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Sample records for eurisol design study

  1. Structural-hydraulic test of the liquid metal EURISOL target mock-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milenković, Rade Ž.; Dementjevs, Sergejs; Samec, Karel; Platacis, Ernests; Zik, Anatolij; Flerov, Aleksej; Manfrin, Enzo; Thomsen, Knud

    2009-08-01

    Structural-hydraulic tests of the European Isotope Separation On-Line (EURISOL) neutron converter target mock-up, named MErcury Target EXperiment 1 (METEX 1), have been conducted by Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI, Switzerland) in cooperation with Institute of Physics of the University of Latvia (IPUL, Latvia). PSI proceeded with extensive thermal-hydraulic and structural computational studies, followed by the target mock-up tests carried out on the mercury loop at IPUL. One of the main goals of the METEX 1 test is to investigate the hydraulic and structural behaviour of the EURISOL target mock-up for various inlet flow conditions (i.e. mass flow rates) and, in particular, for nominal operating flow rate and pressure in the system. The experimental results were analysed by advanced time-frequency methods such as Short-Time Fourier Transform in order to check the vibration characteristics of the mock-up and the resonance risk. The experimental results (obtained in METEX 1), which include inlet flow rate, pressure of the cover gas, total pressure loss, structural acceleration, sound and strain data, were jointly analysed together with numerical data obtained from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD).

  2. Measurement and analysis of turbulent liquid metal flow in a high-power spallation neutron source—EURISOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samec, Karel; Milenković, Rade Ž.; Blumenfeld, Laure; Dementjevs, Sergej; Kharoua, Cyril; Kadi, Yacine

    2011-05-01

    The European Isotope Separation On- Line (EURISOL) design study completed in 2009 examined means of producing exotic nuclei for fundamental research. One of the critical components identified in the study was a high-power neutron spallation source in which a target material is impacted by a proton beam producing neutrons by a process known as spallation. Due to the high heat power deposition, liquid metal, in this case mercury, is the only viable choice as target material. Complex issues arise from the use of liquid metal. It is characterised by an unusually low Prandtl number and a higher thermal expansivity than conventional fluids. The turbulence structure in LM is thereby affected and still an object of intense research, hampered in part by measurement difficulties. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) allowed a satisfactory design for the neutron source to be found rapidly with little iteration. However it was feared that the development of the boundary layer and associated turbulence would not be correctly represented by the CFD since the codes were developed for standard fluids. Therefore, an experiment and associated measurements were carried out to assess the reliability of the computations and to validate the design of the target. System level measurements such as cavitation noise, target structural vibrations and cover gas pressure were recorded as local pressure fluctuations in the fluid. In this manner, both the macroscopic effect of the turbulence on the target structure, and the liquid metal turbulence itself could be measured and serve as a benchmark for assessing the reliability of the computations. The current work shows how the Shear Stress Transfer (SST) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence models were used to simulate the liquid metal flow. LES was proved more accurate than SST in predicting large and small turbulent structures in the liquid. The prediction of the turbulence intensity generated by large eddy structures in the

  3. Prospects for advanced electron cyclotron resonance and electron beam ion source charge breeding methods for EURISOL

    SciTech Connect

    Delahaye, P.; Jardin, P.; Maunoury, L.; Traykov, E.; Varenne, F.; Angot, J.; Lamy, T.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T.; Ban, G.; Celona, L.; Lunney, D.; Choinski, J.; Gmaj, P.; Jakubowski, A.; Steckiewicz, O.; Kalvas, T.; and others

    2012-02-15

    As the most ambitious concept of isotope separation on line (ISOL) facility, EURISOL aims at producing unprecedented intensities of post-accelerated radioactive isotopes. Charge breeding, which transforms the charge state of radioactive beams from 1+ to an n+ charge state prior to post-acceleration, is a key technology which has to overcome the following challenges: high charge states for high energies, efficiency, rapidity and purity. On the roadmap to EURISOL, a dedicated R and D is being undertaken to push forward the frontiers of the present state-of-the-art techniques which use either electron cyclotron resonance or electron beam ion sources. We describe here the guidelines of this R and D.

  4. EURISOL Desktop Assistant Toolkit (EDAT): A modeling, simulation and visualization support to the preliminary radiological assessment of RIB projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vamanu, D.; Vamanu, B.; Acasandrei, V.; Maceika, E.; Plukis, A.

    2010-04-01

    The paper describes an approach taken within the EURISOL-DS project (European Isotope Separation Online Radioactive Ion Beam Facility) to a number of safety and radioprotection issues raised by the advent of radioactive ion beam facilities in the cutting edge area of particle accelerators. The ensuing solution emerged from a collaborative effort of the investigating team-in-charge, affiliated with the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in Bucharest, with expert colleagues at the Physics Institute in Vilnius, and at CERN, within the participation in the EURISOL-DS project, Sub-Task B: Radiation, Activation, Shielding and Doses of the Safety and Radioprotection, Task 5. The work was primarily geared towards the identification of knowledge and data in line with validated, accepted and nationally/internationally recommended methods and models of radiological assessment applied within the nuclear power fuel cycle, deemed to be suitable for assessing health and environmental impact of accelerator operations as well. As a result, a computer software platform code-named “EURISOL Desktop Assistant Toolkit” was developed. The software is, inter alia, capable to assess radiation doses from pure or isotopically mixed open or shielded point sources; emergency response-relevant doses; critical group doses via complex pathways, including the air, the water, and the food chain and derived release limits for the normal, routine operations of nuclear facilities. Dedicated data libraries and GIS (Geographic Information System) facilities assist the input/output operations.

  5. Study Design Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jeff; Likis, Frances E

    2015-10-01

    To aid authors in correctly naming their study design, to assist readers and reviewers who must decide what the design was for some published studies, and to provide consistency in evaluating the design of published studies, especially for those conducting systematic reviews and evidence synthesis. An annotated algorithm method is used to prompt serial questions and analysis to identify a single study design. The algorithm begins with a research article. Primary clinical research is divided into experimental and observational studies. Key determinants include identifying the study question and the population, intervention, comparison, and outcome. Experimental therapy and prognosis studies are subdivided into 4 design types. Observational therapy and prognosis studies are subdivided into 7 design types. Experimental diagnosis and screening studies are subdivided into 2 types. Observational diagnosis and screening studies are subdivided into 5 types. An annotated algorithm may be used by authors, readers, and reviewers to consistently determine the design of clinical research studies.

  6. [Ergonomic technology. Design study].

    PubMed

    Apostol, I; Ciobanu, O

    2007-01-01

    The paper deals with domains and technological developments and related supports that enhance the rehabilitation process. Ergonomic Technology, Rehabilitation Engineering, Accessibility and Assistive technology are factors involved in promoting a greater independence for people with disabilities by designing and developing new devices with improved design and functionality. Results of a device design study for people with disabilities are presented.

  7. Study design: the basics.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun Ja; Hoffmann, Raymond G

    2007-01-01

    In biomedical research, meaningful conclusions can only be drawn based on data collected from a valid scientific design using appropriate statistical methods. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate study design is important in order to provide an unbiased and scientific evaluation of the research questions. In this chapter, the different kinds of experimental studies commonly used in biology and medicine are introduced. A brief survey of basic experimental study designs, randomization, blinding, possible biases, issues in data analysis, and interpretation of the study results are mainly provided.

  8. LOXT mirror design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanspeybroeck, L.; Antrim, W.; Boyd, D.; Giacconi, R.; Sinnamon, G.; Stille, F.

    1972-01-01

    The final report for the large orbiting X-ray telescope (LOXT) high resolution mirror design study is presented. The following tasks were performed: (1) Generation of a reference and alternate preliminary design for the LOXT high resolution mirror assembly, which will meet the LOXT scientific requirements, and are within the present state of the art of materials and fabrication techniques. (2) Measurement, in X-rays, of the scattering properties of a variety of optical flats, embodying materials, coatings, and polishing techniques which might be applicable to the flight configuration LOXT high resolution mirror. (3) Preparation of a procurement specification for a paraboloid test mirror of the size of the innermost paraboloid of the high resolution mirror assembly, including the design requirements for the reference design evolved from this preliminary design study. The results of the engineering and scientific analysis and the conclusions drawn are presented. The procurement specification for the test mirror is included.

  9. Parametric study of a high current-density EBIS Charge Breeder regarding Two Stream plasma Instability (TSI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shornikov, Andrey; Mertzig, Robert; Breitenfeldt, Martin; Lombardi, Alessandra; Wenander, Fredrik; Pikin, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we report on our results from the design study of an advanced Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) based Charge Breeder (ECB). The ECB should fulfill the requirements of the HIE-ISOLDE upgrade, and if possible be adapted for ion injection into TSR@ISOLDE, as well as serve as an early prototype of a future EURISOL ECB. Fulfilling the HIE-ISOLDE/TSR@ISOLDE specifications requires simultaneous increase in electron beam energy, current and current density in order to provide the requested beams with proper charge state, high intensity and with a specified pulse repetition rate. We have carried out a study on the technical requirements of the ECB. The obtained parameters were optimized to comply with technical limitations arising from the electron beam technology and plasma physics in an ECB.

  10. Study Design for Sequencing Studies.

    PubMed

    Honaas, Loren A; Altman, Naomi S; Krzywinski, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Once a biochemical method has been devised to sample RNA or DNA of interest, sequencing can be used to identify the sampled molecules with high fidelity and low bias. High-throughput sequencing has therefore become the primary data acquisition method for many genomics studies and is being used more and more to address molecular biology questions. By applying principles of statistical experimental design, sequencing experiments can be made more sensitive to the effects under study as well as more biologically sound, hence more replicable.

  11. Slurry reactor design studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. ); Akgerman, A. ); Smith, J.M. )

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  12. Shuttle communications design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cartier, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    The design and development of a space shuttle communication system are discussed. The subjects considered include the following: (1) Ku-band satellite relay to shuttle, (2) phased arrays, (3) PN acquisition, (4) quadriplexing of direct link ranging and telemetry, (5) communications blackout on launch and reentry, (6) acquisition after blackout on reentry, (7) wideband communications interface with the Ku-Band rendezvous radar, (8) aeroflight capabilities of the space shuttle, (9) a triple multiplexing scheme equivalent to interplex, and (10) a study of staggered quadriphase for use on the space shuttle.

  13. Seal design alternatives study

    SciTech Connect

    Van Sambeek, L.L.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

  14. ATW neutronics design studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, D. C.; Yang, W. S.; Khalil, H.

    2000-11-10

    The Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept has been proposed as a transuranics (TRU) (and long-lived fission product) incinerator for processing the 87,000 metric tonnes of Light Water Reactor used fuel which will have been generated by the time the currently deployed fleet of commercial reactors in the US reach the end of their licensed lifetime. The ATW is proposed to separate the uranium from the transuranics and fission products in the LWR used fuel, to fission the transuranics, to send the LWR and ATW generated fission products to the geologic repository and to send the uranium to either a low level waste disposal site or to save it for future use. The heat liberated in fissioning the transuranics would be converted to electricity and sold to partially offset the cost of ATW construction and operations. Options for incineration of long-lived fission products are under evaluation. A six-year science-based program of ATW trade and system studies was initiated in the US FY 2000 to achieve two main purposes: (1) ''to evaluate ATW within the framework of nonproliferation, waste management, and economic considerations,'' and (2) ''to evaluate the efficacy of the numerous technical options for ATW system configuration.'' This paper summarizes the results from neutronics and thermal/hydraulics trade studies which were completed at Argonne National Laboratory during the first year of the program. Core designs were developed for Pb-Bi cooled and Na cooled 840 MW{sub th} fast spectrum transmuter designs employing recycle. Additionally, neutronics analyses were performed at Argonne for a He cooled 600 MW{sub th} hybrid thermal and fast core design proposed by General Atomics Co. which runs critical for 3/4 and subcritical for 1/4 of its four year once-thin burn cycle. The mass flows and the ultimate loss of transuranic isotopes to the waste stream per unit of heat generated during transmutation have been calculated on a consistent basis and are compared. (Long

  15. Conceptual design optimization study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollowell, S. J.; Beeman, E. R., II; Hiyama, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of applying multilevel functional decomposition and optimization techniques to conceptual design of advanced fighter aircraft was investigated. Applying the functional decomposition techniques to the conceptual design phase appears to be feasible. The initial implementation of the modified design process will optimize wing design variables. A hybrid approach, combining functional decomposition techniques for generation of aerodynamic and mass properties linear sensitivity derivatives with existing techniques for sizing mission performance and optimization, is proposed.

  16. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-06-01

    During the 1960's and early 70's the author performed extensive design studies, analyses, and tests aimed at thermionic reactor concepts that differed significantly from those pursued by other investigators. Those studies, like most others under Atomic Energy Commission (AEC and DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsorship, were terminated in the early 1970's. Some of this work was previously published, but much of it was never made available in the open literature. U.S. interest in thermionic reactors resumed in the early 80's, and was greatly intensified by reports about Soviet ground and flight tests in the late 80's. This recent interest resulted in renewed U.S. thermionic reactor development programs, primarily under Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. Since most current investigators have not had an opportunity to study all of the author's previous work, a review of the highlights of that work may be of value to them. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling. Where the author's concepts differed from the later Topaz-2 design was in the relative location of the emitter and the collector. Placing the fueled emitter on the outside of the cylindrical diodes permits much higher axial conductances to reduce ohmic losses in the electrodes of full

  17. Modular antenna design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribble, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanical design of a modular antenna concept was developed sufficiently to allow manufacture of a working demonstration model of a module, to predict mass properties, and to make performance estimates for antenna reflectors composed of these modules. The primary features of this concept are: (1) each module is an autonomous structural element which can be attached to adjacent modules through a three point connection; (2) the upper surface is a folding hexagonal truss plate mechanism which serves as the supporting structure for a reflective surface; and (3) the entire truss and surface can be folded into a cylindrical envelope in which all truss elements are essentially parallel. The kinematic studies and engineering demonstration model fully verified the deployment kinematics, stowing philosophy, and deployment sequencing for large antenna modules. It was established that such modules can be stowed in packages as small as 25 cm in diameter, using 1.27 cm diameter structural tubes. The development activity indicates that this deployable modular approach towards building large structures in space will support erection of 450 m apertures for operation up to 3 GHz with a single space shuttle flight.

  18. Studies in Interior Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environ Planning Design, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Floor plans and photographs illustrate a description of the Samuel C. Williams Library at Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N.J. The unusual interior design allows students to take full advantage of the library's resources. (JW)

  19. Architecture as Design Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Heta

    1989-01-01

    Explores the use of analogies in architectural design, the importance of Gestalt theory and aesthetic cannons in understanding and being sensitive to architecture. Emphasizes the variation between public and professional appreciation of architecture. Notes that an understanding of architectural process enables students to improve the aesthetic…

  20. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-08-01

    Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their (thermionic reactor) performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling.

  1. Designing verbal autopsy studies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Verbal autopsy analyses are widely used for estimating cause-specific mortality rates (CSMR) in the vast majority of the world without high-quality medical death registration. Verbal autopsies -- survey interviews with the caretakers of imminent decedents -- stand in for medical examinations or physical autopsies, which are infeasible or culturally prohibited. Methods and Findings We introduce methods, simulations, and interpretations that can improve the design of automated, data-derived estimates of CSMRs, building on a new approach by King and Lu (2008). Our results generate advice for choosing symptom questions and sample sizes that is easier to satisfy than existing practices. For example, most prior effort has been devoted to searching for symptoms with high sensitivity and specificity, which has rarely if ever succeeded with multiple causes of death. In contrast, our approach makes this search irrelevant because it can produce unbiased estimates even with symptoms that have very low sensitivity and specificity. In addition, the new method is optimized for survey questions caretakers can easily answer rather than questions physicians would ask themselves. We also offer an automated method of weeding out biased symptom questions and advice on how to choose the number of causes of death, symptom questions to ask, and observations to collect, among others. Conclusions With the advice offered here, researchers should be able to design verbal autopsy surveys and conduct analyses with greatly reduced statistical biases and research costs. PMID:20573233

  2. Advanced turbocharger design study program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culy, D. G.; Heldenbrand, R. W.; Richardson, N. R.

    1984-01-01

    The advanced Turbocharger Design Study consisted of: (1) the evaluation of three advanced engine designs to determine their turbocharging requirements, and of technologies applicable to advanced turbocharger designs; (2) trade-off studies to define a turbocharger conceptual design and select the engine with the most representative requirements for turbocharging; (3) the preparation of a turbocharger conceptual design for the Curtiss Wright RC2-32 engine selected in the trade-off studies; and (4) the assessment of market impact and the preparation of a technology demonstration plan for the advanced turbocharger.

  3. Analytical considerations for study design

    Treesearch

    Barry R. Noon; William M. Block

    1990-01-01

    Studies of the foraging behaviors of birds have been largely descriptive and comparative. One might then expect studies with similar objectives to have similar study designs but that is not the case. Papers in this symposium that focused specifically on study design contain a diversity of biological perspectives. Similarly, there is no accord among statisticians on...

  4. RAD hard PROM design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The results of a preliminary study on the design of a radiation hardened fusible link programmable read-only memory (PROM) are presented. Various fuse technologies and the effects of radiation on MOS integrated circuits are surveyed. A set of design rules allowing the fabrication of a radiation hardened PROM using a Si-gate CMOS process is defined. A preliminary cell layout was completed and the programming concept defined. A block diagram is used to describe the circuit components required for a 4 K design. A design goal data sheet giving target values for the AC, DC, and radiation parameters of the circuit is presented.

  5. Instructional Designers at Work: A Study of How Designers Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Dennis; Ives, Cindy

    2008-01-01

    Instructional design (ID) in its short life has been dominated by behaviourist approaches despite critique focusing on issues of practice as well as theory. Nonetheless, little research has addressed two fundamental questions: "What constitutes good instructional design?" and "How do instructional designers create good design?"…

  6. Visual Design Principles: An Empirical Study of Design Lore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Miles A.

    2013-01-01

    Many books, designers, and design educators talk about visual design principles such as balance, contrast, and alignment, but with little consistency. This study uses empirical methods to explore the lore surrounding design principles. The study took the form of two stages: a quantitative literature review to determine what design principles are…

  7. Visual Design Principles: An Empirical Study of Design Lore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Miles A.

    2013-01-01

    Many books, designers, and design educators talk about visual design principles such as balance, contrast, and alignment, but with little consistency. This study uses empirical methods to explore the lore surrounding design principles. The study took the form of two stages: a quantitative literature review to determine what design principles are…

  8. The MANIFEST prototyping design study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Jonathan S.; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Brown, David M.; Brown, Rebecca A.; Case, Scott; Chapman, Steve; Churilov, Vladimir; Colless, Matthew; Content, Robert; Depoy, Darren; Evans, Ian; Farrell, Tony; Goodwin, Michael; Jacoby, George; Klauser, Urs; Kuehn, Kyler; Lorente, Nuria P. F.; Mali, Slavko; Marshall, Jennifer; Muller, Rolf; Nichani, Vijay; Pai, Naveen; Prochaska, Travis; Saunders, Will; Schmidt, Luke; Shortridge, Keith; Staszak, Nicholas F.; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Tims, Julia; Vuong, Minh V.; Waller, Lewis G.; Zhelem, Ross

    2016-08-01

    MANIFEST is a facility multi-object fibre system for the Giant Magellan Telescope, which uses `Starbug' fibre positioning robots. MANIFEST, when coupled to the telescope's planned seeing-limited instruments, GMACS, and G-CLEF, offers access to: larger fields of view; higher multiplex gains; versatile reformatting of the focal plane via IFUs; image-slicers; and in some cases higher spatial and spectral resolution. The Prototyping Design Study phase for MANIFEST, nearing completion, has focused on developing a working prototype of a Starbugs system, called TAIPAN, for the UK Schmidt Telescope, which will conduct a stellar and galaxy survey of the Southern sky. The Prototyping Design Study has also included work on the GMT instrument interfaces. In this paper, we outline the instrument design features of TAIPAN, highlight the modifications that will be necessary for the MANIFEST implementation, and provide an update on the MANIFEST/instrument interfaces.

  9. Liquid belt radiator design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teagan, W. P.; Fitzgerald, K. F.

    1986-01-01

    The Liquid Belt Radiator (LBR) is an advanced concept developed to meet the needs of anticipated future space missions. A previous study documented the advantages of this concept as a lightweight, easily deployable alternative to present day space heat rejection systems. The technical efforts associated with this study concentrate on refining the concept of the LBR as well as examining the issues of belt dynamics and potential application of the LBR to intermediate and high temperature heat rejection applications. A low temperature point design developed in previous work is updated assuming the use of diffusion pump oil, Santovac-6, as the heat transfer media. Additional analytical and design effort is directed toward determining the impact of interface heat exchanger, fluid bath sealing, and belt drive mechanism designs on system performance and mass. The updated design supports the earlier result by indicating a significant reduction in system specific system mass as compared to heat pipe or pumped fluid radiator concepts currently under consideration (1.3 kg/sq m versus 5 kg/sq m).

  10. STUDY CARRELS, DESIGNS FOR INDEPENDENT STUDY SPACE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEYNON, JOHN

    BECAUSE OF THE DEMAND FOR INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION, NEW SCHOOLS ARE BEING PLANNED WITH LESS CLASSROOM SPACE AND MORE LIBRARY AND INDIVIDUAL STUDY SPACES. THESE NEW SCHOOLS REQUIRE NEW KINDS OF FURNITURE DESIGNED PRIMARILY TO GIVE THE STUDENT A DEGREE OF PRIVACY RATHER THAN TO PROVIDE OPTIMUM CONTROL TO TEACHERS. THE CARREL, PREVIOUSLY USED…

  11. STUDY CARRELS, DESIGNS FOR INDEPENDENT STUDY SPACE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEYNON, JOHN

    BECAUSE OF THE DEMAND FOR INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION, NEW SCHOOLS ARE BEING PLANNED WITH LESS CLASSROOM SPACE AND MORE LIBRARY AND INDIVIDUAL STUDY SPACES. THESE NEW SCHOOLS REQUIRE NEW KINDS OF FURNITURE DESIGNED PRIMARILY TO GIVE THE STUDENT A DEGREE OF PRIVACY RATHER THAN TO PROVIDE OPTIMUM CONTROL TO TEACHERS. THE CARREL, PREVIOUSLY USED…

  12. Warm gas TVC design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorhead, S. B., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A warm gas thrust vector control system was studied to optimize the injection geometry for a specific engine configuration, and an injection valve was designed capable of meeting the base line requirements. To optimize injection geometry, studies were made to determine the performance effects of varying injection location, angle, port size, and port configuration. Having minimized the injection flow rate required, a warm gas valve was designed to handle the required flow. A direct drive hydraulic servovalve capable of operating with highly contaminated hydraulic fluid was designed. The valve is sized to flow 15 gpm at 3000 psia and the direct drive feature is capable of applying a spool force of 200 pounds. The baseline requirements are the development of 6 deg of thrust vector control utilizing 2000 F (total temperature) gas for 180 seconds on a 1.37 million pound thrust engine burning LOX and RP-1 at a chamber pressure of 250 psia with a 155 inch long conical nozzle having a 68 inch diameter throat and a 153 inch diameter exit.

  13. Supersonic airplane study and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Samson

    1993-01-01

    A supersonic airplane creates shocks which coalesce and form a classical N-wave on the ground, forming a double bang noise termed sonic boom. A recent supersonic commercial transport (the Concorde) has a loud sonic boom (over 100 PLdB) and low aerodynamic performance (cruise lift-drag ratio 7). To enhance the U.S. market share in supersonic transport, an airframer's market risk for a low-boom airplane has to be reduced. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to design airplanes to meet the dual constraints of low sonic boom and high aerodynamic performance. During the past year, a research effort was focused on three main topics. The first was to use the existing design tools, developed in past years, to design one of the low-boom wind-tunnel configurations (Ames Model 3) for testing at Ames Research Center in April 1993. The second was to use a Navier-Stokes code (Overflow) to support the Oblique-All-Wing (OAW) study at Ames. The third was to study an optimization technique applied on a Haack-Adams body to reduce aerodynamic drag.

  14. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    SciTech Connect

    P. McDaniel

    2002-04-05

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are: subsurface aging in a new

  15. The proton driver design study

    SciTech Connect

    Editors: W. Chou, C.M. Ankenbrandt and E.I. Malamud

    2001-03-08

    In a 1997 summer study, a team led by Steve Holmes formulated a development plan for the Fermilab proton source and described the results in TM-2021. Subsequently, at the end of 1998, a task group was formed to prepare a detailed design of a high intensity facility called the Proton Driver to replace the Fermilab Booster. In the past two years the design effort has attracted more than fifty participants, mostly from the Beams Division. Physicists and engineers from the Technical Division and FESS as well as other institutions, including the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), Stanford University, University of Hawaii, CERN in Switzerland, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in England and the IHEP in Russia also contributed heavily. The results of that effort are summarized in this document describing the design of a 16 GeV synchrotron, two new beam transport lines (a 400 MeV injection line and a 12/16 GeV extraction line), and related improvements to the present negative ion source and the 400 MeV Linac. A construction cost estimate is presented in Appendix A.

  16. AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

  17. Design Issues in Transgender Studies

    PubMed Central

    Emel, Lynda; Hanscom, Brett; Zangeneh, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Transgender individuals constitute an important focus for HIV prevention, but studies in this population present some unique methodologic and operational challenges. We consider issues related to sampling, sample size, number of sites, and trial cost. We discuss relevant design issues for evaluating interventions in both HIV-negative and HIV-infected transgender populations, as well as a method for assessing the impact of an intervention on population HIV incidence. We find that HIV-endpoint studies of transgender individuals will likely require fewer participants but more sites and have higher operational costs than HIV prevention trials in other populations. Because any intervention targeted to transgender individuals will likely include antiretroviral drugs, small scale studies looking at potential interactions between antiretroviral therapy and hormone therapy are recommended. Finally, assessing the impact of an intervention targeted to transgender individuals will require better information on the contribution of such individuals to the population HIV incidence. PMID:27429191

  18. Design Issues in Transgender Studies.

    PubMed

    Hughes, James P; Emel, Lynda; Hanscom, Brett; Zangeneh, Sahar

    2016-08-15

    Transgender individuals constitute an important focus for HIV prevention, but studies in this population present some unique methodologic and operational challenges. We consider issues related to sampling, sample size, number of sites, and trial cost. We discuss relevant design issues for evaluating interventions in both HIV-negative and HIV-infected transgender populations, as well as a method for assessing the impact of an intervention on population HIV incidence. We find that HIV-endpoint studies of transgender individuals will likely require fewer participants but more sites and have higher operational costs than HIV prevention trials in other populations. Because any intervention targeted to transgender individuals will likely include antiretroviral drugs, small scale studies looking at potential interactions between antiretroviral therapy and hormone therapy are recommended. Finally, assessing the impact of an intervention targeted to transgender individuals will require better information on the contribution of such individuals to the population HIV incidence.

  19. MIUS community conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulbright, B. E.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility, practicality, and applicability of the modular integrated utility systems (MIUS) concept to a satellite new-community development with a population of approximately 100,000 were analyzed. Two MIUS design options, the 29-MIUS-unit (option 1) and the 8-MIUS-unit (option 2) facilities were considered. Each resulted in considerable resource savings when compared to a conventional utility system. Economic analyses indicated that the total cash outlay and operations and maintenance costs for these two options were considerably less than for a conventional system. Computer analyses performed in support of this study provided corroborative data for the study group. An environmental impact assessment was performed to determine whether the MIUS meets or will meet necessary environmental standards. The MIUS can provide improved efficiency in the conservation of natural resources while not adversely affecting the physical environment.

  20. Integrated technology wing design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, A. P.; Beck, W. E.; Morita, W. H.; Penrose, B. J.; Skarshaug, R. E.; Wainfan, B. S.

    1984-01-01

    The technology development costs and associated benefits in applying advanced technology associated with the design of a new wing for a new or derivative trijet with a capacity for 350 passengers and maximum range of 8519 km, entering service in 1990 were studied. The areas of technology are: (1) airfoil technology; (2) planform parameters; (3) high lift; (4) pitch active control system; (5) all electric systems; (6) E to 3rd power propulsion; (7) airframe/propulsion integration; (8) graphite/epoxy composites; (9) advanced aluminum alloys; (10) titanium alloys; and (11) silicon carbide/aluminum composites. These technologies were applied to the reference aircraft configuration. Payoffs were determined for block fuel reductions and net value of technology. These technologies are ranked for the ratio of net value of technology (NVT) to technology development costs.

  1. Novel Compressor Blade Design Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Abhay

    Jet engine efficiency goals are driving compressors to higher pressure ratios and engines to higher bypass ratios, each one driving to smaller cores. This is leading to larger tip gaps relative to the blade height. These larger relative tip clearances would negate some of the cycle improvements, and ways to mitigate this effect must be found. A novel split tip blade geometry has been created which helps improve the efficiency at large clearances while also improving operating range. Two identical blades are leaned in opposite directions starting at 85% span. They are cut at mid chord and the 2 halves then merged together so a split tip is created. The result is similar to the alula feathers on a soaring bird. The concept is that the split tip will energize the tip flow and increase range. For higher relative tip clearance, this will also improve efficiency. The 6th rotor of a highly loaded 10 stage machine was chosen as the baseline for this study. Three dimensional CFD simulations were performed using CD Adapco's Star-CCM+ at 5 clearances for the baseline and split tip geometry. The choking flow and stall margin of the split tip blade was higher than that of the baseline blade for all tip clearances. The pressure ratio of the novel blade was higher than that of the baseline blade near choke, but closer to stall it decreased. The sensitivity of peak efficiency to clearance was improved. At tight clearances of 0.62% of blade height, the maximum efficiency of the new design was less than the baseline blade, but as the tip clearance was increased above 2.5%, the maximum efficiency increased. Structural analysis was also performed to ascertain the feasibility of the design.

  2. Student-Designed River Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkall, Sheila Florian

    1996-01-01

    Describes an integrated student-designed investigation in which students explore different aspects of the Chagrin River including the river ecosystem, velocity and average depth, river flooding, water quality, and economic and political factors. (JRH)

  3. Student-Designed River Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkall, Sheila Florian

    1996-01-01

    Describes an integrated student-designed investigation in which students explore different aspects of the Chagrin River including the river ecosystem, velocity and average depth, river flooding, water quality, and economic and political factors. (JRH)

  4. A study of commuter airplane design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.; Wyatt, R. D.; Griswold, D. A.; Hammer, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    Problems of commuter airplane configuration design were studied to affect a minimization of direct operating costs. Factors considered were the minimization of fuselage drag, methods of wing design, and the estimated drag of an airplane submerged in a propellor slipstream; all design criteria were studied under a set of fixed performance, mission, and stability constraints. Configuration design data were assembled for application by a computerized design methodology program similar to the NASA-Ames General Aviation Synthesis Program.

  5. Advanced Design Studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Don

    2012-12-01

    The ARIES-CS project was a multi-year multi-institutional project to assess the feasibility of a compact stellarator as a fusion power plant. The work herein describes efforts to help design one aspect of the device, the divertor, which is responsible for the removal of particle and heat flux from the system, acting as the first point of contact between the magnetically confined hot plasma and the outside world. Specifically, its location and topology are explored, extending previous work on the sub ject. An optimized design is determined for the thermal particle flux using a suite of 3D stellarator design codes which trace magnetic field lines from just inside the confined plasma edge to their strike points on divertor plates. These divertor plates are specified with a newly developed plate design code. It is found that a satisfactory thermal design exists which maintains the plate temperature and heat load distribution below tolerable engineering limits. The design is unique, including a toroidal taper on the outboard plates which was found to be important to our results. The maximum thermal heat flux for the final design was 3.61 M W/m2 and the maximum peaking factor was 10.3, below prescribed limits of 10 M W/m2 and 15.6, respectively. The median length of field lines reaching the plates is about 250 m and their average angle of inclination to the surface is 2 deg. Finally, an analysis of the fast alphas, resulting from fusion in the core, which escape the plasma was performed. A method is developed for obtaining the mapping from magnetic coordinates to real-space coordinates for the ARIES-CS. This allows the alpha exit locations to be identified in real space for the first time. These were then traced using the field line algorithm as well as a guiding center routine accounting for their mass, charge, and specific direction and energy. Results show that the current design is inadequate for accommodating the alpha heat flux, capturing at most 1/3 of lost alphas

  6. Advances on ELIC Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bogacz, S. Alex; Bogacz, S.; Chevtsov, P.; Derbenev, Ya.; Evtushenko, P.; Krafft, G.; Hutton, A.; Li, R.; Merminga, L.; Musson, J.; Yunn, B.; Zhang, Y.; Sayed, H.; Qiang, J.

    2008-06-16

    A conceptual design of a ring-ring electron-ion collider based on CEBAF with a center-of-mass energy up to 90 GeV at luminosity up to 1035 cm-2s-1 has been proposed at JLab to fulfil science requirements. Here, we summarize design progress including collider ring and interaction region optics with chromatic aberration compensation. Electron polarization in the Figure-8 ring, stacking of ion beams in an accumulator-cooler ring, beam-beam simulations and a faster kicker for the circulator electron cooler ring are also discussed.

  7. Multimission Aircraft Design Study, Payload

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    number MC2A Multisensor Command and Control Aircraft MC2A-X Multisensor Command and Control Aircraft Experiment MIDS Multifunctional Information and...reconnaissance (ISR) fleet. The MMA is alternately designated as the Multisensor Command and Control Aircraft (MC2A) as indicated in this text. Figure

  8. Submersible Aircraft Concept Design Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    lead to the tips of the wing stalling before the inboard sections, making the aircraft pitch up and potentially stall. In order to combat this, an...the lift being produced by the wing and so reduce hull draft, albeit at the expense of induced drag from the wing . Naval Surface Warfare Center... delta wing design with some blended wing body characteristics was adopted. This approach gives excellent internal volume characteristics whilst

  9. Critical Studies in Art and Design Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thistlewood, David, Ed.

    This book brings together British and U.S. contributions to the debate of a critical studies approach to art and design education. The approach links practice and appreciation. But critical differences exist in definitions of the term design, with the U.S. recognition of design as the use of principles and elements of art in works and a British…

  10. Guided Design as a Women's Studies Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trobian, Helen R.

    Guided Design has great potential as a teaching/learning method for Women's Studies courses. The Guided Design process is organized around the learner's efforts to come up with solutions to a series of carefully designed, open-ended problems. The problems are selected by the teacher according to the skills and subject matter to be learned. The…

  11. Critical Studies in Art and Design Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thistlewood, David, Ed.

    This book brings together British and U.S. contributions to the debate of a critical studies approach to art and design education. The approach links practice and appreciation. But critical differences exist in definitions of the term design, with the U.S. recognition of design as the use of principles and elements of art in works and a British…

  12. Vehicle systems design optimization study

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, J. L.

    1980-04-01

    The optimization of an electric vehicle layout requires a weight distribution in the range of 53/47 to 62/38 in order to assure dynamic handling characteristics comparable to current production internal combustion engine vehicles. It is possible to achieve this goal and also provide passenger and cargo space comparable to a selected current production sub-compact car either in a unique new design or by utilizing the production vehicle as a base. Necessary modification of the base vehicle can be accomplished without major modification of the structure or running gear. As long as batteries are as heavy and require as much space as they currently do, they must be divided into two packages - one at front under the hood and a second at the rear under the cargo area - in order to achieve the desired weight distribution. The weight distribution criteria requires the placement of batteries at the front of the vehicle even when the central tunnel is used for the location of some batteries. The optimum layout has a front motor and front wheel drive. This configuration provides the optimum vehicle dynamic handling characteristics and the maximum passsenger and cargo space for a given size vehicle.

  13. Recycler ring conceptual design study

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, G.

    1995-07-18

    The Tevatron Collider provides the highest center of mass energy collisions in the world. To fully exploit this unique tool, Fermilab is committed to a program of accelerator upgrades for the purpose of increasing the Collider luminosity. Over the past 7 years the luminosity has been increased from a peak of 1.6{times}10{sup 30}cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1} in 1989 to over 3{times}10{sup 31}cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1} during 1995. The Main Injector will supply a larger flux of protons for antiproton production and more intense proton bunches for use in the Collider, and this is expected to increase the peak luminosity to close to 1{times}10{sup 32}cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1}. Further increases in luminosity will require additional upgrades to the Fermilab accelerator complex. This report documents the design of a new fixed-energy storage ring to be placed in the Main Injector tunnel which will provide an initial factor of 2 increase to 2{times}10{sup 32}cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1}, and ultimately provide the basis for an additional order of magnitude luminosity increase up to 1{times}10{sup 33}cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1}.

  14. Interval Management Display Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Beyer, Timothy M.; Cooke, Stuart D.; Grant, Karlus A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) estimated that U.S. commercial air carriers moved 736.7 million passengers over 822.3 billion revenue-passenger miles. The FAA also forecasts, in that same report, an average annual increase in passenger traffic of 2.2 percent per year for the next 20 years, which approximates to one-and-a-half times the number of today's aircraft operations and passengers by the year 2033. If airspace capacity and throughput remain unchanged, then flight delays will increase, particularly at those airports already operating near or at capacity. Therefore it is critical to create new and improved technologies, communications, and procedures to be used by air traffic controllers and pilots. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the FAA, and the aviation industry are working together to improve the efficiency of the National Airspace System and the cost to operate in it in several ways, one of which is through the creation of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). NextGen is intended to provide airspace users with more precise information about traffic, routing, and weather, as well as improve the control mechanisms within the air traffic system. NASA's Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1) Project is designed to contribute to the goals of NextGen, and accomplishes this by integrating three NASA technologies to enable fuel-efficient arrival operations into high-density airports. The three NASA technologies and procedures combined in the ATD-1 concept are advanced arrival scheduling, controller decision support tools, and aircraft avionics to enable multiple time deconflicted and fuel efficient arrival streams in high-density terminal airspace.

  15. DROPOUT STUDIES, DESIGN AND CONDUCT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHRIEBER, DANIEL; AND OTHERS

    ALTHOUGH THE DROPOUT PROBLEM IS ONE OF GREAT CONCERN AT BOTH LOCAL AND NATIONAL LEVELS, IT IS READILY APPARENT THAT THE PROBLEM IS NOT THE SAME EVERYWHERE IN THE COUNTRY. DROPOUT RATES VARY CONSIDERABLY FROM ONE COMMUNITY TO ANOTHER, AND EVEN DIFFER BETWEEN HIGH SCHOOLS IN THE SAME SCHOOL SYSTEM. LIMITATIONS IN PREVIOUS STUDIES OF THE PROBLEM HAVE…

  16. Lunar NTR vehicle design and operations study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, John

    1993-01-01

    The results of a lunar nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) vehicle design and operations study are presented in text and graphic form. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the potential applications of a specific NTR design to past and current (First Lunar Outpost) mission profiles for piloted and cargo lunar missions, and to assess the applicability of utilizing lunar vehicle design concepts for Mars missions.

  17. Mobile Variable Depth Sampling System Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-08-25

    A design study is presented for a mobile, variable depth sampling system (MVDSS) that will support the treatment and immobilization of Hanford LAW and HLW. The sampler can be deployed in a 4-inch tank riser and has a design that is based on requirements identified in the Level 2 Specification (latest revision). The waste feed sequence for the MVDSS is based on Phase 1, Case 3S6 waste feed sequence. Technical information is also presented that supports the design study.

  18. RHIC Injection Kicker Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J. E.

    1997-01-02

    Injecting beam from the AGS to RHIC is performed by single-bunch transfer. The RHIC injection kicker system provides a vertical deflection of 1.86 mrad for beams with a B p = 100 Tm. The available free space for the four kickers limits their effective length to 1.12 m each. Neglecting any contribution from the electric field, the deflecting magnetic field is required to be 415 G inside the beam tube. This leads, with the horizontal aperture of 4.84 cm, to the current requirement of 1.6kA. The magnetic field then becomes 2.13 kG in the back ferrite. In this report, computation studies directed at reducing the electric peak fields, without significant reduction of the capacitance and concomitant increase of the characteristic impedance, are presented.

  19. On the Science of Education Design Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavelson, Richard J.; Phillips, D. C.; Towne, Lisa; Feuer, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that design studies, like all scientific work, must comport with guiding scientific principles and provide adequate warrants for their knowledge claims. Provides a framework that links design study research questions as they evolve over time with corresponding research methods, thus allowing an integration of research methods focused on…

  20. Design study for asteroidal exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Carl; Blissit, Jim; Jarrett, Dave; Sanner, Rob; Yanagawa, Koji

    1985-08-01

    A systematic approach to asteroidal exploitation for the 1990 to 2010 time frame is presented as an initial step toward expanding the use of space beyond the space station by providing a source of lower cost materials. With only a limited amount of information known about the asteroids, reconnaissance and exploration phases to determine the exact locations and compositions of several earth-approaching asteroids are required. Earth-based telescopes are used to locate and study the asteroids, while unmanned probes will return samples of asteroidal material to earth for analysis. After these phases are completed, the retrieval of a 35,000 metric ton piece of the asteroid Anteros is undertaken. A cargo transporter uses magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) arcjets outbound and a mass-driver using asteroidal material inbound. A crew ship uses ion engines. Low thrust trajectories are used for both spacecraft. A materials processing facility will manufacture propellant pellets and retrieve non-propellant materials for spacecraft use. The cost is 1/10th that to transport the same materials from earth to high earth orbit. The project will cost 25 percent less if done in conjunction with a lunar and Martian base.

  1. ACSYNT inner loop flight control design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bortins, Richard; Sorensen, John A.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center developed the Aircraft Synthesis (ACSYNT) computer program to synthesize conceptual future aircraft designs and to evaluate critical performance metrics early in the design process before significant resources are committed and cost decisions made. ACSYNT uses steady-state performance metrics, such as aircraft range, payload, and fuel consumption, and static performance metrics, such as the control authority required for the takeoff rotation and for landing with an engine out, to evaluate conceptual aircraft designs. It can also optimize designs with respect to selected criteria and constraints. Many modern aircraft have stability provided by the flight control system rather than by the airframe. This may allow the aircraft designer to increase combat agility, or decrease trim drag, for increased range and payload. This strategy requires concurrent design of the airframe and the flight control system, making trade-offs of performance and dynamics during the earliest stages of design. ACSYNT presently lacks means to implement flight control system designs but research is being done to add methods for predicting rotational degrees of freedom and control effector performance. A software module to compute and analyze the dynamics of the aircraft and to compute feedback gains and analyze closed loop dynamics is required. The data gained from these analyses can then be fed back to the aircraft design process so that the effects of the flight control system and the airframe on aircraft performance can be included as design metrics. This report presents results of a feasibility study and the initial design work to add an inner loop flight control system (ILFCS) design capability to the stability and control module in ACSYNT. The overall objective is to provide a capability for concurrent design of the aircraft and its flight control system, and enable concept designers to improve performance by exploiting the interrelationships between

  2. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study interim design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    The status of the design of a tenth-of-a-kind commercial tandem-mirror fusion reactor is described at the midpoint of a two-year study. When completed, the design is to serve as a strategic goal for the mirror fusion program. The main objectives of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) are: (1) to design an attractive tandem-mirror fusion reactor producing electricity and synfuels (in alternate versions), (2) to identify key development and technology needs, and (3) to exploit the potential of fusion for safety, low activation, and simple disposal of radioactive waste. In the first year we have emphasized physics and engineering of the central cell and physics of the end cell. Design optimization and trade studies are continuing, and we expect additional modifications in the end cells to further improve the performance of the final design.

  3. Preliminary design study of lunar housing configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, K. H.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary design study assesses various configurations for habitation of the lunar surface. The study assumes an initial 4-man habitation module expandable to a 48-man concept. Through the numerous coupling combinations of identical modules, five basic configuration types are identified. A design model presents each configuration in light of certain issues. The issues include circulation, internal and external spatial characteristics, functional organizations, and future growth potential. The study discusses the attributes, potentials, and unique requirements of each configuration.

  4. A Case Study in Acoustical Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Bruce R.; Brown, John A.

    1992-01-01

    Addresses concerns of both facilities planners and instructional designers in planning for the audio component of group presentations. Factors in the architectural design of enclosures for the reproduction of sound are described, including frequency, amplitude, and reverberation; and a case study for creating an acceptable enclosure is presented.…

  5. FED/INTOR reactor design studies

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.G.; Cramer, B.A.; Davisson, J.P.; Kunselman, M.H.; Reiersen, W.T.; Sager, P.H.; Strickler, D.J.

    1982-03-01

    Upon completing the design studies identified in this report, an overall assessment of the design options is made that will form the bases to define the configuration of the next major Tokamak device. The TF coil size will be defined, along with the vacuum boundary, the PF coil arrangement, and the torus configuration. After the configuration is established, an overall performance and cost re-assessment should be made to finally trade off device performance with machine capital and operating costs to establish a reactor design point for a given set of design requirements.

  6. Cost studies for commercial fuselage crown designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, T. H.; Smith, P. J.; Truslove, G.; Willden, K. S.; Metschan, S. L.; Pfahl, C. L.

    1991-01-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the cost and weight potential of advanced composite design concepts in the crown region of a commercial transport. Two designs from each of three design families were developed using an integrated design-build team. A range of design concepts and manufacturing processes were included to allow isolation and comparison of cost centers. Detailed manufacturing/assembly plans were developed as the basis for cost estimates. Each of the six designs was found to have advantages over the 1995 aluminum benchmark in cost and weight trade studies. Large quadrant panels and cobonded frames were found to save significant assembly labor costs. Comparisons of high- and intermediate-performance fiber systems were made for skin and stringer applications. Advanced tow placement was found to be an efficient process for skin lay up. Further analysis revealed attractive processes for stringers and frames. Optimized designs were informally developed for each design family, combining the most attractive concepts and processes within that family. A single optimized design was selected as the most promising, and the potential for further optimization was estimated. Technical issues and barriers were identified.

  7. Sequential design approaches for bioequivalence studies with crossover designs.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Diane; DiLiberti, Charles E; Hauck, Walter W; Parr, Alan F; Schuirmann, Donald J; Smith, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    The planning of bioequivalence (BE) studies, as for any clinical trial, requires a priori specification of an effect size for the determination of power and an assumption about the variance. The specified effect size may be overly optimistic, leading to an underpowered study. The assumed variance can be either too small or too large, leading, respectively, to studies that are underpowered or overly large. There has been much work in the clinical trials field on various types of sequential designs that include sample size reestimation after the trial is started, but these have seen only little use in BE studies. The purpose of this work was to validate at least one such method for crossover design BE studies. Specifically, we considered sample size reestimation for a two-stage trial based on the variance estimated from the first stage. We identified two methods based on Pocock's method for group sequential trials that met our requirement for at most negligible increase in type I error rate.

