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Sample records for europe ospi europe

  1. Optimizing Suicide Prevention Programs and Their Implementation in Europe (OSPI Europe): an evidence-based multi-level approach

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Suicide and non-fatal suicidal behaviour are significant public health issues in Europe requiring effective preventive interventions. However, the evidence for effective preventive strategies is scarce. The protocol of a European research project to develop an optimized evidence based program for suicide prevention is presented. Method The groundwork for this research has been established by a regional community based intervention for suicide prevention that focuses on improving awareness and care for depression performed within the European Alliance Against Depression (EAAD). The EAAD intervention consists of (1) training sessions and practice support for primary care physicians,(2) public relations activities and mass media campaigns, (3) training sessions for community facilitators who serve as gatekeepers for depressed and suicidal persons in the community and treatment and (4) outreach and support for high risk and self-help groups (e.g. helplines). The intervention has been shown to be effective in reducing suicidal behaviour in an earlier study, the Nuremberg Alliance Against Depression. In the context of the current research project described in this paper (OSPI-Europe) the EAAD model is enhanced by other evidence based interventions and implemented simultaneously and in standardised way in four regions in Ireland, Portugal, Hungary and Germany. The enhanced intervention will be evaluated using a prospective controlled design with the primary outcomes being composite suicidal acts (fatal and non-fatal), and with intermediate outcomes being the effect of training programs, changes in public attitudes, guideline-consistent media reporting. In addition an analysis of the economic costs and consequences will be undertaken, while a process evaluation will monitor implementation of the interventions within the different regions with varying organisational and healthcare contexts. Discussion This multi-centre research seeks to overcome major challenges

  2. Exploring synergistic interactions and catalysts in complex interventions: longitudinal, mixed methods case studies of an optimised multi-level suicide prevention intervention in four european countries (Ospi-Europe).

    PubMed

    Harris, Fiona M; Maxwell, Margaret; O'Connor, Rory; Coyne, James C; Arensman, Ella; Coffey, Claire; Koburger, Nicole; Gusmão, Ricardo; Costa, Susana; Székely, András; Cserhati, Zoltan; McDaid, David; van Audenhove, Chantal; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2016-03-15

    The Medical Research Council (MRC) Framework for complex interventions highlights the need to explore interactions between components of complex interventions, but this has not yet been fully explored within complex, non-pharmacological interventions. This paper draws on the process evaluation data of a suicide prevention programme implemented in four European countries to illustrate the synergistic interactions between intervention levels in a complex programme, and to present our method for exploring these. A realist evaluation approach informed the process evaluation, which drew on mixed methods, longitudinal case studies. Data collection consisted of 47 semi-structured interviews, 12 focus groups, one workshop, fieldnoted observations of six programme meetings and 20 questionnaires (delivered at six month intervals to each of the four intervention sites). Analysis drew on the framework approach, facilitated by the use of QSR NVivo (v10). Our qualitative approach to exploring synergistic interactions (QuaSIC) also developed a matrix of hypothesised synergies that were explored within one workshop and two waves of data collection. All four implementation countries provided examples of synergistic interactions that added value beyond the sum of individual intervention levels or components in isolation. For instance, the launch ceremony of the public health campaign (a level 3 intervention) in Ireland had an impact on the community-based professional training, increasing uptake and visibility of training for journalists in particular. In turn, this led to increased media reporting of OSPI activities (monitored as part of the public health campaign) and also led to wider dissemination of editorial guidelines for responsible reporting of suicidal acts. Analysis of the total process evaluation dataset also revealed the new phenomenon of the OSPI programme acting as a catalyst for externally generated (and funded) activity that shared the goals of suicide prevention

  3. Europe Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewall, Gilbert T.

    1993-01-01

    A recent succession of landmark events have rendered world history textbooks out of date. Educators need to answer students' questions about the changes of the past few years and provide some context as to the causes of change. Lists a number of selected resources for information on eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. (MLF)

  4. Southern Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On November 3, 2001, MODIS collected this image of Western Europe. Starting at the lower-left corner of the image and moving clockwise are the countries of Spain, France, Germany, Austria, Italy, and Switzerland. The Alps, the crescent-shaped mountain range running from the center to the right side of the image, span a length of 750 miles and cover and area of 80,000 square miles. In this image, a gray cloud of aerosols, predominantly from Italy's northwestern region of Lombardy, are corralled by the massive heights of the Alps. One large source of aerosols is the city of Milan. Home to numerous international and local industrial plants, Milan is faced with many of the same air quality problems as other large metropolitan areas. Also visible in the image is a phytoplankton bloom in the Bay of Biscay (left), at the confluence of the Garonne and Dordogne rivers. The rivers form the Gironde Estuary, which is saturated with sediment that provides necessary nutrients for the phytoplankton. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  5. How to write a history of Europe: Europe, Europes, Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Peter

    2006-05-01

    This article looks at the history of European culture from three angles, those of European uniqueness, European variety and European consciousness. The first section discusses the question of whether the fundamental unit of study, for cultural as well as economic historians, is not Eurasia. The second section is concerned with cultural divisions within Europe, with Europes in the plural. It asks whether it is more illuminating to distinguish two Europes (like Leopold von Ranke), or three (like Jeno Szucs), or even five (like Hugo Hassinger), and examine both centripetal and centrifugal forces in early modern history. The final section deals with the history of the idea of Europe, or more exactly with the rise of consciousness of being European, as it is revealed in early modern histories, geographies, journals and newspapers.

  6. Europe's Second Demographic Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Kaa, Dirk J.

    1987-01-01

    By 1985, fertility rates in Europe were below the replacement level of 2.1 births per woman in all but Albania, Ireland, Malta, Poland, and Turkey, following a steady decline from a 1965 postwar peak well above 2.5 in Northern, Western, and Southern Europe and an erratic trend from a lower level in Eastern Europe. Natural decrease (fewer births…

  7. Europe's Second Demographic Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Kaa, Dirk J.

    1987-01-01

    By 1985, fertility rates in Europe were below the replacement level of 2.1 births per woman in all but Albania, Ireland, Malta, Poland, and Turkey, following a steady decline from a 1965 postwar peak well above 2.5 in Northern, Western, and Southern Europe and an erratic trend from a lower level in Eastern Europe. Natural decrease (fewer births…

  8. Interconnection of Europe`s power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Manos, P.

    1996-03-01

    More than six years have passed since the Berlin Wall fell during Christmas of 1989, and a unified pan-European electricity-supply system is still not a reality. Progress toward that goal has been certain but slow. Technical and political differences still block the final step in the integration process: a full hookup between the grids of western and northern Europe and the transmission networks of the former Warsaw Pact nations. It has fallen to unified Germany, as the bridge between East and West, to serve as the catalyst of Europe`s electrical congress. This paper discusses the existing and planned interconnection along with a historical perspective.

  9. Applied Linguistics in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bot, Kees

    2004-01-01

    In this contribution developments in Applied Linguistics in Europe are linked to major social changes that have taken place over the last decades. These include: The decline of the USSR and the end of the cold war; The development of the EEC and the EU and fading of borders; The economic growth of Western Europe; Labor migration from the south to…

  10. Immigrant Languages in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extra, Guus, Ed.; Verhoeven, Ludo, Ed.

    Papers from a 1990 Dutch colloquium on immigrant language varieties in Europe are presented in four categories: (1) use of immigrant language varieties in Europe; (2) first language acquisition in a second language context; (3) code-switching; and (4) language maintenance and loss. Papers include: "Sweden Finnish" (Jarmo Lainio);…

  11. Applied Linguistics in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bot, Kees

    2004-01-01

    In this contribution developments in Applied Linguistics in Europe are linked to major social changes that have taken place over the last decades. These include: The decline of the USSR and the end of the cold war; The development of the EEC and the EU and fading of borders; The economic growth of Western Europe; Labor migration from the south to…

  12. Western Europe's America Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovits, Andrei S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses Europe's anti-Americanism stance. He observes that Europe's aversion to America has become greater, louder, and more determined, and that it has unified Western Europeans more than any other political emotion (with the exception of a common hostility toward Israel). The author contends that the many disastrous…

  13. Immigrant Languages in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extra, Guus, Ed.; Verhoeven, Ludo, Ed.

    Papers from a 1990 Dutch colloquium on immigrant language varieties in Europe are presented in four categories: (1) use of immigrant language varieties in Europe; (2) first language acquisition in a second language context; (3) code-switching; and (4) language maintenance and loss. Papers include: "Sweden Finnish" (Jarmo Lainio);…

  14. EPA Collaboration with Europe

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    By working together to achieve common goals, the U.S. and Europe can enhance our respective environmental protection efforts while creating a cleaner environment on both continents and around the world.

  15. Where Europe meets Africa

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-03-23

    Data from a portion of the imagery acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft during 2000-2002 were combined to create this cloud-free natural-color mosaic of southwestern Europe and northwestern Morocco and Algeria.

  16. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-12

    hotel expenses; one-time aid to newly married couples; JPRS-EER-91-030 12 March 1991 ECONOMIC 31 births; illnesses; deaths; accidents and disasters...the largest auto showroom in Eastern Europe and "one of the largest showrooms in Europe" where one can buy any selected car model including...what we often see in small boutiques or street booths, accounted for more than 11 percent of overall Polish imports. As known, in 1990 exports by

  17. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-17

    Ministry of equipped to deal with this. To provide services for the Finances, assures us. A similar rule will apply to pen- hundreds of thousands of...JPRS-EER-90-105 17 JULY 1990 FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE -’PRS Report-- East Europe REPRODUCED BY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL...TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 , VmR...U..ON 3TA.... A East Europe JPRS-EER-90-105 CONTENTS 17 July 1990 POLITICAL INTRABLOC PNUC

  18. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    rent news and information and is published Monday through Friday in 8 volumes: China, East Europe, Soviet Union, East Asia, Near East & South Asia...JPRS-EER-87-141 23 SEPTFMRFR 1QS7 u etc* U ü J. Ma M i%\\ ■■■■■« FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS Report— East Eur ft e N9BQ6W M...EER-87-141 23 SEPTEMBER 1987 EAST EUROPE CONTENTS POLITICAL INTRABLOC Romanian Efforts To Weaken Minority Magyar Position Viewed (Martti Valkonen

  19. Doctoring in Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Henry

    1983-01-01

    Health care in Eastern Europe has not achieved world standards nor the goals of planners of socialist societies. With luck, perseverance, bribes or good connections, it is possible to obtain good medical and surgical care in Eastern Europe for a major illness. Primary and even secondary care usually are substandard, however, and often completely unacceptable to most Western foreigners. The reasons for this are complex but mainly rooted in different attitudes of health workers towards their patients, poor physical plants, poor salary structures, inadequate advancement opportunities for health care workers, poor social status and professional recognition for nurses and almost complete isolation of the average primary care doctor from hospital medicine. PMID:6659504

  20. Regions and Western Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunt, Barry M.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that regional geography is undergoing important changes in its method of study to achieve a greater degree of relevancy in the context of a global system. Presents Western Europe as a case study to reflect this new approach. Includes 11 maps illustrating 6 generalizations applied to regional patterns. (CFR)

  1. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-17

    power relations in Europe are in flux. Not long ago I was in America. I saw ground paprika imported from Hungary on the store shelves, and the bags...money to spend a small fortune on half a handful of Hungarian paprika , just because the bags were interesting. The leaders of the Hungarian minority

  2. West Europe Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-24

    to judge by what is occurring with socialist or conservative parties in Europe. What I feel is more serious with this nimble and intellegent ...military in the army. Part of the observation work will be done not by the human eye, but by sensors ( artificial senses). Huyser: "But making

  3. West Europe Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-12

    37 ff., J. Galtung , ibid., S.19/210 ff. 11. Cf. A. von Buelow (footnote 7). 12. Cf. Lothar Ruehl, "Europe Would be Subjugated to Soviet Rule," in... Galtung et al. At the same time it should be remembered that the Warsaw Pact doctrine starts out completely as a matter of course from attack and

  4. The Europe 2020 Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasimeni, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new index to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This index is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the index shows…

  5. The Europe 2020 Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasimeni, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new index to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This index is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the index shows…

  6. EUROPE IN CRISIS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-06

    countries like Somalia and Libya to help combat ISIS’s exploitation and recruitment. Although Khalid Masood was 52 years old , the reality is that ISIS...learn about Islam in Europe and follow this particular interpretation of the Islamic religion in the West.47 Some of the Arab and North African

  7. Rickettsioses in Europe.

    PubMed

    Portillo, Aránzazu; Santibáñez, Sonia; García-Álvarez, Lara; Palomar, Ana M; Oteo, José A

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria of the genera Rickettsia and Orientia (family rickettsiaceae, order rickettsiales) cause rickettsioses worldwide, and are transmitted by lice, fleas, ticks and mites. In Europe, only Rickettsia spp. cause rickettsioses. With improvement of hygiene, the risk of louse-borne rickettsiosis (epidemic typhus) is low in Europe. Nevertheless, recrudescent form of Rickettsia prowazekii infection persists. There could be an epidemic typhus outbreak if a body lice epidemic occurs under unfavorable sanitary conditions. In Europe, endemic typhus or Rickettsia typhi infection, transmitted by rats and fleas, causes febrile illness. At the beginning of this century, flea-borne spotted fever cases caused by Rickettsia felis were diagnosed. Flea-borne rickettsiosis should be suspected after flea bites if fever, with or without rash, is developed. Tick-borne rickettsioses are the main source of rickettsia infections in Europe. Apart from Rickettsia conorii, the Mediterranean Spotted Fever (MSF) agent, other Rickettsia spp. cause MSF-like: Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia monacensis, Rickettsia massiliae or Rickettsia aeschlimannii. In the 1990s, two 'new' rickettsioses were diagnosed: Lymphangitis Associated Rickettsiosis (LAR) caused by Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae, and Tick-Borne Lymphadenopathy/Dermacentor-Borne-Necrosis-Erythema-Lymphadenopathy/Scalp Eschar Neck Lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA/DEBONEL/SENLAT), caused by Rickettsia slovaca, Candidatus Rickettsia rioja and Rickettsia raoultii. Lastly, European reports about mite-borne rickettsiosis are scarce.

  8. OCLC in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschamps, Christine

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the early days of the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) in Europe, and developments in its usage. Highlights include negotiations between OCLC and France; retrospective conversion; reorganization and restructuring; the gradual approach to international use of OCLC; problems facing European libraries using OCLC; and benefits. (AEF)

  9. JPRS Report, Science & Technology Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    PRS-EST-88-001 OMAY 1988 203030 ■■■■«I ■■■■■fl FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE ’PRS Report- Science & Technology Europe ■approved...SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 DTTC QUALITY INSPECTED 6 /0 .j NOTICE Effective 15 April 1988, JPRS will retitle its SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY: EUROPE & LATIN...AMERICA report SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY: EUROPE. The trigraph for this report will be EST. Subscribers who currently receive the SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY: EUROPE

  10. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    produced, for example, the epic Manas. But it was not the utilization of folk elements or legends per se that became definitional of his art, but the...confidence. [Question] Subject experts as well as the bureaucracy have a definite need for public forums in which the groundwork for decisions is...still on the Hungarian and Serbo-Croatian issues in 1848-1849, I definitely wanted to specialize in Central Europe’s nationality question. I taught

  11. JPRS Report, East Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-27

    services (4.3 percent as well ). Agriculture, Forestry, and Food Industry Retail sales at effective prices increased by 4.2 percent or In 1989, the... Service (JPRS) publications contain political, economic, military, and sociological news, commentary, and other information, as well as scientific and...JPRS-EER-90-039 27 MARCH 1990, FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE -PRS Report-- East Europe REPRODUCED BY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL

  12. JPRS Report East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-31

    one of the more scientists is inexorable: coking plants are not suited to serious polluters, one technical line has been put on hold, modernization...NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 Approved for ’publc rele•se; East Europe JPRS-EER-90-075 CONTENTS 31 May 1990 POLITICAL...34 provided a thorough, reliable situation analysis . In their must be understood in its strictest sense. The essence of view, the difference between [levels

  13. Family planning in Europe.

    PubMed

    Blayo, C

    1993-06-01

    Today Europe has the lowest fertility ever, and even Albania and Ireland are recording less than 3 children/woman. Europe can be divided into 3 groups of countries: 1) countries in which women rely on medical contraception, where abortion is used only to correct contraceptive failures, and where there are few sterilizations; 2) countries where abortion is less frequent (UK, the Netherlands especially), because sterilization is much more widespread; and 3) countries of the former Communist bloc where abortion frequently takes the place of contraception and sterilizations are insignificant. Couples' free access to birth control in practice faces legal and administrative restrictions and poor reception systems that discriminate against adolescents, ethnic minorities, and migrants. In Europe a certain inequality of access to birth control persists. The legislators occasionally resist, as in Ireland and in Poland. In many eastern European countries there is resistance toward the widespread distribution of modern contraceptive methods; other countries place more emphasis on sterilization than on stricter practice of contraception. Voluntary sterilization of couples reached the 40 or 50% level in the US and Canada at the end of the 1980s, while it has only exceeded 20% in the UK and the Netherlands. Europe has made progress in legislation on abortion. Prohibitions had disastrous effects on the maternal mortality rates in Albania and Romania before the recent political changes. The European birth control literature is rife with analyses based on approximations, biased indexes, and partial statistics, but assessment is often avoided because of political and economic interests. In order to comprehend the resistance to the spread of contraception and the reasons for the sociocultural choice of abortion, sterilization, or contraception, these events in particular abortions and sterilizations, must be recorded.

  14. West Europe Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    attributed to the failed 23 February coup. Having paid rhetorical tribute to the historic and cultural debt to Spain, the U.S. President voiced his...Basically we broached three major topics: Central America, the foreign debt of the Latin American and Third World countries, and the problem of...order. A progressive Spain and Europe must be involved in it. Question: The question of the foreign debt was also discussed. What impressions did

  15. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD. VA , 22161 0 C." DTMC QUALMr M- 1 3 East Europe JPRS-EER-90-045 CONTENTS 4 APRIL 1990 POLITICAL INTRABLOC...Joint Venture in Banking Data Support Established [NEPSZA VA 30 Jan] ..................... 43 Commentary on Kornai’s ’Passionate Pamphlet’ [FIGYELO 1...yesterday by Bela [Report by Jozsef Kiss, Eva Kovacs, Judit Stefany, Beata Horvath, managing director of Unio Publishing House. Tari, and Istvan Janos Toth

  16. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-19

    the employees of the Central Elections Office, and [made by senators]. It requires that [the time for or delegates from foreign representations...several other papers, such as the center for Central and East Europe. Moreover we are 23 March issue of HAROMSZEK, published in Sep- granting one-half...million to a joint venture on a modern siszentgyorgy [Sfintu Gheorghe]. system of payment. The Hungarian central bank has This is not the wish of a man

  17. JPRS Report, East Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-30

    EER-90-058 30 April 1990 POLITICAL 21 Unia-Press reports that Zbigniew Brzezinski , former Two new candidates for ambassadorial posts have been...capitals of Western Europe," promoter. Z. Brzezinski accepted the invitation of the and Jedrzej Krakowski (age 50), a doctor in economics, president...34 analysis. For Vice Admiral Piotr Kolodziejczyk, a deputy and [Koziej] As I see it, this is the task of the Academy of recent chief of the GZW WP, it is

  18. Mineral facilities of Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  19. HIV in Europe.

    PubMed

    Põder, Airi; Haldre, Madli

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the estimated number of people living with HIV in Europe and Central Asia was 2.3 million. This is more than twice the 2001 figure. At the same time, approximately 50% of the infected people may not know their HIV status. The Europe/Central Asia region is one of only two regions in which HIV infections continue to increase. The estimated prevalence rate in the west and center of the region, however, has remained stable at 0.2%. The HIV epidemics in Eastern Europe and Central Asia are typically driven by unsafe drug injection and by onward transmission to the sexual partners of people who inject drugs. In the western part of the region, the epidemic remains concentrated among men who have sex with men and migrants from countries with generalized epidemics. Means of preventing and fighting HIV should, first and foremost, be directed to those parts of the population that are most exposed to the risk of the infection. Proceeding from the data presented, recommendations are given for ways of decreasing HIV prevalence in the region, such as promoting dialogue and awareness among multistakeholders, including policy makers, donors, and population groups most exposed to the infection. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychiatric rehabilitation in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rössler, W; Drake, R E

    2017-01-19

    To describe the core elements of modern psychiatric rehabilitation. Based on selected examples we describe the discussion about values in mental health care with focus on Europe. We present outcome data from studies, which have tried to implement care structures based on this value discussion. In the second half of the 20th century, mental health care in all European and other high-income countries changed conceptually and structurally. Deinstitutionalisation reduced the number of psychiatric beds and transferred priority to outpatient care and community-based services, but community mental health programs developed differently across and within these countries. High-income countries in Europe continued to invest in costly traditional services that were neither evidence-based nor person-centered by emphasising inpatient services, sheltered group homes and sheltered workshops. We argue that evidence-based, person-centred, recovery-oriented psychiatric rehabilitation offers a parsimonious solution to developing a consensus plan for community-based care in Europe. The challenges to scaling up effective psychiatric rehabilitation services in high-income countries are not primarily a lack of resources, but rather a lack of political will and inefficient use and dysfunctional allocation of resources.

  1. Europe's nuclear dominos

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, J. )

    1993-06-01

    As long as the United States continues to play a leading role in NATO, the incentive for European powers to acquire independent nuclear weapons is virtually zero. Most European power, however, have relatively sophisticated nuclear establishments and could easily manufacture nuclear explosives if they judged that their security required an independent capability. They might judge so if the United States pulls out of Europe and out of NATO. It is the opinion of the author that if the United States withdraws, and if France and Britain insist on maintaining their current status as independent nuclear weapons powers, they will encourage proliferation by example. The likelihood of different countries deciding to manufacture nuclear weapons under these cicumstances is evaluated. The future of NATO is assessed. The conclusions of and future structure of the Conference on Cooperation and Security in Europe (CSCE) is discussed. The impact of United Nations involvement in preventing proliferation is evaluated. Recommendations are proposed for the utilization of existing organizations to deter proliferation in Europe.

  2. Orthodontics in Europe 1992.

    PubMed

    Moss, J P

    1993-10-01

    The removal of economic barriers in Europe in 1992, began a new era in history and will have profound effects on orthodontics throughout Europe. In order to get an estimate of the orthodontic scene in each European country a questionnaire was sent to a well known orthodontist who was asked to fill in the form. The questionnaire consisted of enquiries into four areas of orthodontics. The first dealt with orthodontic specialization in the country and inquired into the numbers of orthodontists, where they practised, how they trained, and whether there was a specialist register. The second part dealt with the orthodontic societies, how many were there, how many members, and the frequency of the meetings. The third area asked about orthodontic practice, dealing with case load, types of appliances used, and the cost of treatment. The last section dealt with the future of orthodontics in their particular country. This related to the demand for orthodontics, the need for orthodontists and the changing patterns of orthodontic practice over the next decade. Twenty-three of the 26 countries in Europe when the questionnaire was sent out responded although some were unable to answer all the questions because orthodontics was not recognized in their country.

  3. Anaesthesia workforce in Europe.

    PubMed

    Egger Halbeis, C B; Cvachovec, K; Scherpereel, P; Mellin-Olsen, J; Drobnik, L; Sondore, A

    2007-12-01

    The European anaesthesia workforce is facing increased demand and expansion of the labour market, which may likely exceed supply. This survey assesses the numbers and practice patterns of anaesthesiologists and studies migration and shortage of the anaesthesia workforce in Europe. A questionnaire was sent to all national European anaesthesia societies. Countries were grouped according to their relationship with the European Union. The number of anaesthesiologists per 100,000 population varies between 2.7 (Turkey) and 20.7 (Estonia). There seems to be no clear evidence for feminization of the anaesthesia workforce. Anaesthesia physician training lasts between 3 yr (Armenia, Belarus, Uzbekistan) and 7 yr (Ireland, UK), and seems to positively correlate with the number of trainees. Throughout Europe, anaesthesiologists typically work in public practice, and are involved in the entire care chain of surgical patients (anaesthesia, intensive care, chronic pain and pre-hospital emergency medicine). The differences between European salaries for anaesthesiologists are up to 50-fold. Most Western European countries are recipients of migrating anaesthesiologists who often originate from the new member states of the European Union. However, it seems that expectations about anaesthesia workforce shortages are not confined to Eastern Europe. Each European country has its own unique workforce constellation and practice pattern. Westward migration of anaesthesiologists from those countries with access to the European Union labour market may be explained by substantial salary differences. There is a European-wide lack of systematic, comparable data about the anaesthesia workforce, which makes it difficult to accurately assess the supply of anaesthesiologists.

  4. Cost Containment in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Culyer, A. J.

    1989-01-01

    Health care cost containment is not in itself a sensible policy objective, because any assessment of the appropriateness of health care expenditure in aggregate, as of that on specific programs, requires a balancing of costs and benefits at the margin. International data on expenditures can, however, provide indications of the likely impact on costs and expenditures of structural features of health care systems. Data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development for both European countries and a wider set are reviewed, and some current policies in Europe that are directed at controlling health care costs are outlined. PMID:10313433

  5. JPRS Report, East Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-13

    JPRS-EER-91-064 13 MAY 1991 S’).•l.l EUKe mu A N N I V E R S A R Y 1941 - 1991 -IPRS Reportr Ea Euoverop SEast Europe ,vnC QUALITY MhSPE(YLED 3 East...and others have also been recalled. must be based on programs and textbooks and taught by Dismissed were Lubomir Shopov , the head of the accredited...I have forgotten it. It does not matter, or else someone would find this document and read the resolu- ring up Comrade Shopov . Would he have refused

  6. Consolidating peace in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, M.A

    1987-01-01

    Consolidating Peace in Europe is a collection of essays and discussions by some of the leading experts in the field of international relations and disarmament. Some of the issues raised include: the responsibility of a West divided by peace movements to create a unified diplomatic front; the need for both East and West to understand the contradictory behavior of a Soviet Union that is militarily strong but economically weak; and the development of a new political awareness for a generation of Europeans who have on direct experience of post-World War II political tumult.

  7. JPRS Report, East Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-29

    PRS-EER-91-055 9 APRIL 1991 Foreigni A N N I V E R S A R Y 1941 - 1991 -PRS Report’- East Europe 0IC QTTALt’I ETVIIEUD a REPRODUCED BY U.S...Leningrad, and Lyubomir nists) in the so-called Macedonization of Bulgarians in Shopov , former head of the Balkan Countries Depart- Pirin Macedonia. The... y schooi. In ating. trailers full of cigarettes, salami, inexpensive shirts, stations for teaching in Lithuanian are operating, determined to open up

  8. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-23

    some of those surveyed do not answer the question "For whom did you vote?", but tell us the way they would have voted today. According to the...answered the question "For whom did you vote?" with "I did not vote." The conclusion is that some of those who indeed did not vote now claim to...Europe, after all, had pinned its hopes on the rapid rehabilitation of this country which, unlike its neighbors, is blessed with a democratic tradition

  9. Tackling important issues in Europe.

    PubMed

    de Lange, Karin

    2014-06-14

    Forthcoming animal health legislation, antimicrobial resistance and corporate practice were all discussed at the recent general assembly of the Federation of Veterinarians of Europe. Karin de Lange reports.

  10. Eastern Europe scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Hafele, W.

    1996-12-31

    The Russian situation is key to Eastern Europe if present trends continue. Its strategy for the establishment of the nuclear fuel cycle was conceived decades ago when the former USSR still existed. It was based on the fuel recycle with attention given to the requirements of the military. The former Warsaw Pact Countries (WPC) were not meant to have independent fuel cycles, and their irradiated fuel elements were scheduled to go back to Russian territory. In 1976 a fuel cycle center was built at Mayak/Chelyabinsk, centered on the RT-1 plant with a nominal capacity of 400 tonnes/yr plant for the reprocessing of spent fuel from VVER-440 reactors, fast reactors (BN-350 and BN-600) icebreaker and submarine transport units, research reactors, and other power units. The plan provided for the reprocessing of spent fuel from the WPC all having VVER-440 reactors. All together, 3000 tonnes of spent fuel have been processed there. Nuclear waste went to vitrification. A new reprocessing facility is under construction in the neighborhood of Krasnoyarsk 26, the RT-2 plant. It is scheduled to operate after 2005, and its design capacity is 1500 tonne/yr. A storage for 6000 tonnes of spent fuel from VVER-1000 reactors is in operation since 1985. A second mixed-oxide plant for VVER-1000 reactors is under consideration. Now, there are no fuel cycle facilities in the newly independent countries. The fuel cycle problems in Eastern Europe and Russia are discussed.

  11. The Council of Europe and Education in the New Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stobart, Maitland

    1992-01-01

    Describes Council of Europe (COE), with 27 member states from Eastern and Western Europe, established in 1949 to foster cooperative cultural, educational, sports, and youth programs. Discusses COE's Council for Cultural Cooperation. Reviews COE services offered, needs of new members, and special programs assisting Central and Eastern European…

  12. The Council of Europe and Education in the New Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stobart, Maitland

    1992-01-01

    Describes Council of Europe (COE), with 27 member states from Eastern and Western Europe, established in 1949 to foster cooperative cultural, educational, sports, and youth programs. Discusses COE's Council for Cultural Cooperation. Reviews COE services offered, needs of new members, and special programs assisting Central and Eastern European…

  13. Perspectives on Europe: Language Issues and Language Planning in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Anthony J., Ed.; Muller, Karis, Ed.

    This collection of papers includes the following: "Language Issues and Language Planning in Europe" (Anthony J. Liddicoat and Karis Muller); "Language and National Identity" (Peter M. Hill); "Language Planning, Linguistic Diversity and Democracy in Europe" (Anthony J. Liddicoat); "Language Competition in European…

  14. Online Catalogue Research in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Richard M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes online catalog research being conducted in Europe in the areas of interaction and interface design, subject access, functional improvement through the application of information retrieval techniques, and library networks. Three operational online catalogs, not available outside Europe, are discussed. (30 references) (CLB)

  15. UNESCO and the New Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rissom, Hans-Wolf

    1992-01-01

    Describes role of UNESCO in facilitating educational development in Europe in response to changes in Central and Eastern Europe. Reviews UNESCO's guiding principles and details its priorities for action, including basic learning roundtables, research on illiteracy, curriculum reform, environmental education, policy analysis, teacher training, and…

  16. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-10

    Europe Is Catching Up"] [Text] Pygmalion, ANNIE (Application of Neural Net- works for Industry in Europe), Galatea : These are the names of programs...three-year period within the Galatea project, which aims to develop a "general- purpose neural computer" (GPNC) capable of sup- porting a wide

  17. A Geopolitical Overview of Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berentsen, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that political instability in Europe and the rise and fall of European nations has occurred regularly throughout history. Reviews European geopolitical events and trends from 1815 to the present. Maintains that the rise of a strong Central Europe with German leadership will determine the future of the European Community. (CFR)

  18. Reforming Doctoral Education in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitusikova, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Doctoral education in Europe has been undergoing a major transformation in the last decade. This transformation has occurred in response to several challenges: the changing nature of the labor market in the globalized economy; the European Union's common agenda in research and education, which seeks to make Europe the most competitive…

  19. Snow in southwestern Europe

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    In February 2015, New England was not alone in dealing with the wrath of Old Man Winter. Thick snow blanketed mountain ranges in southwestern Europe after a winter storm pushed through the region in early February. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite captured this true-color image of the snow-covered peaks of the Cantabrian Mountains, the Pyrenees, the Alps, and Massif Central on February 9, 2015. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  20. Embryonal cancers in Europe.

    PubMed

    Gatta, Gemma; Ferrari, Andrea; Stiller, Charles A; Pastore, Guido; Bisogno, Gianni; Trama, Annalisa; Capocaccia, Riccardo

    2012-07-01

    Embryonal cancers are a heterogeneous group of rare cancers which mainly occur in children and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to estimate the burden (incidence, prevalence, survival and proportion of cured) for the principal embryonal cancers in Europe (EU27), using population-based data from cancer registries (CRs) participating in RARECARE. We identified 3322 cases diagnosed from 1995 to 2002 (latest period for which data are available): 44% neuroblastoma, 35% nephroblastoma, 13% retinoblastoma and 6% hepatoblastoma. Very few cases of pulmonary blastoma (43 cases) and pancreatoblastoma (seven cases) were diagnosed. About 2000 new embryonal cancers were estimated every year in EU27, for an annual incidence rate of 4 per million (1.8 neuroblastoma, 1.4 nephroblastoma, and 0.5 retinoblastoma); 91% of cases occurred in patients under 15 years. Five-year relative survival for all embryonal cancers was 80% (99% retinoblastoma, 90% nephroblastoma, 71% hepatoblastoma and 68% neuroblastoma). Overall survival was lower in adolescents and adults than in those under 15 years. The cure rate was estimated at 80%. Slightly less than 40,000 persons were estimated alive in EU27 with a diagnosis of embryonal cancer in 2008. Nephroblastoma was the most prevalent (18,150 cases in EU27), followed by neuroblastoma (12,100), retinoblastoma (5200), hepatoblastoma (2700) and pulmonary blastoma (614). This is the first study to delineate the embryonal cancer burden in Europe by age, sex and European region. Survival/cure rate is generally high, but there are considerable gaps in our understanding of the natural histories of these rare diseases particularly in adults.

  1. Iron deficiency in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hercberg, S; Preziosi, P; Galan, P

    2001-04-01

    In Europe, iron deficiency is considered to be one of the main nutritional deficiency disorders affecting large fractions of the population, particularly such physiological groups as children, menstruating women and pregnant women. Some factors such as type of contraception in women, blood donation or minor pathological blood loss (haemorrhoids, gynaecological bleeding...) considerably increase the difficulty of covering iron needs. Moreover, women, especially adolescents consuming low-energy diets, vegetarians and vegans are at high risk of iron deficiency. Although there is no evidence that an absence of iron stores has any adverse consequences, it does indicate that iron nutrition is borderline, since any further reduction in body iron is associated with a decrease in the level of functional compounds such as haemoglobin. The prevalence of iron-deficient anaemia has slightly decreased in infants and menstruating women. Some positive factors may have contributed to reducing the prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia in some groups of population: the use of iron-fortified formulas and iron-fortified cereals; the use of oral contraceptives and increased enrichment of iron in several countries; and the use of iron supplements during pregnancy in some European countries. It is possible to prevent and control iron deficiency by counseling individuals and families about sound iron nutrition during infancy and beyond, and about iron supplementation during pregnancy, by screening persons on the basis of their risk for iron deficiency, and by treating and following up persons with presumptive iron deficiency. This may help to reduce manifestations of iron deficiency and thus improve public health. Evidence linking iron status with risk of cardiovascular disease or cancer is unconvincing and does not justify changes in food fortification or medical practice, particularly because the benefits of assuring adequate iron intake during growth and development are well established

  2. Urban scaling in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Bettencourt, Luís M. A.; Lobo, José

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, in disciplines as diverse as economics, geography and complex systems, a perspective has arisen proposing that many properties of cities are quantitatively predictable due to agglomeration or scaling effects. Using new harmonized definitions for functional urban areas, we examine to what extent these ideas apply to European cities. We show that while most large urban systems in Western Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK) approximately agree with theoretical expectations, the small number of cities in each nation and their natural variability preclude drawing strong conclusions. We demonstrate how this problem can be overcome so that cities from different urban systems can be pooled together to construct larger datasets. This leads to a simple statistical procedure to identify urban scaling relations, which then clearly emerge as a property of European cities. We compare the predictions of urban scaling to Zipf's law for the size distribution of cities and show that while the former holds well the latter is a poor descriptor of European cities. We conclude with scenarios for the size and properties of future pan-European megacities and their implications for the economic productivity, technological sophistication and regional inequalities of an integrated European urban system. PMID:26984190

  3. [Euthanasia outside Europe].

    PubMed

    Julesz, Máté

    2014-08-10

    The passive form of euthanasia is legalized almost in every civilized country. Its active form is not a generally accepted legal institution. In Europe, active euthanasia is legalized only in The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Switzerland. In Australia, the Act on the Rights of the Terminally Ill of 1995 legalized the institution of assisted suicide, which is not identical to active euthanasia. The difference lies in the fact that legalized active euthanasia means that the author of a murder is not punishable (under certain circumstances), whilst assisted suicide is not about murder, rather about suicide. In the first case, the patient is killed on his or her request by someone else. In the second case, the patient himself or herself executes the act of self-killing (by the assistance of a healthcare worker). In Australia, the institution of assisted suicide was repealed in 1997. Assisted suicide is legal in four USA member states: in Vermont, Washington, Montana and Oregon. In Uruguay, the active form of euthanasia has been legal since 1932.

  4. Urban scaling in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bettencourt, Luís M A; Lobo, José

    2016-03-01

    Over the last few decades, in disciplines as diverse as economics, geography and complex systems, a perspective has arisen proposing that many properties of cities are quantitatively predictable due to agglomeration or scaling effects. Using new harmonized definitions for functional urban areas, we examine to what extent these ideas apply to European cities. We show that while most large urban systems in Western Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK) approximately agree with theoretical expectations, the small number of cities in each nation and their natural variability preclude drawing strong conclusions. We demonstrate how this problem can be overcome so that cities from different urban systems can be pooled together to construct larger datasets. This leads to a simple statistical procedure to identify urban scaling relations, which then clearly emerge as a property of European cities. We compare the predictions of urban scaling to Zipf's law for the size distribution of cities and show that while the former holds well the latter is a poor descriptor of European cities. We conclude with scenarios for the size and properties of future pan-European megacities and their implications for the economic productivity, technological sophistication and regional inequalities of an integrated European urban system.

  5. Europe qualifies for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Valerie

    1992-05-01

    This study of national aerospace test centers was undertaken with a view to ensure that optimal use was made of the existing facilities and expertise in Europe. Three centers were identified: The CNES/INTERSPACE (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) center in Toulouse (France) the IABG (Industrieanlagen-Betriebsgesellschaft mbH) center in Munich (Germany), and the IAL Space Centre - now known as the CSL (Centre Spatial de'Universite de Liege) Test Centre at the University of Liege in Belgium. These three, together with the ESTEC (European Space Research and Technology Centre) at Noordwijk in the Netherlands, make up the European coordinated facilities available for use by the European Space Agency and its member states. ESTEC operates the Large Space Simulator (LSS) and the Large European Acoustic Facility. At ESTEC space simulation, dynamic testing, and electromagnetic testing are carried out. Similar tests are conducted at IABG and CNES/INTERSPACE. At CSL similar activities take place, but there is also a clean room.

  6. Inequality, Unemployment and Contemporary Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Amartya

    1997-01-01

    Unemployment has social costs such as psychological harm, social exclusion, family breakdown, and loss of political voice. It can exacerbate inequality and technological conservatism. Reducing unemployment would contribute to solving many of Europe's social ills. (SK)

  7. Optical Data Processing in Europe,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-31

    PROCESSING IN EUROPE4 _____________ 6PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTIKOR(eJ G. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(&) /7David/)Casasent 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION ...government organizations , indus tries and other universities in France and elsewhere in Europe. This re- port is a sumnary of Gessy research activities and...Neuherbert). Waldelich organizes most German laser conferences. His research is in radiology and pattern recognition in medicine. (f) Prof. Olaf

  8. JPRS Report, Science & Technology Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    in the last few months of the capability of the aeronautics industry in Eastern Europe? Dr. Riedl: In Poland and Czechoslovakia there is a very...chassis, which was supplied by the Planetary Mobile Robotics Institute in St. Petersburg, has six independent wheels and holds a variety of instruments...quality precision (grinding, sharpening, turning, gear cutting, non-cutting shaping, precision JPRS-EST-92-026 24 August 1992 WEST EUROPE 41

  9. Europe plans quantum technology flagship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The European Commission (EC) looks set to fund a €1bn flagship programme in quantum technologies starting in 2018. Similar to the EC's 10-year €1bn graphene flagship that began in 2013, the project was initiated by a group of researchers from across Europe in a “quantum manifesto” that was published in March and presented at the Quantum Europe 2016 conference in Amsterdam last month.

  10. Headache yesterday in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Surveys enquiring about burden of headache over a prior period of time (eg, 3 months) are subject to recall bias. To eliminate this as far as possible, we focused on presence and impact of headache on the preceding day (“headache yesterday”). Methods Adults (18-65 years) were surveyed from the general populations of Germany, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, from a work-force population in Spain and from mostly non-headache patient populations of Austria, France and UK. A study of non-responders in some countries allowed detection of potential participation bias where initial participation rates were low. Results Participation rates varied between 11% and 59% (mean 27%). Non-responder studies suggested that, because of participation bias, headache prevalence might be overestimated in initial responders by up to 2% (absolute). Across all countries, 1,422 of 8,271 participants (15-17%, depending on correction for participation bias) had headache yesterday lasting on average for 6 hours. It was bad or very bad in 56% of cases and caused absence from work or school in 6%. Among those who worked despite headache, 20% reported productivity reduced by >50%. Social activities were lost by 24%. Women (21%) were more likely than men (12%) to have headache yesterday, but impact was similar in the two genders. Conclusions With recall biases avoided, our findings indicate that headache costs at least 0.7% of working capacity in Europe. This calculation takes into account that most of those who missed work could make up for this later, which, however, means that leisure and social activities are even more influenced by headache. PMID:24884765

  11. Centenarians in Europe.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Laetitia; Araújo, Lia; Jopp, Daniela; Ribeiro, Oscar

    2017-10-01

    The group of individuals aged 80 and over is growing faster than other segments of the population, and within this group the number of centenarians has risen exponentially worldwide. This paper reports the numbers of centenarians (total, and ratio relative to total population) in 32 European countries and their key characteristics: gender distribution, level of education, and type of residence. Population based study. We used national census data collected in 2011 for individuals aged 100 and over living in Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK. Data on gender, residence and education were used. The total number of centenarians was 89156, corresponding to 17.3 centenarians per 100000 inhabitants of the total population and 98.0 centenarians per 100000 individuals aged 65 and older. Centenarian ratios were highest in France, Italy and Greece, and lowest in Bulgaria, Romania, and Croatia. The percentage of men was 16.5% on average, and ranged from around 13% (Germany, Latvia, Belgium) to 37% (Hungary). Across Europe, 62.7% of the centenarians lived in private households, with a range from 10.9% (Iceland) to 90.0% (Romania). Education levels varied across countries, with an average of 13.6% having no formal education, ranging from 0.0% (the UK, Finland, Iceland) to 61.6% (Portugal). Centenarian numbers have increased substantially since last available data. The findings will inform specific health promotion policies, the strengthening of current services and the development of innovative care systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. "europe Towards the Stars"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-06-01

    YOUNG EUROPEANS AND THEIR TEACHERS TO OBSERVE WITH SUPER-TELESCOPE With the above title, and following the very successful events of the past two years [1], ESO again organises an "educational adventure" in 1995. It takes place within the framework of the "Third European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture", initiated and supported by the European Commission. This time ESO will invite about fifty 17-18 year old grammar school pupils with their teachers to try their skills at one of the world's most advanced astronomical telescopes. The young people are the winners of a Europe-wide astronomy contest that will take place during the summer and early autumn. The main event involves a free, week-long stay at the Headquarters of the European Southern Observatory in November this year. During this time, the participants will experience modern astronomy and astrophysics at one of the world's foremost international centres and also have the opportunity to perform remote observations via a satellite link with two telescopes at the ESO La Silla observatory in Chile. THE CONTEST This year's programme will begin with national competitions in sixteen European countries. It is devised as a contest between joint teams of pupils and teachers. Each team is expected to consist of (up to) three pupils and their teacher. They can choose between four different subjects requiring either practical or theoretical work. Each subject has a strong scientific and technological component. Here are short descriptions: At the telescope - Catching and interpreting the signals. "You observe with an existing telescope and instrument of your own choice. In your observational report you describe the scientific goal, the capability of your equipment, the execution of the observation. You discuss the observational data including an error analysis, and describe the conclusions." Technology for Science - Building an Instrument. "You build an astronomical instrument (e.g. a photometer or a

  13. Where Europe meets Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Data from a portion of the imagery acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera during 2000-2002 were combined to create this cloud-free natural-color mosaic of southwestern Europe and northwestern Morocco and Algeria. The image extends from 48oN, 16oW in the northwest to 32oN, 8oE in the southeast. It is displayed in Albers conic equal-area projection (a projection which is frequently used for equal-area maps of regions that are predominantly east-west in extent).

    From the northeast, the image traverses a portion of the Swiss Alps (partially snow-covered) and a small part of Italy's Po Valley. The northern portion of the image also includes the western coast of France and much of southern and southwestern France's undulating terrain, which continues until reaching the hills of the Pyrenees. The Pyrenees act as the natural frontier to the Iberian Peninsula -- a landmass comprised of Spain and Portugal. The Peninsular landscapes are extremely varied, with some almost desert-like, others green and fertile. About half of Spain is situated atop a high plain, known as the Central Plateau, and many mountain ranges, rivers, geological basement rock and vegetation types are found across this great plateau. The largest alluvial plain is Andalusia in the south, where the valley of the Guadalquivir River is shut in by mountain ranges on every side except the southwest, where the valley descends to the Atlantic. The islands of Mallorca, Menorca and Ibiza are Spanish territories in the western Mediterranean. At the Strait of Gibralter, Spain and Morocco very nearly kiss, and Morocco appears relatively verdant along its northern coastal corner. The rugged Atlas Mountain ranges traverse northern Algeria and Morocco.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. This data

  14. Rainfall erosivity in Europe.

    PubMed

    Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Borrelli, Pasquale; Meusburger, Katrin; Klik, Andreas; Rousseva, Svetla; Tadić, Melita Perčec; Michaelides, Silas; Hrabalíková, Michaela; Olsen, Preben; Aalto, Juha; Lakatos, Mónika; Rymszewicz, Anna; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Beguería, Santiago; Alewell, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Rainfall is one the main drivers of soil erosion. The erosive force of rainfall is expressed as rainfall erosivity. Rainfall erosivity considers the rainfall amount and intensity, and is most commonly expressed as the R-factor in the USLE model and its revised version, RUSLE. At national and continental levels, the scarce availability of data obliges soil erosion modellers to estimate this factor based on rainfall data with only low temporal resolution (daily, monthly, annual averages). The purpose of this study is to assess rainfall erosivity in Europe in the form of the RUSLE R-factor, based on the best available datasets. Data have been collected from 1541 precipitation stations in all European Union (EU) Member States and Switzerland, with temporal resolutions of 5 to 60 min. The R-factor values calculated from precipitation data of different temporal resolutions were normalised to R-factor values with temporal resolutions of 30 min using linear regression functions. Precipitation time series ranged from a minimum of 5 years to a maximum of 40 years. The average time series per precipitation station is around 17.1 years, the most datasets including the first decade of the 21st century. Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) has been used to interpolate the R-factor station values to a European rainfall erosivity map at 1 km resolution. The covariates used for the R-factor interpolation were climatic data (total precipitation, seasonal precipitation, precipitation of driest/wettest months, average temperature), elevation and latitude/longitude. The mean R-factor for the EU plus Switzerland is 722 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) yr(-1), with the highest values (>1000 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) yr(-1)) in the Mediterranean and alpine regions and the lowest (<500 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) yr(-1)) in the Nordic countries. The erosivity density (erosivity normalised to annual precipitation amounts) was also the highest in Mediterranean regions which implies high risk for erosive events and floods

  15. Training in psychiatry throughout Europe.

    PubMed

    Brittlebank, Andrew; Hermans, Marc; Bhugra, Dinesh; Pinto da Costa, Mariana; Rojnic-Kuzman, Martina; Fiorillo, Andrea; Kurimay, Tamas; Hanon, Cecile; Wasserman, Danuta; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2016-03-01

    Psychiatry is the largest medical specialty in Europe. Despite efforts to bring harmonisation, training in psychiatry in Europe continues to be very diverse. The Union Européenne des Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) has issued as from 2000 a charter of requirements for the training in psychiatry with an additional European Framework for Competencies in Psychiatry in 2009. Yet these have not been implemented throughout Europe. In this paper, the diversity in training throughout Europe is approached from different angles: the cultural differences between countries with regards to how mental health care is considered and founded on, the cultural differences between people throughout Europe in all states. The position of psychotherapy is emphasised. What once was the cornerstone of psychiatry as medical specialty seems to have become a neglected area. Seeing the patient with mental health problems within his cultural context is important, but considering him within his family context. The purpose of any training is enabling the trainee to gain the knowledge and acquire the competencies necessary to become a well-equipped professional is the subject of the last paragraph in which trainees consider their position and early career psychiatrists look back to see whether what they were trained in matches with what they need in the working situation. Common standard for training and certification are a necessity within Europe, for the benefit of the profession of psychiatrist but also for patient safety. UEMS is advised to join forces with the Council of National Psychiatric Associations (NPAs) within the EPA and trainings and early career psychiatrist, to discuss with the users what standards should be implemented in all European countries and how a European board examination could ensure professional quality of psychiatrists throughout the continent.

  16. Rabies in Europe in 2005.

    PubMed

    Bourhy, H; Dacheux, L; Strady, C; Mailles, A

    2005-11-01

    Rabies is still present in Europe in 2005. Its incidence in humans remains limited (fewer than 5 human cases per year) through the application of strict prophylactic measures (anti-rabies treatment) and by means of veterinary rabies control measures in the domesticated and wild animal populations. The main indigenous animal reservoirs are: the dog in eastern European countries and on the borders with the Middle East; the fox in central and eastern Europe; the racoon dog in northeastern Europe; and the insectivorous bat throughout the entire territory. Finally, each year, cases of animals with rabies imported from enzootic areas are reported, showing the permeability of borders and traveller's lack of consideration of the rabies risk. These importations constantly threaten the rabies-free status of terrestrial animals in western European countries and complicate the therapeutic decisions taken by physicians in the absence of information regarding the biting animal.

  17. Status of floriculture in Europe.

    PubMed

    Van Huylenbroeck, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Europe is traditionally the largest producer of floricultural products in the world with an estimated production value of over 12 billion euro in 2006. The Netherlands, Italy, Germany, Spain, United Kingdom and France are the main centres of production. More recently, a significant growth in production area was observed in Poland also. The Dutch auctions remain the world's largest trading system for flowers and plants. Looking at the intra-European trade, Belgium and Denmark are also major exporting countries. The consumption of floricultural products increased strongly within Europe during the last years. Especially, Eastern Europe has a big potential as a new market. In these countries, the demand for ornamentals will increase due to the rise of income and the level of prosperity. In spite of the positive developments in consumption and production, increasing energy costs, growing environmental concern and globalisation of production, trade and markets will form the major challenges European floricultural industry has to deal with in the near future.

  18. HTR Fuel Development in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Languille, Alain; Conrad, R.; Haas, D.

    2002-07-01

    In the frame of the European Network HTR-TN and in the 5. EURATOM RTD Framework Programme (FP5) European programmes have been launched to consolidate advanced modular HTR technology in Europe. This paper gives an overall description and first results of this programme. The major tasks covered concern a complete recovery of the past experience on fuel irradiation behaviour in Europe, qualification of HTR fuel by irradiating of fuel elements in the HFR reactor, understanding of fuel behaviour with the development of a fuel particle code and finally a recover of the fuel fabrication capability. (authors)

  19. Northwest Europe`s operators show creativity in new developments

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, D.

    1997-08-25

    Northwest Europe`s offshore operators have boosted their oil and gas production dramatically in recent years, and while the area is now mature, a steady stream of developments continues. In the boom days of the late 1970s and 1980s, a typical North Sea installation was a large platform, which occasionally a new pipeline or, more commonly, a tie-in to the area`s massive export grids. These days, now that technical developments have enabled operators to justify developments of smaller, once uneconomic, discoveries, it is pointless to talk of a typical offshore development. Northwest Europe`s offshore operators have learned that it is worthwhile to rack their brains for the most economic development concepts. This creativity is reflected in recent development plans. While operators are now snatching up the small accumulations in and around the mature North Sea producing fields, they are also seeking develop frontier regions. The paper discusses development activities in UK, Ireland, Denmark and Greenland, and Norway in gas, oil, and gas condensate deposits.

  20. Europe: Vers La Societe Cognitive (Europe: Towards a Cognitive Society).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivieri, Claude

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the idea behind the European Community's recently published white paper on education and teaching, titled "To Teach and to Learn--Towards a Cognitive Society." The paper declares that Europe is undergoing a transition to a new type of society, describes the issues at stake, and proposes steps to encourage member States to…

  1. Shakeout gathers momentum in Europe`s refining sector

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, D.

    1996-03-25

    This paper reviews the decline and restructuring of the petroleum refining industry in Europe which is facing increased competition from foreign operators and more stringent environmental compliance laws. The excess production capacity has forced mergers between companies and consolidation of plants. The paper reviews the production and capacity of each of the major European petroleum producing countries.

  2. JPRS Report Science & Technology, Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-22

    which are isolated from each other. JPRS-EST-91-017 22 August 1991 WEST EUROPE 41 IZnllt (1) Digitale * SOG-Array (2) Analoges ’//?. HF...SSGRR Alcatel-Face Standard, Sistema , Telettra Network-related problem areas Feasibility study of an ATM system via satellite Participants

  3. Central Statistical Libraries in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Lisa

    The paper tries to clarify the position special governmental libraries hold in the system of libraries of today by investigating only one specific type of library mainly from a formal and historical point of view. Central statistical libraries in Europe were first regarded as administrative and archival libraries. Their early holdings of foreign…

  4. The nuclear confrontation in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Boutwell, J.D.; Doty, P.; Treverton, G.F.

    1985-01-01

    Focusing on the debate over theatre nuclear forces in Europe, this volume, produced at Harvard's Center for Science and International Affairs, discusses the background events of the 1950s and 1960s; the military logic and political purpose of the weapons; the role of British, French and Soviet forces; and the arms control issues all these raise for the INF negotiations.

  5. Fortress Europe: Policy and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Paul

    1991-01-01

    A new wave of racism in Europe is influenced by (1) rising nationalist sentiment; (2) government policies restricting immigration and asylum; (3) the transnational policies of the European Community; and (4) the politics and social change of the "new world disorder." (SK)

  6. Remaking Education in Western Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This article makes a contribution to discussion on the neo-liberal reshaping of education in Western Europe. It argues for a greater attentiveness on the part of education researchers to collective social actors such as trade unions and social movements. Making use of concepts from Gramsci and from Poulantzas, it suggests that such actors had a…

  7. The Inclusive Education in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzano-García, Beatriz; Fernández, María Tomé

    2016-01-01

    One of the phenomena that is of most concern to educational policy in Europe is immigration due to the fact that this is the source of new educational needs. This research looks at how European educational legislation deals with this topic. For this intercultural values that make inclusive education will be evaluated, we will analyze intercultural…

  8. Remaking Education in Western Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This article makes a contribution to discussion on the neo-liberal reshaping of education in Western Europe. It argues for a greater attentiveness on the part of education researchers to collective social actors such as trade unions and social movements. Making use of concepts from Gramsci and from Poulantzas, it suggests that such actors had a…

  9. Social Welfare in Rural Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shucksmith, Mark; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Literature review on social exclusion and disadvantage in rural Europe suggests that rural poverty arises from unemployment, low wages, and, most significantly, inadequate income in old age. Discusses difficulties in identifying rural incidence of exclusion and disadvantage, as well as the need for such research in light of major ongoing social…

  10. Proceedings of Offshore Europe 91

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    All papers in this volume were presented at Offshore Europe held in Aberdeen, Scotland, September 3--6, 1991. Included are the following papers: Low-damage-fluid-loss control for well completions; Isolation techniques for subsea gas pipelines; New water injection technology.

  11. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social…

  12. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social…

  13. The New Faces of Europe. Secondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foucher, Michel

    This monograph, published as part of the project "A Secondary Education for Europe," offers some basic data on the contemporary human geography of the European continent, with a focus on central and eastern Europe. The document first describes civic issues in the teaching of geography and cartography of the new Europe. The basic…

  14. Nervousness in Europe's fusion labs

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, D.

