial ND6 gene (MT-ND6) is a primary mutation underlying the development of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) , but by itself not enough to cause visual loss. To explore the role of mitochondrial haplogroups on the expression of LHON for the people carrying the m.14484T>C mutation, we performed systematic and extended mutational screening of MT-ND6 gene in a cohort of 1177 Han Chinese patients with LHON. A total of 67 affected subjects carried the homoplasmic m.14484T>C mutation, accounting for 5.7% of this LHON population. The penetrances of optic neuropathy among 51 pedigrees carrying the m.14484T>C mutation ranged from 5.6% to 100.0%, with the average of 21.5%. The sequence analysis of entire mitochondrial genomes of 51 probands exhibited distinct sets of polymorphisms belonging to 18 Eastern Asian haplogroups. The frequencies of haplogroup A and haplogroup F were sig-nificantly less in the LHON mtDNA samples than those in 106 Chinese controls. On the other hand, the haplogroup M10a accounted for 9.8% of the patient's mtDNA samples but was absent in 106 Chinese controls. Strikingly, the average pene-trance (46.13%) of optic neuropathy for the pedigrees carrying mitochondrial haplogroup M10a was higher than those car-rying other mtDNA haplogroups. These observations indicated that mitochondrial haplogroup M10a may increase the risk of visual loss.

  11. Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup A Decreases the Risk of Drug Addiction but Conversely Increases the Risk of HIV-1 Infection in Chinese Addicts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, A-Mei; Hu, Qiu-Xiang; Liu, Feng-Liang; Bi, Rui; Yang, Bi-Qing; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Hao; Logan, Ian; Zheng, Yong-Tang; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2016-08-01

    Drug addiction is one of the most serious social problems in the world today and addicts are always at a high risk of acquiring HIV infection. Mitochondrial impairment has been reported in both drug addicts and in HIV patients undergoing treatment. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup could affect the risk of drug addiction and HIV-1 infection in Chinese. We analyzed mtDNA sequence variations of 577 Chinese intravenous drug addicts (289 with HIV-1 infection and 288 without) and compared with 2 control populations (n = 362 and n = 850). We quantified the viral load in HIV-1-infected patients with and without haplogroup A status and investigated the potential effect of haplogroup A defining variants m.4824A > G and m.8794C > T on the cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels by using an allotopic expression assay. mtDNA haplogroup A had a protective effect against drug addiction but appeared to confer an increased risk of HIV infection in addicts. HIV-1-infected addicts with haplogroup A had a trend for a higher viral load, although the mean viral load was similar between carriers of haplogroup A and those with other haplogroup. Hela cells overexpressing allele m.8794 T showed significantly decreased ROS levels as compared to cells with the allele m.8794C (P = 0.03). Our results suggested that mtDNA haplogroup A might protect against drug addiction but increase the risk of HIV-1 infection. The contradictory role of haplogroup A might be caused by an alteration in mitochondrial function due to a particular mtDNA ancestral variant.

  12. The analysis of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and variants for in vitro fertilization failure in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Mao, Genhong; Lu, Ping; Huang, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Wu-Liang; Tao, Shi-Bo; Li, Qian; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Ya-Nan

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the associations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups and variants with in vitro fertilization (IVF) failure. A retrospective, comparative study of 260 fresh IVF cycles in a Han Chinese population was performed from July 2011 to April 2014. Seventy-three couples had low fertilization rates (≤30%) or total fertilization failure, and 187 controls with normal fertilization were included. Human sperm mtDNA haplogroups and variants were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR and direct sequencing. One unreported point variant, A15397G, and two novel deletions at positions 8270-8278 and 8276-8284 were found in this study. A homozygous variant, G9053A in MT-ATP6, was detected in 4 of the 73 cases with fertilization failure, whereas this substitution was not detected in the control group (p < 0.01). The frequency of the point 10397 homozygous variant in MT-ND3 in the IVF failure group was markedly lower than that in the control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, this study showed that the frequencies of point 8701 and 8943 heterozygous variants in MT-ATP6 in the IVF failure group were also markedly lower than those in the control group (p < 0.05). In addition, the frequency of haplogroup Z was markedly higher in the IVF failure group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Our results suggested that MT-ATP6 variants might be possible causes of IVF failure, but the 10397 homozygous variant in MT-ND3 might help decrease the risk of developing IVF failure. Furthermore, this study indicated that men with haplogroup Z might inherit a higher risk of IVF failure in the Han Chinese population.

  13. Two families with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy carrying G11778A and T14502C mutations with haplogroup H2a2a1 in mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Chen; Wei, Tanwei; Hu, Bo; Peng, Chunyan; Qiu, Xueping; Wei, Li; Yan, Ming

    2015-08-01

    The mitochondrial haplogroup has been reported to affect the clinical expression of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). The present study aimed to investigate the interaction between mutations and the haplogroup of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in families. Two unrelated families with LHON were enrolled in the study, and clinical, genetic and molecular characterizations were determined in the affected and unaffected family members. Polymerase chain reaction direct sequencing was performed using 24 pairs of overlapping primers for whole mtDNA to screen for mutations and haplogroup. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to evaluate the pathogenic effect of these mtDNA mutations and the haplogroup. The G11778A mutation was identified in the two families. In addition, the members of family 2 exhibited the T14502C mutation and those in family 1 exhibited the T3394C and T14502C mutations, which were regarded as secondary mutations. The penetrance of visual loss in families 1 and 2 were 30.8 and 33.3%, respectively. In addition, the two families were found to be in the H2a2a1 haplogroup. In this limited sample size, it was demonstrated that the H2a2a1 haplogroup had a possible protective effect against LHON. Additional modifying factors, including environmental factors, lifestyle, estrogen levels and nuclear genes may also be important in LHON.

  14. Association of Genes, Pathways, and Haplogroups of the Mitochondrial Genome with the Risk of Colorectal Cancer: The Multiethnic Cohort.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuqing; Beckman, Kenneth B; Caberto, Christian; Kazma, Remi; Lum-Jones, Annette; Haiman, Christopher A; Le Marchand, Loïc; Stram, Daniel O; Saxena, Richa; Cheng, Iona

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome encodes for the synthesis of 13 proteins that are essential for the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. Inherited variation in mitochondrial genes may influence cancer development through changes in mitochondrial proteins, altering the OXPHOS process, and promoting the production of reactive oxidative species. To investigate the role of the OXPHOS pathway and mitochondrial genes in colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, we tested 185 mitochondrial SNPs (mtSNPs), located in 13 genes that comprise four complexes of the OXPHOS pathway and mtSNP groupings for rRNA and tRNA, in 2,453 colorectal cancer cases and 11,930 controls from the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Using the sequence kernel association test, we examined the collective set of 185 mtSNPs, as well as subsets of mtSNPs grouped by mitochondrial pathways, complexes, and genes, adjusting for age, sex, principal components of global ancestry, and self-reported maternal race/ethnicity. We also tested for haplogroup associations using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for the same covariates. Stratified analyses were conducted by self-reported maternal race/ethnicity. In European Americans, a global test of all genetic variants of the mitochondrial genome identified an association with CRC risk (P = 0.04). In mtSNP-subset analysis, the NADH dehydrogenase 2 (MT-ND2) gene in Complex I was associated with CRC risk at a P-value of 0.001 (q = 0.015). In addition, haplogroup T was associated with CRC risk (OR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.19-2.33, P = 0.003). No significant mitochondrial pathway and gene associations were observed in the remaining four racial/ethnic groups--African Americans, Asian Americans, Latinos, and Native Hawaiians. In summary, our findings suggest that variations in the mitochondrial genome and particularly in the MT-ND2 gene may play a role in CRC risk among European Americans, but not in other maternal racial/ethnic groups. Further replication is warranted and future studies

  15. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup 'R' is associated with Noonan syndrome of south India.

    PubMed

    Rani, Deepa Selvi; Dhandapany, Perundurai S; Nallari, Pratibha; Govindaraj, Periyasamy; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2010-03-01

    Mutations in PTPN11 gene was responsible for approximately 50% of the Noonan syndrome (NS), however, we did not find any mutation in PTPN11 in any of seven NS patients analysed. Whereas, the complete mtDNA sequencing revealed 146 mutations, of which five, including one heteroplasmic (A11144R; Thr-->Ala) non-synonymous mutation, were novel and exclusively observed in NS patients. Interestingly all the seven probands and their maternal relatives were clustered under a major haplogroup R and its novel sub-haplogroups (R7b1b, R30a1, R30c, T2b7, U9a1) exclusive in NS, therefore we strongly suggest that these haplogroups may influence NS in South Indian populations.

  16. Investigating the Role of Mitochondrial Haplogroups in Genetic Predisposition to Meningococcal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Antonio; Fachal, Laura; Marcos-Alonso, Sonia; Vega, Ana; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Meningococcal disease remains one of the most important infectious causes of death in industrialized countries. The highly diverse clinical presentation and prognosis of Neisseria meningitidis infections are the result of complex host genetics and environmental interactions. We investigated whether mitochondrial genetic background contributes to meningococcal disease (MD) susceptibility. Methodology/Principal Findings Prospective controlled study was performed through a national research network on MD that includes 41 Spanish hospitals. Cases were 307 paediatric patients with confirmed MD, representing the largest series of MD patients analysed to date. Two independent sets of ethnicity-matched control samples (CG1 [N = 917]), and CG2 [N = 616]) were used for comparison. Cases and controls underwent mtDNA haplotyping of a selected set of 25 mtDNA SNPs (mtSNPs), some of them defining major European branches of the mtDNA phylogeny. In addition, 34 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) were genotyped in cases and CG2 in order to monitor potential hidden population stratification. Samples of known African, Native American and European ancestry (N = 711) were used as classification sets for the determination of ancestral membership of our MD patients. A total of 39 individuals were eliminated from the main statistical analyses (including fourteen gypsies) on the basis of either non-Spanish self-reported ancestry or the results of AIMs indicating a European membership lower than 95%. Association analysis of the remaining 268 cases against CG1 suggested an overrepresentation of the synonym mtSNP G11719A variant (Pearson's chi-square test; adjusted P-value = 0.0188; OR [95% CI] = 1.63 [1.22–2.18]). When cases were compared with CG2, the positive association could not be replicated. No positive association has been observed between haplogroup (hg) status of cases and CG1/CG2 and hg status of cases and several clinical variants

  17. Association of mitochondrial haplogroup J and mtDNA oxidative damage in two different North Spain elderly populations.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Garrido, Elena; Martínez-Redondo, Diana; Martín-Ruiz, Carmen; Gómez-Durán, Aurora; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; Madero, Pilar; Tamparillas, Manuel; Montoya, Julio; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Díez-Sánchez, Carmen; López-Pérez, Manuel J

    2009-08-01

    This work investigates the association between longevity, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants and oxidative DNA damage in an older than 85 years population. The participants, similar in genetic and cultural background as well as gender distribution, come from villages near to the Pyrenees Mountains (900-1,400 m altitude) (n = 69) and the Ebro's Valley (200-300 m altitude) (n = 69) in Spain. Our results show an accumulation of the haplogroup J in elderly individuals with an over-representation of J2 in Pyrenees group but not in the Ebro's Valley, the former associating with a diminished DNA damage. In conclusion, our results suggest that J mitochondrial variant, that induce lower mtDNA damage, could present a phenotypic survival advantage to environmental conditions and, thus, accumulate in elderly population.

  18. Nuclear and mitochondrial genetic structure in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) – implications for future reintroductions

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Helen; Ogden, Rob; Frosch, Christiane; Syrůčková, Alena; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin; Munclinger, Pavel; Durka, Walter; Kraus, Robert H S; Saveljev, Alexander P; Nowak, Carsten; Stubbe, Annegret; Stubbe, Michael; Michaux, Johan; Lavrov, Vladimir; Samiya, Ravchig; Ulevicius, Alius; Rosell, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Many reintroduction projects for conservation fail, and there are a large number of factors that may contribute to failure. Genetic analysis can be used to help stack the odds of a reintroduction in favour of success, by conducting assessment of source populations to evaluate the possibility of inbreeding and outbreeding depression and by conducting postrelease monitoring. In this study, we use a panel of 306 SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) markers and 487–489 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA control region sequence data to examine 321 individuals from possible source populations of the Eurasian beaver for a reintroduction to Scotland. We use this information to reassess the phylogenetic history of the Eurasian beavers, to examine the genetic legacy of past reintroductions on the Eurasian landmass and to assess the future power of the genetic markers to conduct ongoing monitoring via parentage analysis and individual identification. We demonstrate the capacity of medium density genetic data (hundreds of SNPs) to provide information suitable for applied conservation and discuss the difficulty of balancing the need for high genetic diversity against phylogenetic best fit when choosing source population(s) for reintroduction. PMID:25067948

  19. Nuclear and mitochondrial genetic structure in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) - implications for future reintroductions.

    PubMed

    Senn, Helen; Ogden, Rob; Frosch, Christiane; Syrůčková, Alena; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin; Munclinger, Pavel; Durka, Walter; Kraus, Robert H S; Saveljev, Alexander P; Nowak, Carsten; Stubbe, Annegret; Stubbe, Michael; Michaux, Johan; Lavrov, Vladimir; Samiya, Ravchig; Ulevicius, Alius; Rosell, Frank

    2014-06-01

    Many reintroduction projects for conservation fail, and there are a large number of factors that may contribute to failure. Genetic analysis can be used to help stack the odds of a reintroduction in favour of success, by conducting assessment of source populations to evaluate the possibility of inbreeding and outbreeding depression and by conducting postrelease monitoring. In this study, we use a panel of 306 SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) markers and 487-489 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA control region sequence data to examine 321 individuals from possible source populations of the Eurasian beaver for a reintroduction to Scotland. We use this information to reassess the phylogenetic history of the Eurasian beavers, to examine the genetic legacy of past reintroductions on the Eurasian landmass and to assess the future power of the genetic markers to conduct ongoing monitoring via parentage analysis and individual identification. We demonstrate the capacity of medium density genetic data (hundreds of SNPs) to provide information suitable for applied conservation and discuss the difficulty of balancing the need for high genetic diversity against phylogenetic best fit when choosing source population(s) for reintroduction.

  20. Repetitive sequences in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) mitochondrial DNA control region.

    PubMed

    Sindičić, Magda; Gomerčić, Tomislav; Galov, Ana; Polanc, Primož; Huber, Duro; Slavica, Alen

    2012-06-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (CR) of numerous species is known to include up to five different repetitive sequences (RS1-RS5) that are found at various locations, involving motifs of different length and extensive length heteroplasmy. Two repetitive sequences (RS2 and RS3) on opposite sides of mtDNA central conserved region have been described in domestic cat (Felis catus) and some other felid species. However, the presence of repetitive sequence RS3 has not been detected in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) yet. We analyzed mtDNA CR of 35 Eurasian lynx (L. lynx L.) samples to characterize repetitive sequences and to compare them with those found in other felid species. We confirmed the presence of 80 base pairs (bp) repetitive sequence (RS2) at the 5' end of the Eurasian lynx mtDNA CR L strand and for the first time we described RS3 repetitive sequence at its 3' end, consisting of an array of tandem repeats five to ten bp long. We found that felid species share similar RS3 repetitive pattern and fundamental repeat motif TACAC.

  1. Brief Report: European Mitochondrial Haplogroups Impact on Liver Fibrosis Progression Among HCV and HIV/HCV-Coinfected Patients From Northwest Spain.

    PubMed

    Tabernilla, Andres; Rego-Pérez, Ignacio; Grandal, Marta; Pernas, Berta; Pértega, Sonia; Delgado, Manuel; Mariño, Ana; Álvarez, Hortensia; Mena, Alvaro; Rodríguez-Osorio, Iria; Pedreira, Jose Domingo; Blanco, Francisco Javier; Poveda, Eva

    2016-10-01

    The impact of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups on the outcome of liver fibrosis was evaluated in 362 hepatitis C virus infection (HCV)-monoinfected and HIV/HCV-coinfected patients (147 and 215, respectively) in clinical follow-up at 2 reference hospitals in the Northwest of Spain. The mitochondrial DNA haplogroup H was the most prevalent (50.3%) in this population. The cluster Others and V were recognized as risk factors for the development of liver fibrosis while haplogroup H and HCV genotype 4 confer a lower risk. This information might be useful for prioritization of HCV treatment, especially for F0-F1 patients for whom there is no urgency for treatment.

  2. Phylogeography of the human mitochondrial haplogroup L3e: a snapshot of African prehistory and Atlantic slave trade.

    PubMed

    Bandelt, H J; Alves-Silva, J; Guimarães, P E; Santos, M S; Brehm, A; Pereira, L; Coppa, A; Larruga, J M; Rengo, C; Scozzari, R; Torroni, A; Prata, M J; Amorim, A; Prado, V F; Pena, S D

    2001-11-01

    The mtDNA haplogroup L3e, which is identified by the restriction site +2349 MboI within the Afro-Eurasian superhaplogroup L3 (-3592 HpaI), is omnipresent in Africa but virtually absent in Eurasia (except for neighbouring areas with limited genetic exchange). L3e was hitherto poorly characterised in terms of HVS-I motifs, as the ancestral HVS-I type of L3e cannot be distinguished from the putative HVS-I ancestor of the entire L3 (differing from the CRS by a transition at np 16223). An MboI screening at np 2349 of a large number of Brazilian and Caribbean mtDNAs (encompassing numerous mtDNAs of African ancestry), now reveals that L3e is subdivided into four principal clades, each characterised by a single mutation in HVS-I, with additional support coming from HVS-II and partial RFLP analysis. The apparently oldest of these clades (transition at np 16327) occurs mainly in central Africa and was probably carried to southern Africa with the Bantu expansion(s). The most frequent clade (transition at np 16320) testifies to a pronounced expansion event in the mid-Holocene and seems to be prominent in many Bantu groups from all of Africa. In contrast, one clade (transition at np 16264) is essentially restricted to Atlantic western Africa (including Cabo Verde). We propose a tentative L3e phylogeny that is based on 197 HVS-I sequences. We conclude that haplogroup L3e originated in central or eastern Africa about 46,000 (+/-14,000) years ago, and was a hitchhiker of much later dispersal and local expansion events, with the rise of food production and iron smelting. Enforced migration of African slaves to the Americas translocated L3e mitochondria, the descendants of which in Brazil and the Caribbean still reflect their different regional African ancestries.

  3. Rapid screening for Native American mitochondrial and Y-chromosome haplogroups detection in routine DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Zuccarelli, Gala; Alechine, Evguenia; Caputo, Mariela; Bobillo, Cecilia; Corach, Daniel; Sala, Andrea

    2011-03-01

    Aiming to detect individuals of Native American maternal or paternal ancestry a rapid screening approach has been developed. Its strategy was based on SNP typing by Real Time PCR (rt-PCR) followed by High Resolution Melting analysis (HRM). After extraction, DNA was quantitated by rt-PCR using commercial kits; samples were then submitted to two multiplex reactions in order to determine the major Native American mtDNA and Y-chromosome haplogroups by HRM. One cocktail included primers flanking nucleotide substitutions that define mtDNA haplogroup C and sub-haplogroups A2, B2, and D1. The other included primers flanking Y-SNPs M3, M269 and U179 that allowed discriminating Q and non-Q haplogroups. In all cases amplicons were <125 nucleotides long in order to increase the peak resolution. The accuracy of the results obtained was established by means of sequencing analysis of the amplicons. The new working-flow here proposed facilitates and speeds-up the screening process that may preclude a detailed sequencing analysis of particular samples, or for further molecular epidemiological investigations in which continental origin influences might be relevant.

  4. Genetic differences between Chibcha and Non-Chibcha speaking tribes based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups from 21 Amerindian tribes from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Usme-Romero, Solangy; Alonso, Milena; Hernandez-Cuervo, Helena; Yunis, Emilio J.; Yunis, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the frequency of four mitochondrial DNA haplogroups in 424 individuals from 21 Colombian Amerindian tribes. Our results showed a high degree of mtDNA diversity and genetic heterogeneity. Frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups A and C were high in the majority of populations studied. The distribution of these four mtDNA haplogroups from Amerindian populations was different in the northern region of the country compared to those in the south. Haplogroup A was more frequently found among Amerindian tribes in northern Colombia, while haplogroup D was more frequent among tribes in the south. Haplogroups A, C and D have clinal tendencies in Colombia and South America in general. Populations belonging to the Chibcha linguistic family of Colombia and other countries nearby showed a strong genetic differentiation from the other populations tested, thus corroborating previous findings. Genetically, the Ingano, Paez and Guambiano populations are more closely related to other groups of south eastern Colombia, as also inferred from other genetic markers and from archeological data. Strong evidence for a correspondence between geographical and linguistic classification was found, and this is consistent with evidence that gene flow and the exchange of customs and knowledge and language elements between groups is facilitated by close proximity. PMID:23885195

  5. An original phylogenetic approach identified mitochondrial haplogroup T1a1 as inversely associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Blein, Sophie; Bardel, Claire; Danjean, Vincent; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Dennis, Joe; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Soucy, Penny; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy K; Goldgar, David E; Buys, Saundra S; Janavicius, Ramunas; Tihomirova, Laima; Tung, Nadine; Dorfling, Cecilia M; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Neuhausen, Susan L; Ding, Yuan Chun; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; Nielsen, Finn C; Hansen, Thomas Vo; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Conejero, Raquel Andrés; Segota, Ena; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Thelander, Margo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Radice, Paolo; Pensotti, Valeria; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Bonanni, Bernardo; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Scuvera, Giulietta; Manoukian, Siranoush; Varesco, Liliana; Capone, Gabriele L; Papi, Laura; Ottini, Laura; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Garber, Judy; Hamann, Ute; Donaldson, Alan; Brady, Angela; Brewer, Carole; Foo, Claire; Evans, D Gareth; Frost, Debra; Eccles, Diana; Douglas, Fiona; Cook, Jackie; Adlard, Julian; Barwell, Julian; Walker, Lisa; Izatt, Louise; Side, Lucy E; Kennedy, M John; Tischkowitz, Marc; Rogers, Mark T; Porteous, Mary E; Morrison, Patrick J; Platte, Radka; Eeles, Ros; Davidson, Rosemarie; Hodgson, Shirley; Cole, Trevor; Godwin, Andrew K; Isaacs, Claudine; Claes, Kathleen; De Leeneer, Kim; Meindl, Alfons; Gehrig, Andrea; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Sutter, Christian; Engel, Christoph; Niederacher, Dieter; Steinemann, Doris; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Kast, Karin; Rhiem, Kerstin; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Schmutzler, Rita K; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Markov, Nadja Bogdanova; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; de Pauw, Antoine; Lefol, Cédrick; Lasset, Christine; Leroux, Dominique; Rouleau, Etienne; Damiola, Francesca; Dreyfus, Hélène; Barjhoux, Laure; Golmard, Lisa; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Bonadona, Valérie; Sornin, Valérie; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Carter, Jonathan; Van Le, Linda; Piedmonte, Marion; DiSilvestro, Paul A; de la Hoya, Miguel; Caldes, Trinidad; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Jager, Agnes; van den Ouweland, Ans Mw; Kets, Carolien M; Aalfs, Cora M; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Hogervorst, Frans Bl; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne Ej; Oosterwijk, Jan C; van Roozendaal, Kees Ep; Rookus, Matti A; Devilee, Peter; van der Luijt, Rob B; Olah, Edith; Diez, Orland; Teulé, Alex; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Del Valle, Jesús; Jakubowska, Anna; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubinski, Jan; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Maugard, Christine; Amadori, Alberto; Montagna, Marco; Teixeira, Manuel R; Spurdle, Amanda B; Foulkes, William; Olswold, Curtis; Lindor, Noralane M; Pankratz, Vernon S; Szabo, Csilla I; Lincoln, Anne; Jacobs, Lauren; Corines, Marina; Robson, Mark; Vijai, Joseph; Berger, Andreas; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Singer, Christian F; Rappaport, Christine; Kaulich, Daphne Geschwantler; Pfeiler, Georg; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Greene, Mark H; Mai, Phuong L; Rennert, Gad; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Andrulis, Irene L; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Caligo, Maria A; Friedman, Eitan; Zidan, Jamal; Laitman, Yael; Lindblom, Annika; Melin, Beatrice; Arver, Brita; Loman, Niklas; Rosenquist, Richard; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Nussbaum, Robert L; Ramus, Susan J; Nathanson, Katherine L; Domchek, Susan M; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Arun, Banu K; Mitchell, Gillian; Karlan, Beth Y; Lester, Jenny; Orsulic, Sandra; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Thomas, Gilles; Simard, Jacques; Couch, Fergus J; Offit, Kenneth; Easton, Douglas F; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Phelan, Catherine M; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Cox, David G

    2015-04-25

    Individuals carrying pathogenic mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have a high lifetime risk of breast cancer. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are involved in DNA double-strand break repair, DNA alterations that can be caused by exposure to reactive oxygen species, a main source of which are mitochondria. Mitochondrial genome variations affect electron transport chain efficiency and reactive oxygen species production. Individuals with different mitochondrial haplogroups differ in their metabolism and sensitivity to oxidative stress. Variability in mitochondrial genetic background can alter reactive oxygen species production, leading to cancer risk. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial haplogroups modify breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. We genotyped 22,214 (11,421 affected, 10,793 unaffected) mutation carriers belonging to the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 for 129 mitochondrial polymorphisms using the iCOGS array. Haplogroup inference and association detection were performed using a phylogenetic approach. ALTree was applied to explore the reference mitochondrial evolutionary tree and detect subclades enriched in affected or unaffected individuals. We discovered that subclade T1a1 was depleted in affected BRCA2 mutation carriers compared with the rest of clade T (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34 to 0.88; P = 0.01). Compared with the most frequent haplogroup in the general population (that is, H and T clades), the T1a1 haplogroup has a HR of 0.62 (95% CI, 0.40 to 0.95; P = 0.03). We also identified three potential susceptibility loci, including G13708A/rs28359178, which has demonstrated an inverse association with familial breast cancer risk. This study illustrates how original approaches such as the phylogeny-based method we used can empower classical molecular epidemiological studies aimed at identifying association or risk modification effects.

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Eurasian siskin, Spinus spinus (Passeriformes: Fringillidae).

    PubMed

    Kan, Xianzhao; Ren, Qiongqiong; Wang, Ping; Jiang, Lan; Zhang, Liqin; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Qin

    2016-05-01

    The Eurasian siskin (Spinus spinus), also called the European siskin, common siskin or just siskin, is found throughout Europe and Asia. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of S. spinus was determined to be 16,828 bp. The size of protein-coding genes (PCGs) in the S. spinus mitochondrial genome was 11,400 bp. The longest PCG of S. spinus mtDNA was nad5 (1818 bp), whereas the shortest is atp8 (168 bp). The nad6 gene of S. spinus mitogenome had strong skews of T versus A (-0.54), and G versus C (0.64). According to the distribution of the conserved motifs in other avian CRs, the CR of S. spinus can be divided into three domains: ETAS domain I, central conserved domain II, and CSB domain III.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in Indigenous Populations of the Southern Extent of Siberia, and the Origins of Native American Haplogroups

    PubMed Central

    Starikovskaya, Elena B.; Sukernik, Rem I.; Derbeneva, Olga A.; Volodko, Natalia V.; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; Torroni, Antonio; Brown, Michael D.; Lott, Marie T.; Hosseini, Seyed H.; Huoponen, Kirsi; Wallace, Douglas C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary In search of the ancestors of Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, we analyzed the mtDNA of 531 individuals from nine indigenous populations in Siberia. All mtDNAs were subjected to high-resolution RFLP analysis, sequencing of the control-region hypervariable segment I (HVS-I), and surveyed for additional polymorphic markers in the coding region. Furthermore, the mtDNAs selected according to haplogroup/subhaplogroup status were completely sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses of the resulting data, combined with those from previously published Siberian arctic and sub-arctic populations, revealed that remnants of the ancient Siberian gene pool are still evident in Siberian populations, suggesting that the founding haplotypes of the Native American A–D branches originated in different parts of Siberia. Thus, lineage A complete sequences revealed in the Mansi of the Lower Ob and the Ket of the Lower Yenisei belong to A1, suggesting that A1 mtDNAs occasionally found in the remnants of hunting-gathering populations of northwestern and northern Siberia belonged to a common gene pool of the Siberian progenitors of Paleoindians. Moreover, lineage B1, which is the most closely related to the American B2, occurred in the Tubalar and Tuvan inhabiting the territory between the upper reaches of the Ob River in the west, to the Upper Yenisei region in the east. Finally, the sequence variants of haplogroups C and D, which are most similar to Native American C1 and D1, were detected in the Ulchi of the Lower Amur. Overall, our data suggest that the immediate ancestors of the Siberian/Beringian migrants who gave rise to ancient (pre-Clovis) Paleoindians have a common origin with aboriginal people of the area now designated the Altai-Sayan Upland, as well as the Lower Amur/Sea of Okhotsk region. PMID:15638829

  8. Mitochondrial DNA diversity in indigenous populations of the southern extent of Siberia, and the origins of Native American haplogroups.

    PubMed

    Starikovskaya, Elena B; Sukernik, Rem I; Derbeneva, Olga A; Volodko, Natalia V; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; Torroni, Antonio; Brown, Michael D; Lott, Marie T; Hosseini, Seyed H; Huoponen, Kirsi; Wallace, Douglas C

    2005-01-01

    In search of the ancestors of Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, we analyzed the mtDNA of 531 individuals from nine indigenous populations in Siberia. All mtDNAs were subjected to high-resolution RFLP analysis, sequencing of the control-region hypervariable segment I (HVS-I), and surveyed for additional polymorphic markers in the coding region. Furthermore, the mtDNAs selected according to haplogroup/subhaplogroup status were completely sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses of the resulting data, combined with those from previously published Siberian arctic and sub-arctic populations, revealed that remnants of the ancient Siberian gene pool are still evident in Siberian populations, suggesting that the founding haplotypes of the Native American A-D branches originated in different parts of Siberia. Thus, lineage A complete sequences revealed in the Mansi of the Lower Ob and the Ket of the Lower Yenisei belong to A1, suggesting that A1 mtDNAs occasionally found in the remnants of hunting-gathering populations of northwestern and northern Siberia belonged to a common gene pool of the Siberian progenitors of Paleoindians. Moreover, lineage B1, which is the most closely related to the American B2, occurred in the Tubalar and Tuvan inhabiting the territory between the upper reaches of the Ob River in the west, to the Upper Yenisei region in the east. Finally, the sequence variants of haplogroups C and D, which are most similar to Native American C1 and D1, were detected in the Ulchi of the Lower Amur. Overall, our data suggest that the immediate ancestors of the Siberian/Beringian migrants who gave rise to ancient (pre-Clovis) Paleoindians have a common origin with aboriginal people of the area now designated the Altai-Sayan Upland, as well as the Lower Amur/Sea of Okhotsk region.

  9. Mitochondrial Haplogroup U5b3: A Distant Echo of the Epipaleolithic in Italy and the Legacy of the Early Sardinians

    PubMed Central

    Pala, Maria; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Kashani, Baharak Hooshiar; Perego, Ugo A.; Sanna, Daria; Metspalu, Ene; Tambets, Kristiina; Tamm, Erika; Accetturo, Matteo; Carossa, Valeria; Lancioni, Hovirag; Panara, Fausto; Zimmermann, Bettina; Huber, Gabriela; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Brisighelli, Francesca; Woodward, Scott R.; Francalacci, Paolo; Parson, Walther; Salas, Antonio; Behar, Doron M.; Villems, Richard; Semino, Ornella; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Torroni, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    There are extensive data indicating that some glacial refuge zones of southern Europe (Franco-Cantabria, Balkans, and Ukraine) were major genetic sources for the human recolonization of the continent at the beginning of the Holocene. Intriguingly, there is no genetic evidence that the refuge area located in the Italian Peninsula contributed to this process. Here we show, through phylogeographic analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation performed at the highest level of molecular resolution (52 entire mitochondrial genomes), that the most likely homeland for U5b3—a haplogroup present at a very low frequency across Europe—was the Italian Peninsula. In contrast to mtDNA haplogroups that expanded from other refugia, the Holocene expansion of haplogroup U5b3 toward the North was restricted by the Alps and occurred only along the Mediterranean coasts, mainly toward nearby Provence (southern France). From there, ∼7,000–9,000 years ago, a subclade of this haplogroup moved to Sardinia, possibly as a result of the obsidian trade that linked the two regions, leaving a distinctive signature in the modern people of the island. This scenario strikingly matches the age, distribution, and postulated geographic source of a Sardinian Y chromosome haplogroup (I2a2-M26), a paradigmatic case in the European context of a founder event marking both female and male lineages. PMID:19500771

  10. Mitochondrial J haplogroup is associated with lower blood pressure and anti-oxidant status: findings in octo/nonagenarians from the BELFAST Study.

    PubMed

    Rea, Irene Maeve; McNerlan, Susan E; Archbold, G Pooler; Middleton, Derek; Curran, Martin D; Young, Ian S; Ross, Owen A

    2013-08-01

    Mitochondria produce cellular energy but also free-radicals, which damage cells despite an array of endogenous anti-oxidants. In Northern Europe, the mitochondrial haplogroup J has been related to longevity in nonagenarians and centenarians but also with age-related disease. Hypertension is an important contributor to atherosclerotic-related diseases and its pathogenesis is associated with increased oxidative stress. In this study, we questioned whether J haplogroup octo/nonagenarians from the Belfast Elderly Longitudinal Free-living Elderly STudy (BELFAST) study showed evidence of protective blood pressure or anti-oxidant profile which might explain their longevity advantage. Briefly, in a cross-sectional study, community-living, mentally alert (Folstein >25/30), octo/nonagenarian subjects, recruited for good health, were enlisted and consented as part of the BELFAST study, for blood pressure, anthropometric measurements and blood sampling. DNA typing for mitochondrial haplotypes was carried out with measurements for enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. J haplogroup carriers showed lower systolic blood pressure and glutathione peroxidase activity (Gpx) with higher folate measurements. There was no change in urate, bilirubin, albumin or nutrition-related antioxidants-selenium or vitamins A, C and α and β carotene. BELFAST study mtDNA J haplogroup octo/nonagenarians showed lower blood pressure and reduced glutathione peroxidase activity and higher folate, but no change for other antioxidants. These findings are of interest in view of mtDNA J haplogroup's association with increased age in some previous studies.

  11. Mitochondrial haplogroup U5b3: a distant echo of the epipaleolithic in Italy and the legacy of the early Sardinians.

    PubMed

    Pala, Maria; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Perego, Ugo A; Sanna, Daria; Metspalu, Ene; Tambets, Kristiina; Tamm, Erika; Accetturo, Matteo; Carossa, Valeria; Lancioni, Hovirag; Panara, Fausto; Zimmermann, Bettina; Huber, Gabriela; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Brisighelli, Francesca; Woodward, Scott R; Francalacci, Paolo; Parson, Walther; Salas, Antonio; Behar, Doron M; Villems, Richard; Semino, Ornella; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Torroni, Antonio

    2009-06-01

    There are extensive data indicating that some glacial refuge zones of southern Europe (Franco-Cantabria, Balkans, and Ukraine) were major genetic sources for the human recolonization of the continent at the beginning of the Holocene. Intriguingly, there is no genetic evidence that the refuge area located in the Italian Peninsula contributed to this process. Here we show, through phylogeographic analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation performed at the highest level of molecular resolution (52 entire mitochondrial genomes), that the most likely homeland for U5b3-a haplogroup present at a very low frequency across Europe-was the Italian Peninsula. In contrast to mtDNA haplogroups that expanded from other refugia, the Holocene expansion of haplogroup U5b3 toward the North was restricted by the Alps and occurred only along the Mediterranean coasts, mainly toward nearby Provence (southern France). From there, approximately 7,000-9,000 years ago, a subclade of this haplogroup moved to Sardinia, possibly as a result of the obsidian trade that linked the two regions, leaving a distinctive signature in the modern people of the island. This scenario strikingly matches the age, distribution, and postulated geographic source of a Sardinian Y chromosome haplogroup (I2a2-M26), a paradigmatic case in the European context of a founder event marking both female and male lineages.

  12. Mitochondrial Genetic Diversity of Eurasian Red Squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) from Denmark.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Corrie L; Vilstrup, Julia T; Fernández, Ruth; Marchi, Nina; Håkansson, Bo; Krog, Mogens; Asferg, Tommy; Baagøe, Hans; Orlando, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    Melanistic Eurasian red squirrels Sciurus vulgaris are commonly found on the Danish island of Funen. They are thought to represent native Danish squirrel types and are presently under threat from admixture with introduced red squirrels. In response, a conservation program was started in 2009 that involves the translocation of melanistic squirrels from Funen to the squirrel-free island of Langeland. Using mitochondrial DNA of 101 historical and modern samples from throughout Denmark, we assess for the first time population structure and mitochondrial genetic diversity of Danish squirrels compared to its larger pan-Eurasian distribution. We find that Danish squirrels have low levels of genetic diversity, especially melanistic individuals. Bayesian skyline reconstructions show that Danish squirrels have most probably experienced a severe bottleneck within the last 200 years. Also, fine-scale genetic structure was found between squirrels from the regions of Funen, Zealand and Jutland, which mimics the insular geography of Denmark. Additional nuclear DNA analyses will be required to determine the precise admixture levels between original Danish and introduced squirrels and to locate unmixed candidate populations for specific conservation efforts.

  13. Internal diversification of mitochondrial haplogroup R0a reveals post-last glacial maximum demographic expansions in South Arabia.

    PubMed

    Cerný, Viktor; Mulligan, Connie J; Fernandes, Verónica; Silva, Nuno M; Alshamali, Farida; Non, Amy; Harich, Nourdin; Cherni, Lotfi; El Gaaied, Amel Ben Ammar; Al-Meeri, Ali; Pereira, Luísa

    2011-01-01

    Widespread interest in the first successful Out of Africa dispersal of modern humans ∼60-80 thousand years ago via a southern migration route has overshadowed the study of later periods of South Arabian prehistory. In this work, we show that the post-Last Glacial Maximum period of the past 20,000 years, during which climatic conditions were becoming more hospitable, has been a significant time in the formation of the extant genetic composition and population structure of this region. This conclusion is supported by the internal diversification displayed in the highly resolved phylogenetic tree of 89 whole mitochondrial genomes (71 being newly presented here) for haplogroup R0a-the most frequent and widespread haplogroup in Arabia. Additionally, two geographically specific clades (R0a1a1a and R0a2f1) have been identified in non-Arabic speaking peoples such as the Soqotri and Mahri living in the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula where a past refugium was identified by independent archaeological studies. Estimates of time to the most recent common ancestor of these lineages match the earliest archaeological evidence for seafaring activity in the peninsula in the sixth millennium BC.

  14. Complete mitochondrial sequences for haplogroups M23 and M46: insights into the Asian ancestry of the Malagasy population.

    PubMed

    Dubut, Vincent; Cartault, François; Payet, Christine; Thionville, Marie-Dominique; Murail, Pascal

    2009-08-01

    Through the sequencing of the complete mitochondrial genome of three individuals of Malagasy ancestry, we completed the characterization of the island southeastern Asian specific M46 haplogroup. We assumed that the association of the np 3588 and np 16278 polymorphisms were M46 specific. In addition, we characterized a novel basal M subhaplogroup: M23. This clade can be defined by one coding region transition at np 10295 and one control region transition at np 16263. Our data suggest the arrival of South Asian migrants before the start of the 15th century and highlights the fact that future studies dealing with the settlement of Madagascar should consider at least three potential source populations (Africa, Indonesia, and India).

  15. An Alternative Model for the Early Peopling of Southern South America Revealed by Analyses of Three Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups

    PubMed Central

    de Saint Pierre, Michelle; Bravi, Claudio M.; Motti, Josefina M. B.; Fuku, Noriyuki; Tanaka, Masashi; Llop, Elena; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Moraga, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    After several years of research, there is now a consensus that America was populated from Asia through Beringia, probably at the end of the Pleistocene. But many details such as the timing, route(s), and origin of the first settlers remain uncertain. In the last decade genetic evidence has taken on a major role in elucidating the peopling of the Americas. To study the early peopling of South America, we sequenced the control region of mitochondrial DNA from 300 individuals belonging to indigenous populations of Chile and Argentina, and also obtained seven complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. We identified two novel mtDNA monophyletic clades, preliminarily designated B2l and C1b13, which together with the recently described D1g sub-haplogroup have locally high frequencies and are basically restricted to populations from the extreme south of South America. The estimated ages of D1g and B2l, about ∼15,000 years BP, together with their similar population dynamics and the high haplotype diversity shown by the networks, suggests that they probably appeared soon after the arrival of the first settlers and agrees with the dating of the earliest archaeological sites in South America (Monte Verde, Chile, 14,500 BP). One further sub-haplogroup, D4h3a5, appears to be restricted to Fuegian-Patagonian populations and reinforces our hypothesis of the continuity of the current Patagonian populations with the initial founders. Our results indicate that the extant native populations inhabiting South Chile and Argentina are a group which had a common origin, and suggest a population break between the extreme south of South America and the more northern part of the continent. Thus the early colonization process was not just an expansion from north to south, but also included movements across the Andes. PMID:22970129

  16. Were inefficient mitochondrial haplogroups selected during migrations of modern humans? A test using modular kinetic analysis of coupling in mitochondria from cybrid cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Amo, Taku; Brand, Martin D.

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a general test of the bioenergetic importance of mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) variants: modular kinetic analysis of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria from cybrid cells with constant nuclear DNA but different mtDNA. We have applied this test to the hypothesis [Ruiz-Pesini, Mishmar, Brandon, Procaccio and Wallace (2004) Science 303, 223–226] that particular mtDNA haplogroups (specific combinations of polymorphisms) that cause lowered coupling efficiency, leading to generation of less ATP and more heat, were positively selected during radiations of modern humans into colder climates. Contrary to the predictions of this hypothesis, mitochondria from Arctic haplogroups had similar or even greater coupling efficiency than mitochondria from tropical haplogroups. PMID:17355224

  17. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups influence the risk of incident knee osteoarthritis in OAI and CHECK cohorts. A meta-analysis and functional study.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Moreno, Mercedes; Soto-Hermida, Angel; Vázquez-Mosquera, María E; Cortés-Pereira, Estefanía; Relaño, Sara; Hermida-Gómez, Tamara; Pértega, Sonia; Oreiro-Villar, Natividad; Fernández-López, Carlos; Garesse, Rafael; Blanco, Francisco J; Rego-Pérez, Ignacio

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the influence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups in the risk of incident knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to explain the functional consequences of this association to identify potential diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Two prospective cohorts contributed participants. The osteoarthritis initiative (OAI) included 2579 subjects of the incidence subcohort, and the cohort hip and cohort knee (CHECK) included 635, both with 8-year follow-up. The analysis included the association of mtDNA haplogroups with the rate of incident knee OA in subjects from both cohorts followed by a subsequent meta-analysis. Transmitochondrial cybrids harbouring haplogroup J or H were constructed to detect differences between them in relation to physiological features including specific mitochondrial metabolic parameters, reactive oxygen species production, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Compared with H, the haplogroup J associates with decreased risk of incident knee OA in subjects from OAI (HR=0.680; 95% CI 0.470 to 0.968; p<0.05) and CHECK (HR=0.728; 95% CI 0.469 to 0.998; p<0.05). The subsequent meta-analysis including 3214 cases showed that the haplogroup J associates with a lower risk of incident knee OA (HR=0.702; 95% CI 0.541 to 0.912; p=0.008). J cybrids show a lower free radical production, higher cell survival under oxidative stress conditions, lower grade of apoptosis as well as lower expression of the mitochondrially related pro-apoptotic gene BCL2 binding component 3 (BBC3). In addition, J cybrids also show a lower mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis leading to decreased ATP production. The physiological effects of the haplogroup J are beneficial to have a lower rate of incident knee OA over time. Potential drugs to treat OA could focus on emulating the mitochondrial behaviour of this haplogroup. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Mitochondrial genome sequencing in Mesolithic North East Europe Unearths a new sub-clade within the broadly distributed human haplogroup C1.

    PubMed

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Brotherton, Paul; Balanovsky, Oleg; Templeton, Jennifer E L; Llamas, Bastien; Soubrier, Julien; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Khartanovich, Valery; Cooper, Alan; Haak, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The human mitochondrial haplogroup C1 has a broad global distribution but is extremely rare in Europe today. Recent ancient DNA evidence has demonstrated its presence in European Mesolithic individuals. Three individuals from the 7,500 year old Mesolithic site of Yuzhnyy Oleni Ostrov, Western Russia, could be assigned to haplogroup C1 based on mitochondrial hypervariable region I sequences. However, hypervariable region I data alone could not provide enough resolution to establish the phylogenetic relationship of these Mesolithic haplotypes with haplogroup C1 mitochondrial DNA sequences found today in populations of Europe, Asia and the Americas. In order to obtain high-resolution data and shed light on the origin of this European Mesolithic C1 haplotype, we target-enriched and sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of one Yuzhnyy Oleni Ostrov C1 individual. The updated phylogeny of C1 haplogroups indicated that the Yuzhnyy Oleni Ostrov haplotype represents a new distinct clade, provisionally coined "C1f". We show that all three C1 carriers of Yuzhnyy Oleni Ostrov belong to this clade. No haplotype closely related to the C1f sequence could be found in the large current database of ancient and present-day mitochondrial genomes. Hence, we have discovered past human mitochondrial diversity that has not been observed in modern-day populations so far. The lack of positive matches in modern populations may be explained by under-sampling of rare modern C1 carriers or by demographic processes, population extinction or replacement, that may have impacted on populations of Northeast Europe since prehistoric times.

  19. Mitochondrial Genome Sequencing in Mesolithic North East Europe Unearths a New Sub-Clade within the Broadly Distributed Human Haplogroup C1

    PubMed Central

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Brotherton, Paul; Balanovsky, Oleg; Templeton, Jennifer E. L.; Llamas, Bastien; Soubrier, Julien; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Khartanovich, Valery; Cooper, Alan; Haak, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The human mitochondrial haplogroup C1 has a broad global distribution but is extremely rare in Europe today. Recent ancient DNA evidence has demonstrated its presence in European Mesolithic individuals. Three individuals from the 7,500 year old Mesolithic site of Yuzhnyy Oleni Ostrov, Western Russia, could be assigned to haplogroup C1 based on mitochondrial hypervariable region I sequences. However, hypervariable region I data alone could not provide enough resolution to establish the phylogenetic relationship of these Mesolithic haplotypes with haplogroup C1 mitochondrial DNA sequences found today in populations of Europe, Asia and the Americas. In order to obtain high-resolution data and shed light on the origin of this European Mesolithic C1 haplotype, we target-enriched and sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of one Yuzhnyy Oleni Ostrov C1 individual. The updated phylogeny of C1 haplogroups indicated that the Yuzhnyy Oleni Ostrov haplotype represents a new distinct clade, provisionally coined “C1f”. We show that all three C1 carriers of Yuzhnyy Oleni Ostrov belong to this clade. No haplotype closely related to the C1f sequence could be found in the large current database of ancient and present-day mitochondrial genomes. Hence, we have discovered past human mitochondrial diversity that has not been observed in modern-day populations so far. The lack of positive matches in modern populations may be explained by under-sampling of rare modern C1 carriers or by demographic processes, population extinction or replacement, that may have impacted on populations of Northeast Europe since prehistoric times. PMID:24503968

  20. The background of mitochondrial DNA haplogroup J increases the sensitivity of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy cells to 2,5-hexanedione toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ghelli, Anna; Porcelli, Anna Maria; Zanna, Claudia; Vidoni, Sara; Mattioli, Stefano; Barbieri, Anna; Iommarini, Luisa; Pala, Maria; Achilli, Alessandro; Torroni, Antonio; Rugolo, Michela; Carelli, Valerio

    2009-11-19

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited blinding disease due to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations in complex I subunit genes, whose incomplete penetrance has been attributed to both genetic and environmental factors. Indeed, the mtDNA background defined as haplogroup J is known to increase the penetrance of the 11778/ND4 and 14484/ND6 mutations. Recently it was also documented that the professional exposure to n-hexane might act as an exogenous trigger for LHON. Therefore, we here investigate the effect of the n-hexane neurotoxic metabolite 2,5-hexanedione (2,5-HD) on cell viability and mitochondrial function of different cell models (cybrids and fibroblasts) carrying the LHON mutations on different mtDNA haplogroups. The viability of control and LHON cybrids and fibroblasts, whose mtDNAs were completely sequenced, was assessed using the MTT assay. Mitochondrial ATP synthesis rate driven by complex I substrates was determined with the luciferine/luciferase method. Incubation with 2,5-HD caused the maximal loss of viability in control and LHON cells. The toxic effect of this compound was similar in control cells irrespective of the mtDNA background. On the contrary, sensitivity to 2,5-HD induced cell death was greatly increased in LHON cells carrying the 11778/ND4 or the 14484/ND6 mutation on haplogroup J, whereas the 11778/ND4 mutation in association with haplogroups U and H significantly improved cell survival. The 11778/ND4 mutation on haplogroup U was also more resistant to inhibition of complex I dependent ATP synthesis by 2,5-HD. In conclusion, this study shows that mtDNA haplogroups modulate the response of LHON cells to 2,5-HD. In particular, haplogroup J makes cells more sensitive to its toxic effect. This is the first evidence that an mtDNA background plays a role by interacting with an environmental factor and that 2,5-HD may be a risk element for visual loss in LHON. This proof of principle has broad implications for

  1. The Background of Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup J Increases the Sensitivity of Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy Cells to 2,5-Hexanedione Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ghelli, Anna; Porcelli, Anna Maria; Zanna, Claudia; Vidoni, Sara; Mattioli, Stefano; Barbieri, Anna; Iommarini, Luisa; Pala, Maria; Achilli, Alessandro; Torroni, Antonio; Rugolo, Michela; Carelli, Valerio

    2009-01-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited blinding disease due to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations in complex I subunit genes, whose incomplete penetrance has been attributed to both genetic and environmental factors. Indeed, the mtDNA background defined as haplogroup J is known to increase the penetrance of the 11778/ND4 and 14484/ND6 mutations. Recently it was also documented that the professional exposure to n-hexane might act as an exogenous trigger for LHON. Therefore, we here investigate the effect of the n-hexane neurotoxic metabolite 2,5-hexanedione (2,5-HD) on cell viability and mitochondrial function of different cell models (cybrids and fibroblasts) carrying the LHON mutations on different mtDNA haplogroups. The viability of control and LHON cybrids and fibroblasts, whose mtDNAs were completely sequenced, was assessed using the MTT assay. Mitochondrial ATP synthesis rate driven by complex I substrates was determined with the luciferine/luciferase method. Incubation with 2,5-HD caused the maximal loss of viability in control and LHON cells. The toxic effect of this compound was similar in control cells irrespective of the mtDNA background. On the contrary, sensitivity to 2,5-HD induced cell death was greatly increased in LHON cells carrying the 11778/ND4 or the 14484/ND6 mutation on haplogroup J, whereas the 11778/ND4 mutation in association with haplogroups U and H significantly improved cell survival. The 11778/ND4 mutation on haplogroup U was also more resistant to inhibition of complex I dependent ATP synthesis by 2,5-HD. In conclusion, this study shows that mtDNA haplogroups modulate the response of LHON cells to 2,5-HD. In particular, haplogroup J makes cells more sensitive to its toxic effect. This is the first evidence that an mtDNA background plays a role by interacting with an environmental factor and that 2,5-HD may be a risk element for visual loss in LHON. This proof of principle has broad implications for

  2. Deep common ancestry of indian and western-Eurasian mitochondrial DNA lineages.

    PubMed

    Kivisild, T; Bamshad, M J; Kaldma, K; Metspalu, M; Metspalu, E; Reidla, M; Laos, S; Parik, J; Watkins, W S; Dixon, M E; Papiha, S S; Mastana, S S; Mir, M R; Ferak, V; Villems, R

    1999-11-18

    About a fifth of the human gene pool belongs largely either to Indo-European or Dravidic speaking people inhabiting the Indian peninsula. The 'Caucasoid share' in their gene pool is thought to be related predominantly to the Indo-European speakers. A commonly held hypothesis, albeit not the only one, suggests a massive Indo-Aryan invasion to India some 4,000 years ago [1]. Recent limited analysis of maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of Indian populations has been interpreted as supporting this concept [2] [3]. Here, this interpretation is questioned. We found an extensive deep late Pleistocene genetic link between contemporary Europeans and Indians, provided by the mtDNA haplogroup U, which encompasses roughly a fifth of mtDNA lineages of both populations. Our estimate for this split is close to the suggested time for the peopling of Asia and the first expansion of anatomically modern humans in Eurasia [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] and likely pre-dates their spread to Europe. Only a small fraction of the 'Caucasoid-specific' mtDNA lineages found in Indian populations can be ascribed to a relatively recent admixture.

