Science.gov

Sample records for european ceramic society

  1. The National Cardiac Societies of the European Society of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Atar, Dan

    2015-06-01

    The National Cardiac Societies are one of the Constituent Bodies of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). They are the backbone of the ESC and together form the "Cardiology of Europe" in 56 European and Mediterranean countries.

  2. The Rise of the Information Society amongst European Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salajan, Florin D.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the information society discourse in the European Union in relation to the European Commission's eLearning programmes, based on selected academics' conceptualisation of the term. It reveals a mixed picture of the perceptions that academics have of the information society in their respective countries. The findings indicate…

  3. Air quality comparison between two European ceramic tile clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguillón, M. C.; Monfort, E.; Escrig, A.; Celades, I.; Guerra, L.; Busani, G.; Sterni, A.; Querol, X.

    2013-08-01

    The European ceramic tile industry is mostly concentrated in two clusters, one in Castelló (Spain) and another one in Modena (Italy). Industrial clusters may have problems to accomplish the EU air quality regulations because of the concentration of some specific pollutants and, hence, the feasibility of the industrial clusters can be jeopardised. The present work assesses the air quality in these ceramic clusters in 2008, when the new EU emission regulations where put into force. PM10 samples were collected at two sampling sites in the Modena ceramic cluster and one sampling site in the Castelló ceramic cluster. PM10 annual average concentrations were 12-14 μg m-3 higher in Modena than in Castelló, and were close to or exceeded the European limit. Air quality in Modena was mainly influenced by road traffic and, in a lower degree, the metalmechanical industry, as evidenced by the high concentrations of Mn, Cu, Zn, Sn and Sb registered. The stagnant weather conditions from Modena hindering dispersion of pollutants also contributed to the relatively high pollution levels. In Castelló, the influence of the ceramic industry is evidenced by the high concentrations of Ti, Se, Tl and Pb, whereas this influence is not seen in Modena. The difference in the impact of the ceramic industry on the air quality in the two areas was attributed to: better abatement systems in the spray-drier facilities in Modena, higher coverage of the areas for storage and handling of dusty raw materials in Modena, presence of two open air quarries in the Castelló region, low degree of abatement systems in the ceramic tile kilns in Castelló, and abundance of ceramic frit, glaze and pigment manufacture in Castelló as opposed to scarce manufacture of these products in Modena. The necessity of additional measures to fulfil the EU air quality requirements in the Modena region is evidenced, despite the high degree of environmental measures implemented in the ceramic industry. The Principal

  4. Changing Tertiary Education in Modern European Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    Reports on recent developments and problems in the diversification of tertiary education in seven Western European countries are presented by members of the Working Party on the Diversification of Tertiary Education. Policy analysis and evaluation and recommendations for future policy are also provided. As a policy, diversification refers to the…

  5. [Relations of German anesthesiology to east European societies of anesthesiology].

    PubMed

    Benad, G

    2003-01-01

    On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the foundation of the "German Society of Anaesthesiology" (DGA)--later called "German Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine" (DGAI)--which was founded on 10 April 1953, and in memory of the foundation of the "Section of Anaesthesiology", which was founded in East-Berlin ten years later on 25 October 1963 and later called "Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Therapy of the GDR" (GAIT), the development of relations between German anaesthetists and anaesthesiological societies in East Europe are described. The limited economic base of the medical-technical and pharmaceutical industries, a chronic lack of hard currencies and economic and political restrictions on travel activities by East German and East European anaesthetists to West European countries resulted in improved contacts between East German and East European anaesthesiological societies. This, in turn, led to the holding of "International Anaesthesiological Congresses" of the so-called socialist countries and "Bilateral Symposia of the Anaesthesiological Societies of Czechoslovakia and the GDR" and also bilateral meetings of nurses of anaesthesiology and intensive therapy from both countries. These congresses and in particular the "3rd European Congress of Anaesthesiology", which was hosted by the "Czechoslovak Society of Anaesthesiology and Resuscitation" in Prague in 1970, were of high value for the further development of anaesthesiology in these countries. Furthermore, congresses held in East Europe but outside the GDR, were especially important for meetings between East German anaesthetists and their West German colleagues, who regularly took part in these congresses as invited speakers, because West German anaesthetists were not allowed to participate in East German anaesthesia congresses, on the one hand, and East Germans were not allowed to attend West German anaesthesia congresses, on the other. There were also regular meetings of the

  6. [Relations of German anesthesiology to east European societies of anesthesiology].