    1984-11-02

    Europe's fusion research program is a successful example of international scientific and political collaboration, but a debate over the optimum strategy for fusion research bears many of the characteristics of the current US debate over budget priorities. At $560 million for the 1985-89 period, fusion is currently the largest single item in the European Economic Community Commission's proposed budget. A commitment to the full experimental exploitation of the Joint European Torus (JET) and support to research at laboratories run by national nuclear research organizations throughout Europe which are linked to the Euratom fusion program will retain their top priority. Cuts are likely to occur in the Next European Torus (NET) program. Member countries disagree on the importance of sticking to the original research timetable.

  15. Tobacco control efforts in Europe.

    PubMed

    Britton, John; Bogdanovica, Ilze

    2013-05-04

    Smoking is prevalent across Europe, but the severity and stage of the smoking epidemic, and policy responses to it, vary substantially between countries. Much progress is now being made in prohibition of paid-for advertising and in promotion of smoke-free policies, but mass media campaigns are widely underused, provision of services for smokers trying to quit is generally poor, and price policies are undermined by licit and illicit cheap supplies. Monitoring of prevalence is inadequate in many countries, as is investment in research and capacity to address this largest avoidable cause of death and disability across Europe. However, grounds for optimism are provided by progress in implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and in the development of a new generation of nicotine-containing devices that could enable more widespread adoption of harm-reduction strategies. The effect of commercial vested interests has been and remains a major barrier to progress.

  16. [Japanese encephalitis in Southern Europe].

    PubMed

    Cleton, Natalie; Koopmans, Marion; Braks, Marieta; Van Maanen, Kees; Reusken, Chantal

    2014-07-01

    In 2012, a fragment of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genome was isolated from a pool of Culex pipiens mosquitoes caught in 2010 and 2011 in Northern Italy. JEV has a broad geographical distribution in South and Southeast Asia and Oceania, and is the most important cause of viral encephalitis in Asia in humans and also causes encephalitis in horses and fertility problems in pigs. However, recently isolated JEV genome fragments in mosquitoes in Italy could be an indication of repeated introduction of JEV, enzootic circulation of JEV or a related virus in Southern Europe. Until more information is available, Japanese encephalitis remains a travel-related infectious disease for travellers to JEV endemic and epidemic areas outside of Europe.

  17. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-30

    established under the programme. The others work with plastic composites, powder metallurgy, ceramics, electroplating and surface reactivity. WEST EUROPE...such as copper -based alloys." Potential Markets Include Automobile Industry Copper -based alloys, representing the second generation of these...kg for wire or medium strip). " Copper -zinc-aluminum alloys can be worked on the same transformation lines as brasses," according to the research

  18. A Physics Teacher in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickell, Duane S.

    2003-02-01

    Last summer, I had the good fortune of winning a fellowship to take a scientific tour of Europe.1 My goal was to learn more about the people whose work I have studied and taught throughout my professional career - scientists like Galileo, Newton, and Einstein, whose work has revealed the beauty, grandeur, and comprehensibility of the universe. Below, I list and describe some of the highlights of my trip. The four cities listed are among those commonly visited by tourists.

  19. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-13

    conversion stage , two analog YUV outputs are available. One is a MAC output which can, for example, be linked to a PAL [Phase Alternation JPRS-EST-91...ENVIRONMENT Germany: Riesenhuber on Renewable Energy Research [D. Goerke; Berlin ING DIGEST , Oct 91] 18 JPRS-EST-91-024 13 December 1991 2 Europe Soil...Bloos; Duesseldorf HANDELSBLATT, 9 Oct 91] 37 Germany: GSI’s Basic, Applied Heavy Ion Research Described [G. Ludvik; Berlin ING DIGEST , Sep 91

  20. Europe Report, Science and Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    INDUSTRY Renault of France Needs Fr 4 Billion for Subsidiary Bailout 11 Renault Chief Besse Talks About Strategy for Change 13 Briefs Fiat -Matra Auto...to promote the industrial development of advanced composites. The principal founding companies include: Dow Chemical , Toray, Hysol Graphil, BASF...JPRS*EST*86*038 8 December 1986 WEST EUROPE/AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY BRIEFS FIAT -MATRA AUTO VENTURE— Fiat has just announced the signing of an

  1. Europe Report, Science and Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    FRG), Absy (B) Materials Sodern (Fr), 5 100 50 50% Automatic neutron - Dornier (FRG), diffraction device Sener (Sp) (metallic parts control). Pechiney...Participants Foreign Participants Objectives Pechiney VAW (FRG) New materials and assembly techniques for transport . Computers Bull, Inria, Siemens, Atlas...Buizen (Neth) (umbilical and energy- transport structures). 9294/12245 CSO: 3698/408 5 JPRS-EST- 8 6 - 0 0 5 29 May 1.986 WEST EUROPE/SCIENTIFIC AND

  2. Europe Report, Science and Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of i.Vorenesh model pressurized water reactors . When the radio- active clouds from Chernobyl were still floating over Europe, socialist nuclear ...construction of a second Polish nuclear power plant. In 1995 the first of a total of four 1,000-MW light water reactors is supposed to start operation... nuclear sources. Last year the five 440-MW reactors in the country generated 14.6 percent of the electricity, this amount is supposed to be almost double

  3. JPRS Report, Science & Technology: Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-06

    JUNE 1988 WEST EUROPE ADVANCED MATERIALS Italy’s Agusta To Develop Advanced Composites With Enichem [RASSEGNA PETROL1FERA, 1 Feb 88] 1 French...CNRS Discovers Metal Cation Absorbing Plastic [SCIENCES & AVENIR, Feb 88] 1 ICI of UK Develops New Polyester Film for Optical Data Storage AEROSPACE...HANDELSBLATT, 18-19 Mar 88] 24 Philips Develops Semiconductor Laser for Optical Disks [HANDELSBLATT, 16 Mar 88] 25 MICROELECTRONICS Italy: CNR Project

  4. Bat rabies surveillance in Europe.

    PubMed

    Schatz, J; Fooks, A R; McElhinney, L; Horton, D; Echevarria, J; Vázquez-Moron, S; Kooi, E A; Rasmussen, T B; Müller, T; Freuling, C M

    2013-02-01

    Rabies is the oldest known zoonotic disease and was also the first recognized bat associated infection in humans. To date, four different lyssavirus species are the causative agents of rabies in European bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2), the recently discovered putative new lyssavirus species Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV) and the West Caucasian Bat Virus (WCBV). Unlike in the new world, bat rabies cases in Europe are comparatively less frequent, possibly as a result of varying intensity of surveillance. Thus, the objective was to provide an assessment of the bat rabies surveillance data in Europe, taking both reported data to the WHO Rabies Bulletin Europe and published results into account. In Europe, 959 bat rabies cases were reported to the RBE in the time period 1977-2010 with the vast majority characterized as EBLV-1, frequently isolated in the Netherlands, North Germany, Denmark, Poland and also in parts of France and Spain. Most EBLV-2 isolates originated from the United Kingdom (UK) and the Netherlands, and EBLV-2 was also detected in Germany, Finland and Switzerland. Thus far, only one isolate of BBLV was found in Germany. Published passive bat rabies surveillance comprised testing of 28 of the 52 different European bat species for rabies. EBLV-1 was isolated exclusively from Serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus and Eptesicus isabellinus), while EBLV-2 was detected in 14 Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii) and 5 Pond bats (Myotis dasycneme). A virus from a single Natterer's bat (Myotis nattereri) was characterized as BBLV. During active surveillance, only oral swabs from 2 Daubenton's bats (EBLV-2) and from several Eptesicus bats (EBLV-1) yielded virus positive RNA. Virus neutralizing antibodies against lyssaviruses were detected in various European bat species from different countries, and its value and implications are discussed.

  5. PIXE pollution studies across Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Innegraeve, O.; Blanchet, X.; Muntele, C. I.; Muntele, I. C.; Zimmerman, R. L.; Popa-Simil, L.; Voiculescu, D.; Racolta, P. M.; Ila, D.

    2002-01-01

    We collected vegetation and soil samples from various locations along a route covering Eastern and Western Europe. We measured the level of elemental pollution in different places uniformly spread across the continent to determine which of them may have common sources. To achieve these objectives, samples were collected along the main roads from Romania to Portugal and analyzed using in-air PEE (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission).

  6. Eastern Europe: Please stand by

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougan, D. L.; Hoagland, J.; Koehler, J.; Marshall, T.; Sekulow, E.

    1990-05-01

    The objectives of the Task Force on Telecommunications and Broadcasting in Eastern Europe are: (1) to assess and evaluate the current infrastructure, policies, and plans for telecommunications and broadcasting; (2) to make recommendations to the Department of State for short and long-term U.S. private sector involvement and initiatives; and (3) to share with key host country leaders perspectives and expertise of senior U.S. corporate leaders on potential opportunities and obstacles of telecommunications and broadcasting in economic development.

  7. Europe's last chance to restructure

    SciTech Connect

    Tattum, L.

    1992-12-23

    Looking back over the year, there has been remarkably little sign of restructuring in the chemical industry in view of the current financial crisis in most companies. But the apparent paralysis in terms of plant closures or ownership changes may be disguising much behind-the-scenes activity. But the pain threshold of companies is proving surprisingly high. Looking at ethylene plants, Shell's Peter Kwant notes that almost half the steam crackers operating in Europe are 20 years old or more. They amount to one-third of capacity, or twice current underutilization. No steps have been taken to close any unit. Meanwhile, five producers collectively will have introduced 2 million m.t./year of extra ethylene capacity between 1991 and 1994. One factor hampering closure is that 40% of ethylene capacity in Europe is at isolated sites not connected to either the Benelux/Germany ARG pipeline or a local network such as those in the UK or France. BP Chemicals chief Bryan Sanderson raised that point at a recent Wertheim Schroder/Chemical Week/Chem Systems conference in New York, arguing that steep price falls occur in times of demand slump because of the inelastic supply curve for monster chemical plants. The industry could manage cycles better, he suggests, if rather than closing its incremental capacity, small, flexible plants were available to open and close as demand warrants, thus flattening the supply curve. In addition, following the US example - where 90% of ethylene capacity is connected to pipeline system should be available in Europe, giving companies greater flexibility to take plants on- and offline. The latter solution, of course, would not work for Europe's 18 loss-making polyethylene (PE) producers, and here straight closures or merging of businesses are the only solution.

  8. JPRS Report Science & Technology Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-22

    DIE WIRTSCHAFT, 13 Jul 92] 34 Siemens Power Engineering, British Nuclear Fuels To Collaborate on Mixed-Oxide Fuel Element Plant [Bonn DIE WELT...NACHRICHTEN, 26 Jun 92] 36 German Institute Develops Alternative to Diesel Engine [Bernd Genath; Duesseldorf HANDELSBLATT, 23 Jul 92] 37 Siemens ...21 Jul 92] ••••••••• •• 66 JPRS-EST-92-031 22 October 1992 4 Europe TELECOMMUNICATIONS Siemens Subsidiary To Increase Glass Fiber Cable

  9. Military Spending in Eastern Europe,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    on defense (the sums are less than the corresponding expenditures by the republics) or whether they involve military spending above and beyond that...certain military expenditures on personnel are included in budgetary categories other than defense spending . Transportation of soldiers to their first... expenditures and forces and military spending decisions in Eastern Europe. iii L SUMMARY Although the Soviet Union is the most threatening potential

  10. How Europe regulates its genes

    SciTech Connect

    Balter, M.

    1991-06-07

    As Europe moves toward unification in 1992, more than two dozen regulations and directives that will affect biotech are working their way through the complex European legislative system. The result could mean tough scrutiny for genetically engineered products. One reason is that the European Community (EC) has chosen to examine genetically engineered products as a special category - an approach the FDA has rejected. Another is that the EC is considering enacting regulations that would mandate consideration of the socioeconomic effects of biotech products in addition to their safety. In addition, some - particularly in industry - fear a nightmare of overlapping and contradictory regulations. It's too soon to tell how well the European system will work, or how stifling the regulations might be. In all likelihood the regulations emerging in Europe won't be demonstrably superior - or inferior - to the American ones, just different, with different strengths and weaknesses. But since many US biotech companies are looking to the huge market that a unified Europe represents, the specifics of those strengths and weaknesses will ultimately be of more than passing interest.

  11. Allergology in Europe, the blueprint.

    PubMed

    de Monchy, J G; Demoly, P; Akdis, C A; Cardona, V; Papadopoulos, N G; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Gayraud, J

    2013-10-01

    The number of patients with allergic diseases in Europe, and thus relevant demand for health care, is continuously increasing. In this EAACI-UEMS position paper, a rationale is given for the medical specialty of allergology. General practitioners and general paediatricians usually cannot elucidate and address all causative factors. Throughout Europe, therefore, the expertise of allergologists (allergists) is required. In collaboration with other medical professionals, they take care of allergic patients, in private practices or in specialized public centres. A well-structured collaboration between allergists and allergy centres offers the possibility of rapid signalling of new trends developing in the population of allergic patients (e.g., in food and drug allergy). Allergy centres also can perform clinical (and basic) research, teach medical students, future allergists and provide postgraduate training. To prevent that the quality of care in one or several countries within Europe lags behind developments in other countries, the UEMS Section and Board on Allergology together with the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology advocates the status of a full specialty of allergology in each European country, with a further intention to align their activities (blueprint, curriculum and centre visitation) with the UEMS Section of Paediatrics.

  12. In situ bioremediation in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Porta, A.; Young, J.K.; Molton, P.M.

    1993-06-01

    Site remediation activity in Europe is increasing, even if not at the forced pace of the US. Although there is a better understanding of the benefits of bioremediation than of other approaches, especially about in situ bioremediation of contaminated soils, relatively few projects have been carried out full-scale in Europe or in the US. Some engineering companies and large industrial companies in Europe are investigating bioremediation and biotreatment technologies, in some cases to solve their internal waste problems. Technologies related to the application of microorganisms to the soil, release of nutrients into the soil, and enhancement of microbial decontamination are being tested through various additives such as surfactants, ion exchange resins, limestone, or dolomite. New equipment has been developed for crushing and mixing or injecting and sparging the microorganisms, as have new reactor technologies (e.g., rotating aerator reactors, biometal sludge reactors, and special mobile containers for simultaneous storage, transportation, and biodegradation of contaminated soil). Some work has also been done with immobilized enzymes to support and restore enzymatic activities related to partial or total xenobiotic decontamination. Finally, some major programs funded by public and private institutions confirm that increasing numbers of firms have a working interest in bioremediation.

  13. Transgender Sterilisation Requirements in Europe.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Peter

    2017-06-01

    The possibility of individuals procreating post-transition has long stalked debates on transgender rights. In 1972, Sweden became the first European jurisdiction to formally acknowledge preferred gender. Under the original Swedish law, applicants for gender recognition were explicitly required to prove an incapacity to reproduce-either through natural infertility or through a positive act of sterilisation. Across the Council of Europe, 20 countries continue to enforce a sterilisation requirement. When considering reforms to their current gender recognition rules as recently as 2015, the Polish executive and the Finnish legislature both rejected proposals to remove mandatory infertility provisions. This article critiques the rationales for transgender sterilisation in Europe. It places transgender reproduction, and non-traditional procreation, in the wider context of European equality and family law. Adopting a highly inter-disciplinary framework, the article explores legal, social, medical, and moral arguments in favour of sterilisation, and exposes the weak intellectual and evidential basis for the current national laws. The article ultimately proposes a new departure for Europe's attitude towards transgender parenting, and argues that sterilisation should not be a pre-condition for legal recognition. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Coffé, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-05-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social Survey data. We investigate mean levels of civic mindedness in these countries and perform regression analyses to investigate whether factors traditionally associated with civic and political participation are also correlated with citizenship norms across Eastern Europe. We show that mean levels of civic mindedness differ significantly across the four Eastern European countries. We find some support for theories on civic and political participation when explaining norms of citizenship, but also demonstrate that individual-level characteristics are differently related to citizenship norms across the countries of our study. Hence, our findings show that Eastern Europe is not a monolithic and homogeneous bloc, underscoring the importance of taking the specificities of countries into account.

  15. Turning Europe"s innovation dream into a working reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tindemans, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Opened in 1865 after the American Civil War, the world renowned Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) aimed to provide a flow of ideas from academic research to industry in response to increasing industrialization in the US. Since then, more than 71 Nobel laureates have passed through MIT's doors and it now has a budget of 2.2bn per year that is spent on teaching, knowledge creation and technological innovation. Given its success, it is no wonder then that Europe has plans to replicate the MIT model and create a similar European institute of its own.

  16. Workplace drug testing in Europe.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, A G; Pierce, A

    2001-09-15

    Not much information is available on workplace drug testing (WDT) in Europe. There is no specific legislation and there are no generally accepted guidelines. Many companies establish a drug policy with little or no provisions for drug testing. Often, testing is performed on-site by occupational physicians, with little or no quality control, no systematic confirmation of positives, no chain of custody and no adulteration testing. In some parts of Europe, e.g. in the United Kingdom and some Scandinavian countries, WDT is increasing in importance, but it is not as widespread as in USA. The most frequently performed tests are amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opiates and alcohol. The percentage of positives is variable, but seems to decrease with the years following the introduction of WDT. Cannabis is the drug that is most frequently found.Recently, the European Workplace Drug Testing Society (EWDTS) was founded, with the aims to ensure that WDT in Europe is performed to a defined quality standard and in a legally secured way and to provide an independent forum for all aspects of WDT.A working group in the United Kingdom has recently finalised the United Kingdom laboratory guidelines for legally defensible WDT and discussions are under way with the EWDTS to establish common guidelines. Many efforts will be needed to establish WDT as an accepted part of a company policy on drugs: establishing and maintaining the confidence in the results of the laboratory, establishing the legal status of WDT, preserving the privacy and rights of the employees, proving the cost-effectiveness of WDT in a European context, finding a balance between strict guidelines and enough flexibility to tailor testing to the changing needs. It is hoped that the exchange of experience between different countries will contribute to reaching these goals.

  17. Oceanic warming of western Europe

    PubMed Central

    Stommel, Henry

    1979-01-01

    In the northern North Atlantic off Europe, deep convection flushes buoyancy and heat out of the upper ocean each winter. It is replaced by horizontal advection during the remainder of the year. Absolute geostrophic currents can be computed from an application of the heat conservation equation. A remarkable spiral with depth emerges as a key feature in the process. The computed field of flow appears to be consistent with several buoyancy and heat flux requirements, with the independent physical information of locally vanishing curl of the wind-stress, and with its implications through the Sverdrup relation. PMID:16592662

  18. Vegetation fire proneness in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Mário; Aranha, José; Amraoui, Malik

    2015-04-01

    Fire selectivity has been studied for vegetation classes in terms of fire frequency and fire size in a few European regions. This analysis is often performed along with other landscape variables such as topography, distance to roads and towns. These studies aims to assess the landscape sensitivity to forest fires in peri-urban areas and land cover changes, to define landscape management guidelines and policies based on the relationships between landscape and fires in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the objectives of this study includes the: (i) analysis of the spatial and temporal variability statistics within Europe; and, (ii) the identification and characterization of the vegetated land cover classes affected by fires; and, (iii) to propose a fire proneness index. The datasets used in the present study comprises: Corine Land Cover (CLC) maps for 2000 and 2006 (CLC2000, CLC2006) and burned area (BA) perimeters, from 2000 to 2013 in Europe, provided by the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS). The CLC is a part of the European Commission programme to COoRdinate INformation on the Environment (Corine) and it provides consistent, reliable and comparable information on land cover across Europe. Both the CLC and EFFIS datasets were combined using geostatistics and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques to access the spatial and temporal evolution of the types of shrubs and forest affected by fires. Obtained results confirms the usefulness and efficiency of the land cover classification scheme and fire proneness index which allows to quantify and to compare the propensity of vegetation classes and countries to fire. As expected, differences between northern and southern Europe are notorious in what concern to land cover distribution, fire incidence and fire proneness of vegetation cover classes. This work was supported by national funds by FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, under the project PEst-OE/AGR/UI4033/2014 and by

  19. Europe's youth: are they all alike?

    PubMed

    Kapor-stanulovic, N

    1991-04-01

    Adolescents in Europe are viewed in terms of similarities and differences. As adolescents, they all go through emotional and physical changes, suffer identity crises, fight for independence and recognition as adults, and are hurt by double standards. Accidents, suicide, and other causes contribute 50% to teenage death, but as much as 70% in Switzerland and Austria. Compared with less developed countries, the European youth population, 10-24 years, is lower and comprises 20% of the total population. The world population is 30% young adolescent and adults. Only 2% may die before the age of 20. Teenage birth rates vary from 3% in Europe to 2% in Western and Northern Europe and 5% in Eastern Europe with 8% in Bulgaria. 5% of European girls marry between 15-19; Northern and Western European girls 2%, Southern Europe 7%, and Eastern Europe 10%. 85% of teenagers are enrolled in secondary schools (83% men and 86% women), whereas developing countries enroll only 35-45%. Western Europe has enrollments of 92% for males and 83% for females, while Eastern Europe is low at 69% for males and 74% for females. Labor force participation is 45% for males and 36% for females 15-19 years. Northern Europeans employ 54% of males and 47% of females. Eastern Europeans employ only 39-40%, Western Europe 40%, and Southern Europe 37%. Eastern European youth are less well off based on education, employment, teenage pregnancy, and marriage. Life styles and sexuality- related problems vary between countries, although all countries confront the health problems of the young --- smoking, alcohol and drug abuse, and unprotected sex with unwanted pregnancies, STDs, and HIV/AIDS. Nordic smokers, particularly girls, show smoking declines. A 17 year old in Denmark comfortably admits taking the pill while her counterpart in Italy suffers the consequences of illegal abortion. Western Europe provides a healthy environment of exercise, fitness, and good nutrition while Eastern Europe does not.

  20. West europe Report, Science and Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-15

    168031 JPRS-WST-86-017 15 APRIL 1986 West Europe Report SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY A A(v/- 19980616 157 FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION...1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. NOTICE Effective 1 May 1986, JPRS will issue a new serial entitled EUROPE: SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ...This serial, with the trigraph EST, will contain all material previously published in the WEST EUROPE REPORT: SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY as well as

  1. Aeronautical Wind Tunnels, Europe and Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    AERONAUTICAL WIND TUNNELS EUROPE AND ASIA Researchers: Katarina David Jenele Gorham Sarah Kim Patrick Miller... Wind Tunnels Europe and Asia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...18 Library of Congress – Federal Research Division Aeronautical Wind Tunnels Europe and Asia PREFACE 1 This catalog is a compilation of data on

  2. Violent Storm Strikes Western Europe

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Image acquired February 27, 2010: An extratropical cyclone named Xynthia brought hurricane-force winds and high waves to Western Europe at the end of February 2010, CNN reported. Winds as fast as 200 kilometers (125 miles) per hour reached as far inland as Paris, and at the storm’s peak, hurricane-force winds extended from Portugal to the Netherlands. Hundreds of people had to take refuge from rising waters on their rooftops. By March 1, at least 58 people had died, some of them struck by falling trees. Most of the deaths occurred in France, but the storm also caused casualties in England, Germany, Belgium, Spain, and Portugal. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite captured this image of Western Europe, acquired in two separate overpasses on February 27, 2010. MODIS captured the eastern half of the image around 10:50 UTC, and the western half about 12:30 UTC. Forming a giant comma shape, clouds stretch from the Atlantic Ocean to northern Italy. NASA image courtesy MODIS Rapid Response Team at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Caption by Michon Scott. Instrument: Aqua - MODIS For more information related to this image go to: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/view.php?id=42881

  3. Exploration potential of Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, W.C. )

    1991-03-01

    Because of governmental changes an entire region of Central Europe has received exploration scrutiny not possible during the past 40-50 years. This entire area - Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Albania, Poland, and East Germany - is tectonically related. Yugoslavia, although not under the same restrictions, is also considered in the same tectonic setting. Therefore, these countries can be expected to reflect some of the same stratigraphy, source rock, reservoir, trap and field types, and production history. Much of the region can be considered frontier while other parts mature. Production from all is about 55,000 T/D, 380,000 BO/D and 63.1 Bm{sup 3}/yr, 2,203 Bft{sup 3}/yr. Major source rocks have been identified as Tertiary-Oligocene, Miocene-Mesozoic, Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous. Carboniferous coal sequences are considered source for the Permian. The East European platform and Tethyian plates are the foundation of the Central Europe states. Plate collisions during the late Mesozoic and into the Tertiary affected the Carpathian, Balkans, Dinarides, and Helenide Mountain chains. Mesozoic and Tertiary foredeep deposits have been proven productive from normal-, thrust-, and wrench-faulted anticlinal structures. Paleozoic, Mesozoic erosional remnants, and Tertiary lacustrine and deltaic stratigraphic deposits are the major productive reservoirs in the Pannonian basin. Permian shelf and reefal deposits are found in such areas as the Permian Shelf in Eastern Germany and Poland. Reefal plays may be found in Bulgaria and Romania offshore.

  4. Birds and people in Europe.

    PubMed

    Gaston, Kevin J; Evans, Karl L

    2004-08-07

    At a regional scale, species richness and human population size are frequently positively correlated across space. Such patterns may arise because both species richness and human density increase with energy availability. If the species-energy relationship is generated through the 'more individuals' hypothesis, then the prediction is that areas with high human densities will also support greater numbers of individuals from other taxa. We use the unique data available for the breeding birds in Europe to test this prediction. Overall regional densities of bird species are higher in areas with more people; species of conservation concern exhibit the same pattern. Avian density also increases faster with human density than does avian biomass, indicating that areas with a higher human density have a higher proportion of small-bodied individuals. The analyses also underline the low numbers of breeding birds in Europe relative to humans, with a median of just three individual birds per person, and 4 g of bird for every kilogram of human.

  5. Birds and people in Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, Kevin J.; Evans, Karl L.

    2004-01-01

    At a regional scale, species richness and human population size are frequently positively correlated across space. Such patterns may arise because both species richness and human density increase with energy availability. If the species-energy relationship is generated through the 'more individuals' hypothesis, then the prediction is that areas with high human densities will also support greater numbers of individuals from other taxa. We use the unique data available for the breeding birds in Europe to test this prediction. Overall regional densities of bird species are higher in areas with more people; species of conservation concern exhibit the same pattern. Avian density also increases faster with human density than does avian biomass, indicating that areas with a higher human density have a higher proportion of small-bodied individuals. The analyses also underline the low numbers of breeding birds in Europe relative to humans, with a median of just three individual birds per person, and 4 g of bird for every kilogram of human. PMID:15306313

  6. Intraoperative transfusion practices in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Meier, J.; Filipescu, D.; Kozek-Langenecker, S.; Llau Pitarch, J.; Mallett, S.; Martus, P.; Matot, I.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Transfusion of allogeneic blood influences outcome after surgery. Despite widespread availability of transfusion guidelines, transfusion practices might vary among physicians, departments, hospitals and countries. Our aim was to determine the amount of packed red blood cells (pRBC) and blood products transfused intraoperatively, and to describe factors determining transfusion throughout Europe. Methods. We did a prospective observational cohort study enrolling 5803 patients in 126 European centres that received at least one pRBC unit intraoperatively, during a continuous three month period in 2013. Results. The overall intraoperative transfusion rate was 1.8%; 59% of transfusions were at least partially initiated as a result of a physiological transfusion trigger- mostly because of hypotension (55.4%) and/or tachycardia (30.7%). Haemoglobin (Hb)- based transfusion trigger alone initiated only 8.5% of transfusions. The Hb concentration [mean (sd)] just before transfusion was 8.1 (1.7) g dl−1 and increased to 9.8 (1.8) g dl−1 after transfusion. The mean number of intraoperatively transfused pRBC units was 2.5 (2.7) units (median 2). Conclusion. Although European Society of Anaesthesiology transfusion guidelines are moderately implemented in Europe with respect to Hb threshold for transfusion (7–9 g dl−1), there is still an urgent need for further educational efforts that focus on the number of pRBC units to be transfused at this threshold. Clinical trial registration. NCT 01604083. PMID:26787795

  7. Tularaemia: clinical aspects in Europe.

    PubMed

    Maurin, Max; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2016-01-01

    Tularaemia is a zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis, a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacterium. Typically, human and animal infections are caused by F tularensis subspecies tularensis (type A) strains mainly in Canada and USA, and F tularensis subspecies holarctica (type B) strains throughout the northern hemisphere, including Europe. In the past, the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic, and prognostic aspects of tularaemia reported in the English medical literature were mainly those that had been reported in the USA, where the disease was first described. Tularaemia has markedly changed in the past decade, and a large number of studies have provided novel data for the disease characteristics in Europe. In this Review we aim to emphasise the specific and variable aspects of tularaemia in different European countries. In particular, two natural lifecycles of F tularensis have been described in this continent, although not fully characterised, which are associated with different modes of transmission, clinical features, and public health burdens of tularaemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Aurora europe's space exploration programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongaro, F.; Swings, J. P.; Condessa, R.

    2003-04-01

    What will happen after the ISS in terms of space exploration, specifically to the human presence beyond Earth? What will be the role of Europe in the future international venture to explore space? What are the most immediate actions to be undertaken in Europe in order to best profit from the efforts made through the participation in the ISS and to position Europe's capabilities according to its interests? As approved by the Ministers at the Edinburgh Council in November 2001, the European Space Exploration Programme - Aurora - is ESA's programme in charge of defining and implementing the long term plan for human and robotic exploration of the Solar system. The Aurora programme started in 2002 and extends until the end goal of Aurora: the first human mission to Mars, expected in the 2025-2030 time-frame. The approach of Aurora is to implement a robust development of technologies and robotic missions, in parallel to the utilization phase of the ISS, to prepare for a continuous and sustainable future of human space exploration (which shall include the Moon, Mars and the asteroids as targets), in which Europe will be a valuable partner. Two classes of missions are foreseen in the programme's strategy: Flagships, defined as major missions driving to soft landing, in-situ analysis, sample return from other planetary bodies and eventually human missions; and Arrows, defined as cost-capped, short development time missions to demonstrate new technologies or mission approaches, or to exploit opportunities for payloads on European or international missions. So far the participating national delegations have approved two Flagships (ExoMars and Mars Sample Return) and two Arrows (Earth Re-entry and Mars Aerocapture) for phase A industrial studies. Although the last call for ideas of Aurora resulted in the definition of two Flagship missions targeted to Mars, the next one might be aimed to the Moon. At this stage the role of the Moon, on the path of Mars exploration is not

  9. The Soviet Economic Dilemma of Eastern Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    terms of trade, overinvestment, the hard currency debt crisis , and problems in adopting and diffusing new technologies. At times Soviet policies have...Surpluses with Eastern Europe ........... 31 10. Soviet Trade Surpluses with East European Countries in Crisis ...trade until 1979, and then again in 1981 dur- ing the Polish crisis . Moreover, Soviet terms of trade with Eastern Europe have improved very rapidly

  10. Increasing Teaching Productivity with EuropeMMM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helic, Denis; Scherbackov, Nick; Sheridan, Don

    EuropeMMM (Efficient Use of Remote and Online Publications of Electronic Multi-Media Materials) addresses the challenge of custom-publishing of multi-media on the Internet. A EuropeMMM catalog is designed especially for teachers and trainers who need to save time and effort in developing courses which include multi-media elements. Authors and…

  11. Participation in Education in Europe. Education & Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferir, G.

    The book discusses participation in secondary education in Europe. The study is based upon a 1975 survey of member states of the Council of Europe and upon a 1973 symposium on pupil participation and co-responsibility in decisions concerning school activities. Presented in eight chapters, the report discusses aims, key points, general tendencies,…

  12. Vocational and Adult Education in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wieringen, Fons, Ed.; Attwell, Graham, Ed.

    This book contains 25 papers on vocational and adult education in Europe and the United States. The following papers are included: "Vocational and Adult Education in Europe: Introduction to the Volume" (Fons van Wieringen, Graham Attwell); "Introduction to Section 1: Markets and Institutions in Vocational and Adult Education"…

  13. Science across Europe: key issues for society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Anabel

    1992-11-01

    Science across Europe is a new project linking secondary schools across Europe through the science curriculum. It focuses on issues in science, technology and society that have a European dimension. Students taking part gather information, reflect on their opinions and compare them with those of students in other countries. The project provides opportunities for using foreign languages and new communications technologies.

  14. Understanding Education in Europe-East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozma, Tamas; Polonyi, Tunde

    2004-01-01

    This paper suggests possible frames of reference for understanding education and educational policy in the Eastern part of Europe. (a) According to the geographical frame, the concept of "Eastern Europe" and its education reflects a struggle for political power and self-identity. (b) According to the political frame, the transition of…

  15. Key Data on Education in Europe 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranguelov, Stanislav; de Coster, Isabelle; Forsthuber, Bernadette; Noorani, Sogol; Ruffio, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    This seventh edition of "Key Data on Education in Europe" retains its main special feature which is the combination of statistical data and qualitative information to describe the organisation and functioning of education systems in Europe. The present 2009 edition maintains the subject-based structure defined by the previous one but…

  16. Vocational and Adult Education in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wieringen, Fons, Ed.; Attwell, Graham, Ed.

    This book contains 25 papers on vocational and adult education in Europe and the United States. The following papers are included: "Vocational and Adult Education in Europe: Introduction to the Volume" (Fons van Wieringen, Graham Attwell); "Introduction to Section 1: Markets and Institutions in Vocational and Adult Education"…

  17. Environmental Health Data in Europe: Current Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, A. W., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    These papers presented at a World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/EURO) Consultation explore current approaches to environmental health data in Europe. Topics discussed include unified environmental health databases, the use of national hospital registers, health statistics in small areas, expert systems, chemical databases,…

  18. Multiple Sclerosis Epidemiology in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bezzini, Daiana; Battaglia, Mario A

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is characterized by a non-homogeneous distribution around the world. Some authors in past described a latitude gradient, with increasing risk from the equator to North and South Poles, but this theory is still controversial. Regarding Europe, there are many articles in the literature concerning the epidemiology of this disease but, unfortunately, they are not always comparable due to different methodologies, they do not cover all countries in the continent, and most of them reported data of small areas and rarely at a national level. In 2012 there were 20 national registries that could help to describe the epidemiology of the disease and, in addition, there is an European Register for Multiple Sclerosis that collect data from already existing national or regional MS registries and databases. Another valid alternative to obtain epidemiological data, also at national level, in a routinely and cost-saving way is through administrative data that are of increasing interest in the last years.

  19. Europe is going to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-06-01

    The Agency's Science Programme Committee (SPC) approved Mars Express after ESA's Council, meeting at ministerial level in Brussels on 11 and 12 May, had agreed the level of the science budget for the next 4 years, just enough to make the mission affordable. "Mars Express is a mission of opportunity and we felt we just had to jump in and do it. We are convinced it will produce first-rate science", says Hans Balsiger, SPC chairman. As well as being a first for Europe in Mars exploration, Mars Express will pioneer new, cheaper ways of doing space science missions. "With a total cost of just 150 million euros, Mars Express will be the cheapest Mars mission ever undertaken", says Roger Bonnet, ESA's Director of Science. Mars Express will be launched in June 2003. When it arrives at the red planet six months later, it will begin to search for water and life. Seven instruments, provided by space research institutes throughout Europe, will make observations from the main spacecraft as it orbits the planet. Just before the spacecraft arrives, it will release a small lander, provided by research institutes in the UK, that will journey on to the surface to look for signs of life. The lander is called Beagle 2 after the ship in which Charles Darwin sailed round the world in search of evidence supporting his theory of evolution. But just as Darwin had to raise the money for his trip, so the search is on for public and private finance for Beagle 2. "Beagle 2 is an extremely important element of the mission", says Bonnet. Europe's space scientists have envisaged a mission to Mars for over fifteen years. But limited funding has prevented previous proposals from going ahead. The positioning of the planets in 2003, however, offers a particularly favourable passage to the red planet - an opportunity not to be missed. Mars Express will be joined by an international flotilla of spacecraft that will also be using this opportunity to work together on scientific questions and pave the way

  20. Space weather activities in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

    The Sun has long been understood as a source of energy for mankind. Only in the more modern times has it also been seen as a source of disturbances in the space environment of the Earth, but also of the other planets and the heliosphere. Space weather research had an early start in Europe with investigations of Birkeland, Fitzgerald and Lodge, ultimately leading to an understanding of geomagnetic storms and their relation to the Sun. Today, European space weather activities range from the study of the Sun, through the inner heliosphere, to the magnetosphere, ionosphere, atmosphere, down to ground level effects. We will give an overview of European space weather activities and focus on the chain of events from Sun to Earth.

  1. Can Europe afford combination therapy?

    PubMed

    Alcorn, K

    1995-12-01

    Mounting drug costs for AIDS patients in Europe are becoming problematic. An urgent need is being expressed in the UK to prove that combination therapy makes financial sense in terms of reducing patient stays, outpatient visits, and concomitant medication costs. France is currently meeting the extra costs of this therapy but the future cost escalation is worrisome. Germany will also experience problems in paying for combination therapy, as will other European countries which also face the financial burden of a steadily aging population. European governments, in a response to this problem, have pursued a policy of maximizing the rewards of employed citizens at the expense of people on the margins of society. Drug companies need to carefully consider their pricing policies before they make AIDS an unprofitable area.

  2. Commercial satellite broadcasting for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, J. R.

    1988-12-01

    A review is presented of the current television broadcasting situation in European countries, which involves a varied mix of terrestrial VHF or UHF systems and cable networks. A small market has emerged in Europe for receivers using the low-power telecommunications satellite transmission between the program providers and cable network companies. This is expected to change with the launch of medium-power pan-European telecommunication satellites (e.g. ASTRA, EUTELSAT II), which are now directly addressing the market of home reception. DBS (direct broadcast satellite) in the UK, using the D-MAC transmission standard, will offer three additional television channels, data broadcasting services, and a planned evolution to compatible forms of wide-screen, high-definition television. Comments are given on receiver and conditional access system standardization. Some views are expressed on satellite broadcasting as part of an overall broadcasting framework for the future.

  3. New power for "Old Europe".

    PubMed

    Schapiro, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The European Union's growing political clout is leading to new paradigms of environmental and health regulation. The E.U. is putting teeth behind new guidelines governing the toxicity of chemicals in consumer products, cosmetics, and automobiles that are forcing American companies to reconsider longstanding production practices. While U.S. government oversight over environmental and health concerns is being weakened, the E.U.'s strengthened governance over these and other arenas is rapidly, through the leverage of international trade, setting the stage for a new global standard. Europe's new standards present a historic choice to U.S. manufacturers: either conform to the E.U.'s preemptive screening for toxicity, or risk sacrificing the 450-million strong European market. The author explores the American response, and how the United States is slipping to the lower rungs of a double standard for protecting the health of citizens.

  4. Optical satellite communications in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodnik, Zoran; Lutz, Hanspeter; Furch, Bernhard; Meyer, Rolf

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes optical satellite communication activities based on technology developments, which started in Europe more than 30 years ago and led in 2001 to the world-first optical inter-satellite communication link experiment (SILEX). SILEX proved that optical communication technologies can be reliably mastered in space and in 2006 the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) joined the optical inter-satellite experiment from their own satellite. Since 2008 the German Space Agency (DLR) is operating an inter-satellite link between the NFIRE and TerraSAR-X satellites based on a second generation of laser communication technology, which will be used for the new European Data Relay Satellite (EDRS) system to be deployed in 2013.

  5. Intraoperative transfusion practices in Europe.

    PubMed

    Meier, J; Filipescu, D; Kozek-Langenecker, S; Llau Pitarch, J; Mallett, S; Martus, P; Matot, I

    2016-02-01

    Transfusion of allogeneic blood influences outcome after surgery. Despite widespread availability of transfusion guidelines, transfusion practices might vary among physicians, departments, hospitals and countries. Our aim was to determine the amount of packed red blood cells (pRBC) and blood products transfused intraoperatively, and to describe factors determining transfusion throughout Europe. We did a prospective observational cohort study enrolling 5803 patients in 126 European centres that received at least one pRBC unit intraoperatively, during a continuous three month period in 2013. The overall intraoperative transfusion rate was 1.8%; 59% of transfusions were at least partially initiated as a result of a physiological transfusion trigger- mostly because of hypotension (55.4%) and/or tachycardia (30.7%). Haemoglobin (Hb)- based transfusion trigger alone initiated only 8.5% of transfusions. The Hb concentration [mean (sd)] just before transfusion was 8.1 (1.7) g dl(-1) and increased to 9.8 (1.8) g dl(-1) after transfusion. The mean number of intraoperatively transfused pRBC units was 2.5 (2.7) units (median 2). Although European Society of Anaesthesiology transfusion guidelines are moderately implemented in Europe with respect to Hb threshold for transfusion (7-9 g dl(-1)), there is still an urgent need for further educational efforts that focus on the number of pRBC units to be transfused at this threshold. NCT 01604083. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia.

  6. Functional Food Science in Europe.

    PubMed

    Contor, L

    2001-08-01

    The goal of the Functional Food Science in Europe (FUFOSE) concerted action was to reach consensus on scientific concepts of functional foods in Europe by using the science base that supports evidence that specific nutrients positively affect physiological functions. The outcome proposes "a working definition" of functional foods: foods can be regarded as functional if they can be satisfactorily demonstrated to affect beneficially one or more target functions in the body, beyond adequate nutritional effects, in a way relevant to an improved state of health and well-being and/or reduction of risk of disease. Functional foods must remain foods and they must achieve their effects in amounts normally consumed in a diet. Evidence from human studies, based on markers relating to biological response or on intermediate endpoint markers of disease, could provide a sound scientific basis for messages and claims about the functional food products. Two types of claims are proposed that relate directly to these two categories of markers: Enhanced function claims (type A) and reduced risk of disease claims (type B). A new EU Concerted Action will start with, and build upon, the principles defined within FUFOSE. This project PASSCLAIM will (i) produce a consensus on principles for the scientific substantiation of health-related claims for food and food components, (ii) select common criteria for how markers should be identified, validated and used in well-designed studies to explore the links between diet and health and (iii) to evaluate critically the existing schemes which assess the scientific substantiation of claims.

  7. Clinical radiography education across Europe.

    PubMed

    England, A; Geers-van Gemeren, S; Henner, A; Kukkes, T; Pronk-Larive, D; Rainford, L; McNulty, J P

    2017-09-01

    To establish a picture of clinical education models within radiography programmes across Europe by surveying higher education institutions registered as affiliate members of the European Federation of Radiography Societies (EFRS). An online survey was developed to ascertain data on: practical training, supervisory arrangements, placement logistics, quality assurance processes, and the assessment of clinical competencies. Responses were identifiable in terms of educational institution and country. All educational institutions who were affiliate members at the time of the study were invited to participate (n = 46). Descriptive and thematic analyses are reported. A response rate of 82.6% (n = 38) was achieved from educational institutions representing 21 countries. Over half of responding institutions (n = 21) allocated in excess of 60 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) credits to practical training. In nearly three-quarters of clinical placements there was a dedicated clinical practice supervisor in place; two-thirds of these were employed directly by the hospital. Clinical practice supervisors were typically state registered radiographers, who had a number of years of clinical experience and had received specific training for the role. Typical responsibilities included monitoring student progress, providing feedback and completing paperwork, this did however vary between respondents. In almost all institutions there were support systems in place for clinical placement supervisors within their roles. Similarities exist in the provision of clinical radiography education across Europe. Clinical placements are a core component of radiography education and are supported by experienced clinical practice supervisors. Mechanisms are in place for the selection, training and support of clinical practice supervisors. Professional societies should work collaboratively to establish guidelines for effective clinical placements. Copyright © 2017 The

  8. Development of Healthy Cities networks in Europe.

    PubMed

    Goepel, Eberhard

    2007-01-01

    The Healthy Cities network in Europe was inspired by the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion when it was launched in 1987. The networking process was initiated by the WHO Regional Office for Europe, but developed its own dynamics in different European countries during a time marked by fundamental political transformations in many of the countries of Eastern Europe. The networks then connected with the 'Local Agenda 21' and the 'Sustainable Cities and Towns Campaign' to create a new and broader programmatic agenda at the local level. In particular, the ''Aalborg plus 10 - commitments"--of local governments in 2004 have the potential to inspire a new phase of participatory and sustainable policies at the level of local communities in Europe. However, the extent to which these initiatives will influence the macro-politics of the European Union towards a proclaimed "Europe of Citizens" remains to be watched carefully during the coming years.

  9. Shaping science policy in Europe.

    PubMed

    Celis, Julio E; Gago, José Mariano

    2014-05-01

    The Lisbon Strategy was adopted by the Heads of State and Government of the European Union (EU) in 2000. By moving science into a central position for the development of a European knowledge-based economy and society, its adoption at political level seems to have been a powerful catalyst for the increased involvement of scientists in science policy in the EU. Recognising the need for scientists to act collectively in order to contribute to shape the future of science policy in Europe, a pioneering group of European science organisations leaders and representatives, as well as other scientists, initiated a European, interdisciplinary, inclusive movement leading to the creation of the European Research Council (ERC) to support basic research of the highest quality. Having scientists' campaign for the funding of bottom-up research by the EU Framework Programmes exclusively on scientific grounds, and for an ERC, was a unique event in the recent history of European science policy. For the first time, the scientific community acted collectively and across disciplinary or national boundaries as a political actor for the sake of a better science policy for Europe. As is often the case when first-hand experience is gained through the creation of a new organization, novel forms of collaboration arise. The European biomedical community has recently proposed the creation of a strategic action plan for health research (the European Council of Health Research; EuCHR), provisionally translated at present into a Scientific Panel for Health (SPH) research in Horizon 2020, the EU's research-funding programme for the period 2014-2020. The creation of such Scientific Panel should be viewed as an important contribution by the biomedical community as a major political agreement has been reached on the need for a comprehensive and long-term scientific strategy to accelerate research and facilitate innovation at EU level. It is our belief that describing and analyzing the process leading

  10. Church Orientations in Central and Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laužikas, Rimvydas

    The objective of this case study is to discuss church orientation in Central and Eastern Europe. Due to its geographical situation, this region is a specific part of European cultural space: it is remote from the main cultural centers, it was the last to adopt Christianity, and it experienced intensive interactions with Byzantine culture. Therefore, we can assess church orientation in Central and Eastern Europe as a tradition affected by multicultural interactions and in which there is an interlacement of Catholicism from Western Europe, Byzantinism, local pagan faiths and, in part, the ideas of conception of geographical space of the Jews, Karaites, and Muslims.

  11. Conductivity Anomalies in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neska, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a review of studies which, by applying the magnetotelluric, geomagnetic deep sounding, and magnetovariational sounding methods (the latter refers to usage of the horizontal magnetic tensor), investigate Central Europe for zones of enhanced electrical conductivity. The study areas comprise the region of the Trans-European Suture Zone (i.e. the south Baltic region and Poland), the North German Basin, the German and Czech Variscides, the Pannonian Basin (Hungary), and the Polish, Slovakian, Ukrainian, and Romanian Carpathians. This part of the world is well investigated in terms of data coverage and of the density of published studies, whereas the certainty that the results lead to comprehensive interpretations varies within the reviewed literature. A comparison of spatially coincident or adjacent studies reveals the important role that the data coverage of a distinct conductivity anomaly plays for the consistency of results. The encountered conductivity anomalies are understood as linked to basin sediments, asthenospheric upwelling, large differences in lithospheric age, and—this concerns most of them, which all concentrate in the middle crust—tectonic boundaries that developed during all mountain building phases that have taken place on the continent.

  12. Patient blood management in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Shander, A.; Van Aken, H.; Colomina, M. J.; Gombotz, H.; Hofmann, A.; Krauspe, R.; Lasocki, S.; Richards, T.; Slappendel, R.; Spahn, D. R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Preoperative anaemia is common in patients undergoing orthopaedic and other major surgery. Anaemia is associated with increased risks of postoperative mortality and morbidity, infectious complications, prolonged hospitalization, and a greater likelihood of allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Evidence of the clinical and economic disadvantages of RBC transfusion in treating perioperative anaemia has prompted recommendations for its restriction and a growing interest in approaches that rely on patients' own (rather than donor) blood. These approaches are collectively termed ‘patient blood management’ (PBM). PBM involves the use of multidisciplinary, multimodal, individualized strategies to minimize RBC transfusion with the ultimate goal of improving patient outcomes. PBM relies on approaches (pillars) that detect and treat perioperative anaemia and reduce surgical blood loss and perioperative coagulopathy to harness and optimize physiological tolerance of anaemia. After the recent resolution 63.12 of the World Health Assembly, the implementation of PBM is encouraged in all WHO member states. This new standard of care is now established in some centres in the USA and Austria, in Western Australia, and nationally in the Netherlands. However, there is a pressing need for European healthcare providers to integrate PBM strategies into routine care for patients undergoing orthopaedic and other types of surgery in order to reduce the use of unnecessary transfusions and improve the quality of care. After reviewing current PBM practices in Europe, this article offers recommendations supporting its wider implementation, focusing on anaemia management, the first of the three pillars of PBM. PMID:22628393

  13. Europe takes wind energy lead

    SciTech Connect

    Gipe, P.

    1997-06-01

    California, once the undisputed leader in windpower capacity, has finally slipped from its top spot. America`s longtime lead in wind energy development is expected to fall to Europe by mid-1997. Germany`s installed windpower capacity has now surpassed California`s. According to data compiled by the Deutches Windenergie Institut in Wilhelmshaven, Germany, total installed wind-generating capacity reached 1,546 MW in Germany at the end of 1996. Despite the slowdown in German development in 1996, an astonishing 428 MW were installed. For comparison, 400 MW were installed during peak California windpower development in 1985. German companies installed nearly 500 MW of windpower capacity in 1995. Analysts estimate there are 1,497 MW operating in California, nearly 50 MW less than what is now installed in Germany. The German market alone represents $500,000 in turbine sales. Revenues from electricity sales approached $250 million last year. Installed windpower capacity in Germany at the start of 1997 was only 50 MW shy of total installed capacity in the entire United States, a nation with 22 times the land area and four times the population as Germany. At the present growth rate, Germany was expected to surpass the United States during the first quarter of 1997. By the end of the year, installed capacity in Germany will approach 2,000 MW, exceeding North America`s 1,614 MW.

  14. Silicon photonics developments in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedeli, J. M.; Marti, J.; Van Thourhout, D.; Reed, G.; White, T.

    2009-02-01

    Silicon photonics have generated an increasing interest in the recent year, mainly for optical telecommunications or for optical interconnects in microelectronic circuits. The rationale of silicon photonics is the reduction of the cost of photonic systems through the integration of photonic components and an IC on a common chip, or in the longer term, the enhancement of IC performance with the introduction of optics inside a high performance chip. In order to build a Opto-Electronic Integrated circuit (OEIC), different European project has been launched in Europe. The PICMOS project demonstrated the full optical link on a silicon circuit with InP bonded devices. The following WADIMOS project goes a step further with the demonstration of an optical network on chip with WDM µlaser for on-chip intraconnection between IC cores. The UK silicon photonics project and the European HELIOS project are focalized on telecommunications devices with the aim of photonics and electronics integration which can be done either by wafer bonding of an SOI photonic circuit or by low temperature fabrication of a photonic layer at the metallization levels. Recent development on building blocks will be reported such as low loss couplers, Si and InP µdisk modulators, high speed Ge or InGaAs photodetectors.

  15. Childhood cancer survival in Europe.

    PubMed

    Gatta, G; Corazziari, I; Magnani, C; Peris-Bonet, R; Roazzi, P; Stiller, C

    2003-01-01

    EUROCARE-3 collected data from 45 population-based cancer registries in 20 countries on 24 620 European children aged from 0 to 14 years diagnosed with malignancy in the period 1990-1994. Five-year survival between countries was compared for all malignancies and for the major diagnostic categories, adjusting for age, and estimated average European survival weighting for differences in childhood populations. For all cancers combined, survival variation was large (45% in Estonia to 90% in Iceland), and was generally low (60-70%) in eastern Europe and high (> or =75%) in Switzerland, Germany and the Nordic countries (except Denmark). The Nordic countries had the highest survival for four of the seven major tumour types: nephroblastoma (92%), acute lymphoid leukaemia (85%), CNS tumours (73%) and acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia (62%). The eastern countries had lowest survival: 89% for Hodgkin's disease, 71% for nephroblastoma, 68% for acute lymphoid leukaemia, 61% for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 57% for central nervous system (CNS) tumours and 29% for acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia. The Nordic countries represent a survival gold standard to which other countries can aspire. Since most childhood cancers respond well to treatment, survival differences are attributable to differences in access (including referral and timely diagnosis) and use of modern treatments; however, the obstacles to access and application of standard treatments probably vary markedly with country.

  16. Genes mirror geography within Europe.

    PubMed

    Novembre, John; Johnson, Toby; Bryc, Katarzyna; Kutalik, Zoltán; Boyko, Adam R; Auton, Adam; Indap, Amit; King, Karen S; Bergmann, Sven; Nelson, Matthew R; Stephens, Matthew; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2008-11-06

    Understanding the genetic structure of human populations is of fundamental interest to medical, forensic and anthropological sciences. Advances in high-throughput genotyping technology have markedly improved our understanding of global patterns of human genetic variation and suggest the potential to use large samples to uncover variation among closely spaced populations. Here we characterize genetic variation in a sample of 3,000 European individuals genotyped at over half a million variable DNA sites in the human genome. Despite low average levels of genetic differentiation among Europeans, we find a close correspondence between genetic and geographic distances; indeed, a geographical map of Europe arises naturally as an efficient two-dimensional summary of genetic variation in Europeans. The results emphasize that when mapping the genetic basis of a disease phenotype, spurious associations can arise if genetic structure is not properly accounted for. In addition, the results are relevant to the prospects of genetic ancestry testing; an individual's DNA can be used to infer their geographic origin with surprising accuracy-often to within a few hundred kilometres.

  17. Taenia solium in Europe: Still endemic?

    PubMed

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Allepuz, Alberto; Dermauw, Veronique; Johansen, Maria V; Laranjo-González, Minerva; Smit, G Suzanne A; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Trevisan, Chiara; Wardrop, Nicola A; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causes an important economic and health burden, mainly in rural or marginalized communities of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin-America. Although improved pig rearing conditions seem to have eliminated the parasite in most Western European countries, little is known about the true endemicity status of T. solium throughout Europe. Three recent reviews indicate that autochthonous human T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis may be possible in Europe, but that current peer-reviewed literature is biased towards Western Europe. Officially reported data on porcine cysticercosis are highly insufficient. Favourable conditions for local T. solium transmission still exist in eastern parts of Europe, although the ongoing integration of the European Union is speeding up modernisation and intensification of the pig sector. Further evidence is urgently needed to fill the gaps on the European T. solium endemicity map. We urge to make human cysticercosis notifiable and to improve the reporting of porcine cysticercosis.

  18. Agricultural impacts: Europe's diminishing bread basket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinke, Holger

    2014-07-01

    Global demand for wheat is projected to increase significantly with continuing population growth. Currently, Europe reliably produces about 29% of global wheat supply. However, this might be under threat from climate change if adaptive measures are not taken now.

  19. Using Computer Technology When Teaching About Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Mark D.

    1986-01-01

    Briefly reviews drill and practice, tutorial, simulation, and computer modeling software for teaching about Europe. Provides titles, names, and addresses of the eight vendors' software featured in this review. (JDH)

  20. Communications Policy Making in Western Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homet, Roland S., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Examines the fragmentation, political control, and paternalism involved in communications policy making in Western Europe. These characteristics are evident in broadcasting, the postal service, telecommunications, and the press. (JMF)

  1. German Unification: Security Implications for Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    the Soviet Union , the revolutions rushing through Eastern Europe, and impending European economic integration, the current security architecture is...Europe. instabilities in the Soviet Union , the move towards European integration, and the hard look being made at US involvement in European security...June 1990. It is not by accident that I picked this date. German monetary union occurs today. NATO leaders will be meeting in London next week to

  2. Applied Psychology in Europe: An ONR Perspective.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-27

    RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS- I963-A ONR LONOON REPORT R-7-83 ~, 0 04N9 OFFICEI F NAVAL ..of M IAPPLIED PSYCHOLOGY IN EUROPE...and Subtitle) S TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Applied Psychology in Europe: An ONR Assessment ’"PerspectivePrpci6v PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7...neceeeary end Identify by block nmber) Applied psychology Digital simulators Man-machine interfaces Performance models Combat reactions Memory enhancement 20

  3. SMi's Conducting Clinical Trials in Europe.

    PubMed

    Jago, Charlotte

    2009-12-01

    The Conducting Clinical Trials in Europe meeting, held in London, included topics covering new developments in the field of clinical trials and recommendations on how to best conduct a trial. This conference report highlights selected presentations on the state of affairs of trials in Europe, conducting trials in emerging markets, strategies for improving trials, trial design options, peri-approval and pediatric trials, and the role of key players, such as physicians. Company perspectives from Pfizer Inc and Nycomed are also included.