  3. 60,000 years of interactions between Central and Eastern Africa documented by major African mitochondrial haplogroup L2.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marina; Alshamali, Farida; Silva, Paula; Carrilho, Carla; Mandlate, Flávio; Jesus Trovoada, Maria; Černý, Viktor; Pereira, Luísa; Soares, Pedro

    2015-07-27

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup L2 originated in Western Africa but is nowadays spread across the entire continent. L2 movements were previously postulated to be related to the Bantu expansion, but L2 expansions eastwards probably occurred much earlier. By reconstructing the phylogeny of L2 (44 new complete sequences) we provide insights on the complex net of within-African migrations in the last 60 thousand years (ka). Results show that lineages in Southern Africa cluster with Western/Central African lineages at a recent time scale, whereas, eastern lineages seem to be substantially more ancient. Three moments of expansion from a Central African source are associated to L2: (1) one migration at 70-50 ka into Eastern or Southern Africa, (2) postglacial movements (15-10 ka) into Eastern Africa; and (3) the southward Bantu Expansion in the last 5 ka. The complementary population and L0a phylogeography analyses indicate no strong evidence of mtDNA gene flow between eastern and southern populations during the later movement, suggesting low admixture between Eastern African populations and the Bantu migrants. This implies that, at least in the early stages, the Bantu expansion was mainly a demic diffusion with little incorporation of local populations.

  4. 60,000 years of interactions between Central and Eastern Africa documented by major African mitochondrial haplogroup L2

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Marina; Alshamali, Farida; Silva, Paula; Carrilho, Carla; Mandlate, Flávio; Jesus Trovoada, Maria; Černý, Viktor; Pereira, Luísa; Soares, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup L2 originated in Western Africa but is nowadays spread across the entire continent. L2 movements were previously postulated to be related to the Bantu expansion, but L2 expansions eastwards probably occurred much earlier. By reconstructing the phylogeny of L2 (44 new complete sequences) we provide insights on the complex net of within-African migrations in the last 60 thousand years (ka). Results show that lineages in Southern Africa cluster with Western/Central African lineages at a recent time scale, whereas, eastern lineages seem to be substantially more ancient. Three moments of expansion from a Central African source are associated to L2: (1) one migration at 70–50 ka into Eastern or Southern Africa, (2) postglacial movements (15–10 ka) into Eastern Africa; and (3) the southward Bantu Expansion in the last 5 ka. The complementary population and L0a phylogeography analyses indicate no strong evidence of mtDNA gene flow between eastern and southern populations during the later movement, suggesting low admixture between Eastern African populations and the Bantu migrants. This implies that, at least in the early stages, the Bantu expansion was mainly a demic diffusion with little incorporation of local populations. PMID:26211407

  5. The Amerindian mtDNA haplogroup B2 enhances the risk of HPV for cervical cancer: de-regulation of mitochondrial genes may be involved.

    PubMed

    Guardado-Estrada, Mariano; Medina-Martínez, Ingrid; Juárez-Torres, Eligia; Roman-Bassaure, Edgar; Macías, Luis; Alfaro, Ana; Alcántara-Vázquez, Avissai; Alonso, Patricia; Gomez, Guillermo; Cruz-Talonia, Fernando; Serna, Luis; Muñoz-Cortez, Sergio; Borges-Ibañez, Manuel; Espinosa, Ana; Kofman, Susana; Berumen, Jaime

    2012-04-01

    Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main causal factor for cervical cancer (CC), there are data suggesting that genetic factors could modulate the risk for CC. Sibling studies suggest that maternally inherited factors could be involved in CC. To assess whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms are associated to CC, HPV infection and HPV types, a case-control study was performed in the Mexican population. Polymorphism of mtDNA D-loop was investigated in 187 CC patients and 270 healthy controls. HPV was detected and typed in cervical scrapes. The expression of 29 mitochondrial genes was analyzed in a subset of 45 tumor biopsies using the expression microarray ST1.0. The Amerindian haplogroup B2 increased the risk for CC (odds ratio (OR)=1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05-2.58) and enhanced 36% (OR=208; 95% CI: 25.2-1735.5) the risk conferred by the HPV alone (OR=152.9; 95% CI: 65.4-357.5). In cases, the distribution of HPV types was similar in all haplogroups but one (D1), in which is remarkable the absence of HPV18, a very low frequency of HPV16 and high frequencies of HPV45, HPV31 and other HPV types. Two mtDNA genes (mitochondrial aspartic acid tRNA (MT-TD), mitochondrial lysine tRNA (MT-TK)) could be involved in the increased risk conferred by the haplogroup B2, as they were upregulated exclusively in B2 tumors (P<0.01, t-test). Although the association of mtDNA with CC and HPV infection is clear, other studies with higher sample size will be needed to elucidate the role of mtDNA in cervical carcinogenesis.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA G10398A polymorphism imparts maternal Haplogroup N a risk for breast and esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Darvishi, Katayoon; Sharma, Swarkar; Bhat, Audesh K; Rai, Ekta; Bamezai, R N K

    2007-05-08

    Mitochondria are the major source of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and mtDNA G10398A (Ala-->Thr) polymorphism, proposed to be involved in increased ROS production, has been shown in association with invasive breast cancer in African-American (AA) women [J.A. Canter, A.R. Kallianpur, F.F. Parl, R.C. Millikan, Mitochondrial DNA G10398A polymorphism and invasive breast cancer in African-American women, Cancer Res. 65 (2005) 8028-8033] and prostate cancer in AA men [M.P. Mims, T.G. Hayes, S. Zheng, S.M. Leal, A. Frolov, M.M. Ittmann, et al., Mitochondrial DNA G10398A polymorphism and invasive breast cancer in African-American women, Cancer Res. 66 (2006) 1880; author reply 1880-1881]. The role of mitochondria, however, in cancer development has been in question recently [A. Salas, Y.G. Yao, V. Macaulay, A. Vega, A. Carracedo, H.J. Bandelt, A critical reassessment of the role of mitochondria in tumorigenesis, PLoS Med. 2 (2005) e296], which has made it pertinent to analyze the data and test the hypotheses by conducting fresh case-control studies. This study, therefore, makes an attempt to validate the exclusive presence of mtG10398A (Ala-->Thr) polymorphism in a haplotype constituting mtDNA haplogroup N and its sublineages, imparting this group a higher risk for breast cancer, based on the re-analyses of approximately 1000 complete human mtDNA sequences worldwide and collated information on 2334 individuals belonging to 18 regions in India. The conclusion drawn of mt10398A allele providing a risk towards cancer is confirmed in a case-control comparison study of 124 sporadic breast cancer patients and 273 controls; and 55 squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus, ESCC, and 163 controls, matched for age, ethnicity and sex from north India. It is further apparent from the study that such a mtDNA polymorphism background provides a higher risk for the cancers of the tissues which could be affected by environmental insults directly as in the ESCC, observed with a high acquired

  7. HVS-I polymorphism screening of ancient human mitochondrial DNA provides evidence for N9a discontinuity and East Asian haplogroups in the Neolithic Hungary.

    PubMed

    Guba, Zsuzsanna; Hadadi, Éva; Major, Ágnes; Furka, Tünde; Juhász, Emese; Koós, Judit; Nagy, Károly; Zeke, Tamás

    2011-11-01

    Analysis of mitochondrial mutations in the HVS-I region is an effective method for ancient human populational studies. Discontinuous haplotype data between the first farmers and contemporary Europeans has been described before. Our contribution is based on a survey initiated on the Neolithic skeletons from Hungarian archaeological sites in the Alföld. This Lowland, the Hungarian Plain, is well excavated as an important region for spread of Neolithic culture from Near East and Balkans toward Central and Western Europe, started circa 8000 years ago. HVS-I sequences from nt15977 to nt16430 of 11 such specimens with sufficient mitochondrial DNA preservation among an extended Neolithic collection were analysed for polymorphisms, identifying 23 different ones. After assigning all single-nucleotide polymorphisms, a novel, N9a, N1a, C5, D1/G1a, M/R24 haplogroups were determined. On mitochondrial control mutations at nt16257 and nt16261, polymorphic PCRs were carried out to assess their distribution in remains. Neolithic data set was compared with contemporary Vác samples and references, resulting in higher frequency of N9a in Alföld as a remarkable genetic discontinuity. Our investigation is the first to study mutations form Neolithic of Hungary, resulting in an outcome of Far Eastern haplogroups in the Carpathian Basin. It is worth further investigation as a non-descendant theory, instead of a continuous population history, supporting genetic gaps between ancient and recent human populations.

  8. The distribution of mitochondrial DNA haplogroup H in southern Iberia indicates ancient human genetic exchanges along the western edge of the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Candela L; Dugoujon, Jean M; Novelletto, Andrea; Rodríguez, Juan N; Cuesta, Pedro; Calderón, Rosario

    2017-05-19

    The structure of haplogroup H reveals significant differences between the western and eastern edges of the Mediterranean, as well as between the northern and southern regions. Human populations along the westernmost Mediterranean coasts, which were settled by individuals from two continents separated by a relatively narrow body of water, show the highest frequencies of mitochondrial haplogroup H. These characteristics permit the analysis of ancient migrations between both shores, which may have occurred via primitive sea crafts and early seafaring. We collected a sample of 750 autochthonous people from the southern Iberian Peninsula (Andalusians from Huelva and Granada provinces). We performed a high-resolution analysis of haplogroup H by control region sequencing and coding SNP screening of the 337 individuals harboring this maternal marker. Our results were compared with those of a wide panel of populations, including individuals from Iberia, the Maghreb, and other regions around the Mediterranean, collected from the literature. Both Andalusian subpopulations showed a typical western European profile for the internal composition of clade H, but eastern Andalusians from Granada also revealed interesting traces from the eastern Mediterranean. The basal nodes of the most frequent H sub-haplogroups, H1 and H3, harbored many individuals of Iberian and Maghrebian origins. Derived haplotypes were found in both regions; haplotypes were shared far more frequently between Andalusia and Morocco than between Andalusia and the rest of the Maghreb. These and previous results indicate intense, ancient and sustained contact among populations on both sides of the Mediterranean. Our genetic data on mtDNA diversity, combined with corresponding archaeological similarities, provide support for arguments favoring prehistoric bonds with a genetic legacy traceable in extant populations. Furthermore, the results presented here indicate that the Strait of Gibraltar and the adjacent

  9. Mitochondrial DNA evidence of southward migration of Manchus in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong-Bin; Sun, Wen-Yi; Zhan, Yang; Di, Wang; Yu, Chang-Chun

    2011-01-01

    The Northeast area of China is a cross region between East Asia and Siberia. Although five populations from this area have been studied in maternal lineage, little is known about the genetics of other populations. In this study, forty-seven Manchu individuals were analyzed using a mitochondrial DNA marker, and fourteen mitochondrial DNA haplogroups, the representative haplogroups of east Eurasian, were identified. All analyses showed that Manchu were close to the neighboring populations such as Mongolian, Korean and northern Han Chinese, and were far from the other populations who lived in the cradle of Manchu, suggesting that the Manchu integrated gradually with natives following its southward migration.

  10. Haplogroup heterogeneity of LHON patients carrying the m.14484T>C mutation in India.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nahid Akhtar; Govindaraj, Periyasamy; Soumittra, Nagasamy; Srilekha, Sundaramoorthy; Ambika, Selvakumar; Vanniarajan, Ayyasamy; Meena, Angamuthu K; Uppin, Megha S; Sundaram, Challa; Taly, Arun B; Bindu, Parayil Sankaran; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2013-06-10

    To investigate the clinical and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup background of Indian Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) patients carrying the m.14484T>C mutation. Detailed clinical investigation and complete mtDNA sequencing analysis was carried out for eight Indian LHON families with the m.14484T>C mutation. Haplogroup was constructed based on the evolutionarily important mtDNA variants. In the present study, we characterized eight unrelated probands selected from 187 LHON cases. The overall penetrance of the disease was estimated to be 19.75% (16/81) in eight pedigrees with the m.14484T>C mutation and showed substantially higher sex bias (male: female = 13:3). The mtDNA haplogrouping revealed that they belong to diverse haplogroups; i.e., F1c1, M31a, U2a, M*, I1, M6, M3a1, and R30a. Interestingly, we did not find an association of the m.14484T>C mutation with any specific haplogroup within the Indian population. We also did not find any secondary mutation(s) in these pedigrees, which might affect the clinical expression of LHON. Contrary to earlier reports showing preferential association of the m.14484T>C mutation with western Eurasian haplogroup J and increased clinical penetrance when present in J1 subhaplogroup background, the present study shows that m.14484T>C arose independently in a different mtDNA haplogroup and ethnic background in India, which may influence the clinical expression of the disease.

  11. Population history of the Red Sea--genetic exchanges between the Arabian Peninsula and East Africa signaled in the mitochondrial DNA HV1 haplogroup.

    PubMed

    Musilová, Eliška; Fernandes, Verónica; Silva, Nuno M; Soares, Pedro; Alshamali, Farida; Harich, Nourdin; Cherni, Lotfi; Gaaied, Amel Ben Ammar El; Al-Meeri, Ali; Pereira, Luísa; Cerný, Viktor

    2011-08-01

    Archaeological studies have revealed cultural connections between the two sides of the Red Sea dating to prehistory. The issue has still not been properly addressed, however, by archaeogenetics. We focus our attention here on the mitochondrial haplogroup HV1 that is present in both the Arabian Peninsula and East Africa. The internal variation of 38 complete mitochondrial DNA sequences (20 of them presented here for the first time) affiliated into this haplogroup testify to its emergence during the late glacial maximum, most probably in the Near East, with subsequent dispersion via population expansions when climatic conditions improved. Detailed phylogeography of HV1 sequences shows that more recent demographic upheavals likely contributed to their spread from West Arabia to East Africa, a finding concordant with archaeological records suggesting intensive maritime trade in the Red Sea from the sixth millennium BC onwards. Closer genetic exchanges are apparent between the Horn of Africa and Yemen, while Egyptian HV1 haplotypes seem to be more similar to the Near Eastern ones.

  12. Y chromosome haplogroup diversity in a Mestizo population of Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Carolina; Geppert, Maria; Baeta, Miriam; Roewer, Lutz; Martínez-Jarreta, Begoña

    2012-12-01

    Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) are indispensable markers for haplogroup determination. Since Y chromosome haplogroups show a high specific geographical distribution, they play a major role in population genetics but can also benefit forensic investigations. Although haplogroup prediction methods based on Y chromosome short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) exist and are frequently used, precaution is required in this regard. In this study we determine the Y chromosome haplogroups of a Nicaraguan population using several Y-SNP multiplex reactions. Y chromosome haplogroups have been predicted before, but our results show that a confirmation with Y-SNP typings is necessary. These results have revealed a 4.8% of error in haplogroup prediction based on Y-STR haplotypes using Athey's Haplogroup Predictor. The Nicaraguan Mestizo population displays a majority of Eurasian lineages, mainly represented by haplogroup R-M207 (46.7%). Other Eurasian lineages have been observed, especially J-P209 (13.3%), followed by I-M170 (3.6%) and G-M201 (1.8%). Haplogroup E-P170 was also observed in 15.2% of the sample, particularly subhaplogroup E1b1b1-M35. Finally, the Native American haplogroup Q-M242 was found in 15.2% of the sample, with Q1a3a-M3 being the most frequent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phylogenetic relationship of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) revealed by complete mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    Ning, Yao; Liu, Hui; Jiang, Guangshun; Ma, Jianzhang

    2016-09-01

    The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is an Endangered species in northeast China. We first obtained muscle sample, extracted the sample DNA and sequenced the whole mtDNA genome of lynx from northeast China. We reconstructed the phylogenetic tree of Eurasian lynx and 10 other most closely related Felidae species. This lynx's complete mitogenome is 17 054bp in length, includes 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and one control region. The phylogenetic tree confirmed previous research results.

  14. Regional occurrence, high frequency but low diversity of mitochondrial DNA haplogroup d1 suggests a recent dog-wolf hybridization in Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Klütsch, C F C; Seppälä, E H; Fall, T; Uhlén, M; Hedhammar, A; Lohi, H; Savolainen, P

    2011-02-01

    The domestic dog mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-gene pool consists of a homogenous mix of haplogroups shared among all populations worldwide, indicating that the dog originated at a single time and place. However, one small haplogroup, subclade d1, found among North Scandinavian/Finnish spitz breeds at frequencies above 30%, has a clearly separate origin. We studied the genetic and geographical diversity for this phylogenetic group to investigate where and when it originated and whether through independent domestication of wolf or dog-wolf crossbreeding. We analysed 582 bp of the mtDNA control region for 514 dogs of breeds earlier shown to harbour d1 and possibly related northern spitz breeds. Subclade d1 occurred almost exclusively among Swedish/Finnish Sami reindeer-herding spitzes and some Swedish/Norwegian hunting spitzes, at a frequency of mostly 60-100%. Genetic diversity was low, with only four haplotypes: a central, most frequent, one surrounded by two haplotypes differing by an indel and one differing by a substitution. The substitution was found in a single lineage, as a heteroplasmic mix with the central haplotype. The data indicate that subclade d1 originated in northern Scandinavia, at most 480-3000 years ago and through dog-wolf crossbreeding rather than a separate domestication event. The high frequency of d1 suggests that the dog-wolf hybrid phenotype had a selective advantage.

  15. Regional occurrence, high frequency but low diversity of mitochondrial DNA haplogroup d1 suggests a recent dog-wolf hybridization in Scandinavia

    PubMed Central

    Klütsch, C F C; Seppälä, E H; Fall, T; Uhlén, M; Hedhammar, Å; Lohi, H; Savolainen, P

    2011-01-01

    The domestic dog mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-gene pool consists of a homogenous mix of haplogroups shared among all populations worldwide, indicating that the dog originated at a single time and place. However, one small haplogroup, subclade d1, found among North Scandinavian/Finnish spitz breeds at frequencies above 30%, has a clearly separate origin. We studied the genetic and geographical diversity for this phylogenetic group to investigate where and when it originated and whether through independent domestication of wolf or dog-wolf crossbreeding. We analysed 582 bp of the mtDNA control region for 514 dogs of breeds earlier shown to harbour d1 and possibly related northern spitz breeds. Subclade d1 occurred almost exclusively among Swedish/Finnish Sami reindeer-herding spitzes and some Swedish/Norwegian hunting spitzes, at a frequency of mostly 60–100%. Genetic diversity was low, with only four haplotypes: a central, most frequent, one surrounded by two haplotypes differing by an indel and one differing by a substitution. The substitution was found in a single lineage, as a heteroplasmic mix with the central haplotype. The data indicate that subclade d1 originated in northern Scandinavia, at most 480–3000 years ago and through dog-wolf crossbreeding rather than a separate domestication event. The high frequency of d1 suggests that the dog-wolf hybrid phenotype had a selective advantage. PMID:20497152

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Eurasian flying squirrel Pteromys volans (Sciuromorpha, Sciuridae) and revision of rodent phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Shi Hyun; Kwak, Min Jung; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2013-02-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the Eurasian flying squirrel Pteromys volans (Rodentia, Sciuromorpha, Sciuridae) was sequenced and characterized in detail. The entire mitochondrial genome of P. volans consisted of 16,513 bp and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and two non-coding regions. Its gene arrangement pattern was consistent with the mammalian ground pattern. The overall base composition and AT contents were similar to those of other rodent mitochondrial genomes. The light-strand origin generally identified between tRNA ( Asn ) and tRNA ( Cys ) consisted of a secondary structure with an 11-bp stem and an 11-bp loop. The large control region was constructed of three characteristic domains, ETAS, CD, and CSB without any repeat sequences. Each domain contained ETAS1, subsequences A, B, and C, and CSB1, respectively. In order to examine phylogenetic contentious issues of the monophyly of rodents and phylogenetic relationships among five rodent suborders, here, phylogenetic analyses based on nucleotide sequence data of the 35 rodent and 3 lagomorph mitochondrial genomes were performed using the Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood method. The result strongly supported the rodent monophyly with high node confidence values (BP 100 % in ML and BPP 1.00 in BI) and also monophylies of four rodent suborders (BP 85-100 % in ML and BPP 1.00 in BI), except for Anomalumorpha in which only one species was examined here. Also, phylogenetic relationships among the five rodent suborders were suggested and discussed in detail.

  17. Migration of Chadic speaking pastoralists within Africa based on population structure of Chad Basin and phylogeography of mitochondrial L3f haplogroup.

    PubMed

    Cerný, Viktor; Fernandes, Verónica; Costa, Marta D; Hájek, Martin; Mulligan, Connie J; Pereira, Luísa

    2009-03-23

    Chad Basin, lying within the bidirectional corridor of African Sahel, is one of the most populated places in Sub-Saharan Africa today. The origin of its settlement appears connected with Holocene climatic ameliorations (aquatic resources) that started ~10,000 years before present (YBP). Although both Nilo-Saharan and Niger-Congo language families are encountered here, the most diversified group is the Chadic branch belonging to the Afro-Asiatic language phylum. In this article, we investigate the proposed ancient migration of Chadic pastoralists from Eastern Africa based on linguistic data and test for genetic traces of this migration in extant Chadic speaking populations. We performed whole mitochondrial genome sequencing of 16 L3f haplotypes, focused on clade L3f3 that occurs almost exclusively in Chadic speaking people living in the Chad Basin. These data supported the reconstruction of a L3f phylogenetic tree and calculation of times to the most recent common ancestor for all internal clades. A date ~8,000 YBP was estimated for the L3f3 sub-haplogroup, which is in good agreement with the supposed migration of Chadic speaking pastoralists and their linguistic differentiation from other Afro-Asiatic groups of East Africa. As a whole, the Afro-Asiatic language family presents low population structure, as 92.4% of mtDNA variation is found within populations and only 3.4% of variation can be attributed to diversity among language branches. The Chadic speaking populations form a relatively homogenous cluster, exhibiting lower diversification than the other Afro-Asiatic branches (Berber, Semitic and Cushitic). The results of our study support an East African origin of mitochondrial L3f3 clade that is present almost exclusively within Chadic speaking people living in Chad Basin. Whole genome sequence-based dates show that the ancestral haplogroup L3f must have emerged soon after the Out-of-Africa migration (around 57,100 +/- 9,400 YBP), but the "Chadic" L3f3 clade has

  18. A western Eurasian male is found in 2000-year-old elite Xiongnu cemetery in Northeast Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kijeong; Brenner, Charles H; Mair, Victor H; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Gelegdorj, Eregzen; Batbold, Natsag; Song, Yi-Chung; Yun, Hyeung-Won; Chang, Eun-Jeong; Lkhagvasuren, Gavaachimed; Bazarragchaa, Munkhtsetseg; Park, Ae-Ja; Lim, Inja; Hong, Yun-Pyo; Kim, Wonyong; Chung, Sang-In; Kim, Dae-Jin; Chung, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Sung-Su; Lee, Won-Bok; Kim, Kyung-Yong

    2010-07-01

    We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), Y-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNP), and autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) of three skeletons found in a 2,000-year-old Xiongnu elite cemetery in Duurlig Nars of Northeast Mongolia. This study is one of the first reports of the detailed genetic analysis of ancient human remains using the three types of genetic markers. The DNA analyses revealed that one subject was an ancient male skeleton with maternal U2e1 and paternal R1a1 haplogroups. This is the first genetic evidence that a male of distinctive Indo-European lineages (R1a1) was present in the Xiongnu of Mongolia. This might indicate an Indo-European migration into Northeast Asia 2,000 years ago. Other specimens are a female with mtDNA haplogroup D4 and a male with Y-SNP haplogroup C3 and mtDNA haplogroup D4. Those haplogroups are common in Northeast Asia. There was no close kinship among them. The genetic evidence of U2e1 and R1a1 may help to clarify the migration patterns of Indo-Europeans and ancient East-West contacts of the Xiongnu Empire. Artifacts in the tombs suggested that the Xiongnu had a system of the social stratification. The West Eurasian male might show the racial tolerance of the Xiongnu Empire and some insight into the Xiongnu society.

  19. HmtDB 2016: data update, a better performing query system and human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup predictor

    PubMed Central

    Clima, Rosanna; Preste, Roberto; Calabrese, Claudia; Diroma, Maria Angela; Santorsola, Mariangela; Scioscia, Gaetano; Simone, Domenico; Shen, Lishuang; Gasparre, Giuseppe; Attimonelli, Marcella

    2017-01-01

    The HmtDB resource hosts a database of human mitochondrial genome sequences from individuals with healthy and disease phenotypes. The database is intended to support both population geneticists as well as clinicians undertaking the task to assess the pathogenicity of specific mtDNA mutations. The wide application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has provided an enormous volume of high-resolution data at a low price, increasing the availability of human mitochondrial sequencing data, which called for a cogent and significant expansion of HmtDB data content that has more than tripled in the current release. We here describe additional novel features, including: (i) a complete, user-friendly restyling of the web interface, (ii) links to the command-line stand-alone and web versions of the MToolBox package, an up-to-date tool to reconstruct and analyze human mitochondrial DNA from NGS data and (iii) the implementation of the Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence (RSRS) as mitochondrial reference sequence. The overall update renders HmtDB an even more handy and useful resource as it enables a more rapid data access, processing and analysis. HmtDB is accessible at http://www.hmtdb.uniba.it/. PMID:27899581

  20. HmtDB 2016: data update, a better performing query system and human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup predictor.

    PubMed

    Clima, Rosanna; Preste, Roberto; Calabrese, Claudia; Diroma, Maria Angela; Santorsola, Mariangela; Scioscia, Gaetano; Simone, Domenico; Shen, Lishuang; Gasparre, Giuseppe; Attimonelli, Marcella

    2017-01-04

    The HmtDB resource hosts a database of human mitochondrial genome sequences from individuals with healthy and disease phenotypes. The database is intended to support both population geneticists as well as clinicians undertaking the task to assess the pathogenicity of specific mtDNA mutations. The wide application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has provided an enormous volume of high-resolution data at a low price, increasing the availability of human mitochondrial sequencing data, which called for a cogent and significant expansion of HmtDB data content that has more than tripled in the current release. We here describe additional novel features, including: (i) a complete, user-friendly restyling of the web interface, (ii) links to the command-line stand-alone and web versions of the MToolBox package, an up-to-date tool to reconstruct and analyze human mitochondrial DNA from NGS data and (iii) the implementation of the Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence (RSRS) as mitochondrial reference sequence. The overall update renders HmtDB an even more handy and useful resource as it enables a more rapid data access, processing and analysis. HmtDB is accessible at http://www.hmtdb.uniba.it/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Ancient mitochondrial genome reveals trace of prehistoric migration in the east Pamir by pastoralists.

    PubMed

    Ning, Chao; Gao, Shizhu; Deng, Boping; Zheng, Hongxiang; Wei, Dong; Lv, Haoze; Li, Hongjie; Song, Li; Wu, Yong; Zhou, Hui; Cui, Yinqiu

    2016-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of one 700-year-old individual found in Tashkurgan, Xinjiang was target enriched and sequenced in order to shed light on the population history of Tashkurgan and determine the phylogenetic relationship of haplogroup U5a. The ancient sample was assigned to a subclade of haplogroup U5a2a1, which is defined by two rare and stable transversions at 16114A and 13928C. Phylogenetic analysis shows a distribution pattern for U5a2a that is indicative of an origin in the Volga-Ural region and exhibits a clear eastward geographical expansion that correlates with the pastoral culture also entering the Eurasian steppe. The haplogroup U5a2a present in the ancient Tashkurgan individual reveals prehistoric migration in the East Pamir by pastoralists. This study shows that studying an ancient mitochondrial genome is a useful approach for studying the evolutionary process and population history of Eastern Pamir.

  2. Evolutionary and dispersal history of Eurasian house mice Mus musculus clarified by more extensive geographic sampling of mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, H; Nunome, M; Kinoshita, G; Aplin, K P; Vogel, P; Kryukov, A P; Jin, M-L; Han, S-H; Maryanto, I; Tsuchiya, K; Ikeda, H; Shiroishi, T; Yonekawa, H; Moriwaki, K

    2013-01-01

    We examined the sequence variation of mitochondrial DNA control region and cytochrome b gene of the house mouse (Mus musculus sensu lato) drawn from ca. 200 localities, with 286 new samples drawn primarily from previously unsampled portions of their Eurasian distribution and with the objective of further clarifying evolutionary episodes of this species before and after the onset of human-mediated long-distance dispersals. Phylogenetic analysis of the expanded data detected five equally distinct clades, with geographic ranges of northern Eurasia (musculus, MUS), India and Southeast Asia (castaneus, CAS), Nepal (unspecified, NEP), western Europe (domesticus, DOM) and Yemen (gentilulus). Our results confirm previous suggestions of Southwestern Asia as the likely place of origin of M. musculus and the region of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and northern India, specifically as the ancestral homeland of CAS. The divergence of the subspecies lineages and of internal sublineage differentiation within CAS were estimated to be 0.37–0.47 and 0.14–0.23 million years ago (mya), respectively, assuming a split of M. musculus and Mus spretus at 1.7 mya. Of the four CAS sublineages detected, only one extends to eastern parts of India, Southeast Asia, Indonesia, Philippines, South China, Northeast China, Primorye, Sakhalin and Japan, implying a dramatic range expansion of CAS out of its homeland during an evolutionary short time, perhaps associated with the spread of agricultural practices. Multiple and non-coincident eastward dispersal events of MUS sublineages to distant geographic areas, such as northern China, Russia and Korea, are inferred, with the possibility of several different routes. PMID:23820581

  3. Structure of the mitochondrial control region of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra; Carnivora, Mustelidae): patterns of genetic heterogeneity and implications for conservation of the species in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ketmaier, V; Bernardini, C

    2005-01-01

    In this study we determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra). We then compared these new sequences with orthologues of nine carnivores belonging to six families (Mustelidae, Mephitidae, Canidae, Hyaenidae, Ursidae, and Felidae). The comparative analyses identified all the conserved regions previously found in mammals. The Eurasian otter and seven other species have a single location with tandem repeats in the right domain, while the spotted hyena (Hyaenidae) and the tiger (Felidae) have repeated sequences in both the right and left domains. To assess the degree of genetic heterogeneity of the Eurasian otter in Italy we sequenced two fragments of the gene and analyzed length polymorphisms of repeated sequences and heteroplasmy in 32 specimens. The study includes 23 museum specimens collected in northern, central, and southern Italy; most of these specimens are from extinct populations, while the southern Italian samples belong to the sole extant Italian population of the Eurasian otter. The study also includes all the captive-reared animals living in the colony "Centro Lontra, Caramanico Terme" (Pescara, central Italy). The colony is maintained for reintroduction of the species. We found a low level of genetic polymorphism; a single haplotype is dominant, but our data indicate the presence in central and southern Italy of two slightly divergent haplotypes. One haplotype belongs to an extinct population, the other is present in the single extant Italian population. Analyses of length polymorphisms and heteroplasmy indicate that the autochthonous Italian samples are characterized by a distinct array of repeated sequences from captive-reared animals.

  4. Mitochondrial haplogroup D4j specific variant m.11696G > a(MT-ND4) may increase the penetrance and expressivity of the LHON-associated m.11778G > a mutation in Chinese pedigrees.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shipeng; Zhang, Juanjuan; Sun, Jiji; Zhang, Minglian; Zhao, Fuxin; Wei, Qi-Ping; Tong, Yi; Liu, Xiaoling; Zhou, Xiangtian; Jiang, Pingping; Ji, Yanchun; Guan, Min-Xin

    2017-05-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is one of the most common mitochondrial disorders. We report here the clinical, genetic and molecular analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in eight Han Chinese families carrying the known mitochondrial 11778G > A(MT-ND4) mutation. Thirty-seven (26 males/11 females) of 77 matrilineal relatives in these families exhibited the variable severity and age-at-onset of optic neuropathy. The penetrances were from 25% to 75%, with the average of 42%, and the age-at-onset for visual impairment varied from 10 to 25 years, with the average of 17 in these Chinese pedigrees. Molecular analysis of their mtDNA identified distinct sets of variants belonging to the Eastern Asian haplogroupD4j. Except the known m.11778G > A mutation, the m.11696G > A(MT-ND4) mutation caused the substitution of an isoleucine for valineat amino acid position 313, located in a predicted transmembrane region of ND4. And, it is reported that the m.11696G > A mutation was associated with LHON, and appeared to contribute to higher penetrance in these nine Chinese families than other Chinese families carrying only the m.11778G > A mutation. Therefore, the mitochondrial haplogroup D4j specific m.11696G > A mutation may act in synergy with the primary LHON-associated m.11778G > A mutation, thereby increasing the penetrance and expressivity of visual loss in these Chinese families.

  5. Mitochondrial Genomic Analysis of Late Onset Alzheimer’s Disease Reveals Protective Haplogroups H6A1A/H6A1B: The Cache County Study on Memory in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Ridge, Perry G.; Maxwell, Taylor J.; Corcoran, Christopher D.; Norton, Maria C.; Tschanz, JoAnn T.; O’Brien, Elizabeth; Kerber, Richard A.; Cawthon, Richard M.; Munger, Ronald G.; Kauwe, John S. K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and AD risk clusters within families. Part of the familial aggregation of AD is accounted for by excess maternal vs. paternal inheritance, a pattern consistent with mitochondrial inheritance. The role of specific mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants and haplogroups in AD risk is uncertain. Methodology/Principal Findings We determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of 1007 participants in the Cache County Study on Memory in Aging, a population-based prospective cohort study of dementia in northern Utah. AD diagnoses were made with a multi-stage protocol that included clinical examination and review by a panel of clinical experts. We used TreeScanning, a statistically robust approach based on haplotype networks, to analyze the mtDNA sequence data. Participants with major mitochondrial haplotypes H6A1A and H6A1B showed a reduced risk of AD (p = 0.017, corrected for multiple comparisons). The protective haplotypes were defined by three variants: m.3915G>A, m.4727A>G, and m.9380G>A. These three variants characterize two different major haplogroups. Together m.4727A>G and m.9380G>A define H6A1, and it has been suggested m.3915G>A defines H6A. Additional variants differentiate H6A1A and H6A1B; however, none of these variants had a significant relationship with AD case-control status. Conclusions/Significance Our findings provide evidence of a reduced risk of AD for individuals with mtDNA haplotypes H6A1A and H6A1B. These findings are the results of the largest study to date with complete mtDNA genome sequence data, yet the functional significance of the associated haplotypes remains unknown and replication in others studies is necessary. PMID:23028804

  6. Historical Relationships among Wild Boar Populations of the Ryukyu Archipelago and Other Eurasian regions, as Inferred from Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Gene Sequences.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Saka; Mimura, Makiko; Watanabe, Shin; Lin, Liang-Kong; Ota, Hidetoshi; Mizoguchi, Yasushi

    2016-10-01

    The Ryukyu wild boar (Sus scrofa riukiuanus) is an endemic, morphologically defined subspecies of the Eurasian wild boar (S. scrofa) found on five islands of the Ryukyu Archipelago (a group of small islands stretching from mainland Japan to Taiwan). Two hypothetical scenarios have been proposed regarding the origin of the current Ryukyu wild boar populations: 1) natural dispersal and 2) transportation and subsequent release by prehistoric humans. To test these two hypotheses, we compared the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequence (1140 base pairs) in 352 individual wild boar samples that included representatives of all five insular populations of the Ryukyu wild boar and populations of other conspecific subspecies in insular East and Southeast Asia and the Eurasian Continent. A total of 68 haplotypes were recognized, of which 12 were unique to the Ryukyu wild boar populations. The results of Bayesian phylogenetic analyses supported monophyly of the five Ryukyu populations (posterior probability value of 92), confirming the validity of the subspecies as a natural group. Coalescent analysis estimated the divergence times between the Ryukyu wild boar and the other conspecific subspecies as 144-465 thousand years ago (Kya), with a 95% HPD (highest posterior density) range of 51-837 Kya, and with no significant migration. Taking the broadly accepted date of initial human migration to the Ryukyus (no earlier than 50 Kya) into consideration, our results strongly suggest that the ancestral form of the Ryukyu wild boar first entered the Ryukyu Archipelago by natural dispersal prior to the arrival of prehistoric humans.

  7. Data from complete mtDNA sequencing of Tunisian centenarians: testing haplogroup association and the "golden mean" to longevity.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marta D; Cherni, Lotfi; Fernandes, Verónica; Freitas, Fernando; Ammar El Gaaied, Amel Ben; Pereira, Luísa

    2009-04-01

    Since the mitochondrial theory of ageing was proposed, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity has been largely studied in old people, however complete genomes are still rare, being limited to Japanese and UK/US samples. In this work, we evaluated possible longevity associated polymorphisms/haplogroups in an African population, from Tunisia, by performing complete mtDNA sequencing. This population has a mixed Eurasian/sub-Saharan mtDNA gene pool, which could potentially facilitate the evaluation of association for sub-Saharan lineages. Sub-Saharan haplogroups were shown to be significantly less represented in centenarians (9.5%) than in controls (54.5%), but it is not possible to rule out an influence of population structure, which is high in these populations. No recurrent polymorphism were more frequent in centenarians than in controls, and although the Tunisian centenarians presented less synonymous and replacement polymorphisms than controls, this difference was not statistically significant. So far, it does not seem that centenarians have significantly less mildly deleterious substitutions, not only in Tunisia but also in Japanese and UK/US samples, as tested here, not favouring a "golden mean" to longevity.

  8. Disuniting uniformity: a pied cladistic canvas of mtDNA haplogroup H in Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Loogväli, Eva-Liis; Roostalu, Urmas; Malyarchuk, Boris A; Derenko, Miroslava V; Kivisild, Toomas; Metspalu, Ene; Tambets, Kristiina; Reidla, Maere; Tolk, Helle-Viivi; Parik, Jüri; Pennarun, Erwan; Laos, Sirle; Lunkina, Arina; Golubenko, Maria; Barac, Lovorka; Pericic, Marijana; Balanovsky, Oleg P; Gusar, Vladislava; Khusnutdinova, Elsa K; Stepanov, Vadim; Puzyrev, Valery; Rudan, Pavao; Balanovska, Elena V; Grechanina, Elena; Richard, Christelle; Moisan, Jean-Paul; Chaventré, André; Anagnou, Nicholas P; Pappa, Kalliopi I; Michalodimitrakis, Emmanuel N; Claustres, Mireille; Gölge, Mukaddes; Mikerezi, Ilia; Usanga, Esien; Villems, Richard

    2004-11-01

    It has been often stated that the overall pattern of human maternal lineages in Europe is largely uniform. Yet this uniformity may also result from an insufficient depth and width of the phylogenetic analysis, in particular of the predominant western Eurasian haplogroup (Hg) H that comprises nearly a half of the European mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) pool. Making use of the coding sequence information from 267 mtDNA Hg H sequences, we have analyzed 830 mtDNA genomes, from 11 European, Near and Middle Eastern, Central Asian, and Altaian populations. In addition to the seven previously specified subhaplogroups, we define fifteen novel subclades of Hg H present in the extant human populations of western Eurasia. The refinement of the phylogenetic resolution has allowed us to resolve a large number of homoplasies in phylogenetic trees of Hg H based on the first hypervariable segment (HVS-I) of mtDNA. As many as 50 out of 125 polymorphic positions in HVS-I were found to be mutated in more than one subcluster of Hg H. The phylogeographic analysis revealed that sub-Hgs H1*, H1b, H1f, H2a, H3, H6a, H6b, and H8 demonstrate distinct phylogeographic patterns. The monophyletic subhaplogroups of Hg H provide means for further progress in the understanding of the (pre)historic movements of women in Eurasia and for the understanding of the present-day genetic diversity of western Eurasians in general.

  9. The 12S rRNA A1555G mutation in the mitochondrial haplogroup D5a is responsible for maternally inherited hypertension and hearing loss in two Chinese pedigrees.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Zheng, Jing; Xue, Ling; Meng, Yanzi; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Bingjiao; Fang, Fang; Shi, Suxue; Qiu, Qiaomeng; Jiang, Pingping; Lu, Zhongqiu; Mo, Jun Qin; Lu, Jianxin; Guan, Min-Xin

    2012-06-01

    We reported here clinical, genetic evaluations and molecular analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in two Han Chinese families carrying the known mitochondrial 12S rRNA A1555G mutation. In contrast with the previous data that hearing loss as a sole phenotype was present in the maternal lineage of other families carrying the A1555G mutation, matrilineal relatives among these two Chinese families exhibited both hearing loss and hypertension. Of 21 matrilineal relatives, 9 subjects exhibited both hearing loss and hypertension, 2 individuals suffered from only hypertension and 1 member had only hearing loss. The average age at onset of hypertension in the affected matrilineal relatives of these families was 60 and 46 years, respectively, whereas those of hearing loss in these two families were 33 and 55 years, respectively. Molecular analysis of their mtDNA identified distinct sets of variants belonging to the Eastern Asian haplogroup D5a. In contrast, the A1555G mutation occurred among other mtDNA haplogroups D, B, R, F, G, Y, M and N, respectively. Our data further support that the A1555G mutation is necessary but by itself insufficient to produce the clinical phenotype. The other modifiers are responsible for the phenotypic variability of matrilineal relatives within and among these families carrying the A1555G mutation. Our investigation provides the first evidence that the 12S rRNA A1555G mutation leads to both of hearing loss and hypertension. Thus, our findings may provide the new insights into the understanding of pathophysiology and valuable information for management and treatment of maternally inherited hearing loss and hypertension.

  10. Diverse origin of mitochondrial lineages in Iron Age Black Sea Scythians

    PubMed Central

    Juras, Anna; Krzewińska, Maja; Nikitin, Alexey G.; Ehler, Edvard; Chyleński, Maciej; Łukasik, Sylwia; Krenz-Niedbała, Marta; Sinika, Vitaly; Piontek, Janusz; Ivanova, Svetlana; Dabert, Miroslawa; Götherström, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Scythians were nomadic and semi-nomadic people that ruled the Eurasian steppe during much of the first millennium BCE. While having been extensively studied by archaeology, very little is known about their genetic identity. To fill this gap, we analyzed ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from Scythians of the North Pontic Region (NPR) and successfully retrieved 19 whole mtDNA genomes. We have identified three potential mtDNA lineage ancestries of the NPR Scythians tracing back to hunter-gatherer and nomadic populations of east and west Eurasia as well as the Neolithic farming expansion into Europe. One third of all mt lineages in our dataset belonged to subdivisions of mt haplogroup U5. A comparison of NPR Scythian mtDNA linages with other contemporaneous Scythian groups, the Saka and the Pazyryks, reveals a common mtDNA package comprised of haplogroups H/H5, U5a, A, D/D4, and F1/F2. Of these, west Eurasian lineages show a downward cline in the west-east direction while east Eurasian haplogroups display the opposite trajectory. An overall similarity in mtDNA lineages of the NPR Scythians was found with the late Bronze Age Srubnaya population of the Northern Black Sea region which supports the archaeological hypothesis suggesting Srubnaya people as ancestors of the NPR Scythians. PMID:28266657

  11. Genetic structure of the early Hungarian conquerors inferred from mtDNA haplotypes and Y-chromosome haplogroups in a small cemetery.

    PubMed

    Neparáczki, Endre; Juhász, Zoltán; Pamjav, Horolma; Fehér, Tibor; Csányi, Bernadett; Zink, Albert; Maixner, Frank; Pálfi, György; Molnár, Erika; Pap, Ildikó; Kustár, Ágnes; Révész, László; Raskó, István; Török, Tibor

    2017-02-01

    We applied ancient DNA methods to shed light on the origin of ancient Hungarians and their relation to modern populations. Hungarians moved into the Carpathian Basin from the Eurasian Pontic steppes in the year 895 AD as a confederation of seven tribes, but their further origin remains obscure. Here, we present 17 mtDNA haplotypes and four Y-chromosome haplogroups, which portray the genetic composition of an entire small cemetery of the first generation Hungarians. Using novel algorithms to compare these mitochondrial DNA haplogroups with other ancient and modern Eurasian data, we revealed that a significant portion of the Hungarians probably originated from a long ago consolidated gene pool in Central Asia-South Siberia, which still persists in modern Hungarians. Another genetic layer of the early Hungarians was obtained during their westward migrations by admixing with various populations of European origin, and an important component of these was derived from the Caucasus region. Most of the modern populations, which are genetically closest relatives of ancient Hungarians, today speak non-Indo-European languages. Our results contribute to our understanding of the peopling of Europe by providing ancient DNA data from a still genetically poorly studied period of medieval human migrations.

  12. Review of Croatian genetic heritage as revealed by mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomal lineages.

    PubMed

    Pericić, Marijana; Barać Lauc, Lovorka; Martinović Klarić, Irena; Janićijević, Branka; Rudan, Pavao

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the existing data collected in high-resolution phylogenetic studies of mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome variation in mainland and insular Croatian populations. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms were explored in 721 individuals by sequencing mtDNA HVS-1 region and screening a selection of 24 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), diagnostic for main Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups. Whereas Y chromosome variation was analyzed in 451 men by using 19 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)/indel and 8 short tandem repeat (STR) loci. The phylogeography of mtDNA and Y chromosome variants of Croatians can be adequately explained within typical European maternal and paternal genetic landscape, with the exception of mtDNA haplogroup F and Y-chromosomal haplogroup P* which indicate a connection to Asian populations. Similar to other European and Near Eastern populations, the most frequent mtDNA haplogroups in Croatians were H (41.1%), U5 (10.3%), and J (9.7%). The most frequent Y chromosomal haplogroups in Croatians, I-P37 (41.7%) and R1a-SRY1532 (25%), as well as the observed structuring of Y chromosomal variance reveal a clearly evident Slavic component in the paternal gene pool of contemporary Croatian men. Even though each population and groups of populations are well characterized by maternal and paternal haplogroup distribution, it is important to keep in mind that linking phylogeography of various haplogroups with known historic and prehistoric scenarios should be cautiously performed.

  13. The genetic impact of the lake chad basin population in North Africa as documented by mitochondrial diversity and internal variation of the L3e5 haplogroup.