    PubMed

    Benad, G

    2003-01-01

    On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the foundation of the "German Society of Anaesthesiology" (DGA)--later called "German Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine" (DGAI)--which was founded on 10 April 1953, and in memory of the foundation of the "Section of Anaesthesiology", which was founded in East-Berlin ten years later on 25 October 1963 and later called "Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Therapy of the GDR" (GAIT), the development of relations between German anaesthetists and anaesthesiological societies in East Europe are described. The limited economic base of the medical-technical and pharmaceutical industries, a chronic lack of hard currencies and economic and political restrictions on travel activities by East German and East European anaesthetists to West European countries resulted in improved contacts between East German and East European anaesthesiological societies. This, in turn, led to the holding of "International Anaesthesiological Congresses" of the so-called socialist countries and "Bilateral Symposia of the Anaesthesiological Societies of Czechoslovakia and the GDR" and also bilateral meetings of nurses of anaesthesiology and intensive therapy from both countries. These congresses and in particular the "3rd European Congress of Anaesthesiology", which was hosted by the "Czechoslovak Society of Anaesthesiology and Resuscitation" in Prague in 1970, were of high value for the further development of anaesthesiology in these countries. Furthermore, congresses held in East Europe but outside the GDR, were especially important for meetings between East German anaesthetists and their West German colleagues, who regularly took part in these congresses as invited speakers, because West German anaesthetists were not allowed to participate in East German anaesthesia congresses, on the one hand, and East Germans were not allowed to attend West German anaesthesia congresses, on the other. There were also regular meetings of the

  7. Colon capsule endoscopy: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Guideline.

    PubMed

    Spada, C; Hassan, C; Galmiche, J P; Neuhaus, H; Dumonceau, J M; Adler, S; Epstein, O; Gay, G; Pennazio, M; Rex, D K; Benamouzig, R; de Franchis, R; Delvaux, M; Devière, J; Eliakim, R; Fraser, C; Hagenmuller, F; Herrerias, J M; Keuchel, M; Macrae, F; Munoz-Navas, M; Ponchon, T; Quintero, E; Riccioni, M E; Rondonotti, E; Marmo, R; Sung, J J; Tajiri, H; Toth, E; Triantafyllou, K; Van Gossum, A; Costamagna, G

    2012-05-01

    PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) is an innovative noninvasive, and painless ingestible capsule technique that allows exploration of the colon without the need for sedation and gas insufflation. Although it is already available in European and other countries, the clinical indications for CCE as well as the reporting and work-up of detected findings have not yet been standardized. The aim of this evidence-based and consensus-based guideline, commissioned by the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) is to furnish healthcare providers with a comprehensive framework for potential implementation of this technique in a clinical setting.

  8. Climate change and respiratory disease: European Respiratory Society position statement.

    PubMed

    Ayres, J G; Forsberg, B; Annesi-Maesano, I; Dey, R; Ebi, K L; Helms, P J; Medina-Ramón, M; Windt, M; Forastiere, F

    2009-08-01

    Climate change will affect individuals with pre-existing respiratory disease, but the extent of the effect remains unclear. The present position statement was developed on behalf of the European Respiratory Society in order to identify areas of concern arising from climate change for individuals with respiratory disease, healthcare workers in the respiratory sector and policy makers. The statement was developed following a 2-day workshop held in Leuven (Belgium) in March 2008. Key areas of concern for the respiratory community arising from climate change are discussed and recommendations made to address gaps in knowledge. The most important recommendation was the development of more accurate predictive models for predicting the impact of climate change on respiratory health. Respiratory healthcare workers also have an advocatory role in persuading governments and the European Union to maintain awareness and appropriate actions with respect to climate change, and these areas are also discussed in the position statement.