  4. Ion Beam Therapy in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Gerhard

    2009-03-01

    At present, seven facilities in Europe treat deep-seated tumors with particle beams, six with proton beams and one with carbon ions. Three of these facilities are in Moscow, St. Petersburg and Dubna, Russia. Other facilities include the TSL Uppsala, Sweden, CPO Orsay, France, and PSI Villigen, Switzerland, all for proton therapy, and GSI, Darmstadt, Germany, which utilizes carbon ions only. But only two of these facilities irradiate with scanned ion beams: the Paul Scherer Institute (PSI), Villigen (protons) and the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt. These two facilities are experimental units within physics laboratories and have developed the technique of intensity-modulated beam scanning in order to produce irradiation conforming to a 3-D target. There are three proton centers presently under construction in Munich, Essen and Orsay, and the proton facility at PSI has added a superconducting accelerator connected to an isocentric gantry in order to become independent of the accelerator shared with the physics research program. The excellent clinical results using carbon ions at National Institute of Radiological Science (NIRS) in Chiba and GSI have triggered the construction of four new heavy-ion therapy projects (carbon ions and protons), located in Heidelberg, Pavia, Marburg and Kiel. The projects in Heidelberg and Pavia will begin patient treatment in 2009, and the Marburg and Kiel projects will begin in 2010 and 2011, respectively. These centers use different accelerator designs but have the same kind of treatment planning system and use the same approach for the calculation of the biological effectiveness of the carbon ions as developed at GSI [1]. There are many other planned projects in the works. Do not replace the word "abstract," but do replace the rest of this text. If you must insert a hard line break, please use Shift+Enter rather than just tapping your "Enter" key. You may want to print this page and refer to it as a style

  5. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    PubMed

    Turco, Marco; Bedia, Joaquín; Di Liberto, Fabrizio; Fiorucci, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Koutsias, Nikos; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Xystrakis, Fotios; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value). These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011) and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011). Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF), which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%), except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  6. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe

    PubMed Central

    Turco, Marco; Bedia, Joaquín; Di Liberto, Fabrizio; Fiorucci, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Koutsias, Nikos; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Xystrakis, Fotios; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value). These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011) and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011). Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF), which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%), except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980’s, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts. PMID:26982584

  7. Europe within the Hyogo framework.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrito, P.

    2009-04-01

    During recent years, civil protection has undergone considerable changes, both at operational level and in terms of public opinion response. These changes are the result of a new cultural approach to catastrophes, which highlights the responsibility of emergencies to Governments and populations, not so much in terms of response, but rather in terms of insufficient prevention and possible delays in relief operations. This strategic role implies understanding the complexity of disaster risk reduction, a cross-cutting theme by nature, which requires political commitment, public understanding, scientific knowledge, early warning systems and disaster response mechanisms. Further, the evolution in the perception, understanding and role played by Civil Protection to address risks has enhanced the possibility of contributing to disaster risk reduction in a coherent way at the national level. Enhancing the dialogue and experience sharing of the actors dealing with disaster risk reduction is of paramount importance. In January 2005, just a few weeks after the tsunami claimed over 250,000 lives, 168 Governments gathered at Kobe, Japan, at the second World Conference on Disaster Reduction and adopted the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters. The Framework lays out a detailed ten-year plan to make risk reduction an essential component of development policies, Among the activities highlighted in the Hyogo Framework for Action to reduce the risk of disasters there are the need to for different sectors to collaborate on reducing the risk of disasters and for actors to share their experiences and knowledge. Through this paper, we introduce the above mentioned collaborative sectors and the investment of Europe into the Hyogo Framework.

  8. Taking Europe To The Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-03-01

    The first step in this ESA initiated programme is a unique project called 'Euromoon 2000' which is currently being studied by ESA engineers/ scientists and key European Space Industries. The project is intended to celebrate Europe's entry into the New Millennium; and to promote public awareness and interest in science, technology and space exploration. Euromoon 2000 has an innovative and ambitious implementation plan. This includes a 'partnership with industry' and a financing scheme based on raising part of the mission's budget from sponsorship through a dynamic public relations strategy and marketing programme. The mission begins in earnest with the small (approx. 100 kg) LunarSat orbiter satellite, to be designed and built by 50 young scientists and engineers from across Europe. Scheduled for launch in 2000 as a secondary payload on a European Ariane 5 rocket, it will then orbit the Moon, mapping the planned landing area in greater detail in preparation of the EuroMoon Lander in 2001. The Lander's 40 kg payload allocation will accommodate amongst others scientific instrumentation for in-situ investigation of the unique site. Elements of specific support to the publicity and fund-raising campaign will also be considered. The Lander will aim for the 'Peak of Eternal Light' on the rim of the 20 km-diameter, 3 km-deep Shackleton South Pole crater - a site uniquely suited for establishing a future outpost. This location enjoys almost continuous sunlight thus missions can rely on solar power instead of bulky batteries or costly and potentially hazardous nuclear power generation. As a consequence of the undulating South Pole terrain there are also permanently shadowed areas - amongst the coldest in the Solar System resulting in conditions highly favourable for the formation of frozen volatiles (as suggested by the Clementine mission in 1994). Earlier this year (7th January 1998), NASA launched its Lunar Prospector satellite which is currently performing polar lunar

  9. Does Europe have a centre? Reflections on the history of Western and Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mout, Nicolette

    2006-05-01

    Any definition of Central Europe based on geographical and/or historical facts causes difficulties. The line dividing Europe during the Cold War has a very limited use because it does not take into account Central Europe as a special part of the continent. Historians such as Geoffrey Barraclough, Hugh Seton-Watson and Oskar Halecki discussed the idea of a separate identity of Central Europe during the Cold War. Especially after the fall of the Berlin Wall, this discussion was re-opened. From a historian's point of view, the most important contributions came from Piotr Wandycz and Jeno Szucs. An imaginary centre of Europe can only be found in the continent's common history.

  10. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qiaomei; Posth, Cosimo; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Petr, Martin; Mallick, Swapan; Fernandes, Daniel; Furtwängler, Anja; Haak, Wolfgang; Meyer, Matthias; Mittnik, Alissa; Nickel, Birgit; Peltzer, Alexander; Rohland, Nadin; Slon, Viviane; Talamo, Sahra; Lazaridis, Iosif; Lipson, Mark; Mathieson, Iain; Schiffels, Stephan; Skoglund, Pontus; Derevianko, Anatoly P.; Drozdov, Nikolai; Slavinsky, Vyacheslav; Tsybankov, Alexander; Cremonesi, Renata Grifoni; Mallegni, Francesco; Gély, Bernard; Vacca, Eligio; González Morales, Manuel R.; Straus, Lawrence G.; Neugebauer-Maresch, Christine; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Constantin, Silviu; Moldovan, Oana Teodora; Benazzi, Stefano; Peresani, Marco; Coppola, Donato; Lari, Martina; Ricci, Stefano; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Valentin, Frédérique; Thevenet, Corinne; Wehrberger, Kurt; Grigorescu, Dan; Rougier, Hélène; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Flas, Damien; Semal, Patrick; Mannino, Marcello A.; Cupillard, Christophe; Bocherens, Hervé; Conard, Nicholas J.; Harvati, Katerina; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Drucker, Dorothée G.; Svoboda, Jiří; Richards, Michael P.; Caramelli, David; Pinhasi, Ron; Kelso, Janet; Patterson, Nick; Krause, Johannes; Pääbo, Svante; Reich, David

    2016-01-01

    Modern humans arrived in Europe ~45,000 years ago, but little is known about their genetic composition before the start of farming ~8,500 years ago. We analyze genome-wide data from 51 Eurasians from ~45,000-7,000 years ago. Over this time, the proportion of Neanderthal DNA decreased from 3–6% to around 2%, consistent with natural selection against Neanderthal variants in modern humans. Whereas the earliest modern humans in Europe did not contribute substantially to present-day Europeans, all individuals between ~37,000 and ~14,000 years ago descended from a single founder population which forms part of the ancestry of present-day Europeans. A ~35,000 year old individual from northwest Europe represents an early branch of this founder population which was then displaced across a broad region, before reappearing in southwest Europe during the Ice Age ~19,000 years ago. During the major warming period after ~14,000 years ago, a new genetic component related to present-day Near Easterners appears in Europe. These results document how population turnover and migration have been recurring themes of European pre-history. PMID:27135931

  11. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiaomei; Posth, Cosimo; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Petr, Martin; Mallick, Swapan; Fernandes, Daniel; Furtwängler, Anja; Haak, Wolfgang; Meyer, Matthias; Mittnik, Alissa; Nickel, Birgit; Peltzer, Alexander; Rohland, Nadin; Slon, Viviane; Talamo, Sahra; Lazaridis, Iosif; Lipson, Mark; Mathieson, Iain; Schiffels, Stephan; Skoglund, Pontus; Derevianko, Anatoly P; Drozdov, Nikolai; Slavinsky, Vyacheslav; Tsybankov, Alexander; Cremonesi, Renata Grifoni; Mallegni, Francesco; Gély, Bernard; Vacca, Eligio; Morales, Manuel R González; Straus, Lawrence G; Neugebauer-Maresch, Christine; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Constantin, Silviu; Moldovan, Oana Teodora; Benazzi, Stefano; Peresani, Marco; Coppola, Donato; Lari, Martina; Ricci, Stefano; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Valentin, Frédérique; Thevenet, Corinne; Wehrberger, Kurt; Grigorescu, Dan; Rougier, Hélène; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Flas, Damien; Semal, Patrick; Mannino, Marcello A; Cupillard, Christophe; Bocherens, Hervé; Conard, Nicholas J; Harvati, Katerina; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Drucker, Dorothée G; Svoboda, Jiří; Richards, Michael P; Caramelli, David; Pinhasi, Ron; Kelso, Janet; Patterson, Nick; Krause, Johannes; Pääbo, Svante; Reich, David

    2016-06-09

    Modern humans arrived in Europe ~45,000 years ago, but little is known about their genetic composition before the start of farming ~8,500 years ago. Here we analyse genome-wide data from 51 Eurasians from ~45,000-7,000 years ago. Over this time, the proportion of Neanderthal DNA decreased from 3-6% to around 2%, consistent with natural selection against Neanderthal variants in modern humans. Whereas there is no evidence of the earliest modern humans in Europe contributing to the genetic composition of present-day Europeans, all individuals between ~37,000 and ~14,000 years ago descended from a single founder population which forms part of the ancestry of present-day Europeans. An ~35,000-year-old individual from northwest Europe represents an early branch of this founder population which was then displaced across a broad region, before reappearing in southwest Europe at the height of the last Ice Age ~19,000 years ago. During the major warming period after ~14,000 years ago, a genetic component related to present-day Near Easterners became widespread in Europe. These results document how population turnover and migration have been recurring themes of European prehistory.

  12. Economic Benefits of Space Tourism to Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, P.

    The European aerospace industry has been very slow to consider the commercial opportunities in supplying passenger space travel services. This has been a costly mistake not just of space policy, but also of economic policy and environmental policy. This is because it is very unlikely that space tourism will remain just a small-scale activity of the very rich; it is much more likely to grow into a major new industry, employing millions of people in high quality employment - eventually much of it outside the Earth's eco-system. This is particularly important because, although the European “social-economic model” has greater popular support than the “USA model” (including among the general USA population), Europe today faces the major problem of high unemployment, which is imposing heavy social and economic costs. If Europe makes serious efforts soon to encourage the growth of passenger space travel, and of the many other economically and environmentally valuable space activities to which this will lead, then commercial space activities could become a major new axis of economic growth and employment-creation for Europe. Moreover, Europe has several advantages over the USA, Russia, Japan, China and India, and so could play a leading role in this field, if policy errors are corrected. The paper discusses the above possibilities, and the potential economic, environmental and other benefits for Europe in investing boldly in this fledgling industry.

  13. Clinical epidemiology of human AE in Europe.

    PubMed

    Vuitton, D A; Demonmerot, F; Knapp, J; Richou, C; Grenouillet, F; Chauchet, A; Vuitton, L; Bresson-Hadni, S; Millon, L

    2015-10-30

    This review gives a critical update of the situation regarding alveolar echinococcosis (AE) in Europe in humans, based on existing publications and on findings of national and European surveillance systems. All sources point to an increase in human cases of AE in the "historic endemic areas" of Europe, namely Germany, Switzerland, Austria and France and to the emergence of human cases in countries where the disease had never been recognised until the end of the 20th century, especially in central-eastern and Baltic countries. Both increase and emergence could be only due to methodological biases; this point is discussed in the review. One explanation may be given by changes in the animal reservoir of the parasite, Echinococcus multilocularis (increase in the global population of foxes in Europe and its urbanisation, as well as a possible increased involvement of pet animals as definitive infectious hosts). The review also focuses onto 2 more original approaches: (1) how changes in therapeutic attitudes toward malignant and chronic inflammatory diseases may affect the epidemiology of AE in the future in Europe, since a recent survey of such cases in France showed the emergence of AE in patients with immune suppression since the beginning of the 21st century; (2) how setting a network of referral centres in Europe based on common studies on the care management of patients might contribute to a better knowledge of AE epidemiology in the future.

  14. Large wind turbine development in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Zervos, A.

    1996-12-31

    During the last few years we have witnessed in Europe the development of a new generation of wind turbines ranging from 1000-1500 kW size. They are presently being tested and they are scheduled to reach the market in late 1996 early 1997. The European Commission has played a key role by funding the research leading to the development of these turbines. The most visible initiative at present is the WEGA program - the development, together with Europe`s leading wind industry players of a new generation of turbines in the MW range. By the year 1997 different European manufacturers will have introduced almost a dozen new MW machine types to the international market, half of them rated at 1.5 MW. 3 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Making sense of Islamic creationism in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Salman

    2015-05-01

    Islamic creationism has been noted as a serious concern in Europe. There have been reports of boycotts of university evolution lectures and, in one extreme case, even a threat of violence. While religious objections are indeed at play in some cases, our understanding of the rise of Islamic creationism should also take into account socioeconomic disparities and its impact on education for Muslim minorities in Europe. Furthermore, the broader narrative of rejection of evolution in Europe, for some Muslims, may be bound up in reactions to the secular culture and in the formation of their own minority religious identity. On the other hand, the stories of Muslim rejection of evolution in media end up reinforcing the stereotype of Muslims as "outsiders" and a threat to the European education system. A nuanced understanding of this dynamic may benefit those who support both the propagation of good science and favor cultural pluralism.

  16. The practice of travel medicine in Europe.

    PubMed

    Schlagenhauf, P; Santos-O'Connor, F; Parola, P

    2010-03-01

    Europe, because of its geographical location, strategic position on trade routes, and colonial past, has a long history of caring for travellers' health. Within Europe, there is great diversity in the practice of travel medicine. Some countries have travel medicine societies and provisions for a periodic distribution of recommendations, but many countries have no national pre-travel guidelines and follow international recommendations such as those provided by the WHO. Providers of travel medicine include tropical medicine specialists, general practice nurses and physicians, specialist 'travel clinics', occupational physicians, and pharmacists. One of the core functions of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control-funded network of travel and tropical medicine professionals, EuroTravNet, is to document the status quo of travel medicine in Europe. A three-pronged approach is used, with a real-time online questionnaire, a structured interview with experts in each country, and web searching.

  17. Emerging arboviral human diseases in Southern Europe.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna

    2017-08-01

    Southern Europe is characterized by unique landscape and climate which attract tourists, but also arthropod vectors, some of them carrying pathogens. Among several arboviral diseases that emerged in the region during the last decade, West Nile fever accounted for high number of human cases and fatalities, while Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever expanded its geographic distribution, and is considered as a real threat for Europe. Viruses evolve rapidly and acquire mutations making themselves stronger and naive populations more vulnerable. In an effort to tackle efficiently the emerging arboviral diseases, preparedness and strategic surveillance are needed for the early detection of the pathogen and containment and mitigation of probable outbreaks. In this review, the main human arboviral diseases that emerged in Southern Europe are described. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Meningococcal serogroup Y emergence in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Bröker, Michael; Bukovski, Suzana; Culic, Davor; Jacobsson, Susanne; Koliou, Maria; Kuusi, Markku; Simões, Maria João; Skoczynska, Anna; Toropainen, Maija; Taha, Muhamed-Keir; Tzanakaki, Georgina

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is differentiated into 12 distinct serogroups, of which A, B, C, W, X, and Y are medically most important and represent an important health problem in different parts of the world. The epidemiology of N. meningitidis is unpredictable over time and across geographic regions. Recent epidemiological surveillance has indicated an increase of serogroup Y invasive meningococcal disease in some parts of Europe as shown in the epidemiological data for 2010 and 2011 from various European countries previously published in this journal.1,2 Here, data from 33 European countries is reported indicating that the emergence of serogroup Y continued in 2012 in various regions of Europe, especially in Scandinavia, while in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe the importance of serogroup Y remained low. PMID:24608912

  19. Intergenerational support among migrant families in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bordone, Valeria; de Valk, Helga A G

    Intergenerational support is important throughout the individual life course and a major mechanism of cultural continuity. In this study, we analyse support between older parents and their adult children among international migrant and non-migrant populations in North, Centre and Southern Europe. Data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe are used to compare upward and downward practical support, grandparenting, and frequency of contact among 62,213 parent-child dyads. Findings indicate limited differences in support between migrants and non-migrants as well as between migrants of various origins. However, persistent differences in intergenerational support across Europe along a north-south gradient are found irrespective of migrant status.

  20. Acid rain: In the UK and Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, S.

    1985-01-01

    Acid rain is not just an American problem; it is the most serious environmental problem facing the UK and Europe as well. Its effect will continue to cause untold damage there unless drastic changes are made to the production processes that spew out the chemicals from which acid rain forms. This book provides both an explanation of what acid rain is and a guide to what action will be necessary to get rid of it. It aslo chronicles the development of the environmentalist agitation which is now central to green politics throughout Europe.

  1. Orientations of dolmens in Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskin, Michael

    2011-06-01

    The communal tombs (`dolmens') constructed through Europe and the Mediterranean region in the late Neolithic nearly always had an entrance to permit the introduction of further bodies, and hence an orientation. Extensive fieldwork shows that the builders always felt constrained to observe a custom of orientation, and in most of Western Europe the custom may well have been to face the rising Sun at some time of year, or the Sun after it had risen. But at Fontvieille near Arles the local custom was quite different, with tombs facing sunset or the Sun when descending. In southwest France and neighbouring parts of Cataluña the two customs are in conflict.

  2. A New Space Strategy for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashford, D.

    This paper shows how there is a one-time opportunity for Europe to take the lead in reducing the cost of access to space by adopting an aviation approach to transport to and from low earth orbit. Such an approach, using launchers like aeroplanes to replace those like missiles, was widely promoted in the 1960s but has never happened, initially because of Cold War pressures and then because of established habits of thinking. SpaceShipOne has shown that it is now possible to catch up rapidly with what might have been, using technologies developed since the 1960s for other projects. Europe is well placed to lead this breakthrough.

  3. Introduction: the development of astronomy in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, Paul

    2002-05-01

    The tradition of astronomy in Europe has been unbroken from the Neolithic and Bronze Age menhir monuments of north-western Europe to its large telescopes and space-probes. While astronomy still retains practical features, in most part it now concentrates on discovering new science. Recent advances include the discovery of previously unsuspected properties of neutrinos, confirmation of the theory of general relativity near black holes and the successful development of a coherent theory of the origin of the Universe in the Big Bang. These discoveries suggest that 19/20ths of the density of the Universe is of unknown form. There is more to do!

  4. Universities and Knowledge Production in Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiek, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses an East/West divide in Europe in university knowledge production. It argues that the communist and post-communist legacies in the four major Central European economies studied (Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic) matter substantially for educational and research systems. The differences in university…

  5. Handbook of the Renaissance: Europe 1400 - 1600.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae, Lee

    This handbook provides background materials and teaching suggestions for studying the Renaissance at the middle school level. The 16 chapters include: (1) "The Renaissance in Europe: 1400-1600"; (2) "Education"; (3) "Important People"; (4) "Women of the Renaissance"; (5) "How People Lived"; (6)…

  6. Primary English Teacher Education in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enever, Janet

    2014-01-01

    While substantial attention has been given to the introduction of English from the very start of schooling in many European countries today, there remains an insufficient supply of motivated, well-prepared teachers available and willing to meet this demand. This article reviews current mechanisms in Europe aimed at supporting the provision of…

  7. Green Belt Europe - borders separate, nature unites

    Treesearch

    Uwe Friedel

    2015-01-01

    During the period of the Cold War between 1945 and 1989, a "Green Belt" of valuable pristine landscapes developed along the border line between Eastern and Western Europe, the intensively fortified and guarded so called Iron Curtain. Due to the remoteness of the border areas, a high number of national parks and other large conservation areas can be found...

  8. Air pollution in Europe: international policy responses

    SciTech Connect

    Sand, P.H.

    1987-12-01

    The 1979 Geneva convention on acid rain set the framework for international cooperation in controlling transboundary air pollution in Europe. Initially, the acid rain treaty focused on sulfur oxide emissions. It has since evolved to address other problems and pollutants as well. A final meeting to draft a nitrogen oxide emissions protocol will be held in February 1988.

  9. Bluetongue in Europe: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Anthony J.; Mellor, Philip S.

    2009-01-01

    The recent arrival in Northern and Western (NW) Europe of bluetongue virus (BTV), which causes the ruminant disease ‘bluetongue’, has raised the profile of this vector-borne ruminant disease and sparked discussions on the reasons for its sudden emergence so far north. This expansion has not happened in isolation and the disease has been expanding into Southern and Eastern Europe for the last decade. This shifting disease distribution is being facilitated by a number of different introduction mechanisms including the movement of infected livestock, the passive movement of infected Culicoides on the wind and, in NW Europe, an unknown route of introduction. The expansion of BTV in Europe has forced a re-evaluation of the importance of Palaearctic Culicoides species in transmission, as well as the importance of secondary transmission routes, such as transplacental transmission, in facilitating the persistence of the virus. The current European outbreak of BTV-8 is believed to have caused greater economic damage than any previous single-serotype outbreak. Although attempts are being made to improve the capacity of European countries to cope with future BTV incursions, the options available are limited by a lack of basic entomological data and limited virological surveillance. PMID:19687037

  10. Europa Heute: Filmbegleitheft (Europe Today: Film Manual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenstein, Reinhold; And Others

    This teacher's guide to the German promotional film "Europe Today", suitable for use in advanced courses, concentrates on linguistic preparation required for full appreciation. The film focuses on the role of European countries as participating members of the Common Market. The manual includes information on the German film industry, a…

  11. The new migratory deal in Europe.

    PubMed

    Chesnais, J

    1993-01-01

    "In this paper, we shall examine successively: A world map of current migration flows, 1950-1990, a regional analysis of external migration surplus in Europe, the number and situation of foreigners in the [European Community], East and South migration pressure,...[and] implications for European Community migration policy and Western security." excerpt

  12. Bullying in Europe and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, John H.; Juul, Kristen

    1993-01-01

    Examines nature and scope of group violence among children in schools on both sides of Atlantic Ocean. Reviews studies of student attitudes about victimization and offers suggestions for prevention and treatment of bullying. Focus is on studies on bullying undertaken in Europe, mostly Scandinavia, and in United States (Author/NB)

  13. EWork in Southern Europe. IES Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altieri, G.; Birindelli, L.; Bracaglia, P.; Tartaglione, C.; Albarracin, D.; Vaquero, J.; Fissamber, V.

    Part of the EMERGENCE project to measure and map employment relocation in a global economy in the new communications environment, this report on eWork in southern Europe (SE) combines results of a European employer survey, case studies, and data from other sources. Chapter 1 analyzes national and sector dimensions. Chapter 2 studies eWork practice…

  14. Museums and Adults Learning: Perspectives from Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Alan, Ed.; Stannett, Annette, Ed.

    This book contains 28 papers presenting perspectives from Europe on museums and adult learning. The papers, each of which is devoted to a specific country, examine topics such as the following: further education and inservice training; programs for unemployed individuals; lectures and open days; elderly visitors; immigrants; refugees; disabled…

  15. New Parenting Challenges in Europe Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fthenakis, Wassilios E.

    This article discusses factors affecting parents in contemporary Europe. The focus is on family development, mechanisms conditioning social and family interactions, and the historical processes that are resulting in changes in family structure. Family changes discussed include the declining birthrate, structural conditions for parenthood, changing…

  16. Is heartworm disease really spreading in Europe?

    PubMed

    Genchi, Claudio; Rinaldi, L; Cascone, C; Mortarino, M; Cringoli, G

    2005-10-24

    Based on recently published surveys and newly acquired data, a study was conducted to verify the distribution of filarial worm (Filarioidea) infections in Europe, with particular emphasis on canine heartworm infection (Dirofilaria immitis). A Geographic Information System based on thermal regimen was constructed as a means to identify areas potentially suitable for heartworm transmission, taking into account that the development of D. immitis larvae in the mosquito does not occur below the threshold temperature of approximately 14 degrees C. Furthermore, a bionomic model of D. immitis in its mosquito vectors, which calculates the moving cumulative heartworm development unit parameter, was applied using the available temperature data to assess the theoretic transmission timing of heartworm in Europe. The results show that the earliest infection risk occurs in Spain on March 21 and the latest risk occurs in Spain on September 11. The longest risk period occurs in Spain (Murcia station: March 21-November 11), and the shortest risk period occurs in northeastern Europe. The study also provides the first risk assessment maps for Europe and suggests that if the actual climatic trend continues, filarial infection should spread into previously infection-free areas.

  17. Questions of Inclusion in Scotland and Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines inclusion in Scotland and in Europe. It considers some of the uncertainties surrounding inclusion and the questions--many of which give cause for concern--that are currently being raised by researchers, teachers and their representative unions, parents and children. The shifting political and policy contexts and recent patterns…

  18. Accelerating the health literacy agenda in Europe.

    PubMed

    Quaglio, Gianluca; Sørensen, Kristine; Rübig, Paul; Bertinato, Luigi; Brand, Helmut; Karapiperis, Theodoros; Dinca, Irina; Peetso, Terje; Kadenbach, Karin; Dario, Claudio

    2016-04-20

    Health literacy can be defined as the knowledge, motivation and competence to access, understand, appraise and apply information to make decisions in terms of healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion. Health literacy is a European public health challenge that has to be taken seriously by policy-makers. It constitutes an emerging field for policy, research and practice. However, recent research has shown that health literacy advancement is still at its infancy in Europe, as reflected in the scarce scientific health literacy literature published by European authors. From a total of 569 articles published until 2011 on this subject, the first author of only 15% of them is from Europe. This article conveys recommendations of different European stakeholders on how to accelerate the health literacy agenda in Europe. A general introduction on the current status of health literacy is provided, followed by two cases applying health literacy in the areas of prevention of communicable diseases and promotion of digital health. The current EU strategies integrating health literacy are listed, followed by examples of challenges threatening the further development of health literacy in Europe. Recommendations as to how European stakeholders involved in research, policy, practice and education can promote health literacy are given. It is vital that the European Commission as well as European Union Member States take the necessary steps to increase health literacy at individual, organizational, community, regional and national levels. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. German-Speaking People of Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This book attempts to provide cultural information which will enable an American to communicate effectively with German-speaking people of Europe. The book discusses differences between American and Germanic culture in such areas as food, laws, customs, religion, language, dress, and basic attitudes. Background information is given on Austria,…

  20. [Rotavirus vaccination in Europe in 2010].

    PubMed

    Grimprel, Emmanuel

    2010-11-01

    The important burden of rotavirus infections in infants largely justifies vaccine prevention. Two attenuated oral vaccines were licensed in Europe in 2006 and have proven effective against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants, yet few countries have implemented vaccination. This hesitation may be related to a very low risk of intussusception in vaccinees, but is mainly due to national differences in cost-effectiveness.

  1. The Teaching of Analytical Chemistry in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pungor, Erno; Kellner, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Traces the development of analytical chemistry in Europe. Asserts that analytical chemistry should not be intertwined with other branches of chemistry. Argues that analytical chemistry education should aim to create graduates who have adequate knowledge and are aware of their responsibility to society and to nature. (TW)

  2. Bullying in Europe and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, John H.; Juul, Kristen

    1993-01-01

    Examines nature and scope of group violence among children in schools on both sides of Atlantic Ocean. Reviews studies of student attitudes about victimization and offers suggestions for prevention and treatment of bullying. Focus is on studies on bullying undertaken in Europe, mostly Scandinavia, and in United States (Author/NB)

  3. Innovative and collaborative industrial mathematics in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of how industrial mathematics, inspired by the Oxford Study Group activity, organized itself in Europe, gave rise to the European Consortium for Mathematics in Industry, the series of European Study Groups with Industry, and to new modes of productive contacts between industry and applied mathematicians in academia. PMID:28588414

  4. Science across Europe--Why It Works!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Marianne

    1997-01-01

    Gives background information on the development of the Science Across Europe (SAE) project and its goals, which include creating a global dimension to education, raising awareness of how science and technology affect society, and providing opportunities to communicate with other countries. Presents information for educators in the sciences,…

  5. Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonzahn, U.

    1982-01-01

    The scientific aims, work plan, and organization of the Middle Atmosphere Program winter in northern Europe (MAP/WINE) are described. Proposed contributions to the MAP/WINE program from various countries are enumerated. Specific atmospheric parameters to be examined are listed along with the corresponding measurement technique.

  6. Access to Higher Education in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Joseph

    Admission policies and procedures in higher education institutions in East and West Europe were studied based on responses to a 1977 questionnaire sent to European countries and through additional study. The following topics are addressed: definitions of terms related to problems of access to postsecondary education; quantitative trends; admission…

  7. Layering the Introductory History of Europe Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddy, Helena

    1997-01-01

    Describes an introductory undergraduate survey course on European history that incorporates three interrelated sections: constitutional government in Europe, the American revolution, and the French Revolution. The instruction emphasizes the interconnectedness among the events and includes repetition of key ideas and information. Discusses the…

  8. Eastern Europe: Pronatalist Policies and Private Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Henry P.

    1982-01-01

    This bulletin reviews recent fertility-related trends in the nine Eastern European socialist countries where official policy is explicitly pronatalist to varying degrees in all but Yugoslavia. That fertility was generally higher here than in Western Europe in the mid-1970s is credited to pronatalist measures undertaken when fertility fell below…

  9. Developing Intercultural Competence in Europe: The Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Bryony; Sallah, Momodou

    2011-01-01

    Anti-racism has not played a prominent role in recent major European Union Lifelong Learning strategies. Nevertheless, its importance in Europe with increasing levels of migration has kept the concept, in the form of intercultural competence and intercultural dialogue, alive within European Education and Culture policy. This article traces the use…

  10. Layering the Introductory History of Europe Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddy, Helena

    1997-01-01

    Describes an introductory undergraduate survey course on European history that incorporates three interrelated sections: constitutional government in Europe, the American revolution, and the French Revolution. The instruction emphasizes the interconnectedness among the events and includes repetition of key ideas and information. Discusses the…

  11. Acceleration in Europe: Is It an Option?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinbokel, Annette

    2010-01-01

    Traditions and school systems in Europe are hard to compare, therefore the different forms of acceleration and their acceptance differ widely. States that have had a post-war system of promoting intellectually gifted children usually offer enrichment as well as acceleration. In states where gifted education is still in its infancy acceleration…

  12. East Europe Report, Economic and Industrial Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    22201. JPRS-EEI-84-095 20 August 19 84 EAST EUROPE REPORT ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL AFFAIRS CONTENTS INTERNATIONAL AFPAIRS CEMA Conference Expresses...Soviet Idea of Integration (V. Meier; FRANKFURTER ALLGEMEINE, 16 Jul 84) 1 CEMA Cooperation in Machine Construction Reviewed (AUSSENWIRTSCHAFT...Viktor Meier; FRANKFURTER ALLGEMEINE, 17 Jul 84) 69 - b - INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS CEMA CONFERENCE EXPRESSES SOVIET IDEA OF INTEGRATION

  13. Key Data on Education in Europe 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranguelov, Stanislav; De Coster, Isabelle; Norani, Sogol; Paolini, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    Key Data on Education in Europe 2012 is a Eurydice flagship publication tracing the main developments of European education systems over the last decade. The report combines statistical data with qualitative information to describe the organisation, management and functioning of 37 European education systems from pre-primary to higher education.…

  14. Gifted Education in German-Speaking Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Albert; Stoeger, Heidrun; Harder, Bettina; Balestrini, Daniel Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The authors first briefly describe how the concepts of talents and giftedness found in German-speaking Europe have evolved in the school system and in general over the past two centuries, and how the variety of gifted-education efforts found within and beyond schools as well as counseling efforts attest to these changes. They then discuss four…

  15. Education of Gifted Students in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekowski, Andrzej E.; Lubianka, Beata

    2015-01-01

    The present article contains a review of the literature devoted to gifted education in Europe. Forms of supporting the development of gifted students provided in European schools are presented with reference to the problems of diagnosing exceptional abilities, the existence and forms of educational measures for gifted students and forms of…

  16. Key Data on Education in Europe 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranguelov, Stanislav; De Coster, Isabelle; Norani, Sogol; Paolini, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    Key Data on Education in Europe 2012 is a Eurydice flagship publication tracing the main developments of European education systems over the last decade. The report combines statistical data with qualitative information to describe the organisation, management and functioning of 37 European education systems from pre-primary to higher education.…

  17. India, Europe, America: A Geocultural Triangle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pells, Richard

    2006-01-01

    America's reputation abroad has never been so abysmal. That is the inescapable conclusion of countless books, newspaper and magazine articles, and public-opinion polls that have documented the growth of anti-Americanism during the Bush administration. Yet outside Europe and the Middle East, the loathing for Bush and the bitterness toward America…

  18. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1993-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of 33 publications from 24 countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America that deal with topics such as health, housing, the environment, contraception, and trade. Statistical yearbooks and bulletins are highlighted as essential categories of government publishing. (LRW)

  19. Education of Gifted Students in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekowski, Andrzej E.; Lubianka, Beata

    2015-01-01

    The present article contains a review of the literature devoted to gifted education in Europe. Forms of supporting the development of gifted students provided in European schools are presented with reference to the problems of diagnosing exceptional abilities, the existence and forms of educational measures for gifted students and forms of…

  20. Universities and Knowledge Production in Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiek, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses an East/West divide in Europe in university knowledge production. It argues that the communist and post-communist legacies in the four major Central European economies studied (Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic) matter substantially for educational and research systems. The differences in university…

  1. Gifted Education in German-Speaking Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Albert; Stoeger, Heidrun; Harder, Bettina; Balestrini, Daniel Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The authors first briefly describe how the concepts of talents and giftedness found in German-speaking Europe have evolved in the school system and in general over the past two centuries, and how the variety of gifted-education efforts found within and beyond schools as well as counseling efforts attest to these changes. They then discuss four…

  2. Acetonitrile in the air over Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, S.; Helas, G.; Warneck, P.

    1989-06-01

    A gas chromatographic technique was developed to measure acetonitrile mixing ratios in air samples collected during three aircraft flights over Europe. Uniform mixing ratios were observed in the troposphere independent of altitude, with an average of 144+-26 pptv for the first two flights, and 194+-7 pptv for the third. /copyright/ American Geophysical Union 1989

  3. Europe Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    Illustrative black and white maps, tables, and graphs designed for clear reproducibility depict Europe's size, population, resources, commodities, trade, cities, schooling, jobs, energy, industry, demographic statistics, food, and agriculture. Also included are 33 United States Department of State individual country maps. This volume is intended…

  4. AIRS Retrieved Temperature Isotherms over Southern Europe

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-09-08

    AIRS Retrieved Temperature Isotherms over Southern Europe viewed from the west, September 8, 2002. The isotherms in this map made from AIRS onboard NASA Aqua satellite data show regions of the same temperature in the atmosphere. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00513

  5. JPRS Report, Science & Technology Europe & Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-18

    segment base, including transport companies, provincial governments, the Defense Department, or the road accident registration office. With the help...nological Advance], and DRIVE [Dedicated Road Safety Systems and Intelligent Vehicles in Europe] programs involving data processing applications in...new technology in health, education and road safety ; in starting a special telecommunications action for regional development; in pushing ahead with

  6. JPRS Report Science & Technology Europe Economic Competitiveness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-20

    MANAGEMENT INFORMATIONEN, 13 Jun 91] 25 Fraunhofer Institute in Dresden [Bonn TECHNOLOGIE NACHRICHTEN MANAGEMENT -INFORMATIONEN, 13 Jun 91] 26...NACHRICHTEN MANAGEMENT -INFORMATIONEN, 28 Jun 91] 28 JPRS-EST-91-020 „ 20 September 1991 2 Europe Germany: Biotechnology Funding Program for Small...Businesses Announced [Bonn TECHNOLOGIE NACHRICHTEN- MANAGEMENT INFORMATIONEN, 13Jun9IJ 28 Former GDR Microelectronics Component Manufacturers in

  7. Business Language: Programs and Resources in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Robert

    An overview of business education in four European countries (Italy, Great Britain, France, and West Germany) is presented and the development of business language instruction in Europe is surveyed, with emphasis on the experiences in Great Britain and Denmark. Suggestions are given for future cooperation in business language between the United…

  8. A "Moot" for Educational Research in Europe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoveid, Marit Honerod; Keiner, Edwin; Seddon, Terri

    2014-01-01

    For many years the EERJ Roundtable has been a standing event within the European Conference on Educational Research (ECER). In a discursive style it addresses issues related to contemporary relationships between educational research and educational policy in Europe. The changing educational landscape, together with shifting practices and…

  9. Phylogeography of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica, Europe

    PubMed Central

    Gyuranecz, Miklós; Birdsell, Dawn N.; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Seibold, Erik; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M.; Makrai, László; Fodor, László; Fabbi, Massimo; Vicari, Nadia; Johansson, Anders; Busch, Joseph D.; Vogler, Amy J.; Keim, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates from Austria, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and Romania were placed into an existing phylogeographic framework. Isolates from Italy were assigned to phylogenetic group B.FTNF002–00; the other isolates, to group B.13. Most F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates from Europe belong to these 2 geographically segregated groups. PMID:22305204

  10. Science across Europe--Why It Works!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Marianne

    1997-01-01

    Gives background information on the development of the Science Across Europe (SAE) project and its goals, which include creating a global dimension to education, raising awareness of how science and technology affect society, and providing opportunities to communicate with other countries. Presents information for educators in the sciences,…

  11. Museums and Adults Learning: Perspectives from Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Alan, Ed.; Stannett, Annette, Ed.

    This book contains 28 papers presenting perspectives from Europe on museums and adult learning. The papers, each of which is devoted to a specific country, examine topics such as the following: further education and inservice training; programs for unemployed individuals; lectures and open days; elderly visitors; immigrants; refugees; disabled…

  12. Acceleration in Europe: Is It an Option?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinbokel, Annette

    2010-01-01

    Traditions and school systems in Europe are hard to compare, therefore the different forms of acceleration and their acceptance differ widely. States that have had a post-war system of promoting intellectually gifted children usually offer enrichment as well as acceleration. In states where gifted education is still in its infancy acceleration…

  13. Europe's primary producers of industrial lasers surveyed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benninghoff, H.

    1984-09-01

    Brief descriptions of services offered by western Europe's primary producers of industrial lasers are presented. The service offered most is laser cutting. Other laser machine services are also discussed such as drilling of sheet materials, machining of hollow pieces and tubes, and laser welding. The most common laser used is the carbon dioxide laser.

  14. Photopatch testing: a consensus methodology for Europe.

    PubMed

    Bruynzeel, D P; Ferguson, J; Andersen, K; Gonçalo, M; English, John; Goossens, A; Holzle, E; Ibbotson, S H; Lecha, M; Lehmann, P; Leonard, F; Moseley, Harry; Pigatto, P; Tanew, A

    2004-11-01

    A group of interested European Contact Dermatologists/Photobiologists met to produce a consensus statement on methodology, test materials and interpretation of photopatch testing. While it is recognized that a range of local variables operate throughout Europe, the underlying purpose of the work is to act as an essential preamble to a Pan European Photopatch Test Study focusing particularly on sunscreen chemicals.

  15. What's Wrong with Literacy in Europe? (Changes in Literacy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreft, Wolfgang

    1995-01-01

    Offers a brief overview of illiteracy in Europe. Argues that the fact that there is no common European strategy, let alone a policy to combat illiteracy, is the biggest problem with literacy in Europe. (SR)

  16. Poliomyelitis eradication in Europe: programme and activities.

    PubMed

    Oblapenko, G

    The WHO Regional Office for Europe is committed to the eradication of poliomyelitis in Europe, as a part of the WHO effort to achieve the world eradication of polio by the year 2000. The European Advisory Group on EPI has adapted in 1993 the operational targets for the regional eradication of polio, which focus on surveillance, outbreak response, and immunization coverage. Policies recommended by WHO have been translated into plans for action by 9 European countries among those which still reported cases of polio. The Regional Office for Europe of WHO has concentrated its efforts in the following areas: 1. Implementation of essential strategies on immunization (mopping-up or national immunization days) in countries having high-risk areas with endemic transmission of wild poliovirus. 2. Improvement of surveillance, which is a major strategic component. Its key element is the surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis. Its implementation started in Europe in 1991. 3. Development of a regional laboratory network involved in the routine diagnosis of poliomyelitis. The network began to be operational in 1991. In 1992 polio morbidity, reported by 17 countries, has shown a downward trend as compared to 1991. Anyhow, some foci of wild poliovirus activity still persist in the Balkan countries, the Trans-Caucasian region, and several Central Asia republics of the former Soviet Union. The main limitations to progress in polio eradication in Europe are: absence of strong political support at the national level; lack of financial support, which may delay the translation of WHO recommendations into proper action at the national level; availability of polio vaccine, which may become a problem in the absence of adequate support; and the unsatisfactory pace of improvement of the polio surveillance.

  17. Phylogeographic history of grey wolves in Europe.

    PubMed

    Pilot, Małgorzata; Branicki, Wojciech; Jedrzejewski, Włodzimierz; Goszczyński, Jacek; Jedrzejewska, Bogumiła; Dykyy, Ihor; Shkvyrya, Maryna; Tsingarska, Elena

    2010-04-21

    While it is generally accepted that patterns of intra-specific genetic differentiation are substantially affected by glacial history, population genetic processes occurring during Pleistocene glaciations are still poorly understood. In this study, we address the question of the genetic consequences of Pleistocene glaciations for European grey wolves. Combining our data with data from published studies, we analysed phylogenetic relationships and geographic distribution of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes for 947 contemporary European wolves. We also compared the contemporary wolf sequences with published sequences of 24 ancient European wolves. We found that haplotypes representing two haplogroups, 1 and 2, overlap geographically, but substantially differ in frequency between populations from south-western and eastern Europe. A comparison between haplotypes from Europe and other continents showed that both haplogroups are spread throughout Eurasia, while only haplogroup 1 occurs in contemporary North American wolves. All ancient wolf samples from western Europe that dated from between 44,000 and 1,200 years B.P. belonged to haplogroup 2, suggesting the long-term predominance of this haplogroup in this region. Moreover, a comparison of current and past frequencies and distributions of the two haplogroups in Europe suggested that haplogroup 2 became outnumbered by haplogroup 1 during the last several thousand years. Parallel haplogroup replacement, with haplogroup 2 being totally replaced by haplogroup 1, has been reported for North American grey wolves. Taking into account the similarity of diets reported for the late Pleistocene wolves from Europe and North America, the correspondence between these haplogroup frequency changes may suggest that they were associated with ecological changes occurring after the Last Glacial Maximum.

  18. Phylogeographic history of grey wolves in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background While it is generally accepted that patterns of intra-specific genetic differentiation are substantially affected by glacial history, population genetic processes occurring during Pleistocene glaciations are still poorly understood. In this study, we address the question of the genetic consequences of Pleistocene glaciations for European grey wolves. Combining our data with data from published studies, we analysed phylogenetic relationships and geographic distribution of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes for 947 contemporary European wolves. We also compared the contemporary wolf sequences with published sequences of 24 ancient European wolves. Results We found that haplotypes representing two haplogroups, 1 and 2, overlap geographically, but substantially differ in frequency between populations from south-western and eastern Europe. A comparison between haplotypes from Europe and other continents showed that both haplogroups are spread throughout Eurasia, while only haplogroup 1 occurs in contemporary North American wolves. All ancient wolf samples from western Europe that dated from between 44,000 and 1,200 years B.P. belonged to haplogroup 2, suggesting the long-term predominance of this haplogroup in this region. Moreover, a comparison of current and past frequencies and distributions of the two haplogroups in Europe suggested that haplogroup 2 became outnumbered by haplogroup 1 during the last several thousand years. Conclusions Parallel haplogroup replacement, with haplogroup 2 being totally replaced by haplogroup 1, has been reported for North American grey wolves. Taking into account the similarity of diets reported for the late Pleistocene wolves from Europe and North America, the correspondence between these haplogroup frequency changes may suggest that they were associated with ecological changes occurring after the Last Glacial Maximum. PMID:20409299

  19. The origins of lactase persistence in Europe.

    PubMed

    Itan, Yuval; Powell, Adam; Beaumont, Mark A; Burger, Joachim; Thomas, Mark G

    2009-08-01

    Lactase persistence (LP) is common among people of European ancestry, but with the exception of some African, Middle Eastern and southern Asian groups, is rare or absent elsewhere in the world. Lactase gene haplotype conservation around a polymorphism strongly associated with LP in Europeans (-13,910 C/T) indicates that the derived allele is recent in origin and has been subject to strong positive selection. Furthermore, ancient DNA work has shown that the--13,910*T (derived) allele was very rare or absent in early Neolithic central Europeans. It is unlikely that LP would provide a selective advantage without a supply of fresh milk, and this has lead to a gene-culture coevolutionary model where lactase persistence is only favoured in cultures practicing dairying, and dairying is more favoured in lactase persistent populations. We have developed a flexible demic computer simulation model to explore the spread of lactase persistence, dairying, other subsistence practices and unlinked genetic markers in Europe and western Asia's geographic space. Using data on--13,910*T allele frequency and farming arrival dates across Europe, and approximate Bayesian computation to estimate parameters of interest, we infer that the--13,910*T allele first underwent selection among dairying farmers around 7,500 years ago in a region between the central Balkans and central Europe, possibly in association with the dissemination of the Neolithic Linearbandkeramik culture over Central Europe. Furthermore, our results suggest that natural selection favouring a lactase persistence allele was not higher in northern latitudes through an increased requirement for dietary vitamin D. Our results provide a coherent and spatially explicit picture of the coevolution of lactase persistence and dairying in Europe.

  20. The Origins of Lactase Persistence in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Itan, Yuval; Powell, Adam; Beaumont, Mark A.; Burger, Joachim; Thomas, Mark G.

    2009-01-01

    Lactase persistence (LP) is common among people of European ancestry, but with the exception of some African, Middle Eastern and southern Asian groups, is rare or absent elsewhere in the world. Lactase gene haplotype conservation around a polymorphism strongly associated with LP in Europeans (−13,910 C/T) indicates that the derived allele is recent in origin and has been subject to strong positive selection. Furthermore, ancient DNA work has shown that the −13,910*T (derived) allele was very rare or absent in early Neolithic central Europeans. It is unlikely that LP would provide a selective advantage without a supply of fresh milk, and this has lead to a gene-culture coevolutionary model where lactase persistence is only favoured in cultures practicing dairying, and dairying is more favoured in lactase persistent populations. We have developed a flexible demic computer simulation model to explore the spread of lactase persistence, dairying, other subsistence practices and unlinked genetic markers in Europe and western Asia's geographic space. Using data on −13,910*T allele frequency and farming arrival dates across Europe, and approximate Bayesian computation to estimate parameters of interest, we infer that the −13,910*T allele first underwent selection among dairying farmers around 7,500 years ago in a region between the central Balkans and central Europe, possibly in association with the dissemination of the Neolithic Linearbandkeramik culture over Central Europe. Furthermore, our results suggest that natural selection favouring a lactase persistence allele was not higher in northern latitudes through an increased requirement for dietary vitamin D. Our results provide a coherent and spatially explicit picture of the coevolution of lactase persistence and dairying in Europe. PMID:19714206

  1. West Europe Report, Science and Technology No. 146.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    JPRS 83681 14 June 198 3 West Europe Report SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY No. 146 FBIS DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved for Public Release...Asia Asia and Pacific Eastern Europe Western Europe Latin America Middle East and Africa JPRS 83681 14 June 1983 WEST EUROPE REPORT SCIENCE AND...all the time. Every day the results of research on the structure of genes in bacteria, yeasts and animals are appearing. Genetic engineering has

  2. West Europe Report, Science and Technology No. 146

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    209054 JPRS 83681 14 June 1983 West Europe Report SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY No. 146 FBIS DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved for Public...and Pacific Eastern Europe Western Europe Latin America Middle East and Afr: JPRS 83681 14 June 1983 WEST EUROPE REPORT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY...genes is increasing all the time. Every day the results of research on the structure of genes in bacteria, yeasts and animals are appearing

  3. The Role of the Bologna Process in Defining Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushnir, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    The question of what Europe is remains under-explored in the literature on European matters, and this suggests a need to formulate a definition of "Europe". This paper suggests that it is not possible to resolve the problem of the meaning of Europe without considering its higher education developments. The Bologna Process is a recent…

  4. Nationalism and Rights in the New Europe. Teaching Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Adrian

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan designed to teach upper grade level secondary students about nationalism and civil rights in post-Cold War Europe. Examines the rise of nationalism and discrimination against ethnic minorities in eastern Europe since the end of Communist rule. Includes a map of Europe, suggested teaching procedures, and follow-up activities.…

  5. The Role of the Bologna Process in Defining Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushnir, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    The question of what Europe is remains under-explored in the literature on European matters, and this suggests a need to formulate a definition of "Europe". This paper suggests that it is not possible to resolve the problem of the meaning of Europe without considering its higher education developments. The Bologna Process is a recent…

  6. The Shale Gas in Europe project (GASH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Hans-Martin; Horsfield, Brian; Gash-Team

    2010-05-01

    At the present time no shale gas play has been brought to the production level in Europe. While the opportunities appear abundant, there are still many challenges to be overcome in Europe such as land access and environmental issues. Costs per well are still higher than in the US, and mining regulations are tighter. As yet it remains unclear whether European shales can support commercial shale gas production. First, it will be essential to test the sub-surface and the potential deliverability of wells, supported by basic research. GASH is the first major scientific initiative in Europe that is focussed on shale gas; it is ambitious in that it is broad ranging in scientific scope and that it unites leading European research groups and geological surveys with industry. US know-how is also integrated into the programme to avoid reinventing the wheel, or, still worse, the flat tyre. GASH is currently funded by eight companies, and comprises two main elements: compilation of a European Black Shale Database (EBSD) and focussed research projects that are based on geochemical, geophysical and geomechanical investigations. The EBSD is being built by a team of more than 20 geological surveys, extending from Sweden in the north, through western Europe and the Baltic states down to southern Europe, and over to Romania, Hungary and the Czech Republic in the east. The research projects apply numerical modelling, process simulations and laboratory analyses to selected regional study areas or "natural laboratories" from both Europe and the USA - the goal: to predict gas-in-place and fracability based on process understanding. The European black shales selected as natural shale gas laboratories are the Cambrian Alum Shale from Sweden and Denmark, the Lower Jurassic Posidonia Shale from Central Germany, and Carboniferous black shales from the UK in the west via the Netherlands to Germany in the east. Fresh core material for detailed investigations will be recovered during the mid

  7. Public Relations on Fusion in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongena, J.; van Oost, G.; Paris, P. J.

    2000-10-01

    A summary will be presented of PR efforts on fusion energy research in Europe. A 3-D movie of a fusion research experimental reactor has been realized at the start of this year. It has been made entirely on virtual animation basis. Two versions exists, a short version of 3 min., as a video clip, and a longer version of nearly 8 min. Both could be viewed in 3D, using special projections and passive glasses or in normal VHS video projections. A new CD-ROM for individual and classroom use will be presented, discussing (i) the different energy forms, (ii) general principles of fusion, (iii) current research efforts and (iv) future prospects of fusion. This CD-ROM is now produced in English, German, French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese Several new brochures and leaflets intended to increase the public awareness on fusion in Europe will be on display.

  8. Adverse effects of widowhood in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bíró, Anikó

    2013-03-01

    I investigate the relationship between widowhood and the financial situation among women aged 50 and above in Europe. The results of the paper are based on the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, and its retrospective third wave (SHARELIFE). Using retrospective data makes it possible to analyze the dynamics of the adverse effects of widowhood. I estimate both the short run and long run effects of widowhood on financial circumstances, health, and labor force status. I argue that not only the lack of the deceased husband's income, but also the worse health condition and earlier retirement of widows contribute to the unfavorable financial conditions, although these indirect effects are small. I also analyze the role survivors' pensions have in mitigating the adverse effects of widowhood, and provide evidence for varying compensating effects of survivors' pensions in the European countries analyzed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Boundaries, political systems and fertility in Europe.

    PubMed

    Decroly, J; Grasland, C

    1993-01-01

    "We propose considering cross-border discontinuities in the context of homogeneous regions, that is, focusing on the detection and explanation of significant levels of organization of space by societies [in Europe]....We attempt to isolate macro-structures, which will provide us with an intermediary or systemic explanation for the behaviour observed....Our preoccupation here is whether countries or political blocs constitute levels of spatial organization. We can pose the question this way: do different areas in a same country show behavioural patterns which are, on average, more similar than those of areas in different countries?...We shall examine the distribution of total fertility (TFRs) in 724 areas of Europe in 1980 and 1988." excerpt

  10. Topics of nuclear medicine research in Europe.

    PubMed

    Inubushi, Masayuki; Kaneta, Tomohiro; Ishimori, Takayoshi; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Okizaki, Atsutaka; Oku, Naohiko

    2017-07-25

    Last year in the European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, we introduced some recent nuclear medicine research conducted in Japan. This was favorably received by European readers in the main. This year we wish to focus on the Annals of Nuclear Medicine on some of the fine nuclear medicine research work executed in Europe recently. In the current review article, we take up five topics: prostate-specific membrane antigen imaging, recent advances in radionuclide therapy, [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (PET) for dementia, quantitative PET assessment of myocardial perfusion, and iodine-124 ((124)I). Just at the most recent annual meeting of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine 2016, Kyoto was selected as the host city for the 2022 Congress of the World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology. We hope that our continuous efforts to strengthen scientific cooperation between Europe and Japan will bring many European friends and a great success to the Kyoto meeting.

  11. Telematic services via satellite in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goumy, C.; Golden, E.

    1984-03-01

    Telematics in Europe is intended to provide service through five satellites: Eutelsat, Telecom 1, Unisat, DFS, and Italsat. A 'Central Europe' zone will have coverage from the five satellites simultaneously; Eutelsat will be at the hub of the network and will have the largest coverage of all. Two to five transponders per satellite are to be used for telematic special services on the 12.5-12.75 GHz down-link band; Italsat will use a 20 GHz down-link. The ground segment will use several hundred small 3.5 m dish antennas and SCPC or 25-60 Mb/s TDMA equipment. Among many services, telematics will include videoconferences, computer-to-computer data transfer, high speed facsimile, and transatlantic digital business. Although all five networks will operate independently, future interconnection among them will allow efficiency improvements.