  8. Design optimization studies using COSMIC NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitrof, Stephen M.; Bharatram, G.; Venkayya, Vipperla B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to create, test and document a procedure to integrate mathematical optimization algorithms with COSMIC NASTRAN. This procedure is very important to structural design engineers who wish to capitalize on optimization methods to ensure that their design is optimized for its intended application. The OPTNAST computer program was created to link NASTRAN and design optimization codes into one package. This implementation was tested using two truss structure models and optimizing their designs for minimum weight, subject to multiple loading conditions and displacement and stress constraints. However, the process is generalized so that an engineer could design other types of elements by adding to or modifying some parts of the code.

  9. Design Considerations for Artificial Pancreas Pivotal Studies.

    PubMed

    Russell, Steven J; Beck, Roy W

    2016-07-01

    The development of artificial pancreas systems has evolved to the point that pivotal studies designed to assess efficacy and safety are in progress or soon to be initiated. These pivotal studies are intended to provide the necessary data to gain clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, coverage by payers, and adoption by patients and clinicians. Although there will not be one design that is appropriate for every system, there are certain aspects of protocol design that will be considerations in all pivotal studies designed to assess efficacy and safety. One key aspect of study design is the intervention to be used by the control group. A case can be made that the control group should use the currently available best technology, which is sensor-augmented pump therapy. However, an equally, if not more, compelling case can be made that the control intervention should be usual care. In this Perspective, we elaborate on this issue and provide a pragmatic approach to the design of clinical trials of artificial pancreas systems.

  10. Generic turbine design study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of Task 12, Generic Turbine Design Study was to develop a conceptual design of a combustion turbine system that would perform in a pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) application. A single inlet/outlet casing design that modifies the W251B12 combustion turbine to provide compressed air to the PFBC and accept clean hot air from the PFBC was developed. Performance calculations show that the net power output expected, at an inlet temperature of 59{degrees}F, is 20,250 kW.

  11. Engineering study for ISSTRS design concept

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzel, J.S.

    1997-01-31

    Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., is pleased to transmit the attached Conceptual Design Package for the Initial Single Shell Tank Retrieval System (ISSTRS), 90% Conceptual Design Review. The package includes the following: (1) ISSTRS Trade Studies: (a) Retrieval Facility Cooling Requirements; (b) Equipment Re-usability between Project W-320 and Tanks 241-C-103 and 241-C-1 05; (c) Sluice Line Options; and (d) Options for the Location of Tanks AX-103 and A-1 02 HVAC Equipment; (2) Drawings; (3) Risk Management Plan; (4) 0850 Interface Control Document; (5) Requirements Traceability Report; and (6) Project Design Specification.

  12. Controlled air incinerator conceptual design study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a conceptual design study for a controlled air incinerator facility for incineration of low level combustible waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The facility design is based on the use of a Helix Process Systems controlled air incinerator. Cost estimates and associated engineering, procurement, and construction schedules are also provided. The cost estimates and schedules are presented for two incinerator facility designs, one with provisions for waste ash solidification, the other with provisions for packaging the waste ash for transport to an undefined location.

  13. Design Study of Small Efficient Cryocoolers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    I~ V 1k I HL I 1 o’i AL A19 9 0 8 (92 DESIGN STUDY OF SMALL EFFICIENT CRYOCOOLERS PHILIPS LABORATORIES A Division of North American Philips...REPORT A PERIOD COVERED Final Technical Report DESIGN SJDY OF SMALL EFFICIENT CRYOCOOLERS April 14 - Sept. 11, 1980 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7... Stirling cycle refrigerator linear motor cryogenic refrigerator for 100K triple-expansion Stirling -cycle refrigerator free-displacer, free-piston

  14. Cancer genome-sequencing study design.

    PubMed

    Mwenifumbo, Jill C; Marra, Marco A

    2013-05-01

    Discoveries from cancer genome sequencing have the potential to translate into advances in cancer prevention, diagnostics, prognostics, treatment and basic biology. Given the diversity of downstream applications, cancer genome-sequencing studies need to be designed to best fulfil specific aims. Knowledge of second-generation cancer genome-sequencing study design also facilitates assessment of the validity and importance of the rapidly growing number of published studies. In this Review, we focus on the practical application of second-generation sequencing technology (also known as next-generation sequencing) to cancer genomics and discuss how aspects of study design and methodological considerations - such as the size and composition of the discovery cohort - can be tailored to serve specific research aims.

  15. Case study: design? Method? Or comprehensive strategy?

    PubMed

    Jones, Colin; Lyons, Christina

    2004-01-01

    As the case study approach gains popularity in nursing research, questions arise with regard to what it exactly is, and where it appears to fit paradigmatically. Is it a method, a design, are such distinctions important? Colin Jones and Christina Lyons review some of the key issues, with specific emphasis on the use of case study within an interpretevist philosophy.

  16. Office Design: A Study of Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Peter, Ed.

    Reporting upon a study of environment which was based on the design of office buildings and office space, the study forms part of a continuing program of environmental research sponsored by Pilkington Brothers Limited of St. Helens, England. In this report the word 'environment' is used in the sense of the sum of the physical and emotional…

  17. Study and design of cryogenic propellant acquisition systems. Volume 1: Design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burge, G. W.; Blackmon, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    An in-depth study and selection of practical propellant surface tension acquisition system designs for two specific future cryogenic space vehicles, an advanced cryogenic space shuttle auxiliary propulsion system and an advanced space propulsion module is reported. A supporting laboratory scale experimental program was also conducted to provide design information critical to concept finalization and selection. Designs using localized pressure isolated surface tension screen devices were selected for each application and preliminary designs were generated. Based on these designs, large scale acquisition prototype hardware was designed and fabricated to be compatible with available NASA-MSFC feed system hardware.

  18. Learning Designs: Study, Learn, Design; Repeat as Necessary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Bruce R.; Calhoun, Emily F.

    2011-01-01

    Designers reside mostly in school districts and schools and can have primary assignments of all sorts. In many districts, central office personnel are most visible on design committees, but teachers, principals, and superintendents are included. Members of professional learning communities can design their own processes, and individual teachers…

  19. Instructional Design by Novice Designers: Two Empirical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Danielle; Barnard, Yvonne; Pilot, Albert

    2008-01-01

    In many cases advanced instructional products, such as computer-based training, e-learning programs, simulations, and simulators are not designed by experienced instructional designers, but by novices: subject matter experts, teachers, instructors, or inexperienced designers. The literature indicates that these novices do not always have the…

  20. The Rotterdam Study: objectives and design update

    PubMed Central

    Breteler, Monique M. B.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Pols, Huibert A.; Stricker, Bruno H. Ch.; Tiemeier, Henning; Uitterlinden, André G.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.

    2007-01-01

    The Rotterdam Study is a prospective cohort study ongoing since 1990 in the city of Rotterdam in the Netherlands. The study targets cardiovascular, neurological, ophthalmological and endocrine diseases. As of 2008 about 15,000 subjects aged 45 years or over comprise the Rotterdam Study cohort. The findings of the Rotterdam Study have been presented in some 600 research articles and reports (see http://www.epib.nl/rotterdamstudy). This article gives the reasons for the study and its design. It also presents a summary of the major findings and an update of the objectives and methods. PMID:17955331

  1. Preliminary design study of a baseline MIUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfer, B. M.; Shields, V. E.; Rippey, J. O.; Roberts, H. L.; Wadle, R. C.; Wallin, S. P.; Gill, W. L.; White, E. H.; Monzingo, R.

    1977-01-01

    Results of a conceptual design study to establish a baseline design for a modular integrated utility system (MIUS) are presented. The system concept developed a basis for evaluating possible projects to demonstrate an MIUS. For the baseline study, climate conditions for the Washington, D.C., area were used. The baseline design is for a high density apartment complex of 496 dwelling units with a planned full occupancy of approximately 1200 residents. Environmental considerations and regulations for the MIUS installation are discussed. Detailed cost data for the baseline MIUS are given together with those for design and operating variations under climate conditions typified by Las Vegas, Nevada, Houston, Texas, and Minneapolis, Minnesota. In addition, results of an investigation of size variation effects, for 300 and 1000 unit apartment complexes, are presented. Only conceptual aspects of the design are discussed. Results regarding energy savings and costs are intended only as trend information and for use in relative comparisons. Alternate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning concepts are considered in the appendix.

  2. Overall Rationale and Design of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegsted, D. Mark

    This paper outlines research designed to establish dietary correlates of malnutrition, and questions the common assumption that high protein foods should be used as dietary supplements in humans. Because thorough investigation of dietary needs in children is ethically unfeasible, squirrel monkeys were used in the research to study the biological…

  3. Quiet engine program flight engine design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klapproth, J. F.; Neitzel, R. E.; Seeley, C. T.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of a preliminary flight engine design study based on the Quiet Engine Program high-bypass, low-noise turbofan engines. Engine configurations, weight, noise characteristics, and performance over a range of flight conditions typical of a subsonic transport aircraft were considered. High and low tip speed engines in various acoustically treated nacelle configurations were included.

  4. Design Difficulties in Stand Density Studies

    Treesearch

    Frank A. Bennett

    1969-01-01

    Designing unbiased stand density studies is difficult. An acceptable sample requires stratification of the plots of age, site, and density. When basal area, percent stocking, or Reineke's stand density index is used as the density measure, this stratification forces a high negative correlation between site and number of trees per acre. Mortality in trees per acre...

  5. Study designs for PDSA quality improvement research.

    PubMed

    Speroff, Theodore; O'Connor, Gerald T

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss strengths and weaknesses of quasi-experimental designs used in health care quality improvement research. The target groups for this article are investigators in plan-do-study-act (PDSA) quality improvement initiatives who wish to improve the rigor of their methodology and publish their work and reviewers who evaluate the quality of research proposals or published work. A primary purpose of PDSA quality improvement research is to establish a functional relationship between process changes in systems of health care and variation in outcomes. The time series design is the fundamental paradigm for demonstrating such functional relationships. The rigor of a PDSA quality improvement study design is strengthened using replication schemes and research methodology to address extraneous factors that weaken validity of observational studies. The design of PDSA quality improvement research should follow from the purpose and context of the project. Improving the rigor of the quality improvement literature will build a stronger foundation and more convincing justification for the study and practice of quality improvement in health care.

  6. Designing a Futuristic Business Studies Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, Chiew Wye; Siraj, Saedah

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a discourse on the theoretical aspects underpinning the design of the Business Studies curriculum domain. It draws on recent shifts in the business and educational environment of Malaysia, and maps out the methodology and method for expanding and revamping the core ground of the discipline. Using the pragmatic worldview stance, this…

  7. Deepening Kindergarteners' Science Vocabulary: A Design Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Allison Ward; Bryant, Camille Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Early, effective instruction to introduce both science vocabulary and general academic language may help children build a strong conceptual and linguistic foundation for later instruction. In this study, a design research intervention was employed to expose children to a variety of interrelated science content words to increase both the breadth…

  8. Deepening Kindergarteners' Science Vocabulary: A Design Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Allison Ward; Bryant, Camille Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Early, effective instruction to introduce both science vocabulary and general academic language may help children build a strong conceptual and linguistic foundation for later instruction. In this study, a design research intervention was employed to expose children to a variety of interrelated science content words to increase both the breadth…

  9. LST phase A design update study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An update is presented of the Phase A study of the Large Space Telescope (LST), based on changes in guidelines and new data developed subsequent to the Phase A study. The study defines an LST concept based on the broad mission guidelines provided by the Office of Space Science (OSS), the scientific requirements developed by OSS with the scientific community, and an understanding of long range NASA planning current at the time the study was performed. A low cost design approach was followed. This resulted in the use of standard spacecraft hardware, the provision for maintenance at the black box level, growth potential in systems designs, and sharing of shuttle maintenance flights with other payloads (See N73-18449 through N73-18453)

  10. Distributed Operating System Design Study. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    RADC-TR-81-384, Vol II (of two) has been reviewed and is approved for publication. APPROVED: THOMAS F. LAWRENCE Project Engineer APPROVED: JO J...distribution unlimited 17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the ebstract entered in Block 20. If diierent from Report) Same 18. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES RADC Project ...of the study were reported in BBN Report No. 4455, titled "Distributed Operating System Design Study: Phase 1." The goal of this project is to advance

  11. An empirical study of software design practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, David N.; Church, Victor E.; Agresti, William W.

    1986-01-01

    Software engineers have developed a large body of software design theory and folklore, much of which was never validated. The results of an empirical study of software design practices in one specific environment are presented. The practices examined affect module size, module strength, data coupling, descendant span, unreferenced variables, and software reuse. Measures characteristic of these practices were extracted from 887 FORTRAN modules developed for five flight dynamics software projects monitored by the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL). The relationship of these measures to cost and fault rate was analyzed using a contingency table procedure. The results show that some recommended design practices, despite their intuitive appeal, are ineffective in this environment, whereas others are very effective.

  12. Cryogenic Propellant Management Device: Conceptual Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollen, Mark; Merino, Fred; Schuster, John; Newton, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Concepts of Propellant Management Devices (PMDs) were designed for lunar descent stage reaction control system (RCS) and lunar ascent stage (main and RCS propulsion) missions using liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid methane (LCH4). Study ground rules set a maximum of 19 days from launch to lunar touchdown, and an additional 210 days on the lunar surface before liftoff. Two PMDs were conceptually designed for each of the descent stage RCS propellant tanks, and two designs for each of the ascent stage main propellant tanks. One of the two PMD types is a traditional partial four-screen channel device. The other type is a novel, expanding volume device which uses a stretched, flexing screen. It was found that several unique design features simplified the PMD designs. These features are (1) high propellant tank operating pressures, (2) aluminum tanks for propellant storage, and (3) stringent insulation requirements. Consequently, it was possible to treat LO2 and LCH4 as if they were equivalent to Earth-storable propellants because they would remain substantially subcooled during the lunar mission. In fact, prelaunch procedures are simplified with cryogens, because any trapped vapor will condense once the propellant tanks are pressurized in space.

  13. Thermodynamic Studies for Drug Design and Screening

    PubMed Central

    Garbett, Nichola C.; Chaires, Jonathan B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A key part of drug design and development is the optimization of molecular interactions between an engineered drug candidate and its binding target. Thermodynamic characterization provides information about the balance of energetic forces driving binding interactions and is essential for understanding and optimizing molecular interactions. Areas covered This review discusses the information that can be obtained from thermodynamic measurements and how this can be applied to the drug development process. Current approaches for the measurement and optimization of thermodynamic parameters are presented, specifically higher throughput and calorimetric methods. Relevant literature for this review was identified in part by bibliographic searches for the period 2004 – 2011 using the Science Citation Index and PUBMED and the keywords listed below. Expert opinion The most effective drug design and development platform comes from an integrated process utilizing all available information from structural, thermodynamic and biological studies. Continuing evolution in our understanding of the energetic basis of molecular interactions and advances in thermodynamic methods for widespread application are essential to realize the goal of thermodynamically-driven drug design. Comprehensive thermodynamic evaluation is vital early in the drug development process to speed drug development towards an optimal energetic interaction profile while retaining good pharmacological properties. Practical thermodynamic approaches, such as enthalpic optimization, thermodynamic optimization plots and the enthalpic efficiency index, have now matured to provide proven utility in design process. Improved throughput in calorimetric methods remains essential for even greater integration of thermodynamics into drug design. PMID:22458502

  14. Advanced turbine systems: Studies and conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    van der Linden, S.; Gnaedig, G.; Kreitmeier, F.

    1993-11-01

    The ABB selection for the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) includes advanced developments especially in the hot gas path of the combustion turbine and new state-of-the-art units such as the steam turbine and the HRSG. The increase in efficiency by more than 10% multiplicative compared to current designs will be based on: (1) Turbine Inlet Temperature Increase; (2) New Cooling Techniques for Stationary and Rotating Parts; and New Materials. Present, projected component improvements that will be introduced with the above mentioned issues will yield improved CCSC turbine performance, which will drive the ATS selected gas-fired reference CC power plant to 6 % LHV or better. The decrease in emission levels requires a careful optimization of the cycle design, where cooling air consumption has to be minimized. All interfaces of the individual systems in the complete CC Plant need careful checks, especially to avoid unnecessary margins in the individual designs. This study is an important step pointing out the feasibility of the ATS program with realistic goals set by DOE, which, however, will present challenges for Phase II time schedule of 18 months. With the approach outlined in this study and close cooperation with DOE, ATS program success can be achieved to deliver low emissions and low cost of electricity by the year 2002. The ABB conceptual design and step approach will lead to early component demonstration which will help accelerate the overall program objectives.

  15. DU-AGG pilot plant design study

    SciTech Connect

    Lessing, P.A.; Gillman, H.

    1996-07-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is developing new methods to produce high-density aggregate (artificial rock) primarily consisting of depleted uranium oxide. The objective is to develop a low-cost method whereby uranium oxide powder (UO[sub 2], U[sub 3]O[sub ]8, or UO[sub 3]) can be processed to produce high-density aggregate pieces (DU-AGG) having physical properties suitable for disposal in low-level radioactive disposal facilities or for use as a component of high-density concrete used as shielding for radioactive materials. A commercial company, G-M Systems, conducted a design study for a manufacturing pilot plant to process DU-AGG. The results of that study are included and summarized in this report. Also explained are design considerations, equipment capacities, the equipment list, system operation, layout of equipment in the plant, cost estimates, and the proposed plan and schedule.

  16. Physical design study of the CEPC booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuang

    2016-09-01

    A physical design study of the Circular Electron-Positron Collider (CEPC) booster is reported. The booster provides 120 GeV electron and positron beams for the CEPC collider with top-up injection. The booster is mounted above the collider in the same tunnel. To save cost, the energy of the linac injector for the booster is chosen as 6 GeV, corresponding to a magnetic field of 30.7 Gs. In this paper, the booster lattice is described and optimization of the cell length is discussed. A novel scheme of bypass near the detector of the collider is designed. The extremely low magnetic field caused by low injection energy is studied, and a new ideal of wiggling bands is proposed to mitigate the low-field problem. Beam transfer and injection from the linac to the booster are considered.

  17. Conceptual design studies for surface infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bufkin, Ann L.; Jones, William R., II

    1986-01-01

    The utimate design of a manned Mars base will be the result of considerable engineering analysis and many trade studies to optimize the configuration. Many options and scenarios are available and all need to be considered at this time. Initial base elements, two base configuration concepts, internal space architectural concerns, and two base set-up scenarios are discussed. There are many variables as well as many unknowns to be reckoned with before people set foot on the red planet.

  18. Compass Preview Design Study. Volume 2. Specifications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    n RADC-TR-74-257, Volume II (of two) Final Technical Report April 1975 00 COMPASS PREVIEW DESIGN STUDY Specifications Northrop Corporation PQ...needs of the USAF. Primary RADC mission areas are communications, electro- magnetic guidance and control, surveillance of ground and aerospace...REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 1. REPORT NUMBER RADC-TR-74-257, Volume II (of two) 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO 4. TITLE fand Subdlle) COMPASS

  19. Electrostatic camera system functional design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botticelli, R. A.; Cook, F. J.; Moore, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    A functional design study for an electrostatic camera system for application to planetary missions is presented. The electrostatic camera can produce and store a large number of pictures and provide for transmission of the stored information at arbitrary times after exposure. Preliminary configuration drawings and circuit diagrams for the system are illustrated. The camera system's size, weight, power consumption, and performance are characterized. Tradeoffs between system weight, power, and storage capacity are identified.

  20. Preliminary shuttle structural dynamics modeling design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design and development of a structural dynamics model of the space shuttle are discussed. The model provides for early study of structural dynamics problems, permits evaluation of the accuracy of the structural and hydroelastic analysis methods used on test vehicles, and provides for efficiently evaluating potential cost savings in structural dynamic testing techniques. The discussion is developed around the modes in which major input forces and responses occur and the significant structural details in these modes.

  1. Study designs in thoracic surgery research

    PubMed Central

    Terzi, Alberto; Bertolaccini, Luca

    2016-01-01

    In this short review, we’ll try to specify the differences between evaluation procedures of groups of data, as they present to researchers. The way and time data are gathered defines the type of study is going to shape. When we observe a cluster of data without deliberately interfering with the process we mean to evaluate, we perform an observational study. Observational studies are the main topic of this issue. Upon the contrary, experimental studies imply the direct action of the observer on the study population in order to define the role of a given exposure. The topic of experimental study design will be covered in another issue of this series. PMID:27747029

  2. A Numerical Climate Observing Network Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stammer, Detlef

    2003-01-01

    This project was concerned with three related questions of an optimal design of a climate observing system: 1. The spatial sampling characteristics required from an ARGO system. 2. The degree to which surface observations from ARGO can be used to calibrate and test satellite remote sensing observations of sea surface salinity (SSS) as it is anticipated now. 3. The more general design of an climate observing system as it is required in the near future for CLIVAR in the Atlantic. An important question in implementing an observing system is that of the sampling density required to observe climate-related variations in the ocean. For that purpose this project was concerned with the sampling requirements for the ARGO float system, but investigated also other elements of a climate observing system. As part of this project we studied the horizontal and vertical sampling characteristics of a global ARGO system which is required to make it fully complementary to altimeter data with the goal to capture climate related variations on large spatial scales (less thanAttachment: 1000 km). We addressed this question in the framework of a numerical model study in the North Atlantic with an 1/6 horizontal resolution. The advantage of a numerical design study is the knowledge of the full model state. Sampled by a synthetic float array, model results will therefore allow to test and improve existing deployment strategies with the goal to make the system as optimal and cost-efficient as possible. Attachment: "Optimal observations for variational data assimilation".

  3. Microgravity isolation system design: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. D.; Knospe, C. R.; Allaire, P. E.; Grodsinsky, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    Many acceleration-sensitive, microgravity science experiments will require active vibration isolation from manned orbiters on which they will be mounted. The isolation problem, especially in the case of a tethered payload, is a complex three-dimensional one that is best suited to modern-control design methods. In this paper, extended H(sub 2) synthesis is used to design an active isolator (i.e., controller) for a realistic single-input-multiple-output (SIMO) microgravity vibration isolation problem. Complex mu-analysis methods are used to analyze the isolation system with respect to sensor, actuator, and umbilical uncertainties. The paper fully discusses the design process employed and the insights gained. This design case study provides a practical approach for isolation problems of greater complexity. Issues addressed include a physically intuitive state-space description of the system, disturbance and noise filters, filters for frequency weighting, and uncertainty models. The controlled system satisfies all the performance specifications and is robust with respect to model uncertainties.

  4. MRF study. Part 2: Antenna design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An assessment of the practical feasibility of the design and construction of an antenna to meet the requirements of a conceptual radar system is studied. Both the subscale antenna, nominally 5 by 4 meters in dimensions, and the full scale antenna, taken as nominally 18 by 4 meters in size, were considered. The examination of feasibility was from electrical, mechanical, and thermal standpoints. Fundamental, electrical, microwave design questions applying to both the subscale and the full scale antennas were considered in greater detail than questions of mechanical configuration and thermal design. Layouts were made in the development of preliminary configurations, along with a deployment method, for the subscale antenna in conjunction with an antenna cluster for alternate arrangements of the three pallet configuration. Implementation of the array and support structure and attachment of the array to the support and thermal provision was considered. Results show that a microwave design of antennas that incorporate traveling wave arrays can be effected with the beam scanned to 45 degrees in elevation without occurrence of higher order beams.

  5. AFE ion mass spectrometer design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Willie

    1989-01-01

    This final technical report covers the activities engaged in by the University of Texas at Dallas, Center for Space Sciences in conjunction with the NASA Langley Research Center, Systems Engineering Division in design studies directed towards defining a suitable ion mass spectrometer to determine the plasma parameter around the Aeroassisted Flight Experiment vehicle during passage through the earth's upper atmosphere. Additional studies relate to the use of a Langmuir probe to measure windward ion/electron concentrations and temperatures. Selected instrument inlet subsystems were tested in the NASA Ames Arc-Jet Facility.

  6. AFE ion mass spectrometer design study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Willie

    1989-03-01

    This final technical report covers the activities engaged in by the University of Texas at Dallas, Center for Space Sciences in conjunction with the NASA Langley Research Center, Systems Engineering Division in design studies directed towards defining a suitable ion mass spectrometer to determine the plasma parameter around the Aeroassisted Flight Experiment vehicle during passage through the earth's upper atmosphere. Additional studies relate to the use of a Langmuir probe to measure windward ion/electron concentrations and temperatures. Selected instrument inlet subsystems were tested in the NASA Ames Arc-Jet Facility.

  7. Design study of a flexible diaphragm

    SciTech Connect

    Whatley, M E; Morgan, J G

    1982-10-01

    A design study was made to meet the requirements for a diaphragm for a rotary seal at the discharge end of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program`s prototypic voloxidizer. Using a computer program called NEPSAP, the study examined thickness, outer radius, corrugation wavelength and corrugation amplitude as variables, and established the general effect of each on stiffness and stresses. The result comprises a basis for the selection of diaphragms for similar applications. Limited experimental measurements of stress validate the stress values calculated by NEPSAP.

  8. The chlamydia screening studies: rationale and design

    PubMed Central

    Low, N; McCarthy, A; Macleod, J; Salisbury, C; Horner, P; Roberts, T; Campbell, R; Herring, A; Skidmore, S; Sanford, E; Sterne, J; Davey, S; Graham, A; Huengsberg, M; Ross, J; Egger, M; t for

    2004-01-01

    Background: Screening has been recommended to reduce the prevalence and morbidity associated with genital chlamydia infection in the United Kingdom. Methods: We describe the rationale and study design of the Chlamydia Screening Studies (ClaSS), a collaborative project designed to evaluate screening outside genitourinary medicine clinics. A non-selective, active screening approach in 16–39 year olds randomly sampled from 27 general practice lists in the Bristol and Birmingham areas formed the basis of interlinked studies: a case-control study was used to investigate factors to improve the targeting of screening; participants with chlamydia were invited to enrol in a randomised controlled trial to evaluate partner notification conducted in primary care; and laboratory based studies were used to assess the best specimens and tests. We also explored psychosocial effects of screening and partner notification and modelled the cost effectiveness of the programme. Conclusion: Results from four pilot practices show that mailing of specimens for chlamydia testing is feasible but that it is difficult to achieve high response rates with postal screening. The high prevalence of asymptomatic infection in men suggests that efforts to screen men for chlamydia should be strengthened. PMID:15459400

  9. Design studies of SSC coupled cavity linac

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.R.; Bhandari, R.; Funk, W.; Raparia, D.; Watson, J.

    1991-05-01

    The SSC coupled cavity linac (CCL) will be a side coupled structure operating at 1284 MHz to accelerate a nominal 25 mA H{sup {minus}} beam from 70 MeV to 600 MeV. We present results of both cavity design and beam dynamic studies. Each accelerating cavity is optimized by SUPERFISH; coupled cavity characteristics in the region of low-, mid- and high-energies are checked by MAFIA-3D. MAFIA-3D was also used to design the bridge coupler systems. The beam dynamics and error analysis are simulated by CCLDYN and CCLTRACE. Possible future upgrade of the CCL to 1 GeV is also discussed. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  10. VXIbus data collection system -- A design study

    SciTech Connect

    Hacker, U.; Richter, B.; Weinert, A.; Arlt, R.; Lewis, W.; Swinhoe, M.

    1995-12-31

    The German support program has sponsored the work to investigate the VXIbus as integration platform for safeguards instrumentation. This paper will cover the analysis of the user requirements for a VXIbus based monitoring system for integrated safeguards -- primarily for reliable unattended in-field collection of large amounts of data. The goal is to develop a suitable system architecture. The design of the system makes use of the VXIbus standard as the selected hardware platform Based upon the requirement analysis and the overriding need for high reliability and robustness, a systematic investigation of different operating system options, as well as development and integration tools will be considered. For the software implementation cycle high and low level programming tools are required. The identification of the constraints for the programming platform and the tool selection will be presented. Both the strategic approach, the rules for analysis and design work as well as the executive components for the support of the implementation and production cycle are given. Here all the conditions for reliable, unattended and integrated safeguards monitoring systems will be addressed. The definition of the basic and advanced design principles are covered. The paper discusses the results of a study on a system produced to demonstrate a high data rate timer/counter application.

  11. Advanced Subsonic Airplane Design and Economic Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebeck, Robert H.; Andrastek, Donald A.; Chau, Johnny; Girvin, Raquel; Lyon, Roger; Rawdon, Blaine K.; Scott, Paul W.; Wright, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    A study was made to examine the effect of advanced technology engines on the performance of subsonic airplanes and provide a vision of the potential which these advanced engines offered. The year 2005 was selected as the entry-into-service (EIS) date for engine/airframe combination. A set of four airplane classes (passenger and design range combinations) that were envisioned to span the needs for the 2005 EIS period were defined. The airframes for all classes were designed and sized using 2005 EIS advanced technology. Two airplanes were designed and sized for each class: one using current technology (1995) engines to provide a baseline, and one using advanced technology (2005) engines. The resulting engine/airframe combinations were compared and evaluated on the basis on sensitivity to basic engine performance parameters (e.g. SFC and engine weight) as well as DOC+I. The advanced technology engines provided significant reductions in fuel burn, weight, and wing area. Average values were as follows: reduction in fuel burn = 18%, reduction in wing area = 7%, and reduction in TOGW = 9%. Average DOC+I reduction was 3.5% using the pricing model based on payload-range index and 5% using the pricing model based on airframe weight. Noise and emissions were not considered.

  12. Design Study: Rocket Based MHD Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This report addresses the technical feasibility and design of a rocket based MHD generator using a sub-scale LOx/RP rocket motor. The design study was constrained by assuming the generator must function within the performance and structural limits of an existing magnet and by assuming realistic limits on (1) the axial electric field, (2) the Hall parameter, (3) current density, and (4) heat flux (given the criteria of heat sink operation). The major results of the work are summarized as follows: (1) A Faraday type of generator with rectangular cross section is designed to operate with a combustor pressure of 300 psi. Based on a magnetic field strength of 1.5 Tesla, the electrical power output from this generator is estimated to be 54.2 KW with potassium seed (weight fraction 3.74%) and 92 KW with cesium seed (weight fraction 9.66%). The former corresponds to a enthalpy extraction ratio of 2.36% while that for the latter is 4.16%; (2) A conceptual design of the Faraday MHD channel is proposed, based on a maximum operating time of 10 to 15 seconds. This concept utilizes a phenolic back wall for inserting the electrodes and inter-electrode insulators. Copper electrode and aluminum oxide insulator are suggested for this channel; and (3) A testing configuration for the sub-scale rocket based MHD system is proposed. An estimate of performance of an ideal rocket based MHD accelerator is performed. With a current density constraint of 5 Amps/cm(exp 2) and a conductivity of 30 Siemens/m, the push power density can be 250, 431, and 750 MW/m(sup 3) when the induced voltage uB have values of 5, 10, and 15 KV/m, respectively.

  13. Study of wrap-rib antenna design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, W. D.; Sinha, A.; Singh, R.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a parametric design study conducted to develop the significant characteristics and technology limitations of space deployable antenna systems with aperture sizes ranging from 50 up to 300 m and F/D ratios between 0.5 and 3.0 are presented. Wrap/rib type reflectors of both the prime and offset fed geometry and associated feed support structures were considered. The significant constraints investigated as limitations on achievable aperture were inherent manufacturability, orbit dynamic and thermal stability, antenna weight, and antenna stowed volume. A data base, resulting in the defined maximum achievable aperture size as a function of diameter, frequency and estimated cost, was formed.

  14. Single Mode Optical Waveguide Design Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-23

    AD-I7g62 CORNING GLASS WORKS NY FIG 20/6 ADA0 21 SINGLE MODE OPTICAL WAVEGUIDE DESIGN STUDY.(U) NOV 81 V A BHAGAVATJLA. D B KECK, R A WESTWIG N00173...Ralph A. Westwig Corning Glass Works ’ 1 / Research and Development-Division Sullivan Park Corning, New York Th document ha bern c -yro vd Spubc rlea...Authors: Venkata A. Bhagavatula Donald B. Keck Ralph A. Westwig Corning Glass Works Research and Development Division Sullivan Park Corning, New York 11

  15. SP-100 radiator design trade study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewell, Richard

    1992-01-01

    A design trade study of the SP-100 heat rejection subsystem (HRSS) was made. A system code was used to evaluate the sensitivity of the HRSS mass and performance to changes. Variations in heat pipe diameter and cross-section, fin length and thickness, armor thickness, and overall configuration and materials were evaluated. The analysis indicates that the minimum system mass occurs for the case with many small diameter heat pipes, with ducting that maximizes the fraction of the heat pipe evaporator perimeter in contact with it.

  16. SP-100 radiator design trade study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewell, Richard

    1992-01-01

    A design trade study of the SP-100 heat rejection subsystem (HRSS) was made. A system code was used to evaluate the sensitivity of the HRSS mass and performance to changes. Variations in heat pipe diameter and cross-section, fin length and thickness, armor thickness, and overall configuration and materials were evaluated. The analysis indicates that the minimum system mass occurs for the case with many small diameter heat pipes, with ducting that maximizes the fraction of the heat pipe evaporator perimeter in contact with it.

  17. Protecting count queries in study design

    PubMed Central

    Sarwate, Anand D; Boxwala, Aziz A

    2012-01-01

    Objective Today's clinical research institutions provide tools for researchers to query their data warehouses for counts of patients. To protect patient privacy, counts are perturbed before reporting; this compromises their utility for increased privacy. The goal of this study is to extend current query answer systems to guarantee a quantifiable level of privacy and allow users to tailor perturbations to maximize the usefulness according to their needs. Methods A perturbation mechanism was designed in which users are given options with respect to scale and direction of the perturbation. The mechanism translates the true count, user preferences, and a privacy level within administrator-specified bounds into a probability distribution from which the perturbed count is drawn. Results Users can significantly impact the scale and direction of the count perturbation and can receive more accurate final cohort estimates. Strong and semantically meaningful differential privacy is guaranteed, providing for a unified privacy accounting system that can support role-based trust levels. This study provides an open source web-enabled tool to investigate visually and numerically the interaction between system parameters, including required privacy level and user preference settings. Conclusions Quantifying privacy allows system administrators to provide users with a privacy budget and to monitor its expenditure, enabling users to control the inevitable loss of utility. While current measures of privacy are conservative, this system can take advantage of future advances in privacy measurement. The system provides new ways of trading off privacy and utility that are not provided in current study design systems. PMID:22511018

  18. National accounts manager: Design study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, J.

    1998-09-01

    This document addresses a typical application -- that of a hypothetical nationwide chain of restaurants. The design study uses the Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP) as a guideline for specifying standard systems. Far from limiting the study`s usefulness to a particular type of National Account, this guideline is highly portable, and will be useful, with slight modifications only, in similarly specifying systems for other types of customers. A brief list of other applications could include many ``campus`` environments -- government agencies and university systems as well as manufacturers, airports, railyards, ski resorts, apartment complexes, hotels, hospitals, telecommunication facilities, oil fields, irrigation systems, municipal water/sewer systems, and so on.

  19. Efficient Study Design for Next Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Joshua; Jacobs, Kevin; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2011-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing represents a powerful tool for detecting genetic variation associated with human disease. Because of the high cost of this technology, it is critical that we develop efficient study designs that consider the trade-off between the number of subjects (n) and the coverage depth (μ). How we divide our resources between the two can greatly impact study success, particularly in pilot studies. We propose a strategy for selecting the optimal combination of n and μ for studies aimed at detecting rare variants and for studies aimed at detecting associations between rare or uncommon variants and disease. For detecting rare variants, we find the optimal coverage depth to be between 2 and 8 reads when using the likelihood ratio test. For association studies, we find the strategy of sequencing all available subjects to be preferable. In deriving these combinations, we provide a detailed analysis describing the distribution of depth across a genome and the depth needed to identify a minor allele in an individual. The optimal coverage depth depends on the aims of the study, and the chosen depth can have a large impact on study success. PMID:21370254

  20. Advanced heat receiver conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesseli, James; Saunders, Roger; Batchelder, Gary

    1988-01-01

    Solar Dynamic space power systems are candidate electrical power generating systems for future NASA missions. One of the key components of the solar dynamic power system is the solar receiver/thermal energy storage (TES) subsystem. Receiver development was conducted by NASA in the late 1960's and since then a very limited amount of work has been done in this area. Consequently the state of the art (SOA) receivers designed for the IOC space station are large and massive. The objective of the Advanced Heat Receiver Conceptual Design Study is to conceive and analyze advanced high temperature solar dynamic Brayton and Stirling receivers. The goal is to generate innovative receiver concepts that are half of the mass, smaller, and more efficient than the SOA. It is also necessary that these innovative receivers offer ease of manufacturing, less structural complexity and fewer thermal stress problems. Advanced Brayton and Stirling receiver storage units are proposed and analyzed in this study which can potentially meet these goals.

  1. Study designs and systematic reviews of interventions: building evidence across study designs.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, J M; Kelton, D F; O'Connor, A M

    2014-06-01

    This article is the second article in a series of six focusing on systematic reviews in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine. This article addresses the strengths and limitations of study designs commonly used in animal agriculture and veterinary research to assess interventions (preventive or therapeutic treatments) and discusses the appropriateness of their use in systematic reviews of interventions. Different study designs provide different evidentiary value for addressing questions about the efficacy of interventions. Experimental study designs range from in vivo proof of concept experiments to randomized controlled trials (RCTs) under real-world conditions. The key characteristic of experimental design in intervention studies is that the investigator controls the allocation of individuals or groups to different intervention strategies. The RCT is considered the gold standard for evaluating the efficacy of interventions and, if there are well-executed RCTs available for inclusion in a systematic review, that review may be restricted to only this design. In some instances, RCTs may not be feasible or ethical to perform, and there are fewer RCTs published in the veterinary literature compared to the human healthcare literature. Therefore, observational study designs, where the investigator does not control intervention allocation, may provide the only available evidence of intervention efficacy. While observational studies tend to be relevant to real-world use of an intervention, they are more prone to bias. Human healthcare researchers use a pyramid of evidence diagram to describe the evidentiary value of different study designs for assessing interventions. Modifications for veterinary medicine are presented in this article. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Feasibility study of an Integrated Program for Aerospace vehicle Design (IPAD). Volume 2: The design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillette, W. B.; Turner, M. J.; Southall, J. W.; Whitener, P. C.; Kowalik, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    The extent to which IPAD is to support the design process is identified. Case studies of representative aerospace products were developed as models to characterize the design process and to provide design requirements for the IPAD computing system.

  3. Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) Study Design

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Elizabeth A.; Hokanson, John E.; Murphy, James R.; Make, Barry; Lynch, David A.; Beaty, Terri H.; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Silverman, Edwin K.; Crapo, James D.

    2010-01-01

    Background COPDGeneis a multicenter observational study designed to identify genetic factors associated with COPD. It will also characterize chest CT phenotypes in COPD subjects, including assessment of emphysema, gas trapping, and airway wall thickening. Finally, subtypes of COPD based on these phenotypes will be used in a comprehensive genome-wide study to identify COPD susceptibility genes. Methods/Results COPDGene will enroll 10,000 smokers with and without COPD across the GOLD stages. Both Non-Hispanic white and African-American subjects are included in the cohort. Inspiratory and expiratory chest CT scans will be obtained on all participants. In addition to the cross-sectional enrollment process, these subjects will be followed regularly for longitudinal studies. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) will be done on an initial group of 4000 subjects to identify genetic variants associated with case-control status and several quantitative phenotypes related to COPD. The initial findings will be verified in an additional 2000 COPD cases and 2000 smoking control subjects, and further validation association studies will be carried out. Conclusions COPDGene will provide important new information about genetic factors in COPD, and will characterize the disease process using high resolution CT scans. Understanding genetic factors and CT phenotypes that define COPD will potentially permit earlier diagnosis of this disease and may lead to the development of treatments to modify progression. PMID:20214461

  4. Tubular copper thrust chamber design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, A. I.; Galler, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    The use of copper tubular thrust chambers is particularly important in high performance expander cycle space engines. Tubular chambers have more surface area than flat wall chambers, and this extra surface area provides enhanced heat transfer for additional energy to power the cycle. This paper was divided into two sections: (1) a thermal analysis and sensitivity study; and (2) a preliminary design of a selected thrust chamber configuration. The thermal analysis consisted of a statistical optimization to determine the optimum tube geometry, tube booking, thrust chamber geometry, and cooling routing to achieve the maximum upper limit chamber pressure for a 25,000 pound thrust engine. The preliminary design effort produced a layout drawing of a tubular thrust chamber that is three inches shorter than the Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) milled channel chamber but is predicted to provide a five percent increase in heat transfer. Testing this chamber in the AETB would confirm the inherent advantages of tubular chamber construction and heat transfer.

  5. Advanced EVA system design requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, T. G.

    1988-01-01

    The results are presented of a study to identify specific criteria regarding space station extravehicular activity system (EVAS) hardware requirements. Key EVA design issues include maintainability, technology readiness, LSS volume vs. EVA time available, suit pressure/cabin pressure relationship and productivity effects, crew autonomy, integration of EVA as a program resource, and standardization of task interfaces. A variety of DOD EVA systems issues were taken into consideration. Recommendations include: (1) crew limitations, not hardware limitations; (2) capability to perform all of 15 generic missions; (3) 90 days on-orbit maintainability with 50 percent duty cycle as minimum; and (4) use by payload sponsors of JSC document 10615A plus a Generic Tool Kit and Specialized Tool Kit description. EVA baseline design requirements and criteria, including requirements of various subsystems, are outlined. Space station/EVA system interface requirements and EVA accommodations are discussed in the areas of atmosphere composition and pressure, communications, data management, logistics, safe haven, SS exterior and interior requirements, and SS airlock.

  6. Inertial Motion Capture Costume Design Study.

    PubMed

    Szczęsna, Agnieszka; Skurowski, Przemysław; Lach, Ewa; Pruszowski, Przemysław; Pęszor, Damian; Paszkuta, Marcin; Słupik, Janusz; Lebek, Kamil; Janiak, Mateusz; Polański, Andrzej; Wojciechowski, Konrad

    2017-03-17

    The paper describes a scalable, wearable multi-sensor system for motion capture based on inertial measurement units (IMUs). Such a unit is composed of accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer. The final quality of an obtained motion arises from all the individual parts of the described system. The proposed system is a sequence of the following stages: sensor data acquisition, sensor orientation estimation, system calibration, pose estimation and data visualisation. The construction of the system's architecture with the dataflow programming paradigm makes it easy to add, remove and replace the data processing steps. The modular architecture of the system allows an effortless introduction of a new sensor orientation estimation algorithms. The original contribution of the paper is the design study of the individual components used in the motion capture system. The two key steps of the system design are explored in this paper: the evaluation of sensors and algorithms for the orientation estimation. The three chosen algorithms have been implemented and investigated as part of the experiment. Due to the fact that the selection of the sensor has a significant impact on the final result, the sensor evaluation process is also explained and tested. The experimental results confirmed that the choice of sensor and orientation estimation algorithm affect the quality of the final results.

  7. Inertial Motion Capture Costume Design Study

    PubMed Central

    Szczęsna, Agnieszka; Skurowski, Przemysław; Lach, Ewa; Pruszowski, Przemysław; Pęszor, Damian; Paszkuta, Marcin; Słupik, Janusz; Lebek, Kamil; Janiak, Mateusz; Polański, Andrzej; Wojciechowski, Konrad

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes a scalable, wearable multi-sensor system for motion capture based on inertial measurement units (IMUs). Such a unit is composed of accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer. The final quality of an obtained motion arises from all the individual parts of the described system. The proposed system is a sequence of the following stages: sensor data acquisition, sensor orientation estimation, system calibration, pose estimation and data visualisation. The construction of the system’s architecture with the dataflow programming paradigm makes it easy to add, remove and replace the data processing steps. The modular architecture of the system allows an effortless introduction of a new sensor orientation estimation algorithms. The original contribution of the paper is the design study of the individual components used in the motion capture system. The two key steps of the system design are explored in this paper: the evaluation of sensors and algorithms for the orientation estimation. The three chosen algorithms have been implemented and investigated as part of the experiment. Due to the fact that the selection of the sensor has a significant impact on the final result, the sensor evaluation process is also explained and tested. The experimental results confirmed that the choice of sensor and orientation estimation algorithm affect the quality of the final results. PMID:28304337

  8. Design Study for A Low-Cost LH2 Turbopump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Japikse, David; Baines, Nicholas; Platt, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary design study, focusing on potential component selections and design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMAR1) analysis, is presented in this study. The investigation focused on a nominal cost liquid hydrogen turbopump suitable for a private launch class vehicle. Utilizing a "turbocharger-like" design philosophy, preliminary feasibility studies of the basic pump design class, the rotordynamic design class, and the turbine design class were conducted with associated DFMA evaluations. Reasonable cost levels and sensible levels of product assurance have been established.

  9. The microwave radiometer spacecraft: A design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. L. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    A large passive microwave radiometer spacecraft with near all weather capability of monitoring soil moisture for global crop forecasting was designed. The design, emphasizing large space structures technology, characterized the mission hardware at the conceptual level in sufficient detail to identify enabling and pacing technologies. Mission and spacecraft requirements, design and structural concepts, electromagnetic concepts, and control concepts are addressed.

  10. Space shuttle visual simulation system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A recommendation and a specification for the visual simulation system design for the space shuttle mission simulator are presented. A recommended visual system is described which most nearly meets the visual design requirements. The cost analysis of the recommended system covering design, development, manufacturing, and installation is reported. Four alternate systems are analyzed.

  11. Design study of prestressed rotor spar concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleich, D.

    1980-01-01

    Studies on the Bell Helicopter 540 Rotor System of the AH-1G helicopter were performed. The stiffness, mass and geometric configurations of the Bell blade were matched to give a dynamically similar prestressed composite blade. A multi-tube, prestressed composite spar blade configuration was designed for superior ballistic survivability at low life cycle cost. The composite spar prestresses, imparted during fabrication, are chosen to maintain compression in the high strength cryogenically stretchformed 304-L stainless steel liner and tension in the overwrapped HTS graphite fibers under operating loads. This prestressing results in greatly improved crack propagation and fatigue resistance as well as enhanced fiber stiffness properties. Advantages projected for the prestressed composite rotor spar concept include increased operational life and improved ballistic survivability at low life cycle cost.

  12. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Quapp, W.J.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-07-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. The SDS results are published in eight volumes. Volume 1 contains an executive summary. The SDS summary and analysis of results are presented in Volume 2. Volumes 3 through 7 contain detailed descriptions of twelve system and four subsystem concepts. Volume 8 contains the appendixes. 23 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. Preliminary systems design study assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-10-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. The SDS results are published in eight volumes. Volume I contains an executive summary. The SDS summary and analysis of results are presented in Volume II. Volumes III through VII contain descriptions of twelve system and four subsystem concepts. Volume VIII contains the appendixes.