    PubMed

    Podgorná, Eliška; Soares, Pedro; Pereira, Luísa; Cerný, Viktor

    2013-11-01

    The presence of sub-Saharan L-type mtDNA sequences in North Africa has traditionally been explained by the recent slave trade. However, gene flow between sub-Saharan and northern African populations would also have been made possible earlier through the greening of the Sahara resulting from Early Holocene climatic improvement. In this article, we examine human dispersals across the Sahara through the analysis of the sub-Saharan mtDNA haplogroup L3e5, which is not only commonly found in the Lake Chad Basin (∼17%), but which also attains nonnegligible frequencies (∼10%) in some Northwestern African populations. Age estimates point to its origin ∼10 ka, probably directly in the Lake Chad Basin, where the clade occurs across linguistic boundaries. The virtual absence of this specific haplogroup in Daza from Northern Chad and all West African populations suggests that its migration took place elsewhere, perhaps through Northern Niger. Interestingly, independent confirmation of Early Holocene contacts between North Africa and the Lake Chad Basin have been provided by craniofacial data from Central Niger, supporting our suggestion that the Early Holocene offered a suitable climatic window for genetic exchanges between North and sub-Saharan Africa. In view of its younger founder age in North Africa, the discontinuous distribution of L3e5 was probably caused by the Middle Holocene re-expansion of the Sahara desert, disrupting the clade's original continuous spread.

  14. The mitochondrial tRNA(Gln) T4353C mutation may not be associated with essential hypertension in Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xing; Pei, Hui; Lan, Chao

    2016-09-01

    We reported here the possible role of a mitochondrial tRNA mutation: T4353C in clinical expression of essential hypertension in Chinese population. The human mammalian mitochondrial tRNA database was used to analyze the conservation index of this mutation between different species. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis showed that the T4353C mutation belonged to human mitochondrial haplogroup HV, a West Eurasian haplogroup found throughout Western Asia and Eastern European but was infrequent in China. In addition, structural prediction of the T4353C mutation indicated that this transition did not alter the secondary structure of tRNA(Gln). Together, our data indicated that the T4353C mutation occurred infrequent and may not be associated with essential hypertension in Han Chinese population.

  15. Phylogeny of Mitochondrial DNA Macrohaplogroup N in India, Based on Complete Sequencing: Implications for the Peopling of South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Palanichamy, Malliya gounder; Sun, Chang; Agrawal, Suraksha; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Kong, Qing-Peng; Khan, Faisal; Wang, Cheng-Ye; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Palla, Venkatramana; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2004-01-01

    To resolve the phylogeny of the autochthonous mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups of India and determine the relationship between the Indian and western Eurasian mtDNA pools more precisely, a diverse subset of 75 macrohaplogroup N lineages was chosen for complete sequencing from a collection of >800 control-region sequences sampled across India. We identified five new autochthonous haplogroups (R7, R8, R30, R31, and N5) and fully characterized the autochthonous haplogroups (R5, R6, N1d, U2a, U2b, and U2c) that were previously described only by first hypervariable segment (HVS-I) sequencing and coding-region restriction-fragment–length polymorphism analysis. Our findings demonstrate that the Indian mtDNA pool, even when restricted to macrohaplogroup N, harbors at least as many deepest-branching lineages as the western Eurasian mtDNA pool. Moreover, the distribution of the earliest branches within haplogroups M, N, and R across Eurasia and Oceania provides additional evidence for a three-founder-mtDNA scenario and a single migration route out of Africa. PMID:15467980

  16. Mitogenomes from two uncommon haplogroups mark late glacial/postglacial expansions from the near east and neolithic dispersals within Europe.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Anna; Pala, Maria; Gandini, Francesca; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Perego, Ugo A; Woodward, Scott R; Grugni, Viola; Battaglia, Vincenza; Semino, Ornella; Achilli, Alessandro; Richards, Martin B; Torroni, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The current human mitochondrial (mtDNA) phylogeny does not equally represent all human populations but is biased in favour of representatives originally from north and central Europe. This especially affects the phylogeny of some uncommon West Eurasian haplogroups, including I and W, whose southern European and Near Eastern components are very poorly represented, suggesting that extensive hidden phylogenetic substructure remains to be uncovered. This study expanded and re-analysed the available datasets of I and W complete mtDNA genomes, reaching a comprehensive 419 mitogenomes, and searched for precise correlations between the ages and geographical distributions of their numerous newly identified subclades with events of human dispersal which contributed to the genetic formation of modern Europeans. Our results showed that haplogroups I (within N1a1b) and W originated in the Near East during the Last Glacial Maximum or pre-warming period (the period of gradual warming between the end of the LGM, ∼19 ky ago, and the beginning of the first main warming phase, ∼15 ky ago) and, like the much more common haplogroups J and T, may have been involved in Late Glacial expansions starting from the Near East. Thus our data contribute to a better definition of the Late and postglacial re-peopling of Europe, providing further evidence for the scenario that major population expansions started after the Last Glacial Maximum but before Neolithic times, but also evidencing traces of diffusion events in several I and W subclades dating to the European Neolithic and restricted to Europe.

  17. Mitogenomes from Two Uncommon Haplogroups Mark Late Glacial/Postglacial Expansions from the Near East and Neolithic Dispersals within Europe

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Anna; Pala, Maria; Gandini, Francesca; Kashani, Baharak Hooshiar; Perego, Ugo A.; Woodward, Scott R.; Grugni, Viola; Battaglia, Vincenza; Semino, Ornella; Achilli, Alessandro; Richards, Martin B.; Torroni, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The current human mitochondrial (mtDNA) phylogeny does not equally represent all human populations but is biased in favour of representatives originally from north and central Europe. This especially affects the phylogeny of some uncommon West Eurasian haplogroups, including I and W, whose southern European and Near Eastern components are very poorly represented, suggesting that extensive hidden phylogenetic substructure remains to be uncovered. This study expanded and re-analysed the available datasets of I and W complete mtDNA genomes, reaching a comprehensive 419 mitogenomes, and searched for precise correlations between the ages and geographical distributions of their numerous newly identified subclades with events of human dispersal which contributed to the genetic formation of modern Europeans. Our results showed that haplogroups I (within N1a1b) and W originated in the Near East during the Last Glacial Maximum or pre-warming period (the period of gradual warming between the end of the LGM, ∼19 ky ago, and the beginning of the first main warming phase, ∼15 ky ago) and, like the much more common haplogroups J and T, may have been involved in Late Glacial expansions starting from the Near East. Thus our data contribute to a better definition of the Late and postglacial re-peopling of Europe, providing further evidence for the scenario that major population expansions started after the Last Glacial Maximum but before Neolithic times, but also evidencing traces of diffusion events in several I and W subclades dating to the European Neolithic and restricted to Europe. PMID:23936216

  18. Helena, the hidden beauty: Resolving the most common West Eurasian mtDNA control region haplotype by massively parallel sequencing an Italian population sample.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Martin; Iuvaro, Alessandra; Strobl, Christina; Nagl, Simone; Huber, Gabriela; Pelotti, Susi; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Parson, Walther

    2015-03-01

    The analysis of mitochondrial (mt)DNA is a powerful tool in forensic genetics when nuclear markers fail to give results or maternal relatedness is investigated. The mtDNA control region (CR) contains highly condensed variation and is therefore routinely typed. Some samples exhibit an identical haplotype in this restricted range. Thus, they convey only weak evidence in forensic queries and limited phylogenetic information. However, a CR match does not imply that also the mtDNA coding regions are identical or samples belong to the same phylogenetic lineage. This is especially the case for the most frequent West Eurasian CR haplotype 263G 315.1C 16519C, which is observed in various clades within haplogroup H and occurs at a frequency of 3-4% in many European populations. In this study, we investigated the power of massively parallel complete mtGenome sequencing in 29 Italian samples displaying the most common West Eurasian CR haplotype - and found an unexpected high diversity. Twenty-eight different haplotypes falling into 19 described sub-clades of haplogroup H were revealed in the samples with identical CR sequences. This study demonstrates the benefit of complete mtGenome sequencing for forensic applications to enforce maximum discrimination, more comprehensive heteroplasmy detection, as well as highest phylogenetic resolution.

  19. Carriers of mitochondrial DNA macrohaplogroup R colonized Eurasia and Australasia from a southeast Asia core area.

    PubMed

    Larruga, Jose M; Marrero, Patricia; Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Golubenko, Maria V; Cabrera, Vicente M

    2017-05-23

    The colonization of Eurasia and Australasia by African modern humans has been explained, nearly unanimously, as the result of a quick southern coastal dispersal route through the Arabian Peninsula, the Indian subcontinent, and the Indochinese Peninsula, to reach Australia around 50 kya. The phylogeny and phylogeography of the major mitochondrial DNA Eurasian haplogroups M and N have played the main role in giving molecular genetics support to that scenario. However, using the same molecular tools, a northern route across central Asia has been invoked as an alternative that is more conciliatory with the fossil record of East Asia. Here, we assess as the Eurasian macrohaplogroup R fits in the northern path. Haplogroup U, with a founder age around 50 kya, is one of the oldest clades of macrohaplogroup R in western Asia. The main branches of U expanded in successive waves across West, Central and South Asia before the Last Glacial Maximum. All these dispersions had rather overlapping ranges. Some of them, as those of U6 and U3, reached North Africa. At the other end of Asia, in Wallacea, another branch of macrohaplogroup R, haplogroup P, also independently expanded in the area around 52 kya, in this case as isolated bursts geographically well structured, with autochthonous branches in Australia, New Guinea, and the Philippines. Coeval independently dispersals around 50 kya of the West Asia haplogroup U and the Wallacea haplogroup P, points to a halfway core area in southeast Asia as the most probable centre of expansion of macrohaplogroup R, what fits in the phylogeographic pattern of its ancestor, macrohaplogroup N, for which a northern route and a southeast Asian origin has been already proposed.

  20. Cryptic crested newt diversity at the Eurasian transition: the mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of Near Eastern Triturus newts.

    PubMed

    Wielstra, B; Themudo, G Espregueira; Güçlü, O; Olgun, K; Poyarkov, N A; Arntzen, J W

    2010-09-01

    Crested newts of the Triturus karelinii group occur in a phylogeographically understudied region: the Near East. Controversy surrounds the systematic position of these newts within the complete crested newt assemblage (the Triturus cristatus superspecies). We explore the situation using mitochondrial sequence data (ND2 and ND4, approximately 1.7kb) and employing different methods of phylogenetic inference (Bayesian inference and Maximum Likelihood using mixed models) and molecular dating (r8s and BEAST). The T. karelinii group is monophyletic and constitutes one of four main lineages in the T. cristatus superspecies. The separation of the T. karelinii group from the remaining crested newts around 9Ma is related to the formation of the Mid-Aegean Trench, which separated the Balkan and Anatolian landmasses. The T. karelinii group comprises three geographically structured clades (eastern, central and western). The genetic divergence shown by these clades is comparable to that among recognized crested newt species. We suggest the uplift of the Armenian Plateau to be responsible for the separation of the eastern clade around 7Ma, and the re-establishment of a marine connection between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean at the end of the Messinian Salinity Crisis to have caused the split between the central and western clade around 5.5Ma. Genetic structuring within the three clades dates to the Quaternary Ice Age (<2.59Ma) and is associated with alternating periods of isolation and reconnection caused by periodic changes in sea level and surface runoff.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants in the European haplogroups HV, JT, and U do not have a major role in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Torrell, Helena; Salas, Antonio; Abasolo, Nerea; Morén, Constanza; Garrabou, Glòria; Valero, Joaquín; Alonso, Yolanda; Vilella, Elisabet; Costas, Javier; Martorell, Lourdes

    2014-10-01

    It has been reported that certain genetic factors involved in schizophrenia could be located in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Therefore, we hypothesized that mtDNA mutations and/or variants would be present in schizophrenia patients and may be related to schizophrenia characteristics and mitochondrial function. This study was performed in three steps: (1) identification of pathogenic mutations and variants in 14 schizophrenia patients with an apparent maternal inheritance of the disease by sequencing the entire mtDNA; (2) case-control association study of 23 variants identified in step 1 (16 missense, 3 rRNA, and 4 tRNA variants) in 495 patients and 615 controls, and (3) analyses of the associated variants according to the clinical, psychopathological, and neuropsychological characteristics and according to the oxidative and enzymatic activities of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. We did not identify pathogenic mtDNA mutations in the 14 sequenced patients. Two known variants were nominally associated with schizophrenia and were further studied. The MT-RNR2 1811A > G variant likely does not play a major role in schizophrenia, as it was not associated with clinical, psychopathological, or neuropsychological variables, and the MT-ATP6 9110T > C p.Ile195Thr variant did not result in differences in the oxidative and enzymatic functions of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The patients with apparent maternal inheritance of schizophrenia did not exhibit any mutations in their mtDNA. The variants nominally associated with schizophrenia in the present study were not related either to phenotypic characteristics or to mitochondrial function. We did not find evidence pointing to a role for mtDNA sequence variation in schizophrenia.

  2. Mitochondrial diversity in mountain horse population from the South-Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Hristov, Peter; Yordanov, Georgi; Ivanova, Adriana; Mitkov, Ivan; Sirakova, Daniela; Mehandzyiski, Ivan; Radoslavov, Georgi

    2017-11-01

    It is believed that population structure of mountain horse breeds is preserved from any genetic introgression, because of their geographical isolation and specific semi-wild life style of husbandry. Till date there are no molecular data for the Balkan horses. In this study we try to give information about some autochthonous mountain horse breeds from Bulgaria. A total of 121 horses from three different mountain massifs are presented: Stara Planina (the Balkan mountain), the Rhodopes and Rila-Pirin massif were genotyped according to mitochondrial D-loop region. The results showed huge diversity of all known haplogroups with exception of C, F and R. West Eurasian haplogroups B, D, M and L were with the highest frequencies. Haplogroups A, J, I, O'P and Q were also observed with the highest frequencies, but not equally distributed among the three populations. Analyses of the horse breeds reveal preserved genetic profile of the Balkan and the Rhodopes mountains populations. In contrast, a Rila-Pirin breed unexpectedly showed mixed profile - a massive genetic introgression with an Asiatic-type haplogroups. A similar mixed Euro-Asiatic haplotype profile possessed the Carpathian mountain pony, although both populations are separated geographically and historically. The genetic pool of three Bulgarian mountain horse populations is highly heterogenic and because of that these breeds should be preserved.

  3. MtDNA haplogroups and elite Korean athlete status.

    PubMed

    Kim, K C; Cho, H I; Kim, W

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation has recently been suggested to have an association with athletic performance or physical endurance. Since mtDNA is haploid and lacks recombination, specific mutations in the mtDNA genome associated with human exercise tolerance or intolerance arise and remain in particular genetic backgrounds referred to as haplogroups. To assess the possible contribution of mtDNA haplogroup-specific variants to differences in elite athletic performance, we performed a population-based study of 152 Korean elite athletes [77 sprint/power athletes (SPA) and 75 endurance/middle-power athletes (EMA)] and 265 non-athletic controls (CON). The overall haplogroup distribution of EMA differed significantly from CON (p<0.01), but that of SPA did not. The EMA have an excess of haplogroups M* (OR 4.38, 95% CI 1.63-11.79, p=0.003) and N9 (OR 2.32, 95% CI 0.92-5.81, p=0.042), but a dearth of haplogroup B (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.09-0.75, p=0.003) compared with the CON. Thus, our data imply that specific mtDNA lineages may provide a significant effect on elite Korean endurance status, although functional studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to further substantiate these findings.

  4. Differentiation of mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomes in Russian populations.

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Lunkina, Arina; Czarny, Jakub; Rychkov, Serge; Morozova, Irina; Denisova, Galina; Miścicka-Sliwka, Danuta

    2004-12-01

    The genetic composition of the Russian population was investigated by analyzing both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome loci polymorphisms that allow for the different components of a population gene pool to be studied, depending on the mode of DNA marker inheritance. mtDNA sequence variation was examined by using hypervariable segment I (HVSI) sequencing and restriction analysis of the haplogroup-specific sites in 325 individuals representing 5 Russian populations from the European part of Russia. The Y-chromosome variation was investigated in 338 individuals from 8 Russian populations (including 5 populations analyzed for mtDNA variation) using 12 binary markers. For both uniparental systems most of the observed haplogroups fell into major West Eurasian haplogroups (97.9% and 99.7% for mtDNA and Y-chromosome haplogroups, respectively). Multidimensional scaling analysis based on pairwise F(ST) values between mtDNA HVSI sequences in Russians compared to other European populations revealed a considerable heterogeneity of Russian populations; populations from the southern and western parts of Russia are separated from eastern and northern populations. Meanwhile, the multidimensional scaling analysis based on Y-chromosome haplogroup F(ST) values demonstrates that the Russian gene pool is close to central-eastern European populations, with a much higher similarity to the Baltic and Finno-Ugric male pools from northern European Russia. This discrepancy in the depth of penetration of mtDNA and Y-chromosome lineages characteristic for the most southwestern Russian populations into the east and north of eastern Europe appears to indicate that Russian colonization of the northeastern territories might have been accomplished mainly by males rather than by females.

  5. Development of a single base extension method to resolve Y chromosome haplogroups in sub-Saharan African populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The ability of the Y chromosome to retain a record of its evolution has seen it become an essential tool of molecular anthropology. In the last few years, however, it has also found use in forensic genetics, providing information on the geographic origin of individuals. This has been aided by the development of efficient screening methods and an increased knowledge of geographic distribution. In this study, we describe the development of single base extension assays used to resolve 61 Y chromosome haplogroups, mainly within haplogroups A, B and E, found in Africa. Results Seven multiplex assays, which incorporated 60 Y chromosome markers, were developed. These resolved Y chromosomes to 61 terminal branches of the major African haplogroups A, B and E, while also including a few Eurasian haplogroups found occasionally in African males. Following its validation, the assays were used to screen 683 individuals from Southern Africa, including south eastern Bantu speakers (BAN), Khoe-San (KS) and South African Whites (SAW). Of the 61 haplogroups that the assays collectively resolved, 26 were found in the 683 samples. While haplogroup sharing was common between the BAN and KS, the frequencies of these haplogroups varied appreciably. Both groups showed low levels of assimilation of Eurasian haplogroups and only two individuals in the SAW clearly had Y chromosomes of African ancestry. Conclusions The use of these single base extension assays in screening increased haplogroup resolution and sampling throughput, while saving time and DNA. Their use, together with the screening of short tandem repeat markers would considerably improve resolution, thus refining the geographic ancestry of individuals. PMID:21092339

  6. [Phylogenetic analysis of ancient mitochondrial DNA lineages of human remains found in Yakutia].

    PubMed

    Fedorova, S A; Stepanov, A D; Adoian, M; Parik, J; Argunov, V A; Ozawa, T; Khusnutdinova, E K; Villems, R

    2008-01-01

    Molecular genetic analysis of ancient human remains are mostly based on mitochondrial DNA due to its better preservation in human skeletons in comparison with nuclear DNA. We investigated mtDNA extracted from human skeletons found in graves in Yakutia to determine their haplotypes and to compare them with lineages of modern populations. Ancient DNA was extracted from fragments of three skeletons of Yakut graves at At-Dabaan, Ojuluun and Jaraama sites (dating XVIII century) and two skeletons of Neolithic graves at Kerdugen site found in central Yakutia (Churapchinsky, Kangalassky and Megino-Kangalassky districts of Yakutia). Five different haplotypes belonging to specific Asian haplogroups were identified. Lineages of mtDNA of Yakut graves belong to haplo-groups C4a, D5a2 and B5b. Our results indicate the continuity of mitochondrial lineages in the Yakut gene pool during the last 300 years. Haplotypes of two humans from Kerdugen site graves belong to haplogroups A4 and G2a/D. We compared these haplotypes with that of 40,000 Eurasian individuals, 900 of them from Yakutia. No exact matches were found in Paleoasian populations of Chukchi, Eskimos, Koryaks and Itelmen. Phylogenetically close haplotypes (+/- 1 mutation) were found in populations of Yakuts and Evenks, as well as in some populations of China, Southern and Western Siberia.

  7. Pan-American mDNA haplogroups in Chilean patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Romero, Pablo; Fernández, Verónica; Slabaugh, Mark; Seleme, Nicolás; Reyes, Nury; Gallardo, Patricia; Herrera, Luisa; Peña, Luis; Pezo, Patricio; Moraga, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    The clinical impact of mDNA mutations on the development of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) may be modulated by mitochondrial haplogroups, which vary across populations. The aim of this research was to determine the clinical spectrum and molecular characteristics, including the haplogroup, of 15 South American families with LHON. This study was a prospective, observational study conducted between March 2006 and August 2012. All patients were referred to the Clinical Hospital of the University of Chile, where the clinical study was conducted. Molecular studies were conducted at the Biomedical Sciences Institute (ICBM) of the University of Chile. Fifteen index cases were identified with molecular analysis after initial neuroophthalmic examination at different centers throughout Chile. Clinical features of patients with LHON and maternal relatives of the 15 families (75 individuals: 26 affected and 49 healthy carriers) were evaluated. The primary mDNA mutations (m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A, or m.14484T>C) were determined with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in all individuals. Mitochondrial haplogroups were determined with direct sequencing of two hypervariable regions (HV1 and HV2) and compared with reference sequences. The m.11778G>A mutation was found in 59 subjects (78.7%), the m.14484T>C mutation was found in 12 subjects (16.0%), and the m.3460G>A mutation was found in four (5.3%) subjects. The average age of onset of symptoms in affected subjects was 22.2 years old (range 3 to 53 years); 21 (80.7%) were male, and five (19.3%) were female. Twelve families (80%) had Amerindian haplogroups: One family had the A2 haplogroup, four families had the B2i2 haplogroup, six families had the C1b haplogroup, and one family had the D1g haplogroup. In this limited sample size, the Amerindian haplogroup A2 was associated with delayed onset of disease in this population. Patients with haplogroup C retained better vision than the patients with other

  8. East Asian mtDNA haplogroup determination in Koreans: haplogroup-level coding region SNP analysis and subhaplogroup-level control region sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwan Young; Yoo, Ji-Eun; Park, Myung Jin; Chung, Ukhee; Kim, Chong-Youl; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2006-11-01

    The present study analyzed 21 coding region SNP markers and one deletion motif for the determination of East Asian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups by designing three multiplex systems which apply single base extension methods. Using two multiplex systems, all 593 Korean mtDNAs were allocated into 15 haplogroups: M, D, D4, D5, G, M7, M8, M9, M10, M11, R, R9, B, A, and N9. As the D4 haplotypes occurred most frequently in Koreans, the third multiplex system was used to further define D4 subhaplogroups: D4a, D4b, D4e, D4g, D4h, and D4j. This method allowed the complementation of coding region information with control region mutation motifs and the resultant findings also suggest reliable control region mutation motifs for the assignment of East Asian mtDNA haplogroups. These three multiplex systems produce good results in degraded samples as they contain small PCR products (101-154 bp) for single base extension reactions. SNP scoring was performed in 101 old skeletal remains using these three systems to prove their utility in degraded samples. The sequence analysis of mtDNA control region with high incidence of haplogroup-specific mutations and the selective scoring of highly informative coding region SNPs using the three multiplex systems are useful tools for most applications involving East Asian mtDNA haplogroup determination and haplogroup-directed stringent quality control.

  9. The western and eastern roots of the Saami--the story of genetic "outliers" told by mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Tambets, Kristiina; Rootsi, Siiri; Kivisild, Toomas; Help, Hela; Serk, Piia; Loogväli, Eva-Liis; Tolk, Helle-Viivi; Reidla, Maere; Metspalu, Ene; Pliss, Liana; Balanovsky, Oleg; Pshenichnov, Andrey; Balanovska, Elena; Gubina, Marina; Zhadanov, Sergey; Osipova, Ludmila; Damba, Larisa; Voevoda, Mikhail; Kutuev, Ildus; Bermisheva, Marina; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Gusar, Vladislava; Grechanina, Elena; Parik, Jüri; Pennarun, Erwan; Richard, Christelle; Chaventre, Andre; Moisan, Jean-Paul; Barác, Lovorka; Pericić, Marijana; Rudan, Pavao; Terzić, Rifat; Mikerezi, Ilia; Krumina, Astrida; Baumanis, Viesturs; Koziel, Slawomir; Rickards, Olga; De Stefano, Gian Franco; Anagnou, Nicholas; Pappa, Kalliopi I; Michalodimitrakis, Emmanuel; Ferák, Vladimir; Füredi, Sandor; Komel, Radovan; Beckman, Lars; Villems, Richard

    2004-04-01

    The Saami are regarded as extreme genetic outliers among European populations. In this study, a high-resolution phylogenetic analysis of Saami genetic heritage was undertaken in a comprehensive context, through use of maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and paternally inherited Y-chromosomal variation. DNA variants present in the Saami were compared with those found in Europe and Siberia, through use of both new and previously published data from 445 Saami and 17,096 western Eurasian and Siberian mtDNA samples, as well as 127 Saami and 2,840 western Eurasian and Siberian Y-chromosome samples. It was shown that the "Saami motif" variant of mtDNA haplogroup U5b is present in a large area outside Scandinavia. A detailed phylogeographic analysis of one of the predominant Saami mtDNA haplogroups, U5b1b, which also includes the lineages of the "Saami motif," was undertaken in 31 populations. The results indicate that the origin of U5b1b, as for the other predominant Saami haplogroup, V, is most likely in western, rather than eastern, Europe. Furthermore, an additional haplogroup (H1) spread among the Saami was virtually absent in 781 Samoyed and Ob-Ugric Siberians but was present in western and central European populations. The Y-chromosomal variety in the Saami is also consistent with their European ancestry. It suggests that the large genetic separation of the Saami from other Europeans is best explained by assuming that the Saami are descendants of a narrow, distinctive subset of Europeans. In particular, no evidence of a significant directional gene flow from extant aboriginal Siberian populations into the haploid gene pools of the Saami was found.

  10. The Western and Eastern Roots of the Saami—the Story of Genetic “Outliers” Told by Mitochondrial DNA and Y Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Tambets, Kristiina; Rootsi, Siiri; Kivisild, Toomas; Help, Hela; Serk, Piia; Loogväli, Eva-Liis; Tolk, Helle-Viivi; Reidla, Maere; Metspalu, Ene; Pliss, Liana; Balanovsky, Oleg; Pshenichnov, Andrey; Balanovska, Elena; Gubina, Marina; Zhadanov, Sergey; Osipova, Ludmila; Damba, Larisa; Voevoda, Mikhail; Kutuev, Ildus; Bermisheva, Marina; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Gusar, Vladislava; Grechanina, Elena; Parik, Jüri; Pennarun, Erwan; Richard, Christelle; Chaventre, Andre; Moisan, Jean-Paul; Barać, Lovorka; Peričić, Marijana; Rudan, Pavao; Terzić, Rifat; Mikerezi, Ilia; Krumina, Astrida; Baumanis, Viesturs; Koziel, Slawomir; Rickards, Olga; De Stefano, Gian Franco; Anagnou, Nicholas; Pappa, Kalliopi I.; Michalodimitrakis, Emmanuel; Ferák, Vladimir; Füredi, Sandor; Komel, Radovan; Beckman, Lars; Villems, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The Saami are regarded as extreme genetic outliers among European populations. In this study, a high-resolution phylogenetic analysis of Saami genetic heritage was undertaken in a comprehensive context, through use of maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and paternally inherited Y-chromosomal variation. DNA variants present in the Saami were compared with those found in Europe and Siberia, through use of both new and previously published data from 445 Saami and 17,096 western Eurasian and Siberian mtDNA samples, as well as 127 Saami and 2,840 western Eurasian and Siberian Y-chromosome samples. It was shown that the “Saami motif” variant of mtDNA haplogroup U5b is present in a large area outside Scandinavia. A detailed phylogeographic analysis of one of the predominant Saami mtDNA haplogroups, U5b1b, which also includes the lineages of the “Saami motif,” was undertaken in 31 populations. The results indicate that the origin of U5b1b, as for the other predominant Saami haplogroup, V, is most likely in western, rather than eastern, Europe. Furthermore, an additional haplogroup (H1) spread among the Saami was virtually absent in 781 Samoyed and Ob-Ugric Siberians but was present in western and central European populations. The Y-chromosomal variety in the Saami is also consistent with their European ancestry. It suggests that the large genetic separation of the Saami from other Europeans is best explained by assuming that the Saami are descendants of a narrow, distinctive subset of Europeans. In particular, no evidence of a significant directional gene flow from extant aboriginal Siberian populations into the haploid gene pools of the Saami was found. PMID:15024688

  11. mtDNA haplogroup J modulates telomere length and nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Moreno, Mercedes; Tamayo, María; Soto-Hermida, Angel; Mosquera, Alejandro; Oreiro, Natividad; Fernández-López, Carlos; Fernández, José Luis; Rego-Pérez, Ignacio; Blanco, Francisco J

    2011-12-15

    Oxidative stress due to the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) and other oxygen reactive species (ROS), play a main role in the initiation and progression of the OA disease and leads to the degeneration of mitochondria. Therefore, the goal of this work is to describe the difference in telomere length of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and Nitric Oxide (NO) production between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup J and non-J carriers, as indirect approaches of oxidative stress. The telomere length of PBL was analyzed in DNA samples from 166 healthy controls (114 J and 52 non-J) and 79 OA patients (41 J and 38 non-J) by means of a validated qPCR method. The NO production was assessed in 7 carriers of the haplogroup J and 27 non-J carriers, by means of the colorimetric reaction of the Griess reagent in supernatants of cultured chondrocytes. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA from these samples was analyzed by qPCR. Appropiated statistical analyses were performed Carriers of the haplogroup J showed a significantly longer telomere length of PBLs than non-J carriers, regardless of age, gender and diagnosis (p = 0.025). Cultured chondrocytes carrying the mtDNA haplogroup J also showed a lower NO production than non-J carriers (p = 0.043). No significant correlations between age and telomore length of PBLs were detected neither for carriers of the haplogroup J nor for non-J carriers. A strong positive correlation between NO production and iNOS expression was also observed (correlation coefficient = 0.791, p < 0.001). The protective effect of the mtDNA haplogroup J in the OA disease arise from a lower oxidative stress in carriers of this haplogroup, since this haplogroup is related to lower NO production and hence longer telomere length of PBLs too.

  12. mtDNA haplogroup J Modulates telomere length and Nitric Oxide production

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress due to the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) and other oxygen reactive species (ROS), play a main role in the initiation and progression of the OA disease and leads to the degeneration of mitochondria. Therefore, the goal of this work is to describe the difference in telomere length of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and Nitric Oxide (NO) production between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup J and non-J carriers, as indirect approaches of oxidative stress. Methods The telomere length of PBL was analyzed in DNA samples from 166 healthy controls (114 J and 52 non-J) and 79 OA patients (41 J and 38 non-J) by means of a validated qPCR method. The NO production was assessed in 7 carriers of the haplogroup J and 27 non-J carriers, by means of the colorimetric reaction of the Griess reagent in supernatants of cultured chondrocytes. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA from these samples was analyzed by qPCR. Appropiated statistical analyses were performed Results Carriers of the haplogroup J showed a significantly longer telomere length of PBLs than non-J carriers, regardless of age, gender and diagnosis (p = 0.025). Cultured chondrocytes carrying the mtDNA haplogroup J also showed a lower NO production than non-J carriers (p = 0.043). No significant correlations between age and telomore length of PBLs were detected neither for carriers of the haplogroup J nor for non-J carriers. A strong positive correlation between NO production and iNOS expression was also observed (correlation coefficient = 0.791, p < 0.001). Conclusion The protective effect of the mtDNA haplogroup J in the OA disease arise from a lower oxidative stress in carriers of this haplogroup, since this haplogroup is related to lower NO production and hence longer telomere length of PBLs too. PMID:22171676

  13. MtDNA haplogroups in the populations of Croatian Adriatic Islands.

    PubMed

    Tolk, H V; Pericić, M; Barać, L; Klarić, I M; Janićijević, B; Rudan, I; Parik, J; Villems, R; Rudan, P

    2000-12-01

    The number of previous anthropological studies pointed to very complex ethnohistorical processes that shaped the current genetic structure of Croatian island isolates. The scope of this study was limited to the general insight into their founding populations and the overall level of genetic diversity based on the study mtDNA variation. A total of 444 randomly chosen adult individuals from 32 rural communities of the islands of Krk, Brac, Hvar and Korcula were sampled. MtDNA HVS-I region together with RFLP sites diagnostic for main Eurasian and African mtDNA haplogroups were analysed in order to determine the haplogroup structure. The most frequent haplogroups were "H" (27.8-60.2%), "U" (10.2-24.1%), "J" (6.1-9.0%) and "T" (5.1-13.9%), which is similar to the other European and Near Eastern populations. The genetic drift could have been important aspect in history, as there were examples of excess frequencies of certain haplogroups (11.3% of "I" and 7.5% of "W" in Krk, 10.5% of "HV" in Brac, 13.9% of "J" in Hvar and 60.2% of "H" in Korcula). As the settlements on the islands were formed trough several immigratory episodes of genetically distant populations, this analysis (performed at the level of entire islands) showed greater genetic diversity (0.940-0.972) than expected at the level of particular settlements.

  14. The mitochondrial DNA makeup of Romanians: A forensic mtDNA control region database and phylogenetic characterization.

    PubMed

    Turchi, Chiara; Stanciu, Florin; Paselli, Giorgia; Buscemi, Loredana; Parson, Walther; Tagliabracci, Adriano

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the pattern of Romanian population from a mitochondrial perspective and to establish an appropriate mtDNA forensic database, we generated a high-quality mtDNA control region dataset from 407 Romanian subjects belonging to four major historical regions: Moldavia, Transylvania, Wallachia and Dobruja. The entire control region (CR) was analyzed by Sanger-type sequencing assays and the resulting 306 different haplotypes were classified into haplogroups according to the most updated mtDNA phylogeny. The Romanian gene pool is mainly composed of West Eurasian lineages H (31.7%), U (12.8%), J (10.8%), R (10.1%), T (9.1%), N (8.1%), HV (5.4%),K (3.7%), HV0 (4.2%), with exceptions of East Asian haplogroup M (3.4%) and African haplogroup L (0.7%). The pattern of mtDNA variation observed in this study indicates that the mitochondrial DNA pool is geographically homogeneous across Romania and that the haplogroup composition reveals signals of admixture of populations of different origin. The PCA scatterplot supported this scenario, with Romania located in southeastern Europe area, close to Bulgaria and Hungary, and as a borderland with respect to east Mediterranean and other eastern European countries. High haplotype diversity (0.993) and nucleotide diversity indices (0.00838±0.00426), together with low random match probability (0.0087) suggest the usefulness of this control region dataset as a forensic database in routine forensic mtDNA analysis and in the investigation of maternal genetic lineages in the Romanian population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Control Region Variability of Haplogroup C1d and the Tempo of the Peopling of the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Figueiro, Gonzalo; Hidalgo, Pedro C.; Sans, Mónica

    2011-01-01

    Background Among the founding mitochondrial haplogroups involved in the peopling of the Americas, haplogroup C1d has been viewed as problematic because of its phylogeny and because of the estimates of its antiquity, apparently being much younger than other founding haplogroups. Several recent analyses, based on data from the entire mitochondrial genome, have contributed to an advance in the resolution of these problems. The aim of our analysis is to compare the conclusions drawn from the available HVR-I and HVR-II data for haplogroup C1d with the ones based on whole mitochondrial genomes. Methodology/Principal Findings HVR-I and HVR-II sequences defined as belonging to haplogroup C1d by standard criteria were gathered from the literature as well as from population studies carried out in Uruguay. Sequence phylogeny was reconstructed using median-joining networks, geographic distribution of lineages was analyzed and the age of the most recent common ancestor estimated using the ρ-statistic and two different mutation rates. The putative ancestral forms of the haplogroup were found to be more widespread than the derived lineages, and the lineages defined by np 194 were found to be widely distributed and of equivalent age. Conclusions/Significance The analysis of control region sequences is found to still harbor great potential in tracing microevolutionary phenomena, especially those found to have occurred in more recent times. Based on the geographic distributions of the alleles of np 7697 and np 194, both discussed as possible basal mutations of the C1d phylogeny, we suggest that both alleles were part of the variability of the haplogroup at the time of its entrance. Moreover, based on the mutation rates of the different sites stated to be diagnostic, it is possible that the anomalies found when analyzing the haplogroup are due to paraphyly. PMID:21695136

  16. Control region variability of haplogroup C1d and the tempo of the peopling of the Americas.

    PubMed

    Figueiro, Gonzalo; Hidalgo, Pedro C; Sans, Mónica

    2011-01-01

    Among the founding mitochondrial haplogroups involved in the peopling of the Americas, haplogroup C1d has been viewed as problematic because of its phylogeny and because of the estimates of its antiquity, apparently being much younger than other founding haplogroups. Several recent analyses, based on data from the entire mitochondrial genome, have contributed to an advance in the resolution of these problems. The aim of our analysis is to compare the conclusions drawn from the available HVR-I and HVR-II data for haplogroup C1d with the ones based on whole mitochondrial genomes. HVR-I and HVR-II sequences defined as belonging to haplogroup C1d by standard criteria were gathered from the literature as well as from population studies carried out in Uruguay. Sequence phylogeny was reconstructed using median-joining networks, geographic distribution of lineages was analyzed and the age of the most recent common ancestor estimated using the ρ-statistic and two different mutation rates. The putative ancestral forms of the haplogroup were found to be more widespread than the derived lineages, and the lineages defined by np 194 were found to be widely distributed and of equivalent age. The analysis of control region sequences is found to still harbor great potential in tracing microevolutionary phenomena, especially those found to have occurred in more recent times. Based on the geographic distributions of the alleles of np 7697 and np 194, both discussed as possible basal mutations of the C1d phylogeny, we suggest that both alleles were part of the variability of the haplogroup at the time of its entrance. Moreover, based on the mutation rates of the different sites stated to be diagnostic, it is possible that the anomalies found when analyzing the haplogroup are due to paraphyly.

  17. Role of Mitochondrial Inheritance on Prostate Cancer Outcome in African American Men

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    biochemical processes and in alterations in signaling pathways (Akt pathway, apoptosis). The ability to identify mitochondrial variants or haplogroups ...cancer. We will sequence the mitochondrial genome of all 1,000 samples and determine whether particular mitochondrial variants, genes or haplogroups are

  18. A study of genetic polymorphisms in mitochondrial DNA hypervariable regions I and II of the five major ethnic groups and Vedda population in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Ruwandi; Tennekoon, Kamani H; Karunanayake, Eric H; Lembring, Maria; Allen, Marie

    2015-11-01

    Diversity of the hypervariable regions (HV) I and II of the mitochondrial genome was studied in maternally unrelated Sri Lankans (N=202) from six ethnic groups (i.e.: Sinhalese, Sri Lankan Tamil, Muslim, Malay, Indian Tamil and Vedda). DNA was extracted from blood and buccal swabs and HVI and HVII regions were PCR amplified and sequenced. Resulting sequences were aligned and edited between 16024-16365 and 73-340 regions and compared with revised Cambridge reference sequences (rCRS). One hundred and thirty-five unique haplotypes and 22 shared haplotypes were observed. A total of 145 polymorphic sites and 158 polymorphisms were observed. Hypervariable region I showed a higher polymorphic variation than hypervariable region II. Nucleotide diversities were quite low and similar for all ethnicities apart from a slightly higher value for Indian Tamils and a much lower value for the Vedda population compared to the other groups. When the total population was considered South Asian (Indian) haplogroups were predominant, but there were differences in the distribution of phylo-geographical haplogroups between ethnic groups. Sinhalese, Sri Lankan Tamil and Vedda populations had a considerable presence of West Eurasian haplogroups. About 2/3rd of the Vedda population comprised of macro-haplogroup N or its subclades R and U, whereas macro-haplogroup M was predominant in all other populations. The Vedda population clustered separately from other groups and Sri Lankan Tamils showed a closer genetic affiliation to Sinhalese than to Indian Tamils. Thus this study provides useful information for forensic analysis and anthropological studies of Sri Lankans.

  19. Tracing the Austronesian footprint in Mainland Southeast Asia: a perspective from mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Peng, Min-Sheng; Quang, Huy Ho; Dang, Khoa Pham; Trieu, An Vu; Wang, Hua-Wei; Yao, Yong-Gang; Kong, Qing-Peng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2010-10-01

    As the relic of the ancient Champa Kingdom, the Cham people represent the major Austronesian speakers in Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA) and their origin is evidently associated with the Austronesian diffusion in MSEA. Hitherto, hypotheses stemming mainly from linguistic and cultural viewpoints on the origin of the Cham people remain a welter of controversies. Among the points of dissension is the muddled issue of whether the Cham people arose from demic or cultural diffusion from the Austronesians. Addressing this issue also helps elucidate the dispersal mode of the Austronesian language. In the present study, we have analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control-region and coding-region sequence variations in 168 Cham and 139 Kinh individuals from Vietnam. Around 77% and 95% matrilineal components in the Chams and the Kinhs, respectively, could be assigned into the defined mtDNA haplogroups. Additionally, three common East Eurasian haplogroups B, R9, and M7 account for the majority (>60%) of maternal components in both populations. Entire sequencing of 20 representative mtDNAs selected from the thus far unclassified lineages, together with four new mtDNA genome sequences from Thailand, led to the identification of one new haplogroup M77 and helped to re-evaluate several haplogroups determined previously. Comparing the Chams with other Southeast Asian populations reveals that the Chams had a closer affinity with the Mon-Khmer populations in MSEA than with the Austronesian populations from Island Southeast Asia (ISEA). Further analyses failed to detect the potential homelands of the Chams in ISEA. Therefore, our results suggested that the origin of the Cham was likely a process of assimilation of massive local Mon-Khmer populations accompanied with language shift, thus indicating that the Austronesian diffusion in MSEA was mainly mediated by cultural diffusion, at least from the matrilineal genetic perspective, an observation in agreement with the hypothesis of the

  20. Mitochondrial lineage M1 traces an early human backflow to Africa

    PubMed Central

    González, Ana M; Larruga, José M; Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Shi, Yufei; Pestano, José; Cabrera, Vicente M

    2007-01-01

    Background The out of Africa hypothesis has gained generalized consensus. However, many specific questions remain unsettled. To know whether the two M and N macrohaplogroups that colonized Eurasia were already present in Africa before the exit is puzzling. It has been proposed that the east African clade M1 supports a single origin of haplogroup M in Africa. To test the validity of that hypothesis, the phylogeographic analysis of 13 complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and 261 partial sequences belonging to haplogroup M1 was carried out. Results The coalescence age of the African haplogroup M1 is younger than those for other M Asiatic clades. In contradiction to the hypothesis of an eastern Africa origin for modern human expansions out of Africa, the most ancestral M1 lineages have been found in Northwest Africa and in the Near East, instead of in East Africa. The M1 geographic distribution and the relative ages of its different subclades clearly correlate with those of haplogroup U6, for which an Eurasian ancestor has been demonstrated. Conclusion This study provides evidence that M1, or its ancestor, had an Asiatic origin. The earliest M1 expansion into Africa occurred in northwestern instead of eastern areas; this early spread reached the Iberian Peninsula even affecting the Basques. The majority of the M1a lineages found outside and inside Africa had a more recent eastern Africa origin. Both western and eastern M1 lineages participated in the Neolithic colonization of the Sahara. The striking parallelism between subclade ages and geographic distribution of M1 and its North African U6 counterpart strongly reinforces this scenario. Finally, a relevant fraction of M1a lineages present today in the European Continent and nearby islands possibly had a Jewish instead of the commonly proposed Arab/Berber maternal ascendance. PMID:17620140

  1. Unravelling migrations in the steppe: mitochondrial DNA sequences from ancient central Asians.

    PubMed Central

    Lalueza-Fox, C.; Sampietro, M. L.; Gilbert, M. T. P.; Castri, L.; Facchini, F.; Pettener, D.; Bertranpetit, J.

    2004-01-01

    This study helps to clarify the debate on the Western and Eastern genetic influences in Central Asia. Thirty-six skeletal remains from Kazakhstan (Central Asia), excavated from different sites dating between the fifteenth century BC to the fifth century AD, have been analysed for the hypervariable control region (HVR-I) and haplogroup diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the mitochondrial DNA genome. Standard authentication criteria for ancient DNA studies, including multiple extractions, cloning of PCR products and independent replication, have been followed. The distribution of east and west Eurasian lineages through time in the region is concordant with the available archaeological information: prior to the thirteenth-seventh century BC, all Kazakh samples belong to European lineages; while later an arrival of east Eurasian sequences that coexisted with the previous west Eurasian genetic substratum can be detected. The presence of an ancient genetic substratum of European origin in West Asia may be related to the discovery of ancient mummies with European features in Xinjiang and to the existence of an extinct Indo-European language, Tocharian. This study demonstrates the usefulness of the ancient DNA in unravelling complex patterns of past human migrations so as to help decipher the origin of present-day admixed populations. PMID:15255049

  2. Pan-American mDNA haplogroups in Chilean patients with Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Pablo; Fernández, Verónica; Slabaugh, Mark; Seleme, Nicolás; Reyes, Nury; Gallardo, Patricia; Herrera, Luisa; Peña, Luis; Pezo, Patricio; Moraga, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The clinical impact of mDNA mutations on the development of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) may be modulated by mitochondrial haplogroups, which vary across populations. The aim of this research was to determine the clinical spectrum and molecular characteristics, including the haplogroup, of 15 South American families with LHON. Methods This study was a prospective, observational study conducted between March 2006 and August 2012. All patients were referred to the Clinical Hospital of the University of Chile, where the clinical study was conducted. Molecular studies were conducted at the Biomedical Sciences Institute (ICBM) of the University of Chile. Fifteen index cases were identified with molecular analysis after initial neuroophthalmic examination at different centers throughout Chile. Clinical features of patients with LHON and maternal relatives of the 15 families (75 individuals: 26 affected and 49 healthy carriers) were evaluated. The primary mDNA mutations (m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A, or m.14484T>C) were determined with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in all individuals. Mitochondrial haplogroups were determined with direct sequencing of two hypervariable regions (HV1 and HV2) and compared with reference sequences. Results The m.11778G>A mutation was found in 59 subjects (78.7%), the m.14484T>C mutation was found in 12 subjects (16.0%), and the m.3460G>A mutation was found in four (5.3%) subjects. The average age of onset of symptoms in affected subjects was 22.2 years old (range 3 to 53 years); 21 (80.7%) were male, and five (19.3%) were female. Twelve families (80%) had Amerindian haplogroups: One family had the A2 haplogroup, four families had the B2i2 haplogroup, six families had the C1b haplogroup, and one family had the D1g haplogroup. Conclusions In this limited sample size, the Amerindian haplogroup A2 was associated with delayed onset of disease in this population. Patients with haplogroup C retained better vision

  3. Brief communication: new Y-chromosome binary markers improve phylogenetic resolution within haplogroup R1a1.

    PubMed

    Pamjav, Horolma; Fehér, Tibor; Németh, Endre; Pádár, Zsolt

    2012-12-01

    Haplogroup R1a1-M198 is a major clade of Y chromosomal haplogroups which is distributed all across Eurasia. To this date, many efforts have been made to identify large SNP-based subgroups and migration patterns of this haplogroup. The origin and spread of R1a1 chromosomes in Eurasia has, however, remained unknown due to the lack of downstream SNPs within the R1a1 haplogroup. Since the discovery of R1a1-M458, this is the first scientific attempt to divide haplogroup R1a1-M198 into multiple SNP-based sub-haplogroups. We have genotyped 217 R1a1-M198 samples from seven different population groups at M458, as well as the Z280 and Z93 SNPs recently identified from the "1000 Genomes Project". The two additional binary markers present an effective tool because now more than 98% of the samples analyzed assign to one of the three sub-haplogroups. R1a1-M458 and R1a1-Z280 were typical for the Hungarian population groups, whereas R1a1-Z93 was typical for Malaysian Indians and the Hungarian Roma. Inner and Central Asia is an overlap zone for the R1a1-Z280 and R1a1-Z93 lineages. This pattern implies that an early differentiation zone of R1a1-M198 conceivably occurred somewhere within the Eurasian Steppes or the Middle East and Caucasus region as they lie between South Asia and Eastern Europe. The detection of the Z93 paternal genetic imprint in the Hungarian Roma gene pool is consistent with South Asian ancestry and amends the view that H1a-M82 is their only discernible paternal lineage of Indian heritage.

  4. Comparison of mtDNA haplogroups in Hungarians with four other European populations: a small incidence of descents with Asian origin.

    PubMed

    Nadasi, Edit; Gyurus, P; Czakó, Márta; Bene, Judit; Kosztolányi, Sz; Fazekas, Sz; Dömösi, P; Melegh, B

    2007-06-01

    Hungarians are unique among the other European populations because according to history, the ancient Magyars had come from the eastern side of the Ural Mountains and settled down in the Carpathian basin in the 9th century AD. Since variations in the human mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) are routinely used to infer the histories of different populations, we examined the distribution of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) sites of the mtDNA in apparently healthy, unrelated Hungarian subjects in order to collect data on the genetic origin of the Hungarian population. Among the 55 samples analyzed, the large majority belonged to haplogroups common in other European populations, however, three samples fulfilled the requirements of haplogroup M. Since haplogroup M is classified as a haplogroup characteristic mainly for Asian populations, the presence of haplogroup M found in approximately 5% of the total suggests that an Asian matrilineal ancestry, even if in a small incidence, can be detected among modern Hungarians.