  12. Variation matters: epidemiological surveillance in Europe.

    PubMed

    Reintjes, Ralf

    2012-12-01

    Communicable diseases do not respect national boundaries and are important challenges to health internationally. This article aims to support the improvement and integration of surveillance systems in Europe and beyond by drawing on research comparing national systems. Definitions and concepts of epidemiological surveillance are described as a continuous systematic process that observes and reflects the real situation in society not only within but also across political boundaries. Outbreaks that affect more than one country show that a systematic comparative analysis of surveillance systems in Europe can help improve disease control. National surveillance systems from six European Union countries and from a later comparison of twenty-six European countries are examined. An effective surveillance system can provide information for action and act as a monitoring body for health authorities. Nevertheless, many European surveillance systems still require improvement in the interests of public health.

  13. Pain education policies and initiatives in Europe.

    PubMed

    Fragemann, Kirstin; Wiese, Christoph

    2014-12-01

    Curriculum development processes and guidelines in Europe are discussed. Both medical and nursing education are addressed and the goals of interprofessional education are described. The need to involve other professional liaison groups is described. Integration of research findings into education and multidisciplinary educational strategies are encouraged. This report is adapted from paineurope 2014; Issue 2, ©Haymarket Medical Publications Ltd, and is presented with permission. Paineurope is provided as a service to pain management by Mundipharma International, LTD and is distributed free of charge to healthcare professionals in Europe. Archival issues can be accessed via the website: http://www.paineurope.com at which European health professionals can register online to receive copies of the quarterly publication.

  14. Energy options and strategies for Western europe.

    PubMed

    Häfele, W; Sassin, W

    1978-04-14

    Western Europe, now largely dependent on oil imports, has to prepare for strong competition for oil and energy imports in general before the year 2000. The more unlikely it is for Western Europe to secure from outside rich supplies of coal or uranium at readily acceptable economic and political conditions, the more serious this competition becomes. Even exceptionally low projections of economic growth and optimistic assumptions about energy conservation urgently call for vigorous and simultaneous development of indigenous coal and nuclear sources, including the breeder. Long-term contracts for the possession and deployment of foreign oil, gas, and coal deposits are mandatory and should be negotiated in view of the possible aggravation of north-south confrontation.

  15. Cenozoic continental climatic evolution of Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Mosbrugger, Volker; Utescher, Torsten; Dilcher, David L

    2005-10-18

    Continental climate evolution of Central Europe has been reconstructed quantitatively for the last 45 million years providing inferred data on mean annual temperature and precipitation, and winter and summer temperatures. Although some regional effects occur, the European Cenozoic continental climate record correlates well with the global oxygen isotope record from marine environments. During the last 45 million years, continental cooling is especially pronounced for inferred winter temperatures but hardly observable from summer temperatures. Correspondingly, Cenozoic cooling in Central Europe is directly associated with an increase of seasonality. In contrast, inferred Cenozoic mean annual precipitation remained relatively stable, indicating the importance of latent heat transport throughout the Cenozoic. Moreover, our data support the concept that changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, although linked to climate changes, were not the major driving force of Cenozoic cooling.

  16. Meningococcal serogroup Y emergence in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Bröker, Michael; Jacobsson, Susanne; Kuusi, Markku; Pace, David; Simões, Maria J.; Skoczynska, Anna; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Toropainen, Maija; Tzanakaki, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is differentiated into 12 distinct serogroups, of which A, B, C, W-135, X, and Y are medically most important and represent an important health problem in different parts of the world. The epidemiology of N. meningitidis is unpredictable over time and across geographic regions. Recent epidemiological surveillance has indicated an increase of serogroup Y invasive meningococcal disease in some parts of Europe as shown in the epidemiological data for 2010 from various European countries previously published in this journal.1 Here, data is reported indicating that the emergence of serogroup Y continued in 2011 in various regions of Europe. The average age of persons affected by N. meningitidis serogroup Y seems to have decreased in some countries in comparison to the previous decade. PMID:23032167

  17. Mosquito-borne viruses in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hubálek, Zdenek

    2008-12-01

    The number of mosquito-borne viruses ('moboviruses') occurring in Europe since the twentieth century now stands at ten; they belong to three families-Togaviridae (Sindbis, Chikungunya), Flaviviridae (West Nile, Usutu, Dengue), and Bunyaviridae (Batai, Tahyna, Snowshoe hare, Inkoo, Lednice). Several of them play a definite role in human or animal pathology (Sindbis, Chikungunya, Dengue, West Nile, Tahyna). Mobovirus outbreaks are strictly determined by the presence and/or import of particular competent vectors of the disease. Ecological variables affect moboviruses considerably; the main factors are population density of mosquito vectors and their vertebrate hosts, intense summer precipitations or floods, summer temperatures and drought, and presence of appropriate habitats, e.g., wetlands, small water pools, or intravillan sewage systems. A surveillance for moboviruses and the diseases they cause in Europe is recommendable, because the cases may often pass unnoticed or misdiagnosed not only in free-living vertebrates but also in domestic animals and even in humans.

  18. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe, Economic Competitiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-25

    Technology Europe Economic Competitiveness VpEtC QUALITY mSPBCTED’A REPRODUCED BY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE sp’ssKE^’avr0"^10’SERV,CE Science...Production in France Described [J.-P. Delia Mussia; Paris ELECTRONIQUE HEBDO, 10 Jan 91] 32 French Executives View European Electronics Industry...Competitiveness [Patrick Arnoux, et al; Paris ELECTRONIQUE HEBDO, 10 Jan 91] 34 French Firm Transfers Activity to Microelectronics [Paris INDUSTRIES ET

  19. Migratory Prostitution with Emphasis on Europe.

    PubMed

    M&oring;rdh; Genç

    1995-03-01

    In many European countries, foreigners constitute the majority of certain groups of prostitutes, e.g., approximately 90% of the window prostitutes in the red light district of Amsterdam are not native to the Netherlands. The same is true for prostitutes working in bars in Vienna. In cities where registered prostitution is legal, unregistered prostitutes, most of whom are foreigners, often outnumber the registered ones. Central European countries often receive "sex workers" from eastern Europe, e.g., from Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, and Romania, whereas the majority of migratory prostitutes in Great Britain and continental western Europe come from Africa, the Caribbean, and South America. In northern Europe, women from Russia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, and the Baltic states are prostituting themselves in increasing numbers. Scandinavia has so far been affected relatively less by this mobility. In Spain, France, and Italy, women from Arabic and subSaharan countries are common among prostitutes. Foreign prostitutes move into Turkey along two main routes: women from the Balkan countries come to the western part of the country, whereas those from the former Soviet Union cross the border from Georgia, where they usually operate at resorts along the eastern Black Sea coast. Prostitutes are also mobile within the former communist bloc. For instance, women from Russia prostitute themselves in Lithuania, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. the customers are locals, particularly those with "hard currency", such as businessmen and "sex tourists" from the West. Following the outbreak of civil war in the former Yugoslavia, women from that country are now more frequently seen among the population of migratory prostitutes in Europe.

  20. Environmental health research in Europe: bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Tarkowski, S M

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a bibliometric review of the environmental health research literature in Europe for a period of 10 years. The work, within the study SPHERE (Strengthening Public Health Research in Europe) aimed to provide an overview of the extent of published environmental health research in Europe and to assess recent output in this research field and future research direction. Medline was used via the PubMed online service of the US National Library of Medicine. Only original, peer-reviewed research journal articles were retrieved, which were published from mid-1995 to mid-2005 and by authors from the 28 (then) countries in Europe of the European Economic Area plus Switzerland. In the PubMed database, 6329 references were located and were allocated to 11 pre-defined topic areas and 31 subtopic areas. The largest number of articles was in the topic area of work environment and health (2339) followed by environmental exposures (1314) and environmental illnesses (952) and these were the primary foci of 73% of the published articles. There were marked differences between countries in the number of published articles. Ten countries contributed 81% of all publications. It is apparent that economic factors have a major role for research outputs of countries in environmental health. Major advances have been made during recent years in the understanding of associations between health and environment, and of biological, environmental and social mechanisms involved in this association. More emphasis should be placed on investigations of complex environmental health problems such as complex exposures to different pollutants at different levels and their combined health impact in different populations.

  1. Exmoor - Europe's first International Dark Sky Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, S.

    2011-12-01

    On 2011 October 9 Exmoor National Park in the southwest of England was designated as Europe's first International Dark Sky Reserve by the International Dark Skies Association. This is a huge achievement, and follows three years of work by park authorities, local astronomers, lighting engineers and the resident community. Exmoor Dark Sky Reserve follows in the footsteps of Galloway Forest Dark Sky Park, set up in 2009, and Sark Dark Sky Island, established in January 2011.

  2. East Europe Report, Economic and Industrial Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    313202 JPRS-EEI-84-106 2 0 September 1984 East Europe Report ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL AFFAIRS mfmSöTicm sfÄTHrär Approved for public mlexxm...were developed. The chemical industry has successfully collaborated with the USSR in the area of polymer additives. Development of CD Antioxidant...production, of course, we need at the same time to build the food processing industry , production of chemicals for pest and disease control, we have to

  3. Syphilis in prostitutes from Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Smacchia, C; Parolin, A; Di Perri, G; Vento, S; Concia, E

    1998-02-21

    During the 1990s, a striking increase in the notification rate for syphilis has been observed in the Russian Federation and Eastern Europe. Given easier current access to international travel and migration from Eastern Europe, this trend is likely to involve Western Europe as well. To investigate this possibility, 110 foreign-born prostitutes (32 from Albania, 34 from tropical Africa, and 44 from Eastern Europe) presenting to an outpatient clinic in Verona, Italy, over a 19-month period were screened for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). At their initial visit, HIV infection was detected in 2 prostitutes (both African); 9 women were positive for serologic markers of active syphilis (5 from the former Soviet Union, 1 from Romania, 1 from Croatia, and 2 from Africa). By country of origin, the incidence of active syphilis was highest among immigrants from the former Soviet Union (5/18 or 27.8%). Although 65.9% of Eastern European women compared with 56.1% of women from other regions had been prostitutes for less than 1 year, Eastern European prostitutes were significantly more likely than their counterparts from Africa and Albania to have had more than 30 partners per week (70.5% vs. 51.5%) and to have become pregnant during the study period (40.9% vs. 11.8% of Africans and 18.7% of Albanians). Compared with their other Eastern European counterparts, Russian women had the least past experience in prostitution (77.8% had less than 1 year) and the highest incidence of pregnancy (50%). These findings indicate that Eastern European immigrants, especially those from the former Soviet Union, have little knowledge of STD risks or effective contraceptive use.

  4. Unexpected flood loss correlations across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Naomi; Boyd, Jessica

    2017-04-01

    Floods don't observe country borders, as highlighted by major events across Europe that resulted in heavy economic and insured losses in 1999, 2002, 2009 and 2013. Flood loss correlations between some countries occur along multi-country river systems or between neighbouring nations affected by the same weather systems. However, correlations are not so obvious and whilst flooding in multiple locations across Europe may appear independent, for a re/insurer providing cover across the continent, these unexpected correlations can lead to high loss accumulations. A consistent, continental-scale method that allows quantification and comparison of losses, and identifies correlations in loss between European countries is therefore essential. A probabilistic model for European river flooding was developed that allows estimation of potential losses to pan-European property portfolios. By combining flood hazard and exposure information in a catastrophe modelling platform, we can consider correlations between river basins across Europe rather than being restricted to country boundaries. A key feature of the model is its statistical event set based on extreme value theory. Using historical river flow data, the event set captures spatial and temporal patterns of flooding across Europe and simulates thousands of events representing a full range of possible scenarios. Some known correlations were identified, such as between neighbouring Belgium and Luxembourg where 28% of events that affect either country produce a loss in both. However, our model identified some unexpected correlations including between Austria and Poland, and Poland and France, which are geographically distant. These correlations in flood loss may be missed by traditional methods and are key for re/insurers with risks in multiple countries. The model also identified that 46% of European river flood events affect more than one country. For more extreme events with a return period higher than 200 years, all events

  5. Epidemiology and alcohol policy in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Jürgen; Zatonksi, Witold; Taylor, Ben; Anderson, Peter

    2011-03-01

    To describe three aspects of the epidemiology of alcohol-attributable deaths in Europe, dose, demography and place, and to illustrate how such knowledge can better be used to inform alcohol policy formulation and implementation. epidemiological and population health modeling. Europe. Based on country-specific aggregate statistics. country-specific adult per capita consumption triangulated with survey data; outcomes: mortality statistics. The absolute risk of dying from an alcohol-attributable disease and injury (accounting for a protective effect for ischaemic diseases) increases with increasing daily alcohol consumption beyond 10 g alcohol per day, the first data point. Over 2/3 of all alcohol-attributable deaths occurring amongst the 20-64 year old population of the European Union (minus Cyprus and Malta) occur in the 45-64 year olds. About 25% of the difference in life expectancy between western and eastern Europe for men aged 20-64 years in 2002 can be attributed to alcohol, largely, but not exclusively, as a result of differences in heavy episodic drinking patterns. Any reduction in the dose of alcohol consumed, at least down to 10 g/day, will reduce the annual and lifetime risk of an alcohol-related death. There is a need for alcohol policy to focus on measures in reducing alcohol consumption, throughout middle age, with immediacy of impact. Policy should strive to reduce alcohol-related health inequalities, with the specific recommendations for policy depending on the cost-effectiveness of interventions related to the epidemiological profile of the country or region under consideration. Fortunately, there are evidence-based policy options that reduce the amount of alcohol consumed and many alcohol-related harms with immediate effect, that reduce the risk of an alcohol-related death in middle age, and that would help to close the health gap between eastern and western Europe. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Hurricanes could increase over western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-06-01

    Damaging hurricanes are familiar along the North American East Coast but are relatively rare in western Europe. That could change as Earth's climate warms over the next century, according to a new study. Western European coastal areas do occasionally experience hurricane force storms in the current climate, but these occur mainly in winter and are formed not as tropical cyclones but by the midlatitude atmospheric baroclinic instability, which is driven by the north-south atmospheric temperature gradient.

  7. The environmental outlook for lead in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.N.

    1993-05-01

    The Regulation being developed by the European Commission to comply with the Basel Convention on the transboundary movement of waste and how this will impact on trade with other regions is described. The specific question of lead-acid battery recycling and how this is being pursued in Europe using a very different approach to the BCI model which has proved so successful in the US is addressed.

  8. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-06

    Grissonnanche, consultant at XP Conseil , leader of the MAP 1009B and 1009D projects, and president of Teletrust: "Security Research of Europe’s...transferred to an information and organization advisory company, called XP Conseil , which the project leader designate, Andre Grissonnanche, joined. Among...Teletrust This project previously called OSIS and currently headed by Andre Grissonnanche/XP Conseil (France), aims at: • proposing a universal system

  9. The Divisive Threat of Immigration in Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS EU European Union OECD Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development . WBG The World Bank group WGI...and the solution is far from easy. The concept of integration is vaguely defined across Europe. In this study, we will develop the concept of...international migration, while economic hardship and political unrest in less developed countries furnish the necessary push factor.”4 The history of

  10. Evolution of flood typology across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundecha, Yeshewatesfa; Parajka, Juraj; Viglione, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Following the frequent occurrence of severe flood events in different parts of Europe in the recent past, there has been a rise in interest in understanding the mechanisms by which the different events have been triggered and how they have been evolving over time. This study was carried out to establish the characteristics of observed flood events in the past across Europe in terms of their spatial extent and the processes leading up to the events using a process based hydrological model. To this end, daily discharge data from more than 750 stations of the Global Runoff Data Center were used to identify flood events at the stations based on a threshold method for the period 1961-2010. The identified events at the different stations were further analyzed to determine whether they form the same flood event, thereby delineating the spatial extent of the flood events. The pan-European hydrological model, E-HYPE, which runs at a daily time step, was employed to estimate a set of catchment hydrological and hydro-meteorological state variables that are relevant in the flood generating process for each of the identified spatially delineated flood events. A subsequent clustering of the events based on the simulated state variables, together with the spatial extent of the flood events, was used to identify the flood generating mechanism of each flood event. Four general flood generation mechanisms were identified: long-rain flood, short-rain flood, snowmelt flood, and rain-on-snow flood. A trend analysis was performed to investigate how the frequency of each of the flood types has changed over time. In order to investigate whether there is a regional and seasonal pattern in the dominant flood generating mechanisms, this analysis was performed separately for winter and summer seasons and three different regions of Europe: Northern, Western, and Eastern Europe. The results show a regional difference both in the dominant flood generating mechanism and the corresponding trends.

  11. Mental health research priorities for Europe.

    PubMed

    Wykes, Til; Haro, Josep Maria; Belli, Stefano R; Obradors-Tarragó, Carla; Arango, Celso; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Bitter, István; Brunn, Matthias; Chevreul, Karine; Demotes-Mainard, Jacques; Elfeddali, Iman; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Fiorillo, Andrea; Forsman, Anna K; Hazo, Jean-Baptiste; Kuepper, Rebecca; Knappe, Susanne; Leboyer, Marion; Lewis, Shôn W; Linszen, Donald; Luciano, Mario; Maj, Mario; McDaid, David; Miret, Marta; Papp, Szilvia; Park, A-La; Schumann, Gunter; Thornicroft, Graham; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina; van Os, Jim; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Walker-Tilley, Tom; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-11-01

    Mental and brain disorders represent the greatest health burden to Europe-not only for directly affected individuals, but also for their caregivers and the wider society. They incur substantial economic costs through direct (and indirect) health-care and welfare spending, and via productivity losses, all of which substantially affect European development. Funding for research to mitigate these effects lags far behind the cost of mental and brain disorders to society. Here, we describe a comprehensive, coordinated mental health research agenda for Europe and worldwide. This agenda was based on systematic reviews of published work and consensus decision making by multidisciplinary scientific experts and affected stakeholders (more than 1000 in total): individuals with mental health problems and their families, health-care workers, policy makers, and funders. We generated six priorities that will, over the next 5-10 years, help to close the biggest gaps in mental health research in Europe, and in turn overcome the substantial challenges caused by mental disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Unparalleled rates of species diversification in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Luis M.; Savolainen, Vincent; Vargas, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    The most rapid species radiations have been reported from ‘evolutionary laboratories’, such as the Andes and the Cape of South Africa, leading to the prevailing view that diversification elsewhere has not been as dramatic. However, few studies have explicitly assessed rates of diversification in northern regions such as Europe. Here, we show that carnations (Dianthus, Caryophyllaceae), a well-known group of plants from temperate Eurasia, have diversified at the most rapid rate ever reported in plants or terrestrial vertebrates. Using phylogenetic methods, we found that the majority of species of carnations belong to a lineage that is remarkably species-rich in Europe, and arose at the rate of 2.2–7.6 species per million years. Unlike most previous studies that have inferred rates of diversification in young diverse groups, we use a conservative approach throughout that explicitly incorporates the uncertainties associated with phylogenetic inference, molecular dating and incomplete taxon sampling. We detected a shift in diversification rates of carnations coinciding with a period of increase in climatic aridity in the Pleistocene, suggesting a link between climate and biodiversity. This explosive radiation suggests that Europe, the continent with the world's best-studied flora, has been underestimated as a cradle of recent and rapid speciation. PMID:20106850

  13. Rabies in Europe: what are the risks?

    PubMed

    Cliquet, Florence; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle

    2014-08-01

    Rabies remains a serious endemic disease in animal populations in many European countries. Oral vaccination by use of rabies vaccine baits has proved to be durably efficient for controlling and eliminating terrestrial rabies. However, the recurrence of rabies in some countries highlights the fragility of rabies-free country status and the need for continuous surveillance. In Eastern and Southern countries, the rabies control programmes for foxes should be accompanied by stray dog management measures in view of the high populations of strays in certain areas. Alerts of rabies in pets imported from enzootic countries are regularly reported in Europe, threatening the rabies-free status of terrestrial animals. New variants of rabies virus have been recently discovered in autochthonous bats, implying research studies to assess the efficacy of the current vaccines against those strains and the possible crossing of the species barrier in terrestrial mammals. The incidence of the disease in humans is very low, with cases contracted in Europe or in enzootic countries. Sustainable strategies of vaccination programmes in animals and improvement of public awareness, particularly for travelers, regarding rabies risks and legislation for pet movements would render accessible the elimination of rabies in Europe.

  14. Childhood obesity in Europe: a growing concern.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, M B

    2001-02-01

    Estimation of the prevalence and secular trends in paediatric obesity in Europe is impeded by methodological problems in the definition of obesity and the paucity of data sets that mirror the demographic, cultural and socioeconomic composition of the European population. The available prevalence data show that paediatric obesity is increasing throughout Europe but the patterns vary with time, age, sex and geographical region. The highest rates of obesity are observed in eastern and southern European countries. Even within countries there may be marked variability in the rates of obesity. It is unclear whether these trends are a simple consequence of an overall increase in fatness in Europe or whether there may be sub-groups of children who, at certain ages, are either particularly susceptible to environmental challenges or are selectively exposed to such challenges. In addition to the general increase in adiposity in European youth, there is also evidence of an increasing degree of obesity, particularly in older children and adolescents. No definite conclusions can be made about the respective contribution of energy intake and physical activity to the increasing prevalence of obesity. Changing demographic and social circumstances are linked to childhood obesity but it is highly unlikely that these interact in similar ways in the genesis of obesity in different individuals and population groups. In conclusion, the limited understanding of the variability in susceptibility to obesity in European youth provides powerful justification for the development of preventive strategies which are population based rather than selectively targeted at high-risk children.

  15. The workshop on animal botulism in Europe.

    PubMed

    Skarin, Hanna; Tevell Åberg, Annica; Woudstra, Cédric; Hansen, Trine; Löfström, Charlotta; Koene, Miriam; Bano, Luca; Hedeland, Mikael; Anniballi, Fabrizio; De Medici, Dario; Olsson Engvall, Eva

    2013-09-01

    A workshop on animal botulism was held in Uppsala, Sweden, in June 2012. Its purpose was to explore the current status of the disease in Europe by gathering the European experts in animal botulism and to raise awareness of the disease among veterinarians and others involved in biopreparedness. Animal botulism is underreported and underdiagnosed, but an increasing number of reports, as well as the information gathered from this workshop, show that it is an emerging problem in Europe. The workshop was divided into 4 sessions: animal botulism in Europe, the bacteria behind the disease, detection and diagnostics, and European collaboration and surveillance. An electronic survey was conducted before the workshop to identify the 3 most needed discussion points, which were: prevention, preparedness and outbreak response; detection and diagnostics; and European collaboration and surveillance. The main conclusions drawn from these discussions were that there is an urgent need to replace the mouse bioassay for botulinum toxin detection with an in vitro test and that there is a need for a European network to function as a reference laboratory, which could also organize a European supply of botulinum antitoxin and vaccines. The foundation of such a network was discussed, and the proposals are presented here along with the outcome of discussions and a summary of the workshop itself.

  16. Tobacco control in Europe: a policy review.

    PubMed

    Bertollini, Roberto; Ribeiro, Sofia; Mauer-Stender, Kristina; Galea, Gauden

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco is responsible for the death of 6 million people every year globally, of whom 700 000 are in Europe. Effective policies for tobacco control exist; however, the status of their implementation varies across the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region. In order to tackle the tobacco epidemic, action has been taken though the implementation of both legally binding and non-legally binding measures. This article aims to present the achievements and challenges of tobacco control in Europe, focussing on the available legally binding instruments such as the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the revision of the Tobacco Products Directive at the European Union level. Tobacco still faces heavy lobbying of the tobacco industry, which has systematically contrasted policies to achieve public health objectives. The legal instruments for tobacco control in Europe presented here are not always adequately enforced in all the countries and there is certainly room for improving their implementation. Finally, the need for a strong political commitment towards the end-game of the tobacco epidemic is emphasised.

  17. New directions for migration policy in Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Laczko, Frank

    2002-01-01

    There is a growing debate about the future direction of migration policy in Europe. After nearly 30 years of pursuing restrictive immigration and asylum policies, many European Union (EU) governments are beginning to re-assess their migration policies and to call for a new approach. For the first time in many years, several EU governments have begun to talk again about the benefits of labour migration and, even more significantly, have even begun to take action to recruit more migrants, especially skilled workers. This paper looks at the background to current calls for a new approach to migration in Europe and public reaction to these new initiatives. It first describes recent trends in migration in Europe and then briefly considers the demographic case for more migration. This is followed by a brief outline of some of the measures being considered by European governments to promote selective labour migration. The remainder of the paper is devoted to a discussion of some of the implications of this change in policy, focusing on two main issues: the likely consequences for sending countries, and the implications for the fight against the smuggling and trafficking of people. PMID:12028795

  18. Epidemiology of rare anaemias in Europe.

    PubMed

    Gulbis, Beatrice; Eleftheriou, Androulla; Angastiniotis, Michael; Ball, Sarah; Surrallés, Jordi; Castella, María; Heimpel, Hermann; Hill, Anita; Corrons, Joan-Lluis Vives

    2010-01-01

    Registry and epidemiological data of Rare Anaemias (RA) in Europe is in general still incomplete and/or partially documented. One important issue is the increasing prevalence of haemoglobin disorders (HD) due to migrations from high prevalence areas. The size of the problem, particularly for sickle cell disease (SCD), is already having an impact on health services in many European countries. The best known cause of rare anaemias associated with congenital haemolytic anaemia (CHA) in Europe is Hereditary Spherocytosis (HS) a red blood cell (RBC) membrane defect with a prevalence of 1 to 5 cases per 10.000 individuals. Some other causes of CHA are extremely rare and only few individual cases have been described worldwide (i.e. some RBC enzymopathies). Congenital defects of erythropoiesis are less frequent Diamond-Blackfan Anaemia (DBA) and Fanconi Anaemia (FA) exhibit a very low prevalence ranging from 4 to 7 per million live births. Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anaemia (CDA), a genetically heterogenous group, is still less frequent and exhibits a large variability of frequency depending on the European region: 0.1-3.0 cases per million births In addition many cases are known from a large autosomal dominant family in Sweden. Although incidence of Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria (PNH) in Europe is still unknown, data collection from different sources has given quotes of 1 case per 100,000 individuals to 5 cases per million births.

  19. Introduction of biosimilar insulins in Europe.

    PubMed

    Davies, M; Dahl, D; Heise, T; Kiljanski, J; Mathieu, C

    2017-10-01

    Regulatory approval of the first biosimilar insulin in Europe, LY2963016 insulin glargine (Abasaglar(®) ), in 2014 expanded the treatment options available to people with diabetes. As biosimilar insulin products come to market, it is important to recognize that insulin products are biologicals manufactured through complex biotechnology processes, and thus biosimilar insulins cannot be considered identical to their reference products. Strict regulatory guidelines adopted by authorities in Europe, the USA and some other countries help to ensure that efficacy and safety profiles of biosimilar insulins are not meaningfully different from those of the reference products, preventing entry of biological compounds not meeting quality standards and potentially affecting people's glycaemic outcomes. This review explains the concept of biosimilar medicines and outlines regulatory requirements for registration of biosimilar insulins in Europe, which is illustrated by the successful development of LY2963016 insulin glargine and MK-1293 insulin glargine (Lusduna(®) ). Preclinical and clinical comparative studies of the biosimilar insulin glargine programmes include in vitro bioassays for insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor binding, assessment of in vitro biological activity, evaluation of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profiles in phase I studies and assessment of long-term safety and efficacy in phase III studies. The emergence of biosimilar insulins may help broaden access to modern insulins, increase individualized treatment options and reduce costs of insulin therapy. © 2017 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  20. Usutu Virus: An Emerging Flavivirus in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Usama; Ye, Jing; Ruan, Xindi; Wan, Shengfeng; Zhu, Bibo; Cao, Shengbo

    2015-01-01

    Usutu virus (USUV) is an African mosquito-borne flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex. USUV is closely related to Murray Valley encephalitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus. USUV was discovered in South Africa in 1959. In Europe, the first true demonstration of circulation of USUV was reported in Austria in 2001 with a significant die-off of Eurasian blackbirds. In the subsequent years, USUV expanded to neighboring countries, including Italy, Germany, Spain, Hungary, Switzerland, Poland, England, Czech Republic, Greece, and Belgium, where it caused unusual mortality in birds. In 2009, the first two human cases of USUV infection in Europe have been reported in Italy, causing meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised patients. This review describes USUV in terms of its life cycle, USUV surveillance from Africa to Europe, human cases, its cellular tropism and pathogenesis, its genetic relationship with other flaviviruses, genetic diversity among USUV strains, its diagnosis, and a discussion of the potential future threat to Asian countries. PMID:25606971

  1. Financial crisis, austerity, and health in Europe.

    PubMed

    Karanikolos, Marina; Mladovsky, Philipa; Cylus, Jonathan; Thomson, Sarah; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David; Mackenbach, Johan P; McKee, Martin

    2013-04-13

    The financial crisis in Europe has posed major threats and opportunities to health. We trace the origins of the economic crisis in Europe and the responses of governments, examine the effect on health systems, and review the effects of previous economic downturns on health to predict the likely consequences for the present. We then compare our predictions with available evidence for the effects of the crisis on health. Whereas immediate rises in suicides and falls in road traffic deaths were anticipated, other consequences, such as HIV outbreaks, were not, and are better understood as products of state retrenchment. Greece, Spain, and Portugal adopted strict fiscal austerity; their economies continue to recede and strain on their health-care systems is growing. Suicides and outbreaks of infectious diseases are becoming more common in these countries, and budget cuts have restricted access to health care. By contrast, Iceland rejected austerity through a popular vote, and the financial crisis seems to have had few or no discernible effects on health. Although there are many potentially confounding differences between countries, our analysis suggests that, although recessions pose risks to health, the interaction of fiscal austerity with economic shocks and weak social protection is what ultimately seems to escalate health and social crises in Europe. Policy decisions about how to respond to economic crises have pronounced and unintended effects on public health, yet public health voices have remained largely silent during the economic crisis.

  2. Towards a targetted emission reduction in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hordijk, Leen

    Currently 20 European countries have stated that they will reduce their SO 2-emissions by at least 30% in the years 1993-1995 based on 1980 emissions. Some countries will reduce more, e.g. France by 50 %. Although politically this is an important step, a more or less flat rate of emission reduction throughout Europe is not an efficient solution. The paper describes an alternate emission reduction targetted to those areas where depositions are high and taking into account the source-receptor relationships in Europe. The reductions are calculated by using the model RAINS which is being developed at IIASA. RAINS is a set of linked submodels dealing with energy scenarios, SO 2 emissions, abatement options, long-range transport, deposition, forest soil acidification and lake acidification. For the purpose of this paper an optimization algorithm developed by R. Shaw and J. Young (AES, Canada) has been connected with RAINS. The results show optimal reduction patterns in Europe for a number of different receptor areas and alternative energy scenarios.

  3. Fertility and contraception in Europe: the case of low fertility in southern Europe.

    PubMed

    Shah, I

    1997-03-01

    Demographic trends in Europe can be summarized in terms of a declining proportion of its population in the world total, low fertility, and a slow population growth. Fertility in Western Europe was already below the replacement level in 1970-75 and has remained low. Fertility has substantially declined in Eastern and Southern Europe, with Italy and Spain recording one of the lowest levels (1.2 children per woman) in 1994. Some explanations of the dramatic fertility decline in Southern Europe are: (1) The emancipation of women and their increased participation in the labor force; (2) Economic aspects such as costs for child care and education; and (3) The couple's motivation for low fertility because of the expanded choices for travel and leisure and their concerns for improving their standard of living. Social pressures on childbearing outside marriage remain quite strong; cohabitation and extramarital births is Southern Europe are not as prevalent as in other European regions and there is a trend toward delaying the birth of the first child rather than foregoing childbearing.

  4. Makers of the early Aurignacian of Europe.

    PubMed

    Churchill, S E; Smith, F H

    2000-01-01

    Despite intensive study and a number of remarkable discoveries in the last two decades of the 20th century, our understanding of the cultural and biological processes that resulted in the emergence of the Upper Paleolithic and the establishment of modern humans in Interpleniglacial Europe remains far from complete. There is active debate concerning the timing and location of the origins of the Aurignacian, the nature of the origins of Initial Upper Paleolithic industries (whether by autochthonous development or through acculturation by Aurignacian peoples), the timing of the appearance of early modern humans and the disappearance of the Neandertals, and the relationship of archeologically defined cultures to these different types of hominids. Frustrating our attempts to address these latter two questions is a general paucity of taxonomically diagnostic human fossil material from early Upper Paleolithic contexts. We undertake here a review of the human fossil record of Interpleniglacial Europe, and its archeological and chronological context, to clarify to the extent possible the nature of the relationship between hominid groups and the earliest Upper Paleolithic artifact industries, particularly the early Aurignacian. Although substantial difficulties involved in interpreting the fossil, archeological, and geochronological records of this time period prohibit making any definitive statements, a number of observations are suggested by the current data: 1) the Middle Paleolithic of Europe appears to have been made exclusively by Neandertals; 2) Initial Upper Paleolithic industries (with the exception of the Bachokirian) appear to have their roots in the late Middle Paleolithic industries of their respective regions; 3) all of the human fossils yet recovered from Initial Upper Paleolithic (except the Bachokirian) contexts for which any diagnostic morphology is present have their greatest morphological affinities with Neandertals and not early modern humans; 4) modern

  5. The incidence and aetiology of acute pancreatitis across Europe.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Stephen E; Morrison-Rees, Sian; John, Ann; Williams, John G; Brown, Tim H; Samuel, David G

    Acute pancreatitis is increasingly one of the most important acute gastrointestinal conditions throughout much of the world, although incidence and aetiology varies across countries and regions. This study investigated regional and national patterns in the incidence and aetiology of acute pancreatitis, demographic patterns in incidence and trends over time in incidence across Europe. A structured review of acute pancreatitis incidence and aetiology from studies of hospitalised patient case series, cohort studies or other population based studies from 1989 to 2015 and a review of trends in incidence from 1970 to 2015 across all 51 European states. The incidence of acute pancreatitis was reported from 17 countries across Europe and ranged from 4.6 to 100 per 100 000 population. Incidence was usually highest in eastern or northern Europe, although reported rates often varied according to case ascertainment criteria. Of 20 studies that reported on trends in incidence, all but three show percentage increases over time (overall median increase = 3.4% per annum; range = -0.4%-73%). The highest ratios of gallstone to alcohol aetiologies were identified in southern Europe (Greece, Turkey, Italy and Croatia) with lowest ratios mainly in eastern Europe (Latvia, Finland, Romania, Hungary, Russia and Lithuania). The incidence of acute pancreatitis varies across Europe. Gallstone is the dominant aetiology in southern Europe and alcohol in eastern Europe with intermediate ratios in northern and western Europe. Acute pancreatitis continues to increase throughout most of Europe. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Seasonal hydrological ensemble forecasts over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, Louise; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Stephens, Elisabeth; Cloke, Hannah; Pappenberger, Florian

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the limits of predictability in dynamical seasonal discharge forecasting, in both space and time, over Europe. Seasonal forecasts have an important socioeconomic value. Applications are numerous and cover hydropower management, spring flood prediction, low flow prediction for navigation and agricultural water demands. Additionally, the constant increase in NWP skill for longer lead times and the predicted increase in the intensity and frequency of hydro-meteorological extremes, have amplified the incentive to promote and further improve hydrological forecasts on sub-seasonal to seasonal timescales. In this study, seasonal hydrological forecasts (SEA), driven by the ECMWF's System 4 in hindcast mode, were analysed against an Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) benchmark. The ESP was forced with an ensemble of resampled historical meteorological observations and started with perfect initial conditions. Both forecasts were produced by the LISFLOOD model, run on the pan-European scale with a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 km. The forecasts were issued monthly on a daily time step, from 1990 until the current time, up to a lead time of 7 months. The seasonal discharge forecasts were analysed against the ESP on a catchment scale in terms of their accuracy, skill and sharpness, using a diverse set of verification metrics (e.g. KGE, CRPSS and ROC). Additionally, a reverse-ESP was constructed by forcing the LISFLOOD model with a single perfect meteorological set of observations and initiated from an ensemble of resampled historical initial conditions. The comparison of the ESP with the reverse-ESP approach enabled the identification of the respective contribution of meteorological forcings and hydrologic initial conditions errors to seasonal discharge forecasting uncertainties in Europe. These results could help pinpoint target elements of the forecasting chain which, after being improved, could lead to substantial increase in discharge predictability

  7. Changing face of tinea capitis in Europe.

    PubMed

    Fuller, L Claire

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this review is to update the latest epidemiological situation in Europe, explore recent issues in recognition and emerging opportunities in diagnosis and look at progressions in treatment. Papers reviewed have, in the main, been published within the last 2 years. The predominantly responsible organism varies with country. Trichophyton tonsurans accounts for 50-90% of cases in the UK, Microsporum canis is commonest in Central and Southern Europe and T. violaceum in Greece and Belgium. Confirming the diagnosis of tinea capitis is best undertaken with more than one sampling method to include scraping of scalp, and either scalp massage brush, toothbrush, moistened cotton gauze swab or cytobrush to increase sensitivity. Advances in the speed of species identification is offered by the novel PCR-based detection/identification scheme, and although not yet commercially available, with potential turnaround times of <24 h this will offer a significant advance in the speed of diagnosis, allowing treatment to be organism tailored. Although griseofulvin remains the only licensed treatment in the UK and a meta-analysis confirms it is effective against the major tinea capitis pathogens, a new granule formulation of terbinafine has been shown to be more effective against T. tonsurans. With the evolving organism profile across Europe, obtaining an accurate diagnosis and species identification is crucial. Using more than one sampling method followed by rapid species identification techniques will facilitate this. Although there are no changes in specific product license to include children, the production of a child-friendly formulation of terbinafine will contribute to improved compliance.

  8. Trends in laryngeal cancer mortality in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bosetti, Cristina; Garavello, Werner; Levi, Fabio; Lucchini, Franca; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2006-08-01

    After a steady increase since the 1950s, laryngeal cancer mortality had tended to level off since the early 1980s in men from most European countries. To update trends in laryngeal cancer mortality in Europe, age-standardized (world standard) mortality rates per 100,000 were derived from the WHO mortality database for 33 European countries over the period 1980-2001. Jointpoint analysis was used to identify significant changes in mortality rates. In the European Union (EU) as a whole, male mortality declined by 0.8% per year between 1980 and 1989, by 2.8% between 1989 and 1995, by 5.3% between 1995 and 1998, and by 1.5% thereafter (rates were 5.1/100,000 in 1980-1981 and 3.3/100,000 in 2000-2001). This mainly reflects a decrease in rates in men from western and southern European countries, which had exceedingly high rates in the past. Male laryngeal mortality rose up to the early 1990s, and leveled off thereafter in several countries from central and eastern Europe. In 2000-2001 there was still a 10-15-fold variation in male laryngeal mortality between the highest rates in Croatia (7.9/100,000) and Hungary (7.7/100,000) and the lowest ones in Sweden (0.5/100,000) and Finland (0.8/100,000). Laryngeal cancer mortality was comparatively low in women from most European countries, with stable rates around 0.3/100,000 in the EU as a whole over the last 2 decades. Laryngeal cancer trends should be interpreted in terms of patterns and changes in exposure to alcohol and tobacco. Despite recent declines, the persistence of a wide variability in male laryngeal cancer mortality indicates that there is still ample scope for prevention of laryngeal cancer in Europe.

  9. Epidemiology of childhood obesity in Europe.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, B

    2000-09-01

    At present, estimation of the prevalence and secular trends in paediatric obesity in Europe is severely hampered by methodological problems in the definition of obesity and the paucity of data sets that mirror the demographic, cultural and socioeconomic composition of the European population. The available cross-sectional data, however imperfect, suggest that there are complex patterns in prevalence which vary with time, age, sex and geographical region. Overall, the prevalence of obesity in young children is relatively low compared to adolescents. Gender differences in prevalence are inconsistent. The highest rates of obesity are observed in eastern and southern European countries and even within countries there may be marked variability in the rates of obesity. It is not clear whether the trends in paediatric obesity are a simple consequence of an overall increase in fatness in Europe or whether there may be sub-groups of children who, at certain ages, are either particularly susceptible to environmental challenges or are selectively exposed to such challenges. The respective contributions of dietary energy intake and patterns of physical activity to the aetiology of childhood obesity present a confused and confusing picture. Changing demographic and social circumstances throughout Europe are linked to childhood obesity but it is highly unlikely that these interact in similar ways in the genesis of obesity in different individuals and population groups. At present, our limited understanding of the variability in susceptibility to obesity in European children and adolescents provides powerful justification for the development of preventive strategies which are population based rather than selectively targeted at high-risk children.

  10. Ensemble flood and drought simulations for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feyen, L.; Dankers, R.

    2009-12-01

    The projected changes in precipitation extremes under enhanced greenhouse conditions, with more frequent and prolonged periods of intense or, conversely, lack of precipitation, suggest more frequent and severe river floods and droughts for the future. We present a pan-European assessment of changes in extreme high and low flows by examining extreme discharge levels as simulated by a hydrological model when driven by a multi-model ensemble of climate simulations. The ensemble consists of simulations from two regional climate models (RCMs), both run with boundary conditions from two global climate models (GCMs), and for two scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions. Streamflow droughts will become more severe and persistent in most parts of Europe by the end of this century, except in the most northern and north-eastern regions. Most prone to an increase in drought hazard are the southern parts of Europe, which already suffer most from water stress. For floods we find a tendency toward a higher flood hazard in the majority of the model experiments in several major European rivers. A notable exception is northeastern Europe, where a consistent decrease in extreme river discharge is projected, suggesting a reduction in the hazard of extreme snowmelt floods due to warmer winters. At the scale of individual river basins the magnitude of change in flood hazard can vary strongly between climate models and scenarios, especially with respect to the driving GCM. Changes in streamflow drought seem less sensitive to the decadal-scale internal variability that is usually present in climate simulations and that may partially or completely obscure the climate change signal in extreme events. Our results suggest that combining climate models through a multi-model ensemble increases the reliability and consistency of the predictions, and is indispensable to better identify the climate signal amidst large variability.

  11. Tectonic evolution and paleogeography of Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O.; Norton, I.O.; Chuchla, R.J. ); Leary, D.A. )

    1993-09-01

    The goal of this study was to use the tectonic framework of European craton to constrain our understanding of the sedimentary basins of Europe. An understanding of the amalgamation of the crustal blocks of Europe during the Caledonian, Hercynian, and Alpine orogenies was accomplished using an Evans and Sutherland system. Paleogeographic maps were ;made and integrated with the plate reconstruction with an eye toward how regional plate-scale events affect play elements in the basins. Europe is an artifact of Phanerozoic tectonic history, an amalgamation of crustal blocks without a precambrian nucleus of it own. This is in direct contrast of Africa, Asia, and North America. Multiple riftings and collisions created extremely complex mountain building during the Caledonian, Hercynian, Cimmerian, and Alpine orogenies. Basins are diverse, superimposed, and have long-lived tectonic histories with complex structuring and highly variable play elements. The Hercynian orogene set up the framework for northern European hydrocarbon systems. Its collapse set up the Apulian Mesozoic hydrocarbon system. Alpine deformation and tectonically related extension in turn set up the Neogene hydrocarbon systems of the Carpathians Pannonian basin and the Apennines. Eleven paleogeographic maps were completed at a scale of 1:5,000,000. There are four for the Paleozoic to show the Hercynian orogeny and its subsequent foredeeps, and four for the Mesozoic, showing Tethyan rifting and associated subsidence, as well as the Cimmerian orogenies and start of Alpine deformation. The three time slices in the Cenozoic show the Alpine orogene and its foredeeps and the tectonically related extensional basins.

  12. Hotspots of land use change in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuemmerle, Tobias; Levers, Christian; Erb, Karlheinz; Estel, Stephan; Jepsen, Martin R.; Müller, Daniel; Plutzar, Christoph; Stürck, Julia; Verkerk, Pieter J.; Verburg, Peter H.; Reenberg, Anette

    2016-06-01

    Assessing changes in the extent and management intensity of land use is crucial to understanding land-system dynamics and their environmental and social outcomes. Yet, changes in the spatial patterns of land management intensity, and thus how they might relate to changes in the extent of land uses, remains unclear for many world regions. We compiled and analyzed high-resolution, spatially-explicit land-use change indicators capturing changes in both the extent and management intensity of cropland, grazing land, forests, and urban areas for all of Europe for the period 1990-2006. Based on these indicators, we identified hotspots of change and explored the spatial concordance of area versus intensity changes. We found a clear East-West divide with regard to agriculture, with stronger cropland declines and lower management intensity in the East compared to the West. Yet, these patterns were not uniform and diverging patterns of intensification in areas highly suitable for farming, and disintensification and cropland contraction in more marginal areas emerged. Despite the moderate overall rates of change, many regions in Europe fell into at least one land-use change hotspot during 1990-2006, often related to a spatial reorganization of land use (i.e., co-occurring area decline and intensification or co-occurring area increase and disintensification). Our analyses highlighted the diverse spatial patterns and heterogeneity of land-use changes in Europe, and the importance of jointly considering changes in the extent and management intensity of land use, as well as feedbacks among land-use sectors. Given this spatial differentiation of land-use change, and thus its environmental impacts, spatially-explicit assessments of land-use dynamics are important for context-specific, regionalized land-use policy making.

  13. Nutritional status in Europe: methods and results.

    PubMed

    Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Freisling, Heinz

    2009-05-01

    Presented here is an analysis and documentation of the nutritional situation in 14 European countries. Collection methods and available data about the most common nutritional status assessment indicators are described. Prevalence of adult obesity varied considerably in the 14 countries, ranging from 6% to 31%. The mean fat intake of adults exceeded the population goal of less than 30% of energy in virtually all of the 14 countries. Dietary fiber, folate, vitamin D, and (excessive) sodium intake did not meet recommended levels. Strategies addressing the inadequacies in European diets are needed to improve the nutritional situation in Europe.

  14. Siberia-Europe gas line nears completion

    SciTech Connect

    Gurevich, V.

    1983-08-01

    The Soviets export gas pipeline will be commissioned in the fourth quarter of 1983. This is the world's biggest gas pipeline, about 2,800 miles long and valued at $10 billion. Work proceeds well ahead of schedule over the major part of the gas line which is to connect the Urengoi deposits in Siberia with the city of Uzhgorod on the Soviet Union's western border. Part of the gas to be carried by the Siberia-Western Europe line will help meet the Soviet Union's domestic needs.

  15. JPRS Report, Science & Technology. Europe: Economic Competitiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-28

    Christian Chartier ; Paris LE MONDE, 12 Nov 90] lb JM3C QUALITY INSPECTED 3 JPRS-EST-91-001 28 January 1991 2 Europe EAST-WEST RELATIONS EC: S&T...led LCC, a Thomson-CSF subsidiary, to actively seek an alliance. Mr. Roger Agniel, the company’s CEO [chief executive officer], has favored a move...he falls, Mr. Roger Fauroux. In an interview in ECHOS, Mr. Fauroux said (19 September LE MONDE): "It Would be in Bull’s interest to seek an

  16. Animal manure digestion systems in central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Koeberle, E.

    1996-01-01

    This work provides an overview of existing plants in Europe and describes the substrates being used. It focuses on the individual farm-scale and community plants, as these are the two main types now being built. It also describes plants currently under construction, especially in Germany and Denmark, where the major efforts are focused. A description of how the technique has developed over the past few years, its current state of development, the motivation and economic balance, and the substrate characteristics, is presented.

  17. Integration and immigration pressures in western Europe.

    PubMed

    Bohning, W R

    1991-01-01

    "With xenophobia resurgent in Europe, this article addresses some of the complexities of immigration and integration in EC [European Community] and EFTA [European Free Trade Association] countries. The categories of legal and illegal immigrants (including estimates thereof) are first described, as are the necessary ingredients of an integration policy (a framework law, a secure environment, cultural tolerance, demarginalization in housing and the labour market). The author then considers what types of action would help to ease the present immigration pressure, discussing in turn quota policies, project-tied or training migration and, finally, the use of international aid."

  18. Synchronised Aerosol Mass Spectrometer Measurements across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemitz, Eiko

    2010-05-01

    Up to twelve Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (AMSs) were operated simultaneously at rural and background stations (EMEP and EUSAAR sites) across Europe. Measurements took place during three intensive periods, in collaboration between the European EUCAARI IP and the EMEP monitoring activities under the UNECE Convention for Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) during three contrasting months (May 2008, Sep/Oct 2008, Feb/Mar 2009). These measurements were conducted, analysed and quality controlled carefully using a unified protocol, providing the largest spatial database of aerosol chemical composition measured with a unified online technique to date, and a unique snapshots of the European non-refractory submicron aerosol climatology. As campaign averages over all active monitoring sites, organics represent 28 to 43%, sulphate 18 to 25%, ammonium 13 to 15% and nitrate 15 to 36% of the resolved aerosol mass, with the highest relative nitrate contribution during the Feb/Mar campaign. The measurements demonstrate that in NW Europe (e.g. Ireland, UK, The Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland) the regional submicron aerosol tends to be neutralised and here nitrates make a major contribution to the aerosol mass. By contrast, periods with low nitrate and acidic aerosol were observed at sites in S and E Europe (e.g. Greece, Finland), presumably due to a combination of larger SO2 point sources in Easter Europe, smaller local NH3 sources and, in the case of Greece, higher temperatures. While at the more marine and remote sites (Ireland, Scotland, Finland) nitrate concentrations were dominated by episodic transport phenomena, at continental sites (Switzerland, Germany, Hungary) nitrate followed a clear diurnal cycle, reflecting the thermodynamic behaviour of ammonium nitrate. The datasets clearly shows spatially co-ordinated, large-scale pollution episodes of organics, sulphate and nitrate, the latter being most pronounced during the Feb/Mar campaign. At selected

  19. Options for Deploying Missile Defenses in Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    phase defense system. CBO 12 OPTIONS FOR DEPLOYING MISSILE DEFENSES IN EUROPE CBOB The AN/ TPY -2—a transportable X-band radar based on the radar of the...THAAD system.22 One AN/ TPY - 2 has been deployed to Shariki, Japan, and MDA plans to use another as the forward-based radar for the proposed European...satellites are slated to be launched in 2009. The size and satellite design for 22. The AN/ TPY -2 was formerly known as the Forward-Based X- Band

  20. Intussusception among young children in Europe.

    PubMed

    Huppertz, Hans-Iko; Soriano-Gabarró, Montse; Grimprel, Emmanuel; Franco, Elisabetta; Mezner, Zsofia; Desselberger, Ulrich; Smit, Yolba; Wolleswinkel-van den Bosch, Judith; De Vos, Beatrice; Giaquinto, Carlo

    2006-01-01

    Intussusception, a potentially lethal condition with poorly understood etiology, is the most common cause of acute intestinal obstruction in children younger than 5 years old. In some cases, the condition has been associated with administration of the first licensed rotavirus vaccine, the reassortant rhesus-human tetravalent rotavirus vaccine (RRV-TV; RotaShield). No such association has to date been reported from large phase III safety trials with new rotavirus vaccines. As 2 new, live-attenuated oral rotavirus vaccines are currently under review for approval by the European Union regulatory authorities, a review of the clinical, etiologic and epidemiologic aspects of intussusception in Europe is urgently needed. We conducted a review of Medline literature, published from 1995 onwards on intussusception in the World Health Organization's European Region. The results are compared with data from previous reviews and other regions. The classic triad of intussusception symptoms (abdominal pain, abdominal mass, bloody stools) was present in 29-33% of patients according to the medical literature reviewed. Conservative treatment (barium, air or saline enema) was the rule (81% of cases), and few complications were observed during treatment. Treatment outcome was generally favorable, with recurrence occurring in approximately 1 in 10 patients, and only 1 death reported. Structural lead points were seen in 3% of patients; no other reliable data on the etiology of intussusception were found. The incidence of acute intussusception in young children in Europe, according to 6 heterogeneous hospital-based studies, ranged from 0.66 to 2.24 per 1000 children in inpatient departments and from 0.75 to 1.00 per 1000 children in emergency departments. Peak incidences were found in children 3-9 months of age. There are still gaps in our knowledge of intussusception with respect to its etiology and especially by which mechanisms RRV-TV might have caused it to occur. Data from regions

  1. Implementing safe obstetric anesthesia in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Kuczkowski, Krzysztof M; Kuczkowski, Krzysztof M

    2009-08-01

    The position of woman in any civilization is an index of the advancement of that civilization; the position of woman is gauged best by the care given her at the birth of her child. Obstetric anesthesia, by definition, is a subspecialty of anesthesia devoted to peripartum, perioperative, pain and anesthetic management of women during pregnancy and the puerperium. Today, obstetric anesthesia has become a recognized subspecialty of anesthesiology and an integral part of practice of most anesthesiologists. Perhaps, no other subspecialty of anesthesiology provides more personal gratification than the practice of obstetric anesthesia. This article reviews the challenges associated with implementing safe obstetric anesthesia practice in Eastern Europe.

  2. Patenting Stem Cell Technologies in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Sheard, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    European patent law as it applies to stem cell technologies is complex. The complexities have developed from different supranational sources of law during the last 50 years and from the various levels of exceptions to patentability embodied in the law. In relation to stem cells of human embryonic origin, the definition of a human embryo, although broad, is still in some respects unclear; and the definition of what constitutes the use of a human embryo for industrial or commercial purposes, which is excluded from patentability in Europe, is also remarkably broad. Further clarification is awaited from the courts and from the Boards of Appeal of the European Patent Office. PMID:25395376

  3. Autochthonous and dormant Cryptococcus gattii infections in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Ferry; Colom, M Francisca; Swinne, Daniëlle; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Iatta, Roberta; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Torres-Rodriguez, Josep M; Cogliati, Massimo; Velegraki, Aristea; Burggraaf, Arjan; Kamermans, Alwin; Sweere, Johanna M; Meis, Jacques F; Klaassen, Corné H W; Boekhout, Teun

    2012-10-01

    Until recently, Cryptococcus gattii infections occurred mainly in tropical and subtropical climate zones. However, during the past decade, C. gattii infections in humans and animals in Europe have increased. To determine whether the infections in Europe were acquired from an autochthonous source or associated with travel, we used multilocus sequence typing to compare 100 isolates from Europe (57 from 40 human patients, 22 from the environment, and 21 from animals) with 191 isolates from around the world. Of the 57 human patient isolates, 47 (83%) were obtained since 1995. Among the 40 patients, 24 (60%) probably acquired the C. gattii infection outside Europe; the remaining 16 (40%) probably acquired the infection within Europe. Human patient isolates from Mediterranean Europe clustered into a distinct genotype with animal and environmental isolates. These results indicate that reactivation of dormant C. gattii infections can occur many years after the infectious agent was acquired elsewhere.

  4. Autochthonous and Dormant Cryptococcus gattii Infections in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Colom, M. Francisca; Swinne, Daniëlle; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Iatta, Roberta; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Torres-Rodriguez, Josep M.; Cogliati, Massimo; Velegraki, Aristea; Burggraaf, Arjan; Kamermans, Alwin; Sweere, Johanna M.; Meis, Jacques F.; Klaassen, Corné H.W.; Boekhout, Teun

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, Cryptococcus gattii infections occurred mainly in tropical and subtropical climate zones. However, during the past decade, C. gattii infections in humans and animals in Europe have increased. To determine whether the infections in Europe were acquired from an autochthonous source or associated with travel, we used multilocus sequence typing to compare 100 isolates from Europe (57 from 40 human patients, 22 from the environment, and 21 from animals) with 191 isolates from around the world. Of the 57 human patient isolates, 47 (83%) were obtained since 1995. Among the 40 patients, 24 (60%) probably acquired the C. gattii infection outside Europe; the remaining 16 (40%) probably acquired the infection within Europe. Human patient isolates from Mediterranean Europe clustered into a distinct genotype with animal and environmental isolates. These results indicate that reactivation of dormant C. gattii infections can occur many years after the infectious agent was acquired elsewhere. PMID:23017442

  5. The Impact of Eastern Europe on Soviet Policy Toward Western Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    Eurocentrism to argue that "Western Europe is the place where the destiny of the Soviet Union and what it stands for will eventually be decided.Ŗ In...1986: "We in the Soviet Union are thinking of security for all states-large, medium, and small. It is in breaking down the old stereotype that sees the

  6. Europe of the Future and the Future of Europe: The Innovation/Austerity Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etzkowitz, Henry; Etzkowitz, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Although innovation policy usually follows the business cycle, it is both desirable and possible to reverse this trend. Perhaps the most telling commentary on contemporary Europe is the silence that met the presentation, at the recent European Parliament Innovation Conference, of the Chinese R&D spending curve passing the European Union curve…

  7. Slow and not so sure: Europe`s long march to electricity market liberalization

    SciTech Connect

    Hancher, L.