  9. Climate change and respiratory disease: European Respiratory Society position statement.

    PubMed

    Ayres, J G; Forsberg, B; Annesi-Maesano, I; Dey, R; Ebi, K L; Helms, P J; Medina-Ramón, M; Windt, M; Forastiere, F

    2009-08-01

    Climate change will affect individuals with pre-existing respiratory disease, but the extent of the effect remains unclear. The present position statement was developed on behalf of the European Respiratory Society in order to identify areas of concern arising from climate change for individuals with respiratory disease, healthcare workers in the respiratory sector and policy makers. The statement was developed following a 2-day workshop held in Leuven (Belgium) in March 2008. Key areas of concern for the respiratory community arising from climate change are discussed and recommendations made to address gaps in knowledge. The most important recommendation was the development of more accurate predictive models for predicting the impact of climate change on respiratory health. Respiratory healthcare workers also have an advocatory role in persuading governments and the European Union to maintain awareness and appropriate actions with respect to climate change, and these areas are also discussed in the position statement. PMID:19251790

  10. European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Congress Report from London 2015.

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, Tsuyoshi; Akasaka, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The Annual Congress of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) was held in London from 29 August to 2 September 2015. It is the leading conference in cardiology in the world, with presentations on the latest scientific discoveries, innovations, technology, education, and clinical practices. More than 32,000 delegates and 5,000 exhibitors from 140 countries participated, sharing a number of scientific presentations, including 28 clinical hot lines, 18 clinical trial updates, 20 registry studies, 12 basic and translational science hot line studies, and 4,533 abstract studies. Japan had the highest number of accepted abstracts at the Congress, indicating the great contribution of Japanese scientists and the Japanese Circulation Society. PMID:26459395

  11. Reasons to participate in European Society of Thoracic Surgeons database

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The process of data collection inevitably involves costs at various levels. Nevertheless, this effort is essential to base our knowledge and the consequent decision making on solid foundations. The European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) database collects a large amount of data on general thoracic surgery derived from about 60 units representative of 11 nations. Since its beginning in 2001, the ESTS database has contributed to increase the knowledge and the quality of care in our specialty. The present paper illustrates the ultimate finalities and the obtained results of this data collection, providing a broad overview of the motivations to participate to the ESTS database. PMID:25984355

  12. European society of contraception statement on contraception in obese women.

    PubMed

    Merki-Feld, Gabriele S; Skouby, Sven; Serfaty, David; Lech, Medard; Bitzer, Johannes; Crosignani, Pier Giorgio; Cagnacci, Angelo; Sitruk-Ware, Regine

    2015-02-01

    The obesity 'epidemic' continues to increase, mostly but not only in developed countries. As overweight and obese women are at an increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) at baseline and at a much higher risk during pregnancy, it is essential to help these women to plan pregnancies carefully and to use contraceptives with a positive ratio of benefits versus risks. The Expert Group on hormonal and molecular contraception of the European Society of Contraception convened to review the existing evidence and propose recommendations to the prescribers in line with most recent studies and with the Medical Eligibility Criteria of the World Health Organisation.

  13. European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics, organized by the High Energy and Particle Physics Division of the European Physical Society, is a major international conference that reviews biennially since 1971 the state of our knowledge of the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. The latest conferences in this series were held in Stockholm, Grenoble, Krakow, Manchester, Lisbon, and Aachen. Jointly organized by the Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the University of Vienna, the Vienna University of Technology, and the Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the 23rd edition of this conference took place in Vienna, Austria. Among the topics covered were Accelerators, Astroparticle Physics, Cosmology and Gravitation, Detector R&D and Data Handling, Education and Outreach, Flavour Physics and Fundamental Symmetries, Heavy Ion Physics, Higgs and New Physics, Neutrino Physics, Non-Perturbative Field Theory and String Theory, QCD and Hadronic Physics, as well as Top and Electroweak Physics.

  14. European Neolithic societies showed early warning signals of population collapse

    PubMed Central

    Downey, Sean S.; Haas, W. Randall; Shennan, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems on the verge of major reorganization—regime shift—may exhibit declining resilience, which can be detected using a collection of generic statistical tests known as early warning signals (EWSs). This study explores whether EWSs anticipated human population collapse during the European Neolithic. It analyzes recent reconstructions of European Neolithic (8–4 kya) population trends that reveal regime shifts from a period of rapid growth following the introduction of agriculture to a period of instability and collapse. We find statistical support for EWSs in advance of population collapse. Seven of nine regional datasets exhibit increasing autocorrelation and variance leading up to collapse, suggesting that these societies began to recover from perturbation more slowly as resilience declined. We derive EWS statistics from a prehistoric population proxy based on summed archaeological radiocarbon date probability densities. We use simulation to validate our methods and show that sampling biases, atmospheric effects, radiocarbon calibration error, and taphonomic processes are unlikely to explain the observed EWS patterns. The implications of these results for understanding the dynamics of Neolithic ecosystems are discussed, and we present a general framework for analyzing societal regime shifts using EWS at large spatial and temporal scales. We suggest that our findings are consistent with an adaptive cycling model that highlights both the vulnerability and resilience of early European populations. We close by discussing the implications of the detection of EWS in human systems for archaeology and sustainability science. PMID:27573833