  5. Comparative mitochondrial genetics of North American and Eurasian mergansers with an emphasis on the endangered scaly-sided merganser (Mergus squamatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Solovyeva, D.V.; Pearce, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The scaly-sided merganser, Mergus squamatus, is considered one of the most threatened sea duck species in the Palearctic with limited breeding and wintering distribution in China and Russia. To provide information for future conservation efforts, we sequenced a portion of the mitochondrial (mt) DNA control region in four species of mergansers and three additional sea duck taxa to characterize the evolutionary history of the scaly-sided merganser, infer population trends that may have led to its limited geographic distribution, and to compare indices of genetic diversity among species of mergansers. Scaly-sided mergansers exhibit substantially lower levels of mtDNA genetic diversity (h = 0.292, ?? = 0.0007) than other closely related sea ducks and many other avian taxa. The four haplotypes observed differed by a single base pair suggesting that the species has not experienced a recent population decline but has instead been at a low population level for some time. A phylogenetic analysis placed the scaly-sided merganser basal to North American and European forms of the common merganser, M. merganser. Our inclusion of a small number of male samples doubled the number of mtDNA haplotypes observed, suggesting that additional genetic variation likely exists within the global population if there is immigration of males from unsampled breeding areas. ?? 2011 US Government.

  6. Comparative mitochondrial genetics of North American and Eurasian mergansers with an emphasis on the endangered scaly-sided merganser (Mergus squamatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Solovyeva, Diana V.; Pearce, John M.

    2011-01-01

    The scaly-sided merganser, Mergus squamatus, is considered one of the most threatened sea duck species in the Palearctic with limited breeding and wintering distribution in China and Russia. To provide information for future conservation efforts, we sequenced a portion of the mitochondrial (mt) DNA control region in four species of mergansers and three additional sea duck taxa to characterize the evolutionary history of the scaly-sided merganser, infer population trends that may have led to its limited geographic distribution, and to compare indices of genetic diversity among species of mergansers. Scaly-sided mergansers exhibit substantially lower levels of mtDNA genetic diversity (h = 0.292, π= 0.0007) than other closely related sea ducks and many other avian taxa. The four haplotypes observed differed by a single base pair suggesting that the species has not experienced a recent population decline but has instead been at a low population level for some time. A phylogenetic analysis placed the scaly-sided merganser basal to North American and European forms of the common merganser, M. merganser. Our inclusion of a small number of male samples doubled the number of mtDNA haplotypes observed, suggesting that additional genetic variation likely exists within the global population if there is immigration of males from unsampled breeding areas.

  7. Uniparental Genetic Heritage of Belarusians: Encounter of Rare Middle Eastern Matrilineages with a Central European Mitochondrial DNA Pool

    PubMed Central

    Kushniarevich, Alena; Sivitskaya, Larysa; Danilenko, Nina; Novogrodskii, Tadeush; Tsybovsky, Iosif; Kiseleva, Anna; Kotova, Svetlana; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Metspalu, Ene; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Reidla, Maere; Rootsi, Siiri; Parik, Jüri; Reisberg, Tuuli; Achilli, Alessandro; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Gandini, Francesca; Olivieri, Anna; Behar, Doron M.; Torroni, Antonio; Davydenko, Oleg; Villems, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Ethnic Belarusians make up more than 80% of the nine and half million people inhabiting the Republic of Belarus. Belarusians together with Ukrainians and Russians represent the East Slavic linguistic group, largest both in numbers and territory, inhabiting East Europe alongside Baltic-, Finno-Permic- and Turkic-speaking people. Till date, only a limited number of low resolution genetic studies have been performed on this population. Therefore, with the phylogeographic analysis of 565 Y-chromosomes and 267 mitochondrial DNAs from six well covered geographic sub-regions of Belarus we strove to complement the existing genetic profile of eastern Europeans. Our results reveal that around 80% of the paternal Belarusian gene pool is composed of R1a, I2a and N1c Y-chromosome haplogroups – a profile which is very similar to the two other eastern European populations – Ukrainians and Russians. The maternal Belarusian gene pool encompasses a full range of West Eurasian haplogroups and agrees well with the genetic structure of central-east European populations. Our data attest that latitudinal gradients characterize the variation of the uniparentally transmitted gene pools of modern Belarusians. In particular, the Y-chromosome reflects movements of people in central-east Europe, starting probably as early as the beginning of the Holocene. Furthermore, the matrilineal legacy of Belarusians retains two rare mitochondrial DNA haplogroups, N1a3 and N3, whose phylogeographies were explored in detail after de novo sequencing of 20 and 13 complete mitogenomes, respectively, from all over Eurasia. Our phylogeographic analyses reveal that two mitochondrial DNA lineages, N3 and N1a3, both of Middle Eastern origin, might mark distinct events of matrilineal gene flow to Europe: during the mid-Holocene period and around the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, respectively. PMID:23785503

  8. The Phylogeny of the Four Pan-American MtDNA Haplogroups: Implications for Evolutionary and Disease Studies

    PubMed Central

    Achilli, Alessandro; Perego, Ugo A.; Bravi, Claudio M.; Coble, Michael D.; Kong, Qing-Peng; Woodward, Scott R.; Salas, Antonio; Torroni, Antonio; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Only a limited number of complete mitochondrial genome sequences belonging to Native American haplogroups were available until recently, which left America as the continent with the least amount of information about sequence variation of entire mitochondrial DNAs. In this study, a comprehensive overview of all available complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes of the four pan-American haplogroups A2, B2, C1, and D1 is provided by revising the information scattered throughout GenBank and the literature, and adding 14 novel mtDNA sequences. The phylogenies of haplogroups A2, B2, C1, and D1 reveal a large number of sub-haplogroups but suggest that the ancestral Beringian population(s) contributed only six (successful) founder haplotypes to these haplogroups. The derived clades are overall starlike with coalescence times ranging from 18,000 to 21,000 years (with one exception) using the conventional calibration. The average of about 19,000 years somewhat contrasts with the corresponding lower age of about 13,500 years that was recently proposed by employing a different calibration and estimation approach. Our estimate indicates a human entry and spread of the pan-American haplogroups into the Americas right after the peak of the Last Glacial Maximum and comfortably agrees with the undisputed ages of the earliest Paleoindians in South America. In addition, the phylogenetic approach also indicates that the pathogenic status proposed for various mtDNA mutations, which actually define branches of Native American haplogroups, was based on insufficient grounds. PMID:18335039

  9. Association of mtDNA M/N haplogroups with systemic lupus erythematosus: a case-control study of Han Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Tang, Youzhou; Wang, Li; Zhu, Min; Yang, Ming; Zhong, Kuangbiao; Du, Qing; Zhang, Hao; Gui, Ming

    2015-06-03

    To investigate whether mitochondrial DNA haplogroups M or N are related to occurrence or manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we collected M/N haplogrouping and clinical characteristics from 868 Han Chinese women with SLE, as well as for 870 age-matched healthy Han Chinese control women. M/N haplogroups were determined in all subjects using allele-specific amplification. The frequency of M haplogroup in all patients was 429 (49.4%) and the frequency of N haplogroup, 439 (50.6%). The corresponding frequencies in controls were 456 (52.4%) and 414 (47.6%) (P = 0.213). Among women older than 50 years at onset age, the N haplogroup was significantly higher in patients than in healthy controls (59.6% vs 41.7%, P = 0.042). The N haplogroup was associated with significantly higher risk for certain SLE characteristics: hematological system damage (OR 2.128, 95%CI 1.610 to 2.813), skin impairment (OR 1.873, 95%CI 1.428 to 2.457), neurological disturbance (OR 3.956, 95%CI 1.874 to 8.352) and alopecia (OR 1.322, 95%CI 1.007 to 1.737). Our results suggest that in Han Chinese women, the mtDNA N haplogroup is associated with higher risk of late-onset SLE, skin impairment, neurological disturbance, hematological system damage and alopecia.

  10. Severity of cardiomyopathy associated with adenine nucleotide translocator-1 deficiency correlates with mtDNA haplogroup.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Kevin A; DuBiner, Lauren; Simon, Mariella; Zaragoza, Michael; Sengupta, Partho P; Li, Peng; Narula, Navneet; Dreike, Sandra; Platt, Julia; Procaccio, Vincent; Ortiz-González, Xilma R; Puffenberger, Erik G; Kelley, Richard I; Morton, D Holmes; Narula, Jagat; Wallace, Douglas C

    2013-02-26

    Mutations of both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded mitochondrial proteins can cause cardiomyopathy associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Hence, the cardiac phenotype of nuclear DNA mitochondrial mutations might be modulated by mtDNA variation. We studied a 13-generation Mennonite pedigree with autosomal recessive myopathy and cardiomyopathy due to an SLC25A4 frameshift null mutation (c.523delC, p.Q175RfsX38), which codes for the heart-muscle isoform of the adenine nucleotide translocator-1. Ten homozygous null (adenine nucleotide translocator-1(-/-)) patients monitored over a median of 6 years had a phenotype of progressive myocardial thickening, hyperalaninemia, lactic acidosis, exercise intolerance, and persistent adrenergic activation. Electrocardiography and echocardiography with velocity vector imaging revealed abnormal contractile mechanics, myocardial repolarization abnormalities, and impaired left ventricular relaxation. End-stage heart disease was characterized by massive, symmetric, concentric cardiac hypertrophy; widespread cardiomyocyte degeneration; overabundant and structurally abnormal mitochondria; extensive subendocardial interstitial fibrosis; and marked hypertrophy of arteriolar smooth muscle. Substantial variability in the progression and severity of heart disease segregated with maternal lineage, and sequencing of mtDNA from five maternal lineages revealed two major European haplogroups, U and H. Patients with the haplogroup U mtDNAs had more rapid and severe cardiomyopathy than those with haplogroup H.

  11. Severity of cardiomyopathy associated with adenine nucleotide translocator-1 deficiency correlates with mtDNA haplogroup

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Kevin A.; DuBiner, Lauren; Simon, Mariella; Zaragoza, Michael; Sengupta, Partho P.; Li, Peng; Narula, Navneet; Dreike, Sandra; Platt, Julia; Procaccio, Vincent; Ortiz-González, Xilma R.; Puffenberger, Erik G.; Kelley, Richard I.; Morton, D. Holmes; Narula, Jagat; Wallace, Douglas C.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations of both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)–encoded mitochondrial proteins can cause cardiomyopathy associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Hence, the cardiac phenotype of nuclear DNA mitochondrial mutations might be modulated by mtDNA variation. We studied a 13-generation Mennonite pedigree with autosomal recessive myopathy and cardiomyopathy due to an SLC25A4 frameshift null mutation (c.523delC, p.Q175RfsX38), which codes for the heart-muscle isoform of the adenine nucleotide translocator–1. Ten homozygous null (adenine nucleotide translocator–1−/−) patients monitored over a median of 6 years had a phenotype of progressive myocardial thickening, hyperalaninemia, lactic acidosis, exercise intolerance, and persistent adrenergic activation. Electrocardiography and echocardiography with velocity vector imaging revealed abnormal contractile mechanics, myocardial repolarization abnormalities, and impaired left ventricular relaxation. End-stage heart disease was characterized by massive, symmetric, concentric cardiac hypertrophy; widespread cardiomyocyte degeneration; overabundant and structurally abnormal mitochondria; extensive subendocardial interstitial fibrosis; and marked hypertrophy of arteriolar smooth muscle. Substantial variability in the progression and severity of heart disease segregated with maternal lineage, and sequencing of mtDNA from five maternal lineages revealed two major European haplogroups, U and H. Patients with the haplogroup U mtDNAs had more rapid and severe cardiomyopathy than those with haplogroup H. PMID:23401503

  12. Mitochondrial superclusters influence age of onset of Parkinson's disease in a gender specific manner in the Cypriot population: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Andrea; Demetriou, Christiana A; Heraclides, Alexandros; Christou, Yiolanda P; Leonidou, Eleni; Loukaides, Panayiotis; Yiasoumi, Elena; Panagiotou, Dimitris; Manoli, Panayiotis; Thomson, Pippa; Loizidou, Maria A; Hadjisavvas, Andreas; Zamba-Papanicolaou, Eleni

    2017-01-01

    Despite evidence supporting an involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of some neurodegenerative disorders, there are inconsistent findings concerning mitochondrial haplogroups and their association to neurodegenerative disorders, including idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). To test this hypothesis for the Greek-Cypriot population, a cohort of 230 PD patients and 457 healthy matched controls were recruited. Mitochondrial haplogroup distributions for cases and controls were determined. Association tests were carried out between mitochondrial haplogroups and PD. Mitochondrial haplogroup U was associated with a reduced PD risk in the Cypriot population. After pooling mitochondrial haplogroups together into haplogroup clusters and superclusters, association tests demonstrated a significantly protective effect of mitochondrial haplogroup cluster N (xR) and supercluster LMN for PD risk only in females. In addition, for female PD cases belonging to UKJT and R (xH, xUKJT) haplogroup, the odds of having a later age of onset of PD were 13 and 15 times respectively higher than the odds for female cases with an H haplogroup. Statistically significant associations regarding PD risk and PD age of onset were mostly detected for females thus suggesting that gender is a risk modifier between mitochondrial haplogroups and PD status / PD age of onset. The biological mechanisms behind this gender specificity remain to be determined.

  13. Deep rooting in-situ expansion of mtDNA Haplogroup R8 in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Nandan, Amrita; Sharma, Vishwas; Sharma, Varun Kumar; Eaaswarkhanth, Muthukrishnan; Patra, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Sandhya; Rekha, Sashi; Dua, Monika; Verma, Narendra; Reddy, Alla G; Singh, Lalji

    2009-08-07

    The phylogeny of the indigenous Indian-specific mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups have been determined and refined in previous reports. Similar to mtDNA superhaplogroups M and N, a profusion of reports are also available for superhaplogroup R. However, there is a dearth of information on South Asian subhaplogroups in particular, including R8. Therefore, we ought to access the genealogy and pre-historic expansion of haplogroup R8 which is considered one of the autochthonous lineages of South Asia. Upon screening the mtDNA of 5,836 individuals belonging to 104 distinct ethnic populations of the Indian subcontinent, we found 54 individuals with the HVS-I motif that defines the R8 haplogroup. Complete mtDNA sequencing of these 54 individuals revealed two deep-rooted subclades: R8a and R8b. Furthermore, these subclades split into several fine subclades. An isofrequency contour map detected the highest frequency of R8 in the state of Orissa. Spearman's rank correlation analysis suggests significant correlation of R8 occurrence with geography. The coalescent age of newly-characterized subclades of R8, R8a (15.4+/-7.2 Kya) and R8b (25.7+/-10.2 Kya) indicates that the initial maternal colonization of this haplogroup occurred during the middle and upper Paleolithic period, roughly around 40 to 45 Kya. These results signify that the southern part of Orissa currently inhabited by Munda speakers is likely the origin of these autochthonous maternal deep-rooted haplogroups. Our high-resolution study on the genesis of R8 haplogroup provides ample evidence of its deep-rooted ancestry among the Orissa (Austro-Asiatic) tribes.

  14. Association of low race performance with mtDNA haplogroup L3b of Australian thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiang; Zheng, Hong-Xiang; Davie, Allan; Zhou, Shi; Wen, Li; Meng, Jun; Zhang, Yong; Aladaer, Qimude; Liu, Bin; Liu, Wu-Jun; Yao, Xin-Kui

    2017-01-27

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes the genes for respiratory chain sub-units that determine the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. The aim of this study was to determine if there were any haplogroups and variants in mtDNA that could be associated with athletic performance of Thoroughbred horses. The whole mitochondrial genomes of 53 maternally unrelated Australian Thoroughbred horses were sequenced and an association study was performed with the competition histories of 1123 horses within their maternal lineages. A horse mtDNA phylogenetic tree was constructed based on a total of 195 sequences (including 142 from previous reports). The association analysis showed that the sample groups with poor racing performance history were enriched in haplogroup L3b (p = .0003) and its sub-haplogroup L3b1a (p = .0007), while those that had elite performance appeared to be not significantly associated with haplogroups G2 and L3a1a1a (p > .05). Haplogroup L3b and L3b1a bear two and five specific variants of which variant T1458C (site 345 in 16s rRNA) is the only potential functional variant. Furthermore, secondary reconstruction of 16s RNA showed considerable differences between two types of 16s RNA molecules (with and without T1458C), indicating a potential functional effect. The results suggested that haplogroup L3b, could have a negative association with elite performance. The T1458C mutation harboured in haplogroup L3b could have a functional effect that is related to poor athletic performance.

  15. Y-chromosome O3 haplogroup diversity in Sino-Tibetan populations reveals two migration routes into the eastern Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Kang, Longli; Lu, Yan; Wang, Chuanchao; Hu, Kang; Chen, Feng; Liu, Kai; Li, Shilin; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

    2012-01-01

    The eastern Himalayas are located near the southern entrance through which early modern humans expanded into East Asia. The genetic structure in this region is therefore of great importance in the study of East Asian origins. However, few genetic studies have been performed on the Sino-Tibetan populations (Luoba and Deng) in this region. Here, we analyzed the Y-chromosome diversity of the two populations. The Luoba possessed haplogroups D, N, O, J, Q, and R, indicating gene flow from Tibetans, as well as the western and northern Eurasians. The Deng exhibited haplogroups O, D, N, and C, similar to most Sino-Tibetan populations in the east. Short tandem repeat (STR) diversity within the dominant haplogroup O3 in Sino-Tibetan populations showed that the Luoba are genetically close to Tibetans and the Deng are close to the Qiang. The Qiang had the greatest diversity of Sino-Tibetan populations, supporting the view of this population being the oldest in the family. The lowest diversity occurred in the eastern Himalayas, suggesting that this area was an endpoint for the expansion of Sino-Tibetan people. Thus, we have shown that populations with haplogroup O3 moved into the eastern Himalayas through at least two routes. © 2011 The Authors Annals of Human Genetics © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/University College London.

  16. Human maternal heritage in Andalusia (Spain): its composition reveals high internal complexity and distinctive influences of mtDNA haplogroups U6 and L in the western and eastern side of region.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Candela L; Reales, Guillermo; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Novelletto, Andrea; Rodríguez, Juan Nicolás; Cuesta, Pedro; Calderón, Rosario

    2014-01-24

    The archeology and history of the ancient Mediterranean have shown that this sea has been a permeable obstacle to human migration. Multiple cultural exchanges around the Mediterranean have taken place with presumably population admixtures. A gravitational territory of those migrations has been the Iberian Peninsula. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the maternal gene pool, by means of control region sequencing and PCR-RFLP typing, of autochthonous Andalusians originating from the coastal provinces of Huelva and Granada, located respectively in the west and the east of the region. The mtDNA haplogroup composition of these two southern Spanish populations has revealed a wide spectrum of haplogroups from different geographical origins. The registered frequencies of Eurasian markers, together with the high incidence and diversification of African maternal lineages (15% of the total mitochondrial variability) among Huelva Andalusians when compared to its eastwards relatives of Granada and other Iberian populations, constitute relevant findings unknown up-to-date on the characteristics of mtDNA within Andalusia that testifies a female population substructure. Therefore, Andalusia must not be considered a single, unique population. The maternal legacy among Andalusians reflects distinctive local histories, pointing out the role of the westernmost territory of Peninsular Spain as a noticeable recipient of multiple and diverse human migrations. The obtained results underline the necessity of further research on genetic relationships in both sides of the western Mediterranean, using carefully collected samples from autochthonous individuals. Many studies have focused on recent North African gene flow towards Iberia, yet scientific attention should be now directed to thoroughly study the introduction of European genes in northwest Africa across the sea, in order to determine its magnitude, timescale and methods, and to compare them to those terrestrial movements

  17. Human maternal heritage in Andalusia (Spain): its composition reveals high internal complexity and distinctive influences of mtDNA haplogroups U6 and L in the western and eastern side of region

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The archeology and history of the ancient Mediterranean have shown that this sea has been a permeable obstacle to human migration. Multiple cultural exchanges around the Mediterranean have taken place with presumably population admixtures. A gravitational territory of those migrations has been the Iberian Peninsula. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the maternal gene pool, by means of control region sequencing and PCR-RFLP typing, of autochthonous Andalusians originating from the coastal provinces of Huelva and Granada, located respectively in the west and the east of the region. Results The mtDNA haplogroup composition of these two southern Spanish populations has revealed a wide spectrum of haplogroups from different geographical origins. The registered frequencies of Eurasian markers, together with the high incidence and diversification of African maternal lineages (15% of the total mitochondrial variability) among Huelva Andalusians when compared to its eastwards relatives of Granada and other Iberian populations, constitute relevant findings unknown up-to-date on the characteristics of mtDNA within Andalusia that testifies a female population substructure. Therefore, Andalusia must not be considered a single, unique population. Conclusions The maternal legacy among Andalusians reflects distinctive local histories, pointing out the role of the westernmost territory of Peninsular Spain as a noticeable recipient of multiple and diverse human migrations. The obtained results underline the necessity of further research on genetic relationships in both sides of the western Mediterranean, using carefully collected samples from autochthonous individuals. Many studies have focused on recent North African gene flow towards Iberia, yet scientific attention should be now directed to thoroughly study the introduction of European genes in northwest Africa across the sea, in order to determine its magnitude, timescale and methods, and to compare them to

  18. The ancient cline of haplogroup K implies that the Neolithic transition in Europe was mainly demic.

    PubMed

    Isern, Neus; Fort, Joaquim; de Rioja, Víctor L

    2017-09-11

    Using a database with the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 513 Neolithic individuals, we quantify the space-time variation of the frequency of haplogroup K, previously proposed as a relevant Neolithic marker. We compare these data to simulations, based on a mathematical model in which a Neolithic population spreads from Syria to Anatolia and Europe, possibly interbreeding with Mesolithic individuals (who lack haplogroup K) and/or teaching farming to them. Both the data and the simulations show that the percentage of haplogroup K (%K) decreases with increasing distance from Syria and that, in each region, the %K tends to decrease with increasing time after the arrival of farming. Both the model and the data display a local minimum of the genetic cline, and for the same Neolithic regional culture (Sweden). Comparing the observed ancient cline of haplogroup K to the simulation results reveals that about 98% of farmers were not involved in interbreeding neither acculturation (cultural diffusion). Therefore, cultural diffusion involved only a tiny fraction (about 2%) of farmers and, in this sense, the most relevant process in the spread of the Neolithic in Europe was demic diffusion (i.e., the dispersal of farmers), as opposed to cultural diffusion (i.e., the incorporation of hunter-gatherers).

  19. Association of mtDNA haplogroup F with healthy longevity in the female Chuang population, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Zhang, Jianyi; Liu, Ming; Wan, Gang; Qi, Keyan; Zheng, Chenguang; Lv, Zeping; Hu, Caiyou; Zeng, Yi; Gregory, Simon G; Yang, Ze

    2011-12-01

    Human longevity is a complex heritable genetic trait. Based on substantial evidence from model organisms, it is clear that mitochondria play a pivotal role in aging and lifespan. However, the effects that mitochondrial genome variations have upon longevity and longevity-related phenotypes in Chuang people in China have yet to be established. By genotyping 15 variants for 10 haplogroups in 738 Chuang subjects, including 367 long-lived individuals and 371 controls, we found that haplogroup F was significantly associated with longevity in females of Zhuang population of China (p=0.003, OR: 2.01, 95%CI: 1.263-3.197). Additionally, haplogroup F was related to higher HDL levels (p<0.05) in long-lived individuals. Further analysis suggests that the non-synonymous variant m.13928G>C in haplogroup F was also associated with longevity in female Zhuang Chinese which might account for the beneficial effect of F. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Haplogroup relationships between domestic and wild sheep resolved using a mitogenome panel.

    PubMed

    Meadows, J R S; Hiendleder, S; Kijas, J W

    2011-04-01

    Five haplogroups have been identified in domestic sheep through global surveys of mitochondrial (mt) sequence variation, however these group classifications are often based on small fragments of the complete mtDNA sequence; partial control region or the cytochrome B gene. This study presents the complete mitogenome from representatives of each haplogroup identified in domestic sheep, plus a sample of their wild relatives. Comparison of the sequence successfully resolved the relationships between each haplogroup and provided insight into the relationship with wild sheep. The five haplogroups were characterised as branching independently, a radiation that shared a common ancestor 920,000 ± 190,000 years ago based on protein coding sequence. The utility of various mtDNA components to inform the true relationship between sheep was also examined with Bayesian, maximum likelihood and partitioned Bremmer support analyses. The control region was found to be the mtDNA component, which contributed the highest amount of support to the tree generated using the complete data set. This study provides the nucleus of a mtDNA mitogenome panel, which can be used to assess additional mitogenomes and serve as a reference set to evaluate small fragments of the mtDNA.

  1. Haplogroup relationships between domestic and wild sheep resolved using a mitogenome panel

    PubMed Central

    Meadows, J R S; Hiendleder, S; Kijas, J W

    2011-01-01

    Five haplogroups have been identified in domestic sheep through global surveys of mitochondrial (mt) sequence variation, however these group classifications are often based on small fragments of the complete mtDNA sequence; partial control region or the cytochrome B gene. This study presents the complete mitogenome from representatives of each haplogroup identified in domestic sheep, plus a sample of their wild relatives. Comparison of the sequence successfully resolved the relationships between each haplogroup and provided insight into the relationship with wild sheep. The five haplogroups were characterised as branching independently, a radiation that shared a common ancestor 920 000±190 000 years ago based on protein coding sequence. The utility of various mtDNA components to inform the true relationship between sheep was also examined with Bayesian, maximum likelihood and partitioned Bremmer support analyses. The control region was found to be the mtDNA component, which contributed the highest amount of support to the tree generated using the complete data set. This study provides the nucleus of a mtDNA mitogenome panel, which can be used to assess additional mitogenomes and serve as a reference set to evaluate small fragments of the mtDNA. PMID:20940734

  2. Introducing the Algerian mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome profiles into the North African landscape.

    PubMed

    Bekada, Asmahan; Fregel, Rosa; Cabrera, Vicente M; Larruga, José M; Pestano, José; Benhamamouch, Soraya; González, Ana M

    2013-01-01

    North Africa is considered a distinct geographic and ethnic entity within Africa. Although modern humans originated in this Continent, studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome genealogical markers provide evidence that the North African gene pool has been shaped by the back-migration of several Eurasian lineages in Paleolithic and Neolithic times. More recent influences from sub-Saharan Africa and Mediterranean Europe are also evident. The presence of East-West and North-South haplogroup frequency gradients strongly reinforces the genetic complexity of this region. However, this genetic scenario is beset with a notable gap, which is the lack of consistent information for Algeria, the largest country in the Maghreb. To fill this gap, we analyzed a sample of 240 unrelated subjects from a northwest Algeria cosmopolitan population using mtDNA sequences and Y-chromosome biallelic polymorphisms, focusing on the fine dissection of haplogroups E and R, which are the most prevalent in North Africa and Europe respectively. The Eurasian component in Algeria reached 80% for mtDNA and 90% for Y-chromosome. However, within them, the North African genetic component for mtDNA (U6 and M1; 20%) is significantly smaller than the paternal (E-M81 and E-V65; 70%). The unexpected presence of the European-derived Y-chromosome lineages R-M412, R-S116, R-U152 and R-M529 in Algeria and the rest of the Maghreb could be the counterparts of the mtDNA H1, H3 and V subgroups, pointing to direct maritime contacts between the European and North African sides of the western Mediterranean. Female influx of sub-Saharan Africans into Algeria (20%) is also significantly greater than the male (10%). In spite of these sexual asymmetries, the Algerian uniparental profiles faithfully correlate between each other and with the geography.

  3. Introducing the Algerian Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Profiles into the North African Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Bekada, Asmahan; Fregel, Rosa; Cabrera, Vicente M.; Larruga, José M.; Pestano, José; Benhamamouch, Soraya; González, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    North Africa is considered a distinct geographic and ethnic entity within Africa. Although modern humans originated in this Continent, studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome genealogical markers provide evidence that the North African gene pool has been shaped by the back-migration of several Eurasian lineages in Paleolithic and Neolithic times. More recent influences from sub-Saharan Africa and Mediterranean Europe are also evident. The presence of East-West and North-South haplogroup frequency gradients strongly reinforces the genetic complexity of this region. However, this genetic scenario is beset with a notable gap, which is the lack of consistent information for Algeria, the largest country in the Maghreb. To fill this gap, we analyzed a sample of 240 unrelated subjects from a northwest Algeria cosmopolitan population using mtDNA sequences and Y-chromosome biallelic polymorphisms, focusing on the fine dissection of haplogroups E and R, which are the most prevalent in North Africa and Europe respectively. The Eurasian component in Algeria reached 80% for mtDNA and 90% for Y-chromosome. However, within them, the North African genetic component for mtDNA (U6 and M1; 20%) is significantly smaller than the paternal (E-M81 and E-V65; 70%). The unexpected presence of the European-derived Y-chromosome lineages R-M412, R-S116, R-U152 and R-M529 in Algeria and the rest of the Maghreb could be the counterparts of the mtDNA H1, H3 and V subgroups, pointing to direct maritime contacts between the European and North African sides of the western Mediterranean. Female influx of sub-Saharan Africans into Algeria (20%) is also significantly greater than the male (10%). In spite of these sexual asymmetries, the Algerian uniparental profiles faithfully correlate between each other and with the geography. PMID:23431392

  4. Multiplex genotyping assays for fine-resolution subtyping of the major human Y-chromosome haplogroups E, G, I, J, and R in anthropological, genealogical, and forensic investigations.

    PubMed

    van Oven, Mannis; Toscani, Kimberley; van den Tempel, Nathalie; Ralf, Arwin; Kayser, Manfred

    2013-11-01

    Inherited DNA polymorphisms located within the nonrecombing portion of the human Y chromosome provide a powerful means of tracking the patrilineal ancestry of male individuals. Recently, we introduced an efficient genotyping method for the detection of the basal Y-chromosome haplogroups A to T, as well as an additional method for the dissection of haplogroup O into its sublineages. To further extend the use of the Y chromosome as an evolutionary marker, we here introduce a set of genotyping assays for fine-resolution subtyping of haplogroups E, G, I, J, and R, which make up the bulk of Western Eurasian and African Y chromosomes. The marker selection includes a total of 107 carefully selected bi-allelic polymorphisms that were divided into eight hierarchically organized multiplex assays (two for haplogroup E, one for I, one for J, one for G, and three for R) based on the single-base primer extension (SNaPshot) technology. Not only does our method allow for enhanced Y-chromosome lineage discrimination, the more restricted geographic distribution of the subhaplogroups covered also enables more fine-scaled estimations of patrilineal bio-geographic origin. Supplementing our previous method for basal Y-haplogroup detection, the currently introduced assays are thus expected to be of major relevance for future DNA studies targeting male-specific ancestry for forensic, anthropological, and genealogical purposes. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Respiratory function in cybrid cell lines carrying European mtDNA haplogroups: implications for Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Carelli, Valerio; Vergani, Lodovica; Bernazzi, Barbara; Zampieron, Claudia; Bucchi, Laura; Valentino, Maria; Rengo, Chiara; Torroni, Antonio; Martinuzzi, Andrea

    2002-10-09

    The possibility that some combinations of mtDNA polymorphisms, previously associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), may affect mitochondrial respiratory function was tested in osteosarcoma-derived transmitochondrial cytoplasmic hybrids (cybrids). In this cellular system, in the presence of the same nuclear background, different exogenous mtDNAs are used to repopulate a parental cell line previously devoid of its original mtDNA. No detectable differences in multiple parameters exploring respiratory function were observed when mtDNAs belonging to European haplogroups X, H, T and J were used. Different possible explanations for the previously established association between haplogroup J and LHON 11778/ND4 and 14484/ND6 pathogenic mutations are discussed, including the unconventional proposal that mtDNA haplogroup J may exert a protective rather than detrimental effect.

  6. The Indian origin of paternal haplogroup R1a1* substantiates the autochthonous origin of Brahmins and the caste system.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Swarkar; Rai, Ekta; Sharma, Prithviraj; Jena, Mamata; Singh, Shweta; Darvishi, Katayoon; Bhat, Audesh K; Bhanwer, A J S; Tiwari, Pramod Kumar; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

    2009-01-01

    Many major rival models of the origin of the Hindu caste system co-exist despite extensive studies, each with associated genetic evidences. One of the major factors that has still kept the origin of the Indian caste system obscure is the unresolved question of the origin of Y-haplogroup R1a1*, at times associated with a male-mediated major genetic influx from Central Asia or Eurasia, which has contributed to the higher castes in India. Y-haplogroup R1a1* has a widespread distribution and high frequency across Eurasia, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent, with scanty reports of its ancestral (R*, R1* and R1a*) and derived lineages (R1a1a, R1a1b and R1a1c). To resolve these issues, we screened 621 Y-chromosomes (of Brahmins occupying the upper-most caste position and schedule castes/tribals occupying the lower-most positions) with 55 Y-chromosomal binary markers and seven Y-microsatellite markers and compiled an extensive dataset of 2809 Y-chromosomes (681 Brahmins, and 2128 tribals and schedule castes) for conclusions. A peculiar observation of the highest frequency (up to 72.22%) of Y-haplogroup R1a1* in Brahmins hinted at its presence as a founder lineage for this caste group. Further, observation of R1a1* in different tribal population groups, existence of Y-haplogroup R1a* in ancestors and extended phylogenetic analyses of the pooled dataset of 530 Indians, 224 Pakistanis and 276 Central Asians and Eurasians bearing the R1a1* haplogroup supported the autochthonous origin of R1a1 lineage in India and a tribal link to Indian Brahmins. However, it is important to discover novel Y-chromosomal binary marker(s) for a higher resolution of R1a1* and confirm the present conclusions.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA variation in Mauritania and Mali and their genetic relationship to other Western Africa populations.

    PubMed

    González, A M; Cabrera, V M; Larruga, J M; Tounkara, A; Noumsi, G; Thomas, B N; Moulds, J M

    2006-09-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation was analyzed in Mauritania and Mali, and compared to other West African samples covering the considerable geographic, ethnic and linguistic diversity of this region. The Mauritanian mtDNA profile shows that 55% of their lineages have a west Eurasian provenance, with the U6 cluster (17%) being the best represented. Only 6% of the sub-Saharan sequences belong to the L3A haplogroup a frequency similar to other Berber speaking groups but significantly different to the Arabic speaking North Africans. The historic Arab slave trade may be the main cause of this difference. Only one HV west Eurasian lineage has been detected in Mali but 40% of the sub-Saharan sequences belong to cluster L3A. The presence of L0a representatives demonstrates gene flow from eastern regions. Although both groups speak related dialects of the Mande branch, significant genetic differences exist between the Bambara and Malinke groups. The West African genetic variation is well structured by geography and language, but more detailed ethnolinguistic clustering suggest that geography is the main factor responsible for this differentiation.

  8. mtDNA mutation C1494T, haplogroup A, and hearing loss in Chinese

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Chengye; Kong Qingpeng; Yao Yonggang . E-mail: ygyaozh@yahoo.com; Zhang Yaping

    2006-09-22

    Mutation C1494T in mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene was recently reported in two large Chinese families with aminoglycoside-induced and nonsyndromic hearing loss (AINHL) and was claimed to be pathogenic. This mutation, however, was first reported in a sample from central China in our previous study that was aimed to reconstruct East Asian mtDNA phylogeny. All these three mtDNAs formed a subclade defined by mutation C1494T in mtDNA haplogroup A. It thus seems that mutation C1494T is a haplogroup A-associated mutation and this matrilineal background may contribute a high risk for the penetrance of mutation C1494T in Chinese with AINHL. To test this hypothesis, we first genotyped mutation C1494T in 553 unrelated individuals from three regional Chinese populations and performed an extensive search for published complete or near-complete mtDNA data sets (>3000 mtDNAs), we then screened the C1494T mutation in 111 mtDNAs with haplogroup A status that were identified from 1823 subjects across China. The search for published mtDNA data sets revealed no other mtDNA besides the above-mentioned three carrying mutation C1494T. None of the 553 randomly selected individuals and the 111 haplogroup A mtDNAs was found to bear this mutation. Therefore, our results suggest that C1494T is a very rare event. The mtDNA haplogroup A background in general is unlikely to play an active role in the penetrance of mutation C1494T in AINHL.

  9. The Enigmatic Origin of Bovine mtDNA Haplogroup R: Sporadic Interbreeding or an Independent Event of Bos primigenius Domestication in Italy?

    PubMed Central

    Bonfiglio, Silvia; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Negrini, Riccardo; Colli, Licia; Liotta, Luigi; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Torroni, Antonio; Ferretti, Luca

    2010-01-01

    Background When domestic taurine cattle diffused from the Fertile Crescent, local wild aurochsen (Bos primigenius) were still numerous. Moreover, aurochsen and introduced cattle often coexisted for millennia, thus providing potential conditions not only for spontaneous interbreeding, but also for pastoralists to create secondary domestication centers involving local aurochs populations. Recent mitochondrial genomes analyses revealed that not all modern taurine mtDNAs belong to the shallow macro-haplogroup T of Near Eastern origin, as demonstrated by the detection of three branches (P, Q and R) radiating prior to the T node in the bovine phylogeny. These uncommon haplogroups represent excellent tools to evaluate if sporadic interbreeding or even additional events of cattle domestication occurred. Methodology The survey of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control-region variation of 1,747 bovine samples (1,128 new and 619 from previous studies) belonging to 37 European breeds allowed the identification of 16 novel non-T mtDNAs, which after complete genome sequencing were confirmed as members of haplogroups Q and R. These mtDNAs were then integrated in a phylogenetic tree encompassing all available P, Q and R complete mtDNA sequences. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses of 28 mitochondrial genomes belonging to haplogroups P (N = 2), Q (N = 16) and R (N = 10) together with an extensive survey of all previously published mtDNA datasets revealed major similarities between haplogroups Q and T. Therefore, Q most likely represents an additional minor lineage domesticated in the Near East together with the founders of the T subhaplogroups. Whereas, haplogroup R is found, at least for the moment, only in Italy and nowhere else, either in modern or ancient samples, thus supporting an origin from European aurochsen. Haplogroup R could have been acquired through sporadic interbreeding of wild and domestic animals, but our data do not rule out the possibility of a local

  10. The enigmatic origin of bovine mtDNA haplogroup R: sporadic interbreeding or an independent event of Bos primigenius domestication in Italy?

    PubMed

    Bonfiglio, Silvia; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Negrini, Riccardo; Colli, Licia; Liotta, Luigi; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Torroni, Antonio; Ferretti, Luca

    2010-12-28

    When domestic taurine cattle diffused from the Fertile Crescent, local wild aurochsen (Bos primigenius) were still numerous. Moreover, aurochsen and introduced cattle often coexisted for millennia, thus providing potential conditions not only for spontaneous interbreeding, but also for pastoralists to create secondary domestication centers involving local aurochs populations. Recent mitochondrial genomes analyses revealed that not all modern taurine mtDNAs belong to the shallow macro-haplogroup T of Near Eastern origin, as demonstrated by the detection of three branches (P, Q and R) radiating prior to the T node in the bovine phylogeny. These uncommon haplogroups represent excellent tools to evaluate if sporadic interbreeding or even additional events of cattle domestication occurred. The survey of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control-region variation of 1,747 bovine samples (1,128 new and 619 from previous studies) belonging to 37 European breeds allowed the identification of 16 novel non-T mtDNAs, which after complete genome sequencing were confirmed as members of haplogroups Q and R. These mtDNAs were then integrated in a phylogenetic tree encompassing all available P, Q and R complete mtDNA sequences. Phylogenetic analyses of 28 mitochondrial genomes belonging to haplogroups P (N = 2), Q (N = 16) and R (N = 10) together with an extensive survey of all previously published mtDNA datasets revealed major similarities between haplogroups Q and T. Therefore, Q most likely represents an additional minor lineage domesticated in the Near East together with the founders of the T subhaplogroups. Whereas, haplogroup R is found, at least for the moment, only in Italy and nowhere else, either in modern or ancient samples, thus supporting an origin from European aurochsen. Haplogroup R could have been acquired through sporadic interbreeding of wild and domestic animals, but our data do not rule out the possibility of a local and secondary event of B. primigenius

  11. MtDNA Haplogroup A10 Lineages in Bronze Age Samples Suggest That Ancient Autochthonous Human Groups Contributed to the Specificity of the Indigenous West Siberian Population.

    PubMed

    Pilipenko, Aleksandr S; Trapezov, Rostislav O; Zhuravlev, Anton A; Molodin, Vyacheslav I; Romaschenko, Aida G

    2015-01-01

    The craniometric specificity of the indigenous West Siberian human populations cannot be completely explained by the genetic interactions of the western and eastern Eurasian groups recorded in the archaeology of the area from the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC. Anthropologists have proposed another probable explanation: contribution to the genetic structure of West Siberian indigenous populations by ancient human groups, which separated from western and eastern Eurasian populations before the final formation of their phenotypic and genetic features and evolved independently in the region over a long period of time. This hypothesis remains untested. From the genetic point of view, it could be confirmed by the presence in the gene pool of indigenous populations of autochthonous components that evolved in the region over long time periods. The detection of such components, particularly in the mtDNA gene pool, is crucial for further clarification of early regional genetic history. We present the results of analysis of mtDNA samples (n = 10) belonging to the A10 haplogroup, from Bronze Age populations of West Siberian forest-steppe (V-I millennium BC), that were identified in a screening study of a large diachronic sample (n = 96). A10 lineages, which are very rare in modern Eurasian populations, were found in all the Bronze Age groups under study. Data on the A10 lineages' phylogeny and phylogeography in ancient West Siberian and modern Eurasian populations suggest that A10 haplogroup underwent a long-term evolution in West Siberia or arose there autochthonously; thus, the presence of A10 lineages indicates the possible contribution of early autochthonous human groups to the genetic specificity of modern populations, in addition to contributions of later interactions of western and eastern Eurasian populations.

  12. MtDNA Haplogroup A10 Lineages in Bronze Age Samples Suggest That Ancient Autochthonous Human Groups Contributed to the Specificity of the Indigenous West Siberian Population

    PubMed Central

    Pilipenko, Aleksandr S.; Trapezov, Rostislav O.; Zhuravlev, Anton A.; Molodin, Vyacheslav I.; Romaschenko, Aida G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The craniometric specificity of the indigenous West Siberian human populations cannot be completely explained by the genetic interactions of the western and eastern Eurasian groups recorded in the archaeology of the area from the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC. Anthropologists have proposed another probable explanation: contribution to the genetic structure of West Siberian indigenous populations by ancient human groups, which separated from western and eastern Eurasian populations before the final formation of their phenotypic and genetic features and evolved independently in the region over a long period of time. This hypothesis remains untested. From the genetic point of view, it could be confirmed by the presence in the gene pool of indigenous populations of autochthonous components that evolved in the region over long time periods. The detection of such components, particularly in the mtDNA gene pool, is crucial for further clarification of early regional genetic history. Results and Conclusion We present the results of analysis of mtDNA samples (n = 10) belonging to the A10 haplogroup, from Bronze Age populations of West Siberian forest-steppe (V—I millennium BC), that were identified in a screening study of a large diachronic sample (n = 96). A10 lineages, which are very rare in modern Eurasian populations, were found in all the Bronze Age groups under study. Data on the A10 lineages’ phylogeny and phylogeography in ancient West Siberian and modern Eurasian populations suggest that A10 haplogroup underwent a long-term evolution in West Siberia or arose there autochthonously; thus, the presence of A10 lineages indicates the possible contribution of early autochthonous human groups to the genetic specificity of modern populations, in addition to contributions of later interactions of western and eastern Eurasian populations. PMID:25950581

  13. Identification of Polynesian mtDNA haplogroups in remains of Botocudo Amerindians from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Vanessa Faria; Stenderup, Jesper; Rodrigues-Carvalho, Cláudia; Silva, Hilton P.; Gonçalves-Dornelas, Higgor; Líryo, Andersen; Kivisild, Toomas; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Campos, Paula F.; Rasmussen, Morten; Willerslev, Eske; Pena, Sergio Danilo J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a consensus that modern humans arrived in the Americas 15,000–20,000 y ago during the Late Pleistocene, most probably from northeast Asia through Beringia. However, there is still debate about the time of entry and number of migratory waves, including apparent inconsistencies between genetic and morphological data on Paleoamericans. Here we report the identification of mitochondrial sequences belonging to haplogroups characteristic of Polynesians in DNA extracted from ancient skulls of the now extinct Botocudo Indians from Brazil. The identification of these two Polynesian haplogroups was confirmed in independent replications in Brazil and Denmark, ensuring reliability of the data. Parallel analysis of 12 other Botocudo individuals yielded only the well-known Amerindian mtDNA haplogroup C1. Potential scenarios to try to help understand these results are presented and discussed. The findings of this study may be relevant for the understanding of the pre-Columbian and/or post-Columbian peopling of the Americas. PMID:23576724

  14. Linking the sub-Saharan and West Eurasian gene pools: maternal and paternal heritage of the Tuareg nomads from the African Sahel.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luísa; Cerný, Viktor; Cerezo, María; Silva, Nuno M; Hájek, Martin; Vasíková, Alzbeta; Kujanová, Martina; Brdicka, Radim; Salas, Antonio

    2010-08-01

    The Tuareg presently live in the Sahara and the Sahel. Their ancestors are commonly believed to be the Garamantes of the Libyan Fezzan, ever since it was suggested by authors of antiquity. Biological evidence, based on classical genetic markers, however, indicates kinship with the Beja of Eastern Sudan. Our study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and Y chromosome SNPs of three different southern Tuareg groups from Mali, Burkina Faso and the Republic of Niger reveals a West Eurasian-North African composition of their gene pool. The data show that certain genetic lineages could not have been introduced into this population earlier than approximately 9000 years ago whereas local expansions establish a minimal date at around 3000 years ago. Some of the mtDNA haplogroups observed in the Tuareg population were involved in the post-Last Glacial Maximum human expansion from Iberian refugia towards both Europe and North Africa. Interestingly, no Near Eastern mtDNA lineages connected with the Neolithic expansion have been observed in our population sample. On the other hand, the Y chromosome SNPs data show that the paternal lineages can very probably be traced to the Near Eastern Neolithic demic expansion towards North Africa, a period that is otherwise concordant with the above-mentioned mtDNA expansion. The time frame for the migration of the Tuareg towards the African Sahel belt overlaps that of early Holocene climatic changes across the Sahara (from the optimal greening approximately 10 000 YBP to the extant aridity beginning at approximately 6000 YBP) and the migrations of other African nomadic peoples in the area.

  15. Linking the sub-Saharan and West Eurasian gene pools: maternal and paternal heritage of the Tuareg nomads from the African Sahel

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Luísa; Černý, Viktor; Cerezo, María; Silva, Nuno M; Hájek, Martin; Vašíková, Alžběta; Kujanová, Martina; Brdička, Radim; Salas, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The Tuareg presently live in the Sahara and the Sahel. Their ancestors are commonly believed to be the Garamantes of the Libyan Fezzan, ever since it was suggested by authors of antiquity. Biological evidence, based on classical genetic markers, however, indicates kinship with the Beja of Eastern Sudan. Our study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and Y chromosome SNPs of three different southern Tuareg groups from Mali, Burkina Faso and the Republic of Niger reveals a West Eurasian-North African composition of their gene pool. The data show that certain genetic lineages could not have been introduced into this population earlier than ∼9000 years ago whereas local expansions establish a minimal date at around 3000 years ago. Some of the mtDNA haplogroups observed in the Tuareg population were involved in the post-Last Glacial Maximum human expansion from Iberian refugia towards both Europe and North Africa. Interestingly, no Near Eastern mtDNA lineages connected with the Neolithic expansion have been observed in our population sample. On the other hand, the Y chromosome SNPs data show that the paternal lineages can very probably be traced to the Near Eastern Neolithic demic expansion towards North Africa, a period that is otherwise concordant with the above-mentioned mtDNA expansion. The time frame for the migration of the Tuareg towards the African Sahel belt overlaps that of early Holocene climatic changes across the Sahara (from the optimal greening ∼10 000 YBP to the extant aridity beginning at ∼6000 YBP) and the migrations of other African nomadic peoples in the area. PMID:20234393

  16. Phylogeography of human Y-chromosome haplogroup Q3-L275 from an academic/citizen science collaboration.

    PubMed

    Balanovsky, Oleg; Gurianov, Vladimir; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Balaganskaya, Olga; Urasin, Vadim; Zhabagin, Maxat; Grugni, Viola; Canada, Rebekah; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Raveane, Alessandro; Wen, Shao-Qing; Yan, Shi; Wang, Xianpin; Zalloua, Pierre; Marafi, Abdullah; Koshel, Sergey; Semino, Ornella; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Balanovska, Elena

    2017-02-07

    The Y-chromosome haplogroup Q has three major branches: Q1, Q2, and Q3. Q1 is found in both Asia and the Americas where it accounts for about 90% of indigenous Native American Y-chromosomes; Q2 is found in North and Central Asia; but little is known about the third branch, Q3, also named Q1b-L275. Here, we combined the efforts of population geneticists and genetic genealogists to use the potential of full Y-chromosome sequencing for reconstructing haplogroup Q3 phylogeography and suggest possible linkages to events in population history. We analyzed 47 fully sequenced Y-chromosomes and reconstructed the haplogroup Q3 phylogenetic tree in detail. Haplogroup Q3-L275, derived from the oldest known split within Eurasian/American haplogroup Q, most likely occurred in West or Central Asia in the Upper Paleolithic period. During the Mesolithic and Neolithic epochs, Q3 remained a minor component of the West Asian Y-chromosome pool and gave rise to five branches (Q3a to Q3e), which spread across West, Central and parts of South Asia. Around 3-4 millennia ago (Bronze Age), the Q3a branch underwent a rapid expansion, splitting into seven branches, some of which entered Europe. One of these branches, Q3a1, was acquired by a population ancestral to Ashkenazi Jews and grew within this population during the 1st millennium AD, reaching up to 5% in present day Ashkenazi. This study dataset was generated by a massive Y-chromosome genotyping effort in the genetic genealogy community, and phylogeographic patterns were revealed by a collaboration of population geneticists and genetic genealogists. This positive experience of collaboration between academic and citizen science provides a model for further joint projects. Merging data and skills of academic and citizen science promises to combine, respectively, quality and quantity, generalization and specialization, and achieve a well-balanced and careful interpretation of the paternal-side history of human populations.