    1997-11-01

    Under Europe`s recent Directive on competition in electricity, Member States retain immense autonomy to set the competitive agenda within their borders. The result may well be a distinctly skewed - and far from open - trade in electricity, and little opportunity for even large customers to make a meaningful choice of suppliers. The final adoption last year by The European Council - effectively the legislative body of the European Community - of a regulatory measure requiring gradual liberalization of Europe`s electricity market is an event of more symbolic than real significance. During the seven years it has taken to negotiate and compromise upon a suitable legal framework for electricity market liberalization, the European market itself has moved on. Effective implementation of the newly adopted framework rules is unlikely to be a real catalyst for change in its own right, although it could still be an important force in shaping the direction of liberalization programs already underway at the national level. This article will examine the state of electricity market liberalization in what is now known as the European Union - the loose quasi-federal structure which subsists between the 15 Member States of the European Community (EC). It will focus in part upon the provisions of the new EC Directive on the creation of a single market for electricity, and in part upon the complex changes which are gradually transforming the European electricity market.

  8. Europe of the Future and the Future of Europe: The Innovation/Austerity Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etzkowitz, Henry; Etzkowitz, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Although innovation policy usually follows the business cycle, it is both desirable and possible to reverse this trend. Perhaps the most telling commentary on contemporary Europe is the silence that met the presentation, at the recent European Parliament Innovation Conference, of the Chinese R&D spending curve passing the European Union curve…

  9. New times for migrants' health in Europe.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Uruena, J M; Noori, T; Pharris, A; Jansà, J M

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of migration can change greatly over time, with the size and composition of migrant populations reflecting both, current and historical patterns of migration flows. The recent economic crisis has caused a decrease on migration flows towards the most affected areas, as well as cut offs in health interventions addressed to migrants. The objective of this paper is to review available data about interventions on migrants' health in Europe, and to describe changes in migrant health policies across Europe after the economic crisis, that can have a negative effect in their health status. Although migrants have the right to health care under legal settlements issued by the EU, there is no a standard European approach to offer health care to migrants, since; policies in each EU Member State are developed according to specific migrant experience, political climate, and attitudes towards migration. Migrants use to face greater health problems and major health care access barriers, compared with their counterparts from the EU. Therefore, migrant health policies should focus in protects this vulnerable group, especially during economic hardship, taking into account economic and socio-demographic risk factors. There is an especial need for research in the cost-effectiveness of investing in the health care of the migrant population, demonstrating the benefit of such, even in the health of the European native population, and the need for constant intervention despite of resource constraints.

  10. PESI - a taxonomic backbone for Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kouwenberg, Juliana; Boumans, Louis; Hussey, Charles; Hyam, Roger; Nicolson, Nicola; Kirk, Paul; Paton, Alan; Michel, Ellinor; Guiry, Michael D.; Boegh, Phillip S.; Pedersen, Henrik Ærenlund; Enghoff, Henrik; von Raab-Straube, Eckhard; Güntsch, Anton; Geoffroy, Marc; Müller, Andreas; Kohlbecker, Andreas; Berendsohn, Walter; Appeltans, Ward; Arvanitidis, Christos; Vanhoorne, Bart; Declerck, Joram; Vandepitte, Leen; Hernandez, Francisco; Nash, Róisín; Costello, Mark John; Ouvrard, David; Bezard-Falgas, Pascale; Bourgoin, Thierry; Wetzel, Florian Tobias; Glöckler, Falko; Korb, Günther; Ring, Caroline; Hagedorn, Gregor; Häuser, Christoph; Aktaç, Nihat; Asan, Ahmet; Ardelean, Adorian; Borges, Paulo Alexandre Vieira; Dhora, Dhimiter; Khachatryan, Hasmik; Malicky, Michael; Ibrahimov, Shaig; Tuzikov, Alexander; De Wever, Aaike; Moncheva, Snejana; Spassov, Nikolai; Chobot, Karel; Popov, Alexi; Boršić, Igor; Sfenthourakis, Spyros; Kõljalg, Urmas; Uotila, Pertti; Olivier, Gargominy; Dauvin, Jean-Claude; Tarkhnishvili, David; Chaladze, Giorgi; Tuerkay, Michael; Legakis, Anastasios; Peregovits, László; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur; Ólafsson, Erling; Lysaght, Liam; Galil, Bella Sarah; Raimondo, Francesco M.; Domina, Gianniantonio; Stoch, Fabio; Minelli, Alessandro; Spungis, Voldermars; Budrys, Eduardas; Olenin, Sergej; Turpel, Armand; Walisch, Tania; Krpach, Vladimir; Gambin, Marie Therese; Ungureanu, Laurentia; Karaman, Gordan; Kleukers, Roy M.J.C.; Stur, Elisabeth; Aagaard, Kaare; Valland, Nils; Moen, Toril Loennechen; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Tykarski, Piotr; Węsławski, Jan Marcin; Kędra, Monika; M. de Frias Martins, Antonio; Abreu, António Domingos; Silva, Ricardo; Medvedev, Sergei; Ryss, Alexander; Šimić, Smiljka; Marhold, Karol; Stloukal, Eduard; Tome, Davorin; Ramos, Marian A.; Valdés, Benito; Pina, Francisco; Kullander, Sven; Telenius, Anders; Gonseth, Yves; Tschudin, Pascal; Sergeyeva, Oleksandra; Vladymyrov, Volodymyr; Rizun, Volodymyr Bohdanovych; Raper, Chris; Lear, Dan; Stoev, Pavel; Penev, Lyubomir; Rubio, Ana Casino; Backeljau, Thierry; Saarenmaa, Hannu; Ulenberg, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Reliable taxonomy underpins communication in all of biology, not least nature conservation and sustainable use of ecosystem resources. The flexibility of taxonomic interpretations, however, presents a serious challenge for end-users of taxonomic concepts. Users need standardised and continuously harmonised taxonomic reference systems, as well as high-quality and complete taxonomic data sets, but these are generally lacking for non-specialists. The solution is in dynamic, expertly curated web-based taxonomic tools. The Pan-European Species-directories Infrastructure (PESI) worked to solve this key issue by providing a taxonomic e-infrastructure for Europe. It strengthened the relevant social (expertise) and information (standards, data and technical) capacities of five major community networks on taxonomic indexing in Europe, which is essential for proper biodiversity assessment and monitoring activities. The key objectives of PESI were: 1) standardisation in taxonomic reference systems, 2) enhancement of the quality and completeness of taxonomic data sets and 3) creation of integrated access to taxonomic information. New information This paper describes the results of PESI and its future prospects, including the involvement in major European biodiversity informatics initiatives and programs. PMID:26491393

  11. Eastern Europe and Community of Independent States.

    PubMed

    Axmann, A

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on migration, HIV/AIDS, and sexually transmitted diseases in Eastern Europe and the Community of Independent States (CIS): Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the former Yugoslavian countries; and Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. There is little in-depth research on the prevalence of HIV/AIDS. After the collapse of the USSR, the opening up of borders presented greater options for the spread of HIV. During 1991-1996, HIV-infected persons increased from 0.3/100,000 to 7.8/100,000. Syphilis and gonorrhea also spread in the 1990s. The increased prevalence is attributed to changes in sexual behavior due to increased travel and migration, disruption among families, and changes in sexual mores; and changes in the structure, availability, and effectiveness of health services. Many migrants in the CIS are young people. Mobile populations in the CIS include labor migrants, refugees, persons displaced by armed conflicts, repatriates, forced migrants, resettlement of formerly deported persons, and ecological migrants. It is general knowledge that migrants are poorly informed about HIV/AIDS. Condoms are not readily available in the CIS. Eastern Europe has high rates of HIV among migrant sex workers.

  12. Adapting wheat in Europe for climate change

    PubMed Central

    Semenov, M.A.; Stratonovitch, P.; Alghabari, F.; Gooding, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing cereal yield is needed to meet the projected increased demand for world food supply of about 70% by 2050. Sirius, a process-based model for wheat, was used to estimate yield potential for wheat ideotypes optimized for future climatic projections for ten wheat growing areas of Europe. It was predicted that the detrimental effect of drought stress on yield would be decreased due to enhanced tailoring of phenology to future weather patterns, and due to genetic improvements in the response of photosynthesis and green leaf duration to water shortage. Yield advances could be made through extending maturation and thereby improve resource capture and partitioning. However the model predicted an increase in frequency of heat stress at meiosis and anthesis. Controlled environment experiments quantify the effects of heat and drought at booting and flowering on grain numbers and potential grain size. A current adaptation of wheat to areas of Europe with hotter and drier summers is a quicker maturation which helps to escape from excessive stress, but results in lower yields. To increase yield potential and to respond to climate change, increased tolerance to heat and drought stress should remain priorities for the genetic improvement of wheat. PMID:24882934

  13. Glaciated valleys in Europe and western Asia.

    PubMed

    Prasicek, Günther; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Montgomery, David R; Schrott, Lothar

    2015-03-15

    In recent years, remote sensing, morphometric analysis, and other computational concepts and tools have invigorated the field of geomorphological mapping. Automated interpretation of digital terrain data based on impartial rules holds substantial promise for large dataset processing and objective landscape classification. However, the geomorphological realm presents tremendous complexity and challenges in the translation of qualitative descriptions into geomorphometric semantics. Here, the simple, conventional distinction of V-shaped fluvial and U-shaped glacial valleys was analyzed quantitatively using multi-scale curvature and a novel morphometric variable termed Difference of Minimum Curvature (DMC). We used this automated terrain analysis approach to produce a raster map at a scale of 1:6,000,000 showing the distribution of glaciated valleys across Europe and western Asia. The data set has a cell size of 3 arc seconds and consists of more than 40 billion grid cells. Glaciated U-shaped valleys commonly associated with erosion by warm-based glaciers are abundant in the alpine regions of mid Europe and western Asia but also occur at the margins of mountain ice sheets in Scandinavia. The high-level correspondence with field mapping and the fully transferable semantics validate this approach for automated analysis of yet unexplored terrain around the globe and qualify for potential applications on other planetary bodies like Mars.

  14. Petroleum developments in Europe in 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Kat, C.

    1980-11-01

    In 1979 the rise of oil prices and the threat to oil supplies from traditional Middle East sources caused an increase in development of known hydrocarbon resources in Europe. Oil production increased by 30% over the 1978 figure. The major share of the increase came from the North Sea, the Spanish Gulf of Valencia, and N. Italy as the discoveries of the 1970's were brought on stream. Vigorous appraisal and development drilling programs and new discovieres - Statoil/Shell's 31/2-1A gas discovery in the Norwegian North Sea may prove to be another giant - will insure that production increases in these areas will continue into the 1980's. Exploration activity moved into high-cost and high-risk areas and has enabled the definition of deeper and more subtle traps. There was successful wildcat drilling of new plays in the producing offshore areas of the North Sea and Italian Adriatic and also in many of the traditional onshore hydrocarbon producing areas of Europe, W. Germany, Austria, France, Netherlands, Yugoslavia, Italy, Spain, and the UK.

  15. EURHOMAP: mapping professional home care in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Cabanas, Marta; Ondiviela, M. Àngels; Bolibar, Bonaventura; Morales, José Miguel; José Audera, Francisco; Taltavull, Joana Maria

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Not only is there no comparable information on home care available from the newest EU member states, but information from the other 15 is old. Furthermore, as European countries have implemented health care reforms over the past decade, updating is needed. Description of policy practice The EURHOMAP project (Mapping professional home care in Europe) aims to describe and compare the organisation and provision of home care (health and social) services through the gathering, analysing and disseminating of information on various aspects of home care services in 32 European countries. Discussion/Conclusions Data collection will be done firstly with vignettes, descriptions of cases of elderly or disabled people in need of care living at home, and secondly with a collection table including data and selected home care items. Both instruments will be handled by experts. Comparison of the two instruments will show the diversity of home care in Europe: different roles of home care in European health care systems, variations in financing and provision, links with other sectors of health care and social services, and type of patient needs and demands to which home care is responding.

  16. [Ageing: research in Spain and Europe].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Vicente; Rodríguez Mañas, Leocadio; Sancho Castiello, Mayte; Díaz Martín, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Researchers, stakeholders and policy makers agree about the importance of the population ageing in modern societies, so a broad analysis of current research strategies is in progress, such as FUTURAGE, a network for drawing a map for future research on ageing. This document presents the Spanish contribution to this map following FUTURAGE guidelines, drawn from the debates held in the 'Ageing. Research in Spain and Europe' Workshop. The first part consists of general ideas seeking to define future challenges on research using a multidisciplinary approach, in which the theoretical and methodological debate, the comparative and multilevel perspective, the transfer of knowledge and involvement of the older people would be essential to consider. Some of the main issues according to FUTURAGE structure are, the bio-gerontology of ageing, healthy and active ageing, and the socioeconomic and environmental resources of ageing. The interaction between these contents is pivotal to understand the research on ageing. Finally, the document provides some methodological and instrumental ideas to reinforce the need for cross-sectional research initiatives, integrating different data and combining methods in order to develop assessment and intervention strategies. Other aspects look into the mechanisms to coordinate research within a European context. The map on ageing research has been published after the consultation process in Europe (http://futurage.group.shef.ac.uk/road-map.html) and is now ready to be considered for integration into future European and Spanish research programs. Copyright © 2012 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. [The new migratory deal in Southern Europe].

    PubMed

    Simon, G

    1986-09-01

    The author examines migration patterns in Southern Europe during the 1970s and early 1980s, noting particularly the reduction in migration northward from this region. It is noted that "departure potential remains sizable in certain areas of Portugal, Spain, Southern Italy, and most particularly, of Turkey and Yugoslavia. Transoceanic migrations have by no means ceased, as new flows of skilled labor have, since 1974, gone towards Arab states endowed with petrol (oil) revenues. And yet, the paramount fact is most surely the emergence and the proliferation in Greece, Spain, and (especially) in Italy, of basically clandestine (illegal) immigration. This movement is due to the convergence of several factors: economic and demographic disparities between northern and southern shores of the Mediterranean Sea, the sealing-off of borders in Northwestern Europe and the 'carry-over' effect upon nations of 'transit', the extent of the flow of refugees, and--most particularly--the appeal provided by the development, in these new employer countries, of an underground economy accompanied by the extension into industry of the practice of 'undeclared' work. And notwithstanding the series of rules lastly drawn up in Spain and in Greece, such forms of clandestine (unauthorized) migration appear highly likely--to say the least--to persist." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  18. Suboptimal Micronutrient Intake among Children in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kaganov, Boris; Caroli, Margherita; Mazur, Artur; Singhal, Atul; Vania, Andrea

    2015-05-13

    Adequate dietary intake of micronutrients is not necessarily achieved even in resource-rich areas of the world wherein overeating is a public health concern. In Europe, population-based data suggests substantial variability in micronutrient intake among children. Two independent surveys of micronutrient consumption among European children were evaluated. Stratified by age, the data regarding micronutrient intake were evaluated in the context of daily requirements, which are typically estimated in the absence of reliable absolute values derived from prospective studies. The proportion of children living in Europe whose intake of at least some vitamins and trace elements are at or below the estimated average requirements is substantial. The most common deficiencies across age groups included vitamin D, vitamin E, and iodine. Specific deficiencies were not uniform across countries or by age or gender.  Micronutrient intake appears to be more strongly influenced by factors other than access to food. Substantial portions of European children may be at risk of reversible health risks from inadequate intake of micronutrients. Despite the growing health threat posed by excess intake of calories, adequate exposure to vitamins, trace elements, and other micronutrients may deserve attention in public health initiatives to optimize growth and development in the European pediatric population.

  19. Laser techniques in conservation in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimbeni, Renzo

    2005-06-01

    The state of the art of laser techniques employed in conservation of cultural heritage is continuously growing in Europe. Many research projects organised at the European level have contributed to this achievement, being complementary to the development carried out at national level. The COST Action G7 is playing its unique role since the year 2000 in promoting the experimentation, comparing the experiences and disseminating best practices. This role has been particularly effective for monitoring of the results of many short-term research projects completed along the G7 Action lifetime. After that several laser cleaning techniques have been followed and evaluated it appears now clear an evolution of the systems, a specialization of the cleaning task, the achievement of side-effect free procedures. The validation of these advanced cleaning techniques has been extensive and diffused in many European countries, especially for stone and metals. Laser-based diagnostics have also specialised their tasks toward material analysis, defects detection and multidimensional documentation. Laser and optical methods successfully monitor deterioration effects. In many European countries interdisciplinary networks are managing the experimentation of these techniques giving them a sound scientific approach, but also a technology transfer to end-users. So doing the appreciation for these techniques is growing in all the conservation institutions involved at national level, disseminating a positive evaluation about the benefits provided by laser techniques in conservation. Several laser systems became products for the activity of professional restorers and their increasing sales demonstrate a growing utilisation throughout all Europe.

  20. Tactical defense initiative for Western Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Daalder, I.H.

    1987-05-01

    This article shows while the ABM Treaty does not address defensive systems capable of intercepting tactical ballistic missiles, the treaty's provisions if adhered to, would affect the capability of such an ABM system in important way. It is clear that some proposed systems, if deployed in an ATBM role, would violate the treaty. In essence, these systems include most of the SDI technologies with ATBM applications. If the ABM Treaty is to remain one of the sacred symbols of arms control - as most allies believe it should - then a European SDI is out of the question. Such a system should also be rejected on other grounds. No European missile-defense system will be 100% effective in defending against a Soviet nuclear attack, for the myriad of nuclear threats facing Western Europe - ranging from nuclear artillery, through air-delivered nuclear bombs and cruise missiles, to the SS-20 - is so vast that some nuclear weapons would inevitably get through. In densely populated Western Europe, a few such nuclear bombs would wreak untold destruction. 16 references, 3 figures.

  1. Interactive map of refugee movement in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calka, Beata; Cahan, Bruce

    2016-12-01

    Considering the recent mass movement of people fleeing war and oppression, an analysis of changes in migration, in particular an analysis of the final destination refugees choose, seems to be of utmost importance. Many international organisations like UNHCR (the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees) or EuroStat gather and provide information on the number of refugees and the routes they follow. What is also needed to study the state of affairs closely is a visual form presenting the rapidly changing situation. An analysis of the problem together with up-to-date statistical data presented in the visual form of a map is essential. This article describes methods of preparing such interactive maps displaying movement of refugees in European Union countries. Those maps would show changes taking place throughout recent years but also the dynamics of the development of the refugee crisis in Europe. The ArcGIS software was applied to make the map accessible on the Internet. Additionally, online sources and newspaper articles were used to present the movement of migrants. The interactive map makes it possible to watch spatial data with an opportunity to navigate within the map window. Because of that it is a clear and convenient tool to visualise such processes as refugee migration in Europe.

  2. Adapting wheat in Europe for climate change.

    PubMed

    Semenov, M A; Stratonovitch, P; Alghabari, F; Gooding, M J

    2014-05-01

    Increasing cereal yield is needed to meet the projected increased demand for world food supply of about 70% by 2050. Sirius, a process-based model for wheat, was used to estimate yield potential for wheat ideotypes optimized for future climatic projections for ten wheat growing areas of Europe. It was predicted that the detrimental effect of drought stress on yield would be decreased due to enhanced tailoring of phenology to future weather patterns, and due to genetic improvements in the response of photosynthesis and green leaf duration to water shortage. Yield advances could be made through extending maturation and thereby improve resource capture and partitioning. However the model predicted an increase in frequency of heat stress at meiosis and anthesis. Controlled environment experiments quantify the effects of heat and drought at booting and flowering on grain numbers and potential grain size. A current adaptation of wheat to areas of Europe with hotter and drier summers is a quicker maturation which helps to escape from excessive stress, but results in lower yields. To increase yield potential and to respond to climate change, increased tolerance to heat and drought stress should remain priorities for the genetic improvement of wheat.

  3. National and regional asthma programmes in Europe.

    PubMed

    Selroos, Olof; Kupczyk, Maciej; Kuna, Piotr; Łacwik, Piotr; Bousquet, Jean; Brennan, David; Palkonen, Susanna; Contreras, Javier; FitzGerald, Mark; Hedlin, Gunilla; Johnston, Sebastian L; Louis, Renaud; Metcalf, Leanne; Walker, Samantha; Moreno-Galdó, Antonio; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Rosado-Pinto, José; Powell, Pippa; Haahtela, Tari

    2015-09-01

    This review presents seven national asthma programmes to support the European Asthma Research and Innovation Partnership in developing strategies to reduce asthma mortality and morbidity across Europe. From published data it appears that in order to influence asthma care, national/regional asthma programmes are more effective than conventional treatment guidelines. An asthma programme should start with the universal commitments of stakeholders at all levels and the programme has to be endorsed by political and governmental bodies. When the national problems have been identified, the goals of the programme have to be clearly defined with measures to evaluate progress. An action plan has to be developed, including defined re-allocation of patients and existing resources, if necessary, between primary care and specialised healthcare units or hospital centres. Patients should be involved in guided self-management education and structured follow-up in relation to disease severity. The three evaluated programmes show that, thanks to rigorous efforts, it is possible to improve patients' quality of life and reduce hospitalisation, asthma mortality, sick leave and disability pensions. The direct and indirect costs, both for the individual patient and for society, can be significantly reduced. The results can form the basis for development of further programme activities in Europe. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  4. Protected areas in Europe: principle and practice.

    PubMed

    Gaston, Kevin J; Jackson, Sarah F; Nagy, Arnold; Cantú-Salazar, Lisette; Johnson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Systematic conservation planning provides a structured, target-driven approach to ensuring the long-term maintenance of biodiversity. However, reviews of how well the steps of such a planning process are applied in different regions are scant; some steps may be implemented although there is no formal systematic conservation planning process taking place. Here we conduct such a review for Europe. Taking in turn the six recognized steps of systematic conservation planning, for this region: (i) The availability of data on biodiversity remains a significant constraint on conservation planning because, although species occurrences have often been better mapped in Europe than elsewhere, there is a continuing mismatch between the spatial resolution at which data coverage is adequate and that of habitat fragmentation. (ii) Although there are important legal frameworks for conservation planning, explicit quantitative goals for the representation and persistence of biodiversity are largely lacking. (iii) Assessment of the effectiveness of existing protected area systems is patchy and rather ill developed, with a substantial gulf between the work being conducted in more academic and policy-oriented arenas. (iv) Nonetheless, particularly through the Natura 2000 process, there has been an extraordinary program to select additional protected areas. (v) Although it has taken longer than originally envisaged, this program is resulting in a substantial expansion of the protected area system. (vi) There are significant concerns over the extent to which existing protected area systems can maintain their biodiversity values, particularly given the small size of many of these areas and likely impacts of climate change.

  5. Remote access laboratories in Australia and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, H.; Ahfock, T.; Yusaf, T.

    2011-06-01

    Remote access laboratories (RALs) were first developed in 1994 in Australia and Switzerland. The main purposes of developing them are to enable students to do their experiments at their own pace, time and locations and to enable students and teaching staff to get access to facilities beyond their institutions. Currently, most of the experiments carried out through RALs in Australia are heavily biased towards electrical, electronic and computer engineering disciplines. However, the experiments carried out through RALs in Europe had more variety, in addition to the traditional electrical, electronic and computer engineering disciplines, there were experiments in mechanical and mechatronic disciplines. It was found that RALs are now being developed aggressively in Australia and Europe and it can be argued that RALs will develop further and faster in the future with improving Internet technology. The rising costs of real experimental equipment will also speed up their development because by making the equipment remotely accessible, the cost can be shared by more universities or institutions and this will improve their cost-effectiveness. Their development would be particularly rapid in large countries with small populations such as Australia, Canada and Russia, because of the scale of economy. Reusability of software, interoperability in software implementation, computer supported collaborative learning and convergence with learning management systems are the required development of future RALs.

  6. Glaciated valleys in Europe and western Asia

    PubMed Central

    Prasicek, Günther; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Montgomery, David R.; Schrott, Lothar

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, remote sensing, morphometric analysis, and other computational concepts and tools have invigorated the field of geomorphological mapping. Automated interpretation of digital terrain data based on impartial rules holds substantial promise for large dataset processing and objective landscape classification. However, the geomorphological realm presents tremendous complexity and challenges in the translation of qualitative descriptions into geomorphometric semantics. Here, the simple, conventional distinction of V-shaped fluvial and U-shaped glacial valleys was analyzed quantitatively using multi-scale curvature and a novel morphometric variable termed Difference of Minimum Curvature (DMC). We used this automated terrain analysis approach to produce a raster map at a scale of 1:6,000,000 showing the distribution of glaciated valleys across Europe and western Asia. The data set has a cell size of 3 arc seconds and consists of more than 40 billion grid cells. Glaciated U-shaped valleys commonly associated with erosion by warm-based glaciers are abundant in the alpine regions of mid Europe and western Asia but also occur at the margins of mountain ice sheets in Scandinavia. The high-level correspondence with field mapping and the fully transferable semantics validate this approach for automated analysis of yet unexplored terrain around the globe and qualify for potential applications on other planetary bodies like Mars. PMID:27019665

  7. Birth of the Angle Society of Europe.

    PubMed

    Jacquin, Michel

    2006-01-01

    The history of the Angle Society of Europe began in 1971 with the meeting of two men: Juan Canut from Spain and Ernst Hösl from Germany. They decided to launch the idea of an association to get ready for the emergence of a new wave of Orthodontics in Europe. The first step was the creation of a Society with small groups of fourteen Orthodontists. The very first principle to be followed was "the plaster on the table" demonstration together with presentations on clinical or general interest subjects. The First Official Meeting took place in Zurich. 32 initial members were in attendance trying to set up the requirements for the development of a high quality Society. The second meeting focused on a scientific program centered on Treatment Timing Topic and the emergence of a new set of Bylaws. The third meeting was devoted to the display of 215 treated cases presented by temporary members to be evaluated by a Scientific Committee under the presidency of Dr. Alton Moore as official representative of the USA Edward H. Angle Society of Orthodontists. The following meetings demonstrated a constant and well monitored increase of new candidates and active members motivated to reach the required excellence level.

  8. Coal gasification developments in Europe -- A perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Burnard, G.K.; Sharman, P.W.; Alphandary, M.

    1994-12-31

    This survey paper will review the development status of coal gasification in Europe and give a broad perspective of the future uptake of the technology. Three main families of gasifier design are currently being developed or demonstrated world-wide, namely fixed bed (also known as moving bed), fluidized bed and entrained flow. Gasifiers belonging to each of these families have been or are being developed in European countries. Of the three families, entrained flow gasifiers are at the most advanced stage of development, with two demonstration projects currently underway: these projects are based on designs developed by Shell and Krupp Koppers. Fixed bed systems have been developed to operate under either slagging or non-slagging conditions, ie, the British Gas-Lurgi and Tampella U-Gas systems, respectively. Fluid bed systems of various designs have also been developed, eg, the Rheinbraun HTW, British Coal and Ahlstrom systems. Gasification cycles can be based on either total or partial gasification, and the above designs represent both these options. In addition, a wide variety of fuel sources can be used in gasifiers, including bituminous coal, lignite, biomass, petroleum coke, etc or, indeed, any combination of these. The major demonstration projects in Europe are at Buggenum in the Netherlands, where a 250 MWe entrained flow gasifier based on Shell technology first gasified coal in December 1993. A further 335 MWe entrained flow gasifier, located at Puertollano in Spain, based on Krupp Koppers Prenflo technology, is at an advanced stage of construction.

  9. Genetic, geographic, and linguistic distances in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Sokal, R.R.

    1988-03-01

    Genetic and taxonomic distances were computed for 3466 samples of human populations in Europe based on 97 allele frequencies and 10 cranial variables. Since the actual samples employed differed among the genetic systems studied, the genetic distances were computed separately for each system, as were matrices of geographic distances and of linguistic distances based on membership in the same language family of phylum. Significant matrix correlations between genetics and geography were found for the majority of systems; somewhat less frequent are significant correlations between genetics and language. The effects of the two factors can be separated by means of partial matrix correlations. These show significant values for both genetics and geography, language kept constant, and genetics and language, geography kept constant, with a tendency for the former to be higher. These findings demonstrate that speakers of different language families in Europe differ genetically and that this difference remains even after geographic differentiation is allowed for. The greater effect of geography than of language may be due to the several factors that bring about spatial differentiation in human populations.

  10. Heart failure management programmes in Europe.

    PubMed

    Jaarsma, T; Strömberg, A; De Geest, S; Fridlund, B; Heikkila, J; Mårtensson, J; Moons, P; Scholte op Reimer, W; Smith, K; Stewart, S; Thompson, D R

    2006-09-01

    The ESC guidelines recommend that an organised system of specialist heart failure (HF) care should be established to improve outcomes of HF patients. The aim of this study was therefore to identify the number and the content of HF management programmes in Europe. A two-phase descriptive study was conducted: an initial screening to identify the existence of HF management programmes; and a survey to describe the content in countries where at least 30% of the hospitals had a programme. Of the 43 European countries approached, 26 (60%) estimated the percentage of HF management programmes. Seven countries reported that they had such programmes in more than 30% of their hospitals. Of the 673 hospitals responding to the questionnaire, 426 (63%) had a HF management programme. Half of the programmes (n = 205) were located in an outpatient clinic. In the UK a combination of hospital and home-based programmes was common (75%). The most programmes included physical examination, telephone consultation, patient education, drug titration and diagnostic testing. Most (89%) programmes involved nurses and physicians. Multi-disciplinary teams were active in 56% of the HF programmes. The most prominent differences between the 7 countries were the degree of collaboration with home care and GP's, the role in palliative care and the funding. Only a few European countries have a large number of organised programmes for HF care and follow up. To improve outcomes of HF patients throughout Europe more effort should be taken to increase the number of these programmes in all countries.

  11. Emigration flows from North Africa to Europe.

    PubMed

    Kassar, Hassène; Marzouk, Diaa; Anwar, Wagida A; Lakhoua, Chérifa; Hemminki, Kari; Khyatti, Meriem

    2014-08-01

    The region of North Africa (NA) represents a striking locality regarding migration with several migration patterns, namely emigration in the form of labour export to Europe and North America and, to a lesser extent, to the Arab Gulf area. The latter has increased enormously in the last decade because of the political instability in most of the NA countries. The aim of the present chapter was to explore the patterns of migration stocks and flows in NA countries, based on several websites, systematic review of journals, comparable data available by the United Nations and by the International Organization of Migration. The NA region has become an area of transit migration and labour migration. Emigrant flows from NA countries towards Europe and North America are increasing this decade more than towards the Arab Gulf countries after being replaced by Asian labour. The recent increase in the proportion of women among the migrant population is remarkable. Remittances sent by African migrants have become an important source of external finance for countries of origin. Transient and irregular migration to Egypt originates at the borders with Sudan, Palestine and Libya with destination to the Euro Mediterranean countries. In Tunisia and Morocco, irregular migrants originate from Sub-Saharan Africa to the northern borders. The NA countries serve as departure rather than destination countries, and migration flows to the Euro-Mediterranean countries through legal or illegal routes.

  12. OneGeology-Europe Plus Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capova, Dana; Kondrova, Lucie

    2014-05-01

    The Geological Surveys of the European countries hold valuable resources of geological data but, to discover, understand and use this data efficiently, a good level of standardization is essential. The OneGeology-Europe project had the aim of making geological maps at a scale 1:1M from Europe discoverable and accessible, available under a common data license and described by multilingual metainformation. A harmonized specification for basic geological map data was developed so that significant progress towards harmonizing the datasets was achieved. Responsibility for the management of the OneGeology-Europe portal has been taken by EuroGeoSurveys and provided by CGS and BRGM. Of the 34 members of EuroGeoSurveys (EGS), only 20 participated in the OneGeology-Europe project (Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Spain, United Kingdom), so the European area was not completely covered. At the 33rd General Meeting and Directors Workshop in 2012 it was therefore decided to establish a successor initiative OneGeology Europe Plus (1G-E+) with the purpose of extending the coverage by geological maps at a scale of 1:1 M to all the EGS member countries (including Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Iceland, Lithuania, Malta, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine) and also, if possible, to the other European countries (Belorussia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Faeroe Islands, Kosovo, Latvia, Macedonia, Moldavia, Montenegro, Serbia). In order to achieve the desired result, it has been necessary for the new GSOs who intend to supply the additional 1G-E standardized services to carry out the work using their own staff and resources. The technical guidance and other support have been provided by the 1G-E+ Technical Support Team, funded from the internal budgets of their respective surveys. The team is coordinated by the Czech

  13. Public attitudes toward depression and help-seeking in four European countries baseline survey prior to the OSPI-Europe intervention.

    PubMed

    Coppens, Evelien; Van Audenhove, Chantal; Scheerder, Gert; Arensman, Ella; Coffey, Claire; Costa, Susana; Koburger, Nicole; Gottlebe, Katrin; Gusmão, Ricardo; O'Connor, Rory; Postuvan, Vita; Sarchiapone, Marco; Sisask, Merike; Székely, András; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2013-09-05

    Stigmatizing attitudes toward depression and toward help-seeking are important barriers for people with mental health problems to obtain adequate professional help. This study aimed to examine: (1) population attitudes toward depression and toward seeking professional help in four European countries; (2) the relation between depression stigma and attitudes toward help-seeking; (3) the relation between both attitudes and socio-demographic characteristics; and (4) differences in attitudes across countries. A representative general population survey (n=4011) was conducted in Germany, Hungary, Ireland, and Portugal, assessing attitudes toward depression and toward help-seeking, and a number of socio-demographic variables. Respondents showed a moderate degree of personal stigma toward depression and a strikingly higher degree of perceived stigma. Although a substantial majority showed openness to seek professional help, only half of the people perceived professional help as valuable. More negative attitudes were found in Hungary and were associated with male gender, older age, lower educational level and living alone. Also, personal stigma was related to less openness to and less perceived value of professional treatment. The survey was cross-sectional, so no causal inferences could be drawn. Personal and perceived stigma toward depression deserves public health attention, since they impact upon the intention of people with depression to seek professional help. Public media campaigns should focus on the credibility of the mental health care sector, and target males, older people, and those with a lower educational level and living alone. The content of each campaign should be adapted to the cultural norms of the country for which it is intended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 78 FR 54713 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Notice of Filing and Immediate..., 2013, ICE Clear Europe Limited (``ICE Clear Europe'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission... primarily by ICE Clear Europe. ICE Clear Europe filed the proposal pursuant to Section 19(b)(3)(A)(ii)...

  15. Europe's Astronomy Teachers Meet at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-12-01

    European Association for Astronomy Education Formed A joint EU/ESO Workshop (1) on the Teaching of Astronomy in Europe was held at the ESO Headquarters from November 25-30, 1994, under the auspices of the 1994 European Week for Scientific Culture. More than 100 teachers from secondary schools in 17 European countries participated together with representatives of national ministries and local authorities, as well as professional astronomers. This meeting was the first of its kind ever held and was very successful. As a most visible and immediate outcome, the participants agreed to form the "European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE)", uniting astronomy educators all over Europe into one network. A provisional Executive Committee of the EAAE was elected which will work towards the organisation of a constitutional conference within the next year. The participants unanimously adopted a "Declaration on the Teaching of Astronomy in Europe", specifying the overall aims and initial actions needed to achieve them. Astronomy: Science, Technology and Culture At the beginning of the Workshop the participants listened to lectures by several specialists about some of the most active fields of astronomy. The scientific sessions included topics as diverse as minor bodies in the solar system, nucleosynthesis, interstellar chemistry and cosmology. Then followed overviews of various recent advances in astronomical technology, some of which are already having direct impact on highly specialized sectors of European industry. They included the advanced use of computers in astronomy, for instance within image processing and data archiving, as well as a demonstration of remote observing. Discussing the cultural aspects, Nigel Calder (UK) and Hubert Reeves (France) emphasized the important role of astronomy in modern society, in particular its continuing influence on our perceptions of mankind's unique location in time and space. Teaching of Astronomy in European Countries

  16. Inventorying emissions from nature in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, David; Winiwarter, Wilfried; BöRjesson, Gunnar; Cinderby, Steve; Ferreiro, Antonio; Guenther, Alex; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Janson, Robert; Khalil, M. Aslam K.; Owen, Susan; Pierce, Tom E.; Puxbaum, Hans; Shearer, Martha; Skiba, Ute; Steinbrecher, Rainer; Tarrasón, Leonor; Äquist, Mats G.

    1999-04-01

    As part of the work of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations Task Force on Emission Inventories, a new set of guidelines has been developed for assessing the emissions of sulphur, nitrogen oxides, NH3, CH4, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) from biogenic and other natural sources in Europe. This paper gives the background to these guidelines, describes the sources, and gives our recommended methodologies for estimating emissions. We have assembled land use and other statistics from European or national compilations and present emission estimates for the various natural/biogenic source categories based on these. Total emissions from nature derived here amount to ˜1.1 Tg S yr-1, 6-8 Tg CH4 yr-1, 70 Gg NH3 (as N) yr-1, and 13 Tg NMVOC yr-1. Estimates of biogenic NOx emissions cover a wide range, from 140 to 1500 Gg NOx (as N) yr-1. In terms of relative contribution to total European emissions for different pollutants, then NMVOC from forests and vegetation are clearly the most important emissions source. Biogenic NOx emissions (although heavily influenced by nitrogen inputs from anthropogenic activities) are very important if the higher estimates are reliable. CH4 from wetlands and sulphur from volcanoes are also significant emissions in the European budgets. On a global scale, European biogenic emissions are not significant, a consequence of the climate and size (7% of global land area) of Europe and of the destruction of natural ecosystems since prehistoric times. However, for assessing local budgets and for photochemical oxidant modeling, natural/biogenic emissions can play an important role. The most important contributor in this regard is undoubtedly forest VOC emissions, although this paper also indicates that NMVOC emissions from nonforested areas also need to be further evaluated. This paper was originally conceived as a contribution to the collection of papers arising as a result of the Workshop on Biogenic Hydrocarbons in

  17. Early Pliocene vegetation distribution in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, S.; Warny, S.; Suc, J.

    2010-12-01

    Picea developed in higher altitude. The Eastern Europe vegetation (zone D) was characterized by coexistent warm-temperate forests and open ecosystems. Some megathermic and mega-mesothermic elements were persisting. Mediterranean xerophytes were indentified in few amounts in the Eastern Europe, showing a slight increase according to the latitudinal gradient. Site 380A (Black Sea) provides relatively high percentages of Artemisia growing in Anatolia, which increased again during the cooler periods. Anatolia probably represents the origin of the repeated steppe expansions which occurred in Europe at each glacial phase. Finally, the Nile region (zone E) documents the presence of savannah (composed mainly by Poaceae and Cyperaceae) including some subdesertic taxa. Nile riparian forests preserved several tropical-subtropical elements.

  18. Improving Tsunami Resilience in Europe - ASTARTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Maria Ana; Yalciner, Ahmet; Canals, Miquel; Behrens, Joern; Fuhrman, David; Gonzalez, Mauricio; Harbitz, Carl; Kanoglu, Utku; Karanci, Nurai; Lavigne, Franck; Lorito, Stefano; Meghraoui, Mustafa; Melis, Nikolaos S.; Necmioglu, Ocal; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Rudloff, Alexander; Schindele, François; Terrinha, Pedro; Tinti, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    The North East Atlantic, Mediterranean and Adjacent Seas (called NEAM by IOC-UNESCO) is known to be exposed to tsunamis and, like other regions of the world, faces increasing levels of risk due to i) the continuous development of coastal areas with critical infrastructures and accumulated values, and ii) the year-round presence of millions of tourists. In recent years, European researchers have greatly advanced knowledge of tsunami hazards and implementation of operational infrastructures, such as the creation of a regional system of candidate tsunami watch providers (CTWP) and national tsunami warning centers (NTWC). However, significant gaps remain and intensified efforts are needed. The ASTARTE (Assessment STrategy And Risk for Tsunami in Europe) is a three-year long EU-funded project, started in November 2013, that aims to develop a comprehensive strategy to mitigate tsunami impact in the NEAM region. To achieve this goal, an interdisciplinary consortium has been assembled. It includes all NEAM CTWPs and expert institutions across Europe and worldwide. ASTARTE will improve i) the basic knowledge on tsunami generation and recurrence with novel empirical data and new statistical analyses for assessing long-term recurrence and hazards of large events in sensitive areas within NEAM, ii) numerical techniques for tsunami simulation focusing on real-time codes, novel statistical emulation approaches, and experiments on damage analysis, and iii) methods for the assessment of hazard, vulnerability, and risk. ASTARTE will also provide i) guidelines for tsunami Eurocodes, ii) better forecasting and warning tools for CTWPs and NTWCs, and iii) guidelines for decision makers to increase the sustainability and resilience of coastal communities. In summary, ASTARTE will develop basic scientific and technical elements allowing for a significant enhancement of the Tsunami Warning System in the NEAM region in terms of monitoring, early warning,forecast, and resilience, with

  19. The burden of brain diseases in Europe.

    PubMed

    Olesen, J; Leonardi, M

    2003-09-01

    The burden [as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO)] of brain diseases (neurological, neurosurgical and psychiatric diseases together) is very high and yet resources spent on these diseases are not necessarily commensurate with the extent of this burden. However, hard data on the burden of brain diseases in Europe have not previously been easily accessible. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 1990 study conducted jointly by the WHO, Harvard University and the World Bank provided new measures that are now becoming universally accepted and have been used also in a repeat study: The GBD 2000. The key parameter of the study is disability adjusted life years (DALY), which is the sum of years of life lost (YLL) caused by premature death and years of life lived with disability (YLD). In the present report, data from the GBD 2000 study and from the World Health Report 2001 on brain diseases is extracted for the territory of Europe. This territory corresponds roughly to the membership countries of the European Federation of Neurological Societies. The WHO's Report has a category called neuropsychiatric diseases, which comprises the majority but not all the brain diseases. In order to gather all brain diseases, stroke, meningitis, half of the burden of injuries and half of the burden of congenital abnormalities are added. Throughout Europe, 23% of the years of healthy life is lost and 50% of YLD are caused by brain diseases. Regarding the key summary measure of lost health, DALY, 35% are because of brain diseases. The fact that approximately one-third of all burden of disease is caused by brain diseases should have an impact on resource allocation to teaching, reasearch, health care and prevention. Although other factors are also of importance, it seems reasonable that one-third of the curriculum at medical school should deal with the brain and that one-third of life science funding should go to basic and clinical neuroscience. In addition, resource allocation to

  20. E-Science and Grids in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hey, Tony

    2002-08-01

    After defining what is meant by the term 'e-Science', this talk will survey the activity on e-Science and Grids in Europe. The two largest initiatives in Europe are the European Commission's portfolio of Grid projects and the UK e-Science program. The EU under its R Framework Program are funding nearly twenty Grid projects in a wide variety of application areas. These projects are in varying stages of maturity and this talk will focus on a subset that have most significant progress. These include the EU DataGrid project led by CERN and two projects - EuroGrid and Grip - that evolved from the German national Unicore project. A summary of the other EU Grid projects will be included. The UK e-Science initiative is a 180M program entirely focused on e-Science applications requiring resource sharing, a virtual organization and a Grid infrastructure. The UK program is unique for three reasons: (1) the program covers all areas of science and engineering; (2) all of the funding is devoted to Grid application and middleware development and not to funding major hardware platforms; and (3) there is an explicit connection with industry to produce robust and secure industrial-strength versions of Grid middleware that could be used in business-critical applications. A part of the funding, around 50M, but requiring an additional 'matching' $30M from industry in collaborative projects, forms the UK e-Science 'Core Program'. It is the responsibility of the Core Program to identify and support a set of generic middleware requirements that have emerged from a requirements analysis of the e-Science application projects. This has led to a much more data-centric vision for 'the Grid' in the UK in which access to HPC facilities forms only one element. More important for the UK projects are issues such as enabling access and federation of scientific data held in files, relational databases and other archives. Automatic annotation of data generated by high throughput experiments with XML

  1. Forests and Soil Erosion across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathurst, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    Land use and climate change threaten the ability of Europe's forests to provide a vital service in limiting soil erosion, e.g. from forest fires and landslides. However, our ability to define the threat and to propose mitigation measures suffers from two deficiencies concerning the forest/erosion interface: 1) While there have been a considerable number of field studies of the relationship between forest cover and erosion in different parts of Europe, the data sets are scattered among research groups and a range of literature outlets. There is no comprehensive overview of the forest/erosion interface at the European scale, essential for considering regional variations and investigating the effects of future changes in land use and climate. 2) Compared with forest/water studies, we have a poorer quantitative appreciation of forest/erosion interactions. In the forest/water area it is possible to make quantitative statements such as that a 20% change in forest cover across a river catchment is needed for the effect on annual water yield to be measurable or that a forested catchment in upland UK has an annual water yield around 15% lower than an otherwise comparable grassland catchment. Comparable statements are not yet possible for forest/erosion interactions and there are uncertainties in the mathematical representation of forest/erosion interactions which limit our ability to make predictions, for example of the impact of forest loss in a given area. This presentation therefore considers the next step in improving our predictive capability. It proposes the integration of existing research and data to construct the "big picture" across Europe, i.e. erosion rates and sediment yields associated with forest cover and its loss in a range of erosion regimes (e.g. post-forest fire erosion or post-logging landslides). This would provide a basis for generalizations at the European scale. However, such an overview would not form a predictive capability. Therefore it is also

  2. Advances in wind erosion modelling in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrelli, Pasquale; Lugato, Emanuele; Alewell, Christine; Montanarella, Luca; Panagos, Panos

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion by wind is a serious environmental problem often resulting in severe forms of soil degradation. Wind erosion is also a phenomenon relevant for Europe, although this land degradation process has been overlooked until very recently. The state-of-the-art literature presents wind erosion as a process that locally affects the semi-arid areas of the Mediterranean region as well as the temperate climate areas of the northern European countries. Actual observations, field measurements and modelling assessments, however, are all extremely limited and highly unequally distributed across Europe. As a result, we currently lack comprehensive understanding about where and when wind erosion occurs in Europe, and the intensity of erosion that poses a threat to agricultural productivity. Today's challenge is to integrate the insights of local experiments and field-scale models into a new generation of large-scale wind erosion models. While naturally being less accurate than field-scale models, these large-scale modelling approaches still provide essential knowledge about where and when wind erosion occurs and can disclose the level of risk for agricultural productivity in specific areas. Here, we present a geographic information system (GIS) version of the RWEQ (named GIS-RWEQ) to quantitatively assess soil loss by wind over large study areas (Land Degradation & Development, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2588). The model designed to predict the daily soil loss potential at a ca. 1 km2 spatial resolution shows high consistency with local measurements reported in literature. The average soil loss predicted by GIS-RWEQ for the European arable land totals 62 million Mg yr-1, with an average area-specific soil loss of 0.53 Mg yr-1. The JRC model RUSLE2015, for the same area estimates 295 million Mg yr-1 of soil loss due to water erosion. Notably, soil loss by wind erosion in the European arable land could be as high as 20% of water erosion, even though the areas affected are mainly

  3. Childhood cancer survivor cohorts in Europe.

    PubMed

    Winther, Jeanette F; Kenborg, Line; Byrne, Julianne; Hjorth, Lars; Kaatsch, Peter; Kremer, Leontien C M; Kuehni, Claudia E; Auquier, Pascal; Michel, Gérard; de Vathaire, Florent; Haupt, Riccardo; Skinner, Roderick; Madanat-Harjuoja, Laura M; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Wesenberg, Finn; Reulen, Raoul C; Grabow, Desiree; Ronckers, Cecile M; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Schindler, Matthias; Berbis, Julie; Holmqvist, Anna S; Gudmundsdottir, Thorgerdur; de Fine Licht, Sofie; Bonnesen, Trine G; Asdahl, Peter H; Bautz, Andrea; Kristoffersen, Anja K; Himmerslev, Liselotte; Hasle, Henrik; Olsen, Jørgen H; Hawkins, Mike M

    2015-05-01

    With the advent of multimodality therapy, the overall five-year survival rate from childhood cancer has improved considerably now exceeding 80% in developed European countries. This growing cohort of survivors, with many years of life ahead of them, has raised the necessity for knowledge concerning the risks of adverse long-term sequelae of the life-saving treatments in order to provide optimal screening and care and to identify and provide adequate interventions. Childhood cancer survivor cohorts in Europe. Considerable advantages exist to study late effects in individuals treated for childhood cancer in a European context, including the complementary advantages of large population-based cancer registries and the unrivalled opportunities to study lifetime risks, together with rich and detailed hospital-based cohorts which fill many of the gaps left by the large-scale population-based studies, such as sparse treatment information. Several large national cohorts have been established within Europe to study late effects in individuals treated for childhood cancer including the Nordic Adult Life after Childhood Cancer in Scandinavia study (ALiCCS), the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (BCCSS), the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG) LATER study, and the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (SCCSS). Furthermore, there are other large cohorts, which may eventually become national in scope including the French Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (FCCSS), the French Childhood Cancer Survivor Study for Leukaemia (LEA), and the Italian Study on off-therapy Childhood Cancer Survivors (OTR). In recent years significant steps have been taken to extend these national studies into a larger pan-European context through the establishment of two large consortia - PanCareSurFup and PanCareLIFE. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the current large, national and pan-European studies of late effects after childhood cancer. This overview will highlight the

  4. Mapping Europe: A Curriculum Unit Grades Six to Ten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This curriculum unit teaches students about the basic physical and political geography of Europe and introduces or reviews fundamental geographical concepts and vocabulary in a European context. The unit offers a geographic introduction to the changing map of Europe. Each of the unit's five lessons can be integrated into the curriculum where it…

  5. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Teachers' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Russian and East European Inst.

    Basic material on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe is presented in this teachers' guide in such a way that teachers can incorporate it into the daily curriculum or utilize it through special units or projects. The guide is divided into two sections, one covering the Soviet Union, the other Eastern Europe. The Soviet Union section discusses…

  6. Europe, Continental Philosophy and the Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standish, Paul

    2004-01-01

    On what might a comparative discussion of philosophy of education that takes Europe as one of its terms be based? This paper begins by addressing the complexity that attaches to the name "Europe" in this context in order to lay the way for a more detailed consideration of so-called "Continental" philosophy--specifically of…

  7. Europe, Continental Philosophy and the Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standish, Paul

    2004-01-01

    On what might a comparative discussion of philosophy of education that takes Europe as one of its terms be based? This paper begins by addressing the complexity that attaches to the name "Europe" in this context in order to lay the way for a more detailed consideration of so-called "Continental" philosophy--specifically of…

  8. The Use of Satellites for Training in Western Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, A. W.

    This paper begins with brief background on types of broadcast satellites and satellite programs in Europe. Reception and transmission costs, as well as predicted access to satellite transmissions, are then discussed. Uses of satellites for education and training in countries outside of Europe, particularly the program at the National Technological…

  9. Microsoft in Southeast Europe: A Conversation with Goran Radman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendergast, William; Frayne, Colette; Kelley, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Goran Radman (GR) joined Microsoft in 1996 and served until Fall 2008 as Microsoft Chairman, Southeast Europe (SEE) and Chairman, East and Central Europe (ECEE). Based in Croatia, where he enjoys sailing the Adriatic coast and islands, he spoke with the authors during 2008 and 2009 about his experience launching Microsoft's commercial presence in…

  10. Forest fires and air quality issues in southern Europe

    Treesearch

    Ana Isabel Miranda; Enrico Marchi; Marco Ferretti; Millán M. Millán

    2009-01-01

    Each summer forest fires in southern Europe emit large quantities of pollutants to the atmosphere. These fires can generate a number of air pollution episodes as measured by air quality monitoring networks. We analyzed the impact of forest fires on air quality of specific regions of southern Europe. Data from several summer seasons were studied with the aim of...

  11. Microsoft in Southeast Europe: A Conversation with Goran Radman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendergast, William; Frayne, Colette; Kelley, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Goran Radman (GR) joined Microsoft in 1996 and served until Fall 2008 as Microsoft Chairman, Southeast Europe (SEE) and Chairman, East and Central Europe (ECEE). Based in Croatia, where he enjoys sailing the Adriatic coast and islands, he spoke with the authors during 2008 and 2009 about his experience launching Microsoft's commercial presence in…

  12. The Other Languages of Europe: Demographic, Sociolinguistic and Educational Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extra, Guus, Ed.; Gorter, Durk, Ed.

    This book focuses on the minority languages of Europe, those other than the national languages of European Union member states, by looking at the demographic, sociolinguistic, and educational aspects of both regional and immigrant languages. Empirical evidence for the status of these other languages of multicultural Europe is brought together in a…

  13. Guidelines on AIDS in Europe. First Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoffmann, H.; And Others

    The problem of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Europe and public health measures that can be taken to reduce the spread of infection are discussed. These guidelines cover: the magnitude of the problem in Europe, the virus and its mode of transmission, major clinical features of the disease, laboratory tests, possibilities of…

  14. Early Identification of Skill Needs in Europe. CEDEFOP Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Susanne Liane, Ed.; Schomann, Klaus, Ed.; Tessaring, Manfred, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers: "Early Recognition of Skill Needs in Europe: European Conference, Berlin, 30/31 May 2002" (Susanne Liane Schmidt, Klaus Schomann, Manfred Tessaring); "Welcome and Opening of the European Conference 'Early Recognition of Skill Needs in Europe,' 30 May 2002, Social Sciences Research Center…

  15. Management of ischemic stroke in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Budincevic, Hrvoje; Tiu, Cristina; Bereczki, Daniel; Kõrv, Janika; Tsiskaridze, Alexander; Niederkorn, Kurt; Czlonkowska, Anna; Demarin, Vida

    2015-10-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of disability in Europe. Central and Eastern European countries have the highest incidence and mortality rates through Europe. The improvements in stroke prevention and treatment in Central and Eastern European countries did not completely reach the quality parameters present in Western European countries. We present features of current management of stroke in Central and Eastern European countries.

  16. Results of the 2013 CASE Europe Salary Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradise, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    CASE has conducted salary surveys to track trends in the profession and to help members benchmark salaries since 1982. Following CASE's major overhaul of the survey instrument and data collection system, CASE Europe fielded a European version of the salary survey for the second time in October 2012. All individual CASE Europe members at colleges,…

  17. Guidelines on AIDS in Europe. First Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoffmann, H.; And Others

    The problem of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Europe and public health measures that can be taken to reduce the spread of infection are discussed. These guidelines cover: the magnitude of the problem in Europe, the virus and its mode of transmission, major clinical features of the disease, laboratory tests, possibilities of…

  18. Eastern Europe in Western Civilization Textbooks: The Example of Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulczycki, John J.

