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Sample records for europe joule project

  1. The Shale Gas in Europe project (GASH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Hans-Martin; Horsfield, Brian; Gash-Team

    2010-05-01

    At the present time no shale gas play has been brought to the production level in Europe. While the opportunities appear abundant, there are still many challenges to be overcome in Europe such as land access and environmental issues. Costs per well are still higher than in the US, and mining regulations are tighter. As yet it remains unclear whether European shales can support commercial shale gas production. First, it will be essential to test the sub-surface and the potential deliverability of wells, supported by basic research. GASH is the first major scientific initiative in Europe that is focussed on shale gas; it is ambitious in that it is broad ranging in scientific scope and that it unites leading European research groups and geological surveys with industry. US know-how is also integrated into the programme to avoid reinventing the wheel, or, still worse, the flat tyre. GASH is currently funded by eight companies, and comprises two main elements: compilation of a European Black Shale Database (EBSD) and focussed research projects that are based on geochemical, geophysical and geomechanical investigations. The EBSD is being built by a team of more than 20 geological surveys, extending from Sweden in the north, through western Europe and the Baltic states down to southern Europe, and over to Romania, Hungary and the Czech Republic in the east. The research projects apply numerical modelling, process simulations and laboratory analyses to selected regional study areas or "natural laboratories" from both Europe and the USA - the goal: to predict gas-in-place and fracability based on process understanding. The European black shales selected as natural shale gas laboratories are the Cambrian Alum Shale from Sweden and Denmark, the Lower Jurassic Posidonia Shale from Central Germany, and Carboniferous black shales from the UK in the west via the Netherlands to Germany in the east. Fresh core material for detailed investigations will be recovered during the mid

  2. James Joule and meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, David W.

    1989 was the hundredth anniversary of the death of James Prescott Joule, the Prescott being his mother's family name and the Joule, rhyming with cool, originating from the Derbyshire village of Youlgreave. Joule is rightly famous for his experimental efforts to establish the law of conservation of energy, and for the fact that J, the symbol known as the mechanical equivalent of heat, is named after him. Astronomically his "light has been hidden under a bushel". James Joule had a major influence on the physics of meteors.

  3. Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonzahn, U.

    1982-01-01

    The scientific aims, work plan, and organization of the Middle Atmosphere Program winter in northern Europe (MAP/WINE) are described. Proposed contributions to the MAP/WINE program from various countries are enumerated. Specific atmospheric parameters to be examined are listed along with the corresponding measurement technique.

  4. The ELISE II Project: A Digital Image Library for Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunz, Bob; Waters, Mairead

    This paper describes the progress made under the ELISE II electronic image library project from a technical standpoint. The ELISE II project is a European-wide initiative that aims to provide a comprehensive electronic image library service for Europe. It is funded under the European Commission, DG XIII-E, Telematics for Libraries Initiative. The…

  5. Final year engineering projects in Australia and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, H.; Goh, S.

    2010-05-01

    The paper starts by emphasising that final year engineering projects are regarded important in the training and education of professional engineers in Australia and Europe. The sources of projects available to students were also mentioned. Some Australian universities insist on individual projects but some not, each with their own reasons. However, it can be argued that all European universities run individual projects. In most cases, whether it is in Australia or Europe, the total load for final year engineering projects is about 6.25% of the load of engineering programmes. Assessment methods were also described. They were all different whether in Australia or Europe but not very significant. It was discovered that literature reviews, oral presentations and written reports or dissertations were important elements in the assessment schemes. Many university staff, in both continents, encouraged students to publish their work in international conferences and journals if the originality of the projects was high. It can be argued that the individual project is most effective in learning outcome; however, the cost involved is also very high and its sustainability in smaller universities in Australia is in doubt.

  6. Developing financeable projects in Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Chelberg, R.; Prerad, V.

    1995-12-01

    POWER`s engineering and development experience in the Czech Republic creating financeable projects within the power generation industry will be presented. POWER has been involved in the Czech Republic`s privatization process, environmental legislation as well as formation of the regulatory environment. Strategic methods for accomplishing the development of financeable projects often include ownership and financial restructuring of the projects. This is done by utilizing internal cash flows, external debt and equity placement (provided by international financial institutions) by restructuring the facility`s contractual relationships and operations (providing as least cost solution to engineering) and possibly using existing governmental guarantees. In order to make any recommendations on how to come into compliance with the country`s environmental legislation, it is necessary to begin with an analysis of the existing facility. This involves preparation of technical and economic feasibility study, evaluation of technology and preliminary engineering solutions. It further involves restructuring of power sales agreements, heat sales agreements, and fuel supply agreements. The goal is to provide suitable security for the equity and debt financing participants by mitigating risk and creating a single purpose business unit with predictable life and economics.

  7. Second phase of the European Project CERGOP-2/Environment (Central Europe Regional Geodynamics Project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sledzinski, Janusz

    The paper includes concise information on the status of the international geodynamic project CERGOP (Central Europe Regional Geodynamics Project). The achievements of the realisation of the first phase of the Project are summarised. The enlarged objectives, the programme and scope of work of the second phase of the Project are shortly described. List of workpackages covering particular fields of activities within the Project is given. Project is supported financially by the European Commission. Project CERGOP was an impulse for the establishment of the CEGRN Consortium of institutes involved in realisation of the Project. The Consortium will also be a seedbed of new European projects and initiatives.

  8. Collaboration Networks in Applied Conservation Projects across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Manolache, Steluta; Ciocănea, Cristiana Maria; Miu, Iulia Viorica; Popescu, Viorel Dan

    2016-01-01

    The main funding instrument for implementing EU policies on nature conservation and supporting environmental and climate action is the LIFE Nature programme, established by the European Commission in 1992. LIFE Nature projects (>1400 awarded) are applied conservation projects in which partnerships between institutions are critical for successful conservation outcomes, yet little is known about the structure of collaborative networks within and between EU countries. The aim of our study is to understand the nature of collaboration in LIFE Nature projects using a novel application of social network theory at two levels: (1) collaboration between countries, and (2) collaboration within countries using six case studies: Western Europe (United Kingdom and Netherlands), Eastern Europe (Romania and Latvia) and Southern Europe (Greece and Portugal). Using data on 1261 projects financed between 1996 and 2013, we found that Italy was the most successful country not only in terms of awarded number of projects, but also in terms of overall influence being by far the most influent country in the European LIFE Nature network, having the highest eigenvector (0.989) and degree centrality (0.177). Another key player in the network is Netherlands, which ensures a fast communication flow with other network members (closeness—0.318) by staying connected with the most active countries. Although Western European countries have higher centrality scores than most of the Eastern European countries, our results showed that overall there is a lower tendency to create partnerships between different organization categories. Also, the comparisons of the six case studies indicates significant differences in regards to the pattern of creating partnerships, providing valuable information on collaboration on EU nature conservation. This study represents a starting point in predicting the formation of future partnerships within LIFE Nature programme, suggesting ways to improve transnational

  9. Future meteorological drought: projections of regional climate models for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagge, James; Tallaksen, Lena; Rizzi, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    In response to the major European drought events of the last decade, projecting future drought frequency and severity in a non-stationary climate is a major concern for Europe. Prior drought studies have identified regional hotspots in the Mediterranean and Eastern European regions, but have otherwise produced conflicting results with regard to future drought severity. Some of this disagreement is likely related to the relatively coarse resolution of Global Climate Models (GCMs) and regional averaging, which tends to smooth extremes. This study makes use of the most current Regional Climate Models (RCMs) forced with CMIP5 climate projections to quantify the projected change in meteorological drought for Europe during the next century at a fine, gridded scale. Meteorological drought is quantified using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), which normalize accumulated precipitation and climatic water balance anomaly, respectively, for a specific location and time of year. By comparing projections for these two indices, the importance of precipitation deficits can be contrasted with the importance of evapotranspiration increases related to temperature changes. Climate projections are based on output from CORDEX (the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment), which provides high resolution regional downscaled climate scenarios that have been extensively tested for numerous regions around the globe, including Europe. SPI and SPEI are then calculated on a gridded scale at a spatial resolution of either 0.44 degrees (~50 km) or 0.11 degrees (~12.5km) for the three projected emission pathways (rcp26, rcp45, rcp85). Analysis is divided into two major sections: first validating the models with respect to observed historical trends in meteorological drought from 1970-2005 and then comparing drought severity and frequency during three future time periods (2011-2040, 2041-2070, 2071-2100) to the

  10. Strategies for financing energy projects in East Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Fortino, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses financing options available for energy (power/steam) projects in East Central Europe. It is intended to be an overview and practical guide to such options in today`s environment. A survey is made of the principal multilateral and other financial institutions providing funding and/or credit support in the region. These include the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the World Bank, the International Finance Corporation, the export credit agencies, and the commercial banks. Specific guarantee and other support mechanisms which some of these institutions provide are covered, including the latest developments. In addition to loan financing, potential sources of equity financing are discussed. Next, a description of the credit rating process by such institutions as Standard and Poor`s, and an example of a successful rating effort in the Czech Republic, lead into a discussion of accessing foreign and domestic bond markets to finance energy projects in the region.

  11. Memoir of James Prescott Joule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Osborne

    2011-06-01

    1. Introduction; 2. Parentage and early life; 3. Joule's first research; 4. Second research; 5. Third research; 6. Efforts to convince the scientific world; 7. The year 1847; 8. Joule's views accepted by Thomson, Rankine, and Clausius; 9. Middle life; 10. Later life; Appendix to page 18; Note A to page 88; Index.

  12. Projections of extreme storm surge levels along Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vousdoukas, Michalis I.; Voukouvalas, Evangelos; Annunziato, Alessandro; Giardino, Alessio; Feyen, Luc

    2016-02-01

    Storm surges are an important coastal hazard component and it is unknown how they will evolve along Europe's coastline in view of climate change. In the present contribution, the hydrodynamic model Delft3D-Flow was forced by surface wind and atmospheric pressure fields from a 8-member climate model ensemble in order to evaluate dynamics in storm surge levels (SSL) along the European coastline (1) for the baseline period 1970-2000; and (2) during this century under the Representative Concentration Pathways RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Validation simulations, spanning from 2008 to 2014 and driven by ERA-Interim atmospheric forcing, indicated good predictive skill (0.06 m < RMSE < 0.29 m and 10 % < RMSE < 29 % for 110 tidal gauge stations across Europe). Peak-over-threshold extreme value analysis was applied to estimate SSL values for different return periods, and changes of future SSL were obtained from all models to obtain the final ensemble. Values for most scenarios and return periods indicate a projected increase in SSL at several locations along the North European coastline, which is more prominent for RCP8.5 and shows an increasing tendency towards the end of the century for both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Projected SSL changes along the European coastal areas south of 50°N show minimal change or even a small decrease, with the exception of RCP8.5 under which a moderate increase is projected towards the end of the century. The present findings indicate that the anticipated increase in extreme total water levels due to relative sea level rise (RSLR), can be further enforced by an increase of the extreme SSL, which can exceed 30 % of the RSLR, especially for the high return periods and pathway RCP8.5. This implies that the combined effect could increase even further anticipated impacts of climate change for certain European areas and highlights the necessity for timely coastal adaptation and protection measures. The dataset is publicly available under this link: http://data.jrc.ec.europa.eu/collection/LISCOAST.

  13. Watt and joule balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    The time is fast approaching when the SI unit of mass will cease to be based on a single material artefact and will instead be based upon the defined value of a fundamental constant—the Planck constant—h . This change requires that techniques exist both to determine the appropriate value to be assigned to the constant, and to measure mass in terms of the redefined unit. It is important to ensure that these techniques are accurate and reliable to allow full advantage to be taken of the stability and universality provided by the new definition and to guarantee the continuity of the world's mass measurements, which can affect the measurement of many other quantities such as energy and force. Up to now, efforts to provide the basis for such a redefinition of the kilogram were mainly concerned with resolving the discrepancies between individual implementations of the two principal techniques: the x-ray crystal density (XRCD) method [1] and the watt and joule balance methods which are the subject of this special issue. The first three papers report results from the NRC and NIST watt balance groups and the NIM joule balance group. The result from the NRC (formerly the NPL Mk II) watt balance is the first to be reported with a relative standard uncertainty below 2 × 10-8 and the NIST result has a relative standard uncertainty below 5 × 10-8. Both results are shown in figure 1 along with some previous results; the result from the NIM group is not shown on the plot but has a relative uncertainty of 8.9 × 10-6 and is consistent with all the results shown. The Consultative Committee for Mass and Related Quantities (CCM) in its meeting in 2013 produced a resolution [2] which set out the requirements for the number, type and quality of results intended to support the redefinition of the kilogram and required that there should be agreement between them. These results from NRC, NIST and the IAC may be considered to meet these requirements and are likely to be widely debated

  14. Watt and joule balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    The time is fast approaching when the SI unit of mass will cease to be based on a single material artefact and will instead be based upon the defined value of a fundamental constant—the Planck constant—h . This change requires that techniques exist both to determine the appropriate value to be assigned to the constant, and to measure mass in terms of the redefined unit. It is important to ensure that these techniques are accurate and reliable to allow full advantage to be taken of the stability and universality provided by the new definition and to guarantee the continuity of the world's mass measurements, which can affect the measurement of many other quantities such as energy and force. Up to now, efforts to provide the basis for such a redefinition of the kilogram were mainly concerned with resolving the discrepancies between individual implementations of the two principal techniques: the x-ray crystal density (XRCD) method [1] and the watt and joule balance methods which are the subject of this special issue. The first three papers report results from the NRC and NIST watt balance groups and the NIM joule balance group. The result from the NRC (formerly the NPL Mk II) watt balance is the first to be reported with a relative standard uncertainty below 2 × 10-8 and the NIST result has a relative standard uncertainty below 5 × 10-8. Both results are shown in figure 1 along with some previous results; the result from the NIM group is not shown on the plot but has a relative uncertainty of 8.9 × 10-6 and is consistent with all the results shown. The Consultative Committee for Mass and Related Quantities (CCM) in its meeting in 2013 produced a resolution [2] which set out the requirements for the number, type and quality of results intended to support the redefinition of the kilogram and required that there should be agreement between them. These results from NRC, NIST and the IAC may be considered to meet these requirements and are likely to be widely debated

  15. Projections of twenty-first century climate over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, F.; Coppola, E.

    2009-02-01

    We present an assessment of climate change pro jections over the European region for the 21st century from the ensembles of CMIP3 global model experiments and PRUDENCE regional climate model experiments. The A2, A1B, and B1 IPCC emission scenarios are considered. A brief review is also presented of the literature available on future European climate pro jections. In all emission scenarios the European region shows maximum warming of up to several degrees C over the Mediterranean region in summer and over northeastern Europe in winter. The precipitation change signal shows a north-south dipolar structure, with increasing precipitation over Northern Europe and decreasing over southern Europe. This structure migrates northward from the winter to the summer and is tied to the north-south motion of an increasing anticyclonic circulation cell over the North Atlantic-European sector. Temperature interannual variability decreases in winter over central and northern Europe and increases in summer throughout Europe. Precipitation interannual variability shows a predominant increase, most pronounced in summer. The seasonal temperature anomaly probability density functions (PDFs) show a shift and a widening and flattening in future climate conditions, especially in summer, which is indicative of pronounced increases of extreme hot seasons. The seasonal precipitation anomaly PDFs show pronounced changes over Southern Europe in summer, with a strong increase of very dry seasons. In general, the magnitude of future climate change increases with the greenhouse gas forcing. A broad consensus is found between the pro jections obtained with the CMIP3 and PRUDENCE ensembles, as well as between the present analysis and previous generations of model pro jections. The climate change signal over Europe exhibits a consistent latitudinal and seasonal evolution identified as the European Climate change Oscillation (ECO) by Giorgi and Coppola [F. Giorgi and E. Coppola, Geophys. Res. Lett. 34

  16. Project DAFNE - Drilling Active Faults in Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukkonen, I. T.; Ask, M. S. V.; Olesen, O.

    2012-04-01

    We are currently developing a new ICDP project 'Drillling Active Faults in Northern Europe' (DAFNE) which aims at investigating, via scientific drilling, the tectonic and structural characteristics of postglacial (PG) faults in northern Fennoscandia, including their hydrogeology and associated deep biosphere [1, 2]. During the last stages of the Weichselian glaciation (ca. 9,000 - 15,000 years B.P.), reduced ice load and glacially affected stress field resulted in active faulting in Fennoscandia with fault scarps up to 160 km long and 30 m high. These postglacial (PG) faults are usually SE dipping, SW-NE oriented thrusts, and represent reactivated, pre-existing crustal discontinuities. Postglacial faulting indicates that the glacio-isostatic compensation is not only a gradual viscoelastic phenomenon, but includes also unexpected violent earthquakes, suggestively larger than other known earthquakes in stable continental regions. The research is anticipated to advance science in neotectonics, hydrogeology and deep biosphere studies, and provide important information for nuclear waste and CO2 disposal, petroleum exploration on the Norwegian continental shelf and studies of mineral resources in PG fault areas. We expect that multidisciplinary research applying shallow and deep drilling of postglacial faults would provide significant scientific results through generating new data and models, namely: (1) Understanding PG fault genesis and controls of their locations; (2) Deep structure and depth extent of PG faults; (3) Textural, mineralogical and physical alteration of rocks in the PG faults; (4) State of stress and estimates of paleostress of PG faults; (5) Hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and hydraulic properties of PG faults; (6) Dating of tectonic reactivation(s) and temporal evolution of tectonic systems hosting PG faults; (7) Existence/non-existence of deep biosphere in PG faults; (8) Data useful for planning radioactive waste disposal in crystalline bedrock; (9) Data

  17. The SPACELAB Project: A Transatlantic challenge for Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottemeyer, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    The contribution of Europe to the U.S. space program is related to the development of Spacelab. The Federal Republic of Germany is to contribute 53% and Italy 18% of the expenses. The industrial team conducting the development work for the Spacelab consists of experts from firms of the ten nations participating financially in the program. Attention is given to organizational problems, details on the development program, aspects of mission preparation, and future developments.

  18. Reduced Joule heating in nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léonard, François

    2011-03-01

    The temperature distribution in nanowires due to Joule heating is studied analytically using a continuum model and a Green's function approach. We show that the temperatures reached in nanowires can be much lower than that predicted by bulk models of Joule heating, due to heat loss at the nanowire surface that is important at nanoscopic dimensions, even when the thermal conductivity of the environment is relatively low. In addition, we find that the maximum temperature in the nanowire scales weakly with length, in contrast to the bulk system. A simple criterion is presented to assess the importance of these effects. The results have implications for the experimental measurements of nanowire thermal properties, for thermoelectric applications, and for controlling thermal effects in nanowire electronic devices.

  19. Winter in Northern Europe (WINE). The project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE): Introduction and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonzahn, U.

    1989-04-01

    The project Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) of the international Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) comprised a multinational study of the structure, dynamics and composition of the middle atmosphere in winter at high latitudes. Coordinated field measurements were performed during the winter 1983 to 1984 by a large number of ground-based, air-borne, rocket-borne and satellite-borne instruments. Many of the individual experiments were performed in the European sector of the high latitude and polar atmosphere. Studies of the stratosphere, were, in addition, expanded to hemispheric scales by the use of data obtained from remotely sensing satellites. Beyond its direct scientific results, which are reviewed, MAP/WINE has stimulated quite a number of follow-on experiments and projects which address the aeronomy of the middle atmosphere at high and polar latitudes.

  20. Winter in Northern Europe (WINE). The project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE): Introduction and outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonzahn, U.

    1989-01-01

    The project Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) of the international Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) comprised a multinational study of the structure, dynamics and composition of the middle atmosphere in winter at high latitudes. Coordinated field measurements were performed during the winter 1983 to 1984 by a large number of ground-based, air-borne, rocket-borne and satellite-borne instruments. Many of the individual experiments were performed in the European sector of the high latitude and polar atmosphere. Studies of the stratosphere, were, in addition, expanded to hemispheric scales by the use of data obtained from remotely sensing satellites. Beyond its direct scientific results, which are reviewed, MAP/WINE has stimulated quite a number of follow-on experiments and projects which address the aeronomy of the middle atmosphere at high and polar latitudes.

  1. Climate Change and Aedes Vectors: 21st Century Projections for Dengue Transmission in Europe.

    PubMed

    Liu-Helmersson, Jing; Quam, Mikkel; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Stenlund, Hans; Ebi, Kristie; Massad, Eduardo; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2016-05-01

    Warming temperatures may increase the geographic spread of vector-borne diseases into temperate areas. Although a tropical mosquito-borne viral disease, a dengue outbreak occurred in Madeira, Portugal, in 2012; the first in Europe since 1920s. This outbreak emphasizes the potential for dengue re-emergence in Europe given changing climates. We present estimates of dengue epidemic potential using vectorial capacity (VC) based on historic and projected temperature (1901-2099). VC indicates the vectors' ability to spread disease among humans. We calculated temperature-dependent VC for Europe, highlighting 10 European cities and three non-European reference cities. Compared with the tropics, Europe shows pronounced seasonality and geographical heterogeneity. Although low, VC during summer is currently sufficient for dengue outbreaks in Southern Europe to commence-if sufficient vector populations (either Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus) were active and virus were introduced. Under various climate change scenarios, the seasonal peak and time window for dengue epidemic potential increases during the 21st century. Our study maps dengue epidemic potential in Europe and identifies seasonal time windows when major cities are most conducive for dengue transmission from 1901 to 2099. Our findings illustrate, that besides vector control, mitigating greenhouse gas emissions crucially reduces the future epidemic potential of dengue in Europe.

  2. Climate Change and Aedes Vectors: 21st Century Projections for Dengue Transmission in Europe.

    PubMed

    Liu-Helmersson, Jing; Quam, Mikkel; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Stenlund, Hans; Ebi, Kristie; Massad, Eduardo; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2016-05-01

    Warming temperatures may increase the geographic spread of vector-borne diseases into temperate areas. Although a tropical mosquito-borne viral disease, a dengue outbreak occurred in Madeira, Portugal, in 2012; the first in Europe since 1920s. This outbreak emphasizes the potential for dengue re-emergence in Europe given changing climates. We present estimates of dengue epidemic potential using vectorial capacity (VC) based on historic and projected temperature (1901-2099). VC indicates the vectors' ability to spread disease among humans. We calculated temperature-dependent VC for Europe, highlighting 10 European cities and three non-European reference cities. Compared with the tropics, Europe shows pronounced seasonality and geographical heterogeneity. Although low, VC during summer is currently sufficient for dengue outbreaks in Southern Europe to commence-if sufficient vector populations (either Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus) were active and virus were introduced. Under various climate change scenarios, the seasonal peak and time window for dengue epidemic potential increases during the 21st century. Our study maps dengue epidemic potential in Europe and identifies seasonal time windows when major cities are most conducive for dengue transmission from 1901 to 2099. Our findings illustrate, that besides vector control, mitigating greenhouse gas emissions crucially reduces the future epidemic potential of dengue in Europe. PMID:27322480

  3. Measuring cancer prevalence in Europe: the EUROPREVAL project.

    PubMed

    Capocaccia, R; Colonna, M; Corazziari, I; De Angelis, R; Francisci, S; Micheli, A; Mugno, E

    2002-06-01

    Cancer prevalence is the proportion of individuals in a population who at some stage during their lifetime have been diagnosed with cancer, irrespective of the date of diagnosis. Cancer prevalence statistics have generally been provided by a limited number of well established cancer registries that have been in existence for several decades. The advent of systematic follow-up of life status of incident cases and the availability of new statistical methodologies, now makes it possible for registries established during the 1970s or 1980s to provide prevalence data. The main problems encountered in the estimation of prevalence are the inclusion of: (i) cases lost to follow-up; (ii) cases known only from their death certificate; (iii) cases diagnosed before the start of registration; and (iv) the treatment of multiple tumours and migrations. The main aim of this paper was to review these problems and discuss, through the experience gained with EUROPREVAL, how they can be overcome. A method is presented for the calculation of prevalence of all cancers combined in the populations covered by the 45 cancer registries participating in EUROPREVAL. Prevalence of cancer is estimated to be 2% on average, with the highest values (3%) in Sweden and the lowest in Eastern Europe, with a minimum of approximately 1% in Poland.

  4. Future scenarios for viticultural zoning in Europe: ensemble projections and uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, H.; Malheiro, A. C.; Moutinho-Pereira, J.; Santos, J. A.

    2013-11-01

    Optimum climate conditions for grapevine growth are limited geographically and may be further challenged by a changing climate. Due to the importance of the winemaking sector in Europe, the assessment of future scenarios for European viticulture is of foremost relevance. A 16-member ensemble of model transient experiments (generated by the ENSEMBLES project) under a greenhouse gas emission scenario and for two future periods (2011-2040 and 2041-2070) is used in assessing climate change projections for six viticultural zoning indices. After model data calibration/validation using an observational gridded daily dataset, changes in their ensemble means and inter-annual variability are discussed, also taking into account the model uncertainties. Over southern Europe, the projected warming combined with severe dryness in the growing season is expected to have detrimental impacts on the grapevine development and wine quality, requiring measures to cope with heat and water stress. Furthermore, the expected warming and the maintenance of moderately wet growing seasons over most of the central European winemaking regions may require a selection of new grapevine varieties, as well as an enhancement of pest/disease control. New winemaking regions may arise over northern Europe and high altitude areas, when considering climatic factors only. An enhanced inter-annual variability is also projected over most of Europe. All these future changes pose new challenges for the European winemaking sector.

  5. Future scenarios for viticultural zoning in Europe: ensemble projections and uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Fraga, H; Malheiro, A C; Moutinho-Pereira, J; Santos, J A

    2013-11-01

    Optimum climate conditions for grapevine growth are limited geographically and may be further challenged by a changing climate. Due to the importance of the winemaking sector in Europe, the assessment of future scenarios for European viticulture is of foremost relevance. A 16-member ensemble of model transient experiments (generated by the ENSEMBLES project) under a greenhouse gas emission scenario and for two future periods (2011-2040 and 2041-2070) is used in assessing climate change projections for six viticultural zoning indices. After model data calibration/validation using an observational gridded daily dataset, changes in their ensemble means and inter-annual variability are discussed, also taking into account the model uncertainties. Over southern Europe, the projected warming combined with severe dryness in the growing season is expected to have detrimental impacts on the grapevine development and wine quality, requiring measures to cope with heat and water stress. Furthermore, the expected warming and the maintenance of moderately wet growing seasons over most of the central European winemaking regions may require a selection of new grapevine varieties, as well as an enhancement of pest/disease control. New winemaking regions may arise over northern Europe and high altitude areas, when considering climatic factors only. An enhanced inter-annual variability is also projected over most of Europe. All these future changes pose new challenges for the European winemaking sector. PMID:23306774

  6. Record dry summer in 2015 challenges precipitation projections in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orth, René; Zscheischler, Jakob; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-06-01

    Central Europe was characterized by a humid-temperate climate in the 20th century. Climate change projections suggest that climate in this area will shift towards warmer temperatures by the end of the 21st century, while projected precipitation changes are highly uncertain. Here we show that the 2015 summer rainfall was the lowest on record since 1901 in Central Europe, and that climate models that perform best in the three driest years of the historical time period 1901–2015 project stronger drying trends in the 21st century than models that perform best in the remaining years. Analyses of precipitation and derived soil moisture reveal that the 2015 event was drier than both the recent 2003 or 2010 extreme summers in Central Europe. Additionally there are large anomalies in satellite-derived vegetation greenness. In terms of precipitation and temperature anomalies, the 2015 summer in Central Europe is found to lie between historical climate in the region and that characteristic of the Mediterranean area. Even though the models best capturing past droughts are not necessarily generally more reliable in the future, the 2015 drought event illustrates that potential future drying trends have severe implications and could be stronger than commonly assumed from the entire IPCC AR5 model ensemble.

  7. Record dry summer in 2015 challenges precipitation projections in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Orth, René; Zscheischler, Jakob; Seneviratne, Sonia I

    2016-01-01

    Central Europe was characterized by a humid-temperate climate in the 20(th) century. Climate change projections suggest that climate in this area will shift towards warmer temperatures by the end of the 21(st) century, while projected precipitation changes are highly uncertain. Here we show that the 2015 summer rainfall was the lowest on record since 1901 in Central Europe, and that climate models that perform best in the three driest years of the historical time period 1901-2015 project stronger drying trends in the 21(st) century than models that perform best in the remaining years. Analyses of precipitation and derived soil moisture reveal that the 2015 event was drier than both the recent 2003 or 2010 extreme summers in Central Europe. Additionally there are large anomalies in satellite-derived vegetation greenness. In terms of precipitation and temperature anomalies, the 2015 summer in Central Europe is found to lie between historical climate in the region and that characteristic of the Mediterranean area. Even though the models best capturing past droughts are not necessarily generally more reliable in the future, the 2015 drought event illustrates that potential future drying trends have severe implications and could be stronger than commonly assumed from the entire IPCC AR5 model ensemble.

  8. Record dry summer in 2015 challenges precipitation projections in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Orth, René; Zscheischler, Jakob; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-01-01

    Central Europe was characterized by a humid-temperate climate in the 20th century. Climate change projections suggest that climate in this area will shift towards warmer temperatures by the end of the 21st century, while projected precipitation changes are highly uncertain. Here we show that the 2015 summer rainfall was the lowest on record since 1901 in Central Europe, and that climate models that perform best in the three driest years of the historical time period 1901–2015 project stronger drying trends in the 21st century than models that perform best in the remaining years. Analyses of precipitation and derived soil moisture reveal that the 2015 event was drier than both the recent 2003 or 2010 extreme summers in Central Europe. Additionally there are large anomalies in satellite-derived vegetation greenness. In terms of precipitation and temperature anomalies, the 2015 summer in Central Europe is found to lie between historical climate in the region and that characteristic of the Mediterranean area. Even though the models best capturing past droughts are not necessarily generally more reliable in the future, the 2015 drought event illustrates that potential future drying trends have severe implications and could be stronger than commonly assumed from the entire IPCC AR5 model ensemble. PMID:27323864

  9. Record dry summer in 2015 challenges precipitation projections in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orth, Rene; Zscheischler, Jakob; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-04-01

    Central Europe was characterized by a humid-temperate climate in the 20th century. Climate change projections suggest that climate in this area will shift towards warmer temperatures by the end of the 21st century, while projected precipitation changes are highly uncertain. Here we show that the 2015 summer rainfall was the lowest on record since 1901 in Central Europe, and that climate models that perform best over the historical time period do not capture 2015-like conditions in the 2001-2030 time period, while models that do capture this event project stronger drying trends in the 21st century. Analyses of precipitation and derived soil moisture reveal that the 2015 event was drier than both the recent 2003 or 2010 extreme summers in Central Europe. Additionally, satellite-derived anomalies of vegetation greenness indicate larger impacts of the 2015 summer on the biosphere compared to these previous events. In terms of precipitation and temperature anomalies, the 2015 summer in Central Europe is found to lie between historical climate in the region and that characteristic of the Mediterranean area. This drought illustrates that potential future drying trends have severe implications and could be stronger than commonly assumed from the entire IPCC AR5 model ensemble.

  10. Approaches to animal research project evaluation in Europe after implementation of Directive 2010/63/EU.

    PubMed

    Guillén, Javier; Robinson, Sally; Decelle, Thierry; Exner, Cornelia; van Vlissingen, Martje Fentener

    2015-01-01

    Directive 2010/63/EU requires the evaluation and authorization of all research projects and training activities involving the use of animals and defines some components and expertise necessary for the evaluation process. Adoption of Directive 2010/63/EU provided an opportunity to harmonize project evaluation processes across Europe, but thus far, member states have used a variety of approaches in the transposition and implementation of Directive 2010/63/EU. The authors discuss and compare the project evaluation systems being implemented in five European Union member states (France, Germany, Spain, the Netherlands and the UK).

  11. Prospects for nuclear deterrence in a changing Europe. Student project report

    SciTech Connect

    Ghiotto, V.

    1991-04-01

    The present study project consists of two parts. The first concerns the changes in the politico-strategic situation which occurred in recent times in Europe. It tries to explain how the nuclear strategy is closely linked to historic evolution. Since the situation is changed, it is necessary to rethink the role of nuclear weapons. The second part - after a appraisal of the still remarkable Soviet nuclear threat and after examination of recent changes in NATO nuclear strategy - is focused on future prospects for nuclear deterrance in Europe. Among various solutions (from securing both theater and global deterrance only through strategic nuclear deterrance; and basing deterrance in Europe on French and British national nuclear deterrance; to establishing demilitarized areas), the author favors a so-called essential deterrence, which has as its principal elements: (1) rely, in the foreseeable future, on U.S. nuclear weapons in Europe; (2) significantly reduce the amount of nuclear weapons in Europe; (3) use, as theater nuclear weapons, only those systems with longer ranges that can be launched by air or sea platforms; (4) give these theater weapons a political deterrence role instead of a military warfighting role as in the past.

  12. High-resolution meteorological drought projections for Europe using a single combined indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinoni, Jonathan; Naumann, Gustavo; Vogt, Jürgen; Dosio, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Among the climate disasters, drought is one of the most difficult to characterise because of its complex nature and variety of impacts. These issues can be reflected in possible biases when drought indicators are projected to the future. Many studies are based on indicators independently computed and then compared; though this approach is powerful, the conclusions might vary according to each indicator, thus possibly resulting in contradicting findings. In this study, we focus on the frequency, duration, intensity, and severity of meteorological drought events in Europe and their projection until the end of this century, using a single indicator derived from the rational weighting of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), and the Reconnaissance Drought Indicator (RDI). The combination of the different indicators is based on the predominance of the drought signal, thus avoiding possible contradictory results. Future droughts have been studied for the periods 2041 to 2070 and 2071 to 2100, using an ensemble of the EURO-CORDEX high-resolution (0.11°) models that were bias-adjusted using the E-OBS observational dataset. Results show that meteorological drought events tend to be longer, more frequent and severe in southern Europe, especially in the period from 2071 to 2100 under the RCP8.5 scenario, while under the RCP4.5 scenario smaller but still significant drying trends are predicted. Both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 project a wetting tendency for Northern and Central Europe, though in 2041-2070 individual model results can be contradictory for Central Europe. The combined indicator, which incorporates precipitation as well as minimum and maximum temperature, therefore, helps understanding future European drought patterns at regional level especially in climate change transition areas as Central and Eastern Europe.

  13. Use of Optical and Imaging Techniques for Inspection of Off-Line Joule-Heated Melter at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Plodinec, M. J.; Jang, P-R; Long, Z.; Monts, D. L.; Philip, T.; Su, Y.

    2003-02-25

    The West Valley melter has been taken out of service. Its design is the direct ancestor of the current melter design for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. Over its eight years of service, the West Valley melter has endured many of the same challenges that the Hanford melter will encounter with feeds that are similar to many of the Hanford double shell tank wastes. Thus, inspection of the West Valley melter prior to its disposal could provide valuable--even crucial--information to the designers of the melters to be used at the Hanford Site, particularly if quantitative information can be obtained. The objective of Mississippi State University's Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory's (DIAL) efforts is to develop, fabricate, and deploy inspection tools for the West Valley melter that will (i) be remotely operable in the West Valley process cell; (ii) provide quantitative information on melter refractory wear and deposits on the refractory; and (iii) indicate areas of heterogeneity (e.g., deposits) requiring more detailed characterization. A collaborative arrangement has been established with the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) to inspect their melter.

  14. Joule Heating in the Photosphere and Chromosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, J. R.; Yamauchi, M.

    1989-06-01

    Joule dissipation due to the dynamo action in the solar atmosphere is proposed as possible mechanism for heating the photosphere and chromosphere. In nonactive regions, Joule heating is distributed in both phososphere and chromosphere. The power density (ergs cm/sup /minus/3/ s/sup /minus/1/) produced by the Joule dissipation in the nonactive phostosphere-chromosphere regions is calculated based on a model under the average quiet Sun condition (Vernazza /ital et/ /ital al/., 1981). The calculated Joule dissipation under quiet conditions exhibits a double-peak profile within the chromosphere; one is associated with the electron dissipation at lower altitude, while the other is due to ion dissipation at higher altitude. The energy flux produced by the Joule dissipation region. The resulting energy flux produced by the Joule dissipation in nonactive photosphere-chromosphere regions is /similar to/2.4/times/10/sup 7/ ergs cm/sup /minus/2/ s/sup /minus/1/ which is more than 40 times the energy flux carried away by the high-speed solar wind streams originating in the coronal holes. In active regions the Joule heating is prediced to be confined to the photosphere and is more than 2 orders of magnitude greater than in nonactive regions. /copyright/ American Geophysical Union 1989

  15. Changing pattern of landslide risk in Europe - The SafeLand project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadim, F.; Kalsnes, B. G.; SafeLand Research Consortium

    2011-12-01

    The changing pattern of landslide hazard and risk caused by climate change and changes in demography, the need to protect people and property, the reality for society in Europe to live with hazard and risk and the need to manage risk were the motives for the project SafeLand: "Living with landslide risk in Europe: Assessment, effects of global change, and risk management strategies." SafeLand is a large, integrating research project under the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme (FP7). It started on 1 May 2009 and will go on for 3 years, ending on 30 April 2012. There project involves 27 partners from 12 European countries, and has international collaborators and advisers from China, India, USA, Japan and Hong Kong. SafeLand also involves 25 End-Users from 11 countries. SafeLand is coordinated by the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) at Norwegian Geotechnical Institute in Norway. Further information on the SafeLand project can be found at its web site http://www.safeland-fp7.eu/ . SafeLand is an ongoing project, which results will be finalized in 2012. This lecture summarizes the SafeLand's activities and achievements until November 2011. The main results achieved so far include: - Development and testing of several empirical methods for predicting the characteristics of threshold rainfall events for triggering of precipitation-induced landslides. - Identification of landslide hazard and risk hotspots by an objective, GIS-based analysis for Europe. The results show clearly where landslides pose the largest hazard in Europe and the objective approach allows a ranking of the countries by exposed area and population. - Different regional climate model simulations over Europe (from the EU FP6 project ENSEMBLES) at a spatial resolution of 25 x 25 km have been used to perform an extreme value analysis for trends in heavy precipitation events. In winter a general trend towards more heavy precipitation events across all analyzed regional climate model

  16. Comparing Emission Inventories and Model-Ready Emission Datasets between Europe and North America for the AQMEII Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper highlights the similarities and differences in how emission inventories and datasets were developed and processed across North America and Europe for the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) project and then characterizes the emissions for the...

  17. Joule-Thomson expander and heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    The Joule-Thomson Expander and Heat Exchanger Program was initiated to develop an assembly (JTX) which consists of an inlet filter, counterflow heat exchanger, Joule-Thomson expansion device, and a low pressure jacket. The program objective was to develop a JTX which, when coupled to an open cycle supercritical helium refrigerating system (storage vessel), would supply superfluid helium (He II) at 2 K or less for cooling infrared detectors.

  18. Statistical multi-model climate projections of surface ocean waves in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Jorge; Menendez, Melisa; Camus, Paula; Mendez, Fernando J.; Losada, Inigo J.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the impact of climate change on sea surface waves has received increasingly more attention by the climate community. Indeed, ocean waves reaching the coast play an important role in several processes concerning coastal communities, such as inundation and erosion. However, regional downscaling at the high spatial resolution necessary for coastal studies has received less attention. Here, we present a novel framework for regional wave climate projections and its application in the European region. Changes in the wave dynamics under different scenarios in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean are analyzed. The multi-model projection methodology is based on a statistical downscaling approach. The statistical relation between the predictor (atmospheric conditions) and the predictand (multivariate wave climate) is based on a weather type (WT) classification. This atmospheric classification is developed by applying the k-means clustering technique over historical offshore sea level pressure (SLP) fields. Each WT is linked to sea wave conditions from a wave hindcast. This link is developed by associating atmospheric conditions from reanalysis with multivariate local waves. This predictor-predictand relationship is applied to the daily SLP fields from global climate models (GCMs) in order to project future changes in regional wave conditions. The GCMs used in the multi-model projection are selected according to skill criteria. The application of this framework uses CMIP5-based wave climate projections in Europe. The low computational requirements of the statistical approach allow a large number of GCMs and climate change scenarios to be studied. Consistent with previous works on global wave climate projections, the estimated changes from the regional wave climate projections show a general decrease in wave heights and periods in the Atlantic Europe for the late twenty-first century. The regional projections, however, allow a more detailed

  19. Uncertainties in future ozone and PM10 projections over Europe from a regional climate multiphysics ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Guerrero, P.; Jerez, S.; Montávez, J. P.; Trigo, R. M.

    2013-11-01

    Due to the computational time required for modeling air quality climatologies, the characterization of processes introducing the largest uncertainty in air quality-climate projections is a sound field of research. Here an air quality ensemble is assessed over Europe for present (1971-2000) and future (2071-2100, SRES A2) periods to characterize the sensitivity of regional air quality projections to the physics of the regional climate model driving the simulations. The ensemble comprises eight members resulting from combining two options of parameterization schemes for the planetary boundary layer, cumulus, and microphysics. The differences in the ensemble members (spread) for the concentration of tropospheric ozone and particulate matter (PM10) are strongly affected by the physics selected and could be considered as a matter of uncertainty in the change signals. Also, the leading processes causing the largest uncertainties in air quality projections have been identified and are mainly related to the election of the cumulus schemes.

  20. Adria-Europe crustal structure relationship in the Eastern Alps (project EASI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetényi, György; Plomerová, Jaroslava; Bianchi, Irene; Kampfová Exnerová, Hana

    2016-04-01

    Project EASI is the first implemented Complementary Experiment within the AlpArray program (http://www.alparray.ethz.ch) and stands for Eastern Alpine Seismic Investigation. The seismological field experiment ran for one year, from Summer 2014 to Summer 2015, composed of 55 broadband stations deployed in zig-zag in a ca. 15 km-wide band along longitude 13.35°E, spanning 540 km from the Czech-German border to the Adriatic Sea. Here we present first results using P-to-S converted waves from teleseismic distances. The variation of Moho depth along the profile is analyzed and linked to the two colliding plates, Adria and Europe, as well as to the overlying lithospheric blocks of the Bohemian Massif. The suggested Moho "hole" between Adria and Europe is characterized. We investigate the anisotropic nature of the lower crust of both plates. We conclude on the structural relationship of Adria and Europe at the crustal level, and infer their respective positions at depth. Furthermore, preliminary S-to-P conversions illuminating the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary test the significant depth variation of this boundary along the EASI transect and complement our receiver function study.

  1. Understanding climate change projections for precipitation over Western Europe with a weather typing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, João A.; Belo-Pereira, Margarida; Fraga, Helder; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2016-04-01

    Precipitation over Western Europe (WE) is projected to increase (decrease) roughly northward (equatorward) of 50°N during the twenty first century. These changes are generally attributed to alterations in the regional large-scale circulation, e.g. jet stream, cyclone activity and blocking frequencies. A novel weather typing within the sector (30°W-10°E, 25-70°N) is used for a more comprehensive dynamical interpretation of precipitation changes. A k-means clustering on daily mean sea level pressure was undertaken for ERA-Interim reanalysis (1979-2014). Eight weather types are identified: S1, S2, S3 (summertime types), W1, W2, W3 (wintertime types), B1 and B2 (blocking-like types). Their distinctive dynamical characteristics allow identifying the main large-scale precipitation-driving mechanisms. Simulations with 22 CMIP5 models for recent climate conditions show biases in reproducing the observed seasonality of weather types. In particular, an overestimation of weather type frequencies associated with zonal airflow is identified. Considering projections following the RCP8.5 scenario over 2071-2100, the frequencies of the three driest types (S1, B2 and W3) are projected to increase (mainly S1, +4%) in detriment of the rainiest types, particularly W1 (-3%). These changes explain most of the precipitation projections over WE. However, a weather type-independent background signal is identified (increase/decrease in precipitation over northern/southern WE), suggesting modifications in precipitation-generating processes and/or model inability to accurately simulate these processes. Despite these caveats in the precipitation scenarios for WE, which must be taken into account, our approach permits a better understanding of the projected trends for precipitation over Western Europe.

  2. Changing pattern of landslide risk in Europe - The SafeLand project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadim, F.; Kalsnes, B.

    2012-04-01

    The need to protect people and property with a changing pattern of landslide hazard and risk caused by climate change and changes in demography, and the reality for societies in Europe to live with the risk associated with natural hazards, were the motives for the project SafeLand: "Living with landslide risk in Europe: Assessment, effects of global change, and risk management strategies." SafeLand is a large, integrating research project under the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme (FP7). The project started on 1 May 2009 and will end on 30 April 2012. It involves 27 partners from 12 European countries, and has international collaborators and advisers from China, India, USA, Japan and Hong Kong. SafeLand also involves 25 End-Users from 11 countries. SafeLand is coordinated by the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) at Norwegian Geotechnical Institute in Norway. Further information on the SafeLand project can be found at its web site http://safeland-fp7.eu/. Main results achieved in SafeLand include: - Various guidelines related to landslide triggering processes and run-out modelling. - Development and testing of several empirical methods for predicting the characteristics of threshold rainfall events for triggering of precipitation-induced landslides, and development of an empirical model for assessing the changes in landslide frequency (hazard) as a function of changes in the demography and population density. - Guideline for landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk assessment and zoning. - New methodologies for physical and societal vulnerability assessment. - Identification of landslide hazard and risk hotspots for Europe. The results show clearly where areas with the largest landslide risk are located in Europe and the objective approach allows a ranking of the countries by exposed area and population. - Different regional and local climate model simulations over selected regions of Europe at spatial resolutions of 10x10 km and 2.8x2.8 km

  3. Identifying critical nutrient intake in groups at risk of poverty in Europe: the CHANCE project approach.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Marina; Glibetić, Maria; Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Khokhar, Santosh; Chillo, Stefania; Abaravicius, Jonas Algis; Bordoni, Alessandra; Capozzi, Francesco

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the CHANCE project is to develop novel and affordable nutritious foods to optimize the diet and reduce the risk of diet-related diseases among groups at risk of poverty (ROP). This paper describes the methodology used in the two initial steps to accomplish the project's objective as follows: 1. a literature review of existing data and 2. an identification of ROP groups with which to design and perform the CHANCE nutritional survey, which will supply new data that is useful for formulating the new CHANCE food. Based on the literature review, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grain products, fish, energy, fiber, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and C, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and zinc and a high intake of starchy foods, processed meat and sodium were apparent. However, the available data appeared fragmented because of the different methodologies used in the studies. A more global vision of the main nutritional problems that are present among low-income people in Europe is needed, and the first step to achieve this goal is the use of common criteria to define the risk of poverty. The scoring system described here represents novel criteria for defining at-risk-of-poverty groups not only in the CHANCE-participating countries but also all over Europe.

  4. The Cosmetics Europe strategy for animal-free genotoxicity testing: project status up-date.

    PubMed

    Pfuhler, S; Fautz, R; Ouedraogo, G; Latil, A; Kenny, J; Moore, C; Diembeck, W; Hewitt, N J; Reisinger, K; Barroso, J

    2014-02-01

    The Cosmetics Europe (formerly COLIPA) Genotoxicity Task Force has driven and funded three projects to help address the high rate of misleading positives in in vitro genotoxicity tests: The completed "False Positives" project optimized current mammalian cell assays and showed that the predictive capacity of the in vitro micronucleus assay was improved dramatically by selecting more relevant cells and more sensitive toxicity measures. The on-going "3D skin model" project has been developed and is now validating the use of human reconstructed skin (RS) models in combination with the micronucleus (MN) and Comet assays. These models better reflect the in use conditions of dermally applied products, such as cosmetics. Both assays have demonstrated good inter- and intra-laboratory reproducibility and are entering validation stages. The completed "Metabolism" project investigated enzyme capacities of human skin and RS models. The RS models were shown to have comparable metabolic capacity to native human skin, confirming their usefulness for testing of compounds with dermal exposure. The program has already helped to improve the initial test battery predictivity and the RS projects have provided sound support for their use as a follow-up test in the assessment of the genotoxic hazard of cosmetic ingredients in the absence of in vivo data.

  5. The Cosmetics Europe strategy for animal-free genotoxicity testing: project status up-date.

    PubMed

    Pfuhler, S; Fautz, R; Ouedraogo, G; Latil, A; Kenny, J; Moore, C; Diembeck, W; Hewitt, N J; Reisinger, K; Barroso, J

    2014-02-01

    The Cosmetics Europe (formerly COLIPA) Genotoxicity Task Force has driven and funded three projects to help address the high rate of misleading positives in in vitro genotoxicity tests: The completed "False Positives" project optimized current mammalian cell assays and showed that the predictive capacity of the in vitro micronucleus assay was improved dramatically by selecting more relevant cells and more sensitive toxicity measures. The on-going "3D skin model" project has been developed and is now validating the use of human reconstructed skin (RS) models in combination with the micronucleus (MN) and Comet assays. These models better reflect the in use conditions of dermally applied products, such as cosmetics. Both assays have demonstrated good inter- and intra-laboratory reproducibility and are entering validation stages. The completed "Metabolism" project investigated enzyme capacities of human skin and RS models. The RS models were shown to have comparable metabolic capacity to native human skin, confirming their usefulness for testing of compounds with dermal exposure. The program has already helped to improve the initial test battery predictivity and the RS projects have provided sound support for their use as a follow-up test in the assessment of the genotoxic hazard of cosmetic ingredients in the absence of in vivo data. PMID:23811264

  6. Analyses of climate and extreme indices in Central and Eastern Europe within the CECILIA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschi, M.; Boberg, F.; Christensen, O. B.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Stepanek, P.; Wp4 Members, Cecilia

    2009-04-01

    The EU-project CECILIA (Central and Eastern Europe Climate Change Impact and VulnerabiLIty Assessment) aims at delivering a climate change impacts and vulnerability assessment in targeted areas of Central and Eastern Europe. This region appears particularly vulnerable with regard to future changes in extremes (Christensen and Christensen 2003, Schär et al. 2004), likely due to regional specificities such as highly varying topography and continentality, and due to changes in soil moisture content (Seneviratne et al. 2006). In the project, emphasis is given to applications of regional climate modeling studies at a resolution of 10 km for local impact studies in key sectors of the region. The project includes the analysis of extreme weather events in present day and future climate in the target region. For this purpose, an extensive list of precipitation and temperature indices was defined. Observational data used for the indices calculation comes from the European Climate Assessment & Dataset project (ECA&D, Klein Tank et al. 2002), from the ENSEMBLES gridded observations (E-Obs, Haylock et al. 2008), and from station data of the local partners in Central and Eastern Europe. Moreover, the same indices were calculated consistently for a selection of pre-existing RCM datasets (PRUDENCE, ENSEMBLES), and for the CECILIA driving models. Later on, the 10 km high-resolution climate simulations from CECILIA will be included in the analysis. Here we focus on the analysis of a selection of temperature indices, and on the validation of the model-derived indices with the observations. Generally, the spatial agreement between the models and the observations is very good for mean, maximum and minimum temperature (both in terms of the spatial variability and the spatial correlation). The spread between the models is larger for the daily temperature range, with most models showing larger spatial variability compared to the observations. When it comes to heat and cold wave indices

  7. 2. Wind speed change in central Europe: the projections based on regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siedlecki, M.

    2010-09-01

    This work presents dynamically downscaled near-surface wind speed fields and examines the impact of climate changes on wind speed across central Europe. The analysis is based on regional model simulation (5 RCM simulations taken from the project PRUDENCE and CLM regional climate model from M&D group) forced by IPCC emission scenario SRES - A2. Each model provided data from two 30-year simulations: a control run under present day climate conditions for the period 1961-90 and a simulation under conditions projected for the period 2021-2050. The research domain covered region from 42°N to 62°N and from 6°E to 36°E. The model ensemble shows a possible increase in future mean wind speed during winter season, especially over zonal belt from North German to North Poland where the future mean wind speed is 0.4 m/s higher than in the control period. The projected climate change in summer over most research domain shows a decrease of mean wind speed (about 0.2 m/s). The Jutland Peninsula and North German is the region with the highest simulated wind speed. The simulated changes are more pronounced in 95th percentile than in the mean. In winter, the values of the 95th percentile will increase over the North German, Jutland Peninsula and North Poland but the highest change is projected over east coast of Baltic Sea (1m/s).

  8. Descriptive epidemiology of Kaposi sarcoma in Europe. Report from the RARECARE project.

    PubMed

    Stiller, C A; Trama, A; Brewster, D H; Verne, J; Bouchardy, C; Navarro, C; Chirlaque, M D; Marcos-Gragera, R; Visser, O; Serraino, D; Weiderpass, E; Dei Tos, A P; Ascoli, V

    2014-12-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a virus-related malignancy which most frequently arises in skin, though visceral sites can also be involved. Infection with Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV or HHV-8) is required for development of KS. Nowadays, most cases worldwide occur in persons who are immunosuppressed, usually because of HIV infection or as a result of therapy to combat rejection of a transplanted organ, but classic Kaposi sarcoma is predominantly a disease of the elderly without apparent immunosuppression. We analyzed 2667 KS incident cases diagnosed during 1995-2002 and registered by 75 population-based European cancer registries contributing to the RARECARE project. Total crude and age-standardized incidence rate was 0.3 per 100,000 per year with an estimated 1642 new cases per year in the EU27 countries. Age-standardized incidence rate was 0.8 per 100,000 in Southern Europe but below 0.3 per 100,000 in all other regions. The elevated rate in southern Europe was attributable to a combination of classic Kaposi sarcoma in some Mediterranean countries and the relatively high incidence of AIDS in several countries. Five-year relative survival for 2000-2002 by the period method was 75%. More than 10,000 persons were estimated to be alive in Europe at the beginning of 2008 with a past diagnosis of KS. The aetiological link with suppressed immunity means that many people alive following diagnosis of KS suffer comorbidity from a pre-existing condition. While KS is a rare cancer, it has a relatively good prognosis and so the number of people affected by it is quite large. Thus it provides a notable example of the importance of networking in diagnosis, therapy and research for rare cancers.

  9. The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) Project: Design and First Results

    PubMed Central

    Kovess, Viviane; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Pez, Ondine; Bitfoi, Adina; Koç, Ceren; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Background : The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) project aims to build up a set of indicators to collect and monitor children's mental health in an efficient and comparable methodology across the EU countries. It concerns primary schools children aged 6 to 11 years a range where few data are available whereas school interventions are promising. Methods : Three informants were used: parents, teachers and children. In selecting instruments language, instruments were selected according to the easiness to translate them: SDQ (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) for parents and teachers and DI (Dominic Interactive). A two-step procedure was used: schools randomization then six children by class in each grade. Results : 9084 children from seven countries (Italy, Netherlands, Germany, Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, and Turkey) completed the Dominic Interactive in their own language. 6563 teachers and 6031 parents completed their questionnaire, and a total of 5574 interviews have been completed by the 3 informants. The participation rate of the children with parents in the participating schools was about 66.4%. As expected teachers report more externalised problems and less internalised problems than parents. Children report more internalised problems than parents and teachers. Boys have consistently more externalised problems than girls and this is the reverse for internalised problems. Combining the diverse informants and impairment levels children with problems requiring some sort of mental health care were about 9.9%: 76% did not see any mental health professional: 78.7% In Eastern countries 63.1% in Western Europe. PMID:25834631

  10. The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) Project: Design and First Results.

    PubMed

    Kovess, Viviane; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Pez, Ondine; Bitfoi, Adina; Koç, Ceren; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Background : The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) project aims to build up a set of indicators to collect and monitor children's mental health in an efficient and comparable methodology across the EU countries. It concerns primary schools children aged 6 to 11 years a range where few data are available whereas school interventions are promising. Methods : Three informants were used: parents, teachers and children. In selecting instruments language, instruments were selected according to the easiness to translate them: SDQ (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) for parents and teachers and DI (Dominic Interactive). A two-step procedure was used: schools randomization then six children by class in each grade. Results : 9084 children from seven countries (Italy, Netherlands, Germany, Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, and Turkey) completed the Dominic Interactive in their own language. 6563 teachers and 6031 parents completed their questionnaire, and a total of 5574 interviews have been completed by the 3 informants. The participation rate of the children with parents in the participating schools was about 66.4%. As expected teachers report more externalised problems and less internalised problems than parents. Children report more internalised problems than parents and teachers. Boys have consistently more externalised problems than girls and this is the reverse for internalised problems. Combining the diverse informants and impairment levels children with problems requiring some sort of mental health care were about 9.9%: 76% did not see any mental health professional: 78.7% In Eastern countries 63.1% in Western Europe.

  11. The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) Project: Design and First Results.

    PubMed

    Kovess, Viviane; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Pez, Ondine; Bitfoi, Adina; Koç, Ceren; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Background : The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) project aims to build up a set of indicators to collect and monitor children's mental health in an efficient and comparable methodology across the EU countries. It concerns primary schools children aged 6 to 11 years a range where few data are available whereas school interventions are promising. Methods : Three informants were used: parents, teachers and children. In selecting instruments language, instruments were selected according to the easiness to translate them: SDQ (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) for parents and teachers and DI (Dominic Interactive). A two-step procedure was used: schools randomization then six children by class in each grade. Results : 9084 children from seven countries (Italy, Netherlands, Germany, Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, and Turkey) completed the Dominic Interactive in their own language. 6563 teachers and 6031 parents completed their questionnaire, and a total of 5574 interviews have been completed by the 3 informants. The participation rate of the children with parents in the participating schools was about 66.4%. As expected teachers report more externalised problems and less internalised problems than parents. Children report more internalised problems than parents and teachers. Boys have consistently more externalised problems than girls and this is the reverse for internalised problems. Combining the diverse informants and impairment levels children with problems requiring some sort of mental health care were about 9.9%: 76% did not see any mental health professional: 78.7% In Eastern countries 63.1% in Western Europe. PMID:25834631

  12. Cross-border care and healthcare quality improvement in Europe: the MARQuIS research project.

    PubMed

    Suñol, R; Garel, P; Jacquerye, A

    2009-02-01

    Citizens are increasingly crossing borders within the European Union (EU). Europeans have always been free to travel to receive care abroad, but if they wished to benefit from their statutory social protection scheme, they were subject to their local or national legislation on social protection. This changed in 1991 with the European Court of Justice defining healthcare as a service, starting a debate on the right balance between different principles in European treaties: movement of persons, goods and services, versus the responsibility of member states to organise their healthcare systems. Simultaneously, cross-border cooperation has developed between member states. In this context, patient mobility has become a relevant issue on the EU's agenda. The EU funded a number of Scientific Support to Policies (SSP) activities within the Sixth Framework Programme, to provide the evidence needed by EU policy makers to deal with issues that European citizens face due to enhanced mobility in Europe. One SSP project "Methods of Assessing Response to Quality Improvement Strategies" (MARQuIS), focused on cross-border care. It aimed to assess the value of different quality strategies, and to provide information needed when: (1) countries contract care for patients moving across borders; and (2) individual hospitals review the design of their quality strategies. This article describes the European context related to healthcare, and its implications for cross-border healthcare in Europe. The background information demonstrates a need for further research and development in this area. PMID:19188459

  13. The research project Winter In Northern Europe (WINE) of the international Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonzahn, U.

    1983-06-01

    The MAP/WINE study of the structure and dynamics of the middle atmosphere above northern Europe during winter is outlined. The project measures the morphology of small scale dynamic features, in order to study the control exerted by gravity waves and tides on the mean flow in the mesosphere, and to develop improved parameterizations of the interactions of small scale dynamic processes with mesospheric temperature, structure, and mean flow. Sudden stratospheric warmings, their cause, the time history of their large scale spatial structures, and their effect on the mesosphere temperature and dynamics are investigated. The effects of dynamics and temperature structure on the distribution of minor constituents, including ionospheric plasma, in the middle atmosphere are examined. Remote sensing and in-situ techniques for measuring mesospheric parameters are compared.

  14. The Eurolight project: the impact of primary headache disorders in Europe. Description of methods.

    PubMed

    Andrée, C; Stovner, L J; Steiner, T J; Barré, J; Katsarava, Z; Lainez, J M; Lanteri-Minet, M; Mick, G; Rastenyte, D; Ruiz de la Torre, E; Tassorelli, C; Vriezen, P; Lampl, C

    2011-10-01

    The Eurolight project is the first at European Union level to assess the impact of headache disorders, and also the first of its scale performed by collaboration between professional and lay organizations and individuals. Here are reported the methods developed for it. The project took the form of surveys, by structured questionnaire, conducted in ten countries of Europe which together represented 60% of the adult population of the European Union. In Lithuania, the survey was population-based. Elsewhere, truly population-based studies were impractical for reasons of cost, and various compromises were developed. Closest to being population-based were the surveys in Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Italy and Spain. In Austria, France and UK, samples were taken from health-care settings. In addition in the Netherlands, Spain and Ireland, samples were drawn from members of national headache patient organizations and their relatives. Independent double data-entry was performed prior to analysis. Returned questionnaires from 9,269 respondents showed a moderate female bias (58%); of respondents from patients' organizations (n = 992), 61% were female. Mean age of all respondents was 44 years; samples from patients' organizations were slightly older (mean 47 years). The different sampling methods worked with differing degrees of effectiveness, as evidenced by the responder-rates, which varied from 10.8 to 90.7%. In the more population-based surveys, responder-rates varied from 11.3 to 58.8%. We conclude that the methodology, although with differences born of necessity in the ten countries, was sound overall, and will provide robust data on the public ill-health that results from headache in Europe.

  15. Projections of heat waves with high impact on human health in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amengual, A.; Homar, V.; Romero, R.; Brooks, H. E.; Ramis, C.; Gordaliza, M.; Alonso, S.

    2014-08-01

    Climate change will result in more intense, more frequent and longer lasting heat waves. The most hazardous conditions emerge when extreme daytime temperatures combine with warm night-time temperatures, high humidities and light winds for several consecutive days. Here, we assess present and future heat wave impacts on human health in Europe. Present daily physiologically equivalent temperatures (PET) are derived from the ERA-Interim reanalysis. PET allows to specifically focus on heat-related risks on humans. Regarding projections, a suite of high-resolution regional climate models - run under SRES A1B scenario - has been used. A quantile-quantile adjustment is applied to the daily simulated PET to correct biases in individual model climatologies and a multimodel ensemble strategy is adopted to encompass model errors. Two types of heat waves differently impacting human health - strong and extreme stress - are defined according to specified thresholds of thermal stress and duration. Heat wave number, frequency, duration and amplitude are derived for each type. Results reveal relatively strong correlations between the spatial distribution of strong and extreme heat wave amplitudes and mortality excess for the 2003 European summer. Projections suggest a steady increase and a northward extent of heat wave attributes in Europe. Strong stress heat wave frequencies could increase more than 40 days, lasting over 20 days more by 2075-2094. Amplitudes might augment up to 7 °C per heat wave day. Important increases in extreme stress heat wave attributes are also expected: up to 40 days in frequency, 30 days in duration and 4 °C in amplitude. We believe that with this information at hand policy makers and stakeholders on vulnerable populations to heat stress can respond more effectively to the future challenges imposed by climate warming.

  16. The Eurolight project: the impact of primary headache disorders in Europe. Description of methods.

    PubMed

    Andrée, C; Stovner, L J; Steiner, T J; Barré, J; Katsarava, Z; Lainez, J M; Lanteri-Minet, M; Mick, G; Rastenyte, D; Ruiz de la Torre, E; Tassorelli, C; Vriezen, P; Lampl, C

    2011-10-01

    The Eurolight project is the first at European Union level to assess the impact of headache disorders, and also the first of its scale performed by collaboration between professional and lay organizations and individuals. Here are reported the methods developed for it. The project took the form of surveys, by structured questionnaire, conducted in ten countries of Europe which together represented 60% of the adult population of the European Union. In Lithuania, the survey was population-based. Elsewhere, truly population-based studies were impractical for reasons of cost, and various compromises were developed. Closest to being population-based were the surveys in Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Italy and Spain. In Austria, France and UK, samples were taken from health-care settings. In addition in the Netherlands, Spain and Ireland, samples were drawn from members of national headache patient organizations and their relatives. Independent double data-entry was performed prior to analysis. Returned questionnaires from 9,269 respondents showed a moderate female bias (58%); of respondents from patients' organizations (n = 992), 61% were female. Mean age of all respondents was 44 years; samples from patients' organizations were slightly older (mean 47 years). The different sampling methods worked with differing degrees of effectiveness, as evidenced by the responder-rates, which varied from 10.8 to 90.7%. In the more population-based surveys, responder-rates varied from 11.3 to 58.8%. We conclude that the methodology, although with differences born of necessity in the ten countries, was sound overall, and will provide robust data on the public ill-health that results from headache in Europe. PMID:21660430

  17. Methodological aspects of estimating rare cancer prevalence in Europe: the experience of the RARECARE project.

    PubMed

    Mallone, Sandra; De Angelis, Roberta; van der Zwan, Jan Maarten; Trama, Annalisa; Siesling, Sabine; Gatta, Gemma; Capocaccia, Riccardo

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the usage and the performance evaluation of the completeness index method in the 'Surveillance of Rare Cancers in Europe project' (RARECARE) for estimating rare cancer prevalence in Europe. The 15-year prevalence at 1st January 2003 for 255 cancers is obtained from a pool of 22 RARECARE cancer registries (CRs). Incidence and survival models are applied to the RARECARE database to estimate the parameters from which the completeness indices are calculated. Complete prevalence is obtained adjusting the observed 15-year prevalence by the completeness index, to account for those cancer survivors diagnosed before the CR activity started. Main factors influencing the performance of the completeness index method for rare cancers are the same as for common cancers: age distribution of incidence and lethality of the cancer. For cancers occurring in the elderly, with low survival rates and consequently a restricted number of long-term survivors we obtained completeness indices higher than 0.9. Values lower than 0.7 correspond to those cancers with good prognosis and/or incidence more concentrated at the younger ages, indicating that 15 years of follow up are insufficient to detect all prevalent cases. Validation analysis shows that for a restricted subgroup of rare cancers with very low incidence and low survival, the completeness indices were not able to adequately correct the observed prevalence even considering a registration period of 20 years. On average, sensitivity analyses show a slight overestimation of complete prevalence for rare and common cancers whose increasing incidence is known in literature. RARECARE is the largest project on rare cancers conducted to date. Improving health care programs for cancer survivors is a public health priority and prevalence data which provides important information in this field should be regularly asked to Member States and included in the EU health statistics.

  18. Advanced reprocessing developments in Europe contribution of European projects ACSEPT and ACTINET-I3

    SciTech Connect

    Bourg, S.; Poinssot, C.; Geist, A.; Cassayre, L.; Rhodes, C.; Ekberg, C.

    2012-07-01

    Nuclear energy has more than ever to demonstrate that it can contribute safely and on a sustainable way to answer the international increase in energy needs. Actually, in addition to an increased safety of the reactors themselves, its acceptance is still closely associated to our capability to reduce the lifetime of the nuclear waste, to manage them safely and to propose options for a better use of the natural resources. Spent fuel reprocessing can help to reach these objectives. But this cannot be achieved only by optimizing industrial processes through engineering studies. It is of a primary importance to increase our fundamental knowledge in actinide sciences in order to build the future of nuclear energy on reliable and scientifically-founded results, and therefore meet the needs of the future fuel cycles in terms of fabrication and performance of fuels, reprocessing and waste management. At the European level, both the collaborative project ACSEPT and the Integrated Infrastructure Initiative ACTINET-I3 work together to improve our knowledge in actinides chemistry and therefore develop advanced separation processes. These tools are complementary and work in close connection on some specific issues such as the understanding of the selectivity of extracting organic ligands. By offering trans-national access to the main nuclear research facility in Europe, ACTINET-I3 aims at increasing the knowledge in actinide sciences by gathering all the expertise available in European nuclear research institutes or university and giving them the opportunity to come and work in hot-labs (ITU, Atalante...) or beamlines (ESFR, ANKA, PSI) ACSEPT is focused on the development of advanced separation processes, both aqueous and pyrochemical. Head-end steps, fuel re-fabrication, solvent treatment, waste management are also taken into account. In aqueous process development, the SANEX and innovative SANEX flowsheets demonstration were successfully achieved. Chemical systems were

  19. Past and future regional drought in Europe: corroborating global hydrological models and projecting drought characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, S.; Williamson, J.; Hannaford, J.; Prudhomme, C.; Goodsell, G.