  17. Differences in mtDNA haplogroup distribution among 3 Jewish populations alter susceptibility to T2DM complications

    PubMed Central

    Feder, Jeanette; Blech, Ilana; Ovadia, Ofer; Amar, Shirly; Wainstein, Julio; Raz, Itamar; Dadon, Sarah; Arking, Dan E; Glaser, Benjamin; Mishmar, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent genome-wide association studies searching for candidate susceptibility loci for common complex diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its common complications have uncovered novel disease-associated genes. Nevertheless these large-scale population screens often overlook the tremendous variation in the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) and its involvement in complex disorders. Results We have analyzed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic variability in Ashkenazi (Ash), Sephardic (Seph) and North African (NAF) Jewish populations (total n = 1179). Our analysis showed significant differences (p < 0.001) in the distribution of mtDNA genetic backgrounds (haplogroups) among the studied populations. To test whether these differences alter the pattern of disease susceptibility, we have screened our three Jewish populations for an association of mtDNA genetic haplogroups with T2DM complications. Our results identified population-specific susceptibility factors of which the best example is the Ashkenazi Jewish specific haplogroup N1b1, having an apparent protective effect against T2DM complications in Ash (p = 0.006), being absent in the NAF population and under-represented in the Seph population. We have generated and analyzed whole mtDNA sequences from the disease associated haplogroups revealing mutations in highly conserved positions that are good candidates to explain the phenotypic effect of these genetic backgrounds. Conclusion Our findings support the possibility that recent bottleneck events leading to over-representation of minor mtDNA alleles in specific genetic isolates, could result in population-specific susceptibility loci to complex disorders. PMID:18445251

  18. High resolution mapping of Y haplogroup G in Tyrol (Austria).

    PubMed

    Berger, Burkhard; Niederstätter, Harald; Erhart, Daniel; Gassner, Christoph; Schennach, Harald; Parson, Walther

    2013-09-01

    The distribution of Y-chromosomal haplogroup G2a (G-P15) in present-day paternal lineages in Tyrol (Austria) was analyzed by applying a high-density regional sampling scheme that also covered remote mountain areas. There is evidence from ancient genetic data for a high frequency of Y-chromosomal haplogroup G in prehistoric populations of Central Europe, whilst nowadays levels well below 10% are routinely observed. A population sample comprising ∼3700 specimens was analyzed for Y-chromosomal variation by genotyping Y-SNPs and Y-STRs. The set of binary markers included nine SNPs specific for sub-lineages of haplogroup G. The frequency of haplogroup G in 2379 unrelated men born in Tyrol amounted to 11.3%. Nearly all of these Y chromosomes belonged to haplogroup G2a. The main sub-haplogroup within G2a was defined by the SNP L497 (G2a3b1c) and reached a population frequency of 8.6%. Although this average level is higher than reported for other countries the geographical distribution of haplogroup G-L497 showed a differentiated pattern with a clustered distribution within some alpine valleys, where maxima above 40% were found. Both, the estimation of coalescent times and a principle coordinates analysis based on RST values derived from Y-STR haplotypes from different sub-regions of Tyrol revealed evidence for an old settlement history associated with Y chromosomes belonging to haplogroup G in the Tyrolean Alps.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA variation and HIV-associated sensory neuropathy in CHARTER

    PubMed Central

    Holzinger, Emily R.; Hulgan, Todd; Ellis, Ronald J.; Samuels, David C.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Haas, David W.; Kallianpur, Asha R.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Clifford, David B.; Collier, Ann C.; Gelman, Benjamin B.; Marra, Christina M.; McArthur, Justin C.; McCutchan, J. Allen; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David M.; Franklin, Donald R.; Rosario, Debralee; Selph, Doug; Letendre, Scott; Grant, Igor

    2013-01-01

    HIV-associated sensory neuropathy remains an important complication of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART) and HIV infection. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have previously been associated with symptomatic neuropathy in clinical trial participants. We examined associations between mitochondrial DNA variation and HIV-associated sensory neuropathy in CHARTER. CHARTER is a U.S. based longitudinal observational study of HIV-infected adults who underwent a structured interview and standardized examination. HIV-associated sensory neuropathy was determined by trained examiners as ≥1 sign (diminished vibratory and sharp-dull discrimination or ankle reflexes) bilaterally. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing was performed and haplogroups were assigned by published algorithms. Multivariable logistic regression of associations between mitochondrial DNA SNPs, haplogroups and HIV-associated sensory neuropathy were performed. In analyses of associations of each mitochondrial DNA SNP with HIV-associated sensory neuropathy, the two most significant SNPs were at positions A12810G (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.27 [0.11-0.65]; p = 0.004) and T489C (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.41 [0.21-0.80]; p = 0.009). These synonymous changes are known to define African haplogroup L1c and European haplogroup J, respectively. Both haplogroups are associated with decreased prevalence of HIV-associated sensory neuropathy compared with all other haplogroups (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.29 [0.12-0.71]; p = 0.007 and odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.42 [0.18-1.0]; p = 0.05, respectively). In conclusion, in this cohort of mostly combination antiretroviral therapy-treated subjects, two common mitochondrial DNA SNPs and their corresponding haplogroups were associated with a markedly decreased prevalence of HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. PMID:23073667

  20. Mitochondrial DNA variation and HIV-associated sensory neuropathy in CHARTER.

    PubMed

    Holzinger, Emily R; Hulgan, Todd; Ellis, Ronald J; Samuels, David C; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Haas, David W; Kallianpur, Asha R; Bloss, Cinnamon S; Clifford, David B; Collier, Ann C; Gelman, Benjamin B; Marra, Christina M; McArthur, Justin C; McCutchan, J Allen; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David M; Franklin, Donald R; Rosario, Debralee; Selph, Doug; Letendre, Scott; Grant, Igor

    2012-12-01

    HIV-associated sensory neuropathy remains an important complication of combination antiretroviral therapy and HIV infection. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have previously been associated with symptomatic neuropathy in clinical trial participants. We examined associations between mitochondrial DNA variation and HIV-associated sensory neuropathy in CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER). CHARTER is a USA-based longitudinal observational study of HIV-infected adults who underwent a structured interview and standardized examination. HIV-associated sensory neuropathy was determined by trained examiners as ≥1 sign (diminished vibratory and sharp-dull discrimination or ankle reflexes) bilaterally. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing was performed and haplogroups were assigned by published algorithms. Multivariable logistic regression of associations between mitochondrial DNA SNPs, haplogroups, and HIV-associated sensory neuropathy were performed. In analyses of associations of each mitochondrial DNA SNP with HIV-associated sensory neuropathy, the two most significant SNPs were at positions A12810G [odds ratio (95 % confidence interval) = 0.27 (0.11-0.65); p = 0.004] and T489C [odds ratio (95 % confidence interval) = 0.41 (0.21-0.80); p = 0.009]. These synonymous changes are known to define African haplogroup L1c and European haplogroup J, respectively. Both haplogroups were associated with decreased prevalence of HIV-associated sensory neuropathy compared with all other haplogroups [odds ratio (95 % confidence interval) = 0.29 (0.12-0.71); p = 0.007 and odds ratio (95 % confidence interval) = 0.42 (0.18-1.0); p = 0.05, respectively]. In conclusion, in this cohort of mostly combination antiretroviral therapy-treated subjects, two common mitochondrial DNA SNPs and their corresponding haplogroups were associated with a markedly decreased prevalence of HIV-associated sensory neuropathy.

  1. Y Chromosome, Mitochondrial DNA and Childhood Behavioural Traits.

    PubMed

    Howe, Laurence J; Erzurumluoglu, A Mesut; Davey Smith, George; Rodriguez, Santiago; Stergiakouli, Evie

    2017-09-14

    Many psychiatric traits are sexually dimorphic in terms of prevalence, age of onset, progression and prognosis; sex chromosomes could play a role in these differences. In this study we evaluated the association between Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA haplogroups with sexually-dimorphic behavioural and psychiatric traits. The study sample included 4,211 males and 4,009 females with mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and 4,788 males with Y chromosome haplogroups who are part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) based in the United Kingdom. Different subsets of these populations were assessed using measures of behavioural and psychiatric traits with logistic regression being used to measure the association between haplogroups and the traits. The majority of behavioural traits in our cohort differed between males and females; however Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA haplogroups were not associated with any of the variables. These findings suggest that if there is common variation on the Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA associated with behavioural and psychiatric trait variation, it has a small effect.

  2. HAPLOFIND: a new method for high-throughput mtDNA haplogroup assignment.

    PubMed

    Vianello, Dario; Sevini, Federica; Castellani, Gastone; Lomartire, Laura; Capri, Miriam; Franceschi, Claudio

    2013-09-01

    Deep sequencing technologies are completely revolutionizing the approach to DNA analysis. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) studies entered in the "postgenomic era": the burst in sequenced samples observed in nuclear genomics is expected also in mitochondria, a trend that can already be detected checking complete mtDNA sequences database submission rate. Tools for the analysis of these data are available, but they fail in throughput or in easiness of use. We present here a new pipeline based on previous algorithms, inherited from the "nuclear genomic toolbox," combined with a newly developed algorithm capable of efficiently and easily classify new mtDNA sequences according to PhyloTree nomenclature. Detected mutations are also annotated using data collected from publicly available databases. Thanks to the analysis of all freely available sequences with known haplogroup obtained from GenBank, we were able to produce a PhyloTree-based weighted tree, taking into account each haplogroup pattern conservation. The combination of a highly efficient aligner, coupled with our algorithm and massive usage of asynchronous parallel processing, allowed us to build a high-throughput pipeline for the analysis of mtDNA sequences that can be quickly updated to follow the ever-changing nomenclature. HaploFind is freely accessible at the following Web address: https://haplofind.unibo.it. © 2013 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  3. No evidence that major mtDNA European haplogroups confer risk to schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mosquera-Miguel, Ana; Torrell, Helena; Abasolo, Nerea; Arrojo, Manuel; Paz, Eduardo; Ramos-Ríos, Ramón; Agra, Santiago; Páramo, Mario; Brenlla, Julio; Martínez, Silvia; Vilella, Elisabet; Valero, Joaquín; Gutiérrez-Zotes, Alfonso; Martorell, Lourdes; Costas, Javier; Salas, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that genetic factors could be involved in mitochondrial dysfunction observed in schizophrenia (SZ), some of them claiming a role of mtDNA common variants (mtSNPs) and/or haplogroups (hgs) in developing this disorder. These studies, however, have mainly been undertaken on relatively small cohorts of patients and control individuals and most have not yet been replicated. To further analyze the role of mtSNPs in SZ risk, we have carried out the largest genotyping effort to date using two Spanish case-control samples comprising a total of 942 schizophrenic patients and 1,231 unrelated controls: 454 patients and 616 controls from Santiago de Compostela (Galicia) and 488 patients and 615 controls from Reus (Catalonia). A set of 25 mtSNPs representing main branches of the European mtDNA phylogeny were genotyped in the Galician cohort and a subset of 16 out of these 25 mtSNPs was genotyped in the Catalan cohort. These 16 common variants characterize the most common European branches of the mtDNA phylogeny. We did not observe any positive association of mtSNPs and hgs with SZ. We discuss several deficiencies of previous studies that might explain the false positive nature of previous findings, including the confounding effect of population sub-structure and deficient statistical methodologies. It is unlikely that mtSNPs defining the most common European mtDNA haplogroups are related to SZ. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Human Y chromosome haplogroup R-V88: a paternal genetic record of early mid Holocene trans-Saharan connections and the spread of Chadic languages.

    PubMed

    Cruciani, Fulvio; Trombetta, Beniamino; Sellitto, Daniele; Massaia, Andrea; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Watson, Elizabeth; Beraud Colomb, Eliane; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Moral, Pedro; Scozzari, Rosaria

    2010-07-01

    Although human Y chromosomes belonging to haplogroup R1b are quite rare in Africa, being found mainly in Asia and Europe, a group of chromosomes within the paragroup R-P25(*) are found concentrated in the central-western part of the African continent, where they can be detected at frequencies as high as 95%. Phylogenetic evidence and coalescence time estimates suggest that R-P25(*) chromosomes (or their phylogenetic ancestor) may have been carried to Africa by an Asia-to-Africa back migration in prehistoric times. Here, we describe six new mutations that define the relationships among the African R-P25(*) Y chromosomes and between these African chromosomes and earlier reported R-P25 Eurasian sub-lineages. The incorporation of these new mutations into a phylogeny of the R1b haplogroup led to the identification of a new clade (R1b1a or R-V88) encompassing all the African R-P25(*) and about half of the few European/west Asian R-P25(*) chromosomes. A worldwide phylogeographic analysis of the R1b haplogroup provided strong support to the Asia-to-Africa back-migration hypothesis. The analysis of the distribution of the R-V88 haplogroup in >1800 males from 69 African populations revealed a striking genetic contiguity between the Chadic-speaking peoples from the central Sahel and several other Afroasiatic-speaking groups from North Africa. The R-V88 coalescence time was estimated at 9.2-5.6 [corrected] kya, in the early mid Holocene. We suggest that R-V88 is a paternal genetic record of the proposed mid-Holocene migration of proto-Chadic Afroasiatic speakers through the Central Sahara into the Lake Chad Basin, and geomorphological evidence is consistent with this view.

  5. Human Y chromosome haplogroup R-V88: a paternal genetic record of early mid Holocene trans-Saharan connections and the spread of Chadic languages

    PubMed Central

    Cruciani, Fulvio; Trombetta, Beniamino; Sellitto, Daniele; Massaia, Andrea; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Watson, Elizabeth; Beraud Colomb, Eliane; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Moral, Pedro; Scozzari, Rosaria

    2010-01-01

    Although human Y chromosomes belonging to haplogroup R1b are quite rare in Africa, being found mainly in Asia and Europe, a group of chromosomes within the paragroup R-P25* are found concentrated in the central-western part of the African continent, where they can be detected at frequencies as high as 95%. Phylogenetic evidence and coalescence time estimates suggest that R-P25* chromosomes (or their phylogenetic ancestor) may have been carried to Africa by an Asia-to-Africa back migration in prehistoric times. Here, we describe six new mutations that define the relationships among the African R-P25* Y chromosomes and between these African chromosomes and earlier reported R-P25 Eurasian sub-lineages. The incorporation of these new mutations into a phylogeny of the R1b haplogroup led to the identification of a new clade (R1b1a or R-V88) encompassing all the African R-P25* and about half of the few European/west Asian R-P25* chromosomes. A worldwide phylogeographic analysis of the R1b haplogroup provided strong support to the Asia-to-Africa back-migration hypothesis. The analysis of the distribution of the R-V88 haplogroup in >1800 males from 69 African populations revealed a striking genetic contiguity between the Chadic-speaking peoples from the central Sahel and several other Afroasiatic-speaking groups from North Africa. The R-V88 coalescence time was estimated at 9200–5600 kya, in the early mid Holocene. We suggest that R-V88 is a paternal genetic record of the proposed mid-Holocene migration of proto-Chadic Afroasiatic speakers through the Central Sahara into the Lake Chad Basin, and geomorphological evidence is consistent with this view. PMID:20051990

  6. Y chromosome haplogroups of elite Ethiopian endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Moran, Colin N; Scott, Robert A; Adams, Susan M; Warrington, Samantha J; Jobling, Mark A; Wilson, Richard H; Goodwin, William H; Georgiades, Evelina; Wolde, Bezabhe; Pitsiladis, Yannis P

    2004-11-01

    Favourable genetic endowment has been proposed as part of the explanation for the success of East African endurance athletes, but no evidence has yet been presented. The Y chromosome haplogroup distribution of elite Ethiopian athletes (n=62) was compared with that of the general Ethiopian population (n=95) and a control group from Arsi (a region producing a disproportionate number of athletes; n=85). Athletes belonged to three groups: marathon runners (M; n=23), 5-km to 10-km runners (5-10K; n=21) and other track and field athletes (TF; n=18). DNA was extracted from buccal swabs and haplogroups were assigned after the typing of binary markers in multiplexed minisequencing reactions. Frequency differences between groups were assessed by using contingency exact tests and showed that Y chromosome haplogroups are not distributed amongst elite Ethiopian endurance runners in the same proportions as in the general population, with statistically significant (P<0.05) differences being found in four of the individual haplogroups. The geographical origins and languages of the athletes and controls suggest that these differences are less likely to be a reflection of population structure and that Y chromosome haplogroups may play a significant role in determining Ethiopian endurance running success.

  7. Y-SNP analysis versus Y-haplogroup predictor in the Slovak population.

    PubMed

    Petrejcíková, Eva; Carnogurská, Jana; Hronská, Danica; Bernasovská, Jarmila; Boronová, Iveta; Gabriková, Dana; Bôziková, Alexandra; Maceková, Sona

    2014-01-01

    Human Y-chromosome haplogroups are important markers used mainly in population genetic studies. The haplogroups are defined by several SNPs according to the phylogeny and international nomenclature. The alternative method to estimate the Y-chromosome haplogroups is to predict Y-chromosome haplotypes from a set of Y-STR markers using software for Y-haplogroup prediction. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of three types of Y-haplogroup prediction software and to determine the structure of Slovak population revealed by the Y-chromosome haplogroups. We used a sample of 166 Slovak males in which 12 Y-STR markers were genotyped in our previous study. These results were analyzed by three different software products that predict Y-haplogroups. To estimate the accuracy of these prediction software, Y-haplogroups were determined in the same sample by genotyping Y-chromosome SNPs. Haplogroups were correctly predicted in 98.80% (Whit Athey's Haplogroup Predictor), 97.59% (Jim Cullen's Haplogroup Predictor) and 98.19% (YPredictor by Vadim Urasin 1.5.0) of individuals. The occurrence of errors in Y-chromosome haplogroup prediction suggests that the validation using SNP analysis is appropriate when high accuracy is required. The results of SNP based haplotype determination indicate that 39.15% of the Slovak population belongs to R1a-M198 lineage, which is one of the main European lineages.

  8. Physical characteristics of Eurasian winter temperature variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Yul; Son, Seok-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Despite the on-going global warming, recent winters in Eurasian mid-latitudes were much colder than average. In an attempt to better understand the physical characteristics for cold Eurasian winters, major sources of variability in surface air temperature (SAT) are investigated based on cyclostationary EOF analysis. The two leading modes of SAT variability represent the effect of Arctic amplification (AA) and the Arctic oscillation (AO), respectively. These two modes are distinct in terms of the physical characteristics, including surface energy fluxes and tropospheric circulations, and result in significantly different winter SAT patterns over the Eurasian continent. The AA-related SAT anomalies are dipolar with warm Arctic, centered at the Barents-Kara Seas, and cold East Asia. In contrast, the negative AO-related SAT anomalies are characterized by widespread cold anomalies in Northern Eurasia. Relative importance of the AA and the negative AO contributions to cold Eurasian winters is sensitive to the region of interest.

  9. Eurasianism: A Historical and Contemporary Context

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    unlimited EURASIANISM: A HISTORICAL AND CONTEMPORARY CONTEXT Andrew T. Stafford Lieutenant, United States Navy B.S., United States Naval...Caucaso-Asia.’”11 Dugin disagrees with the international relations policies of the United States and the degree to which Eurasianism coincides with...likely possibility of its joining an alliance with the United States .84 Certainly, a Sino-US pact would pose a credible threat to Dugin’s designs for

  10. Analysis of mitochondrial genome diversity identifies new and ancient maternal lineages in Cambodian aborigines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Qi, Xuebin; Yang, Zhaohui; Serey, Bun; Sovannary, Tuot; Bunnath, Long; Seang Aun, Hong; Samnom, Ham; Zhang, Hui; Lin, Qiang; van Oven, Mannis; Shi, Hong; Su, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Cambodia harbours a variety of aboriginal (and presumably ancient) populations that have largely been ignored in studies of genetic diversity. Here we investigate the matrilineal gene pool of 1,054 Cambodians from 14 geographic populations. Using mitochondrial whole-genome sequencing, we identify eight new mitochondrial DNA haplogroups, all of which are either newly defined basal haplogroups or basal sub-branches. Most of the new basal haplogroups have very old coalescence ages, ranging from ~55,000 to ~68,000 years, suggesting that present-day Cambodian aborigines still carry ancient genetic polymorphisms in their maternal lineages, and most of the common Cambodian haplogroups probably originated locally before expanding to the surrounding areas during prehistory. Moreover, we observe a relatively close relationship between Cambodians and populations from the Indian subcontinent, supporting the earliest costal route of migration of modern humans from Africa into mainland Southeast Asia by way of the Indian subcontinent some 60,000 years ago.

  11. Estimates of Continental Ancestry Vary Widely among Individuals with the Same mtDNA Haplogroup

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Leslie S.; Magnaye, Kevin M.; Bigham, Abigail W.; Akey, Joshua M.; Bamshad, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The association between a geographical region and an mtDNA haplogroup(s) has provided the basis for using mtDNA haplogroups to infer an individual’s place of origin and genetic ancestry. Although it is well known that ancestry inferences using mtDNA haplogroups and those using genome-wide markers are frequently discrepant, little empirical information exists on the magnitude and scope of such discrepancies between multiple mtDNA haplogroups and worldwide populations. We compared genetic-ancestry inferences made by mtDNA-haplogroup membership to those made by autosomal SNPs in ∼940 samples of the Human Genome Diversity Panel and recently admixed populations from the 1000 Genomes Project. Continental-ancestry proportions often varied widely among individuals sharing the same mtDNA haplogroup. For only half of mtDNA haplogroups did the highest average continental-ancestry proportion match the highest continental-ancestry proportion of a majority of individuals with that haplogroup. Prediction of an individual’s mtDNA haplogroup from his or her continental-ancestry proportions was often incorrect. Collectively, these results indicate that for most individuals in the worldwide populations sampled, mtDNA-haplogroup membership provides limited information about either continental ancestry or continental region of origin. PMID:25620206

  12. Estimates of continental ancestry vary widely among individuals with the same mtDNA haplogroup.

    PubMed

    Emery, Leslie S; Magnaye, Kevin M; Bigham, Abigail W; Akey, Joshua M; Bamshad, Michael J

    2015-02-05

    The association between a geographical region and an mtDNA haplogroup(s) has provided the basis for using mtDNA haplogroups to infer an individual's place of origin and genetic ancestry. Although it is well known that ancestry inferences using mtDNA haplogroups and those using genome-wide markers are frequently discrepant, little empirical information exists on the magnitude and scope of such discrepancies between multiple mtDNA haplogroups and worldwide populations. We compared genetic-ancestry inferences made by mtDNA-haplogroup membership to those made by autosomal SNPs in ∼940 samples of the Human Genome Diversity Panel and recently admixed populations from the 1000 Genomes Project. Continental-ancestry proportions often varied widely among individuals sharing the same mtDNA haplogroup. For only half of mtDNA haplogroups did the highest average continental-ancestry proportion match the highest continental-ancestry proportion of a majority of individuals with that haplogroup. Prediction of an individual's mtDNA haplogroup from his or her continental-ancestry proportions was often incorrect. Collectively, these results indicate that for most individuals in the worldwide populations sampled, mtDNA-haplogroup membership provides limited information about either continental ancestry or continental region of origin. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA reveals reticulate evolution in hares (Lepus spp., Lagomorpha, Mammalia) from Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bekele, Endashaw; Tesfaye, Kassahun; Ben Slimen, Hichem; Valqui, Juan; Getahun, Abebe; Hartl, Günther B.; Suchentrunk, Franz

    2017-01-01

    microsatellite differences; moreover, it is not represented by a species-specific mitochondrial haplogroup, suggesting considerable mitochondrial capture by the other species from Ethiopia or species from other parts of Africa. Both mitochondrial and nuclear sequences indicate close phylogenetic relationships among all three Lepus species from Ethiopia, with L. fagani being surprisingly tightly connected to L. habessinicus. TF sequences suggest close evolutionary relationships between the three Ethiopian species and Cape hares from South and North Africa; they further suggest that hares from Ethiopia hold a position ancestral to many Eurasian and North American species. PMID:28767659

  14. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA reveals reticulate evolution in hares (Lepus spp., Lagomorpha, Mammalia) from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tolesa, Zelalem; Bekele, Endashaw; Tesfaye, Kassahun; Ben Slimen, Hichem; Valqui, Juan; Getahun, Abebe; Hartl, Günther B; Suchentrunk, Franz

    2017-01-01

    microsatellite differences; moreover, it is not represented by a species-specific mitochondrial haplogroup, suggesting considerable mitochondrial capture by the other species from Ethiopia or species from other parts of Africa. Both mitochondrial and nuclear sequences indicate close phylogenetic relationships among all three Lepus species from Ethiopia, with L. fagani being surprisingly tightly connected to L. habessinicus. TF sequences suggest close evolutionary relationships between the three Ethiopian species and Cape hares from South and North Africa; they further suggest that hares from Ethiopia hold a position ancestral to many Eurasian and North American species.

  15. The molecular dissection of mtDNA haplogroup H confirms that the Franco-Cantabrian glacial refuge was a major source for the European gene pool.

    PubMed

    Achilli, Alessandro; Rengo, Chiara; Magri, Chiara; Battaglia, Vincenza; Olivieri, Anna; Scozzari, Rosaria; Cruciani, Fulvio; Zeviani, Massimo; Briem, Egill; Carelli, Valerio; Moral, Pedro; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Roostalu, Urmas; Loogväli, Eva-Liis; Kivisild, Toomas; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Richards, Martin; Villems, Richard; Santachiara-Benerecetti, A Silvana; Semino, Ornella; Torroni, Antonio

    2004-11-01

    Complete sequencing of 62 mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) belonging (or very closely related) to haplogroup H revealed that this mtDNA haplogroup--by far the most common in Europe--is subdivided into numerous subhaplogroups, with at least 15 of them (H1-H15) identifiable by characteristic mutations. All the haplogroup H mtDNAs found in 5,743 subjects from 43 populations were then screened for diagnostic markers of subhaplogroups H1 and H3. This survey showed that both subhaplogroups display frequency peaks, centered in Iberia and surrounding areas, with distributions declining toward the northeast and southeast--a pattern extremely similar to that previously reported for mtDNA haplogroup V. Furthermore, the coalescence ages of H1 and H3 (~11,000 years) are close to that previously reported for V. These findings have major implications for the origin of Europeans, since they attest that the Franco-Cantabrian refuge area was indeed the source of late-glacial expansions of hunter-gatherers that repopulated much of Central and Northern Europe from ~15,000 years ago. This has also some implications for disease studies. For instance, the high occurrence of H1 and H3 in Iberia led us to re-evaluate the haplogroup distribution in 50 Spanish families affected by nonsyndromic sensorineural deafness due to the A1555G mutation. The survey revealed that the previously reported excess of H among these families is caused entirely by H3 and is due to a major, probably nonrecent, founder event.

  16. Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial genome variation – an increased understanding of population antiquity and diversity

    PubMed Central

    Nagle, Nano; van Oven, Mannis; Wilcox, Stephen; van Holst Pellekaan, Sheila; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Ballantyne, Kaye N.; Wilcox, Leah; Papac, Luka; Cooke, Karen; van Oorschot, Roland A. H.; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Kayser, Manfred; Mitchell, R. John; Adhikarla, Syama; Adler, Christina J.; Balanovska, Elena; Balanovsky, Oleg; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Clarke, Andrew C.; Comas, David; Cooper, Alan; Der Sarkissian, Clio S. I.; Dulik, Matthew C.; Gaieski, Jill B.; GaneshPrasad, ArunKumar; Haak, Wolfgang; Haber, Marc; Hobbs, Angela; Javed, Asif; Jin, Li; Kaplan, Matthew E.; Li, Shilin; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.; Melé, Marta; Merchant, Nirav C.; Owings, Amanda C.; Parida, Laxmi; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; Platt, Daniel E.; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Renfrew, Colin; Royyuru, Ajay K.; Santhakumari, Arun Varatharajan; Santos, Fabrício R.; Schurr, Theodore G.; Soodyall, Himla; Soria Hernanz, David F.; Swamikrishnan, Pandikumar; Vilar, Miguel G.; Wells, R. Spencer; Zalloua, Pierre A.; Ziegle, Janet S.

    2017-01-01

    Aboriginal Australians represent one of the oldest continuous cultures outside Africa, with evidence indicating that their ancestors arrived in the ancient landmass of Sahul (present-day New Guinea and Australia) ~55 thousand years ago. Genetic studies, though limited, have demonstrated both the uniqueness and antiquity of Aboriginal Australian genomes. We have further resolved known Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial haplogroups and discovered novel indigenous lineages by sequencing the mitogenomes of 127 contemporary Aboriginal Australians. In particular, the more common haplogroups observed in our dataset included M42a, M42c, S, P5 and P12, followed by rarer haplogroups M15, M16, N13, O, P3, P6 and P8. We propose some major phylogenetic rearrangements, such as in haplogroup P where we delinked P4a and P4b and redefined them as P4 (New Guinean) and P11 (Australian), respectively. Haplogroup P2b was identified as a novel clade potentially restricted to Torres Strait Islanders. Nearly all Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial haplogroups detected appear to be ancient, with no evidence of later introgression during the Holocene. Our findings greatly increase knowledge about the geographic distribution and phylogenetic structure of mitochondrial lineages that have survived in contemporary descendants of Australia’s first settlers. PMID:28287095

  17. Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial genome variation - an increased understanding of population antiquity and diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagle, Nano; van Oven, Mannis; Wilcox, Stephen; van Holst Pellekaan, Sheila; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Ballantyne, Kaye N.; Wilcox, Leah; Papac, Luka; Cooke, Karen; van Oorschot, Roland A. H.; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Kayser, Manfred; Mitchell, R. John; Adhikarla, Syama; Adler, Christina J.; Balanovska, Elena; Balanovsky, Oleg; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Clarke, Andrew C.; Comas, David; Cooper, Alan; der Sarkissian, Clio S. I.; Dulik, Matthew C.; Gaieski, Jill B.; Ganeshprasad, Arunkumar; Haak, Wolfgang; Haber, Marc; Hobbs, Angela; Javed, Asif; Jin, Li; Kaplan, Matthew E.; Li, Shilin; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.; Melé, Marta; Merchant, Nirav C.; Owings, Amanda C.; Parida, Laxmi; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; Platt, Daniel E.; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Renfrew, Colin; Royyuru, Ajay K.; Santhakumari, Arun Varatharajan; Santos, Fabrício R.; Schurr, Theodore G.; Soodyall, Himla; Soria Hernanz, David F.; Swamikrishnan, Pandikumar; Vilar, Miguel G.; Wells, R. Spencer; Zalloua, Pierre A.; Ziegle, Janet S.

    2017-03-01

    Aboriginal Australians represent one of the oldest continuous cultures outside Africa, with evidence indicating that their ancestors arrived in the ancient landmass of Sahul (present-day New Guinea and Australia) ~55 thousand years ago. Genetic studies, though limited, have demonstrated both the uniqueness and antiquity of Aboriginal Australian genomes. We have further resolved known Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial haplogroups and discovered novel indigenous lineages by sequencing the mitogenomes of 127 contemporary Aboriginal Australians. In particular, the more common haplogroups observed in our dataset included M42a, M42c, S, P5 and P12, followed by rarer haplogroups M15, M16, N13, O, P3, P6 and P8. We propose some major phylogenetic rearrangements, such as in haplogroup P where we delinked P4a and P4b and redefined them as P4 (New Guinean) and P11 (Australian), respectively. Haplogroup P2b was identified as a novel clade potentially restricted to Torres Strait Islanders. Nearly all Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial haplogroups detected appear to be ancient, with no evidence of later introgression during the Holocene. Our findings greatly increase knowledge about the geographic distribution and phylogenetic structure of mitochondrial lineages that have survived in contemporary descendants of Australia’s first settlers.

  18. mtDNA haplogroup X: An ancient link between Europe/Western Asia and North America?

    PubMed Central

    Brown, M D; Hosseini, S H; Torroni, A; Bandelt, H J; Allen, J C; Schurr, T G; Scozzari, R; Cruciani, F; Wallace, D C

    1998-01-01

    On the basis of comprehensive RFLP analysis, it has been inferred that approximately 97% of Native American mtDNAs belong to one of four major founding mtDNA lineages, designated haplogroups "A"-"D." It has been proposed that a fifth mtDNA haplogroup (haplogroup X) represents a minor founding lineage in Native Americans. Unlike haplogroups A-D, haplogroup X is also found at low frequencies in modern European populations. To investigate the origins, diversity, and continental relationships of this haplogroup, we performed mtDNA high-resolution RFLP and complete control region (CR) sequence analysis on 22 putative Native American haplogroup X and 14 putative European haplogroup X mtDNAs. The results identified a consensus haplogroup X motif that characterizes our European and Native American samples. Among Native Americans, haplogroup X appears to be essentially restricted to northern Amerindian groups, including the Ojibwa, the Nuu-Chah-Nulth, the Sioux, and the Yakima, although we also observed this haplogroup in the Na-Dene-speaking Navajo. Median network analysis indicated that European and Native American haplogroup X mtDNAs, although distinct, nevertheless are distantly related to each other. Time estimates for the arrival of X in North America are 12,000-36,000 years ago, depending on the number of assumed founders, thus supporting the conclusion that the peoples harboring haplogroup X were among the original founders of Native American populations. To date, haplogroup X has not been unambiguously identified in Asia, raising the possibility that some Native American founders were of Caucasian ancestry. PMID:9837837

  19. Mitochondrial DNA diversity of Anatolian indigenous domestic goats.

    PubMed

    Akis, I; Oztabak, K; Mengi, A; Un, C

    2014-12-01

    Anatolia has been an important region for civilizations and agricultural revolution as a major domestication centre for livestock species. Goats (Capra hircus) were among the earliest domesticated animals in this region. In this study, genetic diversity of Anatolian goat breeds was characterized by comparison of mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region 1. A total of 295 individuals, including 99 Anatolian Black goats, 96 Angora goats and 100 Kilis goats, were used. Haplogroup A was found to be the dominant haplogroup in all three breeds. The highest haplogroup diversity, including haplogroups A, B2, C and G, was observed in the Anatolian Black breed. Haplogroup D was only observed in Kilis and Angora goats. Haplogroup G was found in Angora and Anatolian Black breeds. The Anatolian goat breeds had high genetic diversity values and a weak phylogeographical structure. The nucleotide diversity values were found to be higher than those in previously studied goat breeds. The fact that Anatolia is a domestication centre and its geographical position as a junction of trade routes may have caused the higher genetic diversity of Anatolian goat breeds. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. The mitochondrial DNA history of a former native American village in northern Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Sans, Mónica; Mones, Pablo; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Barreto, Isabel; Motti, Josefina M B; Coble, Michael D; Bravi, Claudio M; Hidalgo, Pedro C

    2015-01-01

    In 1828, between 8,000 and 15,000 Indians from the Jesuit Missions were brought to Uruguay. There, they were settled in a village, presently named Bella Unión, in the northwest corner of the country. According to historic sources, the Indians abandoned the settlement shortly thereafter, with the village subsequently repopulated by "criollos" and immigrants from abroad. As a first approach to reconstruct the genetic history of the population, data about the living population genetic structure will be used. Based on the analysis of the maternal lineages of the inhabitants of Bella Unión, and of those from two nearby villages, we expect to partially answer what happened with the first and subsequent inhabitants. We analyzed the maternal lineages of the present inhabitants of Bella Unión and neighboring localities through the sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA control region. A total of 64.3%, 5.7%, and 30% of the mtDNAs were of Native, African, and West Eurasian origin, respectively. These figures are quite similar to that of the population of Tacuarembó, which is located in northeastern Uruguay. The four main Native American founding haplogroups were detected, with B2 being the most frequent, while some rare subhaplogroups (B2h, C1b2, D1f1) were also found. When compared with other Native American sequences, near- matches most consistently pointed to an Amazonian Indian origin which, when considered with historical evidence, suggested a probable Guaraní-Missionary-related origin. The data support the existence of a relationship between the historic and present inhabitants of the extreme northwest Uruguay, with a strong contribution of Native Americans to the mitochondrial DNA diversity observed there. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The Expansion of mtDNA Haplogroup L3 within and out of Africa.

    PubMed

    Soares, Pedro; Alshamali, Farida; Pereira, Joana B; Fernandes, Verónica; Silva, Nuno M; Afonso, Carla; Costa, Marta D; Musilová, Eliska; Macaulay, Vincent; Richards, Martin B; Cerny, Viktor; Pereira, Luísa

    2012-03-01

    Although fossil remains show that anatomically modern humans dispersed out of Africa into the Near East ∼100 to 130 ka, genetic evidence from extant populations has suggested that non-Africans descend primarily from a single successful later migration. Within the human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) tree, haplogroup L3 encompasses not only many sub-Saharan Africans but also all ancient non-African lineages, and its age therefore provides an upper bound for the dispersal out of Africa. An analysis of 369 complete African L3 sequences places this maximum at ∼70 ka, virtually ruling out a successful exit before 74 ka, the date of the Toba volcanic supereruption in Sumatra. The similarity of the age of L3 to its two non-African daughter haplogroups, M and N, suggests that the same process was likely responsible for both the L3 expansion in Eastern Africa and the dispersal of a small group of modern humans out of Africa to settle the rest of the world. The timing of the expansion of L3 suggests a link to improved climatic conditions after ∼70 ka in Eastern and Central Africa rather than to symbolically mediated behavior, which evidently arose considerably earlier. The L3 mtDNA pool within Africa suggests a migration from Eastern Africa to Central Africa ∼60 to 35 ka and major migrations in the immediate postglacial again linked to climate. The largest population size increase seen in the L3 data is 3-4 ka in Central Africa, corresponding to Bantu expansions, leading diverse L3 lineages to spread into Eastern and Southern Africa in the last 3-2 ka.

  2. Maternal admixture and population structure in Mexican-Mestizos based on mtDNA haplogroups.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cortés, Gabriela; Salazar-Flores, Joel; Haro-Guerrero, Javier; Rubi-Castellanos, Rodrigo; Velarde-Félix, Jésus S; Muñoz-Valle, José F; López-Casamichana, Mavil; Carrillo-Tapia, Eduardo; Canseco-Avila, Luis M; Bravi, Claudio M; López-Armenta, Mauro; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor

    2013-08-01

    The maternal ancestry (mtDNA) has important applications in different research fields, such as evolution, epidemiology, identification, and human population history. This is particularly interesting in Mestizos, which constitute the main population in Mexico (∼93%) resulting from post-Columbian admixture between Spaniards, Amerindians, and African slaves, principally. Consequently, we conducted minisequencing analysis (SNaPshot) of 11 mitochondrial single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 742 Mestizos of 10 populations from different regions in Mexico. The predominant maternal ancestry was Native American (92.9%), including Haplogroups A, B, C, and D (47, 23.7, 15.9, and 6.2%, respectively). Conversely, European and African ancestries were less frequent (5.3 and 1.9%, respectively). The main characteristics of the maternal lineages observed in Mexican-Mestizos comprised the following: 1) contrasting geographic gradient of Haplogroups A and C; 2) increase of European lineages toward the Northwest; 3) low or absent, but homogeneous, African ancestry throughout the Mexican territory; 4) maternal lineages in Mestizos roughly represent the genetic makeup of the surrounding Amerindian groups, particularly toward the Southeast, but not in the North and West; 5) continuity over time of the geographic distribution of Amerindian lineages in Mayas; and 6) low but significant maternal population structure (FST  = 2.8%; P = 0.0000). The average ancestry obtained from uniparental systems (mtDNA and Y-chromosome) in Mexican-Mestizos was correlated with previous ancestry estimates based on autosomal systems (genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms and short tandem repeats). Finally, the comparison of paternal and maternal lineages provided additional information concerning the gender bias admixture, mating patterns, and population structure in Mestizos throughout the Mexican territory. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA diversity in the African American population

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Derek C.; Shrestha, Sadeep; Wiener, Howard W.; Makowsky, Robert; Kurundkar, Ashish; Wilson, Craig M.; Aissani, Brahim

    2014-01-01

    Genetic polymorphism along mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defines population-specific signatures called mtDNA haplogroups. Estimation of mtDNA haplogroup distribution may be prone to errors, notably if the study sample is not drawn from a multicenter cohort. Here, we report on mtDNA diversity in a sample of African American individuals (n = 343) enrolled in a multicenter cohort. Sequencing of the hypervariable regions I and II of the D-loop control region showed that the most common mitochondrial variants are 73G, 146C, 150T, 152C, 189G, 16278T, and 16311C. In agreement with the published data, we observed 17 common mtDNA haplogroups: L0, L1, L1b, L1c, L2, L2a, L2b, L2c, L2e, L3, L3b, L3d, L3e, L3f, L3h, L3x, and L4. The most commonly observed haplogroup is L2a (19.8%), followed by L1b (10.2%). Overall, the observed mtDNA haplogroup distribution in our study is similar to those published for the African American and the African populations. PMID:24102597

  4. A South American Prehistoric Mitogenome: Context, Continuity, and the Origin of Haplogroup C1d.

    PubMed

    Sans, Mónica; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Hughes, Cris E; Lindo, John; Hidalgo, Pedro C; Malhi, Ripan S

    2015-01-01

    Based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), it has been estimated that at least 15 founder haplogroups peopled the Americas. Subhaplogroup C1d3 was defined based on the mitogenome of a living individual from Uruguay that carried a lineage previously identified in hypervariable region I sequences from ancient and modern Uruguayan individuals. When complete mitogenomes were studied, additional substitutions were found in the coding region of the mitochondrial genome. Using a complete ancient mitogenome and three modern mitogenomes, we aim to clarify the ancestral state of subhaplogroup C1d3 and to better understand the peopling of the region of the Río de la Plata basin, as well as of the builders of the mounds from which the ancient individuals were recovered. The ancient mitogenome, belonging to a female dated to 1,610±46 years before present, was identical to the mitogenome of one of the modern individuals. All individuals share the mutations defining subhaplogroup C1d3. We estimated an age of 8,974 (5,748-12,261) years for the most recent common ancestor of C1d3, in agreement with the initial peopling of the geographic region. No individuals belonging to the defined lineage were found outside of Uruguay, which raises questions regarding the mobility of the prehistoric inhabitants of the country. Moreover, the present study shows the continuity of Native lineages over at least 6,000 years.

  5. A South American Prehistoric Mitogenome: Context, Continuity, and the Origin of Haplogroup C1d

    PubMed Central

    Sans, Mónica; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Hughes, Cris E.; Lindo, John; Hidalgo, Pedro C.; Malhi, Ripan S.

    2015-01-01

    Based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), it has been estimated that at least 15 founder haplogroups peopled the Americas. Subhaplogroup C1d3 was defined based on the mitogenome of a living individual from Uruguay that carried a lineage previously identified in hypervariable region I sequences from ancient and modern Uruguayan individuals. When complete mitogenomes were studied, additional substitutions were found in the coding region of the mitochondrial genome. Using a complete ancient mitogenome and three modern mitogenomes, we aim to clarify the ancestral state of subhaplogroup C1d3 and to better understand the peopling of the region of the Río de la Plata basin, as well as of the builders of the mounds from which the ancient individuals were recovered. The ancient mitogenome, belonging to a female dated to 1,610±46 years before present, was identical to the mitogenome of one of the modern individuals. All individuals share the mutations defining subhaplogroup C1d3. We estimated an age of 8,974 (5,748–12,261) years for the most recent common ancestor of C1d3, in agreement with the initial peopling of the geographic region. No individuals belonging to the defined lineage were found outside of Uruguay, which raises questions regarding the mobility of the prehistoric inhabitants of the country. Moreover, the present study shows the continuity of Native lineages over at least 6,000 years. PMID:26509686

  6. Reconstructing the origin and spread of horse domestication in the Eurasian steppe.

    PubMed

    Warmuth, Vera; Eriksson, Anders; Bower, Mim Ann; Barker, Graeme; Barrett, Elizabeth; Hanks, Bryan Kent; Li, Shuicheng; Lomitashvili, David; Ochir-Goryaeva, Maria; Sizonov, Grigory V; Soyonov, Vasiliy; Manica, Andrea

    2012-05-22

    Despite decades of research across multiple disciplines, the early history of horse domestication remains poorly understood. On the basis of current evidence from archaeology, mitochondrial DNA, and Y-chromosomal sequencing, a number of different domestication scenarios have been proposed, ranging from the spread of domestic horses out of a restricted primary area of domestication to the domestication of numerous distinct wild horse populations. In this paper, we reconstruct both the population genetic structure of the extinct wild progenitor of domestic horses, Equus ferus, and the origin and spread of horse domestication in the Eurasian steppes by fitting a spatially explicit stepping-stone model to genotype data from >300 horses sampled across northern Eurasia. We find strong evidence for an expansion of E. ferus out of eastern Eurasia about 160 kya, likely reflecting the colonization of Eurasia by this species. Our best-fitting scenario further suggests that horse domestication originated in the western part of the Eurasian steppe and that domestic herds were repeatedly restocked with local wild horses as they spread out of this area. By showing that horse domestication was initiated in the western Eurasian steppe and that the spread of domestic herds across Eurasia involved extensive introgression from the wild, the scenario of horse domestication proposed here unites evidence from archaeology, mitochondrial DNA, and Y-chromosomal DNA.

  7. Reconstructing the origin and spread of horse domestication in the Eurasian steppe

    PubMed Central

    Warmuth, Vera; Eriksson, Anders; Bower, Mim Ann; Barker, Graeme; Barrett, Elizabeth; Hanks, Bryan Kent; Li, Shuicheng; Lomitashvili, David; Ochir-Goryaeva, Maria; Sizonov, Grigory V.; Soyonov, Vasiliy; Manica, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Despite decades of research across multiple disciplines, the early history of horse domestication remains poorly understood. On the basis of current evidence from archaeology, mitochondrial DNA, and Y-chromosomal sequencing, a number of different domestication scenarios have been proposed, ranging from the spread of domestic horses out of a restricted primary area of domestication to the domestication of numerous distinct wild horse populations. In this paper, we reconstruct both the population genetic structure of the extinct wild progenitor of domestic horses, Equus ferus, and the origin and spread of horse domestication in the Eurasian steppes by fitting a spatially explicit stepping-stone model to genotype data from >300 horses sampled across northern Eurasia. We find strong evidence for an expansion of E. ferus out of eastern Eurasia about 160 kya, likely reflecting the colonization of Eurasia by this species. Our best-fitting scenario further suggests that horse domestication originated in the western part of the Eurasian steppe and that domestic herds were repeatedly restocked with local wild horses as they spread out of this area. By showing that horse domestication was initiated in the western Eurasian steppe and that the spread of domestic herds across Eurasia involved extensive introgression from the wild, the scenario of horse domestication proposed here unites evidence from archaeology, mitochondrial DNA, and Y-chromosomal DNA. PMID:22566639

  8. Deep Phylogenetic Analysis of Haplogroup G1 Provides Estimates of SNP and STR Mutation Rates on the Human Y-Chromosome and Reveals Migrations of Iranic Speakers

    PubMed Central

    Balanovsky, Oleg; Zhabagin, Maxat; Agdzhoyan, Anastasiya; Chukhryaeva, Marina; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Utevska, Olga; Highnam, Gareth; Sabitov, Zhaxylyk; Greenspan, Elliott; Dibirova, Khadizhat; Skhalyakho, Roza; Kuznetsova, Marina; Koshel, Sergey; Yusupov, Yuldash; Nymadawa, Pagbajabyn; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Pocheshkhova, Elvira; Haber, Marc; A. Zalloua, Pierre; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Dybo, Anna; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Balanovska, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Y-chromosomal haplogroup G1 is a minor component of the overall gene pool of South-West and Central Asia but reaches up to 80% frequency in some populations scattered within this area. We have genotyped the G1-defining marker M285 in 27 Eurasian populations (n= 5,346), analyzed 367 M285-positive samples using 17 Y-STRs, and sequenced ~11 Mb of the Y-chromosome in 20 of these samples to an average coverage of 67X. This allowed detailed phylogenetic reconstruction. We identified five branches, all with high geographical specificity: G1-L1323 in Kazakhs, the closely related G1-GG1 in Mongols, G1-GG265 in Armenians and its distant brother clade G1-GG162 in Bashkirs, and G1-GG362 in West Indians. The haplotype diversity, which decreased from West Iran to Central Asia, allows us to hypothesize that this rare haplogroup could have been carried by the expansion of Iranic speakers northwards to the Eurasian steppe and via founder effects became a predominant genetic component of some populations, including the Argyn tribe of the Kazakhs. The remarkable agreement between genetic and genealogical trees of Argyns allowed us to calibrate the molecular clock using a historical date (1405 AD) of the most recent common genealogical ancestor. The mutation rate for Y-chromosomal sequence data obtained was 0.78×10-9 per bp per year, falling within the range of published rates. The mutation rate for Y-chromosomal STRs was 0.0022 per locus per generation, very close to the so-called genealogical rate. The “clan-based” approach to estimating the mutation rate provides a third, middle way between direct farther-to-son comparisons and using archeologically known migrations, whose dates are subject to revision and of uncertain relationship to genetic events. PMID:25849548

  9. Deep phylogenetic analysis of haplogroup G1 provides estimates of SNP and STR mutation rates on the human Y-chromosome and reveals migrations of Iranic speakers.