    2005-01-01

    Over a decade ago the newsletter of the American Historical Association "Perspectives" carried a long lead article entitled "Teaching 'Eastern Europe' without the Iron Curtain." Referring to the challenge posed by the revolutions of 1989 in Eastern Europe to the teaching of European history, the author, Larry Wolff, saw it as…

  19. Pollution of ground water in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, S.; Key, A.

    1956-01-01

    This paper discusses pollution of ground water in 20 countries of the European region, giving for each an account of the geology and hydrogeology, water supplies, the extent and nature of ground water pollution, and the legal, administrative, and technical means of controlling that pollution. For the countries not considered in the preceding article on surface water pollution, an account is also given of the superficial physical features, rainfall, population, and industries. A general discussion follows of such questions as the ways in which ground water pollution may occur, the factors mitigating or aggravating pollution, and ways of protection against pollution. The authors consider that the problem of ground water pollution in Europe may well be more serious than it would appear to be on the evidence so far obtained. PMID:13374533

  20. Sexuality and human rights in europe.

    PubMed

    Graupner, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Written human rights law in Europe is as scanty as in the rest of the world. Case-law however provides considerable protection of sexual rights. It guarantees comprehensive protection of autonomy in sexual life, also for minors, and provides protection against discrimination based on sexual orientation. Negative attitudes of a majority may not justify interferences with the sexual rights of a minority and society could be expected to tolerate a certain inconvenience to enable individuals to live in dignity and worth in accordance with the sexual identity chosen by them. Compensation for interference with sexual autonomy and freedom is awarded. This high-level protection (as compared to other parts of the world) is however limited. It seems to be granted only in areas where it corresponds with public attitudes and social developments. And it is seldom secured on the national level but nearly exclusively by the European Court of Human Rights, whose case-law is often weakened by inconsistency.

  1. Future Infectious Disease Threats to Europe

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Jonathan E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how different drivers of infectious disease could interact to threaten control efforts in Europe. We considered projected trends through 2020 for 3 broad groups of drivers: globalization and environmental change, social and demographic change, and health system capacity. Eight plausible infectious disease threats with the potential to be significantly more problematic than they are today were identified through an expert consultation: extensively drug-resistant bacteria, vector-borne diseases, sexually transmitted infections, food-borne infections, a resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases, health care–associated infections, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and pandemic influenza. Preemptive measures to be taken by the public health community to counteract these threats were identified. PMID:21940915

  2. 3-DTV research and development in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sand, Ruediger

    1991-08-01

    An overview on the state of the art of 3-DTV in Europe is given, and the new European Co- operation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST) project and its objectives are described. The paper starts with a report on 3-DTV broadcast transmissions in 1982 using the simple anaglyph technique, which in many European countries found enthusiastic public interest. Following that, in three international audio and video fairs in 1983, 1985, and 1987 in Berlin, presentations of a high-quality two-channel 3-DTV system using large screen projection, showing professionally produced demonstration programs, attracted about 50,000 visitors. Meanwhile, several 3-DTV activities for advertising, information, and special applications such as medical imaging are to be found. In the broadcast domain, research and development aim to transmit 3-DTV within a high-definition TV channel.

  3. Vaccination policies for healthcare workers in Europe.

    PubMed

    Maltezou, Helena C; Poland, Gregory A

    2014-08-27

    Health-care workers (HCWs) are at increased risk for acquisition of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) and vaccination is justified in order to protect them from occupational exposure and to prevent the spread of VPDs that pose a threat to susceptible patients. Review of European vaccination policies for HCWs revealed significant differences between countries in terms of recommended vaccines, implementation frame (mandatory or recommendation), target HCW groups and health-care settings. Further, the few published studies available identified indicate significant immunity gaps among HCWs against VPDs in Europe. In order to achieve higher vaccination coverage against VPDs stronger recommendations are needed. The issue of mandatory vaccination should be considered for diseases that can be transmitted to susceptible patients (influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis B, pertussis, varicella). The acceptance of vaccinations and of mandatory vaccinations by HCWs is a challenge and appears to be VPD-specific. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Generational Solidarity in Europe and Israel.

    PubMed

    Katz, Ruth; Lowenstein, Ariela; Halperin, Dafna; Tur-Sinai, Aviad

    2015-09-01

    This study explored various dimensions of generational relationships between older parents and their adult children using the second wave of SHARE (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe), comparing it to Dykstra's and Fokkema's (2011) analyses of the first wave. Results were further compared to the OASIS study (Old Age and Autonomy: The Role of Service Systems and Intergenerational Solidarity). The intergenerational solidarity model served as the main conceptual framework. Analyses yielded four family relationship types present in all countries, albeit with different frequencies. Around half of the respondents in the 11 countries were identified with close ties and flow of support. Four conclusions were drawn: (1) importance of personal resources; (2) cultural differences and meanings for families; (3) highlighting within-country difference; and (4) strength of intergenerational solidarity. The importance of understanding generational relationships in the current era with higher longevity and changing family structures is emphasized and explicated.

  5. Clinical development and current status: Europe.

    PubMed

    Wirz, Dieter; Daniels, A U; Göpfert, Beat; Morscher, Erwin W

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the development and current status of cemented fixation in total hip replacement in Europe. Key points include the wide country-to-country variation in use of cemented vs. non-cemented fixation and the largely overlooked importance of the choice of bone cement as a factor highly correlated with clinical outcome. Laboratory studies by the authors are also reviewed. Results suggest that the type of acrylic bone cement used affects wear phenomena at the implant/cement interface. Further studies by microcalorimetry suggest that certain aspects of acrylic starting materials (low molecular weight and use of radiation sterilization) affect long-term physico-chemical stability and may thus influence clinical outcomes.

  6. Educational approach on stroke training in Europe.

    PubMed

    Corea, F; Gunther, A; Kwan, J; Petzold, A; Debette, S; Sessa, M; Silvestrelli, G; Parnetti, L; Tambasco, N

    2006-01-01

    According to the European Stroke Initiative (EUSI), stroke care is best delivered within a stroke unit by a specialized multidisciplinary stroke team led by stroke specialists. At present, there is no guideline or consensus regarding training requirements or clinical standards that stroke specialists should achieve. It is envisaged that stroke specialists in training would need to acquire adequate knowledge and competency across three major areas of stroke care: acute stroke, stroke rehabilitation, and stroke prevention. With an EUSI document, the European Association of Young Neurologists and Trainees Stroke Subspeciality Group aims to promote discussion on the many aspects of stroke training and the requirements to be a stroke specialist in the European community. The ultimate purpose is to agree on common standards to promote good clinical care and effective stroke prevention across Europe. In the future, this may be translated into better patient outcome and a reduction in the global burden of this condition.

  7. Electronic Signatures for Public Procurement across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ølnes, Jon; Andresen, Anette; Arbia, Stefano; Ernst, Markus; Hagen, Martin; Klein, Stephan; Manca, Giovanni; Rossi, Adriano; Schipplick, Frank; Tatti, Daniele; Wessolowski, Gesa; Windheuser, Jan

    The PEPPOL (Pan-European Public Procurement On-Line) project is a large scale pilot under the CIP programme of the EU, exploring electronic public procurement in a unified European market. An important element is interoperability of electronic signatures across borders, identified today as a major obstacle to cross-border procurement. PEPPOL will address use of signatures in procurement processes, in particular tendering but also post-award processes like orders and invoices. Signature policies, i.e. quality requirements and requirements on information captured in the signing process, will be developed. This as well as technical interoperability of e-signatures across Europe will finally be piloted in demonstrators starting late 2009 or early 2010.

  8. Global perspectives on animal welfare: Europe.

    PubMed

    Caporale, V; Alessandrini, B; Dalla Villa, P; Del Papa, S

    2005-08-01

    Effective implementation and enforcement of legislation is essential to ensure animal welfare. In the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) European Region the well-established body of national and European Union laws in existence is growing continuously. The growth is due to various factors, such as new technology in animal farming and experimentation, exploitation of wildlife, new understanding of animal needs, and increasing public awareness and concern. The latter, in particular, determines the need for new animal welfare legislation to regulate and discipline the 'use' of animals for different purposes, such as food production, companionship, work and leisure. This paper intends to provide an overview of the more relevant activities carried out by the Council of Europe and the European Union in the field of animal welfare. The authors identify eLearning as a tool to harmonise the interpretation and the implementation of animal welfare legislation.

  9. PDBe: Protein Data Bank in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Velankar, S.; Alhroub, Y.; Best, C.; Caboche, S.; Conroy, M. J.; Dana, J. M.; Fernandez Montecelo, M. A.; van Ginkel, G.; Golovin, A.; Gore, S. P.; Gutmanas, A.; Haslam, P.; Hendrickx, P. M. S.; Heuson, E.; Hirshberg, M.; John, M.; Lagerstedt, I.; Mir, S.; Newman, L. E.; Oldfield, T. J.; Patwardhan, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Sahni, G.; Sanz-García, E.; Sen, S.; Slowley, R.; Suarez-Uruena, A.; Swaminathan, G. J.; Symmons, M. F.; Vranken, W. F.; Wainwright, M.; Kleywegt, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe; pdbe.org) is a partner in the Worldwide PDB organization (wwPDB; wwpdb.org) and as such actively involved in managing the single global archive of biomacromolecular structure data, the PDB. In addition, PDBe develops tools, services and resources to make structure-related data more accessible to the biomedical community. Here we describe recently developed, extended or improved services, including an animated structure-presentation widget (PDBportfolio), a widget to graphically display the coverage of any UniProt sequence in the PDB (UniPDB), chemistry- and taxonomy-based PDB-archive browsers (PDBeXplore), and a tool for interactive visualization of NMR structures, corresponding experimental data as well as validation and analysis results (Vivaldi). PMID:22110033

  10. Pharmacological treatment of adult ADHD in Europe.

    PubMed

    Retz, Wolfgang; Retz-Junginger, Petra; Thome, Johannes; Rösler, Michael

    2011-09-01

    It is now widely accepted that ADHD is a frequent chronic condition with a lifelong perspective. Adult ADHD is a reliable and valid diagnosis. The disorder and the co-morbid conditions can place a severe burden on the patients, their families and their partners, requiring adequate treatment. A systematic literature search was conducted to review the available pharmacological treatment options for adults with ADHD in European countries. Supported by meta-analyses, stimulant medication is the first-line pharmacological therapy for adult ADHD. However, from a European perspective the pharmacological treatment options are very limited and only a minority of adults with ADHD in European countries receives adequate treatment. With reference to the epidemiological data, it seems very likely that the number of people with ADHD in Europe seeking multimodal treatment including pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, coaching or other therapeutic services will increase profoundly during the coming years.

  11. PDBe: Protein Data Bank in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Gutmanas, Aleksandras; Alhroub, Younes; Battle, Gary M.; Berrisford, John M.; Bochet, Estelle; Conroy, Matthew J.; Dana, Jose M.; Fernandez Montecelo, Manuel A.; van Ginkel, Glen; Gore, Swanand P.; Haslam, Pauline; Hatherley, Rowan; Hendrickx, Pieter M.S.; Hirshberg, Miriam; Lagerstedt, Ingvar; Mir, Saqib; Mukhopadhyay, Abhik; Oldfield, Thomas J.; Patwardhan, Ardan; Rinaldi, Luana; Sahni, Gaurav; Sanz-García, Eduardo; Sen, Sanchayita; Slowley, Robert A.; Velankar, Sameer; Wainwright, Michael E.; Kleywegt, Gerard J.

    2014-01-01

    The Protein Data Bank in Europe (pdbe.org) is a founding member of the Worldwide PDB consortium (wwPDB; wwpdb.org) and as such is actively engaged in the deposition, annotation, remediation and dissemination of macromolecular structure data through the single global archive for such data, the PDB. Similarly, PDBe is a member of the EMDataBank organisation (emdatabank.org), which manages the EMDB archive for electron microscopy data. PDBe also develops tools that help the biomedical science community to make effective use of the data in the PDB and EMDB for their research. Here we describe new or improved services, including updated SIFTS mappings to other bioinformatics resources, a new browser for the PDB archive based on Gene Ontology (GO) annotation, updates to the analysis of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-derived structures, redesigned search and browse interfaces, and new or updated visualisation and validation tools for EMDB entries. PMID:24288376

  12. PDBe: Protein Data Bank in Europe.

    PubMed

    Gutmanas, Aleksandras; Alhroub, Younes; Battle, Gary M; Berrisford, John M; Bochet, Estelle; Conroy, Matthew J; Dana, Jose M; Fernandez Montecelo, Manuel A; van Ginkel, Glen; Gore, Swanand P; Haslam, Pauline; Hatherley, Rowan; Hendrickx, Pieter M S; Hirshberg, Miriam; Lagerstedt, Ingvar; Mir, Saqib; Mukhopadhyay, Abhik; Oldfield, Thomas J; Patwardhan, Ardan; Rinaldi, Luana; Sahni, Gaurav; Sanz-García, Eduardo; Sen, Sanchayita; Slowley, Robert A; Velankar, Sameer; Wainwright, Michael E; Kleywegt, Gerard J

    2014-01-01

    The Protein Data Bank in Europe (pdbe.org) is a founding member of the Worldwide PDB consortium (wwPDB; wwpdb.org) and as such is actively engaged in the deposition, annotation, remediation and dissemination of macromolecular structure data through the single global archive for such data, the PDB. Similarly, PDBe is a member of the EMDataBank organisation (emdatabank.org), which manages the EMDB archive for electron microscopy data. PDBe also develops tools that help the biomedical science community to make effective use of the data in the PDB and EMDB for their research. Here we describe new or improved services, including updated SIFTS mappings to other bioinformatics resources, a new browser for the PDB archive based on Gene Ontology (GO) annotation, updates to the analysis of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-derived structures, redesigned search and browse interfaces, and new or updated visualisation and validation tools for EMDB entries.

  13. AIRS Retrieved Temperature Isotherms over Southern Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    AIRS Retrieved Temperature Isotherms over Southern Europe viewed from the west, September 8, 2002. The isotherms in this map made from AIRS data show regions of the same temperature in the atmosphere.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. Sterilisation of medical products in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohnsdorff, R. S. M.

    A review is given of the sterilisation of medical devices in Europe with particular attention to factory made items. It is usual for sterile single use products to be designed for γ-radiation although the ethylene oxide process is still in use. There is now 20 yr experience with the former process and its advantage for products made in large volume appreciated. Comments are made on the technical and legislative situation in several countries. Through the EEC and such bodies as the U.K. Panel on Gamma and Electron Irradiation and the Association Internationale D'Irradiation Industrielle there is complete agreement on process control procedures. It is accepted in most European countries that 25 kGy (min) should be used for medical products that are required in the sterile condition.

  15. Iridium and Radio Astronomy in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, R. J.

    2004-06-01

    An account is given of the coordination of the Iridium mobile satellite system with the radio astronomy service in Europe, from the initial exploratory discussions at Jodrell Bank in 1991 to the signing of the so-called ``Interim Agreement'' in Paris in 1999. The technical issue of unwanted emissions from the Iridium downlink into the frequency band 1610.6-1613.8 MHz was not resolved, so the coordination agreement amounts to time sharing, albeit on more favourable terms for radio astronomy than agreements negotiated elsewhere. The European agreement fully recognizes the heavy use of the frequency band in European radio astronomy, and carries the promise that ``from 1 January 2006, European radioastronomers shall be able to collect measurement data consistent with the recommendation ITU-R RA.769-1.'' Some personal observations on the events are offered.

  16. Animal poisoning in Europe. Part 3: Wildlife.

    PubMed

    Guitart, Raimon; Sachana, Magda; Caloni, Francesca; Croubels, Siska; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Berny, Philippe

    2010-03-01

    This review article is the third in a series on animal poisoning in Europe and represents a collation of published and non-published wildlife poisoning data from Belgium, France, Greece, Italy and Spain over the last 10 years. Birds, particularly waterfowl and raptors, were more commonly reported as victims of poisoning than wild mammals. In addition to specific but important toxicological disasters, deliberate primary or secondary poisonings are of concern to all countries. Metals (particularly lead arising from sporting/hunting activities) and pesticides (mainly anticholinesterases and anticoagulants) are frequent causes of poisoning, and often have fatal consequences. A more unified and consistent approach throughout European countries to improve the reporting and the analytical confirmation of wildlife poisoning would help to reduce the number of cases of malicious or negligent animal poisoning. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Regulatory aspects of specific immunotherapy in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Susanne; Englert, Lisa; May, Sibylle; Vieths, Stefan

    2010-12-01

    The recent developments in the regulation of allergen products and their impact on specific immunotherapy (SIT) in Europe are summarized, and unmet needs are discussed. New guidance on the quality, the clinical development, and marketing authorization status of allergen products for SIT has been released. The most important documents are Guidelines from the European Medicines Agency, a revision of the European Pharmacopoeia Monograph on Allergens, regulations, and position papers of scientific societies. The increased demands on quality, safety, and efficacy will lead to allergen products being better characterized and with enhanced proof of efficacy and safety. In addition, national activities to regulate the existing broad spectrum of named patient allergen products have been started. At the same time these developments represent a challenge to manufacturers to meet all new requirements. Some problems, for example regarding patient-tailored products containing recombinant allergens remain and may require novel regulatory approaches.

  18. Living donor liver transplantation in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Capobianco, Ivan; Panaro, Fabrizio; Di Francesco, Fabrizio; Troisi, Roberto; Sainz-Barriga, Mauricio; Muiesan, Paolo; Königsrainer, Alfred; Testa, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) sparked significant interest in Europe when the first reports of its success from USA and Asia were made public. Many transplant programs initiated LDLT and some of them especially in Germany and Belgium became a point of reference for many patients and important contributors to the advancement of the field. After the initial enthusiasm, most of the European programs stopped performing LDLT and today the overall European activity is concentrated in a few centers and the number of living donor liver transplants is only a single digit fraction of the overall number of liver transplants performed. In this paper we analyse the present European activities and highlight the European contribution to the advancement of the field of LDLT. PMID:27115011

  19. Medieval iconography of watermelons in Mediterranean Europe.

    PubMed

    Paris, Harry S; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2013-09-01

    The watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Cucurbitaceae), is an important fruit vegetable in the warmer regions of the world. Watermelons were illustrated in Mediterranean Antiquity, but not as frequently as some other cucurbits. Little is known concerning the watermelons of Mediterranean Europe during medieval times. With the objective of obtaining an improved understanding of watermelon history and diversity in this region, medieval drawings purportedly of watermelons were collected, examined and compared for originality, detail and accuracy. The oldest manuscript found that contains an accurate, informative image of watermelon is the Tractatus de herbis, British Library ms. Egerton 747, which was produced in southern Italy, around the year 1300. A dozen more original illustrations were found, most of them from Italy, produced during the ensuing two centuries that can be positively identified as watermelon. In most herbal-type manuscripts, the foliage is depicted realistically, the plants shown as having long internodes, alternate leaves with pinnatifid leaf laminae, and the fruits are small, round and striped. The manuscript that contains the most detailed and accurate image of watermelon is the Carrara Herbal, British Library ms. Egerton 2020. In the agriculture-based manuscripts, the foliage, if depicted, is not accurate, but variation in the size, shape and coloration of the fruits is evident. Both red-flesh and white-flesh watermelons are illustrated, corresponding to the typical sweet dessert watermelons so common today and the insipid citron watermelons, respectively. The variation in watermelon fruit size, shape and coloration depicted in the illustrations indicates that at least six cultivars of watermelon are represented, three of which probably had red, sweet flesh and three of which appear to have been citrons. Evidently, citron watermelons were more common in Mediterranean Europe in the past than they are today.

  20. Petroleum developments in Europe in 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Kat, C.

    1980-11-01

    In 1979 the rise of oil prices and the threat to oil supplies from traditional Middle East sources caused an increase in development of known hydrocarbon resources in Europe. Oil production increased by 30% over the 1978 figure. The major share of the increase came from the North Sea, the Spanish Gulf of Valencia, and northern Italy as the discoveries of the 1970s were brought on stream. Vigorous appraisal and development drilling programs and new discoveries - Statoil/Shell's 31/2-1A gas discovery in the Norwegian North Sea may prove to be another giant - will ensure that production increases in these areas will continue into the 1980s. Tertiary recovery and new fracturing techniques enabled increased output from some existing fields. Exploration activity moved into high-cost and high-risk areas. Increased geologic knowledge obtained through recent offshore drilling, together with the application of new seismic techniques, has enabled the definition of deeper and more subtle traps. There was successful wildcat drilling of new plays in the producing offshore areas of the North Sea and the Italian Adriatic and also in many of the traditional onshore hydrocarbon producing areas of Europe, West Germany, Austria, France, Netherlands, Yugoslavia, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. Several of these onshore areas suffered a drop in production levels in 1979. Seismic exploration and licensing awards were made in undrilled remote, often deep-water, and even hostile environments as well as in the less well-explored offshore areas where earlier drilling had given promising results. Results of wildcat drilling were not always released but BP's 26/28-1 discovery in the deep-water Porcupine Trough appears to be a major find.

  1. Intensive agriculture reduces soil biodiversity across Europe.

    PubMed

    Tsiafouli, Maria A; Thébault, Elisa; Sgardelis, Stefanos P; de Ruiter, Peter C; van der Putten, Wim H; Birkhofer, Klaus; Hemerik, Lia; de Vries, Franciska T; Bardgett, Richard D; Brady, Mark Vincent; Bjornlund, Lisa; Jørgensen, Helene Bracht; Christensen, Sören; Hertefeldt, Tina D'; Hotes, Stefan; Gera Hol, W H; Frouz, Jan; Liiri, Mira; Mortimer, Simon R; Setälä, Heikki; Tzanopoulos, Joseph; Uteseny, Karoline; Pižl, Václav; Stary, Josef; Wolters, Volkmar; Hedlund, Katarina

    2015-02-01

    Soil biodiversity plays a key role in regulating the processes that underpin the delivery of ecosystem goods and services in terrestrial ecosystems. Agricultural intensification is known to change the diversity of individual groups of soil biota, but less is known about how intensification affects biodiversity of the soil food web as a whole, and whether or not these effects may be generalized across regions. We examined biodiversity in soil food webs from grasslands, extensive, and intensive rotations in four agricultural regions across Europe: in Sweden, the UK, the Czech Republic and Greece. Effects of land-use intensity were quantified based on structure and diversity among functional groups in the soil food web, as well as on community-weighted mean body mass of soil fauna. We also elucidate land-use intensity effects on diversity of taxonomic units within taxonomic groups of soil fauna. We found that between regions soil food web diversity measures were variable, but that increasing land-use intensity caused highly consistent responses. In particular, land-use intensification reduced the complexity in the soil food webs, as well as the community-weighted mean body mass of soil fauna. In all regions across Europe, species richness of earthworms, Collembolans, and oribatid mites was negatively affected by increased land-use intensity. The taxonomic distinctness, which is a measure of taxonomic relatedness of species in a community that is independent of species richness, was also reduced by land-use intensification. We conclude that intensive agriculture reduces soil biodiversity, making soil food webs less diverse and composed of smaller bodied organisms. Land-use intensification results in fewer functional groups of soil biota with fewer and taxonomically more closely related species. We discuss how these changes in soil biodiversity due to land-use intensification may threaten the functioning of soil in agricultural production systems.

  2. Preventable spina bifida and anencephaly in Europe.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Rima; Pietrzik, Klaus; Oakley, Godfrey P; Kancherla, Vijaya; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Wieser, Simon

    2015-09-01

    Promotion of voluntary folic acid supplement use among women of reproductive age has been proven to be ineffective in lowering the risk of neural tube defects in Europe. Using surveillance data from all births covered by the full member countries of the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT), we estimated the total prevalence of spina bifida and anencephaly per 10,000 births between 2000 and 2010. We also estimated additional lifetime direct medical costs among individuals with spina bifida, compared with those without, in Germany for the year 2009. During the study period, there were 7478 documented cases of spina bifida and anencephaly among the 9,161,189 births, with an estimated average combined prevalence of 8.16 per 10,000 births (95% confidence interval, 7.98 - 8.35). For the 241 spina bifida-affected live births in 2009 in Germany, the estimated additional lifetime direct medical costs compared with non-spina bifida affected births were €65.5 million. Assuming a 50% reduction in the prevalence if folic acid has been provided to all women before pregnancy, 293 spina bifida cases could have been prevented in Germany in 2009. The estimated lifetime direct medical cost saving for the live births in 2009 was €32.9 million assuming a 50% reduction, or €26.1 million assuming a 40% risk reduction. Europe has an epidemic of spina bifida and anencephaly compared with countries with mandatory folic acid fortification policy. Primary prevention through mandatory folic acid fortification would considerably reduce the number of affected pregnancies, and associated additional costs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Comparison between satellite wildfire databases in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amraoui, Malik; Pereira, Mário; DaCamara, Carlos

    2013-04-01

    For Europe, several databases of wildfires based on the satellite imagery are currently available and being used to conduct various studies and produce official reports. The European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) burned area perimeters database comprises fires with burnt area greater than 1.0 ha occurred in the Europe countries during the 2000 - 2011 period. The MODIS Burned Area Product (MCD45A1) is a monthly global Level 3 gridded 500m product containing per-pixel burning, quality information, and tile-level metadata. The Burned Area Product was developed by the MODIS Fire Team at the University of Maryland and is available April 2000 onwards. Finally, for Portugal the National Forest Authority (AFN) discloses the national mapping of burned areas of the years 1990 to 2011, based on Landsat imagery which accounts for fires larger than 5.0 ha. This study main objectives are: (i) provide a comprehensive description of the datasets, its limitations and potential; (ii) do preliminary statistics on the data; and, (iii) to compare the MODIS and EFFIS satellite wildfires databases throughout/across the entire European territory, based on indicators such as the spatial location of the burned areas and the extent of area burned annually and complement the analysis for Portugal will the inclusion of database AFN. This work is supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-022692, the project FLAIR (PTDC/AAC-AMB/104702/2008) and the EU 7th Framework Program through FUME (contract number 243888).

  4. Zika Virus, a New Threat for Europe?

    PubMed Central

    Jupille, Henri; Seixas, Gonçalo; Mousson, Laurence; Sousa, Carla A.; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2016-01-01

    Background Since its emergence in 2007 in Micronesia and Polynesia, the arthropod-borne flavivirus Zika virus (ZIKV) has spread in the Americas and the Caribbean, following first detection in Brazil in May 2015. The risk of ZIKV emergence in Europe increases as imported cases are repeatedly reported. Together with chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and dengue virus (DENV), ZIKV is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Any countries where these mosquitoes are present could be potential sites for future ZIKV outbreak. We assessed the vector competence of European Aedes mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV. Methodology/Principal Findings Two populations of Ae. aegypti from the island of Madeira (Funchal and Paul do Mar) and two populations of Ae. albopictus from France (Nice and Bar-sur-Loup) were challenged with an Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Fully engorged mosquitoes were then maintained in insectary conditions (28°±1°C, 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity). 16–24 mosquitoes from each population were examined at 3, 6, 9 and 14 days post-infection to estimate the infection rate, disseminated infection rate and transmission efficiency. Based on these experimental infections, we demonstrated that Ae. albopictus from France were not very susceptible to ZIKV. Conclusions/Significance In combination with the restricted distribution of European Ae. albopictus, our results on vector competence corroborate the low risk for ZIKV to expand into most parts of Europe with the possible exception of the warmest regions bordering the Mediterranean coastline. PMID:27505002

  5. Peatland-GHG emissions in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droesler, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Managed peatlands are hot spots for CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions. GHG which have been not fully integrated in past European climate projects. Peatlands contribute to European GHG emissions 10 times more per unit area than other terrestrial ecosystems. Peatland management and exploration by drainage, agricultural use and peat extraction turned pristine peatland GHG sinks into sources. Emissions can reach more than 40 t CO2equiv. ha-1 a-1 in intensively managed peatlands. On the other hand, the restoration of degraded peatlands does normally reduce these emissions significantly towards climate neutral levels, once the restoration work is done wisely. But in some cases the net climate effect do not decrease significantly depending on hydrological regimes, fertilization status of the peatlands, climate and vegetation type. In many European countries with significant peatland cover nationally funded projects were set up to investigate peatland GHG fluxes and their drivers. These scattered data and knowledge are currently being brought together under the coverage of the GHG-Europe project (Grant agreement no.: 244122) within a new synthesis to develop the relevant EF, identify the drivers and develop upscaling options for GHG-emissions. The talk will: (1) show a first cut of new Emission Factors for peatlands in Europe and compare these with IPCC-default values. (2) discuss the developed sensible response functions for GHG-fluxes against natural and anthropogenic drivers such as land use intensity, land management with drainage and climate variability. (3) show case studies from Germany show the applicability of response functions for upscaling of GHG-balances. (4) An outlook is given to the future European peatland GHG-Balance.

  6. Barriers to prenatal care in Europe.

    PubMed

    Delvaux, T; Buekens, P; Godin, I; Boutsen, M

    2001-07-01

    In Europe, it is sometimes assumed that few barriers to prenatal care exist because extensive programs of health insurance and initiatives to promote participation in prenatal care have been established for many decades. A case-control study was performed in ten European countries (Austria, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden). Postpartum interviews were conducted between 1995 and 1996. A total of 1283 women with inadequate prenatal care (i.e., with 0, 1, or 2 prenatal care visits or a first prenatal care visit after 15 completed weeks of pregnancy) and 1280 controls with adequate prenatal care were included in the analysis combining data from the ten countries. Based on combined data of the ten countries, lack of health insurance was found to be an important risk factor for inadequate prenatal care (crude odds ratio [OR] at 95% confidence interval [CI]: 30.1 [20.1-47.1]). Women with inadequate prenatal care were more likely to be aged < 20 years (16.4% vs 4.8%) and with higher parity (number of children previously borne) than controls. They were more likely to be foreign nationals, unmarried, and with an unplanned pregnancy. Women with inadequate care were also more likely to have less education and no regular income. They had more difficulties dealing with health services organization and child care. Cultural and financial barriers were present, but after adjusting for confounders by logistic regression, perceived financial difficulty was not a significant factor for inadequate prenatal care (adjusted OR [95% CI]: 0.7 [0.4-1.3]). Personal, socioeconomic, organizational, and cultural barriers to prenatal care exist in Europe.

  7. Zika Virus, a New Threat for Europe?

    PubMed

    Jupille, Henri; Seixas, Gonçalo; Mousson, Laurence; Sousa, Carla A; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2016-08-01

    Since its emergence in 2007 in Micronesia and Polynesia, the arthropod-borne flavivirus Zika virus (ZIKV) has spread in the Americas and the Caribbean, following first detection in Brazil in May 2015. The risk of ZIKV emergence in Europe increases as imported cases are repeatedly reported. Together with chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and dengue virus (DENV), ZIKV is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Any countries where these mosquitoes are present could be potential sites for future ZIKV outbreak. We assessed the vector competence of European Aedes mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV. Two populations of Ae. aegypti from the island of Madeira (Funchal and Paul do Mar) and two populations of Ae. albopictus from France (Nice and Bar-sur-Loup) were challenged with an Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Fully engorged mosquitoes were then maintained in insectary conditions (28°±1°C, 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity). 16-24 mosquitoes from each population were examined at 3, 6, 9 and 14 days post-infection to estimate the infection rate, disseminated infection rate and transmission efficiency. Based on these experimental infections, we demonstrated that Ae. albopictus from France were not very susceptible to ZIKV. In combination with the restricted distribution of European Ae. albopictus, our results on vector competence corroborate the low risk for ZIKV to expand into most parts of Europe with the possible exception of the warmest regions bordering the Mediterranean coastline.

  8. Medieval iconography of watermelons in Mediterranean Europe

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Cucurbitaceae), is an important fruit vegetable in the warmer regions of the world. Watermelons were illustrated in Mediterranean Antiquity, but not as frequently as some other cucurbits. Little is known concerning the watermelons of Mediterranean Europe during medieval times. With the objective of obtaining an improved understanding of watermelon history and diversity in this region, medieval drawings purportedly of watermelons were collected, examined and compared for originality, detail and accuracy. Findings The oldest manuscript found that contains an accurate, informative image of watermelon is the Tractatus de herbis, British Library ms. Egerton 747, which was produced in southern Italy, around the year 1300. A dozen more original illustrations were found, most of them from Italy, produced during the ensuing two centuries that can be positively identified as watermelon. In most herbal-type manuscripts, the foliage is depicted realistically, the plants shown as having long internodes, alternate leaves with pinnatifid leaf laminae, and the fruits are small, round and striped. The manuscript that contains the most detailed and accurate image of watermelon is the Carrara Herbal, British Library ms. Egerton 2020. In the agriculture-based manuscripts, the foliage, if depicted, is not accurate, but variation in the size, shape and coloration of the fruits is evident. Both red-flesh and white-flesh watermelons are illustrated, corresponding to the typical sweet dessert watermelons so common today and the insipid citron watermelons, respectively. The variation in watermelon fruit size, shape and coloration depicted in the illustrations indicates that at least six cultivars of watermelon are represented, three of which probably had red, sweet flesh and three of which appear to have been citrons. Evidently, citron watermelons were more common in Mediterranean Europe in the past than they are today. PMID:23904443

  9. Tick-borne viruses in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hubálek, Zdenek; Rudolf, Ivo

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this review is to present briefly background information on 27 tick-borne viruses ("tiboviruses") that have been detected in Europe, viz flaviviruses tick-borne encephalitis (TBEV), louping-ill (LIV), Tyuleniy (TYUV), and Meaban (MEAV); orthobunyaviruses Bahig (BAHV) and Matruh (MTRV); phleboviruses Grand Arbaud (GAV), Ponteves (PTVV), Uukuniemi (UUKV), Zaliv Terpeniya (ZTV), and St. Abb's Head (SAHV); nairoviruses Soldado (SOLV), Puffin Island (PIV), Avalon (AVAV), Clo Mor (CMV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHFV); bunyavirus Bhanja (BHAV); coltivirus Eyach (EYAV); orbiviruses Tribec (TRBV), Okhotskiy (OKHV), Cape Wrath (CWV), Mykines (MYKV), Tindholmur (TDMV), and Bauline (BAUV); two thogotoviruses (Thogoto THOV, Dhori DHOV); and one asfivirus (African swine fever virus ASFV). Emphasis is laid on the taxonomic status of these viruses, range of their ixodid or argasid vectors and vertebrate hosts, pathogenicity for vertebrates including humans, and relevance to public health. In general, three groups of tibovirus diseases can be recognized according to main clinical symptoms produced: (i) febrile illness-usually with a rapid onset, fever, sweating, headache, nausea, weakness, myalgia, arthralgia, sometimes polyarthritis and rash; (ii) the CNS affection-meningitis, meningoencephalitis or encephalomyelitis with pareses, paralysis and other sequelae; (iii) hemorrhagic disease. Several "European" tiboviruses cause very serious human (TBEV, CCHFV) or animal (LIV, ASFV) diseases. Other arboviruses play definite role in human or animal pathology though the disease is usually either less serious or infrequently reported (TYUV, BHAV, AVAV, EYAV, TRBV, DHOV, THOV). The other European arboviruses are "orphans" without a proven medical or veterinary significance (BAHV, MTRV, MEAV, GAV, PTVV, ZTV, SAHV, UUKV, SOLV, PIV, AVAV, CMV, OKHV, CWV, MYKV, TDMV, BAUV). However, certain arbovirus diseases of free-living vertebrates (but also those of domestic animals and

  10. Ticks imported to Europe with exotic reptiles.

    PubMed

    Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-09-30

    It is known that traded exotic animals carry with them an immense number of associated symbionts, including parasites. Reptiles are no exception. Most of the imported reptiles originate from tropical countries and their possibility to carry potentially dangerous pathogens is high. According to CITES, Europe is currently the main reptile importer in the world. Despite this, there is no review or analysis available for the risk related to the importation of tick-borne diseases with traded reptile to the EU. The main aim of the manuscript is to provide a review on the available literature on ticks introduced to and exchanged between European countries via the live reptile trade. So far, the published reports of ticks imported on reptiles are limited to few European countries: Italy, Poland, Spain, Netherlands, Belgium, Slovenia and UK. The following species have been reported: Hyalomma aegyptium, Amblyomma dissimile, Amblyomma exornatum, Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma fuscolineatum, Amblyomma latum, Amblyomma quadricavum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Amblyomma nuttalli, Amblyomma sparsum, Amblyomma sphenodonti, Amblyomma transversale and Amblyomma varanense. The majority of species are of African origin, followed by American and Asian species. All groups of reptiles (chelonians, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, tuataras) were involved. However, it seems that certain groups (i.e. tortoises of genus Testudo, monitor lizards of genus Varanus, snakes of genus Python) are more important as host for imported ticks, but this may be related to higher levels of international trade. Even fewer are the reports of tick-borne pathogens associated with imported reptile ticks. Despite the diversity of tick species reported on imported reptiles, the situations of truly invasive species are atypical and are limited in natural environments to maximum two cases where H. aegyptium was involved. Otherwise, the risk associated with reptile trade for introduction of invasive tick to Europe is low

  11. Life+ EnvEurope DEIMS - improving access to long-term ecosystem monitoring data in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliment, Tomas; Peterseil, Johannes; Oggioni, Alessandro; Pugnetti, Alessandra; Blankman, David

    2013-04-01

    Long-term ecological (LTER) studies aim at detecting environmental changes and analysing its related drivers. In this respect LTER Europe provides a network of about 450 sites and platforms. However, data on various types of ecosystems and at a broad geographical scale is still not easily available. Managing data resulting from long-term observations is therefore one of the important tasks not only for an LTER site itself but also on the network level. Exchanging and sharing the information within a wider community is a crucial objective in the upcoming years. Due to the fragmented nature of long-term ecological research and monitoring (LTER) in Europe - and also on the global scale - information management has to face several challenges: distributed data sources, heterogeneous data models, heterogeneous data management solutions and the complex domain of ecosystem monitoring with regard to the resulting data. The Life+ EnvEurope project (2010-2013) provides a case study for a workflow using data from the distributed network of LTER-Europe sites. In order to enhance discovery, evaluation and access to data, the EnvEurope Drupal Ecological Information Management System (DEIMS) has been developed. This is based on the first official release of the Drupal metadata editor developed by US LTER. EnvEurope DEIMS consists of three main components: 1) Metadata editor: a web-based client interface to manage metadata of three information resource types - datasets, persons and research sites. A metadata model describing datasets based on Ecological Metadata Language (EML) was developed within the initial phase of the project. A crosswalk to the INSPIRE metadata model was implemented to convey to the currently on-going European activities. Person and research site metadata models defined within the LTER Europe were adapted for the project needs. The three metadata models are interconnected within the system in order to provide easy way to navigate the user among the related

  12. OneGeology-Europe - The Challenges and progress of implementing a basic geological infrastructure for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asch, Kristine; Tellez-Arenas, Agnes

    2010-05-01

    OneGeology-Europe is making geological spatial data held by the geological surveys of Europe more easily discoverable and accessible via the internet. This will provide a fundamental scientific layer to the European Plate Observation System Rich geological data assets exist in the geological survey of each individual EC Member State, but they are difficult to discover and are not interoperable. For those outside the geological surveys they are not easy to obtain, to understand or to use. Geological spatial data is essential to the prediction and mitigation of landslides, subsidence, earthquakes, flooding and pollution. These issues are global in nature and their profile has also been raised by the OneGeology global initiative for the International Year of Planet Earth 2008. Geology is also a key dataset in the EC INSPIRE Directive, where it is also fundamental to the themes of natural risk zones, energy and mineral resources. The OneGeology-Europe project is delivering a web-accessible, interoperable geological spatial dataset for the whole of Europe at the 1:1 million scale based on existing data held by the European geological surveys. Proof of concept will be applied to key areas at a higher resolution and some geological surveys will deliver their data at high resolution. An important role is developing a European specification for basic geological map data and making significant progress towards harmonising the dataset (an essential first step to addressing harmonisation at higher data resolutions). It is accelerating the development and deployment of a nascent international interchange standard for geological data - GeoSciML, which will enable the sharing and exchange of the data within and beyond the geological community within Europe and globally. The geological dataset for the whole of Europe is not a centralized database but a distributed system. Each geological survey implements and hosts an interoperable web service, delivering their national harmonized

  13. The early upper Paleolithic of eastern Europe reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Hoffecker, John F

    2011-01-01

    Artifacts of Paleolithic age were first recognized in eastern Europe during the 1870s. Archeologists have struggled ever since to integrate them into the better known record of western Europe, where the interpretive framework of Paleolithic archeology was originally developed. The essential elements of both the Middle and Upper Paleolithic were recognized quickly in eastern Europe, and a close connection with a major middle Upper Paleolithic industry of central Europe (Gravettian) was established many years ago. The early Upper Paleolithic (EUP) has remained a major challenge, however; it is represented primarily by a bewildering array of local archeological cultures that exhibit limited similarity to contemporaneous industries of western and central Europe.6-9.

  14. "Physics and Life" for Europe's Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-04-01

    The EIROforum Contribution to the European Science and Technology Week 2003 [Physics on Stage 3 Logo] What do you know about modern science? Was your school science teacher inspiring and enthusiastic? Or was physics class a good time to take a nap? Unfortunately, many young Europeans don't have the fondest memories of science in school, and the result is a widespread disinterest and lack of understanding of science among adults. This has become a real problem - especially at a time when science is having a growing impact on our daily lives, and when society needs more scientists than ever! What can be done? Some of Europe's leading research organisations, scientists and teachers have put their heads together and come up with a unique approach called "Physics on Stage" . This will be the third year that these institutes, with substantial support from the European Commission, are running this project - attacking the problem at its roots. EIROforum and "Physics on Stage 3" [EIROforum Logo] "Physics On Stage 3" is based on the very successful "Physics On Stage" concept that was introduced in 2000. It is directed towards science teachers and students in Europe's secondary schools. It is a part of the year-long build-up to the European Science and Technology Week 2003 (3-9 November), an initiative by the European Commission, and is run by seven of Europe's leading Intergovernmental Research Organizations (the EIROforum) [1]. The project addresses the content and format of science teaching in European schools , seeking to improve the quality of teaching and to find new ways to stimulate pupils to take an interest in science. Innovative and inspirational science teaching is seen as a key component to attract young people to deal with scientific issues, whether or not they finally choose a career in science. Hence, "Physics On Stage 3" aims to stimulate the interest of young people through the school teachers, who can play a key role in reversing the trend of falling

  15. Aedes albopictus and Its Environmental Limits in Europe.

    PubMed

    Cunze, Sarah; Kochmann, Judith; Koch, Lisa K; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, native to South East Asia, is listed as one of the worst invasive vector species worldwide. In Europe the species is currently restricted to Southern Europe, but due to the ongoing climate change, Ae. albopictus is expected to expand its potential range further northwards. In addition to modelling the habitat suitability for Ae. albopictus under current and future climatic conditions in Europe by means of the maximum entropy approach, we here focused on the drivers of the habitat suitability prediction. We explored the most limiting factors for Aedes albopictus in Europe under current and future climatic conditions, a method which has been neglected in species distribution modelling so far. Ae. albopictus is one of the best-studied mosquito species, which allowed us to evaluate the applied Maxent approach for most limiting factor mapping. We identified three key limiting factors for Ae. albopictus in Europe under current climatic conditions: winter temperature in Eastern Europe, summer temperature in Southern Europe. Model findings were in good accordance with commonly known establishment thresholds in Europe based on climate chamber experiments and derived from the geographical distribution of the species. Under future climatic conditions low winter temperature were modelled to remain the most limiting factor in Eastern Europe, whereas in Central Europe annual mean temperature and summer temperatures were modelled to be replaced by summer precipitation, respectively, as most limiting factors. Changes in the climatic conditions in terms of the identified key limiting factors will be of great relevance regarding the invasive potential of the Ae. albopictus. Thus, our results may help to understand the key drivers of the suggested range expansion under climate change and may help to improve monitoring programmes. The applied approach of investigating limiting factors has proven to yield valuable results and may also provide

  16. Economic Commission for Europe inventory of transboundary ground water in Europe.

    PubMed

    Arnold, G E; Buzás, Zs

    2005-01-01

    In Europe, a long history of cooperation over transboundary rivers--most notably the Rhine and Danube rivers--exists. To help foster cooperation and communication vis-à-vis transboundary ground water, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), as part of its ground water program, conducted a survey on transboundary aquifers in Europe. The survey produced 25 responses from 37 countries and identified 89 transboundary aquifers. Respondents reported on the degree of ground water use within their own boundaries, transboundary aspects (agreements, joint commissions, etc.) of ground water, and transboundary aquifers themselves. The inventory proved useful, but a number of problems were identified: different map scales and symbols, difficulty in identifying transboundary aquifers, inconsistent labeling of aquifers, and data discrepancies. The UNECE ground water program also drafted guidelines for monitoring and assessment of transboundary ground water. These guidelines are not legally binding but have been adopted by 25 countries, deal mainly with monitoring and assessment, and are being implemented through a number of pilot projects. Other organizations-the United Nations Scientific, Educational and Cultural Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization, the International Association of Hydrogeologists, and the European Union--are all supporting the investigation of transboundary aquifers in an effort to facilitate data sharing and coordinated management of these valuable resources.

  17. Improving the Teaching of Contemporary Europe: A Textbook Study [and] Improving the Teaching of Contemporary Europe: Conference Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merryfield, Merry; Hutton, Deborah

    Results of a textbook study to determine what U.S. secondary school students are learning about contemporary Europe are presented, and highlights of the "Conference on Improving the Teaching of Contemporary Europe" at which the study was presented are summarized. A sampling of secondary school geography, world history, and U.S. history textbooks…

  18. Electromechanically active polymer transducers: research in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpi, Federico; Graz, Ingrid; Jager, Edwin; Ladegaard Skov, Anne; Vidal, Frédéric

    2013-10-01

    Smart materials and structures based on electromechanically active polymers (EAPs) represent a fast growing and stimulating field of research and development. EAPs are materials capable of changing dimensions and/or shape in response to suitable electrical stimuli. They are commonly classified in two major families: ionic EAPs (activated by an electrically induced transport of ions and/or solvent) and electronic EAPs (activated by electrostatic forces). These polymers show interesting properties, such as sizable active strains and/or stresses in response to electrical driving, high mechanical flexibility, low density, structural simplicity, ease of processing and scalability, no acoustic noise and, in most cases, low costs. Since many of these characteristics can also describe natural muscle tissues from an engineering standpoint, it is not surprising that EAP transducers are sometimes also referred to as 'muscle-like smart materials' or 'artificial muscles'. They are used not only to generate motion, but also to sense or harvest energy from it. In particular, EAP electromechanical transducers are studied for applications that can benefit from their 'biomimetic' characteristics, with possible usages from the micro- to the macro-scale, spanning several disciplines, such as mechatronics, robotics, automation, biotechnology and biomedical engineering, haptics, fluidics, optics and acoustics. Currently, the EAP field is just undergoing its initial transition from academic research into commercialization, with companies starting to invest in this technology and the first products appearing on the market. This focus issue is intentionally aimed at gathering contributions from the most influential European groups working in the EAP field. In fact, today Europe hosts the broadest EAP community worldwide. The rapid expansion of the EAP field in Europe, where it historically has strong roots, has stimulated the creation of the 'European Scientific Network for Artificial

  19. Europe discusses role in future space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-06-01

    Prof. Roger Bonnet said it was important for Europe to make an informed decision in the next few years on whether to support NASA's proposed New Generation Space Telescope (NGST), a follow-on programme to the Hubble Space Telescope. NGST's observing capabilities will far extend the reach of existing ground or space-based telescopes, providing the opportunity for the first time to look back through eons of time to the very first stars and galaxies in the Universe. With an aperture greater than four metres, NGST could also provide European astronomers with a crucial complement to some of ESA's planned future space projects, like FIRST (the Far InfraRed Submillimetre Telescope) and Planck (a mission to study the cosmic background radiation field). NASA and ESA are already involved in preliminary NGST studies but Europe has yet to make a commitment to support the programme. NASA wants to start formal development in 2003, with a launch currently planned for 2007. This week's conference at Liege in Belgium was the first opportunity for many astronomers to exchange ideas and compare technological notes on a Next Generation Space Telescope. It also provided a forum for representatives of Europe's space industry to discuss the technological challenges presented by such a project. Prof. Bonnet said: "From recent experience it is clear that the best scientific results in astronomy and astrophysics are obtained by coordinated observations in different wavelength ranges. "The joint effort of the European space programme and of the various large European ground observatories currently allows European astronomers to be on the front-line of astrophysics research."He said that ESA - if supported programmatically and financially by its member states - is willing to discuss with NASA a mutually fruitful form of NGST participation. But Prof. Bonnet stressed that for this type of collaboration to be approved it remained crucial that the European share contained both scientific and

  20. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ruminants in Europe.

    PubMed

    Woldehiwet, Zerai

    2006-10-01

    The agent that causes tick-borne fever (TBF) in sheep was first described in 1940, 8 years after the disease was first recognized in Scotland. The same agent was soon shown to cause TBF in sheep and pasture fever in cattle in other parts of the UK, Scandinavia, and other parts of Europe. After the initial use of the name Rickettsia phagocytophila, the organism was given the name Cytoecetes phagocytophila to reflect its association with granulocytes and its morphological similarity with Cytoecetes microti. This name continued to be used by workers in the UK until the recent reclassification of the granulocytic ehrlichiae affecting ruminants, horses, and humans as variants of the same species, Anaplasma phagocytophilum. TBF and pasture fever are characterized by high fever, recurrent bacteremia, neutropenia, lymphocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, and general immunosuppression, resulting in more severe secondary infections such as tick pyemia, pneumonic pasteurellosis, listeriosis, and enterotoxemia. During the peak period of bacteremia as many as 90% of granulocytes may be infected. The agent is transmitted transtadially by the hard tick Ixodes ricinus, and possibly other ticks. After patent bacteremia, sheep, goats, and cattle become persistently infected "carriers," perhaps playing an important role in the maintenance of infection, in the flock/herd. Little is known about how efficiently ticks acquire and maintain infection in ruminant populations or whether "carrier" domestic ruminants play an important role as reservoirs of infection, but deer, other free-living ruminants, and wild rodents are also potential sources of infection. During the late 1990s serological evidence of infection of humans was demonstrated in several European countries, creating a renewed interest and increased awareness of the zoonotic potential of TBF variants. More recently, a few cases of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) have been reported in some European countries, but it remains to

  1. Changing attitudes towards abortion in Europe.

    PubMed

    Arisi, E

    2003-06-01

    To understand how personal and social attitudes are changing regarding more available safe abortion in Europe. Abortion has been commonly practiced for a long time throughout most of the world, either in legal or illegal conditions, but it is a subject that arouses passion and controversy, because abortion raises two important issues, namely sex and life, sometimes mixed with religion and ethics. Over the past few years, we have observed changes in laws, and personal and professional attitudes towards abortion. Social needs modify the attitudes of the authorities and individuals. In many countries where the performance of abortion is illegal, statistics indicate that large numbers of abortions are carried out, but authorities are indifferent, ignore or tolerate it or even unofficially license clinics for the abortion. In some other countries where abortion is technically legal, access to authorized facilities and personnel may be limited, or resources to pay for the abortion may be lacking, resulting in more illegal abortions. There are, therefore, two categories of abortion: legal versus illegal, and safe versus unsafe. However, laws are changing, becoming even more liberal, even if, in certain nations, there are renewed attempts to question the right of women to decide. Practice is changing and in some cases becoming separate from the law. Basic ideas are changing, because, in a large number of European countries, we are moving from a culture of abortion to a culture of contraception and prevention of abortion, through an effort of governments, women, professionals, and non-governmental organizations. Certainly, important steps have been taken in the different ways of performing an abortion. For example, we have seen the arrival of medical abortion, with the use of mifepristone and misoprostol. Finally, there is also a change in the way of supporting women through humane and complete counseling, which includes attention to follow-up services offering a choice of

  2. Air pollution modeling over Europe using WRFchem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Mathias; Müller, Mathias

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study is to model air pollution for entire Switzerland with a very high spatial resolution. For the first time a several year period of air pollution is modeled for entire Switzerland. The high resolution domain of Switzerland is nested into a coarser European domain with a horizontal resolution of 50 km, extending from south of Spain to south of Finland. So far only the framework for the European domain exists and therefore we focus on the method and first results of this particular domain. The state-of-the-art "Weather Research and Forecasting" (WRF) model with a chemistry extension (WRFchem) is used to simulate air pollutants. It is one of the first times that these two "online" coupled models are applied for entire Europe. Gas phase chemistry is modeled with the "Carbon bond mechanism version Z" (CBMZ) with 67 prognostic chemical species and 164 chemical reactions. Aerosols are treated by the "Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry" (MOSAIC) using 4 sectional aerosol bins. The meteorological initial and boundary conditions are derived from the NCEP Reanalysis 2 and GFS data. The anthropogenic emissions are taken from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP), which have a horizontal resolution of 50 km and are divided into 11 SNAP-sectors (Selected Nomenclature for reporting of Air Pollutants). According to these different sectors and the countries the data could be disaggregated into hourly emissions according to the GENEMIS project. To use this dataset also a spatial conversion with the inverse next neighbor method and a vertical disaggregation as well as a re-apportioning of different chemical species were applied. Biogenic emissions are computed during runtime using the Guenther Scheme. We noticed that chemical initial conditions are not needed as they are mainly driven by emissions. Hence a spin-up of at least five days is used. For verification purposes correlations with European ground-based measurements (O3

  3. Management of imported malaria in Europe.

    PubMed

    Askling, Helena H; Bruneel, Fabrice; Burchard, Gerd; Castelli, Francesco; Chiodini, Peter L; Grobusch, Martin P; Lopez-Vélez, Rogelio; Paul, Margaret; Petersen, Eskild; Popescu, Corneliu; Ramharter, Michael; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2012-09-17

    In this position paper, the European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Study Group on Clinical Parasitology, summarizes main issues regarding the management of imported malaria cases. Malaria is a rare diagnosis in Europe, but it is a medical emergency. A travel history is the key to suspecting malaria and is mandatory in patients with fever. There are no specific clinical signs or symptoms of malaria although fever is seen in almost all non-immune patients. Migrants from malaria endemic areas may have few symptoms.Malaria diagnostics should be performed immediately on suspicion of malaria and the gold- standard is microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films. A Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) may be used as an initial screening tool, but does not replace urgent microscopy which should be done in parallel. Delays in microscopy, however, should not lead to delayed initiation of appropriate treatment. Patients diagnosed with malaria should usually be hospitalized. If outpatient management is preferred, as is the practice in some European centres, patients must usually be followed closely (at least daily) until clinical and parasitological cure. Treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria is either with oral artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) or with the combination atovaquone/proguanil. Two forms of ACT are available in Europe: artemether/lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine. ACT is also effective against Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium knowlesi, but these species can be treated with chloroquine. Treatment of persistent liver forms in P. vivax and P. ovale with primaquine is indicated after excluding glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. There are modified schedules and drug options for the treatment of malaria in special patient groups, such as children and pregnant women. The potential for drug interactions and the role of food in the absorption of anti

  4. Radicalization, Linkage, and Diversity: Current Trends in Terrorism in Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Current Trends in Terrorism in Europe 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER... Europe Lorenzo Vidino Prepared for the Office of the Secretary of Defense Approved for public release; distribution unlimited The RAND Corporation is a...Contract W74V8H-06-C-0002. iii Preface Although it has not suffered a successful attack since the July 7, 2005, bombings in London, Europe perceives

  5. Dispersal time for ancient human migrations: Americas and Europe colonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, J. C.

    2007-07-01

    I apply the recently proposed intermittence strategy to investigate the ancient human migrations in the world. That is, the Americas colonization (Bering-bridge and Pacific-coast theories) and Neanderthal replacement in Europe around 45000 years before the present. Using a mathematical equation related to diffusion and ballistic motion, I calculate the colonization time in all these cases in good agreement with archeological data (including Neolithic transition in Europe). Moreover, to support these calculations, I obtain analytically the effective speed of colonization in Europe veff=0.62 [km/yr] and related to the Aurignacian culture propagation.