  14. Observational and interventional study design types; an overview

    PubMed Central

    Thiese, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    The appropriate choice in study design is essential for the successful execution of biomedical and public health research. There are many study designs to choose from within two broad categories of observational and interventional studies. Each design has its own strengths and weaknesses, and the need to understand these limitations is necessary to arrive at correct study conclusions. Observational study designs, also called epidemiologic study designs, are often retrospective and are used to assess potential causation in exposure-outcome relationships and therefore influence preventive methods. Observational study designs include ecological designs, cross sectional, case-control, case-crossover, retrospective and prospective cohorts. An important subset of observational studies is diagnostic study designs, which evaluate the accuracy of diagnostic procedures and tests as compared to other diagnostic measures. These include diagnostic accuracy designs, diagnostic cohort designs, and diagnostic randomized controlled trials. Interventional studies are often prospective and are specifically tailored to evaluate direct impacts of treatment or preventive measures on disease. Each study design has specific outcome measures that rely on the type and quality of data utilized. Additionally, each study design has potential limitations that are more severe and need to be addressed in the design phase of the study. This manuscript is meant to provide an overview of study design types, strengths and weaknesses of common observational and interventional study designs. PMID:24969913

  15. Chicago Healthy Aging Study: Objectives and Design

    PubMed Central

    Pirzada, Amber; Reid, Kathryn; Kim, Daniel; Garside, Daniel B.; Lu, Brandon; Vu, Thanh-Huyen T.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.; Zee, Phyllis; Liu, Kiang; Stamler, Jeremiah; Daviglus, Martha L.

    2013-01-01

    Investigators in the Chicago Healthy Aging Study (CHAS) reexamined 1,395 surviving participants aged 65–84 years (28% women) from the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry (CHA) 1967–1973 cohort whose cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profiles were originally ascertained at ages 25–44 years. CHAS investigators reexamined 421 participants who were low-risk (LR) at baseline and 974 participants who were non-LR at baseline. LR was defined as having favorable levels of 4 major CVD risk factors: serum total cholesterol level <200 mg/dL and no use of cholesterol-lowering medication; blood pressure 120/≤80 mm Hg and no use of antihypertensive medication; no current smoking; and no history of diabetes or heart attack. While the potential of LR status in overcoming the CVD epidemic is being recognized, the long-term association of LR with objectively measured health in older age has not been examined. It is hypothesized that persons who were LR in 1967–1973 and have survived to older age will have less clinical and subclinical CVD, lower levels of inflammatory markers, and better physical performance/functioning and sleep quality. Here we describe the rationale, objectives, design, and implementation of this longitudinal epidemiologic study, compare baseline and follow-up characteristics of participants and nonparticipants, and highlight the feasibility of reexamining study participants after an extended period postbaseline with minimal interim contact. PMID:23669655

  16. Case studies in alternative landfill design

    SciTech Connect

    Barbagallo, J.C.; Druback, G.W.

    1995-12-31

    In the past, landfills or {open_quotes}dumps{close_quotes} were not highly regulated and typically did not require a detailed engineering design. However, landfills are no longer just holes in the ground, and landfill closures entail more than just spreading some dirt on top of piles of garbage. Today landfill design is a highly regulated, complex design effort that integrates soils and geosynthetics into systems aimed at providing long-term protection for the environment and surrounding communities. Integrating these complex design systems into the available landscape and exising landfill configuration often requires the designer go beyond the {open_quotes}typical{close_quotes} landfill and landfill closure design to satisfy regulations and provide cost-effective solutions.

  17. Improving study design for antidepressant effectiveness assessment.

    PubMed

    Naudet, Florian; Millet, Bruno; Reymann, Jean Michel; Falissard, Bruno

    2013-09-01

    Antidepressants effectiveness in major depressive disorder (MDD) is still questioned because the extrapolation of randomized controlled trial (RCT) results to "real life" settings is problematic. The application of the RCT paradigm in a disorder of this type, where global care plays a central role, raises questions regarding the internal and external validity of this type of study. Outcome measurement, attrition rates, the ability of the double-blind design to control for expectations, placebo response, the representativeness of trial participants and publication bias are major methodological pitfalls. This review discusses these issues. It is illustrated using original data and proposes some alternatives for assessing antidepressant effectiveness via different approaches. Some are easy to implement, such as ecological measures, qualitative approaches, improvement of analytical strategy and improvement of blinding procedures. Some are sophisticated, involving temporary deception to deal with the confounding effect of expectations, and they raise ethical issues. Others resort to external validity, this being the case in observational studies. But all are necessary to explore antidepressant effectiveness.

  18. HEALTHY study rationale, design and methods

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The HEALTHY primary prevention trial was designed and implemented in response to the growing numbers of children and adolescents being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The objective was to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Modifiable risk factors measured were indicators of adiposity and glycemic dysregulation: body mass index ≥85th percentile, fasting glucose ≥5.55 mmol l-1 (100 mg per 100 ml) and fasting insulin ≥180 pmol l-1 (30 μU ml-1). A series of pilot studies established the feasibility of performing data collection procedures and tested the development of an intervention consisting of four integrated components: (1) changes in the quantity and nutritional quality of food and beverage offerings throughout the total school food environment; (2) physical education class lesson plans and accompanying equipment to increase both participation and number of minutes spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; (3) brief classroom activities and family outreach vehicles to increase knowledge, enhance decision-making skills and support and reinforce youth in accomplishing goals; and (4) communications and social marketing strategies to enhance and promote changes through messages, images, events and activities. Expert study staff provided training, assistance, materials and guidance for school faculty and staff to implement the intervention components. A cohort of students were enrolled in sixth grade and followed to end of eighth grade. They attended a health screening data collection at baseline and end of study that involved measurement of height, weight, blood pressure, waist circumference and a fasting blood draw. Height and weight were also collected at the end of the seventh grade. The study was conducted in 42 middle schools, six at each of seven locations across the country, with 21 schools randomized to receive the intervention and 21 to act as controls (data collection activities only). Middle school was the unit of sample size and

  19. Design and phenomenology of the FEBSTAT study.

    PubMed

    Hesdorffer, Dale C; Shinnar, Shlomo; Lewis, Darrell V; Moshé, Solomon L; Nordli, Douglas R; Pellock, John M; MacFall, James; Shinnar, Ruth C; Masur, David; Frank, L Matthew; Epstein, Leon G; Litherland, Claire; Seinfeld, Syndi; Bello, Jacqueline A; Chan, Stephen; Bagiella, Emilia; Sun, Shumei

    2012-09-01

    Febrile status epilepticus (FSE) has been associated with hippocampal injury and subsequent hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and temporal lobe epilepsy. The FEBSTAT study was designed to prospectively examine the association between prolonged febrile seizures and development of HS and associated temporal lobe epilepsy, one of the most controversial issues in epilepsy. We report on the baseline phenomenology of the final cohorts as well as detailed aims and methodology. The "Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Seizures in Childhood" (FEBSTAT) study is a prospective, multicenter study. Enrolled are children, aged 1 month to 6 years of age, presenting with a febrile seizure lasting 30 min or longer based on ambulance, emergency department, and hospital records, and parental interview. At baseline, procedures included a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study and electroencephalography (EEG) recording done within 72 h of FSE, and a detailed history and neurologic examination. Baseline development and behavior are assessed at 1 month. The baseline assessment is repeated, with age-appropriate developmental testing at 1 and 5 years after enrollment as well as at the development of epilepsy and 1 year after that. Telephone calls every 3 months document additional seizures. Two other groups of children are included: a "control" group consisting of children with a first febrile seizure ascertained at Columbia University and with almost identical baseline and 1-year follow-up examinations and a pilot cohort of FSE from Duke University. The FEBSTAT cohort consists of 199 children with a median age at baseline of 16.0 months (interquartile range [IQR] 12.0-24.0) and a median duration of FSE of 70.0 min (IQR 47.0-110.0). Seizures were continuous in 57.3% and behaviorally intermittent (without recovery in between) in 31.2%; most were partial (2.0%) or secondary generalized (65.8%), and almost all (98.0%) culminated in a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Of the 199 children, 86.4% had

  20. A Case Study in CAD Design Automation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Andrew G.; Hartman, Nathan W.

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided design (CAD) software and other product life-cycle management (PLM) tools have become ubiquitous in industry during the past 20 years. Over this time they have continuously evolved, becoming programs with enormous capabilities, but the companies that use them have not evolved their design practices at the same rate. Due to the…

  1. New Study Designs | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention is expanding clinical research beyond standard trial designs to find interventions that may play a role in more than one prevalent disease. | The Division of Cancer Prevention is expanding clinical research beyond standard trial designs to find interventions that may play a role in more than one prevalent disease.

  2. Software design studies emphasizing Project LOGOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The results of a research project on the development of computer software are presented. Research funds of $200,000 were expended over a three year period for software design and projects in connection with Project LOGOS (computer-aided design and certification of computing systems). Abstracts of theses prepared during the project are provided.

  3. Fusion reactor design studies. [ARIES Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Emmert, G.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Santarius, J.F.

    1990-10-12

    This report discusses the following topics on the ARIES tokamak: systems; plasma power balance; impurity control and fusion ash removal; fusion product ripple loss; energy conversion; reactor fueling; first wall design; shield design; reactor safety; and fuel cost and resources. (LSP)

  4. Low vision goggles: optical design studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Ofer; Apter, Boris; Efron, Uzi

    2006-08-01

    Low Vision (LV) due to Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD), Glaucoma or Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is a growing problem, which will affect more than 15 million people in the U.S alone in 2010. Low Vision Aid Goggles (LVG) have been under development at Ben-Gurion University and the Holon Institute of Technology. The device is based on a unique Image Transceiver Device (ITD), combining both functions of imaging and Display in a single chip. Using the ITD-based goggles, specifically designed for the visually impaired, our aim is to develop a head-mounted device that will allow the capture of the ambient scenery, perform the necessary image enhancement and processing, and re-direct it to the healthy part of the patient's retina. This design methodology will allow the Goggles to be mobile, multi-task and environmental-adaptive. In this paper we present the optical design considerations of the Goggles, including a preliminary performance analysis. Common vision deficiencies of LV patients are usually divided into two main categories: peripheral vision loss (PVL) and central vision loss (CVL), each requiring different Goggles design. A set of design principles had been defined for each category. Four main optical designs are presented and compared according to the design principles. Each of the designs is presented in two main optical configurations: See-through system and Video imaging system. The use of a full-color ITD-Based Goggles is also discussed.

  5. Oceanographic scanner system design study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The design is reported of a dual mode multispectral scanner, capable of satisfying both overland and oceanographic requirements. A complete system description and performance summary of the scanner are given. In addition, subsystem and component descriptions and performance analyses are treated in individual sections. The design of the scanner, with minimum modifications, interfaces to the ERTS spacecraft and the ground data handling system.

  6. Heat source reentry vehicle design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    The design details are presented of a flight-type heat source reentry vehicle and heat exchanger compatible with the isotope Brayton power conversion system. The reference reentry vehicle and heat exchanger were modified, orbital and superorbital capability was assessed, and a complete set of detail design layout drawings were provided.

  7. Instructional Design: Case Studies in Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keppell, Michael, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Instructional Design: Case Studies in Communities of Practice" documents real-world experiences of instructional designers and staff developers who work in communities of practice. "Instructional Design: Case Studies in Communities of Practice" explains the strategies and heuristics used by instructional designers when working…

  8. Instructional Design: Case Studies in Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keppell, Michael, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Instructional Design: Case Studies in Communities of Practice" documents real-world experiences of instructional designers and staff developers who work in communities of practice. "Instructional Design: Case Studies in Communities of Practice" explains the strategies and heuristics used by instructional designers when working…

  9. The Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study: study design and methods.

    PubMed

    Langa, Kenneth M; Plassman, Brenda L; Wallace, Robert B; Herzog, A Regula; Heeringa, Steven G; Ofstedal, Mary Beth; Burke, James R; Fisher, Gwenith G; Fultz, Nancy H; Hurd, Michael D; Potter, Guy G; Rodgers, Willard L; Steffens, David C; Weir, David R; Willis, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    We describe the design and methods of the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study (ADAMS), a new national study that will provide data on the antecedents, prevalence, outcomes, and costs of dementia and "cognitive impairment, not demented" (CIND) using a unique study design based on the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study (HRS). We also illustrate potential uses of the ADAMS data and provide information to interested researchers on obtaining ADAMS and HRS data. The ADAMS is the first population-based study of dementia in the United States to include subjects from all regions of the country, while at the same time using a single standardized diagnostic protocol in a community-based sample. A sample of 856 individuals age 70 or older who were participants in the ongoing HRS received an extensive in-home clinical and neuropsychological assessment to determine a diagnosis of normal, CIND, or dementia. Within the CIND and dementia categories, subcategories (e.g. Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia) were assigned to denote the etiology of cognitive impairment. Linking the ADAMS dementia clinical assessment data to the wealth of available longitudinal HRS data on health, health care utilization, informal care, and economic resources and behavior, will provide a unique opportunity to study the onset of CIND and dementia in a nationally representative population-based sample, as well as the risk factors, prevalence, outcomes, and costs of CIND and dementia. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Pharmacokinetic Studies in Infants Using Minimal-risk Study Designs

    PubMed Central

    Autmizguine, J; Benjamin, DK; Smith, PB; Sampson, M; Ovetchkine, P; Cohen-Wolkowiez, M.; Watt, KM

    2015-01-01

    Infants are therapeutic orphans. Many drugs used in infants are used “off-label”, increasing the risk of drug toxicity and suboptimal efficacy in this vulnerable population. This knowledge gap in clinical pharmacology is partly attributed to challenges associated with conducting clinical trials in infants. Consequently, there is a need for novel and efficient study designs more suited to this population. Available literature describing the use of minimal-risk approaches to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of drugs in infants was critically reviewed. Population PK approach with sparse sampling was found to be well established. Other, more recent alternatives, like dried blood spots sampling, opportunistic design, and the use of non-blood matrices are promising strategies with an increasing number of applications in infants. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling provides valuable insight in drug disposition but still needs more prospective validation. Increasing experience with these methods provides understanding of their strengths and limitations and will help improve the design of future PK studies in infants. PMID:24844642

  11. A study of commuter airplane design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keppel, B. V.; Eysink, H.; Hammer, J.; Hawley, K.; Meredith, P.; Roskam, J.

    1978-01-01

    The usability of the general aviation synthesis program (GASP) was enhanced by the development of separate computer subroutines which can be added as a package to this assembly of computerized design methods or used as a separate subroutine program to compute the dynamic longitudinal, lateral-directional stability characteristics for a given airplane. Currently available analysis methods were evaluated to ascertain those most appropriate for the design functions which the GASP computerized design program performs. Methods for providing proper constraint and/or analysis functions for GASP were developed as well as the appropriate subroutines.

  12. PLUTONIUM-238 PRODUCTION TARGET DESIGN STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, Christopher J; Wham, Robert M; Hobbs, Randall W; Owens, R Steven; Chandler, David; Freels, James D; Maldonado, G Ivan

    2014-01-01

    A new supply chain is planned for plutonium-238 using existing reactors at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and existing chemical recovery facilities at ORNL. Validation and testing activities for new irradiation target designs have been conducted in three phases over a 2 year period to provide data for scale-up to production. Target design, qualification, target fabrication, and irradiation of fully-loaded targets have been accomplished. Data from post-irradiation examination (PIE) supports safety analysis and irradiation of future target designs.

  13. Mars orbiter conceptual systems design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, W.; Vogl, J.

    1982-01-01

    Spacecraft system and subsystem designs at the conceptual level to perform either of two Mars Orbiter missions, a Climatology Mission and an Aeronomy Mission were developed. The objectives of these missions are to obtain and return data.

  14. SeisCORK Engineering Design Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Deployment and servicing of wellhead frame 20 Power Consumption 21 Acknowledgements 21 FA Qs 21 Table 1: Summaries of SeisCORK Seafloor Hardware for...was not designed for remote operation. It is quite power hungry and has a form factor that is not compatible with a PC104. Substantial NRE would be...are designed to be installed and operated on land with essentially unlimited power and data storage and with reliable data telemetry. In a SeisCORK

  15. Case study: error rates and paperwork design.

    PubMed

    Drury, C G

    1998-01-01

    A job instruction document, or workcard, for civil aircraft maintenance produced a number of paperwork errors when used operationally. The design of the workcard was compared to the guidelines of Patel et al [1994, Applied Ergonomics, 25 (5), 286-293]. All of the errors occurred in work instructions which did not meet these guidelines, demonstrating that the design of documentation does affect operational performance.

  16. Computational Studies and Designs for Fast Ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, H.; Johzaki, T.; Nakamura, T.; Sakagami, H.; Mima, K.

    2006-12-01

    The fast ignition scheme is one of the most fascinating and feasible ignition schemes for the inertial fusion energy. At ILE Osaka University, FIREX (Fast Ignition Realization Experiment) project is in progress. Implosion experiments of the cryogenic target are scheduled in near future. There are two key issues for the fast ignition. One is controlling the implosion dynamics to form high density core plasma in non-spherical implosion, and the other is heating the core plasma efficiently by the short pulse high intense laser. The time and space scale in the fast ignition scheme vary widely from initial laser irradiation to solid target, to relativistic laser plasma interaction and final fusion burning. The numerical simulation plays an important role in demonstrating the performance of the fast ignition, designing the targets, and optimizing laser pulse shapes for the scheme. These all the physics are desired to be self-consistently described. In order to study these physics of FI, we have developed "Fast Ignition Integrated Interconnecting code" (FI3), which consists of collective Particle-in-Cell (PIC) code (FISCOF1D/2D), Relativistic Fokker-Planck with hydro code (FIBMET), and 2-dimensional Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) radiation hydrodynamics code (PINOCO). Those codes are sophisticated in each suitable plasma parameters, and boundaries conditions and initial conditions for them are imported/exported to each other by way of DCCP, a simple and compact communication tool which enable these codes to communicate each others under executing different machines. We show the feature of the FI3 code, and numerical results of whole process of fast ignition. Individual important physics behind the FI are explained with the numerical results also.

  17. Empirical studies of software design: Implications for SSEs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasner, Herb

    1988-01-01

    Implications for Software Engineering Environments (SEEs) are presented in viewgraph format for characteristics of projects studied; significant problems and crucial problem areas in software design for large systems; layered behavioral model of software processes; implications of field study results; software project as an ecological system; results of the LIFT study; information model of design exploration; software design strategies; results of the team design study; and a list of publications.

  18. The Study of the Relationship between Probabilistic Design and Axiomatic Design Methodology. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onwubiko, Chinyere; Onyebueke, Landon

    1996-01-01

    This program report is the final report covering all the work done on this project. The goal of this project is technology transfer of methodologies to improve design process. The specific objectives are: 1. To learn and understand the Probabilistic design analysis using NESSUS. 2. To assign Design Projects to either undergraduate or graduate students on the application of NESSUS. 3. To integrate the application of NESSUS into some selected senior level courses in Civil and Mechanical Engineering curricula. 4. To develop courseware in Probabilistic Design methodology to be included in a graduate level Design Methodology course. 5. To study the relationship between the Probabilistic design methodology and Axiomatic design methodology.

  19. Epidemiological study air disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA): study design

    PubMed Central

    Slottje, Pauline; Huizink, Anja C; Twisk, Jos WR; Witteveen, Anke B; van der Ploeg, Henk M; Bramsen, Inge; Smidt, Nynke; Bijlsma, Joost A; Bouter, Lex M; van Mechelen, Willem; Smid, Tjabe

    2005-01-01

    Background In 1992, a cargo aircraft crashed into apartment buildings in Amsterdam, killing 43 victims and destroying 266 apartments. In the aftermath there were speculations about the cause of the crash, potential exposures to hazardous materials due to the disaster and the health consequences. Starting in 2000, the Epidemiological Study Air Disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA) aimed to assess the long-term health effects of occupational exposure to this disaster on professional assistance workers. Methods/Design Epidemiological study among all the exposed professional fire-fighters and police officers who performed disaster-related task(s), and hangar workers who sorted the wreckage of the aircraft, as well as reference groups of their non-exposed colleagues who did not perform any disaster-related tasks. The study took place, on average, 8.5 years after the disaster. Questionnaires were used to assess details on occupational exposure to the disaster. Health measures comprised laboratory assessments in urine, blood and saliva, as well as self-reported current health measures, including health-related quality of life, and various physical and psychological symptoms. Discussion In this paper we describe and discuss the design of the ESADA. The ESADA will provide additional scientific knowledge on the long-term health effects of technological disasters on professional workers. PMID:15921536

  20. Preliminary design study. Shuttle modular scanning spectroradiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Fundamental concepts on which to base a detailed design for a Shuttle Modular Scanning Spectroradiometer were developed, and a preliminary design is presented. The recommended design features modularity and flexibility. It includes a 75-cm f/1.7-telescope assembly in an all-reflective Schmidt configuration, a solid state scan system (pushbroom) with high resolution over a 15 deg field of view, and ten detector channels covering the spectral range from 0.45 to 12.5 micrometers. It uses charge transfer device techniques to accommodate a large number of detector elements for earth observation measurements. Methods for in-flight radiometric calibration, for image motion compensation, and for data processing are described. Recommendations for ground support equipment are included, and interfaces with the shuttle orbiter vehicle are illustrated.

  1. Study of design constraints on helicopter noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sternfeld, H., Jr.; Wiedersum, C. W.

    1979-01-01

    A means of estimating the noise generated by a helicopter main rotor using information which is generally available during the preliminary design phase of aircraft development is presented. The method utilizes design charts and tables which do not require an understanding of acoustical theory or computational procedures in order to predict the perceived noise level, a weighted sound pressure level, or C weighted sound pressure level of a single hovering rotor. A method for estimating the effective perceived noise level in forward flight is also included. In order to give the designer an assessment of the relative rotor performance, which may be traded off against noise, an additional chart for estimating the percent of available rotor thrust which must be expended in lifting the rotor and drive system, is included as well as approach for comparing the subjective acceptability of various rotors once the absolute sound pressure levels are predicted.

  2. Design Study for a Mars Geyser Hopper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Oleson, Steven J.; McGuire, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Geyser Hopper is a design reference missions (DRMs) for a Discovery-class spacecraft using Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) power source. The Geyser Hopper is a mission concept that will investigate the springtime carbon-dioxide geysers found in regions around the south pole of Mars. The Geyser Hopper design uses Phoenix heritage systems and approach, but uses a single ASRG as the power source, rather than twin solar arrays, and is designed to last over a one-year stay on the South Pole. The spacecraft will land at a target landing area near the south pole of Mars, and have the ability to "hop" after a summertime landing to reposition itself close to a geyser site, and wait through the winter until the first sunlight of spring to witness first-hand the geyser phenomenon.

  3. Detector design studies for Turkish Accelerator Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksu, Burçin; Piliçer, Ercan

    2017-02-01

    The proposed Particle Factory detector at Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC-PF) aims to search for charm physics, CP violation and mixing of D0 mesons as well as new physics effects by investigating head-on collisions of 1 GeV electron from Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) with 3.56 GeV positrons from synchrotron storage ring. In this work, we constructed the TAC-PF detector design by using a recently developed framework namely Detector Description for High Energy Physics (DD4hep). The baseline TAC-PF detector design and its qualifications were summarized, followed by a general description.

  4. Empirical studies of design software: Implications for software engineering environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasner, Herb

    1988-01-01

    The empirical studies team of MCC's Design Process Group conducted three studies in 1986-87 in order to gather data on professionals designing software systems in a range of situations. The first study (the Lift Experiment) used thinking aloud protocols in a controlled laboratory setting to study the cognitive processes of individual designers. The second study (the Object Server Project) involved the observation, videotaping, and data collection of a design team of a medium-sized development project over several months in order to study team dynamics. The third study (the Field Study) involved interviews with the personnel from 19 large development projects in the MCC shareholders in order to study how the process of design is affected by organizationl and project behavior. The focus of this report will be on key observations of design process (at several levels) and their implications for the design of environments.

  5. Empirical studies of design software: Implications for software engineering environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasner, Herb

    1988-01-01

    The empirical studies team of MCC's Design Process Group conducted three studies in 1986-87 in order to gather data on professionals designing software systems in a range of situations. The first study (the Lift Experiment) used thinking aloud protocols in a controlled laboratory setting to study the cognitive processes of individual designers. The second study (the Object Server Project) involved the observation, videotaping, and data collection of a design team of a medium-sized development project over several months in order to study team dynamics. The third study (the Field Study) involved interviews with the personnel from 19 large development projects in the MCC shareholders in order to study how the process of design is affected by organizationl and project behavior. The focus of this report will be on key observations of design process (at several levels) and their implications for the design of environments.

  6. Feasibility study of an Integrated Program for Aerospace vehicle Design (IPAD). Volume 4: IPAD system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldfarb, W.; Carpenter, L. C.; Redhed, D. D.; Hansen, S. D.; Anderson, L. O.; Kawaguchi, A. S.

    1973-01-01

    The computing system design of IPAD is described and the requirements which form the basis for the system design are discussed. The system is presented in terms of a functional design description and technical design specifications. The functional design specifications give the detailed description of the system design using top-down structured programming methodology. Human behavioral characteristics, which specify the system design at the user interface, security considerations, and standards for system design, implementation, and maintenance are also part of the technical design specifications. Detailed specifications of the two most common computing system types in use by the major aerospace companies which could support the IPAD system design are presented. The report of a study to investigate migration of IPAD software between the two candidate 3rd generation host computing systems and from these systems to a 4th generation system is included.

  7. Design study of plastic film heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyer, E. C.; Brownell, D. L.

    1986-02-01

    This report presents the results of an effort to develop and design a unique thermoplastic film heat exchanger for use in an industrial heat pump evaporator system and other energy recovery applications. The concept for the exchanger is that of individual heat exchange elements formed by two adjoining and freely hanging plastic films. Liquid flows downward in a regulated fashion between the films due to the balance of hydrostatic and frictional forces. The fluid stream on the outside of film may be a free-falling liquid film, a condensing gas, or a noncondensing gas. The flow and structural principles are similar to those embodied in an earlier heat exchange system developed for use in waste water treatment systems (Sanderson). The design allows for high heat transfer rates while working within the thermal and structural limitations of thermoplastic materials. The potential of this new heat exchanger design lies in the relatively low cost of plastic film and the high inherent corrosion and fouling resistance. This report addresses the selection of materials, the potential heat transf er performance, the mechanical design and operation of a unit applied in a low pressure steam recovery system, and the expected selling price in comparison to conventional metallic shell and tube heat exchangers.

  8. Advanced EVA system design requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Design requirements and criteria for the Space Station Advanced Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) including crew enclosures, portable life support systems, maneuvering propulsion systems, and related extravehicular activity (EVA) support equipment were defined and established. The EVA mission requirements, environments, and medical and physiological requirements, as well as opertional, procedures, and training issues were considered.

  9. Design Study of a Low-Cost LOX Turbopump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Japikse, David; Baines, Nicholas

    2002-07-01

    A preliminary design study, focusing on potential component selections and Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA(R)) analysis, is presented in this study. The investigation was focused on a nominal cost liquid oxygen turbopump suitable for a private launch class vehicle. Utilizing a "turbocharger-like" design philosophy, preliminary feasibility studies of the basic pump design class, the rotordynamic design class, and the turbine design class were conducted with associated DFMA evaluations. Reasonable cost levels and sensible levels of product assurance have been established.

  10. Preliminary design studies of an advanced general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary design studies are presented for an advanced general aviation aircraft. Advanced guidance and display concepts, laminar flow, smart structures, fuselage and wing structural design and manufacturing, and preliminary configuration design are discussed. This project was conducted as a graduate level design class under the auspices of the KU/NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program in Aeronautics. The results obtained during the fall semester of 1990 (Phase 1) and the spring semester of 1991 (Phase 2) are presented.

  11. Crossover versus parallel designs: dose-escalation design comparisons for first-in-human studies.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhiwu; Hosmane, Balakrishna; Locke, Charles

    2013-01-01

    We study the statistical efficiency for rising-dose designs in the context of first-in-human studies. Specifically, we identify a class of crossover designs that are appealing in terms of both subject safety and statistical efficiency and, for a three-period, two-panel design in such a class, we compare its A-efficiency relative to the corresponding parallel designs and optimal/efficient crossover designs, respectively, under various plausible models. In the meantime, we also evaluate the impact of inclusion of baseline measurements as a covariate in the statistical analysis, for both crossover and parallel studies.

  12. Horizon 2020 EuPRAXIA design study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, P. A.; Alesini, P. D.; Alexandrova, A. S.; Anania, M. P.; E Andreev, N.; Andriyash, I.; Aschikhin, A.; Assmann, R. W.; Audet, T.; Bacci, A.; Barna, I. F.; Beaton, A.; Beck, A.; Beluze, A.; Bernhard, A.; Bielawski, S.; Bisesto, F. G.; Boedewadt, J.; Brandi, F.; Bringer, O.; Brinkmann, R.; Bründermann, E.; Büscher, M.; Bussmann, M.; Bussolino, G. C.; Chance, A.; Chanteloup, J. C.; Chen, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Clarke, J.; Cole, J.; E Couprie, M.; Croia, M.; Cros, B.; Dale, J.; Dattoli, G.; Delerue, N.; Delferriere, O.; Delinikolas, P.; Dias, J.; Dorda, U.; Ertel, K.; Ferran Pousa, A.; Ferrario, M.; Filippi, F.; Fils, J.; Fiorito, R.; Fonseca, R. A.; Galimberti, M.; Gallo, A.; Garzella, D.; Gastinel, P.; Giove, D.; Giribono, A.; Gizzi, L. A.; Grüner, F. J.; Habib, A. F.; Haefner, L. C.; Heinemann, T.; Hidding, B.; Holzer, B. J.; Hooker, S. M.; Hosokai, T.; Irman, A.; Jaroszynski, D. A.; Jaster-Merz, S.; Joshi, C.; Kaluza, M. C.; Kando, M.; Karger, O. S.; Karsch, S.; Khazanov, E.; Khikhlukha, D.; Knetsch, A.; Kocon, D.; Koester, P.; Kononenko, O.; Korn, G.; Kostyukov, I.; Labate, L.; Lechner, C.; Leemans, W. P.; Lehrach, A.; Y Li, F.; Li, X.; Libov, V.; Lifschitz, A.; Litvinenko, V.; Lu, W.; Maier, A. R.; Malka, V.; Manahan, G. G.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Marchetti, B.; Marocchino, A.; Martinez de la Ossa, A.; Martins, J. L.; Massimo, F.; Mathieu, F.; Maynard, G.; Mehrling, T. J.; Y Molodozhentsev, A.; Mosnier, A.; Mostacci, A.; Mueller, A. S.; Najmudin, Z.; Nghiem, P. A. P.; Nguyen, F.; Niknejadi, P.; Osterhoff, J.; Papadopoulos, D.; Patrizi, B.; Pattathil, R.; Petrillo, V.; Pocsai, M. A.; Poder, K.; Pompili, R.; Pribyl, L.; Pugacheva, D.; Romeo, S.; Rossi, A. R.; Roussel, E.; Sahai, A. A.; Scherkl, P.; Schramm, U.; Schroeder, C. B.; Schwindling, J.; Scifo, J.; Serafini, L.; Sheng, Z. M.; Silva, L. O.; Silva, T.; Simon, C.; Sinha, U.; Specka, A.; Streeter, M. J. V.; Svystun, E. N.; Symes, D.; Szwaj, C.; Tauscher, G.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Thompson, N.; Toci, G.; Tomassini, P.; Vaccarezza, C.; Vannini, M.; Vieira, J. M.; Villa, F.; Wahlström, C.-G.; Walczak, R.; Weikum, M. K.; Welsch, C. P.; Wiemann, C.; Wolfenden, J.; Xia, G.; Yabashi, M.; Yu, L.; Zhu, J.; Zigler, A.

    2017-07-01

    The Horizon 2020 Project EuPRAXIA (“European Plasma Research Accelerator with eXcellence In Applications”) is preparing a conceptual design report of a highly compact and cost-effective European facility with multi-GeV electron beams using plasma as the acceleration medium. The accelerator facility will be based on a laser and/or a beam driven plasma acceleration approach and will be used for photon science, high-energy physics (HEP) detector tests, and other applications such as compact X-ray sources for medical imaging or material processing. EuPRAXIA started in November 2015 and will deliver the design report in October 2019. EuPRAXIA aims to be included on the ESFRI roadmap in 2020.

  13. Study/Experimental/Research Design: Much More Than Statistics

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Kenneth L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: The purpose of study, experimental, or research design in scientific manuscripts has changed significantly over the years. It has evolved from an explanation of the design of the experiment (ie, data gathering or acquisition) to an explanation of the statistical analysis. This practice makes “Methods” sections hard to read and understand. Objective: To clarify the difference between study design and statistical analysis, to show the advantages of a properly written study design on article comprehension, and to encourage authors to correctly describe study designs. Description: The role of study design is explored from the introduction of the concept by Fisher through modern-day scientists and the AMA Manual of Style. At one time, when experiments were simpler, the study design and statistical design were identical or very similar. With the complex research that is common today, which often includes manipulating variables to create new variables and the multiple (and different) analyses of a single data set, data collection is very different than statistical design. Thus, both a study design and a statistical design are necessary. Advantages: Scientific manuscripts will be much easier to read and comprehend. A proper experimental design serves as a road map to the study methods, helping readers to understand more clearly how the data were obtained and, therefore, assisting them in properly analyzing the results. PMID:20064054

  14. Study/experimental/research design: much more than statistics.

    PubMed

    Knight, Kenneth L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of study, experimental, or research design in scientific manuscripts has changed significantly over the years. It has evolved from an explanation of the design of the experiment (ie, data gathering or acquisition) to an explanation of the statistical analysis. This practice makes "Methods" sections hard to read and understand. To clarify the difference between study design and statistical analysis, to show the advantages of a properly written study design on article comprehension, and to encourage authors to correctly describe study designs. The role of study design is explored from the introduction of the concept by Fisher through modern-day scientists and the AMA Manual of Style. At one time, when experiments were simpler, the study design and statistical design were identical or very similar. With the complex research that is common today, which often includes manipulating variables to create new variables and the multiple (and different) analyses of a single data set, data collection is very different than statistical design. Thus, both a study design and a statistical design are necessary. Scientific manuscripts will be much easier to read and comprehend. A proper experimental design serves as a road map to the study methods, helping readers to understand more clearly how the data were obtained and, therefore, assisting them in properly analyzing the results.

  15. User Design: A Case Study on Corporate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastore, Raymond S.; Carr-Chellman, Alison A.; Lohmann, Neal

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of implementing user design strategies within the corporate culture. Using a case study design approach, this article explores the change process within a "Fortune" 100 company in which users were given significant decision-making powers. The main focus is on the unique nature of user design in…

  16. User Design: A Case Study on Corporate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastore, Raymond S.; Carr-Chellman, Alison A.; Lohmann, Neal

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of implementing user design strategies within the corporate culture. Using a case study design approach, this article explores the change process within a "Fortune" 100 company in which users were given significant decision-making powers. The main focus is on the unique nature of user design in…

  17. Study Design in fMRI: Basic Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaro, Edson, Jr.; Barker, Gareth J.

    2006-01-01

    There is a wide range of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study designs available for the neuroscientist who wants to investigate cognition. In this manuscript we review some aspects of fMRI study design, including cognitive comparison strategies (factorial, parametric designs), and stimulus presentation possibilities (block,…

  18. Phase A design study of microgravity fluoride fiber puller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.; Kosten, Susan

    1994-01-01

    Improved transmission properties for fluoride fibers due to space processing has great potential for commercial benefits. Phase A design study will determine conceptual feasibility and provide initial definition of the technical requirements and design issues for space.

  19. Study of Screen Design Principles for Visualizing Medical Records.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kenichiro; Takemura, Tadamasa; Kuroda, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    To improve UX of EMR/EHR, the screen design principles for the visualization are required. Through the study of common attributes of medical records, we present four principles and show three screen designs by applying them.

  20. Designing SoTL Studies--Part II: Practicality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartsch, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter suggests solutions to common practical problems in designing SoTL studies. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of different types of designs are discussed. [Part I available at EJ1029363.

  1. A hingeless rotor XV-15 design integration feasibility study. Volume 1: Engineering design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, J. P.; Alexander, H. R.

    1978-01-01

    A design integration feasibility study was carried out to investigate what modifications to the basic XV-15 were necessary to accomplish a flight demonstration of the XV-15 with a Boeing hingeless rotor. Also investigated were additional modifications which would exploit the full capability provided by the combination of the new rotor and the existing T53 engine. An evaluation of the aircraft is presented and the data indicate improved air vehicle performance, acceptable aeroelastic margins, lower noise levels and improved flying qualities compared with the XV-15 aircraft. Inspection of the rotor system data provided shows an essentially unlimited life rotor for the flight spectrum anticipated for the XV-15.

  2. Universal Design and Study Abroad: (Re-)Designing Programs for Effectiveness and Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soneson, Heidi M.; Cordano, Roberta J.

    2009-01-01

    Universal Design provides a framework to effectively increase the number of students studying abroad by creating and expanding supportive environments designed to meet a wide range of student needs. While the concept of Universal Design originated with the needs of students with disabilities, its value and application extend to a much wider…

  3. Techniques for Conducting Effective Concept Design and Design-to-Cost Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Pietro, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Concept design plays a central role in project success as its product effectively locks the majority of system life cycle cost. Such extraordinary leverage presents a business case for conducting concept design in a credible fashion, particularly for first-of-a-kind systems that advance the state of the art and that have high design uncertainty. A key challenge, however, is to know when credible design convergence has been achieved in such systems. Using a space system example, this paper characterizes the level of convergence needed for concept design in the context of technical and programmatic resource margins available in preliminary design and highlights the importance of design and cost evaluation learning curves in determining credible convergence. It also provides techniques for selecting trade study cases that promote objective concept evaluation, help reveal unknowns, and expedite convergence within the trade space and conveys general practices for conducting effective concept design-to-cost studies.

  4. Techniques for Conducting Effective Concept Design and Design-to-Cost Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Pietro, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Concept design plays a central role in project success as its product effectively locks the majority of system life cycle cost. Such extraordinary leverage presents a business case for conducting concept design in a credible fashion, particularly for first-of-a-kind systems that advance the state of the art and that have high design uncertainty. A key challenge, however, is to know when credible design convergence has been achieved in such systems. Using a space system example, this paper characterizes the level of convergence needed for concept design in the context of technical and programmatic resource margins available in preliminary design and highlights the importance of design and cost evaluation learning curves in determining credible convergence. It also provides techniques for selecting trade study cases that promote objective concept evaluation, help reveal unknowns, and expedite convergence within the trade space and conveys general practices for conducting effective concept design-to-cost studies.

  5. Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS) system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS) is intended to provide investigators in several biological disciplines with a relatively inexpensive method to access space for up to 60 days with eventual recovery on Earth. The RRS will permit totally intact, relatively soft, recovery of the vehicle, system refurbishment, and reflight with new and varied payloads. The RRS is to be capable of three reflights per year over a 10-year program lifetime. The RRS vehicle will have a large and readily accessible volume near the vehicle center of gravity for the Payload Module (PM) containing the experiment hardware. The vehicle is configured to permit the experimenter late access to the PM prior to launch and rapid access following recovery. The RRS will operate in one of two modes: (1) as a free-flying spacecraft in orbit, and will be allowed to drift in attitude to provide an acceleration environment of less than 10(exp -5) g. the acceleration environment during orbital trim maneuvers will be less than 10(exp -3) g; and (2) as an artificial gravity system which spins at controlled rates to provide an artificial gravity of up to 1.5 Earth g. The RRS system will be designed to be rugged, easily maintained, and economically refurbishable for the next flight. Some systems may be designed to be replaced rather than refurbished, if cost effective and capable of meeting the specified turnaround time. The minimum time between recovery and reflight will be approximately 60 days. The PMs will be designed to be relatively autonomous, with experiments that require few commands and limited telemetry. Mass data storage will be accommodated in the PM. The hardware development and implementation phase is currently expected to start in 1991 with a first launch in late 1993.

  6. Statistical design study of lunar ceramic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Effinger, Mike; Tucker, Dennis

    1994-01-01

    Fabrication of a lunar ceramic was conducted according to a statistically designed experiment. The method of cold pressing was used since the consumption of electrical energy is kept to a minimum (a priority in the lunar environment). This traditional fabrication technique also provides an initial data source on which further investigations can be based. Results obtained from using two percent binder, a cold pressing pressure of 276 MPa, and 24 hours sintering time yielded the greatest compressive strength of 247 MPa. Analysis of each variable's influence on the compressive strength is also presented.

  7. Conceptual Design Studies of Composite AMST

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    AND EMPENNAGE BOX STRUCTURE AND FUSELAGE SHELL A’PLICATIONS WERE EMPHASIZED TOGETHER WITH SELECTED APPLICATIONS IN SECONDARY STRUCTURES TO REDUCE THE...WAS A SANDWICH.PANEL MULTICELL DESIGN (ASSEMBLED THROUGH THE USE OF INTERNAL PRESSURE BAGS), AND THE FUSELAGE SHELL WAS AN AUTOMATICALLY TAPE-WRAPPED...WWAIMi a , LU 0 U caaIr U. 0 IL ..- U). Lu 0 z t (A z us k 4 wint and nip,.nnige box structures and the fuselage shell . The selected tresin cont pts were

  8. Liquid Acquisition Device Design Sensitivity Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDyke, M. K.; Hastings, L. J.

    2012-01-01

    In-space propulsion often necessitates the use of a capillary liquid acquisition device (LAD) to assure that gas-free liquid propellant is available to support engine restarts in microgravity. If a capillary screen-channel device is chosen, then the designer must determine the appropriate combination screen mesh and channel geometry. A screen mesh selection which results in the smallest LAD width when compared to any other screen candidate (for a constant length) is desirable; however, no best screen exists for all LAD design requirements. Flow rate, percent fill, and acceleration are the most influential drivers for determining screen widths. Increased flow rates and reduced percent fills increase the through-the-screen flow pressure losses, which drive the LAD to increased widths regardless of screen choice. Similarly, increased acceleration levels and corresponding liquid head pressures drive the screen mesh selection toward a higher bubble point (liquid retention capability). After ruling out some screens on the basis of acceleration requirements alone, candidates can be identified by examining screens with small flow-loss-to-bubble point ratios for a given condition (i.e., comparing screens at certain flow rates and fill levels). Within the same flow rate and fill level, the screen constants inertia resistance coefficient, void fraction, screen pore or opening diameter, and bubble point can become the driving forces in identifying the smaller flow-loss-to-bubble point ratios.

  9. Innovative Offshore Wind Plant Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, William L.; Nordstrom, Charles J.; Morrison, Brent J.

    2013-12-18

    Technological advancements in the Glosten PelaStar floating wind turbine system have led to projected cost of energy (COE) reductions from today’s best-in-class offshore wind systems. The PelaStar system is projected to deliver a COE that is 35% lower than that delivered by the current offshore wind plants. Several technology developments have been achieved that directly target significant cost of energy reductions. These include: Application of state-of-the-art steel construction materials and methods, including fatigue-resistant welding techniques and technologies, to reduce hull steel weight; Advancements in synthetic fiber tendon design for the mooring system, which are made possible by laboratory analysis of full-scale sub-rope specimens; Investigations into selected anchor technologies to improve anchor installation methods; Refinement of the installation method, specifically through development of the PelaStar Support Barge design. Together, these technology developments drive down the capital cost and operating cost of offshore wind plants and enable access to superb wind resources in deep water locations. These technology developments also reduce the uncertainty of the PelaStar system costs, which increases confidence in the projected COE reductions.

  10. Wind study for high altitude platform design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strganac, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of upper air winds was performed to define the wind environment at potential operating altitudes for high altitude powered platform concepts. Wind conditions of the continental United States, Pacific area (Alaska to Sea of Japan), and European area (Norwegian and Mediterranean Sea) were obtained using a representative network of sites selected based upon adequate high altitude sampling, geographic dispersion, and observed upper wind patterns. A data base of twenty plus years of rawinsonde gathered wind information was used in the analysis. Annual variations from surface to 10 mb pressure altitude were investigated to encompass the practical operating range for the platform concepts. Parametric analysis for the United States and foreign areas was performed to provide a basis for vehicle system design tradeoffs. This analysis of wind magnitudes indicates the feasibility of annual operation at a majority of sites and more selective seasonal operation for the extreme conditions between the pressure altitudes of 100 to 25 mb based upon the assumed design speeds.

  11. Study design considerations in evaluating environmental impacts

    Treesearch

    Stan T. Lebow; Paul A. Cooper; Patricia Lebow

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to make the reader aware of how choices in study parameters may influence the outcome of treated-wood environmental impact evaluations. Evaluation of the leaching and environmental accumulation of preservatives from treated wood is a complex process. and many factors can influence the results of such studies. In laboratory studies, the...

  12. Spacecraft (Mobile Satellite) configuration design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The relative costs to procure and operate a two-satellite mobile satellite system designed to operate either in the UHF band of the L Band, and with several antenna diameter options in each frequency band was investigated. As configured, the size of the spacecraft is limited to the current RCA Series 4000 Geosynchronous Communications Spacecraft bus, which spans the range from 4000 to 5800 pounds in the transfer orbit. The Series 4000 bus forms the basis around which the Mobile Satellite transponder and associated antennas were appended. Although the resultant configuration has little outward resemblance to the present Series 4000 microwave communications spacecraft, the structure, attitude control, thermal, power, and command and control subsystems of the Series 4000 spacecraft are all adapted to support the Mobile Satellite mission.

  13. Study design in osteoporosis: a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Kanis, J A; Alexandre, J M; Bone, H G; Abadie, E; Brasseur, D; Chassany, O; Durrleman, S; Lekkerkerker, J F F; Caulin, F

    2003-06-01

    The advent of effective agents for the treatment of osteoporosis has led to the view that placebo-controlled trials to test new agents for efficacy are no longer appropriate. Rather, studies of superiority, equivalence, or non-inferiority have been recommended. Such studies require very large sample sizes, and the burden of osteoporotic fracture in a trial setting is substantially increased. Studies of equivalence cannot be unambiguously interpreted because the variance in effect of active comparator agents is too large in osteoporosis. If fracture studies are required by regulatory agencies, there is still a requirement for placebo-controlled studies, although perhaps of shorter duration than demanded at present.

  14. A Preliminary study on the seismic conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhen; Xie, Lili

    2014-08-01

    The seismic conceptual design is an essential part of seismic design codes. It points out that the term "seismic conceptual design" should imply three aspects, i.e., the given concept itself, the specific provisions related to the given concept and the designing following the provisions. Seismic conceptual design can be classified into two categories: the strict or traditional seismic conceptual design and the generalized seismic conceptual design. The authors are trying to define for both conceptual designs their connotations and study their characteristics, in particular, the differences between them. Authors emphasize that both conceptual designs sound very close, however, their differences are apparent. The strict conceptual designs are usually worked out directly from engineering practice and/or lessons learnt from earthquake damage, while the generalized conceptual designs are resulted in a series of visions aiming to realize the general objectives of the seismic codes. The strict conceptual designs, (traditional conceptual designs) are indispensable elements of seismic codes in assuring designed structures safer and the generalized conceptual designs are playing key roles in directing to a more advanced and effective seismic codes.