    PubMed

    Balanovsky, Oleg; Zhabagin, Maxat; Agdzhoyan, Anastasiya; Chukhryaeva, Marina; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Utevska, Olga; Highnam, Gareth; Sabitov, Zhaxylyk; Greenspan, Elliott; Dibirova, Khadizhat; Skhalyakho, Roza; Kuznetsova, Marina; Koshel, Sergey; Yusupov, Yuldash; Nymadawa, Pagbajabyn; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Pocheshkhova, Elvira; Haber, Marc; Zalloua, Pierre A; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Dybo, Anna; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Balanovska, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Y-chromosomal haplogroup G1 is a minor component of the overall gene pool of South-West and Central Asia but reaches up to 80% frequency in some populations scattered within this area. We have genotyped the G1-defining marker M285 in 27 Eurasian populations (n= 5,346), analyzed 367 M285-positive samples using 17 Y-STRs, and sequenced ~11 Mb of the Y-chromosome in 20 of these samples to an average coverage of 67X. This allowed detailed phylogenetic reconstruction. We identified five branches, all with high geographical specificity: G1-L1323 in Kazakhs, the closely related G1-GG1 in Mongols, G1-GG265 in Armenians and its distant brother clade G1-GG162 in Bashkirs, and G1-GG362 in West Indians. The haplotype diversity, which decreased from West Iran to Central Asia, allows us to hypothesize that this rare haplogroup could have been carried by the expansion of Iranic speakers northwards to the Eurasian steppe and via founder effects became a predominant genetic component of some populations, including the Argyn tribe of the Kazakhs. The remarkable agreement between genetic and genealogical trees of Argyns allowed us to calibrate the molecular clock using a historical date (1405 AD) of the most recent common genealogical ancestor. The mutation rate for Y-chromosomal sequence data obtained was 0.78×10-9 per bp per year, falling within the range of published rates. The mutation rate for Y-chromosomal STRs was 0.0022 per locus per generation, very close to the so-called genealogical rate. The "clan-based" approach to estimating the mutation rate provides a third, middle way between direct farther-to-son comparisons and using archeologically known migrations, whose dates are subject to revision and of uncertain relationship to genetic events.

  10. A new haplogroup pattern displayed in Fujian Han in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Min; Zhang, Yongli; Xue, Yali; Chen, Feng; Wang, Qi; Huang, Xiaoyi; Wang, Baiqiu; Yu, Yang; Liu, An; Ma, Linlin; Shi, Rongqian; Lu, Fuqu; Shi, Zhongcheng; Zhang, Yu; Cheng, Wenhong; Ai, Qionghua; Xu, Fang; Huang, Chengbin; Chen, Baibin; Yang, Huanjie; Kang, Xianghua; Sun, Yanyang; Zhang, Guiyin; Li, Pu; Fu, Songbin

    2002-01-01

    Human Y-chromosomal binary polymorphisms have been considered to preserve the paternal genetic legacy and provide evidence on human evolution and the genetic relationships among and demographic history of different populations. To reveal the genetic origin and immigration of the Fujian Han, 13 binary markers on the Y chromosome were used to screen Fujian Han by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that the M9G marker was highly prevalent (96.20%), suggesting a significant genetic drift. In addition, M122C frequency was only 22.78%, and M45A and M103T were default. The distinctive haplogroup frequencies (H1, H5, and H6/7/8) imply that the haplogroup pattern is a relatively ancestral and interim type.

  11. Ancestry and demography and descendants of Iron Age nomads of the Eurasian Steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unterländer, Martina; Palstra, Friso; Lazaridis, Iosif; Pilipenko, Aleksandr; Hofmanová, Zuzana; Groß, Melanie; Sell, Christian; Blöcher, Jens; Kirsanow, Karola; Rohland, Nadin; Rieger, Benjamin; Kaiser, Elke; Schier, Wolfram; Pozdniakov, Dimitri; Khokhlov, Aleksandr; Georges, Myriam; Wilde, Sandra; Powell, Adam; Heyer, Evelyne; Currat, Mathias; Reich, David; Samashev, Zainolla; Parzinger, Hermann; Molodin, Vyacheslav I.; Burger, Joachim

    2017-03-01

    During the 1st millennium before the Common Era (BCE), nomadic tribes associated with the Iron Age Scythian culture spread over the Eurasian Steppe, covering a territory of more than 3,500 km in breadth. To understand the demographic processes behind the spread of the Scythian culture, we analysed genomic data from eight individuals and a mitochondrial dataset of 96 individuals originating in eastern and western parts of the Eurasian Steppe. Genomic inference reveals that Scythians in the east and the west of the steppe zone can best be described as a mixture of Yamnaya-related ancestry and an East Asian component. Demographic modelling suggests independent origins for eastern and western groups with ongoing gene-flow between them, plausibly explaining the striking uniformity of their material culture. We also find evidence that significant gene-flow from east to west Eurasia must have occurred early during the Iron Age.

  12. Ancestry and demography and descendants of Iron Age nomads of the Eurasian Steppe

    PubMed Central

    Unterländer, Martina; Palstra, Friso; Lazaridis, Iosif; Pilipenko, Aleksandr; Hofmanová, Zuzana; Groß, Melanie; Sell, Christian; Blöcher, Jens; Kirsanow, Karola; Rohland, Nadin; Rieger, Benjamin; Kaiser, Elke; Schier, Wolfram; Pozdniakov, Dimitri; Khokhlov, Aleksandr; Georges, Myriam; Wilde, Sandra; Powell, Adam; Heyer, Evelyne; Currat, Mathias; Reich, David; Samashev, Zainolla; Parzinger, Hermann; Molodin, Vyacheslav I.; Burger, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    During the 1st millennium before the Common Era (BCE), nomadic tribes associated with the Iron Age Scythian culture spread over the Eurasian Steppe, covering a territory of more than 3,500 km in breadth. To understand the demographic processes behind the spread of the Scythian culture, we analysed genomic data from eight individuals and a mitochondrial dataset of 96 individuals originating in eastern and western parts of the Eurasian Steppe. Genomic inference reveals that Scythians in the east and the west of the steppe zone can best be described as a mixture of Yamnaya-related ancestry and an East Asian component. Demographic modelling suggests independent origins for eastern and western groups with ongoing gene-flow between them, plausibly explaining the striking uniformity of their material culture. We also find evidence that significant gene-flow from east to west Eurasia must have occurred early during the Iron Age. PMID:28256537

  13. Temporal labyrinths of eastern Eurasian Pleistocene humans.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiu-Jie; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Liu, Wu; Xing, Song; Trinkaus, Erik

    2014-07-22

    One of the morphological features that has been identified as uniquely derived for the western Eurasian Neandertals concerns the relative sizes and positions of their semicircular canals. In particular, they exhibit a relatively small anterior canal, a relatively larger lateral one, and a more inferior position of the posterior one relative to the lateral one. These discussions have not included full paleontological data on eastern Eurasian Pleistocene human temporal labyrinths, which have the potential to provide a broader context for assessing Pleistocene Homo trait polarities. We present the temporal labyrinths of four eastern Eurasian Pleistocene Homo, one each of Early (Lantian 1), Middle (Hexian 1), and Late (Xujiayao 15) Pleistocene archaic humans and one early modern human (Liujiang 1). The labyrinths of the two earlier specimens and the most recent one conform to the proportions seen among western early and recent modern humans, reinforcing the modern human pattern as generally ancestral for the genus Homo. The labyrinth of Xujiayao 15 is in the middle of the Neandertal variation and separate from the other samples. This eastern Eurasian labyrinthine dichotomy occurs in the context of none of the distinctive Neandertal external temporal or other cranial features. As such, it raises questions regarding possible cranial and postcranial morphological correlates of Homo labyrinthine variation, the use of individual "Neandertal" features for documenting population affinities, and the nature of late archaic human variation across Eurasia.

  14. Temporal labyrinths of eastern Eurasian Pleistocene humans

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiu-Jie; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Liu, Wu; Xing, Song; Trinkaus, Erik

    2014-01-01

    One of the morphological features that has been identified as uniquely derived for the western Eurasian Neandertals concerns the relative sizes and positions of their semicircular canals. In particular, they exhibit a relatively small anterior canal, a relatively larger lateral one, and a more inferior position of the posterior one relative to the lateral one. These discussions have not included full paleontological data on eastern Eurasian Pleistocene human temporal labyrinths, which have the potential to provide a broader context for assessing Pleistocene Homo trait polarities. We present the temporal labyrinths of four eastern Eurasian Pleistocene Homo, one each of Early (Lantian 1), Middle (Hexian 1), and Late (Xujiayao 15) Pleistocene archaic humans and one early modern human (Liujiang 1). The labyrinths of the two earlier specimens and the most recent one conform to the proportions seen among western early and recent modern humans, reinforcing the modern human pattern as generally ancestral for the genus Homo. The labyrinth of Xujiayao 15 is in the middle of the Neandertal variation and separate from the other samples. This eastern Eurasian labyrinthine dichotomy occurs in the context of none of the distinctive Neandertal external temporal or other cranial features. As such, it raises questions regarding possible cranial and postcranial morphological correlates of Homo labyrinthine variation, the use of individual “Neandertal” features for documenting population affinities, and the nature of late archaic human variation across Eurasia. PMID:25002467

  15. Phylogeography of mtDNA haplogroup R7 in the Indian peninsula.

    PubMed

    Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Karmin, Monika; Metspalu, Ene; Metspalu, Mait; Selvi-Rani, Deepa; Singh, Vijay Kumar; Parik, Jüri; Solnik, Anu; Naidu, B Prathap; Kumar, Ajay; Adarsh, Niharika; Mallick, Chandana Basu; Trivedi, Bhargav; Prakash, Swami; Reddy, Ramesh; Shukla, Parul; Bhagat, Sanjana; Verma, Swati; Vasnik, Samiksha; Khan, Imran; Barwa, Anshu; Sahoo, Dipti; Sharma, Archana; Rashid, Mamoon; Chandra, Vishal; Reddy, Alla G; Torroni, Antonio; Foley, Robert A; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Singh, Lalji; Kivisild, Toomas; Villems, Richard

    2008-08-04

    Human genetic diversity observed in Indian subcontinent is second only to that of Africa. This implies an early settlement and demographic growth soon after the first 'Out-of-Africa' dispersal of anatomically modern humans in Late Pleistocene. In contrast to this perspective, linguistic diversity in India has been thought to derive from more recent population movements and episodes of contact. With the exception of Dravidian, which origin and relatedness to other language phyla is obscure, all the language families in India can be linked to language families spoken in different regions of Eurasia. Mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome evidence has supported largely local evolution of the genetic lineages of the majority of Dravidian and Indo-European speaking populations, but there is no consensus yet on the question of whether the Munda (Austro-Asiatic) speaking populations originated in India or derive from a relatively recent migration from further East. Here, we report the analysis of 35 novel complete mtDNA sequences from India which refine the structure of Indian-specific varieties of haplogroup R. Detailed analysis of haplogroup R7, coupled with a survey of approximately 12,000 mtDNAs from caste and tribal groups over the entire Indian subcontinent, reveals that one of its more recently derived branches (R7a1), is particularly frequent among Munda-speaking tribal groups. This branch is nested within diverse R7 lineages found among Dravidian and Indo-European speakers of India. We have inferred from this that a subset of Munda-speaking groups have acquired R7 relatively recently. Furthermore, we find that the distribution of R7a1 within the Munda-speakers is largely restricted to one of the sub-branches (Kherwari) of northern Munda languages. This evidence does not support the hypothesis that the Austro-Asiatic speakers are the primary source of the R7 variation. Statistical analyses suggest a significant correlation between genetic variation and geography

  16. Haplogroup Classification of Korean Cattle Breeds Based on Sequence Variations of mtDNA Control Region.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Seong-Su; Kim, Seung Chang; Choi, Seong-Bok; Kim, Su-Hyun; Lee, Chang Woo; Jung, Kyoung-Sub; Kim, Eun Sung; Choi, Young-Sun; Kim, Sung-Bok; Kim, Woo Hyun; Cho, Chang-Yeon

    2016-05-01

    Many studies have reported the frequency and distribution of haplogroups among various cattle breeds for verification of their origins and genetic diversity. In this study, 318 complete sequences of the mtDNA control region from four Korean cattle breeds were used for haplogroup classification. 71 polymorphic sites and 66 haplotypes were found in these sequences. Consistent with the genetic patterns in previous reports, four haplogroups (T1, T2, T3, and T4) were identified in Korean cattle breeds. In addition, T1a, T3a, and T3b sub-haplogroups were classified. In the phylogenetic tree, each haplogroup formed an independent cluster. The frequencies of T3, T4, T1 (containing T1a), and T2 were 66%, 16%, 10%, and 8%, respectively. Especially, the T1 haplogroup contained only one haplotype and a sample. All four haplogroups were found in Chikso, Jeju black and Hanwoo. However, only the T3 and T4 haplogroups appeared in Heugu, and most Chikso populations showed a partial of four haplogroups. These results will be useful for stable conservation and efficient management of Korean cattle breeds.

  17. Association of Y chromosome haplogroup I with HIV progression, and HAART outcome.

    PubMed

    Sezgin, Efe; Lind, Joanne M; Shrestha, Sadeep; Hendrickson, Sher; Goedert, James J; Donfield, Sharyne; Kirk, Gregory D; Phair, John P; Troyer, Jennifer L; O'Brien, Stephen J; Smith, Michael W

    2009-04-01

    The host genetic basis of differential outcomes in HIV infection, progression, viral load set point and highly active retroviral therapy (HAART) responses was examined for the common Y haplogroups in European Americans and African Americans. Accelerated progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and related death in European Americans among Y chromosome haplogroup I (Y-I) subjects was discovered. Additionally, Y-I haplogroup subjects on HAART took a longer time to HIV-1 viral suppression and were more likely to fail HAART. Both the accelerated progression and longer time to viral suppression results observed in haplogroup Y-I were significant after false-discovery-rate corrections. A higher frequency of AIDS-defining illnesses was also observed in haplogroup Y-I. These effects were independent of the previously identified autosomal AIDS restriction genes. When the Y-I haplogroup subjects were further subdivided into six I subhaplogroups, no one subhaplogroup accounted for the effects on HIV progression, viral load or HAART response. Adjustment of the analyses for population stratification found significant and concordant haplogroup Y-I results. The Y chromosome haplogroup analyses of HIV infection and progression in African Americans were not significant. Our results suggest that one or more loci on the Y chromosome found on haplogroup Y-I have an effect on AIDS progression and treatment responses in European Americans.

  18. Human Retinal Transmitochondrial Cybrids with J or H mtDNA Haplogroups Respond Differently to Ultraviolet Radiation: Implications for Retinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Deepika; Hsu, Tiffany; Falatoonzadeh, Payam; Cáceres-del-Carpio, Javier; Tarek, Mohamed; Chwa, Marilyn; Atilano, Shari R.; Ramirez, Claudio; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Boyer, David S.; Kuppermann, Baruch D.; Jazwinski, S. Michal; Miceli, Michael V.; Wallace, Douglas C.; Udar, Nitin; Kenney, M. Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been recognized that cells do not respond equally to ultraviolet (UV) radiation but it is not clear whether this is due to genetic, biochemical or structural differences of the cells. We have a novel cybrid (cytoplasmic hybrids) model that allows us to analyze the contribution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to cellular response after exposure to sub-lethal dose of UV. mtDNA can be classified into haplogroups as defined by accumulations of specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Recent studies have shown that J haplogroup is high risk for age-related macular degeneration while the H haplogroup is protective. This study investigates gene expression responses in J cybrids versus H cybrids after exposure to sub-lethal doses of UV-radiation. Methodology/Principal Findings Cybrids were created by fusing platelets isolated from subjects with either H (n = 3) or J (n = 3) haplogroups with mitochondria-free (Rho0) ARPE-19 cells. The H and J cybrids were cultured for 24 hours, treated with 10 mJ of UV-radiation and cultured for an additional 120 hours. Untreated and treated cybrids were analyzed for growth rates and gene expression profiles. The UV-treated and untreated J cybrids had higher growth rates compared to H cybrids. Before treatment, J cybrids showed lower expression levels for CFH, CD55, IL-33, TGF-A, EFEMP-1, RARA, BCL2L13 and BBC3. At 120 hours after UV-treatment, the J cybrids had decreased CFH, RARA and BBC3 levels but increased CD55, IL-33 and EFEMP-1 compared to UV-treated H cybrids. Conclusion/Significance In cells with identical nuclei, the cellular response to sub-lethal UV-radiation is mediated in part by the mtDNA haplogroup. This supports the hypothesis that differences in growth rates and expression levels of complement, inflammation and apoptosis genes may result from population-specific, hereditary SNP variations in mtDNA. Therefore, when analyzing UV-induced damage in tissues, the mtDNA haplogroup background may be

  19. Mitochondrial DNA analysis shows a Near Eastern Neolithic origin for domestic cattle and no indication of domestication of European aurochs.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J; Bollongino, Ruth; Scheu, Amelie; Chamberlain, Andrew; Tresset, Anne; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Baird, Jillian F; Larson, Greger; Ho, Simon Y W; Heupink, Tim H; Shapiro, Beth; Freeman, Abigail R; Thomas, Mark G; Arbogast, Rose-Marie; Arndt, Betty; Bartosiewicz, László; Benecke, Norbert; Budja, Mihael; Chaix, Louis; Choyke, Alice M; Coqueugniot, Eric; Döhle, Hans-Jürgen; Göldner, Holger; Hartz, Sönke; Helmer, Daniel; Herzig, Barabara; Hongo, Hitomi; Mashkour, Marjan; Ozdogan, Mehmet; Pucher, Erich; Roth, Georg; Schade-Lindig, Sabine; Schmölcke, Ulrich; Schulting, Rick J; Stephan, Elisabeth; Uerpmann, Hans-Peter; Vörös, István; Voytek, Barbara; Bradley, Daniel G; Burger, Joachim

    2007-06-07

    The extinct aurochs (Bos primigenius primigenius) was a large type of cattle that ranged over almost the whole Eurasian continent. The aurochs is the wild progenitor of modern cattle, but it is unclear whether European aurochs contributed to this process. To provide new insights into the demographic history of aurochs and domestic cattle, we have generated high-confidence mitochondrial DNA sequences from 59 archaeological skeletal finds, which were attributed to wild European cattle populations based on their chronological date and/or morphology. All pre-Neolithic aurochs belonged to the previously designated P haplogroup, indicating that this represents the Late Glacial Central European signature. We also report one new and highly divergent haplotype in a Neolithic aurochs sample from Germany, which points to greater variability during the Pleistocene. Furthermore, the Neolithic and Bronze Age samples that were classified with confidence as European aurochs using morphological criteria all carry P haplotype mitochondrial DNA, suggesting continuity of Late Glacial and Early Holocene aurochs populations in Europe. Bayesian analysis indicates that recent population growth gives a significantly better fit to our data than a constant-sized population, an observation consistent with a postglacial expansion scenario, possibly from a single European refugial population. Previous work has shown that most ancient and modern European domestic cattle carry haplotypes previously designated T. This, in combination with our new finding of a T haplotype in a very Early Neolithic site in Syria, lends persuasive support to a scenario whereby gracile Near Eastern domestic populations, carrying predominantly T haplotypes, replaced P haplotype-carrying robust autochthonous aurochs populations in Europe, from the Early Neolithic onward. During the period of coexistence, it appears that domestic cattle were kept separate from wild aurochs and introgression was extremely rare.

  20. Mitochondrial DNA analysis shows a Near Eastern Neolithic origin for domestic cattle and no indication of domestication of European aurochs

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J; Bollongino, Ruth; Scheu, Amelie; Chamberlain, Andrew; Tresset, Anne; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Baird, Jillian F; Larson, Greger; Ho, Simon Y.W; Heupink, Tim H; Shapiro, Beth; Freeman, Abigail R; Thomas, Mark G; Arbogast, Rose-Marie; Arndt, Betty; Bartosiewicz, László; Benecke, Norbert; Budja, Mihael; Chaix, Louis; Choyke, Alice M; Coqueugniot, Eric; Döhle, Hans-Jürgen; Göldner, Holger; Hartz, Sönke; Helmer, Daniel; Herzig, Barabara; Hongo, Hitomi; Mashkour, Marjan; Özdogan, Mehmet; Pucher, Erich; Roth, Georg; Schade-Lindig, Sabine; Schmölcke, Ulrich; Schulting, Rick J; Stephan, Elisabeth; Uerpmann, Hans-Peter; Vörös, István; Voytek, Barbara; Bradley, Daniel G; Burger, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    The extinct aurochs (Bos primigenius primigenius) was a large type of cattle that ranged over almost the whole Eurasian continent. The aurochs is the wild progenitor of modern cattle, but it is unclear whether European aurochs contributed to this process. To provide new insights into the demographic history of aurochs and domestic cattle, we have generated high-confidence mitochondrial DNA sequences from 59 archaeological skeletal finds, which were attributed to wild European cattle populations based on their chronological date and/or morphology. All pre-Neolithic aurochs belonged to the previously designated P haplogroup, indicating that this represents the Late Glacial Central European signature. We also report one new and highly divergent haplotype in a Neolithic aurochs sample from Germany, which points to greater variability during the Pleistocene. Furthermore, the Neolithic and Bronze Age samples that were classified with confidence as European aurochs using morphological criteria all carry P haplotype mitochondrial DNA, suggesting continuity of Late Glacial and Early Holocene aurochs populations in Europe. Bayesian analysis indicates that recent population growth gives a significantly better fit to our data than a constant-sized population, an observation consistent with a postglacial expansion scenario, possibly from a single European refugial population. Previous work has shown that most ancient and modern European domestic cattle carry haplotypes previously designated T. This, in combination with our new finding of a T haplotype in a very Early Neolithic site in Syria, lends persuasive support to a scenario whereby gracile Near Eastern domestic populations, carrying predominantly T haplotypes, replaced P haplotype-carrying robust autochthonous aurochs populations in Europe, from the Early Neolithic onward. During the period of coexistence, it appears that domestic cattle were kept separate from wild aurochs and introgression was extremely rare. PMID

  1. Introducing human population biology through an easy laboratory exercise on mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Pardiñas, Antonio F; Dopico, Eduardo; Roca, Agustín; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva; Lopez, Belen

    2010-03-01

    This article describes an easy and cheap laboratory exercise for students to discover their own mitochondrial haplogroup. Students use buccal swabs to obtain mucosa cells as noninvasive tissue samples, extract DNA, and with a simple polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis they can obtain DNA fragments of different sizes that can be visualized in agarose gels. The analysis of these fragments can reveal the mitochondrial haplogroup of each student. The results of the exercise can be used to provide additional insights into the genetic variation of human populations.

  2. Whole mitochondrial genome analysis in South Indian patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Bibhuti Ballav; Dubey, Sushil Kumar; Shanmugam, Mahesh Kumar; Sundaresan, Periasamy

    2016-10-28

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) associated neurodegenerative disorder of retinal ganglion cells. In this study, whole mitochondrial genome sequencing of 75 LHON patients and 40 controls was performed to identify the mutation frequency and haplogroup background of South Indian population. Analysis of mtDNA revealed 559 different variants in LHON patients, including 7 pathogenic mutations, 30 private, and 22 other disease associated variants. A significantly higher (p=0.0008) overall variation load per individual was noted among LHON patients versus controls. We reported for the first time, the association of M haplogroup (p=0.028) with LHON in this cohort.

  3. Human Y Chromosome Haplogroup N: A Non-trivial Time-Resolved Phylogeography that Cuts across Language Families.

    PubMed

    Ilumäe, Anne-Mai; Reidla, Maere; Chukhryaeva, Marina; Järve, Mari; Post, Helen; Karmin, Monika; Saag, Lauri; Agdzhoyan, Anastasiya; Kushniarevich, Alena; Litvinov, Sergey; Ekomasova, Natalya; Tambets, Kristiina; Metspalu, Ene; Khusainova, Rita; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Osipova, Ludmila P; Fedorova, Sardana; Utevska, Olga; Koshel, Sergey; Balanovska, Elena; Behar, Doron M; Balanovsky, Oleg; Kivisild, Toomas; Underhill, Peter A; Villems, Richard; Rootsi, Siiri

    2016-07-07

    The paternal haplogroup (hg) N is distributed from southeast Asia to eastern Europe. The demographic processes that have shaped the vast extent of this major Y chromosome lineage across numerous linguistically and autosomally divergent populations have previously been unresolved. On the basis of 94 high-coverage re-sequenced Y chromosomes, we establish and date a detailed hg N phylogeny. We evaluate geographic structure by using 16 distinguishing binary markers in 1,631 hg N Y chromosomes from a collection of 6,521 samples from 56 populations. The more southerly distributed sub-clade N4 emerged before N2a1 and N3, found mostly in the north, but the latter two display more elaborate branching patterns, indicative of regional contrasts in recent expansions. In particular, a number of prominent and well-defined clades with common N3a3'6 ancestry occur in regionally dissimilar northern Eurasian populations, indicating almost simultaneous regional diversification and expansion within the last 5,000 years. This patrilineal genetic affinity is decoupled from the associated higher degree of language diversity.

  4. Increased expression of ApoE and protection from amyloid-beta toxicity in transmitochondrial cybrids with haplogroup K mtDNA.

    PubMed

    Thaker, Kunal; Chwa, Marilyn; Atilano, Shari R; Coskun, Pinar; Cáceres-Del-Carpio, Javier; Udar, Nitin; Boyer, David S; Jazwinski, S Michal; Miceli, Michael V; Nesburn, Anthony B; Kuppermann, Baruch D; Kenney, M Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplogroups, defined by specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) patterns, represent populations of diverse geographic origins and have been associated with increased risk or protection of many diseases. The H haplogroup is the most common European haplogroup while the K haplogroup is highly associated with the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Transmitochondrial cybrids (cell lines with identical nuclei, but mtDNA from either H (n=8) or K (n=8) subjects) were analyzed by the Seahorse flux analyzer, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Cybrids were treated with amyloid-β peptides and cell viabilities were measured. Other cybrids were demethylated with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) and expression levels for APOE and NFkB2 were measured. Results show K cybrids have (a) significantly lower mtDNA copy numbers, (b) higher expression levels for MT-DNA encoded genes critical for oxidative phosphorylation, (c) lower Spare Respiratory Capacity, (d) increased expression of inhibitors of the complement pathway and important inflammasome-related genes; and (e) significantly higher levels of APOE transcription that were independent of methylation status. After exposure to amyloid-β1-42 peptides (active form), H haplogroup cybrids demonstrated decreased cell viability compared to those treated with amyloid-β42-1 (inactive form) (p<0.0001), while this was not observed in the K cybrids (p=0.2). K cybrids had significantly higher total global methylation levels and differences in expression levels for two acetylation genes and four methylation genes. Demethylation with 5-aza-dC altered expression levels for NFkB2, while APOE transcription patterns were unchanged. Our findings support the hypothesis that mtDNA-nuclear retrograde signaling may mediate expression levels of APOE, a key factor in many age-related diseases. Future studies will focus on identification of the mitochondrial-nuclear retrograde signaling

  5. [Structure of the gene pool of eastern Ukrainians from Y-chromosome haplogroups].

    PubMed

    Khar'kov, V N; Stepanov, V A; Borinskaia, S A; Kozhekbaeva, Zh M; Gusar, V A; Grechanina, E Ia; Puzyrev, V P; Khusnutdinova, E K; Iankovskiĭ, N K

    2004-03-01

    Y chromosomes from representative sample of Eastern Ukrainians (94 individuals) were analyzed for composition and frequencies of haplogroups, defined by 11 biallelic loci located in non-recombining part of the chromosome (SRY1532, YAP, 92R7, DYF155S2, 12f2, Tat, M9, M17, M25, M89, and M56). In the Ukrainian gene, pool six haplogroups were revealed: E, F (including G and I), J, N3, P, and R1a1. These haplogroups were earlier detected in a study of Y-chromosome diversity on the territory of Europe as a whole. The major haplogroup in the Ukrainian gene pool, haplogroup R1a1 (earlier designated HG3), accounted for about 44% of all Y chromosomes in the sample examined. This haplogroup is thought to mark the migration patterns of the early Indo-Europeans and is associated with the distribution of the Kurgan archaeological culture. The second major haplogroup is haplogroup F (21.3%), which is a combination of the lineages differing by the time of appearance. Haplogroup P found with the frequency of 9.6%, represents the genetic contribution of the population originating from the ancient autochthonous population of Europe. Haplogroups J and E (11.7 and 4.2%, respectively) mark the migration patterns of the Middle-Eastern agriculturists during the Neolithic. The presence of the N3 lineage (9.6%) is likely explained by a contribution of the assimilated Finno-Ugric tribes. The data on the composition and frequencies of Y-chromosome haplogroups in the sample studied substantially supplement the existing picture of the male lineage distribution in the Eastern Slav population.

  6. The Molecular Dissection of mtDNA Haplogroup H Confirms That the Franco-Cantabrian Glacial Refuge Was a Major Source for the European Gene Pool

    PubMed Central

    Achilli, Alessandro; Rengo, Chiara; Magri, Chiara; Battaglia, Vincenza; Olivieri, Anna; Scozzari, Rosaria; Cruciani, Fulvio; Zeviani, Massimo; Briem, Egill; Carelli, Valerio; Moral, Pedro; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Roostalu, Urmas; Loogväli, Eva-Liis; Kivisild, Toomas; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Richards, Martin; Villems, Richard; Santachiara-Benerecetti, A. Silvana; Semino, Ornella; Torroni, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Complete sequencing of 62 mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) belonging (or very closely related) to haplogroup H revealed that this mtDNA haplogroup—by far the most common in Europe—is subdivided into numerous subhaplogroups, with at least 15 of them (H1–H15) identifiable by characteristic mutations. All the haplogroup H mtDNAs found in 5,743 subjects from 43 populations were then screened for diagnostic markers of subhaplogroups H1 and H3. This survey showed that both subhaplogroups display frequency peaks, centered in Iberia and surrounding areas, with distributions declining toward the northeast and southeast—a pattern extremely similar to that previously reported for mtDNA haplogroup V. Furthermore, the coalescence ages of H1 and H3 (∼11,000 years) are close to that previously reported for V. These findings have major implications for the origin of Europeans, since they attest that the Franco-Cantabrian refuge area was indeed the source of late-glacial expansions of hunter-gatherers that repopulated much of Central and Northern Europe from ∼15,000 years ago. This has also some implications for disease studies. For instance, the high occurrence of H1 and H3 in Iberia led us to re-evaluate the haplogroup distribution in 50 Spanish families affected by nonsyndromic sensorineural deafness due to the A1555G mutation. The survey revealed that the previously reported excess of H among these families is caused entirely by H3 and is due to a major, probably nonrecent, founder event. PMID:15382008

  7. Principal-Component Analysis for Assessment of Population Stratification in Mitochondrial Medical Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Biffi, Alessandro; Anderson, Christopher D.; Nalls, Michael A.; Rahman, Rosanna; Sonni, Akshata; Cortellini, Lynelle; Rost, Natalia S.; Matarin, Mar; Hernandez, Dena G.; Plourde, Anna; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Ross, Owen A.; Greenberg, Steven M.; Furie, Karen L.; Meschia, James F.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Saxena, Richa; Rosand, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Although inherited mitochondrial genetic variation can cause human disease, no validated methods exist for control of confounding due to mitochondrial population stratification (PS). We sought to identify a reliable method for PS assessment in mitochondrial medical genetics. We analyzed mitochondrial SNP data from 1513 European American individuals concomitantly genotyped with the use of a previously validated panel of 144 mitochondrial markers as well as the Affymetrix 6.0 (n = 432), Illumina 610-Quad (n = 458), or Illumina 660 (n = 623) platforms. Additional analyses were performed in 938 participants in the Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP) (Illumina 650). We compared the following methods for controlling for PS: haplogroup-stratified analyses, mitochondrial principal-component analysis (PCA), and combined autosomal-mitochondrial PCA. We computed mitochondrial genomic inflation factors (mtGIFs) and test statistics for simulated case-control and continuous phenotypes (10,000 simulations each) with varying degrees of correlation with mitochondrial ancestry. Results were then compared across adjustment methods. We also calculated power for discovery of true associations under each method, using a simulation approach. Mitochondrial PCA recapitulated haplogroup information, but haplogroup-stratified analyses were inferior to mitochondrial PCA in controlling for PS. Correlation between nuclear and mitochondrial principal components (PCs) was very limited. Adjustment for nuclear PCs had no effect on mitochondrial analysis of simulated phenotypes. Mitochondrial PCA performed with the use of data from commercially available genome-wide arrays correlated strongly with PCA performed with the use of an exhaustive mitochondrial marker panel. Finally, we demonstrate, through simulation, no loss in power for detection of true associations with the use of mitochondrial PCA. PMID:20537299

  8. Paternal lineages in Libya inferred from Y-chromosome haplogroups.

    PubMed

    Triki-Fendri, Soumaya; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Rey-González, Danel; Ayadi, Imen; Carracedo, Ángel; Rebai, Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Many studies based on genetic diversity of North African populations have contributed to elucidate the modelling of the genetic landscape in this region. North Africa is considered as a distinct spatial-temporal entity on geographic, archaeological, and historical grounds, which has undergone the influence of different human migrations along its shaping. For instance, Libya, a North African country, was first inhabited by Berbers and then colonized by a variety of ethnic groups like Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs and, in recent times, Italians. In this study, we contribute to clarify the genetic variation of Libya and consequently, of North African modern populations, by the study of Libyan male lineages. A total of 22 Y-chromosome-specific SNPs were genotyped in a sample of 175 Libyan males, allowing the characterization of 18 Y-chromosomal haplogroups. The obtained data revealed a predominant Northwest African component represented by haplogroup E-M81 (33.7%) followed by J(xJ1a,J2)-M304 (27.4%), which is postulated to have a Middle Eastern origin. The comparative study with other populations (∼5,400 individuals from North Africa, Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Europe) revealed a general genetic homogeneity among North African populations (FST = 5.3 %; P-value < 0.0001). Overall, the Y-haplogroup diversity in Libya and in North Africa is characterized by two genetic components. The first signature is typical of Berber-speaking people (E-M81), the autochthonous inhabitants, whereas the second is (J(xJ1a,J2)-M304), originating from Arabic populations. This is in agreement with the hypothesis of an Arabic expansion from the Middle East, shaping the North African genetic landscape. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Revealing latitudinal patterns of mitochondrial DNA diversity in Chileans.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Moreno, Fabián; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Martinón-Torres, Federico; García-Magariños, Manuel; Pantoja-Astudillo, Jaime A; Aguirre-Morales, Eugenia; Bustos, Patricio; Salas, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The territory of Chile is particularly long and narrow, which combined with its mountainous terrain, makes it a unique scenario for human genetic studies. We obtained 995 control region mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from Chileans representing populations living at different latitudes of the country from the North to the southernmost region. The majority of the mtDNA profiles are of Native American origin (∼88%). The remaining haplotypes are mostly of recent European origin (∼11%), and only a minor proportion is of recent African ancestry (∼1%). While these proportions are relatively uniform across the country, more structured patterns of diversity emerge when examining the variation from a phylogeographic perspective. For instance, haplogroup A2 reaches ∼9% in the North, and its frequency decreases gradually to ∼1% in the southernmost populations, while the frequency of haplogroup D (sub-haplogroups D1 and D4) follows the opposite pattern: 36% in the southernmost region, gradually decreasing to 21% in the North. Furthermore, there are remarkable signatures of founder effects in specific sub-clades of Native American (e.g. haplogroups D1j and D4p) and European (e.g. haplogroups T2b3 and K1a4a1a+195) ancestry. We conclude that the magnitude of the latitudinal differences observed in the patterns of mtDNA variation might be relevant in forensic casework.

  10. Dispersals of the Siberian Y-chromosome haplogroup Q in Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yun-Zhi; Pamjav, Horolma; Flegontov, Pavel; Stenzl, Vlastimil; Wen, Shao-Qing; Tong, Xin-Zhu; Wang, Chuan-Chao; Wang, Ling-Xiang; Wei, Lan-Hai; Gao, Jing-Yi; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

    2017-09-07

    The human Y-chromosome has proven to be a powerful tool for tracing the paternal history of human populations and genealogical ancestors. The human Y-chromosome haplogroup Q is the most frequent haplogroup in the Americas. Previous studies have traced the origin of haplogroup Q to the region around Central Asia and Southern Siberia. Although the diversity of haplogroup Q in the Americas has been studied in detail, investigations on the diffusion of haplogroup Q in Eurasia and Africa are still limited. In this study, we collected 39 samples from China and Russia, investigated 432 samples from previous studies of haplogroup Q, and analyzed the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) subclades Q1a1a1-M120, Q1a2a1-L54, Q1a1b-M25, Q1a2-M346, Q1a2a1a2-L804, Q1a2b2-F1161, Q1b1a-M378, and Q1b1a1-L245. Through NETWORK and BATWING analyses, we found that the subclades of haplogroup Q continued to disperse from Central Asia and Southern Siberia during the past 10,000 years. Apart from its migration through the Beringia to the Americas, haplogroup Q also moved from Asia to the south and to the west during the Neolithic period, and subsequently to the whole of Eurasia and part of Africa.

  11. Large-scale genetic structuring of a widely distributed carnivore--the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).

    PubMed

    Rueness, Eli K; Naidenko, Sergei; Trosvik, Pål; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades the phylogeography and genetic structure of a multitude of species inhabiting Europe and North America have been described. The flora and fauna of the vast landmasses of north-eastern Eurasia are still largely unexplored in this respect. The Eurasian lynx is a large felid that is relatively abundant over much of the Russian sub-continent and the adjoining countries. Analyzing 148 museum specimens collected throughout its range over the last 150 years we have described the large-scale genetic structuring in this highly mobile species. We have investigated the spatial genetic patterns using mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and cytochrome b) and 11 microsatellite loci, and describe three phylogenetic clades and a clear structuring along an east-west gradient. The most likely scenario is that the contemporary Eurasian lynx populations originated in central Asia and that parts of Europe were inhabited by lynx during the Pleistocene. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) range expansions lead to colonization of north-western Siberia and Scandinavia from the Caucasus and north-eastern Siberia from a refugium further east. No evidence of a Berinigan refugium could be detected in our data. We observed restricted gene flow and suggest that future studies of the Eurasian lynx explore to what extent the contemporary population structure may be explained by ecological variables.

  12. Large-Scale Genetic Structuring of a Widely Distributed Carnivore - The Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx)

    PubMed Central

    Rueness, Eli K.; Naidenko, Sergei; Trosvik, Pål; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades the phylogeography and genetic structure of a multitude of species inhabiting Europe and North America have been described. The flora and fauna of the vast landmasses of north-eastern Eurasia are still largely unexplored in this respect. The Eurasian lynx is a large felid that is relatively abundant over much of the Russian sub-continent and the adjoining countries. Analyzing 148 museum specimens collected throughout its range over the last 150 years we have described the large-scale genetic structuring in this highly mobile species. We have investigated the spatial genetic patterns using mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and cytochrome b) and 11 microsatellite loci, and describe three phylogenetic clades and a clear structuring along an east-west gradient. The most likely scenario is that the contemporary Eurasian lynx populations originated in central Asia and that parts of Europe were inhabited by lynx during the Pleistocene. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) range expansions lead to colonization of north-western Siberia and Scandinavia from the Caucasus and north-eastern Siberia from a refugium further east. No evidence of a Berinigan refugium could be detected in our data. We observed restricted gene flow and suggest that future studies of the Eurasian lynx explore to what extent the contemporary population structure may be explained by ecological variables. PMID:24695745

  13. Analysis of Y-chromosomal SNP haplogroups and STR haplotypes in an Algerian population sample.

    PubMed

    Robino, C; Crobu, F; Di Gaetano, C; Bekada, A; Benhamamouch, S; Cerutti, N; Piazza, A; Inturri, S; Torre, C

    2008-05-01

    The distribution of Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplogroups and short tandem repeat (STR) haplotypes was determined in a sample of 102 unrelated men of Arab origin from northwestern Algeria (Oran area). A total of nine different haplogroups were identified by a panel of 22 binary markers. The most common haplogroups observed in the Algerian population were E3b2 (45.1%) and J1 (22.5%). Y-STR typing by a 17-loci multiplex system allowed 93 haplotypes to be defined (88 were unique). Striking differences in the allele distribution and gene diversity of Y-STR markers between haplogroups could be found. In particular, intermediate alleles at locus DYS458 specifically characterized the haplotypes of individuals carrying haplogroup J1. All the intermediate alleles shared a common repeat sequence structure, supporting the hypothesis that the variant originated from a single mutational event.

  14. Understanding the Y chromosome variation in Korea--relevance of combined haplogroup and haplotype analyses.

    PubMed

    Park, Myung Jin; Lee, Hwan Young; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2012-07-01

    We performed a molecular characterization of Korean Y-chromosomal haplogroups using a combination of Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) and Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs). In a test using DNA samples from 706 Korean males, a total of 19 different haplogroups were identified by 26 Y-SNPs including the newly redefined markers (PK4, KL2, and P164) in haplogroup O. When genotyping the SNPs, phylogenetic nonequivalence was found between SNPs M117 and M133, which define haplogroup O3a3c1 (O3a2c1a according to the updated tree of haplogroup O by Yan et al. (European Journal of Human Genetics 19:1013-1015, 2011)), suggesting that the position of the M133 marker should be corrected. We have shown that the haplotypes consisted of DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS448, and DYS388 loci, which exhibit a relatively lower mutation rate, can preserve phylogenetic information and hence can be used to roughly distinguish Y-chromosome haplogroups, whereas more rapidly mutating Y-STRs such as DYS449 and DYS458 are useful for differentiating male lineages. However, at the relatively rapidly mutating DYS447, DYS449, DYS458, and DYS464 loci, unusually short alleles and intermediate alleles with common sequence structures are informative for elucidating the substructure within the context of a particular haplogroup. In addition, some deletion mutations in the DYS385 flanking region and the null allele at DYS448 were associated with a single haplogroup background. These high-resolution haplogroup and haplotype data will improve our understanding of regional Y-chromosome variation or recent migration routes and will also help to infer haplogroup background or common ancestry.

  15. Seasonal acclimatization of metabolism in Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei-Hong; Li, Ming; Liu, Jin-Song; Shao, Shu-Li

    2008-12-01

    Acclimatization to winter conditions is an essential prerequisite for survival of small passerines of the northern temperate zone. Changes in photoperiod, ambient temperature and food availability trigger seasonal acclimatization in physiology and behavior of many birds. In the present study, seasonal adjustments in several physiological, hormonal, and biochemical markers were examined in wild-captured Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus) from the Heilongjiang Province in China. In winter sparrows had higher body mass and basal metabolic rate (BMR). Consistently, the dry mass of liver, heart, gizzard, small intestine, large intestine and total digestive tract were higher in winter than in that in summer. The contents of mitochondrial protein in liver, and state-4 respiration and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity in liver and muscle increased significantly in winter. Circulating level of serum triiodothyronine (T3) was significantly higher in winter than in summer. Together, these data suggest that tree sparrows mainly coped with cold by enhancing thermogenic capacities through increased organ masses and heightened activity of respiratory enzymes activities. The results support the view that prominent winter increases in BMR are manifestations of winter acclimatization in tree sparrows and that seasonal variation in metabolism in sparrows is similar to that in other small temperate-wintering birds.

  16. Pleistocene Chinese cave hyenas and the recent Eurasian history of the spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Gui-Lian; Soubrier, Julien; Liu, Jin-Yi; Werdelin, Lars; Llamas, Bastien; Thomson, Vicki A; Tuke, Jonathan; Wu, Lian-Juan; Hou, Xin-Dong; Chen, Quan-Jia; Lai, Xu-Long; Cooper, Alan

    2014-02-01

    The living hyena species (spotted, brown, striped and aardwolf) are remnants of a formerly diverse group of more than 80 fossil species, which peaked in diversity in the Late Miocene (about 7-8 Ma). The fossil history indicates an African origin, and morphological and ancient DNA data have confirmed that living spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) of Africa were closely related to extinct Late Pleistocene cave hyenas from Europe and Asia. The current model used to explain the origins of Eurasian cave hyena populations invokes multiple migrations out of Africa between 3.5-0.35 Ma. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences from radiocarbon-dated Chinese Pleistocene hyena specimens to examine the origin of Asian populations, and temporally calibrate the evolutionary history of spotted hyenas. Our results support a far more recent evolutionary timescale (430-163 kya) and suggest that extinct and living spotted hyena populations originated from a widespread Eurasian population in the Late Pleistocene, which was only subsequently restricted to Africa. We developed statistical tests of the contrasting population models and their fit to the fossil record. Coalescent simulations and Bayes Factor analysis support the new radiocarbon-calibrated timescale and Eurasian origins model. The new Eurasian biogeographic scenario proposed for the hyena emphasizes the role of the vast steppe grasslands of Eurasia in contrast to models only involving Africa. The new methodology for combining genetic and geological data to test contrasting models of population history will be useful for a wide range of taxa where ancient and historic genetic data are available.

  17. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeny in Eastern and Western Slavs.

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, B; Grzybowski, T; Derenko, M; Perkova, M; Vanecek, T; Lazur, J; Gomolcak, P; Tsybovsky, I

    2008-08-01

    To resolve the phylogeny of certain mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups in eastern Europe and estimate their evolutionary age, a total of 73 samples representing mitochondrial haplogroups U4, HV*, and R1 were selected for complete mitochondrial genome sequencing from a collection of about 2,000 control region sequences sampled in eastern (Russians, Belorussians, and Ukrainians) and western (Poles, Czechs, and Slovaks) Slavs. On the basis of whole-genome resolution, we fully characterized a number of haplogroups (HV3, HV4, U4a1, U4a2, U4a3, U4b, U4c, U4d, and R1a) that were previously described only partially. Our findings demonstrate that haplogroups HV3, HV4, and U4a1 could be traced back to the pre-Neolithic times ( approximately 12,000-19,000 years before present [YBP]) in eastern Europe. In addition, an ancient connection between the Caucasus/Europe and India has been revealed by analysis of haplogroup R1 diversity, with a split between the Indian and Caucasus/European R1a lineages occurring about 16,500 years ago. Meanwhile, some mtDNA subgroups detected in Slavs (such as U4a2a, U4a2*, HV3a, and R1a1) are definitely younger being dated between 6,400 and 8,200 YBP. However, robust age estimations appear to be problematic due to the high ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions found in young mtDNA subclusters.