  15. European Neolithic societies showed early warning signals of population collapse.

    PubMed

    Downey, Sean S; Haas, W Randall; Shennan, Stephen J

    2016-08-30

    Ecosystems on the verge of major reorganization-regime shift-may exhibit declining resilience, which can be detected using a collection of generic statistical tests known as early warning signals (EWSs). This study explores whether EWSs anticipated human population collapse during the European Neolithic. It analyzes recent reconstructions of European Neolithic (8-4 kya) population trends that reveal regime shifts from a period of rapid growth following the introduction of agriculture to a period of instability and collapse. We find statistical support for EWSs in advance of population collapse. Seven of nine regional datasets exhibit increasing autocorrelation and variance leading up to collapse, suggesting that these societies began to recover from perturbation more slowly as resilience declined. We derive EWS statistics from a prehistoric population proxy based on summed archaeological radiocarbon date probability densities. We use simulation to validate our methods and show that sampling biases, atmospheric effects, radiocarbon calibration error, and taphonomic processes are unlikely to explain the observed EWS patterns. The implications of these results for understanding the dynamics of Neolithic ecosystems are discussed, and we present a general framework for analyzing societal regime shifts using EWS at large spatial and temporal scales. We suggest that our findings are consistent with an adaptive cycling model that highlights both the vulnerability and resilience of early European populations. We close by discussing the implications of the detection of EWS in human systems for archaeology and sustainability science. PMID:27573833

  16. European Society for Swallowing Disorders – European Union Geriatric Medicine Society white paper: oropharyngeal dysphagia as a geriatric syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Baijens, Laura WJ; Clavé, Pere; Cras, Patrick; Ekberg, Olle; Forster, Alexandre; Kolb, Gerald F; Leners, Jean-Claude; Masiero, Stefano; Mateos-Nozal, Jesús; Ortega, Omar; Smithard, David G; Speyer, Renée; Walshe, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This position document has been developed by the Dysphagia Working Group, a committee of members from the European Society for Swallowing Disorders and the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society, and invited experts. It consists of 12 sections that cover all aspects of clinical management of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) related to geriatric medicine and discusses prevalence, quality of life, and legal and ethical issues, as well as health economics and social burden. OD constitutes impaired or uncomfortable transit of food or liquids from the oral cavity to the esophagus, and it is included in the World Health Organization’s classification of diseases. It can cause severe complications such as malnutrition, dehydration, respiratory infections, aspiration pneumonia, and increased readmissions, institutionalization, and morbimortality. OD is a prevalent and serious problem among all phenotypes of older patients as oropharyngeal swallow response is impaired in older people and can cause aspiration. Despite its prevalence and severity, OD is still underdiagnosed and untreated in many medical centers. There are several validated clinical and instrumental methods (videofluoroscopy and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing) to diagnose OD, and treatment is mainly based on compensatory measures, although new treatments to stimulate the oropharyngeal swallow response are under research. OD matches the definition of a geriatric syndrome as it is highly prevalent among older people, is caused by multiple factors, is associated with several comorbidities and poor prognosis, and needs a multidimensional approach to be treated. OD should be given more importance and attention and thus be included in all standard screening protocols, treated, and regularly monitored to prevent its main complications. More research is needed to develop and standardize new treatments and management protocols for older patients with OD, which is a challenging mission for our societies