  15. Perspectives toward the stereotype production method for public symbol design: a case study of novice designers.

    PubMed

    Ng, Annie W Y; Siu, Kin Wai Michael; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the practices and attitudes of novice designers toward user involvement in public symbol design at the conceptual design stage, i.e. the stereotype production method. Differences between male and female novice designers were examined. Forty-eight novice designers (24 male, 24 female) were asked to design public symbol referents based on suggestions made by a group of users in a previous study and provide feedback with regard to the design process. The novice designers were receptive to the adoption of user suggestions in the conception of the design, but tended to modify the pictorial representations generated by the users to varying extents. It is also significant that the male and female novice designers appeared to emphasize different aspects of user suggestions, and the female novice designers were more positive toward these suggestions than their male counterparts. The findings should aid the optimization of the stereotype production method for user-involved symbol design. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Study on Product Innovative Design Process Driven by Ideal Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fuying; Lu, Ximei; Wang, Ping; Liu, Hui

    Product innovative design in companies today relies heavily on individual members’ experience and creative ideation as well as their skills of integrating creativity and innovation tools with design methods agilely. Creative ideation and inventive ideas generation are two crucial stages in product innovative design process. Ideal solution is the desire final ideas for given problem, and the striving reaching target for product design. In this paper, a product innovative design process driven by ideal solution is proposed. This design process encourages designers to overcome their psychological inertia, to foster creativity in a systematic way for acquiring breakthrough creative and innovative solutions in a reducing sphere of solution-seeking, and results in effective product innovative design rapidly. A case study example is also presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed design process.

  17. Made to Measure: Designs Tailored to Your Study Needs.

    PubMed

    Jupiter, Daniel C

    2015-01-01

    What is the best study design? Why would we prefer one to another? With many different designs, what should we be looking for in our critical reading of the literature? We discuss a variety of designs, and their appropriate use. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Scaffolding Preservice Teachers' WebQuest Design: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Feng; Hannafin, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how participating preservice teachers reported their perceptions and use of different scaffolds provided to support their WebQuest design. Sixteen preservice teachers participated in a succession of course activities designed to guide WebQuest design and development. Results indicated that while participants followed, adapted,…

  19. Embracing Wicked Problems: The Turn to Design in Composition Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marback, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Recent appeal to the concept of design in composition studies benefits teaching writing in digital media. Yet the concept of design has not been developed enough to fully benefit composition instruction. This article develops an understanding of design as a matter of resolving wicked problems and makes a case for the advantages of this…

  20. Embracing Wicked Problems: The Turn to Design in Composition Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marback, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Recent appeal to the concept of design in composition studies benefits teaching writing in digital media. Yet the concept of design has not been developed enough to fully benefit composition instruction. This article develops an understanding of design as a matter of resolving wicked problems and makes a case for the advantages of this…

  1. Parametric Design Studies on a Direct Liquid Feed Fuel Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H. A.; Narayanan, S. R.; Nakamura, B.; Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.

    1995-01-01

    Parametric design studies were carried out on a direct methanol liquid feed fuel cell employing 1 M MeOH fuel, air and oxygen as oxidant in a 2 inch x 2 inch cell employing polymeric electrolyte membranes. Measurements include voltage-current output parameters, methanol crossover rate, and impedance as a function of several design and operational variables. Design variables are described.

  2. Scaffolding Preservice Teachers' WebQuest Design: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Feng; Hannafin, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how participating preservice teachers reported their perceptions and use of different scaffolds provided to support their WebQuest design. Sixteen preservice teachers participated in a succession of course activities designed to guide WebQuest design and development. Results indicated that while participants followed, adapted,…

  3. Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment: design studies based on superconducting and hybrid toroidal field coils. Design overview

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, C.A.

    1984-10-01

    This document is a design overview that describes the scoping studies and preconceptual design effort performed in FY 1983 on the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) class of device. These studies focussed on devices with all-superconducting toroidal field (TF) coils and on devices with superconducting TF coils supplemented with copper TF coil inserts located in the bore of the TF coils in the shield region. Each class of device is designed to satisfy the mission of ignition and long pulse equilibrium burn. Typical design parameters are: major radius = 3.75 m, minor radius = 1.0 m, field on axis = 4.5 T, plasma current = 7.0 MA. These designs relay on lower hybrid (LHRH) current rampup and heating to ignition using ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF). A pumped limiter has been assumed for impurity control. The present document is a design overview; a more detailed design description is contained in a companion document.

  4. Cometary particulate analyzer design definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utterback, N. G.

    1981-01-01

    A concept for remotely determining the relative abundance of elements contained in cometary particulates collected by a spacecraft was conducted with very encouraging results. The technique utilizes a short high intensity burst of laser radiation to vaporize and ionize collected particulate material. Ions extracted from this laser-produced plasma are analyzed in a time of flight mass spectrometer to yield an atomic mass spectrum representative of the relative abundance of elements in the particulates. A prototype analyzer system was designed, constructed, and tested. Results show that: (1) energy-time focus performs as predicted in improving resolution; (2) power densities sufficient to produce usable ionization efficiencies can be obtained; (3) complex alloys such as stainless steel can be analyzed; and (4) a tiny, simple and reliable laser used in the demonstration easily meets spacecraft power and mass limitations. A mass resolution of 150 was experimentally demonstrated at mass 108, and an analytical extrapolation predicts a resolution sufficient to separate masses 250 and 251.

  5. Study of the Synchronous Reluctance Motor Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirba, J.; Lavrinovicha, L.; Dobriyan, R.

    2016-08-01

    The paper focuses on studying the external-rotor synchronous reluctance motor. The analysis is performed to estimate the influence of the number of stator slots and non-magnetic areas in the rotor (i.e., flux barriers) on the electromagnetic torque and torque ripple of the studied motor. It is concluded that the increase in the number of stator slots Z = 6 to Z = 18 causes an approximately twofold decrease in the ripple factor, but torque increases by 5 %. Electromagnetic torque will be increased approximately by 24 %, if non-magnetic flux barriers are created in the rotor of the studied synchronous reluctance motor.

  6. Optimal adaptive sequential designs for crossover bioequivalence studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jialin; Audet, Charles; DiLiberti, Charles E; Hauck, Walter W; Montague, Timothy H; Parr, Alan F; Potvin, Diane; Schuirmann, Donald J

    2016-01-01

    In prior works, this group demonstrated the feasibility of valid adaptive sequential designs for crossover bioequivalence studies. In this paper, we extend the prior work to optimize adaptive sequential designs over a range of geometric mean test/reference ratios (GMRs) of 70-143% within each of two ranges of intra-subject coefficient of variation (10-30% and 30-55%). These designs also introduce a futility decision for stopping the study after the first stage if there is sufficiently low likelihood of meeting bioequivalence criteria if the second stage were completed, as well as an upper limit on total study size. The optimized designs exhibited substantially improved performance characteristics over our previous adaptive sequential designs. Even though the optimized designs avoided undue inflation of type I error and maintained power at ≥ 80%, their average sample sizes were similar to or less than those of conventional single stage designs.

  7. Computational wing design studies relating to natural laminar flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waggoner, Edgar G.

    1986-01-01

    Two research studies are described which directly relate to the application of natural laminar flow (NLF) technology to transonic transport-type wing planforms. Each involved using state-of-the-art computational methods to design three-dimensional wing contours which generate significant runs of favorable pressure gradients. The first study supported the Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment and involves design of a full-span glove which extends from the leading edge to the spoiler hinge line on the upper surface of an F-14 outer wing panel. A wing was designed computationally for a corporate transport aircraft in the second study. The resulting wing design generated favorable pressure gradients from the leading edge aft to the mid-chord on both upper and lower surfaces at the cruise design point. Detailed descriptions of the computational design approach are presented along with the various constraints imposed on each of the designs.

  8. A Study of Education for Environmental Design. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Princeton Univ., NJ.

    This study was commissioned by the American Institute of Architects because of a widespread feeling that education for environmental design must change. The purpose of this study is to focus and give direction to the many changes that are taking place in environmental design education today. Emerging from the study was a process for planning and…

  9. Impact of Design Trade Studies on System Human Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Gary V.; Askren, William B.

    This study focused on two objectives. The first objective was to identify and classify the characteristics of conceptual design trade studies that have high potential impact on human resource requirements of Air Force weapon systems. The approach used was a case history review and analysis of 129 F-15 aircraft design trade studies. The analysis…

  10. Current status of high conversion pressurized water reactor design studies

    SciTech Connect

    Umeoka, T.; Kono, T.; Toyoda, Y.; Ogino, M.; Iwai, S.; Hishida, H.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary design studies on high conversion pressurized water reactors (HCPWRs) have been completed, and plant design studies are currently being performed to improve the feasibility of HCPWRs. The present status of the feasibility studies is covered, and the related validation tests to be conducted in the coming years are reviewed.

  11. Design Study Methodology: Reflections from the Trenches and the Stacks.

    PubMed

    Sedlmair, M; Meyer, M; Munzner, T

    2012-12-01

    Design studies are an increasingly popular form of problem-driven visualization research, yet there is little guidance available about how to do them effectively. In this paper we reflect on our combined experience of conducting twenty-one design studies, as well as reading and reviewing many more, and on an extensive literature review of other field work methods and methodologies. Based on this foundation we provide definitions, propose a methodological framework, and provide practical guidance for conducting design studies. We define a design study as a project in which visualization researchers analyze a specific real-world problem faced by domain experts, design a visualization system that supports solving this problem, validate the design, and reflect about lessons learned in order to refine visualization design guidelines. We characterize two axes - a task clarity axis from fuzzy to crisp and an information location axis from the domain expert's head to the computer - and use these axes to reason about design study contributions, their suitability, and uniqueness from other approaches. The proposed methodological framework consists of 9 stages: learn, winnow, cast, discover, design, implement, deploy, reflect, and write. For each stage we provide practical guidance and outline potential pitfalls. We also conducted an extensive literature survey of related methodological approaches that involve a significant amount of qualitative field work, and compare design study methodology to that of ethnography, grounded theory, and action research.

  12. FFAG Designs for the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, J.S.; Machida, S.

    2009-05-04

    The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (IDS-NF) aims to produce a design report for a neutrino factory. One component of that design is a linear nonscaling fixed-field alternating gradient accelerator (FFAG) that will accelerate to the final energy of 25 GeV. An FFAG is used to reduce the machine cost by maximizing the number of passes made through the RF cavities. We present some design options for this FFAG, individually optimized for cost. We study the addition of nonlinear magnets to the lattice to improve the performance of the lattice and consider the negative effects of doing so.

  13. Design issues for evaluating seedling exposure studies.

    Treesearch

    E. Charles Peterson; A. Robert. Mickler

    1993-01-01

    Tree seedling studies, covering a wide range of experimental conditions in pollutant treatment, species, facilities, and exposure regimes, have become commonplace in forestry research for assessing the actual and potential environmental effects of air pollutants on forest ecosystems. While assuring a wide breadth of scientific information, sufficient consideration has...

  14. Some considerations on the design of population pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Duffull, Stephen; Waterhouse, Tim; Eccleston, John

    2005-08-01

    The goal of this manuscript is to introduce a framework for consideration of designs for population pharmacokinetic orpharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic studies. A standard one compartment pharmacokinetic model with first-order input and elimination is considered. A series of theoretical designs are considered that explore the influence of optimizing the allocation of sampling times, allocating patients to elementary designs, consideration of sparse sampling and unbalanced designs and also the influence of single vs. multiple dose designs. It was found that what appears to be relatively sparse sampling (less blood samples per patient than the number of fixed effects parameters to estimate) can also be highly informative. Overall, it is evident that exploring the population design space can yield many parsimonious designs that are efficient for parameter estimation and that may not otherwise have been considered without the aid of optimal design theory.

  15. Research study on IPS digital controller design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, B. C.; Folkerts, C.

    1976-01-01

    The performance is investigated of the simplified continuous-data model of the Instrument Pointing System (IPS). Although the ultimate objective is to study the digital model of the system, knowledge on the performance of the continuous-data model is important in the sense that the characteristics of the digital system should approach those of the continuous-data system as the sampling period approaches zero.

  16. ER-20037 LLNL eternal pathfinder wing spar design study report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This document outlines the results of a design study performed by EDO-FSD on the LLNL Eternal Pathfinder Wing Spar/Fuel Tank. The main focus of the design study was the weight minimization of the composite wall of the mid span spar section of the aircraft. The torque, shear, moment and pressure loading requirements, as well as LLNL`s preliminary drawings, were used to develop a reduced weight mid-span spar design. The design study also encompassed details such as the pressure bulkheads, wing rod connectors, and attachment flanges.

  17. EBTS:DESIGN AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY.

    SciTech Connect

    PIKIN,A.; ALESSI,J.; BEEBE,E.; KPONOU,A.; PRELEC,K.; KUZNETSOV,G.; TIUNOV,M.

    2000-11-06

    Experimental study of the BNL Electron Beam Test Stand (EBTS), which is a prototype of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), is currently underway. The basic physics and engineering aspects of a high current EBIS implemented in EBTS are outlined and construction of its main systems is presented. Efficient transmission of a 10 A electron beam through the ion trap has been achieved. Experimental results on generation of multiply charged ions with both continuous gas and external ion injection confirm stable operation of the ion trap.

  18. Study of new anticoincidence systems design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabaud, J.; Laurent, P.; Baronick, J.-P.; Oger, R.; Prévôt, G.

    2012-12-01

    The scientific performances of future hard X-ray missions will necessitate a very low detector background level. This will imply thorough background simulations, and efficient background rejection systems. It necessitates also a very good knowledge of the detectors to be shielded. We got experience on these activities by conceiving and optimizing the active and passive background rejection system of the Simbol-X and IXO/HXI missions. Considering that this work may naturally be extended to other X-ray missions, we have initiated with CNES, in 2010, a R&T project on the study of background rejection systems, whose status will be presented in this paper.

  19. Combining genetic association study designs: a GWAS case study

    PubMed Central

    Estus, Janice L.; Fardo, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) explore the relationship between genome variability and disease susceptibility with either population- or family-based data. Here, we have evaluated the utility of combining population- and family-based statistical association tests and have proposed a method for reducing the burden of multiple testing. Unrelated singleton and parent-offspring trio cases and controls from the Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes (GoKinD) study were analyzed for genetic association with diabetic nephropathy (DN) in type 1 diabetics (T1D). The Cochran-Armitage test for trend and the family-based association test were employed using either unrelated cases and controls or trios, respectively. In addition to combining single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) p-values across these tests via Fisher's method, we employed a novel screening approach to rank SNPs based on conditional power for more efficient testing. Using either the population-based or family-based subset alone predictably limited resolution to detect DN SNPs. For 384,197 SNPs passing quality control (QC), none achieved strict genome-wide significance (1.4 × 10−7) using 1171 singletons (577/594 cases/controls) or 1738 pooled singletons and offspring probands (841/897). Similarly, none of the 352,004 SNPs passing QC in 567 family trios (264/303 case/control proband trios) reached genome-wide significance. Testing the top 10 SNPs ranked using aggregated conditional power resulted in two SNPs reaching genome-wide significance, rs11645147 on chromosome 16 (p = 1.74 × 10−4 < 0.05/10 = 0.005) and rs7866522 on chromosome 9 (p = 0.0033). Efficient usage of mixed designs incorporating both unrelated and family-based data may help to uncover associations otherwise difficult to detect in the presence of massive multiple testing corrections. Capitalizing on the strengths of both types while using screening approaches may be useful especially in light of large-scale, next-generation sequencing and rare

  20. Design of Orion Soil Impact Study using the Modern Design of Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLoach, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Two conventional One Factor At a Time (OFAT) test matrices under consideration for an Orion Landing System subscale soil impact study are reviewed. Certain weaknesses in the designs, systemic to OFAT experiment designs generally, are identified. An alternative test matrix is proposed that is based in the Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE), which achieves certain synergies by combining the original two test matrices into one. The attendant resource savings are quantified and the impact on uncertainty is discussed.

  1. An analytical study for the design of advanced rotor airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, L. D.

    1973-01-01

    A theoretical study has been conducted to design and evaluate two airfoils for helicopter rotors. The best basic shape, designed with a transonic hodograph design method, was modified to meet subsonic criteria. One airfoil had an additional constraint for low pitching-moment at the transonic design point. Airfoil characteristics were predicted. Results of a comparative analysis of helicopter performance indicate that the new airfoils will produce reduced rotor power requirements compared to the NACA 0012. The hodograph design method, written in CDC Algol, is listed and described.

  2. Preliminary design studies of an advanced general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Ron; Demoss, Shane; Dirkzwager, AB; Evans, Darryl; Gomer, Charles; Keiter, Jerry; Knipp, Darren; Seier, Glen; Smith, Steve; Wenninger, ED

    1991-01-01

    The preliminary design results are presented of the advanced aircraft design project. The goal was to take a revolutionary look into the design of a general aviation aircraft. Phase 1 of the project included the preliminary design of two configurations, a pusher, and a tractor. Phase 2 included the selection of only one configuration for further study. The pusher configuration was selected on the basis of performance characteristics, cabin noise, natural laminar flow, and system layouts. The design was then iterated to achieve higher levels of performance.

  3. Design Evolution Study Thermal Operating Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    T.L. Mitchell

    2002-04-29

    This study provides results supporting the conclusion that the repository can be operated over a varying range of thermal modes and therefore temperatures. In particular, this work focused on limiting the peak, postclosure waste package surface temperature to less than 85 degrees Celsius, a possible limit due to corrosion considerations. These operating modes were compared by varying the waste package in drift spacing (0.1-2.83 meters), drift pitch (drift spacing centerline to centerline of 40-120 meters), ventilation duration (75-300 years), and ventilation efficiency (50-80%). The resulting graphical representation shows where the constant temperature of the waste package (85 degrees Celsius) lies with respect to drift pitch and waste package spacing. The waste considered in this study is the strict youngest fuel first 5 years old fuel. Using only strict youngest fuel first 5 years old fuel in the waste stream results in an average heat load per waste package of 12.48kW/Pkg. With this high average heat load, it is not possible to achieve a maximum waste package surface temperature of 85 degrees Celsius or less. By aging 63% of the strict youngest fuel first 5 years old fuel for 27 years, it becomes possible to maintain the waste package surface temperature at 85 degrees Celsius or less. The 27 years of aging comes from the fact that the repository could be closed in as little as 50 years. It takes 23 years to emplace the waste and therefore the last fuel received for emplacement is 27 years prior to closures. The strict youngest fuel first 5 years old fuel waste stream with 63% aged for 27 years, results in an average power level of 8.4kW/Pkg. This lower heat load allows the controlled parameters of drift pitch, waste package spacing, aging, and ventilation duration to be varied to achieve the desired results. This study compares the hot strict youngest fuel first 5 years old fuel to the previous waste stream, which has an average of 26-year-old fuel. The 26-year

  4. On study design in neuroimaging heritability analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koran, Mary Ellen; Li, Bo; Jahanshad, Neda; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A.; Glahn, David C.; Thompson, Paul M.; Blangero, John; Nichols, Thomas E.; Kochunov, Peter; Landman, Bennett A.

    2014-03-01

    Imaging genetics is an emerging methodology that combines genetic information with imaging-derived metrics to understand how genetic factors impact observable structural, functional, and quantitative phenotypes. Many of the most well-known genetic studies are based on Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS), which use large populations of related or unrelated individuals to associate traits and disorders with individual genetic factors. Merging imaging and genetics may potentially lead to improved power of association in GWAS because imaging traits may be more sensitive phenotypes, being closer to underlying genetic mechanisms, and their quantitative nature inherently increases power. We are developing SOLAR-ECLIPSE (SE) imaging genetics software which is capable of performing genetic analyses with both large-scale quantitative trait data and family structures of variable complexity. This program can estimate the contribution of genetic commonality among related subjects to a given phenotype, and essentially answer the question of whether or not the phenotype is heritable. This central factor of interest, heritability, offers bounds on the direct genetic influence over observed phenotypes. In order for a trait to be a good phenotype for GWAS, it must be heritable: at least some proportion of its variance must be due to genetic influences. A variety of family structures are commonly used for estimating heritability, yet the variability and biases for each as a function of the sample size are unknown. Herein, we investigate the ability of SOLAR to accurately estimate heritability models based on imaging data simulated using Monte Carlo methods implemented in R. We characterize the bias and the variability of heritability estimates from SOLAR as a function of sample size and pedigree structure (including twins, nuclear families, and nuclear families with grandparents).

  5. ASIPP remotely operated vehicle design (ROV) and feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Xuanchen; Wang, Lei; Pan, Hongtao; Zheng, Lei; Cheng, Yong; Wu, Jing

    2017-06-01

    The ROV is an important device for studying the underwater world. Thus, the ASIPP ROV is designed to meet this demand by ASIPP RH team. Through adding the wireless vision module, the performance of the robot is promoted in motion control, image collecting and so on. The rationality of the design and the effectiveness of the controller are validated by simulation and experimental study.

  6. Should Intelligent Design Be Taught in Social Studies Courses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Diana E.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author examines whether the very reasons that explain why intelligent design is controversial in the science curriculum also apply to social studies. She reports what teachers at a recent democratic education conference said about four different lessons on intelligent design that could fit into social studies courses. She…

  7. Children as Educational Computer Game Designers: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baytak, Ahmet; Land, Susan M.; Smith, Brian K.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how children designed computer games as artifacts that reflected their understanding of nutrition. Ten 5th grade students were asked to design computer games with the software "Game Maker" for the purpose of teaching 1st graders about nutrition. The results from the case study show that students were able to…

  8. Communicating Qualitative Research Study Designs to Research Ethics Review Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ells, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Researchers using qualitative methodologies appear to be particularly prone to having their study designs called into question by research ethics or funding agency review committees. In this paper, the author considers the issue of communicating qualitative research study designs in the context of institutional research ethics review and offers…

  9. Preliminary design study for an atomospheric science facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, R.

    1972-01-01

    The activities and results of the Atmospheric Science Facility preliminary design study are reported. The objectives of the study were to define the scientific goals, to determine the range of experiment types, and to develop the preliminary instrument design requirements for a reusable, general purpose, optical research facility for investigating the earth's atmosphere from a space shuttle orbital vehicle.

  10. Interior Design Supports Art Education: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Stephanie A.

    2006-01-01

    Interior design, as a field of study, is a rapidly growing area of interest--particularly for teenagers in the United States. Part of this interest stems from the proliferation of design-related reality shows available through television media. Some art educators and curriculum specialists in the nation perceive the study of interior spaces as a…

  11. Interior Design Supports Art Education: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Stephanie A.

    2006-01-01

    Interior design, as a field of study, is a rapidly growing area of interest--particularly for teenagers in the United States. Part of this interest stems from the proliferation of design-related reality shows available through television media. Some art educators and curriculum specialists in the nation perceive the study of interior spaces as a…

  12. A Study of Head Start Effectiveness Using a Randomized Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott-Shim, Martha; Lambert, Richard; McCart, Frances

    Although an extensive body of literature exists on the impact of Head Start, very few studies have used an experimental design with random assignment, a key methodological component needed to increase the weight of evaluation findings. This study used a randomized design with a wide range of outcomes related to school readiness to assess the…

  13. Interactive computer program for optimal designs of longitudinal cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Tekle, Fetene B; Tan, Frans E S; Berger, Martijn P F

    2009-05-01

    Many large scale longitudinal cohort studies have been carried out or are ongoing in different fields of science. Such studies need a careful planning to obtain the desired quality of results with the available resources. In the past, a number of researches have been performed on optimal designs for longitudinal studies. However, there was no computer program yet available to help researchers to plan their longitudinal cohort design in an optimal way. A new interactive computer program for the optimization of designs of longitudinal cohort studies is therefore presented. The computer program helps users to identify the optimal cohort design with an optimal number of repeated measurements per subject and an optimal allocations of time points within a given study period. Further, users can compute the loss in relative efficiencies of any other alternative design compared to the optimal one. The computer program is described and illustrated using a practical example.

  14. Transitioning from Marketing-Oriented Design to User-Oriented Design: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laster, Shari; Stitz, Tammy; Bove, Frank J.; Wise, Casey

    2011-01-01

    The transition to a new architecture and design for an academic library Web site does not always proceed smoothly. In this case study, a library at a large research university hired an outside Web development contractor to create a new architecture and design for the university's Web site using dotCMS, an open-source content management system. The…

  15. Design Fixation and Cooperative Learning in Elementary Engineering Design Project: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Yi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a case study examining 3rd, 4th and 5th graders' design fixation and cooperative learning in an engineering design project. A mixed methods instrument, the Cooperative Learning Observation Protocol (CLOP), was adapted to record frequency and class observation on cooperative learning engagement through detailed field notes.…

  16. Transitioning from Marketing-Oriented Design to User-Oriented Design: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laster, Shari; Stitz, Tammy; Bove, Frank J.; Wise, Casey

    2011-01-01

    The transition to a new architecture and design for an academic library Web site does not always proceed smoothly. In this case study, a library at a large research university hired an outside Web development contractor to create a new architecture and design for the university's Web site using dotCMS, an open-source content management system. The…

  17. Research designs and making causal inferences from health care studies.

    PubMed

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Jankowski, Katherine R B

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes the major types of research designs used in healthcare research, including experimental, quasi-experimental, and observational studies. Observational studies are divided into survey studies (descriptive and correlational studies), case-studies and analytic studies, the last of which are commonly used in epidemiology: case-control, retrospective cohort, and prospective cohort studies. Similarities and differences among the research designs are described and the relative strength of evidence they provide is discussed. Emphasis is placed on five criteria for drawing causal inferences that are derived from the writings of the philosopher John Stuart Mill, especially his methods or canons. The application of the criteria to experimentation is explained. Particular attention is given to the degree to which different designs meet the five criteria for making causal inferences. Examples of specific studies that have used various designs in chaplaincy research are provided.

  18. Advanced wind turbine design studies: Advanced conceptual study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P; Sherwin, R

    1994-08-01

    In conjunction with the US Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s Advanced Wind Turbine Program, the Atlantic Orient Corporation developed preliminary designs for the next generation of wind turbines. These 50 kW and 350 kW turbines are based upon the concept of simplicity. By adhering to a design philosophy that emphasizes simplicity, we project that these turbines will produce energy at extremely competitive rates which will unlock the potential of wind energy domestically and internationally. The program consisted of three distinct phases. First, we evaluated the operational history of the Enertech 44 series wind turbines. As a result of this evaluation, we developed, in the second phase, a preliminary design for a new 50 kW turbine for the near-term market. In the third phase, we took a clean-sheet-of-paper approach to designing a 350 kW turbine focused on the mid-1990s utility market that incorporated past experience and advanced technology.

  19. Advanced wind turbine design studies: Advanced conceptual study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, P.; Sherwin, R.

    1994-08-01

    In conjunction with the US Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Advanced Wind Turbine Program, the Atlantic Orient Corporation developed preliminary designs for the next generation of wind turbines. These 50 kW and 350 kW turbines are based upon the concept of simplicity. By adhering to a design philosophy that emphasizes simplicity, we project that these turbines will produce energy at extremely competitive rates which will unlock the potential of wind energy domestically and internationally. The program consisted of three distinct phases. First, we evaluated the operational history of the Enertech 44 series wind turbines. As a result of this evaluation, we developed, in the second phase, a preliminary design for a new 50 kW turbine for the near-term market. In the third phase, we took a clean-sheet-of-paper approach to designing a 350 kW turbine focused on the mid-1990s utility market that incorporated past experience and advanced technology.

  20. WeSaySo Case Study: Designing and Implementing a Case Study for Use in an Instructional Design Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Rick; Barnett, Mardee; Gamble, Yolanda; Kolak, Mike

    A case study was used in an instructional design class to facilitate the transfer of conceptual knowledge to concrete concerns and to aid instructional technology graduate students' understanding of the steps involved in designing, analyzing, and implementing an effective needs analysis. The case study involved real events at fictitious company…

  1. Lean, Premixed-Prevaporized (LPP) combustor conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, R. A.; Dodds, W. J.; Ekstedt, E. E.

    1979-01-01

    Four combustion systems were designed and sized for the energy efficient engine. A fifth combustor was designed for the cycle and envelope of the twin-spool, high bypass ratio, high pressure ratio turbofan engine. Emission levels, combustion performance, life, and reliability assessments were made for these five combustion systems. Results of these design studies indicate that cruise NOx emission can be reduced by the use of lean, premixed-prevaporaized combustion and airflow modulation.

  2. The Study of the Relationship between Probabilistic Design and Axiomatic Design Methodology. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onwubiko, Chin-Yere; Onyebueke, Landon

    1996-01-01

    The structural design, or the design of machine elements, has been traditionally based on deterministic design methodology. The deterministic method considers all design parameters to be known with certainty. This methodology is, therefore, inadequate to design complex structures that are subjected to a variety of complex, severe loading conditions. A nonlinear behavior that is dependent on stress, stress rate, temperature, number of load cycles, and time is observed on all components subjected to complex conditions. These complex conditions introduce uncertainties; hence, the actual factor of safety margin remains unknown. In the deterministic methodology, the contingency of failure is discounted; hence, there is a use of a high factor of safety. It may be most useful in situations where the design structures are simple. The probabilistic method is concerned with the probability of non-failure performance of structures or machine elements. It is much more useful in situations where the design is characterized by complex geometry, possibility of catastrophic failure, sensitive loads and material properties. Also included: Comparative Study of the use of AGMA Geometry Factors and Probabilistic Design Methodology in the Design of Compact Spur Gear Set.

  3. Instructional Design and Online Learning: A Quality Assurance Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Rose M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in the evaluations of online course quality using the Quality Matters model among four groups of reviewers: instructional designers, faculty with subject-matter expertise, peer faculty with no subject-matter expertise, and administrators. A causal-comparative design was utilized to…

  4. An Empirical Study on Students' Ability to Comprehend Design Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatzigeorgiou, Alexander; Tsantalis, Nikolaos; Deligiannis, Ignatios

    2008-01-01

    Design patterns have become a widely acknowledged software engineering practice and therefore have been incorporated in the curricula of most computer science departments. This paper presents an observational study on students' ability to understand and apply design patterns. Within the context of a postgraduate software engineering course,…

  5. Thinking about "Design Thinking": A Study of Teacher Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retna, Kala S.

    2016-01-01

    Schools are continuously looking for new ways of enhancing student learning to equip students with skills that would enable them to cope with twenty-first century demands. One promising approach focuses on design thinking. This study examines teacher's perceptions, experiences and challenges faced in adopting design thinking. There is a lack of…

  6. Thinking about "Design Thinking": A Study of Teacher Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retna, Kala S.

    2016-01-01

    Schools are continuously looking for new ways of enhancing student learning to equip students with skills that would enable them to cope with twenty-first century demands. One promising approach focuses on design thinking. This study examines teacher's perceptions, experiences and challenges faced in adopting design thinking. There is a lack of…

  7. Concussion Awareness Education: A Design and Development Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilbeam, Renee M.

    2016-01-01

    This research study looks at the design and development of an online concussion awareness education module. The Keep Your Head in the Game: Concussion Awareness Training for High School Athletes, or Brainbook, is a stand-alone e-learning module designed to run for fifty minutes and to be highly interactive using short video clips with associated…

  8. Design study for a magnetically supported reaction wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocking, G.; Dendy, J.; Sabnis, A.

    1974-01-01

    Results are described of a study program in which the characteristics of a magnetically supported reaction wheel are defined. Tradeoff analyses are presented for the principal components, which are then combined in several reaction wheel design concepts. A preliminary layout of the preferred configuration is presented along with calculated design and performance parameters. Recommendations are made for a prototype development program.

  9. Instructional Design and Online Learning: A Quality Assurance Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Rose M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in the evaluations of online course quality using the Quality Matters model among four groups of reviewers: instructional designers, faculty with subject-matter expertise, peer faculty with no subject-matter expertise, and administrators. A causal-comparative design was utilized to…

  10. Concussion Awareness Education: A Design and Development Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilbeam, Renee M.

    2016-01-01

    This research study looks at the design and development of an online concussion awareness education module. The Keep Your Head in the Game: Concussion Awareness Training for High School Athletes, or Brainbook, is a stand-alone e-learning module designed to run for fifty minutes and to be highly interactive using short video clips with associated…

  11. Pasadena City College SIGI Project Research Design. Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risser, John J.; Tulley, John E.

    A pilot study evaluation of SIGI (System of Interactive Guidance and Information) at Pasadena City College in 1974-75 tested the effectiveness of an experimental research design for an expanded field test of the system the following year. (SIGI is a computer based career guidance program designed by Educational Testing Service to assist community…

  12. Presentation Wizards and You: An Instructional Design Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savenye, Wilhelmina C.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a case study designed to help intermediate and advanced students or trainees to adapt traditional instructional design procedures to "real-world" training situations. Scenarios involving a video production company and interactive video are described; and learning outcomes are discussed, including conducting a needs assessment,…

  13. Pasadena City College SIGI Project Research Design. Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risser, John J.; Tulley, John E.

    A pilot study evaluation of SIGI (System of Interactive Guidance and Information) at Pasadena City College in 1974-75 tested the effectiveness of an experimental research design for an expanded field test of the system the following year. (SIGI is a computer based career guidance program designed by Educational Testing Service to assist community…

  14. An Empirical Study on Students' Ability to Comprehend Design Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatzigeorgiou, Alexander; Tsantalis, Nikolaos; Deligiannis, Ignatios

    2008-01-01

    Design patterns have become a widely acknowledged software engineering practice and therefore have been incorporated in the curricula of most computer science departments. This paper presents an observational study on students' ability to understand and apply design patterns. Within the context of a postgraduate software engineering course,…

  15. Design Languages, Notation Systems, and Instructional Technology: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Sandie H.; Gibbons, Andrew S.

    2004-01-01

    Notational systems, used in mature fields of study, are closely related to design languages. The future of a technological field depends on the ability to communicate ideas and changes with others in the field. Instructional technology is one field that can benefit from a notation system enabling designers to duplicate, execute, and communicate…

  16. Open Educational Resources: A Delphi Study of Instructional Design Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Marnice K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this modified Delphi research study was to investigate instructional designers' beliefs about the instructional strategies and activities to be included in a universal framework for designing quality, self-directed, multimedia, open educational resources (OERs). With the rapid growth of availability and use of OERs by a widely…

  17. Lessons Learned from Applying Design Thinking in a NASA Rapid Design Study in Aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria; Bakula, Casey; Castner, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    In late 2015, NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) funded an experiment in rapid design and rapid teaming to explore new approaches to solving challenging design problems in aeronautics in an effort to cultivate and foster innovation. This report summarizes several lessons learned from the rapid design portion of the study. This effort entailed learning and applying design thinking, a human-centered design approach, to complete the conceptual design for an open-ended design challenge within six months. The design challenge focused on creating a capability to advance experimental testing of autonomous aeronautics systems, an area of great interest to NASA, the US government as a whole, and an entire ecosystem of users and developers around the globe. A team of nine civil servant researchers from three of NASA's aeronautics field centers with backgrounds in several disciplines was assembled and rapidly trained in design thinking under the guidance of the innovation and design firm IDEO. The design thinking process, while used extensively outside the aerospace industry, is less common and even counter to many practices within the aerospace industry. In this report, several contrasts between common aerospace research and development practices and design thinking are discussed, drawing upon the lessons learned from the NASA rapid design study. The lessons discussed included working towards a design solution without a set of detailed design requirements, which may not be practical or even feasible for management to ascertain for complex, challenging problems. This approach allowed for the possibility of redesigning the original problem statement to better meet the needs of the users. Another lesson learned was to approach problems holistically from the perspective of the needs of individuals that may be affected by advances in topic area instead of purely from a technological feasibility viewpoint. The interdisciplinary nature of the design team also

  18. Study design considerations for irritable bowel syndrome clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry E.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials of therapies intended to alleviate symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are prevalent. However, the ideal study design remains elusive since there is no obvious pathophysiological target and no universally accepted endpoint to assess symptom improvement in IBS. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss the most problematic issues in the design of clinical trials intended to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments for IBS symptoms. Lack of standardized diagnostic criteria, symptom variability, heterogeneous subject characteristics, large placebo effects, lack of statistical power, inappropriate endpoint selection, and poorly selected study design are the most critical issues that may confound study outcomes in IBS clinical trials. PMID:25330749

  19. Neutronic design studies for an unattended, low power reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.G.; Durkee, J.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is involved in the design and demonstrations of a small, long-lived nuclear heat and electric power source for potential applications at remote sites where alternate fossil energy systems would not be cost effective. This paper describes the neutronic design analysis that was performed to arrive at two conceptual designs, one using thermoelectric conversion, the other using an organic Rankine cycle. To meet the design objectives and constraints a number of scoping and optimization studies were carried out. The results of calculations of control worths, temperature coefficients of reactivity and fuel depletion effects are reported.

  20. Innovative Approaches to Curriculum Design in the Study Abroad Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Deborah J., Ed.

    Recommendations for designing a study abroad curriculum are offered to program directors, teachers, and study abroad leaders. The 13 essays and their authors are: "Study Abroad and the Liberal Arts: The Canon in Disarray" (Michael Kline); "Preparing for Study Abroad: Innovative and Traditional Library Resources" (Carolyn…

  1. Innovative Approaches to Curriculum Design in the Study Abroad Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Deborah J., Ed.

    Recommendations for designing a study abroad curriculum are offered to program directors, teachers, and study abroad leaders. The 13 essays and their authors are: "Study Abroad and the Liberal Arts: The Canon in Disarray" (Michael Kline); "Preparing for Study Abroad: Innovative and Traditional Library Resources" (Carolyn…

  2. Design and analysis study of a spacecraft optical transceiver package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, S. G.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed system level design of an Optical Transceiver Package (OPTRANSPAC) for a deep space vehicle whose mission is outer planet exploration is developed. In addition to the terminal design, this study provides estimates of the dynamic environments to be encountered by the transceiver throughout its mission life. Optical communication link analysis, optical thin lens design, electronic functional design and mechanical layout and packaging are employed in the terminal design. Results of the study describe an Optical Transceiver Package capable of communicating to an Earth Orbiting Relay Station at a distance of 10 Astronomical Units (AU) and data rates up to 100 KBPS. The transceiver is also capable of receiving 1 KBPS of command data from the Earth Relay. The physical dimensions of the terminal are contained within a 3.5' x 1.5' x 2.0' envelope and the transceiver weight and power are estimated at 52.2 Kg (115 pounds) and 57 watts, respectively.

  3. Initial trade and design studies for the fusion engineering device

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-06-01

    The Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. The Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), initiated a program of trade and design studies in October 1980 to support the selection of the FED concept. This document presents the results of these initial trade and design studies. Based on these results, a baseline configuration has been identified and the Design Center effort for the remainder of the fiscal year will be devoted to the development of a self-consistent FED design description.

  4. Supersonic civil airplane study and design: Performance and sonic boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Samson

    1995-01-01

    Since aircraft configuration plays an important role in aerodynamic performance and sonic boom shape, the configuration of the next generation supersonic civil transport has to be tailored to meet high aerodynamic performance and low sonic boom requirements. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used to design airplanes to meet these dual objectives. The work and results in this report are used to support NASA's High Speed Research Program (HSRP). CFD tools and techniques have been developed for general usages of sonic boom propagation study and aerodynamic design. Parallel to the research effort on sonic boom extrapolation, CFD flow solvers have been coupled with a numeric optimization tool to form a design package for aircraft configuration. This CFD optimization package has been applied to configuration design on a low-boom concept and an oblique all-wing concept. A nonlinear unconstrained optimizer for Parallel Virtual Machine has been developed for aerodynamic design and study.

  5. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of a large cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. The Pesticide Exposure Study is a sub-study to evaluate exposure factors and to provide data to assess exposure cla...

  6. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of a large cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. The Pesticide Exposure Study is a sub-study to evaluate exposure factors and to provide data to assess exposure cla...

  7. Designing a mixed methods study in pediatric oncology nursing research.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Krista; Woodgate, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Despite the appeal of discovering the different strengths of various research methods, mixed methods research remains elusive in pediatric oncology nursing research. If pediatric oncology nurses are to succeed in mixing quantitative and qualitative methods, they need practical guidelines for managing the complex data and analyses of mixed methods research. This article discusses mixed methods terminology, designs, and key design features. Specific areas addressed include the myths about mixed methods research, types of mixed method research designs, steps involved in developing a mixed method research study, and the benefits and challenges of using mixed methods designs in pediatric oncology research. Examples of recent research studies that have combined quantitative and qualitative research methods are provided. The term mixed methods research is used throughout this article to reflect the use of both quantitative and qualitative methods within one study rather than the use of these methods in separate studies concerning the same research problem.

  8. Conceptual design study for a teleoperator visual system, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, D.; Grant, C.; Johnson, C.; Meirick, R.; Polhemus, C.; Ray, A.; Rittenhouse, D.; Skidmore, R.

    1972-01-01

    Results are reported for work performed during the first phase of the conceptual design study for a teleoperator visual system. This phase consists of four tasks: General requirements, concept development, subsystem requirements and analysis, and concept evaluation.

  9. Preliminary design study of advanced multistage axial flow core compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisler, D. C.; Koch, C. C.; Smith, L. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary design study was conducted to identify an advanced core compressor for use in new high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines to be introduced into commercial service in the 1980's. An evaluation of anticipated compressor and related component 1985 state-of-the-art technology was conducted. A parametric screening study covering a large number of compressor designs was conducted to determine the influence of the major compressor design features on efficiency, weight, cost, blade life, aircraft direct operating cost, and fuel usage. The trends observed in the parametric screening study were used to develop three high-efficiency, high-economic-payoff compressor designs. These three compressors were studied in greater detail to better evaluate their aerodynamic and mechanical feasibility.

  10. New Office Technology: A Study on Curriculum Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Martin

    1989-01-01

    A study collected information about office automation trends, office personnel job profiles, and existing curricula. A curriculum conference was held to design and validate a modular curriculum for office automation. (SK)

  11. Scenario for concurrent conceptual assembly line design: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mas, F.; Ríos, J.; Menéndez, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    The decision to design and build a new aircraft is preceded by years of research and study. Different disciplines work together throughout the lifecycle to ensure not only a complete functional definition of the product, but also a complete industrialization, a marketing plan, a maintenance plan, etc. This case study focuses on the conceptual design phase. During this phase, the design solutions that will meet the functional and industrial requirements are defined, i.e.: the basic requirements of industrialization. During this phase, several alternatives are studied, and the most attractive in terms of performance and cost requirements is selected. As a result of the study of these alternatives, it is possible to define an early conceptual design of the assembly line and its basic parameters. The plant needs, long cycle jigs & tools or industrial means and human resources with the necessary skills can be determined in advance.

  12. Designing SoTL Studies--Part I: Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartsch, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses how to improve validity in SoTL studies through generating appropriate measures and using designs that examine causality between an activity and students' performance. [Part II available at EJ1029365.

  13. New Office Technology: A Study on Curriculum Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Martin

    1989-01-01

    A study collected information about office automation trends, office personnel job profiles, and existing curricula. A curriculum conference was held to design and validate a modular curriculum for office automation. (SK)

  14. Submersible Aircraft Concept Design Study - Amendment 1. Additional Assessment of Design Risks & Sensitivities within the Original Study, and an Initial Assessment of Key Control Aspects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    Design Department Technical report Submersible Aircraft Concept Design Study – Amendment 1 Additional assessment of design risks...COVERED (Feb2010-Aug20) Submersible Aircraft Concept Design Study – Amendment 1 - Additional assessment of key design risks & sensitivities within...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The original Submersible Aircraft Concept Design Study (J. Eastgate and R. Goddard, NSWCCD-CISD-2010/011

  15. Block 2 SRM conceptual design studies. Volume 1, Book 1: Conceptual design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brad; Williams, Neal; Miller, John; Ralston, Joe; Richardson, Jennifer; Moore, Walt; Doll, Dan; Maughan, Jeff; Hayes, Fred

    1986-01-01

    The conceptual design studies of a Block 2 Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) require the elimination of asbestos-filled insulation and was open to alternate designs, such as case changes, different propellants, modified burn rate - to improve reliability and performance. Limitations were placed on SRM changes such that the outside geometry should not impact the physical interfaces with other Space Shuttle elements and should have minimum changes to the aerodynamic and dynamic characteristics of the Space Shuttle vehicle. Previous Space Shuttle SRM experience was assessed and new design concepts combined to define a valid approach to assured flight success and economic operation of the STS. Trade studies, preliminary designs, analyses, plans, and cost estimates are documented.

  16. Conceptual design study of 1985 commercial tilt rotor transports. Volume 1: VTOL design summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Detore, J. A.; Sambell, K. W.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft were synthesized in the 21-, 45-, and 100- passenger categories. Technological factors were considered and the 45-passenger point design, designated the D312, was selected. Variants of the D312 having sideline noise levels in hover of + or - 5 PNdB were also studied. All three 45-passenger aircraft were analyzed for performance, weights, economics, handling qualities, noise footprints, aeroelastic stability and ride comfort. Results are presented.

  17. Structural Design Feasibility Study for the Global Climate Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lewin,K.F.; Nagy, J.

    2008-12-01

    Neon, Inc. is proposing to establish a Global Change Experiment (GCE) Facility to increase our understanding of how ecological systems differ in their vulnerability to changes in climate and other relevant global change drivers, as well as provide the mechanistic basis for forecasting ecological change in the future. The experimental design was initially envisioned to consist of two complementary components; (A) a multi-factor experiment manipulating CO{sub 2}, temperature and water availability and (B) a water balance experiment. As the design analysis and cost estimates progressed, it became clear that (1) the technical difficulties of obtaining tight temperature control and maintaining elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels within an enclosure were greater than had been expected and (2) the envisioned study would not fit into the expected budget envelope if this was done in a partially or completely enclosed structure. After discussions between NEON management, the GCE science team, and Keith Lewin, NEON, Inc. requested Keith Lewin to expand the scope of this design study to include open-field exposure systems. In order to develop the GCE design to the point where it can be presented within a proposal for funding, a feasibility study of climate manipulation structures must be conducted to determine design approaches and rough cost estimates, and to identify advantages and disadvantages of these approaches including the associated experimental artifacts. NEON, Inc requested this design study in order to develop concepts for the climate manipulation structures to support the NEON Global Climate Experiment. This study summarizes the design concepts considered for constructing and operating the GCE Facility and their associated construction, maintenance and operations costs. Comparisons and comments about experimental artifacts, construction challenges and operational uncertainties are provided to assist in selecting the final facility design. The overall goal

  18. Preliminary 2D design study for A&PCT

    SciTech Connect

    Keto, E.; Azevedo, S.; Roberson, P.