  18. Genome-wide Evidence Reveals that African and Eurasian Golden Jackals Are Distinct Species.

    PubMed

    Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Pollinger, John; Godinho, Raquel; Robinson, Jacqueline; Lea, Amanda; Hendricks, Sarah; Schweizer, Rena M; Thalmann, Olaf; Silva, Pedro; Fan, Zhenxin; Yurchenko, Andrey A; Dobrynin, Pavel; Makunin, Alexey; Cahill, James A; Shapiro, Beth; Álvares, Francisco; Brito, José C; Geffen, Eli; Leonard, Jennifer A; Helgen, Kristofer M; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Wayne, Robert K

    2015-08-17

    The golden jackal of Africa (Canis aureus) has long been considered a conspecific of jackals distributed throughout Eurasia, with the nearest source populations in the Middle East. However, two recent reports found that mitochondrial haplotypes of some African golden jackals aligned more closely to gray wolves (Canis lupus), which is surprising given the absence of gray wolves in Africa and the phenotypic divergence between the two species. Moreover, these results imply the existence of a previously unrecognized phylogenetically distinct species despite a long history of taxonomic work on African canids. To test the distinct-species hypothesis and understand the evolutionary history that would account for this puzzling result, we analyzed extensive genomic data including mitochondrial genome sequences, sequences from 20 autosomal loci (17 introns and 3 exon segments), microsatellite loci, X- and Y-linked zinc-finger protein gene (ZFX and ZFY) sequences, and whole-genome nuclear sequences in African and Eurasian golden jackals and gray wolves. Our results provide consistent and robust evidence that populations of golden jackals from Africa and Eurasia represent distinct monophyletic lineages separated for more than one million years, sufficient to merit formal recognition as different species: C. anthus (African golden wolf) and C. aureus (Eurasian golden jackal). Using morphologic data, we demonstrate a striking morphologic similarity between East African and Eurasian golden jackals, suggesting parallelism, which may have misled taxonomists and likely reflects uniquely intense interspecific competition in the East African carnivore guild. Our study shows how ecology can confound taxonomy if interspecific competition constrains size diversification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mitochondrial haplotypes may modulate the phenotypic manifestation of the deafness-associated 12S rRNA 1555A>G mutation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianxin; Qian, Yaping; Li, Zhiyuan; Yang, Aifen; Zhu, Yi; Li, Ronghua; Yang, Li; Tang, Xiaowen; Chen, Bobei; Ding, Yu; Li, Yongyan; You, Junyan; Zheng, Jing; Tao, Zhihua; Zhao, Fuxin; Wang, Jindan; Sun, Dongmei; Zhao, Jianyue; Meng, Yanzi; Guan, Min-Xin

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial 12S rRNA 1555A>G mutation is one of the important causes of aminoglycoside-induced and nonsyndromic deafness. Our previous investigations showed that the A1555G mutation was a primary factor underlying the development of deafness but was insufficient to produce deafness phenotype. However, it has been proposed that mitochondrial haplotypes modulate the phenotypic manifestation of the 1555A>G mutation. Here, we performed systematic and extended mutational screening of 12S rRNA gene in a cohort of 1742 hearing-impaired Han Chinese pediatric subjects from Zhejiang Province, China. Among these, 69 subjects with aminoglycoside-induced and nonsyndromic deafness harbored the homoplasmic 1555A>G mutation. These translated to a frequency of approximately 3.96% for the 1555A>G mutation in this hearing-impaired population. Clinical and genetic characterizations of 69 Chinese families carrying the 1555A>G mutation exhibited a wide range of penetrance and expressivity of hearing impairment. The average penetrances of deafness were 29.5% and 17.6%, respectively, when aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss was included or excluded. Furthermore, the average age-of-onset for deafness without aminoglycoside exposure ranged from 5 and 30years old, with the average of 14.5years. Their mitochondrial genomes exhibited distinct sets of polymorphisms belonging to ten Eastern Asian haplogroups A, B, C, D, F, G, M, N, R and Y, respectively. These indicated that the 1555A>G mutation occurred through recurrent origins and founder events. The haplogroup D accounted for 40.6% of the patient's mtDNA samples but only 25.8% of the Chinese control mtDNA samples. Strikingly, these Chinese families carrying mitochondrial haplogroup B exhibited higher penetrance and expressivity of hearing loss. In addition, the mitochondrial haplogroup specific variants: 15927G>A of haplogroup B5b, 12338T>C of haplogroup F2, 7444G>A of haplogroup B4, 5802T>C, 10454T>C, 12224C>T and 11696G>A of D4

  20. Pan Eurasian Experiment (PEEX): a new research initiative focused on the Northern Pan-Eurasian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petäjä, Tuukka; Lappalainen, Hanna; Zaytseva, Nina; Shvidenko, Anatoli; Kujansuu, Joni; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Viisanen, Yrjö; Kotlyakov, Vladimir; Kasimov, Nikolai; Bondur, Valery; Matvienko, Gennadi; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    The increasing human activities are changing the environment and the humanity is we are pushing the safe boundaries of the globe. It is of utmost importance to gauge with a comprehensive research program on the current status of the environment, particularly in the most vulnerable locations. Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a new multidisciplinary research approach aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in the Earth system science and global sustainability questions in the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions. The PEEX program aims (i) to understand the Earth system and the influence of environmental and societal changes in pristine and industrialized Pan-Eurasian environments, (ii) to establish and sustain long-term, continuous and comprehensive ground-based airborne and seaborne research infrastructures, and to utilize satellite data and multi-scale model frameworks, (iii) to contribute to regional climate scenarios in the northern Pan-Eurasia and determine the relevant factors and interactions influencing human and societal wellbeing (iv) to promote the dissemination of PEEX scientific results and strategies in scientific and stake-holder communities and policy making, (v) to educate the next generation of multidisciplinary global change experts and scientists, and (vi) to increase the public awareness of climate change impacts in the Pan-Eurasian region. The development of PEEX research infrastructure will be one of the first activities of PEEX. PEEX will find synergies with the major European land-atmosphere observation infrastructures such as ICOS a research infrastructure to decipher the greenhouse gas balance of Europe and adjacent regions, ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network-project), and ANAEE (The experimentation in terrestrial ecosystem research) networks and with the flag ship stations like the SMEARs (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) when design, re-organizing and networking existing

  1. Introducing Human Population Biology through an Easy Laboratory Exercise on Mitochondrial DNA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardinas, Antonio F.; Dopico, Eduardo; Roca, Agustin; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva; Lopez, Belen

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an easy and cheap laboratory exercise for students to discover their own mitochondrial haplogroup. Students use buccal swabs to obtain mucosa cells as noninvasive tissue samples, extract DNA, and with a simple polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis they can obtain DNA fragments of…

  2. Introducing Human Population Biology through an Easy Laboratory Exercise on Mitochondrial DNA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardinas, Antonio F.; Dopico, Eduardo; Roca, Agustin; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva; Lopez, Belen

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an easy and cheap laboratory exercise for students to discover their own mitochondrial haplogroup. Students use buccal swabs to obtain mucosa cells as noninvasive tissue samples, extract DNA, and with a simple polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis they can obtain DNA fragments of…

  3. A cryptic mitochondrial DNA link between North European and West African dogs.

    PubMed

    Adeola, Adeniyi C; Ommeh, Sheila C; Song, Jiao-Jiao; Olaogun, S Charles; Sanke, Oscar J; Yin, Ting-Ting; Wang, Guo-Dong; Wu, Shi-Fang; Zhou, Zhong-Yin; Lichoti, Jacqueline K; Agwanda, Bernard R; Dawuda, Philip M; Murphy, Robert W; Peng, Min-Sheng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-11-24

    Domestic dogs have an ancient origin and a long history in Africa. Nevertheless, the timing and sources of their introduction into Africa remain enigmatic. Herein, we analyse variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences from 345 Nigerian and 37 Kenyan village dogs plus 1530 published sequences of dogs from other parts of Africa, Europe and West Asia. All Kenyan dogs can be assigned to one of three haplogroups (matrilines; clades): A, B, and C, while Nigerian dogs can be assigned to one of four haplogroups A, B, C, and D. None of the African dogs exhibits a matrilineal contribution from the African wolf (Canis lupus lupaster). The genetic signal of a recent demographic expansion is detected in Nigerian dogs from West Africa. The analyses of mitochondrial genomes reveal a maternal genetic link between modern West African and North European dogs indicated by sub-haplogroup D1 (but not the entire haplogroup D) coalescing around 12,000 years ago. Incorporating molecular anthropological evidence, we propose that sub-haplogroup D1 in West African dogs could be traced back to the late-glacial dispersals, potentially associated with human hunter-gatherer migration from southwestern Europe.

  4. The Ethno-Cultural Concept of Classical Eurasianism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanov, Andrey V.; Fotieva, Irina V.; Shishin, Michail Yu.; Belokurovac, Sofja M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze of Eurasianism, which began during the Russian scientific and philosophical emigration and has generated sharp discussion over the last century. Within the framework of Eurasianism, extensive research has been conducted on a wide range of interrelated topics, much of whose theoretical and practical…

  5. East Eurasian ancestry in the middle of Europe: genetic footprints of Steppe nomads in the genomes of Belarusian Lipka Tatars

    PubMed Central

    Pankratov, Vasili; Litvinov, Sergei; Kassian, Alexei; Shulhin, Dzmitry; Tchebotarev, Lieve; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Möls, Märt; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Rootsi, Siiri; Metspalu, Ene; Golubenko, Maria; Ekomasova, Natalia; Akhatova, Farida; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Heyer, Evelyne; Endicott, Phillip; Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Metspalu, Mait; Davydenko, Oleg; Villems, Richard; Kushniarevich, Alena

    2016-01-01

    Medieval era encounters of nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe and largely sedentary East Europeans had a variety of demographic and cultural consequences. Amongst these outcomes was the emergence of the Lipka Tatars—a Slavic-speaking Sunni-Muslim minority residing in modern Belarus, Lithuania and Poland, whose ancestors arrived in these territories via several migration waves, mainly from the Golden Horde. Our results show that Belarusian Lipka Tatars share a substantial part of their gene pool with Europeans as indicated by their Y-chromosomal, mitochondrial and autosomal DNA variation. Nevertheless, Belarusian Lipkas still retain a strong genetic signal of their nomadic ancestry, witnessed by the presence of common Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA variants as well as autosomal segments identical by descent between Lipkas and East Eurasians from temperate and northern regions. Hence, we document Lipka Tatars as a unique example of former Medieval migrants into Central Europe, who became sedentary, changed language to Slavic, yet preserved their faith and retained, both uni- and bi-parentally, a clear genetic echo of a complex population interplay throughout the Eurasian Steppe Belt, extending from Central Europe to northern China. PMID:27453128

  6. The Arabian cradle: mitochondrial relicts of the first steps along the southern route out of Africa.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Verónica; Alshamali, Farida; Alves, Marco; Costa, Marta D; Pereira, Joana B; Silva, Nuno M; Cherni, Lotfi; Harich, Nourdin; Cerny, Viktor; Soares, Pedro; Richards, Martin B; Pereira, Luísa

    2012-02-10

    A major unanswered question regarding the dispersal of modern humans around the world concerns the geographical site of the first human steps outside of Africa. The "southern coastal route" model predicts that the early stages of the dispersal took place when people crossed the Red Sea to southern Arabia, but genetic evidence has hitherto been tenuous. We have addressed this question by analyzing the three minor west-Eurasian haplogroups, N1, N2, and X. These lineages branch directly from the first non-African founder node, the root of haplogroup N, and coalesce to the time of the first successful movement of modern humans out of Africa, ∼60 thousand years (ka) ago. We sequenced complete mtDNA genomes from 85 Southwest Asian samples carrying these haplogroups and compared them with a database of 300 European examples. The results show that these minor haplogroups have a relict distribution that suggests an ancient ancestry within the Arabian Peninsula, and they most likely spread from the Gulf Oasis region toward the Near East and Europe during the pluvial period 55-24 ka ago. This pattern suggests that Arabia was indeed the first staging post in the spread of modern humans around the world. Copyright © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Arabian Cradle: Mitochondrial Relicts of the First Steps along the Southern Route out of Africa

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Verónica; Alshamali, Farida; Alves, Marco; Costa, Marta D.; Pereira, Joana B.; Silva, Nuno M.; Cherni, Lotfi; Harich, Nourdin; Cerny, Viktor; Soares, Pedro; Richards, Martin B.; Pereira, Luísa

    2012-01-01

    A major unanswered question regarding the dispersal of modern humans around the world concerns the geographical site of the first human steps outside of Africa. The “southern coastal route” model predicts that the early stages of the dispersal took place when people crossed the Red Sea to southern Arabia, but genetic evidence has hitherto been tenuous. We have addressed this question by analyzing the three minor west-Eurasian haplogroups, N1, N2, and X. These lineages branch directly from the first non-African founder node, the root of haplogroup N, and coalesce to the time of the first successful movement of modern humans out of Africa, ∼60 thousand years (ka) ago. We sequenced complete mtDNA genomes from 85 Southwest Asian samples carrying these haplogroups and compared them with a database of 300 European examples. The results show that these minor haplogroups have a relict distribution that suggests an ancient ancestry within the Arabian Peninsula, and they most likely spread from the Gulf Oasis region toward the Near East and Europe during the pluvial period 55–24 ka ago. This pattern suggests that Arabia was indeed the first staging post in the spread of modern humans around the world. PMID:22284828

  8. European Transmission Interconnection; Eurasian power grid

    SciTech Connect

    Posch, J. )

    1991-09-01

    Systems and philosophies perceived on a grand scale, encompassing new ideas, are often characterized as a dream. But in fact, such dreams often lead to the first step to fruitful development. This article is based on a preliminary study of the existing electrical high-tension networks of Western Europe, Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union - which, as explained herein, may be merged into a multinational energy supply system. Such a system would constitute a completely interconnected Eurasian Power Grid. The idea of a Eurasian super grid, spanning from the Atlantic to the Ural and Siberia, is not new. Various studies have been conducted by both western Europe and the Soviet Union on this topic. Our world is currently in an era of extra high voltage (EHV) and ultra high voltage (UHV) electrical systems. This translates into existing UHV lines of 1150 kV which have already been proven in successful operation. Such UHV systems are capable of transmitting thousands of megawatts over a distance of a 1000 miles. Furthermore, national boundaries are not more a hindrance than the challenge of interconnecting complete networks into an overall synchronized working system with load exchange capabilities in all directions.

  9. Mitochondrial Genetic Background Modifies the Relationship between Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure and Systemic Biomarkers of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Wittkopp, Sharine; Staimer, Norbert; Tjoa, Thomas; Gillen, Daniel; Daher, Nancy; Shafer, Martin; Schauer, James J.; Sioutas, Constantinos; Delfino, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mitochondria are the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Human mitochondrial haplogroups are linked to differences in ROS production and oxidative-stress induced inflammation that may influence disease pathogenesis, including coronary artery disease (CAD). We previously showed that traffic-related air pollutants were associated with biomarkers of systemic inflammation in a cohort panel of subjects with CAD in the Los Angeles air basin. Objective We tested whether air pollutant exposure-associated inflammation was stronger in mitochondrial haplogroup H than U (high versus low ROS production) in this panel (38 subjects and 417 observations). Methods Inflammation biomarkers were measured weekly in each subject (≤12 weeks), including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 soluble receptor and tumor necrosis factor-soluble receptor II. We determined haplogroup by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Air pollutants included nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), organic carbon, elemental and black carbon (EC, BC); and particulate matter mass, three size fractions (<0.25 µm, 0.25–2.5 µm, and 2.5–10 µm in aerodynamic diameter). Particulate matter extracts were analyzed for organic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and in vitro oxidative potential of aqueous extracts. Associations between exposures and biomarkers, stratified by haplogroup, were analyzed by mixed-effects models. Results IL-6 and TNF-α were associated with traffic-related air pollutants (BC, CO, NOx and PAH), and with mass and oxidative potential of quasi-ultrafine particles <0.25 µm. These associations were stronger for haplogroup H than haplogroup U. Conclusions Results suggest that mitochondrial haplogroup U is a novel protective factor for air pollution-related systemic inflammation in this small group of subjects. PMID:23717615

  10. Phylogeographic sympatry and isolation of the Eurasian badgers (Meles, Mustelidae, Carnivora): Implications for an alternative analysis using maternally as well as paternally inherited genes.

    PubMed

    Tashima, Sara; Kaneko, Yayoi; Anezaki, Tomoko; Baba, Minoru; Yachimori, Shuuji; Abramov, Alexei V; Saveljev, Alexander P; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2011-04-01

    In the present study, to further understand the phylogenetic relationships among the Eurasian badgers (Meles, Mustelidae, Carnivora), which are distributed widely in the Palearctic, partial sequences of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (539-545 base-pairs) as a maternal genetic marker, and the sex-determining region on the Y-chromosome gene (SRY: 1052-1058 base-pairs), as a paternal genetic marker, were examined. The present study revealed ten SRY haplotypes from 47 males of 112 individuals of the Eurasian Continent and Japan. In addition, 39 mtDNA haplotypes were identified from those animals. From the phylogeography of both the uniparentally inherited genes, four lineages were recognized as Japanese, eastern Eurasian, Caucasian, and western Eurasian. The distribution patterns of the mtDNA lineages showed the existence of a sympatric zone between the eastern and western Eurasian lineages around the Volga River in western Russia. Furthermore, the present study suggested that in the Japanese badgers, the larger genetic differentiation of the Shikoku population was attributable to geographic history in the Japanese islands.

  11. Reprint of: high resolution mapping of Y haplogroup G in Tyrol (Austria).

    PubMed

    Berger, Burkhard; Niederstätter, Harald; Erhart, Daniel; Gassner, Christoph; Schennach, Harald; Parson, Walther

    2013-12-01

    The distribution of Y-chromosomal haplogroup G2a (G-P15) in present-day paternal lineages in Tyrol (Austria) was analyzed by applying a high-density regional sampling scheme that also covered remote mountain areas. There is evidence from ancient genetic data for a high frequency of Y-chromosomal haplogroup G in prehistoric populations of Central Europe, whilst nowadays levels well below 10% are routinely observed. A population sample comprising ∼3700 specimens was analyzed for Y-chromosomal variation by genotyping Y-SNPs and Y-STRs. The set of binary markers included nine SNPs specific for sub-lineages of haplogroup G. The frequency of haplogroup G in 2379 unrelated men born in Tyrol amounted to 11.3%. Nearly all of these Y chromosomes belonged to haplogroup G2a. The main sub-haplogroup within G2a was defined by the SNP L497 (G2a3b1c) and reached a population frequency of 8.6%. Although this average level is higher than reported for other countries the geographical distribution of haplogroup G-L497 showed a differentiated pattern with a clustered distribution within some alpine valleys, where maxima above 40% were found. Both, the estimation of coalescent times and a principle coordinates analysis based on RST values derived from Y-STR haplotypes from different sub-regions of Tyrol revealed evidence for an old settlement history associated with Y chromosomes belonging to haplogroup G in the Tyrolean Alps. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic perspective of uniparental mitochondrial DNA landscape on the Punjabi population, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Shahzad; Abbas, Sana; Aslamkhan, Muhammad; Attimonelli, Marcella; Trinidad, Magali Segundo; Aydin, Hikmet Hakan; de Souza, Erica Martinha Silva; Gonzalez, Gerardo Rodriguez

    2017-07-26

    To investigate the uniparental genetic structure of the Punjabi population from mtDNA aspect and to set up an appropriate mtDNA forensic database, we studied maternally unrelated Punjabi (N = 100) subjects from two caste groups (i.e. Arain and Gujar) belonging to territory of Punjab. The complete control region was elucidated by Sanger sequencing and the subsequent 58 different haplotypes were designated into appropriate haplogroups according to the most recently updated mtDNA phylogeny. We found a homogenous dispersal of Eurasian haplogroup uniformity among the Punjab Province and exhibited a strong connotation with the European populations. Punjabi castes are primarily a composite of substantial South Asian, East Asian and West Eurasian lineages. Moreover, for the first time we have defined the newly sub-haplogroup M52b1 characterized by 16223 T, 16275 G and 16438 A in Gujar caste. The vast array of mtDNA variants displayed in this study suggested that the haplogroup composition radiates signals of extensive genetic conglomeration, population admixture and demographic expansion that was equipped with diverse origin, whereas matrilineal gene pool was phylogeographically homogenous across the Punjab. This context was further fully acquainted with the facts supported by PCA scatterplot that Punjabi population clustered with South Asian populations. Finally, the high power of discrimination (0.8819) and low random match probability (0.0085%) proposed a worthy contribution of mtDNA control region dataset as a forensic database that considered a gold standard of today to get deeper insight into the genetic ancestry of contemporary matrilineal phylogeny.

  13. Genetic analysis of seven Italian horse breeds based on mitochondrial DNA D-loop variation.

    PubMed

    Bigi, D; Perrotta, G; Zambonelli, P

    2014-08-01

    To understand the origin and genetic diversity of Italian horses, mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequences were generated for 163 horses from seven breeds. Sequence analysis of a 480-bp segment revealed a total of 84 haplotypes with 57 polymorphic sites, indicating multiple maternal origins and high genetic diversity. Comparison of the haplotypes with the equine mtDNA haplotype/haplogroup nomenclature showed a haplogroup distribution in the Italian breeds more similar to that found in the Middle East breeds than in the European breeds, probably due to the economic and cultural relationship with the Middle East in the past centuries. © 2014 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  14. Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian lynx, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Tryland, Morten; Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Af Segerstad, Carl Hård; Mörner, Torsten; Traavik, Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie Pierre

    2011-04-01

    Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway and phylogenetically closer to monkeypox virus than to vaccinia virus and isolates from 2 persons with cowpox virus in Sweden. Prevalence was higher among animals from regions with dense, rather than rural, human populations. Lynx are probably exposed to OPV through predation on small mammal reservoir species. We conclude that OPV is widely distributed in Sweden and may represent a threat to humans. Further studies are needed to verify whether this lynx OPV is cowpox virus.

  15. Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian Lynx, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; af Segerstad, Carl Hård; Mörner, Torsten; Traavik, Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway and phylogenetically closer to monkeypox virus than to vaccinia virus and isolates from 2 persons with cowpox virus in Sweden. Prevalence was higher among animals from regions with dense, rather than rural, human populations. Lynx are probably exposed to OPV through predation on small mammal reservoir species. We conclude that OPV is widely distributed in Sweden and may represent a threat to humans. Further studies are needed to verify whether this lynx OPV is cowpox virus. PMID:21470451

  16. Y chromosome haplogroup d2* lineage is associated with azoospermia in Japanese males.

    PubMed

    Sato, Youichi; Shinka, Toshikatsu; Iwamoto, Teruaki; Yamauchi, Aiko; Nakahori, Yutaka

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have investigated whether particular Y chromosome haplogroups are associated with spermatogenic failure in Japanese males; however, they produced differing results. In this study, to investigate the association of Y chromosome haplogroup with spermatogenic failure, we recruited 451 infertile patients and 730 fertile men from a Japanese population and typed their Y chromosome haplogroups. The infertile patients were suffering from varicocele, azoospermia, oligozoospermia, asthenozoospermia, obstructive azoospermia, karyotype abnormalities, microdeletions of the long arm of the Y chromosome, or other conditions that affect fertility. The frequency of haplogroup D2* was significantly higher (odds ratio = 2.28, 95% confidence interval = 1.44-3.61, P = 0.00034 using chi-square test) among the men with azoospermia than among the fertile men. None of the other Y haplogroups displayed associations with particular types of infertility. In conclusion, Y chromosome haplogroup D2* is associated with spermatogenic failure in Japanese males, suggesting that the Y chromosome lineage can have significant effects on spermatogenesis.

  17. Northern Eurasian Heat Waves and Droughts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Wang, Hailan; Koster, Randal; Suarez, Max; Groisman, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews our understanding of the characteristics and causes of northern Eurasian summertime heat waves and droughts. Additional insights into the nature of temperature and precipitation variability in Eurasia on monthly to decadal time scales and into the causes and predictability of the most extreme events are gained from the latest generation of reanalyses and from supplemental simulations with the NASA GEOS-5 AGCM. Key new results are: 1) the identification of the important role of summertime stationary Rossby waves in the development of the leading patterns of monthly Eurasian surface temperature and precipitation variability (including the development of extreme events such as the 2010 Russian heat wave), 2) an assessment of the mean temperature and precipitation changes that have occurred over northern Eurasia in the last three decades and their connections to decadal variability and global trends in SST, and 3) the quantification (via a case study) of the predictability of the most extreme simulated heat wave/drought events, with some focus on the role of soil moisture in the development and maintenance of such events. A literature survey indicates a general consensus that the future holds an enhanced probability of heat waves across northern Eurasia, while there is less agreement regarding future drought, reflecting a greater uncertainty in soil moisture and precipitation projections. Substantial uncertainties remain in our understanding of heat waves and drought, including the nature of the interactions between the short-term atmospheric variability associated with such extremes and the longer-term variability and trends associated with soil moisture feedbacks, SST anomalies, and an overall warming world.

  18. Mitogenomes from Egyptian Cattle Breeds: New Clues on the Origin of Haplogroup Q and the Early Spread of Bos taurus from the Near East

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Anna; Gandini, Francesca; Achilli, Alessandro; Fichera, Alessandro; Rizzi, Ermanno; Bonfiglio, Silvia; Battaglia, Vincenza; Brandini, Stefania; De Gaetano, Anna; El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Lancioni, Hovirag; Agha, Saif; Semino, Ornella; Ferretti, Luca; Torroni, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic studies support the scenario that Bos taurus domestication occurred in the Near East during the Neolithic transition about 10 thousand years (ky) ago, with the likely exception of a minor secondary event in Italy. However, despite the proven effectiveness of whole mitochondrial genome data in providing valuable information concerning the origin of taurine cattle, until now no population surveys have been carried out at the level of mitogenomes in local breeds from the Near East or surrounding areas. Egypt is in close geographic and cultural proximity to the Near East, in particular the Nile Delta region, and was one of the first neighboring areas to adopt the Neolithic package. Thus, a survey of mitogenome variation of autochthonous taurine breeds from the Nile Delta region might provide new insights on the early spread of cattle rearing outside the Near East. Methodology Using Illumina high-throughput sequencing we characterized the mitogenomes from two cattle breeds, Menofi (N = 17) and Domiaty (N = 14), from the Nile Delta region. Phylogenetic and Bayesian analyses were subsequently performed. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses of the 31 mitogenomes confirmed the prevalence of haplogroup T1, similar to most African cattle breeds, but showed also high frequencies for haplogroups T2, T3 and Q1, and an extremely high haplotype diversity, while Bayesian skyline plots pointed to a main episode of population growth ~12.5 ky ago. Comparisons of Nile Delta mitogenomes with those from other geographic areas revealed that (i) most Egyptian mtDNAs are probably direct local derivatives from the founder domestic herds which first arrived from the Near East and the extent of gene flow from and towards the Nile Delta region was limited after the initial founding event(s); (ii) haplogroup Q1 was among these founders, thus proving that it underwent domestication in the Near East together with the founders of the T clades. PMID:26513361

  19. Mitogenomes from Egyptian Cattle Breeds: New Clues on the Origin of Haplogroup Q and the Early Spread of Bos taurus from the Near East.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Anna; Gandini, Francesca; Achilli, Alessandro; Fichera, Alessandro; Rizzi, Ermanno; Bonfiglio, Silvia; Battaglia, Vincenza; Brandini, Stefania; De Gaetano, Anna; El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Lancioni, Hovirag; Agha, Saif; Semino, Ornella; Ferretti, Luca; Torroni, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Genetic studies support the scenario that Bos taurus domestication occurred in the Near East during the Neolithic transition about 10 thousand years (ky) ago, with the likely exception of a minor secondary event in Italy. However, despite the proven effectiveness of whole mitochondrial genome data in providing valuable information concerning the origin of taurine cattle, until now no population surveys have been carried out at the level of mitogenomes in local breeds from the Near East or surrounding areas. Egypt is in close geographic and cultural proximity to the Near East, in particular the Nile Delta region, and was one of the first neighboring areas to adopt the Neolithic package. Thus, a survey of mitogenome variation of autochthonous taurine breeds from the Nile Delta region might provide new insights on the early spread of cattle rearing outside the Near East. Using Illumina high-throughput sequencing we characterized the mitogenomes from two cattle breeds, Menofi (N = 17) and Domiaty (N = 14), from the Nile Delta region. Phylogenetic and Bayesian analyses were subsequently performed. Phylogenetic analyses of the 31 mitogenomes confirmed the prevalence of haplogroup T1, similar to most African cattle breeds, but showed also high frequencies for haplogroups T2, T3 and Q1, and an extremely high haplotype diversity, while Bayesian skyline plots pointed to a main episode of population growth ~12.5 ky ago. Comparisons of Nile Delta mitogenomes with those from other geographic areas revealed that (i) most Egyptian mtDNAs are probably direct local derivatives from the founder domestic herds which first arrived from the Near East and the extent of gene flow from and towards the Nile Delta region was limited after the initial founding event(s); (ii) haplogroup Q1 was among these founders, thus proving that it underwent domestication in the Near East together with the founders of the T clades.

  20. Mitochondrial footprints of human expansions in Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, E; Forster, P; Richards, M; Bandelt, H J

    1997-01-01

    mtDNA studies support an African origin for modern Eurasians, but expansion events within Africa have not previously been investigated. We have therefore analyzed 407 mtDNA control-region sequences from 13 African ethnic groups. A number of sequences (13%) were highly divergent and coalesced on the "mitochondrial Eve" in Africans. The remaining sequences also ultimately coalesced on this sequence but fell into four major clusters whose starlike phylogenies testify to demographic expansions. The oldest of these African expansions dates to approximately 60,000-80,000 years ago. Eurasian sequences are derived from essentially one sequence within this ancient cluster, even though a diverse mitochondrial pool was present in Africa at the time. PMID:9326335

  1. Mitochondrial genomic variation associated with higher mitochondrial copy number: the Cache County Study on Memory Health and Aging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The mitochondria are essential organelles and are the location of cellular respiration, which is responsible for the majority of ATP production. Each cell contains multiple mitochondria, and each mitochondrion contains multiple copies of its own circular genome. The ratio of mitochondrial genomes to nuclear genomes is referred to as mitochondrial copy number. Decreases in mitochondrial copy number are known to occur in many tissues as people age, and in certain diseases. The regulation of mitochondrial copy number by nuclear genes has been studied extensively. While mitochondrial variation has been associated with longevity and some of the diseases known to have reduced mitochondrial copy number, the role that the mitochondrial genome itself has in regulating mitochondrial copy number remains poorly understood. Results We analyzed the complete mitochondrial genomes from 1007 individuals randomly selected from the Cache County Study on Memory Health and Aging utilizing the inferred evolutionary history of the mitochondrial haplotypes present in our dataset to identify sequence variation and mitochondrial haplotypes associated with changes in mitochondrial copy number. Three variants belonging to mitochondrial haplogroups U5A1 and T2 were significantly associated with higher mitochondrial copy number in our dataset. Conclusions We identified three variants associated with higher mitochondrial copy number and suggest several hypotheses for how these variants influence mitochondrial copy number by interacting with known regulators of mitochondrial copy number. Our results are the first to report sequence variation in the mitochondrial genome that causes changes in mitochondrial copy number. The identification of these variants that increase mtDNA copy number has important implications in understanding the pathological processes that underlie these phenotypes. PMID:25077862

  2. Admixture Between Historically Isolated Mitochondrial Lineages in Captive Western Gorillas: Recommendations for Future Management

    PubMed Central

    Dew, J. Larry; Bergl, Richard A.; Jensen-Seaman, Michael I.; Anthony, Nicola M.

    2015-01-01

    Although captive populations of western gorilla have been maintained in the United States for over a century, little is known about the geographic origins and genetic composition of the current zoo population. Furthermore, although previous mitochondrial analyses have shown that free-range gorilla populations exhibit substantial regional differentiation, nothing is known of the extent to which this variation has been preserved in captive populations. To address these questions, we combined 379 pedigree records with data from 52 mitochondrial sequences to infer individual haplogroup affiliations, geographical origin of wild founders and instances of inter-breeding between haplogroups in the United States captive gorilla population. We show that the current captive population contains all major mitochondrial lineages found within wild western lowland gorillas. Levels of haplotype diversity are also comparable to those found in wild populations. However, the majority of captive gorilla matings have occurred between individuals with different haplogroup affiliations. Although restricting crosses to individuals within the same haplogroup would preserve the phylogeographic structure present in the wild, careful management of captive populations is required to minimize the risk of drift and inbreeding. However, when captive animals are released back into the wild, we recommend that efforts should be made to preserve natural phylogeographic structure. PMID:25790828

  3. A mitochondrial etiology of Alzheimer and Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Pinar; Wyrembak, Joanne; Schriner, Samual E; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Marciniack, Christine; Laferla, Frank; Wallace, Douglas C

    2012-05-01

    The genetics and pathophysiology of Alzheimer Disease (AD) and Parkinson Disease (PD) appears complex. However, mitochondrial dysfunction is a common observation in these and other neurodegenerative diseases. We argue that the available data on AD and PD can be incorporated into a single integrated paradigm based on mitochondrial genetics and pathophysiology. Rare chromosomal cases of AD and PD can be interpreted as affecting mitochondrial function, quality control, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) integrity. mtDNA lineages, haplogroups, such haplogroup H5a which harbors the mtDNA tRNA(Gln) A8336G variant, are important risk factors for AD and PD. Somatic mtDNA mutations are elevated in AD, PD, and Down Syndrome and Dementia (DSAD) both in brains and also systemically. AD, DS, and DSAD brains also have reduced mtDNA ND6 mRNA levels, altered mtDNA copy number, and perturbed Aβ metabolism. Classical AD genetic changes incorporated into the 3XTg-AD (APP, Tau, PS1) mouse result in reduced forebrain size, life-long reduced mitochondrial respiration in 3XTg-AD males, and initially elevated respiration and complex I and IV activities in 3XTg-AD females which markedly declines with age. Therefore, mitochondrial dysfunction provides a unifying genetic and pathophysiology explanation for AD, PD, and other neurodegenerative diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biochemistry of Mitochondria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Invasion genetics of the Eurasian round goby in North America: tracing sources and spread patterns.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joshua E; Stepien, Carol A

    2009-01-01

    The Eurasian round goby Neogobius melanostomus (Apollonia melanostoma) invaded the North American Great Lakes in 1990 through ballast water, spread rapidly, and now is widely distributed and moving through adjacent tributaries. We analyse its genetic diversity and divergence patterns among 25 North American (N = 744) and 22 Eurasian (N = 414) locations using mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene sequences and seven nuclear microsatellite loci in order to: (i) identify the invasion's founding source(s), (ii) test for founder effects, (iii) evaluate whether the invasive range is genetically heterogeneous, and (iv) determine whether fringe and central areas differ in genetic diversity. Tests include F(ST) analogues, neighbour-joining trees, haplotype networks, Bayesian assignment, Monmonier barrier analysis, and three-dimensional factorial correspondence analysis. We recovered 13 cytochrome b haplotypes and 232 microsatellite alleles in North America and compared these to variation we previously described across Eurasia. Results show: (i) the southern Dnieper River population was the primary Eurasian donor source for the round goby's invasion of North America, likely supplemented by some alleles from the Dniester and Southern Bug rivers, (ii) the overall invasion has high genetic diversity and experienced no founder effect, (iii) there is significant genetic structuring across North America, and (iv) some expansion areas show reduced numbers of alleles, whereas others appear to reflect secondary colonization. Sampling sites in Lake Huron's Saginaw Bay and Lake Ontario significantly differ from all others, having unique alleles that apparently originated from separate introductions. Substantial genetic variation, multiple founding sources, large number of propagules, and population structure thus likely aided the goby's ecological success.

  5. Application of a west Eurasian-specific filter for quasi-median network analysis: Sharpening the blade for mtDNA error detection

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Bettina; Röck, Alexander; Huber, Gabriela; Krämer, Tanja; Schneider, Peter M.; Parson, Walther

    2011-01-01

    The application of quasi-median networks provides an effective tool to check the quality of mtDNA data. Filtering of highly recurrent mutations prior to network analysis is required to simplify the data set and reduce the complexity of the network. The phylogenetic background determines those mutations that need to be filtered. While the traditional EMPOPspeedy filter was based on the worldwide mtDNA phylogeny, haplogroup-specific filters can more effectively highlight potential errors in data of the respective (sub)-continental region. In this study we demonstrate the performance of a new, west Eurasian filter EMPOPspeedyWE for the fine-tuned examination of data sets belonging to macrohaplogroup N that constitutes the main portion of mtDNA lineages in Europe. The effects on the resulting network of different database sizes, high-quality and flawed data, as well as the examination of a phylogenetically distant data set, are presented by examples. The analyses are based on a west Eurasian etalon data set that was carefully compiled from more than 3500 control region sequences for network purposes. Both, etalon data and the new filter file, are provided through the EMPOP database (www.empop.org). PMID:21067984

  6. Evaluation of a New Biological Control Pathogen for Management of Eurasian Watermilfoil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    ness of a potential fungal pathogen in managing the nuisance submersed plant Eurasian watermilfoil. INTRODUCTION: Myriophyllum spicatum L. (Eurasian...Academic Press. Andrews, J. H., and E. P. Hecht. 1981. Evidence for pathogenicity of Fusarium sporotrichioides to Eurasian water milfoil, Myriophyllum ...Eurasian water milfoil, Myriophyllum spicatum. Can J. Bot. 60:1216-1221. Bates, A. L., E. R. Burns, and D. H. Webb. 1985. Eurasian watermilfoil

  7. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms in Guangdong Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Wang, Sha-Yan; Zhang, Ruan-Zhang; Hu, Yu-Hua; Gao, Guo-Feng; Liu, Yan-Hui; Kong, Qing-Peng

    2008-03-01

    Previous investigations on Chinese mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation revealed that the matrilineal gene pool of southern Han Chinese is rather complex, with much higher genetic diversity and more basal/ancient lineages than the northern Hans. The extreme case is Guangdong Han populations, among which pronounced (matrilineal) differentiation has been observed, indicative of complex demography of the region. To get more insights into the maternal makeup of southern Han Chinese, mtDNA variation of a total of 106 individuals sampled from Dongguan, Guangdong Province, China, was analyzed in this study. With the aid of the information from control-region hypervariable segments I and II (HVS-I and -II) as well as some necessary coding-region segments, the phylogenetic status of all mtDNAs under examination were determined according to the reconstructed East Asian mtDNA tree. In this way, the mtDNAs have been classified into various haplogroups or sub-haplogroups. The southern-prevalent haplogroups, such as R9 (20.8%), B (17.9%), M7b (14.2%), show relatively high distribution frequencies in Dongguan Hans; whereas the frequencies of Northern-prevalent haplogroups (with the exception of D) are quite low: C (1.9%), G2 (1.9%) and Z (1.9%), indicating the southern-origin of Dongguan Hans.

  8. Chicken domestication: an updated perspective based on mitochondrial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Y-W; Peng, M-S; Wu, G-S; Ouyang, Y-N; Yang, Z-Y; Yu, N; Liang, J-P; Pianchou, G; Beja-Pereira, A; Mitra, B; Palanichamy, M G; Baig, M; Chaudhuri, T K; Shen, Y-Y; Kong, Q-P; Murphy, R W; Yao, Y-G; Zhang, Y-P

    2013-01-01

    Domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) fulfill various roles ranging from food and entertainment to religion and ornamentation. To survey its genetic diversity and trace the history of domestication, we investigated a total of 4938 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments including 2843 previously published and 2095 de novo units from 2044 domestic chickens and 51 red junglefowl (Gallus gallus). To obtain the highest possible level of molecular resolution, 50 representative samples were further selected for total mtDNA genome sequencing. A fine-gained mtDNA phylogeny was investigated by defining haplogroups A–I and W–Z. Common haplogroups A–G were shared by domestic chickens and red junglefowl. Rare haplogroups H–I and W–Z were specific to domestic chickens and red junglefowl, respectively. We re-evaluated the global mtDNA profiles of chickens. The geographic distribution for each of major haplogroups was examined. Our results revealed new complexities of history in chicken domestication because in the phylogeny lineages from the red junglefowl were mingled with those of the domestic chickens. Several local domestication events in South Asia, Southwest China and Southeast Asia were identified. The assessment of chicken mtDNA data also facilitated our understanding about the Austronesian settlement in the Pacific. PMID:23211792

  9. Mitochondrial diversity in human head louse populations across the Americas.

    PubMed

    Ascunce, Marina S; Fane, Jackie; Kassu, Gebreyes; Toloza, Ariel C; Picollo, Maria I; González-Oliver, Angélica; Reed, David L

    2013-09-01

    Anthropological studies suggest that the genetic makeup of human populations in the Americas is the result of diverse processes including the initial colonization of the continent by the first people plus post-1492 European migrations. Because of the recent nature of some of these events, understanding the geographical origin of American human diversity is challenging. However, human parasites have faster evolutionary rates and larger population sizes allowing them to maintain greater levels of genetic diversity than their hosts. Thus, we can use human parasites to provide insights into some aspects of human evolution that may be unclear from direct evidence. In this study, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from 450 head lice in the Americas. Haplotypes clustered into two well-supported haplogroups, known as A and B. Haplogroup frequencies differ significantly among North, Central and South America. Within each haplogroup, we found evidence of demographic expansions around 16,000 and 20,000 years ago, which correspond broadly with those estimated for Native Americans. The parallel timing of demographic expansions of human lice and Native Americans plus the contrasting pattern between the distribution of haplogroups A and B through the Americas suggests that human lice can provide additional evidence about the human colonization of the New World. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Inherited mitochondrial DNA variants can affect complement, inflammation and apoptosis pathways: insights into mitochondrial–nuclear interactions

    PubMed Central

    Cristina Kenney, M.; Chwa, Marilyn; Atilano, Shari R.; Falatoonzadeh, Payam; Ramirez, Claudio; Malik, Deepika; Tarek, Mohamed; Cáceres-del-Carpio, Javier; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Boyer, David S.; Kuppermann, Baruch D.; Vawter, Marquis; Michal Jazwinski, S.; Miceli, Michael; Wallace, Douglas C.; Udar, Nitin

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in developed countries. While linked to genetic polymorphisms in the complement pathway, there are many individuals with high risk alleles that do not develop AMD, suggesting that other ‘modifiers’ may be involved. Mitochondrial (mt) haplogroups, defined by accumulations of specific mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which represent population origins, may be one such modifier. J haplogroup has been associated with high risk for AMD while the H haplogroup is protective. It has been difficult to assign biological consequences for haplogroups so we created human ARPE-19 cybrids (cytoplasmic hybrids), which have identical nuclei but mitochondria of either J or H haplogroups, to investigate their effects upon bioenergetics and molecular pathways. J cybrids have altered bioenergetic profiles compared with H cybrids. Q-PCR analyses show significantly lower expression levels for seven respiratory complex genes encoded by mtDNA. J and H cybrids have significantly altered expression of eight nuclear genes of the alternative complement, inflammation and apoptosis pathways. Sequencing of the entire mtDNA was carried out for all the cybrids to identify haplogroup and non-haplogroup defining SNPs. mtDNA can mediate cellular bioenergetics and expression levels of nuclear genes related to complement, inflammation and apoptosis. Sequencing data suggest that observed effects are not due to rare mtDNA variants but rather the combination of SNPs representing the J versus H haplogroups. These findings represent a paradigm shift in our concepts of mt–nuclear interactions. PMID:24584571

  11. [Mitochondrial genome variation in domesticated sable (Martes zibellina)].

    PubMed

    Andrianov, B V; Sorokina, S Iu; Lazebniĭ, O E; Goryacheva, I I; Gorelova, T V; Kashtanov, S N

    2012-04-01

    The first comparison of mitochondrial variations in sables from captive and natural populations of the Urals, Central Siberia, Yakutia, Kamchatka, and Japan has been performed. The object of comparative analysis was a 427-bp 5' fragment of the mitochondrial control region, including the D-loop. Two main haplogroups of the sable mitochondrial genome have been found, which provides new data for reconstruction of the spread of the sable over its current range. Asymmetry of the haplotype abundances in the captive populations of sables has been detected. The mitochondrial haplotypes characteristic of sable breeds have been identified. The possible role of the frequent mitochondrial haplotypes of the captive population in the sable adaptation to the conditions of captivity is discussed.

  12. Distinguishing the co-ancestries of haplogroup G Y-chromosomes in the populations of Europe and the Caucasus.

    PubMed

    Rootsi, Siiri; Myres, Natalie M; Lin, Alice A; Järve, Mari; King, Roy J; Kutuev, Ildus; Cabrera, Vicente M; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Varendi, Kärt; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Behar, Doron M; Khusainova, Rita; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Rudan, Pavao; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Farjadian, Shirin; Kushniarevich, Alena; Herrera, Rene J; Grugni, Viola; Battaglia, Vincenza; Nici, Carmela; Crobu, Francesca; Karachanak, Sena; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Houshmand, Massoud; Sanati, Mohammad H; Toncheva, Draga; Lisa, Antonella; Semino, Ornella; Chiaroni, Jacques; Di Cristofaro, Julie; Villems, Richard; Kivisild, Toomas; Underhill, Peter A

    2012-12-01

    Haplogroup G, together with J2 clades, has been associated with the spread of agriculture, especially in the European context. However, interpretations based on simple haplogroup frequency clines do not recognize underlying patterns of genetic diversification. Although progress has been recently made in resolving the haplogroup G phylogeny, a comprehensive survey of the geographic distribution patterns of the significant sub-clades of this haplogroup has not been conducted yet. Here we present the haplogroup frequency distribution and STR variation of 16 informative G sub-clades by evaluating 1472 haplogroup G chromosomes belonging to 98 populations ranging from Europe to Pakistan. Although no basal G-M201* chromosomes were detected in our data set, the homeland of this haplogroup has been estimated to be somewhere nearby eastern Anatolia, Armenia or western Iran, the only areas characterized by the co-presence of deep basal branches as well as the occurrence of high sub-haplogroup diversity. The P303 SNP defines the most frequent and widespread G sub-haplogroup. However, its sub-clades have more localized distribution with the U1-defined branch largely restricted to Near/Middle Eastern and the Caucasus, whereas L497 lineages essentially occur in Europe where they likely originated. In contrast, the only U1 representative in Europe is the G-M527 lineage whose distribution pattern is consistent with regions of Greek colonization. No clinal patterns were detected suggesting that the distributions are rather indicative of isolation by distance and demographic complexities.

  13. Distinguishing the co-ancestries of haplogroup G Y-chromosomes in the populations of Europe and the Caucasus

    PubMed Central

    Rootsi, Siiri; Myres, Natalie M; Lin, Alice A; Järve, Mari; King, Roy J; Kutuev, Ildus; Cabrera, Vicente M; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Varendi, Kärt; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Behar, Doron M; Khusainova, Rita; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Rudan, Pavao; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Farjadian, Shirin; Kushniarevich, Alena; Herrera, Rene J; Grugni, Viola; Battaglia, Vincenza; Nici, Carmela; Crobu, Francesca; Karachanak, Sena; Kashani, Baharak Hooshiar; Houshmand, Massoud; Sanati, Mohammad H; Toncheva, Draga; Lisa, Antonella; Semino, Ornella; Chiaroni, Jacques; Cristofaro, Julie Di; Villems, Richard; Kivisild, Toomas; Underhill, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    Haplogroup G, together with J2 clades, has been associated with the spread of agriculture, especially in the European context. However, interpretations based on simple haplogroup frequency clines do not recognize underlying patterns of genetic diversification. Although progress has been recently made in resolving the haplogroup G phylogeny, a comprehensive survey of the geographic distribution patterns of the significant sub-clades of this haplogroup has not been conducted yet. Here we present the haplogroup frequency distribution and STR variation of 16 informative G sub-clades by evaluating 1472 haplogroup G chromosomes belonging to 98 populations ranging from Europe to Pakistan. Although no basal G-M201* chromosomes were detected in our data set, the homeland of this haplogroup has been estimated to be somewhere nearby eastern Anatolia, Armenia or western Iran, the only areas characterized by the co-presence of deep basal branches as well as the occurrence of high sub-haplogroup diversity. The P303 SNP defines the most frequent and widespread G sub-haplogroup. However, its sub-clades have more localized distribution with the U1-defined branch largely restricted to Near/Middle Eastern and the Caucasus, whereas L497 lineages essentially occur in Europe where they likely originated. In contrast, the only U1 representative in Europe is the G-M527 lineage whose distribution pattern is consistent with regions of Greek colonization. No clinal patterns were detected suggesting that the distributions are rather indicative of isolation by distance and demographic complexities. PMID:22588667

  14. Mitochondrial DNA control region analysis of three ethnic groups in the Republic of Macedonia

    PubMed Central

    Jankova-Ajanovska, Renata; Zimmermann, Bettina; Huber, Gabriela; Röck, Alexander W.; Bodner, Martin; Jakovski, Zlatko; Janeska, Biljana; Duma, Aleksej; Parson, Walther

    2014-01-01

    A total of 444 individuals representing three ethnic groups (Albanians, Turks and Romanies) in the Republic of Macedonia were sequenced in the mitochondrial control region. The mtDNA haplogroup composition differed between the three groups. Our results showed relatively high frequencies of haplogroup H12 in Albanians (8.8%) and less in Turks (3.3%), while haplogroups M5a1 and H7a1a were dominant in Romanies (13.7% and 10.3%, respectively) but rare in the former two. This highlights the importance of regional sampling for forensic mtDNA databasing purposes. These population data will be available on EMPOP under accession numbers EMP00644 (Albanians), EMP00645 (Romanies) and EMP00646 (Turks). PMID:25051224

  15. Mitochondrial DNA control region analysis of three ethnic groups in the Republic of Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Jankova-Ajanovska, Renata; Zimmermann, Bettina; Huber, Gabriela; Röck, Alexander W; Bodner, Martin; Jakovski, Zlatko; Janeska, Biljana; Duma, Aleksej; Parson, Walther

    2014-11-01

    A total of 444 individuals representing three ethnic groups (Albanians, Turks and Romanies) in the Republic of Macedonia were sequenced in the mitochondrial control region. The mtDNA haplogroup composition differed between the three groups. Our results showed relatively high frequencies of haplogroup H12 in Albanians (8.8%) and less in Turks (3.3%), while haplogroups M5a1 and H7a1a were dominant in Romanies (13.7% and 10.3%, respectively) but rare in the former two. This highlights the importance of regional sampling for forensic mtDNA databasing purposes. These population data will be available on EMPOP under accession numbers EMP00644 (Albanians), EMP00645 (Romanies) and EMP00646 (Turks).

  16. Mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity in two groups of Italian Veneto speakers from Veneto.

    PubMed

    Mogentale-Profizi, N; Chollet, L; Stévanovitch, A; Dubut, V; Poggi, C; Pradié, M P; Spadoni, J L; Gilles, A; Béraud-Colomb, E

    2001-03-01

    Although frequencies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups in the different European populations are rather homogenous, there are a few European populations or linguistic isolates that show different mtDNA haplogroup distributions; examples are the Saami and Ladin speakers from the eastern Italian Alps. MtDNA sequence diversity was analysed from subjects from two villages in Veneto. The first, Posina, is situated in the Venetian Alps near Vicenza. The second, Barco di Pravisdomini is a village on the plains near Venice. In spite of their common Veneto dialect, the two group populations have not preserved a genetic homogeneity; particularly, they show differences in T and J haplogroups frequencies. MtDNA diversity in these two groups seems to depend more on their geographic situation.

  17. The co-occurrence of mtDNA mutations on different oxidative phosphorylation subunits, not detected by haplogroup analysis, affects human longevity and is population specific.