    2011-12-01

    Recent drought events in Europe have caused significant environmental and socio-economic impacts, and water resource managers are increasingly concerned with how hydrological drought characteristics are set to evolve in future under changing climatic conditions. Global hydrological models (GHMs) enable the projection of future runoff, but before such projections can be used with confidence, there is a need to assess how well models perform in reproducing historical droughts. This study presents an intercomparison of eight GHMs, validated against observed data, in terms of their ability to reproduce regional drought characteristics in Europe. The suite of models is then used to examine how drought characteristics may evolve under future climate change scenarios and the uncertainty associated with the simulations. In order to facilitate the validation, a Regional Deficiency Index (RDI) is used to compare regional drought characteristics derived from GHMs against observations. Drought 'catalogues' have been derived for 23 homogeneous European regions from 0.5° gridded total runoff outputs of eight GHMs (JULES, WaterGAP, MPI-HM, HTessel, H08, LPJml, Orchidee, and GWAVA) driven by WATCH Forcing Data (WFD). These catalogues, covering the period 1963-2000 on a daily time step, have been corroborated against drought catalogues produced by a previous study derived from observed daily streamflow data from >500 catchments across Europe, for the same 23 regions and across an identical period. The observed catalogues provide a benchmark to assess the extent to which GHMs are able to reproduce historical drought characteristics. Model performance in reproducing observed historical drought characteristics varies significantly between GHMs, regions, and drought characteristics considered. Nevertheless, there are many instances in which some of the GHMs generally perform well in reproducing regional drought duration, spatial coherence, onset and termination, as well as 'drought

  20. Projected changes in atmospheric rivers affecting Europe in CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Tomé, Ricardo; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) are elongated bands of high water vapor concentration extending to the midlatitudes, which can be associated with intense precipitation and floods over continental areas. We analyze ARs reaching Europe in simulations from six Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate models (GCMs) to quantify possible changes during the current century, with emphasis in five western European prone coastal areas. ARs are represented reasonably well in GCMs for recent climate conditions (1980-2005). Increased vertically integrated horizontal water transport is found for 2074-2099 (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) compared to 1980-2005, while the number of ARs is projected to double on average for the same period. These changes are robust between models and are associated with higher air temperatures and thus enhanced atmospheric moisture content, together with higher precipitation associated with extratropical cyclones. This suggests an increased risk of intense precipitation and floods along the Atlantic European Coasts from the Iberian Peninsula to Scandinavia.

  1. Rare neuroendocrine tumours: results of the surveillance of rare cancers in Europe project.

    PubMed

    van der Zwan, Jan Maarten; Trama, Annalisa; Otter, Renée; Larrañaga, Nerea; Tavilla, Andrea; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Dei Tos, Angelo Paolo; Baudin, Eric; Poston, Graeme; Links, Thera

    2013-07-01

    Because of the low incidence, and limited opportunities for large patient volume experiences, there are very few relevant studies of neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). A large population-based database (including cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002 and registered in 76 population-based cancer registries [CRs]), provided by the project 'surveillance of rare cancers in Europe' (RARECARE) is used to describe the basic indicators of incidence, prevalence and survival of NETs, giving a unique overview on the burden of NETs in Europe. NETs at all cancer sites, excluding lung, were analysed in this study. In total over 20,000 incident cases of NETs were analysed and a data quality check upon specific NETs was performed. The overall incidence rate for NETs was 25/1,000,000 and was highest in patients aged 65 years and older with well differentiated endocrine carcinomas (non-functioning pancreatic and gastrointestinal) (40 per 1,000,000). We estimated that slightly more than 100,000 people were diagnosed with NETs and still alive in EU27 at the beginning of 2008. Overall, NETs had a 5 year relative survival of 50%; survival was low (12%) for poorly differentiated endocrine carcinoma, and relatively high (64%) for well differentiated carcinoma (not functioning of the pancreas and digestive organs). Within NETs, endocrine carcinoma of thyroid gland had the best 5-year relative survival (82%). Because of the complexity and number of the different disciplines involved with NETs (as they arise in many organs), a multidisciplinary approach delivered in highly qualified reference centres and an international network between those centres is recommended.

  2. Manganese Nitride Sorption Joule-Thomson Refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Phillips, Wayne M.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed sorption refrigeration system of increased power efficiency combines MnxNy sorption refrigeration stage with systems described in "Regenerative Sorption Refrigerator" (NPO-17630). Measured pressure-vs-composition isotherms for reversible chemisorption of N2 in MnxNy suggest feasibility to incorporate MnxNy chemisorption stage in Joule-Thomson cryogenic system. Discovery represents first known reversible nitrogen chemisorption compression system. Has potential in nitrogen-isotope separation, nitrogen purification, or contamination-free nitrogen compression.

  3. Remote Joule heating by a carbon nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baloch, Kamal H.; Voskanian, Norvik; Bronsgeest, Merijntje; Cumings, John

    2012-05-01

    Minimizing Joule heating remains an important goal in the design of electronic devices. The prevailing model of Joule heating relies on a simple semiclassical picture in which electrons collide with the atoms of a conductor, generating heat locally and only in regions of non-zero current density, and this model has been supported by most experiments. Recently, however, it has been predicted that electric currents in graphene and carbon nanotubes can couple to the vibrational modes of a neighbouring material, heating it remotely. Here, we use in situ electron thermal microscopy to detect the remote Joule heating of a silicon nitride substrate by a single multiwalled carbon nanotube. At least 84% of the electrical power supplied to the nanotube is dissipated directly into the substrate, rather than in the nanotube itself. Although it has different physical origins, this phenomenon is reminiscent of induction heating or microwave dielectric heating. Such an ability to dissipate waste energy remotely could lead to improved thermal management in electronic devices.

  4. An developing ICDP drilling project on intraplate seismicity: Drilling Active Faults in Northern Europe (DAFNE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ask, M. V.; Kukkonen, I. T.; Olesen, O.; Steffen, H.; Schmitt, D.

    2011-12-01

    The combined effects of reduced ice load and glacially affected rock stresses are believed to have generated dramatic postglacial fault (PGF) structures in northern Europe, reflecting a special type of intraplate seismicity. A total of 14 PGFs have been identified up to date, with fault scarps up to 160 km in length and 30 m in height. They are usually SE dipping, SW-NE oriented thrusts that represent reactivated, pre-existing crustal discontinuities. Local and national seismic networks reveal that, at least some of the faults are still very active, with several hundreds of microseismic events each year. It is evident that if they were formed in single events, they would imply massive intraplate earthquakes (up to M 7-8). Hence, PGFs may generate larger intraplate earthquakes than generally assumed. Similar structures in North America have not been reported yet. Currently, an International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) project on Drilling Active Faults in Northern Europe (DAFNE) is under development. The aim of the project is to investigate tectonic and structural characteristics of PGFs in northern Fennoscandia, including their hydrogeology and associated deep biosphere. The research is anticipated to advance science in neotectonics, hydrogeology and deep biosphere studies, and provide important information for nuclear waste and CO2 disposal, petroleum exploration on the Norwegian continental shelf and studies of mineral resources in PG fault areas. We expect that multidisciplinary research applying shallow and deep drilling of PGFs would provide significant scientific results through generating new data and models, namely: 1. Understanding PGF genesis and controls of their locations; 2. Deep structure and depth extent of PGFs; 3. Textural, mineralogical and physical alteration of rocks in the PGFs; 4. State of stress and estimates of paleostress of PGFs; 5. Hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and hydraulic properties of PGFs; 6. Dating of tectonic reactivation

  5. Adaptation of vulnerable regional agricultural systems in Europe to climate change - results from the ADAGIO project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eitzinger, J.; Kubu, G.; Alexandrov, V.; Utset, A.; Mihailovic, D. T.; Lalic, B.; Trnka, M.; Zalud, Z.; Semeradova, D.; Ventrella, D.; Anastasiou, D. P.; Medany, M.; Altaher, S.; Olejnik, J.; Lesny, J.; Nemeshko, N.; Nikolaev, M.; Simota, C.; Cojocaru, G.

    2009-10-01

    During 2007-2009 the ADAGIO project (http://www.adagio-eu.org) is carried out to evaluate regional adaptation options in agriculture in most vulnerable European regions (mediterranean, central and eastern European regions). In this context a bottom-up approach is used beside the top-down approach of using scientific studies, involving regional experts and farmers in the evaluation of potential regional vulnerabilities and adaptation options. Preliminary results of the regional studies and gathered feedback from experts and farmers show in general that (increasing) drought and heat are the main factors having impact on agricultural vulnerability not only in the Mediterranean region, but also in the Central and southern Eastern European regions. Another important aspect is that the increasing risk of pest and diseases may play a more important role for agricultural vulnerability than assumed before, however, till now this field is only rarely investigated in Europe. Although dominating risks such as increasing drought and heat are similar in most regions, the vulnerabilities in the different regions are very much influenced by characteristics of the dominating agroecosystems and prevailing socio-economic conditions. This will be even be more significant for potential adaptation measures at the different levels, which have to reflect the regional conditions.

  6. Joule-Thomson Cooler Produces Nearly Constant Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bard, Steven; Wu, Jiunn-Jeng; Trimble, Curtis A.

    1992-01-01

    Improved Joule-Thomson cooler maintains nearly constant temperature. Absolute-pressure relief valve helps stabilize temperature of cold head despite variations in atmospheric pressure. Feedback-controlled electrical heater provides additional stabilization. Demand-flow Joule-Thomson valve requires less nitrogen than fixed-orifice Joule-Thomson valve providing same amount of cooling. Provides stable low temperatures required for operation of such devices as tunable diode lasers in laboratory and balloon-borne instruments detecting contaminants in atmosphere.

  7. Mega-joule experiment area study, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Slaughter, D.; Oirth, C.; Woodworth, J.

    1995-03-09

    This document contains Chapters 3 and 4 from the Mega-Joule Experiment Area Study, 1989. Water frost on the first containment wall is studied in detail in Chapter 3. Considered topics are the computer modeling of frost ablation and shock propagation and the experimental characterization of water frost. The latter is broken down into: frost crystal morphology, experiment configuration, growth rate results, density results, thermal conductivity, crush strength of frost, frost integrity, frost response to simulated soft x-rays. Chapter 4 presents information on surrounding shielding and structures to include: cryogenic spheres for first wall and coolant containment; shield tank concerning primary neutron and gamma ray shielding; and secondary shielding.

  8. Joule Heating Food Process Using Minimum Variance Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naganawa, Akihiro; Ito, Hiroki; Akiyama, Yoshinobu

    On a food heating process, a heat transmission system has been used widely. Recently, the Joule heating system has been received keen attentions as a sophisticated heating system because of non-scorching and cleanness. This system is based on a Joule heat phenomenon, that is, an electric resistance of food generates the heat, and then heats up food itself. However, control performance for the Joule heating system is not known well. In this paper, experimental results of the heating control for NaCl solution and soymilk are reported as basic verification of the Joule heating method.

  9. Scintillations and TEC gradients from Europe to Africa: a picture by the MISW project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonsi, Lucilla; Spogli, Luca; Cesaroni, Claudio; Vadakke Veettil, Sreeja; Aquino, Marcio; Zin, Alberto; Wilhelm, Nicolas; Serant, Damien; Forte, Biagio; Mitchell, Cathryn N.; Grzesiak, Marcin; Kos, Timoslav; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Zurn, Martin; Enell, Carl-Fredrik; Haggstrom, Ingemar

    2016-04-01

    MISW (Mitigation of space weather threats to GNSS services) is an EU/FP7 project with the purpose of tackling the research challenges associated with Space Weather effects on GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System). In particular, the objective of MISW is to develop suitable algorithms capable of enabling Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (e.g. EGNOS) in the low-latitude African sector. For this purpose, MISW has created a detailed picture of extreme space weather events that occurred in the past and in the current solar cycle. Despite its weakness, the current solar cycle exhibited two superstorms that happened during the descending phase, in March and in June 2015. The latter has been studied in detail through a careful analysis of GNSS data acquired by TEC (Total Electron Content) and scintillation monitors and by IGS and regional geodetic networks located in Europe and in Africa. The investigation enabled creating the actual scenarios of TEC gradients and scintillation that occurred over a wide latitudinal extent between 21 and 30 June 2015. The investigation is based on calibrated TEC from different receivers, aiming at the estimation of east-west and north-south TEC gradients and on the integration of calibrated TEC and TEC gradients with the scintillation data. The impact of the storm on GNSS performance has also been investigated in terms of losses of lock. The results of this study highlight the importance of assessing the latitudinal and the longitudinal TEC gradients as crucial information to identify to what extent different ionospheric sectors are severely affected by scintillation. On the other hand, this study also shows evidences of how TEC gradients are not always responsible for the observed scintillation. Finally, the outcomes of the study demonstrate the complex relation between scintillation, TEC gradients and losses of GNSS satellites lock.

  10. Metrology for Radiological Early Warning Networks in Europe ("METROERM")-A Joint European Metrology Research Project.

    PubMed

    Neumaier, Stefan; Dombrowski, Harald; Kessler, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986, all European countries have installed automatic dosimetry network stations as well as air sampling systems for the monitoring of airborne radioactivity. In Europe, at present, almost 5,000 stations measure dose rate values in nearly real time. In addition, a few hundred air samplers are operated. Most of them need extended accumulation times with no real-time capability. National dose rate data are provided to the European Commission (EC) via the EUropean Radiological Data Exchange Platform (EURDEP). In case of a nuclear emergency with transboundary implications, the EC may issue momentous recommendations to EU member states based on the radiological data collected by EURDEP. These recommendations may affect millions of people and could have severe economic and sociological consequences. Therefore, the reliability of the EURDEP data is of key importance. Unfortunately, the dose rate and activity concentration data are not harmonized between the different networks. Therefore, within the framework of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP), 16 European institutions formed the consortium MetroERM with the aim to improve the metrological foundation of measurements and to introduce a pan-European harmonization for the collation and evaluation of radiological data in early warning network systems. In addition, a new generation of detector systems based on spectrometers capable of providing both reliable dose rate values as well as nuclide specific information in real time are in development. The MetroERM project and its first results will be presented and discussed in this article. PMID:27356052

  11. Multicomponent gas sorption Joule-Thomson refrigeration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Petrick, S. Walter (Inventor); Bard, Steven (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The present invention relates to a cryogenic Joule-Thomson refrigeration capable of pumping multicomponent gases with a single stage sorption compressor system. Alternative methods of pumping a multicomponent gas with a single stage compressor are disclosed. In a first embodiment, the sorbent geometry is such that a void is defined near the output of the sorption compressor. When the sorbent is cooled, the sorbent primarily adsorbs the higher boiling point gas such that the lower boiling point gas passes through the sorbent to occupy the void. When the sorbent is heated, the higher boiling point gas is desorbed at high temperature and pressure and thereafter propels the lower boiling point gas out of the sorption compressor. A mixing chamber is provided to remix the constituent gases prior to expansion of the gas through a Joule-Thomson valve. Other methods of pumping a multicomponent gas are disclosed. For example, where the sorbent is porous and the low boiling point gas does not adsorb very well, the pores of the sorbent will act as a void space for the lower boiling point gas. Alternatively, a mixed sorbent may be used where a first sorbent component physically adsorbs the high boiling point gas and where the second sorbent component chemically absorbs the low boiling point gas.

  12. Assessing the burden of paediatric influenza in Europe: the European Paediatric Influenza Analysis (EPIA) project

    PubMed Central

    Paget, W. John; Casas, Inmaculada; Donker, Gé; Edelman, Laurel; Fleming, Douglas; Larrauri, Amparo; Meijer, Adam; Puzelli, Simona; Rizzo, Caterina; Simonsen, Lone

    2010-01-01

    The European Paediatric Influenza Analysis (EPIA) project is a multi-country project that was created to collect, analyse and present data regarding the paediatric influenza burden in European countries, with the purpose of providing the necessary information to make evidence-based decisions regarding influenza immunisation recommendations for children. The initial approach taken is based on existing weekly virological and age-specific influenza-like illness (ILI) data from surveillance networks across Europe. We use a multiple regression model guided by longitudinal weekly patterns of influenza virus to attribute the weekly ILI consultation incidence pattern to each influenza (sub)type, while controlling for the effect of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) epidemics. Modelling the ILI consultation incidence during 2002/2003–2008 revealed that influenza infections that presented for medical attention as ILI affected between 0.3% and 9.8% of children aged 0–4 and 5–14 years in England, Italy, The Netherlands and Spain in an average season. With the exception of Spain, these rates were always higher in children aged 0–4 years. Across the six seasons analysed (five seasons were analysed from the Italian data), the model attributed 47–83% of the ILI burden in primary care to influenza virus infection in the various countries, with the A(H3N2) virus playing the most important role, followed by influenza viruses B and A(H1N1). National season averages from the four countries studied indicated that between 0.4% and 18% of children consulted a physician for ILI, with the percentage depending on the country and health care system. Influenza virus infections explained the majority of paediatric ILI consultations in all countries. The next step will be to apply the EPIA modelling approach to severe outcomes indicators (i.e. hospitalisations and mortality data) to generate a complete range of mild and severe influenza burden estimates needed for decision making

  13. Final Report on the Joule-Scale Experimental Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Shverdin, M

    2008-10-01

    We describe the final results of the High Power Laser Pulse Recirculation project. We have developed and implementing a novel technique for picosecond, Joule-class laser pulse recirculation inside a passive cavity. The aim of this project was to develop technology compatible with increasing the efficiency of Compton based light sources by more than an order of magnitude. In year 1 of the project, we achieved a greater than 40 times average power enhancement of the mJ-scale laser pulses inside a passive cavity with internal focus. In year 2, we demonstrated recirculation of lasers pulses with energies up to 191 mJ at 532 nm, at a repetition rate of 10 Hz, and a pulse duration of 20 ps. In this high energy regime, we achieved up to 14 times average power enhancement inside the cavity. This enhancement factor is compatible with the new X-band based mono-energetic gamma-ray machine, Velociraptor, being constructed at LLNL. The demonstrated cavity enhancement is primarily limited by the poor spatial beam quality of the high power laser beam. We expect a nearly diffraction limited laser beam to achieve 40 times or better cavity enhancement, as demonstrated in low energy experiments in FY-07. The two primary obstacles to higher average brightness and conversion efficiency of laser pulse energy to gamma-rays are the relatively small Compton scattering cross-section and the typically low repetition rates of Joule-class interaction lasers (10 Hz). Only a small fraction (10{sup -10}) of the available laser photons is converted to gamma-rays, while the rest is discarded. To significantly reduce the average power requirements of the laser and increase the overall system efficiency, we can recirculate laser light for repeated interactions with electron bunches. Our pulse recirculation scheme is based on nonlinear frequency conversion, termed recirculation injection by nonlinear gating (RING), inside a passive cavity. The main objectives of the two year project were: (1) Validate

  14. Trial operation of a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PC25) for CHP applications in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, M.; Droste, W.; Wolf, D.

    1996-12-31

    In Europe, ten 200 kW phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) produced by ONSI (PC25) are currently in operation. Their operators collaborate closely in the European Fuel Cell Users Group (EFCUG). The experience gained from trial operation by the four German operators - HEAG, HGW/HEW, Thyssengas and Ruhrgas - coincides with that of the other European operators. This experience can generally be regarded as favourable. With a view to using fuel cells in combined heat and power generation (CHP), the project described in this report, which was carried out in cooperation with the municipal utility of Bochum and Gasunie of the Netherlands, aimed at gaining experience with the PC 25 in field operation under the specific operating conditions prevailing in Europe. The work packages included heat-controlled operation, examination of plant behavior with varying gas properties and measurement of emissions under dynamic load conditions. The project received EU funding under the JOULE programme.

  15. Joule heat release during current flow through a nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantsevich, S. V.; Gurevich, V. L.

    2016-08-01

    Joule heat release during current flow through a fine wire connecting two bulk electrodes (two contacts) is considered. The irreversible heat release symmetric in the absence of electron-phonon coupling becomes asymmetric if this coupling is taken into account. The Joule heat release appears larger in that symmetric contact which lies along the carrier drift velocity.

  16. Micro-scale heat-exchangers for Joule-Thomson cooling.

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, Andrew John

    2014-01-01

    This project focused on developing a micro-scale counter flow heat exchangers for Joule-Thomson cooling with the potential for both chip and wafer scale integration. This project is differentiated from previous work by focusing on planar, thin film micromachining instead of bulk materials. A process will be developed for fabricating all the devices mentioned above, allowing for highly integrated micro heat exchangers. The use of thin film dielectrics provides thermal isolation, increasing efficiency of the coolers compared to designs based on bulk materials, and it will allow for wafer-scale fabrication and integration. The process is intended to implement a CFHX as part of a Joule-Thomson cooling system for applications with heat loads less than 1mW. This report presents simulation results and investigation of a fabrication process for such devices.

  17. Genetics of healthy aging in Europe: the EU-integrated project GEHA (GEnetics of Healthy Aging).

    PubMed

    Franceschi, Claudio; Bezrukov, Vladyslav; Blanché, Hélène; Bolund, Lars; Christensen, Kaare; de Benedictis, Giovanna; Deiana, Luca; Gonos, Efsthatios; Hervonen, Antti; Yang, Huanning; Jeune, Bernard; Kirkwood, Tom B L; Kristensen, Peter; Leon, Alberta; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Peltonen, Leena; Poulain, Michel; Rea, Irene Maeve; Remacle, José; Robine, Jean Marie; Schreiber, Stefan; Sikora, Ewa; Slagboom, Pieternella Eline; Spazzafumo, Liana; Stazi, Maria Antonietta; Toussaint, Olivier; Vaupel, James W

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the 5-year European Union (EU)-Integrated Project GEnetics of Healthy Aging (GEHA), constituted by 25 partners (24 from Europe plus the Beijing Genomics Institute from China), is to identify genes involved in healthy aging and longevity, which allow individuals to survive to advanced old age in good cognitive and physical function and in the absence of major age-related diseases. To achieve this aim a coherent, tightly integrated program of research that unites demographers, geriatricians, geneticists, genetic epidemiologists, molecular biologists, bioinfomaticians, and statisticians has been set up. The working plan is to: (a) collect DNA and information on the health status from an unprecedented number of long-lived 90+ sibpairs (n = 2650) and of younger ethnically matched controls (n = 2650) from 11 European countries; (b) perform a genome-wide linkage scannning in all the sibpairs (a total of 5300 individuals); this investigation will be followed by linkage disequilibrium mapping (LD mapping) of the candidate chromosomal regions; (c) study in cases (i.e., the 2650 probands of the sibpairs) and controls (2650 younger people), genomic regions (chromosome 4, D4S1564, chromosome 11, 11.p15.5) which were identified in previous studies as possible candidates to harbor longevity genes; (d) genotype all recruited subjects for apoE polymorphisms; and (e) genotype all recruited subjects for inherited as well as epigenetic variability of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The genetic analysis will be performed by 9 high-throughput platforms, within the framework of centralized databases for phenotypic, genetic, and mtDNA data. Additional advanced approaches (bioinformatics, advanced statistics, mathematical modeling, functional genomics and proteomics, molecular biology, molecular genetics) are envisaged to identify the gene variant(s) of interest. The experimental design will also allow (a) to identify gender-specific genes involved in healthy aging and longevity

  18. First Steps toward Harmonized Human Biomonitoring in Europe: Demonstration Project to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale

    PubMed Central

    Den Hond, Elly; Govarts, Eva; Willems, Hanny; Smolders, Roel; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Seiwert, Margarete; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Castaño, Argelia; Esteban, Marta; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M.; Schindler, Birgit K.; Sepai, Ovnair; Exley, Karen; Bloemen, Louis; Horvat, Milena; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Joas, Anke; Joas, Reinhard; Biot, Pierre; Aerts, Dominique; Koppen, Gudrun; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Krskova, Andrea; Maly, Marek; Mørck, Thit A.; Rudnai, Peter; Kozepesy, Szilvia; Mulcahy, Maurice; Mannion, Rory; Gutleb, Arno C.; Fischer, Marc E.; Ligocka, Danuta; Jakubowski, Marek; Reis, M. Fátima; Namorado, Sónia; Gurzau, Anca Elena; Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Halzlova, Katarina; Jajcaj, Michal; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; López, Ana; Lopez, Estrella; Berglund, Marika; Larsson, Kristin; Lehmann, Andrea; Crettaz, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background For Europe as a whole, data on internal exposure to environmental chemicals do not yet exist. Characterization of the internal individual chemical environment is expected to enhance understanding of the environmental threats to health. Objectives We developed and applied a harmonized protocol to collect comparable human biomonitoring data all over Europe. Methods In 17 European countries, we measured mercury in hair and cotinine, phthalate metabolites, and cadmium in urine of 1,844 children (5–11 years of age) and their mothers. Specimens were collected over a 5-month period in 2011–2012. We obtained information on personal characteristics, environment, and lifestyle. We used the resulting database to compare concentrations of exposure biomarkers within Europe, to identify determinants of exposure, and to compare exposure biomarkers with health-based guidelines. Results Biomarker concentrations showed a wide variability in the European population. However, levels in children and mothers were highly correlated. Most biomarker concentrations were below the health-based guidance values. Conclusions We have taken the first steps to assess personal chemical exposures in Europe as a whole. Key success factors were the harmonized protocol development, intensive training and capacity building for field work, chemical analysis and communication, as well as stringent quality control programs for chemical and data analysis. Our project demonstrates the feasibility of a Europe-wide human biomonitoring framework to support the decision-making process of environmental measures to protect public health. Citation Den Hond E, Govarts E, Willems H, Smolders R, Casteleyn L, Kolossa-Gehring M, Schwedler G, Seiwert M, Fiddicke U, Castaño A, Esteban M, Angerer J, Koch HM, Schindler BK, Sepai O, Exley K, Bloemen L, Horvat M, Knudsen LE, Joas A, Joas R, Biot P, Aerts D, Koppen G, Katsonouri A, Hadjipanayis A, Krskova A, Maly M, Mørck TA, Rudnai P, Kozepesy S, Mulcahy M

  19. Optimal joule heating of the subsurface

    DOEpatents

    Berryman, J.G.; Daily, W.D.

    1994-07-05

    A method for simultaneously heating the subsurface and imaging the effects of the heating is disclosed. This method combines the use of tomographic imaging (electrical resistance tomography or ERT) to image electrical resistivity distribution underground, with joule heating by electrical currents injected in the ground. A potential distribution is established on a series of buried electrodes resulting in energy deposition underground which is a function of the resistivity and injection current density. Measurement of the voltages and currents also permits a tomographic reconstruction of the resistivity distribution. Using this tomographic information, the current injection pattern on the driving electrodes can be adjusted to change the current density distribution and thus optimize the heating. As the heating changes conditions, the applied current pattern can be repeatedly adjusted (based on updated resistivity tomographs) to affect real time control of the heating.

  20. Optimal joule heating of the subsurface

    DOEpatents

    Berryman, James G.; Daily, William D.

    1994-01-01

    A method for simultaneously heating the subsurface and imaging the effects of the heating. This method combines the use of tomographic imaging (electrical resistance tomography or ERT) to image electrical resistivity distribution underground, with joule heating by electrical currents injected in the ground. A potential distribution is established on a series of buried electrodes resulting in energy deposition underground which is a function of the resistivity and injection current density. Measurement of the voltages and currents also permits a tomographic reconstruction of the resistivity distribution. Using this tomographic information, the current injection pattern on the driving electrodes can be adjusted to change the current density distribution and thus optimize the heating. As the heating changes conditions, the applied current pattern can be repeatedly adjusted (based on updated resistivity tomographs) to affect real time control of the heating.

  1. Comparing MOOC Adoption Strategies in Europe: Results from the HOME Project Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Darco; Schuwer, Robert; Teixeira, Antonio; Aydin, Cengiz Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Much of the literature and the academic discussion about institutional strategic planning of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) has been centred on the U.S. context. Literature on MOOCs in Europe is still developing and just recently some empirical studies were conducted. However, these studies are not comparable, and it is hard to learn about…

  2. Modelling eWork in Europe: Estimates, Models and Forecasts from the EMERGENCE Project. IES Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, P.; Huws, U.

    A study combined results of a survey of employers in 18 European countries to establish the extent to which they are currently using eWork with European official statistics to develop models, estimates, and forecasts of the numbers of eWorkers in Europe. These four types of "individual" eWork were identified: telehomeworking; multilocational eWork…

  3. Enabling the Use of Research Evidence within Educational Policymaking in Europe: Lessons from the EIPEE Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripney, Janice; Kenny, Caroline; Gough, David

    2014-01-01

    Despite a political climate demanding evidence-informed decision making in education both within individual countries and at the international level, empirically grounded European research in this field is scarce. This paper reports on a European Commission-funded study that sought to identify and analyze different initiatives across Europe aimed…

  4. Incidence of hematologic malignancies in Europe by morphologic subtype: results of the HAEMACARE project.

    PubMed

    Sant, Milena; Allemani, Claudia; Tereanu, Carmen; De Angelis, Roberta; Capocaccia, Riccardo; Visser, Otto; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Maynadié, Marc; Simonetti, Arianna; Lutz, Jean-Michel; Berrino, Franco

    2010-11-11

    Changing definitions and classifications of hematologic malignancies (HMs) complicate incidence comparisons. HAEMACARE classified HMs into groupings consistent with the latest World Health Organization classification and useful for epidemiologic and public health purposes. We present crude, age-specific and age-standardized incidence rates for European HMs according to these groupings, estimated from 66,371 lymphoid malignancies (LMs) and 21,796 myeloid malignancies (MMs) registered in 2000-2002 by 44 European cancer registries, grouped into 5 regions. Age-standardized incidence rates were 24.5 (per 100,000) for LMs and 7.55 for MMs. The commonest LMs were plasma cell neoplasms (4.62), small B-cell lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphatic leukemia (3.79), diffuse B-cell lymphoma (3.13), and Hodgkin lymphoma (2.41). The commonest MMs were acute myeloid leukemia (2.96), other myeloproliferative neoplasms (1.76), and myelodysplastic syndrome (1.24). Unknown morphology LMs were commonest in Northern Europe (7.53); unknown morphology MMs were commonest in Southern Europe (0.73). Overall incidence was lowest in Eastern Europe and lower in women than in men. For most LMs, incidence was highest in Southern Europe; for MMs incidence was highest in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Differences in diagnostic and registration criteria are an important cause of incidence variation; however, different distribution of HM risk factors also contributes. The quality of population-based HM data needs further improvement.

  5. The Climate and Landscape of the Middle Part of the Weichselian Glaciation in Europe: The Stage 3 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Andel, Tjeerd H.

    2002-01-01

    Oxygen isotope stage 3 (OIS 3) was a mild interval between the two cold maxima of the last (Weichselian) glaciation marked by climate changes oscillating on a 100-1000 yr time scale between near-interglacial and peak-glacial conditions. During OIS 3, modern humans entered Europe, and somewhat later their Neanderthal predecessors became extinct. Our understanding of this momentous event depends on an answer to the question, Did the unstable environmental conditions of the time play a significant role in early human history? The Stage 3 Project is an interdisciplinary study with two main goals: (1) to describe with existing data and to simulate the climates and landscapes of typical warm and cold phases between 45,000 and 30,000 yr ago and (2) to compare the results with the spatial and temporal distribution of human beings in this context. This paper introduces the Stage 3 Project and provides background to a set of papers on the climate and landscape aspects of the Project that will appear in Quaternary Research and to studies of their relevance to the Early Upper Paleolithic of Europe to appear in journals yet to be determined.

  6. Vertical Anatolian Movements Project (VAMP): a collaborative research project of the TopoEurope initiative of ESF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strecker, M.; Bertotti, G.; Echtler, H.; Ciner, A.; Dirik, E. Aydar (4), K.; Rojay, B.; Mulch, A.; Kováčová, M.; Govers, R.; Gliozzi, E.; Simpson, G.; Aksu, A.

    2009-04-01

    With elevations of several kilometers, low local relief and pronounced relief contrasts with surrounding regions, orogenic plateaus are first-order tectonic and topographic features of several Cenozoic mountain belts. The morphologic characteristics of plateaus may result from efficient tectonic uplift of mountain ranges that successively incorporate foreland domains into intermontane sedimentary environments. This process may ultimately lead to leeward aridification and a reduction of erosional power and inability of the fluvial network to keep pace with uplift. The combination of tectonic uplift and the decreasing ability of the fluvial system to keep pace with the tectonic processes causes a transition from externally to internally drained basins that eventually become overfilled and coalesce, causing low local relief at high elevations in the orogen interior. Although many studies are being carried out on the Tibetan and Puna-Altiplano plateaus, very little attention has been devoted to the development of the smaller Central Anatolia Plateau (CAP). With its low local relief located at high elevations and with an arid interior compared to deeply incised, humid flanks, the CAP fulfills all characteristics of orogenic plateaus. Therefore, in order to understand the mechanisms controlling the topographic development of this region and to quantify the competing tectonic, geomorphic and climatic processes, we have developed a multidisciplinary project (VAMP) under the umbrella of the TopoEurope initiative of ESF. Our project integrates 11 research institutions from 7 countries. We study a ~400-km-wide strip from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean that includes CAP and its flanks, the offshore basins and Cyprus. The semi-arid CAP interior has a subdued topography at elevations of ~1500m. The plateau interior comprises internally drained sedimentary basins that have helped reduce the refielf contrasts between individual ranges and intervening depressions. Infilling by

  7. Europe`s blistering pace

    SciTech Connect

    Gipe, P.

    1995-11-01

    Europe now exceeds North America in every measure of wind development: total wind generation, total installed capacity, annual sales, and annual growth rate. The 450 MW of new installations in Europe last year rivaled the peak of California`s great wind rush when nearly 400 MW were installed in 1985. European manufacturers are building more than 12 MW of new wind turbines per week. The current burst of activity in the Netherlands will come to a halt at the end of 1996 when capital subsidies expire. New projects will then depend solely on a recently negotiated buyback rate and low-interest loans from tax-free investments.

  8. Climatic suitability of Aedes albopictus in Europe referring to climate change projections: comparison of mechanistic and correlative niche modelling approaches.

    PubMed

    Fischer, D; Thomas, S M; Neteler, M; Tjaden, N B; Beierkuhnlein, C

    2014-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is capable of transmitting a broad range of viruses to humans. Since its introduction at the end of the 20th century, it has become well established in large parts of southern Europe. As future expansion as a result of climate change can be expected, determining the current and projected future climatic suitability of this invasive mosquito in Europe is of interest. Several studies have tried to detect the potential habitats for this species, but differing data sources and modelling approaches must be considered when interpreting the findings. Here, various modelling methodologies are compared with special emphasis on model set-up and study design. Basic approaches and model algorithms for the projection of spatio-temporal trends within the 21st century differ substantially. Applied methods range from mechanistic models (e.g. overlay of climatic constraints based on geographic information systems or rather process-based approaches) to correlative niche models. We conclude that spatial characteristics such as introduction gateways and dispersal pathways need to be considered. Laboratory experiments addressing the climatic constraints of the mosquito are required for improved modelling results. However, the main source of uncertainty remains the insufficient knowledge about the species' ability to adapt to novel environments. PMID:24556349

  9. Climatic suitability of Aedes albopictus in Europe referring to climate change projections: comparison of mechanistic and correlative niche modelling approaches.

    PubMed

    Fischer, D; Thomas, S M; Neteler, M; Tjaden, N B; Beierkuhnlein, C

    2014-02-13

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is capable of transmitting a broad range of viruses to humans. Since its introduction at the end of the 20th century, it has become well established in large parts of southern Europe. As future expansion as a result of climate change can be expected, determining the current and projected future climatic suitability of this invasive mosquito in Europe is of interest. Several studies have tried to detect the potential habitats for this species, but differing data sources and modelling approaches must be considered when interpreting the findings. Here, various modelling methodologies are compared with special emphasis on model set-up and study design. Basic approaches and model algorithms for the projection of spatio-temporal trends within the 21st century differ substantially. Applied methods range from mechanistic models (e.g. overlay of climatic constraints based on geographic information systems or rather process-based approaches) to correlative niche models. We conclude that spatial characteristics such as introduction gateways and dispersal pathways need to be considered. Laboratory experiments addressing the climatic constraints of the mosquito are required for improved modelling results. However, the main source of uncertainty remains the insufficient knowledge about the species' ability to adapt to novel environments.

  10. Mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson sorption cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzabar, Nir; Grossman, Gershon

    2014-01-01

    Joule-Thomson (JT) sorption cryocooling is the most mature technology for cooling from a normal Room-Temperature (RT) down to temperatures below 100 K in the absence of moving parts. Therefore, high reliability and no vibrations are attainable, in comparison with other cryocoolers. Cooling to 80 - 100 K with JT cryocoolers is often implemented with pure nitrogen. Alternatively, mixed refrigerants have been suggested for reducing the operating pressures to enable closed cycle cryocooling. There is a variety of publications describing nitrogen sorption cryocoolers with different configurations of sorption compressors. In the present research we suggest a novel sorption JT cryocooler that operates with a mixed refrigerant. Merging of sorption cryocooling and a mixed refrigerant enables the use of a simple, single stage compressor for cooling to 80 - 100 K, lower operating temperatures of the sorption cycle, and thus - reduced power consumption. In previous studies we have analyzed sorption compressors for mixed gases and mixed refrigerants for JT cryocoolers, separately. In this paper the option of mixed refrigerant sorption JT cryocoolers is explored. The considerations for developing mixed refrigerants to be driven by sorption compressors and to be utilized with JT cryocoolers are provided. It appears that, unlike with pure nitrogen, mixed refrigerants can be suitable for JT cryocooling with a single stage sorption compressor.

  11. The Joule-Thomson expansion coefficient by formula manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, Y.; Kitazawa, T. ); Yoshida, T. . Faculty of Engineering)

    1990-07-01

    By use of formula manipulation, practical programs used to estimate the Joule-Thomson coefficients are presented in this paper. The available equations of state used include the following: van der Waals, Virial, BWR, RK, and SRK. The Joule-Thomson coefficients for nitrogen and ethane are estimated by the proposed programs, and their ability to reproduce experimental values is tested. It is found that the RK equation yields the best results for nitrogen and ethane despite its simplicity.

  12. Priorities for mental health research in Europe: A survey among national stakeholders' associations within the ROAMER project

    PubMed Central

    Fiorillo, Andrea; Luciano, Mario; Del Vecchio, Valeria; Sampogna, Gaia; Obradors-Tarragó, Carla; Maj, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Within the ROAMER project, funded by the European Commission, a survey was conducted with national associations/organizations of psychiatrists, other mental health professionals, users and/or carers, and psychiatric trainees in the 27 countries of the European Union, aiming to explore their views about priorities for mental health research in Europe. One hundred and eight associations/organizations returned the questionnaire. The five most frequently selected research priorities were early detection and management of mental disorders, quality of mental health services, prevention of mental disorders, rehabilitation and social inclusion, and new medications for mental disorders. All these areas, except the last one, were among the top ten research priorities according to all categories of stakeholders, along with stigma and discrimination. These results seem to support the recent argument that some rebalancing in favor of psychosocial and health service studies may be needed in psychiatric research. PMID:23737426

  13. Perinatal health monitoring in Europe: results from the EURO-PERISTAT project.

    PubMed

    Gissler, Mika; Mohangoo, Ashna D; Blondel, Beatrice; Chalmers, Jim; Macfarlane, Alison; Gaizauskiene, Aldona; Gatt, Miriam; Lack, Nicholas; Sakkeus, Luule; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2010-03-01

    Data about deliveries, births, mothers and newborn babies are collected extensively to monitor the health and care of mothers and babies during pregnancy, delivery and the post-partum period, but there is no common approach in Europe. We analysed the problems related to using the European data for international comparisons of perinatal health. We made an inventory of relevant data sources in 25 European Union (EU) member states and Norway, and collected perinatal data using a previously defined indicator list. The main sources were civil registration based on birth and death certificates, medical birth registers, hospital discharge systems, congenital anomaly registers, confidential enquiries and audits. A few countries provided data from routine perinatal surveys or from aggregated data collection systems. The main methodological problems were related to differences in registration criteria and definitions, coverage of data collection, problems in combining information from different sources, missing data and random variation for rare events. Collection of European perinatal health information is feasible, but the national health information systems need improvements to fill gaps. To improve international comparisons, stillbirth definitions should be standardised and a short list of causes of fetal and infant deaths should be developed. PMID:20726736

  14. Comenius Project: Are e-Learning Collaborations of High School Students across Europe in Maths Possible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonovits, Reinhard; McElroy, Jim; O'Loughlin, James; Townsend, Colin

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of the project is to allow for the collaboration of high school students of different European countries on small, selected maths topics. This involves the use of technology, student mobility and English language competency. Benefits are also expected to accrue to teachers of mathematics by providing the opportunity to work with…

  15. A Community-University Exchange Project Modeled after Europe's Science Shops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryon, Elizabeth; Ross, J. Ashleigh

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a pilot project of the Morgridge Center for Public Service at the University of Wisconsin-Madison for a new structure for community-based learning and research. It is based on the European-derived science shop model for democratizing campus-community partnerships using shared values of mutual respect and validation of…

  16. Factorization of air pollutant emissions: projections versus observed trends in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rafaj, Peter; Amann, Markus; Siri, José G

    2014-10-01

    This paper revisits the emission scenarios of the European Commission's 2005 Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution (TSAP) in light of today's knowledge. We review assumptions made in the past on the main drivers of emission changes, i.e., demographic trends, economic growth, changes in the energy intensity of GDP, fuel-switching, and application of dedicated emission control measures. Our analysis shows that for most of these drivers, actual trends have not matched initial expectations. Observed ammonia and sulfur emissions in European Union in 2010 were 10% to 20% lower than projected, while emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter exceeded estimates by 8% to 15%. In general, a higher efficiency of dedicated emission controls compensated for a lower-than-expected decline in total energy consumption as well as a delay in the phase-out of coal. For 2020, updated projections anticipate lower sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions than those under the 2005 baseline, whereby the degree to which these emissions are lower depends on what assumptions are made for emission controls and new vehicle standards. Projected levels of particulates are about 10% higher, while smaller differences emerge for other pollutants. New emission projections suggest that environmental targets established by the TSAP for the protection of human health, eutrophication and forest acidification will not be met without additional measures. PMID:25058894

  17. Transatlantic Student Exchange between Canada and Europe: Experiences from the CEIHPAL Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherriff, Nigel Stuart; Jeffery, Amanda; Davies, John Kenneth; Hills, Marcia; Carroll, Simon; Jackson, Suzanne; Krupa, Gene; Goepel, Eberhard; Hofmeister, Arnd; Tountas, Yannis; Attorp, Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    International student mobility amongst and between countries has become increasingly common and forms a central feature of the global higher education system. This paper examines the key learning experiences relating to the student mobility component of the Canadian-European Initiative for Health Promotion Advanced Learning (CEIHPAL) project.…

  18. Factorization of air pollutant emissions: projections versus observed trends in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rafaj, Peter; Amann, Markus; Siri, José G

    2014-10-01

    This paper revisits the emission scenarios of the European Commission's 2005 Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution (TSAP) in light of today's knowledge. We review assumptions made in the past on the main drivers of emission changes, i.e., demographic trends, economic growth, changes in the energy intensity of GDP, fuel-switching, and application of dedicated emission control measures. Our analysis shows that for most of these drivers, actual trends have not matched initial expectations. Observed ammonia and sulfur emissions in European Union in 2010 were 10% to 20% lower than projected, while emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter exceeded estimates by 8% to 15%. In general, a higher efficiency of dedicated emission controls compensated for a lower-than-expected decline in total energy consumption as well as a delay in the phase-out of coal. For 2020, updated projections anticipate lower sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions than those under the 2005 baseline, whereby the degree to which these emissions are lower depends on what assumptions are made for emission controls and new vehicle standards. Projected levels of particulates are about 10% higher, while smaller differences emerge for other pollutants. New emission projections suggest that environmental targets established by the TSAP for the protection of human health, eutrophication and forest acidification will not be met without additional measures.

  19. Analysis of the Emission Inventories and Model-Ready Emission Datasets of Europe and North America for Phase 2 of the AQMEII Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper highlights the development of the emission inventories and emission processing for Europe (EU) and North America (NA) in the second phase of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) project. The main purpose of the second phase of the AQMEII...

  20. Performance Indicators and Rational Management Tools: A Comparative Assessment of Projects in North America and Europe. AIR 1993 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nedwek, Brian P.; Neal, John E.

    This study developed a classification scheme to critically compare performance assessment projects at higher education universities in North America and Europe. Performance indicators and assessment initiatives were compared using nine basic dimensions: (1) locus of control, (2) degree of governmental involvement, (3) focus of performance…

  1. Global and local Joule heating effects seen by DE 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heelis, R. A.; Coley, W. R.

    1988-01-01

    In the altitude region between 350 and 550 km, variations in the ion temperature principally reflect similar variations in the local frictional heating produced by a velocity difference between the ions and the neutrals. Here, the distribution of the ion temperature in this altitude region is shown, and its attributes in relation to previous work on local Joule heating rates are discussed. In addition to the ion temperature, instrumentation on the DE 2 satellite also provides a measure of the ion velocity vector representative of the total electric field. From this information, the local Joule heating rate is derived. From an estimate of the height-integrated Pedersen conductivity it is also possible to estimate the global (height-integrated) Joule heating rate. Here, the differences and relationships between these various parameters are described.

  2. The impact of headache in Europe: principal results of the Eurolight project

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background European data, at least from Western Europe, are relatively good on migraine prevalence but less sound for tension-type headache (TTH) and medication-overuse headache (MOH). Evidence on impact of headache disorders is very limited. Eurolight was a data-gathering exercise primarily to inform health policy in the European Union (EU). This manuscript reports personal impact. Methods The study was cross-sectional with modified cluster sampling. Surveys were conducted by structured questionnaire, including diagnostic questions based on ICHD-II and various measures of impact, and are reported from Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Spain and United Kingdom. Different methods of sampling were used in each. The full methodology is described elsewhere. Results Questionnaires were analysed from 8,271 participants (58% female, mean age 43.4 y). Participation-rates, where calculable, varied from 10.6% to 58.8%. Moderate interest-bias was detected. Unadjusted lifetime prevalence of any headache was 91.3%. Gender-adjusted 1-year prevalences were: any headache 78.6%; migraine 35.3%; TTH 38.2%, headache on ≥15 d/mo 7.2%; probable MOH 3.1%. Personal impact was high, and included ictal symptom burden, interictal burden, cumulative burden and impact on others (partners and children). There was a general gradient of probable MOH > migraine > TTH, and most measures indicated higher impact among females. Lost useful time was substantial: 17.7% of males and 28.0% of females with migraine lost >10% of days; 44.7% of males and 53.7% of females with probable MOH lost >20%. Conclusions The common headache disorders have very high personal impact in the EU, with important implications for health policy. PMID:24884549

  3. Program For Joule-Thomson Analysis Of Mixed Cryogens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Lund, Alan

    1994-01-01

    JTMIX computer program predicts ideal and realistic properties of mixed gases at temperatures between 65 and 80 K. Performs Joule-Thomson analysis of any gaseous mixture of neon, nitrogen, various hydrocarbons, argon, oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide. When used in conjunction with DDMIX computer program of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), JTMIX accurately predicts order-of-magnitude increases in Joule-Thomson cooling capacities occuring when various hydrocarbons added to nitrogen. Also predicts boiling temperature of nitrogen depressed from normal value to as low as 60 K upon addition of neon. Written in Turbo C.

  4. Optimizing charge breeding techniques for ISOL facilities in Europe: Conclusions from the EMILIE project.

    PubMed

    Delahaye, P; Galatà, A; Angot, J; Cam, J F; Traykov, E; Ban, G; Celona, L; Choinski, J; Gmaj, P; Jardin, P; Koivisto, H; Kolhinen, V; Lamy, T; Maunoury, L; Patti, G; Thuillier, T; Tarvainen, O; Vondrasek, R; Wenander, F

    2016-02-01

    The present paper summarizes the results obtained from the past few years in the framework of the Enhanced Multi-Ionization of short-Lived Isotopes for Eurisol (EMILIE) project. The EMILIE project aims at improving the charge breeding techniques with both Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) and Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBISs) for European Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facilities. Within EMILIE, an original technique for debunching the beam from EBIS charge breeders is being developed, for making an optimal use of the capabilities of CW post-accelerators of the future facilities. Such a debunching technique should eventually resolve duty cycle and time structure issues which presently complicate the data-acquisition of experiments. The results of the first tests of this technique are reported here. In comparison with charge breeding with an EBIS, the ECRIS technique had lower performance in efficiency and attainable charge state for metallic ion beams and also suffered from issues related to beam contamination. In recent years, improvements have been made which significantly reduce the differences between the two techniques, making ECRIS charge breeding more attractive especially for CW machines producing intense beams. Upgraded versions of the Phoenix charge breeder, originally developed by LPSC, will be used at SPES and GANIL/SPIRAL. These two charge breeders have benefited from studies undertaken within EMILIE, which are also briefly summarized here. PMID:26932063

  5. Optimizing charge breeding techniques for ISOL facilities in Europe: Conclusions from the EMILIE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delahaye, P.; Galatà, A.; Angot, J.; Cam, J. F.; Traykov, E.; Ban, G.; Celona, L.; Choinski, J.; Gmaj, P.; Jardin, P.; Koivisto, H.; Kolhinen, V.; Lamy, T.; Maunoury, L.; Patti, G.; Thuillier, T.; Tarvainen, O.; Vondrasek, R.; Wenander, F.

    2016-02-01

    The present paper summarizes the results obtained from the past few years in the framework of the Enhanced Multi-Ionization of short-Lived Isotopes for Eurisol (EMILIE) project. The EMILIE project aims at improving the charge breeding techniques with both Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) and Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBISs) for European Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facilities. Within EMILIE, an original technique for debunching the beam from EBIS charge breeders is being developed, for making an optimal use of the capabilities of CW post-accelerators of the future facilities. Such a debunching technique should eventually resolve duty cycle and time structure issues which presently complicate the data-acquisition of experiments. The results of the first tests of this technique are reported here. In comparison with charge breeding with an EBIS, the ECRIS technique had lower performance in efficiency and attainable charge state for metallic ion beams and also suffered from issues related to beam contamination. In recent years, improvements have been made which significantly reduce the differences between the two techniques, making ECRIS charge breeding more attractive especially for CW machines producing intense beams. Upgraded versions of the Phoenix charge breeder, originally developed by LPSC, will be used at SPES and GANIL/SPIRAL. These two charge breeders have benefited from studies undertaken within EMILIE, which are also briefly summarized here.

  6. Mixed-Gas Sorption Joule-Thomson Refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Petrick, S. Walter; Bard, Steven

    1991-01-01

    Proposed mixed-gas sorption Joule-Thomson refrigerator provides cooling down to temperature of 70 K. Includes only one stage and no mechanical compressor. Simpler, operates without vibrating, and consumes less power in producing same amount of cooling. Same sorption principle of operation applicable in compressor that chemisorbs oxygen or hydrogen from mixture with helium, neon, and/or other nonreactive gases.

  7. Ground-based measurements of Joule heating rates

    SciTech Connect

    De La Beaujardiere, O.; Johnson, R.; Wickwar, V.B.

    1989-04-03

    Joule heating in the upper atmosphere is the most-important energy-dissipation process between the magnetosphere and the ionosphere. This paper examines the various terms in the equation that governs Joule heating. (1) The ionospheric electric-field seasonal dependence is examined. It is found that the shape of the ionospheric plasma convection cells, and the latitude of the reversal from sunward to antisunward convection, are seasonally dependent. Statistical averages of the square of the ion velocity show a maximum in fall, and a minimum in summer. (2) Pedersen conductivities at F-region altitudes are examined using Chatanika and Sondrestrom radar data. It is shown that during solar minimum conditions, the F-region contributes less than 20% to the total height integrated Pedersen conductivity sigma p. In contrast, during solar maximum conditions the contribution to sigma from solar produced F-region ionization can be 60%. (3) The importance of the neutral wind term in Joule heating calculations is illustrated using a specific example. The Joule heating calculated by including the neutral wind term is 2 to 4 times smaller than that calculated without the neutral wind. But the reverse can also be true, as shown during a period when the neutral wind played the role of a dynamo in the ionosphere/magnetosphere current.

  8. James Prescott Joule and the idea of energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardwell, Donald

    1989-05-01

    To commemorate the centenary of Joule's death, this article offers a brief account of the origins and development of his ideas and their incorporation into mainstream physics. The scientific, technological and social importance of his work is explained and he is shown to be a quintessential physicist.

  9. Nanofocus of tenth of joules and a portable plasma focus of few joules for field applications

    SciTech Connect

    Soto, Leopoldo; Pavez, Cristian; Moreno, Jose; Tarifeno, Ariel; Pedreros, Jose; Altamirano, Luis

    2009-01-21

    A repetitive pinch plasma focus that works with stored energy less than 1 J per shot has be developed at the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission. The main features of this device, repetitive Nanofocus, are 5 nF of capacity, 5 nH of inductance, 5-10 kV charging voltage, 60-250 mJ stored energy, 5-10 kA current peak, per shot. The device has been operated at 20 Hz in hydrogen and deuterium. X-ray radiographs of materials of different thickness were obtained. Neutrons were detected using a system based upon {sup 3}He proportional counter in chare integrated mode. However, the reproducibility of this miniaturized device is low and several technological subjects have to be previously solved in order to produce neutrons for periods greater than minutes. Further studies in the Nanofocus are being carried out. In addition, a device with a stored energy of a few joules is being explored. A preliminary compact, low weight (3 kg), portable PF device (25 cmx5 cmx5 cm) for field applications has been designed. This device was designed to operate with few kilovolts (10 kV or less) with a stored energy of 2 J and a repetition rate of 10 Hz without cooling. A neutron flux of the order of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} n/s is expected.

  10. The Mayer-Joule Principle: The Foundation of the First Law of Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newburgh, Ronald; Leff, Harvey S.

    2011-11-01

    To most students today the mechanical equivalent of heat, called the Mayer-Joule principle, is simply a way to convert from calories to joules and vice versa. However, in linking work and heat—once thought to be disjointed concepts—it goes far beyond unit conversion. Heat had eluded understanding for two centuries after Galileo Galilei constructed an early thermometer. Independently, Julius Robert Mayer and James Prescott Joule found the connection between heat and work, the Mayer-Joule principle.

  11. Teenagers and young adults with cancer in Europe: from national programmes to a European integrated coordinated project.

    PubMed

    Stark, D; Bielack, S; Brugieres, L; Dirksen, U; Duarte, X; Dunn, S; Erdelyi, D J; Grew, T; Hjorth, L; Jazbec, J; Kabickova, E; Konsoulova, A; Kowalczyk, J R; Lassaletta, A; Laurence, V; Lewis, I; Monrabal, A; Morgan, S; Mountzios, G; Olsen, P R; Renard, M; Saeter, G; van der Graaf, W T; Ferrari, A

    2016-05-01

    Over 14 000 patients aged 15-24 are estimated to be diagnosed with cancer in the European Union (EU) each year. Teenagers and young adults (TYA) often fall down gaps between children's and adults cancer services. The specific challenges of providing optimal care to them are described, but we present a summary of recent progress. Progress to overcome these challenges is happening at different rates across Europe. We summarise the European national projects in this field but more recently we have seen the beginnings of European coordination. Within the EU 7th Funding Programme (FP7) European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents programme (ENCCA), a specific European Network for Teenagers and Young Adults with Cancer has held a series of scientific meetings, including professionals, patients and caregivers. This group has proposed unanswered research questions and agreed key features of a high-quality service that can improve outcomes for TYA with cancer, including the primacy of collaboration between adult and paediatric services to eliminate the gap in the management of TYA with cancer.

  12. A north-south divide in Europe: how projected changes in water quality differ depending on climate and land management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Andrew; Skeffington, Richard; Couture, Raoul; Erlandsson, Martin; Groot, Simon; Halliday, Sarah; Harezlak, Valesca; Hejzlar, Joseph; Jackson-Blake, Leah; Lepistö, Ahti; Papastergiadou, Eva; Riera, Joan; Rankinen, Katri; Trolle, Dennis; Whitehead, Paul; Dunn, Sarah; Bucak, Tuba

    2016-04-01

    The key results from the application of catchment-scale biophysical models to eight river-systems across Europe to assess the effects of projected environmental change (change in climate, land use, nitrogen deposition and water use) on water quantity and quality will be presented. Together the eight sites represent a sample of key climate and land management types, and those aspects related to the Water Framework Directive were modelled: river flow, river and lake nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, and lake chlorophyll-a. The baseline period was 1981-2010 and the scenario period, 2031-2060. The robustness and uncertainty of the models was assessed. Long-term trends and seasonal variations in all the major modelled variables were simulated well in the baseline period. Dynamic models however typically produced results with lower variance than the observations. The predicted effects on water flows differed between northern and southern sites. In the north and mid-latitudes, the increased evaporation was balanced to some extent by increased precipitation, leading to relatively small effects on flows, though seasonal effects may still be important. In the south the increased temperatures and lower precipitation act to reduce water flows considerably. In general, the projected effects of climate change on nutrient concentrations were rather small. The effects of credible land use changes on nutrient concentrations were larger. However, there were exceptions and there were considerable differences in the response between sites dependent on the mixture of nutrient sources (agriculture versus wastewater). Modelled ecological changes were not generally proportional to the changes in nutrients.

  13. Flexible working hours, health, and well-being in Europe: some considerations from a SALTSA project.

    PubMed

    Costa, Giovanni; Akerstedt, Torbjorn; Nachreiner, Friedhelm; Baltieri, Federica; Carvalhais, José; Folkard, Simon; Dresen, Monique Frings; Gadbois, Charles; Gartner, Johannes; Sukalo, Hiltraud Grzech; Härmä, Mikko; Kandolin, Irja; Sartori, Samantha; Silvério, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    The project brought together researchers from 9 EU-Countries and resulted in a number of actions, in particular the following: (a) There is an urgent need of defining the concept of flexible working hours, since it has been used in many different and even counterintuitive ways; the most obvious distinction is where the influence over the working hours lies, that is between the "company-based flexibility" and the "individual-oriented flexibility"; (b) The review of the Legislation in force in the 15 European countries shows that the regulation of working times is quite extensive and covers (Council Directive 93/104/EC) almost all the various arrangements of working hours (i.e., part-time, overtime, shift, and night work), but fails to provide for flexibility; (c) According to the data of the Third EU Survey on Working Conditions, longer and "irregular" working hours are in general linked to lower levels of health and well-being; moreover, low (individual) flexibility and high variability of working hours (i.e., company-based flexibility) were consistently associated with poor health and well-being, while low variability combined with high autonomy showed positive effects; (d) Six substudies from different countries demonstrated that flexible working hours vary according to country, economic sector, social status, and gender; overtime is the most frequent form of company-based flexibility but has negative effects on stress, sleep, and social and mental health; individual flexibility alleviates the negative effects of the company-based flexibility on subjective health, safety, and social well-being; (e) The literature review was able to list more than 1,000 references, but it was striking that most of these documents were mainly argumentative with very little empirical data. Thus, one may conclude that there is a large-scale intervention ongoing in our society with almost completely unknown and uncontrolled effects. Consequently, there is a strong need for systematic

  14. Assessing projected changes in heat waves over Northern Europe using two regional climate models at 8-km resolution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox Maule, Cathrine; Christensen, Ole B.; Mayer, Stephanie; Thejll, Peter

    2013-04-01

    As temperatures in Northern Europe increase due to climate change the occurrence of extreme events such as heat waves is likely to change. A higher occurrence rate of heat waves can have serious health consequences, in particular for the elderly, but also for very young children and the infirm. Not only the occurrence rate of heat waves, but also changes in the duration of individual heat waves, is of importance. It is therefore of relevance to investigate how the occurrence of heat waves is likely to increase in the future, to allow for adaptation. We have looked at the projected changes in the occurrence rate of heat waves in a part of northern Europe including southern Scandinavia, the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, according to two different greenhouse gas emission scenarios: RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. In this study we have chosen to use the Danish Meteorological Institutes definition, in which a high temperature event is classified as a heat wave if the average of the maximum temperature of a period of at least 3 consecutive days exceeds 28°C. To estimate the change in the occurrence rate of heat waves we have used two different GCM-RCM combinations, NorESM-WRF (BCCR) and EC-EARTH-HIRHAM5 (DMI). Both regional models have down-scaled the global models to a resolution of about 8 km, and hourly values of several parameters including temperature, precipitation and wind have been stored. We compare the climate model data from three different time slices, 1981-2010 run with historical greenhouse gas concentrations, 2021-2050 (RPC4.5 and RCP 8.5) and 2071-2100 (RPC4.5 and RCP 8.5), to see the time evolution in the occurrence rate of heat waves for the two RCP scenarios. Our results indicate that the occurrence rate of heat waves in this region will increase as a consequence of global warming, and that individual heat waves will tend to last longer.

  15. Adaptation response surfaces from an ensemble of wheat projections under climate change in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Ferrise, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    preliminary ARSs show some adaptation options allow recover up to ca. 2000 kg/ha. Compared to the historical yields recorded at Lleida province (2550 kg/ha in 1981-2010) our results indicate that adaptation is feasible and may help to reduce detrimental effects of CC. Our analysis evaluates if the explored adaptations fulfill the biophysical requirements to become a practical adaptive solution. This study exemplifies how adaptation options and their impacts can be analyzed, evaluated and communicated in a context of high regional uncertainty for current and future conditions and for short to long-term perspective. This work was funded by MACSUR project within FACCE-JPI. References Abeledo, L.G., R. Savin and G.A. Slafer (2008). European Journal of Agronomy 28:541-550. Cartelle, J., A. Pedró, R. Savin, G.A. Slafer (2006) European Journal of Agronomy 25:365-371. Pirttioja, N., T. Carter, S. Fronzek, M. Bindi, H. Hoffmann, T. Palosuo, M. Ruiz-Ramos, F. Tao, M. Acutis, S. Asseng, P. Baranowski, B. Basso, P. Bodin, S. Buis, D. Cammarano, P. Deligios, M.-F. Destain, B. Dumont, R. Ewert, R. Ferrise, L. François, T. Gaiser, P. Hlavinka, I. Jacquemin, K.C. Kersebaum, C. Kollas, J. Krzyszczak, I.J. Lorite, J. Minet, M.I. Minguez, M. Montesino, M. Moriondo, C. Müller, C. Nendel, I. Öztürk, A. Perego, A. Rodríguez, A.C. Ruane, F. Ruget, M. Sanna, M.A. Semenov, C. Slawinski, P. Stratonovitch, I. Supit, K. Waha, E. Wang, L. Wu, Z. Zhao, and R.P. Rötter, 2015: A crop model ensemble analysis of temperature and precipitation effects on wheat yield across a European transect using impact response surfaces. Clim. Res., 65, 87-105, doi:10.3354/cr01322. IRS2 TEAM: Alfredo Rodríguez(1), Ignacio J. Lorite(3), Fulu Tao(4), Nina Pirttioja(5), Stefan Fronzek(5), Taru Palosuo(4), Timothy R. Carter(5), Marco Bindi(2), Jukka G Höhn(4), Kurt Christian Kersebaum(6), Miroslav Trnka(7,8), Holger Hoffmann(9), Piotr Baranowski(10), Samuel Buis(11), Davide Cammarano(12), Yi Chen(13,4), Paola Deligios

  16. Adaptation response surfaces from an ensemble of wheat projections under climate change in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Ferrise, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    preliminary ARSs show some adaptation options allow recover up to ca. 2000 kg/ha. Compared to the historical yields recorded at Lleida province (2550 kg/ha in 1981-2010) our results indicate that adaptation is feasible and may help to reduce detrimental effects of CC. Our analysis evaluates if the explored adaptations fulfill the biophysical requirements to become a practical adaptive solution. This study exemplifies how adaptation options and their impacts can be analyzed, evaluated and communicated in a context of high regional uncertainty for current and future conditions and for short to long-term perspective. This work was funded by MACSUR project within FACCE-JPI. References Abeledo, L.G., R. Savin and G.A. Slafer (2008). European Journal of Agronomy 28:541-550. Cartelle, J., A. Pedró, R. Savin, G.A. Slafer (2006) European Journal of Agronomy 25:365-371. Pirttioja, N., T. Carter, S. Fronzek, M. Bindi, H. Hoffmann, T. Palosuo, M. Ruiz-Ramos, F. Tao, M. Acutis, S. Asseng, P. Baranowski, B. Basso, P. Bodin, S. Buis, D. Cammarano, P. Deligios, M.-F. Destain, B. Dumont, R. Ewert, R. Ferrise, L. François, T. Gaiser, P. Hlavinka, I. Jacquemin, K.C. Kersebaum, C. Kollas, J. Krzyszczak, I.J. Lorite, J. Minet, M.I. Minguez, M. Montesino, M. Moriondo, C. Müller, C. Nendel, I. Öztürk, A. Perego, A. Rodríguez, A.C. Ruane, F. Ruget, M. Sanna, M.A. Semenov, C. Slawinski, P. Stratonovitch, I. Supit, K. Waha, E. Wang, L. Wu, Z. Zhao, and R.P. Rötter, 2015: A crop model ensemble analysis of temperature and precipitation effects on wheat yield across a European transect using impact response surfaces. Clim. Res., 65, 87-105, doi:10.3354/cr01322. IRS2 TEAM: Alfredo Rodríguez(1), Ignacio J. Lorite(3), Fulu Tao(4), Nina Pirttioja(5), Stefan Fronzek(5), Taru Palosuo(4), Timothy R. Carter(5), Marco Bindi(2), Jukka G Höhn(4), Kurt Christian Kersebaum(6), Miroslav Trnka(7,8), Holger Hoffmann(9), Piotr Baranowski(10), Samuel Buis(11), Davide Cammarano(12), Yi Chen(13,4), Paola Deligios

  17. Joule-Thomson coefficient of ideal anyons within fractional exclusion statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Qin Fang; Chen Jisheng

    2011-02-15

    The analytical expressions of the Joule-Thomson coefficient for homogeneous and harmonically trapped three-dimensional ideal anyons which obey Haldane fractional exclusion statistics are derived. For an ideal Fermi gas, the Joule-Thomson coefficient is negative, which means that there is no maximum Joule-Thomson inversion temperature. With careful study, it is found that there exists a Joule-Thomson inversion temperature in the fractional exclusion statistics model. Furthermore, the relations between the Joule-Thomson inversion temperature and the statistical parameter g are investigated.

  18. The Virtual Earthquake and seismology Research Community e-science environment in Europe (VERCE): a European Research Infrastructure project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilotte, J.; Atkinson, M.; Van Eck, T.; Bossu, R.; Michelini, A.; Igel, H.; Rietbrock, A.; Frank, A.; Schwichtenberg, H.; Erbacci, G.