  17. The European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The 2013 Europhysics conference on High Energy Physics is a biennial conference organized by the High Energy and Particle Physics Division of the European Physical Society since 1971. The conference in this series usually attracts 600-700 participants and is one of the worlds largest conferences in this field. The latest conferences in this series were held in Grenoble, Krakow, Manchester, Lisabon and Aachen. The conference has parallel, plenary and poster sessions as well as an industrial exhibition. The conference is jointly organised by the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm University, Chalmers University of Technology, Lund University, Uppsala University, Nordita and the Oskar Klein Centre. Topics covered are: Standard Model and Beyond Electroweak Symmetry Breaking Neutrino Physics Flavour Physics CP Violation and Tests of Fundamental Symmetries QCD and Hadronic Physics Heavy Ions Astroparticle Physics High Energy Astrophysics Cosmology Non-perturbative Field Theory String Theory Detectors and Data Handling Accelerator R&D Future Facilities. Special ECFA session 20 July: Particle Physics after the European strategy update

  18. Sociality in Diverse Societies: A Regional Analysis Across European Countries.

    PubMed

    Koster, Ferry

    2013-04-01

    For a long time, researchers investigate the impact of diversity on society. To measure diversity, either archival data at the national level of census data at the neighborhood level, within a single country are used. Both approaches are limited. The first approach does not allow to investigate variation in diversity within countries and the second approach misses the possibility to investigate cross national differences. The present study aims at bringing these two approaches closer together by constructing diversity measures based on the European Social Survey (ESS). The ESS is collected every 2 years since 2002 and includes individual level data that allow replicating earlier measures of ethnic, linguistic, and religious diversity for 30 European countries. Furthermore, since respondents are asked to indicate in what region they live, measured with the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics classification, it is possible to construct disaggregated measures. Comparing the new indicators with existing diversity scores leads to the following conclusions. First, the new and old measures are strongly correlated at the national level. Secondly, investigating the relationship between diversity and different kinds of sociality (interpersonal trust, institutional trust, and support for government redistribution) shows that regional diversity is more strongly related to them than diversity at the national level.

  19. The presence of family members during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: European federation of Critical Care Nursing associations, European Society of Paediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care and European Society of Cardiology Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions Joint Position Statement.

    PubMed

    Fulbrook, Paul; Latour, Jos; Albarran, John; de Graaf, Wouter; Lynch, Fiona; Devictor, Denis; Norekvål, Tone

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents the European federation of Critical Care Nursing associations, the European Society of Paediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care, and the European Society of Cardiology Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions Joint Position Statement on The Presence of Family Members During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. PMID:17919981

  20. An official European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society research statement: interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Aryeh; Antoniou, Katerina M; Brown, Kevin K; Cadranel, Jacques; Corte, Tamera J; du Bois, Roland M; Lee, Joyce S; Leslie, Kevin O; Lynch, David A; Matteson, Eric L; Mosca, Marta; Noth, Imre; Richeldi, Luca; Strek, Mary E; Swigris, Jeffrey J; Wells, Athol U; West, Sterling G; Collard, Harold R; Cottin, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    Many patients with an idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) have clinical features that suggest an underlying autoimmune process but do not meet established criteria for a connective tissue disease (CTD). Researchers have proposed differing criteria and terms to describe these patients, and lack of consensus over nomenclature and classification limits the ability to conduct prospective studies of a uniform cohort.The "European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society Task Force on Undifferentiated Forms of Connective Tissue Disease-associated Interstitial Lung Disease" was formed to create consensus regarding the nomenclature and classification criteria for patients with IIP and features of autoimmunity.The task force proposes the term "interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features" (IPAF) and offers classification criteria organised around the presence of a combination of features from three domains: a clinical domain consisting of specific extra-thoracic features, a serologic domain consisting of specific autoantibodies, and a morphologic domain consisting of specific chest imaging, histopathologic or pulmonary physiologic features.A designation of IPAF should be used to identify individuals with IIP and features suggestive of, but not definitive for, a CTD. With IPAF, a sound platform has been provided from which to launch the requisite future research investigations of a more uniform cohort.