  6. [Portugal and Europe are poliomyelitis free].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Guilherme; Santos, Luís Almeida; Sarmento, António; Rocha, Graça; Valente, Paula

    2003-01-01

    On the 21st of June 2002, in Copenhagen, the Regional Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication, declared the European Region of the World Health Organization (WHO) as polio-free. The last case (not imported) of poliomyelitis in Europe had occurred in November 1998. The health impact is enormous. In Portugal, the last case of poliomyelitis caused by the wild poliovirus, had occurred in December 1986. The path to eradication in Portugal had begun with a vaccination campaign in 1965/1966, with the oral polio vaccine (Sabin). High vaccination coverage has been maintained since then. The Portuguese program to eliminate poliomyelitis follows the strategic recommendations of WHO, with three components: vaccination; surveillance of acute placid paralysis (AFP); laboratory containment of wild polioviruses. Global eradication has not yet been achieved but is likely to happen till 2005. Keeping the high levels of motivation among Portuguese health workers is essential, in order not to loose what has been achieved. High vaccination coverage has to be maintained. Surveillance of AFP has to be improved and the prompt notification of cases by hospital clinicians, sending stool samples to the reference laboratory, is essential for the success of this activity. The laboratory containment programme is important to prevent the accidental reintroduction of poliomyelitis from laboratories.

  7. Allergenic pollen and pollen allergy in Europe.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Cecchi, L; Bonini, S; Nunes, C; Annesi-Maesano, I; Behrendt, H; Liccardi, G; Popov, T; van Cauwenberge, P

    2007-09-01

    The allergenic content of the atmosphere varies according to climate, geography and vegetation. Data on the presence and prevalence of allergenic airborne pollens, obtained from both aerobiological studies and allergological investigations, make it possible to design pollen calendars with the approximate flowering period of the plants in the sampling area. In this way, even though pollen production and dispersal from year to year depend on the patterns of preseason weather and on the conditions prevailing at the time of anthesis, it is usually possible to forecast the chances of encountering high atmospheric allergenic pollen concentrations in different areas. Aerobiological and allergological studies show that the pollen map of Europe is changing also as a result of cultural factors (for example, importation of plants such as birch and cypress for urban parklands), greater international travel (e.g. colonization by ragweed in France, northern Italy, Austria, Hungary etc.) and climate change. In this regard, the higher frequency of weather extremes, like thunderstorms, and increasing episodes of long range transport of allergenic pollen represent new challenges for researchers. Furthermore, in the last few years, experimental data on pollen and subpollen-particles structure, the pathogenetic role of pollen and the interaction between pollen and air pollutants, gave new insights into the mechanisms of respiratory allergic diseases.

  8. The onset of lactase persistence in Europe.

    PubMed

    Gerbault, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    The genomic region containing the lactase (LCT) gene shows one of the strongest signals of positive selection in Europeans, detectable using a range of approaches including haplotype length, linked microsatellite variation and population-differentiation-based tests. Lactase is the enzyme that carries out the digestion of the milk sugar lactose. Its expression decreases at some point after the weaning period is over in most mammals and in around 68% of all living adult humans. However, in some humans, particularly those from populations with a history of dairying, lactase is expressed throughout adulthood. This trait is called lactase persistence (LP), and in people of European ancestry, it is associated with a single mutation (-13910*T). Evidence from the detection of dairy fat residues in potsherds, and allele frequencies in ancient DNA samples suggest that LP arose after dairying practices had developed. However, the reasons why LP may have been advantageous are still debated, and the respective contribution of demography and natural selection remains to be disentangled. This paper discusses various studies, from archaeology to population genetics, that have shed some light on the subject by investigating the evolution of LP in Europe.

  9. Multiple myeloma: practice patterns across Europe.

    PubMed

    Raab, Marc S; Cavo, Michele; Delforge, Michel; Driessen, Christoph; Fink, Leah; Flinois, Alain; Gonzalez-McQuire, Sebastian; Safaei, Reza; Karlin, Lionel; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Schoen, Paul; Yong, Kwee

    2016-10-01

    Real-world data describing management of patients with multiple myeloma are limited. A European (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, UK) observational chart review was conducted to address this. Physicians completed questionnaires for every patient seen during a 2-4-week observation period, regardless of treatment status. A total of 435 physicians completed 7635 cross-sectional chart reviews. Overall, 47% of patients were undergoing anti-tumour drug treatment, 42% had previously received ≥1 line of treatment and 12% had never received anti-tumour drug treatment. Of the patients treated by oncologists, onco-haematologists or internists, 95% received, or were expected to receive, at least one line of anti-tumour drug treatment, 61% received ≥2 lines of therapy and 38% received ≥3 lines. Except in the UK, the most commonly used induction therapies contained bortezomib (48%); lenalidomide was the most commonly used first-line maintenance therapy (45%) and second- and third-line agent overall (60% and 52% of patients at those lines, respectively). Bortezomib retreatment was used in 47% of patients who received it first line. Treatment patterns became more diverse with subsequent treatment lines. This study provides insight into real-world treatment patterns in Europe. While treatment practices are broadly similar across countries, some notable differences in the agents used exist. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Hybrid electric vehicles in Europe and Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Wyczalek, F.A.

    1996-12-31

    Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again reexamined the battery powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Consequently, by 1995, vehicle manufacturers turned their attention to hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). This redirection of EV effort is highlighted by the focus on experimental hybrid EV displayed at the 1995 Frankfurt Motor Show and the Tokyo Motor Show in Japan. In Europe the 56th IAA in Frankfurt included twelve or more EV designed for personnel transportation, and among them, two featured hybrid-electric (HEV) systems: the Peugeot turboelectric HEV, and the Opel Ermscher Selectra HEV. In Japan, at the 31st Tokyo Motor Show, among the twenty or more EV on display, seven were hybrid HEV by: Daihatsu, Mitsubishi, Toyota: and, the Suburu, Suzuki, and the Kia KEV4 parallel type HEV. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the key features of these hybrid propulsion systems. Among the conclusions, two issues are evident: one, the focus is on series-type hybrid systems, with the exception of the parallel Suburu and Suzuki HEV, and, two, the major manufacturers are turning to the hybrid concept in their search for solutions to two key EV Issues: limited driving range; and, heating and air conditioning, associated with the low energy density characteristic of batteries.

  11. Innovations in Science Education in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuepbach, E.

    2001-12-01

    At many European Universities, the retention of skilled science graduates is hindered mainly by organisational structures. In particular, women students are often under-represented in sciences, and career progression is in general difficult. The linear system of knowhow transfer is inefficient from the pedagogical point of view and unsatisfactory for many students. Owing to fast changes in society and the working environment, a re-building of curricula in tertiary education (including University Education) has begun. Conceptual visions aim at influencing the investment in the largely untapped human capital and preparing the students for quick adaptation and enhanced flexiblity. Traditional methods of classroom teaching and knowhow transfer are increasingly complemented by New Learning Technologies and Mentoring. The EU Project INDECS (Potentials of Interdisciplinary Degree Courses in Engineering, Information Technology, Natural and Socio-Economic Sciences in a Changing Society) examines such pedagogical aspects in European degree courses combining engineering, IT, physical sciences and socio-economic sciences. Inclusion of specific IT and social science topics in modular form is examined. How innovation in University Teaching will meet the attractiveness to both students and employers in Europe is major focus of the study.

  12. Air pollution from ships over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    -Eleni Sotiropoulou, Rafaella; Tagaris, Efthimios

    2016-04-01

    Shipping sector is a large and growing source of emissions. Large quantities of nitrogen oxides (NOX) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) are emitted from ships affecting the chemical composition of the atmosphere in coastal areas. Changes of the world fleet over the past decades suggest a continuously increasing trend of the shipping emissions. Therefore, shipping emissions may partly offset the benefits from the reduction of anthropogenic emissions over land. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of shipping emissions on air quality degradation over Europe for a winter (January 2006) and a summer month (July 2006) using CMAQ modeling system and the TNO anthropogenic emission inventory for 2006. Results suggest that shipping emissions increase NO2 and SO2 mixing ratios more than 90% over the sea and close to the coastline, locally. Ship induced ozone contribution to total surface ozone exceeds 5% over the sea and near the coastline during the summer month. The largest impact is simulated over the Mediterranean Sea. Ship traffic emissions are estimated to increase PM2.5 concentration during winter up to 40% over the Mediterranean Sea while during summer an increase more than 50% is simulated over the sea.

  13. Energy conservation opportunities in Eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Zellhoeffer, J.W.

    1996-05-01

    Today, Eastern Europe and the member countries of the NIS are facing energy shortages and cost increases of a scale never experienced in America. Even during the energy crisis of the 70`s, when oil prices tripled over a two year period. our economy was not exposed to the problems now facing this region of the world. This paper covers the challenges and opportunities facing those individuals and companies involved in energy efficiency and other technologies that benefit the environment. Unfortunately, the social and economic stress caused by, the five fold average increases in energy costs since 1990 in most Eastern European countries has not been offset by improved living standards, the increased availability of quality goods, or even the ability of citizens to travel freely, In reality, food and raw material costs have gone up so dramatically that most individuals are worse off today than they were six years ago. Compounding this situation is the fact that most school age children have little ambition to continue with their education as a result of the general collapse of most of the more prestigious large industrial and commercial enterprises.

  14. Conference scene: Select Biosciences Epigenetics Europe 2010.

    PubMed

    Razvi, Enal S

    2011-02-01

    The field of epigenetics is now on a geometric rise, driven in a large part by the realization that modifiers of chromatin are key regulators of biological processes in vivo. The three major classes of epigenetic effectors are DNA methylation, histone post-translational modifications (such as acetylation, methylation or phosphorylation) and small noncoding RNAs (most notably microRNAs). In this article, I report from Select Biosciences Epigenetics Europe 2010 industry conference held on 14-15 September 2010 at The Burlington Hotel, Dublin, Ireland. This industry conference was extremely well attended with a global pool of delegates representing the academic research community, biotechnology companies and pharmaceutical companies, as well as the technology/tool developers. This conference represented the current state of the epigenetics community with cancer/oncology as a key driver. In fact, it has been estimated that approximately 45% of epigenetic researchers today identify cancer/oncology as their main area of focus vis-à-vis their epigenetic research efforts.

  15. Participatory Syndromic Surveillance of Influenza in Europe.

    PubMed

    Guerrisi, Caroline; Turbelin, Clément; Blanchon, Thierry; Hanslik, Thomas; Bonmarin, Isabelle; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Perrotta, Daniela; Paolotti, Daniela; Smallenburg, Ronald; Koppeschaar, Carl; Franco, Ana O; Mexia, Ricardo; Edmunds, W John; Sile, Bersabeh; Pebody, Richard; van Straten, Edward; Meloni, Sandro; Moreno, Yamir; Duggan, Jim; Kjelsø, Charlotte; Colizza, Vittoria

    2016-12-01

    The growth of digital communication technologies for public health is offering an unconventional means to engage the general public in monitoring community health. Here we present Influenzanet, a participatory system for the syndromic surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) in Europe. Through standardized online surveys, the system collects detailed profile information and self-reported symptoms volunteered by participants resident in the Influenzanet countries. Established in 2009, it now includes 10 countries representing more than half of the 28 member states of the European Union population. The experience of 7 influenza seasons illustrates how Influenzanet has become an adjunct to existing ILI surveillance networks, offering coherence across countries, inclusion of nonmedically attended ILI, flexibility in case definition, and facilitating individual-level epidemiological analyses generally not possible in standard systems. Having the sensitivity to timely detect substantial changes in population health, Influenzanet has the potential to become a viable instrument for a wide variety of applications in public health preparedness and control. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Multiple origins for phenylketonuria in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Eisensmith, R.C.; Okano, Y.; Dasovich, M.; Wang, T.; Woo, S.L.C. ); Guettler, F.; Lou, H.; Guldberg, P. ); Lichter-Konecki, U.; Konecki, D.S. ); Svensson, E.; Hagenfeldt, L. ); Rey, F.; Munnich, A.; Lyonnet, S. ); Cockburn, F.; Connor, J.M. ); Pembrey, M.E.; Smith, I. ); Gitzelmann, R.; Steinmann, B. ); Apold, J.; Eiken, H.G. ); Giovannini, M.; Riva, E.; Longhi, R. ); Romano, C.; Cerone, R. ); Naughten, E.R.; Mullins, C.; Cahalane, S. ); Oezalp, I. )

    1992-12-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU), a disorder of amino acid metabolism prevalent among Caucasians and other ethnic groups, is caused primarily by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). PKU is a highly heterogeneous disorder, with more than 60 molecular lesions identified in the PAH gene. The haplotype associations, relative frequencies, and distributions of five prevalent PAH mutations (R158Q, R261Q, IVS10nt546, R408W, and IVS12nt1) were established in a comprehensive European sample population and subsequently were examined to determine the potential roles of several genetic mechanisms in explaining the present distribution of the major PKU alleles. Each of these five mutations was strongly associated with only one of the more than 70 chromosomal haplotypes defined by eight RFLPs in or near the PAH gene. These findings suggest that each of these mutations arose through a single founding event that occurred within time periods ranging from several hundred to several thousand years ago. From the significant differences observed in the relative frequencies and distributions of these five alleles throughout Europe, four of these putative founding events could be localized to specific ethnic subgroups. Together, these data suggest that there were multiple, geographically and ethnically distinct origins for PKU within the European population. 63 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Aerothermodynamics in Europe: ESA Achievements and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muylaert, J.-M.

    2005-02-01

    Europe is faced with challenging aerothermodynamic problems for several of ESA's human space flight and exploration, science, application and launcher programmes. The Aerothermodynamic section at ESA/ESTEC provided technical support to these programmes and implemented research and development programmes to improve industrial tools for design in a way to strengthen the co-operation between universities, research establishments and industry. The ESA programmes involving Aerothermodynamics are: • Human space flight and exploration: CARV, PARES, IRDT, EXPERT, EVD, ATV, COLUMBUS • Science programmes : Huygens, MARS, VEX • Launcher programmes: ARIANE, VEGA, Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP). • Satellite telecommunication and earth observation programmes: MSG, EOLUS, CRYOSAT, GOCE • Technological Research programmes: improvements of the tools for design and analysis of space vehicles (ground-based facilities, flight test and measurement techniques and numerical/physical modelling validation activities) The paper will review past ESA aerothermodynamic activities by highlighting achievements obtained on the occasion of the past 4 Aerothermodynamics symposia. Critical aerothermodynamic issues for the design of reentry space vehicles and launchers will be addressed. A number of analysis and test results will be presented, the need for advanced numerical tools will be addressed and the importance of flight-testing will be identified for the validation of the methods and procedures for flight extrapolation of results obtained from ground-based facilities.

  18. Multiple origins for phenylketonuria in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Eisensmith, R. C.; Okano, Y.; Dasovich, M.; Wang, T.; Güttler, F.; Lou, H.; Guldberg, P.; Lichter-Konecki, U.; Konecki, D. S.; Svensson, E.; Hagenfeldt, L.; Rey, F.; Munnich, A.; Lyonnet, S.; Cockburn, F.; Connor, J. M.; Pembrey, M. E.; Smith, I.; Gitzelmann, R.; Steinmann, B.; Apold, J.; Eiken, H. G.; Giovannini, M.; Riva, E.; Longhi, R.; Romano, C.; Cerone, R.; Naughten, E. R.; Mullins, C.; Cahalane, S.; Özalp, I.; Fekete, G.; Schuler, D.; Berencsi, G. Y.; Nász, I.; Brdicka, R.; Kamaryt, J.; Pijackova, A.; Cabalska, B.; Boszkowa, K.; Schwartz, E.; Kalinin, V. N.; Jin, L.; Chakraborty, R.; Woo, S. L. C.

    1992-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU), a disorder of amino acid metabolism prevalent among Caucasians and other ethnic groups, is caused primarily by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). PKU is a highly heterogeneous disorder, with more than 60 molecular lesions identified in the PAH gene. The haplotype associations, relative frequencies, and distributions of five prevalent PAH mutations (R158Q, R261Q, IVS10nt546, R408W, and IVS12nt1) were established in a comprehensive European sample population and subsequently were examined to determine the potential roles of several genetic mechanisms in explaining the present distribution of the major PKU alleles. Each of these five mutations was strongly associated with only one of the more than 70 chromosomal haplotypes defined by eight RFLPs in or near the PAH gene. These findings suggest that each of these mutations arose through a single founding event that occurred within time periods ranging from several hundred to several thousand years ago. From the significant differences observed in the relative frequencies and distributions of these five alleles throughout Europe, four of these putative founding events could be localized to specific ethnic subgroups. Together, these data suggest that there were multiple, geographically and ethnically distinct origins for PKU within the European population. PMID:1361100

  19. PDBe: Protein Data Bank in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Velankar, Sameer; Alhroub, Younes; Alili, Anaëlle; Best, Christoph; Boutselakis, Harry C.; Caboche, Ségolène; Conroy, Matthew J.; Dana, Jose M.; van Ginkel, Glen; Golovin, Adel; Gore, Swanand P.; Gutmanas, Aleksandras; Haslam, Pauline; Hirshberg, Miriam; John, Melford; Lagerstedt, Ingvar; Mir, Saqib; Newman, Laurence E.; Oldfield, Tom J.; Penkett, Chris J.; Pineda-Castillo, Jorge; Rinaldi, Luana; Sahni, Gaurav; Sawka, Grégoire; Sen, Sanchayita; Slowley, Robert; Sousa da Silva, Alan Wilter; Suarez-Uruena, Antonio; Swaminathan, G. Jawahar; Symmons, Martyn F.; Vranken, Wim F.; Wainwright, Michael; Kleywegt, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    The Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe; pdbe.org) is actively involved in managing the international archive of biomacromolecular structure data as one of the partners in the Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB; wwpdb.org). PDBe also develops new tools to make structural data more widely and more easily available to the biomedical community. PDBe has developed a browser to access and analyze the structural archive using classification systems that are familiar to chemists and biologists. The PDBe web pages that describe individual PDB entries have been enhanced through the introduction of plain-English summary pages and iconic representations of the contents of an entry (PDBprints). In addition, the information available for structures determined by means of NMR spectroscopy has been expanded. Finally, the entire web site has been redesigned to make it substantially easier to use for expert and novice users alike. PDBe works closely with other teams at the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) and in the international scientific community to develop new resources with value-added information. The SIFTS initiative is an example of such a collaboration—it provides extensive mapping data between proteins whose structures are available from the PDB and a host of other biomedical databases. SIFTS is widely used by major bioinformatics resources. PMID:21045060

  20. Animal use for science in Europe.

    PubMed

    Daneshian, Mardas; Busquet, Francois; Hartung, Thomas; Leist, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    To investigate long-term trends of animal use, the EU animal use statistics from the 15 countries that have been in the EU since 1995 plus respective data from Switzerland were analyzed. The overall number of animals used for scientific purposes in these countries, i.e., about 11 million/year, remained relatively constant between 1995 and 2011, with net increases in Germany and the UK and net decreases in Belgium, Denmark, Italy, Finland, the Netherlands and Sweden. The relatively low and constant numbers of experimental animals used for safety assessment (toxicology, 8%) may be due to the particularly intensive research on alternative methods in this area. The many efficiently working NGOs, multiple initiatives of the European Parliament, and coordinated activities of industry and the European Commission may have contributed to keeping the animal numbers in this field in check. Basic biological science, and research and development for medicine, veterinary and dentistry together currently make up 65% of animal use in science. Although the total numbers have remained relatively constant, consumption of transgenic animals has increased drastically; in Germany transgenic animals accounted for 30% of total animal use in 2011. Therefore, more focus on alternatives to the use of animals in biomedical research, in particular on transgenic animals, will be important in the future. One initiative designed to provide inter-sector information exchange for future actions is the "MEP - 3Rs scientists pairing scheme" initiated in 2015 by CAAT-Europe and MEP Pietikäinen.

  1. Western Europe, state formation, and genetic pacification.

    PubMed

    Frost, Peter; Harpending, Henry C

    2015-03-06

    Through its monopoly on violence, the State tends to pacify social relations. Such pacification proceeded slowly in Western Europe between the 5th and 11th centuries, being hindered by the rudimentary nature of law enforcement, the belief in a man's right to settle personal disputes as he saw fit, and the Church's opposition to the death penalty. These hindrances began to dissolve in the 11th century with a consensus by Church and State that the wicked should be punished so that the good may live in peace. Courts imposed the death penalty more and more often and, by the late Middle Ages, were condemning to death between 0.5 and 1.0% of all men of each generation, with perhaps just as many offenders dying at the scene of the crime or in prison while awaiting trial. Meanwhile, the homicide rate plummeted from the 14th century to the 20th. The pool of violent men dried up until most murders occurred under conditions of jealousy, intoxication, or extreme stress. The decline in personal violence is usually attributed to harsher punishment and the longer-term effects of cultural conditioning. It may also be, however, that this new cultural environment selected against propensities for violence.

  2. Price and cigarette consumption in Europe.

    PubMed

    Gallus, S; Schiaffino, A; La Vecchia, C; Townsend, J; Fernandez, E

    2006-04-01

    To analyse the variation in demand for tobacco according to price of cigarettes across the European region. Cross-sectional study. All the 52 countries of the European region. For each European country, data were collected on annual per adult cigarette consumption (2000), smoking prevalence (most recent), retail price of a pack of local and foreign brand cigarettes (around 2000), the gross domestic product adjusted by purchasing power parities, and the adult population (2000). Price elasticity of demand for cigarettes (that is, the change in cigarette consumption according to a change in tobacco price) across all the European countries, estimated by double-log multiple linear regression. Controlling for male to female prevalence ratio, price elasticities for consumption were -0.46 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.74 to -0.17) and -0.74 (95% CI -1.13 to -0.35) for local and foreign brand, respectively. The inverse relation between cigarette price and consumption was stronger in countries not in the European Union (price elasticity for foreign brand cigarettes of -0.8) as compared to European Union countries (price elasticity of -0.4). The result that, on average, in Europe smoking consumption decreases 5-7% for a 10% increase in the real price of cigarettes strongly supports an inverse association between price and cigarette smoking.

  3. Persistency in monthly mean temperatures in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasol, Dubravka; Ólafsson, Haraldur

    2016-04-01

    Time series from a number of weather stations in Europe have been studied in order to assess the persistency of montly mean temperatures. In most regions, the correlation between the mean temperatures of two months next to each other in time has maxima in the summer and in the winter, while there are minima in the sping and the autumn. An exception from this is in the oceanic warm climate in the southwest, where the spring minimum is missing. A plausible explanation for the positive correlation in the winter may be related to snow on the ground. The snow is associated with cold spells and increases the albedo, contributing to extension of the low temperatures. The summertime correlation may be related to the water content of the soil. A cold and rainy period results in wet soil and subsequently, relatively large part of the energy of the incoming solar radiation is consumed by evaporation, rather than sensible heating. In the spring, there is generally no snow on the ground and in the autumn, the air temperature is not as sensitive to the water content of the soil as in the summer. This may explain the low correlation in spring and autumn.

  4. William Penn and the peace of Europe.

    PubMed

    Russell, W M S

    2004-01-01

    The Quaker William Penn proposed a European Union to ensure peace in the continent in 1693. Penn was unusual among Quakers in being of the landed upper classes. When converted, he became a leader of the Quakers and other Dissenters. He had the two related ideals of peace and religious toleration, and dreamed of realizing both ideals in the New World. A practical idealist, he took advantage of four factors: friends at Court made through his social position; King Charles II's gratitude for services rendered by his father, Admiral Sir William Penn; the King's desire to conciliate the City merchants, who were ready to invest in Penn's scheme; and above all the King's concern to get North America settled by British colonists. Penn received a charter to found Pennsylvania in 1681. In England he worked hard, especially in collaboration with James II, for toleration for the cruelly persecuted Quakers and other Dissenters. In Pennsylvania he was able to establish complete toleration and his fair and friendly treatment gave the colony 70 years of peaceful co-existence with the Indians. In his essay on the peace of Europe, he virtually invented collective security and with amazing foresight planned in detail something very like the present European Union.

  5. PDBe: Protein Data Bank in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Velankar, S.; Best, C.; Beuth, B.; Boutselakis, C. H.; Cobley, N.; Sousa Da Silva, A. W.; Dimitropoulos, D.; Golovin, A.; Hirshberg, M.; John, M.; Krissinel, E. B.; Newman, R.; Oldfield, T.; Pajon, A.; Penkett, C. J.; Pineda-Castillo, J.; Sahni, G.; Sen, S.; Slowley, R.; Suarez-Uruena, A.; Swaminathan, J.; van Ginkel, G.; Vranken, W. F.; Henrick, K.; Kleywegt, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe) (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pdbe/) is actively working with its Worldwide Protein Data Bank partners to enhance the quality and consistency of the international archive of bio-macromolecular structure data, the Protein Data Bank (PDB). PDBe also works closely with its collaborators at the European Bioinformatics Institute and the scientific community around the world to enhance its databases and services by adding curated and actively maintained derived data to the existing structural data in the PDB. We have developed a new database infrastructure based on the remediated PDB archive data and a specially designed database for storing information on interactions between proteins and bound molecules. The group has developed new services that allow users to carry out simple textual queries or more complex 3D structure-based queries. The newly designed ‘PDBeView Atlas pages’ provide an overview of an individual PDB entry in a user-friendly layout and serve as a starting point to further explore the information available in the PDBe database. PDBe’s active involvement with the X-ray crystallography, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy and cryo-Electron Microscopy communities have resulted in improved tools for structure deposition and analysis. PMID:19858099

  6. PDBe: Protein Data Bank in Europe.

    PubMed

    Velankar, Sameer; Alhroub, Younes; Alili, Anaëlle; Best, Christoph; Boutselakis, Harry C; Caboche, Ségolène; Conroy, Matthew J; Dana, Jose M; van Ginkel, Glen; Golovin, Adel; Gore, Swanand P; Gutmanas, Aleksandras; Haslam, Pauline; Hirshberg, Miriam; John, Melford; Lagerstedt, Ingvar; Mir, Saqib; Newman, Laurence E; Oldfield, Tom J; Penkett, Chris J; Pineda-Castillo, Jorge; Rinaldi, Luana; Sahni, Gaurav; Sawka, Grégoire; Sen, Sanchayita; Slowley, Robert; Sousa da Silva, Alan Wilter; Suarez-Uruena, Antonio; Swaminathan, G Jawahar; Symmons, Martyn F; Vranken, Wim F; Wainwright, Michael; Kleywegt, Gerard J

    2011-01-01

    The Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe; pdbe.org) is actively involved in managing the international archive of biomacromolecular structure data as one of the partners in the Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB; wwpdb.org). PDBe also develops new tools to make structural data more widely and more easily available to the biomedical community. PDBe has developed a browser to access and analyze the structural archive using classification systems that are familiar to chemists and biologists. The PDBe web pages that describe individual PDB entries have been enhanced through the introduction of plain-English summary pages and iconic representations of the contents of an entry (PDBprints). In addition, the information available for structures determined by means of NMR spectroscopy has been expanded. Finally, the entire web site has been redesigned to make it substantially easier to use for expert and novice users alike. PDBe works closely with other teams at the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) and in the international scientific community to develop new resources with value-added information. The SIFTS initiative is an example of such a collaboration--it provides extensive mapping data between proteins whose structures are available from the PDB and a host of other biomedical databases. SIFTS is widely used by major bioinformatics resources.

  7. In Brief: Europe's freshwater fish threatened

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-11-01

    Two hundred of Europe's 522 freshwater fish species are threatened with extinction and 12 are already extinct, according to the Handbook of European Freshwater Fishes, published in collaboration with the World Conservation Union (IUCN) and released on 1 November 2007. IUCN notes that the main threats to fish species stem from development and population growth and include water withdrawals, large dams, and inappropriate fisheries management that has led to overfishing and the introduction of alien species. Authors Maurice Kottelat, former president of the European Ichthyological Society, and Jörg Freyhof, scientist from Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology, noted that fish conservation should be managed by agencies in charge of conservation, and not as a crop by agencies in charge of agriculture. William Darwall, senior program officer with IUCN's Species Program, said the species ``are critical to the freshwater ecosystems upon which we do depend, such as for water purification and flood control.'' For more information, visit the Web site: http://www.iucn.org.

  8. Paediatric screening for hypercholesterolaemia in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kusters, D M; de Beaufort, C; Widhalm, K; Guardamagna, O; Bratina, N; Ose, L; Wiegman, A

    2012-03-01

    Different screening strategies are currently recommended to identify children with (familial) hypercholesterolaemia in order to initiate early lipid management. However, these strategies are characterised to date by low adherence by the medical community and limited compliance by parents and children. In a literature review, the authors assess which children should undergo screening and which children are in effect identified through the currently recommended strategies. Furthermore, the authors discuss the different screening tools and strategies currently used in Europe and what is known about the negative aspects of screening. The authors conclude that currently recommended selective screening strategies, which are mainly based on family history, lack precision and that a large percentage of affected children who are at increased risk of future coronary artery disease are not being identified. The authors propose universal screening of children between 1 and 9 years of age, a strategy likely to be most effective in terms of sensitivity and specificity for the identification of children with familial hypercholesterolaemia. However, this concept has yet to be proven in clinical practice.

  9. Price and cigarette consumption in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Gallus, S; Schiaffino, A; Vecchia, C La; Townsend, J; Fernandez, E

    2006-01-01

    Objective To analyse the variation in demand for tobacco according to price of cigarettes across the European region. Design Cross‐sectional study. Setting All the 52 countries of the European region. Participants For each European country, data were collected on annual per adult cigarette consumption (2000), smoking prevalence (most recent), retail price of a pack of local and foreign brand cigarettes (around 2000), the gross domestic product adjusted by purchasing power parities, and the adult population (2000). Main outcome measure Price elasticity of demand for cigarettes (that is, the change in cigarette consumption according to a change in tobacco price) across all the European countries, estimated by double‐log multiple linear regression. Results Controlling for male to female prevalence ratio, price elasticities for consumption were −0.46 (95% confidence interval (CI) −0.74 to −0.17) and −0.74 (95% CI −1.13 to −0.35) for local and foreign brand, respectively. The inverse relation between cigarette price and consumption was stronger in countries not in the European Union (price elasticity for foreign brand cigarettes of −0.8) as compared to European Union countries (price elasticity of −0.4). Conclusions The result that, on average, in Europe smoking consumption decreases 5–7% for a 10% increase in the real price of cigarettes strongly supports an inverse association between price and cigarette smoking. PMID:16565459

  10. Epidemiology of taeniosis/cysticercosis in Europe, a systematic review: Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Laranjo-González, Minerva; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Trevisan, Chiara; Allepuz, Alberto; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Abraham, Annette; Afonso, Mariana Boaventura; Blocher, Joachim; Cardoso, Luís; Correia da Costa, José Manuel; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah; Gomes, Jacinto; Gómez-Morales, María Ángeles; Jokelainen, Pikka; Kaminski, Miriam; Krt, Brane; Magnussen, Pascal; Robertson, Lucy J; Schmidt, Veronika; Schmutzhard, Erich; Smit, G Suzanne A; Šoba, Barbara; Stensvold, Christen Rune; Starič, Jože; Troell, Karin; Rataj, Aleksandra Vergles; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena; Vilhena, Manuela; Wardrop, Nicola Ann; Winkler, Andrea S; Dermauw, Veronique

    2017-07-21

    Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are zoonotic parasites of public health importance. Data on their occurrence in humans and animals in western Europe are incomplete and fragmented. In this study, we aimed to update the current knowledge on the epidemiology of these parasites in this region. We conducted a systematic review of scientific and grey literature published from 1990 to 2015 on the epidemiology of T. saginata and T. solium in humans and animals. Additionally, data about disease occurrence were actively sought by contacting local experts in the different countries. Taeniosis cases were found in twelve out of eighteen countries in western Europe. No cases were identified in Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland. For Denmark, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain and the UK, annual taeniosis cases were reported and the number of detected cases per year ranged between 1 and 114. Detected prevalences ranged from 0.05 to 0.27%, whereas estimated prevalences ranged from 0.02 to 0.67%. Most taeniosis cases were reported as Taenia spp. or T. saginata, although T. solium was reported in Denmark, France, Italy, Spain, Slovenia, Portugal and the UK. Human cysticercosis cases were reported in all western European countries except for Iceland, with the highest number originating from Portugal and Spain. Most human cysticercosis cases were suspected to have acquired the infection outside western Europe. Cases of T. solium in pigs were found in Austria and Portugal, but only the two cases from Portugal were confirmed with molecular methods. Germany, Spain and Slovenia reported porcine cysticercosis, but made no Taenia species distinction. Bovine cysticercosis was detected in all countries except for Iceland, with a prevalence based on meat inspection of 0.0002-7.82%. Detection and reporting of taeniosis in western Europe should be improved. The existence of T. solium tapeworm carriers, of suspected autochthonous cases of human cysticercosis and

  11. Moors and Saracens in Europe: estimating the medieval North African male legacy in southern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Capelli, Cristian; Onofri, Valerio; Brisighelli, Francesca; Boschi, Ilaria; Scarnicci, Francesca; Masullo, Mara; Ferri, Gianmarco; Tofanelli, Sergio; Tagliabracci, Adriano; Gusmao, Leonor; Amorim, Antonio; Gatto, Francesco; Kirin, Mirna; Merlitti, Davide; Brion, Maria; Verea, Alejandro Blanco; Romano, Valentino; Cali, Francesco; Pascali, Vincenzo

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the male genetic legacy of the Arab rule in southern Europe during medieval times, we focused on specific Northwest African haplogroups and identified evolutionary close STR-defined haplotypes in Iberia, Sicily and the Italian peninsula. Our results point to a higher recent Northwest African contribution in Iberia and Sicily in agreement with historical data. southern Italian regions known to have experienced long-term Arab presence also show an enrichment of Northwest African types. The forensic and genomic implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19156170

  12. One-year mortality of HIV-positive patients treated for rifampicin- and isoniazid-susceptible tuberculosis in Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Latin America.

    PubMed

    2017-01-28

    The high mortality among HIV/tuberculosis (TB) coinfected patients in Eastern Europe is partly explained by the high prevalence of drug-resistant TB. It remains unclear whether outcomes of HIV/TB patients with rifampicin/isoniazid-susceptible TB in Eastern Europe differ from those in Western Europe or Latin America. One-year mortality of HIV-positive patients with rifampicin/isoniazid-susceptible TB in Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Latin America was analysed and compared in a prospective observational cohort study. Factors associated with death were analysed using Cox regression modelsRESULTS:: Three hundred and forty-one patients were included (Eastern Europe 127, Western Europe 165, Latin America 49). Proportions of patients with disseminated TB (50, 58, 59%) and initiating rifampicin + isoniazid + pyrazinamide-based treatment (93, 94, 94%) were similar in Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Latin America respectively, whereas receipt of antiretroviral therapy at baseline and after 12 months was lower in Eastern Europe (17, 39, 39%, and 69, 94, 89%). The 1-year probability of death was 16% (95% confidence interval 11-24%) in Eastern Europe, vs. 4% (2-9%) in Western Europe and 9% (3-21%) in Latin America; P < 0.0001. After adjustment for IDU, CD4 cell count and receipt of antiretroviral therapy, those residing in Eastern Europe were at nearly 3-fold increased risk of death compared with those in Western Europe/Latin America (aHR 2.79 (1.15-6.76); P = 0.023). Despite comparable use of recommended anti-TB treatment, mortality of patients with rifampicin/isoniazid-susceptible TB remained higher in Eastern Europe when compared with Western Europe/Latin America. The high mortality in Eastern Europe was only partially explained by IDU, use of ART and CD4 cell count. These results call for improvement of care for TB/HIV patients in Eastern Europe.

  13. The New Europe: Challenges for European Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oglesby, K. L.; Bax, W.

    1993-01-01

    The European Community must develop policies regarding a number of challenges: free circulation of people across borders, disadvantaged regions, economic restructuring, access to vocational education, and cooperation with Eastern Europe. (SK)

  14. [Ways of combating the rural exodus in Eastern Europe].

    PubMed

    Frelastre, G

    1982-01-01

    The author describes the measures that have been adopted in the Socialist countries of Eastern Europe, including Albania, in order to control the rural exodus. The relative success that these countries have had in achieving their objectives is considered.

  15. Black Scholars in Europe during the Renaissance and the Enlightenment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fikes, Robert, Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the accomplishments of Juan Latino (1516-1599), Jacobus Eliza Johannes Capitein (1717-1747), and Anton Wilhelm Amo (1703-1753), Blacks who were educated in Europe and became important intellectual and literary figures. (GC)

  16. White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe.

    PubMed

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas; Hellmann, David; Weishaar, Manfred; Barlow, Alex; Veith, Michael; Prüger, Julia; Görföl, Tamás; Grosche, Lena; Bontadina, Fabio; Zöphel, Ulrich; Seidl, Hans Peter; Seidl, Hans Peter; Blehert, David S

    2010-08-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.

  17. Early farmers from across Europe directly descended from Neolithic Aegeans.

    PubMed

    Hofmanová, Zuzana; Kreutzer, Susanne; Hellenthal, Garrett; Sell, Christian; Diekmann, Yoan; Díez-Del-Molino, David; van Dorp, Lucy; López, Saioa; Kousathanas, Athanasios; Link, Vivian; Kirsanow, Karola; Cassidy, Lara M; Martiniano, Rui; Strobel, Melanie; Scheu, Amelie; Kotsakis, Kostas; Halstead, Paul; Triantaphyllou, Sevi; Kyparissi-Apostolika, Nina; Urem-Kotsou, Dushka; Ziota, Christina; Adaktylou, Fotini; Gopalan, Shyamalika; Bobo, Dean M; Winkelbach, Laura; Blöcher, Jens; Unterländer, Martina; Leuenberger, Christoph; Çilingiroğlu, Çiler; Horejs, Barbara; Gerritsen, Fokke; Shennan, Stephen J; Bradley, Daniel G; Currat, Mathias; Veeramah, Krishna R; Wegmann, Daniel; Thomas, Mark G; Papageorgopoulou, Christina; Burger, Joachim

    2016-06-21

    Farming and sedentism first appeared in southwestern Asia during the early Holocene and later spread to neighboring regions, including Europe, along multiple dispersal routes. Conspicuous uncertainties remain about the relative roles of migration, cultural diffusion, and admixture with local foragers in the early Neolithization of Europe. Here we present paleogenomic data for five Neolithic individuals from northern Greece and northwestern Turkey spanning the time and region of the earliest spread of farming into Europe. We use a novel approach to recalibrate raw reads and call genotypes from ancient DNA and observe striking genetic similarity both among Aegean early farmers and with those from across Europe. Our study demonstrates a direct genetic link between Mediterranean and Central European early farmers and those of Greece and Anatolia, extending the European Neolithic migratory chain all the way back to southwestern Asia.

  18. The Council of Europe and Education for International Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stobart, Maitland

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the objectives of the 21-member intergovernmental Council of Europe and its sub-group, the Council for Cultural Cooperation. Explains the prevailing practices and desired outcomes of European history as it is taught in the member countries. (JDH)

  19. The Council of Europe and Education for International Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stobart, Maitland

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the objectives of the 21-member intergovernmental Council of Europe and its sub-group, the Council for Cultural Cooperation. Explains the prevailing practices and desired outcomes of European history as it is taught in the member countries. (JDH)

  20. Diphtheria in the postepidemic period, Europe, 2000-2009.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Karen S; White, Joanne M; Lucenko, Irina; Mercer, David; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Neal, Shona; Efstratiou, Androulla

    2012-02-01

    Diphtheria incidence has decreased in Europe since its resurgence in the 1990s, but circulation continues in some countries in eastern Europe, and sporadic cases have been reported elsewhere. Surveillance data from Diphtheria Surveillance Network countries and the World Health Organization European Region for 2000-2009 were analyzed. Latvia reported the highest annual incidence in Europe each year, but the Russian Federation and Ukraine accounted for 83% of all cases. Over the past 10 years, diphtheria incidence has decreased by >95% across the region. Although most deaths occurred in disease-endemic countries, case-fatality rates were highest in countries to which diphtheria is not endemic, where unfamiliarity can lead to delays in diagnosis and treatment. In western Europe, toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans has increasingly been identified as the etiologic agent. Reduction in diphtheria incidence over the past 10 years is encouraging, but maintaining high vaccination coverage is essential to prevent indigenous C. ulcerans and reemergence of C. diphtheriae.

  1. Diphtheria in the Postepidemic Period, Europe, 2000–2009

    PubMed Central

    White, Joanne M.; Lucenko, Irina; Mercer, David; Crowcroft, Natasha S.; Neal, Shona; Efstratiou, Androulla

    2012-01-01

    Diphtheria incidence has decreased in Europe since its resurgence in the 1990s, but circulation continues in some countries in eastern Europe, and sporadic cases have been reported elsewhere. Surveillance data from Diphtheria Surveillance Network countries and the World Health Organization European Region for 2000–2009 were analyzed. Latvia reported the highest annual incidence in Europe each year, but the Russian Federation and Ukraine accounted for 83% of all cases. Over the past 10 years, diphtheria incidence has decreased by >95% across the region. Although most deaths occurred in disease-endemic countries, case-fatality rates were highest in countries to which diphtheria is not endemic, where unfamiliarity can lead to delays in diagnosis and treatment. In western Europe, toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans has increasingly been identified as the etiologic agent. Reduction in diphtheria incidence over the past 10 years is encouraging, but maintaining high vaccination coverage is essential to prevent indigenous C. ulcerans and reemergence of C. diphtheriae infections. PMID:22304732

  2. The Development of Commercially Available Databases in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomberg, Alex

    1979-01-01

    Europe's lag in databanks and online commercial availability is contrasted to its lead in numbers of bibliographic files. Intelligent use of new technologies such as Viewdata and the European Communications Satellite are expected to correct this imbalance. (RAA)

  3. Orthodontic specialists education in Europe: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, Frans P

    2005-01-01

    The field of orthodontics developed simultaneously in the USA and Europe, but along somewhat different routes. It is explained that structural changes in Europe resulting in an EU with 25 countries have led to the freedom of exchange of professionals among the Member States which were participating in the EU before May 1, 2004. The European harmonization of dental education is explained. Subsequently, the training of orthodontic specialists in the USA and Europe is dealt with. Furthermore an overview of the Erasmus Programme is given. The role and structure of the European Federation of Orthodontic Specialists Associations (EFOSA) is clarified. The current state of orthodontic specialty training in Europe is described in detail with emphasis on training aspects. Finally, some suggestions are made for the improvement of the training of orthodontic specialists.

  4. White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wibbelt, G.; Kurth, A.; Hellmann, D.; Weishaar, M.; Barlow, A.; Veith, M.; Pruger, J.; Gorfol, T.; Grosche, T.; Bontadina, F.; Zophel, U.; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, P.M.; Blehert, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.

  5. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bats, Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Andreas; Hellmann, David; Weishaar, Manfred; Barlow, Alex; Veith, Michael; Prüger, Julia; Görföl, Tamás; Grosche, Lena; Bontadina, Fabio; Zöphel, Ulrich; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, Paul M.; Blehert, David S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus. PMID:20678317

  6. Climate modelling and near future solar power assessment in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaetani, Marco; Vignati, Elisabetta; Huld, Thomas; Monforti-Ferrario, Fabio; Wilson, Julian; Dosio, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    In this work the near future (2030-2050) solar power in Europe is assessed using numerical experiments. The photovoltaic energy is computed on the basis of the solar radiation and air temperature simulated by regional climate models run in the framework of the FP6-ENSEMBLES project. The multi-model simulation of the climate evolution over Europe is performed at a 25 km resolution using the IPCC A1B scenario, and the period 1961-2050 is analyzed. The A1B scenario assumes a world of very rapid economic growth, with a global population peak in mid-century. Preliminary results show a general increase of near-surface air temperature, accompanied by an increase (reduction) of the solar radiation in Southern (Northern) Europe, with significant positive effects on the photovoltaic energy availability over Western Europe.

  7. Early farmers from across Europe directly descended from Neolithic Aegeans

    PubMed Central

    Hofmanová, Zuzana; Kreutzer, Susanne; Hellenthal, Garrett; Sell, Christian; Diekmann, Yoan; Díez-del-Molino, David; van Dorp, Lucy; López, Saioa; Kousathanas, Athanasios; Link, Vivian; Kirsanow, Karola; Cassidy, Lara M.; Martiniano, Rui; Strobel, Melanie; Scheu, Amelie; Kotsakis, Kostas; Halstead, Paul; Triantaphyllou, Sevi; Kyparissi-Apostolika, Nina; Ziota, Christina; Adaktylou, Fotini; Gopalan, Shyamalika; Bobo, Dean M.; Winkelbach, Laura; Blöcher, Jens; Unterländer, Martina; Leuenberger, Christoph; Çilingiroğlu, Çiler; Horejs, Barbara; Gerritsen, Fokke; Shennan, Stephen J.; Bradley, Daniel G.; Currat, Mathias; Veeramah, Krishna R.; Thomas, Mark G.; Papageorgopoulou, Christina; Burger, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Farming and sedentism first appeared in southwestern Asia during the early Holocene and later spread to neighboring regions, including Europe, along multiple dispersal routes. Conspicuous uncertainties remain about the relative roles of migration, cultural diffusion, and admixture with local foragers in the early Neolithization of Europe. Here we present paleogenomic data for five Neolithic individuals from northern Greece and northwestern Turkey spanning the time and region of the earliest spread of farming into Europe. We use a novel approach to recalibrate raw reads and call genotypes from ancient DNA and observe striking genetic similarity both among Aegean early farmers and with those from across Europe. Our study demonstrates a direct genetic link between Mediterranean and Central European early farmers and those of Greece and Anatolia, extending the European Neolithic migratory chain all the way back to southwestern Asia. PMID:27274049

  8. The Development of Commercially Available Databases in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomberg, Alex

    1979-01-01

    Europe's lag in databanks and online commercial availability is contrasted to its lead in numbers of bibliographic files. Intelligent use of new technologies such as Viewdata and the European Communications Satellite are expected to correct this imbalance. (RAA)

  9. Human Resource Development in Europe--At the Crossroads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhan, Barry

    2002-01-01

    Two competing human resource management theories are the humanistic developmental approach, which compliments mainstream European traditions, and the instrumental-utilitarian perspective, a response to increasing globalization. Human resource development policymakers in Europe are currently debating these two approaches. (SK)

  10. West Europe Report, Science and Technology, No. 152.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-12

    Development Epidemiology Nuclear Development and Proliferation -FBIS DAILY REPORT , China Eastern Europe Soviet Union Western Europe South Asia...for the AMD -BA. The state nonetheless controls 55 percent of the stockholders votes. The general strategy of the enterprise remains basically the...itself in many respects. Before the end of the war, Germany delivered Do^^fs to Spain in the year \\Shk. There they continued to be used until

  11. Regulatory aspects of workplace drug testing in Europe.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Anya

    2012-02-01

    Workplace drug testing in Europe is governed by a patchwork of legislation--or lack of it. Other difficulties are caused by language, currency and a host of other factors, including the difficulty in defining 'safety critical'. The European Workplace Drug Testing Society's (EWDTS) history and objectives are briefly outlined. Some of the problems peculiar to testing in Europe are discussed. Finally, some of the legislation in the different countries is described.

  12. Projected seasonal meteorological droughts over Europe until 2100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinoni, Jonathan; Vogt, Jürgen; Naumann, Gustavo; Barbosa, Paulo; Dosio, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    In the last decades, droughts have become increasingly recurrent and intense over large areas of Europe. Due to the projected temperature increase and longer dry periods, meteorological droughts are expected to become more frequent and severe in the next decades, potentially causing relevant impacts in many economic sectors and the environment. To investigate future drought patterns over Europe, we computed a combined indicator based on the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), and the Reconnaissance Drought Indicator (RDI). All indicators were computed at a 3-month accumulation period to focus on seasonal droughts using temperature and precipitation from an ensemble of eleven bias-adjusted simulations from the EURO-CORDEX experiment as input data. The combined indicator focuses on the predominance of drought conditions over normal conditions and was applied to obtain frequency and severity of drought events at 0.11° spatial resolution over Europe from 1981 to 2100. The analysis was performed for two representative concentration pathways (RCP), the moderate emission scenario RCP4.5 and the extreme RCP8.5. Excluding winter droughts, which are likely to be less frequent and severe over Central and Northern Europe for both scenarios, the other seasons show increased drought frequency and severity over entire Europe, markedly larger as the century passes especially under the RCP8.5. The largest increases are projected for spring droughts over the Iberian Peninsula and North-Eastern Scandinavia and for summer droughts over Western Europe. Under the RCP8.5, at least six out of eleven simulations project a statistically significant positive trend from 1981 to 2100 of drought frequency for the Mediterranean area, the Iberian Peninsula, and Turkey. On an annual scale, most simulations project a continuous increase of both drought frequency and severity for entire Europe, excluding Iceland and Central

  13. The Drawdown in Europe: What Does It Mean?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-30

    to elements in Europe to include two Aegis destroyers to be stationed in Spain, radar systems in Turkey, and SM-3 missile sites in Romania and Poland...solely a “ mercantile ” input-output response for NATO forces.41 In fact, Article V does not place a requirement for forces to be stationed in Europe...and challenges facing our European Allies not a legacy Cold War based mercantile calculation of military units. Therefore, NATO should not measure a

  14. Estimating the frequency of volcanic ash clouds over northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, E. J.; Swindles, G. T.; Savov, I. P.; Lawson, I. T.; Connor, C. B.; Wilson, J. A.

    2017-02-01

    Fine ash produced during explosive volcanic eruptions can be dispersed over a vast area, where it poses a threat to aviation, human health and infrastructure. Here, we focus on northern Europe, which lies in the principal transport direction for volcanic ash from Iceland, one of the most active volcanic regions in the world. We interrogate existing and newly produced geological and written records of past ash fallout over northern Europe in the last 1000 years and estimate the mean return (repose) interval of a volcanic ash cloud over the region to be 44 ± 7 years. We compare tephra records from mainland northern Europe, Great Britain, Ireland and the Faroe Islands, with records of proximal Icelandic volcanism and suggest that an Icelandic eruption with a Volcanic Explosivity Index rating (VEI) ≥ 4 and a silicic magma composition presents the greatest risk of producing volcanic ash that can reach northern Europe. None of the ash clouds in the European record which have a known source eruption are linked to a source eruption with VEI < 4. Our results suggest that ash clouds are more common over northern Europe than previously proposed and indicate the continued threat of ash deposition across northern Europe from eruptions of both Icelandic and North American volcanoes.

  15. Oil and gas developments in Europe in 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Kat, C.

    1982-11-01

    Hydrocarbon exploration in Europe during 1981 was characterized by the increased intensity of activity in producing areas, notably in the Mesozoic oil and Paleozoic oil and gas basins of northern Europe. The high success rate for exploration drilling reflects, in part, the large proportion of appraisal drilling. The success rate of wildcat drilling also increased, however, thereby significantly increasing reserves in the producing basins. The trend of increasing oil production in northern Europe is likely to continue. Although gas production from the Tertiary basins of southern Europe continued to increase, this area was notable for Mesozoic wildcat exploration and successes during 1981. Interest in the Mesozoic play gathered momentum as wells penetrated the Mesozoic section in the Alpine realms as well as in the Mediterranean area. The trend of decreasing oil production in southern Europe may be halted if the discovery rate for the Mesozoic play is maintained or increased. The discoveries of gas in the Mesozoic basins of the Atlantic borderlands include some giants. Development of these discoveries and the associated gas discoveries of the North Sea is likely to cause a change in the trend of decreasing gas production from northern Europe. Because of the size of these discoveries and the promising shows of oil, these basins will maintain their preeminence for wildcat exploration during the early 1980s.

  16. High intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe

    DOE PAGES

    Edgecock, T. R.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; ...

    2013-02-20

    The EUROnu project has studied three possible options for future, high intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe. The first is a Super Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of pions created by bombarding targets with a 4 MW proton beam from the CERN High Power Superconducting Proton Linac. The far detector for this facility is the 500 kt MEMPHYS water Cherenkov, located in the Fréjus tunnel. The second facility is the Neutrino Factory, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of μ+ and μ– beams in a storage ring. The far detector in this case ismore » a 100 kt magnetized iron neutrino detector at a baseline of 2000 km. The third option is a Beta Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of beta emitting isotopes, in particular 6He and 18Ne, also stored in a ring. The far detector is also the MEMPHYS detector in the Fréjus tunnel. EUROnu has undertaken conceptual designs of these facilities and studied the performance of the detectors. Based on this, it has determined the physics reach of each facility, in particular for the measurement of CP violation in the lepton sector, and estimated the cost of construction. These have demonstrated that the best facility to build is the Neutrino Factory. Furthermore, if a powerful proton driver is constructed for another purpose or if the MEMPHYS detector is built for astroparticle physics, the Super Beam also becomes very attractive.« less

  17. IXO glass mirrors development in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareschi, G.; Basso, S.; Bavdaz, M.; Citterio, O.; Civitani, M. M.; Conconi, P.; Gallieni, D.; Ghigo, M.; Martelli, F.; Parodi, G.; Proserpio, L.; Sironi, G.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tintori, M.; Wille, E.; Zambra, A.

    2011-09-01

    The mirrors of the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) were based on of a large number of high quality segments, aiming at achieving a global spatial resolution better than 5 arcsec (HEW). A study concerning the slumping of thin glass foils for the IXO mirrors is under development in Europe, funded by ESA and led by the Brera Observatory and is continuing even after that the programhas been descoped, in the perspective of using the technology under development for other future missions. After a preliminary trade-off study, we have focused our the effort on the "Direct" slumping approach, based on the use of convex moulds. In this case during the thermal cycle the optical surface of the glass is in direct contact with the mould surface. The thin plates are made of thin glass sheets (0.4 mm thick), with a reflecting area of 200 mm × 200 mm. The adopted integration process foresees the use of reinforcing ribs for bonding together the plates and forming in that way a rigid and stiff stack of segmented mirror shells; the stack is supported by a thick backplane. During the bonding process the plates are constrained to stay in close contact with the surface of the master (i.e. the same mould used for the hot slumping process) by the application of vacuum pump suction. In this way the spring-back deformations and low frequency errors still present on the foil profile after slumping can be corrected. In this paper we will give an overview and a status report of the project.

  18. Costs and deaths of landslides in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Ubydul; Blum, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    Landslides cause human and large economic losses worldwide and also in Europe. However, the quantification of associated costs and deaths is highly underestimated and still incomplete, thus the estimation of landslide costs and risk is still rather ambitious. Hence, in this study a spatio-temporal analysis of fatal landslides is presented for 27 European countries from 1995-2014. These landslides are mainly concentrated in mountainous areas. A total of 1370 fatalities are reported resulting from 476 landslides. The highest fatalities with 335 are observed in Turkey. In general, an increasing trend of fatal landslides is recognized starting in 2008. The latter is almost certainly triggered by an increase in natural extreme events such as storms (i.e. heavy rainfall) and floods. The highest annual economic loss is observed in Italy with 3.9 billion Euro per year. In contrast, in Germany the annual total loss is only about 0.3 billion Euro. The results of this study serves as an initial baseline information for further risk studies integrating landslide locations, local land use data, cost data, and will therefore certainly support the studied countries to better protect their citizens and assets. Acknowledgements We would like to acknowledge the valuable contributions by Paula F. da Silva, Peter Andersen, Jürgen Pilz, Ali Ardalan, Sergey R. Chalov, Jean-Philippe Malet, Mateja Jemec Auflič, Norina Andres, Eleftheria Poyiadji, Pedro C. Lamas, Wenyi Zhang, Igor Pesevski, Halldór G. Pétursson, Tayfun Kurt, Nikolai Dobrev, Juan Carlos García Davalillo, Matina Halkia, Stefano Ferri, George Gaprindashvili, Johanna Engström and David Keellings.