    2013-12-01

    The nature of science in seismology is changing - new discoveries will emerge from statistical analysis and modeling (inversion, assimilation) of large amounts of data generated from dense observational and monitoring networks and from large-scale wave propagation simulations. In many cases our ability to acquire observational and synthetic data outpaces today our ability to process and analyze them. Addressing these challenges requires a new and holistic approach with important augmented societal applications in seismic hazard assessment and monitoring, and exploration geophysics. VERCE is a four-year FP7-INFRASTRUCTURE project, with a consortium of ten partners from seismology and computer science, and contributes to the e-science infrastructure of the European Plate Observatory System (EPOS), the ESFRI initiative of the solid Earth community in Europe. We report here the progress of VERCE toward a service-oriented architecture and a platform of services and tools - integrating European computing and data infrastructures with the distributed seismological data archives - in support for data-intensive analysis and modeling applications. Two prototype applications were selected within VERCE: a data-intensive analysis application based on seismic-noise correlation; and a data-intensive HPC wave simulation application. Both applications consist of multiple phases where ingestion interleaves with data processing and analysis, generating highly parallel and asynchronous data workflows together with massively parallel data access. VERCE efforts are devoted in particular to providing efficient scalable and transparent distributed data management and data transfer services, together with execution models that enable data processing and analysis computation to overlap with data transfer and I/O operations, thereby achieving high throughput under heavy asynchronous access to data. We discuss the current progress of VERCE in enabling the application prototypes, and in

  19. Declines in stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates in Europe between 2004 and 2010: results from the Euro-Peristat project

    PubMed Central

    Zeitlin, Jennifer; Mortensen, Laust; Cuttini, Marina; Lack, Nicholas; Nijhuis, Jan; Haidinger, Gerald; Blondel, Béatrice; Hindori-Mohangoo, Ashna D

    2016-01-01

    Background Stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates declined in Europe between 2004 and 2010. We hypothesised that declines might be greater for countries with higher mortality in 2004 and disproportionally affect very preterm infants at highest risk. Methods Data about live births, stillbirths and neonatal deaths by gestational age (GA) were collected using a common protocol by the Euro-Peristat project in 2004 and 2010. We analysed stillbirths at ≥28 weeks GA in 22 countries and live births ≥24 weeks GA for neonatal mortality in 18 countries. Per cent changes over time were assessed by calculating risk ratios (RR) for stillbirth, neonatal mortality and preterm birth rates in 2010 vs 2004. We used meta-analysis techniques to derive pooled RR using random-effects models overall, by GA subgroups and by mortality level in 2004. Results Between 2004 and 2010, stillbirths declined by 17% (95% CI 10% to 23%), with a range from 1% to 39% by country. Neonatal mortality declined by 29% (95% CI 23% to 35%) with a range from 9% to 67%. Preterm birth rates did not change: 0% (95% CI −3% to 3%). Mortality declines were of a similar magnitude at all GA; mortality levels in 2004 were not associated with RRs. Conclusions Stillbirths and neonatal deaths declined at all gestational ages in countries with both high and low levels of mortality in 2004. These results raise questions about how low-mortality countries achieve continued declines and highlight the importance of improving care across the GA spectrum. PMID:26719590

  20. Joule Heating Effects on Electrokinetic Flow Instabilities in Ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumme, Christian; Shaw, Ryan; Zhou, Yilong; Prabhakaran, Rama; Xuan, Xiangchun

    We have demonstrated in our earlier work that the application of a tangential electric field can draw fluid instabilities at the interface of a ferrofluid/water co-flow. These electrokinetic flow instabilities are produced primarily by the mismatch of electric conductivities of the two fluids. We demonstrate in this talk that the Joule heating induced fluid temperature rises and gradients can significantly suppress the electrokinetic flow instabilities. We also develop a two-dimensional depth-averaged numerical model to predict the fluid temperature, flow and concentration fields in the two-fluid system with the goal to understand the Joule heating effects on electric field-driven ferrofluid flow instabilities. This work was supported by the Honors and Creative Inquiry programs at Clemson University.

  1. Cryogenic characterization of low-cost Joule-Thomson coolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guichard, Jerome; Cottereau, Alain; Chazot, Dominique

    2000-12-01

    This paper highlights two main achievements which were performed by AIR LIQUIDE during the last decade in the field of low cost Joule-Thomson coolers. On one hand, in order to comply with new geometrical requirements, AIR LIQUIDE is able to propose a flat cooler. This compact geometry is enabled by a new, cheap, type of heat exchanger. It offers a better resistance to external vibrations. On the other hand AIR LIQUIDE has developed, in the frame of a commercial program, a complete cryogenic cooling system, composed of a dual flow Joule-Thomson cooler, a pressurized gas capacity equipped with a manifold block and a pyrotechnic actuator, and the requested pipes and connectors. The dual flow is enabled by flexion of a washer made of shape memory alloy.

  2. Electrical and Joule heating relationship investigation using Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangaraju, S. K.; Munisamy, K. M.

    2015-09-01

    The finite element method is vastly used in material strength analysis. The nature of the finite element solver, which solves the Fourier equation of stress and strain analysis, made it possible to apply for conduction heat transfer Fourier Equation. Similarly the Current and voltage equation is also liner Fourier equation. The nature of the governing equation makes it possible to numerical investigate the electrical joule heating phenomena in electronic component. This paper highlights the Finite Element Method (FEM) application onto semiconductor interconnects to determine the specific contact resistance (SCR). Metal and semiconductor interconnects is used as model. The result confirms the possibility and validity of FEM utilization to investigate the Joule heating due electrical resistance.

  3. Quantifying nitrogen fluxes and their influence on the greenhouse gas balance - recent findings of the NitroEurope Integrated Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, S.; Sutton, M. A.; Nemitz, E.; Beier, C.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Cellier, P.; de Vries, W.; Erisman, J.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Bleeker, A.; Nitroeurope Ip Consortium

    2010-12-01

    The generation of reactive nitrogen (Nr) by human activities to stimulate agricultural productivity and the unintended formation of Nr in combustion processes both have major impacts on the global environment. Effects of excess Nr include the deterioration of air quality, water quality, soil quality and a decline in biodiversity. One of the most controversial impacts of nitrogen, however, is on the greenhouse gas balance. While recent papers have highlighted a possible benefit of nitrogen in enhancing rates of carbon sequestration, there remain many trade-offs between nitrogen and greenhouse gas exchange. The result is that the net effect of Nr on the global radiative balance has yet to be fully quantified. To better understand these relationships requires intense measurement and modelling of Nr fluxes at various temporal and spatial scales in order to make the link between different nitrogen forms and their fate in the environment. It is essential to measure fluxes for a wide range of ecosystems considering the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of the Nr components and greenhouse gases, as well as the fixation of di-nitrogen and its creation by denitrification. Long-term observations are needed for representative ecosystems, together with results from experiments addressing the responses of the key nitrogen and greenhouse gas fluxes to different global change drivers. The NitroEurope Integrated Project (in short NEU IP), funded under the 6th Framework Programme of the European Commission, has developed and applied a strategy for quantifying these different terms on multiple scales. With the project nearing completion, this presentation reports selected preliminary findings. It highlights the first estimates of Nr inputs and net green-house gas exchange for a series of 13 flux ‘supersites’, complemented by the emerging results of Nr concentrations and related N inputs at a network of 58 ‘inferential sites’, which extend the European representativity of the

  4. Theoretical study on a Miniature Joule-Thomson & Bernoulli Cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, L. Y.; Kaiser, G.; Binneberg, A.

    2004-11-01

    In this paper, a microchannel-based cryocooler consisting of a compressor, a recuperator and a cold heat exchanger has been developed to study the feasibility of cryogenic cooling by the use of Joule-Thomson effect and Bernoulli effect. A set of governing equations including Bernoulli equations and energy equations are introduced and the performance of the cooler is calculated. The influences of some working conditions and structure parameters on the performance of coolers are discussed in details.

  5. Fast Ignition Realization Experiment with High-Contrast Kilo-Joule Peta-Watt Laser ``LFEX'' and Strong External Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, Shinsuke

    2015-11-01

    We report on progresses of the Fast Ignition Realization Experiment (FIREX) project that has been curried out at the Institute of Laser Engineering to assess the feasibility of high density core heating with a high-power, short-pulse laser including the construction of the Kilo-Joule, Petawatt class LFEX laser system. Our recent studies identify three scientific challenges to achieve high heating efficiency in the fast ignition (FI) scheme with the current GEKKO and LFEX laser systems: (i) control of energy distribution of relativistic electron beam (REB), (ii) guiding and focusing of REB to a fuel core, and (iii) formation of a high areal-density core. The control of the electron energy distribution has been experimentally confirmed by improving the intensity contrast of the LFEX laser up to >109 and an ultra-high contrast of 1011 with a plasma mirror. After the contrast improvement, 50% of the total REB energy is carried by a low energy component of the REB, which slope temperature is close to the ponderomotive scaling value (~ 1 MeV). To guide the electron beam, we apply strong external magnetic field to the REB transport region. Guiding of the REB by 0.6 kT field in a planar geometry has already been demonstrated at LULI 2000 laser facility in a collaborative experiment lead by CELIA-Univ. Bordeaux. Considering more realistic FI scenario, we have performed a similar experiment using the Kilo-Joule LFEX laser to study the effect of guiding and magnetic mirror on the electron beam. A high density core of a laser-imploded 200 μm-diameter solid CD ball was radiographed with picosecond LFEX-produced K-alpha backlighter. Comparisons of the experimental results and integrated simulations using hydrodynamic and electron transport codes suggest that 10% of the efficiency can be achievable with the current GEKKO and LFEX laser system with the success of the above challenges. This work is supported by NIFS (Japan), MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI (Japan), JSPS Fellowship (Japan), ANR

  6. Operational Model Evaluation for Particulate Matter in Europe and North America in the Context of the AQMEII Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten state-of-the-science regional air quality (AQ) modeling systems have been applied to continental scale domains in North America and Europe for full-year simulations of 2006 in the context of Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII), whose main goals are ...

  7. Physical and numerical modeling of Joule-heated melters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyler, L. L.; Skarda, R. J.; Crowder, R. S., III; Trent, D. S.; Reid, C. R.; Lessor, D. L.

    1985-10-01

    The Joule-heated ceramic-lined melter is an integral part of the high level waste immobilization process under development by the US Department of Energy. Scaleup and design of this waste glass melting furnace requires an understanding of the relationships between melting cavity design parameters and the furnace performance characteristics such as mixing, heat transfer, and electrical requirements. Developing empirical models of these relationships through actual melter testing with numerous designs would be a very costly and time consuming task. Additionally, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been developing numerical models that simulate a Joule-heated melter for analyzing melter performance. This report documents the method used and results of this modeling effort. Numerical modeling results are compared with the more conventional, physical modeling results to validate the approach. Also included are the results of numerically simulating an operating research melter at PNL. Physical Joule-heated melters modeling results used for qualiying the simulation capabilities of the melter code included: (1) a melter with a single pair of electrodes and (2) a melter with a dual pair (two pairs) of electrodes. The physical model of the melter having two electrode pairs utilized a configuration with primary and secondary electrodes. The principal melter parameters (the ratio of power applied to each electrode pair, modeling fluid depth, electrode spacing) were varied in nine tests of the physical model during FY85. Code predictions were made for five of these tests. Voltage drops, temperature field data, and electric field data varied in their agreement with the physical modeling results, but in general were judged acceptable.

  8. Physical and numerical modeling of Joule-heated melters

    SciTech Connect

    Eyler, L.L.; Skarda, R.J.; Crowder, R.S. III; Trent, D.S.; Reid, C.R.; Lessor, D.L.

    1985-10-01

    The Joule-heated ceramic-lined melter is an integral part of the high level waste immobilization process under development by the US Department of Energy. Scaleup and design of this waste glass melting furnace requires an understanding of the relationships between melting cavity design parameters and the furnace performance characteristics such as mixing, heat transfer, and electrical requirements. Developing empirical models of these relationships through actual melter testing with numerous designs would be a very costly and time consuming task. Additionally, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been developing numerical models that simulate a Joule-heated melter for analyzing melter performance. This report documents the method used and results of this modeling effort. Numerical modeling results are compared with the more conventional, physical modeling results to validate the approach. Also included are the results of numerically simulating an operating research melter at PNL. Physical Joule-heated melters modeling results used for qualiying the simulation capabilities of the melter code included: (1) a melter with a single pair of electrodes and (2) a melter with a dual pair (two pairs) of electrodes. The physical model of the melter having two electrode pairs utilized a configuration with primary and secondary electrodes. The principal melter parameters (the ratio of power applied to each electrode pair, modeling fluid depth, electrode spacing) were varied in nine tests of the physical model during FY85. Code predictions were made for five of these tests. Voltage drops, temperature field data, and electric field data varied in their agreement with the physical modeling results, but in general were judged acceptable. 14 refs., 79 figs., 17 tabs.

  9. Assessing the Risk of Ecosystem Disruption in Europe using a Dynamic Vegetation Model driven by CMIP5 Regional Climatic Projections from EURO-CORDEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dury, Marie; François, Louis; Hambuckers, Alain; Henrot, Alexandra; Jacquemin, Ingrid; Munhoven, Guy

    2016-04-01

    While the combination of warmer and drier mean climatic conditions can have severe impacts on ecosystems, extreme events like droughts or heat waves that break the gradual climate change can have more long-term consequences on ecosystem composition, functioning and carbon storage. Hence, it is essential to assess the changes in climate variability and the changes in frequency of extreme events projected for the future. Ecosystems could not be in a condition to adapt to these new conditions and might be disrupted. Here, the process-based dynamic vegetation model CARAIB DVM was used to evaluate and analyze how future climate and extreme events will affect European ecosystems. To quantify the uncertainties in the climatic projections and in their potential impacts on ecosystems, the vegetation model was driven with the outputs of different regional climatic models (RCMs), nested in CMIP5 GCM projections for the EURO-CORDEX project: ALADIN53 (Météo-France/CNRM), RACMO22E (KNMI), RCA4 (SMHI) and REMO2009 (MPI-CSC) RCMs. These climatic projections are at a high spatial resolution (0.11-degree, ˜12 km). CARAIB simulations were performed across Europe over the historical period 1951-2005 and the future period 2006-2100 under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emission scenarios. We simulated a set of 99 individual species (47 herbs, 12 shrubs and 40 trees) representing the major European ecosystem flora. First, we analyzed the climatic variability simulated by the climatic models over the historical period and compared it with the observed climatic variability. None of these climatic models can reproduce accurately the present natural climatic variability. Then, to assess the risk of ecosystem disruption in the future and to identify the vulnerable areas in Europe, we created an index combining several CARAIB outputs: runoff, mean NPP, soil turnover, burned area, appearance and disappearance of species. We evaluated the severity of change projected for these variables (period 2070

  10. Shock-Wave Compression and Joule-Thomson Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Wm. G.; Hoover, Carol G.; Travis, Karl P.

    2014-04-01

    Structurally stable atomistic one-dimensional shock waves have long been simulated by injecting fresh cool particles and extracting old hot particles at opposite ends of a simulation box. The resulting shock profiles demonstrate tensor temperature, Txx≠Tyy and Maxwell's delayed response, with stress lagging strain rate and heat flux lagging temperature gradient. Here this same geometry, supplemented by a short-ranged external "plug" field, is used to simulate steady Joule-Kelvin throttling flow of hot dense fluid through a porous plug, producing a dilute and cooler product fluid.

  11. Assessing the Risk of Ecosystem Disruption in Europe using a Dynamic Vegetation Model driven by CMIP5 Regional Climatic Projections from EURO-CORDEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dury, M.; Hambuckers, A.; Henrot, A.; Jacquemin, I.; Munhoven, G.; Francois, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    While the combination of warmer and drier mean climatic conditions can have severe impacts on ecosystems, extreme events like droughts or heat waves that break the gradual climate change can have more long-term consequences on ecosystem composition, functioning and carbon storage. Hence, it is essential to assess the changes in climatic variability and the changes in frequency of extreme events projected for the future. Ecosystems could not be in a condition to adapt to these new conditions and might be disrupted. Here, the process-based dynamic vegetation model CARAIB DVM was used to evaluate and analyze how future climate and extreme events will affect European ecosystems. To quantify the uncertainties in the climatic projections and in their potential impacts on ecosystems, the vegetation model was driven with the outputs of different regional climatic models (RCMs), nested in CMIP5 GCM projections for the EURO-CORDEX project. We used the ALADIN version 5.3 (Météo-France/CNRM) and other EURO-CORDEX RCMs. These climatic projections are at a high spatial resolution (0.11-degree, ~12 km). CARAIB simulations were performed across Europe over the historical period 1951-2005 and the future period 2006-2100 under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emission scenarios. We simulated a set of 99 individual species (47 herbs, 12 shrubs and 40 trees) representing the major European ecosystem flora. First, we analyzed the climatic variability simulated by the climatic models over the historical period and compared it with the observed climatic variability. None of these climatic models can reproduce accurately the present natural climatic variability. Then, to assess the risk of ecosystem disruption in the future and to identify the vulnerable areas in Europe, we created an index combining several CARAIB outputs: runoff, mean NPP, soil turnover, burned area, appearance and disappearance of species. We evaluated the severity of change projected for these variables (period 2071-2100) relative

  12. Stabilization of Joule Heating in the Electropyroelectric Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, R.; Hernández, M.; Marín, E.; Araujo, C.; Alaniz, D.; Araiza, M.; Martínez-Ordoñez, E. I.

    2012-11-01

    Recently the so-called electropyroelectric technique for thermal characterization of liquids has been proposed (Ivanov et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 225501 (2010)). In this method a pyroelectric sensor, in good thermal contact with the investigated sample, is heated by passing an amplitude-modulated electrical current through the electrical contacts. As a result of the heat dissipated to the sample, the pyroelectric signal measured as a voltage drop across the electrical contacts changes in a periodical way. The amplitude and phase of this signal can be measured by lock-in detection as a function of the electrical current modulation frequency. Because the signal amplitude and phase depend on the thermal properties of the sample, these can be determined straightforwardly by fitting the experimental data to a theoretical model based on the solution of the heat diffusion equation with proper boundary conditions. In general, the experimental conditions are selected so that the thermal effusivity becomes the measured magnitude. The technique has the following handicap. As the result of heating and wear of the metal coating layers (previously etched to achieve a serpentine form) with time, their electrical resistance changes with time, so that the heat power dissipated by the Joule effect can vary, and thermal effusivity measurement can become inaccurate. To avoid this problem in this study, a method is proposed that allows maintaining stable the Joule dissipated power. An electronic circuit is designed whose stability and characteristics are investigated and discussed.

  13. The Mayer-Joule Principle: The Foundation of the First Law of Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newburgh, Ronald; Leff, Harvey S.

    2011-01-01

    To most students today the mechanical equivalent of heat, called the Mayer-Joule principle, is simply a way to convert from calories to joules and vice versa. However, in linking work and heat--once thought to be disjointed concepts--it goes far beyond unit conversion. Heat had eluded understanding for two centuries after Galileo Galilei…

  14. Europe`s electric future

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Though the market is developing, independent power producers see strong potential in Europe`s power industry. In Europe`s electricity future, some envision a cohesive marketplace. This market would be characterized by consistent regulations; transparent pricing regimes open access to transmission services; competitive procurement processes; and unbundled generation, transmission and distribution services. This new market structure would mark a change for private power developers, who in the past have faced barriers to development of independent power facilities in many European countries. Progress toward competition is already evident.

  15. JouleLabs Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-00301

    SciTech Connect

    Bilello, D.

    2010-08-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Joule Labs Inc. (Joule Labs) will collaborate on creating a software platform for the development and distribution of renewable energy and energy efficiency analysis tools.

  16. Ohm's Law, Fick's Law, Joule's Law, and Ground Water Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    1999-02-01

    Starting from the contributions of Ohm, Fick and Joule during the nineteenth century, an integral expression is derived for a steady-state groundwater flow system. In general, this integral statement gives expression to the fact that the steady-state groundwater system is characterized by two dependent variables, namely, flow geometry and fluid potential. As a consequence, solving the steady-state flow problem implies the finding of optimal conditions under which flow geometry and the distribution of potentials are compatible with each other, subject to the constraint of least action. With the availability of the digital computer and powerful graphics software, this perspective opens up possibilities of understanding the groundwater flow process without resorting to the traditional differential equation. Conceptual difficulties arise in extending the integral expression to a transient groundwater flow system. These difficulties suggest that the foundations of groundwater hydraulics deserve to be reexamined.

  17. Refractory electrodes for joule heating and methods of using same

    DOEpatents

    Lamar, David A.; Chapman, Chris C.; Elliott, Michael L.

    1998-01-01

    A certain group of electrically conductive refractory materials presently known for use in high temperature applications as throat constructions, melter sidewalls, forehearth, stacks, port sills, hot face lining for slagging coal gasifiers, slag runners, and linings for nuclear waste encapsulation furnaces may be used as electrodes permitting joule heating at temperatures in excess of 1200 C. in excess of about 4400 hours even in the presence of transition group element(s). More specifically, the invention is an electrode for melting earthen materials, wherein the electrode is made from an electrically conductive refractory material, specifically at least one metal oxide wherein the metal is selected from the group consisting of chrome, ruthenium, rhodium, tin and combinations thereof.

  18. Super-Joule heating in graphene and silver nanowire network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maize, Kerry; Das, Suprem R.; Sadeque, Sajia; Mohammed, Amr M. S.; Shakouri, Ali; Janes, David B.; Alam, Muhammad A.

    2015-04-01

    Transistors, sensors, and transparent conductors based on randomly assembled nanowire networks rely on multi-component percolation for unique and distinctive applications in flexible electronics, biochemical sensing, and solar cells. While conduction models for 1-D and 1-D/2-D networks have been developed, typically assuming linear electronic transport and self-heating, the model has not been validated by direct high-resolution characterization of coupled electronic pathways and thermal response. In this letter, we show the occurrence of nonlinear "super-Joule" self-heating at the transport bottlenecks in networks of silver nanowires and silver nanowire/single layer graphene hybrid using high resolution thermoreflectance (TR) imaging. TR images at the microscopic self-heating hotspots within nanowire network and nanowire/graphene hybrid network devices with submicron spatial resolution are used to infer electrical current pathways. The results encourage a fundamental reevaluation of transport models for network-based percolating conductors.

  19. Flash Joule heating for ductilization of metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Okulov, I. V.; Soldatov, I. V.; Sarmanova, M. F.; Kaban, I.; Gemming, T.; Edström, K.; Eckert, J.

    2015-01-01

    Metallic glasses (MGs) inherit their amorphous structure from the liquid state, which predetermines their ability to withstand high loads approaching the theoretical limit. However, the absence of slip systems makes them very sensitive to the type of loading and extremely brittle in tension. The latter can be improved by precipitation of ductile crystals, which suppress a catastrophic propagation of shear bands in a glassy matrix. Here we report a novel approach to obtain MG-matrix composites with tensile ductility by flash Joule heating applied to Cu47.5Zr47.5Al5 (at.%) metallic glass. This homogeneous, volumetric and controllable rapid heat treatment allows achieving uniformly distributed metastable B2 CuZr crystals in the glassy matrix. It results in a significant tensile strain of 6.8±0.5%. Moreover, optimized adjustment of the heat-treatment conditions enables tuning of microstructure to achieve desired mechanical properties. PMID:26219864

  20. Refractory electrodes for joule heating and methods of using same

    DOEpatents

    Lamar, D.A.; Chapman, C.C.; Elliott, M.L.

    1998-05-12

    A certain group of electrically conductive refractory materials presently known for use in high temperature applications as throat constructions, melter sidewalls, forehearth, stacks, port sills, hot face lining for slagging coal gasifiers, slag runners, and linings for nuclear waste encapsulation furnaces may be used as electrodes permitting joule heating at temperatures in excess of 1,200 C in excess of about 4400 hours even in the presence of transition group element(s). More specifically, the invention is an electrode for melting earthen materials, wherein the electrode is made from an electrically conductive refractory material, specifically at least one metal oxide wherein the metal is selected from the group consisting of chrome, ruthenium, rhodium, tin and combinations thereof. 2 figs.

  1. F region ion temperature enhancements resulting from Joule heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, M. J.; Wand, R. H.

    1983-05-01

    The present investigation has the objective to describe F region ion temperature results obtained near summer solstice by the Chatanika and Millstone Hill radars. The experimental mode was Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere Radar Studies (MITHRAS) 1, i.e., a wide latitudinal coverage experiment. Simultaneous Chatanika and Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar measurements for two summer 24-hour periods show significantly greater Joule heating enhancements of ion temperatures in the morning sector for similar magnitudes of ion velocity. The morning/evening auroral zone temperature asymmetry is interpreted to be a consequence of different neutral wind behaviors in the morning and evening. It is inferred that the neutral wind is consistent with global thermospheric models and with more direct wind measurements. In the evening, the neutral wind is nearly aligned with the ion flow because of ion drag. In the morning, the neutral wind is predominantly equatorward.

  2. Marangoni mixed convection flow with Joule heating and nonlinear radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hayat, Tasawar; Shaheen, Uzma; Shafiq, Anum; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Asghar, Saleem

    2015-07-15

    Marangoni mixed convective flow of Casson fluid in a thermally stratified medium is addressed. Flow analysis has been carried out in presence of inclined magnetic field. Heat transfer analysis is discussed in the presence of viscous dissipation, Joule heating and nonlinear thermal radiation. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are first converted into ordinary differential systems and then developed the convergent series solutions. Flow pattern with the influence of pertinent parameters namely the magnetic parameter, Casson fluid parameter, temperature ratio parameter, stratification parameter, Prandtl number, Eckert number and radiation parameter is investigated. Expression of local Nusselt number is computed and analyzed. It is found that the Nusselt number decreases by increasing magnetic parameter, temperature ratio parameter, angle of inclination and stratification parameter. Moreover the effect of buoyancy parameter on the velocity distribution is opposite in both the opposing and assisting flow phenomena. Thermal field and associated layer thickness are enhanced for larger radiation parameter.

  3. Elevated-pressure mixed-coolants Joule Thomson cryocooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maytal, B.-Z.; Nellis, G. F.; Klein, S. A.; Pfotenhauer, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of mixed coolants at elevated pressures for Joule-Thomson cryocooling. A numerical model of a Joule-Thomson cryocooler is developed that is capable of simulating operation with mixtures of up to 9 components consisting of hydrocarbons, non-flammable halogenated refrigerants, and inert gases. The numerical model is integrated with a genetic optimization algorithm, which has a high capability for convergence in an environment of discontinuities, constraints and local optima. The genetic optimization algorithm is used to select the optimal mixture compositions that separately maximizes following two objective functions at each elevated pressure for 80, 90 and 95 K cryocooling: the molar specific cooling capacity (the highest attainable is 3200 J/mol) and the produced cooling capacity per thermal conductance which is a measure of the compactness of the recuperator. The optimized cooling capacity for a non-flammable halogenated refrigerant mixture is smaller than for a hydrocarbon mixture; however, the cooling capacity of the two types of mixtures approach one another as pressure becomes higher. The coefficient of performance, the required heat transfer area and the effect of the number of components in the mixture is investigated as a function of the pressure. It is shown that mixtures with more components provide a higher cooling capacity but require larger recuperative heat exchangers. Optimized mixtures for 90 K cryocooling have similar cooling capacity as those for 80 K. Optimized compactness for 80 K is about 50% higher than can be achieved by pure nitrogen. For 90 K, no mixture provides a more compact recuperator than can be achieved using pure argon. The results are discussed in the context of potential applications for closed and open cycle cryocoolers.

  4. Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project: cross-national comparison of smoking prevalence in 18 European countries.

    PubMed

    Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffetta, Paolo; Chaloupka, Frank J; Colombo, Paolo; Currie, Laura; Fernandez, Esteve; Fischbacher, Colin; Gilmore, Anna; Godfrey, Fiona; Joossens, Luk; Leon, Maria E; Levy, David T; Nguyen, Lien; Rosenqvist, Gunnar; Ross, Hana; Townsend, Joy; Clancy, Luke

    2014-05-01

    Limited data on smoking prevalence allowing valid between-country comparison are available in Europe. The aim of this study is to provide data on smoking prevalence and its determinants in 18 European countries. In 2010, within the Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project, we conducted a face-to-face survey on smoking in 18 European countries (Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, England, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and Sweden) on a total of 18 056 participants, representative for each country of the population aged 15 years or older. Overall, 27.2% of the participants were current smokers (30.6% of men and 24.1% of women). Smoking prevalence was highest in Bulgaria (40.9%) and Greece (38.9%) and lowest in Italy (22.0%) and Sweden (16.3%). Smoking prevalence ranged between 15.7% (Sweden) and 44.3% (Bulgaria) for men and between 11.6% (Albania) and 38.1% (Ireland) for women. Multivariate analysis showed a significant inverse trend between smoking prevalence and the level of education in both sexes. Male-to-female smoking prevalence ratios ranged from 0.85 in Spain to 3.47 in Albania and current-to-ex prevalence ratios ranged from 0.68 in Sweden to 4.28 in Albania. There are considerable differences across Europe in smoking prevalence, and male-to-female and current-to-ex smoking prevalence ratios. Eastern European countries, lower income countries and those with less advanced tobacco control policies have less favourable smoking patterns and are at an earlier stage of the tobacco epidemic.

  5. A Multi-Disciplinary Collaborative Project Developing Public Health Higher Education in Four Higher Education Institutes in Africa and Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haaranen, Ari; Saarti, Jarmo; Miettola, Juhani; Erkkilä, Arja T.

    2016-01-01

    The HEI-ICI project involves cooperation between the University of Eastern Finland (UEF) and three African partners. The main aim of the project, now in its fourth year, has been to develop education in health sciences and to improve the quality of teaching. The target has been to develop the skills of selected junior faculty from the Public…

  6. The school nutrition environment and its association with soft drink intakes in seven countries across Europe--the ENERGY project.

    PubMed

    Lien, Nanna; van Stralen, Maartje M; Androutsos, Odysseas; Bere, Elling; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M; Jan, Nataša; Kovacs, Eva; van Lippevelde, Wendy; Manios, Yannis; Te Velde, Saskia J; Brug, Johannes

    2014-11-01

    The school is an important setting for promoting healthy eating especially at the transition from childhood to adolescence. This study contributes to the literature by describing practices within physical, political and sociocultural aspects of the school nutrition environment in seven countries across Europe based on questionnaires to the school management, and exploring their associations with soft drink consumption reported on questionnaires by 10-12 year olds. Several of the commonly self-reported practices could be supportive of a healthy diet (time to eat, access to water, restriction on marketing), but some practices were underutilized (i.e. discussion with stakeholders, healthy foods at events). Only a few associations of practices with the pupils׳ soft drink consumption were found.

  7. Characterization of Saharan dust properties transported towards Europe in the frame of the FENNEC project: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marnas, F.; Chazette, P.; Flamant, C.; Royer, P.; Sodemman, H.; Derimian, Y.

    2012-04-01

    In the framework of the FENNEC experiment (6 to 30 June 2011) an effort has been dedicated to characterize Saharan dust plumes transported towards southern Europe. Hence, a multi instrumented field campaign has been conducted. Ground based nitrogen Raman LIDAR (GBNRL) has been deployed in southern Spain close to Marbella, simultaneously with airborne lidar (AL) performing measurements over both the tropical Atlantic Ocean and the western Africa (from 2 to 23 June). The GBNRL was equipped with co-polar and cross-polar channels to perform continuous measurements of the dust aerosols trapped in the troposphere. It was developed by LSCE with the support of the LEOSPHERE Company. The French FALCON 20 research aircraft operated by SAFIRE (Service des Avions Francais Instrumentés pour la Recherche en Environnement) carried the AL Leandre Nouvelle Generation (LNG) as well as a dropsonde releasing system and radiometers. A major, one week long, dust event has been sampled over Spain from 25 June to 1 July with high optical depth (>0.5 at 355nm) and particular depolarization ratios (15 to 25%). Backtrajectory studies suggest that the dust particles observed were from dust uplifts that occurred in Southern Morocco and Northern Mauritania. The event has been also documented 3 days before by the AL flying over Mauritania. AERONET sunphotometer measurements of aerosol properties, along the dust plume transport path appear to be coherent with both the lidar and the backtrajectory analysis. These analysis exhibit a likely major contribution from the Western Sahara sources to the Southern Europe. Such a contribution may impact the visibility and then the airtrafic, modify the tropospheric chemistry, and add nutrients to both the Mediterranean Sea and the continental surfaces. It can also affect the health of European populations. We will present strategy of the experiment and the case study built from measurements performed at the end of June.

  8. ULF Wave Electromagnetic Energy Flux into the Ionosphere: Joule Heating Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartinger, M.; Moldwin, M.; Zou, S.; Bonnell, J. W.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2014-12-01

    Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) waves - such as standing Alfven waves - are one mechanism for coupling the inner magnetosphere to the Earth's ionosphere. For example, they transfer energy from the solar wind or ring current into the Earth's ionosphere via Joule heating. In this study, we use NASA Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) satellite data to investigate the spatial, frequency, and geomagnetic activity dependence of the ULF wave Poynting vector (electromagnetic energy flux) mapped to the ionosphere. We use these measurements to estimate Joule heating rates. We compare these rates to empirical models of Joule heating associated with large scale, static (on ULF wave timescales) current systems, finding that ULF waves usually contribute little to the global, integrated Joule heating rate. However, there are extreme cases when ULF waves make significant contributions to global Joule heating. Finally, we find ULF waves routinely make significant contributions to local Joule heating rates near the noon and midnight local time sectors, where static current systems nominally contribute less to Joule heating; the most important contributions come from lower frequency (<7 mHz) waves.

  9. Joule-Thomson Cooling Due to CO2 Injection into Natural GasReservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2006-04-21

    Depleted natural gas reservoirs are a promising target for Carbon Sequestration with Enhanced Gas Recovery (CSEGR). The focus of this study is on evaluating the importance of Joule-Thomson cooling during CO2 injection into depleted natural gas reservoirs. Joule-Thomson cooling is the adiabatic cooling that accompanies the expansion of a real gas. If Joule-Thomson cooling were extreme, injectivity and formation permeability could be altered by the freezing of residual water,formation of hydrates, and fracturing due to thermal stresses. The TOUGH2/EOS7C module for CO2-CH4-H2O mixtures is used as the simulation analysis tool. For verification of EOS7C, the classic Joule-Thomson expansion experiment is modeled for pure CO2 resulting in Joule-Thomson coefficients in agreement with standard references to within 5-7 percent. For demonstration purposes, CO2 injection at constant pressure and with a large pressure drop ({approx}50 bars) is presented in order to show that cooling by more than 20 C can occur by this effect. Two more-realistic constant-rate injection cases show that for typical systems in the Sacramento Valley, California, the Joule-Thomson cooling effect is minimal. This simulation study shows that for constant-rate injections into high-permeability reservoirs, the Joule-Thomson cooling effect is not expected to create significant problems for CSEGR.

  10. ULF wave electromagnetic energy flux into the ionosphere: Joule heating implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartinger, M. D.; Moldwin, M. B.; Zou, S.; Bonnell, J. W.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2015-01-01

    Ultralow-frequency (ULF) waves—in particular, Alfvén waves-transfer energy into the Earth's ionosphere via Joule heating, but it is unclear how much they contribute to global and local heating rates relative to other energy sources. In this study we use Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms satellite data to investigate the spatial, frequency, and geomagnetic activity dependence of the ULF wave Poynting vector (electromagnetic energy flux) mapped to the ionosphere. We use these measurements to estimate Joule heating rates, covering latitudes at or below the nominal auroral oval and below the open/closed field line boundary. We find ULF wave Joule heating rates (integrated over 3-30 mHz frequency band) typically range from 0.001 to 1 mW/m2. We compare these rates to empirical models of Joule heating associated with large-scale, static (on ULF wave timescales) current systems, finding that ULF waves nominally contribute little to the global, integrated Joule heating rate. However, there are extreme cases with ULF wave Joule heating rates of ≥10 mW/m2—in these cases, which are more likely to occur when Kp ≥ 3, ULF waves make significant contributions to the global Joule heating rate. We also find ULF waves routinely make significant contributions to local Joule heating rates near the noon and midnight local time sectors, where static current systems nominally contribute less to Joule heating; the most important contributions come from lower frequency (<7 mHz) waves.

  11. Short-term Associations between Fine and Coarse Particulate Matter and Hospitalizations in Southern Europe: Results from the MED-PARTICLES Project

    PubMed Central

    Samoli, Evangelia; Alessandrini, Ester; Cadum, Ennio; Ostro, Bart; Berti, Giovanna; Faustini, Annunziata; Jacquemin, Benedicte; Linares, Cristina; Pascal, Mathilde; Randi, Giorgia; Ranzi, Andrea; Stivanello, Elisa; Forastiere, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Background: Evidence on the short-term effects of fine and coarse particles on morbidity in Europe is scarce and inconsistent. Objectives: We aimed to estimate the association between daily concentrations of fine and coarse particles with hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions in eight Southern European cities, within the MED-PARTICLES project. Methods: City-specific Poisson models were fitted to estimate associations of daily concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), ≤ 10 μm (PM10), and their difference (PM2.5–10) with daily counts of emergency hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. We derived pooled estimates from random-effects meta-analysis and evaluated the robustness of results to co-pollutant exposure adjustment and model specification. Pooled concentration–response curves were estimated using a meta-smoothing approach. Results: We found significant associations between all PM fractions and cardiovascular admissions. Increases of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5, 6.3 μg/m3 in PM2.5–10, and 14.4 μg/m3 in PM10 (lag 0–1 days) were associated with increases in cardiovascular admissions of 0.51% (95% CI: 0.12, 0.90%), 0.46% (95% CI: 0.10, 0.82%), and 0.53% (95% CI: 0.06, 1.00%), respectively. Stronger associations were estimated for respiratory hospitalizations, ranging from 1.15% (95% CI: 0.21, 2.11%) for PM10 to 1.36% (95% CI: 0.23, 2.49) for PM2.5 (lag 0–5 days). Conclusions: PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 were positively associated with cardiovascular and respiratory admissions in eight Mediterranean cities. Information on the short-term effects of different PM fractions on morbidity in Southern Europe will be useful to inform European policies on air quality standards. Citation: Stafoggia M, Samoli E, Alessandrini E, Cadum E, Ostro B, Berti G, Faustini A, Jacquemin B, Linares C, Pascal M, Randi G, Ranzi A, Stivanello E, Forastiere F, the MED-PARTICLES Study Group. 2013. Short

  12. Climate condition in the Central Europe during the Weichselian Ice Sheet according to the Educational Global Climate Modeling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szuman, Izabela; Czernecki, Bartosz

    2010-05-01

    The expansion and retreat of the ice sheet is controlled by climate changes, and from the other hand, a huge ice mass influences on the climate in the regional scale. This mechanism is commonly known as the fact but often without making reconstruction by using climatological modeling. The purpose of our study is to reconstruct the climate condition during the Weichselian Ice Sheet in the Central Europe, especially for Poland and surrounded countries. The Global Climate Model (GCM) is made for predicting climate, but simplified version can be useful for reconstructing paleoclimate. Hence, the simple initial conditions and surface data proposed by the Educational version of the GCM was applied. In our study we used a simplified version of the GCM to calculate main climate characteristics within the time limits c. 21 000 BP - 18 000 BP, which has been previously invented on Columbia University. The model is constructed on grid with a horizontal resolution 8° latitude by 10° longitude and was establish for modeling most of weather conditions based on available paleoclimate data. It is possible to estimate the probable climate condition along the southern ice sheets margin on the basis of output from the GCM and GIS modeling techniques. Above the ice mass occurs local high pressure area, which seriously interfered on atmospheric circulation. Whereas the low pressure systems in the southern part of continent may caused permanent barometric situation, which stimulates wind directions as well as the precipitable water available in the mass of air. The climate on the east-south border of ice margin was colder and drier than on the west-south region, where it was more ocean-reliable and gentle with higher temperatures. The differences in temperature between the western and eastern part of the Central Europe reached few centigrade. Against a background of the mean paleoclimatic situation in the Central Europe there is coming out a question about the particular paleoclimate

  13. Tackling the social determinants of inequalities in health during Phase V of the Healthy Cities Project in Europe.

    PubMed

    Ritsatakis, Anna; Ostergren, Per-Olof; Webster, Premila

    2015-06-01

    The WHO European Healthy Cities Network has from its inception aimed at tackling inequalities in health. In carrying out an evaluation of Phase V of the project (2009-13), an attempt was made to examine how far the concept of equity in health is understood and accepted; whether cities had moved further from a disease/medical model to looking at the social determinants of inequalities in health; how far the HC project contributed to cities determining the extent and causes of inequalities in health; what efforts were made to tackle such inequalities and how far inequalities in health may have increased or decreased during Phase V. A broader range of resources was utilized for this evaluation than in previous phases of the project. These indicated that most cities were definitely looking at the broader determinants. Equality in health was better understood and had been included as a value in a range of city policies. This was facilitated by stronger involvement of the HC project in city planning processes. Although almost half the cities participating had prepared a City Health Profile, only few cities had the necessary local level data to monitor changes in inequalities in health.

  14. Detection of explosive as an indicator of landmines: BIOSENS project methodology and field tests in Southeast Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabbe, Stephen; Eng, Lars; Gardhagen, Peter; Berg, Anders

    2005-06-01

    The IST-2000-25348-BIOSENS project carried out a number of studies to assess the use of explosive detection technology for humanitarian demining. This paper presents sampling/collection technology developed, test methodology and results including comparisons with dogs and soil sampling. Findings are presented in terms of the detection of explosive from mines in the environment and demining.

  15. Masculinities in Organizational Cultures in Engineering Education in Europe: Results of the European Union Project WomEng

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagebiel, F.; Dahmen, J.

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes elements of engineering organizational cultures and structures in higher engineering education from the European project WomEng. Hypotheses, based on state of the art, refer to: women friendly presentation, attractiveness of interdisciplinary teaching methods, single sex education, perceptions of minority status, feelings of…

  16. The role of PIXE in the AIRUSE project "testing and development of air quality mitigation measures in Southern Europe"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarelli, F.; Chiari, M.; Calzolai, G.; Giannoni, M.; Nava, S.; Udisti, R.; Severi, M.; Querol, X.; Amato, F.; Alves, C.; Eleftheriadis, K.

    2015-11-01

    The European AIRUSE LIFE+ project aims at testing existing and future mitigation measures and developing new strategies for the improvement of air quality in Southern European countries. The project involves public and private institutions of Spain, UK, Portugal, Italy and Greece. PM10 and PM2.5 daily samplings have been scheduled for one year (from January 2013) in four urban sites, Barcelona (Spain), Porto (Portugal), Athens (Greece), and Florence (Italy). The daily data set gives an overall representative picture of the PM composition in these urban sites. The project includes also samplings with hourly resolution for limited periods. Hourly samples give an easier identification of the different aerosol sources due to the capability of tracking rapid changes as the ones occurring in many particulate emissions as well as in atmospheric transport and dilution processes. The role of PIXE technique within the project has been described in this paper. The comparison of data obtained by different techniques (e.g. PIXE, IC and ICP) assured a quality assurance control on the huge quantity of data obtained in the project. PIXE data together with those obtained by other analytical techniques have been used to reconstruct the average aerosol chemical composition and in Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis to determine the aerosol sources and their impact on PM10 and PM2.5 mass. In particular the high sensitivity of PIXE for all the crustal elements (including Si which is not easily detected by ICP) allows the direct determination of the Saharan dust contribution. Finally, the 1-h resolution data, which can be obtained only by PIXE, confirmed and reinforced the identification of the aerosol sources obtained by the daily concentrations.

  17. Improving Control in a Joule-Thomson Refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borders, James; Pearson, David; Prina, Mauro

    2005-01-01

    A report discusses a modified design of a Joule-Thomson (JT) refrigerator under development to be incorporated into scientific instrumentation aboard a spacecraft. In most other JT refrigerators (including common household refrigerators), the temperature of the evaporator (the cold stage) is kept within a desired narrow range by turning a compressor on and off as needed. This mode of control is inadequate for the present refrigerator because a JT-refrigerator compressor performs poorly when the flow from its evaporator varies substantially, and this refrigerator is required to maintain adequate cooling power. The proposed design modifications include changes in the arrangement of heat exchangers, addition of a clamp that would afford a controlled heat leak from a warmer to a cooler stage to smooth out temperature fluctuations in the cooler stage, and incorporation of a proportional + integral + derivative (PID) control system that would regulate the heat leak to maintain the temperature of the evaporator within a desired narrow range while keeping the amount of liquid in the evaporator within a very narrow range in order to optimize the performance of the compressor. Novelty lies in combining the temperature- and cooling-power-regulating controls into a single control system.

  18. Electro-osmotic infusion for joule heating soil remediation techniques

    DOEpatents

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Nitao, John J.

    1999-01-01

    Electro-osmotic infusion of ground water or chemically tailored electrolyte is used to enhance, maintain, or recondition electrical conductivity for the joule heating remediation technique. Induced flows can be used to infuse electrolyte with enhanced ionic conductivity into the vicinity of the electrodes, maintain the local saturation of near-electrode regions and resaturate a partially dried out zone with groundwater. Electro-osmotic infusion can also tailor the conductivity throughout the target layer by infusing chemically modified and/or heated electrolyte to improve conductivity contrast of the interior. Periodic polarity reversals will prevent large pH changes at the electrodes. Electro-osmotic infusion can be used to condition the electrical conductivity of the soil, particularly low permeability soil, before and during the heating operation. Electro-osmotic infusion is carried out by locating one or more electrodes adjacent the heating electrodes and applying a dc potential between two or more electrodes. Depending on the polarities of the electrodes, the induced flow will be toward the heating electrodes or away from the heating electrodes. In addition, electrodes carrying a dc potential may be located throughout the target area to tailor the conductivity of the target area.

  19. Characterization of a thermoelectric/Joule-Thomson hybrid microcooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, H. S.; Vanapalli, S.; Holland, H. J.; Vermeer, C. H.; ter Brake, H. J. M.

    2016-07-01

    Micromachined Joule-Thomson (JT) coolers are attractive for cooling small electronic devices. However, microcoolers operated with pure gases, such as nitrogen gas require high pressures of about 9 MPa to achieve reasonable cooling powers. Such high pressures severely add complexity to the development of compressors. To overcome this disadvantage, we combined a JT microcooler with a thermoelectric (TE) pre-cooler to deliver an equivalent cooling power with a lower pressure or, alternatively, a higher cooling power when operating with the same pressure. This hybrid microcooler was operated with nitrogen gas as the working fluid at a low pressure of 0.6 MPa. The cooling power of the microcooler at 101 K operating with a fixed high pressure of 8.8 MPa increased from 21 to 60 mW when the precooling temperature was reduced by the thermoelectric cooler from 295 to 250 K. These tests were simulated using a dynamic numerical model and the accuracy of the model was verified through the comparison between experimental and simulation results. Based on the model, we found the high pressure of the microcooler can be reduced from 8.8 to 5.5 MPa by lowering the precooling temperature from 295 to 250 K. Moreover, the effect of TE cooler position on the performance of the hybrid microcooler was evaluated through simulation analysis.

  20. Miniature Piezoelectric Compressor for Joule-Thomson Cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobol, Sergey; Tzabar, Nir; Grossman, Gershon

    Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocoolers operate with a continuous flow of the working fluid that enters the cooler at a high pressure and leaves it at a lower pressure. Ideally, the temperature of the outgoing fluid equals the temperature of the entering fluid. JT cryocoolers that operate with pure refrigerants require high pressure of a few tens of MPa where the low pressure is usually around 0.1 MPa. Circulation of the working fluid in such cases requires high pressure ratio compressors that evidently have large dimensions. JT cryocoolers can operate with much lower pressure ratios by using mixed-refrigerants. Cooling from 300 K to about 80 K in a single stage cryocooler normally requires a pressure ratio of about 1:25. In the present research a miniature compressor driven by piezoelectric elements is developed in collaboration between Rafael and the Technion. This type of compressor has the advantage of improved long life compared to other mechanical compressors, very low vibrations, and silent operation. In the current case, the design goal of the intake and discharge pressures has been 0.1 and 2.5 MPa, respectively, with a flow rate of 0.06 g/s. The compressor has two compression stages; 1:5 and 5:25. Several configurations have been considered, fabricated, and tested. The performance of the last configuration approaches the desired specification and is presented in the current paper together with the design concept.

  1. Interplanetary magnetic field and solar cycle dependence of Northern Hemisphere F region joule heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjoland, L. M.; Chen, X.; Jin, Y.; Reimer, A. S.; Skjæveland, Å.; Wessel, M. R.; Burchill, J. K.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Haaland, S. E.; McWilliams, K. A.

    2015-02-01

    Joule heating in the ionosphere takes place through collisions between ions and neutrals. Statistical maps of F region Joule heating in the Northern Hemisphere polar ionosphere are derived from satellite measurements of thermospheric wind and radar measurements of ionospheric ion convection. Persistent mesoscale heating is observed near postnoon and postmidnight magnetic local time and centered around 70° magnetic latitude in regions of strong relative ion and neutral drift. The magnitude of the Joule heating is found to be largest during solar maximum and for a southeast oriented interplanetary magnetic field. These conditions are consistent with stronger ion convection producing a larger relative flow between ions and neutrals. The global-scale Joule heating maps quantify persistent (in location) regions of heating that may be used to provide a broader context compared to small-scale studies of the coupling between the thermosphere and ionosphere.

  2. The New Multi-HAzard and MulTi-RIsK Assessment MethodS for Europe (MATRIX) Project - An overview of its major findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Kevin; Zschau, Jochen; Gasparini, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    Recent major natural disasters, such as the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, tsunami and subsequent Fukushima nuclear accident, have raised awareness of the frequent and potentially far-reaching interconnections between natural hazards. Such interactions occur at the hazard level, where an initial hazard may trigger other events (e.g., an earthquake triggering a tsunami) or several events may occur concurrently (or nearly so), e.g., severe weather around the same time as an earthquake. Interactions also occur at the vulnerability level, where the initial event may make the affected community more susceptible to the negative consequences of another event (e.g., an earthquake weakens buildings, which are then damaged further by windstorms). There is also a temporal element involved, where changes in exposure may alter the total risk to a given area. In short, there is the likelihood that the total risk estimated when considering multiple hazard and risks and their interactions is greater than the sum of their individual parts. It is with these issues in mind that the European Commission, under their FP7 program, supported the New Multi-HAzard and MulTi-RIsK Assessment MethodS for Europe or MATRIX project (10.2010 to 12.2013). MATRIX set out to tackle multiple natural hazards (i.e., those of concern to Europe, namely earthquakes, landslides, volcanos, tsunamis, wild fires, storms and fluvial and coastal flooding) and risks within a common theoretical framework. The MATRIX work plan proceeded from an assessment of single-type risk methodologies (including how uncertainties should be treated), cascade effects within a multi-hazard environment, time-dependent vulnerability, decision making and support for multi-hazard mitigation and adaption, and an assessment of how the multi-hazard and risk viewpoint may be integrated into current decision making and risk mitigation programs, considering the existing single-hazard and risk focus. Three test sites were considered during the

  3. Coherent radar estimates of average high-latitude ionospheric Joule heating

    SciTech Connect

    Kosch, M.J.; Nielsen, E.

    1995-07-01

    The Scandinavian Twin Auroral Radar Experiment (STARE) and Sweden and Britain Radar Experiment (SABRE) bistatic coherent radar systems have been employed to estimate the spatial and temporal variation of the ionospheric Joule heating in the combined geographic latitude range 63.8 deg - 72.6 deg (corrected geomagnetic latitude 61.5 deg - 69.3 deg) over Scandinavia. The 173 days of good observations with all four radars have been analyzed during the period 1982 to 1986 to estimate the average ionospheric electric field versus time and latitude. The AE dependent empirical model of ionospheric Pedersen conductivity of Spiro et al. (1982) has been used to calculate the Joule heating. The latitudinal and diurnal variation of Joule heating as well as the estimated mean hemispherical heating of 1.7 x 10(exp 11) W are in good agreement with earlier results. Average Joule heating was found to vary linearly with the AE, AU, and AL indices and as a second-order power law with Kp. The average Joule heating was also examined as a function of the direction and magnitude of the interplanetary magnetic field. It has been shown for the first time that the ionospheric electric field magnitude as well as the Joule heating increase with increasingly negative (southward) Bz.

  4. Clogging of Joule-Thomson Devices in Liquid Hydrogen Handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurns, John M.; Lekki, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Experiments conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center indicate that Joule-Thomson devices become clogged when transferring liquid hydrogen (LH2), operating at a temperature range from 20.5 to 24.4 K. Blockage does not exist under all test conditions but is found to be sensitive to the inlet temperature of the LH2. At a subcooled inlet temperature of 20.5 K blockage consistently appears but is dissipated when the fluid temperature is raised above 24.5 K. Clogging steadily reduced flow rate through the orifices, eventually resulting in complete blockage. This tendency poses a threat to spacecraft cryogenic propulsion systems that would utilize passive thermal control systems. We propose that this clogging is due to trace amounts of neon in the regular LH2 supply. Neon freezes at 24.5 K at one atmosphere pressure. It is postulated that between 20.5 and 24.5 K, neon remains in a meta-stable, supercooled liquid state. When impacting the face of an orifice, liquid neon droplets solidify and accumulate, blocking flow over time. The purpose of this test program was to definitively quantify the phenomena experimentally by obtaining direct visual evidence of orifice clogging by accretion from neon contaminates in the LH2 flow stream, utilizing state of the art imaging technology. Tests were conducted with LH2 flowing in the temperature range of 20.5 to 24.4 K. Additional imaging was also done at LH2 temperatures with no flow to verify clear view through the orifice.

  5. Seasonality of flood events in a changing climate - An uncertainty assessment for Europe through the combination of different climate projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisner, Stephanie; Voß, Frank; Schneider, Christof

    2010-05-01

    Global climate models (GCMs) project an increasing intensity and frequency of heavy rainfall events due to climate change. As a result, the frequency and magnitude of severe flood events is expected to increase in many regions. Furthermore, a change in the seasonality of flood events can be anticipated. In regions that regularly experience snowmelt floods, for instance, temperature increase will lead to a decreased snow accumulation and to a shortened duration of the snowpack. Thus, the risk of spring floods may be reduced. This study aims to estimate the impact of the projected climate change on the seasonality of flood events in the European region. For this purpose large scale river discharge simulations were carried out with the integrated, global model WaterGAP3 (Water - Global Assessment and Prognosis) with a spatial resolution of the grid cells of 5'. WaterGAP3 couples a hydrological model for the simulation of the terrestrial water cycle with a water use model that computes withdrawal and consumptive water use of the sectors manufacturing, electricity production, agriculture and private households. Thus, on the basis of daily climate input parameters with a spatial resolution of 0.5° and downscaled to the 5' grid scale level daily stream flow was simulated and analyzed. First, the seasonality of flood events of defined recurrence periods was determined for the reference period 1961-1990 and validated against measured river discharge data. Subsequently, WaterGAP3 was forced with bias corrected time series originating from simulation runs of different GCMs for the scenario period 2071-2100. To asses the uncertainty that arises from the GCM output used as input forcing to the hydrological model, the calculations were carried out for three different GCMs (Echam5, CNRM, ISLP) and two emission scenarios (A2 and B1 of the IPCC SRES scenarios), respectively. The study demonstrates that the selection of a particular GCM is a major source of uncertainty in assessing

  6. The SAFE project: 'plant food allergies: field to table strategies for reducing their incidence in Europe' an EC-funded study.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K

    2005-04-01

    The true prevalence of food allergy as an IgE mediated reaction is still under discussion. Using apple as a model allergen source a multidisciplinary consortium worked together at developing various strategies for reducing the incidence of fruit allergies in an EC-funded project. Patient allergen profiles were established using in vitro and in vivo tests with respect to geographic area and mild or severe symptoms. Apple allergens (Mal d 1-Mal d 4) were characterised, variants identified, cloned and sequenced. These individual allergens were used to increase the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis. Furthermore, they provided better prognosis of disease severity. RT-PCR and ELISA were developed for determining the allergen specific mRNA and expressed allergenic protein in a large number of apple cultivars. Similarly, changes in allergen characteristics from harvest through storage to processing and the impact of agronomic practices were investigated. Allergen genes were mapped on a molecular linkage map of apple. The biological function of Mal d 1 was studied using the RNA interference strategy. Finally, consumer attitudes in Northern, Central and Southern Europe were gauged on the acceptability of low allergen cultivars or a GMO and its impact on product quality.

  7. Europe plans quantum technology flagship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The European Commission (EC) looks set to fund a €1bn flagship programme in quantum technologies starting in 2018. Similar to the EC's 10-year €1bn graphene flagship that began in 2013, the project was initiated by a group of researchers from across Europe in a “quantum manifesto” that was published in March and presented at the Quantum Europe 2016 conference in Amsterdam last month.

  8. Dirofilarial infections in Europe.

    PubMed

    Genchi, Claudio; Kramer, Laura H; Rivasi, Francesco

    2011-10-01

    Nematodes of the genus Dirofilaria are currently considered emerging agents of parasitic zoonoses in Europe. Climatic changes and an increase in the movement of reservoirs (mostly infected dogs) have caused an increase in the geographical range of these parasites from the traditionally endemic/hyperendemic southern regions, and the risk for human infection has increased. In the last several years, forecast models have predicted that current summer temperatures are sufficient to facilitate extrinsic incubation of Dirofilaria in many areas of Europe. The global warming projected by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change suggests that warm summers suitable for Dirofilaria transmission in Europe will be the rule in the future decades, and if the actual trend of temperature increase continues, filarial infection should spread into previously infection-free areas. Dirofilaria repens is currently the filarial species that is most commonly reported as spreading from southern to northern areas. This article reviews the zoonotic aspects, effects of climate, and other global drivers on Dirofilaria infections in Europe and the possible implications on the transmission and control of these mosquito-borne nematodes.

  9. Neogene sedimentary history of the Outer Cilicia Basin, eastern Mediterranean: a contribution to the TopoEurope VAMP project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piercey, Tiffany; Akhun, Selin; Hall, Jeremy; Aksu, Ali; Ćifçi, Günay

    2010-05-01

    The Vertical Anatolian Movements Project (VAMP) addresses the Neogene uplift of the Taurides and the Central Anatolian Plateau. While terrestrial studies are focussed on erosion in the sediment source area, and deposition within the Turkish landmass, our marine work is intended to provide a history of deposition in one of the ultimate sinks: the eastern Mediterranean. In particular, we are mapping the distribution in space and time of sediment deposited from the Göksu River into the Cilicia Basin. In 2008 we obtained km of high-resolution marine multi-channel seismic profiles radiating out from the river delta across the basin. Many of the profiles are processed and images of the data are presented. Interpretation of the available industry seismic reflection profiles show that during the the Miocene the northeastern Mediterranean, including the Cilicia Basin, experienced regional compression, which resulted in the formation of a broad and arcuate fold-thrust belt extending from the Taurides in the north, across the Troodos ophiolite complex into the Cyprus Arc in the south. Two prominent culminations were developed: one was located along the Misis-Kyrenia Fault Zone, another developed in the Amanos-Larnaka-Troodos Fault Zone. Stratigraphic and structural relationships demonstrated that the late Pliocene-Quaternary Cilicia-Adana Basin complex evolved as an asymmetric piggyback basin on the hanging-wall of the south-verging Misis-Kyrenia thrust culmination. Detailed mapping demonstrated that the S/SE-directed contraction culminated in the latest Miocene, and is followed in the early Pliocene by a progressive transition to partitioned contraction and extension related to the initiation of strike slip along the eastern Anatolian Transform Fault and its marine extensions. The shift in kinematics is expressed by the development of major NE-SW trending (Inner Cilicia Basin) and E-W trending (Outer Cilicia Basin) steep faults with extensional separations bounding the

  10. Effects of environmental temperature on performance of the Joule-Thomson refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yong-Ju; Kim, Hyobong; Park, Seong-Je

    2012-06-01

    Miniature Joule-Thomson refrigerators have been widely used for rapid cooling of infrared detectors, probes of cryosurgery, thermal cameras, missile homing head and guidance system, due to their special features of simple configuration, compact structure and rapid cool-down characteristics. Typical performance factors of the Joule-Thomson refrigerator are cool-down time, temperature of the cold end, running time and gas consumption. Those depend on operating conditions such as the pressure of the gas, thermal environment and etc.. In this study, experimental study of a miniature Joule- Thomson refrigerator with the gas pressure up to 12 MPa were performed to investigate the effects of the thermal environment (-40 ~ 50 °C). In experiments, to obtain the information of cool-down time, gas consumption and etc., the temperature of the cold end, mass flow rate and pressure of the argon gas are simultaneously measured. The Joule-Thomson refrigerator in cold thermal environment has rapid cool-down characteristics and small gas consumption. In the cold environmental condition, the Joule-Thomson refrigerator has high mass flow rate during cool-down process and in steady state.

  11. Joule Heating as a Signature of Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceren Kalafatoglu Eyiguler, Emine; Kaymaz, Zerefsan

    2016-07-01

    Since its first proposal by Birkeland in the early 1900s, the link between magnetosphere and ionosphere (M-I) has been immensely studied but there are still great variety of unsolved problems ranging from how to correctly balance the field aligned current (FAC) closure in the ionosphere to the resulting interactions between ions and neutrals in the ionosphere, and how the ionospheric conductivity and neutral wind control the M-I feedback to the mapping of the ionospheric regions to the magnetotail. It is now well known that during magnetically disturbed periods, the energy deposited to the magnetosphere by the solar wind is partitioned mainly between three domains: the ring current, ionosphere (via auroral particle precipitation and Joule heating) and the plasmoid release in the magnetotail. It is previously found that large part of this transferred energy is in the form of Joule heating which is the increase in ion-neutral collisions due to the increased energy input. However, Joule heating is also affected by the enhanced neutral wind motion during geomagnetic storms and substorms. Thus, it is one of the key manifestations of the M-I-T coupling. In this talk, we first give a through review of the present studies and recent advancements in the M-I-T research area then show the link between the magnetosphere and ionosphere by investigating the activity-time Joule heating variations as well as paying special attention to the neutral wind effects on Joule heating.

  12. Hybrid joule heating/electro-osmosis process for extracting contaminants from soil layers

    DOEpatents

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Nitao, John J.

    2003-06-10

    Joule (ohmic) heating and electro-osmosis are combined in a hybrid process for removal of both water-soluble contaminants and non-aqueous phase liquids from contaminated, low-permeability soil formations that are saturated. Central to this hybrid process is the partial desaturation of the formation or layer using electro-osmosis to remove a portion of the pore fluids by induction of a ground water flow to extraction wells. Joule heating is then performed on a partially desaturated formation. The joule heating and electro-osmosis operations can be carried out simultaneously or sequentially if the desaturation by electro-osmosis occurs initially. Joule heating of the desaturated formation results in a very effective transfer or partitioning of liquid state contaminants to the vapor phase. The heating also substantially increases the vapor phase pressure in the porous formation. As a result, the contaminant laden vapor phase is forced out into soil layers of a higher permeability where other conventional removal processes, such as steam stripping or ground water extraction can be used to capture the contaminants. This hybrid process is more energy efficient than joule heating or steam stripping for cleaning low permeability formations and can share electrodes to minimize facility costs.

  13. Neogene sedimentary history of the Inner Cilicia Basin, eastern Mediterranean: a contribution to the TopoEurope VAMP project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Susan; Kurtboǧan, Bahar; Akhun, Selin; Aksu, Ali; Hall, Jeremy; Ćifçi, Günay

    2010-05-01

    The Vertical Anatolian Movements Project (VAMP) addresses the Neogene uplift of the Taurides and the Central Anatolian Plateau. While terrestrial studies are focused on erosion in the sediment source area and deposition within the Turkish landmass, our marine work is focused to provide a history of deposition in one of the ultimate sinks: the eastern Mediterranean. In particular, we are mapping the distribution in space and time of sediment deposited from the Göksu River into the Cilicia Basin. In 2008 we collected ~2000 km of high-resolution marine multi-channel seismic reflection profiles radiating out from the present-day mouth of the Göksu River across the basin. The Göksu River delta is located on a narrow shelf at the junction of the Inner and Outer Cilicia Basins. The Inner Cilicia Basin consists of a 40 km-wide shelf linking to the onshore Adana Basin and a slope down to the deeper water (~ 1 km) of the Outer Cilicia Basin. The shelf is built out of a >2.5 km-thick sequence of Pliocene-Quaternary sediment overlying Messinian evaporites or older Miocene sediments. The evaporites have been mobilised to move down slope during the Pliocene-Quaternary so that the shelf is located above an extensional fault fan, complemented by a salt-cored fold/thrust belt in deeper water (see poster by Piercey et al., this meeting). The 2008 seismic reflection profiles show that the western margin of the Inner Cilicia Basin seaward of the mouth of the Göksu River is constructed by numerous vertically stacked and east-prograded delta successions. Detailed mapping in this region revealed that the sediment input from the Göksu River can be readily distinguished from the larger influxes from the coalescing Tarsus, Seyhan and Ceyhan Rivers to the north. The bases of major delta packages supplied by the Göksu River are marked by strong reflections, defining shelf-crossing unconformities, which can be correlated across the Inner Cilicia Basin. Industry exploration wells in the

  14. Analysis of the emission inventories and model-ready emission datasets of Europe and North America for phase 2 of the AQMEII project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouliot, George; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Kuenen, Jeroen; Zhang, Junhua; Moran, Michael D.; Makar, Paul A.

    2015-08-01

    This paper highlights the development of the emission inventories and emission processing for Europe (EU) and North America (NA) in the second phase of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) project. The main purpose of the second phase of the AQMEII project is to understand the importance of coupled meteorological-chemical models in our understanding of the feedback of chemistry on the meteorology. A second purpose of the second phase of the AQMEII project is to explore the differences between EU and NA in a dynamic evaluation of two modeling years (2006 and 2010). The first phase of AQMEII also considered the modeling year 2006. Comparing the two AQMEII phases, for the EU domain, there were substantial decreases in CO (-19%), NH3 (-11%), and SO2 (-12%) emissions between the phase 2 and phase 1 emissions used for 2006. For the NA domain, there were decreases in CO (-10%), non-methane hydrocarbons (-5%), PM2.5 (-8%), PM10 (-18%), SO2 (-12%), with an increase of 4% in NOx. For the 2010 modeling year, 2009 emissions were used as a proxy for 2010 emissions in the EU domain. Between 2006 and 2009, considerable emission reductions were achieved for 17 EU countries, Norway and Switzerland as well as EU-Non-Member States, for all emitted species aside from NH3, which remained almost stable. Non-EU countries showed little change in emissions levels, though this may be a result of poor data quality. Shipping emissions decreased for PM and SO2 due to Sulfur Emission Control Areas on the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, while increasing for other species. Overall for the EU domain between 2006 and 2009, estimated NOx emissions decreased by 10%, SO2 by 18%, CO by 12%, PM2.5 by 5%, PM10 by 6%, NMVOC by 11%, and NH3 by 1%. Between the 2006 and 2010 modeling years, estimated US NOx emissions decreased by 17%, SO2 by 29%, CO by 21%, PM2.5 by 12%, PM10 by 7%, NMHC by 4% and NH3 by 2% while Canadian and Mexican emissions were assumed to remain constant

  15. Strongly coupled radiative transfer and Joule heating in the cathode of an arc heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durgapal, P.; Palmer, Grant E.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation and Joule heating in the electrode region of an arc heater are discussed. Radiative transport equations for a true axisymmetric geometry are used. A subsonic code is developed to numerically solve the fluid equations with strongly coupled radiation and Joule heating representative of a high pressure and high current arc heater. Analytic expression for the divergence of radiative heat flux derived previously is used. Jacobians of the radiation term are derived. The Joule heating term is computed using a previously developed code. The equilibrium gas model consists of seven species. The fluxes are differenced using Van Leer flux splitting. Using this code, the effects of radiative cooling on the thermodynamic parameters of the arc core are discussed.