    1995-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently designing and constructing a tomographic scanner to obtain the most accurate possible assays of radioactivity in barrels of nuclear waste in a limited amount of time. This study demonstrates a method to explore different designs using laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. In particular, we examine the trade-off between spatial resolution and signal-to-noise. The simulations are conducted in two dimensions as a preliminary study for three dimensional imaging. We find that the optimal design is entirely dependent on the expected source sizes and activities. For nuclear waste barrels, preliminary results indicate that collimators with widths of 1 to 3 inch and aspect ratios of 5:1 to 10:1 should perform well. This type of study will be repeated in 3D in more detail to optimize the final design.

  19. Vestibular Function Research (VFR) experiment. Phase B: Design definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Vestibular Functions Research (VFR) Experiment was established to investigate the neurosensory and related physiological processes believed to be associated with the space flight nausea syndrome and to develop logical means for its prediction, prevention and treatment. The VFR Project consists of ground and spaceflight experimentation using frogs as specimens. The phase B Preliminary Design Study provided for the preliminary design of the experiment hardware, preparation of performance and hardware specification and a Phase C/D development plan, establishment of STS (Space Transportation System) interfaces and mission operations, and the study of a variety of hardware, experiment and mission options. The study consist of three major tasks: (1) mission mode trade-off; (2) conceptual design; and (3) preliminary design.

  20. Design vs. Content: A Study of Adolescent Girls' Website Design Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agosto, Denise E.

    2004-01-01

    This study considered the utility of gender schema theory in examining girls' website design preferences. It built on a previous study which identified eight website evaluation criteria related to biological sex: collaboration, social connectivity, flexibility, motility, contextuality, personal identification, inclusion, and graphic/multimedia…

  1. Child Development and Social Studies Curriculum Design: Toward a Rationale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Gary A.

    This paper is a working draft of a study which has examined the accumulated research on child growth and development. The draft is designed as an input paper to enable the Marin Social Studies Project to refine its rationale and criteria for a recommended K-12 social studies program of curriculum options. Identification of the capabilities of…

  2. Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of resources on this month's theme "Design" for K-8 language arts, art and architecture, music and dance, science, math, social studies, health, and physical education. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audiotapes, magazines, professional resources and classroom activities.…

  3. Methodologies and study designs relevant to medical education research.

    PubMed

    Turner, Teri L; Balmer, Dorene F; Coverdale, John H

    2013-06-01

    Research is an important part of educational scholarship. Knowledge of research methodologies is essential for both conducting research as well as determining the soundness of the findings from published studies. Our goals for this paper therefore are to inform medical education researchers of the range and key components of educational research designs. We will discuss both qualitative and quantitative approaches to educational research. Qualitative methods will be presented according to traditions that have a distinguished history in particular disciplines. Quantitative methods will be presented according to an evidence-based hierarchy akin to that of evidence-based medicine with the stronger designs (systematic reviews and well conducted educational randomized controlled trials) at the top, and weaker designs (descriptive studies without comparison groups, or single case studies) at the bottom. It should be appreciated, however, that the research question determines the study design. Therefore, the onus is on the researcher to choose a design that is appropriate to answering the question. We conclude with an overview of how educational researchers should describe the study design and methods in order to provide transparency and clarity.

  4. Reverse design and characteristic study of multi-range HMCVT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhen; Chen, Long; Zeng, Falin

    2017-09-01

    The reduction of fuel consumption and increase of transmission efficiency is one of the key problems of the agricultural machinery. Many promising technologies such as hydromechanical continuously variable transmissions (HMCVT) are the focus of research and investments, but there is little technical documentation that describes the design principle and presents the design parameters. This paper presents the design idea and characteristic study of HMCVT, in order to find out the suitable scheme for the big horsepower tractors. Analyzed the kinematics and dynamics of a large horsepower tractor, according to the characteristic parameters, a hydro-mechanical continuously variable transmission has been designed. Compared with the experimental curves and theoretical curves of the stepless speed regulation of transmission, the experimental result illustrates the rationality of the design scheme.

  5. Blade system design studies volume II : preliminary blade designs and recommended test matrix.

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Dayton A.

    2004-06-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Partnerships for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program, Global Energy Concepts, LLC is performing a Blade System Design Study (BSDS) concerning innovations in materials, processes and structural configurations for application to wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt range. The BSDS Volume I project report addresses issues and constraints identified to scaling conventional blade designs to the megawatt size range, and evaluated candidate materials, manufacturing and design innovations for overcoming and improving large blade economics. The current report (Volume II), presents additional discussion of materials and manufacturing issues for large blades, including a summary of current trends in commercial blade manufacturing. Specifications are then developed to guide the preliminary design of MW-scale blades. Using preliminary design calculations for a 3.0 MW blade, parametric analyses are performed to quantify the potential benefits in stiffness and decreased gravity loading by replacement of a baseline fiberglass spar with carbon-fiberglass hybrid material. Complete preliminary designs are then presented for 3.0 MW and 5.0 MW blades that incorporate fiberglass-to-carbon transitions at mid-span. Based on analysis of these designs, technical issues are identified and discussed. Finally, recommendations are made for composites testing under Part I1 of the BSDS, and the initial planned test matrix for that program is presented.

  6. Designing occupancy studies: general advice and allocating survey effort

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacKenzie, D.I.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2005-01-01

    1. The fraction of sampling units in a landscape where a target species is present (occupancy) is an extensively used concept in ecology. Yet in many applications the species will not always be detected in a sampling unit even when present, resulting in biased estimates of occupancy. Given that sampling units are surveyed repeatedly within a relatively short timeframe, a number of similar methods have now been developed to provide unbiased occupancy estimates. However, practical guidance on the efficient design of occupancy studies has been lacking. 2. In this paper we comment on a number of general issues related to designing occupancy studies, including the need for clear objectives that are explicitly linked to science or management, selection of sampling units, timing of repeat surveys and allocation of survey effort. Advice on the number of repeat surveys per sampling unit is considered in terms of the variance of the occupancy estimator, for three possible study designs. 3. We recommend that sampling units should be surveyed a minimum of three times when detection probability is high (> 0.5 survey-1), unless a removal design is used. 4. We found that an optimal removal design will generally be the most efficient, but we suggest it may be less robust to assumption violations than a standard design. 5. Our results suggest that for a rare species it is more efficient to survey more sampling units less intensively, while for a common species fewer sampling units should be surveyed more intensively. 6. Synthesis and applications. Reliable inferences can only result from quality data. To make the best use of logistical resources, study objectives must be clearly defined; sampling units must be selected, and repeated surveys timed appropriately; and a sufficient number of repeated surveys must be conducted. Failure to do so may compromise the integrity of the study. The guidance given here on study design issues is particularly applicable to studies of species

  7. Biomass smoke exposures: health outcomes measures and study design.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Curtis W; Balmes, John R

    2010-02-01

    Epidemiological studies of biomass smoke health effects have been conducted in a variety of settings and with a variety of study designs. The Health Effects Workgroup discussed several approaches for the investigation of health effects in communities exposed to wood smoke from nearby wildland fires, intentional agricultural burning, or residential biomass burning devices such as woodstoves or cookstoves. This presentation briefly reviews observational and intervention studies that have been conducted within these exposure settings. The review is followed by a summary of discussion points among the workgroup members with particular emphasis on study design and the use of biomarkers for assessing outcomes in biomass smoke-exposed populations.

  8. Energy efficient engine: Preliminary design and integration studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. P.; Hirschkron, R.; Koch, C. C.; Neitzel, R. E.; Vinson, P. W.

    1978-01-01

    Parametric design and mission evaluations of advanced turbofan configurations were conducted for future transport aircraft application. Economics, environmental suitability and fuel efficiency were investigated and compared with goals set by NASA. Of the candidate engines which included mixed- and separate-flow, direct-drive and geared configurations, an advanced mixed-flow direct-drive configuration was selected for further design and evaluation. All goals were judged to have been met except the acoustic goal. Also conducted was a performance risk analysis and a preliminary aerodynamic design of the 10 stage 23:1 pressure ratio compressor used in the study engines.

  9. Acting like a physicist: Student approach study to experimental design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karelina, Anna; Etkina, Eugenia

    2007-12-01

    National studies of science education have unanimously concluded that preparing our students for the demands of the 21st century workplace is one of the major goals. This paper describes a study of student activities in introductory college physics labs, which were designed to help students acquire abilities that are valuable in the workplace. In these labs [called Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE) labs], students design their own experiments. Our previous studies have shown that students in these labs acquire scientific abilities such as the ability to design an experiment to solve a problem, the ability to collect and analyze data, the ability to evaluate assumptions and uncertainties, and the ability to communicate. These studies mostly concentrated on analyzing students’ writing, evaluated by specially designed scientific ability rubrics. Recently, we started to study whether the ISLE labs make students not only write like scientists but also engage in discussions and act like scientists while doing the labs. For example, do students plan an experiment, validate assumptions, evaluate results, and revise the experiment if necessary? A brief report of some of our findings that came from monitoring students’ activity during ISLE and nondesign labs was presented in the Physics Education Research Conference Proceedings. We found differences in student behavior and discussions that indicated that ISLE labs do in fact encourage a scientistlike approach to experimental design and promote high-quality discussions. This paper presents a full description of the study.

  10. Study for conceptual design of VEO, VTOL exhaust nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittrick, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    Design requirements for a VEO Wing V/STOL exhaust nozzle with a two dimensional shape and having the capability for upper surface blowing, spanwise blowing, and 90 deg turning of the exhaust flow for VTOL were established. A preliminary design of the nozzle that identified the actuation scheme, key dimensions, the flowpath, and the recommended materials were prepared. The airplane characteristics resulting from integrating the study nozzle were established.

  11. Design Study for a Low-Distortion Holographic HUD.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    HUD W.S. Colburn, R.C. Fairchild RADAR AND OPTICS DIVISION ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF MICHIGAN P.O. Box 8618, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48107...When Data Entered) l "Diffraction Optics Design Study" FOREWORD This report was prepared by the Electro-Optics Depart- ment, Radar and Optics...where the ray directions are reversed by the raytrace program. This design resulted in a combiner with a focal length of 193 mm, and which is predicted

  12. Computer-aided space shuttle orbiter wing design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. P.; Decker, J. P.; Rau, T. R.; Glatt, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation has been made to provide a space shuttle orbiter wing design that met the guideline requirements of landing performance, stability, and hypersonic trim for a specified center-of-gravity envelope. The analytical study was facilitated by the use of the Optimal Design Integration system (ODIN) and the experimental part of the investigation was conducted in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel and the Langley continuous-flow hypersonic tunnel.

  13. 5 MW pulsed spallation neutron source, Preconceptual design study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report describes a self-consistent base line design for a 5 MW Pulsed Spallation Neutron Source (PSNS). It is intended to establish feasibility of design and as a basis for further expanded and detailed studies. It may also serve as a basis for establishing project cost (30% accuracy) in order to intercompare competing designs for a PSNS not only on the basis of technical feasibility and technical merit but also on the basis of projected total cost. The accelerator design considered here is based on the objective of a pulsed neutron source obtained by means of a pulsed proton beam with average beam power of 5 MW, in {approx} 1 {mu}sec pulses, operating at a repetition rate of 60 Hz. Two target stations are incorporated in the basic facility: one for operation at 10 Hz for long-wavelength instruments, and one operating at 50 Hz for instruments utilizing thermal neutrons. The design approach for the proton accelerator is to use a low energy linear accelerator (at 0.6 GeV), operating at 60 Hz, in tandem with two fast cycling booster synchrotrons (at 3.6 GeV), operating at 30 Hz. It is assumed here that considerations of cost and overall system reliability may favor the present design approach over the alternative approach pursued elsewhere, whereby use is made of a high energy linear accelerator in conjunction with a dc accumulation ring. With the knowledge that this alternative design is under active development, it was deliberately decided to favor here the low energy linac-fast cycling booster approach. Clearly, the present design, as developed here, must be carried to the full conceptual design stage in order to facilitate a meaningful technology and cost comparison with alternative designs.

  14. The Potential of Adaptive Design in Animal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Majid, Arshad; Bae, Ok-Nam; Redgrave, Jessica; Teare, Dawn; Ali, Ali; Zemke, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Clinical trials are the backbone of medical research, and are often the last step in the development of new therapies for use in patients. Prior to human testing, however, preclinical studies using animal subjects are usually performed in order to provide initial data on the safety and effectiveness of prospective treatments. These studies can be costly and time consuming, and may also raise concerns about the ethical treatment of animals when potentially harmful procedures are involved. Adaptive design is a process by which the methods used in a study may be altered while it is being conducted in response to preliminary data or other new information. Adaptive design has been shown to be useful in reducing the time and costs associated with clinical trials, and may provide similar benefits in preclinical animal studies. The purpose of this review is to summarize various aspects of adaptive design and evaluate its potential for use in preclinical research. PMID:26473839

  15. The Potential of Adaptive Design in Animal Studies.

    PubMed

    Majid, Arshad; Bae, Ok-Nam; Redgrave, Jessica; Teare, Dawn; Ali, Ali; Zemke, Daniel

    2015-10-12

    Clinical trials are the backbone of medical research, and are often the last step in the development of new therapies for use in patients. Prior to human testing, however, preclinical studies using animal subjects are usually performed in order to provide initial data on the safety and effectiveness of prospective treatments. These studies can be costly and time consuming, and may also raise concerns about the ethical treatment of animals when potentially harmful procedures are involved. Adaptive design is a process by which the methods used in a study may be altered while it is being conducted in response to preliminary data or other new information. Adaptive design has been shown to be useful in reducing the time and costs associated with clinical trials, and may provide similar benefits in preclinical animal studies. The purpose of this review is to summarize various aspects of adaptive design and evaluate its potential for use in preclinical research.

  16. Collaborative Study of Children Treated for Phenylketonuria: Study Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Malcolm; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Available from: Arthur Retlaw and Associates, Inc., Suite 2080, 1603 Orrington Avenue, Evanston, Illinois 60201. Described is a study in which a large sample of children (n=444) with phenylketonuria (an inborn metabolic error usually related to impaired cognitive ability) were treated under controlled conditions from near birth to 6 years of age.…

  17. Collaborative Study of Children Treated for Phenylketonuria: Study Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Malcolm; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Available from: Arthur Retlaw and Associates, Inc., Suite 2080, 1603 Orrington Avenue, Evanston, Illinois 60201. Described is a study in which a large sample of children (n=444) with phenylketonuria (an inborn metabolic error usually related to impaired cognitive ability) were treated under controlled conditions from near birth to 6 years of age.…

  18. FEL Design Studies at LBNL: Activities and Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Corlett, John N.; Fawley, W.; Lidia, S.; Padmore, H.; Penn, G.; Pogorelov, I.; Qiang, J.; Sannibale, F.; Staples, J.; Steier, C.; Venturini, M.; Wan, W.; Wilcox, R.; Zholents, A.

    2007-03-01

    LBNL staff are currently pursuing R&D for future x-ray FELs, and participate in two FEL construction projects. Our strategy is to address the most fundamental challenges, which are the cost-drivers and performance limitations of FEL facilities. An internally funded R&D program is aimed at investigating accelerator physics and technologies in three key areas: (1) Theoretical study, modeling, and experimental development of low emittance, high quantum efficiency cathodes; (2) Design studies of electron beam delivery systems, including emittance manipulations, high-resolution modeling of 6-D phase space, and low-emittance beam transport; and (3) Design studies of optical manipulations of electron beams for seeded and SASE FELs, providing short x-ray pulses of variable duration, synchronous with the seed and pump laser sources, and also long transform-limited pulses with a narrow bandwidth. Design studies of means for production of attosecond x-ray pulses at various wavelengths. We are collaborators in the FERMI{at}Elettra seeded FEL facility under construction at Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy, participating in accelerator design and FEL physics studies, and mechanical and electrical engineering. We are participating in the LCLS project at SLAC, implementing our design of stabilized timing and synchronization systems. Here we outline our long-term objectives, and current activities.

  19. Advance Approach to Concept and Design Studies for Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, M.; Nichols, J.

    1999-01-01

    Recent automated and advanced techniques developed at JPL have created a streamlined and fast-track approach to initial mission conceptualization and system architecture design, answering the need for rapid turnaround of trade studies for potential proposers, as well as mission and instrument study groups.

  20. The Design of the Junior High Management Improvement Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmer, Edmund T.; And Others

    This report provides a description of the experimental design, including the procedures, instrumentation, and sample, of the Junior High School Management Improvement Study. The research leading up to this study is briefly described along with the conceptualization of the management function of teaching and the development of training manuals for…

  1. Experiences of Computer Science Curriculum Design: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Arthur; Bowe, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a qualitative study of 12 computer science lecturers' experiences of curriculum design of several degree programmes during a time of transition from year-long to semesterised courses, due to institutional policy change. The background to the study is outlined, as are the reasons for choosing the research methodology. The main…

  2. Experiences of Computer Science Curriculum Design: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Arthur; Bowe, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a qualitative study of 12 computer science lecturers' experiences of curriculum design of several degree programmes during a time of transition from year-long to semesterised courses, due to institutional policy change. The background to the study is outlined, as are the reasons for choosing the research methodology. The main…

  3. Computing requirements for S. S. C. accelerator design and studies

    SciTech Connect

    Dragt, A.; Talman, R.; Siemann, R.; Dell, G.F.; Leemann, B.; Leemann, C.; Nauenberg, U.; Peggs, S.; Douglas, D.

    1984-01-01

    We estimate the computational hardware resources that will be required for accelerator physics studies during the design of the Superconducting SuperCollider. It is found that both Class IV and Class VI facilities (1) will be necessary. We describe a user environment for these facilities that is desirable within the context of accelerator studies. An acquisition scenario for these facilities is presented.

  4. The design of empirical studies: towards a unified view.

    PubMed

    Cox, David R

    2016-03-01

    A broad review is given of the general principles underlying study design with emphasis on applications in medical and epidemiological contexts. The main theme of the paper is that, while the distinction between interventionist studies, that is experiments, and purely observational ones is important, there are many common threads. A wide range of specific applications are used in outline to illustrate the discussion.

  5. Integrated source and channel encoded digital communication system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, G. K.; Udalov, S.

    1974-01-01

    This study investigated the configuration and integration of a wideband communication system with a Ku-band rendezvous radar system. The goal of the study was to provide as much commonality between the two systems as possible. The antenna design was described with the only change being the requirement for dual polarization (linear for the radar system and circular for the communication system).

  6. Optimizing study design for multi-species avian monitoring programmes

    Treesearch

    Jamie S. Sanderlin; William M. Block; Joseph L. Ganey

    2014-01-01

    Many monitoring programmes are successful at monitoring common species, whereas rare species, which are often of highest conservation concern, may be detected infrequently. Study designs that increase the probability of detecting rare species at least once over the study period, while collecting adequate data on common species, strengthen programme ability to address...

  7. Study Programme Designing and Renewal: Learning Outcomes Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pukelis, Kestutis

    2011-01-01

    This article presents generalisations drawn from experience gained designing and renewing study programmes so that the use of learning outcomes became the underlying principle of curriculum organisation. Conceptions of a purpose (profile), aim and outcomes of a study programme are presented, their formulation requirements are discussed and…

  8. A Study of Assessments Designed for Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delepine, Sidney G., III

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study is to compare a new assessment tool, the SkillsUSA Connect Assessment with the NOCTI assessment to determine which test results in more students achieving success. A quantitative study, designed to compare test scores of students taking the NOCTI assessment and new assessments from SkillsUSA, called the…

  9. A Study of Assessments Designed for Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delepine, Sidney G., III

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study is to compare a new assessment tool, the SkillsUSA Connect Assessment with the NOCTI assessment to determine which test results in more students achieving success. A quantitative study, designed to compare test scores of students taking the NOCTI assessment and new assessments from SkillsUSA, called the…

  10. Aerodynamic Design Study of an Advanced Active Twist Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekula, Martin K.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Yeager, William T., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    An Advanced Active Twist Rotor (AATR) is currently being developed by the U.S. Army Vehicle Technology Directorate at NASA Langley Research Center. As a part of this effort, an analytical study was conducted to determine the impact of blade geometry on active-twist performance and, based on those findings, propose a candidate aerodynamic design for the AATR. The process began by creating a baseline design which combined the dynamic design of the original Active Twist Rotor and the aerodynamic design of a high lift rotor concept. The baseline model was used to conduct a series of parametric studies to examine the effect of linear blade twist and blade tip sweep, droop, and taper on active-twist performance. Rotor power requirements and hub vibration were also examined at flight conditions ranging from hover to advance ratio = 0.40. A total of 108 candidate designs were analyzed using the second-generation version of the Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD II) code. The study concluded that the vibration reduction capabilities of a rotor utilizing controlled, strain-induced twisting are enhanced through the incorporation of blade tip sweep, droop, and taper into the blade design, while they are degraded by increasing the nose-down linear blade twist. Based on the analysis of rotor power, hub vibration, and active-twist response, a candidate aerodynamic design for the AATR consisting of a blade with approximately 10 degrees of linear blade twist and a blade tip design with 30 degree sweep, 10 degree droop, and 2.5:1 taper ratio over the outer five percent of the blade is proposed.

  11. Design studies for twist-coupled wind turbine blades.

    SciTech Connect

    Valencia, Ulyses; Locke, James

    2004-06-01

    This study presents results obtained for four hybrid designs of the Northern Power Systems (NPS) 9.2-meter prototype version of the ERS-100 wind turbine rotor blade. The ERS-100 wind turbine rotor blade was designed and developed by TPI composites. The baseline design uses e-glass unidirectional fibers in combination with {+-}45-degree and random mat layers for the skin and spar cap. This project involves developing structural finite element models of the baseline design and carbon hybrid designs with and without twist-bend coupling. All designs were evaluated for a unit load condition and two extreme wind conditions. The unit load condition was used to evaluate the static deflection, twist and twist-coupling parameter. Maximum deflections and strains were determined for the extreme wind conditions. Linear and nonlinear buckling loads were determined for a tip load condition. The results indicate that carbon fibers can be used to produce twist-coupled designs with comparable deflections, strains and buckling loads to the e-glass baseline.

  12. Process monitoring interface for studying the metamorphism in a design

    SciTech Connect

    Bayrak, C.

    1996-12-31

    The efforts to improve the system design methodology, which provides the designer with the ability to exercise the prototype at a high abstraction level and to delay the implementation level activity as far into the development activity as possible, have led us to study the process monitoring issue. Particularly we are interested in the three fundamental issues in process monitoring: the abstract sphere of the design, the practical sphere of the user interface, and the gap between these two spheres. Therefore, an integrated graphical user interface architecture, called Process Monitoring Interface (PMI), is introduced not only for the gap between the abstract spheres and practical affairs of building appropriate user-integrated interface but also for supervising the hierarchical human design notion of the abstract design exercised with more efficiency at the highest possible levels of the development. In using PMI, the user/developer can monitor evolution of highly abstract building blocks that are created at the very beginning of the design process and later be refined into different levels of the design, representing different levels of abstractions of a system.

  13. Large scale prop-fan structural design study. Volume 2: Preliminary design of SR-7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billman, L. C.; Gruska, C. J.; Ladden, R. M.; Leishman, D. K.; Turnberg, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, considerable attention has been directed toward improving aircraft fuel consumption. Studies have shown that the inherent efficiency advantage that turboprop propulsion systems have demonstrated at lower cruise speeds may now be extended to the higher speeds of today's turbofan and turbojet-powered aircraft. To achieve this goal, new propeller designs will require features such as thin, high speed airfoils and aerodynamic sweep, features currently found only in wing designs for high speed aircraft. This is Volume 2 of a 2 volume study to establish structural concepts for such advanced propeller blades, to define their structural properties, to identify any new design, analysis, or fabrication techniques which were required, and to determine the structural tradeoffs involved with several blade shapes selected primarily on the basis of aero/acoustic design considerations. The feasibility of fabricating and testing dynamically scaled models of these blades for aeroelastic testing was also established. The preliminary design of a blade suitable for flight use in a testbed advanced turboprop was conducted and is described.

  14. Analgesia and anesthesia for neonates: study design and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Anand, K J S; Aranda, Jacob V; Berde, Charles B; Buckman, Shaavhrée; Capparelli, Edmund V; Carlo, Waldemar A; Hummel, Patricia; Lantos, John; Johnston, C Celeste; Lehr, Victoria Tutag; Lynn, Anne M; Maxwell, Lynne G; Oberlander, Tim F; Raju, Tonse N K; Soriano, Sulpicio G; Taddio, Anna; Walco, Gary A

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize the clinical, methodologic, and ethical considerations for researchers interested in designing future trials in neonatal analgesia and anesthesia, hopefully stimulating additional research in this field. The MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane register databases were searched using subject headings related to infant, newborn, neonate, analgesia, anesthesia, ethics, and study design. Cross-references and personal files were searched manually. Studies reporting original data or review articles related to these topics were assessed and critically evaluated by experts for each topical area. Data on population demographics, study characteristics, and cognitive and behavioral outcomes were abstracted and synthesized in a systematic manner and refined by group members. Data synthesis and results were reviewed by a panel of independent experts and presented to a wider audience including clinicians, scientists, regulatory personnel, and industry representatives at the Newborn Drug Development Initiative workshop. Recommendations were revised after extensive discussions at the workshop and between committee members. Designing clinical trials to investigate novel or currently available approaches for analgesia and anesthesia in neonates requires consideration of salient study designs and ethical issues. Conditions requiring treatment include pain/stress resulting from invasive procedures, surgical operations, inflammatory conditions, and routine neonatal intensive care. Study design considerations must define the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a rationale for stratification, the confounding effects of comorbid conditions, and other clinical factors. Significant ethical issues include the constraints of studying neonates, obtaining informed consent, making risk-benefit assessments, defining compensation or rewards for participation, safety considerations, the use of placebo controls, and the variability among institutional

  15. Preliminary design study of the TMT Telescope structure system: overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usuda, Tomonori; Ezaki, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Noboru; Nagae, Kazuhiro; Kato, Atsushi; Takaki, Junji; Hirano, Masaki; Hattori, Tomoya; Tabata, Masaki; Horiuchi, Yasushi; Saruta, Yusuke; Sofuku, Satoru; Itoh, Noboru; Oshima, Takeharu; Takanezawa, Takashi; Endo, Makoto; Inatani, Junji; Iye, Masanori; Sadjadpour, Amir; Sirota, Mark; Roberts, Scott; Stepp, Larry

    2014-07-01

    We present an overview of the preliminary design of the Telescope Structure System (STR) of Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). NAOJ was given responsibility for the TMT STR in early 2012 and engaged Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO) to take over the preliminary design work. MELCO performed a comprehensive preliminary design study in 2012 and 2013 and the design successfully passed its Preliminary Design Review (PDR) in November 2013 and April 2014. Design optimizations were pursued to better meet the design requirements and improvements were made in the designs of many of the telescope subsystems as follows: 1. 6-legged Top End configuration to support secondary mirror (M2) in order to reduce deformation of the Top End and to keep the same 4% blockage of the full aperture as the previous STR design. 2. "Double Lower Tube" of the elevation (EL) structure to reduce the required stroke of the primary mirror (M1) actuators to compensate the primary mirror cell (M1 Cell) deformation caused during the EL angle change in accordance with the requirements. 3. M1 Segment Handling System (SHS) to be able to make removing and installing 10 Mirror Segment Assemblies per day safely and with ease over M1 area where access of personnel is extremely difficult. This requires semi-automatic sequence operation and a robotic Segment Lifting Fixture (SLF) designed based on the Compliance Control System, developed for controlling industrial robots, with a mechanism to enable precise control within the six degrees of freedom of position control. 4. CO2 snow cleaning system to clean M1 every few weeks that is similar to the mechanical system that has been used at Subaru Telescope. 5. Seismic isolation and restraint systems with respect to safety; the maximum acceleration allowed for M1, M2, tertiary mirror (M3), LGSF, and science instruments in 1,000 year return period earthquakes are defined in the requirements. The Seismic requirements apply to any EL angle, regardless of the

  16. On Becoming a Civic-Minded Instructional Designer: An Ethnographic Study of an Instructional Design Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusop, Farrah Dina; Correia, Ana-Paula

    2014-01-01

    This ethnographic study took place in a graduate course at a large research university in the Midwestern United States. It presents an in-depth examination of the experiences and challenges of a group of four students learning to be Instructional Design and Technology professionals who are concerned with the well-being of all members of a society,…

  17. Preliminary Design of a Modular Unmanned Research Vehicle. Volume 2. Subsystem Technical Development Design Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    for real-time analysis, or post-test aaalvsis innaediate;y foliowing the tesi , in a form that was iure easily interpreted. Because the test site will...in the baseline MURV design is the Teledyne 320. 11.6.2.4 Fuel Loading Trade Study With the propulsion system characteristics de- cided , the optimal

  18. Design Core Commonalities: A Study of the College of Design at Iowa State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venes, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive study asks what a group of rather diverse disciplines have in common. It involves a cross-disciplinary examination of an entire college, the College of Design at Iowa State University. This research was intended to provide a sense of direction in developing and assessing possible core content. The reasoning was that material…

  19. Design Core Commonalities: A Study of the College of Design at Iowa State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venes, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive study asks what a group of rather diverse disciplines have in common. It involves a cross-disciplinary examination of an entire college, the College of Design at Iowa State University. This research was intended to provide a sense of direction in developing and assessing possible core content. The reasoning was that material…

  20. Digital Modeling in Design Foundation Coursework: An Exploratory Study of the Effectiveness of Conceptual Design Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guidera, Stan; MacPherson, D. Scot

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that was conducted to identify and document student perceptions of the effectiveness of computer modeling software introduced in a design foundations course that had previously utilized only conventional manually-produced representation techniques. Rather than attempt to utilize a production-oriented CAD…

  1. Juvenile animal toxicity study designs to support pediatric drug development.

    PubMed

    Cappon, Gregg D; Bailey, Graham P; Buschmann, Jochen; Feuston, Maureen H; Fisher, J Edward; Hew, Kok Wah; Hoberman, Alan M; Ooshima, Yojiro; Stump, Donald G; Hurtt, Mark E

    2009-12-01

    The objective of juvenile animal toxicity studies of pharmaceuticals is to obtain safety data, including information on the potential for adverse effects on postnatal growth and development. Studies in juvenile animals may assist in identifying postnatal developmental toxicities or other adverse effects that are not adequately assessed in the routine toxicity evaluations and that cannot be safely or adequately measured in pediatric clinical trials. Unlike the traditional reproductive and developmental toxicology studies that have been discussed in the accompanying reports, the design requirements for toxicity studies in juvenile animals are not explicitly defined in regulatory guidance. However, studies in juvenile animals can be useful in providing safety information necessary to enable pediatric clinical trials in pediatric patients or when there are special concerns for toxicities that cannot be safely or adequately measured in clinical trials. These juvenile animal toxicity studies are designed on a case-by-case basis. General design considerations and examples of study designs for assessment of juvenile animal toxicity are discussed.

  2. Integrated source and channel encoded digital communication system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alem, W. K.; Huth, G. K.; Simon, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    The particular Ku-band carrier, PN despreading, and symbol synchronization strategies, which were selected for implementation in the Ku-band transponder aboard the orbiter, were assessed and evaluated from a systems performance viewpoint, verifying that system specifications were met. A study was performed of the design and implementation of tracking techniques which are suitable for incorporation into the Orbiter Ku-band communication system. Emphasis was placed on maximizing tracking accuracy and communication system flexibility while minimizing cost, weight, and system complexity of Orbiter and ground systems hardware. The payload communication study assessed the design and performance of the forward link and return link bent-pipe relay modes for attached and detached payloads. As part of this study, a design for a forward link bent-pipe was proposed which employs a residual carrier but which is tracked by the existing Costas loop.

  3. Design Study Of Cyclotron Magnet With Permanent Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyun Wook; Chai, Jong Seo

    2011-06-01

    Low energy cyclotrons for Positron emission tomography (PET) have been wanted for the production of radio-isotopes after 2002. In the low energy cyclotron magnet design, increase of magnetic field between the poles is needed to make a smaller size of magnet and decrease power consumption. The Permanent magnet can support this work without additional electric power consumption in the cyclotron. In this paper the study of cyclotron magnet design using permanent magnet is shown and also the comparison between normal magnet and the magnet which is designed with permanent magnet is shown. Maximum energy of proton is 8 MeV and RF frequency is 79.3 MHz. 3D CAD design was done by CATIA P3 V5 R18 and the All field calculations had been performed by OPERA-3D TOSCA. The self-made beam dynamics program OPTICY is used for making isochronous field and other calculations.

  4. ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) reactor building design study

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, S.L.; Blevins, J.D.; Delisle, M.W.; Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project, Mississauga, ON )

    1989-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is at the midpoint of a two-year conceptual design. The ITER reactor building is a reinforced concrete structure that houses the tokamak and associated equipment and systems and forms a barrier between the tokamak and the external environment. It provides radiation shielding and controls the release of radioactive materials to the environment during both routine operations and accidents. The building protects the tokamak from external events, such as earthquakes or aircraft strikes. The reactor building requirements have been developed from the component designs and the preliminary safety analysis. The equipment requirements, tritium confinement, and biological shielding have been studied. The building design in progress requires continuous iteraction with the component and system designs and with the safety analysis. 8 figs.

  5. Case study: Lockheed-Georgia Company integrated design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldrop, C. T.

    1980-01-01

    A case study of the development of an Integrated Design Process is presented. The approach taken in preparing for the development of an integrated design process includes some of the IPAD approaches such as developing a Design Process Model, cataloging Technical Program Elements (TPE's), and examining data characteristics and interfaces between contiguous TPE's. The implementation plan is based on an incremental development of capabilities over a period of time with each step directed toward, and consistent with, the final architecture of a total integrated system. Because of time schedules and different computer hardware, this system will not be the same as the final IPAD release; however, many IPAD concepts will no doubt prove applicable as the best approach. Full advantage will be taken of the IPAD development experience. A scenario that could be typical for many companies, even outside the aerospace industry, in developing an integrated design process for an IPAD-type environment is represented.

  6. Cutoff Designs for Community-Based Intervention Studies

    PubMed Central

    Pennell, Michael L.; Hade, Erinn M.; Murray, David M.; Rhoda, Dale A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Public health interventions are often designed to target communities defined either geographically (e.g., cities, counties) or socially (e.g., schools or workplaces). The group randomized trial (GRT) is regarded as the gold standard for evaluating these interventions. However, community leaders may object to randomization as some groups may be denied a potentially beneficial intervention. Under a regression discontinuity design (RDD), individuals may be assigned to treatment based on the levels of a pretest measure, thereby allowing those most in need of the treatment to receive it. In this article, we consider analysis, power, and sample size issues in applying the RDD and related cutoff designs in community-based intervention studies. We examine the power of these designs as a function of intraclass correlation, number of groups, and number of members per group and compare results to the traditional GRT. PMID:21500240

  7. AFB/open cycle gas turbine conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, T. W.; Tashjian, R.

    1983-01-01

    Applications of coal fired atmospheric fluidized bed gas turbine systems in industrial cogeneration are identified. Based on site-specific conceptual designs, the potential benefits of the AFB/gas turbine system were compared with an atmospheric fluidized design steam boiler/steam turbine system. The application of these cogeneration systems at four industrial plant sites is reviewed. A performance and benefit analysis was made along with a study of the representativeness of the sites both in regard to their own industry and compared to industry as a whole. A site was selected for the conceptual design, which included detailed site definition, AFB/gas turbine and AFB/steam turbine cogeneration system designs, detailed cost estimates, and comparative performance and benefit analysis. Market and benefit analyses identified the potential market penetration for the cogeneration technologies and quantified the potential benefits.

  8. Design of an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator for studies in astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castles, S.

    1983-01-01

    An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator was designed for cooling infrared bolometers for studies in astrophysics and aeronomy. The design was tailored to the requirements of a Shuttle sortie experiment. The refrigerator should be capable of maintaining three bolometers at 0.1 K with a 90% cycle. The advantage are of operations the bolometer at 0.1K. greater sensitivity, faster response time, and the ability to use larger bolometer elements without compromising the response time. The design presented is the first complete design of an ADR intended for use in space. The most important of these specifications are to survive a Shuttle launch, to operate with 1.5 K - 2.0 K space-pumped liquid helium as a heat sink, to have a 90% duty cycle, and to be highly efficient.

  9. Gas recombination device design and cost study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Under a contract with Argonne National Laboratory, VARTA Batterie AG. conducted a design and cost study of hydrogen-oxygen recombination devices (HORD) for use with utility load-leveling lead-acid cells. Design specifications for the devices, through extensive calculation of the heat-flow conditions of the unit, were developed. Catalyst and condenser surface areas were specified. The exact dimensions can, however, be adjusted to the cell dimension and the space available above the cell. Design specifications were also developed for additional components required to ensure proper function of the recombination device, including metal hydride compound decomposer, aerosol retainer, and gas storage component. Costs for HORD were estimated to range from $4 to $10/kWh cell capacity for the production of a large number of units (greater than or equal to 10,000 units). The cost is a function of cell size and positive grid design. 21 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Case study: Lockheed-Georgia Company integrated design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldrop, C. T.

    1980-01-01

    A case study of the development of an Integrated Design Process is presented. The approach taken in preparing for the development of an integrated design process includes some of the IPAD approaches such as developing a Design Process Model, cataloging Technical Program Elements (TPE's), and examining data characteristics and interfaces between contiguous TPE's. The implementation plan is based on an incremental development of capabilities over a period of time with each step directed toward, and consistent with, the final architecture of a total integrated system. Because of time schedules and different computer hardware, this system will not be the same as the final IPAD release; however, many IPAD concepts will no doubt prove applicable as the best approach. Full advantage will be taken of the IPAD development experience. A scenario that could be typical for many companies, even outside the aerospace industry, in developing an integrated design process for an IPAD-type environment is represented.

  11. Computational Studies of Protein-Protein Interface Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, Jennifer; O'Hern, Corey; Regan, Lynne

    We implement a hard-sphere model for amino acid structure to study natural and designed protein-protein interfaces. Current computational methods have found limited success in designing novel interfaces and resorted to implementing several rounds of experimental mutation and selection to achieve successful designs. Here, we show that the hard-sphere model can recapitulate the side chain dihedral angle distributions for amino acids at natural protein-protein interfaces. In addition, we calculate the packing fraction in naturally occurring interfaces and find that it is comparable to dense random packing in protein cores. We then evaluate a number of successful and unsuccessful prior computational designs in terms of the number of allowed side chain dihedral angle conformations and the packing fraction of residues at the interface.

  12. Design Study Of Cyclotron Magnet With Permanent Magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Wook; Chai, Jong Seo

    2011-06-01

    Low energy cyclotrons for Positron emission tomography (PET) have been wanted for the production of radio-isotopes after 2002. In the low energy cyclotron magnet design, increase of magnetic field between the poles is needed to make a smaller size of magnet and decrease power consumption. The Permanent magnet can support this work without additional electric power consumption in the cyclotron. In this paper the study of cyclotron magnet design using permanent magnet is shown and also the comparison between normal magnet and the magnet which is designed with permanent magnet is shown. Maximum energy of proton is 8 MeV and RF frequency is 79.3 MHz. 3D CAD design was done by CATIA P3 V5 R18 [1] and the All field calculations had been performed by OPERA-3D TOSCA [2]. The self-made beam dynamics program OPTICY [3] is used for making isochronous field and other calculations.

  13. High performance APCS conceptual design and evaluation scoping study

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, N.; Liekhus, K.; Chambers, A.; Anderson, G.

    1998-02-01

    This Air Pollution Control System (APCS) Conceptual Design and Evaluation study was conducted to evaluate a high-performance (APC) system for minimizing air emissions from mixed waste thermal treatment systems. Seven variations of high-performance APCS designs were conceptualized using several design objectives. One of the system designs was selected for detailed process simulation using ASPEN PLUS to determine material and energy balances and evaluate performance. Installed system capital costs were also estimated. Sensitivity studies were conducted to evaluate the incremental cost and benefit of added carbon adsorber beds for mercury control, specific catalytic reduction for NO{sub x} control, and offgas retention tanks for holding the offgas until sample analysis is conducted to verify that the offgas meets emission limits. Results show that the high-performance dry-wet APCS can easily meet all expected emission limits except for possibly mercury. The capability to achieve high levels of mercury control (potentially necessary for thermally treating some DOE mixed streams) could not be validated using current performance data for mercury control technologies. The engineering approach and ASPEN PLUS modeling tool developed and used in this study identified APC equipment and system performance, size, cost, and other issues that are not yet resolved. These issues need to be addressed in feasibility studies and conceptual designs for new facilities or for determining how to modify existing facilities to meet expected emission limits. The ASPEN PLUS process simulation with current and refined input assumptions and calculations can be used to provide system performance information for decision-making, identifying best options, estimating costs, reducing the potential for emission violations, providing information needed for waste flow analysis, incorporating new APCS technologies in existing designs, or performing facility design and permitting activities.

  14. Japan Diabetic Nephropathy Cohort Study: study design, methods, and implementation.

    PubMed

    Furuichi, Kengo; Shimizu, Miho; Toyama, Tadashi; Koya, Daisuke; Koshino, Yoshitaka; Abe, Hideharu; Mori, Kiyoshi; Satoh, Hiroaki; Imanishi, Masahito; Iwano, Masayuki; Yamauchi, Hiroyuki; Kusano, Eiji; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Suzuki, Yoshiki; Okuda, Seiya; Kitagawa, Kiyoki; Iwata, Yasunori; Kaneko, Shuichi; Nishi, Shinichi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Ueda, Yoshihiko; Haneda, Masakazu; Makino, Hirofumi; Wada, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic nephropathy, leading to end-stage renal disease, has a considerable impact on public health and the social economy. However, there are few national registries of diabetic nephropathy in Japan. The aims of this prospective cohort study are to obtain clinical data and urine samples for revising the clinical staging of diabetic nephropathy, and developing new diagnostic markers for early diabetic nephropathy. The Japanese Society of Nephrology established a nationwide, web-based, and prospective registry system. On the system, there are two basic registries; the Japan Renal Biopsy Registry (JRBR), and the Japan Kidney Disease Registry (JKDR). In addition to the two basic registries, we established a new prospective registry to the system; the Japan Diabetic Nephropathy Cohort Study (JDNCS), which collected physical and laboratory data. We analyzed the data of 321 participants (106 female, 215 male; average age 65 years) in the JDNCS. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 130.1 and 72.3 mmHg, respectively. Median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 33.3 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Proteinuria was 1.8 g/gCr, and serum levels of albumin were 3.6 g/dl. The majority of the JDNCS patients presented with preserved eGFR and low albuminuria or low eGFR and advanced proteinuria. In the JRBR and JKDR registries, 484 and 125 participants, respectively, were enrolled as having diabetes mellitus. In comparison with the JRBR and JKDR registries, the JDNCS was characterized by diabetic patients presenting with low proteinuria with moderately preserved eGFR. There are few national registries of diabetic nephropathy to evaluate prognosis in Japan. Future analysis of the JDNCS will provide clinical insights into the epidemiology and renal and cardiovascular outcomes of type 2 diabetic patients in Japan.

  15. Aircraft energy efficiency laminar flow control wing design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, T. F., Jr.; Pride, J. D., Jr.; Fernald, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    An engineering design study was performed in which laminar flow control (LFC) was integrated into the wing of a commercial passenger transport aircraft. A baseline aircraft configuration was selected and the wing geometry was defined. The LFC system, with suction slots, ducting, and suction pumps was integrated with the wing structure. The use of standard aluminum technology and advanced superplastic formed diffusion bonded titanium technology was evaluated. The results of the design study show that the LFC system can be integrated with the wing structure to provide a structurally and aerodynamically efficient wing for a commercial transport aircraft.

  16. Study Designs and Statistical Analyses for Biomarker Research

    PubMed Central

    Gosho, Masahiko; Nagashima, Kengo; Sato, Yasunori

    2012-01-01

    Biomarkers are becoming increasingly important for streamlining drug discovery and development. In addition, biomarkers are widely expected to be used as a tool for disease diagnosis, personalized medication, and surrogate endpoints in clinical research. In this paper, we highlight several important aspects related to study design and statistical analysis for clinical research incorporating biomarkers. We describe the typical and current study designs for exploring, detecting, and utilizing biomarkers. Furthermore, we introduce statistical issues such as confounding and multiplicity for statistical tests in biomarker research. PMID:23012528

  17. Lithium-alloy/iron sulfide battery design studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilenskas, A. A.

    1984-10-01

    The DOE/EHV sponsored design studies carried out at Argonne and the integration of these studies with the EPRI program for the development of an advanced van battery are discussed. The design basis for the van battery is given. Some of the inputs are given which are required to derive the battery specifications. Modeling work to optimize the powr/energy ratio as a function of energy was performed. Energy efficiency of the battery is addressed, as is battery deprication. Recharging and reliability of the battery is discussed.

  18. Design Studies of ``100% Pu'' Mox Lead Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovichev, A.M.

    2001-01-11

    In this document the results of neutronics studies of <<100%Pu>> MOX LTA design are presented. The parametric studies of infinite MOX-UOX grids, MOX-UOX core fragments and of VVER-1000 core with 3 MOX LTAs are performed. The neutronics parameters of MOX fueled core have been performed for the chosen design MOX LTA using the Russian 3D code BIPR-7A and 2D code PERMAK-A with the constants prepared by the cell spectrum code TVS-M.

  19. The cardiac insufficiency talinolol study (CITAS) study design.

    PubMed

    Campeanu, A

    2001-06-01

    Beta-blockers without partial agonist activity are now considered to be strategic therapy for patients with chronic heart failure, but many issues remain to be clarified. The objective of the double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cardiac insufficiency talinolol study (CITAS) is to assess efficacy and safety of talinolol - a selective beta-1 adrenoreceptor blocker - in patients with ischemic and non-ischemic heart failure. The primary end-point refers to the influence of talinolol on exercise capacity, evaluated by 6-min walking-test. Secondary end-points consist of left ventricular function, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, hospitalizations, quality of life, combined clinical end-points and adverse events. There were enrolled 294 patients with stable heart failure in NYHA class II-IV, LVEF <40%, receiving diuretics, ACE-inhibitors and optionally nitrates and digoxin. Talinolol was titrated up to 100 mg/day (one arm) or to 150 mg/d (the other arm), starting with 12.5 mg daily. Enrollment began in November 1997 and the last visit will be in December 2000.