  1. An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: research questions in COPD.

    PubMed

    Celli, Bartolome R; Decramer, Marc; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Wilson, Kevin C; Agustí, Alvar A; Criner, Gerard J; MacNee, William; Make, Barry J; Rennard, Stephen I; Stockley, Robert A; Vogelmeier, Claus; Anzueto, Antonio; Au, David H; Barnes, Peter J; Burgel, Pierre-Regis; Calverley, Peter M; Casanova, Ciro; Clini, Enrico M; Cooper, Christopher B; Coxson, Harvey O; Dusser, Daniel J; Fabbri, Leonardo M; Fahy, Bonnie; Ferguson, Gary T; Fisher, Andrew; Fletcher, Monica J; Hayot, Maurice; Hurst, John R; Jones, Paul W; Mahler, Donald A; Maltais, François; Mannino, David M; Martinez, Fernando J; Miravitlles, Marc; Meek, Paula M; Papi, Alberto; Rabe, Klaus F; Roche, Nicolas; Sciurba, Frank C; Sethi, Sanjay; Siafakas, Nikos; Sin, Don D; Soriano, Joan B; Stoller, James K; Tashkin, Donald P; Troosters, Thierry; Verleden, Geert M; Verschakelen, Johny; Vestbo, Jorgen; Walsh, John W; Washko, George R; Wise, Robert A; Wouters, Emiel F M; ZuWallack, Richard L

    2015-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality and resource use worldwide. The goal of this official American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) Research Statement is to describe evidence related to diagnosis, assessment, and management; identify gaps in knowledge; and make recommendations for future research. It is not intended to provide clinical practice recommendations on COPD diagnosis and management. Clinicians, researchers and patient advocates with expertise in COPD were invited to participate. A literature search of Medline was performed, and studies deemed relevant were selected. The search was not a systematic review of the evidence. Existing evidence was appraised and summarised, and then salient knowledge gaps were identified. Recommendations for research that addresses important gaps in the evidence in all areas of COPD were formulated via discussion and consensus. Great strides have been made in the diagnosis, assessment and management of COPD, as well as understanding its pathogenesis. Despite this, many important questions remain unanswered. This ATS/ERS research statement highlights the types of research that leading clinicians, researchers and patient advocates believe will have the greatest impact on patient-centred outcomes.

  2. An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: research questions in COPD.

    PubMed

    Celli, Bartolome R; Decramer, Marc; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Wilson, Kevin C; Agustí, Alvar; Criner, Gerard J; MacNee, William; Make, Barry J; Rennard, Stephen I; Stockley, Robert A; Vogelmeier, Claus; Anzueto, Antonio; Au, David H; Barnes, Peter J; Burgel, Pierre-Regis; Calverley, Peter M; Casanova, Ciro; Clini, Enrico M; Cooper, Christopher B; Coxson, Harvey O; Dusser, Daniel J; Fabbri, Leonardo M; Fahy, Bonnie; Ferguson, Gary T; Fisher, Andrew; Fletcher, Monica J; Hayot, Maurice; Hurst, John R; Jones, Paul W; Mahler, Donald A; Maltais, François; Mannino, David M; Martinez, Fernando J; Miravitlles, Marc; Meek, Paula M; Papi, Alberto; Rabe, Klaus F; Roche, Nicolas; Sciurba, Frank C; Sethi, Sanjay; Siafakas, Nikos; Sin, Don D; Soriano, Joan B; Stoller, James K; Tashkin, Donald P; Troosters, Thierry; Verleden, Geert M; Verschakelen, Johny; Vestbo, Jorgen; Walsh, John W; Washko, George R; Wise, Robert A; Wouters, Emiel F M; ZuWallack, Richard L

    2015-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality, and resource use worldwide. The goal of this official American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) research statement is to describe evidence related to diagnosis, assessment and management; identify gaps in knowledge; and make recommendations for future research. It is not intended to provide clinical practice recommendations on COPD diagnosis and management. Clinicians, researchers, and patient advocates with expertise in COPD were invited to participate. A literature search of Medline was performed, and studies deemed relevant were selected. The search was not a systematic review of the evidence. Existing evidence was appraised and summarised, and then salient knowledge gaps were identified. Recommendations for research that addresses important gaps in the evidence in all areas of COPD were formulated via discussion and consensus. Great strides have been made in the diagnosis, assessment and management of COPD, as well as understanding its pathogenesis. Despite this, many important questions remain unanswered. This ATS/ERS research statement highlights the types of research that leading clinicians, researchers, and patient advocates believe will have the greatest impact on patient-centred outcomes.