    PubMed

    Raule, Nicola; Sevini, Federica; Li, Shengting; Barbieri, Annalaura; Tallaro, Federica; Lomartire, Laura; Vianello, Dario; Montesanto, Alberto; Moilanen, Jukka S; Bezrukov, Vladyslav; Blanché, Hélène; Hervonen, Antti; Christensen, Kaare; Deiana, Luca; Gonos, Efstathios S; Kirkwood, Tom B L; Kristensen, Peter; Leon, Alberta; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Poulain, Michel; Rea, Irene M; Remacle, Josè; Robine, Jean Marie; Schreiber, Stefan; Sikora, Ewa; Eline Slagboom, Peternella; Spazzafumo, Liana; Antonietta Stazi, Maria; Toussaint, Olivier; Vaupel, James W; Rose, Giuseppina; Majamaa, Kari; Perola, Markus; Johnson, Thomas E; Bolund, Lars; Yang, Huanming; Passarino, Giuseppe; Franceschi, Claudio

    2014-06-01

    To re-examine the correlation between mtDNA variability and longevity, we examined mtDNAs from samples obtained from over 2200 ultranonagenarians (and an equal number of controls) collected within the framework of the GEHA EU project. The samples were categorized by high-resolution classification, while about 1300 mtDNA molecules (650 ultranonagenarians and an equal number of controls) were completely sequenced. Sequences, unlike standard haplogroup analysis, made possible to evaluate for the first time the cumulative effects of specific, concomitant mtDNA mutations, including those that per se have a low, or very low, impact. In particular, the analysis of the mutations occurring in different OXPHOS complex showed a complex scenario with a different mutation burden in 90+ subjects with respect to controls. These findings suggested that mutations in subunits of the OXPHOS complex I had a beneficial effect on longevity, while the simultaneous presence of mutations in complex I and III (which also occurs in J subhaplogroups involved in LHON) and in complex I and V seemed to be detrimental, likely explaining previous contradictory results. On the whole, our study, which goes beyond haplogroup analysis, suggests that mitochondrial DNA variation does affect human longevity, but its effect is heavily influenced by the interaction between mutations concomitantly occurring on different mtDNA genes.

  18. Mitochondrial population genomics supports a single pre-Clovis origin with a coastal route for the peopling of the Americas.

    PubMed

    Fagundes, Nelson J R; Kanitz, Ricardo; Eckert, Roberta; Valls, Ana C S; Bogo, Mauricio R; Salzano, Francisco M; Smith, David Glenn; Silva, Wilson A; Zago, Marco A; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Andrea K; Santos, Sidney E B; Petzl-Erler, Maria Luiza; Bonatto, Sandro L

    2008-03-01

    It is well accepted that the Americas were the last continents reached by modern humans, most likely through Beringia. However, the precise time and mode of the colonization of the New World remain hotly disputed issues. Native American populations exhibit almost exclusively five mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups (A-D and X). Haplogroups A-D are also frequent in Asia, suggesting a northeastern Asian origin of these lineages. However, the differential pattern of distribution and frequency of haplogroup X led some to suggest that it may represent an independent migration to the Americas. Here we show, by using 86 complete mitochondrial genomes, that all Native American haplogroups, including haplogroup X, were part of a single founding population, thereby refuting multiple-migration models. A detailed demographic history of the mtDNA sequences estimated with a Bayesian coalescent method indicates a complex model for the peopling of the Americas, in which the initial differentiation from Asian populations ended with a moderate bottleneck in Beringia during the last glacial maximum (LGM), around approximately 23,000 to approximately 19,000 years ago. Toward the end of the LGM, a strong population expansion started approximately 18,000 and finished approximately 15,000 years ago. These results support a pre-Clovis occupation of the New World, suggesting a rapid settlement of the continent along a Pacific coastal route.

  19. Mitochondrial Population Genomics Supports a Single Pre-Clovis Origin with a Coastal Route for the Peopling of the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Fagundes, Nelson J.R.; Kanitz, Ricardo; Eckert, Roberta; Valls, Ana C.S.; Bogo, Mauricio R.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Smith, David Glenn; Silva, Wilson A.; Zago, Marco A.; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Andrea K.; Santos, Sidney E.B.; Petzl-Erler, Maria Luiza; Bonatto, Sandro L.

    2008-01-01

    It is well accepted that the Americas were the last continents reached by modern humans, most likely through Beringia. However, the precise time and mode of the colonization of the New World remain hotly disputed issues. Native American populations exhibit almost exclusively five mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups (A–D and X). Haplogroups A–D are also frequent in Asia, suggesting a northeastern Asian origin of these lineages. However, the differential pattern of distribution and frequency of haplogroup X led some to suggest that it may represent an independent migration to the Americas. Here we show, by using 86 complete mitochondrial genomes, that all Native American haplogroups, including haplogroup X, were part of a single founding population, thereby refuting multiple-migration models. A detailed demographic history of the mtDNA sequences estimated with a Bayesian coalescent method indicates a complex model for the peopling of the Americas, in which the initial differentiation from Asian populations ended with a moderate bottleneck in Beringia during the last glacial maximum (LGM), around ∼23,000 to ∼19,000 years ago. Toward the end of the LGM, a strong population expansion started ∼18,000 and finished ∼15,000 years ago. These results support a pre-Clovis occupation of the New World, suggesting a rapid settlement of the continent along a Pacific coastal route. PMID:18313026

  20. Mycoleptodiscus terrestris: An Endophyte Turned Latent Pathogen of Eurasian Watermilfoil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    of becoming a latent pathogen may trigger a host-fungus interaction resulting in disease development in Eurasian watermilfoil ( Myriophyllum ...senescing EWM tissues (Shearer 2001). It is also found as an endophyte in Northern watermilfoil ( Myriophyllum sibiricum Komarov) and in the hybrid M...Association between the fungus Acremonium curvulum and Eurasian water milfoil, Myriophyllum spicatum. Can. J. Bot. 60:1216–1221. Clay, K. 1988

  1. Y-chromosomal DNA haplogroups and their implications for the dual origins of the Koreans.

    PubMed

    Jin, Han-Jun; Kwak, Kyoung-Don; Hammer, Michael F; Nakahori, Yutaka; Shinka, Toshikatsu; Lee, Ju-Won; Jin, Feng; Jia, Xuming; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Kim, Wook

    2003-12-01

    We have analyzed eight Y-chromosomal binary markers (YAP, RPS4Y(711), M9, M175, LINE1, SRY(+465), 47z, and M95) and three Y-STR markers (DYS390, DYS391, and DYS393) in 738 males from 11 ethnic groups in east Asia in order to study the male lineage history of Korea. Haplogroup DE-YAP was found at a high frequency only in Japan but was also present at low frequencies in northeast Asia, including 2.5% in Korea, suggesting a northern origin for these chromosomes. Haplogroup C-RPS4Y(711) was present in Korea and Manchuria at moderate frequencies: higher than in populations from southeast Asia, but lower than those in the northeast, which may imply a northern Asian expansion of these lineages, perhaps from Mongolia or Siberia. The major Y-chromosomal expansions in east Asia were those of haplogroup O-M175 (and its sublineages). This haplogroup is likely to have originated in southern east Asia and subsequently expanded to all of east Asia. The moderate frequency of one sublineage in the Koreans, haplogroup O-LINE1 (12.5%), could be a result of interaction with Chinese populations. The age of another sublineage, haplogroup O-SRY(+465), and Y-STR haplotype diversity provide evidence for relatively recent male migration, originally from China, through Korea into Japan. In conclusion, the distribution pattern of Y-chromosomal haplogroups reveals the complex origin of the Koreans, resulting from genetic contributions involving the northern Asian settlement and range expansions mostly from southern-to-northern China.

  2. Afghan Hindu Kush: Where Eurasian Sub-Continent Gene Flows Converge

    PubMed Central

    Mazières, Stéphane; Myres, Natalie M.; Lin, Alice A.; Temori, Shah Aga; Metspalu, Mait; Metspalu, Ene; Witzel, Michael; King, Roy J.; Underhill, Peter A.; Villems, Richard; Chiaroni, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Despite being located at the crossroads of Asia, genetics of the Afghanistan populations have been largely overlooked. It is currently inhabited by five major ethnic populations: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek and Turkmen. Here we present autosomal from a subset of our samples, mitochondrial and Y- chromosome data from over 500 Afghan samples among these 5 ethnic groups. This Afghan data was supplemented with the same Y-chromosome analyses of samples from Iran, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia and updated Pakistani samples (HGDP-CEPH). The data presented here was integrated into existing knowledge of pan-Eurasian genetic diversity. The pattern of genetic variation, revealed by structure-like and Principal Component analyses and Analysis of Molecular Variance indicates that the people of Afghanistan are made up of a mosaic of components representing various geographic regions of Eurasian ancestry. The absence of a major Central Asian-specific component indicates that the Hindu Kush, like the gene pool of Central Asian populations in general, is a confluence of gene flows rather than a source of distinctly autochthonous populations that have arisen in situ: a conclusion that is reinforced by the phylogeography of both haploid loci. PMID:24204668

  3. Ancient west Eurasian ancestry in southern and eastern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pickrell, Joseph K.; Patterson, Nick; Loh, Po-Ru; Lipson, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Stoneking, Mark; Pakendorf, Brigitte; Reich, David

    2014-01-01

    The history of southern Africa involved interactions between indigenous hunter–gatherers and a range of populations that moved into the region. Here we use genome-wide genetic data to show that there are at least two admixture events in the history of Khoisan populations (southern African hunter–gatherers and pastoralists who speak non-Bantu languages with click consonants). One involved populations related to Niger–Congo-speaking African populations, and the other introduced ancestry most closely related to west Eurasian (European or Middle Eastern) populations. We date this latter admixture event to ∼900–1,800 y ago and show that it had the largest demographic impact in Khoisan populations that speak Khoe–Kwadi languages. A similar signal of west Eurasian ancestry is present throughout eastern Africa. In particular, we also find evidence for two admixture events in the history of Kenyan, Tanzanian, and Ethiopian populations, the earlier of which involved populations related to west Eurasians and which we date to ∼2,700–3,300 y ago. We reconstruct the allele frequencies of the putative west Eurasian population in eastern Africa and show that this population is a good proxy for the west Eurasian ancestry in southern Africa. The most parsimonious explanation for these findings is that west Eurasian ancestry entered southern Africa indirectly through eastern Africa. PMID:24550290

  4. Ancient west Eurasian ancestry in southern and eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Pickrell, Joseph K; Patterson, Nick; Loh, Po-Ru; Lipson, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Stoneking, Mark; Pakendorf, Brigitte; Reich, David

    2014-02-18

    The history of southern Africa involved interactions between indigenous hunter-gatherers and a range of populations that moved into the region. Here we use genome-wide genetic data to show that there are at least two admixture events in the history of Khoisan populations (southern African hunter-gatherers and pastoralists who speak non-Bantu languages with click consonants). One involved populations related to Niger-Congo-speaking African populations, and the other introduced ancestry most closely related to west Eurasian (European or Middle Eastern) populations. We date this latter admixture event to ∼900-1,800 y ago and show that it had the largest demographic impact in Khoisan populations that speak Khoe-Kwadi languages. A similar signal of west Eurasian ancestry is present throughout eastern Africa. In particular, we also find evidence for two admixture events in the history of Kenyan, Tanzanian, and Ethiopian populations, the earlier of which involved populations related to west Eurasians and which we date to ∼2,700-3,300 y ago. We reconstruct the allele frequencies of the putative west Eurasian population in eastern Africa and show that this population is a good proxy for the west Eurasian ancestry in southern Africa. The most parsimonious explanation for these findings is that west Eurasian ancestry entered southern Africa indirectly through eastern Africa.

  5. Maternal inheritance and mitochondrial DNA variants in familial Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Simon, David K; Pankratz, Nathan; Kissell, Diane K; Pauciulo, Michael W; Halter, Cheryl A; Rudolph, Alice; Pfeiffer, Ronald F; Nichols, William C; Foroud, Tatiana

    2010-04-01

    Mitochondrial function is impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD) and may contribute to the pathogenesis of PD, but the causes of mitochondrial impairment in PD are unknown. Mitochondrial dysfunction is recapitulated in cell lines expressing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from PD patients, implicating mtDNA variants or mutations, though the role of mtDNA variants or mutations in PD risk remains unclear. We investigated the potential contribution of mtDNA variants or mutations to the risk of PD. We examined the possibility of a maternal inheritance bias as well as the association between mitochondrial haplogroups and maternal inheritance and disease risk in a case-control study of 168 multiplex PD families in which the proband and one parent were diagnosed with PD. 2-tailed Fisher Exact Tests and McNemar's tests were used to compare allele frequencies, and a t-test to compare ages of onset. The frequency of affected mothers of the proband with PD (83/167, 49.4%) was not significantly different from the frequency of affected females of the proband generation (115/259, 44.4%) (Odds Ratio 1.22; 95%CI 0.83-1.81). After correcting for multiple tests, there were no significant differences in the frequencies of mitochondrial haplogroups or of the 10398G complex I gene polymorphism in PD patients compared to controls, and no significant associations with age of onset of PD. Mitochondrial haplogroup and 10398G polymorphism frequencies were similar in probands having an affected father as compared to probands having an affected mother. These data fail to demonstrate a bias towards maternal inheritance in familial PD. Consistent with this, we find no association of common haplogroup-defining mtDNA variants or for the 10398G variant with the risk of PD. However, these data do not exclude a role for mtDNA variants in other populations, and it remains possible that other inherited mitochondrial DNA variants, or somatic mDNA mutations, contribute to the risk of familial PD.

  6. Maternal inheritance and mitochondrial DNA variants in familial Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial function is impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD) and may contribute to the pathogenesis of PD, but the causes of mitochondrial impairment in PD are unknown. Mitochondrial dysfunction is recapitulated in cell lines expressing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from PD patients, implicating mtDNA variants or mutations, though the role of mtDNA variants or mutations in PD risk remains unclear. We investigated the potential contribution of mtDNA variants or mutations to the risk of PD. Methods We examined the possibility of a maternal inheritance bias as well as the association between mitochondrial haplogroups and maternal inheritance and disease risk in a case-control study of 168 multiplex PD families in which the proband and one parent were diagnosed with PD. 2-tailed Fisher Exact Tests and McNemar's tests were used to compare allele frequencies, and a t-test to compare ages of onset. Results The frequency of affected mothers of the proband with PD (83/167, 49.4%) was not significantly different from the frequency of affected females of the proband generation (115/259, 44.4%) (Odds Ratio 1.22; 95%CI 0.83 - 1.81). After correcting for multiple tests, there were no significant differences in the frequencies of mitochondrial haplogroups or of the 10398G complex I gene polymorphism in PD patients compared to controls, and no significant associations with age of onset of PD. Mitochondrial haplogroup and 10398G polymorphism frequencies were similar in probands having an affected father as compared to probands having an affected mother. Conclusions These data fail to demonstrate a bias towards maternal inheritance in familial PD. Consistent with this, we find no association of common haplogroup-defining mtDNA variants or for the 10398G variant with the risk of PD. However, these data do not exclude a role for mtDNA variants in other populations, and it remains possible that other inherited mitochondrial DNA variants, or somatic mDNA mutations, contribute

  7. Analyses of the mitochondrial mutations in the Chinese patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Zhi-Xia; Du, Peng-Chen; Zhou, Wei; Wu, Su-Dong; Wang, Qi-Ling; Chen, Cao; Shi, Qi; Chen, Chen; Gao, Chen; Tian, Chan; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations leading to mitochondrial dysfunction can cause a variety of chronic diseases in central nervous system (CNS). However, the role of mtDNA mutations in sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (sCJD) has still been unknown. In this study, we comparatively analyzed complete mtDNA sequences of 31 Chinese sCJD patients and 32 controls. Using MITOMASTER and PhyloTree, we characterized 520 variants in sCJD patients and 507 variants in control by haplogroup and allele frequencies. We classified the mtDNAs into 40 sub-haplogroups of 5 haplogroups, most of them being Asian-specific haplogroups. Haplogroup U, an European-specific haplogroups mtDNA, was found only in sCJD. The analysis to control region (CR) revealed a 31% increase in the frequency of mtDNA CR mutations in sCJD versus controls. In functional elements of the mtDNA CR, six CR mutations were in conserved sequence blocks I (CSBI) in sCJD, while only one in control (P<0.05). More mutants in transfer ribonucleic acid-Leu (tRNA-Leu) were detected in sCJD. The frequencies of two synonymous amino-acid changes, m.11467A>G, p.(=) in NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) and m.12372G>A, p.(=) in NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5), in sCJD patients were higher than that of controls. Our study, for the first time, screened the variations of mtDNA of Chinese sCJD patients and identified some potential disease-related mutations for further investigations. PMID:24667788

  8. Mitochondrial DNA variants can mediate methylation status of inflammation, angiogenesis and signaling genes

    PubMed Central

    Atilano, Shari R.; Malik, Deepika; Chwa, Marilyn; Cáceres-Del-Carpio, Javier; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Boyer, David S.; Kuppermann, Baruch D.; Jazwinski, S. Michal; Miceli, Michael V.; Wallace, Douglas C.; Udar, Nitin; Kenney, M. Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) DNA can be classified into haplogroups representing different geographic and/or racial origins of populations. The H haplogroup is protective against age-related macular degeneration (AMD), while the J haplogroup is high risk for AMD. In the present study, we performed comparison analyses of human retinal cell cybrids, which possess identical nuclei, but mtDNA from subjects with either the H or J haplogroups, and demonstrate differences in total global methylation, and expression patterns for two genes related to acetylation and five genes related to methylation. Analyses revealed that untreated-H and -J cybrids have different expression levels for nuclear genes (CFH, EFEMP1, VEGFA and NFkB2). However, expression levels for these genes become equivalent after treatment with a methylation inhibitor, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. Moreover, sequencing of the entire mtDNA suggests that differences in epigenetic status found in cybrids are likely due to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the haplogroup profiles rather than rare variants or private SNPs. In conclusion, our findings indicate that mtDNA variants can mediate methylation profiles and transcription for inflammation, angiogenesis and various signaling pathways, which are important in several common diseases. PMID:25964427

  9. Biogeographic evidence for selection on mitochondrial DNA in North Pacific walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma.

    PubMed

    Grant, W Stewart; Spies, Ingrid B; Canino, Michael F

    2006-01-01

    Three major mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups were identified in 5 data sets for North Pacific and Bering Sea walleye pollock. The common haplogroup A showed mirror-image clines on both sides of the North Pacific with high frequencies in southern areas (P(A) > 0.84) and low frequencies in the Bering Sea (P(A) < 0.36). Two additional haplogroups showed complimentary, but weaker, clines in the opposite direction. These clines are unlikely to have arisen by chance during postglacial colonizations of coastal waters in the North Pacific and Bering Sea, and they do not appear to reflect isolation by distance. Contrary to these trends, pollock at the western end of the Aleutian Island Archipelago were genetically more similar to Asian than to North American pollock, a pattern likely reflecting postglacial colonization. Haplogroup F(ST) values for a given haplotype diversity were significantly larger than expected under the island model of migration and random drift, a result implicating natural selection. Frequencies of haplogroup A were highly correlated with sea surface temperature (r > 0.91), whereas frequencies of groups B and C showed negative correlations with temperature. Selection may be operating directly on mtDNA variability or may be mediated through cytonuclear interactions. This biogeographic evidence adds to a growing body of literature indicating that selection may play a greater role in sculpting mtDNA variability than previously thought.

  10. A great diversity of Amerindian mitochondrial DNA ancestry is present in the Mexican mestizo population.

    PubMed

    Guardado-Estrada, Mariano; Juarez-Torres, Eligia; Medina-Martinez, Ingrid; Wegier, Ana; Macías, Antonio; Gomez, Guillermo; Cruz-Talonia, Fernando; Roman-Bassaure, Edgar; Piñero, Daniel; Kofman-Alfaro, Susana; Berumen, Jaime

    2009-12-01

    There are limited data on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in the Mexican mestizo population. To examine the genetic diversity and matrilineal ancestry, the full mtDNA hypervariable regions I and II were sequenced in 270 unrelated mestizos from different regions of Mexico. A total of 202 different haplotypes were identified and the haplotype diversity was 0.9945. Amerindian haplotypes predominated in the sample with a proportion of 93.3%, followed by European (6.0%) and African haplotypes (0.7%). The frequency of the Amerindian haplogroups A2, B2, C1 and D1 was 51.1, 17.8, 18.5 and 5.9%, respectively. The frequency of Amerindian haplogroups was higher in the central region than in Mexico City, whereas it was the contrary for European haplogroups. This difference was accounted principally by the high frequency of B2 haplotypes in the central region. The minimum spanning network, the mismatch distribution and Tajima's D neutrality test suggest a population expansion for each Amerindian haplogroup, which could be initiated more recently for haplogroups A2 and D1. The present knowledge combined with other nuclear genetic markers will be essential in future association studies to correct for genetic substructure in mestizo populations.

  11. Improved phylogenetic resolution for Y-chromosome Haplogroup O2a1c-002611.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiaotian; Tang, Senwei; Bian, Beilei; Wu, Xiaoli; Chen, Gang; Wang, Chuan-Chao

    2017-04-25

    Y-chromosome Haplogroup O2a1c-002611 is one of the dominant lineages of East Asians and Southeast Asians. However, its internal phylogeny remains insufficiently investigated. In this study, we genotyped 89 new highly informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 305 individuals with Haplogroup O2a1c-002611 identified from 2139 Han Chinese males. Two major branches were identified, O2a1c1-F18 and O2a1c2-L133.2 and the first was further divided into two main subclades, O2a1c1a-F11 and O2a1c1b-F449, accounting for 11.13% and 2.20% of Han Chinese, respectively. In Haplogroup O2a1c1a-F11, we also determined seven sublineages with quite different frequency distributions in Han Chinese ranging from 0.187% to 3.553%, implying they might have different demographic history. The reconstructed haplogroup tree for all the major clades within Haplogroup O2a1c-002611 permits better resolution of male lineages in population studies of East Asia and Southeast Asia. The dataset generated in the present study are also valuable for forensic identification and paternity tests in China.

  12. The association of Y chromosome haplogroups with spermatogenic failure in the Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chuncheng; Zhang, Feng; Xia, Yankai; Wu, Bin; Gu, Aihua; Lu, Ningxia; Wang, Shoulin; Shen, Hongbing; Jin, Li; Wang, Xinru

    2007-01-01

    A significant proportion of male infertility is accompanied by an abnormal semen analysis, azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia, which is generally assumed to be the result of spermatogenic failure. The genetic contribution in the process of spermatogenesis, particularly the role of the Y chromosome in determination of semen quality, is still obscure. In order to explore the relationship between Y chromosome haplogroup and spermatogenic failure, we collected 285 idiopathic infertile males with azoo-/oligozoospermia and 515 fertile men, adopted 12 binary markers and recruited the subjects (cases and controls) in the same region to test whether there is a possible susceptibility of certain Y haplogroups to spermatogenic failure in the Han Chinese population. The results indicated that the prevalences of hg K in the control and the case population were 0.78% (4/515) and 2.80% (8/285), respectively. The difference between the frequencies of the hg K in the infertile males and the normal control population was significant [odds ratio (OR) = 3.69; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10-12.36] (P = 0.028). However, in the other haplogroups no significant differences were found. In conclusion, Y haplogroup-K might bear a risk factor of male infertility, and the individuals in the haplogroup need to be further examined.

  13. Mitochondrial genotype in vulvar carcinoma - cuckoo in the nest.

    PubMed

    Klemba, Aleksandra; Kowalewska, Magdalena; Kukwa, Wojciech; Tonska, Katarzyna; Szybinska, Aleksandra; Mossakowska, Malgorzata; Scinska, Anna; Golik, Paweł; Koper, Kamil; Radziszewski, Jakub; Kukwa, Andrzej; Czarnecka, Anna M; Bartnik, Ewa

    2010-09-08

    Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) is a rare female genital neoplasm. Although numerous molecular changes have been reported in VSCC, biomarkers of clinical relevance are still lacking. On the other hand, there is emerging evidence on the use of mtDNA as a diagnostic tool in oncology. In order to investigate mtDNA status in VSCC patients, haplogroup distribution analysis and D-loop sequencing were performed. The results were compared with available data for the general Polish population, cancer free-centenarians as well as patients with endometrial and head and neck cancer. The obtained data were also compared with the current status of mitochondrial databases. Significant differences in haplogroup distribution between VSCC cohort, general Polish population and cancer-free centenarians cohort were found. Moreover, a correlation between the VSCC patients haplogroup and HPV status was observed. Finally, a specific pattern of mtDNA polymorphisms was found in VSCC. Our results suggest that the mitochondrial genetic background may influence the risk of VSCC occurrence as well as susceptibility to HPV infection.

  14. Human mtDNA Haplogroups Associated with High or Reduced Spermatozoa Motility

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; Lapeña, Ana-Cristina; Díez-Sánchez, Carmen; Pérez-Martos, Acisclo; Montoya, Julio; Alvarez, Enrique; Díaz, Miguel; Urriés, Antonio; Montoro, Luis; López-Pérez, Manuel J.; Enríquez, José A.

    2000-01-01

    A variety of mtDNA mutations responsible for human diseases have been associated with molecular defects in the OXPHOS system. It has been proposed that mtDNA genetic alterations can also be responsible for sperm dysfunction. In addition, it was suggested that if sperm dysfunction is the main phenotypic consequence, these mutations could be fixed as stable mtDNA variants, because mtDNA is maternally inherited. To test this possibility, we have performed an extensive analysis of the distribution of mtDNA haplogroups in white men having fertility problems. We have found that asthenozoospermia, but not oligozoospermia, is associated with mtDNA haplogroups in whites. Thus, haplogroups H and T are significantly more abundant in nonasthenozoospermic and asthenozoospermic populations, respectively, and show significant differences in their OXPHOS performance. PMID:10936107

  15. [Development of biochip for determination of Y-haplogroups occuring in Russian populations].

    PubMed

    Fesenko, D O; Kalennik, O V; Barskiĭ, V E; Zasedatelev, A S; Nasedkina, T V

    2012-01-01

    Biochip has been developed which allowed to determine the following Y-chromosome haplogroups: C, DE, G, H, I, J, L, N, O, R in a DNA sample. The following SNPs were choosen as haplogroup markers: M130, M145, P257, M69, U179, M304, M185, M231, M175, P224, correspondingly. The genotyping included two-round PCR with fluorescent label incorporation into PCR product followed by hybridization with immobilized probes on biochip. The analysis of fluorescent signal ratios in pairs of immobilized probes "wild-type probe"--"group specific probe" for each of choosen polymorphic markers showed high accuracy of Y-haplogroup genotyping using biochip. The reliability of genotyping was confirmed by direct sequencing.

  16. New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree

    PubMed Central

    Karafet, Tatiana M.; Mendez, Fernando L.; Meilerman, Monica B.; Underhill, Peter A.; Zegura, Stephen L.; Hammer, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    Markers on the non-recombining portion of the human Y chromosome continue to have applications in many fields including evolutionary biology, forensics, medical genetics, and genealogical reconstruction. In 2002, the Y Chromosome Consortium published a single parsimony tree showing the relationships among 153 haplogroups based on 243 binary markers and devised a standardized nomenclature system to name lineages nested within this tree. Here we present an extensively revised Y chromosome tree containing 311 distinct haplogroups, including two new major haplogroups (S and T), and incorporating approximately 600 binary markers. We describe major changes in the topology of the parsimony tree and provide names for new and rearranged lineages within the tree following the rules presented by the Y Chromosome Consortium in 2002. Several changes in the tree topology have important implications for studies of human ancestry. We also present demography-independent age estimates for 11 of the major clades in the new Y chromosome tree. PMID:18385274

  17. New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree.

    PubMed

    Karafet, Tatiana M; Mendez, Fernando L; Meilerman, Monica B; Underhill, Peter A; Zegura, Stephen L; Hammer, Michael F

    2008-05-01

    Markers on the non-recombining portion of the human Y chromosome continue to have applications in many fields including evolutionary biology, forensics, medical genetics, and genealogical reconstruction. In 2002, the Y Chromosome Consortium published a single parsimony tree showing the relationships among 153 haplogroups based on 243 binary markers and devised a standardized nomenclature system to name lineages nested within this tree. Here we present an extensively revised Y chromosome tree containing 311 distinct haplogroups, including two new major haplogroups (S and T), and incorporating approximately 600 binary markers. We describe major changes in the topology of the parsimony tree and provide names for new and rearranged lineages within the tree following the rules presented by the Y Chromosome Consortium in 2002. Several changes in the tree topology have important implications for studies of human ancestry. We also present demography-independent age estimates for 11 of the major clades in the new Y chromosome tree.

  18. A nomenclature system for the tree of human Y-chromosomal binary haplogroups.

    PubMed

    2002-02-01

    The Y chromosome contains the largest nonrecombining block in the human genome. By virtue of its many polymorphisms, it is now the most informative haplotyping system, with applications in evolutionary studies, forensics, medical genetics, and genealogical reconstruction. However, the emergence of several unrelated and nonsystematic nomenclatures for Y-chromosomal binary haplogroups is an increasing source of confusion. To resolve this issue, 245 markers were genotyped in a globally representative set of samples, 74 of which were males from the Y Chromosome Consortium cell line repository. A single most parsimonious phylogeny was constructed for the 153 binary haplogroups observed. A simple set of rules was developed to unambiguously label the different clades nested within this tree. This hierarchical nomenclature system supersedes and unifies past nomenclatures and allows the inclusion of additional mutations and haplogroups yet to be discovered.

  19. Y-chromosome E haplogroups: their distribution and implication to the origin of Afro-Asiatic languages and pastoralism

    PubMed Central

    Gebremeskel, Eyoab I; Ibrahim, Muntaser E

    2014-01-01

    Archeological and paleontological evidences point to East Africa as the likely area of early evolution of modern humans. Genetic studies also indicate that populations from the region often contain, but not exclusively, representatives of the more basal clades of mitochondrial and Y-chromosome phylogenies. Most Y-chromosome haplogroup diversity in Africa, however, is present within macrohaplogroup E that seem to have appeared 21 000–32 000 YBP somewhere between the Red Sea and Lake Chad. The combined analysis of 17 bi-allelic markers in 1214 Y chromosomes together with cultural background of 49 populations displayed in various metrics: network, multidimensional scaling, principal component analysis and neighbor-joining plots, indicate a major contribution of East African populations to the foundation of the macrohaplogroup, suggesting a diversification that predates the appearance of some cultural traits and the subsequent expansion that is more associated with the cultural and linguistic diversity witnessed today. The proto-Afro-Asiatic group carrying the E-P2 mutation may have appeared at this point in time and subsequently gave rise to the different major population groups including current speakers of the Afro-Asiatic languages and pastoralist populations. PMID:24667790

  20. Orthopox virus infections in Eurasian wild rodents.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Paula M; Henttonen, Heikki; Hoffmann, Bernd; Kallio, Eva R; Korthase, Christian; Laakkonen, Juha; Niemimaa, Jukka; Palva, Airi; Schlegel, Mathias; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Suominen, Paula; Ulrich, Rainer G; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2011-08-01

    The genus Orthopoxvirus includes variola (smallpox) virus and zoonotic cowpox virus (CPXV). All orthopoxviruses (OPV) are serologically cross-reactive and cross-protective, and after the cessation of smallpox vaccination, CPXV and other OPV infections represent an emerging threat to human health. In this respect CPXV, with its reservoir in asymptomatically infected wild rodents, is of special importance. In Europe, clinical cowpox has been diagnosed in both humans and animals. The main objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of OPV infections in wild rodents in different parts of Eurasia and to compare the performance of three real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods in detecting OPV DNA in wildlife samples. We investigated 962 wild rodents from Northern Europe (Finland), Central Europe (Germany), and Northern Asia (Siberia, Russia) for the presence of OPV antibodies. According to a CPXV antigen-based immunofluorescence assay, animals from 13 of the 17 locations (76%) showed antibodies. Mean seroprevalence was 33% in Finland (variation between locations 0%-69%), 32% in Germany (0%-43%), and 3.2% (0%-15%) in Siberia. We further screened tissue samples from 513 of the rodents for OPV DNA using up to three real-time PCRs. Three rodents from two German and one Finnish location were OPV DNA positive. The amplicons were 96% to 100% identical to available CPXV sequences. Further, we demonstrated OPV infections as far east as the Baikal region and occurring in hamster and two other rodent species, ones previously unnoticed as possible reservoir hosts. Based on serological and PCR findings, Eurasian wild rodents are frequently but nonpersistently infected with OPVs. Results from three real-time PCR methods were highly concordant. This study extends the geographic range and wildlife species diversity in which OPV (or CPXV) viruses are naturally circulating.

  1. Antennal phenotype of Mexican haplogroups of the Triatoma dimidiata complex, vectors of Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    May-Concha, Irving; Guerenstein, Pablo G; Ramsey, Janine M; Rojas, Julio C; Catalá, Silvia

    2016-06-01

    Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille) is a species complex that spans North, Central, and South America and which is a key vector of all known discrete typing units (DTU) of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Morphological and genetic studies indicate that T. dimidiata is a species complex with three principal haplogroups (hg) in Mexico. Different markers and traits are still inconclusive regarding if other morphological differentiation may indicate probable behavioral and vectorial divergences within this complex. In this paper we compared the antennae of three Mexican haplogroups (previously verified by molecular markers ND4 and ITS-2) and discussed possible relationships with their capacity to disperse and colonized new habitats. The abundance of each type of sensillum (bristles, basiconics, thick- and thin-walled trichoids) on the antennae of the three haplogroups, were measured under light microscopy and compared using Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric and multivariate non-parametric analyses. Discriminant analyses indicate significant differences among the antennal phenotype of haplogroups either for adults and some nymphal stages, indicating consistency of the character to analyze intraspecific variability within the complex. The present study shows that the adult antennal pedicel of the T. dimidiata complex have abundant chemosensory sensilla, according with good capacity for dispersal and invasion of different habitats also related to their high capacity to adapt to conserved as well as modified habitats. However, the numerical differences among the haplogroups are suggesting variations in that capacity. The results here presented support the evidence of T. dimidiata as a species complex but show females and males in a different way. Given the close link between the bug's sensory system and its habitat and host-seeking behavior, AP characterization could be useful to complement genetic, neurological and ethological studies of the closely

  2. Increased resolution of Y chromosome haplogroup T defines relationships among populations of the Near East, Europe, and Africa.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Fernando L; Karafet, Tatiana M; Krahn, Thomas; Ostrer, Harry; Soodyall, Himla; Hammer, Michael F

    2011-02-01

    Increasing phylogenetic resolution of the Y chromosome haplogroup tree has led to finer temporal and spatial resolution for studies of human migration. Haplogroup T, initially known as K2 and defined by mutation M70, is found at variable frequencies across West Asia, Africa, and Europe. While several SNPs were recently discovered that extended the length of the branch leading to haplogroup T, only two SNPs are known to mark internal branches of haplogroup T. This low level of phylogenetic resolution has hindered studies of the origin and dispersal of this interesting haplogroup, which is found in Near Eastern non-Jewish populations, Jewish populations from several communities, and in the patrilineage of President Thomas Jefferson. Here we map 10 new SNPs that, together with the previously known SNPs, mark 11 lineages and two large subclades (T1a and T1b) of haplogroup T. We also report a new SNP that links haplogroups T and L within the major framework of Y chromosome evolution. Estimates of the timing of the branching events within haplogroup T, along with a comprehensive geographic survey of the major T subclades, suggest that this haplogroup began to diversify in the Near East -25 kya. Our survey also points to a complex history of dispersal of this rare and informative haplogroup within the Near East and from the Near East to Europe and sub-Saharan Africa. The presence of T1a2 chromosomes in Near Eastern Jewish and non-Jewish populations may reflect early exiles between the ancient lands of Israel and Babylon. The presence of different subclades of T chromosomes in Europe may be explained by both the spread of Neolithic farmers and the later dispersal of Jews from the Near East. Finally, the moderately high frequency (-18%) of T1b* chromosomes in the Lemba of southern Africa supports the hypothesis of a Near Eastern, but not necessarily a Jewish, origin for their paternal line.

  3. Mitochondrial Polymorphisms Significantly Reduce the Risk of Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    van der Walt, Joelle M.; Nicodemus, Kristin K.; Martin, Eden R.; Scott, William K.; Nance, Martha A.; Watts, Ray L.; Hubble, Jean P.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Koller, William C.; Lyons, Kelly; Pahwa, Rajesh; Stern, Matthew B.; Colcher, Amy; Hiner, Bradley C.; Jankovic, Joseph; Ondo, William G.; Allen Jr., Fred H.; Goetz, Christopher G.; Small, Gary W.; Mastaglia, Frank; Stajich, Jeffrey M.; McLaurin, Adam C.; Middleton, Lefkos T.; Scott, Burton L.; Schmechel, Donald E.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Vance, Jeffery M.

    2003-01-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) impairment, particularly within complex I of the electron transport system, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). More than half of mitochondrially encoded polypeptides form part of the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase (NADH) complex I enzyme. To test the hypothesis that mtDNA variation contributes to PD expression, we genotyped 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that define the European mtDNA haplogroups in 609 white patients with PD and 340 unaffected white control subjects. Overall, individuals classified as haplogroup J (odds ratio [OR] 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34–0.91; P=.02) or K (OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.30–0.90; P=.02) demonstrated a significant decrease in risk of PD versus individuals carrying the most common haplogroup, H. Furthermore, a specific SNP that defines these two haplogroups, 10398G, is strongly associated with this protective effect (OR 0.53; 95% CI 0.39–0.73; P=.0001). SNP 10398G causes a nonconservative amino acid change from threonine to alanine within the NADH dehydrogenase 3 (ND3) of complex I. After stratification by sex, this decrease in risk appeared stronger in women than in men (OR 0.43; 95% CI 0.27–0.71; P=.0009). In addition, SNP 9055A of ATP6 demonstrated a protective effect for women (OR 0.45; 95% CI 0.22–0.93; P=.03). Our results suggest that ND3 is an important factor in PD susceptibility among white individuals and could help explain the role of complex I in PD expression. PMID:12618962

  4. Distinguishing characteristics in underwater images of Northern and Eurasian watermilfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Karen T.

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes a simple scheme for distinguishing between two very similar watermilfoils, Eurasian or Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Northern or Myriophyllum exalbescens. Leaf images were isolated from underwater images of the plants. Characteristic features consisting of the ratio of black to white pixels within the convex hull of an edge-mapped leaf, the eccentricity of the ellipse surrounding the leaf and a spatial-dependency analysis, measuring the frequency of change of pixel intensity of an edge-mapped leaf were combined to provide a measure which could be used to determine whether a leaf was Northern or Eurasian.

  5. Incomplete penetrance in mitochondrial optic neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Caporali, Leonardo; Maresca, Alessandra; Capristo, Mariantonietta; Del Dotto, Valentina; Tagliavini, Francesca; Valentino, Maria Lucia; La Morgia, Chiara; Carelli, Valerio

    2017-07-14

    Incomplete penetrance characterizes the two most frequent inherited optic neuropathies, Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) and dominant optic atrophy (DOA), due to genetic errors in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the nuclear DNA (nDNA), respectively. For LHON, compelling evidence has accumulated on the complex interplay of mtDNA haplogroups and environmental interacting factors, whereas the nDNA remains essentially non informative. However, a compensatory mechanism of activated mitochondrial biogenesis and increased mtDNA copy number, possibly driven by a permissive nDNA background, is documented in LHON; when successful it maintains unaffected the mutation carriers, but in some individuals it might be hampered by tobacco smoking or other environmental factors, resulting in disease onset. In females, mitochondrial biogenesis is promoted and maintained within the compensatory range by estrogens, partially explaining the gender bias in LHON. Concerning DOA, none of the above mechanisms has been fully explored, thus mtDNA haplogroups, environmental factors such as tobacco and alcohol, and further nDNA variants may all participate as protective factors or, on the contrary, favor disease expression and severity. Next generation sequencing, complemented by transcriptomics and proteomics, may provide some answers in the next future, even if the multifactorial model that seems to apply to incomplete penetrance in mitochondrial optic neuropathies remains problematic, and careful stratification of patients will play a key role for data interpretation. The deep understanding of which factors impinge on incomplete penetrance may shed light on the pathogenic mechanisms leading to optic nerve atrophy, on their possible compensation and, thus, on development of therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Mitochondrial-Nuclear Epistasis: Implications for Human Aging and Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Tranah, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that mitochondria are involved in the aging process. Mitochondrial function requires the coordinated expression of hundreds of nuclear genes and a few dozen mitochondrial genes, many of which have been associated with either extended or shortened life span. Impaired mitochondrial function resulting from mtDNA and nuclear DNA variation is likely to contribute to an imbalance in cellular energy homeostasis, increased vulnerability to oxidative stress, and an increased rate of cellular senescence and aging. The complex genetic architecture of mitochondria suggests that there may be an equally complex set of gene interactions (epistases) involving genetic variation in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Results from Drosophila suggest that the effects of mtDNA haplotypes on longevity vary among different nuclear allelic backgrounds, which could account for the inconsistent associations that have been observed between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups and survival in humans. A diversity of pathways may influence the way mitochondria and nuclear – mitochondrial interactions modulate longevity, including: oxidative phosphorylation; mitochondrial uncoupling; antioxidant defenses; mitochondrial fission and fusion; and sirtuin regulation of mitochondrial genes. We hypothesize that aging and longevity, as complex traits having a significant genetic component, are likely to be controlled by nuclear gene variants interacting with both inherited and somatic mtDNA variability. PMID:20601194

  7. Identification of a new Y chromosome haplogroup in Spanish native cattle.

    PubMed

    Pelayo, R; Penedo, M C T; Valera, M; Molina, A; Millon, L; Ginja, C; Royo, L J

    2017-02-27

    The aim of this work was to perform a thorough analysis of the diversity of Y-haplotypes in Spanish cattle. A total of 207 Bos taurus males were sampled across 25 European breeds, with a special focus on rare, local Spanish populations. Animals were genotyped with five Y-specific microsatellites (INRA189, UMN0103, UMN0307, BM861 and BYM1), two indels (ZFY10 and USP9Y) and one SNP (UTY19). A new haplogroup, distinct from those described by Götherström et al. (2005), was identified and named Y1.2. Samples representing the three B. taurus Y-haplogroups were genotyped for four additional Y chromosome SNPs (rs121919254, rs121919281, rs121919323 and rs137049553). Among these SNPs, only rs121919281 was informative in B. taurus and helped to confirm the new Y1.2 haplogroup. Analysis of a larger dataset of standardized haplotypes for 1507 individuals from 57 populations from Spain, other European countries and Africa showed the new Y1.2 haplogroup to be found exclusively in Spanish breeds. This finding reinforces the importance of local Spanish cattle as reservoirs of genetic diversity as well as the importance of the Iberian Peninsula in the history of cattle.

  8. Characterization of the Iberian Y chromosome haplogroup R-DF27 in Northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Villaescusa, Patricia; Illescas, María José; Valverde, Laura; Baeta, Miriam; Nuñez, Carolina; Martínez-Jarreta, Begoña; Zarrabeitia, Maria Teresa; Calafell, Francesc; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2017-03-01

    The European paternal lineage R-DF27 has been proposed as a haplogroup of Iberian origin due to its maximum frequencies in the Iberian Peninsula. In this study, the distribution and structure of DF27 were characterized in 591 unrelated male individuals from four key populations of the north area of the Iberian Peninsula through the analysis of 12 Y-SNPs that define DF27 main sublineages. Additionally, Y-SNP allele frequencies were also gathered from the reference populations in the 1000 Genomes Project to compare and obtain a better landscape of the distribution of DF27. Our results reveal frequencies over 35% of DF27 haplogroup in the four North Iberian populations analyzed and high frequencies for its subhaplogroups. Considering the low frequency of DF27 and its sublineages in most populations outside of the Iberian Peninsula, this haplogroup seems to have geographical significance; thus, indicating a possible Iberian patrilineal origin of vestiges bearing this haplogroup. The dataset presented here contributes with new data to better understand the complex genetic variability of the Y chromosome in the Iberian Peninsula, that can be applied in Forensic Genetics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Y-SNP haplogroups related to the Yqh+ heteromorphism in the Mexican northwestern population.

    PubMed

    Romo-Martínez, Enrique Jhonatan; Martínez-Cortés, Gabriela; Barajas-Torres, Reyna Lucía; Rubi-Castellanos, Rodrigo; Magaña-Torres, María Teresa; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor; González-García, Juan Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Morphological variation of the Y chromosome has been observed in different populations. This variation is mostly related to the heteromorphic Yq12 band, which is composed of a variable block of constitutive heterochromatin. The Yqh+ heteromorphism has a worldwide frequency of 2.85% and is considered clinically innocuous. The aim of this study was to identify the ancestry of the Yqh+ heteromorphism present in individuals from western Mexico. For this purpose, 17 Y-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms were analysed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction and SNaPshot assays. In 28 Yqh+ males, only five haplogroups were observed; with a haplogroup diversity of 0.4841 ± 0.1094, which was less than that observed in a study of unselected Mexican mestizo population. Differences were specifically conferred by the high frequencies of haplogroups R1b1 and P*(xQ,R), and by the absence of the Amerindian haplogroup Q (Q*(xQ1a3a) plus Q1a3a) from the Yqh+ group. This study suggests a post-1492 incorporation for Yqh+ chromosomes into the Mexican northwestern population.

  10. The phylogenetic and geographic structure of Y-chromosome haplogroup R1a.

    PubMed

    Underhill, Peter A; Poznik, G David; Rootsi, Siiri; Järve, Mari; Lin, Alice A; Wang, Jianbin; Passarelli, Ben; Kanbar, Jad; Myres, Natalie M; King, Roy J; Di Cristofaro, Julie; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Behar, Doron M; Kushniarevich, Alena; Sarac, Jelena; Saric, Tena; Rudan, Pavao; Pathak, Ajai Kumar; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Grugni, Viola; Semino, Ornella; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Farjadian, Shirin; Balanovsky, Oleg; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Herrera, Rene J; Chiaroni, Jacques; Bustamante, Carlos D; Quake, Stephen R; Kivisild, Toomas; Villems, Richard

    2015-01-01

    R1a-M420 is one of the most widely spread Y-chromosome haplogroups; however, its substructure within Europe and Asia has remained poorly characterized. Using a panel of 16 244 male subjects from 126 populations sampled across Eurasia, we identified 2923 R1a-M420 Y-chromosomes and analyzed them to a highly granular phylogeographic resolution. Whole Y-chromosome sequence analysis of eight R1a and five R1b individuals suggests a divergence time of ∼25,000 (95% CI: 21,300-29,000) years ago and a coalescence time within R1a-M417 of ∼5800 (95% CI: 4800-6800) years. The spatial frequency distributions of R1a sub-haplogroups conclusively indicate two major groups, one found primarily in Europe and the other confined to Central and South Asia. Beyond the major European versus Asian dichotomy, we describe several younger sub-haplogroups. Based on spatial distributions and diversity patterns within the R1a-M420 clade, particularly rare basal branches detected primarily within Iran and eastern Turkey, we conclude that the initial episodes of haplogroup R1a diversification likely occurred in the vicinity of present-day Iran.

  11. Rapid deployment of the five founding Amerind mtDNA haplogroups via coastal and riverine colonization.

    PubMed

    Fix, Alan G

    2005-10-01

    Numerous studies of variation in mtDNA in Amerindian populations established that four haplogroups are present throughout both North and South America. These four haplogroups (A, B, C, and D) and perhaps a fifth (X) in North America are postulated to be present in the initial founding migration to the Americas. Furthermore, studies of ancient mtDNA in North America suggested long-term regional continuity of the frequencies of these founding haplogroups. Present-day tribal groups possess high frequencies of private mtDNA haplotypes (variants within the major haplogroups), consistent with early establishment of local isolation of regional populations. Clearly these patterns have implications for the mode of colonization of the hemisphere. Recently, the earlier consensus among archaeologists for an initial colonization by Clovis hunters arriving through an ice-free corridor and expanding in a "blitzkrieg " wave was shown to be inconsistent with extensive genetic variability in Native Americans; a coastal migration route avoids this problem. The present paper demonstrates through a computer simulation model how colonization along coasts and rivers could have rapidly spread the founding lineages widely through North America.

  12. The phylogenetic and geographic structure of Y-chromosome haplogroup R1a

    PubMed Central

    Underhill, Peter A; Poznik, G David; Rootsi, Siiri; Järve, Mari; Lin, Alice A; Wang, Jianbin; Passarelli, Ben; Kanbar, Jad; Myres, Natalie M; King, Roy J; Di Cristofaro, Julie; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Behar, Doron M; Kushniarevich, Alena; Šarac, Jelena; Šaric, Tena; Rudan, Pavao; Pathak, Ajai Kumar; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Grugni, Viola; Semino, Ornella; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Farjadian, Shirin; Balanovsky, Oleg; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Herrera, Rene J; Chiaroni, Jacques; Bustamante, Carlos D; Quake, Stephen R; Kivisild, Toomas; Villems, Richard

    2015-01-01

    R1a-M420 is one of the most widely spread Y-chromosome haplogroups; however, its substructure within Europe and Asia has remained poorly characterized. Using a panel of 16 244 male subjects from 126 populations sampled across Eurasia, we identified 2923 R1a-M420 Y-chromosomes and analyzed them to a highly granular phylogeographic resolution. Whole Y-chromosome sequence analysis of eight R1a and five R1b individuals suggests a divergence time of ∼25 000 (95% CI: 21 300–29 000) years ago and a coalescence time within R1a-M417 of ∼5800 (95% CI: 4800–6800) years. The spatial frequency distributions of R1a sub-haplogroups conclusively indicate two major groups, one found primarily in Europe and the other confined to Central and South Asia. Beyond the major European versus Asian dichotomy, we describe several younger sub-haplogroups. Based on spatial distributions and diversity patterns within the R1a-M420 clade, particularly rare basal branches detected primarily within Iran and eastern Turkey, we conclude that the initial episodes of haplogro