  20. Partial gravity habitat study: With application to lunar base design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capps, Stephen; Lorandos, Jason; Akhidime, Eval; Bunch, Michael; Lund, Denise; Moore, Nathan; Murakawa, Kio; Bell, Larry; Trotti, Guillermo; Neubek, Deb

    1989-01-01

    Comprehensive design requirements associated with designing habitats for humans in a partial gravity environment were investigated and then applied to a lunar base design. Other potential sites for application include planetary surfaces such as Mars, variable gravity research facilities, or a rotating spacecraft. Design requirements for partial gravity environments include: (1) locomotion changes in less than normal Earth gravity; (2) facility design issues, such as interior configuration, module diameter and geometry; and (3) volumetric requirements based on the previous as well as psychological issues involved in prolonged isolation. For application to a Lunar Base, it was necessary to study the exterior architecture and configuration to insure optimum circulation patterns while providing dual egress. Radiation protection issues were addressed to provide a safe and healthy environment for the crew, and finally, the overall site was studied to locate all associated facilities in context with the habitat. Mission planning was not the purpose of this study; therefore, a Lockheed scenario was used as an outline for the Lunar Base application, which was then modified to meet the project needs.

  1. Conceptual design study of a nuclear Brayton turboalternator-compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis and conceptual design study of the turboalternator-compressor components using HeXe as the working fluid was performed. The study was conducted in three phases: general configuration analysis (Phase 1), design variations (Phase 2), and conceptual design study (Phase 3). During the Phase 1 analysis, individual turbine, alternator, compressor, and bearing and seal designs were evaluated. Six turboalternator-compressor (TAC) configurations were completed. Phase 2 consisted of evaluating one selected Phase 1 TAC configuration to calculate its performance when operating under new cycle conditions, namely, one higher and one lower turbine inlet temperature and one case with krypton as the working fluid. Based on the Phase 1 and 2 results, a TAC configuration that incorporated a radial compressor, a radial turbine, a Lundell alternator, and gas bearings was selected. During Phase 3 a new layout of the TAC was prepared that reflects the cycle state points necessary to accommodate a zirconium hydride moderated reactor and a 400 Hz alternator. The final TAC design rotates at 24,000 rpm and produces 160 kWe, 480 V, 3-phase, 400 hertz power.

  2. Considerations in Writing About Single-Case Experimental Design Studies.

    PubMed

    Skolasky, Richard L

    2016-12-01

    Single-case experimental design (SCED) studies are particularly useful for examining the processes and outcomes of psychological and behavioral studies. Accurate reporting of SCED studies is critical in explaining the study to the reader and allowing replication. This paper outlines important elements that authors should cover when reporting the results of a SCED study. Authors should provide details on the participant, independent and dependent variables under examination, materials and procedures, and data analysis. Particular emphasis should be placed on justifying the assumptions made and explaining how violations of these assumptions may alter the results of the SCED study.

  3. The healthy men study: design and recruitment considerations for environmental epidemiologic studies in male reproductive health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Study Objective: To describe study conduct and response and participant characteristics. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Participants were male partners of women enrolled in a community-based study of drinking water disinfection by-products and pregnancy healt...

  4. The healthy men study: design and recruitment considerations for environmental epidemiologic studies in male reproductive health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Study Objective: To describe study conduct and response and participant characteristics. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Participants were male partners of women enrolled in a community-based study of drinking water disinfection by-products and pregnancy healt...

  5. Design and analysis issues in gene and environment studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Both nurture (environmental) and nature (genetic factors) play an important role in human disease etiology. Traditionally, these effects have been thought of as independent. This perspective is ill informed for non-mendelian complex disorders which result as an interaction between genetics and environment. To understand health and disease we must study how nature and nurture interact. Recent advances in human genomics and high-throughput biotechnology make it possible to study large numbers of genetic markers and gene products simultaneously to explore their interactions with environment. The purpose of this review is to discuss design and analytic issues for gene-environment interaction studies in the “-omics” era, with a focus on environmental and genetic epidemiological studies. We present an expanded environmental genomic disease paradigm. We discuss several study design issues for gene-environmental interaction studies, including confounding and selection bias, measurement of exposures and genotypes. We discuss statistical issues in studying gene-environment interactions in different study designs, such as choices of statistical models, assumptions regarding biological factors, and power and sample size considerations, especially in genome-wide gene-environment studies. Future research directions are also discussed. PMID:23253229

  6. Design and analysis issues in gene and environment studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen-yu; Maity, Arnab; Lin, Xihong; Wright, Robert O; Christiani, David C

    2012-12-19

    Both nurture (environmental) and nature (genetic factors) play an important role in human disease etiology. Traditionally, these effects have been thought of as independent. This perspective is ill informed for non-mendelian complex disorders which result as an interaction between genetics and environment. To understand health and disease we must study how nature and nurture interact. Recent advances in human genomics and high-throughput biotechnology make it possible to study large numbers of genetic markers and gene products simultaneously to explore their interactions with environment. The purpose of this review is to discuss design and analytic issues for gene-environment interaction studies in the "-omics" era, with a focus on environmental and genetic epidemiological studies. We present an expanded environmental genomic disease paradigm. We discuss several study design issues for gene-environmental interaction studies, including confounding and selection bias, measurement of exposures and genotypes. We discuss statistical issues in studying gene-environment interactions in different study designs, such as choices of statistical models, assumptions regarding biological factors, and power and sample size considerations, especially in genome-wide gene-environment studies. Future research directions are also discussed.

  7. Influence analysis on crossover design experiment in bioequivalence studies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yufen; Ke, Bo-Shiang

    2014-01-01

    Crossover designs are commonly used in bioequivalence studies. However, the results can be affected by some outlying observations, which may lead to the wrong decision on bioequivalence. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the influence of aberrant observations. Chow and Tse in 1990 discussed this issue by considering the methods based on the likelihood distance and estimates distance. Perturbation theory provides a useful tool for the sensitivity analysis on statistical models. Hence, in this paper, we develop the influence functions via the perturbation scheme proposed by Hampel as an alternative approach on the influence analysis for a crossover design experiment. Moreover, the comparisons between the proposed approach and the method proposed by Chow and Tse are investigated. Two real data examples are provided to illustrate the results of these approaches. Our proposed influence functions show excellent performance on the identification of outlier/influential observations and are suitable for use with small sample size crossover designs commonly used in bioequivalence studies.

  8. Design study of the KIRAMS-430 superconducting cyclotron magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Wook; Kang, Joonsun; Hong, Bong Hwan; Jung, In Su

    2016-07-01

    Design study of superconducting cyclotron magnet for the carbon therapy was performed at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science (KIRAMS). The name of this project is The Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) project and a fixed frequency cyclotron with four spiral sector magnet was one of the candidate for the accelerator type. Basic parameters of the cyclotron magnet and its characteristics were studied. The isochronous magnetic field which can guide the 12C6+ ions up to 430 MeV/u was designed and used for the single particle tracking simulation. The isochronous condition of magnetic field was achieved by optimization of sector gap and width along the radius. Operating range of superconducting coil current was calculated and changing of the magnetic field caused by mechanical deformations of yokes was considered. From the result of magnetic field design, structure of the magnet yoke was planned.

  9. [Introduction to critical reading of articles: study design and biases].

    PubMed

    García Villar, C

    2015-01-01

    The critical evaluation of an article enables professionals to make good use of the new information and therefore has direct repercussions for the benefit of our patients. Before undertaking a detailed critical reading of the chosen article, we need to consider whether the study used the most appropriate design for the question it aimed to answer (i.e., whether the level of evidence is adequate). To do this, we need to know how to classify studies in function of their design (descriptive or analytical; prospective or retrospective; cross-sectional or longitudinal) as well as their correlation with the levels of evidence. In critical reading it is also important to know the main systematic errors or biases that can affect a study. Biases can appear in any phase of a study; they can affect the sample, the development of the study, or the measurement of the results.

  10. The case-crossover study design in pharmacoepidemiology.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Joseph A 'Chris'; Suissa, Samy

    2009-02-01

    In the study of the association of transient drug exposures with acute outcomes, the case-crossover design is an efficient alternative to the case-control approach. This design based exclusively on the case series uses within-subject comparisons of drug exposures over time to estimate the rate ratio of the outcome associated with the drug under study. This design inherently removes the biasing effects of unmeasured, time-invariant confounding factors from the estimated rate ratio, but is sensitive to several assumptions. We illustrated the case-crossover design and explored its sensitivity using data from 4028 cases of gastrointestinal bleeding from the General Practice Research Database in assessing the effects of the drug warfarin. We compared the use of different time window lengths to assess exposure and considered the use of a case-time-control design to account for exposure time trends. The case-crossover approach found no excess risk of bleeding with warfarin exposure [rate ratio 0.98; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74-1.28] using a 1-month time window. When we restricted the analysis to subjects with truly transient drug exposure, defined by 1 to 3 prescriptions in the previous year, the rate ratio was 2.59 (95% CI: 1.42-4.74). To consider the longer 1-year exposure time window, the case-time-control approach was used and resulted in a rate ratio of 1.72 (95% CI: 1.08-2.43). In conclusion, the case-crossover design is potentially a powerful approach to assess the risk of drugs. This design is, however, highly sensitive to assumptions about intermittency of drug use and the length of the exposure time window, as demonstrated with the example of bleeding associated with warfarin use.

  11. Utilization of optimal study design for maternal and fetal sheep propofol pharmacokinetics study: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Sherwin, Catherine M T; Ngamprasertwong, Pornswan; Sadhasivam, Senthilkumar; Vinks, Alexander A

    2014-02-01

    Multiple blood samples are generally required for measurement of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. D-optimal design is a popular and frequently used approach for determination of sampling time points in order to minimize the number of samples, while optimizing the estimation of PK parameters. Optimal design utilizing ADAPT (v5, BSR, University of Southern California, Los Angeles) developed a sparse sampling strategy to determine measurement of propofol in pregnant sheep. Propofal was administered as supplemental anesthetic agent to inhalation anesthesia to mimic anesthesia for open fetal surgery. In our preliminary study, propofol 3 mg/kg was given as a bolus to the ewe, followed by propofol infusion at rate 450 mcg/kg/min for 60 minutes, then decreased to 75 mcg/kg/min for 90 more minutes and then ceased. A three compartment model described the PK parameters with the fetus assumed as the third compartment. Initially, sampling times were chosen from thirteen time points as previously stated in the literature. Using priori propofol PK estimates, the final 9 sample time points were proposed in an optimal design with a change in infusion rate occurring between 65 and 75 minutes and sampling proposed at 5, 15, 25, 65, 75, 100, 110, 150, and 180 minutes. D-optimal design optimized the number and timing of samplings, which led to a reduction of cost and man power in the study protocol while preserving the ability to estimate propofol PK parameters in the maternal and fetal sheep model. Initial evaluation of samples collected from three sheep using the optimal design strategy confirmed the performance of the design in obtaining effective PK parameter estimates.

  12. Utilization of Optimal Study Design for Maternal and Fetal Sheep Propofol Pharmacokinetics Study: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Sherwin, Catherine M. T.; Ngamprasertwong, Pornswan; Sadhasivam, Senthilkumar; Vinks, Alexander A.

    2017-01-01

    Multiple blood samples are generally required for measurement of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. D-optimal design is a popular and frequently used approach for determination of sampling time points in order to minimize the number of samples, while optimizing the estimation of PK parameters. Optimal design utilizing ADAPT (v5, BSR, University of Southern California, Los Angeles) developed a sparse sampling strategy to determine measurement of propofol in pregnant sheep. Propofal was administered as supplemental anesthetic agent to inhalation anesthesia to mimic anesthesia for open fetal surgery. In our preliminary study, propofol 3 mg/kg was given as a bolus to the ewe, followed by propofol infusion at rate 450 mcg/kg/min for 60 minutes, then decreased to 75 mcg/kg/min for 90 more minutes and then ceased. A three compartment model described the PK parameters with the fetus assumed as the third compartment. Initially, sampling times were chosen from thirteen time points as previously stated in the literature. Using priori propofol PK estimates, the final 9 sample time points were proposed in an optimal design with a change in infusion rate occurring between 65 and 75 minutes and sampling proposed at 5, 15, 25, 65, 75, 100, 110, 150, and 180 minutes. D-optimal design optimized the number and timing of samplings, which led to a reduction of cost and man power in the study protocol while preserving the ability to estimate propofol PK parameters in the maternal and fetal sheep model. Initial evaluation of samples collected from three sheep using the optimal design strategy confirmed the performance of the design in obtaining effective PK parameter estimates. PMID:24219004

  13. Design of an electromagnetic accelerator for turbulent hydrodynamic mix studies

    SciTech Connect

    Susoeff, A.R.; Hawke, R.S.; Morrison, J.J.; Dimonte, G.; Remington, B.A.

    1993-12-08

    An electromagnetic accelerator in the form of a linear electric motor (LEM) has been designed to achieve controlled acceleration profiles of a carriage containing hydrodynamically unstable fluids for the investigation of the development of turbulent mix. The Rayleigh- Taylor instability is investigated by accelerating two dissimilar density fluids using the LEM to achieve a wide variety of acceleration and deceleration profiles. The acceleration profiles are achieved by independent control of rail and augmentation currents. A variety of acceleration-time profiles are possible including: (1) constant, (2) impulsive and (3) shaped. The LEM and support structure are a robust design in order to withstand high loads with deflections and to mitigate operational vibration. Vibration of the carriage during acceleration could create artifacts in the data which would interfere with the intended study of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The design allows clear access for diagnostic techniques such as laser induced fluorescence radiography, shadowgraphs and particle imaging velocimetry. Electromagnetic modeling codes were used to optimize the rail and augmentation coil positions within the support structure framework. Results of contemporary studies for non-arcing sliding contact of solid armatures are used for the design of the driving armature and the dynamic electromagnetic braking system. A 0. 6MJ electrolytic capacitor bank is used for energy storage to drive the LEM. This report will discuss a LEM design which will accelerate masses of up to 3kg to a maximum of about 3000g{sub o}, where g{sub o} is accelerated due to gravity.

  14. Aeronautics Study Takes Off! Glider Design for Beginners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaros, Edward J.; Carlson, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Study of aeronautics is an interesting and motivating subject for students and educators alike. The activity described in this article--appropriate for upper elementary or middle school students--provides an excellent introduction to airplane design and the science of aerodynamics. It also gives students good experience applying knowledge from a…

  15. Engineering study for the functional design of a multiprocessor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. S.; Vandever, W. H.; Stanten, S. F.; Avakian, A. E.; Kosmala, A. L.

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of a study to generate a functional system design of a multiprocessing computer system capable of satisfying the computational requirements of a space station. These data management system requirements were specified to include: (1) real time control, (2) data processing and storage, (3) data retrieval, and (4) remote terminal servicing.

  16. Service-Learning and Interior Design: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mary

    2007-01-01

    The case study approach was used to analyze experiential learning through its three components: knowledge, action, and reflection. Two interior design courses were integrated through a university service-learning project. The restoration/adaptive reuse of a 95-year-old library building was to serve as a prototype for future off-campus…

  17. The design and methodology of premature ejaculation interventional studies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Large well-designed clinical efficacy and safety randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are required to achieve regulatory approval of new drug treatments. The objective of this article is to make recommendations for the criteria for defining and selecting the clinical trial study population, design and efficacy outcomes measures which comprise ideal premature ejaculation (PE) interventional trial methodology. Data on clinical trial design, epidemiology, definitions, dimensions and psychological impact of PE was reviewed, critiqued and incorporated into a series of recommendations for standardisation of PE clinical trial design, outcome measures and reporting using the principles of evidence based medicine. Data from PE interventional studies are only reliable, interpretable and capable of being generalised to patients with PE, when study populations are defined by the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) multivariate definition of PE. PE intervention trials should employ a double-blind RCT methodology and include placebo control, active standard drug control, and/or dose comparison trials. Ejaculatory latency time (ELT) and subject/partner outcome measures of control, personal/partner/relationship distress and other study-specific outcome measures should be used as outcome measures. There is currently no published literature which identifies a clinically significant threshold response to intervention. The ISSM definition of PE reflects the contemporary understanding of PE and represents the state-of-the-art multi-dimensional definition of PE and is recommended as the basis of diagnosis of PE for all PE clinical trials. PMID:27652224

  18. Aragon workers' health study - design and cohort description

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spain, a Mediterranean country with relatively low rates of coronary heart disease, has a high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and is experiencing a severe epidemic of overweight/obesity. We designed the Aragon Workers' Health Study (AWHS) to characterize the factors associated...

  19. Factorial study of rain garden design for nitrogen removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Nitrate (〖NO〗_3^--N ) removal studies in bioretention systems showed great variability in removal rates and in some cases 〖NO〗_3^--N was exported. A 3-way factorial design (2 x 2 x 4) was devised for eight outdoor un-vegetated rain gardens to evaluate the effects of ...

  20. Building Futures: The Head Start Impact Study. Research Design Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael; Bell, Stephen; Shapiro, Gary; Broene, Pam; Cook, Ronna; Friedman, Janet; Heid, Camilla

    Along with the rapid expansion over the past decade of Head Start, a program providing comprehensive early childhood development services to low-income children, their families, and their communities, has come the demand for rigorous research to demonstrate program effectiveness. This report describes the proposed design of a national study of the…

  1. Study Abroad Program Design, Personal Development and Intercultural Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiedenhoeft, Margaret Davis

    2011-01-01

    Research on study abroad focuses on the development of learning outcomes and assessment (Bolen, 2007) or program design, such as level of integration with local student population, housing situation, and level of interaction with host culture (Brecht & Robinson, 1993; Engle & Engle, 2004; Georgetown Consortium Research Project, n.d.;…

  2. Conflicts Management Model in School: A Mixed Design Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Soner

    2016-01-01

    The object of this study is to evaluate the reasons for conflicts occurring in school according to perceptions and views of teachers and resolution strategies used for conflicts and to build a model based on the results obtained. In the research, explanatory design including quantitative and qualitative methods has been used. The quantitative part…

  3. Integrated source and channel encoded digital communication system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, G. K.; Trumpis, B. D.; Udalov, S.

    1975-01-01

    Various aspects of space shuttle communication systems were studied. The following major areas were investigated: burst error correction for shuttle command channels; performance optimization and design considerations for Costas receivers with and without bandpass limiting; experimental techniques for measuring low level spectral components of microwave signals; and potential modulation and coding techniques for the Ku-band return link. Results are presented.

  4. Optimal Design for Regression Discontinuity Studies with Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads, Christopher; Dye, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increased interest in quantitative educational research studies that use random assignment (RA) to evaluate the causal impacts of educational interventions (Angrist, 2004). The multi-level structure of the public education system in the United States often leads to experimental designs where naturally occurring clusters…

  5. Aeronautics Study Takes Off! Glider Design for Beginners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaros, Edward J.; Carlson, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Study of aeronautics is an interesting and motivating subject for students and educators alike. The activity described in this article--appropriate for upper elementary or middle school students--provides an excellent introduction to airplane design and the science of aerodynamics. It also gives students good experience applying knowledge from a…

  6. PROSPECTIVE PREGNANCY STUDY DESIGNS FOR ASSESSING REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective Pregnancy Study Designs for Assessing Reproductive and Developmental Toxicants
    Germaine M. Buck,1 Courtney D. Johnson,1 Joseph Stanford,2 Anne Sweeney,3 Laura Schieve,4 John Rockett,5 Sherry G. Selevan,6 Steve Schrader 7

    Abstract
    The origin of successfu...

  7. Designing Intervention Studies: Selected Populations, Range Restrictions, and Statistical Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miciak, Jeremy; Taylor, W. Pat; Stuebing, Karla K.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    An appropriate estimate of statistical power is critical for the design of intervention studies. Although the inclusion of a pretest covariate in the test of the primary outcome can increase statistical power, samples selected on the basis of pretest performance may demonstrate range restriction on the selection measure and other correlated…

  8. MRFM System Design for the Study of Organic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Doran; Kim, David

    2007-03-01

    We will present an overview of our program to develop an MRFM system specialized for the study of organic materials at 4 K. The system uses the SPAM geometry and the CERMIT protocol and is predicted to be capable of imaging organic materials in 3D. The MRFM probe head design will be overviewed and progress toward system completion will be discussed.

  9. The design and methodology of premature ejaculation interventional studies.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Chris G

    2016-08-01

    Large well-designed clinical efficacy and safety randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are required to achieve regulatory approval of new drug treatments. The objective of this article is to make recommendations for the criteria for defining and selecting the clinical trial study population, design and efficacy outcomes measures which comprise ideal premature ejaculation (PE) interventional trial methodology. Data on clinical trial design, epidemiology, definitions, dimensions and psychological impact of PE was reviewed, critiqued and incorporated into a series of recommendations for standardisation of PE clinical trial design, outcome measures and reporting using the principles of evidence based medicine. Data from PE interventional studies are only reliable, interpretable and capable of being generalised to patients with PE, when study populations are defined by the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) multivariate definition of PE. PE intervention trials should employ a double-blind RCT methodology and include placebo control, active standard drug control, and/or dose comparison trials. Ejaculatory latency time (ELT) and subject/partner outcome measures of control, personal/partner/relationship distress and other study-specific outcome measures should be used as outcome measures. There is currently no published literature which identifies a clinically significant threshold response to intervention. The ISSM definition of PE reflects the contemporary understanding of PE and represents the state-of-the-art multi-dimensional definition of PE and is recommended as the basis of diagnosis of PE for all PE clinical trials.

  10. Practical Guidelines for Evaluating Sampling Designs in Survey Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Xitao; Wang, Lin

    The popularity of sample surveys in evaluation and research makes it necessary for consumers to tell a good survey from a poor one. Several sources were identified that gave advice on how to evaluate a sample design used in a survey study. The sources are either too limited or too extensive to be useful practically. The purpose of this paper is to…

  11. Space transportation booster engine configuration study. Addendum: Design definition document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Gas generator engine characteristics and results of engine configuration refinements are discussed. Updated component mechanical design, performance, and manufacturing information is provided. The results are also provided of ocean recovery studies and various engine integration tasks. The details are provided of the maintenance plan for the Space Transportation Booster Engine.

  12. Service-Learning and Interior Design: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mary

    2007-01-01

    The case study approach was used to analyze experiential learning through its three components: knowledge, action, and reflection. Two interior design courses were integrated through a university service-learning project. The restoration/adaptive reuse of a 95-year-old library building was to serve as a prototype for future off-campus…

  13. Study Abroad Program Design, Personal Development and Intercultural Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiedenhoeft, Margaret Davis

    2011-01-01

    Research on study abroad focuses on the development of learning outcomes and assessment (Bolen, 2007) or program design, such as level of integration with local student population, housing situation, and level of interaction with host culture (Brecht & Robinson, 1993; Engle & Engle, 2004; Georgetown Consortium Research Project, n.d.;…

  14. PROSPECTIVE PREGNANCY STUDY DESIGNS FOR ASSESSING REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective Pregnancy Study Designs for Assessing Reproductive and Developmental Toxicants
    Germaine M. Buck,1 Courtney D. Johnson,1 Joseph Stanford,2 Anne Sweeney,3 Laura Schieve,4 John Rockett,5 Sherry G. Selevan,6 Steve Schrader 7

    Abstract
    The origin of successfu...

  15. Designing Intervention Studies: Selected Populations, Range Restrictions, and Statistical Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miciak, Jeremy; Taylor, W. Pat; Stuebing, Karla K.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    An appropriate estimate of statistical power is critical for the design of intervention studies. Although the inclusion of a pretest covariate in the test of the primary outcome can increase statistical power, samples selected on the basis of pretest performance may demonstrate range restriction on the selection measure and other correlated…

  16. Usability Studies and User-Centered Design in Digital Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comeaux, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Digital libraries continue to flourish. At the same time, the principles of user-centered design and the practice of usability testing have been growing in popularity, spreading their influence into the library sphere. This article explores the confluence of these two trends by surveying the current literature on usability studies of digital…

  17. Factorial study of rain garden design for nitrogen removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Nitrate (〖NO〗_3^--N ) removal studies in bioretention systems showed great variability in removal rates and in some cases 〖NO〗_3^--N was exported. A 3-way factorial design (2 x 2 x 4) was devised for eight outdoor un-vegetated rain gardens to evaluate the effects of ...

  18. ENVIRONMENT FOR LEARNING, A RESEARCH STUDY IN SECONDARY SCHOOL DESIGN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier Corp., Syracuse, NY.

    A STUDY OF THE SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT AND THE PREPARATION OF A MODEL DESIGN SOLUTION HAS BEEN CONDUCTED BY AN ARCHITECTURAL FIRM. THE SOLUTION USED DATA FROM AN EXISTING COMPARISON SCHOOL IN THE REDESIGN OF THE EDUCATIONAL FACILITY BASED ON THE INDEPENDENT CONTROL OF THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT AND THE ELIMINATION OF CLASSROOM WINDOWS. THIS APPROACH…

  19. Spent Fuel Transportation Package Performance Study - Experimental Design Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, A. M.; Murphy, A. J.; Sprung, J. L.; Ammerman, D. J.; Lopez, C.

    2003-02-25

    Numerous studies of spent nuclear fuel transportation accident risks have been performed since the late seventies that considered shipping container design and performance. Based in part on these studies, NRC has concluded that the level of protection provided by spent nuclear fuel transportation package designs under accident conditions is adequate. [1] Furthermore, actual spent nuclear fuel transport experience showcase a safety record that is exceptional and unparalleled when compared to other hazardous materials transportation shipments. There has never been a known or suspected release of the radioactive contents from an NRC-certified spent nuclear fuel cask as a result of a transportation accident. In 1999 the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated a study, the Package Performance Study, to demonstrate the performance of spent fuel and spent fuel packages during severe transportation accidents. NRC is not studying or testing its current regulations, a s the rigorous regulatory accident conditions specified in 10 CFR Part 71 are adequate to ensure safe packaging and use. As part of this study, NRC currently plans on using detailed modeling followed by experimental testing to increase public confidence in the safety of spent nuclear fuel shipments. One of the aspects of this confirmatory research study is the commitment to solicit and consider public comment during the scoping phase and experimental design planning phase of this research.

  20. Specific design features of an interpretative phenomenological analysis study.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Christopher; Williams, Bob

    2014-01-01

    Report of an innovative use of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) to enable an in-depth study of the experiences of disengagement from mental health services of black men with diagnoses of severe and enduring mental illness. The aim of IPA is to explore the sense that participants make of their personal and social worlds, while recognising the contribution of the researcher in interpreting the participants' interpretations of their experiences. Seven black male research participants were recruited to the study. The components of the study that contribute to the body of literature on IPA research design include: an engagement stage in the research; a second clarifying interview; discussion of clarifying questions and emergent themes with two academic service-users; and a post-interview meeting to discuss the themes emerging from the research study. The paper focuses on the contribution of the four specific design features of the study and how these enabled the researcher to engage with a population that is often deemed 'hard to reach'. The four distinctive methodological developments in the study emphasise the flexibility of IPA. These innovations assisted the researcher in developing a broader double hermeneutic that enabled reporting of the experiences of disengagement from mental health services of black men with diagnoses of severe and enduring mental illness. The distinctive design of this study further emphasises the flexibility of IPA, while simultaneously showing fidelity to the core principles underlying the research methodology.

  1. Designing occupancy studies when false-positive detections occur

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clement, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    1.Recently, estimators have been developed to estimate occupancy probabilities when false-positive detections occur during presence-absence surveys. Some of these estimators combine different types of survey data to improve estimates of occupancy. With these estimators, there is a tradeoff between the number of sample units surveyed, and the number and type of surveys at each sample unit. Guidance on efficient design of studies when false positives occur is unavailable. 2.For a range of scenarios, I identified survey designs that minimized the mean square error of the estimate of occupancy. I considered an approach that uses one survey method and two observation states and an approach that uses two survey methods. For each approach, I used numerical methods to identify optimal survey designs when model assumptions were met and parameter values were correctly anticipated, when parameter values were not correctly anticipated, and when the assumption of no unmodelled detection heterogeneity was violated. 3.Under the approach with two observation states, false positive detections increased the number of recommended surveys, relative to standard occupancy models. If parameter values could not be anticipated, pessimism about detection probabilities avoided poor designs. Detection heterogeneity could require more or fewer repeat surveys, depending on parameter values. If model assumptions were met, the approach with two survey methods was inefficient. However, with poor anticipation of parameter values, with detection heterogeneity, or with removal sampling schemes, combining two survey methods could improve estimates of occupancy. 4.Ignoring false positives can yield biased parameter estimates, yet false positives greatly complicate the design of occupancy studies. Specific guidance for major types of false-positive occupancy models, and for two assumption violations common in field data, can conserve survey resources. This guidance can be used to design efficient

  2. Advanced study techniques: tools for HVDC systems design

    SciTech Connect

    Degeneff, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    High voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission systems, which offer functional as well as environmental and economic advantages, could see a 15% growth rate over the next decade. Design studies of HVDC system components are complicated by the need to cover 11 major elements: power system, insulation coordination, filter design, subsynchronous torsional interaction, circuit breaker requirements, power line carrier and radio interference, electric fields and audible noise, protective relaying, availability and reliability, efficiency, equipment specification, and HVDC simulator and Transient Network Analyzers. The author summarizes and illustrates each element. 6 figures, 1 table.

  3. A Taguchi study of the aeroelastic tailoring design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohlmann, Jonathan D.; Scott, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    A Taguchi study was performed to determine the important players in the aeroelastic tailoring design process and to find the best composition of the optimization's objective function. The Wing Aeroelastic Synthesis Procedure (TSO) was used to ascertain the effects that factors such as composite laminate constraints, roll effectiveness constraints, and built-in wing twist and camber have on the optimum, aeroelastically tailored wing skin design. The results show the Taguchi method to be a viable engineering tool for computational inquiries, and provide some valuable lessons about the practice of aeroelastic tailoring.

  4. Shuttle/tethered satellite system conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A closed-loop control system was added to the tether reel which improves control over the tethered satellite. In addition to increasing the stability of the tethered satellite along local vertical, this control system is used for deployment and retrieval of tethered satellites. This conceptual design study describes a tether system for suspending a science payload at an altitude of 120 km from space shuttle orbiter flying at an altitude of 200 km. In addition to the hardware conceptual designs, various aspects concerning Orbiter accommodations are discussed.

  5. Status of the VOTech Design Study about User Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolensky, M.; Pierfederici, F.; Allen, M.; Boch, T.; Bonnarel, F.; Derrière, S.; Fernique, P.; Noddle, K.; Smareglia, R.

    2006-07-01

    The VOTech design study on future tools started in spring 2005. This project, co-funded by the EC, produces design documents and software prototypes for new VO-compliant end-user tools. It is based on the experience and feedback of precursor projects and on input from the scientific user community. This status report details a number of early deliverables available from the project pages wiki.eurovotech.org, section DS4. This includes a summary of existing tools, desired future tools as derived from the AVO SRM, requirements for a cross matcher, a simple method for transferring instrumental footprints, use cases for simulations and the evaluation of various technologies.

  6. Design Study of a Free Electron Laser Storage Ring,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    rAD-AU2 75TAFORD UNVCA7 HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS LAB F/G 20/5 DESIGN STUDY OF A FREE ELECTRON LASER STORAGE RING, (U)~jUN 80 H WIEOMANN UNCLASSIFIED HELT...particle to emit a high energy photon which causes a large pertdrbation of the betatron and synchro- tron oscillation. Calculations of this effect 1 show...in this storage ring design too. The most significant effect to limit the beam lifetime in low energy , high intensity storage rings is the so-called

  7. Kids in the city study: research design and methodology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity is essential for optimal physical and psychological health but substantial declines in children's activity levels have occurred in New Zealand and internationally. Children's independent mobility (i.e., outdoor play and traveling to destinations unsupervised), an integral component of physical activity in childhood, has also declined radically in recent decades. Safety-conscious parenting practices, car reliance and auto-centric urban design have converged to produce children living increasingly sedentary lives. This research investigates how urban neighborhood environments can support or enable or restrict children's independent mobility, thereby influencing physical activity accumulation and participation in daily life. Methods/Design The study is located in six Auckland, New Zealand neighborhoods, diverse in terms of urban design attributes, particularly residential density. Participants comprise 160 children aged 9-11 years and their parents/caregivers. Objective measures (global positioning systems, accelerometers, geographical information systems, observational audits) assessed children's independent mobility and physical activity, neighborhood infrastructure, and streetscape attributes. Parent and child neighborhood perceptions and experiences were assessed using qualitative research methods. Discussion This study is one of the first internationally to examine the association of specific urban design attributes with child independent mobility. Using robust, appropriate, and best practice objective measures, this study provides robust epidemiological information regarding the relationships between the built environment and health outcomes for this population. PMID:21781341

  8. Rare-Variant Association Analysis: Study Designs and Statistical Tests

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seunggeung; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Boehnke, Michael; Lin, Xihong

    2014-01-01

    Despite the extensive discovery of trait- and disease-associated common variants, much of the genetic contribution to complex traits remains unexplained. Rare variants can explain additional disease risk or trait variability. An increasing number of studies are underway to identify trait- and disease-associated rare variants. In this review, we provide an overview of statistical issues in rare-variant association studies with a focus on study designs and statistical tests. We present the design and analysis pipeline of rare-variant studies and review cost-effective sequencing designs and genotyping platforms. We compare various gene- or region-based association tests, including burden tests, variance-component tests, and combined omnibus tests, in terms of their assumptions and performance. Also discussed are the related topics of meta-analysis, population-stratification adjustment, genotype imputation, follow-up studies, and heritability due to rare variants. We provide guidelines for analysis and discuss some of the challenges inherent in these studies and future research directions. PMID:24995866

  9. Design studies of continuously variable transmissions for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.; Loewenthal, S. H.; Fischer, G. K.

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary design studies were performed on four continuously variable transmission (CVT) concepts for use with a flywheel equipped electric vehicle of 1700 kg gross weight. Requirements of the CVT's were a maximum torque of 450 N-m (330 lb-ft), a maximum output power of 75 kW (100 hp), and a flywheel speed range of 28,000 to 14,000 rpm. Efficiency, size, weight, cost, reliability, maintainability, and controls were evaluated for each of the four concepts which included a steel V-belt type, a flat rubber belt type, a toroidal traction type, and a cone roller traction type. All CVT's exhibited relatively high calculated efficiencies (68 percent to 97 percent) over a broad range of vehicle operating conditions. Estimated weight and size of these transmissions were comparable to or less than equivalent automatic transmission. The design of each concept was carried through the design layout stage.

  10. Advanced Technology Spark-Ignition Aircraft Piston Engine Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckas, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    The advanced technology, spark ignition, aircraft piston engine design study was conducted to determine the improvements that could be made by taking advantage of technology that could reasonably be expected to be made available for an engine intended for production by January 1, 1990. Two engines were proposed to account for levels of technology considered to be moderate risk and high risk. The moderate risk technology engine is a homogeneous charge engine operating on avgas and offers a 40% improvement in transportation efficiency over present designs. The high risk technology engine, with a stratified charge combustion system using kerosene-based jet fuel, projects a 65% improvement in transportation efficiency. Technology enablement program plans are proposed herein to set a timetable for the successful integration of each item of required advanced technology into the engine design.

  11. Nuclear Brayton turboalternator-compressor (TAC) conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mock, E. A.; Davis, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis and conceptual design study of the turboalternator-compressor components was performed using HeXe as the working fluid. Individual turbine, alternator, compressor, and bearing and seal designs were evaluated. Six turboalternator-compressor TAC configurations were completed. One TAC configuration was evaluated to calculate its performance when operating under new cycle conditions,namely, one higher and one lower turbine inlet temperature and one case with krypton as the working fluid. Based on the results, a TAC configuration that incorporated a radial compressor, a radial turbine, a Lundell Alternator, and gas bearings was selected. A new layout of the TAC was prepared that reflects the cycle state points necessary to accommodate a zirconium hydride moderated reactor and a 400 Hz alternator. The final TAC design rotates at 24,000 rpm and produces 160 kWe, 480V, 3-phase, 400 hertz power.

  12. Design of Laboratory Experiments to Study Photoionization Fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, William James; Davis, Josh; Drake, R. Paul

    2017-06-01

    Here we present the theoretical foundation for a laboratory experiment to study photoionization fronts. Photoionization fronts play important roles in the formation and evolution of structure in the Universe. A properly designed experiment will have to control the recombination rate, electron impact ionization rate, and the initial thermal spectrum. We show that such an experiment can be designed, but requires the use of the largest high-energy-density laser facilities, such as Omega, Z, and NIF. We also show that prior experiments do not actually generate photoionization fronts, rather a heat front is produced by heat conductions. We show some initial simulation results of the current experimental design and characterize the ionization front.

  13. Design Feasibility Study of a Space Station Freedom Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armand, Sasan C.; Dohogne, Caroline A.

    1992-01-01

    Here, the focus is on the design and configuration feasibility of the short spacer for the Space Station Program in its launch configuration. The product of this study is being used by Rockwell International (Rocketdyne Division) as they continue their design concept of the current short spacer configuration. It is anticipated that the launch loads will dominate the on-orbit loads and dictate the design configuration of the short spacer. At the present time, the on-orbit loads have not been generated. The structural analysis discussed herein is based on the transient events derived from the Space Transportation System (STS) Interface Control Document (ICD). The transient loading events consist of liftoff loads, landing loads, and emergency landing loads. The quasi-static loading events have been neglected, since the magnitude of the acceleration factors are lower than the transient acceleration factors. The normal mode analyses presented herein are based on the most feasible configurations with acceptable stress ranges.

  14. Laser fusion driven breeder design study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berwald, D.H.; Massey, J.V.

    1980-12-01

    The results of the Laser Fusion Breeder Design Study are given. This information primarily relates to the conceptual design of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) breeder reactor (or fusion-fission hybrid) based upon the HYLIFE liquid metal wall protection concept developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The blanket design for this breeder is optimized to both reduce fissions and maximize the production of fissile fuel for subsequent use in conventional light water reactors (LWRs). When the suppressed fission blanket is compared with its fast fission counterparts, a minimal fission rate in the blanket results in a unique reactor safety advantage for this concept with respect to reduced radioactive inventory and reduced fission product decay afterheat in the event of a loss-of-coolant-accident.

  15. Design and experimental study of a novel giant magnetostrictive actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Guangming; Zhang, Peilin; He, Zhongbo; Li, Dongwei; Huang, Yingjie; Xie, Wenqiang

    2016-12-01

    Giant magnetostrictive actuator has been widely used in precise driving occasions for its excellent performance. However, in driving a switching valve, especially the ball-valve in an electronic controlled injector, the actuator can't exhibit its good performance for limits in output displacement and responding speed. A novel giant magnetostrictive actuator, which can reach its maximum displacement for being exerted with no bias magnetic field, is designed in this paper. Simultaneously, elongating of the giant magetostrictive material is converted to shortening of the actuator's axial dimension with the help of an output rod in "T" type. Furthermore, to save responding time, the driving voltage with high opening voltage while low holding voltage is designed. Responding time and output displacement are studied experimentally with the help of a measuring system. From measured results, designed driving voltage can improve the responding speed of actuator displacement quite effectively. And, giant magnetostrictive actuator can output various steady-state displacements to reach more driving effects.

  16. Study of optical design of three-dimensional digital ophthalmoscopes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yi-Chin; Yen, Chih-Ta; Chu, Chin-Hsien

    2015-10-01

    This study primarily involves using optical zoom structures to design a three-dimensional (3D) human-eye optical sensory system with infrared and visible light. According to experimental data on two-dimensional (2D) and 3D images, human-eye recognition of 3D images is substantially higher (approximately 13.182%) than that of 2D images. Thus, 3D images are more effective than 2D images when they are used at work or in high-recognition devices. In the optical system design, infrared and visible light wavebands were incorporated as light sources to perform simulations. The results can be used to facilitate the design of optical systems suitable for 3D digital ophthalmoscopes.

  17. Space tug point design study. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design and characteristics of a space tug are discussed. The primary objective of the study is to verify the performance capability of a baseline design to deliver and retrieve payloads between 100 nautical miles, 28.5 degrees inclination, and geosynchronous. The space tug is ground based, reusable for 20 mission cycles, and is shuttled to and from low earth orbit by an earth orbital shuttle (EOS) with a 65,000 pound payload capability. It is shown that the baseline concept can meet the target performance goals. The design analysis encompassed: (1) definition of the vehicle primary structure, (2) thermal control, (3) meteoroid protection, (4) propulsion and mechanical subsystems, and (5) avionics including power generation and distribution.

  18. Design feasibility study of a Space Station Freedom truss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armand, Sasan C.; Dohogne, Caroline A.

    1992-04-01

    Here, the focus is on the design and configuration feasibility of the short spacer for the Space Station Program in its launch configuration. The product of this study is being used by Rockwell International (Rocketdyne Division) as they continue their design concept of the current short spacer configuration. It is anticipated that the launch loads will dominate the on-orbit loads and dictate the design configuration of the short spacer. At the present time, the on-orbit loads have not been generated. The structural analysis discussed herein is based on the transient events derived from the Space Transportation System (STS) Interface Control Document (ICD). The transient loading events consist of liftoff loads, landing loads, and emergency landing loads. The quasi-static loading events have been neglected, since the magnitude of the acceleration factors are lower than the transient acceleration factors. The normal mode analyses presented herein are based on the most feasible configurations with acceptable stress ranges.

  19. Representing and extracting lung cancer study metadata: study objective and study design.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Gathright, Jean I; Oh, Andrea; Abarca, Phillip A; Han, Mary; Sago, William; Spiegel, Marshall L; Wolf, Brian; Garon, Edward B; Bui, Alex A T; Aberle, Denise R

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the information retrieval step in Casama (Contextualized Semantic Maps), a project that summarizes and contextualizes current research papers on driver mutations in non-small cell lung cancer. Casama׳s representation of lung cancer studies aims to capture elements that will assist an end-user in retrieving studies and, importantly, judging their strength. This paper focuses on two types of study metadata: study objective and study design. 430 abstracts on EGFR and ALK mutations in lung cancer were annotated manually. Casama׳s support vector machine (SVM) automatically classified the abstracts by study objective with as much as 129% higher F-scores compared to PubMed׳s built-in filters. A second SVM classified the abstracts by epidemiological study design, suggesting strength of evidence at a more granular level than in previous work. The classification results and the top features determined by the classifiers suggest that this scheme would be generalizable to other mutations in lung cancer, as well as studies on driver mutations in other cancer domains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. LUTE primary mirror materials and design study report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruthven, Greg

    1993-01-01

    The major objective of the Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) Primary Mirror Materials and Design Study is to investigate the feasibility of the LUTE telescope primary mirror. A systematic approach to accomplish this key goal was taken by first understanding the optical, thermal, and structural requirements and then deriving the critical primary mirror-level requirements for ground testing, launch, and lunar operations. After summarizing the results in those requirements which drove the selection of material and the design for the primary mirror are discussed. Most important of these are the optical design which was assumed to be the MSFC baseline (i.e. 3 mirror optical system), telescope wavefront error (WFE) allocations, the telescope weight budget, and the LUTE operational temperature ranges. Mechanical load levels, reflectance and microroughness issues, and options for the LUTE metering structure were discussed and an outline for the LUTE telescope sub-system design specification was initiated. The primary mirror analysis and results are presented. The six material substrate candidates are discussed and four distinct mirror geometries which are considered are shown. With these materials and configurations together with varying the location of the mirror support points, a total of 42 possible primary mirror designs resulted. The polishability of each substrate candidate was investigated and a usage history of 0.5 meter and larger precision cryogenic mirrors (the operational low end LUTE temperature of 60 K is the reason we feel a survey of cryogenic mirrors is appropriate) that were flown or tested are presented.

  1. Priority issues, study designs and geographical distribution in nutrition journals.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Moncada, R; González-Zapata, L; Ruiz-Cantero, M T; Clemente-Gómez, V

    2011-01-01

    The increased number of articles published in nutrition is a reflection of the relevance to scientific community. The characteristics and quality of nutritional studies determine whether readers can obtain valid conclusions from them, as well as their usefulness for evidence-based strategic policies. To determine the characteristics of papers published in nutrition journals. Descriptive study design. We reviewed 330 original papers published between January-June 2007. From: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (AJCN), Journal of Nutrition, European Journal Nutrition, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition and Public Health Nutrition. We classified them according to the subjects studied; risk factors, study design and country of origin. Almost half the papers studied healthy people (53.3%). The most frequent illness was obesity (13.9%). Food consumption is the most frequent risk factor (63.3%). Social factors appear exclusively only in 3.6% of the papers. Clinical trials were the most common analytical design (31.8%), mainly in the AJCN (45.6%). Cross-sectional studies were the most frequent type of observational design (37.9%). Ten countries produced over half of the papers (51.3%). The US publishes the highest number of papers (20.6%), whilst developing countries make only scarce contributions to scientific literature on nutrition. Most of the papers had inferential power. They generally studied both healthy and sick subjects, coinciding with the aims of international scientific policies. However, the topics covered reflect a clear bias, prioritizing problems pertaining to developed countries. Social determinants of health should also be considered, along with behavioral and biological risk factors.

  2. Effects of study design and trends for EVAR versus OSR

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Robert; Bowen, James; Campbell, Kaitryn; Blackhouse, Gord; De Rose, Guy; Novick, Teresa; O’Reilly, Daria; Goeree, Ron; Tarride, Jean-Eric

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate if study design factors such as randomization, multi-center versus single center evidence, institutional surgical volume, and patient selection affect the outcomes for endovascular repair (EVAR) versus open surgical repair (OSR). Finally, we investigate trends over time in EVAR versus OSR outcomes. Methods: Search strategies for comparative studies were performed individually for: OVID’s MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, HAPI, and Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) Reviews (including Cochrane DSR, ACP Journal Club, DARE and CCTR), limited to 1990 and November 2006. Results: Identified literature: 84 comparative studies pertaining to 57,645 patients. These include 4 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), plus 2 RCTs with long-term follow-up. The other 78 comparative studies were nonrandomized with 75 reporting perioperative outcomes, of which 16 were multi-center, and 59 single-center studies. Of the single-center studies 31 were low-volume and 28 were high-volume centers. In addition, 5 studies had all patients anatomically eligible for EVAR, and 8 studies included high-risk patients only. Finally, 25 long term observational studies reported outcomes up to 3 years. Outcomes: Lower perioperative mortality and rates of complications for EVAR versus OSR varied across study designs and patient populations. EVAR adverse outcomes have decreased in recent times. Conclusion: EVAR highlights the problem of performing meta-analysis when the experience evolves over time. PMID:19183749

  3. Mixed methods research design for pragmatic psychoanalytic studies.

    PubMed

    Tillman, Jane G; Clemence, A Jill; Stevens, Jennifer L

    2011-10-01

    Calls for more rigorous psychoanalytic studies have increased over the past decade. The field has been divided by those who assert that psychoanalysis is properly a hermeneutic endeavor and those who see it as a science. A comparable debate is found in research methodology, where qualitative and quantitative methods have often been seen as occupying orthogonal positions. Recently, Mixed Methods Research (MMR) has emerged as a viable "third community" of research, pursuing a pragmatic approach to research endeavors through integrating qualitative and quantitative procedures in a single study design. Mixed Methods Research designs and the terminology associated with this emerging approach are explained, after which the methodology is explored as a potential integrative approach to a psychoanalytic human science. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods are reviewed, as well as how they may be used in Mixed Methods Research to study complex human phenomena.