  16. Closed-Cycle Joule Thomson Cryocooler for Resistance Thermometer Calibration down to 0.65K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, T.; Toyoda, K.; Oota, A.; Nozato, H.; Usuda, T.; Tamura, O.

    2008-02-01

    A closed-cycle Joule Thomson cryocooler for resistance thermometer calibration has been developed. It consists of a Gifford McMahon mechanical refrigerator and a closed-cycle 3He Joule Thomson expansion circuit that utilizes the isenthalpic expansion of 3He for cooling. The developed cryocooler can reach temperatures as low as 0.6K and can operate for months with a simple procedure. The typical cooling power of the cryocooler is 1mW at 0.65K with a molar flow rate of 160μmol ·s-1 through the 3He Joule Thomson circuit. The possible mechanical vibration level experienced by the resistance thermometers was measured with a laser vibrometer. It was confirmed that the maximum acceleration level is 0.1m· s-2 and will not cause a problem for thermometer calibration.

  17. Decoupling electrocaloric effect from Joule heating in a solid state cooling device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintero, M.; Ghivelder, L.; Gomez-Marlasca, F.; Parisi, F.

    2011-12-01

    We report a heat dynamics analysis of the electrocaloric effect (ECE) in commercial multilayer capacitors based on BaTiO3 dielectric, a promising candidate for applications as a solid state cooling device. Direct measurements of the time evolution of the sample's temperature changes under different applied voltages allow us to decouple the contributions from Joule heating and from the ECE. Heat balance equations were used to model the thermal coupling between different parts of the system. Fingerprints of Joule heating and the ECE could be resolved at different time scales. We argue that Joule heating and the thermal coupling of the device to the environment must be carefully taken in to account in future developments of refrigeration technologies employing the ECE.

  18. Diffusion, Fluxes, Friction Forces, and Joule Heating in Two-Temperature Multicomponent Magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. H.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between Joule heating, diffusion fluxes, and friction forces has been studied for both total and electron thermal energy equations, using general expressions for multicomponent diffusion in two-temperature plasmas with the velocity dependent Lorentz force acting on charged species in a magnetic field. It is shown that the derivation of Joule heating terms requires both diffusion fluxes and friction between species which represents the resistance experienced by the species moving at different relative velocities. It is also shown that the familiar Joule heating term in the electron thermal energy equation includes artificial effects produced by switching the convective velocity from the species velocity to the mass-weighted velocity, and thus should not be ignored even when there is no net energy dissipation.

  19. Drilling and completion of the three CO2SINK boreholes in Europe's pilot CO2 storage and verification project in an onshore saline aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prevedel, P.,; Wohlgemuth, L.; Legarth, B.; Henninges, J.; Schütt, H.; Schmidt-Hattenberger, C.; Norden, B.; Förster, A.; Hurter, S.

    2009-04-01

    This paper reports the CO2SINK drilling and permanent monitoring completions, as well as the well testing techniques applied in Europe's first scientific carbon dioxide onshore storage test in a saline aquifer near the town of Ketzin, 40 km east of Berlin/Germany. Three boreholes, one injection and two observation wells have been drilled in 2007 to a total depth of about 800 m. The wells were completed as "smart" wells containing a variety of permanently installed down-hole sensors, which have successfully proven their functionality during over their first injection year and are the key instruments for the continuous monitoring of the CO2 inside the reservoir during the storage phase. Constructing three wells in close proximity of 50 to 100m distance to each other with a dense sensor and monitoring cable population requires detailed planning and employment of high-end project management tools. All wells were cased with stainless final casings equipped with pre-perforated sand filters in the pay-zone and wired on the outside with two fibre-optical, one multi-conductor copper, and a PU-heating cable to the surface. The reservoir casing section is externally coated with a fibre-glass-resin wrap for electrical insulation of the 15 geo-electrical toroid antennas in the open hole section. A staged cementation program was selected in combination with the application of a newly developed swellable rubber packer technology and specialized cementation down-hole tools. This technology was given preference over perforation work inside the final casing at the reservoir face, which would have created unmanageable risks of potential damage of the outside casing cables. Prior to the start of the injection phase, an extensive production and injection well test program as well as well-to-well interference tests were performed in order to determine the optimum CO2 injection regime.

  20. Reforming Upper Secondary Education in Europe. The Leonardo da Vinci Project Post-16 Strategies. Surveys of Strategies for Post-16 Education To Improve the Parity of Esteem for Initial Vocational Education in Eight European Educational Systems. Theory into Practice 92. Institute for Educational Research Publication Series B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasonen, Johanna, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers on the Leonardo da Vinci project: "Looking for Post-16 Education Strategies for Parity of Esteem in Europe" (Lasonen); "Improving Parity of Esteem as a Policy Goal" (Makinen, Volanen); "Alternative Strategies for Parity of Esteem between General/Academic and Vocational Education in Europe" (Kamarainen);…

  1. Hall and ion slip effects on peristaltic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid with Joule heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, T.; Shafique, Maryam; Tanveer, A.; Alsaedi, A.

    2016-06-01

    This paper addresses mixed convective peristaltic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid in a channel with complaint walls. The present investigation includes the viscous dissipation, thermal radiation and Joule heating. Hall and ion slip effects are also taken into account. Related problems through long wavelength and low Reynolds number are examined for stream function, temperature and concentration. Impacts of thermal radiation, Hartman number, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis, Joule heating, Hall and ion slip parameters are investigated in detail. It is observed that velocity increases and temperature decreases with Hall and ion slip parameters. Further the thermal radiation on temperature has qualitatively similar role to that of Hall and ion slip effects.

  2. Radiative Peristaltic Flow of Jeffrey Nanofluid with Slip Conditions and Joule Heating.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Tasawar; Shafique, Maryam; Tanveer, Anum; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Mixed convection peristaltic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid in a channel with compliant walls is addressed here. The present investigation includes the viscous dissipation, thermal radiation and Joule heating. Whole analysis is performed for velocity, thermal and concentration slip conditions. Related problems through long wavelength and low Reynolds number are examined for stream function, temperature and concentration. Impacts of thermal radiation, Hartman number, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis, Joule heating and slip parameters are explored in detail. Clearly temperature is a decreasing function of Hartman number and radiation parameter.

  3. Radiative Peristaltic Flow of Jeffrey Nanofluid with Slip Conditions and Joule Heating

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Tasawar; Shafique, Maryam; Tanveer, Anum; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Mixed convection peristaltic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid in a channel with compliant walls is addressed here. The present investigation includes the viscous dissipation, thermal radiation and Joule heating. Whole analysis is performed for velocity, thermal and concentration slip conditions. Related problems through long wavelength and low Reynolds number are examined for stream function, temperature and concentration. Impacts of thermal radiation, Hartman number, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis, Joule heating and slip parameters are explored in detail. Clearly temperature is a decreasing function of Hartman number and radiation parameter. PMID:26886919

  4. Radiative Peristaltic Flow of Jeffrey Nanofluid with Slip Conditions and Joule Heating.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Tasawar; Shafique, Maryam; Tanveer, Anum; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Mixed convection peristaltic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid in a channel with compliant walls is addressed here. The present investigation includes the viscous dissipation, thermal radiation and Joule heating. Whole analysis is performed for velocity, thermal and concentration slip conditions. Related problems through long wavelength and low Reynolds number are examined for stream function, temperature and concentration. Impacts of thermal radiation, Hartman number, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis, Joule heating and slip parameters are explored in detail. Clearly temperature is a decreasing function of Hartman number and radiation parameter. PMID:26886919

  5. Postglacial hillslope development in paraglacial tributary catchments (ESF-NFR SedyMONT-Norway Project, SedyMONT, Topo-Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laute, Katja; Beylich, Achim A.; Hansen, Louise; Vatne, Geir

    2010-05-01

    Topography and landforms of different spatial scales are generated by different operating processes and are characterized by different variables, evolved over different time periods. Changes in climate affect Earth surface systems and shapes Earth surface processes around the world and seem to have major impacts on sediment dynamics, especially in cold climate environments. Understanding climate and landform development from a Holocene to contemporary time perspective can contribute to document change of the Earth surface systems as well as to detect responsible processes for climatic and topographic change. Analyzing postglacial hillslope development and studying sediment transport within two small deglaciated, subarctic valley systems in Western Norway will improve the understanding of the complex response of mountain landscape formation. The innovative approach of this PhD research project is the combination of knowledge on Holocene process rates with data on subrecent to contemporary sedimentary fluxes, -budgets and process rates using different advanced methods and techniques. The PhD project is part of the NFR funded SedyMONT-Norway Project within the ESF EUROCORES TOPO-EUROPE SedyMONT (Timescales of sediment dynamics, climate and topographic change in mountain landscapes) Programme. Research is carried out within the Erdalen and Bødalen catchments of the Nordfjord valley-fjord system (inner Nordfjord, Western Norway). Both valleys can be described as steep U-shaped and glacier-fed tributary valleys. The runoff regime is complex with a high variability of discharge over the year. Instrumentation in both catchments includes an automatic weather station as well as five stationary stations for continuous and year-round monitoring of runoff, fluvial suspended sediment and solute transport. The main aims of the PhD project are to analyse (i) the spatial distribution of hillslopes, their contemporary structure, controls and current process rates, (ii) the

  6. Strategies for Reforming Initial Vocational Education and Training in Europe. Final Report of the Project. Leonardo da Vinci/Transnational Pilot Projects: Multiplier Effect, Strand III.3.a. Sharpening Post-16 Education Strategies by Horizontal and Vertical Networking (1997-2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenstrom, Marja-Leena, Ed.; Lasonen, Johanna, Ed.

    This document contains 24 papers examining strategies for reforming initial vocational education and training (VET) in Europe. The following papers are included: "Reassessing VET Reform Strategies in a New Context: Implementation of the SPES-NET (Sharpening Post-16 Education Strategies by Horizontal and Vertical Networking) Project" (Marja-Leena…

  7. Local temperature redistribution and structural transition during joule-heating-driven conductance switching in VO2.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suhas; Pickett, Matthew D; Strachan, John Paul; Gibson, Gary; Nishi, Yoshio; Williams, R Stanley

    2013-11-13

    Joule-heating induced conductance-switching is studied in VO2 , a Mott insulator. Complementary in situ techniques including optical characterization, blackbody microscopy, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and numerical simulations are used. Abrupt redistribution in local temperature is shown to occur upon conductance-switching along with a structural phase transition, at the same current.

  8. Joule heat generation in thermionic cathodes of high-pressure arc discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Benilov, M. S.; Cunha, M. D.

    2013-02-14

    The nonlinear surface heating model of plasma-cathode interaction in high-pressure arcs is extended to take into account the Joule effect inside the cathode body. Calculation results are given for different modes of current transfer to tungsten cathodes of different configurations in argon plasmas of atmospheric or higher pressures. Special attention is paid to analysis of energy balances of the cathode and the near-cathode plasma layer. In all the cases, the variation of potential inside the cathode is much smaller than the near-cathode voltage drop. However, this variation can be comparable to the volt equivalent of the energy flux from the plasma to the cathode and then the Joule effect is essential. Such is the case of the diffuse and mixed modes on rod cathodes at high currents, where the Joule heating causes a dramatic change of thermal and electrical regimes of the cathode. The Joule heating has virtually no effect over characteristics of spots on rod and infinite planar cathodes.

  9. A JOULE-HEATED MELTER TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY SE

    2011-04-07

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of joule-heated ceramic lined melters and their application to Hanford's low-activity waste.

  10. A closed cycle cascade Joule Thomson refrigerator for cooling Josephson junction magnetometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tward, E.; Sarwinski, R.

    1985-01-01

    A closed cycle cascade Joule Thomson refrigerator designed to cool Josephson Junction magnetometers to liquid helium temperature is being developed. The refrigerator incorporates 4 stages of cooling using the working fluids CF4 and He. The high pressure gases are provided by a small compressor designed for this purpose. The upper stages have been operated and performance will be described.

  11. Effect of Joule heating on isoelectric focusing of proteins in a microchannel.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Kisoo; Shim, Jaesool; Dutta, Prashanta

    2014-11-01

    Electric field-driven separation and purification techniques, such as isoelectric focusing (IEF) and isotachophoresis, generate heat in the system that can affect the performance of the separation process. In this study, a new mathematical model is presented for IEF that considers the temperature rise due to Joule heating. We used the model to study focusing phenomena and separation performance in a microchannel. A finite volume-based numerical technique is developed to study temperature-dependent IEF. Numerical simulation for narrow range IEF (6 < pH < 10) is performed in a straight microchannel for 100 ampholytes and two model proteins: staphylococcal nuclease and pancreatic ribonuclease. Separation results of the two proteins are obtained with and without considering the temperature rise due to Joule heating in the system for a nominal electric field of 100 V/cm. For the no Joule heating case, constant properties are used, while for the Joule heating case, temperature-dependent titration curves and thermo-physical properties are used. Our numerical results show that the temperature change due to Joule heating has a significant impact on the final focusing points of proteins, which can lower the separation performance considerably. In the absence of advection and any active cooling mechanism, the temperature increase is the highest at the mid-section of a microchannel. We also found that the maximum temperature in the system is a strong function of the [Formula: see text] value of the carrier ampholytes. Simulation results are also obtained for different values of applied electric fields in order to find the optimum working range considering the simulation time and buffer temperature. Moreover, the model is extended to study IEF in a straight microchip where pH is formed by supplying H(+) and OH(-), and the thermal analysis shows that the heat generation is negligible in ion supplied IEF. PMID:25553199

  12. Small-scale fluctuations in barium drifts at high latitudes and associated Joule heating effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurd, L. D.; Larsen, M. F.

    2016-01-01

    Most previous estimates of Joule heating rates, especially the contribution of small-scale structure in the high-latitude ionosphere, have been based on incoherent scatter or coherent scatter radar measurements. An alternative estimate can be found from the plasma drifts obtained from ionized barium clouds released from sounding rockets. We have used barium drift data from three experiments to estimate Joule heating rates in the high-latitude E region for different magnetic activity levels. In particular, we are interested in the contribution of small-scale plasma drift fluctuations, corresponding to equivalent electric field fluctuations, to the local Joule heating rate on scales smaller than those typically resolved by radar or other measurements. Since Joule heating is a Lagrangian quantity, the inherently Lagrangian estimates provided by the chemical tracer measurements are a full description of the effects of electric field variance and neutral winds on the heating, differing from the Eulerian estimates of the type provided by ground-based measurements. Results suggest that the small-scale contributions to the heating can be more than a factor of 2 greater than the mean field contribution regardless of geomagnetic conditions, and at times the small-scale contribution is even larger. The high-resolution barium drift measurements, moreover, show that the fine structure in the electric field can be more variable than previous studies have reported for similar conditions. The neutral winds also affect the heating, altering the height-integrated Joule heating rates by as much as 12%, for the cases studied here, and modifying the height distribution of the heating profile as well.

  13. Joule heating hot spot at high latitudes in the afternoon sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, L.; Aikio, A. T.; Milan, S. E.

    2016-07-01

    The afternoon Joule heating hot spot has been studied statistically by using the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) measurements at 75.4° Corrected Geomagnetic latitude (CGMLAT) and the OMNI solar wind data base. For a small subset of events, the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) field-aligned current distributions have been available. The main results are as follows. Afternoon Joule heating hot spots are associated with high values of ionospheric electric fields and slightly enhanced Pedersen conductances. The Joule heating hot spot values are larger in summer than in winter, which can be explained by the higher Pedersen conductances during summer than winter. The afternoon Joule heating hot spots are located close to the reversals of the large-scale field-aligned current systems. The most common location is close to the Region 1/Region 2 boundary and those events are associated with sunward convecting F region plasma. In a few cases, the hot spots take place close to the Region 1/Region 0 boundary and then the ionospheric plasma is convecting antisunward. The hot spots may occur both during slow (<450 km/s) and high (>450 km/s) speed solar wind conditions. During slow-speed solar wind events, the dominant interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) direction is southward, which is the general requirement for the low-latitude magnetic merging at the dayside magnetopause. During high-speed solar wind, also northward IMF conditions appear, but those are associated with large values of the IMF |By| component, making again the dayside magnetopause merging possible. Finally, the measured afternoon hot spot Joule heating rates are not a linear function of the solar wind energy coupling function.

  14. Effect of Joule heating on isoelectric focusing of proteins in a microchannel

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Kisoo; Shim, Jaesool; Dutta, Prashanta

    2014-01-01

    Electric field-driven separation and purification techniques, such as isoelectric focusing (IEF) and isotachophoresis, generate heat in the system that can affect the performance of the separation process. In this study, a new mathematical model is presented for IEF that considers the temperature rise due to Joule heating. We used the model to study focusing phenomena and separation performance in a microchannel. A finite volume-based numerical technique is developed to study temperature-dependent IEF. Numerical simulation for narrow range IEF (6 < pH < 10) is performed in a straight microchannel for 100 ampholytes and two model proteins: staphylococcal nuclease and pancreatic ribonuclease. Separation results of the two proteins are obtained with and without considering the temperature rise due to Joule heating in the system for a nominal electric field of 100 V/cm. For the no Joule heating case, constant properties are used, while for the Joule heating case, temperature-dependent titration curves and thermo-physical properties are used. Our numerical results show that the temperature change due to Joule heating has a significant impact on the final focusing points of proteins, which can lower the separation performance considerably. In the absence of advection and any active cooling mechanism, the temperature increase is the highest at the mid-section of a microchannel. We also found that the maximum temperature in the system is a strong function of the ΔpK  value of the carrier ampholytes. Simulation results are also obtained for different values of applied electric fields in order to find the optimum working range considering the simulation time and buffer temperature. Moreover, the model is extended to study IEF in a straight microchip where pH is formed by supplying H+ and OH−, and the thermal analysis shows that the heat generation is negligible in ion supplied IEF. PMID:25553199

  15. Southern Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On November 3, 2001, MODIS collected this image of Western Europe. Starting at the lower-left corner of the image and moving clockwise are the countries of Spain, France, Germany, Austria, Italy, and Switzerland. The Alps, the crescent-shaped mountain range running from the center to the right side of the image, span a length of 750 miles and cover and area of 80,000 square miles. In this image, a gray cloud of aerosols, predominantly from Italy's northwestern region of Lombardy, are corralled by the massive heights of the Alps. One large source of aerosols is the city of Milan. Home to numerous international and local industrial plants, Milan is faced with many of the same air quality problems as other large metropolitan areas. Also visible in the image is a phytoplankton bloom in the Bay of Biscay (left), at the confluence of the Garonne and Dordogne rivers. The rivers form the Gironde Estuary, which is saturated with sediment that provides necessary nutrients for the phytoplankton. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  16. Energetics and the resistive tearing mode - Effects of Joule heating and radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinolfson, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    The contribution of energy flux to the dynamics of magnetic field reconnection is analytically studied in order to determine the influence of Joule heating and radiation on the linear development of the tearing instability in slab geometry. A temperature-dependent Coulomb-like resistivity is used to provide the coupling between the dynamics and the energy equation. Analytical expressions are derived for the growth rates utilizing constant-psi and long-wavelength approximations. The solutions indicate the occurrence of several modes in addition to the usual tearing mode, several of which have relatively slow, complex growth rates. At large values of the magnetic Reynolds number, there are at least two modes with purely exponential growth when the radiative loss decreases with increasing temperature. If the radiation is neglected, the Joule heating alone also results in two modes with real, positive growth at large S. Below a particular value of S, all the modes are generally stabilized.

  17. Seebeck effect influence on joule heat evolution in electrically conductive silicate materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiala, Lukáš; Medved, Igor; Maděra, Jiří; Černý, Robert

    2016-07-01

    In general, silicate building materials are non-conductive matters that are not able to evolve heat when they are subjected to an external voltage. However, the electrical conductivity can be increased by addition of electrically conductive admixtures in appropriate amount which leads to generation of conductive paths in materials matrix. Such enhanced materials can evolve Joule heat and are utilizable as a core of self-heating or snow-melting systems. In this paper, Joule heat evolution together with Seebeck effect in electrically conductive silicate materials was taken into consideration and the model based on heat equation with included influence of DC electric field was proposed. Besides, a modeling example of heating element was carried out on FEM basis and time development of temperature in chosen surface points was expressed in order to declare ability of such system to be applicable.

  18. Modeling Joule Heating Effect on Lunar O2 Generation via Electrolytic Reduction.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominquez, Jesus; Poizeau, Sophie; Sibille, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center is leading research work on lunar O2 generation via electrolytic reduction of regolith; the metal oxide present in the regolith is dissociated in oxygen anions and metal cations leading to the generation of gaseous oxygen at the anode and liquid metal at the cathode. Electrical resistance of molten regolith is high, leading to heating of the melt when electrical current is applied between the electrodes (Joule heating). The authors have developed a 3D model using a rigorous approach for two coupled physics (thermal and electrical potential) to not only study the effect of Joule heating on temperature distribution throughout the molten regolith but also to evaluate and optimize the design of the electrolytic cells. This paper presents the results of the thermal analysis performed on the model and used to validate the design of the electrolytic cell.

  19. Effect of Joule heating on orientation of spheroidal particle in alternating electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinsky, Yu.; Elperin, T.

    2008-07-01

    We study the change of orientation of a spheroidal particle immersed into a liquid or gaseous host medium under the action of the alternating external electric field. It is assumed that the particle and the host medium have different electric conductivities. We show that the rate of Joule heating of the particle depends on the orientation of its axis of symmetry with respect to the direction of the electric field. If electric conductivity of particle strongly varies with temperature, the Joule heating of the particle affects orientation dynamics and results in the appearance of the new equilibrium orientations. We investigate the dependence of the dynamics of particle rotation and the direction of the equilibrium orientation on the frequency of the electric field.

  20. Implantable polymer/metal thin film structures for the localized treatment of cancer by Joule heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan-Dapaah, Kwabena; Rahbar, Nima; Theriault, Christian; Soboyejo, Wole

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an implantable polymer/metal alloy thin film structure for localized post-operative treatment of breast cancer. A combination of experiments and models is used to study the temperature changes due to Joule heating by patterned metallic thin films embedded in poly-dimethylsiloxane. The heat conduction within the device and the surrounding normal/cancerous breast tissue is modeled with three-dimensional finite element method (FEM). The FEM simulations are used to explore the potential effects of device geometry and Joule heating on the temperature distribution and lesion (thermal dose). The FEM model is validated using a gel model that mimics biological media. The predictions are also compared to prior results from in vitro studies and relevant in vivo studies in the literature. The implications of the results are discussed for the potential application of polymer/metal thin film structures in hyperthermic treatment of cancer.

  1. Joule heating effects on particle immobilization in insulator-based dielectrophoretic devices

    PubMed Central

    Gallo-Villanueva, Roberto C.; Sano, Michael B.; Lapizco-Encinas, Blanca H.; Davalos, Rafael V.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the temperature effects due to Joule heating obtained by application of a DC electric potential were investigated for a microchannel with cylindrical insulating posts employed for insulator based dielectrophoresis (iDEP). The conductivity of the suspending medium, the local electric field, and the gradient of the squared electric field, which directly affect the magnitude of the dielectrophoretic force exerted on particles, were computationally simulated employing COMSOL Multiphysics. It was observed that a temperature gradient is formed along the microchannel which redistributes the conductivity of the suspending medium leading to an increase of the dielectrophoretic force towards the inlet of the channel while decreasing towards the outlet. Experimental results are in good agreement with simulations on the particle trapping zones anticipated. This study demonstrates the importance of considering Joule heating effects when designing iDEP systems. PMID:24002905

  2. Breakdown of Richardson's Law in Electron Emission from Individual Self-Joule-Heated Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xianlong; Wang, Sheng; Chen, Qing; Peng, Lianmao

    2014-01-01

    Probing the validity of classical macroscopic physical laws at the nanoscale is important for nanoscience research. Herein, we report on experimental evidence that electron emission from individual hot carbon nanotubes (CNTs) heated by self-Joule-heating does not obey Richardson's law of thermionic emission. By using an in-situ multi-probe measurement technique, electron emission density (J) and temperature (T) of individual self-Joule-heated CNTs are simultaneously determined. Experimental ln(J/T2) − 1/T plots are found to exhibit an upward bending feature deviating from the straight lines in Richardson plots, and the measured electron emission density is more than one order of magnitude higher than that predicted by Richardson's law. The breakdown of Richardson's law implies a much better electron emission performance of individual CNTs as compared to their macroscopic allotropes and clusters, and the need of new theoretical descriptions of electron emission from individual low-dimensional nanostructures. PMID:24869719

  3. Quantum Joule-Thomson effect in a saturated homogeneous Bose gas.

    PubMed

    Schmidutz, Tobias F; Gotlibovych, Igor; Gaunt, Alexander L; Smith, Robert P; Navon, Nir; Hadzibabic, Zoran

    2014-01-31

    We study the thermodynamics of Bose-Einstein condensation in a weakly interacting quasihomogeneous atomic gas, prepared in an optical-box trap. We characterize the critical point for condensation and observe saturation of the thermal component in a partially condensed cloud, in agreement with Einstein's textbook picture of a purely statistical phase transition. Finally, we observe the quantum Joule-Thomson effect, namely isoenthalpic cooling of an (essentially) ideal gas. In our experiments this cooling occurs spontaneously, due to energy-independent collisions with the background gas in the vacuum chamber. We extract a Joule-Thomson coefficient μJT>10(9)  K/bar, about 10 orders of magnitude larger than observed in classical gases.

  4. Initial Determinations of Ionospheric Electric Fields and Joule Heating from MAVEN Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Fogle, A. L.; Aleryani, O.; Dunn, P.; Lillis, R. J.; McFadden, J. P.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Andersson, L.; Ergun, R.

    2015-12-01

    MAVEN provides in-situ measurements of the neutral and ion species as well as the magnetic field throughout the ionosphere of Mars. By combining these measurements, we are able to calculate both the ionospheric currents and the ionospheric conductivity. It is then straightforward to determine the electric field in the collisional ionosphere from a simplified Ohm's law. In addition, we can also estimate the amount of Joule heating in the ionosphere from j · E. Here, we show initial determinations of both ionospheric electric fields and Joule heating using MAVEN data. The electric fields are highly variable from orbit-to-orbit suggesting that the ionospheric electrodynamics can change on timescales of several hours. These changes may be driven by changes in the upstream solar wind and IMF or may result from dynamical variations of thermospheric neutral winds.

  5. Ionospheric Poynting Flux and Joule Heating Modeling Challenge: Latest Results and New Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, J. S.; Rastaetter, L.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Knipp, D. J.; Zheng, Y.; Cosgrove, R. B.; Newell, P. T.; Weimer, D. R.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Wang, W.

    2014-12-01

    Poynting Flux and Joule Heating in the ionosphere - latest results from the challenge and updates at the CCMC. With the addition of satellite tracking and display features in the online analysis tool and at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC), we are now able to obtain Poynting flux and Joule heating values from a wide variety of ionospheric models. In addition to Poynting fluxes derived from electric and magnetic field measurements from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites for a recent modeling challenge, we can now use a Poynting Flux model derived from FAST satellite observations for comparison. Poynting Fluxes are also correlated using Ovation Prime maps of precipitation patterns during the same time periods to assess how "typical" the events in the challenge are.

  6. Incorporating Cold Cap Behavior in a Joule-heated Waste Glass Melter Model

    SciTech Connect

    Varija Agarwal; Donna Post Guillen

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, an overview of Joule-heated waste glass melters used in the vitrification of high level waste (HLW) is presented, with a focus on the cold cap region. This region, in which feed-to-glass conversion reactions occur, is critical in determining the melting properties of any given glass melter. An existing 1D computer model of the cold cap, implemented in MATLAB, is described in detail. This model is a standalone model that calculates cold cap properties based on boundary conditions at the top and bottom of the cold cap. Efforts to couple this cold cap model with a 3D STAR-CCM+ model of a Joule-heated melter are then described. The coupling is being implemented in ModelCenter, a software integration tool. The ultimate goal of this model is to guide the specification of melter parameters that optimize glass quality and production rate.

  7. Quantum Joule-Thomson effect in a saturated homogeneous Bose gas.

    PubMed

    Schmidutz, Tobias F; Gotlibovych, Igor; Gaunt, Alexander L; Smith, Robert P; Navon, Nir; Hadzibabic, Zoran

    2014-01-31

    We study the thermodynamics of Bose-Einstein condensation in a weakly interacting quasihomogeneous atomic gas, prepared in an optical-box trap. We characterize the critical point for condensation and observe saturation of the thermal component in a partially condensed cloud, in agreement with Einstein's textbook picture of a purely statistical phase transition. Finally, we observe the quantum Joule-Thomson effect, namely isoenthalpic cooling of an (essentially) ideal gas. In our experiments this cooling occurs spontaneously, due to energy-independent collisions with the background gas in the vacuum chamber. We extract a Joule-Thomson coefficient μJT>10(9)  K/bar, about 10 orders of magnitude larger than observed in classical gases. PMID:24580421

  8. Experimental evidence in support of Joule heating associated with geomagnetic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devries, L. L.

    1971-01-01

    High resolution accelerometer measurements in the altitude region 140 to 300 km from a satellite in a near-polar orbit during a period of extremely high geomagnetic activity indicate that Joule heating is the primary source of energy for atmospheric heating associated with geomagnetic activity. This conclusion is supported by the following observational evidence: (1) There is an atmospheric response in the auroral zone which is nearly simulataneous with the onset of geomagnetic activity, with no significant response in the equatorial region until several hours later; (2) The maximum heating occurs at geographic locations near the maximum current of the auroral electrojet; and (3) There is evidence of atmospheric waves originating near the auroral zone at altitudes where Joule heating would be expected to occur. An analysis of atmospheric response time to this heat shows time delays are apparently independent of altitude but are strongly dependent upon geomagnetic latitude.

  9. Joule-Thomson inversion curves and related coefficients for several simple fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Peller, I. C.; Baron, A. K.

    1972-01-01

    The equations of state (PVT relations) for methane, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, neon, hydrogen, and helium were used to establish Joule-Thomson inversion curves for each fluid. The principle of corresponding states was applied to the inversion curves, and a generalized inversion curve for fluids with small acentric factors was developed. The quantum fluids (neon, hydrogen, and helium) were excluded from the generalization, but available data for the fluids xenon and krypton were included. The critical isenthalpic Joule-Thomson coefficient mu sub c was determined; and a simplified approximation mu sub c approximates T sub c divided by 6P sub c was found adequate, where T sub c and P sub c are the temperature and pressure at the thermodynamic critical point. The maximum inversion temperatures were obtained from the second virial coefficient (maximum (B/T)).

  10. Direct Resistance Joule Heating of Al-10 pct Si-Coated Press Hardening Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang Wook; Choi, Won Seok; Cho, Yeol Rae; De Cooman, Bruno C.

    2016-06-01

    Various rapid heating methods have been developed to increase the productivity of press hardening steel. One of these methods is direct resistance Joule heating. This heating method results in the melting of the surface coating and the formation of a persistent liquid trail as a result of the high thermal conductivity and low melting temperature of the Al-10 pct Si alloy coating. This can be addressed by an alloying preheating treatment prior to the press hardening process.

  11. From Joule to Caratheodory and Born: A Conceptual Evolution of the First Law of Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    In the years after Joule's experiment on the equivalence of heat and work, it was taken for granted that heat and work could be independently defined and that the change in energy for a change of state is the sum of the heat and the work. Only with the work of Caratheodory and Born did it become clear that heat cannot be measured independently,…

  12. The role of Joule heating in dispersive mixing effects in electrophoretic cells: hydrodynamic considerations.

    PubMed

    Bosse, M A; Arce, P

    2000-03-01

    The analysis described in this contribution is focused on the effect of Joule heating generation on the hydrodynamics of batch electrophoretic cells (i.e., cells that do not display a forced convective term in the motion equation). The hydrodynamics of these cells is controlled by the viscous forces and by the buoyancy force caused by the temperature gradients due to the Joule heating generation. The analysis is based on differential models that lead to analytical and/or asymptotic solutions for the temperature and velocity profiles of the cell. The results are useful in determining the characteristics of the temperature and velocity profiles inside the cell. Furthermore, the results are excellent tools to be used in the analysis of the dispersive-mixing of solute when Joule heating generation must be accounted for. The analysis is performed by identifying two sequentially coupled problems. Thus, the "carrier fluid problem" and the "solute problem" are outlined. The former is associated with all the factors affecting the velocity profile and the latter is related to the convective-diffusion aspects that control the spreading of the solute inside the cell. The analysis of this contribution is centered on the discussion of the "carrier fluid problem" only. For the boundary conditions selected in the contribution, the study leads to the derivation of an analytical temperature and a "universal" velocity profile that feature the Joule heating number. The Grashof number is a scaling factor of the actual velocity profile. Several characteristics of these profiles are studied and some numerical illustrations have been included.

  13. Solar Wind Effect on Joule Heating in the High-Latitude Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, L.; Aikio, A. T.; Nygren, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) carried by solar wind affects strongly several key parameters in the high-latitude ionosphere. In this study, the solar wind effect on those parameters especially on Joule heating is conducted statistically based on the simultaneous measurements by the EISCAT radars in Tromsø (TRO, 66.6° cgmLat, mainly within the auroral oval on the nightside), and on Svalbard (ESR, 75.4º cgmLat, mostly within the polar cap). The most important findings are as follows: (i) At TRO, the decrease in Joule heating in the afternoon-evening sector due to neutral winds reported by Aikio et al. [2012] requires southward IMF conditions and a sufficiently high solar wind electric field. The increase in the morning sector takes place for all IMF directions within a region where the upper-E neutral wind has a large equatorward component and the F-region plasma flow is directed eastward. (ii) At ESR, an afternoon hot spot of joule heating centred typically at 14-15 MLT is observed during all IMF conditions. Enhanced Pedersen conductances within the hot spot region are observed only for the IMF Bz+/By- conditions, and the corresponding convection electric field values within the hot spot are smaller than during the other IMF conditions. Hence, the hot spot represents a region of persistent magnetopsheric electromagnetic energy input. (iii) For the southward IMF conditions, the MLT-integrated Joule heating rate without neutral winds for By- is twice the value for By+ at TRO. This can plausibly be explained by the higher average solar wind electric field values for By-.

  14. A model of a subcritical Joule-Thomson cryocooler with condensation inside the recuperator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shusser, M.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Maytal, B.-Z.; Grossman, G.

    2009-08-01

    To develop a tool for predicting of heat and mass transfer in Joule-Thomson cryocoolers working at subcritical pressures, we study a counter flow heat exchanger with condensation by employing the integral method. The effects of inlet pressure and working fluid are predicted. We also show that there is an optimal value of the enthalpy difference along the heat exchanger for which its length is minimal.

  15. Jupiter Thermospheric General Circulation Model (JTGCM): Global Structure and Dynamics Driven by Auroral and Joule Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bougher, S. W.; J. Il. Waite, Jr.; Majeed, T.

    2005-01-01

    A growing multispectral database plus recent Galileo descent measurements are being used to construct a self-consistent picture of the Jupiter thermosphere/ionosphere system. The proper characterization of Jupiter s upper atmosphere, embedded ionosphere, and auroral features requires the examination of underlying processes, including the feedbacks of energetics, neutral-ion dynamics, composition, and magnetospheric coupling. A fully 3-D Jupiter Thermospheric General Circulation Model (JTGCM) has been developed and exercised to address global temperatures, three-component neutral winds, and neutral-ion species distributions. The domain of this JTGCM extends from 20-microbar (capturing hydrocarbon cooling) to 1.0 x 10(exp -4) nbar (including aurora/Joule heating processes). The resulting JTGCM has been fully spun-up and integrated for greater than or equal to40 Jupiter rotations. Results from three JTGCM cases incorporating moderate auroral heating, ion drag, and moderate to strong Joule heating processes are presented. The neutral horizontal winds at ionospheric heights vary from 0.5 km/s to 1.2 km/s, atomic hydrogen is transported equatorward, and auroral exospheric temperatures range from approx.1200-1300 K to above 3000 K, depending on the magnitude of Joule heating. The equatorial temperature profiles from the JTGCM are compared with the measured temperature structure from the Galileo AS1 data set. The best fit to the Galileo data implies that the major energy source for maintaining the equatorial temperatures is due to dynamical heating induced by the low-latitude convergence of the high-latitude-driven thermospheric circulation. Overall, the Jupiter thermosphere/ionosphere system is highly variable and is shown to be strongly dependent on magnetospheric coupling which regulates Joule heating.

  16. Alcoholic Beverage Preference and Dietary Habits in Elderly across Europe: Analyses within the Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) Project

    PubMed Central

    Sluik, Diewertje; Jankovic, Nicole; O’Doherty, Mark G.; Geelen, Anouk; Schöttker, Ben; Rolandsson, Olov; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; Ferrieres, Jean; Bamia, Christina; Fransen, Heidi P.; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Eriksson, Sture; Martínez, Begoña; Huerta, José María; Kromhout, Daan; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; Franco, Oscar H.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Boffetta, Paolo; Kee, Frank; Feskens, Edith J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The differential associations of beer, wine, and spirit consumption on cardiovascular risk found in observational studies may be confounded by diet. We described and compared dietary intake and diet quality according to alcoholic beverage preference in European elderly. Methods From the Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES), seven European cohorts were included, i.e. four sub-cohorts from EPIC-Elderly, the SENECA Study, the Zutphen Elderly Study, and the Rotterdam Study. Harmonized data of 29,423 elderly participants from 14 European countries were analyzed. Baseline data on consumption of beer, wine, and spirits, and dietary intake were collected with questionnaires. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI). Intakes and scores across categories of alcoholic beverage preference (beer, wine, spirit, no preference, non-consumers) were adjusted for age, sex, socio-economic status, self-reported prevalent diseases, and lifestyle factors. Cohort-specific mean intakes and scores were calculated as well as weighted means combining all cohorts. Results In 5 of 7 cohorts, persons with a wine preference formed the largest group. After multivariate adjustment, persons with a wine preference tended to have a higher HDI score and intake of healthy foods in most cohorts, but differences were small. The weighted estimates of all cohorts combined revealed that non-consumers had the highest fruit and vegetable intake, followed by wine consumers. Non-consumers and persons with no specific preference had a higher HDI score, spirit consumers the lowest. However, overall diet quality as measured by HDI did not differ greatly across alcoholic beverage preference categories. Discussion This study using harmonized data from ~30,000 elderly from 14 European countries showed that, after multivariate adjustment, dietary habits and diet quality did not differ greatly according to alcoholic beverage

  17. Improved Ionospheric Electrodynamic Models and Application to Calculating Joule Heating Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weimer, D. R.

    2004-01-01

    Improved techniques have been developed for empirical modeling of the high-latitude electric potentials and magnetic field aligned currents (FAC) as a function of the solar wind parameters. The FAC model is constructed using scalar magnetic Euler potentials, and functions as a twin to the electric potential model. The improved models have more accurate field values as well as more accurate boundary locations. Non-linear saturation effects in the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling are also better reproduced. The models are constructed using a hybrid technique, which has spherical harmonic functions only within a small area at the pole. At lower latitudes the potentials are constructed from multiple Fourier series functions of longitude, at discrete latitudinal steps. It is shown that the two models can be used together in order to calculate the total Poynting flux and Joule heating in the ionosphere. An additional model of the ionospheric conductivity is not required in order to obtain the ionospheric currents and Joule heating, as the conductivity variations as a function of the solar inclination are implicitly contained within the FAC model's data. The models outputs are shown for various input conditions, as well as compared with satellite measurements. The calculations of the total Joule heating are compared with results obtained by the inversion of ground-based magnetometer measurements. Like their predecessors, these empirical models should continue to be a useful research and forecast tools.

  18. Influence of Joule heating on current-induced domain wall depinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, Simone; Raposo, Victor; Martinez, Eduardo

    2016-06-01

    The domain wall depinning from a notch in a Permalloy nanostrip on top of a SiO2/Si substrate is studied theoretically under application of static magnetic fields and the injection of short current pulses. The influence of Joule heating on current-induced domain wall depinning is explored self-consistently by coupling the magnetization dynamics in the ferromagnetic strip to the heat transport throughout the system. Our results indicate that Joule heating plays a remarkable role in these processes, resulting in a reduction in the critical depinning field and/or in a temporary destruction of the ferromagnetic order for typically injected current pulses. In agreement with experimental observations, similar pinning-depinning phase diagrams can be deduced for both current polarities when the Joule heating is taken into account. These observations, which are incompatible with the sole contribution of spin transfer torques, provide a deeper understanding of the physics underlying these processes and establish the real scope of the spin transfer torque. They are also relevant for technological applications based on current-induced domain-wall motion along soft strips.

  19. Passivation of organic light emitting diode anode grid lines by pulsed Joule heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janka, M.; Gierth, R.; Rubingh, J.-E.; Abendroth, M.; Eggert, M.; Moet, D. J. D.; Lupo, D.

    2015-09-01

    We report the self-aligned passivation of a current distribution grid for an organic light emitting diode (OLED) anode using a pulsed Joule heating method to align the passivation layer accurately on the metal grid. This method involves passing an electric current through the grid to cure a polymer dielectric. Uncured polymer is then rinsed away, leaving a patterned dielectric layer that conforms to the shape of the grid lines. To enhance the accuracy of the alignment, heat conduction into the substrate and the transparent electrode is limited by using short current pulses instead of a constant current. Excellent alignment accuracy of the dielectric layer on printed metal grid lines has been achieved, with a typical 4-μm dielectric overhang. In addition to good accuracy, pulsed Joule heating significantly cuts down process time and energy consumption compared to heating with a constant current. The feasibility of using a printed current distribution grid and Joule heating was demonstrated in an OLED device.

  20. Hampson’s type cryocoolers with distributed Joule-Thomson effect for mixed refrigerants closed cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maytal, Ben-Zion

    2014-05-01

    Most previous studies on Joule-Thomson cryocoolers of mixed refrigerants in a closed cycle focus on the Linde kind recuperator. The present study focuses on four constructions of Hampson’s kind miniature Joule-Thomson cryocoolers based on finned capillary tubes. The frictional pressure drop along the tubes plays the role of distributed Joule-Thomson expansion so that an additional orifice or any throttle at the cold end is eliminated. The high pressure tube is a throttle and a channel of recuperation at the same time. These coolers are tested within two closed cycle systems of different compressors and different compositions of mixed coolants. All tests were driven by the same level of discharge pressure (2.9 MPa) while the associated suction pressures and the associated reached temperatures are dependent on each particular cryocooler and on the closed cycle system. The mixture of higher specific cooling capacity cannot reach temperatures below 80 K when driven by the smaller compressor. The other mixture of lower specific cooling capacity driven by the larger compressor reaches lower temperatures. The examined parameters are the cooldown period and the reachable temperatures by each cryocooler.

  1. Ultra-high temperature stability Joule-Thomson cooler with capability to accomodate pressure variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bard, Steven (Inventor); Wu, Jiunn-Jeng (Inventor); Trimble, Curtis A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A Joule-Thomson cryogenic refrigeration system capable of achieving high temperature stabilities in the presence of varying temperature, atmospheric pressure, and heat load is provided. The Joule-Thomson cryogenic refrigeration system includes a demand flow Joule-Thomson expansion valve disposed in a cryostat of the refrigeration system. The expansion valve has an adjustable orifice that controls the flow of compressed gas therethrough and induces cooling and partial liquefaction of the gas. A recuperative heat exchanger is disposed in the cryostat and coupled to the expansion valve. A thermostatically self-regulating mechanism is disposed in the cryostat and coupled to the J-T expansion valve. The thermostatically self-regulating mechanism automatically adjusts the cross sectional area of the adjustable valve orifice in response to environmental temperature changes and changes in power dissipated at a cold head. A temperature sensing and adjusting mechanism is coupled to a cold head for adjusting the temperature of the cold head in response to the change in heat flow in the cold head. The temperature sensing and adjusting mechanism comprises a temperature sensitive diode, a wound wire heater, and an electrical feedback control circuit coupling the diode to the heater. An absolute pressure relief valve is interposed between the output of the cryostat and an exhaust port for maintaining a constant exhaust temperature in the refrigerating system, independent of the changes in atmospheric pressure.

  2. Minorities in Central and Eastern Europe. A Secondary Education for Europe Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foucher, Michel

    This monograph, published as part of the project "A Secondary Education for Europe," makes no claim to deal with all the questions relating to minorities, from either the legal point of view of that of international action. The paper does not aim to suggest recommendations on a theme which has concerned the Council of Europe for years. The…

  3. A 3D reconstruction solution to ultrasound Joule heat density tomography based on acousto-electric effect: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, R.; Song, A.; Li, X. D.; Lu, Y.; Yan, R.; Xu, B.; Li, X.

    2014-10-01

    A 3D reconstruction solution to ultrasound Joule heat density tomography based on acousto-electric effect by deconvolution is proposed for noninvasive imaging of biological tissue. Compared with ultrasound current source density imaging, ultrasound Joule heat density tomography doesn't require any priori knowledge of conductivity distribution and lead fields, so it can gain better imaging result, more adaptive to environment and with wider application scope. For a general 3D volume conductor with broadly distributed current density field, in the AE equation the ultrasound pressure can't simply be separated from the 3D integration, so it is not a common modulation and basebanding (heterodyning) method is no longer suitable to separate Joule heat density from the AE signals. In the proposed method the measurement signal is viewed as the output of Joule heat density convolving with ultrasound wave. As a result, the internal 3D Joule heat density can be reconstructed by means of Wiener deconvolution. A series of computer simulations set for breast cancer imaging applications, with consideration of ultrasound beam diameter, noise level, conductivity contrast, position dependency and size of simulated tumors, have been conducted to evaluate the feasibility and performance of the proposed reconstruction method. The computer simulation results demonstrate that high spatial resolution 3D ultrasound Joule heat density imaging is feasible using the proposed method, and it has potential applications to breast cancer detection and imaging of other organs.

  4. Micro-joule pico-second range Yb3+-doped fibre laser for medical applications in acupuncture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Chavez, J. A.; Rivera-Manrique, S. I.; Jacques, S. L.

    2011-08-01

    The work described here is based on the optical design, simulation and on-going implementation of a pulsed (Q-switch) Yb3+-doped, 1-um diffraction-limited fibre laser with pico-second, 10 micro-Joule-range energy pulses for producing the right energy pulses which could be of benefit for patients who suffer chronic headache, photophobia, and even nausea which could is sometimes triggered by a series of factors. The specific therapeutic effect known as acupunctural analgesia is the main objective of this medium-term project. It is a simple design on which commercially available software was employed for laser cavity design. Monte Carlo technique for skin light-transport, thermal diffusion and the possible thermal de-naturalization optical study and prediction will also be included in the presentation. Full optical characterization will be included and a complete set of recent results on the laser-skin interaction and the so called moxi-bustion from the laser design will be extensively described.

  5. Gas-phase evaluation of the online NMMB/BSC-CTM model over Europe for 2010 in the framework of the AQMEII-Phase2 project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badia, A.; Jorba, O.

    2015-08-01

    The Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative Phase2 aims to intercompare online coupled regional-scale models over North America and Europe. The NMMB/BSC Chemical Transport Model (NMMB/BSC-CTM) is a fully online integrated system for meso- to global-scale applications under development at the Barcelona Supercomputing Center. The NMMB/BSC-CTM is applied to Europe for the year 2010 in the framework of the AQMEII-Phase2 intercomparison exercise. This paper presents a spatial, temporal and vertical evaluation of the gas-phase model results. This is the first time that the model has been evaluated on a regional scale over a whole annual cycle. The model is compared with available ground-based monitoring stations for relevant reactive gases, ozonesondes, and OMI and MOPITT satellite retrievals of NO2 and CO. A comparative analysis of the present results and several European model evaluations is also presented here. The seasonal cycle for O3, NO2, SO2 and CO is successfully reproduced by the model. The O3 daily mean and daily maximum correlations for the analysed period are r = 0.68 and r = 0.75, respectively. The OMI tropospheric NO2 column retrievals are well reproduced, capturing the most polluted areas over Europe throughout the whole year. Modelled SO2 and CO surface concentrations are generally underestimated, especially during the winter months. Two different vertical configurations of the model (24 and 48 vertical layers) are also analysed. Although model results are very similar, the simulation configured with 48 vertical layers provides better results regarding surface O3 concentrations during summer. Compared to previous model evaluations, the NMMB/BSC-CTM's performance corresponds to state-of-the-art regional air quality models.

  6. How to write a history of Europe: Europe, Europes, Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Peter

    2006-05-01

    This article looks at the history of European culture from three angles, those of European uniqueness, European variety and European consciousness. The first section discusses the question of whether the fundamental unit of study, for cultural as well as economic historians, is not Eurasia. The second section is concerned with cultural divisions within Europe, with Europes in the plural. It asks whether it is more illuminating to distinguish two Europes (like Leopold von Ranke), or three (like Jeno Szucs), or even five (like Hugo Hassinger), and examine both centripetal and centrifugal forces in early modern history. The final section deals with the history of the idea of Europe, or more exactly with the rise of consciousness of being European, as it is revealed in early modern histories, geographies, journals and newspapers.

  7. Classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in South-eastern Europe: review of 632 cases from the international non-Hodgkin lymphoma classification project.

    PubMed

    Dotlic, Snjezana; Perry, Anamarija M; Petrusevska, Gordana; Fetica, Bogdan; Diebold, Jacques; MacLennan, Kenneth A; Müller-Hermelink, Hans K; Nathwani, Bharat N; Boilesen, Eugene; Bast, Martin; Armitage, James O; Weisenburger, Dennis D

    2015-11-01

    The distribution of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes varies around the world, but a systematic study of South-eastern Europe (SEEU) has never been done. Therefore, we evaluated the relative frequencies of NHL subtypes in three SEEU countries--Croatia, Romania and Macedonia. Five expert haematopathologists reviewed 632 consecutive cases of newly diagnosed NHL from the three SEEU countries using the World Health Organization classification. The results were compared to 399 cases from North America (NA) and 580 cases from Western Europe (WEU). The proportions of B- and T-cell NHL and the sex distribution in SEEU were similar to WEU and NA. However, the median ages of patients with low- and high-grade B-NHL in SEEU (60 and 59 years, respectively) were significantly lower than in NA (64 and 68 years, respectively; P < 0·05). SEEU had a significantly lower proportion of low-grade B-NHL (46·6%) and higher proportion of high-grade B-NHL (44·5%) compared to both WEU (54·5% and 36·4%, respectively) and NA (56·1% and 34·3%, respectively). There were no significant differences in the relative frequencies of T-NHL subtypes. This study provides new insights into differences in the relative frequencies of NHL subtypes in different geographic regions. Epidemiological studies are needed to better characterize and explain these differences.

  8. Europe's Second Demographic Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Kaa, Dirk J.

    1987-01-01

    By 1985, fertility rates in Europe were below the replacement level of 2.1 births per woman in all but Albania, Ireland, Malta, Poland, and Turkey, following a steady decline from a 1965 postwar peak well above 2.5 in Northern, Western, and Southern Europe and an erratic trend from a lower level in Eastern Europe. Natural decrease (fewer births…

  9. Interconnection of Europe`s power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Manos, P.

    1996-03-01

    More than six years have passed since the Berlin Wall fell during Christmas of 1989, and a unified pan-European electricity-supply system is still not a reality. Progress toward that goal has been certain but slow. Technical and political differences still block the final step in the integration process: a full hookup between the grids of western and northern Europe and the transmission networks of the former Warsaw Pact nations. It has fallen to unified Germany, as the bridge between East and West, to serve as the catalyst of Europe`s electrical congress. This paper discusses the existing and planned interconnection along with a historical perspective.

  10. Solar wind effect on Joule heating in the high-latitude ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, L.; Aikio, A. T.; Nygrén, T.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of solar wind on several electrodynamic parameters, measured simultaneously by the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) radars in Tromsø (TRO, 66.6° cgmLat) and on Svalbard (ESR, 75.4° cgmLat), has been evaluated statistically. The main emphasis is on Joule heating rate QJ, which has been estimated by taking into account the neutral wind. In addition, a generally used proxy QE, which is the Pedersen conductance times the electric field squared, has been calculated. The most important findings are as follows. (i) The decrease in Joule heating in the afternoon-evening sector due to winds reported by Aikio et al. (2012) requires southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions and a sufficiently high solar wind electric field. The increase in the morning sector takes place for all IMF directions within a region where the upper E neutral wind has a large equatorward component and the F region plasma flow is directed eastward. (ii) At ESR, an afternoon hot spot of Joule heating centered typically at 14-15 magnetic local time (MLT) is observed during all IMF conditions. Enhanced Pedersen conductances within the hot spot region are observed only for the IMF Bz + /By- conditions, and the corresponding convection electric field values within the hot spot are smaller than during the other IMF conditions. Hence, the hot spot represents a region of persistent magnetospheric electromagnetic energy input, and the median value is about 3 mW/m2. (iii) For the southward IMF conditions, the MLT-integrated QE for By- is twice the value for By+ at TRO. This can plausibly be explained by the higher average solar wind electric field values for By-.

  11. Magnetospheric structure and atmospheric Joule heating of habitable planets orbiting M-dwarf stars

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, O.; Drake, J. J.; Garraffo, C.; Poppenhaeger, K.; Glocer, A.; Ridley, A. J.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2014-07-20

    We study the magnetospheric structure and the ionospheric Joule Heating of planets orbiting M-dwarf stars in the habitable zone using a set of magnetohydrodynamic models. The stellar wind solution is used to drive a model for the planetary magnetosphere, which is coupled with a model for the planetary ionosphere. Our simulations reveal that the space environment around close-in habitable planets is extreme, and the stellar wind plasma conditions change from sub- to super-Alfvénic along the planetary orbit. As a result, the magnetospheric structure changes dramatically with a bow shock forming in the super-Alfvénic sectors, while no bow shock forms in the sub-Alfvénic sectors. The planets reside most of the time in the sub-Alfvénic sectors with poor atmospheric protection. A significant amount of Joule Heating is provided at the top of the atmosphere as a result of the intense stellar wind. For the steady-state solution, the heating is about 0.1%-3% of the total incoming stellar irradiation, and it is enhanced by 50% for the time-dependent case. The significant Joule Heating obtained here should be considered in models for the atmospheres of habitable planets in terms of the thickness of the atmosphere, the top-side temperature and density, the boundary conditions for the atmospheric pressure, and particle radiation and transport. Here we assume constant ionospheric Pedersen conductance similar to that of the Earth. The conductance could be greater due to the intense EUV radiation leading to smaller heating rates. We plan to quantify the ionospheric conductance in future study.

  12. Literature review of arc/plasma, combustion, and joule-heated melter vitrification systems

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, C.J.; Abrigo, G.P.; Shafer, P.J.; Merrill, R.A.

    1995-07-01

    This report provides reviews of papers and reports for three basic categories of melters: arc/plasma-heated melters, combustion-heated melters, and joule-heated melters. The literature reviewed here represents those publications which may lend insight to phase I testing of low-level waste vitrification being performed at the Hanford Site in FY 1995. For each melter category, information from those papers and reports containing enough information to determine steady-state mass balance data is tabulated at the end of each section. The tables show the composition of the feed processed, the off-gas measured via decontamination factors, gross energy consumptions, and processing rates, among other data.

  13. One-Joule-per-Pulse Q-Switched 2-micron Solid State Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo C.; Modlin, Ed A.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Chen, Songsheng; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Pual J.; Petros, Mulugeta

    2005-01-01

    Q-switched output of 1.1 J per pulse at 2-micron wavelength has been achieved in a diode pumped Ho:Tm:LuLF laser using a side-pumped rod configuration in a Master-Oscillator-Power-Amplifier (MOPA) architecture. This is the first time that a 2-micron laser has broken the Joule per pulse barrier for Q-switched operation. The total system efficiency reaches 5% and 6.2% for single and double pulse operation, respectively. The system produces excellent 1.4 times of transform limited beam quality.

  14. Nanoscale dynamics of Joule heating and bubble nucleation in a solid-state nanopore.

    PubMed

    Levine, Edlyn V; Burns, Michael M; Golovchenko, Jene A

    2016-01-01

    We present a mathematical model for Joule heating of an electrolytic solution in a nanopore. The model couples the electrical and thermal dynamics responsible for rapid and extreme superheating of the electrolyte within the nanopore. The model is implemented numerically with a finite element calculation, yielding a time and spatially resolved temperature distribution in the nanopore region. Temperatures near the thermodynamic limit of superheat are predicted to be attained just before the explosive nucleation of a vapor bubble is observed experimentally. Knowledge of this temperature distribution enables the evaluation of related phenomena including bubble nucleation kinetics, relaxation oscillation, and bubble dynamics.

  15. Nanometer-scale temperature imaging for independent observation of Joule and Peltier effects in phase change memory devices.

    PubMed

    Grosse, Kyle L; Pop, Eric; King, William P

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports a technique for independent observation of nanometer-scale Joule heating and thermoelectric effects, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) based measurements of nanometer-scale temperature fields. When electrical current flows through nanoscale devices and contacts the temperature distribution is governed by both Joule and thermoelectric effects. When the device is driven by an electrical current that is both periodic and bipolar, the temperature rise due to the Joule effect is at a different harmonic than the temperature rise due to the Peltier effect. An AFM tip scanning over the device can simultaneously measure all of the relevant harmonic responses, such that the Joule effect and the Peltier effect can be independently measured. Here we demonstrate the efficacy of the technique by measuring Joule and Peltier effects in phase change memory devices. By comparing the observed temperature responses of these working devices, we measure the device thermopower, which is in the range of 30 ± 3 to 250 ± 10 μV K(-1). This technique could facilitate improved measurements of thermoelectric phenomena and properties at the nanometer-scale. PMID:25273761

  16. Nanometer-scale temperature imaging for independent observation of Joule and Peltier effects in phase change memory devices

    SciTech Connect

    Grosse, Kyle L.; Pop, Eric; King, William P.

    2014-09-15

    This paper reports a technique for independent observation of nanometer-scale Joule heating and thermoelectric effects, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) based measurements of nanometer-scale temperature fields. When electrical current flows through nanoscale devices and contacts the temperature distribution is governed by both Joule and thermoelectric effects. When the device is driven by an electrical current that is both periodic and bipolar, the temperature rise due to the Joule effect is at a different harmonic than the temperature rise due to the Peltier effect. An AFM tip scanning over the device can simultaneously measure all of the relevant harmonic responses, such that the Joule effect and the Peltier effect can be independently measured. Here we demonstrate the efficacy of the technique by measuring Joule and Peltier effects in phase change memory devices. By comparing the observed temperature responses of these working devices, we measure the device thermopower, which is in the range of 30 ± 3 to 250 ± 10 μV K{sup −1}. This technique could facilitate improved measurements of thermoelectric phenomena and properties at the nanometer-scale.

  17. The foot in multistage ultra-marathon runners: experience in a cohort study of 22 participants of the Trans Europe Footrace Project with mobile MRI

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Frank; Billich, Christian; Schuetz, Uwe H

    2012-01-01

    Objectives 67 runners participated in the Trans Europe FootRace 2009 (TEFR09), a 4487 km (2789 mi) multistage ultra-marathon covering the south of Europe (Bari, Italy) to the North Cape. Reports on ultra-marathons are lacking, but the literature reports overuse injuries in athletes, especially to the Achilles tendon (AT), ankle or hind foot. Bone oedema may be related to exposure and is present in fatigue fractures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine prospectively if sustained maximal load during an ultra-marathon leads to damage to the foot. Design and participants In a cohort study, repeated scanning of the 22 athletes participating in the study was performed before and during (approximately every 1000 km) the race. Using the obtained fat saturated inversion recovery sequence, two experienced readers blinded to the clinical data rated the images regarding foot lesions. Statistical analysis included regression analysis and computation of the inter-rater reliability. Setting The TEFR09 course. MRI scanning was performed according to prearranged schedules for every participant, using a mobile 1.5 Tesla MRI unit on a trailer following the race. Primary outcome measures MRI data such as AT diameter, bone or tendon lesions, subcutaneous, plantar fascia or intraosseous oedema. Results The 22 study participants did not differ significantly from the total of the 67 TEFR09 runners regarding height, weight and age. The AT diameter increased significantly from 6.8 to 7.8 mm as did intraosseous signal, bone lesions and subcutaneous oedema. However, finishers differed only regarding plantar aponeurosis and subcutaneous oedema from participants aborting the TEFR09. Inter-rater reliability was 0.88–0.98. Conclusion Under the extreme stress of the TEFR09, an increase of the AT diameter as well as bone signal are thought to be adaptive since only subcutaneous oedema and plantar fascia oedema were related to abortion of the race. Trial registration number

  18. Simple and strong: twisted silver painted nylon artificial muscle actuated by Joule heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirvakili, Seyed M.; Rafie Ravandi, Ali; Hunter, Ian W.; Haines, Carter S.; Li, Na; Foroughi, Javad; Naficy, Sina; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Baughman, Ray H.; Madden, John D. W.

    2014-03-01

    Highly oriented nylon and polyethylene fibres shrink in length when heated and expand in diameter. By twisting and then coiling monofilaments of these materials to form helical springs, the anisotropic thermal expansion has recently been shown to enable tensile actuation of up to 49% upon heating. Joule heating, by passing a current through a conductive coating on the surface of the filament, is a convenient method of controlling actuation. In previously reported work this has been done using highly flexible carbon nanotube sheets or commercially available silver coated fibres. In this work silver paint is used as the Joule heating element at the surface of the muscle. Up to 29% linear actuation is observed with energy and power densities reaching 840 kJ m-3 (528 J kg-1) and 1.1 kW kg-1 (operating at 0.1 Hz, 4% strain, 1.4 kg load). This simple coating method is readily accessible and can be applied to any polymer filament. Effective use of this technique relies on uniform coating to avoid temperature gradients.

  19. Numerical modeling of Joule heating effects in insulator-based dielectrophoresis microdevices.

    PubMed

    Kale, Akshay; Patel, Saurin; Hu, Guoqing; Xuan, Xiangchun

    2013-03-01

    Insulator-based DEP (iDEP) has been established as a powerful tool for manipulating particles in microfluidic devices. However, Joule heating may become an issue in iDEP microdevices due to the local amplification of electric field around the insulators. This results in an electrothermal force that can manifest itself in the flow field in the form of circulations, thus affecting the particle motion. We develop herein a transient, 3D, full-scale numerical model to study Joule heating and its effects on the coupled transport of charge, heat, and fluid in an iDEP device with a rectangular constriction microchannel. This model is validated by comparing the simulation results with the experimentally obtained fluid flow patterns and particle images that were reported in our recent works. It identifies a significant difference in the time scales of the electric, temperature, and flow fields in iDEP microdevices. It also predicts the locations of electrothermal flow circulations in different halves of the channel at the upstream and downstream of the constriction. PMID:23192532

  20. Impact of Joule Heating and pH on Biosolids Electro-Dewatering.

    PubMed

    Navab-Daneshmand, Tala; Beton, Raphaël; Hill, Reghan J; Frigon, Dominic

    2015-05-01

    Electro-dewatering (ED) is a novel technology to reduce the overall costs of residual biosolids processing, transport, and disposal. In this study, we investigated Joule heating and pH as parameters controlling the dewaterability limit, dewatering rate, and energy efficiency. Temperature-controlled electrodes revealed that Joule heating enhances water removal by increasing evaporation and electro-osmotic flow. High temperatures increased the dewatering rate, but had little impact on the dewaterability limit and energy efficiency. Analysis of horizontal layers after 15-min ED suggests electro-osmotic flow reversal, as evidenced by a shifting of the point of minimum moisture content from the anode toward the cathode. This flow reversal was also confirmed by the pH at the anode being below the isoelectric point, as ascertained by pH titration. The important role of pH on ED was further studied by adding acid/base solutions to biosolids prior to ED. An acidic pH reduced the biosolids charge while simultaneously increasing the dewatering efficiency. Thus, process optimization depends on trade-offs between speed and efficiency, according to physicochemical properties of the biosolids microstructure.

  1. Testing of a scanning adiabatic calorimeter with Joule effect heating of the sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreiro-Rodríguez, G.; Yáñez-Limón, J. M.; Contreras-Servin, C. A.; Herrera-Gomez, A.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated a scanning adiabatic resistive calorimeter (SARC) developed to measure the specific enthalpy of viscous and gel-type materials. The sample is heated employing the Joule effect. The cell is constituted by a cylindrical jacket and two pistons, and the sample is contained inside the jacket between the two pistons. The upper piston can slide to allow for thermal expansion and to keep the pressure constant. The pistons also function as electrodes for the sample. While the sample is heated through the Joule effect, the electrodes and the jacket are independently heated to the same temperature of the sample using automatic control. This minimizes the heat transport between the sample and its surroundings. The energy to the sample is supplied by applying to the electrodes an ac voltage in the kilohertz range, establishing a current in the sample and inducing electric dissipation. This energy can be measured with enough exactitude to determine the heat capacity. This apparatus also allows for the quantification of the thermal conductivity by reproducing the evolution of the temperature as heat is introduced only to one of the pistons. To this end, the system was modeled using finite element calculations. This dual capability proved to be very valuable for correction in the determination of the specific enthalpy. The performance of the SARC was evaluated by comparing the heat capacity results to those obtained by differential scanning calorimetry measurements using a commercial apparatus. The analyzed samples were zeolite, bauxite, hematite, bentonite, rice flour, corn flour, and potato starch.

  2. Thermographic NDT based on transient temperature field under Joule effect heating

    SciTech Connect

    Sakagami, Takahide; Ogura, Keiji

    1994-12-31

    The thermographic NDT based on the transient temperature distribution under the Joule effect heating by an electric current was discussed. Two different types of inspection methods, i.e., the singular method and the insulation method were examined. The singular method based on the heat concentration at the crack tip was successfully applied to the identification of the through-thickness and surface cracks embedded in steel plates. The resolution of the crack identification by the singular method was examined by the current intensity factor and the thermal diffusion length. The insulation method based on the temperature turbulence appears on the sample surface due to the thermal insulation of the defect was tested for the identification of the delaminated defect in CFRP. Two methods of the Joule effect heating, the direct current application and the induction heating, were successfully applied for the thermographic NDT of the delaminated defects in CFRP samples. The thermographic NDT developed in this study was found to be applicable to nondestructive flaw- and defect-inspection both in metallic and composite materials.

  3. GEM-CEDAR Study of Ionospheric Energy Input and Joule Dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastaetter, Lutz; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Shim, Jasoon

    2012-01-01

    We are studying ionospheric model performance for six events selected for the GEM-CEDAR modeling challenge. DMSP measurements of electric and magnetic fields are converted into Poynting Flux values that estimate the energy input into the ionosphere. Models generate rates of ionospheric Joule dissipation that are compared to the energy influx. Models include the ionosphere models CTIPe and Weimer and the ionospheric electrodynamic outputs of global magnetosphere models SWMF, LFM, and OpenGGCM. This study evaluates the model performance in terms of overall balance between energy influx and dissipation and tests the assumption that Joule dissipation occurs locally where electromagnetic energy flux enters the ionosphere. We present results in terms of skill scores now commonly used in metrics and validation studies and we can measure the agreement in terms of temporal and spatial distribution of dissipation (i.e, location of auroral activity) along passes of the DMSP satellite with the passes' proximity to the magnetic pole and solar wind activity level.