  19. Assessing soil biodiversity potentials in Europe.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Ece; Louwagie, Geertrui; Gardi, Ciro; Gregor, Mirko; Schröder, Christoph; Löhnertz, Manuel

    2017-07-01

    Soil is important as a critical component for the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. The largest part of the terrestrial biodiversity relies, directly or indirectly, on soil. Furthermore, soil itself is habitat to a great diversity of organisms. The suitability of soil to host such a diversity is strongly related to its physico-chemical features and environmental properties. However, due to the complexity of both soil and biodiversity, it is difficult to identify a clear and unambiguous relationship between environmental parameters and soil biota. Nevertheless, the increasing diffusion of a more integrated view of ecosystems, and in particular the development of the concept of ecosystem services, highlights the need for a better comprehension of the role played by soils in offering these services, including the habitat provision. An assessment of the capability of soils to host biodiversity would contribute to evaluate the quality of soils in order to help policy makers with the development of appropriate and sustainable management actions. However, so far, the heterogeneity of soils has been a barrier to the production of a large-scale framework that directly links soil features to organisms living within it. The current knowledge on the effects of soil physico-chemical properties on biota and the available data at continental scale open the way towards such an evaluation. In this study, the soil habitat potential for biodiversity was assessed and mapped for the first time throughout Europe by combining several soil features (pH, soil texture and soil organic matter) with environmental parameters (potential evapotranspiration, average temperature, soil biomass productivity and land use type). Considering the increasingly recognized importance of soils and their biodiversity in providing ecosystem services, the proposed approach appears to be a promising tool that may contribute to open a forum on the need to include soils in future environmental policy making

  20. A reference GNSS tropospheric dataset over Europe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacione, Rosa; Di Tomaso, Simona

    2016-04-01

    The present availability of 18 years of GNSS data belonging to the European Permanent Network (EPN, http://www.epncb.oma.be/) is a valuable database for the development of a climate data record of GNSS tropospheric products over Europe. This dataset has high potential for monitoring trend and variability in atmospheric water vapour, improving the knowledge of climatic trends of atmospheric water vapour and being useful for global and regional NWP reanalyses as well as climate model simulations. In the framework of the EPN-Repro2, a second reprocessing campaign of the EPN, five Analysis Centres have homogenously reprocessed the EPN network for the 1996-2013. Three Analysis Centres are providing homogenously reprocessed solutions for the entire network, which are analyzed by the three different software packages: Bernese, GAMIT and GIPSY-OASIS. Smaller subnetworks based on Bernese 5.2 are also provided. A huge effort is made for providing solutions that are the basis for deriving new coordinates, velocities and troposphere parameters, Zenith Tropospheric Delays and Horizontal Gradients, for the entire EPN. These individual contributions are combined in order to provide the official EPN reprocessed products. A preliminary tropospheric combined solution for the period 1996-2013 has been carried out. It is based on all the available homogenously reprocessed solutions and it offers the possibility to assess each of them prior to the ongoing final combination. We will present the results of the EPN Repro2 tropospheric combined products and how the climate community will benefit from them. Aknowledgment.The EPN Repro2 working group is acknowledged for providing the EPN solutions used in this work. E-GEOS activity is carried out in the framework of ASI contract 2015-050-R.0.

  1. IPS in Europe: the EQOLISE trial.

    PubMed

    Burns, Tom; Catty, Jocelyn

    2008-01-01

    IPS has been demonstrated to increase return to open employment significantly in individuals with mental health problems in the US. Previous experience (e.g. with ACT) has demonstrated the sensitivity of complex community mental health interventions to local social and healthcare cultures. Europe has conditions of generally greater employment security than the US and varying (generally higher) unemployment rates and welfare benefits. Evidence of the effectiveness of IPS in these conditions, and its potential variation across them, would guide local policy and provide possible insights into its mechanism. We conducted an RCT of IPS versus high-quality train-and-place vocational rehabilitation in six European centers with very different labor market and health and social care conditions. A sample of 312 individuals with psychotic illness was randomly allocated (50 per site). Inclusion criteria were a minimum of two years' illness duration, with at least one year of continuous unemployment and six months contact with their current mental health services. Follow-up was 18 months. The primary outcome was any open employment, and secondary outcomes included time to employment, duration of employment and hospital admission. IPS was more effective than the Vocational Services for all vocational outcomes. 85 IPS patients (54.5%) worked for at least one day compared to 43 Vocational Service patients (27.6). They were significantly less likely to be rehospitalized. Local unemployment rates explained a significant amount of the variation in IPS effectiveness and both national economic growth and welfare systems influenced overall employment rates in both services. IPS doubles the access to work of people with psychotic illnesses, without any evidence of increased relapse. Its effectiveness is not independent of external circumstances, particularly local unemployment rates.

  2. High intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Edgecock, T. R.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densam, C.; Fitton, M.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rogers, C.; Rooney, M.; Thomason, J.; Wilcox, D.; Wildner, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoni, S.; Hansen, C.; Benedetto, E.; Jensen, E.; Kosmicki, A.; Martini, M.; Osborne, J.; Prior, G.; Stora, T.; Melo Mendonca, T.; Vlachoudis, V.; Waaijer, C.; Cupial, P.; Chance, A.; Longhin, A.; Payet, J.; Zito, M.; Baussan, E.; Bobeth, C.; Bouquerel, E.; Dracos, M.; Gaudiot, G.; Lepers, B.; Osswald, F.; Poussot, P.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Wurtz, J.; Zeter, V.; Bielski, J.; Kozien, M.; Lacny, L.; Skoczen, B.; Szybinski, B.; Ustrycka, A.; Wroblewski, A.; Marie-Jeanne, M.; Balint, P.; Fourel, C.; Giraud, J.; Jacob, J.; Lamy, T.; Latrasse, L.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T.; Mitrofanov, S.; Loiselet, M.; Keutgen, Th.; Delbar, Th.; Debray, F.; Trophine, C.; Veys, S.; Daversin, C.; Zorin, V.; Izotov, I.; Skalyga, V.; Burt, G.; Dexter, A. C.; Kravchuk, V. L.; Marchi, T.; Cinausero, M.; Gramegna, F.; De Angelis, G.; Prete, G.; Collazuol, G.; Laveder, M.; Mazzocco, M.; Mezzetto, M.; Signorini, C.; Vardaci, E.; Di Nitto, A.; Brondi, A.; La Rana, G.; Migliozzi, P.; Moro, R.; Palladino, V.; Gelli, N.; Berkovits, D.; Hass, M.; Hirsh, T. Y.; Schaumann, M.; Stahl, A.; Wehner, J.; Bross, A.; Kopp, J.; Neuffer, D.; Wands, R.; Bayes, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, P.; Agarwalla, S. K.; Cervera Villanueva, A.; Donini, A.; Ghosh, T.; Gomez Cadenas, J. J.; Hernandez, P.; Martin-Albo, J.; Mena, O.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Agostino, L.; Buizza-Avanzini, M.; Marafini, M.; Patzak, T.; Tonazzo, A.; Duchesneau, D.; Mosca, L.; Bogomilov, M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Akhmedov, E.; Blennow, M.; Lindner, M.; Schwetz, T.; Fernandez Martinez, E.; Maltoni, M.; Menendez, J.; Giunti, C.; Gonzalez Garcia, M. C.; Salvado, J.; Coloma, P.; Huber, P.; Li, T.; Lopez Pavon, J.; Orme, C.; Pascoli, S.; Meloni, D.; Tang, J.; Winter, W.; Ohlsson, T.; Zhang, H.; Scotto-Lavina, L.; Terranova, F.; Bonesini, M.; Tortora, L.; Alekou, A.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Kurup, A.; Jenner, L. J.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Pozimski, J.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P.; Beard, K.; Bogacz, A.; Berg, J. S.; Stratakis, D.; Witte, H.; Snopok, P.; Bliss, N.; Cordwell, M.; Moss, A.; Pattalwar, S.; Apollonio, M.

    2013-02-20

    The EUROnu project has studied three possible options for future, high intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe. The first is a Super Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of pions created by bombarding targets with a 4 MW proton beam from the CERN High Power Superconducting Proton Linac. The far detector for this facility is the 500 kt MEMPHYS water Cherenkov, located in the Fréjus tunnel. The second facility is the Neutrino Factory, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of μ+ and μ beams in a storage ring. The far detector in this case is a 100 kt magnetized iron neutrino detector at a baseline of 2000 km. The third option is a Beta Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of beta emitting isotopes, in particular 6He and 18Ne, also stored in a ring. The far detector is also the MEMPHYS detector in the Fréjus tunnel. EUROnu has undertaken conceptual designs of these facilities and studied the performance of the detectors. Based on this, it has determined the physics reach of each facility, in particular for the measurement of CP violation in the lepton sector, and estimated the cost of construction. These have demonstrated that the best facility to build is the Neutrino Factory. Furthermore, if a powerful proton driver is constructed for another purpose or if the MEMPHYS detector is built for astroparticle physics, the Super Beam also becomes very attractive.

  3. Huygens space probe ready to leave Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-03-01

    the Earth, before settling down to prolonged observations of Saturn and its rings and moons. European and American scientists are partners in all the experiments, both in the Orbiter and in the Huygens Probe. Farthest out for Europe Huygens will travel to a greater distance from the Sun than any previous ESA mission, out to the orbit of Saturn at 1400 million kilometres, or nearly ten times the Sun Earth distance. For comparison, the farthest ranging mission at present is Ulysses, orbiting over the poles of the Sun and out to the orbit of Jupiter, 800 million kilometres from the Sun. As no other mission planned or contemplated by ESA at present will go as far as Saturn, Huygens is likely to hold the European record for many years. HUYGENS READY TO LEAVE EUROPE PRESS BRIEFING Wednesday 26 March, 10:00 hrs. Location : Daimler-Benz Aerospace/ Dornier Satellitensysteme Gate 2, Building 5.1 Ludwig-B>lkow-Allee Ottobrunn (Munich) Programme: 10h00 Registration of press 10h15 Huygens video introduction 10h20 Welcoming addresses: Klaus Ensslin, President, Dornier Satellitensysteme Roger Bonnet, Director of Science, ESA Michel Delaye, President, Aerospatiale Espace & Defense 10h30 NASA News and Cassini status Wesly T. Huntress, Associate Administrator of Space Science, NASA Richard Spehalski, Head of Cassini Project, NASA/JPL 10h40 The Huygens Project: Hamid Hassan, Head of the Huygens Project, ESA/ESTEC Hans-Joachim Hoffman, Head of the Huygens Project, Dornier Satellitensysteme Gerard Huttin, Head of the Huygens Project, Aerospatiale 11h00 The Huygens Scientific Programme: Jean-Pierre Lebreton, Huygens Project Scientist, ESA supported by European and American scientists. 11h15 The ESA Science programme, current and future missions Roger Bonnet, Director of Science, ESA 11h25 Question and Answer session 11h55 Visit to the Huygens spacecraft (access inside the clean room limited to photographers and TV teams only). 12h45 Buffet lunch 14h00 End of activties HUYGENS READY TO

  4. Genetic differentiation of the wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina in Europe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina is a common disease of wheat in Europe. The objective of this study was to determine whether genetically differentiated groups of P. triticina are present in Europe. In total, 133 isolates of P. triticina collected from western Europe, central Europe, and Turk...

  5. Remote Sensing and Remote Control Activities in Europe and America: Part 2--Remote Sensing Ground Stations in Europe,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Development tasks and products of remote sensing ground stations in Europe are represented by the In-Sec Corporation and the Schlumberger Industries Corporation. The article presents the main products of these two corporations.

  6. Aedes albopictus and Its Environmental Limits in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Cunze, Sarah; Kochmann, Judith; Koch, Lisa K.; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, native to South East Asia, is listed as one of the worst invasive vector species worldwide. In Europe the species is currently restricted to Southern Europe, but due to the ongoing climate change, Ae. albopictus is expected to expand its potential range further northwards. In addition to modelling the habitat suitability for Ae. albopictus under current and future climatic conditions in Europe by means of the maximum entropy approach, we here focused on the drivers of the habitat suitability prediction. We explored the most limiting factors for Aedes albopictus in Europe under current and future climatic conditions, a method which has been neglected in species distribution modelling so far. Ae. albopictus is one of the best-studied mosquito species, which allowed us to evaluate the applied Maxent approach for most limiting factor mapping. We identified three key limiting factors for Ae. albopictus in Europe under current climatic conditions: winter temperature in Eastern Europe, summer temperature in Southern Europe. Model findings were in good accordance with commonly known establishment thresholds in Europe based on climate chamber experiments and derived from the geographical distribution of the species. Under future climatic conditions low winter temperature were modelled to remain the most limiting factor in Eastern Europe, whereas in Central Europe annual mean temperature and summer temperatures were modelled to be replaced by summer precipitation, respectively, as most limiting factors. Changes in the climatic conditions in terms of the identified key limiting factors will be of great relevance regarding the invasive potential of the Ae. albopictus. Thus, our results may help to understand the key drivers of the suggested range expansion under climate change and may help to improve monitoring programmes. The applied approach of investigating limiting factors has proven to yield valuable results and may also provide

  7. Forecasting extreme temperature health hazards in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Napoli, Claudia; Pappenberger, Florian; Cloke, Hannah L.

    2017-04-01

    Extreme hot temperatures, such as those experienced during a heat wave, represent a dangerous meteorological hazard to human health. Heat disorders such as sunstroke are harmful to people of all ages and responsible for excess mortality in the affected areas. In 2003 more than 50,000 people died in western and southern Europe because of a severe and sustained episode of summer heat [1]. Furthermore, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change heat waves are expected to get more frequent in the future thus posing an increasing threat to human lives. Developing appropriate tools for extreme hot temperatures prediction is therefore mandatory to increase public preparedness and mitigate heat-induced impacts. A recent study has shown that forecasts of the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) provide a valid overview of extreme temperature health hazards on a global scale [2]. UTCI is a parameter related to the temperature of the human body and its regulatory responses to the surrounding atmospheric environment. UTCI is calculated using an advanced thermo-physiological model that includes the human heat budget, physiology and clothing. To forecast UTCI the model uses meteorological inputs, such as 2m air temperature, 2m water vapour pressure and wind velocity at body height derived from 10m wind speed, from NWP models. Here we examine the potential of UTCI as an extreme hot temperature prediction tool for the European area. UTCI forecasts calculated using above-mentioned parameters from ECMWF models are presented. The skill in predicting UTCI for medium lead times is also analysed and discussed for implementation to international health-hazard warning systems. This research is supported by the ANYWHERE project (EnhANcing emergencY management and response to extreme WeatHER and climate Events) which is funded by the European Commission's HORIZON2020 programme. [1] Koppe C. et al., Heat waves: risks and responses. World Health Organization. Health and

  8. Vitamin D deficiency in Europe: pandemic?12

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Kirsten G; Škrabáková, Zuzana; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Valtueña, Jara; De Henauw, Stefaan; Moreno, Luis; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian; Jorde, Rolf; Grimnes, Guri; Moschonis, George; Mavrogianni, Christina; Manios, Yannis; Thamm, Michael; Mensink, Gert BM; Rabenberg, Martina; Busch, Markus A; Cox, Lorna; Meadows, Sarah; Goldberg, Gail; Prentice, Ann; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Nijpels, Giel; Pilz, Stefan; Swart, Karin M; van Schoor, Natasja M; Lips, Paul; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Cotch, Mary Frances; Koskinen, Seppo; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Sempos, Christopher T; Kiely, Mairead

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been described as being pandemic, but serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] distribution data for the European Union are of very variable quality. The NIH-led international Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) has developed protocols for standardizing existing 25(OH)D values from national health/nutrition surveys. Objective: This study applied VDSP protocols to serum 25(OH)D data from representative childhood/teenage and adult/older adult European populations, representing a sizable geographical footprint, to better quantify the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Europe. Design: The VDSP protocols were applied in 14 population studies [reanalysis of subsets of serum 25(OH)D in 11 studies and complete analysis of all samples from 3 studies that had not previously measured it] by using certified liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry on biobanked sera. These data were combined with standardized serum 25(OH)D data from 4 previously standardized studies (for a total n = 55,844). Prevalence estimates of vitamin D deficiency [using various serum 25(OH)D thresholds] were generated on the basis of standardized 25(OH)D data. Results: An overall pooled estimate, irrespective of age group, ethnic mix, and latitude of study populations, showed that 13.0% of the 55,844 European individuals had serum 25(OH)D concentrations <30 nmol/L on average in the year, with 17.7% and 8.3% in those sampled during the extended winter (October–March) and summer (April–November) periods, respectively. According to an alternate suggested definition of vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/L), the prevalence was 40.4%. Dark-skinned ethnic subgroups had much higher (3- to 71-fold) prevalence of serum 25(OH)D <30 nmol/L than did white populations. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is evident throughout the European population at prevalence rates that are concerning and that require action from a public health perspective. What direction these

  9. Seismological data networks and services in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinuso, A.; Kamb, L.; Trani, L.; Frobert, L.

    2011-12-01

    the 7th European Framework Program, will bring into the Data Portal new extensions to include new data sets and access tools from new partners in the Seismology and Earthquake Engineering communities. We will implement a Common Services Architecture based on OGC services APIs. This services layer API provides Resource-Oriented common interfaces across the data access and processing services to improve interoperability between tools and across projects, enabling the development of higher-level applications that can uniformly access the data and processing services of all participants. The effort for such extensions of the current Data Portal will be conducted jointly with another EU funded project VERCE - Virtual Earthquake and Seismology Research Community for Europe. VERCE aims to enable seismologists to exploit the wealth of seismic data within a data-intensive computation framework, which will be tailored to the specific needs of the community. It will provide a new interoperable infrastructure, as the computational backbone laying behind the publicly available interfaces.

  10. Assessing river health in Europe and Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milano, Marianne; Chèvre, Nathalie; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2017-04-01

    River conditions and welfare of aquatic ecosystems are threatened by anthropogenic and climatic changes. The release of personal-care products, pharmaceuticals and crop protection products is increasing and climate change is likely to cause significant changes in hydrological regimes affecting water resources' capacity to dissolve pollutants. Assessing river health, i.e. the ability of a river to support and maintain a balanced ecosystem close to the natural habitat, is thus of major concern to ensure the development of ecosystems and to provide enough clean useable water to users. Such studies involve physical, chemical and biological processes and characteristics. In Europe and Switzerland, standardized procedures have been developed to assess the hydromorphological, ecological and toxicological status of rivers. The European Water Framework Directive sets ecological requirements and chemical guidelines while the Swiss Modular Stepwise Procedure suggests methods to apprehend ecological deficits and promote water management plans. In this study, both procedures were applied and compared in order (i) to address their capacity to follow-up the spatial and temporal variability of the river's water quality and (ii) to identify challenges that still need to be addressed to assess river's health. Applied on the Boiron River (canton of Vaud, Switzerland) for a 11-year period (2005-2015), both frameworks highlight that no section of the river currently meets a good environmental state. This river flows through a diversified agricultural area causing a progressive deterioration of its chemical and biological quality. The two methods also identify two periods of time with significant changes of the river's water quality. The 2009-2011 period is characterized by a significant deterioration of the river's ecological and toxicological state due to severe low flows and an increased use of pesticides. However, since 2013, an improvement in water quality is identified in

  11. Droughts and forest fires in Mediterranean Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, Marco; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; von Hardenberg, Jost; Provenzale, Antonello

    2015-04-01

    Most of the total burned area in Europe occurs in Mediterranean regions, with severe economic and environmental damage, life loss and an average of about 4500 km2 burned every year. A better understanding of the impacts on wildfires of environmental and socioeconomic changes is crucial to develop adequate measures of prevention, adaptation and mitigation in this area. Here we focus on the impact of droughts on fires in European Mediterranean regions (Portugal, Spain, the south of France, Italy, Greece). This goal will be achieved through three specific supporting objectives: (1) Understanding past changes in fires in this region (extending the study of [1]); (2) Comparing and analyzing different drought indices (e.g. SPI, SPEI and SSI; see [2, 3] for more details on those indices); (3) Modeling the interaction between drought and fires (following and extending the study of [4]). We develop relatively simple regression models that link the fire activity to the key climate drivers. These models could be used to estimate fire responses to different climate change projections and environmental and socioeconomic scenarios ([5]). *References [1] Turco M., Llasat M. C., Tudela A., Castro X., and Provenzale A. Brief communication Decreasing fires in a Mediterranean region (1970-2010, NE Spain). Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, 13(3):649-652, 2013. [2] Zengchao H., AghaKouchak A., Nakhjiri N., and Farahmand A. Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System. Scientific Data, 1:1-10, 2014. [3] Vicente-Serrano, S. M., Beguería, S. and López-Moreno, J. I. A multiscalar drought index sensitive to global warming: The standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index. Journal of Climate, 23:1696-1718, 2010. [4] Turco M., Llasat M. C., von Hardenberg J., and Provenzale A. Impact of climate variability on summer fires in a Mediterranean environment (northeastern Iberian Peninsula). Climatic Change, 116:665-678, 2013. [5] Turco M., Llasat M. C., von

  12. Vitamin D deficiency in Europe: pandemic?

    PubMed

    Cashman, Kevin D; Dowling, Kirsten G; Škrabáková, Zuzana; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Valtueña, Jara; De Henauw, Stefaan; Moreno, Luis; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian; Jorde, Rolf; Grimnes, Guri; Moschonis, George; Mavrogianni, Christina; Manios, Yannis; Thamm, Michael; Mensink, Gert Bm; Rabenberg, Martina; Busch, Markus A; Cox, Lorna; Meadows, Sarah; Goldberg, Gail; Prentice, Ann; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Nijpels, Giel; Pilz, Stefan; Swart, Karin M; van Schoor, Natasja M; Lips, Paul; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Cotch, Mary Frances; Koskinen, Seppo; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Sempos, Christopher T; Kiely, Mairead

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been described as being pandemic, but serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] distribution data for the European Union are of very variable quality. The NIH-led international Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) has developed protocols for standardizing existing 25(OH)D values from national health/nutrition surveys. This study applied VDSP protocols to serum 25(OH)D data from representative childhood/teenage and adult/older adult European populations, representing a sizable geographical footprint, to better quantify the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Europe. The VDSP protocols were applied in 14 population studies [reanalysis of subsets of serum 25(OH)D in 11 studies and complete analysis of all samples from 3 studies that had not previously measured it] by using certified liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry on biobanked sera. These data were combined with standardized serum 25(OH)D data from 4 previously standardized studies (for a total n= 55,844). Prevalence estimates of vitamin D deficiency [using various serum 25(OH)D thresholds] were generated on the basis of standardized 25(OH)D data. An overall pooled estimate, irrespective of age group, ethnic mix, and latitude of study populations, showed that 13.0% of the 55,844 European individuals had serum 25(OH)D concentrations <30 nmol/L on average in the year, with 17.7% and 8.3% in those sampled during the extended winter (October-March) and summer (April-November) periods, respectively. According to an alternate suggested definition of vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/L), the prevalence was 40.4%. Dark-skinned ethnic subgroups had much higher (3- to 71-fold) prevalence of serum 25(OH)D <30 nmol/L than did white populations. Vitamin D deficiency is evident throughout the European population at prevalence rates that are concerning and that require action from a public health perspective. What direction these strategies take will depend on European policy but should aim to

  13. Mapping monthly rainfall erosivity in Europe.

    PubMed

    Ballabio, Cristiano; Borrelli, Pasquale; Spinoni, Jonathan; Meusburger, Katrin; Michaelides, Silas; Beguería, Santiago; Klik, Andreas; Petan, Sašo; Janeček, Miloslav; Olsen, Preben; Aalto, Juha; Lakatos, Mónika; Rymszewicz, Anna; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Tadić, Melita Perčec; Diodato, Nazzareno; Kostalova, Julia; Rousseva, Svetla; Banasik, Kazimierz; Alewell, Christine; Panagos, Panos

    2017-02-01

    Rainfall erosivity as a dynamic factor of soil loss by water erosion is modelled intra-annually for the first time at European scale. The development of Rainfall Erosivity Database at European Scale (REDES) and its 2015 update with the extension to monthly component allowed to develop monthly and seasonal R-factor maps and assess rainfall erosivity both spatially and temporally. During winter months, significant rainfall erosivity is present only in part of the Mediterranean countries. A sudden increase of erosivity occurs in major part of European Union (except Mediterranean basin, western part of Britain and Ireland) in May and the highest values are registered during summer months. Starting from September, R-factor has a decreasing trend. The mean rainfall erosivity in summer is almost 4 times higher (315MJmmha(-1)h(-1)) compared to winter (87MJmmha(-1)h(-1)). The Cubist model has been selected among various statistical models to perform the spatial interpolation due to its excellent performance, ability to model non-linearity and interpretability. The monthly prediction is an order more difficult than the annual one as it is limited by the number of covariates and, for consistency, the sum of all months has to be close to annual erosivity. The performance of the Cubist models proved to be generally high, resulting in R(2) values between 0.40 and 0.64 in cross-validation. The obtained months show an increasing trend of erosivity occurring from winter to summer starting from western to Eastern Europe. The maps also show a clear delineation of areas with different erosivity seasonal patterns, whose spatial outline was evidenced by cluster analysis. The monthly erosivity maps can be used to develop composite indicators that map both intra-annual variability and concentration of erosive events. Consequently, spatio-temporal mapping of rainfall erosivity permits to identify the months and the areas with highest risk of soil loss where conservation measures should be

  14. On the aerosol weekly cycle spatiotemporal variability over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgoulias, A. K.; Kourtidis, K. A.

    2011-05-01

    In this work, we focus on the spatial and temporal variability of the aerosol weekly cycle over Europe as these were recorded from TERRA MODIS and AQUA MODIS satellite instruments. Aerosol optical properties retrieved from MODIS TERRA (February 2000-February 2009) and AQUA (July 2002-December 2008) were used to produce an aerosol weekly cycle index. First, the general aerosol optical depth (AOD550 nm) weekly patterns were defined at a 1° × 1° resolution using the satellite-based index and six regions of interest were selected. To remove episodic dust transport events, two different aerosol flags, employing fine mode ratio (FMR550 nm) and AOD550 nm data, were applied diagnostically, showing that the observed weekly cycles over Europe are due to continental aerosols. A second spatial averaging method was then used for the investigation of the weekly variability and the statistical significance of the weekly cycle over each of the previously selected regions. Three major weekly cycle plumes are observed over Europe. A strong positive (higher values during midweek) weekly cycle plume appears over Central Europe, while a strong negative (higher values during weekend) weekly plume appears over the Iberian Peninsula and the North-eastern Europe. The temporal examination of the weekly cycles shows that in some areas there are seasonal differences in the sign of the weekly cycle. The aerosol weekly variability over different regions in Europe was examined in conjunction with the dominating synoptic wind patterns from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, showing that the seasonal weekly cycle plumes over regions situated in the eastern Europe and the Mediterranean Sea could be partly attributed to the westerly transport of continental aerosols.

  15. Oesophageal cancer survival in Europe: a EUROCARE-4 study.

    PubMed

    Gavin, A T; Francisci, S; Foschi, R; Donnelly, D W; Lemmens, V; Brenner, H; Anderson, L A

    2012-12-01

    Oesophageal cancer survival is poor with variation across Europe. No pan-European studies of survival differences by oesophageal cancer subtype exist. This study investigates rates and trends in oesophageal cancer survival across Europe. Data for primary malignant oesophageal cancer diagnosed in 1995-1999 and followed up to the end of 2003 was obtained from 66 cancer registries in 24 European countries. Relative survival was calculated using the Hakulinen approach. Staging data were available from 19 registries. Survival by region, gender, age, morphology and stage was investigated. Cohort analysis and the period approach were applied to investigate survival trends from 1988 to 2002 for 31 registries in 17 countries. In total 51,499 cases of oesophageal cancer diagnosed 1995-1999 were analysed. Overall, European 1- and 5-year survival rates were 33.4% (95% CI 32.9-33.9%) and 9.8% (95% CI 9.4-10.1%), respectively. Males, older patients and patients with late stage disease had poorer 1- and 5-year relative survival. Patients with squamous cell carcinoma had poorer 1-year relative survival. Regional variation in survival was observed with Central Europe above and Eastern Europe below the European pool. Survival for distant stage disease was similar across Europe while survival rates for localised disease were below the European pool in Eastern and Southern Europe. Improvement in European 1-year relative survival was reported (p=0.016). Oesophageal cancer survival was poor across Europe. Persistent regional variations in 1-year survival point to a need for a high resolution study of diagnostic and treatment practices of oesophageal cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Late Miocene “washhouse” climate in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhme, Madelaine; Ilg, August; Winklhofer, Michael

    2008-11-01

    We present two eight-million year long proxy records of precipitation for Southwest and Central Europe, covering the middle to late Miocene (5.3-13 Ma) at a temporal resolution of about 60 kyr and 150 kyr, respectively. The estimates of precipitation are based on the ecophysiological structure of herpetological assemblages (amphibians and reptiles). From 13.0 Ma until about 9 Ma, both records show a similar trend, evolving from a long dry period (13-11 Ma) into a "washhouse climate" (10.2-9.8 Ma), characterized by global warm conditions and several times more precipitation than present. The transition from washhouse to a dryer climate between 9.7 and 9.5 Ma and the concomitant cooling episode appear to have triggered a severe biotic event known as the Vallesian crisis, which included the extinction of hominoids in Western Europe. A second washhouse period (9.0-8.5 Ma), coeval with a global warm episode, was unprecedentedly intense in Southwest Europe, but less pronounced in Central Europe. From 8 Ma onward, a divergence in the two precipitation records is observed, with Southwest Europe staying wetter and Central Europe becoming dryer than present. Both precipitation records are combined into a common run-off curve as a measure of the relative intensity of the hydrological cycle for moderate latitudes of continental Europe. The run-off curve shows a remarkable positive correlation with Atlantic deep-water temperatures from Ceará Rise by Lear et al. (2003), which are significantly higher (up to + 3 °C) during the two washhouse periods and show no other positive excursion of comparable magnitude. We discuss potential links and the role of the coeval temporary restriction of the Central American Seaway on ocean and atmosphere circulation.

  17. Epilepsy priorities in Europe: A report of the ILAE-IBE Epilepsy Advocacy Europe Task Force.

    PubMed

    Baulac, Michel; de Boer, Hanneke; Elger, Christian; Glynn, Mike; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Little, Ann; Mifsud, Janet; Perucca, Emilio; Pitkänen, Asla; Ryvlin, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    The European Forum on Epilepsy Research (ERF2013), which took place in Dublin, Ireland, on May 26-29, 2013, was designed to appraise epilepsy research priorities in Europe through consultation with clinical and basic scientists as well as representatives of lay organizations and health care providers. The ultimate goal was to provide a platform to improve the lives of persons with epilepsy by influencing the political agenda of the EU. The Forum highlighted the epidemiologic, medical, and social importance of epilepsy in Europe, and addressed three separate but closely related concepts. First, possibilities were explored as to how the stigma and social burden associated with epilepsy could be reduced through targeted initiatives at EU national and regional levels. Second, ways to ensure optimal standards of care throughout Europe were specifically discussed. Finally, a need for further funding in epilepsy research within the European Horizon 2020 funding programme was communicated to politicians and policymakers participating to the forum. Research topics discussed specifically included (1) epilepsy in the developing brain; (2) novel targets for innovative diagnostics and treatment of epilepsy; (3) what is required for prevention and cure of epilepsy; and (4) epilepsy and comorbidities, with a special focus on aging and mental health. This report provides a summary of recommendations that emerged at ERF2013 about how to (1) strengthen epilepsy research, (2) reduce the treatment gap, and (3) reduce the burden and stigma associated with epilepsy. Half of the 6 million European citizens with epilepsy feel stigmatized and experience social exclusion, stressing the need for funding trans-European awareness campaigns and monitoring their impact on stigma, in line with the global commitment of the European Commission and with the recommendations made in the 2011 Written Declaration on Epilepsy. Epilepsy care has high rates of misdiagnosis and considerable variability in

  18. Astronomy Teaching in Europe's Secondary Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-11-01

    and Astrophysics, overviews of selected astronomical technologies of more general relevance and their various implications for other human activities, as well as presentations of Astronomy as part of our cultural heritage and its current place in society. Then follows a thorough discussion among the participants about the current teaching of astronomy-related subjects in secondary schools in the individual countries. One of the main aims of this meeting will be the preparation of a joint document stating the goals and optimal contents of the future teaching of Astronomy in Europe's secondary schools. It is also the intention to initiate on this occasion a Europe-wide "teachers' network", which can follow these matters up. How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org../). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

  19. Challenges for children and adolescents with cancer in Europe: The SIOP-Europe agenda

    PubMed Central

    Vassal, Gilles; Fitzgerald, Edel; Schrappe, Martin; Arnold, Frédéric; Kowalczyk, Jerzy; Walker, David; Hjorth, Lars; Riccardi, Riccardo; Kienesberger, Anita; Jones, Kathy-Pritchard; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Janic, Dragana; Hasle, Henrik; Kearns, Pamela; Petrarulo, Giulia; Florindi, Francesco; Essiaf, Samira; Ladenstein, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    In Europe, 6,000 young people die of cancer yearly, the commonest disease causing death beyond the age of 1 year. In addition, 300,000–500,000 European citizens are survivors of a childhood cancer and up to 30% of them have severe long-term sequelae of their treatment. Increasing both cure and quality of cure are the two goals of the European paediatric haematology/oncology community. SIOPE coordinates and facilitates research, care and training which are implemented by the 18 European study groups and 23 national paediatric haematology/oncology societies. SIOPE is the European branch of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology and one of the six founding members of the European Cancer Organisation. SIOPE is preparing its strategic agenda to assure long-term sustainability of clinical and translational research in paediatric malignancies over the next 15 years. SIOPE tackles the issues of equal access to standard care and research across Europe and improvement of long term follow up. SIOPE defined a comprehensive syllabus for training European specialists. A strong partnership with parent, patient and survivor organisations is being developed to successfully achieve the goals of this patient-centred agenda. SIOPE is advocating in the field of EU policies, such as the Clinical Trials Regulation and the Paediatric Medicine Regulation, to warrant that the voice of young people is heard and their needs adequately addressed. SIOPE and the European community are entirely committed to the global agenda against childhood cancers to overcome the challenges to increasing both cure and quality of cure of young people with cancer. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2014;61:1551–1557. PMID:24706509

  20. Outstanding challenges limiting the development of climate services in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buontempo, Carlo; Soares, Marta Bruno; Liggins, Felicity

    2016-04-01

    Climate services attempt to make the available (or forthcoming) climate knowledge more usable by decision and policy makers in the development of a climate smart society. Since the launch of the Global Framework for Climate Services in 2009 there has been an exponential increase in investment in the development and delivery of climate services, leading to an array of projects and initiatives across Europe. However, to date little attention has been given to understanding the different ways in which climate services are defined, implemented, and evaluated in Europe. In addition, other aspects such as how to pursue the necessary processes of co-production, which business models to apply, and the implications for the careers of scientists and others involved in the development of climate services are also crucial elements that need to be further examined and discussed. Such aspects are critical to the future development of climate services as they have the potential to significantly constrain the growth of climate services in Europe. Starting from a set of questions that have arisen within some of the most prominent climate services projects and initiatives in Europe, our paper highlights and expands on the outstanding challenges that need to be resolved by both the scientific community and the funders in order to ensure climate services can prosper and grow in Europe.

  1. Vector-borne helminths of dogs and humans in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Presently, 45% of the total human population of Europe, as well as their domestic and companion animals, are exposed to the risk of vector-borne helminths (VBH) causing diseases. A plethora of intrinsic biological and extrinsic factors affect the relationship among helminths, vectors and animal hosts, in a constantly changing environment. Although canine dirofilarioses by Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are key examples of the success of VBH spreading into non-endemic areas, another example is represented by Thelazia callipaeda eyeworm, an emergent pathogen of dogs, cats and humans in several regions of Europe. The recent finding of Onchocerca lupi causing canine and human infestation in Europe and overseas renders the picture of VBH even more complicated. Similarly, tick-transmitted filarioids of the genus Cercopithifilaria infesting the skin of dogs were recently shown to be widespread in Europe. Although for most of the VBH above there is an increasing accumulation of research data on their distribution at national level, the overall impact of the diseases they cause in dogs and humans is not fully recognised in many aspects. This review investigates the reasons underlying the increasing trend in distribution of VBH in Europe and discusses the diagnostic and control strategies currently available. In addition, this article provides the authors’ opinion on some topics related to VBH that would deserve further scientific investigation. PMID:23324440

  2. An entomological review of invasive mosquitoes in Europe.

    PubMed

    Medlock, J M; Hansford, K M; Versteirt, V; Cull, B; Kampen, H; Fontenille, D; Hendrickx, G; Zeller, H; Van Bortel, W; Schaffner, F

    2015-12-01

    Among the invasive mosquitoes registered all over the world, Aedes species are particularly frequent and important. As several of them are potential vectors of disease, they present significant health concerns for 21st century Europe. Five species have established in mainland Europe, with two (Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus) becoming widespread and two (Ae. albopictus and Aedes aegypti) implicated in disease transmission to humans in Europe. The routes of importation and spread are often enigmatic, the ability to adapt to local environments and climates are rapid, and the biting nuisance and vector potential are both an ecomonic and public health concern. Europeans are used to cases of dengue and chikungunya in travellers returning from the tropics, but the threat to health and tourism in mainland Europe is substantive. Coupled to that are the emerging issues in the European overseas territorities and this paper is the first to consider the impacts in the remoter outposts of Europe. If entomologists and public health authorities are to address the spread of these mosquitoes and mitigate their health risks they must first be prepared to share information to better understand their biology and ecology, and share data on their distribution and control successes. This paper focusses in greater detail on the entomological and ecological aspects of these mosquitoes to assist with the risk assessment process, bringing together a large amount of information gathered through the ECDC VBORNET project.

  3. Inventory of pesticide emissions into the air in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarigiannis, D. A.; Kontoroupis, P.; Solomou, E. S.; Nikolaki, S.; Karabelas, A. J.

    2013-08-01

    Creation of a reliable and comprehensive emission inventory of the pesticides used in Europe is a key step towards quantitatively assessing the link between actual pesticide exposure and adverse health effects. An inventory of pesticide emissions was generated at a 1 × 1 km grid, for the year 2000. The emission model comprises three components: estimates of active substance (AS) wind drift taking into account crop type, volatilization during pesticide application and volatilization from the crop canopy. Results show that atmospheric emission of pesticides varies significantly across Europe. Different pesticide families are emitted from different parts of Europe as a function of the main crop(s) cultivated, agro-climatic conditions and production intensity. The pesticide emission inventory methodology developed herein is a valuable tool for assessing air quality in rural and peri-urban Europe, furnishing the necessary input for atmospheric modelling at different scales. Its estimates have been tested using global sensitivity and Monte Carlo analysis for uncertainty assessment and they have been validated against national and local surveys in four European countries; the results demonstrate the robustness and reliability of the inventory. The latter may therefore be readily used for exposure and health risk assessment studies targeting farmers, applicators, but also bystanders and the general population in Europe.

  4. The unusual wet summer (July) of 2014 in Southern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratna, Satyaban B.; Ratnam, J. V.; Behera, Swadhin K.; Cherchi, Annalisa; Wang, Wanqiu; Yamagata, Toshio

    2017-06-01

    Southern Europe (Italy and the surrounding countries) experienced an unusual wet summer in 2014. The monthly rainfall in July 2014 was 84% above (more than three standard deviation) normal with respect to the 1982-2013 July climatology. The heavy rainfall damaged agriculture, and affected tourism and overall economy of the region. In this study, we tried to understand the physical mechanisms responsible for such abnormal weather by using model and observed datasets. The anomalously high precipitation over Italy is found to be associated with the positive sea surface temperature (SST) and convective anomalies in the tropical Pacific through the atmospheric teleconnection. Rossby wave activity flux at upper levels shows an anomalous tropospheric quasi-stationary Rossby wave from the Pacific with an anomalous cyclonic phase over southern Europe. This anomalous cyclonic circulation is barotropic in nature and seen extending to lower atmospheric levels, weakening the seasonal high and causing heavy precipitation over the Southern Europe. The hypothesis is verified using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) coupled forecast system model (CFSv2) seasonal forecasts. It is found that two-month lead forecast of CFSv2 was able to capture the wet summer event of 2014 over Southern Europe. The teleconnection pattern from Pacific to Southern Europe was also forecasted realistically by the CFSv2 system.

  5. Malaria in Europe: emerging threat or minor nuisance?

    PubMed

    Piperaki, E T; Daikos, G L

    2016-06-01

    Malaria was eradicated from Europe in the 1970s through a combination of insecticide spraying, drug therapy and environmental engineering. Since then, it has been mostly imported into the continent by international travellers and immigrants from endemic regions. Despite the substantial number of imported malaria cases and the documented presence of suitable anopheline vectors, autochthonous transmission has not been widely observed in Europe, probably as a result of early diagnosis and treatment, afforded by efficient healthcare systems. Current climatic conditions are conducive to malaria transmission in several areas of Southern Europe, and climate change might favour mosquito proliferation and parasite development, further facilitating malaria transmission. Moreover, the continuing massive influx of refugee and migrant populations from endemic areas could contribute to building up of an infectious parasite reservoir. Although the malariogenic potential of Europe is currently low, particularly in the northern and western parts of the continent, strengthening of disease awareness and maintaining robust public health infrastructures for surveillance and vector control are of the utmost importance and should be technically and financially supported to avert the possibility of malaria transmission in Europe's most vulnerable areas. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of climate variability in extreme floods in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães Nobre, G.; Jongman, B.; Aerts, J.; Ward, P. J.

    2017-08-01

    Climate variability is shown to be an important driver of spatial and temporal changes in hydrometereological variables in Europe. However, the influence of climate variability on flood damage has received little attention. We investigated the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and the East Atlantic pattern (EA) during their neutral, positive, and negative phases, to understand their relationships with four flood indicators: Occurrence of Extreme Rainfall, Intensity of Extreme Rainfall, Flood Occurrence, and Flood Damage. We found that positive and negative phases of NAO and EA are associated with more (or less) frequent and intense seasonal extreme rainfall over large areas of Europe. The relationship between ENSO and the Occurrence of Extreme Rainfall and Intensity of Extreme Rainfall in Europe is much smaller than the relationship with NAO or EA, but still significant in some regions. We show that Flood Damage and Flood Occurrence have strong links with climate variability, especially in southern and eastern Europe. Therefore, when investigating flooding across Europe, all three indices of climate variability should be considered. Future research should focus on their joint influence on flood risk. The potential inclusion of seasonal forecasts of indices of climate variability could be effective in forecasting flood damage.

  7. Anthropogenic climate change affects meteorological drought risk in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, L.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2016-04-01

    Drought constitutes a significant natural hazard in Europe, impacting societies and ecosystems across the continent. Climate model simulations with increasing greenhouse gas concentrations project increased drought risk in southern Europe, and on the other hand decreased drought risk in the north. Observed changes in water balance components and drought indicators resemble the projected pattern. However, assessments of possible causes of the reported regional changes have so far been inconclusive. Here we investigate whether anthropogenic emissions have altered past and present meteorological (precipitation) drought risk. For doing so we first estimate the magnitude of 20 year return period drought years that would occur without anthropogenic effects on the climate. Subsequently we quantify to which degree the occurrence probability, i.e. the risk, of these years has changed if anthropogenic climate change is accounted for. Both an observational and a climate model-based assessment suggest that it is >95% likely that human emissions have increased the probability of drought years in the Mediterranean, whereas it is >95% likely that the probability of dry years has decreased in northern Europe. In central Europe the evidence is inconclusive. The results highlight that anthropogenic climate change has already increased drought risk in southern Europe, stressing the need to develop efficient mitigation measures.

  8. Vector-borne helminths of dogs and humans in Europe.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Brianti, Emanuele; Traversa, Donato; Petrić, Dusan; Genchi, Claudio; Capelli, Gioia

    2013-01-16

    Presently, 45% of the total human population of Europe, as well as their domestic and companion animals, are exposed to the risk of vector-borne helminths (VBH) causing diseases. A plethora of intrinsic biological and extrinsic factors affect the relationship among helminths, vectors and animal hosts, in a constantly changing environment. Although canine dirofilarioses by Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are key examples of the success of VBH spreading into non-endemic areas, another example is represented by Thelazia callipaeda eyeworm, an emergent pathogen of dogs, cats and humans in several regions of Europe. The recent finding of Onchocerca lupi causing canine and human infestation in Europe and overseas renders the picture of VBH even more complicated. Similarly, tick-transmitted filarioids of the genus Cercopithifilaria infesting the skin of dogs were recently shown to be widespread in Europe. Although for most of the VBH above there is an increasing accumulation of research data on their distribution at national level, the overall impact of the diseases they cause in dogs and humans is not fully recognised in many aspects. This review investigates the reasons underlying the increasing trend in distribution of VBH in Europe and discusses the diagnostic and control strategies currently available. In addition, this article provides the authors' opinion on some topics related to VBH that would deserve further scientific investigation.

  9. Enhancing Environmental Higher Education in Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmisano, E.; Caporali, E.; Valdiserri, J.

    2010-12-01

    recognition of degree titles was defined. The DEREL Project, as logical continuation of DEREC, is aimed to introduce a new, up-to-date, postgraduate two-year curriculum in Environment and Resources Engineering at some Universities in FYR Macedonia, Serbia and Albania following the criteria and conditions for setting up a Joint Postgraduate Degree. The modernisation of higher education implies new educational requirements that, stimulated by the innovative telecommunication technologies together with novel educational materials and methodologies, lead to the development of distance learning environments. In order to provide the basis for the development of a distance learning environment based on video conferencing systems and develop a blended learning courses methodology, the TEMPUS Project VICES Videoconferencing Educational Services (2009-2012) was launched in 2009. The project is being carried out by the University of Florence and the Ss Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje with the co-operation and expertise of consortium members in Europe and Western Balkans and it foresees the implementation of videoconferencing educational modules in the frame of the DEREC Curriculum. In all above projects, the technical and methodological aspects related to environment protection and natural resources enhancement is highlighted.

  10. Cenozoic vertical movements in Northwest Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S. B.

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of the interdisciplinary project CENMOVE is to unravel the causal relations and relative importance of Cenozoic tectonics in NW Europe, eustasy and climate. The approach of the project revolves around 1) isotopic profiling in Paleocene sediments in the eastern North Sea area, 2) thermochronometry in Southern Norway and Southern Sweden, 3) receiver function analysis in southern Norway and 4) integrated numerical modelling. Furthermore, the results from many years of basin analysis in the North Sea area and on the Norwegian Shelf are included, as well as general geological and geophysical information from the Fennoscandian and North Atlantic areas. The vertical movements in the area work on two length scales: 1) the regional scale involves uplift of land areas (e.g. S. Norway, E. Greenland, and Scotland) and subsidence of adjacent basin areas (the Norwegian Shelf and the North Sea); 2) the local scale involves the dynamics of narrow inversion zones such as the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone, Sole Pit High and domes on the Norwegian Shelf. Our working hypothesis comprise the following: The continuous basin subsidence is a function of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic mantle and lithosphere processes, including e.g. the Middle Jurassic plume in the North Sea region and lithospheric stretching in the North Atlantic and in the North Sea. Changes of in-plane stress in the region are a function primarily of the African-European collision and the opening of the North Atlantic and govern the inversion of inherited weak zones in the continental lithosphere. Inversion movements occur during the primary compressional events and later in the form of post-compressional rebound of both the inversion zones and the associated marginal troughs. The uplift of western Fennoscandia, Scotland, and eastern Greenland may have been caused by destabilisation and drop off of the deep lithospheric root beneath these areas, triggered by the Iceland mantle plume. This scenario involved transient

  11. Encouragement from Jupiter for Europe's Titan Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-04-01

    Huygens will transmit scientific information for 150 minutes, from the outer reaches of Titan's cold atmosphere and all the way down to its enigmatic surface. For comparison, the Jupiter Probe radioed scientific data for 58 minutes as it descended about 200 kilometres into the outer part of the atmosphere of the giant planet. The parachutes controlling various stages of Huygens' descent will rely upon a system for deployment designed and developed in Europe that is nevertheless similar to that used by the Jupiter Probe. The elaborate sequence of operations in Huygens worked perfectly during a dramatic drop test from a stratospheric balloon over Sweden in May 1995, which approximated as closely as possible to events on Titan. The performance of the American Probe at Jupiter renews the European engineers' confidence in their own descent control system, and also in the lithium sulphur-dioxide batteries which were chosen to power both Probes. "The systems work after long storage in space," comments Hamid Hassan, ESA's Project Manager for Huygens. "Huygens will spend seven years travelling to Saturn's vicinity aboard the Cassini Orbiter. The Jupiter Probe was a passenger in Galileo for six years before its release, so there is no reason to doubt that Huygens will work just as well." Huygens will enter the outer atmosphere of Titan at 20,000 kilometres per hour. A heat shield 2.7 metres in diameter will withstand the friction and slow the Probe to a speed at which parachutes can be deployed. The size of the parachute for the main phase of the descent is chosen to allow Huygens to reach the surface in about 2 hours. The batteries powering Huygens will last for about 21/2 hours. Prepared for surprises A different perspective on the Jupiter Probe comes from Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA's Project Scientist for Huygens. The results contradicted many preconceptions of the Galileo scientists, particularly about the abundance of water and the structure of cloud layers. Arguments

  12. Prevalence of iodine deficiency in Europe in 2010.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, M B; Andersson, M

    2011-04-01

    The adverse effects of iodine deficiency (ID) intellectual impairment, damaged reproduction, goiter and hypo- and hyperthyroidism are well known and easily corrected with salt iodization, but they continue to impair health and socioeconomic development, with more than two billion people at risk worldwide. During the major global expansion of salt iodization over the past four decades, much of Europe has remained iodine deficient. Although every European country endorsed the goal of eliminating iodine deficiency at the 1992 World Health Assembly, control of iodine deficiency has received low priority in much of Europe. However, there has been recent progress in the region and the number of children with low iodine intakes has decreased by ca. 30% since 2003. This paper presents an estimate of the prevalence of iodine deficiency in Europe in 2010, based on a systematic review to update the WHO Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System (VMNIS) database. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Cryptic or mystic? Glacial tree refugia in northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Tzedakis, P C; Emerson, B C; Hewitt, G M

    2013-12-01

    Here, we examine the evidence for tree refugia in northern Europe during the Late Pleniglacial (LPG) interval of maximum tree-range contraction. Our review highlights the often equivocal nature of genetic data and a tendency to overestimate potential tree distributions due to warm climate-model bias, and also reveals a convergence of macrofossil and pollen evidence. What emerges is the absence of temperate trees north of 45°N and a west-east (W-E) asymmetry in boreal tree distribution, with a treeless Western Europe north of 46°N, while restricted boreal populations persisted in Eastern Europe up to 49°N, and higher latitudes east of the Fennoscandian ice-sheet. These results have implications for current thinking on European genetic diversity patterns, species migration capacity, and conservation strategies.

  14. Introduction: Postcolonial studies and postsocialism in Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Owczarzak, Jill

    2010-01-01

    The introduction to this special section explores the ways in which postcolonial studies contribute a deeper understanding of postsocialist change in Central and Eastern Europe. Since the collapse of socialism, anthropological and other social science studies of Eastern Europe have highlighted deep divides between “East” and “West” and drawn attention to the ways in which socialist practices persist into the postsocialist period. We seek to move beyond discourses of the East/West divide by examining the postsocialist context through the lens of postcolonial studies. We look at four aspects of postcolonial studies and explore their relevance for understanding postsocialist Eastern Europe: orientalism, nation and identity, hybridity, and voice. These themes are particular salient from the perspective of gender and sexuality, key concepts through which both postcolonialism and postsocialism can be understood. We thus pay particular attention to the exchange of ideas between East/West, local/global, and national/international arenas. PMID:20651941

  15. Evidence Europe 2017. London, UK - February 22-23, 2017.

    PubMed

    Kibble, A

    2017-03-01

    As the political backdrop changes in both the U.S. and Europe, volatility in the pharma industry is beginning to be felt as the sector becomes sensitive to the uncertainty. U.S. President Trump has stated he will pursue an agenda against high U.S. drug prices and is expected to seek to repeal the Affordable Care Act, while in Europe, Brexit casts further unknowns in regulatory authorization procedures, trade and external reference pricing. With these factors in mind, Terrapin's Evidence Europe meeting provided for a very topical discussion on the use of evidence to define and communicate value in healthcare. With a particular focus on real-world evidence, the conference used presentations, panel briefings and roundtable discussions to foster debate on the challenges faced by industry as it negotiates the current fragile environment. Copyright 2017 Clarivate Analytics.

  16. European Echinococcosis Registry: Human Alveolar Echinococcosis, Europe, 1982–2000

    PubMed Central

    Bardonnet, Karine; Renner, Elisabeth; Auer, Herbert; Pawlowski, Zbigniew; Ammann, Rudolf W.; Vuitton, Dominique A.; Kern, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Surveillance for alveolar echinococcosis in central Europe was initiated in 1998. On a voluntary basis, 559 patients were reported to the registry. Most cases originated from rural communities in regions from eastern France to western Austria; single cases were reported far away from the disease-“endemic” zone throughout central Europe. Of 210 patients, 61.4% were involved in vocational or part-time farming, gardening, forestry, or hunting. Patients were diagnosed at a mean age of 52.5 years; 78% had symptoms. Alveolar echinococcosis primarily manifested as a liver disease. Of the 559 patients, 190 (34%) were already affected by spread of the parasitic larval tissue. Of 408 (73%) patients alive in 2000, 4.9% were cured. The increasing prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in foxes in rural and urban areas of central Europe and the occurrence of cases outside the alveolar echinococcosis–endemic regions suggest that this disease deserves increased attention. PMID:12643830

  17. Emergence of PPR and its threat to Europe.

    PubMed

    Parida, Satya; Muniraju, Murali; Altan, Eda; Baazizi, Ratiba; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Mahapatra, Mana

    2016-09-01

    PPR is an important infectious viral disease of domestic and wild small ruminants, that threatens the food security and sustainable livelihood of farmers across Africa, the Middle East and Asia. Europe is free of the disease except in Thrace (European part of Turkey) and Israel where outbreaks occur. Following the successful eradication of RPV, PPR has been targeted by the OIE and FAO as the next viral pathogen to be eradicated by 2030. However, the recent outbreaks in Northen Africa and Thrace (European part of Turkey) represent a significant threat to mainland Europe, as a source of disease spread. We have discussed here the emergence of PPR worldwide since its discovery with particular reference to the recent outbreaks in Northen Africa and Thrace, and the potential for spread of the disease into Europe.

  18. Environmental pollution and child health in central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, E F; Schell, L M; Marshall, E G; Carpenter, D O; Suk, W A; Zejda, J E

    1998-01-01

    For the last 50 years, the economic and industrial development of the nations of Central and Eastern Europe has been achieved at the cost of environmental degradation. The health risks posed by this pollution to children and the steps necessary to ameliorate such risks are only beginning to be investigated. At a recent conference in Poland, sponsored in part by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, participants from 11 countries in the region, together with scientists from Western Europe and the United States, met to share information regarding pediatric environmental health in Central and Eastern Europe, to consider methodologic issues in the design and conduct of such studies, and to discuss preventive strategies. This report summarizes the deliberations, outlines problem areas such as heavy metals and air pollution, delineates research and training needs to help Central and Eastern Europeans deal more effectively with such problems, and recommends specific future actions and collaborative efforts. PMID:9618345

  19. The CFE Treaty and changed conditions in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Allentuck, J.

    1994-08-01

    The Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) was signed in November 1990 by sixteen nations, members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and six nations, members of the Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO). It was resigned to prevent a major surprise attack in Europe by the conventional forces of one Treaty Organization against those of the other and was the first major arms control treaty to address conventional weapons. This paper focuses on how CFE adapted to changes in the military-political situation in Europe which occurred after 1990 and failed to adapt to others. Suggestions are offered on how it might be changed to make it more relevant under these changed conditions.

  20. Transforming research for food and health in Europe.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M

    2012-10-01

    Eating causes up to a quarter of premature deaths from chronic diseases in Europe through poor diet and excess consumption. FAHRE (Food and Health Research in Europe) was funded to determine needs and gaps in research structures and programmes. Most food research links towards agriculture and the environmental sciences, whereas most health research links towards clinical diseases, biochemical pathways and biology. Research on food and health together includes food safety research addressing biological and chemical contaminants, and biotechnology research supporting clinical nutrition. Research for healthy eating must draw on social and behavioural sciences for studies of policy, regulation and interventions. The food industry, across production, retail and catering, must be part of the research programme, and civil society. Better coordination and improved levels of funding are needed in the coming European research programme 'Horizon 2020', and national programmes linked in the Joint Programming Initiative. Transforming the research agenda can give great benefits to Europe's citizens.