  4. Statistical Design Features of the Healthy Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Warren J; Sroka, Christopher J; Frongillo, Edward A; Arteaga, S Sonia; Loria, Catherine M; Leifer, Eric S; Wu, Colin O; Patrick, Heather; Fishbein, Howard A; John, Lisa V

    2015-10-01

    The Healthy Communities Study is designed to assess relationships between characteristics of community programs and policies targeting childhood obesity and children's BMI, diet, and physical activity. The study involved a complex data collection protocol implemented over a 2-year period (2013-2015) across a diverse sample of 130 communities, defined as public high school catchment areas. The protocol involved baseline assessment within each community that included in-person or telephone interviews regarding community programs and policies and in-home collection of BMI, nutritional, and physical activity outcomes from a sample of up to 81 children enrolled in kindergarten through eighth grade in public schools. The protocol also involved medical record reviews to establish a longitudinal trajectory of BMI for an estimated 70% of participating children. Staged sampling was used to collect less detailed measures of physical activity and nutrition across the entire sample of children, with a subset assessed using more costly, burdensome, and detailed measures. Data from the Healthy Community Study will be analyzed using both cross-sectional and longitudinal models that account for the complex design and correct for measurement error and bias using a likelihood-based Markov-chain Monte Carlo methodology. This methods paper provides insights into the complex design features of the Healthy Communities Study and may serve as an example for future large-scale studies that assess the relationship between community-based programs and policies and health outcomes of community residents.

  5. Statistical Design Features of the Healthy Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Warren J.; Sroka, Christopher J.; Frongillo, Edward A.; Arteaga, S. Sonia; Loria, Catherine M.; Leifer, Eric S.; Wu, Colin O.; Patrick, Heather; Fishbein, Howard A.; John, Lisa V.

    2015-01-01

    The Healthy Communities Study is designed to assess relationships between characteristics of community programs and policies targeting childhood obesity and children’s BMI, diet, and physical activity. The study involved a complex data collection protocol implemented over a 2-year period (2013–2015) across a diverse sample of up to 125 communities, defined as public high school catchment areas. The protocol involved baseline assessment within each community that included in-person or telephone interviews regarding community programs and policies and in-home collection of BMI, nutritional, and physical activity outcomes from a sample of up to 81 children enrolled in kindergarten through eighth grade in public schools. The protocol also involved medical record reviews to establish a longitudinal trajectory of BMI for an estimated 70% of participating children. Staged sampling was used to collect less detailed measures of physical activity and nutrition across the entire sample of children, with a subset assessed using more costly, burdensome, and detailed measures. Data from the Healthy Community Study will be analyzed using both cross-sectional and longitudinal models that account for the complex design and correct for measurement error and bias using a likelihood-based Markov chain Monte Carlo methodology. This methods paper provides insights into the complex design features of the Healthy Communities Study and may serve as an example for future large-scale studies that assess the relationship between community-based programs and policies and health outcomes of community residents. PMID:26384932

  6. Energy efficient engine preliminary design and integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    The technology and configurational requirements of an all new 1990's energy efficient turbofan engine having a twin spool arrangement with a directly coupled fan and low-pressure turbine, a mixed exhaust nacelle, and a high 38.6:1 overall pressure ratio were studied. Major advanced technology design features required to provide the overall benefits were a high pressure ratio compression system, a thermally actuated advanced clearance control system, lightweight shroudless fan blades, a low maintenance cost one-stage high pressure turbine, a short efficient mixer and structurally integrated engine and nacelle. A conceptual design analysis was followed by integration and performance analyses of geared and direct-drive fan engines with separate or mixed exhaust nacelles to refine previously designed engine cycles. Preliminary design and more detailed engine-aircraft integration analysis were then conducted on the more promising configurations. Engine and aircraft sizing, fuel burned, and airframe noise studies on projected 1990's domestic and international aircraft produced sufficient definition of configurational and advanced technology requirements to allow immediate initiation of component technology development.

  7. New design studies for TRIUMF's ARIEL High Resolution Separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, J. A.; Baartman, R.; Marchetto, M.

    2016-06-01

    As part of its new Advanced Rare IsotopE Laboratory (ARIEL), TRIUMF is designing a novel High Resolution Separator (HRS) (Maloney et al., 2015) to separate rare isotopes. The HRS has a 180° bend, separated into two 90° magnetic dipoles, bend radius 1.2 m, with an electrostatic multipole corrector between them. Second order correction comes mainly from the dipole edge curvatures, but is intended to be fine-tuned with a sextupole component and a small octupole component in the multipole. This combination is designed to achieve 1:20,000 resolution for a 3 μm (horizontal) and 6 μm (vertical) emittance. A design for the HRS dipole magnets achieves both radial and integral flatness goals of <10-5. A review of the optical design for the HRS is presented, including the study of limiting factors affecting separation, matching and aberration correction. Field simulations from the OPERA-3D (OPERA) [2] models of the dipole magnets are used in COSY Infinity (COSY) (Berz and Makino, 2005) [3] to find and optimize the transfer maps to 3rd order and study residual nonlinearities to 8th order.

  8. Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) conceptual design option study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Melvin; Olson, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Results are given of a study to explore options for the development of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for a future Space Station. In addition, study results will benefit the design of other facilities such as the Life Sciences Research Facility, a ground-based CELSS demonstrator, and will be useful in planning longer range missions such as a lunar base or manned Mars mission. The objectives were to develop weight and cost estimates for one CELSS module selected from a set of preliminary plant growth unit (PGU) design options. Eleven Space Station CELSS module conceptual PGU designs were reviewed, components and subsystems identified and a sensitivity analysis performed. Areas where insufficient data is available were identified and divided into the categories of biological research, engineering research, and technology development. Topics which receive significant attention are lighting systems for the PGU, the use of automation within the CELSS system, and electric power requirements. Other areas examined include plant harvesting and processing, crop mix analysis, air circulation and atmosphere contaminant flow subsystems, thermal control considerations, utility routing including accessibility and maintenance, and nutrient subsystem design.

  9. Forest fire advanced system technology (FFAST) conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. David; Warren, John R.

    1987-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service completed a conceptual design study that defined an integrated forest fire detection and mapping system that will be based upon technology available in the 1990s. Potential system configuration options in emerging and advanced technologies related to the conceptual design were identified and recommended for inclusion as preferred system components. System component technologies identified for an end-to-end system include airborne mounted, thermal infrared (IR) linear array detectors, automatic onboard georeferencing and signal processing, geosynchronous satellite communications links, and advanced data integration and display. Potential system configuration options were developed and examined for possible inclusion in the preferred system configuration. The preferred system configuration will provide increased performance and be cost effective over the system currently in use. Forest fire management user requirements and the system component emerging technologies were the basis for the system configuration design. The conceptual design study defined the preferred system configuration that warrants continued refinement and development, examined economic aspects of the current and preferred system, and provided preliminary cost estimates for follow-on system prototype development.

  10. Design study of flat belt CVT for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumm, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    A continuously variable transmission (CVT) was studied, using a novel flat belt pulley arrangement which couples the high speed output shaft of an energy storage flywheel to the drive train of an electric vehicle. A specific CVT arrangement was recommended and its components were selected and sized, based on the design requirements of a 1700 KG vehicle. A design layout was prepared and engineering calculations made of component efficiencies and operating life. The transmission efficiency was calculated to be significantly over 90% with the expected vehicle operation. A design consistent with automotive practice for low future production costs was considered, together with maintainability. The technology advancements required to develop the flat belt CVT were identified and an estimate was made of how the size of the flat belt CVT scales to larger and smaller design output torques. The suitability of the flat belt CVT for alternate application to an electric vehicle powered by an electric motor without flywheel and to a hybrid electric vehicle powered by an electric motor with an internal combustion engine was studied.

  11. Elliptic Volume Grid Generation for Viscous CFD Parametric Design Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen J.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a robust method for the generation of zonal volume grids of design parametrics for aerodynamic configurations. The process utilizes simple algebraic techniques with parametric splines coupled with elliptic volume grid generation to generate isolated zonal grids for changes in body configuration needed to perform parametric design studies. Speed of the algorithm is maximized through the algebraic methods and reduced number of grid points to be regenerated for each design parametric without sacrificing grid quality and continuity within the volume domain. The method is directly applicable to grid reusability, because it modifies existing ow adapted volume grids and enables the user to restart the CFD solution process with an established flow field. Use of this zonal approach reduces computer usage time to create new volume grids for design parametric studies by an order of magnitude, as compared to current methods which require the regeneration of an entire volume grid. A sample configuration of a proposed Single Stage-to-Orbit Vehicle is used to illustrate an application of this method.

  12. Methodological considerations for designing a community water fluoridation cessation study.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Sonica; Farmer, Julie; McLaren, Lindsay

    2017-02-22

    High-quality, up-to-date research on community water fluoridation (CWF), and especially on the implications of CWF cessation for dental health, is limited. Although CWF cessation studies have been conducted, they are few in number; one of the major reasons is the methodological complexity of conducting such a study. This article draws on a systematic review of existing cessation studies (n=15) to explore methodological considerations of conducting CWF cessation studies in future. We review nine important methodological aspects (study design, comparison community, target population, time frame, sampling strategy, clinical indicators, assessment criteria, covariates and biomarkers) and provide recommendations for planning future CWF cessation studies that examine effects on dental caries. There is no one ideal study design to answer a research question. However, recommendations proposed regarding methodological aspects to conduct an epidemiological study to observe the effects of CWF cessation on dental caries, coupled with our identification of important methodological gaps, will be useful for researchers who are looking to optimize resources to conduct such a study with standards of rigour.

  13. METIS opto-mechanical design and packaging study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroes, Gabby; ter Horst, Rik; Kragt, Jan; Roelfsema, Ronald; Navarro, Ramón; Venema, Lars; Lenzen, Rainer; Rohloff, Ralf R.; Durand, Gilles; Pantin, Eric; Ronayette, Samuel; Todd, Stephen; Bennett, Richard; Glasse, Alistair; Blommaert, Joris; Brandl, Bernhard; Teuwen, Maurice; Janssen, Huub; Huisman, Robert

    2010-07-01

    METIS: "Mid-infrared ELT Imager and Spectrograph" is the mid-infrared (3 - 14 microns) instrument for imaging and spectroscopy for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). To ensure high detection sensitivity the internal radiation of the instrument needs to be eliminated (sufficiently reduced) and thus needs to be operated at cryogenic temperatures. The instrument is divided in a cold and warm system. The cold system, the actual heart of the system, is subdivided into five main opto-mechanical modules located within a common cryostat (part of the warm system). The warm system provides the crucial environment for the cold system, including the instrument control and maintenance equipment. The end 2009 finished Phase-A study carried out within the framework of the ESO sponsored E-ELT instrumentation studies has been performed by an international consortium with institutes from Netherlands (PI: Bernhard Brandl - NOVA), Germany, France, United Kingdom and Belgium. During this conference various aspects of the METIS instrument (design) are presented in several papers, including the instrument concept and science case, and the system engineering and optical design. This paper describes the design constraints and key issues regarding the packaging of this complex cryogenic instrument. The design solutions to create a light, small and fully accessible instrument are discussed together with the specific subdivision of the cold and warm system to ensure concurrent development at various different institutes around Europe. In addition the paper addresses the design and development studies for the special, challenging units such as the large optical image de-rotator, the (2D) chopper mechanism and the special cryogenic drives.

  14. EDIN design study alternate space shuttle booster replacement concepts. Volume 2: Design simulation results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demakes, P. T.; Hirsch, G. N.; Stewart, W. A.; Glatt, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    Historical weight estimating relationships were developed for the liquid rocket booster (LRB) using Saturn technology, and modified as required to support the EDIN05 study. Mission performance was computed using February 1975 shuttle configuration groundrules to allow reasonable comparison of the existing shuttle with the EDIN05 designs. The launch trajectory was constrained to pass through both the RTLS/AOA and main engine cut-off points. Performance analysis was based on a point design trajectory model which optimized initial tilt rate and exo-atmospheric pitch profile. A gravity turn was employed during the boost phase in place of the shuttle angle-of-attack profile. Engine throttling add/or shutdown was used to constrain dynamic pressure and/or longitudinal acceleration where necessary.

  15. Bridging Translation by Improving Preclinical Study Design in AKI.

    PubMed

    de Caestecker, Mark; Humphreys, Ben D; Liu, Kathleen D; Fissell, William H; Cerda, Jorge; Nolin, Thomas D; Askenazi, David; Mour, Girish; Harrell, Frank E; Pullen, Nick; Okusa, Mark D; Faubel, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    Despite extensive research, no therapeutic interventions have been shown to prevent AKI, accelerate recovery of AKI, or reduce progression of AKI to CKD in patients. This failure in translation has led investigators to speculate that the animal models being used do not predict therapeutic responses in humans. Although this issue continues to be debated, an important concern that has not been addressed is whether improvements in preclinical study design can be identified that might also increase the likelihood of translating basic AKI research into clinical practice using the current models. In this review, we have taken an evidence-based approach to identify common weaknesses in study design and reporting in preclinical AKI research that may contribute to the poor translatability of the findings. We focused on use of N-acetylcysteine or sodium bicarbonate for the prevention of contrast-induced AKI and use of erythropoietin for the prevention of AKI, two therapeutic approaches that have been extensively studied in clinical trials. On the basis of our findings, we identified five areas for improvement in preclinical study design and reporting. These suggested and preliminary guidelines may help improve the quality of preclinical research for AKI drug development.

  16. Bridging Translation by Improving Preclinical Study Design in AKI

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Ben D.; Liu, Kathleen D.; Fissell, William H.; Cerda, Jorge; Nolin, Thomas D.; Askenazi, David; Mour, Girish; Harrell, Frank E.; Pullen, Nick; Okusa, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive research, no therapeutic interventions have been shown to prevent AKI, accelerate recovery of AKI, or reduce progression of AKI to CKD in patients. This failure in translation has led investigators to speculate that the animal models being used do not predict therapeutic responses in humans. Although this issue continues to be debated, an important concern that has not been addressed is whether improvements in preclinical study design can be identified that might also increase the likelihood of translating basic AKI research into clinical practice using the current models. In this review, we have taken an evidence-based approach to identify common weaknesses in study design and reporting in preclinical AKI research that may contribute to the poor translatability of the findings. We focused on use of N-acetylcysteine or sodium bicarbonate for the prevention of contrast-induced AKI and use of erythropoietin for the prevention of AKI, two therapeutic approaches that have been extensively studied in clinical trials. On the basis of our findings, we identified five areas for improvement in preclinical study design and reporting. These suggested and preliminary guidelines may help improve the quality of preclinical research for AKI drug development. PMID:26538634

  17. Designing alternative splicing RNA-seq studies. Beyond generic guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Stephan-Otto Attolini, Camille; Peña, Victor; Rossell, David

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Designing an RNA-seq study depends critically on its specific goals, technology and underlying biology, which renders general guidelines inadequate. We propose a Bayesian framework to customize experiments so that goals can be attained and resources are not wasted, with a focus on alternative splicing. Results: We studied how read length, sequencing depth, library preparation and the number of replicates affects cost-effectiveness of single-sample and group comparison studies. Optimal settings varied strongly according to the target organism or tissue (potential 50–500% cost cuts) and, interestingly, short reads outperformed long reads for standard analyses. Our framework learns key characteristics for study design from the data, and predicts if and how to continue experimentation. These predictions matched several follow-up experimental datasets that were used for validation. We provide default pipelines, but the framework can be combined with other data analysis methods and can help assess their relative merits. Availability and implementation: casper package at www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/casper.html, Supplementary Manual by typing casperDesign() at the R prompt. Contact: rosselldavid@gmail.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26220961

  18. Summary of the Preliminary Optical ICHMI Design Study: A Preliminary Engineering Design Study for a Standpipe Viewport

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Qiao, Hong; Berglin, Eric J.; Hatchell, Brian K.

    2013-12-26

    This summary report examines an in-vessel optical access concept intended to support standoff optical instrumentation, control and human-machine interface (ICHMI) systems for future advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) applications. Optical-based measurement and sensing systems for AdvSMR applications have several key benefits over traditional instrumentation and control systems used to monitor reactor process parameters, such as temperature, flow rate, pressure, and coolant chemistry (Anheier et al. 2013). Direct and continuous visualization of the in-vessel components can be maintained using external cameras. Many optical sensing techniques can be performed remotely using open optical beam path configurations. Not only are in-vessel cables eliminated by these configurations, but also sensitive optical monitoring components (e.g., electronics, lasers, detectors, and cameras) can be placed outside the reactor vessel in the instrument vault, containment building, or other locations where temperatures and radiation levels are much lower. However, the extreme AdvSMR environment present challenges for optical access designs and optical materials. Optical access is not provided in any commercial nuclear power plant or featured in any reactor design, although successful implementation of optical access has been demonstrated in test reactors (Arkani and Gharib 2009). This report outlines the key engineering considerations for an AdvSMR optical access concept. Strict American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) construction codes must be followed for any U.S. nuclear facility component (ASME 2013); however, the scope of this study is to evaluate the preliminary engineering issues for this concept, rather than developing a nuclear-qualified design. In addition, this study does not consider accident design requirements. In-vessel optical access using a standpipe viewport concept serves as a test case to explore the engineering challenges and performance requirements

  19. A study of optical design and optimization of laser optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, C.-M.; Fang, Yi-Chin

    2013-09-01

    This paper propose a study of optical design of laser beam shaping optics with aspheric surface and application of genetic algorithm (GA) to find the optimal results. Nd: YAG 355 waveband laser flat-top optical system, this study employed the Light tools LDS (least damped square) and the GA of artificial intelligence optimization method to determine the optimal aspheric coefficient and obtain the optimal solution. This study applied the aspheric lens with GA for the flattening of laser beams using collimated laser beam light, aspheric lenses in order to achieve best results.

  20. Searching for missing heritability: Designing rare variant association studies

    PubMed Central

    Zuk, Or; Schaffner, Stephen F.; Samocha, Kaitlin; Do, Ron; Hechter, Eliana; Kathiresan, Sekar; Daly, Mark J.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Sunyaev, Shamil R.; Lander, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic studies have revealed thousands of loci predisposing to hundreds of human diseases and traits, revealing important biological pathways and defining novel therapeutic hypotheses. However, the genes discovered to date typically explain less than half of the apparent heritability. Because efforts have largely focused on common genetic variants, one hypothesis is that much of the missing heritability is due to rare genetic variants. Studies of common variants are typically referred to as genomewide association studies, whereas studies of rare variants are often simply called sequencing studies. Because they are actually closely related, we use the terms common variant association study (CVAS) and rare variant association study (RVAS). In this paper, we outline the similarities and differences between RVAS and CVAS and describe a conceptual framework for the design of RVAS. We apply the framework to address key questions about the sample sizes needed to detect association, the relative merits of testing disruptive alleles vs. missense alleles, frequency thresholds for filtering alleles, the value of predictors of the functional impact of missense alleles, the potential utility of isolated populations, the value of gene-set analysis, and the utility of de novo mutations. The optimal design depends critically on the selection coefficient against deleterious alleles and thus varies across genes. The analysis shows that common variant and rare variant studies require similarly large sample collections. In particular, a well-powered RVAS should involve discovery sets with at least 25,000 cases, together with a substantial replication set. PMID:24443550

  1. Design study of a medical proton linac for neutron therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Machida, S.; Raparia, D.

    1988-08-26

    This paper describes a design study which establishes the physical parameters of the low energy beam transport, radiofrequency quadrupole, and linac, using computer programs available at Fermilab. Beam dynamics studies verify that the desired beam parameters can be achieved. The machine described here meets the aforementioned requirements and can be built using existing technology. Also discussed are other technically feasible options which could be attractive to clinicians, though they would complicate the design of the machine and increase construction costs. One of these options would allow the machine to deliver 2.3 MeV protons to produce epithermal neutrons for treating brain tumors. A second option would provide 15 MeV protons for isotope production. 21 refs., 33 figs.

  2. Aerodynamic sweeping study and design for transonic compressor rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, N. X.; Zhang, H. W.; Huang, W. G.

    2010-08-01

    The objective of the present paper is to study the sweep effect on the blade design performance of a transonic compressor rotor. The baseline to be modified and swept is a designed well efficient transonic single rotor compressor. The first part of the present study is concerning the sweep effect with straight leading edge. In this case fixing the hub section the swept blade is formed by tilting the leading edge with whole blade forwards and backwards axially. The second part is to use an optimization strategy with simple gradient-based optimum-searching method and multi-section blade parameterization technique to search and generate an optimal swept rotor with curved arbitrary leading edge. Its adiabatic efficiency is a little bit greater than that of the reference un-swept rotor.

  3. Study of Turbofan Engines Designed for Low Enery Consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neitzel, R. E.; Hirschkron, R.; Johnston, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    Subsonic transport turbofan engine design and technology features which have promise of improving aircraft energy consumption are described. Task I addressed the selection and evaluation of features for the CF6 family of engines in current aircraft, and growth models of these aircraft. Task II involved cycle studies and the evaluation of technology features for advanced technology turbofans, consistent with initial service in 1985. Task III pursued the refined analysis of a specific design of an advanced technology turbofan engine selected as the result of Task II studies. In all of the above, the impact upon aircraft economics, as well as energy consumption, was evaluated. Task IV summarized recommendations for technology developments which would be necessary to achieve the improvements in energy consumption identified.

  4. Advanced stratified charge rotary aircraft engine design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badgley, P.; Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.; Norwood, E.; Pratt, W. B.; Ellis, D. R.; Huggins, G.; Mueller, A.; Hembrey, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    A technology base of new developments which offered potential benefits to a general aviation engine was compiled and ranked. Using design approaches selected from the ranked list, conceptual design studies were performed of an advanced and a highly advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft Kw/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft altitude. These are turbocharged, direct-injected stratified charge engines intended for commercial introduction in the early 1990's. The engine descriptive data includes tables, curves, and drawings depicting configuration, performance, weights and sizes, heat rejection, ignition and fuel injection system descriptions, maintenance requirements, and scaling data for varying power. An engine-airframe integration study of the resulting engines in advanced airframes was performed on a comparative basis with current production type engines. The results show airplane performance, costs, noise & installation factors. The rotary-engined airplanes display substantial improvements over the baseline, including 30 to 35% lower fuel usage.

  5. Optimal design in pediatric pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jessica K; Stockmann, Chris; Balch, Alfred; Yu, Tian; Ward, Robert M; Spigarelli, Michael G; Sherwin, Catherine M T

    2015-03-01

    It is not trivial to conduct clinical trials with pediatric participants. Ethical, logistical, and financial considerations add to the complexity of pediatric studies. Optimal design theory allows investigators the opportunity to apply mathematical optimization algorithms to define how to structure their data collection to answer focused research questions. These techniques can be used to determine an optimal sample size, optimal sample times, and the number of samples required for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies. The aim of this review is to demonstrate how to determine optimal sample size, optimal sample times, and the number of samples required from each patient by presenting specific examples using optimal design tools. Additionally, this review aims to discuss the relative usefulness of sparse vs rich data. This review is intended to educate the clinician, as well as the basic research scientist, whom plan on conducting a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic clinical trial in pediatric patients.

  6. Thermal-structural combined loads design criteria study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deriugin, V.; Brogren, E. W.; Jaeck, C. L.; Brown, A. L.; Clingan, B. E.

    1972-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine methodology for combining thermal structural loads and assessing the effects of the combined loads on the design of a thermal protection system and a hot structure of a high cross range delta wing space shuttle orbiter vehicle. The study presents guidelines for establishing a basis for predicting thermal and pressure environments and for determining limit and ultimate design loads on the vehicle during reentry. Limit trajectories were determined by using dispersions on a representative nominal mission and system parameters expected during the life of the vehicle. Nine chosen locations on the vehicle surface having TPS or hot structures were examined, and weight sensitivity analyses were performed for each location.

  7. Satellite Servicing in Mission Design Studies at the NASA GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leete, Stephen J.

    2003-01-01

    Several NASA missions in various stages of development have undergone one-week studies in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Integrated Mission Design Center (IMDC), mostly in preparation for proposals. The possible role of satellite servicing has been investigated for several of these missions, applying the lessons learned from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing, taking into account the current state of the art, projecting into the future, and implementing NASA long-range plans, and is presented here. The general benefits and costs of injecting satellite servicing are detailed, including components such as mission timeline, mass, fuel, spacecraft design, risk abatement, life extension, and improved performance. The approach taken in addressing satellite servicing during IMDC studies is presented.

  8. DESIGNING STUDIES AND COLLECTING DATA USEFUL FOR CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    DESIGNING STUDIES AND COLLECTING DATA USEFUL FOR CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT. J E Simmons1, C Gennings2, M Casey2, M J Plewa3, E D Wagner3, W H Carter, Jr.2, A McDonald1,Y M Sey1, L K Teuschler3 1NHEERL, ORD, U.S. EPA, RTP NC, USA; 2VCU, Richmond, VA, USA;3Univ. Illinois, Urba...

  9. Gradient-index ophthalmic lens design and polymer material studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, David Joel

    Unifocal ophthalmic lenses are conventionally designed using homogeneous glass or plastic materials and aspheric surfaces. The desired power and aberration correction are provided by selection of surface shape and refractive index. This thesis studies the design of ophthalmic lenses utilizing gradient-index (GRIN) materials for both the optical power and aberration control. This is done using geometrical optical theory and ray-tracing simulations. Progressive addition lenses (PALS) are vision correction lenses with a continuous change in power used to treat presbyopia. The power variation is typically located in the lower half of the lens. Progressive addition lenses are currently made with aspheric surfaces to achieve the focal power transition and aberration control. These surfaces have at most, mirror symmetry about the vertical axis. The possible design of progressive addition lenses with GRIN materials has not been well studied. This thesis studies PALS and identifies how gradient-index materials can be used to provide both the power progression and aberration control. The optical theory for rotationally symmetric and asymmetric power additions is given. Analytical and numerical methods for calculating the index profile are used, and the results examined using ray-tracing simulations. The theory developed for ophthalmic lenses is applied to the design of GRIN axicon. This is the first GRIN axicon manufactured, and is fabricated using ion-exchanged GRIN glass. Experimental measurements of its performance are compared and found to match theoretical predictions. This demonstrates the generality of the theory developed: it may be applied to non-visual applications, and even to non-imaging applications. Realistic implementation of GRIN technology to ophthalmic application requires the fabrication of large scale refractive index gradients in polymer material systems. The methyl-methacrylate/styrene copolymer system is studied to develop an empirical model of its

  10. Advanced Design Composite Aircraft (ADCA) Study. Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    6.2.2 Initial Cost Comparisons 397 6.2.3 Reliability and Maintainability Analysis 402 6.2.4 Updated Vehicle Sizing Studies 403 6.2. 5 Resized...upon the configuration to develop a reliable , achievable, baseline design. In particular, the achievement of excellent supersonic performance...and subsystems arranged for best performance and most reliable operation. The location of avionics, weapons and crew systems in the forward section

  11. Transonic Fan/Compressor Rotor Design Study. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    KEY WORDS (Continue on revere. old. $1 nocoeoary and identify by block nuvb.,) Fan Aircraft Engines Compressor Blade Thickne)s Rotor Camber...COMPRESSOR ’Q ROTOR DESIGN STUDY Volume III D.E. Parker and M.R. Simonson CZ) General Electric Company Aircraft Engine Business Group Advanced...Compressor Research Group Chief, Technology Branch FOR THE COMMANDER H. WAN BI Director, Turbine Engine Division ŕ *If your address has changed, if you wish

  12. Transonic Fan/Compressor Rotor Design Study. Volume 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    amd Identify by block number) Fan Aircraft Engines Compressor Blade Thickness Rotor Camber Distribution Aerodesign Throat Margin Aerodynamics 20...COMPRESSOR ROTOR DESIGN STUDY Volume IV D.E. Parker and M.R. Simonson General Electric Company Aircraft Engine Business Group Advanced Technology...Compressor Research Group Chief, Technology Branch FOR THE COMMANDER H. IVAN BUS Director, Turbine Engine Division If your address has changed, if you

  13. Transonic Fan/Compressor Rotor Design Study. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    Identity by block number) Fan Aircraft Engines Compressor Blade Thickness Rotor Camber Distribution Aerodesign Throat Margin Aerodynamics 20. 1ABSRACT...COMPRESSOR ROTOR DESIGN STUDY Volume II D.E. Parker and M.R. Simonson General Electric Company / Aircraft Engine Business Group Advanced Technology...Research Group Chief, Technology Branch FOR THE COMMANDER H. IVAN BUSH Director, Turbine Engine Division . If your address has changed, if you wish to be

  14. DESIGNING STUDIES AND COLLECTING DATA USEFUL FOR CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    DESIGNING STUDIES AND COLLECTING DATA USEFUL FOR CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT. J E Simmons1, C Gennings2, M Casey2, M J Plewa3, E D Wagner3, W H Carter, Jr.2, A McDonald1,Y M Sey1, L K Teuschler3 1NHEERL, ORD, U.S. EPA, RTP NC, USA; 2VCU, Richmond, VA, USA;3Univ. Illinois, Urba...

  15. Preliminary space station solar array structural design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, J. T.; Bush, H. G.; Mikulas, M. M., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Structurally efficient ways to support the large solar arrays (3,716 square meters which are currently considered for space station use) are examined. An erectable truss concept is presented for the on orbit construction of winged solar arrays. The means for future growth, maintenance, and repair are integrally designed into this concept. Results from parametric studies, which highlight the physical and structural differences between various configuration options are presented. Consideration is given to both solar blanket and hard panel arrays.

  16. Aircraft systems design studies employing advanced transport technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, B.; Pearce, C.; Quartero, C.; Taylor, A.

    1972-01-01

    System and design integration studies are presented to define and assess the application of the advanced technology most likely to result in a superior next generation, high subsonic/sonic conventional takeoff and landing transport aircraft system. It is concluded that the new technologies can be directed toward the achievement of improved economy and performance. These benefits may be used to compensate for the penalties associated with reduced noise requirements anticipated to make future aircraft ecologically acceptable.

  17. Design Studies of ''Island'' Type MOX Lead Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovitchev, A.M.

    2000-03-31

    In this document the results of neutronics studies of <> type MOX LTA design are presented. The characteristics both for infinite MOX grids and for VVER-1000 core with 3 MOX LTAs are calculated. the neutronics parameters of MOX fueled core have been performed using the Russian 3D code BIPR-7A and 2D code PERMAK-A with the constants prepared by the cell spectrum code TVS-M.

  18. A Preliminary Study on Gender Differences in Studying Systems Analysis and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Fion S. L.; Wong, Kelvin C. K.

    2017-01-01

    Systems analysis and design is a crucial task in system development and is included in a typical information systems programme as a core course. This paper presented a preliminary study on gender differences in studying a systems analysis and design course of an undergraduate programme. Results indicated that male students outperformed female…

  19. Overcoming ecologic bias using the two-phase study design.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Jon; Haneuse, Sebastien J-P A

    2008-04-15

    Ecologic (aggregate) data are widely available and widely utilized in epidemiologic studies. However, ecologic bias, which arises because aggregate data cannot characterize within-group variability in exposure and confounder variables, can only be removed by supplementing ecologic data with individual-level data. Here the authors describe the two-phase study design as a framework for achieving this objective. In phase 1, outcomes are stratified by any combination of area, confounders, and error-prone (or discretized) versions of exposures of interest. Phase 2 data, sampled within each phase 1 stratum, provide accurate measures of exposure and possibly of additional confounders. The phase 1 aggregate-level data provide a high level of statistical power and a cross-classification by which individuals may be efficiently sampled in phase 2. The phase 2 individual-level data then provide a control for ecologic bias by characterizing the within-area variability in exposures and confounders. In this paper, the authors illustrate the two-phase study design by estimating the association between infant mortality and birth weight in several regions of North Carolina for 2000-2004, controlling for gender and race. This example shows that the two-phase design removes ecologic bias and produces gains in efficiency over the use of case-control data alone. The authors discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the approach.

  20. Design of Depression in Alzheimer's Disease Study-2.

    PubMed

    Martin, Barbara K; Frangakis, Constantine E; Rosenberg, Paul B; Mintzer, Jacobo E; Katz, Ira R; Porsteinsson, Anton P; Schneider, Lon S; Rabins, Peter V; Munro, Cynthia A; Meinert, Curtis L; Niederehe, George; Lyketsos, Constantine G

    2006-11-01

    Research on the efficacy of antidepressant therapy for depressive symptoms in Alzheimer disease has been hampered by lack of systematic diagnosis, small sample sizes, and short-term follow up. To address these issues, the authors present the design of the Depression in Alzheimer's Disease Study-2 (DIADS-2), a randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor sertraline for the treatment of depression in people with Alzheimer disease. The authors present and discuss the following important aspects of the design: the inclusion of structured psychosocial therapy for the caregivers of all participants; the measurement not only of patient mood outcomes, but also of global and functional outcomes for patients and mood and burden outcomes for caregivers; the ongoing rating of multiple diagnostic criteria to allow nosologic study of depression in Alzheimer disease; the evaluation of both short-term efficacy and longer-term outcomes; the follow up of all patients regardless of whether they complete study treatment; and the unmasking of treatment assignment at the conclusion of each patient's treatment phase. The authors believe these design elements are important features to be included in trials of depression and other neuropsychiatric disturbances in Alzheimer disease.

  1. Kids in the city study: research design and methodology.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Melody; Witten, Karen; Kearns, Robin A; Mavoa, Suzanne; Badland, Hannah M; Carroll, Penelope; Drumheller, Chelsea; Tavae, Nicola; Asiasiga, Lanuola; Jelley, Su; Kaiwai, Hector; Opit, Simon; Lin, En-Yi Judy; Sweetsur, Paul; Barnes, Helen Moewaka; Mason, Nic; Ergler, Christina

    2011-07-24

    Physical activity is essential for optimal physical and psychological health but substantial declines in children's activity levels have occurred in New Zealand and internationally. Children's independent mobility (i.e., outdoor play and traveling to destinations unsupervised), an integral component of physical activity in childhood, has also declined radically in recent decades. Safety-conscious parenting practices, car reliance and auto-centric urban design have converged to produce children living increasingly sedentary lives. This research investigates how urban neighborhood environments can support or enable or restrict children's independent mobility, thereby influencing physical activity accumulation and participation in daily life. The study is located in six Auckland, New Zealand neighborhoods, diverse in terms of urban design attributes, particularly residential density. Participants comprise 160 children aged 9-11 years and their parents/caregivers. Objective measures (global positioning systems, accelerometers, geographical information systems, observational audits) assessed children's independent mobility and physical activity, neighborhood infrastructure, and streetscape attributes. Parent and child neighborhood perceptions and experiences were assessed using qualitative research methods. This study is one of the first internationally to examine the association of specific urban design attributes with child independent mobility. Using robust, appropriate, and best practice objective measures, this study provides robust epidemiological information regarding the relationships between the built environment and health outcomes for this population.

  2. Duration study for heating and air-conditioning design temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Snelling, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    Recently, abnormally cold winters and hot summers have generated interest in the duration of time that design temperature values have been equaled or exceeded. ETAC's Engineering Meteorology Section did a pilot study to examine temperature records for several military installations and give some insight into durations that may occur. The authors chose sites to represent different climatic regimes. For each site, the authors generated statistics on the number of occurrences of durations of one, two, three ... up to eight hours for each of the design temperature values (1%, 2 1/2%, and 5% temperatures for the summer months; 99% and 97 1/2% for winter months). The authors also made a study of the longest duration of each design value. The authors used the latest available 15 consecutive years of temperature data for all sites. The authors also made a comparison of data for the 15-year period of record (POR) versus data for the total available POR for some of the sites. Results were inconclusive and indicate that more study is needed.

  3. Design study on safety protection system of JSFR

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, N.; Chikazawa, Y.; Fujita, K.; Yamada, Y.; Okazaki, H.; Suzuki, S.

    2012-07-01

    Development of Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) has been progressed in Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) project aiming at realizing high level of safety, reliability and economic competitiveness. For JSFR, design consideration on safety protection system has also been performed, which is essential for reactor shutdown in the case of design basis events (DBEs). In the design activity, consideration of safety protection system includes logic circuits configuration, selection of trip signals, and its setting values for reactor trip. In addition, it is necessary to evaluate the performance of the safety protection system by safety analysis taking into account the comprehensive parameter ranges. For this purpose, it has been evaluated whether adequate reactor trip signals can be ensured for satisfying safety standard regarding the fuel integrity (e.g., maximum fuel clad temperature) for DBEs. In this paper, results obtained from the design study on safety protection system of JSFR is presented focusing on the evaluation results of satisfaction of safety protection system for representative events of transient over power (TOP), loss of coolant flow (LOF) and loss of heat sink (LOHS). (authors)

  4. Design and bidding of UV disinfection equipment -- Case study

    SciTech Connect

    Akyurek, M.

    1998-07-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection systems are being widely considered for application to treated wastewaters, in lieu of conventional chlorination facilities. The number of UV systems operating in the US was approximately 50 in 1984. In 1990 there were over 500 systems, a ten-fold increase. The use of UV disinfection has increased since 1990, and will likely to increase in the future. It is anticipated that as many chlorine disinfection facilities reach their useful life, most of them will be replaced with UV disinfection systems. Several manufacturers offer different UV disinfection equipment. Each offers something different for the designer. There are also different approaches used in estimating the number of lamps needed for the disinfection system. The lack of standardization in determination of the number of lamps for a UV system poses problems for the designer. Such was the case during the design of the disinfection system for the Watertown, SD Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWRP). The purpose of this paper is to present a case study for the design and bidding of UV disinfection equipment.

  5. A designed screening study with prespecified combinations of factor settings

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson-cook, Christine M; Robinson, Timothy J

    2009-01-01

    In many applications, the experimenter has limited options about what factor combinations can be chosen for a designed study. Consider a screening study for a production process involving five input factors whose levels have been previously established. The goal of the study is to understand the effect of each factor on the response, a variable that is expensive to measure and results in destruction of the part. From an inventory of available parts with known factor values, we wish to identify a best collection of factor combinations with which to estimate the factor effects. Though the observational nature of the study cannot establish a causal relationship involving the response and the factors, the study can increase understanding of the underlying process. The study can also help determine where investment should be made to control input factors during production that will maximally influence the response. Because the factor combinations are observational, the chosen model matrix will be nonorthogonal and will not allow independent estimation of factor effects. In this manuscript we borrow principles from design of experiments to suggest an 'optimal' selection of factor combinations. Specifically, we consider precision of model parameter estimates, the issue of replication, and abilities to detect lack of fit and to estimate two-factor interactions. Through an example, we present strategies for selecting a subset of factor combinations that simultaneously balance multiple objectives, conduct a limited sensitivity analysis, and provide practical guidance for implementing our techniques across a variety of quality engineering disciplines.

  6. SDU 6 MODELING STUDY TO SUPPORT DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.

    2012-05-02

    In response to Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW-SSF-TTR-2012-0017 (1), SRNL performed modeling studies to evaluate alternative design features for the 32 million gallon Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) referred to as SDU 6. This initial modeling study was intended to assess the performance of major components of the structure that are most significant to the PA. Information provided by the modeling will support the development of a SDU 6 Preliminary Design Model and Recommendation Report to be written by SRR Closure and Waste Disposal Authority. Key inputs and assumptions for the modeling were provided to SRNL in SRR-SPT-2011-00113 (2). A table reiterates the base case and four sensitivity case studies requested in this reference. In general, as shown in Table 4, when compared to Vault 2 Case A, the Base Case SDU 6 design produced higher peak fluxes to the water table during the 10,000 year period of analysis but lower peak fluxes within a 15,000 to 20,000 time frame. SDU 6 will contain approximately ten times the inventory of a single Vault 2 and the SDU 6 footprint is comparable to that of a group of four Vault 2 disposal units. Therefore, the radionuclide flux from SDU 6 and that from a single Vault 2 are not directly comparable. A more direct comparison would be to compare the maximum dose obtained at the 100 m boundary from the seven SDU's that will replace the 64 FDC's analyzed in the 2009 PA. This analysis will be performed in the next set of calculations planned for SDU design evaluation. Aquifer transport and dose calculations were not intended to be part of this initial scoping study. However, results from this study do indicate that replacement of the FDC design with SDU would not yield significantly higher peak doses. If the thickness of the SDU 6 floor is increased, peak doses would not occur during the 10,000 year period of analysis.

  7. Conceptual design study of 1985 commercial tilt rotor transports. Volume 3: STOL design summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sambell, K. W.

    1976-01-01

    A conceptual design study is presented of 1,985 commercial tilt rotor STOL transports for a NASA 200 n. mi. (370 km) STOL Mission. A 100-passenger STOL Variant (Bell D313) of the Phase I VTOL Tilt Rotor Aircraft is defined. Aircraft characteristics are given; with the aircraft redesigned to meet 2,000-foot (610 m) field criteria, with emphasis on low fuel consumption and low direct operating cost. The 100-passenger STOL Tilt Rotor Aircraft was analyzed for performance, weights, economics, handling qualities, noise footprint and aeroelastic stability.

  8. Interim Design Report for the International Design Study for a Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Choubey, S.; Gandhi, R.; Goswami, S.; Berg, J.S.; Fernow, R.; Gallardo, J.C.; Gupta, R.; Kirk, H.; Simos, N.; Souchlas, N.; Ellis, M.; /Brunel U. /CERN /Durham U., IPPP /Fermilab /Geneva U. /Glasgow U. /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. /Imperial Coll., London /Jefferson Lab /Saha Inst.

    2011-10-01

    The starting point for the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) was the output of the earlier International Scoping Study for a future Neutrino Factory and super-beam facility (the ISS). The accelerator facility described in section 2 incorporates the improvements that have been derived from the substantial amount of work carried out within the Accelerator Working Group. Highlights of these improvements include: (1) Initial concepts for the implementation of the proton driver at each of the three example sites, CERN, FNAL, and RAL; (2) Detailed studies of the energy deposition in the target area; (3) A reduction in the length of the muon beam phase-rotation and bunching systems; (4) Detailed analyses of the impact of the risk that stray magnetic field in the accelerating cavities in the ionization cooling channel will reduce the maximum operating gradient. Several alternative ionization-cooling lattices have been developed as fallback options to mitigate this technical risk; (5) Studies of particle loss in the muon front-end and the development of strategies to mitigate the deleterious effects of such losses; (6) The development of more complete designs for the muon linac and re-circulating linacs; (7) The development of a design for the muon FFAG that incorporates insertions for injection and extraction; and (8) Detailed studies of diagnostics in the decay ring. Other sub-systems have undergone a more 'incremental' evolution; an indication that the design of the Neutrino Factory has achieved a degree of maturity. The design of the neutrino detectors described in section 3 has been optimized and the Detector Working Group has made substantial improvements to the simulation and analysis of the Magnetized Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND) resulting in an improvement in the overall neutrino-detection efficiency and a reduction in the neutrino-energy threshold. In addition, initial consideration of the engineering of the MIND has generated a

  9. On the proper study design applicable to experimental balneology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Csaba

    2016-08-01

    The simple message of this paper is that it is the high time to reevaluate the strategies and optimize the efforts for investigation of thermal (spa) waters. Several articles trying to clear mode of action of medicinal waters have been published up to now. Almost all studies apply the unproven hypothesis, namely the inorganic ingredients are in close connection with healing effects of bathing. Change of paradigm would be highly necessary in this field taking into consideration the presence of several biologically active organic substances in these waters. A successful design for experimental mechanistic studies is approved.

  10. On the proper study design applicable to experimental balneology.

    PubMed

    Varga, Csaba

    2016-08-01

    The simple message of this paper is that it is the high time to reevaluate the strategies and optimize the efforts for investigation of thermal (spa) waters. Several articles trying to clear mode of action of medicinal waters have been published up to now. Almost all studies apply the unproven hypothesis, namely the inorganic ingredients are in close connection with healing effects of bathing. Change of paradigm would be highly necessary in this field taking into consideration the presence of several biologically active organic substances in these waters. A successful design for experimental mechanistic studies is approved.

  11. [The research protocol II: study designs in clinical research].

    PubMed

    Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    In clinical research that takes place in health-care areas, most of the studies are performed with human beings as research subjects. The main objectives of these studies are to know the characteristics of one or more groups, the behavior of human diseases, the etiology or causes of diseases, to identify the best diagnostic tools, or to establish the best treatment for a condition or disease in particular. Additionally, some studies are classified as basic bio-medical research; in these investigations, the subjects of study are laboratory animals, tissues, cells, or molecules. In general terms, the objectives of these studies are to understand the physiology, pathogenesis, or biological mechanisms that could explain functions or alterations in one or more systems or body organs. This article will only address clinical research designs.

  12. Design studies for the next generation electron ion colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayed, Hisham Kamal; Bogacz, S. A.; Krafft, G.

    2014-04-01

    The next generation Electron Ion Collider (EIC) at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB) utilizes a figure-8 shaped ion and electron rings. EIC has the ability to preserve the ion polarization during acceleration, where the electron ring matches in footprint with a figure-8 ion ring. The electron ring is designed to deliver a highly polarized high luminous electron beam at interaction point (IP). The main challenges of the electron ring design are the chromaticity compensation and maintaining high beam polarization of 70% at all energies 3-11 GeV without introducing transverse orbital coupling before the IP. The very demanding detector design limits the minimum distance between the final focus quadrupole and the interaction point to 3.5 m which results in a large β function inside the final focus quadrupoles leading to increased beam chromaticity. In this paper, we present a novel chromaticity compensation scheme that mitigates IP chromaticity by a compact chromaticity compensation section with multipole magnet components. In addition, a set of spin rotators are utilized to manipulate the polarization vector of the electron beam in order to preserve the beam polarization. The spin rotator solenoids introduce undesired coupling between the horizontal and vertical betatron motion of the beam. We introduce a compact and modular orbit decoupling insert that can fit in the limited space of the straight section in the figure-8 ring. We show a numerical study of the figure-8 ring design with the compact straight section, which includes the interaction region, chromaticity compensation section, and the spin rotators, the figure-8 design performance is evaluated with particle tracking.

  13. Design studies for the next generation electron ion colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Sayed, Hisham Kamal; Bogacz, Slawomir A.; Krafft, Geoffrey A.