  4. On the Relationship of Joule Heating and NO Radiative Cooling in the Thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, G.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Stauning, P.

    2009-05-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO) is an important trace constituent in the thermosphere, and it plays an important role in determining the composition and structure of the thermosphere above 100 km. Emissions from the NO molecule are one of the main radiative cooling mechanisms in the thermosphere. Observations from the TIMED SABER instrument have shown that NO emissions at 5.3 mm increase dramatically during geomagnetic storms. This paper examines the relationship between the Joule heating rate and the NO radiative cooling rate, with an aim to obtain an quantitative assessment of global energy balance in the thermosphere. More specifically, we compare in detail the magnetospheric energy input in terms of Joule heating and the thermospheric energy output through radiative cooling for a number of geomagnetic storms. The cross-correlation analysis is carried out to assess the effectiveness of NO "thermostat" effect in regulating the magnetospheric energy input into the thermosphere. Finally, we explore the possibility of using the polar cap index (PCI) as a proxy of thermospheric energetics.

  5. Joule-Heated Molten Regolith Electrolysis Reactor Concepts for Oxygen and Metals Production on the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibille, Laurent; Dominques, Jesus A.

    2012-01-01

    The maturation of Molten Regolith Electrolysis (MRE) as a viable technology for oxygen and metals production on explored planets relies on the realization of the self-heating mode for the reactor. Joule heat generated during regolith electrolysis creates thermal energy that should be able to maintain the molten phase (similar to electrolytic Hall-Heroult process for aluminum production). Self-heating via Joule heating offers many advantages: (1) The regolith itself is the crucible material, it protects the vessel walls (2) Simplifies the engineering of the reactor (3) Reduces power consumption (no external heating) (4) Extends the longevity of the reactor. Predictive modeling is a tool chosen to perform dimensional analysis of a self-heating reactor: (1) Multiphysics modeling (COMSOL) was selected for Joule heat generation and heat transfer (2) Objective is to identify critical dimensions for first reactor prototype.

  6. Dynamically tracking the joule heating effect on the voltage induced metal-insulator transition in VO2 crystal film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, G. M.; Chen, S.; Fan, L. L.; Chen, Y. L.; Wang, X. Q.; Ren, H.; Zhang, Z. M.; Zou, C. W.

    2016-04-01

    Insulator to metal phase transitions driven by external electric field are one of the hottest topics in correlated oxide study. While this electric triggered phenomena always mixes the electric field switching effect and joule thermal effect together, which are difficult to clarify the intrinsic mechanism. In this paper, we investigate the dynamical process of voltage-triggered metal-insulator transition (MIT) in a VO2 crystal film and observe the temperature dependence of the threshold voltages and switching delay times, which can be explained quite well based on a straightforward joule thermal model. By conducting the voltage controlled infrared transmittance measurement, the delayed infrared transmission change is also observed, further confirming the homogeneous switching process for a large-size film. All of these results show strong evidences that joule thermal effect plays a dominated role in electric-field-induced switching of VO2 crystal.

  7. Projected changes in clear-sky erythemal and vitamin D effective UV doses for Europe over the period 2006 to 2100.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Haeffelin, Martial; Bekki, Slimane; Saiag, Philippe; Badosa, Jordi; Jégou, Fabrice; Pazmiño, Andrea; Mahé, Emmanuel

    2013-06-01

    The benefits and the harmful effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure have been well discussed. Most studies show concern for the solar overexposure in the tropics and low latitude sites and its scarcity at higher latitudes. Both cases are of concern, the first for diseases such as skin cancer and the second for the lack of vitamin D production in the skin. In this study, we evaluate the influence of climate change scenarios on the total ozone content (TOC) and typical aerosol properties, such as the optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA), over Europe. From these parameters, we estimate the erythemal and the vitamin D effective UVR doses from 2006 to 2100. Our results indicate a small reduction of the UVR daily doses caused by the ozone layer recovery and partially compensated by an AOD diminution through this century. The attenuation will be larger at high latitudes, during the springtime and for more polluted scenarios during this century. However, this diminution should not be sufficient to provide a protection condition for erythema. On the other hand, at higher latitudes, it possibly contributes to a relevant increase in the exposure time necessary for the synthesis of vitamin D, mainly during autumn and spring seasons.

  8. A determination of the Planck constant by the generalized joule balance method with a permanent-magnet system at NIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jinxin; Zhang, Zhonghua; Li, Zhengkun; Bai, Yang; Wang, Gang; Li, Shisong; Zeng, Tao; Li, Chen; Lu, Yunfeng; Han, Bing; Wang, Nong; Zhou, Kunli

    2016-02-01

    The joule balance experiment has been carried out at the National Institute of Metrology, China (NIM) since 2007. By the end of 2013 the first generation of the joule balance (NIM-1) achieved a measurement uncertainty of 7.2  ×  10-6 (k  =  1). To reduce the measurement uncertainty further, the next generation of the joule balance apparatus (NIM-2) system is under construction. A new coil system using ferromagnetic material is being adopted in NIM-2 to reduce self-heating in the coils. However, the effects on the measurement of the mutual inductance from the nonlinearity and hysteresis of the ferromagnetic material will bring a considerable measurement uncertainty. Inspired by the watt balance, the measurement of the mutual inductance is replaced by an equivalent measurement of the magnetic flux linkage difference. The nonlinearity and hysteresis will not be a problem in the measurement of the magnetic flux linkage difference. This technique comes from the watt balance method. It is called the generalized joule balance method, which is actually a modification of the watt balance method. However, it still represents a valid change that can reduce the difficulty of dynamic measurement experienced using the watt balance. Permanent magnets can also be adopted in the generalized joule balance. To check the feasibility of the generalized joule balance method, some preliminary experiments have been performed on NIM-1. A yokeless permanent magnet system has been designed and used to replace the exciting coils in NIM-1. In this paper, the structure of the yokeless permanent magnet system is introduced. Furthermore, a determination of the Planck constant with the permanent magnet system is presented. The value of the Planck constant h we obtained is 6.626 069(17)  ×  10-34 J s with a relative standard uncertainty of 2.6  ×  10-6.

  9. Highly lead-loaded red plastic scintillators as an X-ray imaging system for the Laser Mega Joule

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, M.; Normand, S.; Turk, G.; Darbon, S.

    2011-07-01

    The scope of this project intends to record spatially resolved images of core shape and size of a DT micro-balloon during Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments at Laser Mega Joule facility (LMJ). We need to develop an X-ray imaging system which can operate in the radiative background generated by an ignition shot of ICF. The scintillator is a part of the imaging system and has to gather a compromise of scintillating properties (scintillating efficiency, decay time, emission wavelength) so as to both operate in the hard radiative environment and to allow the acquisition of spatially resolved images. Inorganic scintillators cannot be used because no compromise can be found regarding the expected scintillating properties, most of them are not fast enough and emit blue light. Organic scintillators are generally fast, but present low X-ray absorption in the 10 to 40 keV range, that does not permit the acquisition of spatially resolved images. To this aim, we have developed highly lead-loaded and red-fluorescent fast plastic scintillators. Such a combination is not currently available via scintillator suppliers, since they propose only blue-fluorescent plastic scintillators doped with up to 12%w Pb. Thus, incorporation ratio up to 27%w Pb has been reached in our laboratory, which can afford a plastic scintillator with an outstanding Z{sub eff} close to 50. X-rays in the 10 to 40 keV range can thus be detected with a higher probability of photoelectric effect than for classic organic scintillators, such as NE102. The strong orange-red fluorescence can be filtered, so that we can eliminate residual Cerenkov light, generated by {gamma}-ray absorption in glass parts of the imaging system. Decay times of our scintillators evaluated under UV excitation were estimated to be in the range 10 to 13 ns. (authors)

  10. The Contribution of Local Experiments and Negotiation Processes to Field-Level Learning in Emerging (Niche) Technologies: Meta-Analysis of 27 New Energy Projects in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raven, Rob P. J. M.; Heiskanen, Eva; Lovio, Raimo; Hodson, Mike; Brohmann, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    This article examines how local experiments and negotiation processes contribute to social and field-level learning. The analysis is framed within the niche development literature, which offers a framework for analyzing the relation between projects in local contexts and the transfer of local experiences into generally applicable rules. The…

  11. One type of hydrodynamic instability in joule heating of a fluid near an ion-selective surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, N. V.; Khasmatulina, N. Yu.; Ganchenko, G. S.; Kalaidin, E. N.; Kiriy, V. A.; Demekhin, E. A.

    2016-06-01

    The stability of the equilibrium state of an electrolyte in a horizontal microgap between two ionselective surfaces in an electric field is studied with the Joule heating of the fluid taken into account. It is established that the Joule heating can lead to instability at the potential differences, which are several times smaller than those in the isothermal case. The effects of microscale thermal instability differ from the Rayleigh-Benard thermal convection: the destabilization occurs upon heating in the upper part of the gap.

  12. Ukraine: Europe`s next crisis?

    SciTech Connect

    Larrabee, F.S.

    1994-07-01

    The emergence of an independent Ukraine was one of the most important geopolitical results of the collapse of the former Soviet Union. It dramatically changed the geostrategic map of Europe, creating a critical strategic buffer between Russia and Europe, especially Eastern Europe. But two years after independence, Ukraine is in the midst of a severe political and economic crisis, and engaged in a series of elections that could have major and immediate consequences not only for Ukraine`s political future and security orientation, but for Western policy. Parliamentary elections were held in March, but runoff elections are needed for about one-quarter of the seats, and presidential elections will be held June 26.

  13. Project Copernicus: Cooperation Programme in Europe on Nature and Industry through Coordinated University Study. Round Table. Unesco-Standing Conference of Rectors, Presidents, and Vice Chancellors of the European Universities (CRE) (Catania, Sicily, April 5-8, 1989). Number 32. Papers on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This Project COPERNICUS (Cooperation Programme in Europe for Research on Nature and Industry through Coordinated University Studies) Round Table report considers efforts to identify priorities and objectives of the new alliance between the higher education community, industry, and international organizations in addressing today's environmental…

  14. Inpatient drug utilization in Europe: nationwide data sources and a review of publications on a selected group of medicines (PROTECT project).

    PubMed

    Sabaté, Mònica; Ferrer, Pili; Ballarín, Elena; Rottenkolber, Marietta; Amelio, Justyne; Schmiedl, Sven; Reynolds, Robert; Klungel, Olaf; Ibáñez, Luisa

    2015-03-01

    Drug utilization (DU) studies in inpatient settings at a national level are rarely conducted. The main objective of this study was to review the general information on hospital medicine management in Europe and to report on the availability and characteristics of nationwide administrative drug consumption databases. A secondary objective was to perform a review of published studies on hospital DU of a group of selected drugs, focusing on methodological characteristics (ATC/DDD). General information on hospital drug management was retrieved from several websites, nationwide administrative drug consumption databases and reports published by governmental organizations. A PubMed search was conducted using keywords related to the selected group of drugs AND 'hospital drug utilization'. The data sources for hospital DU information varied widely and included 14 databases from 25 reviewed countries. Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Iceland, Latvia, Norway and Sweden obtain information on inpatient DU at a national level from wholesalers/manufacturers. In Belgium, Italy and Portugal, drugs dispensed to patients in hospitals are registered at a national level. Data are freely available online only for Denmark and Iceland. From the PubMed search, of a total of 868 retrieved studies, only 13 studies used the ATC/DDD methodology. Although the number of DDD/100 bed-days was used in four studies, other units of measure were also used. The type of information provided for the inpatient sector allowed primarily for conducting DU research at an aggregated data level. The existence of national administrative structures to monitor hospital DU would contribute to promoting the rational use of medicines and improving the safety and quality of prescribing. PMID:25420967

  15. Session 6: Infant nutrition: future research developments in Europe EARNEST, the early nutrition programming project: EARly Nutrition programming - long-term Efficacy and Safety Trials and integrated epidemiological, genetic, animal, consumer and economic research.

    PubMed

    Fewtrell, M S

    2007-08-01

    Increasing evidence from lifetime experimental studies in animals and observational and experimental studies in human subjects suggests that pre- and postnatal nutrition programme long-term health. However, key unanswered questions remain on the extent of early-life programming in contemporary European populations, relevant nutritional exposures, critical time periods, mechanisms and the effectiveness of interventions to prevent or reverse programming effects. The EARly Nutrition programming - long-term Efficacy and Safety Trials and integrated epidemiological, genetic, animal, consumer and economic research (EARNEST) consortium brings together a multi-disciplinary team of scientists from European research institutions in an integrated programme of work that includes experimental studies in human subjects, modern prospective observational studies and mechanistic animal work including physiological studies, cell-culture models and molecular techniques. Theme 1 tests early nutritional programming of disease in human subjects, measuring disease markers in childhood and early adulthood in nineteen randomised controlled trials of nutritional interventions in pregnancy and infancy. Theme 2 examines associations between early nutrition and later outcomes in large modern European population-based prospective studies, with detailed measures of diet in pregnancy and early life. Theme 3 uses animal, cellular and molecular techniques to study lifetime effects of early nutrition. Biomedical studies are complemented by studies of the social and economic importance of programming (themes 4 and 5), and themes encouraging integration, communication, training and wealth creation. The project aims to: help formulate policies on the composition and testing of infant foods; improve the nutritional value of infant formulas; identify interventions to prevent and reverse adverse early nutritional programming. In addition, it has the potential to develop new products through industrial

  16. Immigrant Languages in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extra, Guus, Ed.; Verhoeven, Ludo, Ed.

    Papers from a 1990 Dutch colloquium on immigrant language varieties in Europe are presented in four categories: (1) use of immigrant language varieties in Europe; (2) first language acquisition in a second language context; (3) code-switching; and (4) language maintenance and loss. Papers include: "Sweden Finnish" (Jarmo Lainio); "South Asian…

  17. Applied Linguistics in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bot, Kees

    2004-01-01

    In this contribution developments in Applied Linguistics in Europe are linked to major social changes that have taken place over the last decades. These include: The decline of the USSR and the end of the cold war; The development of the EEC and the EU and fading of borders; The economic growth of Western Europe; Labor migration from the south to…

  18. In situ bioremediation in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Porta, A.; Young, J.K.; Molton, P.M.

    1993-06-01

    Site remediation activity in Europe is increasing, even if not at the forced pace of the US. Although there is a better understanding of the benefits of bioremediation than of other approaches, especially about in situ bioremediation of contaminated soils, relatively few projects have been carried out full-scale in Europe or in the US. Some engineering companies and large industrial companies in Europe are investigating bioremediation and biotreatment technologies, in some cases to solve their internal waste problems. Technologies related to the application of microorganisms to the soil, release of nutrients into the soil, and enhancement of microbial decontamination are being tested through various additives such as surfactants, ion exchange resins, limestone, or dolomite. New equipment has been developed for crushing and mixing or injecting and sparging the microorganisms, as have new reactor technologies (e.g., rotating aerator reactors, biometal sludge reactors, and special mobile containers for simultaneous storage, transportation, and biodegradation of contaminated soil). Some work has also been done with immobilized enzymes to support and restore enzymatic activities related to partial or total xenobiotic decontamination. Finally, some major programs funded by public and private institutions confirm that increasing numbers of firms have a working interest in bioremediation.

  19. BiodivERsA project VineDivers: Analysing interlinkages between soil biota and biodiversity-based ecosystem services in vineyards across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaller, Johann G.; Winter, Silvia; Strauss, Peter; Querner, Pascal; Kriechbaum, Monika; Pachinger, Bärbel; Gómez, José A.; Campos, Mercedes; Landa, Blanca; Popescu, Daniela; Comsa, Maria; Iliescu, Maria; Tomoiaga, Liliana; Bunea, Claudiu-Ioan; Hoble, Adela; Marghitas, Liviu; Rusu, Teodor; Lora, Ángel; Guzmán, Gema; Bergmann, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Essential ecosystem services provided by viticultural landscapes result from diverse communities of above- and belowground organisms and their interactions. For centuries traditional viticulture was part of a multifunctional agricultural system including low-input grasslands and fruit trees resulting in a high functional biodiversity. However, in the last decades intensification and mechanisation of vineyard management caused a separation of production and conservation areas. As a result of management intensification including frequent tilling and/or use of pesticides several ecosystem services are affected leading to high rates of soil erosion, degradation of soil structure and fertility, contamination of groundwater and high levels of agricultural inputs. In this transdisciplinary BiodivERsA project we will examine to what extent differently intensive managed vineyards affect the activity and diversity of soil biota (e.g. earthworms, collembola, soil microorganisms) and how this feed back on aboveground biodiversity (e.g. weeds, pollinators). We will also investigate ecosystem services associated with soil faunal activity and biodiversity such as soil structure, the formation of stable soil aggregates, water infiltration, soil erosion as well as grape quality. These effects will become increasingly important as more extreme precipitation events are predicted with climate change. The socio-economic part of the project will investigate the role of diversely structured, species-rich viticultural landscapes as a cultural heritage providing aesthetic values for human well-being and recreation. The project objectives will be analysed at plot, field (vineyard) and landscape scales in vineyards located in Spain, France, Romania and Austria. A detailed engagement and dissemination plan for stakeholder at the different governance levels will accompany scientific research and will contribute to the implementation of best-practice recommendations for policy and farmers.

  20. CO-operation development project for new treatment of steam generator's - impact on final disposal volumes and recycling in Northern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Wirendal, B.O.; Lindstrom, A.; Lindberg, M.; Hansson, T.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes a real case of cost effective volume reduction of a retired, full size SG removed from the Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant, Sweden. The project is described from the first step of fulfilling the demands from the authorities before treatment to the results of the treatment. The evaluations of the method is also included and compared to the other possibilities and the driving forces that work in favour of our method. The waste owners' strategy is also described in this paper. Finally is the method of treatment described as a principle as well as the results. Technical details as well as detailed results are given in Paper 7131 [ref 1]. (authors)

  1. Gifford-McMahon/Joule-Thomson Refrigerator Cools to 2.5 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcliffe, Michael; Fernandez, Jose; Hanson, Theodore

    2005-01-01

    A compact refrigerator designed specifically for cooling a microwave maser low-noise amplifier is capable of removing heat at a continuous rate of 180 mW at a temperature of 2.5 K. This refrigerator is a combination of (1) a commercial Gifford-McMahon (GM) refrigerator nominally rated for cooling to 4 K and (2) a Joule-Thomson (J-T) circuit. The GM refrigerator pre-cools the J-T circuit, which provides the final stage of cooling. The refrigerator is compact and capable of operating in any orientation. Moreover, in comparison with a typical refrigerator heretofore used to cool a maser to 4.5 K, this refrigerator is simpler and can be built at less than half the cost.

  2. Simultaneous effects of slip and wall properties on MHD peristaltic motion of nanofluid with Joule heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, T.; Nisar, Z.; Ahmad, B.; Yasmin, H.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is devoted to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) peristaltic transport of nanofluid in a channel with wall properties. Flow analysis is addressed in the presence of viscous dissipation, partial slip and Joule heating effects. Mathematical modelling also includes the salient features of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. Both analytic and numerical solutions are provided. Comparison between the solutions is shown in a very good agreement. Attention is focused to the Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter, Hartman number, Eckert number and Prandtl number. Influences of various parameters on skin friction coefficient, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are also investigated. It is found that both the temperature and nanoparticles concentration are increasing functions of Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameters.

  3. 200 Hz repetition frequency joule-level high beam quality Nd:YAG nanosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jisi; Tang, Xiongxin; Fan, Zhongwei; Wang, Haocheng

    2016-06-01

    A joule-level Nd:YAG nanosecond laser of high repetition frequency and high beam quality is developed out. The laser is designed as a MOPA system mainly including single longitudinal mode seed, pre-amplifier unit an d power amplifier unit. In order to obtain the high-quality laser beam output, phase conjugation is adopted to compensate the laser beam distortion. Under the condition of 200 Hz high repetition frequency and 8.19 μJ single pulse energy injected by the single longitudinal mode seed, 1.53 J output energy is gained. The output laser beam is of 9 mm diameter, 7.41 ns pulse width, the far field beam spot 1.32 times the value of the diffraction limit, 1.2% energy stability (RMS) and less than 13 μrad far field beam spot angle shift.

  4. Ozone generation by negative corona discharge: the effect of Joule heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanallah, K.; Pontiga, F.; Fernández-Rueda, A.; Castellanos, A.; Belasri, A.

    2008-10-01

    Ozone generation in pure oxygen using a wire-to-cylinder corona discharge reactor is experimentally and numerically investigated. Ozone concentration is determined by means of direct UV spectroscopy and the effects of Joule heating and ozone decomposition on the electrodes are analysed for different discharge gaps. The numerical model combines the physical processes in the corona discharge with the chemistry of ozone formation and destruction. The chemical kinetics model and the electrical model are coupled through Poisson's equation, and the current-voltage (CV) characteristic measured in experiments is used as input data to the numerical simulation. The numerical model is able to predict the radial distributions of electrons, ions, atoms and molecules for each applied voltage of the CV characteristic. In particular, the evolution of ozone density inside the discharge cell has been investigated as a function of current intensity and applied voltage.

  5. Composites of Graphene Nanoribbon Stacks and Epoxy for Joule Heating and Deicing of Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Raji, Abdul-Rahman O; Varadhachary, Tanvi; Nan, Kewang; Wang, Tuo; Lin, Jian; Ji, Yongsung; Genorio, Bostjan; Zhu, Yu; Kittrell, Carter; Tour, James M

    2016-02-10

    A conductive composite of graphene nanoribbon (GNR) stacks and epoxy is fabricated. The epoxy is filled with the GNR stacks, which serve as a conductive additive. The GNR stacks are on average 30 nm thick, 250 nm wide, and 30 μm long. The GNR-filled epoxy composite exhibits a conductivity >100 S/m at 5 wt % GNR content. This permits application of the GNR-epoxy composite for deicing of surfaces through Joule (voltage-induced) heating generated by the voltage across the composite. A power density of 0.5 W/cm(2) was delivered to remove ∼1 cm-thick (14 g) monolith of ice from a static helicopter rotor blade surface in a -20 °C environment. PMID:26780972

  6. Development of 1K-class Joule-Thomson cryocooler for next-generation astronomical mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yoichi; Sawada, Kenichiro; Shinozaki, Keisuke; Sugita, Hiroyuki; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Nakagawa, Takao; Tsunematsu, Shoji; Ootsuka, Kiyomi; Narasaki, Katsuhiro

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports on the development of a 1K-class Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler in Japan for application to upcoming next-generation astronomy missions. In this development, engineering models (EMs) were designed and manufactured for verification tests. The survival of the models in the mechanical and thermal vacuum environment tests of the JT compressors was proven to be possible with stable compression performance. In addition, the electromagnetic noise and disturbance force associated with the JT compressors were evaluated. Gas analysis showed that the estimated total amount of CO2 gas contaminant was less than the getter capacity for the required lifetime. A nominal cooling power of 10 mW at 1.7 K was verified using the EM test units.

  7. Overview of the ARGOS X-ray framing camera for Laser MegaJoule

    SciTech Connect

    Trosseille, C. Aubert, D.; Auger, L.; Bazzoli, S.; Brunel, P.; Burillo, M.; Chollet, C.; Jasmin, S.; Maruenda, P.; Moreau, I.; Oudot, G.; Raimbourg, J.; Soullié, G.; Stemmler, P.; Zuber, C.; Beck, T.; Gazave, J.

    2014-11-15

    Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives has developed the ARGOS X-ray framing camera to perform two-dimensional, high-timing resolution imaging of an imploding target on the French high-power laser facility Laser MegaJoule. The main features of this camera are: a microchannel plate gated X-ray detector, a spring-loaded CCD camera that maintains proximity focus in any orientation, and electronics packages that provide remotely-selectable high-voltages to modify the exposure-time of the camera. These components are integrated into an “air-box” that protects them from the harsh environmental conditions. A miniaturized X-ray generator is also part of the device for in situ self-testing purposes.

  8. Exchange bias controlled by electric current: Interplay of Joule heating and the induced field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Kent; Moriyama, Takahiro; Kawaguchi, Masashi; Kamiya, Michinari; Tanaka, Kensho; Kim, Kab-Jin; Ono, Teruo

    2016-07-01

    Exchange bias is a unidirectional magnetic anisotropy developed in a bilayer of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic layers. Its technical importance as a “fix layer” is seen in various spintronic devices. The exchange bias can also be a probe to investigate the antiferromagnetic layer as it partly reflects the magnetic state of the antiferromagnet. In this work, we investigated the modulation of the exchange bias by a flow of electric current in Pt/Fe50Mn50/FeNi and Cu/Fe50Mn50/FeNi. We show that the exchange bias can be modulated just by applying the current due to interplay among the Joule heating, Ampere field, and current-induced effective field.

  9. Mixed Convective Peristaltic Flow of Water Based Nanofluids with Joule Heating and Convective Boundary Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Tasawar; Nawaz, Sadaf; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Rafiq, Maimona

    2016-01-01

    Main objective of present study is to analyze the mixed convective peristaltic transport of water based nanofluids using five different nanoparticles i.e. (Al2O3, CuO, Cu, Ag and TiO2). Two thermal conductivity models namely the Maxwell's and Hamilton-Crosser's are used in this study. Hall and Joule heating effects are also given consideration. Convection boundary conditions are employed. Furthermore, viscous dissipation and heat generation/absorption are used to model the energy equation. Problem is simplified by employing lubrication approach. System of equations are solved numerically. Influence of pertinent parameters on the velocity and temperature are discussed. Also the heat transfer rate at the wall is observed for considered five nanofluids using the two phase models via graphs. PMID:27104596

  10. A Model of Solar Radiation and Joule Heating in Flow of Third Grade Nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Tariq; Hayat, Tasawar; Shehzad, Sabir Ali; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Chen, Bin

    2015-03-01

    The flow problem resulting from the stretching of a surface with convective conditions in a magnetohydrodynamic nanofluid with solar radiation is examined. Both heat and nanoparticle mass transfer convective conditions are employed. An incompressible third grade fluid which exhibits shear thinning and shear thickening characteristics is used as a base fluid. Concept of convective nanoparticle mass condition is introduced. Effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis on magnetohydrodynamic flow of nanofluid are accounted in the presence of thermal radiation. Energy equation incorporates the features of Joule heating. The impact of physical parameters on the temperature and nanoparticle concentration has been pointed out. Numerical values of skin-friction coefficient are presented and analysed. It is hoped that this present investigation serves as a stimulus for the next generation of solar film collectors, heat exchangers technology, material processing, geothermal energy storage, and all those processes which are highly affected by the heat enhancement concept.

  11. Preliminary experimental and numerical study of transient characteristics for a Joule-Thomson cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, F.-C.; Pai, C.-F.; Chien, S. B.; Chen, J. S.

    To establish a tool for computer-aided design, a preliminary experimental and numerical study of transient characteristics for a Joule-Thomson (J-T) cryocooler is developed in the present work. A simplified transient one-dimensional model of momentum and energy transport is used to simulate the flow and heat transfer characteristics. The computational results for cool-down time agree with the experimental data. The transient temperature variations of high pressure gas, tube wall, low pressure gas, glass Dewar and mandrel at the grid point near the valve exit are shown. From the spatial temperature distributions of high and low pressure gases along the finned tube at the moment of cool-down, it is proposed that the J-T cooler currently used may be reduced in terms of both size and weight; factors which are very important in a miniature J-T cryocooler.

  12. Current-Controlled Negative Differential Resistance Due to Joule Heating In Tio2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratkovsky, A. M.; Alexandrov, A. S.; Savel'Ev, S. E.; Strukov, D. B.; Williams, R. S.

    2012-02-01

    We show that Joule heating causes current-controlled negative differential resistance (CC-NDR) in TiO2 memristive systems by constructing an analytical model of the current-voltage characteristics based on polaronic transport for Ohm's law and Newton's law of cooling and fitting this model to experimental data. This threshold switching is he ``soft breakdown'' observed during electroforming in TiO2 and other transition-metal oxide based memristors, as well as a precursor to ``ON'' or ``SET'' switching of unipolar memristors from their high to their low resistance states. The shape of the V-I curves is a sensitive indicator of the nature of the polaronic conduction, which apparently follows an adiabatic regime [1]. [4pt] [1] A.S. Alexandrov, A.M.Bratkovsky, B.Bridle, S.E.Savel'ev, D. Strukov, and R.S.Williams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, xxx (2011).

  13. Current-controlled negative differential resistance due to Joule heating in TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, A. S.; Bratkovsky, A. M.; Bridle, B.; Savel'ev, S. E.; Strukov, D. B.; Stanley Williams, R.

    2011-11-01

    We show that Joule heating causes current-controlled negative differential resistance (CC-NDR) in TiO2 by constructing an analytical model of the voltage-current V(I) characteristic based on polaronic transport for Ohm's Law and Newton's Law of Cooling and fitting this model to experimental data. This threshold switching is the "soft breakdown" observed during electroforming of TiO2 and other transition-metal-oxide based memristors, as well as a precursor to "ON" or "SET" switching of unipolar memristors from their high to their low resistance states. The shape of the V(I) curve is a sensitive indicator of the nature of the polaronic conduction.

  14. Quantitative thermal imaging of single-walled carbon nanotube devices by scanning Joule expansion microscopy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xu; Grosse, Kyle L; Song, Jizhou; Lu, Chaofeng; Dunham, Simon; Du, Frank; Islam, Ahmad E; Li, Yuhang; Zhang, Yihui; Pop, Eric; Huang, Yonggang; King, William P; Rogers, John A

    2012-11-27

    Electrical generation of heat in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and subsequent thermal transport into the surroundings can critically affect the design, operation, and reliability of electronic and optoelectronic devices based on these materials. Here we investigate such heat generation and transport characteristics in perfectly aligned, horizontal arrays of SWNTs integrated into transistor structures. We present quantitative assessments of local thermometry at individual SWNTs in these arrays, evaluated using scanning Joule expansion microscopy. Measurements at different applied voltages reveal electronic behaviors, including metallic and semiconducting responses, spatial variations in diameter or chirality, and localized defect sites. Analytical models, validated by measurements performed on different device structures at various conditions, enable accurate, quantitative extraction of temperature distributions at the level of individual SWNTs. Using current equipment, the spatial resolution and temperature precision are as good as ∼100 nm and ∼0.7 K, respectively.

  15. Hemispheric Asymmetry of Ionospheric Convection and Joule Heating and Its Impact on the Thermospher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) procedure has proved to be a very useful tool to estimate the large-scale simultaneous distributions of ionospheric conductance, electric potential, and other related quantities by combining simultaneous measurements from satellites, radars, and ground magnetometers. In this paper we apply the AMIE procedure to compare the high-latitude ionospheric convection and Joule heating patterns between the northern and southern hemispheres and to investigate how the hemispheric asymmetry varies with different solar wind and IMF conditions. We also investigate the impact of the asymmetric high-latitude magnetospheric forcing on themospheric dynamics based on the coupled AMIE-TIMEGCM simulations as well as through intercomparison with observations.

  16. Mixed Convective Peristaltic Flow of Water Based Nanofluids with Joule Heating and Convective Boundary Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Tasawar; Nawaz, Sadaf; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Rafiq, Maimona

    2016-01-01

    Main objective of present study is to analyze the mixed convective peristaltic transport of water based nanofluids using five different nanoparticles i.e. (Al2O3, CuO, Cu, Ag and TiO2). Two thermal conductivity models namely the Maxwell's and Hamilton-Crosser's are used in this study. Hall and Joule heating effects are also given consideration. Convection boundary conditions are employed. Furthermore, viscous dissipation and heat generation/absorption are used to model the energy equation. Problem is simplified by employing lubrication approach. System of equations are solved numerically. Influence of pertinent parameters on the velocity and temperature are discussed. Also the heat transfer rate at the wall is observed for considered five nanofluids using the two phase models via graphs. PMID:27104596

  17. Design of a valved moving magnet type linear compressor for a Joule-Thomson cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. W.; Wang, L. Y.; Gan, Z. H.

    2014-01-01

    For temperatures around 4-6 K, Joule-Thomson (J-T) cryocoolers can achieve a higher efficiency than Stirling or pulse tube cryocoolers thus have been widely used in space. It is crucial for a J-T compressor to obtain a relatively high pressure ratio. With this concept, a valved moving magnet type linear compressor has been designed. This paper describes the design method and component structure of the linear compressor in detail. The electromagnetic force of linear motor, stiffness and stress distribution of flexure springs were calculated based on finite element method (FEM). System resonance was specially considered to achieve a high efficiency, and system vibration and heat dissipation problems were discussed. The design goal of the linear compressor is to achieve an efficiency of 80% and a lifetime longer than 5 years.

  18. Transparent Pd Wire Network-Based Areal Hydrogen Sensor with Inherent Joule Heater.

    PubMed

    Walia, Sunil; Gupta, Ritu; Rao, K D M; Kulkarni, Giridhar U

    2016-09-01

    A high degree of transparency in devices is considered highly desirable for futuristic technology. This demands that both the active material and the electrodes are made of transparent materials. In this work, a transparent Pd wire network (∼1 cm(2)), fabricated using crackle lithography technique with sheet resistance and transmittance of ∼200 Ohm per square and ∼80%, respectively, serves multiple roles; besides being an electrode, it acts as an active material for H2 sensing as well as an in-built electrothermal heater. The sensor works over a wide range of hydrogen (H2) concentration down to 0.02% with a response time of ∼41 s, which could be improved to ∼13 s by in situ Joule heating to ∼75 °C. Importantly, the device has the potential of scale-up to a window size transparent panel and to be flexible when desired. PMID:27533025

  19. Nanoscale Dynamics of Joule heating and Bubble Nucleation in a Solid-State Nanopore

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Edlyn V.; Burns, Michael M.; Golovchenko, Jene A.

    2016-01-01

    We present a mathematical model for Joule heating of an electrolytic solution in a nanopore. The model couples the electrical and thermal dynamics responsible for rapid and extreme superheating of the electrolyte within the nanopore. The model is implemented numerically with a finite element calculation, yielding a time and spatially resolved temperature distribution in the nanopore region. Temperatures near the thermodynamic limit of superheat are predicted to be attained just before the explosive nucleation of a vapor bubble is observed experimentally. Knowledge of this temperature distribution enables the evaluation of related phenomena including bubble nucleation kinetics, relaxation oscillation, and bubble dynamics. PACS numbers 47.55.dp, 47.55.db, 85.35.-p, 05.70Fh PMID:26871171

  20. MHD mixed convective peristaltic motion of nanofluid with Joule heating and thermophoresis effects.

    PubMed

    Shehzad, Sabir Ali; Abbasi, Fahad Munir; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaadi, Fuad

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of present investigation is to introduce the novel aspect of thermophoresis in the mixed convective peristaltic transport of viscous nanofluid. Viscous dissipation and Joule heating are also taken into account. Problem is modeled using the lubrication approach. Resulting system of equations is solved numerically. Effects of sundry parameters on the velocity, temperature, concentration of nanoparticles and heat and mass transfer rates at the wall are studied through graphs. It is noted that the concentration of nanoparticles near the boundaries is enhanced for larger thermophoresis parameter. However reverse situation is observed for an increase in the value of Brownian motion parameter. Further, the mass transfer rate at the wall significantly decreases when Brownian motion parameter is assigned higher values. PMID:25391147

  1. Modeling principles applied to the simulation of a joule-heated glass melter

    SciTech Connect

    Routt, K.R.

    1980-05-01

    Three-dimensional conservation equations applicable to the operation of a joule-heated glass melter were rigorously examined and used to develop scaling relationships for modeling purposes. By rigorous application of the conservation equations governing transfer of mass, momentum, energy, and electrical charge in three-dimensional cylindrical coordinates, scaling relationships were derived between a glass melter and a physical model for the following independent and dependent variables: geometrical size (scale), velocity, temperature, pressure, mass input rate, energy input rate, voltage, electrode current, electrode current flux, total power, and electrical resistance. The scaling relationships were then applied to the design and construction of a physical model of the semiworks glass melter for the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The design and construction of such a model using glycerine plus LiCl as a model fluid in a one-half-scale Plexiglas tank is described.

  2. Characteristics of convective heat transfer in the MHD peristalsis of Carreau fluid with Joule heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, T.; Farooq, S.; Ahmad, B.; Alsaedi, A.

    2016-04-01

    This article addresses the characteristics of convective heat transfer and radially imposed magnetic field on peristaltic flow of an incompressible Carreau fluid in a curved channel. Joule heating is also present. Mathematical analysis has been carried out under long wavelength and low Reynolds number considerations. Solutions of the resulting non-linear system for small values of Weissenberg number are constructed. The salient features of flow quantities are pointed out with particular focus to pumping, velocity, temperature and trapping. It is observed pressure gradient enhances for larger values of power law index parameter. The velocity and temperature are decreasing functions of radial magnetic field parameter. Further the impact of Weissenberg and Biot numbers on the temperature are opposite.

  3. Heat, work and subtle fluids: a commentary on Joule (1850) ‘On the mechanical equivalent of heat’

    PubMed Central

    Young, John

    2015-01-01

    James Joule played the major role in establishing the conservation of energy, or the first law of thermodynamics, as a universal, all-pervasive principle of physics. He was an experimentalist par excellence and his place in the development of thermodynamics is unarguable. This article discusses Joule's life and scientific work culminating in the 1850 paper, where he presented his detailed measurements of the mechanical equivalent of heat using his famous paddle-wheel apparatus. Joule's long series of experiments in the 1840s leading to his realisation that the conservation of energy was probably of universal validity is discussed in context with the work of other pioneers, notably Sadi Carnot, who effectively formulated the principle of the second law of thermodynamics a quarter of a century before the first law was accepted. The story of Joule's work is a story of an uphill struggle against a critical scientific establishment unwilling to accept the mounting evidence until it was impossible to ignore. His difficulties in attracting funding and publishing in reputable journals despite the quality of his work will resonate with many young scientists and engineers of the present day. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750152

  4. EWork in Southern Europe. IES Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altieri, G.; Birindelli, L.; Bracaglia, P.; Tartaglione, C.; Albarracin, D.; Vaquero, J.; Fissamber, V.

    Part of the EMERGENCE project to measure and map employment relocation in a global economy in the new communications environment, this report on eWork in southern Europe (SE) combines results of a European employer survey, case studies, and data from other sources. Chapter 1 analyzes national and sector dimensions. Chapter 2 studies eWork practice…

  5. Science across Europe--Why It Works!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Marianne

    1997-01-01

    Gives background information on the development of the Science Across Europe (SAE) project and its goals, which include creating a global dimension to education, raising awareness of how science and technology affect society, and providing opportunities to communicate with other countries. Presents information for educators in the sciences,…

  6. High Energy Solar Physics Data in Europe (HESPE): a European project for the exploitation of hard X-ray data in solar flare physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piana, M.; Csillaghy, A.; Kontar, E. P.; Fletcher, L.; Veronig, A. M.; Vilmer, N.; Hurford, G. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Schwartz, R. A.; Massone, A.; Krucker, S.; Benvenuto, F.; Etesi, L. I.; Guo, J.; Hochmuth, N.; Reid, H.

    2011-12-01

    It has been recognized since the early days of the space program that high-energy observations play a crucial role in understanding the basic mechanisms of solar eruptions. Unfortunately, the peculiar nature of this radiation makes it so difficult to extract useful information from it that non-conventional observational techniques together with complex data analysis procedures must be adopted. HESPE is a European project funded within the seventh Framework Program, with the aim of realizing computational methods for solar high-energy data analysis and technological tools for the intelligent exploitation of science-ready products. Such products and methods are put at disposal of the solar, heliospheric and space weather communities, who will exploit them in order to build flare prediction models and to integrate the information extracted from hard X-rays and gamma rays data, with the one extracted from other wavelengths data.

  7. Analyzing the effect of selected control policy measures and sociodemographic factors on alcoholic beverage consumption in Europe within the AMPHORA project: statistical methods.

    PubMed

    Baccini, Michela; Carreras, Giulia

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the methods used to investigate variations in total alcoholic beverage consumption as related to selected control intervention policies and other socioeconomic factors (unplanned factors) within 12 European countries involved in the AMPHORA project. The analysis presented several critical points: presence of missing values, strong correlation among the unplanned factors, long-term waves or trends in both the time series of alcohol consumption and the time series of the main explanatory variables. These difficulties were addressed by implementing a multiple imputation procedure for filling in missing values, then specifying for each country a multiple regression model which accounted for time trend, policy measures and a limited set of unplanned factors, selected in advance on the basis of sociological and statistical considerations are addressed. This approach allowed estimating the "net" effect of the selected control policies on alcohol consumption, but not the association between each unplanned factor and the outcome.

  8. Development of superconducting power devices in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tixador, Pascal

    2010-11-01

    Europe celebrated last year (2008) the 100-year anniversary of the first liquefaction of helium by H. Kammerling Onnes in Leiden. It led to the discovery of superconductivity in 1911. Europe is still active in the development of superconducting (SC) devices. The discovery of high critical temperature materials in 1986, again in Europe, has opened a lot of opportunities for SC devices by broking the 4 K cryogenic bottleneck. Electric networks experience deep changes due to the emergence of dispersed generation (renewable among other) and to the advances in ICT (Information Communication Technologies). The networks of the future will be “smart grids”. Superconductivity will offer “smart” devices for these grids like FCL (Fault Current Limiter) or VLI (Very Low Inductance) cable and would certainly play an important part. Superconductivity also will participate to the required sustainable development by lowering the losses and enhancing the mass specific powers. Different SC projects in Europe will be presented (Cable, FCL, SMES, Flywheel and Electrical Machine) but the description is not exhaustive. Nexans has commercialized the first two FCLs without public funds in the European grid (UK and Germany). The Amsterdam HTS cable is an exciting challenge in term of losses for long SC cables. European companies (Nexans, Air Liquide, Siemens, Converteam, …) are also very active for projects outside Europe (LIPA, DOE FCL, …).

  9. The Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) project--design, population and data harmonization of a large-scale, international study.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, Paolo; Bobak, Martin; Borsch-Supan, Axel; Brenner, Hermann; Eriksson, Sture; Grodstein, Fran; Jansen, Eugene; Jenab, Mazda; Juerges, Hendrik; Kampman, Ellen; Kee, Frank; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Park, Yikyung; Tjonneland, Anne; van Duijn, Cornelia; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wolk, Alicja; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Bamia, Christina; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2014-12-01

    There is a public health demand to prevent health conditions which lead to increased morbidity and mortality among the rapidly-increasing elderly population. Data for the incidence of such conditions exist in cohort studies worldwide, which, however, differ in various aspects. The Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) project aims at harmonizing data from existing major longitudinal studies for the elderly whilst focussing on cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, cancer, fractures and cognitive impairment in order to estimate their prevalence, incidence and cause-specific mortality, and identify lifestyle, socioeconomic, and genetic determinants and biomarkers for the incidence of and mortality from these conditions. A survey instrument assessing ageing-related conditions of the elderly will be also developed. Fourteen cohort studies participate in CHANCES with 683,228 elderly (and 150,210 deaths), from 23 European and three non-European countries. So far, 287 variables on health conditions and a variety of exposures, including biomarkers and genetic data have been harmonized. Different research hypotheses are investigated with meta-analyses. The results which will be produced can help international organizations, governments and policy-makers to better understand the broader implications and consequences of ageing and thus make informed decisions.

  10. Where Europe meets Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Data from a portion of the imagery acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera during 2000-2002 were combined to create this cloud-free natural-color mosaic of southwestern Europe and northwestern Morocco and Algeria. The image extends from 48oN, 16oW in the northwest to 32oN, 8oE in the southeast. It is displayed in Albers conic equal-area projection (a projection which is frequently used for equal-area maps of regions that are predominantly east-west in extent).

    From the northeast, the image traverses a portion of the Swiss Alps (partially snow-covered) and a small part of Italy's Po Valley. The northern portion of the image also includes the western coast of France and much of southern and southwestern France's undulating terrain, which continues until reaching the hills of the Pyrenees. The Pyrenees act as the natural frontier to the Iberian Peninsula -- a landmass comprised of Spain and Portugal. The Peninsular landscapes are extremely varied, with some almost desert-like, others green and fertile. About half of Spain is situated atop a high plain, known as the Central Plateau, and many mountain ranges, rivers, geological basement rock and vegetation types are found across this great plateau. The largest alluvial plain is Andalusia in the south, where the valley of the Guadalquivir River is shut in by mountain ranges on every side except the southwest, where the valley descends to the Atlantic. The islands of Mallorca, Menorca and Ibiza are Spanish territories in the western Mediterranean. At the Strait of Gibralter, Spain and Morocco very nearly kiss, and Morocco appears relatively verdant along its northern coastal corner. The rugged Atlas Mountain ranges traverse northern Algeria and Morocco.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. This data

  11. Towards a greater understanding of the illicit tobacco trade in Europe: a review of the PMI funded ‘Project Star’ report

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Anna B; Rowell, Andy; Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; Joossens, Luk; Sims, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Following a legal agreement with the European Union (EU), Philip Morris International (PMI) commissions a yearly report (‘Project Star’, PS) on the European illicit cigarette trade from KPMG, the global accountancy firm. Methods Review of PS 2010 report. Comparison with data from independent sources including a 2010 pan-European survey (N=18 056). Findings Within PS, data covering all 27 EU countries are entered into a model. While the model itself seems appropriate, concerns are identified with the methodologies underlying the data inputs and thus their quality: there is little transparency over methodologies; interview data underestimate legal non-domestic product partly by failing to account for legal cross-border sales; illicit cigarette estimates rely on tobacco industry empty pack surveys which may overestimate illicit; and there is an over-reliance on data supplied by PMI with inadequate external validation. Thus, PMI sales data are validated using PMI smoking prevalence estimates, yet PMI is unable to provide sales (shipment) data for the Greek islands and its prevalence estimates differ grossly from independent data. Consequently, comparisons with independent data suggest PS will tend to overestimate illicit cigarette levels particularly where cross-border shopping is frequent (Austria, Finland, France) and in Western compared with Eastern European countries. The model also provides data on the nature of the illicit cigarette market independent of seizure data suggesting that almost a quarter of the illicit cigarette market in 2010 comprised PMI's own brands compared with just 5% counterfeited PMI brands; a finding hidden in PMI's public representation of the data. Conclusions PS overestimates illicit cigarette levels in some European countries and suggests PMI's supply chain control is inadequate. Its publication serves the interests of PMI over those of the EU and its member states. PS requires greater transparency, external scrutiny and

  12. Which specific causes of death are associated with short term exposure to fine and coarse particles in Southern Europe? Results from the MED-PARTICLES project.

    PubMed

    Samoli, Evangelia; Stafoggia, Massimo; Rodopoulou, Sophia; Ostro, Bart; Alessandrini, Ester; Basagaña, Xavier; Díaz, Julio; Faustini, Annunziata; Gandini, Martina; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Kelessis, Apostolos G; Le Tertre, Alain; Linares, Cristina; Ranzi, Andrea; Scarinzi, Cecilia; Katsouyanni, Klea; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the short-term effects of particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5μm (PM2.5), between 2.5 and 10μm (PM2.5-10) and less than 10μm (PM10) on deaths from diabetes, cardiac and cerebrovascular causes, lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in 10 European Mediterranean metropolitan areas participating in the MED-PARTICLES project during 2001-2010. In the first stage of the analysis, data from each city were analyzed separately using Poisson regression models, whereas in the second stage, the city-specific air pollution estimates were combined to obtain overall estimates. We investigated the effects following immediate (lags 0-1), delayed (lags 2-5) and prolonged exposure (lags 0-5) and effect modification patterns by season. We evaluated the sensitivity of our results to co-pollutant exposures or city-specific model choice. We applied threshold models to investigate the pattern of selected associations. For a 10μg/m(3) increase in two days' PM2.5 exposure there was a 1.23% (95% confidence interval (95% CI): -1.63%, 4.17%) increase in diabetes deaths, while six days' exposure statistically significantly increased cardiac deaths by 1.33% (95% CI: 0.27, 2.40%), COPD deaths by 2.53% (95% CI: -0.01%, 5.14%) and LRTI deaths by 1.37% (95% CI: -1.94%, 4.78%). PM2.5 results were robust to co-pollutant adjustments and alternative modeling approaches. Stronger effects were observed in the warm season. Coarse particles displayed positive, even if not statistically significant, associations with mortality due to diabetes and cardiac causes that were more variable depending on exposure period, co-pollutant and seasonality adjustment. Our findings provide support for positive associations between PM2.5 and mortality due to diabetes, cardiac causes, COPD, and to a lesser degree to cerebrovascular causes, in the European Mediterranean region, which seem to drive the particles short-term health effects.

  13. Employment and Occupations in Europe in the 1980s. Effects of Technical and Economic Changes on the Employment Situation. Project No. 1 of the CCC: "Preparation for Life." Preparation for Working Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacace, Nicole

    This paper is an attempt to forecast for 1990 the following: (1) employment structures in the member countries of the Council of Europe for all three major sectors of the economy; and (2) employment structures in the Council of Europe for the nine major sectors of the manufacturing industry (food, textiles, leather and clothing, wood and…

  14. Vegetation fire proneness in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Mário; Aranha, José; Amraoui, Malik

    2015-04-01

    Fire selectivity has been studied for vegetation classes in terms of fire frequency and fire size in a few European regions. This analysis is often performed along with other landscape variables such as topography, distance to roads and towns. These studies aims to assess the landscape sensitivity to forest fires in peri-urban areas and land cover changes, to define landscape management guidelines and policies based on the relationships between landscape and fires in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the objectives of this study includes the: (i) analysis of the spatial and temporal variability statistics within Europe; and, (ii) the identification and characterization of the vegetated land cover classes affected by fires; and, (iii) to propose a fire proneness index. The datasets used in the present study comprises: Corine Land Cover (CLC) maps for 2000 and 2006 (CLC2000, CLC2006) and burned area (BA) perimeters, from 2000 to 2013 in Europe, provided by the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS). The CLC is a part of the European Commission programme to COoRdinate INformation on the Environment (Corine) and it provides consistent, reliable and comparable information on land cover across Europe. Both the CLC and EFFIS datasets were combined using geostatistics and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques to access the spatial and temporal evolution of the types of shrubs and forest affected by fires. Obtained results confirms the usefulness and efficiency of the land cover classification scheme and fire proneness index which allows to quantify and to compare the propensity of vegetation classes and countries to fire. As expected, differences between northern and southern Europe are notorious in what concern to land cover distribution, fire incidence and fire proneness of vegetation cover classes. This work was supported by national funds by FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, under the project PEst-OE/AGR/UI4033/2014 and by

  15. From Divergence to Convergence: A History of Vocational Education and Training in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollschlager, Norbert; Reuter-Kumpmann, Helga

    2004-01-01

    In able for Europe to decide where it is going, it initiated a project to recreate its history of vocational education and training. In this article, the author presents the historical review of Europe?s vocational education and training. This review reveals several important findings such as how vocational education and training were the same in…

  16. The burden of rare cancers in Europe.

    PubMed

    Gatta, Gemma; Capocaccia, Riccardo; Trama, Annalisa; Martínez-García, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    The burden of rare tumors in Europe is still unknown and no generally accepted definition of them exist. The Surveillance of Rare Cancers in Europe project (funded by the European Commission) aimed at providing a definition of "rare cancer", a list of cancers and rare cancer burden indicators, based on population-based cancer registry data, across Europe. An international consensus group agreed that incidence is the most appropriate indicator for measuring rare cancers frequency and set the threshold for rarity at 6/100,000/year. The list of rare cancers was based on the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O 3rd edition) and it was hierarchically structured in 2 layers based on various combinations of ICD-O morphology and topography codes: layer (1) families of tumors (relevant for the health care organisation) and layer (2) tumors clinically meaningful (relevant for clinical decision making and research). The burden indicators were estimated and are provided in this chapter.

  17. Joule Heating-Induced Metal-Insulator Transition in Epitaxial VO2/TiO2 Devices.

    PubMed

    Li, Dasheng; Sharma, Abhishek A; Gala, Darshil K; Shukla, Nikhil; Paik, Hanjong; Datta, Suman; Schlom, Darrell G; Bain, James A; Skowronski, Marek

    2016-05-25

    DC and pulse voltage-induced metal-insulator transition (MIT) in epitaxial VO2 two terminal devices were measured at various stage temperatures. The power needed to switch the device to the ON-state decrease linearly with increasing stage temperature, which can be explained by the Joule heating effect. During transient voltage induced MIT measurement, the incubation time varied across 6 orders of magnitude. Both DC I-V characteristic and incubation times calculated from the electrothermal simulations show good agreement with measured values, indicating Joule heating effect is the cause of MIT with no evidence of electronic effects. The width of the metallic filament in the ON-state of the device was extracted and simulated within the thermal model. PMID:27136956

  18. Effect of concurrent joule heat and charge trapping on RESET for NbAlO fabricated by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Ye, Li; Sun, Qing Qing; Wang, Peng Fei; Jiang, An Quan; Ding, Shi Jin; Zhang, David Wei

    2013-01-01

    The RESET process of NbAlO-based resistive switching memory devices fabricated by atomic layer deposition is investigated at low temperatures from 80 to 200 K. We observed that the conduction mechanism of high resistance state changed from hopping conduction to Frenkel-Poole conduction with elevated temperature. It is found that the conductive filament rupture in RRAM RESET process can be attributed not only to the Joule heat generated by internal current flow through a filament but also to the charge trap/detrapping effect. The RESET current decreases upon heating. Meanwhile, the energy consumption also decreases exponentially. This phenomenon indicates the temperature-related charge trap/detrapping process which contributes to the RESET besides direct Joule heat. PMID:23421401

  19. Joule-Heated Molten Regolith Electrolysis Reactor Concepts for Oxygen and Metals Production on the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibille, Laurent; Dominguez, Jesus A.

    2012-01-01

    The technology of direct electrolysis of molten lunar regolith to produce oxygen and molten metal alloys has progressed greatly in the last few years. The development of long-lasting inert anodes and cathode designs as well as techniques for the removal of molten products from the reactor has been demonstrated. The containment of chemically aggressive oxide and metal melts is very difficult at the operating temperatures ca. 1600 C. Containing the molten oxides in a regolith shell can solve this technical issue and can be achieved by designing a Joule-heated (sometimes called 'self-heating') reactor in which the electrolytic currents generate enough Joule heat to create a molten bath. Solutions obtained by multiphysics modeling allow the identification of the critical dimensions of concept reactors.

  20. Joule Heating-Induced Metal-Insulator Transition in Epitaxial VO2/TiO2 Devices.

    PubMed

    Li, Dasheng; Sharma, Abhishek A; Gala, Darshil K; Shukla, Nikhil; Paik, Hanjong; Datta, Suman; Schlom, Darrell G; Bain, James A; Skowronski, Marek

    2016-05-25

    DC and pulse voltage-induced metal-insulator transition (MIT) in epitaxial VO2 two terminal devices were measured at various stage temperatures. The power needed to switch the device to the ON-state decrease linearly with increasing stage temperature, which can be explained by the Joule heating effect. During transient voltage induced MIT measurement, the incubation time varied across 6 orders of magnitude. Both DC I-V characteristic and incubation times calculated from the electrothermal simulations show good agreement with measured values, indicating Joule heating effect is the cause of MIT with no evidence of electronic effects. The width of the metallic filament in the ON-state of the device was extracted and simulated within the thermal model.

  1. Effect of concurrent joule heat and charge trapping on RESET for NbAlO fabricated by atomic layer deposition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The RESET process of NbAlO-based resistive switching memory devices fabricated by atomic layer deposition is investigated at low temperatures from 80 to 200 K. We observed that the conduction mechanism of high resistance state changed from hopping conduction to Frenkel-Poole conduction with elevated temperature. It is found that the conductive filament rupture in RRAM RESET process can be attributed not only to the Joule heat generated by internal current flow through a filament but also to the charge trap/detrapping effect. The RESET current decreases upon heating. Meanwhile, the energy consumption also decreases exponentially. This phenomenon indicates the temperature-related charge trap/detrapping process which contributes to the RESET besides direct Joule heat. PMID:23421401

  2. Transmission electron microscopy assisted in-situ joule heat dissipation study of individual InAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, T. T.; Wei, X. L.; Shu, J. P.; Chen, Q.

    2013-11-01

    Managing heat transport at nanoscale is an important and challenging task for nanodevice applications and nanostructure engineering. Herein, through in-situ engineering nanowire (NW)-electrode contacts with electron beam induced carbon deposition in a transmission electron microscope, Joule heat dissipation along individual suspended Indium Arsenide NWs is well managed to obtain pre-designed temperature profiles along NWs. The temperature profiles are experimentally determined by the breakdown site of NWs under Joule heating and breakdown temperature measurement. A model with NW-electrode contacts being well considered is proposed to describe heat transport along a NW. By fitting temperature profiles with the model, thermal conductance at NW-electrode contacts is obtained. It is found that, the temperature profile along a specific NW is mainly governed by the relative thermal conductance at the two NW-electrode contacts, which is engineered in experiments.

  3. Visco Jet Joule-Thomson Device Characterization Tests in Liquid Methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurns, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Joule-Thomson (J-T) devices have been identified as critical components for Thermodynamic Vent Systems (TVS) planned for future space exploration missions. Lee Visco Jets (The Lee Company) (Ref. 4) are one type of J-T device that may be used for LCH4 propellant systems. Visco Jets have been previously tested and characterized in LN2 and LH2 (Refs. 6 and 7), but have not been characterized in LOX or LCH4. Previous Visco Jet tests with LH2 resulted in clogging of the Visco Jet orifice under certain conditions. It has been postulated that this clogging was due to the presence of neon impurities in the LH2 that solidified in the orifices. Visco Jets therefore require testing in LCH4 to verify that they will not clog under normal operating conditions. This report describes a series of tests that were performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to determine if Visco Jets would clog under normal operating conditions with LCH4 propellant. Test results from this program indicate that no decrease in flow rate was observed for the Visco Jets tested, and that current equation used for predicting flow rate appears to under-predict actual flow at high Lohm ratings.

  4. Second-Law Analysis of a Cascade Joule-Thomson Microcooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razani, A.; Fraser, T.; Dodson, C.; Martin, K. W.

    2015-12-01

    Cascade Joule-Thomson Microcoolers have been proposed in literature in which different compressors with low values of pressure ratio of order four using different working fluids are anticipated to drive the microcooler. A cascade of five stages is expected to provide cooling at a load temperature of 150 K. In this study a second-law analysis of such a microcooler is performed to quantify the effect of important design parameters representing the basic components and processes of the microcooler on its performance. The effects of several important design parameters including the effectiveness of all heat exchangers as well as the effect of possible pressure drop in the recuperative heat exchanger on cooling power and the exergetic efficiency of the microcooler are obtained. The inefficiency of the compressors is included using an exergetic efficiency parameter for the compressors. The heat transfer from each stage to other stages is modelled using an effectiveness parameter for the heat exchangers that can be varied to investigate their influence on cooling power and the efficiency of the microcooler.

  5. Liquid hydrogen mass flow through a multiple orifice Joule-Thomson device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papell, S. S.; Nyland, Ted W.; Saiyed, Naseem H.

    1992-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen mass flow rate, pressure drop, and temperature drop data were obtained for a number of multiple orifice Joule-Thomson devices known as visco jets. The present investigation continues a study to develop an equation for predicting two phase flow of cryogens through these devices. The test apparatus design allowed isenthalpic expansion of the cryogen through the visco jets. The data covered a range of inlet and outlet operating conditions. The mass flow rate range single phase or two phase was 0.015 to 0.98 lbm/hr. The manufacturer's equation was found to overpredict the single phase hydrogen data by 10 percent and the two phase data by as much as 27 percent. Two modifications of the equation resulted in a data correlation that predicts both the single and two phase flow across the visco jet. The first modification was of a theoretical nature, and the second strictly empirical. The former reduced the spread in the two phase data. It was a multiplication factor of 1-X applied to the manufacturer's equation. The parameter X is the flow quality downstream of the visco jet based on isenthalpic expansion across the device. The latter modification was a 10 percent correction term that correlated 90 percent of the single and two phase data to within +/- 10 percent scatter band.

  6. Liquid hydrogen mass flow through a multiple orifice Joule-Thomson device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papell, S. Stephen; Nyland, Ted W.; Saiyed, Naseem H.

    1992-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen mass flow rate, pressure drop, and temperature drop data were obtained for a number of multiple orifice Joule-Thomas devices known as visco jets. The present investigation continues a study to develop an equation for predicting two phase flow of cryogens through these devices. The test apparatus design allowed isenthalpic expansion of the cryogen through the visco jets. The data covered a range of inlet and outlet operating conditions. The mass flow rate range single phase or two phase was 0.015 to 0.98 lbm/hr. The manufacturer's equation was found to overpredict the single phase hydrogen data by 10 percent and the two phase data by as much as 27 percent. Two modifications of the equation resulted in a data correlation that predicts both the single and two phase flow across the visco jet. The first modification was of a theoretical nature, and the second strictly empirical. The former reduced the spread in the two phase data. It was a multiplication factor of 1 - X applied to the manufacturer's equation. The parameter X is the flow quality downstream of the visco jet based on isenthalpic expansion across the device. The latter modification was a 10 percent correction term that correlated 90 percent of the single and two phase data to within +/- 10 percent scatter band.

  7. Highly Stable and Conductive Microcapsules for Enhancement of Joule Heating Performance

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nanocarbons show great promise for establishing the next generation of Joule heating systems, but suffer from the limited maximum temperature due to precociously convective heat dissipation from electrothermal system to surrounding environment. Here we introduce a strategy to eliminate such convective heat transfer by inserting highly stable and conductive microcapsules into the electrothermal structures. The microcapsule is composed of encapsulated long-chain alkanes and graphene oxide/carbon nanotube hybrids as core and shell material, respectively. Multiform carbon nanotubes in the microspheres stabilize the capsule shell to resist volume-change-induced rupture during repeated heating/cooling process, and meanwhile enhance the thermal conductance of encapsulated alkanes which facilitates an expeditious heat exchange. The resulting microcapsules can be homogeneously incorporated in the nanocarbon-based electrothermal structures. At a dopant of 5%, the working temperature can be enhanced by 30% even at a low voltage and moderate temperature, which indicates a great value in daily household applications. Therefore, the stable and conductive microcapsule may serve as a versatile and valuable dopant for varieties of heat generation systems. PMID:27002594

  8. Sensitivity of Micromachined Joule-Thomson Cooler to Clogging Due to Moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, H. S.; Vanapalli, S.; Holland, H. J.; Vermeer, C. H.; ter Brake, H. J. M.

    A major issue in long-term operation of micromachined Joule-Thomson coolers is the clogging of the microchannels and/or the restriction due to the deposition of water molecules present in the working fluid. In this study, we present the performance of a microcooler operated with nitrogen gas with different moisture levels. Relatively low-purity nitrogen gas (5.0) is supplied from a gas bottle and led through a filter to control the moisture level. The filter consists of a tube-in-tube counter flow heat exchanger (CFHX) and a heat exchanger that is stabilized at a certain temperature by using a Stirling cooler. The set-point temperature determines the moisture level at the exit of the heat exchanger. It is found that the moisture level has influence on the mass-flow rate during the cool down. Once the microcooler reaches the set cold-end temperature, the main deposition area shifts into the CFHX and the moisture level at the restriction is almost independent on the inlet moisture level of the microcooler. The moisture level at the restriction increases with the increasing cold-end temperature when the cold-end temperature is lower than the saturation temperature of the water in the nitrogen gas. Higher cold-end temperature results in higher clogging rate.

  9. Preliminary Studies of Ions Emission in a Small Plasma Focus Device of Hundreds of Joules

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, Jose; Pavez, Cristian; Soto, Leopoldo; Tarifeno, Ariel; Reymond, Piotr; Verschueren, Nicolas; Ariza, Pablo

    2009-01-21

    Ion beam emission in plasma focus (PF) discharges was originally investigated to explain the strong forward anisotropy observed in the neutron. Several properties of PF emitted deuteron beams have been measured, including their angular distributions and energy spectra in devices operating with energies from 1 kJ to 1 MJ. At present there is a growing interest in the development of very small PF devices operating under 1 kJ. As part of the characterization program of the very low energy PF devices (<1 kJ) developed at the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, the charges particle emission in hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and mixture (H{sub 2}+%Ar) are being studied. In order to obtain an estimation of the ions energy spectrum and ionization grade, by using time of flight method, a graphite collector system operating in the bias ion collector mode was constructed and it is being used. Preliminary results of the ion beams measurements in different experimental conditions, at a plasma focus device of 400 joules (PF-400 J) are presented.

  10. Giant magnetoimpedance effect in stress-joule-heated Co-based amorphous ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, ShuangQin; Man, QiKui; Dun, ChaoChao; Shen, BaoLong

    2012-12-01

    Co-based Co63Fe4B22.4Si5.6Nb5 amorphous ribbons with a width of 150 μm and a thickness of 50 μm were prepared by single-roller melt-spinning process. The giant magneto-impedance (GMI) effect of the stress-joule-heated ribbons under applied tensile stress ranging from 37 to 148 MPa was investigated. Experimental results show that the spectra of GMI ratio vs. external direct current (dc) field ( H ex) of the samples changes dramatically with annealing tension ( σ) and driving frequency. The single-peak (SP) GMI curve with maximum GMI ratio of 260% and magnetic field sensitivity of 52%/Oe was obtained in the sample applied tensile stress of 74 MPa at frequency of 3.6 MHz. A three-peak behaviour appeared in the samples under σ of 111 and 148 MPa. The uncommon three-peak behaviour was attributed to several factors, which effectively originated from the balance between domain-wall movement and magnetization rotation.

  11. Joule-Thomson cryocooler with neon and nitrogen mixture using commercial air-conditioning compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jisung; Oh, Haejin; Baek, Seungwhan; Lee, Cheonkyu; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2014-01-01

    A 2-stage mixed refrigerant (MR) Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler was designed for cooling high temperature superconducting cable below 70 K. The low temperature cycle was to operate with neon-nitrogen mixture, and the required compression ratio was approximately 24 when the suction pressure was 100 kPa. The high compression ratio of 24, the low pressure of 100 kPa at compressor suction, and the working fluid with high heat of compression were challenging issues to existing typical compression systems. We developed an innovative compression system with commercial oil-lubricated air-conditioning compressors. They were 2-stage rotary compressors originally designed for R410Aand connected in series. The compressors were modified to accommodate effective intercooling at every stage to alleviate compressor overheating problem. Additionally, fine-grade three-stage oil filters, an adsorber, and driers were installed at the discharge line to avoid a potential clogging problem from oil mist and moisture at low temperature sections. The present compression system was specifically demonstrated with a neon-nitrogen MR JT cryocooler. The operating pressure ratio was able to meet the designed specifications, and the recorded no-load mini mum temperature was 63.5 K . Commercial air-conditioning compressors were successfully applied to the high-c ompression ratio MR JT cryocooler with adequate modification using off-the-shelf components.

  12. Idealized Closed Form Performance Modeling of a Closed Cycle Joule-Thomson Cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maytal, B.-Z.

    2004-06-01

    The characteristic parameters of a closed cycle Joule-Thomson cryocooler would be: the charging pressure, discharge and suction volumes of the loop, volumetric displacement of the compressor and the extent of throttling restriction. A series of idealizing assumption are applied. The volumetric behavior of the coolant is assumed to obey the ideal gas equation. The recuperator and compressor's volumetric delivery are completely efficient. There are no pressure losses along the circulating path. On this basis is developed a closed form model of the system, interrelating the relevant parameters. Performance at steady state is expressed in terms of the circulating flow rate, discharge and suction pressures and cooling power. The model predicts the optimal size of equivalent orifice and the maximized cooling power. Also derived is the hydrodynamic time constant of building up the discharge pressure. This analysis is relevant for mixed coolants as well as for pure coolants closed cycles. The former typically employ lower pressure and therefore the idealized assumptions are even more applicable.

  13. Experimental verification of a precooled mixed gas Joule-Thomson cryoprobe model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passow, Kendra Lynn; Skye, Harrison; Nellis, Gregory; Klein, Sanford

    2012-06-01

    Cryosurgery is a medical technique that uses a cryoprobe to apply extreme cold to undesirable tissue such as cancers. Precooled Mixed Gas Joule-Thomson (pMGJT) cycles with Hampson-style recuperators are integrated with the latest generation of cryoprobes to create more powerful and compact instruments. Selection of gas mixtures for these cycles is not a trivial process; the focus of this research is the development of a detailed model that can be integrated with an optimization algorithm to select optimal gas mixtures. A test facility has been constructed to experimentally tune and verify this model. The facility uses a commercially available cryoprobe system that was modified to integrate measurement instrumentation sufficient to determine the performance of the system and its component parts. Spatially resolved temperature measurements allow detailed measurements of the heat transfer within the recuperator and therefore computation of the spatially resolved conductance. These data can be used to study the multiphase, multicomponent heat transfer process in the complicated recuperator geometry. The optimization model has been expanded to model the pressure drop associated with the flow to more accurately predict the performance of the system. The test facility has been used to evaluate the accuracy and usefulness of this improvement.

  14. Clogging of Joule-Thomson Devices in Liquid Hydrogen-Lunar Lander Descent Stage Operating Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurns, J. M.

    2010-04-01

    Joule-Thomson (J-T) devices have been identified as critical components for future space exploration missions. The NASA Constellation Program lunar architecture considers LOX/LH2 propulsion for the lunar lander descent stage main engine an enabling technology, ensuring the cryogenic propellants are available at the correct conditions for engine operation. This cryogenic storage system may utilize a Thermodynamic Vent System (TVS) that includes J-T devices to maintain tank fluid pressure and temperature. Previous experimental investigations have indicated that J-T devices may become clogged when flowing LH2 while operating at a temperature range from 20.5 K to 24.4 K. It has been proposed that clogging is due to a trace amount of metastable, supercooled liquid neon in the regular LH2 supply. In time, flow blockage occurs from accretion of solid neon on the orifice. This clogging poses a realistic threat to spacecraft propulsion systems utilizing J-T devices in cryogenic pressure control systems. TVS failure due to J-T clogging would prevent removal of environmental heat from the propellant and potential loss of mission. This report describes J-T clogging tests performed with LH2. Tests were performed in the expected Lunar Lander operating regime, and several methods were evaluated to determine the optimum approach to mitigating the potential risk of J-T clogging.

  15. Properties of Gas Mixtures and Their Use in Mixed-Refrigerant Joule-Thomson Refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, E.; Gong, M.; Wu, J.; Zhou, Y.

    2004-06-01

    The Joule-Thomson (J-T) effect has been widely used for achieving low temperatures. In the past few years, much progress has been made in better understanding the working mechanism of the refrigeration method and in developing prototypes for different applications. In this talk, there are three aspects of our research work to be discussed. First, some special thermal properties of the mixtures for achieving liquid nitrogen temperature range will be presented. Secondly, some important conclusions from the optimization of various mixed-refrigerant J-T cycles such as a simple J-T cycle and an auto-cascade mixed-refrigerant J-T cycle will be presented. Moreover, an auto-cascade, mixed-refrigerant J-T refrigerator with a special mixture capable of achieving about 50K will be mentioned. Finally, various prototypes based on the mixed-refrigerant refrigeration technology will be described. These applications include miniature J-T cryocoolers for cooling infrared detectors and high-temperature superconducting devices, cryosurgical knife for medical treatment, low-temperature refrigerators for biological storage and so forth. The on-going research work and unanswered questions for this technology will be also discussed.

  16. Joule-Thomson valves for long term service in space cryocoolers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, J. M.; Benedict, B.

    1985-01-01

    Joule-Thomson valves for small cryocoolers have throttling passages on the order of 0.1 millimeter in diameter. Consequently, they can become plugged easily and stop the operation of the cooler. Plugging can be caused by solid particles, liquids or gases. Plugging is usually caused by the freezing of contaminant gases from the process stream. In small open loop coolers and in closed loop coolers where periodic maintenance is allowed, the problem is overcome by using careful assembly techniques, pure process gases, warm filters and cold adsorbers. A more thorough approach is required for closed loop cryocoolers which must operate unattended for long periods. This paper presents the results of an effort to solve this problem. The causes of plugging are examined, and various ways to eliminate plugging are discussed. Finally, the development of a J-T defroster is explained. It is concluded that a combination of preventive measures and a defroster will reduce the chance of cooler failure by plugging to such a degree that J-T coolers can be used for long term space missions.

  17. Microchannel heat exchanger for two-phase Mixed Refrigerant Joule Thomson process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seungwhan; Lee, Jisung; Lee, Cheonkyu; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2014-01-01

    Mixed Refrigerant Joule Thomson (MR-JT) refrigerators are widely used in various kinds of cryogenic systems these days. Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE) is one of the promising cryogenic compact recuperators for MR-JT refrigerators due to its compactness, high NTU and robustness. However, PCHE composed with microchannel bundles can cause flow mal-distribution, and it can cause the degradation of thermal performance of the system. To mitigate the flow mal-distribution problem, the cross link (or intra-layer bypass) can be adapted to parallel microchannels. Two heat exchangers are fabricated in this study; one has straight channels, and the other one has intra-layer bypass structure between channels to enhance the flow distribution. The MR-JT refrigerators are operated with these two heat exchanger and the no-load temperatures are compared. The lower no load temperature achieved with the intra-layer bypass structured heat exchanger. The results indicate that the flow mal-distribution in the microchannel heat exchanger can be mitigated with intra-layer bypass structure, and relaxation of flow mal-distribution in the heat exchanger guarantee the MR-JT refrigerator's performance.

  18. Numerical analysis of the direct drive illumination uniformity for the Laser MegaJoule facility

    SciTech Connect

    Temporal, M.; Canaud, B.; Garbett, W. J.; Ramis, R.

    2014-01-15

    The illumination uniformity provided during the initial imprinting phase of the laser foot pulse in a direct drive scenario at the Laser MegaJoule facility has been analyzed. This study analyzes the quality of the illumination of a spherical capsule and concerns the uniformity of the first shock generate in the absorber of an Inertial Confinement Fusion capsule. Four configurations making use of all or some of the 80 laser beams organized in the 20 quads of the cones at 49° and 131° with respect to the polar axis have been considered in order to assemble the foot pulse. Elliptical and circular super-gaussian laser intensity profiles taking into account beam-to-beam power imbalance (10%), pointing error (50 μm), and target positioning (20 μm) have been considered. It has been found that the use of the Polar Direct Drive technique can in some cases reduce the irradiation non-uniformity by a factor as high as 50%. In all cases, elliptical profile provides better results in comparison with the circular one and it is shown that the minimum of the non-uniformity is also a function of the capsule radius.

  19. Polar thermospheric Joule heating, and redistribution of recombination energy in the upper mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Harris, I.; Dube, M.

    1990-01-01

    Kellogg (1961), suggested that transport of atomic oxygen from the summer into the winter hemisphere and subsequent release of energy by three body recombination, O+O+N2 yields O2+N2+E, may contribute significantly to the so-called mesopause temperature anomaly. Earlier model calculations have shown that Kellogg's mechanism produces about a 10-percent increase in the temperature from summer to winter at 90 km. This process, however, is partly compensated by differential heating from absorption of UV radiation associated with dissociation of O2. In the auroral region of the thermosphere, there is a steady energy dissipation by Joule heating causing a redistribution and depletion of atomic oxygen due to wind-induced diffusion. With the removal of O, latent chemical energy normally released by three body recombination is also removed, and the result is that the temperature decreases by almost 2 percent near 90 km. Through dynamic feedback, this process reduces the depletion of atomic oxygen by about 25 percent and the temperature perturbation in the exosphere from 10 to 7 percent at polar latitudes. Under the influence of the internal dynamo interaction, the prevailing zonal circulation in the upper thermosphere changes direction when the redistribution of recombination energy is considered.

  20. Consistent melting behavior induced by Joule heating between Ag microwire and nanowire meshes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The melting behavior of an Ag microwire mesh induced by Joule heating was numerically investigated and compared with that of the corresponding Ag nanowire mesh with the same structure but different geometrical and physical properties of the wire itself. According to the relationship of melting current and melting voltage during the melting process, a similar repetitive zigzag pattern in melting behavior was discovered in both meshes. On this basis, a dimensionless parameter defined as figure of merit was proposed to characterize the current-carrying ability of the mesh. The consistent feature of figure of merit in both meshes indicates that the melting behavior of the Ag nanowire mesh can be predicted from the present results of the corresponding Ag microwire mesh with the same structure but made from a different wire (e.g., different size, different material) through simple conversion. The present findings can provide fundamental insight into the reliability analysis on the metallic nanowire mesh-based transparent conductive electrode. PMID:24910578

  1. Investigation of pressure drop in capillary tube for mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler

    SciTech Connect

    Ardhapurkar, P. M.; Sridharan, Arunkumar; Atrey, M. D.

    2014-01-29

    A capillary tube is commonly used in small capacity refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. It is also a preferred expansion device in mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MR J-T) cryocoolers, since it is inexpensive and simple in configuration. However, the flow inside a capillary tube is complex, since flashing process that occurs in case of refrigeration and air-conditioning systems is metastable. A mixture of refrigerants such as nitrogen, methane, ethane, propane and iso-butane expands below its inversion temperature in the capillary tube of MR J-T cryocooler and reaches cryogenic temperature. The mass flow rate of refrigerant mixture circulating through capillary tube depends on the pressure difference across it. There are many empirical correlations which predict pressure drop across the capillary tube. However, they have not been tested for refrigerant mixtures and for operating conditions of the cryocooler. The present paper assesses the existing empirical correlations for predicting overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the MR J-T cryocooler. The empirical correlations refer to homogeneous as well as separated flow models. Experiments are carried out to measure the overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the cooler. Three different compositions of refrigerant mixture are used to study the pressure drop variations. The predicted overall pressure drop across the capillary tube is compared with the experimentally obtained value. The predictions obtained using homogeneous model show better match with the experimental results compared to separated flow models.

  2. Towards high concentration enhancement of microfluidic temperature gradient focusing of sample solutes using combined AC and DC field induced Joule heating.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhengwei; Wang, Wei; Yang, Chun

    2011-04-01

    It is challenging to continuously concentrate sample solutes in microfluidic channels. We present an improved electrokinetic technique for enhancing microfluidic temperature gradient focusing (TGF) of sample solutes using combined AC and DC field induced Joule heating effects. The introduction of an AC electric field component services dual functions: one is to produce Joule heat for generating temperature gradient; the other is to suppress electroosmotic flow. Consequently the required DC voltages for achieving sample concentration by Joule heating induced TGF are reduced, thereby leading to smaller electroosmotic flow (EOF) and thus backpressure effects. As a demonstration, the proposed technique can lead to concentration enhancement of sample solutes of more than 2500-fold, which is much higher than the existing literature reported microfluidic concentration enhancement by utilizing the Joule heating induced TGF technique. PMID:21331425

  3. Chaplaincy in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kofinas, Stavros

    2006-06-01

    Chaplaincy is organized in Europe in various ways, depending on the cultural, religious, social and governmental aspects which shape healthcare. One of the uniting forces in bringing national chaplaincies together into one united body has been the European Network of Health Care Chaplaincy (ENHCC). Chaplaincy in Europe faces two major difficulties: 1) the professional status of the chaplain within the healthcare community; 2) preserving the patient's rights for spiritual care. These difficulties are described and note is given to how the ENHCC is dealing with them. Finally, special attention is given to how chaplaincy in Europe and the medical community interact and what is needed to bridge the gap between the two worlds of science and faith.

  4. Holocene to contemporary fluvial sediment budgets in small glacier-fed valley-fjord systems (ESF-NRF SedyMONT - Norway Project, SedyMONT, TOPO-EUROPE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liermann, Susan; Beylich, Achim A.; Rubensdotter, Lena; Hansen, Louise

    2010-05-01

    A sediment budget study contains analysis and quantification of the processes of sediment production, storage and transfer. For constructing a sediment budget at a small-catchment scale (50-100 km2) it is necessary to integrate the temporal and spatial variations of supply of material from sediment sources, sediment transport and storage and to identify how far the different system components are coupled to each other. The analysis of sedimentary fluxes and budgets as well as their controls at different timescales (Holocene to contemporary) is a basis for the assessment of complex landscape responses to Holocene to recent changes in temperature, precipitation and runoff. This PhD project is part of the NFR funded Norwegian Individual Project within the ESF SedyMONT (Timescales of sediment dynamics, climate and topographic change in mountain landscapes) TOPO-EUROPE Programme. Two neighbouring glacier-fed valley-fjord systems (Erdalen & Bødalen) with a different topographic inheritance from Pleistocene glaciations are compared. It is of special interest how the different valley morphometries have influenced Holocene to contemporary sediment fluxes and budgets. Different approaches for sediment budget studies are used to interpret and understand the spatial and temporal sediment flux variability during the Holocene with the main focus on i) the quantification and analysis of storage element volumes for estimation of Holocene sedimentation rates and sediment yields, ii) the analysis of the spatial and temporal sediment flux variability, iii) the analysis of the linkages between sediment transfer and storage, iv) the analysis of controlling factors for postglacial, subrecent and contemporary sediment fluxes and v) the construction of Holocene to contemporary sediment budgets for Erdalen and Bødalen. Both valleys are instrumented with a year-round monitoring system (runoff, suspended and solute transport) for analysing fluvial sediment fluxes. The results enable to

  5. Atmospheric composition forecasting in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menut, L.; Bessagnet, B.

    2010-01-01

    The atmospheric composition is a societal issue and, following new European directives, its forecast is now recommended to quantify the air quality. It concerns both gaseous and particles species, identified as potential problems for health. In Europe, numerical systems providing daily air quality forecasts are numerous and, mostly, operated by universities. Following recent European research projects (GEMS, PROMOTE), an organization of the air quality forecast is currently under development. But for the moment, many platforms exist, each of them with strengths and weaknesses. This overview paper presents all existing systems in Europe and try to identify the main remaining gaps in the air quality forecast knowledge. As modeling systems are now able to reasonably forecast gaseous species, and in a lesser extent aerosols, the future directions would concern the use of these systems with ensemble approaches and satellite data assimilation. If numerous improvements were recently done on emissions and chemistry knowledge, improvements are still needed especially concerning meteorology, which remains a weak point of forecast systems. Future directions will also concern the use of these forecast tools to better understand and quantify the air pollution impact on health.

  6. Modified data analysis for thermal conductivity measurements of polycrystalline silicon microbridges using a steady state Joule heating technique.

    PubMed

    Sayer, Robert A; Piekos, Edward S; Phinney, Leslie M

    2012-12-01

    Accurate knowledge of thermophysical properties is needed to predict and optimize the thermal performance of microsystems. Thermal conductivity is experimentally determined by measuring quantities such as voltage or temperature and then inferring a thermal conductivity from a thermal model. Thermal models used for data analysis contain inherent assumptions, and the resultant thermal conductivity value is sensitive to how well the actual experimental conditions match the model assumptions. In this paper, a modified data analysis procedure for the steady state Joule heating technique is presented that accounts for bond pad effects including thermal resistance, electrical resistance, and Joule heating. This new data analysis method is used to determine the thermal conductivity of polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) microbridges fabricated using the Sandia National Laboratories SUMMiT V™ micromachining process over the temperature range of 77-350 K, with the value at 300 K being 71.7 ± 1.5 W/(m K). It is shown that making measurements on beams of multiple lengths is useful, if not essential, for inferring the correct thermal conductivity from steady state Joule heating measurements.

  7. Rapid concentration of deoxyribonucleic acid via Joule heating induced temperature gradient focusing in poly-dimethylsiloxane microfluidic channel.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhengwei; Wang, Wei; Yang, Chun

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports rapid microfluidic electrokinetic concentration of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) with the Joule heating induced temperature gradient focusing (TGF) by using our proposed combined AC and DC electric field technique. A peak of 480-fold concentration enhancement of DNA sample is achieved within 40s in a simple poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channel of a sudden expansion in cross-section. Compared to a sole DC field, the introduction of an AC field can reduce DC field induced back-pressure and produce sufficient Joule heating effects, resulting in higher concentration enhancement. Within such microfluidic channel structure, negative charged DNA analytes can be concentrated at a location where the DNA electrophoretic motion is balanced with the bulk flow driven by DC electroosmosis under an appropriate temperature gradient field. A numerical model accounting for a combined AC and DC field and back-pressure driven flow effects is developed to describe the complex Joule heating induced TGF processes. The experimental observation of DNA concentration phenomena can be explained by the numerical model. PMID:25597807

  8. Doctoring in Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Henry

    1983-01-01

    Health care in Eastern Europe has not achieved world standards nor the goals of planners of socialist societies. With luck, perseverance, bribes or good connections, it is possible to obtain good medical and surgical care in Eastern Europe for a major illness. Primary and even secondary care usually are substandard, however, and often completely unacceptable to most Western foreigners. The reasons for this are complex but mainly rooted in different attitudes of health workers towards their patients, poor physical plants, poor salary structures, inadequate advancement opportunities for health care workers, poor social status and professional recognition for nurses and almost complete isolation of the average primary care doctor from hospital medicine. PMID:6659504

  9. Developing curriculum in nursing informatics in Europe.

    PubMed

    Mantas, J

    1998-06-01

    The NIGHTINGALE Project (NIGHTINGALE Project: HC1109 DGXIII Contract and Technical Annex, European Commission, December 1995) which started on the 1st of January, 1996, after the approval of the European Commission, has a 36 month duration. It is essential in planning and implementing a strategy in training the nursing profession in using and applying healthcare information systems. NIGHTINGALE contributes towards the appropriate use of the developed telematics infrastructure across Europe by educating and training nurses in a harmonious way across Europe in the upcoming field of nursing informatics. NIGHTINGALE develops courseware material based on the curriculum development process using multimedia technologies. Computer based training software packages in nursing informatics will be the basis of the training material and the corresponding courses. CD-ROM based training and reference material will also be provided in the courses whereas the traditional booklets, teaching material and textbooks can also play an adequate role in training. NIGHTINGALE will disseminate all information and courseware material freely to all interested parties through the publications of the proceedings of the conferences, through the establishment of the world wide web (WWW) server in nursing informatics for Europe (http://www.dn.uoa.gr/nightingale), which will become a depository of nursing information knowledge across Europe as well as a dissemination node of nursing informatics throughout the European members states for the benefit and welfare of the European citizen. PMID:9726502

  10. FY 2009 Annual Report of Joule Software Metric SC GG 3.1/2.5.2, Improve Computational Science Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kothe, Douglas B; Roche, Kenneth J; Kendall, Ricky A

    2010-01-01

    The Joule Software Metric for Computational Effectiveness is established by Public Authorizations PL 95-91, Department of Energy Organization Act, and PL 103-62, Government Performance and Results Act. The U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) oversees the preparation and administration of the President s budget; evaluates the effectiveness of agency programs, policies, and procedures; assesses competing funding demands across agencies; and sets the funding priorities for the federal government. The OMB has the power of audit and exercises this right annually for each federal agency. According to the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (GPRA), federal agencies are required to develop three planning and performance documents: 1.Strategic Plan: a broad, 3 year outlook; 2.Annual Performance Plan: a focused, 1 year outlook of annual goals and objectives that is reflected in the annual budget request (What results can the agency deliver as part of its public funding?); and 3.Performance and Accountability Report: an annual report that details the previous fiscal year performance (What results did the agency produce in return for its public funding?). OMB uses its Performance Assessment Rating Tool (PART) to perform evaluations. PART has seven worksheets for seven types of agency functions. The function of Research and Development (R&D) programs is included. R&D programs are assessed on the following criteria: Does the R&D program perform a clear role? Has the program set valid long term and annual goals? Is the program well managed? Is the program achieving the results set forth in its GPRA documents? In Fiscal Year (FY) 2003, the Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE SC-1) worked directly with OMB to come to a consensus on an appropriate set of performance measures consistent with PART requirements. The scientific performance expectations of these requirements reach the scope of work conducted at the DOE national laboratories. The Joule system

  11. HRD Models in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document contains two papers from a symposium on human resource development (HRD) in Europe moderated by Wim Nijhof at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "HRD Roles in Germany" (Linda E. Odenthal, Wim J. Nijhof) reports on a German study based on a study of the job profiles of HRD practitioners in the United…

  12. The Europe 2020 Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasimeni, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new index to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This index is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the index shows…

  13. Public Relations on Fusion in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongena, J.; van Oost, G.; Paris, P. J.

    2000-10-01

    A summary will be presented of PR efforts on fusion energy research in Europe. A 3-D movie of a fusion research experimental reactor has been realized at the start of this year. It has been made entirely on virtual animation basis. Two versions exists, a short version of 3 min., as a video clip, and a longer version of nearly 8 min. Both could be viewed in 3D, using special projections and passive glasses or in normal VHS video projections. A new CD-ROM for individual and classroom use will be presented, discussing (i) the different energy forms, (ii) general principles of fusion, (iii) current research efforts and (iv) future prospects of fusion. This CD-ROM is now produced in English, German, French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese Several new brochures and leaflets intended to increase the public awareness on fusion in Europe will be on display.

  14. Project Physics Text 3, The Triumph of Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    Mechanical theories are presented in this unit of the Project Physics text for senior high students. Collisions, Newton's laws, isolated systems, and Leibniz' concept are discussed, leading to conservation of mass and momentum. Energy conservation is analyzed in terms of mechanical energy, heat energy, steam engines, Watt's engine, Joule's…

  15. Combating Frosting with Joule-Heated Liquid-Infused Superhydrophobic Coatings.

    PubMed

    Elsharkawy, Mohamed; Tortorella, Domenico; Kapatral, Shreyas; Megaridis, Constantine M

    2016-05-01

    Frost formation is omnipresent when suitable environmental conditions are met. A good portion of research on combating frost formation has revolved around the passive properties of superhydrophobic (SHPO) and slippery lubricant-impregnated porous (SLIP) surfaces. Despite much progress, the need for surfaces that can effectively combat frost formation over prolonged periods still remains. In this work, we report, for the first time, the use of electrically conductive SHPO/SLIP surfaces for active mitigation of frost formation. First, we demonstrate the failure of these surfaces to passively avert prolonged (several hours) frosting. Next, we make use of their electroconductive property for active Joule heating, which results in the removal of any formed frost. We study the role of the impregnating lubricant in the heat transfer across the interface, the surface, and the ambient. We show that, even though the thermal properties of the impregnating lubricant may vary drastically, the lubricant type does not noticeably affect the defrosting behavior of the surface. We attribute this outcome to the dominant thermal resistance of the thick frost layer formed on the cooled surface. We support this claim by drawing parallels between the present system and heat transfer through a one-dimensional (1D) composite medium, and solving the appropriate transient transport equations. Lastly, we propose periodic thermal defrosting for averting frost formation altogether. This methodology utilizes the coating's passive repellent capabilities, while eliminating the dominant effect of thick deposited frost layers. The periodic heating approach takes advantage of lubricants with higher thermal conductivities, which effectively enhance heat transfer through the porous multiphase surface that forms the first line of defense against frosting. PMID:27021948

  16. Thermodynamic optimization of mixed refrigerant Joule- Thomson systems constrained by heat transfer considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinze, J. F.; Klein, S. A.; Nellis, G. F.

    2015-12-01

    Mixed refrigerant (MR) working fluids can significantly increase the cooling capacity of a Joule-Thomson (JT) cycle. The optimization of MRJT systems has been the subject of substantial research. However, most optimization techniques do not model the recuperator in sufficient detail. For example, the recuperator is usually assumed to have a heat transfer coefficient that does not vary with the mixture. Ongoing work at the University of Wisconsin-Madison has shown that the heat transfer coefficients for two-phase flow are approximately three times greater than for a single phase mixture when the mixture quality is between 15% and 85%. As a result, a system that optimizes a MR without also requiring that the flow be in this quality range may require an extremely large recuperator or not achieve the performance predicted by the model. To ensure optimal performance of the JT cycle, the MR should be selected such that it is entirely two-phase within the recuperator. To determine the optimal MR composition, a parametric study was conducted assuming a thermodynamically ideal cycle. The results of the parametric study are graphically presented on a contour plot in the parameter space consisting of the extremes of the qualities that exist within the recuperator. The contours show constant values of the normalized refrigeration power. This ‘map’ shows the effect of MR composition on the cycle performance and it can be used to select the MR that provides a high cooling load while also constraining the recuperator to be two phase. The predicted best MR composition can be used as a starting point for experimentally determining the best MR.

  17. Ion Beam Therapy in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Gerhard

    2009-03-01

    At present, seven facilities in Europe treat deep-seated tumors with particle beams, six with proton beams and one with carbon ions. Three of these facilities are in Moscow, St. Petersburg and Dubna, Russia. Other facilities include the TSL Uppsala, Sweden, CPO Orsay, France, and PSI Villigen, Switzerland, all for proton therapy, and GSI, Darmstadt, Germany, which utilizes carbon ions only. But only two of these facilities irradiate with scanned ion beams: the Paul Scherer Institute (PSI), Villigen (protons) and the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt. These two facilities are experimental units within physics laboratories and have developed the technique of intensity-modulated beam scanning in order to produce irradiation conforming to a 3-D target. There are three proton centers presently under construction in Munich, Essen and Orsay, and the proton facility at PSI has added a superconducting accelerator connected to an isocentric gantry in order to become independent of the accelerator shared with the physics research program. The excellent clinical results using carbon ions at National Institute of Radiological Science (NIRS) in Chiba and GSI have triggered the construction of four new heavy-ion therapy projects (carbon ions and protons), located in Heidelberg, Pavia, Marburg and Kiel. The projects in Heidelberg and Pavia will begin patient treatment in 2009, and the Marburg and Kiel projects will begin in 2010 and 2011, respectively. These centers use different accelerator designs but have the same kind of treatment planning system and use the same approach for the calculation of the biological effectiveness of the carbon ions as developed at GSI [1]. There are many other planned projects in the works. Do not replace the word "abstract," but do replace the rest of this text. If you must insert a hard line break, please use Shift+Enter rather than just tapping your "Enter" key. You may want to print this page and refer to it as a style

  18. [Radiotherapy in Europe].

    PubMed

    Verheij, M; Slotman, B J

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy plays an important part in the curing of cancer patients and is an effective treatment for tumour-related symptoms. However, in many countries the level of access to this treatment modality is unacceptably low due to shortage of infrastructure, modern apparatus and trained staff. In Europe it is mainly the Eastern European countries that are behind in the provision of and accessibility to radiotherapy. Worldwide investment to narrow the gap would put an end to these undesirable differences. In addition, these investments would deliver economic benefits, especially in low-to-middle income countries. In this article, on the basis of a number of recently published reports, we discuss the differences that exist in the geographical spread of radiotherapy departments and the availability of apparatus within Europe. In conclusion we also take a short look at the Dutch situation. PMID:27334085

  19. Privatization in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Cartselos, T.

    1994-02-01

    Three factors have slowed the pace of power sector privatization, particularly in Europe: Capital shortages, political interests, scarce human capital resources. Balancing these factors are powerful drivers for privatization. These include the financial distress many European governments are facing, which limit their ability to continue subsidies and protection of unproductive state enterprises. Increasingly sophisticated customers are also demanding better products and services at lower prices. Privatization progress in Europe will probably move slowly and unevenly. Power generation will likely be the first beneficiary of any reform because it is not a natural monopoly. Transmission and distribution will remain regulated, despite discussion within the European Union regarding open or third-party access. What is likely to speed up the pace of privatization in some countries is a power crisis along the lines of what occurred in the Philippines. Greece, Italy and Portugal and perhaps the most likely prospects for such a scenario.

  20. Mineral facilities of Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  1. Europe's nuclear dominos

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, J. )

    1993-06-01

    As long as the United States continues to play a leading role in NATO, the incentive for European powers to acquire independent nuclear weapons is virtually zero. Most European power, however, have relatively sophisticated nuclear establishments and could easily manufacture nuclear explosives if they judged that their security required an independent capability. They might judge so if the United States pulls out of Europe and out of NATO. It is the opinion of the author that if the United States withdraws, and if France and Britain insist on maintaining their current status as independent nuclear weapons powers, they will encourage proliferation by example. The likelihood of different countries deciding to manufacture nuclear weapons under these cicumstances is evaluated. The future of NATO is assessed. The conclusions of and future structure of the Conference on Cooperation and Security in Europe (CSCE) is discussed. The impact of United Nations involvement in preventing proliferation is evaluated. Recommendations are proposed for the utilization of existing organizations to deter proliferation in Europe.

  2. Functional Food Science in Europe.

    PubMed

    Contor, L

    2001-08-01

    The goal of the Functional Food Science in Europe (FUFOSE) concerted action was to reach consensus on scientific concepts of functional foods in Europe by using the science base that supports evidence that specific nutrients positively affect physiological functions. The outcome proposes "a working definition" of functional foods: foods can be regarded as functional if they can be satisfactorily demonstrated to affect beneficially one or more target functions in the body, beyond adequate nutritional effects, in a way relevant to an improved state of health and well-being and/or reduction of risk of disease. Functional foods must remain foods and they must achieve their effects in amounts normally consumed in a diet. Evidence from human studies, based on markers relating to biological response or on intermediate endpoint markers of disease, could provide a sound scientific basis for messages and claims about the functional food products. Two types of claims are proposed that relate directly to these two categories of markers: Enhanced function claims (type A) and reduced risk of disease claims (type B). A new EU Concerted Action will start with, and build upon, the principles defined within FUFOSE. This project PASSCLAIM will (i) produce a consensus on principles for the scientific substantiation of health-related claims for food and food components, (ii) select common criteria for how markers should be identified, validated and used in well-designed studies to explore the links between diet and health and (iii) to evaluate critically the existing schemes which assess the scientific substantiation of claims.

  3. Experimental demonstration of joule-level non-collinear optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification in yttrium calcium oxyborate.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lianghong; Liang, Xiaoyan; Li, Jinfeng; Wu, Anhua; Zheng, Yanqing; Lu, Xiaoming; Wang, Cheng; Leng, Yuxin; Xu, Jun; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2012-05-15

    In this Letter, we report on what is, to our knowledge, the first experimental demonstration of yttrium calcium oxyborate (YCOB) for joule-level and broadband non-collinear optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification centered at 800 nm. Based on a Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse amplification front end, an amplified signal energy of 3.36 J was generated with a pump of 35 J in the crystal. Compressed pulse duration of 44.3 fs, with a bandwidth of 49 nm, was achieved. The results confirm that YCOB crystal is another potential alternative as a final amplifier besides Ti:sapphire in a petawatt laser at 800 nm.

  4. A finite element technique for a system of fully-discrete time-dependent Joule heating equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Pius W. M.

    2016-06-01

    A system of decoupled nonlinear fully-discrete time-dependent Joule heating equation is studied. Instead of the traditional technique of combining the Euler and the finite element methods, we design a reliable scheme consisting of coupling the Non-standard finite difference in the time space and finite element method in the space variables. We prove for the optimal rate of convergence of the solution of the said scheme in both the H1 as well as the L2-norms. Furthermore, we show that the scheme under study preserves the properties of the exact solution. Numerical experiments are provided to confirm our theoretical analysis.

  5. Three-dimensional noninvasive ultrasound Joule heat tomography based on the acousto-electric effect using unipolar pulses: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Renhuan; Li, Xu; Song, Aiguo; He, Bin; Yan, Ruqiang

    2012-11-21

    Electrical properties of biological tissues are highly sensitive to their physiological and pathological status. Thus it is of importance to image electrical properties of biological tissues. However, spatial resolution of conventional electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is generally poor. Recently, hybrid imaging modalities combining electric conductivity contrast and ultrasonic resolution based on the acousto-electric effect has attracted considerable attention. In this study, we propose a novel three-dimensional (3D) noninvasive ultrasound Joule heat tomography (UJHT) approach based on the acousto-electric effect using unipolar ultrasound pulses. As the Joule heat density distribution is highly dependent on the conductivity distribution, an accurate and high-resolution mapping of the Joule heat density distribution is expected to give important information that is closely related to the conductivity contrast. The advantages of the proposed ultrasound Joule heat tomography using unipolar pulses include its simple inverse solution, better performance than UJHT using common bipolar pulses and its independence of a priori knowledge of the conductivity distribution of the imaging object. Computer simulation results show that using the proposed method, it is feasible to perform a high spatial resolution Joule heat imaging in an inhomogeneous conductive media. Application of this technique on tumor scanning is also investigated by a series of computer simulations. PMID:23123757

  6. Adult Education Research in the Countries in Transition. Adult Education Research Trends in the Former Socialist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Baltic Region. Research Project Report. Studies and Researches 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelenc, Zoran

    This document presents results of an investigation into the state of the art of research on the education of adults in Central and Eastern European and Baltic countries. The first section discusses the background and implementation of the research. Section 2 is "Adult Education Research Trends in Central and Eastern Europe: Research Project…

  7. For Better or Worse: Contemporary Social, Cultural and Economic Changes in Europe and Their Significance for Cultural and Educational Policies. The CDCC's Project No. 7: "The Education and Cultural Development of Migrants."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lithman, Yngve Georg

    Contemporary demographic, economic, political, and social changes in Europe are influencing cultural and educational processes. International migration, internal migration from rural to urban centers, emergence of the welfare state, professionalization of society, technological advancement, and changes in occupational structure and the situation…

  8. Cost Containment in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Culyer, A. J.

    1989-01-01

    Health care cost containment is not in itself a sensible policy objective, because any assessment of the appropriateness of health care expenditure in aggregate, as of that on specific programs, requires a balancing of costs and benefits at the margin. International data on expenditures can, however, provide indications of the likely impact on costs and expenditures of structural features of health care systems. Data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development for both European countries and a wider set are reviewed, and some current policies in Europe that are directed at controlling health care costs are outlined. PMID:10313433

  9. Viral zoonoses in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kallio-Kokko, Hannimari; Uzcategui, Nathalie; Vapalahti, Olli; Vaheri, Antti

    2005-11-01

    A number of new virus infections have emerged or re-emerged during the past 15 years. Some viruses are spreading to new areas along with climate and environmental changes. The majority of these infections are transmitted from animals to humans, and thus called zoonoses. Zoonotic viruses are, as compared to human-only viruses, much more difficult to eradicate. Infections by several of these viruses may lead to high mortality and also attract attention because they are potential bio-weapons. This review will focus on zoonotic virus infections occurring in Europe. PMID:16024128

  10. Precision square waves synthesized by programmable Josephson voltage standards for induced voltage compensation in a Joule balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Zhang, Zhonghua; Lu, Yunfeng; Xu, Jinxin; Zhou, Kunli

    2016-01-01

    A programmable Josephson voltage standard (PJVS) can be used to generate a precision square wave for induced voltage compensation to measure the mutual inductance between the coils in a joule balance. In this paper, the influence of the transitions between quantized voltages in the synthesized square waves is analyzed in detail. The ratio of the time-integrated value of the transitions to the total waveform is reduced to several parts in 104 to improve the measurement accuracy. The influence of different configurations of the integrating digitizer is discussed. The result shows that when the voltages are in a quantum state, the time-integrated agreement between the measured and theoretical differences for two PJVS systems is within 4  ×  10-9 V s V-1 s-1. For the total time integration of a voltage waveform larger than 2 V s, the combined relative uncertainty is less than 5.9  ×  10-8 V s V-1 s-1. The result confirms the capability of the PJVS to generate a precision square wave for the joule balance.

  11. Variation of TMA Optical Spectra With Altitude as Observed During the JOULE-2 and HEX-2 Rocket Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampton, D. L.; Conde, M.; Craven, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    During the JOULE-2 and HEX-2 rocket experiments a total of 7 rockets releasing tri-methyl aluminum (TMA) were launched from the Poker Flat Research Range. Four of the TMA trails were observed with a video imaging spectrograph located at Poker Flat: two during the JOULE-2 experiment in the 400 to 650 nm wavelength range, and two during the HEX-2 experiment in the 615 nm to 890 nm wavelength range. The spectrograph has an angular extent of about 10 degrees along the slit and a spectral resolution of 8 nm. The spectra show that the TMA emissions comprise a broadband continuum, with no significant narrowband emission or molecular band structure apparent. When spectra are compared for TMA released at different altitudes, the continuum shows no difference between 400 nm and 600 nm. However, at wavelengths longer than 650 nm, spectra from 100 km altitude show 20 to 40% greater intensity than spectra from 90 km, when normalized at 615 nm. Proposed mechanisms for photon production in TMA generally invoke a catalytic cycle of chemiluminescence reactions between AlO and O, O2, and in some cases OH and H2O. We report the quantitative variation in spectrum with altitude for TMA in these two releases, ongoing work to use (rarely calibrated) literature data on AlO chemiluminescent reactions to determine the most likely mechanism for photon production in TMA releases, and speculate on whether the spectrum of a TMA release can help reveal geophysical information in the upper atmosphere.

  12. Binge drinking in Europe.

    PubMed

    Farke, Walter; Anderson, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Binge drinking is a pattern of heavy drinking which is observed all over Europe. The term Binge drinking implies a lot of different meanings to different people. The most popular definition used for this term is five or more 'standard drinks' in a single occasion. Binge drinking is different from intoxication, although this kind of heavy alcohol consumption can be lead to intoxication. This condition is manifested by different signs, for example slurred speech. Binge drinking is very common among the European population. In 2006 some 80 million Europeans aged 15 plus reported this kind of alcohol consumption patterns. European surveys showed that there is an increase of binge drinking across Europe amongst young people (15-16 years) old since 1995. The consequences of binge drinking contain acute and chronic effects, which are caused by long term alcohol use. The individual risks are brain damage, suicide, sexually transmitted diseases, etc. It has also an impact on harm to others than the drinkers. This includes violence and crime, accidents, etc. Each year in the European Union 2000 homicides are related to heavy drinking. There a lot of effective measures to reduce binge drinking. Strong evidence is shown by drink-driving laws, tax, reduced access to and availability of alcohol, brief interventions such as physician advice and advertising controls. PMID:18173097

  13. Human cryptosporidiosis in Europe.

    PubMed

    Cacciò, S M; Chalmers, R M

    2016-06-01

    Cryptosporidium has emerged as a significant cause of diarrhoeal disease worldwide, with severe health consequences for very young, malnourished children living in endemic areas and for individuals with highly impaired T-cell functions. In Europe, as elsewhere, the burden of disease has been difficult to measure as a result of the lack of appropriate, standardized surveillance and monitoring systems. The recent occurrence of large water- and foodborne outbreaks in several EU countries, as well as the results of many surveys of human and animal cryptosporidiosis, indicate that this parasite is widespread. Specific subtypes of the zoonotic Cryptosporidium parvum and the anthroponotic C. hominis are responsible for the majority of human cases in Europe. No treatment is currently available to clear the infection, but recent progress in genetic engineering of the parasite, coupled with advances in genomics, have opened important avenues for future research. Here we explore the possible reasons for underascertainment of cryptosporidiosis and the importance of accurate diagnosis in clinical management, the epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis and key messages from recent outbreaks to highlight important interventions and emerging public health issues. PMID:27172805

  14. Perspectives on Europe: Language Issues and Language Planning in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Anthony J., Ed.; Muller, Karis, Ed.

    This collection of papers includes the following: "Language Issues and Language Planning in Europe" (Anthony J. Liddicoat and Karis Muller); "Language and National Identity" (Peter M. Hill); "Language Planning, Linguistic Diversity and Democracy in Europe" (Anthony J. Liddicoat); "Language Competition in European Community Institutions" (Karis…

  15. Embryonal cancers in Europe.

    PubMed

    Gatta, Gemma; Ferrari, Andrea; Stiller, Charles A; Pastore, Guido; Bisogno, Gianni; Trama, Annalisa; Capocaccia, Riccardo

    2012-07-01

    Embryonal cancers are a heterogeneous group of rare cancers which mainly occur in children and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to estimate the burden (incidence, prevalence, survival and proportion of cured) for the principal embryonal cancers in Europe (EU27), using population-based data from cancer registries (CRs) participating in RARECARE. We identified 3322 cases diagnosed from 1995 to 2002 (latest period for which data are available): 44% neuroblastoma, 35% nephroblastoma, 13% retinoblastoma and 6% hepatoblastoma. Very few cases of pulmonary blastoma (43 cases) and pancreatoblastoma (seven cases) were diagnosed. About 2000 new embryonal cancers were estimated every year in EU27, for an annual incidence rate of 4 per million (1.8 neuroblastoma, 1.4 nephroblastoma, and 0.5 retinoblastoma); 91% of cases occurred in patients under 15 years. Five-year relative survival for all embryonal cancers was 80% (99% retinoblastoma, 90% nephroblastoma, 71% hepatoblastoma and 68% neuroblastoma). Overall survival was lower in adolescents and adults than in those under 15 years. The cure rate was estimated at 80%. Slightly less than 40,000 persons were estimated alive in EU27 with a diagnosis of embryonal cancer in 2008. Nephroblastoma was the most prevalent (18,150 cases in EU27), followed by neuroblastoma (12,100), retinoblastoma (5200), hepatoblastoma (2700) and pulmonary blastoma (614). This is the first study to delineate the embryonal cancer burden in Europe by age, sex and European region. Survival/cure rate is generally high, but there are considerable gaps in our understanding of the natural histories of these rare diseases particularly in adults.

  16. Coal gasification developments in Europe -- A perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Burnard, G.K.; Sharman, P.W.; Alphandary, M.

    1994-12-31

    This survey paper will review the development status of coal gasification in Europe and give a broad perspective of the future uptake of the technology. Three main families of gasifier design are currently being developed or demonstrated world-wide, namely fixed bed (also known as moving bed), fluidized bed and entrained flow. Gasifiers belonging to each of these families have been or are being developed in European countries. Of the three families, entrained flow gasifiers are at the most advanced stage of development, with two demonstration projects currently underway: these projects are based on designs developed by Shell and Krupp Koppers. Fixed bed systems have been developed to operate under either slagging or non-slagging conditions, ie, the British Gas-Lurgi and Tampella U-Gas systems, respectively. Fluid bed systems of various designs have also been developed, eg, the Rheinbraun HTW, British Coal and Ahlstrom systems. Gasification cycles can be based on either total or partial gasification, and the above designs represent both these options. In addition, a wide variety of fuel sources can be used in gasifiers, including bituminous coal, lignite, biomass, petroleum coke, etc or, indeed, any combination of these. The major demonstration projects in Europe are at Buggenum in the Netherlands, where a 250 MWe entrained flow gasifier based on Shell technology first gasified coal in December 1993. A further 335 MWe entrained flow gasifier, located at Puertollano in Spain, based on Krupp Koppers Prenflo technology, is at an advanced stage of construction.

  17. Reforming Doctoral Education in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitusikova, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Doctoral education in Europe has been undergoing a major transformation in the last decade. This transformation has occurred in response to several challenges: the changing nature of the labor market in the globalized economy; the European Union's common agenda in research and education, which seeks to make Europe the most competitive…

  18. Integration and immigration pressures in western Europe.

    PubMed

    Bohning, W R

    1991-01-01

    "With xenophobia resurgent in Europe, this article addresses some of the complexities of immigration and integration in EC [European Community] and EFTA [European Free Trade Association] countries. The categories of legal and illegal immigrants (including estimates thereof) are first described, as are the necessary ingredients of an integration policy (a framework law, a secure environment, cultural tolerance, demarginalization in housing and the labour market). The author then considers what types of action would help to ease the present immigration pressure, discussing in turn quota policies, project-tied or training migration and, finally, the use of international aid."

  19. MHD Stagnation-Point Flow and Heat Transfer with Effects of Viscous Dissipation, Joule Heating and Partial Velocity Slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mat Yasin, Mohd Hafizi; Ishak, Anuar; Pop, Ioan

    2015-12-01

    The steady two-dimensional stagnation-point flow and heat transfer past a permeable stretching/shrinking sheet with effects of viscous dissipation, Joule heating and partial velocity slip in the presence of a magnetic field is investigated. The partial differential equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using a similarity transformation, before being solved numerically by shooting technique. Results indicate that the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number increase as magnetic parameter increases. It is found that for the stretching sheet the solution is unique while for the shrinking sheet there exist nonunique solutions (dual solutions) in certain range of parameters. The stability analysis shows that the upper branch solution is stable while the lower branch solution is unstable.

  20. Scaling, stability, and fusion mechanisms. Studies using plasma focus devices from tens of kilojoules to tenth of joules

    SciTech Connect

    Soto, Leopoldo; Pavez, Cristian; Moreno, Jose; Cardenas, Miguel; Tarifeno, Ariel

    2009-01-21

    Fusion studies using plasma focus devices from tens of kilojoules to less than one joule performed at the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission are presented. The similarity of the physical behavior and the scaling observed in these machines are emphasized. Experiments on actual devices show that scaling holds at least through six order of magnitude. In particular all of these devices, from the largest to the smallest, keep the same quantity of energy per particle. Therefore, fusion reactions are possible to be obtained in ultraminiature devices (driven by generators of 0.1 J), as they are in the bigger devices (driven by generators of 1 MJ). However, the stability of the plasma depends on the size and energy of the device.

  1. MHD Stagnation-Point Flow and Heat Transfer with Effects of Viscous Dissipation, Joule Heating and Partial Velocity Slip

    PubMed Central

    Mat Yasin, Mohd Hafizi; Ishak, Anuar; Pop, Ioan

    2015-01-01

    The steady two-dimensional stagnation-point flow and heat transfer past a permeable stretching/shrinking sheet with effects of viscous dissipation, Joule heating and partial velocity slip in the presence of a magnetic field is investigated. The partial differential equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using a similarity transformation, before being solved numerically by shooting technique. Results indicate that the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number increase as magnetic parameter increases. It is found that for the stretching sheet the solution is unique while for the shrinking sheet there exist nonunique solutions (dual solutions) in certain range of parameters. The stability analysis shows that the upper branch solution is stable while the lower branch solution is unstable. PMID:26647651

  2. Investigations on 10-Hz sub-Joule fs-Laser Pumped Neon- and Nickel-Like X-Ray Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasini, R; Nilsen, J; Fill, E E

    2001-08-13

    Experimental investigations on the conditions to achieve transient gain in neon-like Ti and nickel-like molybdenum XUV laser pumped by a 10-HZ sub-Joule femtosecond laser are presented. The 4d-4p (J = 0-1) {lambda} = 18.9 nm and 4f-4d (J = 1-11) {lambda} = 22.6 nm lines in Ni-like Mo as well as the 3p-3s (J = 0-1) {lambda} = 32.6 nm line in neon-like titanium have been observed. The Ni-like laser lines show a threshold behavior with respect to the pump irradiance as they appear only above 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. Simulation for the fs-laser pumped Ni-like Mo XUV laser are also presented.

  3. MHD Stagnation-Point Flow and Heat Transfer with Effects of Viscous Dissipation, Joule Heating and Partial Velocity Slip.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Mohd Hafizi Mat; Ishak, Anuar; Pop, Ioan

    2015-01-01

    The steady two-dimensional stagnation-point flow and heat transfer past a permeable stretching/shrinking sheet with effects of viscous dissipation, Joule heating and partial velocity slip in the presence of a magnetic field is investigated. The partial differential equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using a similarity transformation, before being solved numerically by shooting technique. Results indicate that the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number increase as magnetic parameter increases. It is found that for the stretching sheet the solution is unique while for the shrinking sheet there exist nonunique solutions (dual solutions) in certain range of parameters. The stability analysis shows that the upper branch solution is stable while the lower branch solution is unstable. PMID:26647651

  4. Influence of Newtonian Heating on Three Dimensional MHD Flow of Couple Stress Nanofluid with Viscous Dissipation and Joule Heating

    PubMed Central

    Ramzan, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The present exploration discusses the influence of Newtonian heating on the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three dimensional couple stress nanofluid past a stretching surface. Viscous dissipation and Joule heating effects are also considered. Moreover, the nanofluid model includes the combined effects of thermophoresis and Brownian motion. Using an appropriate transformation, the governing non linear partial differential equations are converted into nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Series solutions using Homotopy Analysis method (HAM) are computed. Plots are presented to portrait the arising parameters in the problem. It is seen that an increase in conjugate heating parameter results in considerable increase in the temperature profile of the stretching wall. Skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt and local Sherwood numbers tabulated and analyzed. Higher values of conjugate parameter, Thermophoresis parameter and Brownian motion parameter result in enhancement of temperature distribution. PMID:25874800

  5. Influence of Newtonian heating on three dimensional MHD flow of couple stress nanofluid with viscous dissipation and Joule heating.

    PubMed

    Ramzan, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The present exploration discusses the influence of Newtonian heating on the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three dimensional couple stress nanofluid past a stretching surface. Viscous dissipation and Joule heating effects are also considered. Moreover, the nanofluid model includes the combined effects of thermophoresis and Brownian motion. Using an appropriate transformation, the governing non linear partial differential equations are converted into nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Series solutions using Homotopy Analysis method (HAM) are computed. Plots are presented to portrait the arising parameters in the problem. It is seen that an increase in conjugate heating parameter results in considerable increase in the temperature profile of the stretching wall. Skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt and local Sherwood numbers tabulated and analyzed. Higher values of conjugate parameter, Thermophoresis parameter and Brownian motion parameter result in enhancement of temperature distribution. PMID:25874800

  6. Evaluation of a Novel Temperature Sensing Probe for Monitoring and Controlling Glass Temperature in a Joule-Heated Glass Melter

    SciTech Connect

    A. D. Watkins; C. A. Musick; C. Cannon; N. M. Carlson; P. D. Mullenix; R. D. Tillotson

    1999-04-29

    A self-verifying temperature sensor that employs advanced contact thermocouple probe technology was tested in a laboratory-scale, joule-heated, refractory-lined glass melter used for radioactive waste vitrification. The novel temperature probe monitors melt temperature at any given level of the melt chamber. The data acquisition system provides the real-time temperature for molten glass. Test results indicate that the self-verifying sensor is more accurate and reliable than classic platinum/rhodium thermocouple and sheath assemblies. The results of this test are reported as well as enhancements being made to the temperature probe. To obtain more reliable temperature measurements of the molten glass for improving production efficiency and ensuring consistent glass properties, optical sensing was reviewed for application in a high temperature environment.

  7. Characteristics of Subcooled Liquid Methane During Passage Through a Spray-Bar Joule-Thompson Thermodynamic Vent System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, L. J.; Bolshinskiy, L. G.; Hedayat, A.; Schnell, A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) conducted liquid methane (LCH4) testing in November 2006 using the multipurpose hydrogen test bed (MHTB) outfitted with a spray-bar thermodynamic vent system (TVS). The basic objective was to identify any unusual or unique thermodynamic characteristics associated with subcooled LCH4 that should be considered in the design of space-based TVSs. Thirteen days of testing were performed with total tank heat loads ranging from 720 W to 420 W at a fill level of approximately 90%. During an updated evaluation of the data, it was noted that as the fluid passed through the Joule Thompson expansion, thermodynamic conditions consistent with the pervasive presence of metastability were indicated. This paper describes the observed thermodynamic conditions that correspond with metastability and effects on TVS performance.

  8. Effect of Joule heating on efficiency and performance for microchip-based and capillary-based electrophoretic separation systems: a closer look.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Nickolaj J; Nikolajsen, Rikke P H; Mogensen, Klaus B; Kutter, Jörg P

    2004-01-01

    An attempt is made to revisit the main theoretical considerations concerning temperature effects ("Joule heating") in electro-driven separation systems, in particular lab-on-a-chip systems. Measurements of efficiencies in microfabricated devices under different Joule heating conditions are evaluated and compared to both theoretical models and measurements performed on conventional capillary systems. The widely accepted notion that planar microdevices are less susceptible to Joule heating effects is largely confirmed. The heat dissipation from a nonthermostatically controlled glass microdevice was found to be comparable to that from a liquid-cooled-fused silica capillary. Using typically dimensioned glass and glass/silicon microdevices, the experimental results indicate that 5-10 times higher electric field strengths can be applied than on conventional capillaries, before detrimental effects on the separation efficiency occur. The main influence of Joule heating on efficiency is via the establishment of a radial temperature profile across the lumen of the capillary or channel. An overall temperature increase of the buffer solution has only little influence on the quality of the separation. Still, active temperature control (cooling, thermostatting) can help prevent boiling of the buffer and increase the reproducibility of the results. PMID:14743478

  9. Measurement and simulation of Joule heating during treatment of B-16 melanoma tumors in mice with nanosecond pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Pliquett, Uwe; Nuccitelli, Richard

    2014-12-01

    Experimental evidence shows that nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) trigger apoptosis in skin tumors. We have postulated that the energy delivered by nsPEF is insufficient to impart significant heating to the treated tissue. Here we use both direct measurements and theoretical modeling of the Joule heating in order to validate this assumption. For the temperature measurement, thermo-sensitive liquid crystals (TLC) were used to determine the surface temperature while a micro-thermocouple (made from 30 μm wires) was used for measuring the temperature inside the tissue. The calculation of the temperature distribution used an asymptotic approach with the repeated calculation of the electric field, Joule heating and heat transfer, and the subsequent readjustment of the electrical tissue conductivity. This yields a temperature distribution both in space and time. It can be shown that for the measured increase in temperature an unexpectedly high electrical conductivity of the tissue would be required, which was indeed found by using voltage and current monitoring during the experiment. Using impedance measurements within t(after)=50 μs after the pulse revealed a fast decline of the high conductivity state when the electric field ceases. The experimentally measured high conductance of a skin fold (mouse) between plate electrodes was about 5 times higher than those of the maximally expected conductance due to fully electroporated membrane structures (G(max)/G(electroporated))≈5. Fully electroporated membrane structure assumes that 100% of the membranes are conductive which is estimated from an impedance measurement at 10 MHz where membranes are capacitively shorted. Since the temperature rise in B-16 mouse melanoma tumors due to equally spaced (Δt=2 s) 300 ns-pulses with E=40 kV/cm usually does not exceed ΔΤ=3 K at all parts of the skin fold between the electrodes, a hyperthermic effect on the tissue can be excluded. PMID:24680133

  10. Short Time-Scale Enhancements to the Global Thermosphere Temperature and Nitric Oxide Content Resulting From Ionospheric Joule Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weimer, D. R.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Hunt, L. A.; Sutton, E. K.

    2014-12-01

    The total Joule heating in the polar ionosphere can be derived from an empirical model of the electric fields and currents, using input measurements of the solar wind velocity and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). In the thermosphere, measurements of the neutral density from accelerometers on the CHAMP and GRACE satellites are used to derive exospheric temperatures, showing that enhanced ionospheric energy dissipation produces elevated temperatures with little delay.Using the total ionospheric heating, changes in the global mean exosphere temperature as a function of time can be calculated with a simple differential equation. The results compare very well with the CHAMP and GRACE measurement. A critical part of the calculation is the rate at which the thermosphere cools after the ionospheric heating is reduced. It had been noted previously that events with significant levels of heating subsequently cool at a faster rate, and this cooling was attributed to enhanced nitric oxide emissions. This correlation with nitric oxide has been confirmed with very high correlations with measurements of nitric oxide emissions in the thermosphere, from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. These measurements were used in a recent improvement in the equations that calculate the thermosphere temperature. The global nitric oxide cooling rates are included in this calculation, and the predicted levels of nitric oxide, derived from the ionosphere heating model, match the SABER measurements very well, having correlation coefficients on the order of 0.9.These calculations are used to govern the sorting of measurements CHAMP and GRACE measurements, on the basis of the global temperature enhancements due to Joule heating, as well as various solar indices, and season. Global maps of the exospheric temperature are produced from these sorted data.

  11. Measurement and simulation of Joule heating during treatment of B-16 melanoma tumors in mice with nanosecond pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Pliquett, Uwe; Nuccitelli, Richard

    2014-12-01

    Experimental evidence shows that nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) trigger apoptosis in skin tumors. We have postulated that the energy delivered by nsPEF is insufficient to impart significant heating to the treated tissue. Here we use both direct measurements and theoretical modeling of the Joule heating in order to validate this assumption. For the temperature measurement, thermo-sensitive liquid crystals (TLC) were used to determine the surface temperature while a micro-thermocouple (made from 30 μm wires) was used for measuring the temperature inside the tissue. The calculation of the temperature distribution used an asymptotic approach with the repeated calculation of the electric field, Joule heating and heat transfer, and the subsequent readjustment of the electrical tissue conductivity. This yields a temperature distribution both in space and time. It can be shown that for the measured increase in temperature an unexpectedly high electrical conductivity of the tissue would be required, which was indeed found by using voltage and current monitoring during the experiment. Using impedance measurements within t(after)=50 μs after the pulse revealed a fast decline of the high conductivity state when the electric field ceases. The experimentally measured high conductance of a skin fold (mouse) between plate electrodes was about 5 times higher than those of the maximally expected conductance due to fully electroporated membrane structures (G(max)/G(electroporated))≈5. Fully electroporated membrane structure assumes that 100% of the membranes are conductive which is estimated from an impedance measurement at 10 MHz where membranes are capacitively shorted. Since the temperature rise in B-16 mouse melanoma tumors due to equally spaced (Δt=2 s) 300 ns-pulses with E=40 kV/cm usually does not exceed ΔΤ=3 K at all parts of the skin fold between the electrodes, a hyperthermic effect on the tissue can be excluded.

  12. Dental Education in Europe: The Challenges of Variety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, John

    2003-01-01

    Finds that dental education varies considerably across Europe, with differing traditions of stomatology and odontology. The European Union's Dental Directives are often poorly followed by individual schools, and differences will likely intensify as Eastern/Central European countries join. The DentEd Thematic Network Project, which aims to promote…

  13. Manpower Aspects of Recent Economic Developments in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This book examined economic growth and manpower policy and developments in Europe. Chapter I presents statistical data on labor force growth, trends in unemployment, occupational structure, and technological change for 1950-65 and made projections for 1965-80. The second chapter is an analysis of the relationship of manpower policy to general…

  14. Modeling neolithic dispersal in central Europe: demographic implications.

    PubMed

    Galeta, Patrik; Sládek, Vladimír; Sosna, Daniel; Bruzek, Jaroslav

    2011-09-01

    On the basis of new examination of ancient DNA and craniometric analyses, Neolithic dispersal in Central Europe has been recently explained as reflecting colonization or at least a major influx of near eastern farmers. Given the fact that Neolithic dispersal in Central Europe was very rapid and extended into a large area, colonization would have to be associated with high population growth and fertility rates of an expanding Neolithic population. We built three demographic models to test whether the growth and fertility rates of Neolithic farmers were high enough to allow them to colonize Central Europe without admixture with foragers. The principle of the models is based on stochastic population projections. Our results demonstrate that colonization is an unlikely explanation for the Neolithic dispersal in Central Europe, as the majority of fertility and growth rate estimates obtained in all three models are higher than levels expected in the early Neolithic population. On the basis of our models, we derived that colonization would be possible only if (1) more than 37% of women survived to mean age at childbearing, (2) Neolithic expansion in Central Europe lasted more than 150 years, and (3) the population of farmers grew in the entire settled area. These settings, however, represent very favorable demographic conditions that seem unlikely given current archaeological and demographic evidence. Therefore, our results support the view that Neolithic dispersal in Central Europe involved admixture of expanding farmers with local foragers. We estimate that the admixture contribution from foragers may have been between 55% and 72%.

  15. [Euthanasia outside Europe].

    PubMed

    Julesz, Máté

    2014-08-10

    The passive form of euthanasia is legalized almost in every civilized country. Its active form is not a generally accepted legal institution. In Europe, active euthanasia is legalized only in The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Switzerland. In Australia, the Act on the Rights of the Terminally Ill of 1995 legalized the institution of assisted suicide, which is not identical to active euthanasia. The difference lies in the fact that legalized active euthanasia means that the author of a murder is not punishable (under certain circumstances), whilst assisted suicide is not about murder, rather about suicide. In the first case, the patient is killed on his or her request by someone else. In the second case, the patient himself or herself executes the act of self-killing (by the assistance of a healthcare worker). In Australia, the institution of assisted suicide was repealed in 1997. Assisted suicide is legal in four USA member states: in Vermont, Washington, Montana and Oregon. In Uruguay, the active form of euthanasia has been legal since 1932.

  16. [Euthanasia outside Europe].

    PubMed

    Julesz, Máté

    2014-08-10

    The passive form of euthanasia is legalized almost in every civilized country. Its active form is not a generally accepted legal institution. In Europe, active euthanasia is legalized only in The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Switzerland. In Australia, the Act on the Rights of the Terminally Ill of 1995 legalized the institution of assisted suicide, which is not identical to active euthanasia. The difference lies in the fact that legalized active euthanasia means that the author of a murder is not punishable (under certain circumstances), whilst assisted suicide is not about murder, rather about suicide. In the first case, the patient is killed on his or her request by someone else. In the second case, the patient himself or herself executes the act of self-killing (by the assistance of a healthcare worker). In Australia, the institution of assisted suicide was repealed in 1997. Assisted suicide is legal in four USA member states: in Vermont, Washington, Montana and Oregon. In Uruguay, the active form of euthanasia has been legal since 1932. PMID:25087217

  17. Urban scaling in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bettencourt, Luís M A; Lobo, José

    2016-03-01

    Over the last few decades, in disciplines as diverse as economics, geography and complex systems, a perspective has arisen proposing that many properties of cities are quantitatively predictable due to agglomeration or scaling effects. Using new harmonized definitions for functional urban areas, we examine to what extent these ideas apply to European cities. We show that while most large urban systems in Western Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK) approximately agree with theoretical expectations, the small number of cities in each nation and their natural variability preclude drawing strong conclusions. We demonstrate how this problem can be overcome so that cities from different urban systems can be pooled together to construct larger datasets. This leads to a simple statistical procedure to identify urban scaling relations, which then clearly emerge as a property of European cities. We compare the predictions of urban scaling to Zipf's law for the size distribution of cities and show that while the former holds well the latter is a poor descriptor of European cities. We conclude with scenarios for the size and properties of future pan-European megacities and their implications for the economic productivity, technological sophistication and regional inequalities of an integrated European urban system. PMID:26984190

  18. Urban scaling in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Bettencourt, Luís M. A.; Lobo, José

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, in disciplines as diverse as economics, geography and complex systems, a perspective has arisen proposing that many properties of cities are quantitatively predictable due to agglomeration or scaling effects. Using new harmonized definitions for functional urban areas, we examine to what extent these ideas apply to European cities. We show that while most large urban systems in Western Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK) approximately agree with theoretical expectations, the small number of cities in each nation and their natural variability preclude drawing strong conclusions. We demonstrate how this problem can be overcome so that cities from different urban systems can be pooled together to construct larger datasets. This leads to a simple statistical procedure to identify urban scaling relations, which then clearly emerge as a property of European cities. We compare the predictions of urban scaling to Zipf's law for the size distribution of cities and show that while the former holds well the latter is a poor descriptor of European cities. We conclude with scenarios for the size and properties of future pan-European megacities and their implications for the economic productivity, technological sophistication and regional inequalities of an integrated European urban system. PMID:26984190

  19. Outstanding challenges limiting the development of climate services in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buontempo, Carlo; Soares, Marta Bruno; Liggins, Felicity

    2016-04-01

    Climate services attempt to make the available (or forthcoming) climate knowledge more usable by decision and policy makers in the development of a climate smart society. Since the launch of the Global Framework for Climate Services in 2009 there has been an exponential increase in investment in the development and delivery of climate services, leading to an array of projects and initiatives across Europe. However, to date little attention has been given to understanding the different ways in which climate services are defined, implemented, and evaluated in Europe. In addition, other aspects such as how to pursue the necessary processes of co-production, which business models to apply, and the implications for the careers of scientists and others involved in the development of climate services are also crucial elements that need to be further examined and discussed. Such aspects are critical to the future development of climate services as they have the potential to significantly constrain the growth of climate services in Europe. Starting from a set of questions that have arisen within some of the most prominent climate services projects and initiatives in Europe, our paper highlights and expands on the outstanding challenges that need to be resolved by both the scientific community and the funders in order to ensure climate services can prosper and grow in Europe.

  20. Anthropogenic climate change affects meteorological drought risk in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, L.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2016-04-01

    Drought constitutes a significant natural hazard in Europe, impacting societies and ecosystems across the continent. Climate model simulations with increasing greenhouse gas concentrations project increased drought risk in southern Europe, and on the other hand decreased drought risk in the north. Observed changes in water balance components and drought indicators resemble the projected pattern. However, assessments of possible causes of the reported regional changes have so far been inconclusive. Here we investigate whether anthropogenic emissions have altered past and present meteorological (precipitation) drought risk. For doing so we first estimate the magnitude of 20 year return period drought years that would occur without anthropogenic effects on the climate. Subsequently we quantify to which degree the occurrence probability, i.e. the risk, of these years has changed if anthropogenic climate change is accounted for. Both an observational and a climate model-based assessment suggest that it is >95% likely that human emissions have increased the probability of drought years in the Mediterranean, whereas it is >95% likely that the probability of dry years has decreased in northern Europe. In central Europe the evidence is inconclusive. The results highlight that anthropogenic climate change has already increased drought risk in southern Europe, stressing the need to develop efficient mitigation measures.

  1. 3-DTV research and development in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sand, Ruediger

    1991-08-01

    An overview on the state of the art of 3-DTV in Europe is given, and the new European Co- operation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST) project and its objectives are described. The paper starts with a report on 3-DTV broadcast transmissions in 1982 using the simple anaglyph technique, which in many European countries found enthusiastic public interest. Following that, in three international audio and video fairs in 1983, 1985, and 1987 in Berlin, presentations of a high-quality two-channel 3-DTV system using large screen projection, showing professionally produced demonstration programs, attracted about 50,000 visitors. Meanwhile, several 3-DTV activities for advertising, information, and special applications such as medical imaging are to be found. In the broadcast domain, research and development aim to transmit 3-DTV within a high-definition TV channel.