    2014-04-01

    The next generation Electron Ion Collider (EIC) at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB) utilizes a figure-8 shaped ion and electron rings. EIC has the ability to preserve the ion polarization during acceleration, where the electron ring matches in footprint with a figure-8 ion ring. The electron ring is designed to deliver a highly polarized high luminous electron beam at interaction point (IP). The main challenges of the electron ring design are the chromaticity compensation and maintaining high beam polarization of 70% at all energies 3–11 GeV without introducing transverse orbital coupling before the IP. The very demanding detector design limits the minimum distance between the final focus quadrupole and the interaction point to 3.5 m which results in a large β function inside the final focus quadrupoles leading to increased beam chromaticity. In this paper, we present a novel chromaticity compensation scheme that mitigates IP chromaticity by a compact chromaticity compensation section with multipole magnet components. In addition, a set of spin rotators are utilized to manipulate the polarization vector of the electron beam in order to preserve the beam polarization. The spin rotator solenoids introduce undesired coupling between the horizontal and vertical betatron motion of the beam. We introduce a compact and modular orbit decoupling insert that can fit in the limited space of the straight section in the figure-8 ring. We show a numerical study of the figure-8 ring design with the compact straight section, which includes the interaction region, chromaticity compensation section, and the spin rotators, the figure-8 design performance is evaluated with particle tracking.

  14. Design considerations for genetic linkage and association studies.

    PubMed

    Nsengimana, Jérémie; Bishop, D Timothy

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes the main issues that genetic epidemiologists usually consider in the design of linkage and association studies. For linkage, we briefly consider the situation of rare, highly penetrant alleles showing a disease pattern consistent with Mendelian inheritance investigated through parametric methods in large pedigrees or with autozygosity mapping in inbred families, and we then turn our focus to the most common design, affected sibling pairs, of more relevance for common, complex diseases. Theoretical and more practical power and sample size calculations are provided as a function of the strength of the genetic effect being investigated. We also discuss the impact of other determinants of statistical power such as disease heterogeneity, pedigree, and genotyping errors, as well as the effect of the type and density of genetic markers. Linkage studies should be as large as possible to have sufficient power in relation to the expected genetic effect size. Segregation analysis, a formal statistical technique to describe the underlying genetic susceptibility, may assist in the estimation of the relevant parameters to apply, for instance. However, segregation analyses estimate the total genetic component rather than a single-locus effect. Locus heterogeneity should be considered when power is estimated and at the analysis stage, i.e. assuming smaller locus effect than the total the genetic component from segregation studies. Disease heterogeneity should be minimised by considering subtypes if they are well defined or by otherwise collecting known sources of heterogeneity and adjusting for them as covariates; the power will depend upon the relationship between the disease subtype and the underlying genotypes. Ultimately, identifying susceptibility alleles of modest effects (e.g. RR≤1.5) requires a number of families that seem unfeasible in a single study. Meta-analysis and data pooling between different research groups can provide a sizeable study

  15. Spherical Cryogenic Hydrogen Tank Preliminary Design Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Collier, Craig S.; Yarrington, Phillip W.

    2007-01-01

    A structural analysis, sizing optimization, and weight prediction study was performed by Collier Research Corporation and NASA Glenn on a spherical cryogenic hydrogen tank. The tank consisted of an inner and outer wall separated by a vacuum for thermal insulation purposes. HyperSizer (Collier Research and Development Corporation), a commercial automated structural analysis and sizing software package was used to design the lightest feasible tank for a given overall size and thermomechanical loading environment. Weight trade studies were completed for different panel concepts and metallic and composite material systems. Extensive failure analyses were performed for each combination of dimensional variables, materials, and layups to establish the structural integrity of tank designs. Detailed stress and strain fields were computed from operational temperature changes and pressure loads. The inner tank wall is sized by the resulting biaxial tensile stresses which cause it to be strength driven, and leads to an optimum panel concept that need not be stiffened. Conversely, the outer tank wall is sized by a biaxial compressive stress field, induced by the pressure differential between atmospheric pressure and the vacuum between the tanks, thereby causing the design to be stability driven and thus stiffened to prevent buckling. Induced thermal stresses become a major sizing driver when a composite or hybrid composite/metallic material systems are used for the inner tank wall for purposes such as liners to contain the fuel and reduce hydrogen permeation.

  16. Optimization Studies of the FERMI at ELETTRA FEL Design

    SciTech Connect

    De Ninno, Giovanni; Fawley, William M.; Penn, Gregory E.; Graves,William

    2005-08-25

    The FERMI at ELETTRA project at Sincotrone Trieste involves two FEL's, each based upon the principle of seeded harmonic generation and using the existing ELETTRA injection linac at 1.2 GeV beam energy. Scheduled to be completed in 2008, FEL-1 will operate in 40-100 nm wavelength range and will involve one stage of harmonic up-conversion. The second undulator line, FEL-2, will begin operation two years later in the 10-40 nm wavelength range and use two harmonic stages operating as a cascade. The FEL design assumes continuous wavelength tunability over the full wavelength range, and polarization tunability of the output radiation including vertical or horizontal linear as well as helical polarization. The design considers focusing properties and segmentation of realizable undulators and available input seed lasers. We review the studies that have led to our current design. We present results of simulations using GENESIS and GINGER simulation codes including studies of various shot-to-shot fluctuations and undulator errors. Findings for the expected output radiation in terms of the power, transverse and longitudinal coherence are reported.

  17. X-33 Base Region Thermal Protection System Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lycans, Randal W.

    1998-01-01

    The X-33 is an advanced technology demonstrator for validating critical technologies and systems required for an operational Single-Stage-to-Orbit (SSTO) Reusuable Launch Vehicle (RLV). Currently under development by a unique contractor/government team led by Lockheed- Martin Skunk Works (LMSW), and managed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the X-33 will be the prototype of the first new launch system developed by the United States since the advent of the space shuttle. This paper documents a design trade study of the X-33 base region thermal protection system (TPS). Two candidate designs were evaluated for thermal performance and weight. The first candidate was a fully reusable metallic TPS using Inconel honeycomb panels insulated with high temperature fibrous insulation, while the second was an ablator/insulator sprayed on the metallic skin of the vehicle. The TPS configurations and insulation thickness requirements were determined for the predicted main engine plume heating environments and base region entry aerothermal environments. In addition to thermal analysis of the design concepts, sensitivity studies were performed to investigate the effect of variations in key parameters of the base TPS analysis.

  18. Designing a Medical Tourism Website: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Samadbeik, Mahnaz; Asadi, Heshmatollah; Mohseni, Mohammad; Takbiri, Afsaneh; Moosavi, Ahmad; Garavand, Ali

    2017-02-01

    Informing plays a prominent role in attracting medical tourists. The enjoyment of proper medical information systems is one of the most important tools for the attraction of medical tourists. Iran's ability in designing and implementing information networks has remained largely unknown. The current study aimed to explore information needs for designing a medical tourism website. This qualitative study was conducted in 2015 for designing Hospital Medical-Tourism Website (HMTW). A purposive sampling method was used and data were gathered using a semi-structured questionnaire. Totally, 12 faculty members and experts in the field of medical tourism were interviewed. Data were analyzed using the MAXQDA10 software. Totally 41 sub-themes and 10 themes were identified. The themes included the introduction of hospital, general guide for patients, tourism information, information related to physicians in hospital, costs, treatment follow-up, online hospital appointment scheduling in website, statistics and news of hospital medical tourism, photo gallery and contacts. Among the themes, the participants highly emphasized four themes including costs (100%), tourism information (91.6%), information related to physicians in hospital, (83.3%) and treatment follow-up (83.3%). This profitable industry can be developed through considering information requirements for hospital medical tourism website.

  19. Designing a Medical Tourism Website: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    SAMADBEIK, Mahnaz; ASADI, Heshmatollah; MOHSENI, Mohammad; TAKBIRI, Afsaneh; MOOSAVI, Ahmad; GARAVAND, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background: Informing plays a prominent role in attracting medical tourists. The enjoyment of proper medical information systems is one of the most important tools for the attraction of medical tourists. Iran’s ability in designing and implementing information networks has remained largely unknown. The current study aimed to explore information needs for designing a medical tourism website. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in 2015 for designing Hospital Medical-Tourism Website (HMTW). A purposive sampling method was used and data were gathered using a semi-structured questionnaire. Totally, 12 faculty members and experts in the field of medical tourism were interviewed. Data were analyzed using the MAXQDA10 software. Results: Totally 41 sub-themes and 10 themes were identified. The themes included the introduction of hospital, general guide for patients, tourism information, information related to physicians in hospital, costs, treatment follow-up, online hospital appointment scheduling in website, statistics and news of hospital medical tourism, photo gallery and contacts. Among the themes, the participants highly emphasized four themes including costs (100%), tourism information (91.6%), information related to physicians in hospital, (83.3%) and treatment follow-up (83.3%). Conclusion: This profitable industry can be developed through considering information requirements for hospital medical tourism website. PMID:28451562

  20. Destined to Design? How and Why Australian Women Choose to Study Industrial Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockhart, Cathy; Miller, Evonne

    2016-01-01

    Despite over three decades of legislation and initiatives designed to tackle the traditional gender divide in the science, technology and design fields, only a quarter of the registered architects in Australia are women. There are no statistics available for other design disciplines, with little known about why women choose design as a career path…

  1. Applying Semiotic Theories to Graphic Design Education: An Empirical Study on Poster Design Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chao-Ming; Hsu, Tzu-Fan

    2015-01-01

    The rationales behind design are dissimilar to those behind art. Establishing an adequate theoretical foundation for conducting design education can facilitate scientising design methods. Thus, from the perspectives of the semiotic theories proposed by Saussure and Peirce, we investigated graphic design curricula by performing teaching…

  2. Destined to Design? How and Why Australian Women Choose to Study Industrial Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockhart, Cathy; Miller, Evonne

    2016-01-01

    Despite over three decades of legislation and initiatives designed to tackle the traditional gender divide in the science, technology and design fields, only a quarter of the registered architects in Australia are women. There are no statistics available for other design disciplines, with little known about why women choose design as a career path…

  3. Influence of Study Design Variables on Clinical Pathology Data.

    PubMed

    Aulbach, Adam; Provencher, Anne; Tripathi, Niraj

    2017-02-01

    A number of factors related to study design have the potential to impact clinical pathology test results during the conduct of nonclinical safety studies. A thorough understanding of these factors is paramount in drawing accurate conclusions from clinical pathology data generated during such studies, particularly when attempting to make the distinction between test article and nontest article-related effects. Study design and conduct variables with potential to impact clinical pathology data discussed in this overview include those related to species and test system, animal age, animal care and husbandry practices, fasting, acclimatization periods, effects of transportation and stressors, route of administration, effects of in-life and surgical procedures, influence of study length, timing of blood collections, impact of vehicle/formulation composition, and some general concepts related to drug class. The material presented here is a summary based on information presented at the 35th Annual Symposium of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology (June 2016), during Symposium Session 2 titled "Deciphering Sources of Variability in Clinical Pathology-It's Not Just about the Numbers."

  4. Heat Exchanger Design Studies for AN Lhc Inner Triplet Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabehl, R. J.; Huang, Y.

    2008-03-01

    A luminosity upgrade of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is planned to coincide with the expected end of life of the existing inner triplet quadrupole magnets. The upgraded inner triplet will have much larger heat loads to be removed from the magnets by the cryogenics system. A number of cryogenics design studies have been completed under the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP), including investigations of required heat exchanger characteristics to transfer this heat from the pressurized He II bath to the saturated He II system. This paper discusses heat exchangers both external to the magnet cold mass and internal to the magnet cold mass. A possible design for a heat exchanger external to the magnet cold mass is also presented.

  5. [Case-control studies in psychiatry: causality, design and warnings].

    PubMed

    Silva Ayçaguer, L C

    2004-01-01

    This present paper is mainly methodological and has been written with the aim of helping researchers in psychiatry to produce results with higher quality and help readers to have adequate assessment values of others. Brief reflection is made on the most important conditions that must be fulfilled to prove a causality hypothesis, regardless of the investigation design used. However, the main purpose of the text is to examine and illustrate how these conditions work under a case-control study environment. Besides outlining the basic aspects concerning design and analysis, areas extremely illustrated with examples of case and controls in psychiatry found in the literature, a number of suggestions to avoid pitfalls that can invalidate research efforts developed using case-control methodology is offered.

  6. Design study for a staged Very Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Peter J. Limon et al.

    2001-06-26

    Advancing accelerator designs and technology to achieve the highest energies has enabled remarkable discoveries in particle physics. This report presents the results of a design study for a new collider at Fermilab that will create exceptional opportunities for particle physics--a two-stage very large hadron collider. In its first stage, the machine provides a facility for energy-frontier particle physics research, at an affordable cost and on a reasonable time scale. In a second-stage upgrade in the same tunnel, the VLHC offers the possibility of reaching 100 times the collision energy of the Tevatron. The existing Fermilab accelerator complex serves as the injector, and the collision halls are on the Fermilab site. The Stage-1 VLHC reaches a collision energy of 40 TeV and a luminosity comparable to that of the LHC, using robust superferric magnets of elegant simplicity housed in a large-circumference tunnel. The Stage-2 VLHC, constructed after the scientific potential of the first stage has been fully realized, reaches a collision energy of at least 175 TeV with the installation of high-field magnets in the same tunnel. It makes optimal use of the infrastructure developed for the Stage-1 machine, using the Stage-1 accelerator itself as the injector. The goals of this study, commissioned by the Fermilab Director in November 2000, are: to create reasonable designs for the Stage-1 and Stage-2 VLHC in the same tunnel; to discover the technical challenges and potential impediments to building such a facility at Fermilab; to determine the approximate costs of the major elements of the Stage-1 VLHC; and to identify areas requiring significant R and D to establish the basis for the design.

  7. Perfluorocarbon oxygen transport. A comparative study of four oxygenator designs.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, E R; Clymer, J J; Spruell, R D; Holman, W L

    1994-01-01

    Improvements made in current generation perfluorocarbon emulsions (PFCEs) warrant renewed interest in PFCEs as an oxygen (O2) carrying substance during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Before embarking on in vivo studies of PFCEs during CPB, an in vitro study was designed to: 1) demonstrate increased O2 content attributable to PFCEs, and 2) compare O2 transfer to a PFCE crystalloid mixture by four oxygenator designs (one bubble oxygenator, two hollow fiber membrane oxygenators, and one silastic membrane oxygenator). A circuit was designed to circulate fluid between a deoxygenating device and a test oxygenator. In protocol I, either a crystalloid solution or a crystalloid PFCE mixture was circulated through bubble oxygenators at flows ranging from 0.5 to 3 l/min, and at temperatures of 4, 20, 30, or 40 degrees C. In protocol II, a crystalloid PFCE mixture was circulated at flows ranging from 0.5 to 6 l/min at temperatures of 4, 20, 30, or 40 degrees C. Four different oxygenator designs were compared using the in vitro test circuit. The comparison variables for protocols I and II were arterovenous oxygen (AVO2) difference and O2 transfer rate measured at each flow for each temperature. Protocol I showed that the AVO2 differences and O2 transfer rates were higher in the crystalloid PFCE mixture than in the crystalloid solution, although statistical comparison was precluded by the small sample size. In protocol II, the hollow fiber and silastic membrane oxygenators had higher (P < 0.05) AVO2 differences and oxygen transfer rates than the bubble oxygenators at all flows and temperatures tested. Future trials to evaluate PFCEs during cardiopulmonary bypass should use hollow fiber or silastic membrane oxygenators, rather than bubble oxygenators, to maximize transfer of O2 to the PFCE.

  8. Optimal study design for pioglitazone in septic pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Sherwin, Catherine M T; Ding, Lili; Kaplan, Jennifer; Spigarelli, Michael G; Vinks, Alexander A

    2011-08-01

    The objective was to demonstrate the methodology and process of optimal sparse sampling pharmacokinetics (PK). This utilized a single daily dose of pioglitazone for pediatric patients with severe sepsis and septic shock based upon adult and minimal adolescent data. Pioglitazone pharmacokinetics were modeled using non-compartment analysis WinNonlin Pro (version 5.1) and population kinetics using NONMEM (version 7.1) with first order conditional estimation method (FOCE) with interaction. The initial model was generated from single- and multiple-dose pioglitazone PK data (15 mg, 30 mg, and 45 mg) in 36 adolescents with diabetes. PK models were simulated and overlaid upon original data to provide a comparison best described by a single compartment, first order model. The optimal design was based on the simulated oral administration of pioglitazone to three groups of pediatric patients, age 3.8 (2-6 years), weight 14.4 (7-28 kg); age 9.6 (6.1-11.9 years), weight 36.5 (28.1-48 kg) and age 15.5 (12-17 years,) weight 61.6 (48.1-80 kg). PFIM (version 3.2) was used to evaluate sample study size. Datasets were compiled using simulation for each dose (15, 30 and 45 mg) for the potential age/weight groups. A target dose of 15 mg daily in the youngest and middle groups was considered appropriate with area under the curve exposure levels (AUC) comparable to studies in adolescents. The final optimal design suggested time points of 0.5, 2, 6 and 21 h for 24 h dosing. This methodology provides a robust method of utilizing adult and limited adolescent data to simulate allometrically scaled, pediatric data sets that allow the optimal design of a pediatric trial. The pharmacokinetics of pioglitazone were described adequately and simulated data estimates were comparable to literature values. The optimal design provided clinically attainable sample times and windows.

  9. Bridging From Goals to Tasks with Design Study Analysis Reports.

    PubMed

    Lam, Heidi; Tory, Melanie; Munzner, Tamara

    2017-08-31

    Visualization researchers and practitioners engaged in generating or evaluating designs are faced with the difficult problem of transforming the questions asked and actions taken by target users from domain-specific language and context into more abstract forms. Existing abstract task classifications aim to provide support for this endeavour by providing a carefully delineated suite of actions. Our experience is that this bottom-up approach is part of the challenge: low-level actions are difficult to interpret without a higher-level context of analysis goals and the analysis process. To bridge this gap, we propose a framework based on analysis reports derived from open-coding 20 design study papers published at IEEE InfoVis 2009-2015, to build on the previous work of abstractions that collectively encompass a broad variety of domains. The framework is organized in two axes illustrated by nine analysis goals. It helps situate the analysis goals by placing each goal under axes of specificity (Explore, Describe, Explain, Confirm) and number of data populations (Single, Multiple). The single-population types are Discover Observation, Describe Observation, Identify Main Cause, and Collect Evidence. The multiple-population types are Compare Entities, Explain Differences, and Evaluate Hypothesis. Each analysis goal is scoped by an input and an output and is characterized by analysis steps reported in the design study papers. We provide examples of how we and others have used the framework in a top-down approach to abstracting domain problems: visualization designers or researchers first identify the analysis goals of each unit of analysis in an analysis stream, and then encode the individual steps using existing task classifications with the context of the goal, the level of specificity, and the number of populations involved in the analysis.

  10. Nanobiological studies on drug design using molecular mechanic method.

    PubMed

    Ghaheh, Hooria Seyedhosseini; Mousavi, Maryam; Araghi, Mahmood; Rasoolzadeh, Reza; Hosseini, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Influenza H1N1 is very important worldwide and point mutations that occur in the virus gene are a threat for the World Health Organization (WHO) and druggists, since they could make this virus resistant to the existing antibiotics. Influenza epidemics cause severe respiratory illness in 30 to 50 million people and kill 250,000 to 500,000 people worldwide every year. Nowadays, drug design is not done through trial and error because of its cost and waste of time; therefore bioinformatics studies is essential for designing drugs. This paper, infolds a study on binding site of Neuraminidase (NA) enzyme, (that is very important in drug design) in 310K temperature and different dielectrics, for the best drug design. Information of NA enzyme was extracted from Protein Data Bank (PDB) and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) websites. The new sequences of N1 were downloaded from the NCBI influenza virus sequence database. Drug binding sites were assimilated and homologized modeling using Argus lab 4.0, HyperChem 6.0 and Chem. D3 softwares. Their stability was assessed in different dielectrics and temperatures. Measurements of potential energy (Kcal/mol) of binding sites of NA in different dielectrics and 310K temperature revealed that at time step size = 0 pSec drug binding sites have maximum energy level and at time step size = 100 pSec have maximum stability and minimum energy. Drug binding sites are more dependent on dielectric constants rather than on temperature and the optimum dielectric constant is 39/78.

  11. Solar-Powered Europa Orbiter Design Study (2007)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, John; Langmaier, Jerry; Pappalardo, Robert; Strange, Nathan; Spilker, Tom; Lock, Rob; Reh, Kim

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility of implementing a solar-powered mission around Europa has been evaluated periodically over the last decade. Most recently, an assessment was performed as part of the 2006 Europa Explorer (EE) Study, which evaluated the practicality of implementing that mission design with large solar arrays instead of radioisotope power systems (RPS). This previous study went into some depth in considering the issues related to the use of solar arrays in the Europa orbit illumination and radiation environment. The study concluded that an all-solar option was impractical to meet the science objectives as defined in that study by the science team. This conclusion resulted from the prohibitive mass, packaging and articulation issues associated with the very large (approx.300 sq m) solar arrays required to accommodate frequent eclipse periods associated with the particular Europa orbit used.

  12. Solar-Powered Europa Orbiter Design Study (2007)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, John; Langmaier, Jerry; Pappalardo, Robert; Strange, Nathan; Spilker, Tom; Lock, Rob; Reh, Kim

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility of implementing a solar-powered mission around Europa has been evaluated periodically over the last decade. Most recently, an assessment was performed as part of the 2006 Europa Explorer (EE) Study, which evaluated the practicality of implementing that mission design with large solar arrays instead of radioisotope power systems (RPS). This previous study went into some depth in considering the issues related to the use of solar arrays in the Europa orbit illumination and radiation environment. The study concluded that an all-solar option was impractical to meet the science objectives as defined in that study by the science team. This conclusion resulted from the prohibitive mass, packaging and articulation issues associated with the very large (approx.300 sq m) solar arrays required to accommodate frequent eclipse periods associated with the particular Europa orbit used.

  13. Vaccine stability study design and analysis to support product licensure.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Timothy L

    2009-11-01

    Stability evaluation supporting vaccine licensure includes studies of bulk intermediates as well as final container product. Long-term and accelerated studies are performed to support shelf life and to determine release limits for the vaccine. Vaccine shelf life is best determined utilizing a formal statistical evaluation outlined in the ICH guidelines, while minimum release is calculated to help assure adequate potency through handling and storage of the vaccine. In addition to supporting release potency determination, accelerated stability studies may be used to support a strategy to recalculate product expiry after an unintended temperature excursion such as a cold storage unit failure or mishandling during transport. Appropriate statistical evaluation of vaccine stability data promotes strategic stability study design, in order to reduce the uncertainty associated with the determination of the degradation rate, and the associated risk to the customer.

  14. Design study of fiber-composite penetrator cases

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, R.W.; Groves, S.E.; Lyon, R.E.

    1993-10-22

    A design study was conducted to demonstrate the viability of carbon-fiber reinforced epoxy composites as structural case materials for penetrating warheads. The objective was to conduct well-instrumented experimental studies of composite-body penetrators perforating mild steel plates and quantitatively model these plate penetrations using two- and three-dimensional finite element codes over a wide range of velocities and impact conditions in order to develop predictive capability for composite design and for use in tradeoff studies with existing case materials. Understanding of the failure of composite-body penetrators would be demonstrated by a rational design iteration which significantly improved performance. Initial studies utilized existing 1-degree tapered cylindrical carbon fiber/epoxy composite cases fabricated by wet-filament winding. These sharp-tipped, steel-nose, composite penetrators were strain-gaged, piggy-backed with 57 kilograms, and impacted into steel plates in a velocity-boosted droptower at impact velocities ranging from 3 to 18 meters per second. Load, time, and position data were recorded during the impact event as well as the axial and hoop strains in the composite case. Monolithic 4340 hardened steel penetrators with both sharp- and flat-tip 3-caliber ogive noses were also impacted into mild steel plates. Data from the composite-case and steel penetrators were used to calibrate a multiaxial, rate-dependent, flow and failure model for the mild steel plates in NIKE2D. The authors were then able to successfully predict survival and failure of the composite-case penetrators in normal-incidence droptower tests for different target thickness and velocity combinations.

  15. Accelerating Vaccine Formulation Development Using Design of Experiment Stability Studies.

    PubMed

    Ahl, Patrick L; Mensch, Christopher; Hu, Binghua; Pixley, Heidi; Zhang, Lan; Dieter, Lance; Russell, Ryann; Smith, William J; Przysiecki, Craig; Kosinski, Mike; Blue, Jeffrey T

    2016-10-01

    Vaccine drug product thermal stability often depends on formulation input factors and how they interact. Scientific understanding and professional experience typically allows vaccine formulators to accurately predict the thermal stability output based on formulation input factors such as pH, ionic strength, and excipients. Thermal stability predictions, however, are not enough for regulators. Stability claims must be supported by experimental data. The Quality by Design approach of Design of Experiment (DoE) is well suited to describe formulation outputs such as thermal stability in terms of formulation input factors. A DoE approach particularly at elevated temperatures that induce accelerated degradation can provide empirical understanding of how vaccine formulation input factors and interactions affect vaccine stability output performance. This is possible even when clear scientific understanding of particular formulation stability mechanisms are lacking. A DoE approach was used in an accelerated 37(°)C stability study of an aluminum adjuvant Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B vaccine. Formulation stability differences were identified after only 15 days into the study. We believe this study demonstrates the power of combining DoE methodology with accelerated stress stability studies to accelerate and improve vaccine formulation development programs particularly during the preformulation stage.

  16. Status of PEP-X Light Source Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.L.F.; Bertsche, K.J.; Cai, Y.; Chao, A.; Huang, X.; Jiao, Y.; Ng, C.-K.; Nosochkov, Y.; Novokhatski, A.; Rivetta, C.H.; Safranek, J.A.; Stupakov, G.V.; Wang, L.; Wang, M.-H.; Xiao, L.; Hettel, R.O.; Rabedeau, T.; /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    The SLAC Beam Physics group and other SLAC collaborators continue to study options for implementing a near diffraction-limited ring-based light source in the 2.2-km PEP-II tunnel that will serve the SSRL scientific program in the future. The study team has completed the baseline design for a 4.5-GeV storage ring having 160 pm-rad emittance with stored beam current of 1.5 A, providing >10{sup 22} brightness for multi-keV photon beams from 3.5-m undulator sources. The team has also investigated possible 5-GeV ERL configurations which, similar to the Cornell and KEK ERL plans, would have {approx}30 pm-rad emittance with 100 mA current, and {approx}10 pm-rad emittance with 25 mA or less. Now a 4.5-GeV 'ultimate' storage ring having emittance similar to the ERL and operating with {approx}200 mA is under study. An overview of the progress of the PEP-X design study and SSRL's plans for defining performance parameters that will guide the choice of ring options is presented.

  17. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. Volume 8, Appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume of the Systems Design Study contain four Appendixes that were part of the study. Appendix A is an EG&G Idaho, Inc., report that represents a review and compilation of previous reports describing the wastes and quantities disposed in the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Appendix B contains the process flowsheets considered in this study, but not selected for detailed analysis. Appendix C is a historical tabulation of radioactive waste incinerators. Appendix D lists Department of Energy facilities where cementation stabilization systems have been used.

  18. Inflammation and Exercise (INFLAME): study rationale, design, and methods

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Angela; Mikus, Catherine; Rodarte, Ruben Q.; Distefano, Brandy; Priest, Elisa L.; Sinclair, Erin; Earnest, Conrad P.; Blair, Steven N.; Church, Timothy S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The INFLAME study is designed to determine the effect of exercise training on elevated high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (CRP) concentrations in initially sedentary women and men. Methods INFLAME will recruit 170 healthy, sedentary women and men with elevated CRP (≥2.0 mg/L) to be randomized to either an exercise group or non-exercise control group. Exercising individuals will participate in four months of supervised aerobic exercise with a total energy expenditure of 16 kcal • kg−1 • week−1 (KKW). Exercise intensity will be 60–80% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max). Outcome The primary outcome will be change in plasma CRP concentration. Secondary outcomes include visceral adiposity, the cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, and heart rate variability (HRV) in order to examine potential biological mechanisms whereby exercise might affect CRP concentrations. Summary INFLAME will help us understand the effects of moderate to vigorous exercise on CRP concentrations in sedentary individuals. To our knowledge this will be the largest training study specifically designed to examine the effect of exercise on CRP concentrations. This study has the potential to influence therapeutic applications since CRP measurement is becoming an important clinical measurement in Coronary Heart Disease risk assessment. This study will also contribute to the limited body of literature examining the effect of exercise on the variables of visceral adiposity, cytokines, and heart rate variability. PMID:18024231

  19. The Study of the Relationship between Probabilistic Design and Axiomatic Design Methodology. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onwubiko, Chin-Yere; Onyebueke, Landon

    1996-01-01

    Structural failure is rarely a "sudden death" type of event, such sudden failures may occur only under abnormal loadings like bomb or gas explosions and very strong earthquakes. In most cases, structures fail due to damage accumulated under normal loadings such as wind loads, dead and live loads. The consequence of cumulative damage will affect the reliability of surviving components and finally causes collapse of the system. The cumulative damage effects on system reliability under time-invariant loadings are of practical interest in structural design and therefore will be investigated in this study. The scope of this study is, however, restricted to the consideration of damage accumulation as the increase in the number of failed components due to the violation of their strength limits.

  20. Designing for Diverse Learning: Case Study of Place-Based Learning in Design and Technologies Pre-Service Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Marnie; MacGregor, Denise; Price, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Place-based learning experiences in Design and Technologies education connect people and place with design processes and products. Drawing on place-based learning, this case study shares the experiences of eight final year pre-service Design and Technologies education students from the University of South Australia as they collaborated with…

  1. Conceptual design study of an improved automotive gas turbine powertrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, C. E. (Editor); Pampreen, R. C. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Automotive gas turbine concepts with significant technological advantages over the spark ignition (SI) engine were assessed. Possible design concepts were rated with respect to fuel economy and near-term application. A program plan which outlines the development of the improved gas turbine (IGT) concept that best met the goals and objectives of the study identifies the research and development work needed to meet the goal of entering a production engineering phase by 1983. The fuel economy goal is to show at least a 20% improvement over a conventional 1976 SI engine/vehicle system. On the basis of achieving the fuel economy goal, of overall suitability to mechanical design, and of automotive mass production cost, the powertrain selected was a single-shaft engine with a radial turbine and a continuously variable transmission (CVT). Design turbine inlet temperature was 1150 C. Reflecting near-term technology, the turbine rotor would be made of an advanced superalloy, and the transmission would be a hydromechanical CVT. With successful progress in long-lead R&D in ceramic technology and the belt-drive CVT, the turbine inlet temperature would be 1350 C to achieve near-maximum fuel economy.

  2. Building qualitative study design using nursing's disciplinary epistemology.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Sally; Stephens, Jennifer; Truant, Tracy

    2016-02-01

    To discuss the implications of drawing on core nursing knowledge as theoretical scaffolding for qualitative nursing enquiry. Although nurse scholars have been using qualitative methods for decades, much of their methodological direction derives from conventional approaches developed for answering questions in the social sciences. The quality of available knowledge to inform practice can be enhanced through the selection of study design options informed by an appreciation for the nature of nursing knowledge. Discussion paper. Drawing on the body of extant literature dealing with nursing's theoretical and qualitative research traditions, we consider contextual factors that have shaped the application of qualitative research approaches in nursing, including prior attempts to align method with the structure and form of disciplinary knowledge. On this basis, we critically reflect on design considerations that would follow logically from core features associated with a nursing epistemology. The substantive knowledge used by nurses to inform their practice includes both aspects developed at the level of the general and also that which pertains to application in the unique context of the particular. It must be contextually relevant to a fluid and dynamic healthcare environment and adaptable to distinctive patient conditions. Finally, it must align with nursing's moral mandate and action imperative. Qualitative research design components informed by nursing's disciplinary epistemology will help ensure a logical line of reasoning in our enquiries that remains true to the nature and structure of practice knowledge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Biomimetic design of a brush-like nanopore: simulation studies.

    PubMed

    Pongprayoon, Prapasiri; Beckstein, Oliver; Sansom, Mark S P

    2012-01-12

    Combining a high degree of selectivity and nanoscale dimensions, biological pores are attractive potential components for nanotechnology devices and applications. Biomimetic design will facilitate production of stable synthetic nanopores with defined functionality. Bacterial porins offer a good source of possible templates for such nanopores as they form stable, selective pores in lipid bilayers. Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to design simple model nanopores with permeation free energy profiles that can be made to mimic a template protein, the OprP porin, which forms pores selective for anions. In particular, we explored the effects of varying the nature of pore-lining groups on free energy profiles for phosphate and chloride ions along the pore axis and the total charge of the permeation pathway of the pore. Cationic side chains lining the model nanopore are required to model the local detail of the OprP permeation landscape, whereas the total charge contributes to its magnitude. These studies indicate that a locally accurate biomimetic design has captured the essentials of the structure/function relationship of the parent protein.

  4. Lessons learned studying design issues for lunar and Mars settlements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litton, C. E.

    1997-01-01

    In a study of lunar and Mars settlement concepts, an analysis was made of fundamental design assumptions in five technical areas against a model list of occupational and environmental health concerns. The technical areas included the proposed science projects to be supported, habitat and construction issues, closed ecosystem issues, the "MMM" issues (mining, material processing, and manufacturing), and the human elements of physiology, behavior, and mission approach. Four major lessons were learned. First it is possible to relate public health concerns to complex technological development in a proactive design mode, which has the potential for long-term cost savings. Second, it became very apparent that prior to committing any nation or international group to spending the billions to start and complete a lunar settlement, over the next century, that a significantly different approach must be taken from those previously proposed, to solve the closed ecosystem and "MMM" problems. Third, it also appears that the health concerns and technology issues to be addressed for human exploration into space are fundamentally those to be solved for human habitation of the Earth (as a closed ecosystem) in the 21st century. Finally, it is proposed that ecosystem design modeling must develop new tools, based on probabilistic models as a step up from closed circuit models.

  5. Lessons learned studying design issues for lunar and Mars settlements.

    PubMed

    Litton, C E

    1997-01-01

    In a study of lunar and Mars settlement concepts, an analysis was made of fundamental design assumptions in five technical areas against a model list of occupational and environmental health concerns. The technical areas included the proposed science projects to be supported, habitat and construction issues, closed ecosystem issues, the "MMM" issues (mining, material processing, and manufacturing), and the human elements of physiology, behavior, and mission approach. Four major lessons were learned. First it is possible to relate public health concerns to complex technological development in a proactive design mode, which has the potential for long-term cost savings. Second, it became very apparent that prior to committing any nation or international group to spending the billions to start and complete a lunar settlement, over the next century, that a significantly different approach must be taken from those previously proposed, to solve the closed ecosystem and "MMM" problems. Third, it also appears that the health concerns and technology issues to be addressed for human exploration into space are fundamentally those to be solved for human habitation of the Earth (as a closed ecosystem) in the 21st century. Finally, it is proposed that ecosystem design modeling must develop new tools, based on probabilistic models as a step up from closed circuit models.

  6. Design Study for a Global Magnetospheric Dynamics Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1999-01-01

    A successful design was developed, one with many advantages over the original mission. The time spent in orbit was more evenly spread over the region being investigated. The radiation close was significantly lower and the mission did not rely on gravity assist at the moon and thus did not have to make measurements that far out in the tail. A spacecraft design was developed that keeps interference from the engines to a minimum. The design however was quite specific for four spacecraft. It could not be easily scaled to five spacecraft for example. One problem was discovered that is a concern for all similar missions. Inter- spacecraft communication can determine the spacing of the vehicles easily and to the accuracy required. However, the orientation of the polyhedron with the spacecraft at its vertices is not well known for small separations. Ground station range measurements give the line of sight location well but not the angle around that vector. This is a problem any such mission needs to solve. Neither the navigation teams at Goddard nor at Lewis were willing to attempt to solve this problem. At the completion of the study a report was made to the AGU meeting in San Francisco and a paper published in the volume "Science Closure and Enabling Technologies for Constellation Class Missions". This paper is attached.

  7. Titanium-doped sapphire laser research and design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moulton, Peter F.

    1987-01-01

    Three main topics were considered in this study: the fundamental laser parameters of titanium-doped sapphire, characterization of commercially grown material, and design of a tunable, narrow-linewidth laser. Fundamental parameters investigated included the gain cross section, upper-state lifetime as a function of temperature and the surface-damage threshold. Commercial material was found to vary widely in the level of absorption of the laser wavelength with the highest absorption in Czochralski-grown crystals. Several Yi:sapphire lasers were constructed, including a multimode laser with greater than 50mJ of output energy and a single-transverse-mode ring laser, whose spectral and temporal characteristics were completely characterized. A design for a narrow-linewidth (single-frequency) Ti:sapphire laser was developed, based on the results of the experimental work. The design involves the use of a single-frequency, quasi-cw master oscillator, employed as an injection source for a pulsed ring laser.

  8. Theoretical design study of the MSFC wind-wheel turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, W.; Kessel, P. A.

    1982-01-01

    A wind wheel turbine (WWT) is studied. Evaluation of the probable performance, possible practical applications, and economic viability as compared to other conventional wind energy systems is discussed. The WWT apparatus is essentially a bladed wheel which is directly exposed to the wind on the upper half and exposed to wind through multiple ducting on the lower half. The multiple ducts consist of a forward duct (front concentrator) and two side ducts (side concentrators). The forced rotation of the wheel is then converted to power through appropriate subsystems. Test results on two simple models, a paper model and a stainless steel model, are reported. Measured values of power coefficients over wind speeds ranging from 4 to 16 m/s are given. An analytical model of a four bladed wheel is also developed. Overall design features of the wind turbine are evaluated and discussed. Turbine sizing is specified for a 5 and 25 kW machine. Suggested improvements to the original design to increase performance and performance predictions for an improved WWT design are given.

  9. Design study of a high power rotary transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberger, S. M.

    1982-01-01

    A design study was made on a rotary transformer for transferring electrical power across a rotating spacecraft interface. The analysis was performed for a 100 KW, 20 KHz unit having a ""pancake'' geometry. The rotary transformer had a radial (vertical) gap and consisted of 4-25 KW modules. It was assumed that the power conditioning comprised of a Schwarz resonant circuit with a 20 KHz switching frequency. The rotary transformer, mechanical and structural design, heat rejection system and drive mechanism which provide a complete power transfer device were examined. The rotary transformer losses, efficiency, weight and size were compared with an axial (axial symmetric) gap transformer having the same performance requirements and input characteristics which was designed as part of a previous program. The ""pancake'' geometry results in a heavier rotary transformer primarily because of inefficient use of the core material. It is shown that the radial gap rotary transformer is a feasible approach for the transfer of electrical power across a rotating interface and can be implemented using presently available technology.

  10. Distilling Design Patterns From Agile Curation Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedict, K. K.; Lenhardt, W. C.; Young, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    In previous work the authors have argued that there is a need to take a new look at the data management lifecycle. Our core argument is that the data management lifecycle needs to be in essence deconstructed and rebuilt. As part of this process we also argue that much can be gained from applying ideas, concepts, and principles from agile software development methods. To be sure we are not arguing for a rote application of these agile software approaches, however, given various trends related to data and technology, it is imperative to update our thinking about how to approach the data management lifecycle, recognize differing project scales, corresponding variations in structure, and alternative models for solving the problems of scientific data curation. In this paper we will describe what we term agile curation design patterns, borrowing the concept of design patterns from the software world and we will present some initial thoughts on agile curation design patterns as informed by a sample of data curation case studies solicited from participants in agile data curation meeting sessions conducted in 2015-16.

  11. Lessons learned studying design issues for lunar and Mars settlements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litton, C. E.

    1997-01-01

    In a study of lunar and Mars settlement concepts, an analysis was made of fundamental design assumptions in five technical areas against a model list of occupational and environmental health concerns. The technical areas included the proposed science projects to be supported, habitat and construction issues, closed ecosystem issues, the "MMM" issues (mining, material processing, and manufacturing), and the human elements of physiology, behavior, and mission approach. Four major lessons were learned. First it is possible to relate public health concerns to complex technological development in a proactive design mode, which has the potential for long-term cost savings. Second, it became very apparent that prior to committing any nation or international group to spending the billions to start and complete a lunar settlement, over the next century, that a significantly different approach must be taken from those previously proposed, to solve the closed ecosystem and "MMM" problems. Third, it also appears that the health concerns and technology issues to be addressed for human exploration into space are fundamentally those to be solved for human habitation of the Earth (as a closed ecosystem) in the 21st century. Finally, it is proposed that ecosystem design modeling must develop new tools, based on probabilistic models as a step up from closed circuit models.

  12. Study design in evidence-based surgery: What is the role of case-control studies?

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Amy M; Cox, Michael R; Eslick, Guy D

    2016-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard in terms of study design, however, in the surgical setting conducting RCTs can often be unethical or logistically impossible. Case-control studies should become the major study design used in surgical research when RCTs are unable to be conducted and definitely replacing case series which offer little insight into surgical outcomes and disease processes. PMID:27019801

  13. Designing A Mixed Methods Study In Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Creswell, John W.; Fetters, Michael D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mixed methods or multimethod research holds potential for rigorous, methodologically sound investigations in primary care. The objective of this study was to use criteria from the literature to evaluate 5 mixed methods studies in primary care and to advance 3 models useful for designing such investigations. METHODS We first identified criteria from the social and behavioral sciences to analyze mixed methods studies in primary care research. We then used the criteria to evaluate 5 mixed methods investigations published in primary care research journals. RESULTS Of the 5 studies analyzed, 3 included a rationale for mixing based on the need to develop a quantitative instrument from qualitative data or to converge information to best understand the research topic. Quantitative data collection involved structured interviews, observational checklists, and chart audits that were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical procedures. Qualitative data consisted of semistructured interviews and field observations that were analyzed using coding to develop themes and categories. The studies showed diverse forms of priority: equal priority, qualitative priority, and quantitative priority. Data collection involved quantitative and qualitative data gathered both concurrently and sequentially. The integration of the quantitative and qualitative data in these studies occurred between data analysis from one phase and data collection from a subsequent phase, while analyzing the data, and when reporting the results. DISCUSSION We recommend instrument-building, triangulation, and data transformation models for mixed methods designs as useful frameworks to add rigor to investigations in primary care. We also discuss the limitations of our study and the need for future research. PMID:15053277

  14. Integrated learning in practical machine element design course: a case study of V-pulley design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantrabandit, Manop

    2014-06-01

    To achieve an effective integrated learning in Machine Element Design course, it is of importance to bridge the basic knowledge and skills of element designs. The multiple core learning leads the pathway which consists of two main parts. The first part involves teaching documents of which the contents are number of V-groove formulae, standard of V-grooved pulleys, and parallel key dimension's formulae. The second part relates to the subjects that the students have studied prior to participating in this integrated learning course, namely Material Selection, Manufacturing Process, Applied Engineering Drawing, CAD (Computer Aided Design) animation software. Moreover, an intensive cooperation between a lecturer and students is another key factor to fulfill the success of integrated learning. Last but not least, the students need to share their knowledge within the group and among the other groups aiming to gain knowledge of and skills in 1) the application of CAD-software to build up manufacture part drawings, 2) assembly drawing, 3) simulation to verify the strength of loaded pulley by method of Finite Element Analysis (FEA), 4) the software to create animation of mounting and dismounting of a pulley to a shaft, and 5) an instruction manual. The end product of this integrated learning, as a result of the above 1 to 5 knowledge and skills obtained, the participating students can create an assembly derived from manufacture part drawings and a video presentation with bilingual (English-Thai) audio description of Vpulley with datum diameter of 250 mm, 4 grooves, and type of groove: SPA.

  15. High flux isotope reactor cold source preconceptual design study report

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, D.L.; Bucholz, J.A.; Burnette, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    In February 1995, the deputy director of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) formed a group to examine the need for upgrades to the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) system in light of the cancellation of the Advanced Neutron Source Project. One of the major findings of this study was that there was an immediate need for the installation of a cold neutron source facility in the HFIR complex. The anticipated cold source will consist of a cryogenic LH{sub 2} moderator plug, a cryogenic pump system, a refrigerator that uses helium gas as a refrigerant, a heat exchanger to interface the refrigerant with the hydrogen loop, liquid hydrogen transfer lines, a gas handling system that includes vacuum lines, and an instrumentation and control system to provide constant system status monitoring and to maintain system stability. The scope of this project includes the development, design, safety analysis, procurement/fabrication, testing, and installation of all of the components necessary to produce a working cold source within an existing HFIR beam tube. This project will also include those activities necessary to transport the cold neutron beam to the front face of the present HFIR beam room. The cold source project has been divided into four phases: (1) preconceptual, (2) conceptual design and research and development (R and D), (3) detailed design and procurement, and (4) installation and operation. This report marks the conclusion of the preconceptual phase and establishes the concept feasibility. The information presented includes the project scope, the preliminary design requirements, the preliminary cost and schedule, the preliminary performance data, and an outline of the various plans for completing the project.

  16. Design Feasibility Study for a Demultiplexer Miniaturized for Microtomographic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Udo; Trtik, Pavel; Notter, Manuela; Hovind, Jan; Lehmann, Eberhard H.

    In this paper a design feasibility study of a miniaturized demultiplexer that allows for simultaneous tomographic imaging on three independent rotational axes. While the general concept has been proven on a larger scale for three centimeter sized samples, the downscaling of this concept is presented herein. The main requirements are firstly, positioning of the samples parallel to the detector screen for stable imaging and secondly, the use of backlash free gears to avoid any angular play. Based on these requirements a concept is shown that consists of three precisely positioned anti-backlash axes within a housing with a spacing of 3.5 mm.

  17. A study of design trade (OFFS) using a computer model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coughlin, S.

    1975-01-01

    The interaction between the efficiency of the structural design and the cost of the structure used was studied. It is shown that future effort is best directed at producing a low cost structure of medium efficiency, but with the ability to withstand normal service wear. The trade-off between aerodynamic drag and structure weight in selecting a length to diameter ratio for the hull is evaluated along with the implications of power plan type and fuel cost on the economics of the airship. The choice of lifting gas is considered.

  18. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    SciTech Connect

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B. . Environmental Services Div.); Quapp, W.J. )

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT E) requirements for each of the three concepts.

  19. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    SciTech Connect

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B.; Quapp, W.J.

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT&E) requirements for each of the three concepts.

  20. Thermogravity system designed for use in dispersion strengthening studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbell, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    A thermogravimetry system designed to study the reduction of oxides in metal and alloy powders to be used in dispersion strengthened materials is described. The apparatus was devised for use at high temperatures with controlled atmospheres. Experimental weight change and moisture evolution results for the thermal decomposition of calcium oxalate monohydrate in dry helium, and experimental weight change results for the reduction of nickel oxide in dry hydrogen and hydrogen containing 15,000 PPM water vapor are presented. The system is currently being successfully applied to the evaluation of the reduction characteristics and the removal of impurities from metals and alloys to be used for dispersion strengthening.