  2. OneGeology-Europe - The Challenges and progress of implementing a basic geological infrastructure for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asch, Kristine; Tellez-Arenas, Agnes

    2010-05-01

    OneGeology-Europe is making geological spatial data held by the geological surveys of Europe more easily discoverable and accessible via the internet. This will provide a fundamental scientific layer to the European Plate Observation System Rich geological data assets exist in the geological survey of each individual EC Member State, but they are difficult to discover and are not interoperable. For those outside the geological surveys they are not easy to obtain, to understand or to use. Geological spatial data is essential to the prediction and mitigation of landslides, subsidence, earthquakes, flooding and pollution. These issues are global in nature and their profile has also been raised by the OneGeology global initiative for the International Year of Planet Earth 2008. Geology is also a key dataset in the EC INSPIRE Directive, where it is also fundamental to the themes of natural risk zones, energy and mineral resources. The OneGeology-Europe project is delivering a web-accessible, interoperable geological spatial dataset for the whole of Europe at the 1:1 million scale based on existing data held by the European geological surveys. Proof of concept will be applied to key areas at a higher resolution and some geological surveys will deliver their data at high resolution. An important role is developing a European specification for basic geological map data and making significant progress towards harmonising the dataset (an essential first step to addressing harmonisation at higher data resolutions). It is accelerating the development and deployment of a nascent international interchange standard for geological data - GeoSciML, which will enable the sharing and exchange of the data within and beyond the geological community within Europe and globally. The geological dataset for the whole of Europe is not a centralized database but a distributed system. Each geological survey implements and hosts an interoperable web service, delivering their national harmonized

  3. Adapting wheat in Europe for climate change.

    PubMed

    Semenov, M A; Stratonovitch, P; Alghabari, F; Gooding, M J

    2014-05-01

    Increasing cereal yield is needed to meet the projected increased demand for world food supply of about 70% by 2050. Sirius, a process-based model for wheat, was used to estimate yield potential for wheat ideotypes optimized for future climatic projections for ten wheat growing areas of Europe. It was predicted that the detrimental effect of drought stress on yield would be decreased due to enhanced tailoring of phenology to future weather patterns, and due to genetic improvements in the response of photosynthesis and green leaf duration to water shortage. Yield advances could be made through extending maturation and thereby improve resource capture and partitioning. However the model predicted an increase in frequency of heat stress at meiosis and anthesis. Controlled environment experiments quantify the effects of heat and drought at booting and flowering on grain numbers and potential grain size. A current adaptation of wheat to areas of Europe with hotter and drier summers is a quicker maturation which helps to escape from excessive stress, but results in lower yields. To increase yield potential and to respond to climate change, increased tolerance to heat and drought stress should remain priorities for the genetic improvement of wheat. PMID:24882934

  4. Laser techniques in conservation in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimbeni, Renzo

    2005-06-01

    The state of the art of laser techniques employed in conservation of cultural heritage is continuously growing in Europe. Many research projects organised at the European level have contributed to this achievement, being complementary to the development carried out at national level. The COST Action G7 is playing its unique role since the year 2000 in promoting the experimentation, comparing the experiences and disseminating best practices. This role has been particularly effective for monitoring of the results of many short-term research projects completed along the G7 Action lifetime. After that several laser cleaning techniques have been followed and evaluated it appears now clear an evolution of the systems, a specialization of the cleaning task, the achievement of side-effect free procedures. The validation of these advanced cleaning techniques has been extensive and diffused in many European countries, especially for stone and metals. Laser-based diagnostics have also specialised their tasks toward material analysis, defects detection and multidimensional documentation. Laser and optical methods successfully monitor deterioration effects. In many European countries interdisciplinary networks are managing the experimentation of these techniques giving them a sound scientific approach, but also a technology transfer to end-users. So doing the appreciation for these techniques is growing in all the conservation institutions involved at national level, disseminating a positive evaluation about the benefits provided by laser techniques in conservation. Several laser systems became products for the activity of professional restorers and their increasing sales demonstrate a growing utilisation throughout all Europe.

  5. Origin of extreme summers in Europe: the Indo-Pacific connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, Swadhin; Ratnam, Jayanthi V.; Masumoto, Yukio; Yamagata, Toshio

    2013-08-01

    Extreme summers of Europe are usually affected by blocking highs that shift between Western and Eastern Europe to cause regional variations in the surface temperature anomalies. Generally, the blocking high induces a regional temperature dipole with poles of warm and cold anomalies on two sides of Europe. The extreme summers of Western Europe, when the Eastern Europe is colder than normal, are usually associated with the teleconnections arising from positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events. In contrast, analogous warm events in Eastern Europe are usually associated with La Niña. The western Pacific conditions that prevail during the turnaround phase of El Niño to La Niña are found to be responsible for developing the extreme Eastern Europe events. The role of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is not blatant for the Eastern Europe summers though it has a weaker influence on Western Europe summers for which IOD plays a dominant role: The seasonal July-August correlation for Western Europe temperature with IOD index is higher than that with the NAO index. The teleconnections for both types of extremes are associated with a Rossby wavetrain that travel around the globe to reach the Europe. This circumglobal teleconnection is largely determined by the location of the tropospheric heat source. For Western Europe warm events, major contributions come from the atmospheric convections/diabatic heating over northwest India and southern Pakistan. For the Eastern Europe events, the convections over northwest Pacific, south of Japan, are found to project the signals on to the mid-latitude wave-guide. These patterns of teleconnection are so robust that those can be seen on daily to seasonal time-scales of atmospheric anomalies. The wavetrains are found to set-in a couple of weeks prior to the development of blocking highs and extreme hot conditions over Europe.

  6. Modelling rubella in Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, W. J.; van de Heijden, O. G.; Eerola, M.; Gay, N. J.

    2000-01-01

    The prevention of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), as a complication of rubella infection during pregnancy, is the main aim of rubella vaccination programmes. However, as vaccination of infants leads to an increase in the average age at which those who were not immunized become infected, certain rubella vaccination programmes can lead to an increase in the incidence of CRS. In this paper we use a mathematical model of the transmission dynamics of rubella virus to investigate the likely impact of different vaccination policies in Europe. The model was able to capture pre- and post-vaccination patterns of infection and prevalence of serological markers under a wide variety of scenarios, suggesting that the model structure and parameter estimates were appropriate. Analytical and numerical results suggest that endemic circulation of rubella is unlikely in Finland, the United Kingdom, The Netherlands, and perhaps Denmark, provided vaccine coverage is uniform across geographical and social groups. In Italy and Germany vaccine coverage in infancy has not been sufficient to interrupt rubella transmission, and continued epidemics of CRS seem probable. It seems unlikely that the immunization programmes in these countries are doing more harm than good, but this may be partly as a result of selective immunization of schoolgirls. Indeed, in both these countries, selective vaccination of schoolgirls with inadequate vaccination histories is likely to be an important mechanism by which CRS incidence is suppressed (unlike the other countries, which have had sufficiently high infant coverage rates to withdraw this option). Reducing inequalities in the uptake of rubella vaccine may bring greater health benefits than increasing the mean level of coverage. PMID:11218213

  7. Headache yesterday in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Surveys enquiring about burden of headache over a prior period of time (eg, 3 months) are subject to recall bias. To eliminate this as far as possible, we focused on presence and impact of headache on the preceding day (“headache yesterday”). Methods Adults (18-65 years) were surveyed from the general populations of Germany, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, from a work-force population in Spain and from mostly non-headache patient populations of Austria, France and UK. A study of non-responders in some countries allowed detection of potential participation bias where initial participation rates were low. Results Participation rates varied between 11% and 59% (mean 27%). Non-responder studies suggested that, because of participation bias, headache prevalence might be overestimated in initial responders by up to 2% (absolute). Across all countries, 1,422 of 8,271 participants (15-17%, depending on correction for participation bias) had headache yesterday lasting on average for 6 hours. It was bad or very bad in 56% of cases and caused absence from work or school in 6%. Among those who worked despite headache, 20% reported productivity reduced by >50%. Social activities were lost by 24%. Women (21%) were more likely than men (12%) to have headache yesterday, but impact was similar in the two genders. Conclusions With recall biases avoided, our findings indicate that headache costs at least 0.7% of working capacity in Europe. This calculation takes into account that most of those who missed work could make up for this later, which, however, means that leisure and social activities are even more influenced by headache. PMID:24884765

  8. Ensemble predictions of future streamflow drought in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forzieri, Giovanni; Feyen, Luc; Rojas, Rodrigo

    2013-04-01

    Recent developments in climate modeling suggest that global warming and growing human water use are likely to favor conditions for the development of streamflow droughts in several parts of Europe by the end of this century. In this study, we quantify how future drought hazard in Europe may develop in view of these drivers by comparing low-flow predictions of the LISFLOOD hydrological model coupled to a water consumption module and driven by an ensemble of climate projections. This ensemble consists of 12 bias-corrected climate simulations conducted within the ENSEMBLES project, forced by the A1B emission scenario for the period 1961-2100. For time slices of 30 years, low-flow characteristics - quantified in terms of minimum flows, environmental flows and deficits - are derived from the simulated streamflow series and further analyzed using extreme value theory. Changes in extreme river conditions are then analyzed with respect to the 1961-1990 control period. Two main domains with opposite signal of change in drought characteristics can be identified in Europe, as well as a transition zone between them. Southern parts of Europe - from the Iberian to Balkan Peninsula- but also France, Belgium and British Isles are expected to be more prone to severe and persistent low-flow conditions. In contrast, the Scandinavia Peninsula and Northeast Europe show a robust decrease in future drought hazard. In a transition zone between these two regions, climate-induced changes are projected to be marginal. Water use under an A1B-consistent scenario will further aggravate drought conditions in the south as well as in the transition zone. In the regions with a clear pattern of change in streamflow drought, indices derived from the hydrological simulations for different climate experiments are highly consistent, whereas in the transition zone between North and South Europe the consistency in changes amongst the ensemble members is lower.

  9. "europe Towards the Stars"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-06-01

    YOUNG EUROPEANS AND THEIR TEACHERS TO OBSERVE WITH SUPER-TELESCOPE With the above title, and following the very successful events of the past two years [1], ESO again organises an "educational adventure" in 1995. It takes place within the framework of the "Third European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture", initiated and supported by the European Commission. This time ESO will invite about fifty 17-18 year old grammar school pupils with their teachers to try their skills at one of the world's most advanced astronomical telescopes. The young people are the winners of a Europe-wide astronomy contest that will take place during the summer and early autumn. The main event involves a free, week-long stay at the Headquarters of the European Southern Observatory in November this year. During this time, the participants will experience modern astronomy and astrophysics at one of the world's foremost international centres and also have the opportunity to perform remote observations via a satellite link with two telescopes at the ESO La Silla observatory in Chile. THE CONTEST This year's programme will begin with national competitions in sixteen European countries. It is devised as a contest between joint teams of pupils and teachers. Each team is expected to consist of (up to) three pupils and their teacher. They can choose between four different subjects requiring either practical or theoretical work. Each subject has a strong scientific and technological component. Here are short descriptions: At the telescope - Catching and interpreting the signals. "You observe with an existing telescope and instrument of your own choice. In your observational report you describe the scientific goal, the capability of your equipment, the execution of the observation. You discuss the observational data including an error analysis, and describe the conclusions." Technology for Science - Building an Instrument. "You build an astronomical instrument (e.g. a photometer or a

  10. Life+ EnvEurope DEIMS - improving access to long-term ecosystem monitoring data in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliment, Tomas; Peterseil, Johannes; Oggioni, Alessandro; Pugnetti, Alessandra; Blankman, David

    2013-04-01

    Long-term ecological (LTER) studies aim at detecting environmental changes and analysing its related drivers. In this respect LTER Europe provides a network of about 450 sites and platforms. However, data on various types of ecosystems and at a broad geographical scale is still not easily available. Managing data resulting from long-term observations is therefore one of the important tasks not only for an LTER site itself but also on the network level. Exchanging and sharing the information within a wider community is a crucial objective in the upcoming years. Due to the fragmented nature of long-term ecological research and monitoring (LTER) in Europe - and also on the global scale - information management has to face several challenges: distributed data sources, heterogeneous data models, heterogeneous data management solutions and the complex domain of ecosystem monitoring with regard to the resulting data. The Life+ EnvEurope project (2010-2013) provides a case study for a workflow using data from the distributed network of LTER-Europe sites. In order to enhance discovery, evaluation and access to data, the EnvEurope Drupal Ecological Information Management System (DEIMS) has been developed. This is based on the first official release of the Drupal metadata editor developed by US LTER. EnvEurope DEIMS consists of three main components: 1) Metadata editor: a web-based client interface to manage metadata of three information resource types - datasets, persons and research sites. A metadata model describing datasets based on Ecological Metadata Language (EML) was developed within the initial phase of the project. A crosswalk to the INSPIRE metadata model was implemented to convey to the currently on-going European activities. Person and research site metadata models defined within the LTER Europe were adapted for the project needs. The three metadata models are interconnected within the system in order to provide easy way to navigate the user among the related

  11. Heat treatment of whole milk by the direct joule effect--experimental and numerical approaches to fouling mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Fillaudeau, L; Winterton, P; Leuliet, J C; Tissier, J P; Maury, V; Semet, F; Debreyne, P; Berthou, M; Chopard, F

    2006-12-01

    The development of alternative technologies such as the direct Joule effect to pasteurize and sterilize food products is of great scientific and industrial interest. Our objective was 1) to gain insight into the ability to ensure ultra-high-temperature treatment of milk and 2) to investigate the links among thermal, hydraulic, and electrical phenomena in relation to fouling in a direct Joule effect heater. The ohmic heater [OH; E perpendicular to v (where E is the electrical field and v is the velocity); P (power) = 15 kW] was composed of 5 flat rectangular cells [e (space between the plate and electrode) = 15 mm, w (wall) = 76 mm, and L (length of the plate in plate heat exchanger or electrode) = 246 mm]--3 active cells to ensure heating and 2 (at the extremities) for electrical insulation and the recovery of leakage currents. In the first step, the thermal performance of the OH was investigated vs. the flow regimen [50 < Re (Reynolds number) < 5,000], supplied power (0 < P < 15 kW), and electrical conductivity of fluids (0.1 < sigma(20 degrees C) < 2 S/m) under clean conditions with model fluids. This protocol enabled a global thermal approach (thermal and electrical balance, modeling of the temperature profile of a fluid) and local analysis of the wall temperature of the electrode. An empirical correlation was established to estimate the temperature gradient, T(w)-T(b) (where T(w) is the wall temperature and T(b) is the product temperature) under clean conditions (without fouling) and was used to define operating conditions for pure-volume and direct-resistance heating. In the second step, the ability of OH to ensure the ultra-high-temperature treatment of whole milk was investigated and compared with a plate heat exchanger. Special care was taken to investigate the heat transfer phenomena occurring over a range of temperatures from 105 to 138 degrees C. This temperature range corresponds to the part of the process made critical by protein and mineral fouling

  12. Training in psychiatry throughout Europe.

    PubMed

    Brittlebank, Andrew; Hermans, Marc; Bhugra, Dinesh; Pinto da Costa, Mariana; Rojnic-Kuzman, Martina; Fiorillo, Andrea; Kurimay, Tamas; Hanon, Cecile; Wasserman, Danuta; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2016-03-01

    Psychiatry is the largest medical specialty in Europe. Despite efforts to bring harmonisation, training in psychiatry in Europe continues to be very diverse. The Union Européenne des Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) has issued as from 2000 a charter of requirements for the training in psychiatry with an additional European Framework for Competencies in Psychiatry in 2009. Yet these have not been implemented throughout Europe. In this paper, the diversity in training throughout Europe is approached from different angles: the cultural differences between countries with regards to how mental health care is considered and founded on, the cultural differences between people throughout Europe in all states. The position of psychotherapy is emphasised. What once was the cornerstone of psychiatry as medical specialty seems to have become a neglected area. Seeing the patient with mental health problems within his cultural context is important, but considering him within his family context. The purpose of any training is enabling the trainee to gain the knowledge and acquire the competencies necessary to become a well-equipped professional is the subject of the last paragraph in which trainees consider their position and early career psychiatrists look back to see whether what they were trained in matches with what they need in the working situation. Common standard for training and certification are a necessity within Europe, for the benefit of the profession of psychiatrist but also for patient safety. UEMS is advised to join forces with the Council of National Psychiatric Associations (NPAs) within the EPA and trainings and early career psychiatrist, to discuss with the users what standards should be implemented in all European countries and how a European board examination could ensure professional quality of psychiatrists throughout the continent.

  13. Climate and Dirofilaria infection in Europe.

    PubMed

    Genchi, Claudio; Rinaldi, Laura; Mortarino, Michele; Genchi, Marco; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2009-08-26

    Climatic changes, together with an increase in the movement of cats and dogs across Europe, have caused an increase in the geographical range of several vector borne parasites like Dirofilaria, and in the risk of infection for animals and humans. The present paper reviews the effects of climate and other global drivers on Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens infections in Europe and the possible implications on the transmission and control of these mosquito-borne nematodes. In the last several years, growing degree day (GDD)-based forecast models, which use wide or local scale temperature data, have been developed to predict the occurrence and seasonality of Dirofilaria in different parts of the world. All these models are based on the fact that: there is a threshold of 14 degrees C below which Dirofilaria development will not proceed; and there is a requirement of 130 GDD for larvae to reach infectivity and a maximum life expectancy of 30 days for a vector mosquito. The output of these models predicts that the summer temperatures (with peaks in July) are sufficient to facilitate extrinsic incubation of Dirofilaria even at high latitudes. The global warming projected by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change suggests that warm summers suitable for Dirofilaria transmission in Europe will be the rule in the future decades and if the actual trend of temperature increase continues, filarial infection should spread into previously infection-free areas. These factors not only favour incubation of Dirofilaria, but also impact on mosquito species. Recent findings have also demonstrated that Aedes albopictus is now considered to be an important, competent vector of Dirofilaria infections. This mosquito species could spread from southern to northern European countries in the near future, changing the epidemiological patterns of dirofilariosis both in humans and animals. PMID:19398159

  14. Climate and Dirofilaria infection in Europe.

    PubMed

    Genchi, Claudio; Rinaldi, Laura; Mortarino, Michele; Genchi, Marco; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2009-08-26

    Climatic changes, together with an increase in the movement of cats and dogs across Europe, have caused an increase in the geographical range of several vector borne parasites like Dirofilaria, and in the risk of infection for animals and humans. The present paper reviews the effects of climate and other global drivers on Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens infections in Europe and the possible implications on the transmission and control of these mosquito-borne nematodes. In the last several years, growing degree day (GDD)-based forecast models, which use wide or local scale temperature data, have been developed to predict the occurrence and seasonality of Dirofilaria in different parts of the world. All these models are based on the fact that: there is a threshold of 14 degrees C below which Dirofilaria development will not proceed; and there is a requirement of 130 GDD for larvae to reach infectivity and a maximum life expectancy of 30 days for a vector mosquito. The output of these models predicts that the summer temperatures (with peaks in July) are sufficient to facilitate extrinsic incubation of Dirofilaria even at high latitudes. The global warming projected by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change suggests that warm summers suitable for Dirofilaria transmission in Europe will be the rule in the future decades and if the actual trend of temperature increase continues, filarial infection should spread into previously infection-free areas. These factors not only favour incubation of Dirofilaria, but also impact on mosquito species. Recent findings have also demonstrated that Aedes albopictus is now considered to be an important, competent vector of Dirofilaria infections. This mosquito species could spread from southern to northern European countries in the near future, changing the epidemiological patterns of dirofilariosis both in humans and animals.

  15. Taking Europe To The Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-03-01

    The first step in this ESA initiated programme is a unique project called 'Euromoon 2000' which is currently being studied by ESA engineers/ scientists and key European Space Industries. The project is intended to celebrate Europe's entry into the New Millennium; and to promote public awareness and interest in science, technology and space exploration. Euromoon 2000 has an innovative and ambitious implementation plan. This includes a 'partnership with industry' and a financing scheme based on raising part of the mission's budget from sponsorship through a dynamic public relations strategy and marketing programme. The mission begins in earnest with the small (approx. 100 kg) LunarSat orbiter satellite, to be designed and built by 50 young scientists and engineers from across Europe. Scheduled for launch in 2000 as a secondary payload on a European Ariane 5 rocket, it will then orbit the Moon, mapping the planned landing area in greater detail in preparation of the EuroMoon Lander in 2001. The Lander's 40 kg payload allocation will accommodate amongst others scientific instrumentation for in-situ investigation of the unique site. Elements of specific support to the publicity and fund-raising campaign will also be considered. The Lander will aim for the 'Peak of Eternal Light' on the rim of the 20 km-diameter, 3 km-deep Shackleton South Pole crater - a site uniquely suited for establishing a future outpost. This location enjoys almost continuous sunlight thus missions can rely on solar power instead of bulky batteries or costly and potentially hazardous nuclear power generation. As a consequence of the undulating South Pole terrain there are also permanently shadowed areas - amongst the coldest in the Solar System resulting in conditions highly favourable for the formation of frozen volatiles (as suggested by the Clementine mission in 1994). Earlier this year (7th January 1998), NASA launched its Lunar Prospector satellite which is currently performing polar lunar

  16. Improving Tsunami Resilience in Europe - ASTARTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Maria Ana; Yalciner, Ahmet; Canals, Miquel; Behrens, Joern; Fuhrman, David; Gonzalez, Mauricio; Harbitz, Carl; Kanoglu, Utku; Karanci, Nurai; Lavigne, Franck; Lorito, Stefano; Meghraoui, Mustafa; Melis, Nikolaos S.; Necmioglu, Ocal; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Rudloff, Alexander; Schindele, François; Terrinha, Pedro; Tinti, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    The North East Atlantic, Mediterranean and Adjacent Seas (called NEAM by IOC-UNESCO) is known to be exposed to tsunamis and, like other regions of the world, faces increasing levels of risk due to i) the continuous development of coastal areas with critical infrastructures and accumulated values, and ii) the year-round presence of millions of tourists. In recent years, European researchers have greatly advanced knowledge of tsunami hazards and implementation of operational infrastructures, such as the creation of a regional system of candidate tsunami watch providers (CTWP) and national tsunami warning centers (NTWC). However, significant gaps remain and intensified efforts are needed. The ASTARTE (Assessment STrategy And Risk for Tsunami in Europe) is a three-year long EU-funded project, started in November 2013, that aims to develop a comprehensive strategy to mitigate tsunami impact in the NEAM region. To achieve this goal, an interdisciplinary consortium has been assembled. It includes all NEAM CTWPs and expert institutions across Europe and worldwide. ASTARTE will improve i) the basic knowledge on tsunami generation and recurrence with novel empirical data and new statistical analyses for assessing long-term recurrence and hazards of large events in sensitive areas within NEAM, ii) numerical techniques for tsunami simulation focusing on real-time codes, novel statistical emulation approaches, and experiments on damage analysis, and iii) methods for the assessment of hazard, vulnerability, and risk. ASTARTE will also provide i) guidelines for tsunami Eurocodes, ii) better forecasting and warning tools for CTWPs and NTWCs, and iii) guidelines for decision makers to increase the sustainability and resilience of coastal communities. In summary, ASTARTE will develop basic scientific and technical elements allowing for a significant enhancement of the Tsunami Warning System in the NEAM region in terms of monitoring, early warning,forecast, and resilience, with

  17. OneGeology-Europe Plus Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capova, Dana; Kondrova, Lucie

    2014-05-01

    The Geological Surveys of the European countries hold valuable resources of geological data but, to discover, understand and use this data efficiently, a good level of standardization is essential. The OneGeology-Europe project had the aim of making geological maps at a scale 1:1M from Europe discoverable and accessible, available under a common data license and described by multilingual metainformation. A harmonized specification for basic geological map data was developed so that significant progress towards harmonizing the datasets was achieved. Responsibility for the management of the OneGeology-Europe portal has been taken by EuroGeoSurveys and provided by CGS and BRGM. Of the 34 members of EuroGeoSurveys (EGS), only 20 participated in the OneGeology-Europe project (Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Spain, United Kingdom), so the European area was not completely covered. At the 33rd General Meeting and Directors Workshop in 2012 it was therefore decided to establish a successor initiative OneGeology Europe Plus (1G-E+) with the purpose of extending the coverage by geological maps at a scale of 1:1 M to all the EGS member countries (including Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Iceland, Lithuania, Malta, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine) and also, if possible, to the other European countries (Belorussia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Faeroe Islands, Kosovo, Latvia, Macedonia, Moldavia, Montenegro, Serbia). In order to achieve the desired result, it has been necessary for the new GSOs who intend to supply the additional 1G-E standardized services to carry out the work using their own staff and resources. The technical guidance and other support have been provided by the 1G-E+ Technical Support Team, funded from the internal budgets of their respective surveys. The team is coordinated by the Czech

  18. Photovoltaic prospects in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, M. R.

    The economics of solar cells is reviewed with an eye to potential cost reductions in processing, and potential markets are explored. Current solar cell systems costs are noted to be on the road to achieving the U.S. DoE goals of $0.40/kWp by 1990. Continued progress will depend on technical developments in cheaper materials and processes, scaling up production, and the success of sales programs. Various consumer and professional markets are outlined, with a prediction that a 12 MWp deman will be reached as a steady state by 1995. Photovoltaic panels may conceivably replace conventional roofing materials, resulting in the projection that, if grid-supplied power continues to inflate in price, then all new European homes would be equipped with photovoltaics by the year 2000. Further, accomplishment of the cost goals could generate a 1 GWp/yr industrial market at the same time.

  19. Acquisition and correlation of cryogenic nitrogen mass flow data through a multiple orifice Joule-Thomson device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papell, S. Stephen; Saiyed, Naseem H.; Nyland, Ted W.

    1990-01-01

    Liquid nitrogen mass flow rate, pressure drop, and temperature drop data were obtained for a series of multiple orifice Joule-Thomson devices, known as Visco Jets, over a wide range of flow resistance. The test rig used to acquire the data was designed to minimize heat transfer so that fluid expansion through the Visco Jets would be isenthalpic. The data include a range of fluid inlet pressures from 30 to 60 psia, fluid inlet temperatures from 118 to 164 R, outlet pressures from 2.8 to 55.8 psia, outlet temperatures from 117 to 162 R and flow rate from 0.04 to 4.0 lbm/hr of nitrogen. A flow rate equation supplied by the manufacturer was found to accurately predict single-phase (noncavitating) liquid nitrogen flow through the Visco Jets. For cavitating flow, the manufacturer's equation was found to be inaccurate. Greatly improved results were achieved with a modified version of the single-phase equation. The modification consists of a multiplication factor to the manufacturer's equation equal to one minus the downstream quality on an isenthalpic expansion of the fluid across the Visco Jet. For a range of flow resistances represented by Visco Jet Lohm ratings between 17,600 and 80,000, 100 percent of the single-phase data and 85 percent of the two-phase data fall within + or - 10 percent of predicted values.

  20. Effects of temperature dependence of electrical and thermal conductivities on the Joule heating of a one dimensional conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoulinakis, F.; Chernin, D.; Zhang, Peng; Lau, Y. Y.

    2016-10-01

    We examine the effects of temperature dependence of the electrical and thermal conductivities on Joule heating of a one-dimensional conductor by solving the coupled non-linear steady state electrical and thermal conduction equations. The spatial temperature distribution and the maximum temperature and its location within the conductor are evaluated for four cases: (i) constant electrical conductivity and linear temperature dependence of thermal conductivity, (ii) linear temperature dependence of both electrical and thermal conductivities, (iii) the Wiedemann-Franz relation for metals, and (iv) polynomial fits to measured data for carbon nanotube fibers and for copper. For (i) and (ii), it is found that there are conditions under which no steady state solution exists, which may indicate the possibility of thermal runaway. For (i), analytical solutions are constructed, from which explicit expressions for the parameter bounds for the existence of steady state solutions are obtained. The shifting of these bounds due to the introduction of linear temperature dependence of electrical conductivity (case (ii)) is studied numerically. These results may provide guidance in the design of circuits and devices in which the effects of coupled thermal and electrical conduction are important.

  1. Direct observation of nanoscale Peltier and Joule effects at metal-insulator domain walls in vanadium dioxide nanobeams.

    PubMed

    Favaloro, Tela; Suh, Joonki; Vermeersch, Bjorn; Liu, Kai; Gu, Yijia; Chen, Long-Qing; Wang, Kevin X; Wu, Junqiao; Shakouri, Ali

    2014-05-14

    The metal to insulator transition (MIT) of strongly correlated materials is subject to strong lattice coupling, which brings about the unique one-dimensional alignment of metal-insulator (M-I) domains along nanowires or nanobeams. Many studies have investigated the effects of stress on the MIT and hence the phase boundary, but few have directly examined the temperature profile across the metal-insulating interface. Here, we use thermoreflectance microscopy to create two-dimensional temperature maps of single-crystalline VO2 nanobeams under external bias in the phase coexisting regime. We directly observe highly localized alternating Peltier heating and cooling as well as Joule heating concentrated at the M-I domain boundaries, indicating the significance of the domain walls and band offsets. Utilizing the thermoreflectance technique, we are able to elucidate strain accumulation along the nanobeam and distinguish between two insulating phases of VO2 through detection of the opposite polarity of their respective thermoreflectance coefficients. Microelasticity theory was employed to predict favorable domain wall configurations, confirming the monoclinic phase identification.

  2. Prediction of two-phase pressure drop in heat exchanger for mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardhapurkar, P. M.; Atrey, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    The overall efficiency of a mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MR J-T) cryocooler is governed by the performance of the recuperative heat exchanger. In the heat exchanger, the hot stream of the mixed refrigerant undergoes condensation at high pressure while the cold stream gets evaporated at low pressure. The pressure drop in the low pressure stream is crucial since it directly influences the achievable refrigeration temperature. However, experimental and theoretical studies related to two-phase pressure drop in mixtures at cryogenic temperatures, are limited. Therefore, the design of an efficient MR J-T cryocooler is a challenging task due to the lack of predictive tools. In the present work, the existing empirical correlations, which are commonly used for the prediction of pressure drop in the case of pure refrigerants, evaporating at near ambient conditions, are assessed for the mixed refrigerants. Experiments are carried out to measure the overall pressure drop in the evaporating cold stream of the tube-in-tube helically coiled heat exchanger. The predicted frictional pressure drop in the heat exchanger is compared with the experimental data. The suggested empirical correlations can be used to predict the hydraulic performance of the heat exchanger.

  3. Performance analysis of a miniature Joule-Thomson cryocooler with and without the distributed J-T effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damle, Rashmin; Atrey, Milind

    2015-12-01

    Cryogenic temperatures are obtained with Joule-Thomson (J-T) cryocoolers in an easier way as compared to other cooling techniques. Miniature J-T cryocoolers are often employed for cooling of infrared sensors, cryoprobes, biological samples, etc. A typical miniature J-T cryocooler consists of a storage reservoir/compressor providing the high pressure gas, a finned tube recuperative heat exchanger, an expansion valve/orifice, and the cold end. The recuperative heat exchanger is indispensable for attaining cryogenic temperatures. The geometrical parameters and the operating conditions of the heat exchanger drastically affect the cryocooler performance in terms of cool down time and cooling effect. In the literature, the numerical models for the finned recuperative heat exchanger have neglected the distributed J-T effect. The distributed J-T effect accounts for the changes in enthalpy of the fluid due to changes of pressure in addition to those due to changes of temperature. The objective of this work is to explore the distributed J-T effect and study the performance of a miniature J-T cryocooler with and without the distributed J-T effect. A one dimensional transient model is employed for the numerical analysis of the cryocooler. Cases with different operating conditions are worked out with argon and nitrogen as working fluids.

  4. Study of organic contamination induced by outgassing materials. Application to the Laser MégaJoule optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favrat, O.; Mangote, B.; Tovena-Pécault, I.; Néauport, J.

    2014-02-01

    Organic contamination may decrease the targeted performances of coated surfaces. To study the contamination induced by surrounding materials, a method using a thermal extractor is presented in the first part of this work. Besides its normal operation (analyses of outgassing compounds from a material), this device is used in an original way to contaminate and decontaminate samples. Efficiency of contamination and decontamination protocols are assessed by automated thermal desorption and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and by secondary ion mass spectrometry coupled with a time of flight mass analyzer. This enables to study the contamination induced by a bulk material outgassing and to take in consideration the possible competition between outgassed species. This method is then applied to investigate contamination of Laser MégaJoule sol-gel coated optics by a retractable sheath. The impact of the temperature on the outgassing of the sheath has been highlighted. Increasing temperature from 30 to 50 °C enables the outgassing of organophosphorous compounds and increases the outgassing of oxygenated compounds and phthalates. Chemical analyses of contaminated optics have highlighted affinities between the sol-gel coating and phthalates and organophosphorous, and low affinities with aromatics and terpens. Finally, samples with increasing levels of contamination have been realized. However a saturation phenomenon is observed at 90 ng cm-2.

  5. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatographic determination of artificial sweeteners in low-Joule soft drinks and other foods.

    PubMed

    Thompson, C O; Trenerry, V C; Kemmery, B

    1995-03-10

    A rapid method for the determination of artificial sweeteners in low-Joule soft drinks and other foods by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) is described. Caffeine, benzoic acid and sorbic acid, which are often added to soft drinks, can also be determined with this procedure. The artificial sweeteners, aspartame, saccharin, acesulfame-K, alitame and dulcin, and the other food additives are well separated in less than 12 min using an uncoated fused-silica capillary column with a buffer consisting of 0.05 M sodium deoxycholate, 0.01 M potassium dihydrogenorthophosphate, 0.01 M sodium borate operating at 20 kV. Dehydroacetic acid was used as the internal standard for the determinations. The levels of artificial sweeteners, preservatives and caffeine were in good agreement with those determined by the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) procedure currently used in our Laboratory. The MEKC procedure has the same order of repeatability, is faster and less costly to operate than the HPLC method.

  6. Characterization of x-rays pulses from a hundred joules plasma focus to study its effects on cancer cells.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, J.; Moreno, J.; Avaria, G.; Pavez, C.; Bora, B.; Inestrosa Izurieta, M. J.; Diez, D.; Alvarez, O.; Tapia, J.; Marcelain, K.; Armisen, R.; Soto, L.

    2016-05-01

    With the purpose to study the effects of pulsed x-rays radiation on cancer cells, the total doses of x-ray pulses and the temporal duration of the pulse has been characterized in a hundred joules plasma focus device (PF-400J, 130 kA achieved in 300ns, 30 kV, 880 nF, 38 nH). TLD dosimeters were located outside of the discharge chamber, at 96 mm from the anode top. In addition, two photomultipliers with plastic scintillator were located in axial and radial directions. From the statistical analysis of the TLD and photomultiplier signals, was possible to estimate that a single shot has a total dose of the order of 30±15 µSv with a duration of the order of 12±3.6 ns at FWHM. Preliminary experiments using MCF7, a breast cancer cell line, were performed. Cells were irradiated at 96 mm from the anode top with 300 cumulative x-ray shots and cell proliferation was evaluated at 24, 48 and 72 hours later.

  7. Status of floriculture in Europe.

    PubMed

    Van Huylenbroeck, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Europe is traditionally the largest producer of floricultural products in the world with an estimated production value of over 12 billion euro in 2006. The Netherlands, Italy, Germany, Spain, United Kingdom and France are the main centres of production. More recently, a significant growth in production area was observed in Poland also. The Dutch auctions remain the world's largest trading system for flowers and plants. Looking at the intra-European trade, Belgium and Denmark are also major exporting countries. The consumption of floricultural products increased strongly within Europe during the last years. Especially, Eastern Europe has a big potential as a new market. In these countries, the demand for ornamentals will increase due to the rise of income and the level of prosperity. In spite of the positive developments in consumption and production, increasing energy costs, growing environmental concern and globalisation of production, trade and markets will form the major challenges European floricultural industry has to deal with in the near future.

  8. A self-heated silicon nanowire array: selective surface modification with catalytic nanoparticles by nanoscale Joule heating and its gas sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jeonghoon; Jin, Chun Yan; Ahn, Jae-Hyuk; Jeon, Seokwoo; Park, Inkyu

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrated novel methods for selective surface modification of silicon nanowire (SiNW) devices with catalytic metal nanoparticles by nanoscale Joule heating and local chemical reaction. The Joule heating of a SiNW generated a localized heat along the SiNW and produced endothermic reactions such as hydrothermal synthesis of nanoparticles or thermal decomposition of polymer thin films. In the first method, palladium (Pd) nanoparticles could be selectively synthesized and directly coated on a SiNW by the reduction of the Pd precursor via Joule heating of the SiNW. In the second method, a sequential process composed of thermal decomposition of a polymer, evaporation of a Pd thin film, and a lift-off process was utilized. The selective decoration of Pd nanoparticles on SiNW was successfully accomplished by using both methods. Finally, we demonstrated the applications of SiNWs decorated with Pd nanoparticles as hydrogen detectors. We also investigated the effect of self-heating of the SiNW sensor on its sensing performance. PMID:23770994

  9. Effect of current crowding and Joule heating on electromigration-induced failure in flip chip composite solder joints tested at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Nah, J.W.; Suh, J.O.; Tu, K.N.

    2005-07-01

    The electromigration of flip chip solder joints consisting of 97Pb-3Sn and 37Pb-63Sn composite solders was studied under high current densities at room temperature. The mean time to failure and failure modes were found to be strongly dependent on the change in current density. The composite solder joints did not fail after 1 month stressed at 4.07x10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2}, but failed after just 10 h of current stressing at 4.58x10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2}. At a slightly higher current stressing of 5.00x10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2}, the composite solder joints failed after only 0.6 h due to melting. Precipitation and growth of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} at the cathode caused the Cu under bump metallurgy to be quickly consumed and resulted in void formation at the contact area. The void reduced the contact area and displaced the electrical path, affecting the current crowding and Joule heating inside the solder bump. Significant Joule heating inside solder bumps can cause melting of the solder and quick failure. The effect of void propagation on current crowding and Joule heating was confirmed by simulation.

  10. [Emerging viral diseases in Europe].

    PubMed

    Löbermann, M; Gürtler, L G; Eichler-Löbermann, B; Reisinger, E C

    2012-04-01

    Emergence of viral agents in Europe is influenced by various factors. Climatic changes influencing possible vectors, insufficient vaccination, and travel of man and goods are among the most important reasons to explain these changes. Fever and arthralgia are the leading symptoms in infection with Dengue, Sindbis, or Chikungunya virus. In contrast, tick-born encephalitis (TBE), Toscana, or West Nile virus infections mainly lead to meningo-encephalitis. In Europe, hemorrhagic fever is caused by Crimean Congo and Hanta virus. Protective vaccines are available for emerging viral agents like TBE, influenza and measles.

  11. HTR Fuel Development in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Languille, Alain; Conrad, R.; Haas, D.

    2002-07-01

    In the frame of the European Network HTR-TN and in the 5. EURATOM RTD Framework Programme (FP5) European programmes have been launched to consolidate advanced modular HTR technology in Europe. This paper gives an overall description and first results of this programme. The major tasks covered concern a complete recovery of the past experience on fuel irradiation behaviour in Europe, qualification of HTR fuel by irradiating of fuel elements in the HFR reactor, understanding of fuel behaviour with the development of a fuel particle code and finally a recover of the fuel fabrication capability. (authors)

  12. L'Europe des universites (The Europe of Universities). . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivieri, Claude

    1994-01-01

    A September 1994 conference, held in Hungary, on the emerging role of universities in a more unified Europe is summarized. Participants were university administrators. Primary issues considered included international mobility and cooperation strategies; quality of professional education and research; politics of research; and human resource…

  13. Challenges of the biomedical engineering education in Europe.

    PubMed

    Magjarevic, Ratko; Lackovic, Igor; Bliznakov, Zhivko; Pallikarakis, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Higher education in Europe has passed through a very dynamic period of changes during the last ten years. Since the signing of the Bologna Declaration in 1999 by the Ministers of Education from the EU states, European higher education system has aimed toward establishing harmonized programs enabling students and teachers to extensively exchange knowledge, ideas and skills. Education in the field of Biomedical Engineering has experienced changes also because of the research and development in the field which was more intensive than in other fields. Besides research in new power sources, it is the most intensive and productive research field. Much of the development in BME education in Europe is influenced by the European research policy expressed through the 7th Framework Programme where health is the major theme. In order to foster and support the changes in the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) according to the needs of research sector and the labor market, the Tempus scheme of projects was established. Tempus scheme aims to support the modernization of higher education and create an area of co-operation in the countries surrounding the EU. Our Tempus project, CRH-BME "Curricula Reformation and Harmonization in the field of Biomedical Engineering" aims to create guidelines for updating existing curricula in the field of BME in Europe in order to meet recent and future developments in the area, address new emerging interdisciplinary domains that appear as the result of the R&D progress and respond to the BME job market demands. In this paper, some policy and economic factors affecting BME education in Europe are discussed and the results of a BME education survey we prepared within the Tempus CHR-BME project are presented. The number of BME programmes in Europe has in the last decade significantly increased and there are more BME specializations as the result of growing complexity of the research and production in the field.

  14. Scenarios and Strategies for Vocational Education and Lifelong Learning in Europe: Summary of Findings and Conclusions of the Joint CEDEFOP/ETF Project (1998-2002). CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellin, Burkart

    The scenarios project set out to develop a tool to improve understanding of vocational education and training (VET) systems in the linked contexts of economic and technological change; changes in society, work, and the labor market; and changing training/skills environment. Other key attempts at the European level to generate European scenarios…

  15. Project: "Project!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the editors of "Campus Technology" launched their first-ever High-Resolution Projection Study, to find out if the latest in projector technology could really make a significant difference in teaching, learning, and educational innovation on US campuses. The author and her colleagues asked campus educators, technologists, and…

  16. Future Infectious Disease Threats to Europe

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Jonathan E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how different drivers of infectious disease could interact to threaten control efforts in Europe. We considered projected trends through 2020 for 3 broad groups of drivers: globalization and environmental change, social and demographic change, and health system capacity. Eight plausible infectious disease threats with the potential to be significantly more problematic than they are today were identified through an expert consultation: extensively drug-resistant bacteria, vector-borne diseases, sexually transmitted infections, food-borne infections, a resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases, health care–associated infections, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and pandemic influenza. Preemptive measures to be taken by the public health community to counteract these threats were identified. PMID:21940915

  17. Regional airborne flux measurements in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioli, B.; Miglietta, F.; Vaccari, F. P.; Zaldei, A.; Hutjes, R. W. A.

    2003-04-01

    The problem of identifying the spatial and temporal distribution of sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 is the subject of considerable scientific and political debate. Even if it is now possible to estimate within reasonable accuracy the sink strength of European forests at the local scale, difficulties still exist in determining the partitioning of the sinks at the global and regional scales. The aim of the EU-project RECAB (Regional Assessment of the Carbon Balance in Europe) that is coordinated by Alterra, Wageningen (NL), is to bridge the gap between local scale flux measurements and continental scale inversion models by a generic modelling effort and measurement program, focussing on a limited number of selected regions in Europe for which previous measurements exists. This required the establishment of a European facility for airborne measurement of surface fluxes of CO2 at very low altitude, and a research aircraft capable of performing airborne eddy covariance measurements has been acquired by this project and used on several occasions at the different RECAB sites. The aircraft is the italian Sky Arrows ERA (Environmental Research Aircraft) equipped with the NOAA/ARA Mobile Flux Platform (MFP), and a commercial open-path infrared gas analyser. Airborne eddy covariance measurements were made from June 2001 onwards in Southern Spain near Valencia (June and December 2001), in Central Germany near Jena (July 2001), in Sweden near Uppsala (August 2001), in The Netherlands near Wageningen (January and July 2002) and in Italy near Rome (June 2002). Flux towers were present at each site to provide a validation of airborne eddy covariance measurements. This contribution reports some validation results based on the comparison between airborne and ground based flux measurements and some regional scale results for different locations and different seasons, in a wide range of meteorological and ecological settings.

  18. Comparison between satellite wildfire databases in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amraoui, Malik; Pereira, Mário; DaCamara, Carlos

    2013-04-01

    For Europe, several databases of wildfires based on the satellite imagery are currently available and being used to conduct various studies and produce official reports. The European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) burned area perimeters database comprises fires with burnt area greater than 1.0 ha occurred in the Europe countries during the 2000 - 2011 period. The MODIS Burned Area Product (MCD45A1) is a monthly global Level 3 gridded 500m product containing per-pixel burning, quality information, and tile-level metadata. The Burned Area Product was developed by the MODIS Fire Team at the University of Maryland and is available April 2000 onwards. Finally, for Portugal the National Forest Authority (AFN) discloses the national mapping of burned areas of the years 1990 to 2011, based on Landsat imagery which accounts for fires larger than 5.0 ha. This study main objectives are: (i) provide a comprehensive description of the datasets, its limitations and potential; (ii) do preliminary statistics on the data; and, (iii) to compare the MODIS and EFFIS satellite wildfires databases throughout/across the entire European territory, based on indicators such as the spatial location of the burned areas and the extent of area burned annually and complement the analysis for Portugal will the inclusion of database AFN. This work is supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-022692, the project FLAIR (PTDC/AAC-AMB/104702/2008) and the EU 7th Framework Program through FUME (contract number 243888).

  19. Free electron laser infrastructure in Europe 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a digest of chosen research centers, subjects and results in the domain of free electron lasers and accelerator science and technology in Europe. Some of these issues were shown during the annual meeting of the EU FP7 project EuCARD - European Coordination of Accelerator Research and Development (2009-2013) [13-14]. The project concerns building of the research infrastructure, including in this advanced photonic and electronic systems for servicing large high energy physics and FEL experiments. There are debated a few basic groups of such infrastructures, networks and systems like: POLFEL, FLASH, SPARC, LIFE, CFEL, IRFEL, IRVUX, ELBE, FELIX, LCLS, E-XFEL along with some subsystems like seeding lasers, beam diagnostics, high field magnets, superconducting structures, multichannel measurement - control networks for FELs for large amounts of metrological data acquisition, precision photonic networks of reference time, frequency and phase distribution. A digest of references on FEL and HEP was included [1-133], with emphasis on work in Poland on the Polfel project.

  20. Environmental protection in Eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Kabala, S. )

    1990-12-01

    There is a need for the development of institutional structures to make the transfer of technology work to improve the ability of Eastern Europe to find solutions to its environmental problems. Envisioned is technical assistance: U.S. experts who will work on-site with Eastern European experts. The idea is to technically train individuals in pollution-prevention methods. Trained experts could then upgrade processes to save input, energy, and materials. In the exchange of environmental information, discussions have led to four issues: it is expensive to transfer equipment and make qualified personnel available for a long period; information is comparatively inexpensive to convey; in Eastern Europe there are trained and competent personnel; the theoretical knowledge, academic knowledge, and education are at a very high level but little of this knowledge has been put into practice. The technology transfer goal is to develop a response to needs identified by partner institutions and counterpart professionals that will enable Eastern Europe to tap resources that do exist- scientific, managerial, and economic resources and tap information resources in the US in order to address the environmental problems that exist in Eastern Europe.

  1. Proceedings of Offshore Europe 91

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    All papers in this volume were presented at Offshore Europe held in Aberdeen, Scotland, September 3--6, 1991. Included are the following papers: Low-damage-fluid-loss control for well completions; Isolation techniques for subsea gas pipelines; New water injection technology.

  2. The Inclusive Education in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzano-García, Beatriz; Fernández, María Tomé

    2016-01-01

    One of the phenomena that is of most concern to educational policy in Europe is immigration due to the fact that this is the source of new educational needs. This research looks at how European educational legislation deals with this topic. For this intercultural values that make inclusive education will be evaluated, we will analyze intercultural…

  3. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social…

  4. Babesiosis in Immunocompetent Patients, Europe

    PubMed Central

    Zadeh, Mahsa Mohseni; Hansmann, Yves; Grawey, Isabelle; Christmann, Daniel; Aguillon, Sarah; Jouglin, Maggy; Chauvin, Alain; De Briel, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    We report 2 cases of babesiosis in immunocompetent patients in France. A severe influenza-like disease developed in both patients 2 weeks after they had been bitten by ticks. Diagnosis was obtained from blood smears, and Babesia divergens was identified by PCR in 1 case. Babesiosis in Europe occurs in healthy patients, not only in splenectomized patients. PMID:21192869

  5. The Teaching Profession in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, E. G.; Peck, B. T.

    This volume discusses the changing face of Europe and examines dimensions of the teaching profession in different countries. Matters related to recruitment, training, recognition and status, probation, teaching conditions, career advancement, and inservice opportunities are identified and developed. Teachers who contemplate moving from one country…

  6. Consequences of severe nuclear accidents in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibert, Petra; Arnold, Delia; Mraz, Gabriele; Arnold, Nikolaus; Gufler, Klaus; Kromp-Kolb, Helga; Kromp, Wolfgang; Sutter, Philipp

    2013-04-01

    A first part of the presentation is devoted to the consequences of the severe accident in the 1986 Chernobyl NPP. It lead to a substantial radioactive contaminated of large parts of Europe and thus raised the awareness for off-site nuclear accident consequences. Spatial patterns of the (transient) contamination of the air and (persistent) contamination of the ground were studied by both measurements and model simulations. For a variety of reasons, ground contamination measurements have variability at a range of spatial scales. Results will be reviewed and discussed. Model simulations, including inverse modelling, have shown that the standard source term as defined in the ATMES study (1990) needs to be updated. Sensitive measurements of airborne activities still reveal the presence of low levels of airborne radiocaesium over the northern hemisphere which stems from resuspension. Over time scales of months and years, the distribution of radionuclides in the Earth system is constantly changing, for example relocated within plants, between plants and soil, in the soil, and into water bodies. Motivated by the permanent risk of transboundary impacts from potential major nuclear accidents, the multidisciplinary project flexRISK (see http://flexRISK.boku.ac.at) has been carried out from 2009 to 2012 in Austria to quantify such risks and hazards. An overview of methods and results of flexRISK is given as a second part of the presentation. For each of the 228 NPPs, severe accidents were identified together with relevant inventories, release fractions, and release frequencies. Then, Europe-wide dispersion and dose calculations were performed for 2788 cases, using the Lagrangian particle model FLEXPART. Maps of single-case results as well as various aggregated risk parameters were produced. It was found that substantial consequences (intervention measures) are possible for distances up to 500-1000 km, and occur more frequently for a distance range up to 100-300 km, which is in

  7. Joule Heating, Particle Precipitation and Dynamical Heating as Possible Tidal Sources in the Antarctic Winter Lower Thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, W.; Chu, X.; Lu, X.; Chen, C.; Yu, Z.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Richmond, A. D.; Codrescu, M.

    2014-12-01

    Winter temperature tides observed by lidar at McMurdo (77.8°S, 166.7°E), Antarctica, show less than 3 K diurnal and semidiurnal tidal amplitude below 100 km. However, above 100 km, the diurnal and semidiurnal tidal amplitudes grow super-exponentially and can reach at least 15 K near 110 km, which are exceeding that of the freely propagating tides originating from the lower atmosphere. Such fast growth exists for all Kp index cases and diurnal amplitude increases to 15-30 K at 110 km with larger Kp indices corresponding to larger tidal amplitudes and faster growth rates. Combining with the slopes of diurnal tidal phases being steeper above 100 km, and the tidal phases barely changing with altitude from 100 to 106 km, it indicates that in-situ tidal sources may exist near or above 100 km. In this paper, we utilize the coupled thermosphere ionosphere plasmasphere electrodynamics (CTIPe) model to investigate possible sources/mechanisms that lead to the fast amplitude growth of tides in the polar winter region. Joule heating, particle precipitation, and dynamical heating are likely to be the dominant thermospheric tidal sources, according to CTIPe model. Interestingly, the CTIPe tidal amplitudes induced by these sources form a concentric pattern with its center located at the geomagnetic pole, implying that the geomagnetic activity may play an important role. Furthermore, dynamical heating, which includes adiabatic heating/cooling and vertical advection, is likely to be the explanation of the fast growth of diurnal tidal amplitudes even under quiet condition of geomagnetic activity as observed by lidar. We also found that the tides propagating from the lower atmosphere is a minor factor for the fast increase of thermospheric diurnal tides in Antarctica.

  8. Development of a sorption-based Joule-Thomson cooler for the METIS instrument on E-ELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Vermeer, C. H.; Holland, H. J.; Benthem, B.; ter Brake, H. J. M.

    2015-12-01

    METIS, the Mid-infrared E-ELT Imager and Spectrograph, is one of the proposed instruments for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) that will cover the thermal/mid-infrared wavelength range from 3-14 m. Its detectors and optics require cryogenic cooling at four temperature levels, 8 K for the N-band detectors, 25 K for the N-band imager, 40 K for the L/M-band detectors and 70 K for the optics. To provide cooling below 70 K, a vibration-free cooling technology based on sorption coolers is developed at the University of Twente in collaboration with Airbus Defence and Space Netherlands B.V. (former Dutch Space B.V.). We propose a sorption-based cooler with three cascaded Joule-Thomson (JT) coolers of which the sorption compressors are all heat sunk at the 70 K platform. A helium-operated cooler is used to obtain the 8 K level with a cooling power of 0.4 W. Here, three pre-cooling stages are used at 40 K, 25 K and 15 K. The latter two levels are provided by a hydrogen-based cooler, whereas the 40 K level is realized by a neon-based sorption cooler. To validate the designs, three demonstrators were built and tested: 1. Full-scale 8 K helium JT cold stage; 2. Scaled helium sorption compressor; 3. Scaled 40 K neon sorption JT cooler. In this paper, we present the design of these demos. We discuss the experiment results obtained so far, the lessons that were learned from these demos and the future development towards a real METIS cooler.

  9. "Physics and Life" for Europe's Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-04-01

    The EIROforum Contribution to the European Science and Technology Week 2003 [Physics on Stage 3 Logo] What do you know about modern science? Was your school science teacher inspiring and enthusiastic? Or was physics class a good time to take a nap? Unfortunately, many young Europeans don't have the fondest memories of science in school, and the result is a widespread disinterest and lack of understanding of science among adults. This has become a real problem - especially at a time when science is having a growing impact on our daily lives, and when society needs more scientists than ever! What can be done? Some of Europe's leading research organisations, scientists and teachers have put their heads together and come up with a unique approach called "Physics on Stage" . This will be the third year that these institutes, with substantial support from the European Commission, are running this project - attacking the problem at its roots. EIROforum and "Physics on Stage 3" [EIROforum Logo] "Physics On Stage 3" is based on the very successful "Physics On Stage" concept that was introduced in 2000. It is directed towards science teachers and students in Europe's secondary schools. It is a part of the year-long build-up to the European Science and Technology Week 2003 (3-9 November), an initiative by the European Commission, and is run by seven of Europe's leading Intergovernmental Research Organizations (the EIROforum) [1]. The project addresses the content and format of science teaching in European schools , seeking to improve the quality of teaching and to find new ways to stimulate pupils to take an interest in science. Innovative and inspirational science teaching is seen as a key component to attract young people to deal with scientific issues, whether or not they finally choose a career in science. Hence, "Physics On Stage 3" aims to stimulate the interest of young people through the school teachers, who can play a key role in reversing the trend of falling

  10. Glaciers of Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    1993-01-01

    supraglacial morainic debris and crevasses. The maps are revised every 6 years by use of aerial photogrammetric methods. The possibility of producing a glacier inventory by combining the topographic maps with Landsat digital and visual data is discussed. ALPS: FRENCH: The glaciers of the French Alps are distributed in four main groups and have a total area of 350 square kilometers. The northernmost group, on the Mont Blanc massif, has a glacier area of 110 square kilometers, which includes Met de Glace, which, with an area of 40 square kilometers, is the largest glacier in the Western Alps. Farther south, the Massif de la Vanoise contains 130 glaciers that have a total area of 85 square kilometers. The glaciers of the Grandes Rousses massif have a total area of 11 square kilometers. Lastly, the Massif du Pelvoux has a total glacier area of 120 square kilometers. Studies of glacier variations since 1600 A.D. have shown numerous fluctuations in glacier length. The glaciers on Mont Blanc that appear to show similar fluctuations in fact have different individual response times. Mass-balance measurements are presently being carried out on nine glaciers. The measurements on one of these glaciers, Glacier de Saint Sorlin, have been used to validate a linear statistical model for mass-balance variation. The model seems to give good results when extended over the entire region of French Alpine glaciers. New methods of mass-balance reconstructions by use of a continuity equation are discussed. Current satellite data have limited usefulness for glacier studies in the French Alps, with the exception of the method correlating changes in the elevation of snowline to changes in glacier mass balance. ALPS: ITALIAN: Research carried out by Italian glaciologists in support of the World Glacier Inventory project identified approximately 1,400 glaciers in the mountain groups of the Italian Alps. The total surface area of all glaciers, glacierets, and permanent snow fields in Italy with

  11. Migrations toward Western Europe: trends, outlook, policies.

    PubMed

    Gomel, G

    1992-01-01

    Recent trends in international migration affecting Europe are reviewed. The author notes that since the 1970s, the pressure from migrants has shifted from northern to southern Europe. He concludes that the focus of future trends will be the Mediterranean region from northern Africa to southern Europe. The possible effect on migration of aid policies to developing countries is considered.

  12. Emissions of nitrogen-oxides from forests in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhnert, M.; Yeluripati, J.; Parton, W. J.; Smith, P.

    2012-04-01

    Green house gas emissions affected climatic conditions and got affected by the climate itself. This interaction plays a crucial role in the development of future climate and need to be investigated for a better understanding of the relevant processes. Therefore, some years ago the project NitroEurope started to investigate the impact of nitrogen compounds and nitrogen fluxes to the environment. As part of this project, our work focused on the simulation of nitrogen fluxes from forests of Europe for the period 1971 - 2030. The objective is to simulate nitrogen fluxes (N2O and NO) and their spatial distribution. The terrestrial biochemical model DailyDayCent is well suited for these simulations, because the model is complex enough to describe the important processes, but fast enough to simulate the processes for a large temporal and spatial resolution. The model was applied using a newly complied NitroEurope soil/ climate/land use database by arranging these input data to NitroEurope calculation units (NCU). For the model simulations different species and age classes are considered. Plant parameters are optimized to the biomass data of the EFISCEN data set and the soil parameters are derived by pedotransfer functions of the texture that based on a soil map (US Taxanomy). The simulation results are transferred to the corresponding NCUs and aggregated to get the N2O and NO emissions over Europe. This represents one of the first presentations of spatial data for nitrogen emissions from semi-natural areas at pan-European scale.

  13. Tobacco control efforts in Europe.

    PubMed

    Britton, John; Bogdanovica, Ilze

    2013-05-01

    Smoking is prevalent across Europe, but the severity and stage of the smoking epidemic, and policy responses to it, vary substantially between countries. Much progress is now being made in prohibition of paid-for advertising and in promotion of smoke-free policies, but mass media campaigns are widely underused, provision of services for smokers trying to quit is generally poor, and price policies are undermined by licit and illicit cheap supplies. Monitoring of prevalence is inadequate in many countries, as is investment in research and capacity to address this largest avoidable cause of death and disability across Europe. However, grounds for optimism are provided by progress in implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and in the development of a new generation of nicotine-containing devices that could enable more widespread adoption of harm-reduction strategies. The effect of commercial vested interests has been and remains a major barrier to progress. PMID:23642700

  14. Tularaemia: clinical aspects in Europe.

    PubMed

    Maurin, Max; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2016-01-01

    Tularaemia is a zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis, a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacterium. Typically, human and animal infections are caused by F tularensis subspecies tularensis (type A) strains mainly in Canada and USA, and F tularensis subspecies holarctica (type B) strains throughout the northern hemisphere, including Europe. In the past, the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic, and prognostic aspects of tularaemia reported in the English medical literature were mainly those that had been reported in the USA, where the disease was first described. Tularaemia has markedly changed in the past decade, and a large number of studies have provided novel data for the disease characteristics in Europe. In this Review we aim to emphasise the specific and variable aspects of tularaemia in different European countries. In particular, two natural lifecycles of F tularensis have been described in this continent, although not fully characterised, which are associated with different modes of transmission, clinical features, and public health burdens of tularaemia.

  15. Accelerator science and technology in Europe 2008-2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    European Framework Research Projects have recently added a lot of meaning to the building process of the ERA - the European Research Area. Inside this, the accelerator technology plays an essential role. Accelerator technology includes large infrastructure and intelligent, modern instrumentation embracing mechatronics, electronics, photonics and ICT. During the realization of the European research and infrastructure project FP6 CARE 2004-2008 (Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe), concerning the development of large accelerator infrastructure in Europe, it was decided that a scientific editorial series of peer-reviewed monographs from this research area will be published in close relation with the projects. It was a completely new and quite brave idea to combine a kind of a strictly research publisher with a transient project, lasting only four or five years. Till then nobody did something like that. The idea turned out to be a real success. The publications now known and valued in the accelerator world, as the (CERN-WUT) Editorial Series on Accelerator Science and Technology, is successfully continued in already the third European project EuCARD2 and has logistic guarantees, for the moment, till the 2017, when it will mature to its first decade. During the realization of the European projects EuCARD (European Coordination for Accelerator R&D 2009-2013 and TIARA (Test Infrastructure of Accelerator Research Area in Europe) there were published 18 volumes in this series. The ambitious plans for the nearest years is to publish, hopefully, a few tens of new volumes. Accelerator science and technology is one of a key enablers of the developments in the particle physic, photon physics and also applications in medicine and industry. The paper presents a digest of the research results in the domain of accelerator science and technology in Europe, published in the monographs of the European Framework Projects (FP) on accelerator technology. The succession of CARE, Eu

  16. A Physics Teacher in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickell, Duane S.

    2003-02-01

    Last summer, I had the good fortune of winning a fellowship to take a scientific tour of Europe.1 My goal was to learn more about the people whose work I have studied and taught throughout my professional career - scientists like Galileo, Newton, and Einstein, whose work has revealed the beauty, grandeur, and comprehensibility of the universe. Below, I list and describe some of the highlights of my trip. The four cities listed are among those commonly visited by tourists.

  17. PIXE pollution studies across Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Innegraeve, O.; Blanchet, X.; Muntele, C. I.; Muntele, I. C.; Zimmerman, R. L.; Popa-Simil, L.; Voiculescu, D.; Racolta, P. M.; Ila, D.

    2002-01-01

    We collected vegetation and soil samples from various locations along a route covering Eastern and Western Europe. We measured the level of elemental pollution in different places uniformly spread across the continent to determine which of them may have common sources. To achieve these objectives, samples were collected along the main roads from Romania to Portugal and analyzed using in-air PEE (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission).

  18. Seismological data networks and services in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinuso, A.; Kamb, L.; Trani, L.; Frobert, L.

    2011-12-01

    the 7th European Framework Program, will bring into the Data Portal new extensions to include new data sets and access tools from new partners in the Seismology and Earthquake Engineering communities. We will implement a Common Services Architecture based on OGC services APIs. This services layer API provides Resource-Oriented common interfaces across the data access and processing services to improve interoperability between tools and across projects, enabling the development of higher-level applications that can uniformly access the data and processing services of all participants. The effort for such extensions of the current Data Portal will be conducted jointly with another EU funded project VERCE - Virtual Earthquake and Seismology Research Community for Europe. VERCE aims to enable seismologists to exploit the wealth of seismic data within a data-intensive computation framework, which will be tailored to the specific needs of the community. It will provide a new interoperable infrastructure, as the computational backbone laying behind the publicly available interfaces.

  19. Status of floriculture in Europe.

    PubMed

    Van Huylenbroeck, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Europe is traditionally the largest producer of floricultural products in the world with an estimated production value of over 12 billion euro in 2006. The Netherlands, Italy, Germany, Spain, United Kingdom and France are the main centres of production. More recently, a significant growth in production area was observed in Poland also. The Dutch auctions remain the world's largest trading system for flowers and plants. Looking at the intra-European trade, Belgium and Denmark are also major exporting countries. The consumption of floricultural products increased strongly within Europe during the last years. Especially, Eastern Europe has a big potential as a new market. In these countries, the demand for ornamentals will increase due to the rise of income and the level of prosperity. In spite of the positive developments in consumption and production, increasing energy costs, growing environmental concern and globalisation of production, trade and markets will form the major challenges European floricultural industry has to deal with in the near future. PMID:20099115

  20. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rieder, H L

    1995-09-01

    The risk of exposure to tuberculosis depends upon the incidence of infectious cases, the duration of their infectiousness, and the number of personal interactions an infectious case accomplishes per unit of time. The risk of infection, given exposure, depends on the density of infectious particles in the ambient air x duration of exposure to that air. The risk of infection has rapidly declined in Europe for decades by 10% or more annually, resulting in a shift of the infected to the oldest generation. Thus, with the passage of time, cohorts are increasingly replaced by successive cohorts with less and less infection. The risk of progression from infection to tuberculosis depends largely on the cellular immune system's capability to prevent tubercle bacilli from multiplication. The three most important risk factors for the progression from subclinical infection to tuberculosis include: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, recency of infection, and fibrotic residuals from earlier tuberculosis. The number of tuberculosis cases has rapidly decreased during this century, accompanied by an upward shift in the median age of patients. In recent years, tuberculosis among immigrants has gained in significance and is likely to continue to do so, while HIV infection has limited impact on the tuberculosis epidemic in Europe. The risk of dying from tuberculosis is determined by form and site of disease, and patient's and doctor's delay. The number of deaths caused by tuberculosis in Europe is rapidly decreasing.

  1. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Coffé, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-05-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social Survey data. We investigate mean levels of civic mindedness in these countries and perform regression analyses to investigate whether factors traditionally associated with civic and political participation are also correlated with citizenship norms across Eastern Europe. We show that mean levels of civic mindedness differ significantly across the four Eastern European countries. We find some support for theories on civic and political participation when explaining norms of citizenship, but also demonstrate that individual-level characteristics are differently related to citizenship norms across the countries of our study. Hence, our findings show that Eastern Europe is not a monolithic and homogeneous bloc, underscoring the importance of taking the specificities of countries into account.

  2. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Coffé, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-05-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social Survey data. We investigate mean levels of civic mindedness in these countries and perform regression analyses to investigate whether factors traditionally associated with civic and political participation are also correlated with citizenship norms across Eastern Europe. We show that mean levels of civic mindedness differ significantly across the four Eastern European countries. We find some support for theories on civic and political participation when explaining norms of citizenship, but also demonstrate that individual-level characteristics are differently related to citizenship norms across the countries of our study. Hence, our findings show that Eastern Europe is not a monolithic and homogeneous bloc, underscoring the importance of taking the specificities of countries into account. PMID:20390027

  3. How Europe regulates its genes

    SciTech Connect

    Balter, M.

    1991-06-07

    As Europe moves toward unification in 1992, more than two dozen regulations and directives that will affect biotech are working their way through the complex European legislative system. The result could mean tough scrutiny for genetically engineered products. One reason is that the European Community (EC) has chosen to examine genetically engineered products as a special category - an approach the FDA has rejected. Another is that the EC is considering enacting regulations that would mandate consideration of the socioeconomic effects of biotech products in addition to their safety. In addition, some - particularly in industry - fear a nightmare of overlapping and contradictory regulations. It's too soon to tell how well the European system will work, or how stifling the regulations might be. In all likelihood the regulations emerging in Europe won't be demonstrably superior - or inferior - to the American ones, just different, with different strengths and weaknesses. But since many US biotech companies are looking to the huge market that a unified Europe represents, the specifics of those strengths and weaknesses will ultimately be of more than passing interest.

  4. Forests and Soil Erosion across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathurst, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    Land use and climate change threaten the ability of Europe's forests to provide a vital service in limiting soil erosion, e.g. from forest fires and landslides. However, our ability to define the threat and to propose mitigation measures suffers from two deficiencies concerning the forest/erosion interface: 1) While there have been a considerable number of field studies of the relationship between forest cover and erosion in different parts of Europe, the data sets are scattered among research groups and a range of literature outlets. There is no comprehensive overview of the forest/erosion interface at the European scale, essential for considering regional variations and investigating the effects of future changes in land use and climate. 2) Compared with forest/water studies, we have a poorer quantitative appreciation of forest/erosion interactions. In the forest/water area it is possible to make quantitative statements such as that a 20% change in forest cover across a river catchment is needed for the effect on annual water yield to be measurable or that a forested catchment in upland UK has an annual water yield around 15% lower than an otherwise comparable grassland catchment. Comparable statements are not yet possible for forest/erosion interactions and there are uncertainties in the mathematical representation of forest/erosion interactions which limit our ability to make predictions, for example of the impact of forest loss in a given area. This presentation therefore considers the next step in improving our predictive capability. It proposes the integration of existing research and data to construct the "big picture" across Europe, i.e. erosion rates and sediment yields associated with forest cover and its loss in a range of erosion regimes (e.g. post-forest fire erosion or post-logging landslides). This would provide a basis for generalizations at the European scale. However, such an overview would not form a predictive capability. Therefore it is also

  5. Childhood cancer survivor cohorts in Europe.

    PubMed

    Winther, Jeanette F; Kenborg, Line; Byrne, Julianne; Hjorth, Lars; Kaatsch, Peter; Kremer, Leontien C M; Kuehni, Claudia E; Auquier, Pascal; Michel, Gérard; de Vathaire, Florent; Haupt, Riccardo; Skinner, Roderick; Madanat-Harjuoja, Laura M; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Wesenberg, Finn; Reulen, Raoul C; Grabow, Desiree; Ronckers, Cecile M; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Schindler, Matthias; Berbis, Julie; Holmqvist, Anna S; Gudmundsdottir, Thorgerdur; de Fine Licht, Sofie; Bonnesen, Trine G; Asdahl, Peter H; Bautz, Andrea; Kristoffersen, Anja K; Himmerslev, Liselotte; Hasle, Henrik; Olsen, Jørgen H; Hawkins, Mike M

    2015-05-01

    strong cooperation across Europe, in particular the EU-funded collaborative research projects PanCareSurFup and PanCareLIFE. Overall goal. The overall goal of these large cohort studies is to provide every European childhood cancer survivor with better care and better long-term health so that they reach their full potential, and to the degree possible, enjoy the same quality of life and opportunities as their peers.

  6. Joule-Heated Ceramic-Lined Melter to Vitrify Liquid Radioactive Wastes Containing Am241 Generated From MOX Fuel Fabrication in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E C; Bowan II, B W; Pegg, I; Jardine, L J

    2004-11-16

    americium it contains. Silver is widely used as an additive in glass making. However, its solubility is known to be limited in borosilicate glasses. Further, silver, which is present as a nitrate salt in the waste, can be easily reduced to molten silver in the melting process. Molten silver, if formed, would be difficult to reintroduce into the glass matrix and could pose operating difficulties for the glass melter. This will place a limitation on the waste loading of the melter feed material to prevent the separation of silver from the waste within the melter. If the silver were recovered in the MOx fabrication process, which is currently under consideration, the composition of the glass would likely be limited only by the thermal heat load from the incorporated {sup 241}Am. The resulting mass of glass used to encapsulate the waste could then be reduced by a factor of approximately three. The vitrification process used to treat the waste stream is proposed to center on a joule-heated ceramic lined slurry fed melter. Glass furnaces of this type are used in the United States to treat high-level waste (HLW) at the: Defense Waste Processing Facility, West Valley Demonstration Project, and to process the Hanford tank waste. The waste will initially be blended with glass-forming chemicals, which are primarily sand and boric acid. The resulting slurry is pumped to the melter for conversion to glass. The melter is a ceramic lined metal box that contains a molten glass pool heated by passing electric current through the glass. Molten glass from the melter is poured into canisters to cool and solidify. They are then sealed and decontaminated to form the final waste disposal package. Emissions generated in the melter from the vitrification process are treated by an off-gas system to remove radioactive contamination and destroy nitrogen oxides (NOx).

  7. Polar tongue of ionization (TOI) and associated Joule heating intensification investigated during the magnetically disturbed period of 1-2 October 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, Ildiko; Lovell, Brian C.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate storm-enhanced density (SED) and polar tongue of ionization (TOI) over North America under southward Interplanetary Magnetic Field conditions. We focus on the 30 September to 1 October 2001 medium magnetic storm's recovery phase (Period 1) and on the last substorm (Period 2) of the following 2 October substorm series. We aim to study the SED-TOI structure in the time frame of solar wind energy input to the magnetosphere-ionosphere system and in terms of Joule heating. We utilize GPS total electron content maps tracking SED plume and polar TOI, and spectrogram images detecting polar rain and precipitation void and thus evidencing dayside merging. The variations of merging electric (E) field (EM) and its mapped-down polar equivalent (EP), energy input efficiency (EIeff), and modeled Joule heating rate (QJoule) are monitored. Results show multiple Joule heating intensification points implying multiple energy deposition points at high latitudes where the magnetic pole was one of the preferred locations. During the higher EIeff (~1.5%) Period 2, the polar TOI was associated with a well-defined strong QJoule intensification and with polar rain (or void) on the dayside (or nightside). During the lower EIeff (~0.5%) Period 1, only weak QJoule intensification occurred in the absence of both polar TOI and polar rain. We highlight the polar TOI's potential impact on the thermosphere. We conclude that (i) strong (EM ≈ 5 mV/m during Period 2) or weak (EM ≈ 0.5-2 mV/m during Period 1) EM facilitated energy deposition close to the magnetic pole and (ii) EIeff could be used as a diagnostic of the polar TOI's intensity.

  8. Policy implications of changes in water availability in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrote, Luis; Iglesias, Ana; Sordo-Ward, Álvaro; Granados, Alfredo; Santillan, David

    2015-04-01

    The likely alteration of the hydrologic cycle due to climate change will modify water supply conditions in many regions. Water policy will have to face serious environmental and economic problems due to limited water availability in many regions across Europe and the range of adaptive measures needs to be evaluated. This contribution presents a comparative study of risks of water scarcity across European regions under a range of water policy options. The study was carried out within the BASE European project. The BASE (Bottom-Up climate adaptation strategies towards sustainable Europe) project "supports action for sustainable climate change adaptation in Europe by making experiences and scientific information about adaptation meaningful, transferable and easily accessible to decision-makers at all levels"(http://base-adaptation.eu/). The study is based on a regional assessment of current and future water availability in Europe under different assumptions. The assessment was made using the WAAPA model. The model was built from the river network inferred from the Hydro1K digital elevation maps. Storage volume for regulation was taken from the World Register of Dams of the International Commission on Large Dams. Hydrologic scenarios were taken from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP), where the forcing from five global climate models under the Representative Concentration Pathways scenarios was applied to several hydrologic models. The estimation of water availability was performed by determining the maximum amount of water that can be supplied at any point of the river network satisfying a minimum reliability requirement. Water availability is the combined result of natural processes, which are conditioned by greenhouse gas emissions, and policy, which determines the available hydraulic infrastructure to manage water and establishes water supply conditions. Policy scenarios were devised by identifying several water management practices in

  9. Numerical calculation and experimental research on crack arrest by detour effect and joule heating of high pulsed current in remanufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jing; Zhang, Hongchao; Deng, Dewei; Hao, Shengzhi; Iqbal, Asif

    2014-07-01

    The remanufacturing blanks with cracks were considered as irreparable. With utilization of detour effect and Joule heating of pulsed current, a technique to arrest the crack in martensitic stainless steel FV520B is developed. According to finite element theory, the finite element(FE) model of the cracked rectangular specimen is established firstly. Then, based on electro-thermo-structure coupled theory, the distributions of current density, temperature field, and stress field are calculated for the instant of energizing. Furthermore, the simulation results are verified by some corresponding experiments performed on high pulsed current discharge device of type HCPD-I. Morphology and microstructure around the crack tip before and after electro pulsing treatment are observed by optical microscope(OM) and scanning electron microscope(SEM), and then the diameters of fusion zone and heat affected zone(HAZ) are measured in order to contrast with numerical calculation results. Element distribution, nano-indentation hardness and residual stress in the vicinity of the crack tip are surveyed by energy dispersive spectrometer(EDS), scanning probe microscopy(SPM) and X-ray stress gauge, respectively. The results show that the obvious partition and refined grain around the crack tip can be observed due to the violent temperature change. The contents of carbon and oxygen in fusion zone and HAZ are higher than those in matrix, and however the hardness around the crack tip decreases. Large residual compressive stress is induced in the vicinity of the crack tip and it has the same order of magnitude for measured results and numerical calculation results that is 100 MPa. The relational curves between discharge energies and diameters of the fusion zone and HAZ are obtained by experiments. The difference of diameter of fusion zone between measured and calculated results is less than 18.3%. Numerical calculation is very useful to define the experimental parameters. An effective method

  10. "Physics and Life" for Europe's Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-04-01

    The EIROforum Contribution to the European Science and Technology Week 2003 [Physics on Stage 3 Logo] What do you know about modern science? Was your school science teacher inspiring and enthusiastic? Or was physics class a good time to take a nap? Unfortunately, many young Europeans don't have the fondest memories of science in school, and the result is a widespread disinterest and lack of understanding of science among adults. This has become a real problem - especially at a time when science is having a growing impact on our daily lives, and when society needs more scientists than ever! What can be done? Some of Europe's leading research organisations, scientists and teachers have put their heads together and come up with a unique approach called "Physics on Stage" . This will be the third year that these institutes, with substantial support from the European Commission, are running this project - attacking the problem at its roots. EIROforum and "Physics on Stage 3" [EIROforum Logo] "Physics On Stage 3" is based on the very successful "Physics On Stage" concept that was introduced in 2000. It is directed towards science teachers and students in Europe's secondary schools. It is a part of the year-long build-up to the European Science and Technology Week 2003 (3-9 November), an initiative by the European Commission, and is run by seven of Europe's leading Intergovernmental Research Organizations (the EIROforum) [1]. The project addresses the content and format of science teaching in European schools , seeking to improve the quality of teaching and to find new ways to stimulate pupils to take an interest in science. Innovative and inspirational science teaching is seen as a key component to attract young people to deal with scientific issues, whether or not they finally choose a career in science. Hence, "Physics On Stage 3" aims to stimulate the interest of young people through the school teachers, who can play a key role in reversing the trend of falling

  11. Influence of Soret, Hall and Joule heating effects on mixed convection flow saturated porous medium in a vertical channel by Adomian Decomposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Ch. Ram; Kaladhar, K.; Srinivasacharya, D.; Pradeepa, T.

    2016-02-01

    This paper analyzes the laminar, incompressible mixed convective transport inside vertical channel in an electrically conducting fluid saturated porous medium. In addition, this model incorporates the combined effects of Soret, Hall current and Joule heating. The nonlinear governing equations and their related boundary conditions are initially cast into a dimensionless form using suitable similarity transformations and hence solved using Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM). In order to explore the influence of various parameters on fluid flow properties, quantitative analysis is exhibited graphically and shown in tabular form.

  12. Joule heating-induced coexisted spin Seebeck effect and spin Hall magnetoresistance in the platinum/Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} structure

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W. X.; Wang, S. H.; Zou, L. K.; Cai, J. W.; Sun, J. R. E-mail: sun-zg@whut.edu.cn; Sun, Z. G.

    2014-11-03

    Spin Seebeck effect (SSE) and spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) are observed simultaneously in the Pt/Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} hybrid structure when thermal gradient is produced by Joule heating. According to their dependences on applied current, these two effects can be separated. Their dependence on heating power and magnetic field is systematically studied. With the increase of heating power, the SSE enhances linearly, whereas the SMR decreases slowly. The origin of the spin currents is further analyzed. The heating power dependences of the spin currents associated with the SSE and the SMR are found to be different.

  13. Multi-meter fiber-delivery and pulse self-compression of milli-Joule femtosecond laser and fiber-aided laser-micromachining.

    PubMed

    Debord, B; Alharbi, M; Vincetti, L; Husakou, A; Fourcade-Dutin, C; Hoenninger, C; Mottay, E; Gérôme, F; Benabid, F

    2014-05-01

    We report on damage-free fiber-guidance of milli-Joule energy-level and 600-femtosecond laser pulses into hypocycloid core-contour Kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fibers. Up to 10 meter-long fibers were used to successfully deliver Yb-laser pulses in robustly single-mode fashion. Different pulse propagation regimes were demonstrated by simply changing the fiber dispersion and gas. Self-compression to ~50 fs, and intensity-level nearing petawatt/cm(2) were achieved. Finally, free focusing-optics laser-micromachining was also demonstrated on different materials.

  14. Overview of the Lucia laser program: toward 100-Joules, nanosecond-pulse, kW averaged power based on ytterbium diode-pumped solid state laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanteloup, J.-C.; Yu, H.; Bourdet, G.; Dambrine, C.; Ferre, S.; Fulop, A.; Le Moal, S.; Pichot, A.; Le Touze, G.; Zhao, Z.

    2005-04-01

    We present the current status of the Lucia laser being built at the LULI laboratory, the national civil facility for intense laser matter interaction in France. This diode pumped laser will deliver a 100 Joules, 10 ns, 10 Hz pulse train from Yb:YAG using 4400 power diode laser bars. We first focus on the amplifier stage by describing the reasons for selecting our extraction architecture. Thermal issues and solutions for both laser and pumping heads are then described. Finally, we emphasize more specifically the need for long-lifetime high-laser-damage-threshold coatings and optics.

  15. Turning Europe"s innovation dream into a working reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tindemans, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Opened in 1865 after the American Civil War, the world renowned Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) aimed to provide a flow of ideas from academic research to industry in response to increasing industrialization in the US. Since then, more than 71 Nobel laureates have passed through MIT's doors and it now has a budget of 2.2bn per year that is spent on teaching, knowledge creation and technological innovation. Given its success, it is no wonder then that Europe has plans to replicate the MIT model and create a similar European institute of its own.

  16. Evaluation of transboundary environmental issues in Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Engi, D.; Kapustka, L.A.; Williams, B.A.; Meganck, R.A.; Garrison, J.G.; Glicken, J.; Hostetler, C.J.; Lawrence, S.

    1997-05-01

    Central Europe has experienced environmental degradation for hundreds of years. The proximity of countries, their shared resources, and transboundary movement of environmental pollution, create the potential for regional environmental strife. The goal of this project was to identify the sources and sinks of environmental pollution in Central Europe and evaluate the possible impact of transboundary movement of pollution on the countries of Central Europe. In meeting the objectives of identifying sources of contaminants, determining transboundary movement of contaminants, and assessing socio-economic implications, large quantities of disparate data were examined. To facilitate use of the data, the authors refined mapping procedures that enable processing information from virtually any map or spreadsheet data that can be geo-referenced. Because the procedure is freed from a priori constraints of scale that confound most Geographical Information Systems, they have the capacity to generate new projections and apply sophisticated statistical analyses to the data. The analysis indicates substantial environmental problems. While transboundary pollution issues may spawn conflict among the Central European countries and their neighbors, it appears that common environmental problems facing the entire region have had the effect of bringing the countries together, even though opportunities for deteriorating relationships may still arise.

  17. Mapping opportunities and challenges for rewilding in Europe.

    PubMed

    Ceaușu, Silvia; Hofmann, Max; Navarro, Laetitia M; Carver, Steve; Verburg, Peter H; Pereira, Henrique M

    2015-08-01

    Farmland abandonment takes place across the world due to socio-economic and ecological drivers. In Europe agricultural and environmental policies aim to prevent abandonment and halt ecological succession. Ecological rewilding has been recently proposed as an alternative strategy. We developed a framework to assess opportunities for rewilding across different dimensions of wilderness in Europe. We mapped artificial light, human accessibility based on transport infrastructure, proportion of harvested primary productivity (i.e., ecosystem productivity appropriated by humans through agriculture or forestry), and deviation from potential natural vegetation in areas projected to be abandoned by 2040. At the continental level, the levels of artificial light were low and the deviation from potential natural vegetation was high in areas of abandonment. The relative importance of wilderness metrics differed regionally and was strongly connected to local environmental and socio-economic contexts. Large areas of projected abandonment were often located in or around Natura 2000 sites. Based on these results, we argue that management should be tailored to restore the aspects of wilderness that are lacking in each region. There are many remaining challenges regarding biodiversity in Europe, but megafauna species are already recovering. To further potentiate large-scale rewilding, Natura 2000 management would need to incorporate rewilding approaches. Our framework can be applied to assessing rewilding opportunities and challenges in other world regions, and our results could guide redirection of subsidies to manage social-ecological systems.

  18. Mapping opportunities and challenges for rewilding in Europe.

    PubMed

    Ceaușu, Silvia; Hofmann, Max; Navarro, Laetitia M; Carver, Steve; Verburg, Peter H; Pereira, Henrique M

    2015-08-01

    Farmland abandonment takes place across the world due to socio-economic and ecological drivers. In Europe agricultural and environmental policies aim to prevent abandonment and halt ecological succession. Ecological rewilding has been recently proposed as an alternative strategy. We developed a framework to assess opportunities for rewilding across different dimensions of wilderness in Europe. We mapped artificial light, human accessibility based on transport infrastructure, proportion of harvested primary productivity (i.e., ecosystem productivity appropriated by humans through agriculture or forestry), and deviation from potential natural vegetation in areas projected to be abandoned by 2040. At the continental level, the levels of artificial light were low and the deviation from potential natural vegetation was high in areas of abandonment. The relative importance of wilderness metrics differed regionally and was strongly connected to local environmental and socio-economic contexts. Large areas of projected abandonment were often located in or around Natura 2000 sites. Based on these results, we argue that management should be tailored to restore the aspects of wilderness that are lacking in each region. There are many remaining challenges regarding biodiversity in Europe, but megafauna species are already recovering. To further potentiate large-scale rewilding, Natura 2000 management would need to incorporate rewilding approaches. Our framework can be applied to assessing rewilding opportunities and challenges in other world regions, and our results could guide redirection of subsidies to manage social-ecological systems. PMID:25997361

  19. Physical and economic consequences of climate change in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Ciscar, Juan-Carlos; Iglesias, Ana; Feyen, Luc; Szabó, László; Van Regemorter, Denise; Amelung, Bas; Nicholls, Robert; Watkiss, Paul; Christensen, Ole B.; Dankers, Rutger; Garrote, Luis; Goodess, Clare M.; Hunt, Alistair; Moreno, Alvaro; Richards, Julie; Soria, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative estimates of the economic damages of climate change usually are based on aggregate relationships linking average temperature change to loss in gross domestic product (GDP). However, there is a clear need for further detail in the regional and sectoral dimensions of impact assessments to design and prioritize adaptation strategies. New developments in regional climate modeling and physical-impact modeling in Europe allow a better exploration of those dimensions. This article quantifies the potential consequences of climate change in Europe in four market impact categories (agriculture, river floods, coastal areas, and tourism) and one nonmarket impact (human health). The methodology integrates a set of coherent, high-resolution climate change projections and physical models into an economic modeling framework. We find that if the climate of the 2080s were to occur today, the annual loss in household welfare in the European Union (EU) resulting from the four market impacts would range between 0.2–1%. If the welfare loss is assumed to be constant over time, climate change may halve the EU's annual welfare growth. Scenarios with warmer temperatures and a higher rise in sea level result in more severe economic damage. However, the results show that there are large variations across European regions. Southern Europe, the British Isles, and Central Europe North appear most sensitive to climate change. Northern Europe, on the other hand, is the only region with net economic benefits, driven mainly by the positive effects on agriculture. Coastal systems, agriculture, and river flooding are the most important of the four market impacts assessed. PMID:21282624

  20. Physical and economic consequences of climate change in Europe.

    PubMed

    Ciscar, Juan-Carlos; Iglesias, Ana; Feyen, Luc; Szabó, László; Van Regemorter, Denise; Amelung, Bas; Nicholls, Robert; Watkiss, Paul; Christensen, Ole B; Dankers, Rutger; Garrote, Luis; Goodess, Clare M; Hunt, Alistair; Moreno, Alvaro; Richards, Julie; Soria, Antonio

    2011-02-15

    Quantitative estimates of the economic damages of climate change usually are based on aggregate relationships linking average temperature change to loss in gross domestic product (GDP). However, there is a clear need for further detail in the regional and sectoral dimensions of impact assessments to design and prioritize adaptation strategies. New developments in regional climate modeling and physical-impact modeling in Europe allow a better exploration of those dimensions. This article quantifies the potential consequences of climate change in Europe in four market impact categories (agriculture, river floods, coastal areas, and tourism) and one nonmarket impact (human health). The methodology integrates a set of coherent, high-resolution climate change projections and physical models into an economic modeling framework. We find that if the climate of the 2080s were to occur today, the annual loss in household welfare in the European Union (EU) resulting from the four market impacts would range between 0.2-1%. If the welfare loss is assumed to be constant over time, climate change may halve the EU's annual welfare growth. Scenarios with warmer temperatures and a higher rise in sea level result in more severe economic damage. However, the results show that there are large variations across European regions. Southern Europe, the British Isles, and Central Europe North appear most sensitive to climate change. Northern Europe, on the other hand, is the only region with net economic benefits, driven mainly by the positive effects on agriculture. Coastal systems, agriculture, and river flooding are the most important of the four market impacts assessed.

  1. Newborn screening in southeastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Groselj, Urh; Tansek, Mojca Zerjav; Smon, Andraz; Angelkova, Natalija; Anton, Dana; Baric, Ivo; Djordjevic, Maja; Grimci, Lindita; Ivanova, Maria; Kadam, Adil; Kotori, Vjosa Mulliqi; Maksic, Hajrija; Marginean, Oana; Margineanu, Otilia; Milijanovic, Olivera; Moldovanu, Florentina; Muresan, Mariana; Murko, Simona; Nanu, Michaela; Lampret, Barbka Repic; Samardzic, Mira; Sarnavka, Vladimir; Savov, Aleksei; Stojiljkovic, Maja; Suzic, Biljana; Tincheva, Radka; Tahirovic, Husref; Toromanovic, Alma; Usurelu, Natalia; Battelino, Tadej

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the current state of newborn screening (NBS) in the region of southeastern Europe, as an example of a developing region, focusing also on future plans. Responses were obtained from 11 countries. Phenylketonuria screening was not introduced in four of 11 countries, while congenital hypothyroidism screening was not introduced in three of them; extended NBS programs were non-existent. The primary challenges were identified. Implementation of NBS to developing countries worldwide should be considered as a priority. PMID:25174966

  2. Impact of DC Joule anneal treatment on the high-frequency magnetoimpedance response of Fe-rich FeCo ribbons with varying glass former content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggers, Tatiana; Leary, Alex; McHenry, Michael; Skorvanek, Ivan; Srikanth, Hariharan; Phan, Manh-Huong

    The Magnetoimpedance (MI) effect in 2 mm wide (Fe65Co35)83.5- x B13NbxSi2Cu1.5 rapidly quenched ribbons with varying glass former content(x = 0 and x = 4) has been studied in the frequency range of 1-1000 MHz. Two measurement techniques were used: auto-balancing bridge method in the frequency range of 1-110 MHz and transmission line technique for 20-1000 MHz. The impact of DC Joule heating treatments of varying current amplitude and annealing time on the MI effect of the amorphous ribbons was evaluated by examining the field and frequency dependence on the resistive and reactive components of the MI. To interpret the MI behavior, the domain structure of the ribbons in their as-quenched state and after heating treatment was imaged by magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy. A significant improvement in the MI response from the as-quenched state was found for both compositions of ribbon with a 3 hour-500 mA Joule anneal treatment. The improvement is attributed to the development of a low anisotropy domain structure longitudinally and at an oblique angle between the longitudinal and transverse directions for the 0% and 4% Nb content, respectively.

  3. Conjugated Effect of Joule Heating and Magnetohydrodynamic on Laminar Convective Heat Transfer of Nanofluids Inside a Concentric Annulus in the Presence of Slip Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshizi, S. A.; Pop, I.

    2016-07-01

    In the current study, the conjugated effect of Joule heating and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) on the forced convective heat transfer of fully developed laminar nanofluid flows inside annular pipes, under the influence of MHD field, has been investigated. The temperature and nanoparticle distributions at both the inner and outer walls are assumed to vary in the direction of the fluid. Furthermore, owing to the nanoparticle migrations in the fluid, a slip condition becomes far more important than the no-slip condition of the fluid-solid interface, which appropriately represents the non-equilibrium region near the interface. The governing equations—obtained by employing the Buongiorno's model for nanofluid in cylindrical coordinates—are converted into two-point ordinary boundary value differential equations and solved numerically. The effects of various controlling parameters on the flow characteristics, the average Nusselt number and the average Sherwood number have been assessed in detail. Additionally, the effect of the inner to outer diameter ratio on the heat and mass transfer rate has been studied. The results obtained indicate that, in the presence of a magnetic field when the fluid is electrically conductive, heat transfer will be reduced significantly due to the influences of Joule heating, while the average mass transfer rate experiences an opposite trend. Moreover, the increase in the slip velocity on both the walls causes the average heat transfer to rise and the average mass transfer to decrease.

  4. Electro-osmotic flow of power-law fluid and heat transfer in a micro-channel with effects of Joule heating and thermal radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shit, G. C.; Mondal, A.; Sinha, A.; Kundu, P. K.

    2016-11-01

    A mathematical model has been developed for studying the electro-osmotic flow and heat transfer of bio-fluids in a micro-channel in the presence of Joule heating effects. The flow of bio-fluid is governed by the non-Newtonian power-law fluid model. The effects of thermal radiation and velocity slip condition have been examined in the case of hydrophobic channel. The Poisson-Boltzmann equation governing the electrical double layer field and a body force generated by the applied electric potential field are taken into consideration. The results presented here pertain to the case where the height of the channel is much greater than the thickness of electrical double layer comprising the Stern and diffuse layers. The expressions for flow characteristics such as velocity, temperature, shear stress and Nusselt number have been derived analytically under the purview of the present model. The results estimated on the basis of the data available in the existing scientific literatures are presented graphically. The effects of thermal radiation have an important bearing on the therapeutic procedure of hyperthermia, particularly in understanding the heat transfer in micro-channel in the presence of electric potential. The dimensionless Joule heating parameter has a reducing impact on Nusselt number for both pseudo-plastic and dilatant fluids, nevertheless its impact on Nusselt number is more pronounced for dilatant fluid. Furthermore, the effect of viscous dissipation has a significant role in controlling heat transfer and should not be neglected.

  5. Mesoscale observations of Joule heating near an auroral arc and ion-neutral collision frequency in the polar cap E region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosch, M. J.; Yiu, I.; Anderson, C.; Tsuda, T.; Ogawa, Y.; Nozawa, S.; Aruliah, A.; Howells, V.; Baddeley, L. J.; McCrea, I. W.; Wild, J. A.

    2011-05-01

    We report on the first mesoscale combined ionospheric and thermospheric observations, partly in the vicinity of an auroral arc, from Svalbard in the polar cap on 2 February 2010. The EISCAT Svalbard radar employed a novel scanning mode in order to obtain F and E region ion flows over an annular region centered on the radar. Simultaneously, a colocated Scanning Doppler Imager observed the E region neutral winds and temperatures around 110 km altitude using the 557.7 nm auroral optical emission. Combining the ion and neutral data permits the E region Joule heating to be estimated with an azimuthal spatial resolution of ˜64 km at a radius of ˜163 km from the radar. The spatial distribution of Joule heating shows significant mesoscale variation. The ion-neutral collision frequency is measured in the E region by combining all the data over the entire field of view with only weak aurora present. The estimated ion-neutral collision frequency at ˜113 km altitude is in good agreement with the MSIS atmospheric model.

  6. Uncertainty estimation of non-ideal analog switches using programmable Josephson voltage standards for mutual inductance measurement in the joule balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Zhang, Zhonghua; Li, Zhengkun; Xu, Jinxin; You, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Measurement of the mutual inductance is one of the key techniques in the joule balance to determine the Planck constant h, where a standard-square-wave compensation method was proposed to accurately measure the dc value of the mutual inductance. With this method, analog switches are used to compose an analog-switch signal generator to synthesize the excitation and compensation voltages. However, the accuracy of the compensation voltage is influenced by the non-ideal behaviors of analog-switches. In this paper, the effect from these non-ideal switches is analyzed in detail and evaluated with the equivalent circuits. A programmable Josephson voltage standard (PJVS) is used to generate a reference compensation voltage to measure the time integration of the voltage waveform generated by the analog-switch signal generator. Moreover, the effect is also evaluated experimentally by comparing the difference between the mutual inductance measured with the analog-switch signal generator and the value determined by the PJVS-analog-switch generator alternately in the same mutual inductance measurement system. The result shows that the impact of analog switches is 1.97  ×  10-7 with an uncertainty of 1.83  ×  10-7 (k  =  1) and confirms that the analog switch method can be used regularly instead of the PJVS in the mutual inductance measurement for the joule balance experiment.

  7. Development of a kilowatt-class, joule-level ultrafast laser for driving compact high average power coherent EUV/soft x-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reagan, Brendan A.; Baumgarten, Cory M.; Pedicone, Michael A.; Bravo, Herman; Yin, Liang; Woolston, Mark; Wang, Hanchen; Menoni, Carmen S.; Rocca, Jorge J.

    2016-03-01

    Our recent progress in the development of high energy / high average power, chirped pulse amplification laser systems based on diode-pumped, cryogenically-cooled Yb:YAG amplifiers is discussed, including the demonstration of a laser that produces 1 Joule, sub-10 picosecond duration, λ = 1.03μm pulses at 500 Hz repetition rate. This compact, all-diodepumped laser combines a mode-locked Yb:KYW oscillator and a water-cooled Yb:YAG preamplifer with two cryogenic power amplification stages to produce 1.5 Joule pulses with high beam quality which are subsequently compressed. This laser system occupies an optical table area of less than 1.5x3m2. This laser was employed to pump plasma-based soft x-ray lasers at λ = 10-20nm at repetition rates >=100 Hz. To accomplish this, temporally-shaped pulses were focused at grazing incidence into a high aspect ratio line focus using cylindrical optics on a high shot capacity rotating metal target. This results in an elongated plasma amplifier that produces microjoule pulses at several narrow-linewidth EUV wavelengths between λ = 109Å and 189Å. The resulting fraction of a milliwatt average powers are the highest reported to date for a compact, coherent source operating at these wavelengths, to the best of our knowledge.

  8. Seismic anisotropy and mantle flow in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, G. W.; Houseman, G. A.; Kendall, J. M.; Ren, Y.; Hegedus, E.; Ionescu, C.; Brueckl, E. P.; Radovanovic, S.

    2012-12-01

    Since the Mesozoic, central Europe tectonics has been dominated by the closure of the Tethyan Ocean as the African and European plates collided. This was accompanied by subduction, orogeny (the Alpine - Carpathian mountain chain), and microplate accretion. In the Mid-Miocene lithospheric extension formed the Pannonian Basin; this extension has been variously ascribed to slab roll-back, lithospheric gravitational instability or mantle extrusion. We present SKS splitting measurements for central Europe from temporary seismological deployments of the Carpathian Basins Project (CBP, 2005-2007) and the South Carpathian Project (SCP, 2009-2011), together with stations from permanent national networks. This provides a station spacing on the order of 50 - 70 km from the Eastern Alps across the Pannonian Basin and Carpathians to the East European platform with which to test geodynamic models for the region. SKS splitting delay times are between 0.7 - 1.5 s with a regional NW-SE trend of fast directions across the eastern Pannonian-Carpathian region, turning to parallel the tectonic strike in the Alps but perturbed by extension in the western Pannonian, the presence of the East European platform and the lithospheric instability in the Vrancea region of Romania. The fast polarisation orientations are correlated with upper mantle and transition zone tomographic images from a recent finite frequency study with the aim of controlling variations in mantle heterogeneity. The consistency of the regional anisotropy trends across much of central Europe imply olivine orientation perpendicular to the principal compressive stresses created by the collision of Adria and Europe, perturbed by Miocene extension of the Pannonian Basin and present-day lithospheric instability of the Vrancea region.

  9. Intraoperative transfusion practices in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Meier, J.; Filipescu, D.; Kozek-Langenecker, S.; Llau Pitarch, J.; Mallett, S.; Martus, P.; Matot, I.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Transfusion of allogeneic blood influences outcome after surgery. Despite widespread availability of transfusion guidelines, transfusion practices might vary among physicians, departments, hospitals and countries. Our aim was to determine the amount of packed red blood cells (pRBC) and blood products transfused intraoperatively, and to describe factors determining transfusion throughout Europe. Methods. We did a prospective observational cohort study enrolling 5803 patients in 126 European centres that received at least one pRBC unit intraoperatively, during a continuous three month period in 2013. Results. The overall intraoperative transfusion rate was 1.8%; 59% of transfusions were at least partially initiated as a result of a physiological transfusion trigger- mostly because of hypotension (55.4%) and/or tachycardia (30.7%). Haemoglobin (Hb)- based transfusion trigger alone initiated only 8.5% of transfusions. The Hb concentration [mean (sd)] just before transfusion was 8.1 (1.7) g dl−1 and increased to 9.8 (1.8) g dl−1 after transfusion. The mean number of intraoperatively transfused pRBC units was 2.5 (2.7) units (median 2). Conclusion. Although European Society of Anaesthesiology transfusion guidelines are moderately implemented in Europe with respect to Hb threshold for transfusion (7–9 g dl−1), there is still an urgent need for further educational efforts that focus on the number of pRBC units to be transfused at this threshold. Clinical trial registration. NCT 01604083. PMID:26787795

  10. Aurora europe's space exploration programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongaro, F.; Swings, J. P.; Condessa, R.

    2003-04-01

    What will happen after the ISS in terms of space exploration, specifically to the human presence beyond Earth? What will be the role of Europe in the future international venture to explore space? What are the most immediate actions to be undertaken in Europe in order to best profit from the efforts made through the participation in the ISS and to position Europe's capabilities according to its interests? As approved by the Ministers at the Edinburgh Council in November 2001, the European Space Exploration Programme - Aurora - is ESA's programme in charge of defining and implementing the long term plan for human and robotic exploration of the Solar system. The Aurora programme started in 2002 and extends until the end goal of Aurora: the first human mission to Mars, expected in the 2025-2030 time-frame. The approach of Aurora is to implement a robust development of technologies and robotic missions, in parallel to the utilization phase of the ISS, to prepare for a continuous and sustainable future of human space exploration (which shall include the Moon, Mars and the asteroids as targets), in which Europe will be a valuable partner. Two classes of missions are foreseen in the programme's strategy: Flagships, defined as major missions driving to soft landing, in-situ analysis, sample return from other planetary bodies and eventually human missions; and Arrows, defined as cost-capped, short development time missions to demonstrate new technologies or mission approaches, or to exploit opportunities for payloads on European or international missions. So far the participating national delegations have approved two Flagships (ExoMars and Mars Sample Return) and two Arrows (Earth Re-entry and Mars Aerocapture) for phase A industrial studies. Although the last call for ideas of Aurora resulted in the definition of two Flagship missions targeted to Mars, the next one might be aimed to the Moon. At this stage the role of the Moon, on the path of Mars exploration is not

  11. Fertility rates and future population trends: will Europe's birth rate recover or continue to decline?

    PubMed

    Lutz, Wolfgang

    2006-02-01

    Europe has long completed its demographic transition from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates. But the demographic transition paradigm that has been very useful for explaining global demographic trends during the 20th century and that still has strong predictive power when it comes to projecting future trends in countries that still have high fertility, has nothing to say about the future of fertility in Europe. The currently popular notion of a 'second demographic transition' is a useful way to describe a bundle of behavioural and normative changes that recently happened in Europe, but it has no predictive power. The social sciences have not yet come up with a useful theory to predict the future fertility level of post-demographic transition societies. We even do not know whether the trend will be up or down. Given the lack of a predictive theory, this paper will try to do two things: (i) Summarize different substantive arguments that would either suggest the assumption of a recovery of fertility rates in Europe or alternatively, imply further declines. (ii) Convert this discussion of the uncertainty of future fertility trends into probabilistic population projections for Europe, thus highlighting the implications of alternative fertility levels over the coming years. We will also discuss trade-offs between fertility and immigration, and the phenomenon that Europe now has entered a period of negative momentum of population growth.

  12. Europe discusses role in future space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-06-01

    Prof. Roger Bonnet said it was important for Europe to make an informed decision in the next few years on whether to support NASA's proposed New Generation Space Telescope (NGST), a follow-on programme to the Hubble Space Telescope. NGST's observing capabilities will far extend the reach of existing ground or space-based telescopes, providing the opportunity for the first time to look back through eons of time to the very first stars and galaxies in the Universe. With an aperture greater than four metres, NGST could also provide European astronomers with a crucial complement to some of ESA's planned future space projects, like FIRST (the Far InfraRed Submillimetre Telescope) and Planck (a mission to study the cosmic background radiation field). NASA and ESA are already involved in preliminary NGST studies but Europe has yet to make a commitment to support the programme. NASA wants to start formal development in 2003, with a launch currently planned for 2007. This week's conference at Liege in Belgium was the first opportunity for many astronomers to exchange ideas and compare technological notes on a Next Generation Space Telescope. It also provided a forum for representatives of Europe's space industry to discuss the technological challenges presented by such a project. Prof. Bonnet said: "From recent experience it is clear that the best scientific results in astronomy and astrophysics are obtained by coordinated observations in different wavelength ranges. "The joint effort of the European space programme and of the various large European ground observatories currently allows European astronomers to be on the front-line of astrophysics research."He said that ESA - if supported programmatically and financially by its member states - is willing to discuss with NASA a mutually fruitful form of NGST participation. But Prof. Bonnet stressed that for this type of collaboration to be approved it remained crucial that the European share contained both scientific and

  13. Aerosol effect on climate extremes in Europe under different future scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillmann, J.; Pozzoli, L.; Vignati, E.; Kloster, S.; Feichter, J.

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates changes in extreme temperature and precipitation events under different future scenarios of anthropogenic aerosol emissions (i.e., SO2 and black and organic carbon) simulated with an aerosol-climate model (ECHAM5-HAM) with focus on Europe. The simulations include a maximum feasible aerosol reduction (MFR) scenario and a current legislation emission (CLEmod) scenario where Europe implements the MFR scenario, but the rest of the world follows the current legislation scenario and a greenhouse gas scenario. The strongest changes relative to the year 2000 are projected for the MFR scenario, in which the global aerosol reduction greatly enforces the general warming effect due to greenhouse gases and results in significant increases of temperature and precipitation extremes in Europe. Regional warming effects can also be identified from aerosol reductions under the CLEmodscenario. This becomes most obvious in the increase of the hottest summer daytime temperatures in Northern Europe.

  14. High intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgecock, T. R.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densam, C.; Fitton, M.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rogers, C.; Rooney, M.; Thomason, J.; Wilcox, D.; Wildner, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoni, S.; Hansen, C.; Benedetto, E.; Jensen, E.; Kosmicki, A.; Martini, M.; Osborne, J.; Prior, G.; Stora, T.; Melo Mendonca, T.; Vlachoudis, V.; Waaijer, C.; Cupial, P.; Chancé, A.; Longhin, A.; Payet, J.; Zito, M.; Baussan, E.; Bobeth, C.; Bouquerel, E.; Dracos, M.; Gaudiot, G.; Lepers, B.; Osswald, F.; Poussot, P.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Wurtz, J.; Zeter, V.; Bielski, J.; Kozien, M.; Lacny, L.; Skoczen, B.; Szybinski, B.; Ustrycka, A.; Wroblewski, A.; Marie-Jeanne, M.; Balint, P.; Fourel, C.; Giraud, J.; Jacob, J.; Lamy, T.; Latrasse, L.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T.; Mitrofanov, S.; Loiselet, M.; Keutgen, Th.; Delbar, Th.; Debray, F.; Trophine, C.; Veys, S.; Daversin, C.; Zorin, V.; Izotov, I.; Skalyga, V.; Burt, G.; Dexter, A. C.; Kravchuk, V. L.; Marchi, T.; Cinausero, M.; Gramegna, F.; De Angelis, G.; Prete, G.; Collazuol, G.; Laveder, M.; Mazzocco, M.; Mezzetto, M.; Signorini, C.; Vardaci, E.; Di Nitto, A.; Brondi, A.; La Rana, G.; Migliozzi, P.; Moro, R.; Palladino, V.; Gelli, N.; Berkovits, D.; Hass, M.; Hirsh, T. Y.; Schaumann, M.; Stahl, A.; Wehner, J.; Bross, A.; Kopp, J.; Neuffer, D.; Wands, R.; Bayes, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, P.; Agarwalla, S. K.; Cervera Villanueva, A.; Donini, A.; Ghosh, T.; Gómez Cadenas, J. J.; Hernández, P.; Martín-Albo, J.; Mena, O.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Agostino, L.; Buizza-Avanzini, M.; Marafini, M.; Patzak, T.; Tonazzo, A.; Duchesneau, D.; Mosca, L.; Bogomilov, M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Akhmedov, E.; Blennow, M.; Lindner, M.; Schwetz, T.; Fernández Martinez, E.; Maltoni, M.; Menéndez, J.; Giunti, C.; González García, M. C.; Salvado, J.; Coloma, P.; Huber, P.; Li, T.; López Pavón, J.; Orme, C.; Pascoli, S.; Meloni, D.; Tang, J.; Winter, W.; Ohlsson, T.; Zhang, H.; Scotto-Lavina, L.; Terranova, F.; Bonesini, M.; Tortora, L.; Alekou, A.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Kurup, A.; Jenner, L. J.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Pozimski, J.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P.; Beard, K.; Bogacz, A.; Berg, J. S.; Stratakis, D.; Witte, H.; Snopok, P.; Bliss, N.; Cordwell, M.; Moss, A.; Pattalwar, S.; Apollonio, M.

    2013-02-01

    The EUROnu project has studied three possible options for future, high intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe. The first is a Super Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of pions created by bombarding targets with a 4 MW proton beam from the CERN High Power Superconducting Proton Linac. The far detector for this facility is the 500 kt MEMPHYS water Cherenkov, located in the Fréjus tunnel. The second facility is the Neutrino Factory, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of μ+ and μ- beams in a storage ring. The far detector in this case is a 100 kt magnetized iron neutrino detector at a baseline of 2000 km. The third option is a Beta Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of beta emitting isotopes, in particular He6 and Ne18, also stored in a ring. The far detector is also the MEMPHYS detector in the Fréjus tunnel. EUROnu has undertaken conceptual designs of these facilities and studied the performance of the detectors. Based on this, it has determined the physics reach of each facility, in particular for the measurement of CP violation in the lepton sector, and estimated the cost of construction. These have demonstrated that the best facility to build is the Neutrino Factory. However, if a powerful proton driver is constructed for another purpose or if the MEMPHYS detector is built for astroparticle physics, the Super Beam also becomes very attractive.

  15. Innovations in Science Education in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuepbach, E.

    2001-12-01

    At many European Universities, the retention of skilled science graduates is hindered mainly by organisational structures. In particular, women students are often under-represented in sciences, and career progression is in general difficult. The linear system of knowhow transfer is inefficient from the pedagogical point of view and unsatisfactory for many students. Owing to fast changes in society and the working environment, a re-building of curricula in tertiary education (including University Education) has begun. Conceptual visions aim at influencing the investment in the largely untapped human capital and preparing the students for quick adaptation and enhanced flexiblity. Traditional methods of classroom teaching and knowhow transfer are increasingly complemented by New Learning Technologies and Mentoring. The EU Project INDECS (Potentials of Interdisciplinary Degree Courses in Engineering, Information Technology, Natural and Socio-Economic Sciences in a Changing Society) examines such pedagogical aspects in European degree courses combining engineering, IT, physical sciences and socio-economic sciences. Inclusion of specific IT and social science topics in modular form is examined. How innovation in University Teaching will meet the attractiveness to both students and employers in Europe is major focus of the study.

  16. Volcanic hazard assessment in western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, David K.; Dibben, Christopher J. L.; Duncan, Angus M.

    2002-06-01

    Volcanology has been in the past and in many respects remains a subject dominated by pure research grounded in the earth sciences. Over the past 30 years a paradigm shift has occurred in hazard assessment which has been aided by significant changes in the social theory of natural hazards and the first-hand experience gained in the 1990s by volcanologists working on projects conceived during the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR). Today much greater stress is placed on human vulnerability, the potential for marginalisation of disadvantaged individuals and social groups, and the requirement to make applied volcanology sensitive to the characteristics of local demography, economy, culture and politics. During the IDNDR a methodology, broadly similar to environmental impact analysis, has emerged as the preferred method for studying human vulnerability and risk assessment in volcanically active regions. The characteristics of this new methodology are discussed and the progress which has been made in innovating it on the European Union laboratory volcanoes located in western Europe is reviewed. Furnas (São Miguel, Azores) and Vesuvius in Italy are used as detailed case studies.

  17. Smart climate ensemble exploring approaches: the example of climate impacts on air pollution in Europe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, Vincent; Colette, Augustin; Menut, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    Because of its sensitivity to weather patterns, climate change will have an impact on air pollution so that, in the future, a climate penalty could jeopardize the expected efficiency of air pollution mitigation measures. A common method to assess the impact of climate on air quality consists in implementing chemistry-transport models forced by climate projections. However, at present, such impact assessment lack multi-model ensemble approaches to address uncertainties because of the substantial computing cost. Therefore, as a preliminary step towards exploring large climate ensembles with air quality models, we developed an ensemble exploration technique in order to point out the climate models that should be investigated in priority. By using a training dataset from a deterministic projection of climate and air quality over Europe, we identified the main meteorological drivers of air quality for 8 regions in Europe and developed statistical models that could be used to estimate future air pollutant concentrations. Applying this statistical model to the whole EuroCordex ensemble of climate projection, we find a climate penalty for six subregions out of eight (Eastern Europe, France, Iberian Peninsula, Mid Europe and Northern Italy). On the contrary, a climate benefit for PM2.5 was identified for three regions (Eastern Europe, Mid Europe and Northern Italy). The uncertainty of this statistical model challenges limits however the confidence we can attribute to associated quantitative projections. This technique allows however selecting a subset of relevant regional climate model members that should be used in priority for future deterministic projections to propose an adequate coverage of uncertainties. We are thereby proposing a smart ensemble exploration strategy that can also be used for other impacts studies beyond air quality.

  18. Huygens space probe ready to leave Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-03-01

    the Earth, before settling down to prolonged observations of Saturn and its rings and moons. European and American scientists are partners in all the experiments, both in the Orbiter and in the Huygens Probe. Farthest out for Europe Huygens will travel to a greater distance from the Sun than any previous ESA mission, out to the orbit of Saturn at 1400 million kilometres, or nearly ten times the Sun Earth distance. For comparison, the farthest ranging mission at present is Ulysses, orbiting over the poles of the Sun and out to the orbit of Jupiter, 800 million kilometres from the Sun. As no other mission planned or contemplated by ESA at present will go as far as Saturn, Huygens is likely to hold the European record for many years. HUYGENS READY TO LEAVE EUROPE PRESS BRIEFING Wednesday 26 March, 10:00 hrs. Location : Daimler-Benz Aerospace/ Dornier Satellitensysteme Gate 2, Building 5.1 Ludwig-B>lkow-Allee Ottobrunn (Munich) Programme: 10h00 Registration of press 10h15 Huygens video introduction 10h20 Welcoming addresses: Klaus Ensslin, President, Dornier Satellitensysteme Roger Bonnet, Director of Science, ESA Michel Delaye, President, Aerospatiale Espace & Defense 10h30 NASA News and Cassini status Wesly T. Huntress, Associate Administrator of Space Science, NASA Richard Spehalski, Head of Cassini Project, NASA/JPL 10h40 The Huygens Project: Hamid Hassan, Head of the Huygens Project, ESA/ESTEC Hans-Joachim Hoffman, Head of the Huygens Project, Dornier Satellitensysteme Gerard Huttin, Head of the Huygens Project, Aerospatiale 11h00 The Huygens Scientific Programme: Jean-Pierre Lebreton, Huygens Project Scientist, ESA supported by European and American scientists. 11h15 The ESA Science programme, current and future missions Roger Bonnet, Director of Science, ESA 11h25 Question and Answer session 11h55 Visit to the Huygens spacecraft (access inside the clean room limited to photographers and TV teams only). 12h45 Buffet lunch 14h00 End of activties HUYGENS READY TO

  19. New power for "Old Europe".

    PubMed

    Schapiro, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The European Union's growing political clout is leading to new paradigms of environmental and health regulation. The E.U. is putting teeth behind new guidelines governing the toxicity of chemicals in consumer products, cosmetics, and automobiles that are forcing American companies to reconsider longstanding production practices. While U.S. government oversight over environmental and health concerns is being weakened, the E.U.'s strengthened governance over these and other arenas is rapidly, through the leverage of international trade, setting the stage for a new global standard. Europe's new standards present a historic choice to U.S. manufacturers: either conform to the E.U.'s preemptive screening for toxicity, or risk sacrificing the 450-million strong European market. The author explores the American response, and how the United States is slipping to the lower rungs of a double standard for protecting the health of citizens.

  20. New power for "Old Europe".

    PubMed

    Schapiro, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The European Union's growing political clout is leading to new paradigms of environmental and health regulation. The E.U. is putting teeth behind new guidelines governing the toxicity of chemicals in consumer products, cosmetics, and automobiles that are forcing American companies to reconsider longstanding production practices. While U.S. government oversight over environmental and health concerns is being weakened, the E.U.'s strengthened governance over these and other arenas is rapidly, through the leverage of international trade, setting the stage for a new global standard. Europe's new standards present a historic choice to U.S. manufacturers: either conform to the E.U.'s preemptive screening for toxicity, or risk sacrificing the 450-million strong European market. The author explores the American response, and how the United States is slipping to the lower rungs of a double standard for protecting the health of citizens. PMID:16119575

  1. Neuropathology in Europe: an overview.

    PubMed

    Mikol, J; Weller, R

    2006-01-01

    After a short historical review covering the past 150 years, different aspects of training and practice are considered. Prominent institutes, men and women who have made significant contributions to neuropathology are considered although those still living are not included. There are those countries with neuropathology as a speciality, countries with subspecialty and those countries without neuropathology as a speciality or subspeciality. In order to harmonize teaching, training, examinations and regulations, EURO-CNS (European Confederation of Neuropathological Societies) was founded in 1993. This allowed the recognition of the training charter of neuropathology by the Board of Pathology (1998), the organization of European courses and European congresses, and the achievement of concerted actions simultaneously, recognition of the subspecialty of Neuropathology by the UEMS (Union Européenne des Médecins Spécialistes) Council was obtained in 1997. Data relating to the current position of neuropathology are included and the future of education and the challenges facing neuropathology are discussed.

  2. Optical satellite communications in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodnik, Zoran; Lutz, Hanspeter; Furch, Bernhard; Meyer, Rolf

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes optical satellite communication activities based on technology developments, which started in Europe more than 30 years ago and led in 2001 to the world-first optical inter-satellite communication link experiment (SILEX). SILEX proved that optical communication technologies can be reliably mastered in space and in 2006 the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) joined the optical inter-satellite experiment from their own satellite. Since 2008 the German Space Agency (DLR) is operating an inter-satellite link between the NFIRE and TerraSAR-X satellites based on a second generation of laser communication technology, which will be used for the new European Data Relay Satellite (EDRS) system to be deployed in 2013.

  3. Commercial satellite broadcasting for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, J. R.

    1988-12-01

    A review is presented of the current television broadcasting situation in European countries, which involves a varied mix of terrestrial VHF or UHF systems and cable networks. A small market has emerged in Europe for receivers using the low-power telecommunications satellite transmission between the program providers and cable network companies. This is expected to change with the launch of medium-power pan-European telecommunication satellites (e.g. ASTRA, EUTELSAT II), which are now directly addressing the market of home reception. DBS (direct broadcast satellite) in the UK, using the D-MAC transmission standard, will offer three additional television channels, data broadcasting services, and a planned evolution to compatible forms of wide-screen, high-definition television. Comments are given on receiver and conditional access system standardization. Some views are expressed on satellite broadcasting as part of an overall broadcasting framework for the future.

  4. Neutron spallation sources in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, P. J.

    1996-11-01

    After a brief general and historical discussion, the main design features of spallation sources are described. At the present time, Europe not only has the world-leading pulsed neutron spallation source, the SNS-ISIS at RAL, UK, but it is on the point of commissioning a world-leading continuous cyclotron-driven source, the SINQ at PSI, Switzerland. Looking to the future, yet more powerful pulsed sources are actively under study and the difficult problem of high-power target design (>250 kW) is leading to a new technology for liquid targets. The accelerator designs, although basically classical, require custom-built solutions that are often at the limit of present day accelerator technology.

  5. Neutron spallation sources in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, P. J.

    1996-11-01

    After a brief general and historical discussion, the main design features of spallation sources are described. At the present time, Europe not only has the world-leading pulsed neutron spallation source, the SNS-ISIS at RAL, UK, but it is on the point of commissioning a world-leading continuous cyclotron-driven source, the SINQ at PSI, Switzerland. Looking to the future, yet more powerful pulsed sources are actively under study and the difficult problem of high-power target design (>250 kW) is leading to a new technology for liquid targets. The accelerator designs, although basically classical, require custom-built solutions that are often at the limit of presentday accelerator technology.

  6. Tolerable soil erosion in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verheijen, Frank; Jones, Bob; Rickson, Jane; Smith, Celina

    2010-05-01

    Soil loss by erosion has been identified as an important threat to soils in Europe* and is recognised as a contributing process to soil degradation and associated deterioration, or loss, of soil functioning. From a policy perspective, it is imperative to establish well-defined baseline values to evaluate soil erosion monitoring data against. For this purpose, accurate baseline values - i.e. tolerable soil loss - need to be differentiated at appropriate scales for monitoring and, ideally, should take soil functions and even changing environmental conditions into account. The concept of tolerable soil erosion has been interpreted in the scientific literature in two ways: i) maintaining the dynamic equilibrium of soil quantity, and ii) maintaining biomass production, at a location. The first interpretation ignores soil quality by focusing only on soil quantity. The second approach ignores many soil functions by focusing only on the biomass (particularly crop) production function of soil. Considering recognised soil functions, tolerable soil erosion may be defined as 'any mean annual cumulative (all erosion types combined) soil erosion rate at which a deterioration or loss of one or more soil functions does not occur'. Assumptions and problems of this definition will be discussed. Soil functions can generally be judged not to deteriorate as long as soil erosion does not exceed soil formation. At present, this assumption remains largely untested, but applying the precautionary principle appears to be a reasonable starting point. Considering soil formation rates by both weathering and dust deposition, it is estimated that for the majority of soil forming factors in most European situations, soil formation rates probably range from ca. 0.3 - 1.4 t ha-1 yr-1. Although the current agreement on these values seems relatively strong, how the variation within the range is spatially distributed across Europe and how this may be affected by climate, land use and land management

  7. Effects of climate change on landslide hazard in Europe (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadim, F.; Solheim, A.

    2009-12-01

    Landslides represent a major threat to human life, property and constructed facilities, infrastructure and natural environment in most mountainous and hilly regions of the world. As a consequence of climatic changes and potential global warming, an increase of landslide activity is expected in some parts of the world in the future. This will be due to increased extreme rainfall events, changes of hydrological cycles, meteorological events followed by sea storms causing coastal erosion and melting of snow and of frozen soils in the high mountains. During the past century, Europe experienced many fatalities and significant economic losses due to landslides. Since in many parts of Europe landslides are the most serious natural hazard, several recent European research projects are looking into the effects of climate change on the risk associated with landslides. Examples are the recently initiated SafeLand project, which looks into this problem across the continent, and GeoExtreme, which focused on Norway. The ongoing project SafeLand (www.safeland-fp7.eu) is a large, integrating project financed by the European Commission. It involves close to 30 organizations from 13 countries in Europe, and it looks into the effects of global change (mainly changes in demography and climate change) on the pattern of landslide risk in Europe. The SafeLand objectives are to (1) provide policy-makers, public administrators, researchers, scientists, educators and other stakeholders with improved harmonized framework and methodology for the assessment and quantification of landslide risk in Europe's regions; (2) evaluate the changes in risk pattern caused by climate change, human activity and policy changes; and (3) provide guidelines for choosing the most appropriate risk management strategies, including risk mitigation and prevention measures. To assess the changes in the landslide risk pattern in Norway over the next 50 years, the four-year integrated research project GeoExtreme (www

  8. Multi-hazard assessment in Europe under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forzieri, Giovanni; Feyen, Luc; Russo, Simone; Vousdoukas, Michalis; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Outten, Stephen; Migliavacca, Mirco; Bianchi, Alessandra; Rojas, Rodrigo; Cid, Alba

    2016-04-01

    While reported losses of climate-related hazards are at historically high levels, climate change is likely to enhance the risk posed by extreme weather events. Several regions are likely to be exposed to multiple climate hazards, yet their modeling in a joint scheme is still at the early stages. A multi-hazard framework to map exposure to multiple climate extremes in Europe along the twenty-first century is hereby presented. Using a coherent ensemble of climate projections, changes in the frequency of heat and cold waves, river and coastal flooding, streamflow droughts, wildfires and windstorms are evaluated. Corresponding variations in expected annual exposure allow for an objective comparison of hazards described by different process characteristics and metrics. Projected changes in exposure depict important variations in hazard scenarios, especially those linked to rising temperatures, and spatial patterns largely modulated by local climate conditions. Results show that Europe will likely face a progressive increase in overall climate hazard with a prominent spatial gradient towards south-western regions mainly driven by the rise of heat waves, droughts and wildfires. Key hotspots emerge particularly along coastlines and in floodplains, often highly populated and economically pivotal, where floods and windstorms could be critical in combination with other climate hazards. Projected increases in exposure will be larger for very extreme events due to their pronounced changes in frequency. Results of this appraisal provide useful input for forthcoming European disaster risk and adaptation policy.

  9. Increasing Teaching Productivity with EuropeMMM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helic, Denis; Scherbackov, Nick; Sheridan, Don

    EuropeMMM (Efficient Use of Remote and Online Publications of Electronic Multi-Media Materials) addresses the challenge of custom-publishing of multi-media on the Internet. A EuropeMMM catalog is designed especially for teachers and trainers who need to save time and effort in developing courses which include multi-media elements. Authors and…

  10. Current Trends in Educational Research in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitter, Wolfgang

    1992-01-01

    In examining current trends in Europe's educational research, the paper presents a brief history of education in Europe, then discusses the effect of diversity and unity on national research systems, organizational patterns and issues, typological and methodological issues, and the impact of educational research on decision making. (SM)

  11. Vocational and Adult Education in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wieringen, Fons, Ed.; Attwell, Graham, Ed.

    This book contains 25 papers on vocational and adult education in Europe and the United States. The following papers are included: "Vocational and Adult Education in Europe: Introduction to the Volume" (Fons van Wieringen, Graham Attwell); "Introduction to Section 1: Markets and Institutions in Vocational and Adult Education" (Fons van Wieringen);…

  12. Understanding Education in Europe-East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozma, Tamas; Polonyi, Tunde

    2004-01-01

    This paper suggests possible frames of reference for understanding education and educational policy in the Eastern part of Europe. (a) According to the geographical frame, the concept of "Eastern Europe" and its education reflects a struggle for political power and self-identity. (b) According to the political frame, the transition of 1989/1990…

  13. Key Data on Education in Europe 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranguelov, Stanislav; de Coster, Isabelle; Forsthuber, Bernadette; Noorani, Sogol; Ruffio, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    This seventh edition of "Key Data on Education in Europe" retains its main special feature which is the combination of statistical data and qualitative information to describe the organisation and functioning of education systems in Europe. The present 2009 edition maintains the subject-based structure defined by the previous one but uses new…

  14. Multicultural healthcare: a transatlantic project.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, Liisa; Jokinen, Pirkko

    2007-01-01

    Healthcare is increasingly multicultural, posing a challenge for nurse educators in both Europe and the United States. Nursing education faculties are responding to the challenge of internationalization, for instance, by participating in international student exchange projects to foster students' intercultural competence. The authors describe an educational model constructed during a transatlantic project between European and American universities. The benefits of the project from the Finnish partner's perspective are also reported. PMID:17496825

  15. Maritime route of colonization of Europe

    PubMed Central

    Paschou, Peristera; Drineas, Petros; Yannaki, Evangelia; Razou, Anna; Kanaki, Katerina; Tsetsos, Fotis; Padmanabhuni, Shanmukha Sampath; Michalodimitrakis, Manolis; Renda, Maria C.; Pavlovic, Sonja; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Stamatoyannopoulos, George

    2014-01-01

    The Neolithic populations, which colonized Europe approximately 9,000 y ago, presumably migrated from Near East to Anatolia and from there to Central Europe through Thrace and the Balkans. An alternative route would have been island hopping across the Southern European coast. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed genome-wide DNA polymorphisms on populations bordering the Mediterranean coast and from Anatolia and mainland Europe. We observe a striking structure correlating genes with geography around the Mediterranean Sea with characteristic east to west clines of gene flow. Using population network analysis, we also find that the gene flow from Anatolia to Europe was through Dodecanese, Crete, and the Southern European coast, compatible with the hypothesis that a maritime coastal route was mainly used for the migration of Neolithic farmers to Europe. PMID:24927591

  16. Maritime route of colonization of Europe.

    PubMed

    Paschou, Peristera; Drineas, Petros; Yannaki, Evangelia; Razou, Anna; Kanaki, Katerina; Tsetsos, Fotis; Padmanabhuni, Shanmukha Sampath; Michalodimitrakis, Manolis; Renda, Maria C; Pavlovic, Sonja; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Kidd, Kenneth K; Stamatoyannopoulos, George

    2014-06-24

    The Neolithic populations, which colonized Europe approximately 9,000 y ago, presumably migrated from Near East to Anatolia and from there to Central Europe through Thrace and the Balkans. An alternative route would have been island hopping across the Southern European coast. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed genome-wide DNA polymorphisms on populations bordering the Mediterranean coast and from Anatolia and mainland Europe. We observe a striking structure correlating genes with geography around the Mediterranean Sea with characteristic east to west clines of gene flow. Using population network analysis, we also find that the gene flow from Anatolia to Europe was through Dodecanese, Crete, and the Southern European coast, compatible with the hypothesis that a maritime coastal route was mainly used for the migration of Neolithic farmers to Europe.

  17. Enhancing Environmental Higher Education in Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmisano, E.; Caporali, E.; Valdiserri, J.

    2010-12-01

    recognition of degree titles was defined. The DEREL Project, as logical continuation of DEREC, is aimed to introduce a new, up-to-date, postgraduate two-year curriculum in Environment and Resources Engineering at some Universities in FYR Macedonia, Serbia and Albania following the criteria and conditions for setting up a Joint Postgraduate Degree. The modernisation of higher education implies new educational requirements that, stimulated by the innovative telecommunication technologies together with novel educational materials and methodologies, lead to the development of distance learning environments. In order to provide the basis for the development of a distance learning environment based on video conferencing systems and develop a blended learning courses methodology, the TEMPUS Project VICES Videoconferencing Educational Services (2009-2012) was launched in 2009. The project is being carried out by the University of Florence and the Ss Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje with the co-operation and expertise of consortium members in Europe and Western Balkans and it foresees the implementation of videoconferencing educational modules in the frame of the DEREC Curriculum. In all above projects, the technical and methodological aspects related to environment protection and natural resources enhancement is highlighted.

  18. ROAMER: roadmap for mental health research in Europe.

    PubMed

    Haro, Josep Maria; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Bitter, Istvan; Demotes-Mainard, Jacques; Leboyer, Marion; Lewis, Shôn W; Linszen, Donald; Maj, Mario; McDaid, David; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Robbins, Trevor W; Schumann, Gunter; Thornicroft, Graham; Van Der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina; Van Os, Jim; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Wykes, Til; Arango, Celso; Bickenbach, Jerome; Brunn, Matthias; Cammarata, Pamela; Chevreul, Karine; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Finocchiaro, Carla; Fiorillo, Andrea; Forsman, Anna K; Hazo, Jean-Baptiste; Knappe, Susanne; Kuepper, Rebecca; Luciano, Mario; Miret, Marta; Obradors-Tarragó, Carla; Pagano, Grazia; Papp, Szilvia; Walker-Tilley, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high impact of mental disorders in society, European mental health research is at a critical situation with a relatively low level of funding, and few advances been achieved during the last decade. The development of coordinated research policies and integrated research networks in mental health is lagging behind other disciplines in Europe, resulting in lower degree of cooperation and scientific impact. To reduce more efficiently the burden of mental disorders in Europe, a concerted new research agenda is necessary. The ROAMER (Roadmap for Mental Health Research in Europe) project, funded under the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme, aims to develop a comprehensive and integrated mental health research agenda within the perspective of the European Union (EU) Horizon 2020 programme, with a translational goal, covering basic, clinical and public health research. ROAMER covers six major domains: infrastructures and capacity building, biomedicine, psychological research and treatments, social and economic issues, public health and well-being. Within each of them, state-of-the-art and strength, weakness and gap analyses were conducted before building consensus on future research priorities. The process is inclusive and participatory, incorporating a wide diversity of European expert researchers as well as the views of service users, carers, professionals and policy and funding institutions.

  19. An overview of nursing in Europe: a SWOT analysis.

    PubMed

    Manzano-García, Guadalupe; Ayala-Calvo, Juan-Carlos

    2014-12-01

    This article sets out a global analysis of the weaknesses, threats, strengths and opportunities that define the current situation of nursing in Europe. The nursing profession in Europe is suffering from a crisis of self-efficacy with the syndrome of burnout being one of its consequences. Other weaknesses include shortage of staff, job insecurity, devalued nursing image in society and the lack of recognition of emotional and psychological dimensions of care. The threats to this profession are linked to the lack of prestige and social recognition and to the current economic crisis in Europe. The European economic crisis favours staff shortages and increased European migration flow. The strength of the group lies in the art of caring, which is its defining feature. Primary Care Nursing and Hospital Liaison Nursing demonstrate the great professional adaptability in meeting the needs of the ever-changing society. The European Higher Education Area and the strengthening of the specialties provide opportunities for the nursing profession. Both represent an important progress towards solid professionalism that will give nursing greater visibility. Moreover, nursing must implement strategies to disseminate its activity and emerge from anonymity. Nursing must show society the image it wants to project. PMID:24738741

  20. Increasing impacts of climate extremes on critical infrastructures in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forzieri, Giovanni; Bianchi, Alessandra; Feyen, Luc; Silva, Filipe Batista e.; Marin, Mario; Lavalle, Carlo; Leblois, Antoine

    2016-04-01

    The projected increases in exposure to multiple climate hazards in many regions of Europe, emphasize the relevance of a multi-hazard risk assessment to comprehensively quantify potential impacts of climate change and develop suitable adaptation strategies. In this context, quantifying the future impacts of climatic extremes on critical infrastructures is crucial due to their key role for human wellbeing and their effects on the overall economy. Critical infrastructures describe the existing assets and systems that are essential for the maintenance of vital societal functions, health, safety, security, economic or social well-being of people, and the disruption or destruction of which would have a significant impact as a result of the failure to maintain those functions. We assess the direct damages of heat and cold waves, river and coastal flooding, droughts, wildfires and windstorms to energy, transport, industry and social infrastructures in Europe along the 21st century. The methodology integrates in a coherent framework climate hazard, exposure and vulnerability components. Overall damage is expected to rise up to 38 billion €/yr, ten time-folds the current climate damage, with drastic variations in risk scenarios. Exemplificative are drought and heat-related damages that could represent 70% of the overall climate damage in 2080s versus the current 12%. Many regions, prominently Southern Europe, will likely suffer multiple stresses and systematic infrastructure failures due to climate extremes if no suitable adaptation measures will be taken.