  3. European Society of Endodontology position statement: Revitalization procedures.

    PubMed

    Galler, K M; Krastl, G; Simon, S; Van Gorp, G; Meschi, N; Vahedi, B; Lambrechts, P

    2016-08-01

    This position statement represents a consensus of an expert committee convened by the European Society of Endodontology (ESE) on revitalization procedures. The statement is based on current clinical and scientific evidence as well as the expertise of the committee. The goal is to provide suitably trained dentists with a protocol including procedural details for the treatment of immature teeth with pulp necrosis as well as a patient consent form. Revitalization is a biologically based treatment as an alternative to apexification in properly selected cases. Previously published review articles provide more detailed background information and the basis for this position statement (Journal of Endodontics, 39, 2013, S30; Journal of Endodontics, 39, 2013, 319; Journal of Endodontics, 40, 2014, 1045; Dental Traumatology, 31, 2015, 267; International Endodontic Journal, 2015, doi: 10.1111/iej.12606). As controlled clinical trials are lacking and new evidence is still emerging, this position statement will be updated at appropriate intervals. This might lead to changes to the protocol provided here. PMID:26990236

  4. PREFACE: 31st European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dendy, Richard

    2004-12-01

    This special issue of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion comprises refereed papers contributed by invited speakers at the 31st European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics. The conference was jointly hosted by the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, by the EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association and by Imperial College London, where it took place from 28 June to 2 July 2004. The overall agenda for this conference was set by the Board of the Plasma Physics Division of the European Physical Society, chaired by Friedrich Wagner (MPIPP, Garching) and his successor Jo Lister (CRPP, Lausanne). It built on developments in recent years, by further increasing the scientific diversity of the conference programme, whilst maintaining its depth and quality. A correspondingly diverse Programme Committee was set up, whose members are listed below. The final task of the Programme Committee has been the preparation of this special issue. In carrying out this work, as in preparing the scientific programme of the conference, the Programme Committee formed specialist subcommittees representing the different fields of plasma science. The chairmen of these subcommittees, in particular, accepted a very heavy workload on behalf of their respective research communities. It is a great pleasure to take this opportunity to thank: Emilia R Solano (CIEMAT, Madrid), magnetic confinement fusion; Jürgen Meyer-ter-Vehn (MPQ, Garching), laser-plasma interaction and beam plasma physics; and Jean-Luc Dorier (CRPP, Lausanne), dusty plasmas. The relatively few papers in astrophysical and basic plasma physics were co-ordinated by a small subcommittee which I led. Together with Peter Norreys (RAL, Chilton), we five constitute the editorial team for this special issue. The extensive refereeing load, compressed into a short time interval, was borne by the Programme Committee members and by many other experts, to whom this special issue owes much. We are also grateful to the Local Organizing Committee

  5. The 23rd Annual Meeting of the European Tissue Repair Society (ETRS) in Reims, France

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The 23rd Annual Meeting of the European Tissue Repair Society, Reims, France, October 23 to 25, 2013 focused on tissue repair and regenerative medicine covering topics such as stem cells, biomaterials, tissue engineering, and burns. PMID:24552134

  6. Highlights from the Third International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB) European Student Council Symposium 2014.

    PubMed

    Francescatto, Margherita; Hermans, Susanne M A; Babaei, Sepideh; Vicedo, Esmeralda; Borrel, Alexandre; Meysman, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    In this meeting report, we give an overview of the talks, presentations and posters presented at the third European Symposium of the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB) Student Council. The event was organized as a satellite meeting of the 13th European Conference for Computational Biology (ECCB) and took place in Strasbourg, France on September 6th, 2014.

  7. EDITORIAL 37th European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics 37th European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, Tito; Hidalgo, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    participants, and finally basic and astrophysical plasmas (BAP). New strategies are required to achieve a more balanced participation of these four areas of knowledge in future meetings, but the large number of participants and the overall high quality of the invited talks were particularly relevant this year. In the preparation of the Conference Programme we tried to present an updated view of plasma physics and to integrate suggestions coming from the scientific community, in particular through the use of the EPS PPD Open Forum. As mentioned, two evening sessions took place during the Conference. This year, the traditional evening on ITER was replaced by a session dedicated to inertial fusion, organized by D Batani, where the main installations and experiments on laser fusion around the world were presented and critically discussed. The other session, dedicated to plasma physics education, was organized by N Lopes-Cardoso, and discussed the specific educational issues of plasma physics and fusion, and presented the training programmes existing in Europe. As a concluding remark, we would like to thank our colleagues of the Programme Committee and, in particular, the coordinators of the subcommittees, Clarisse Bourdelle and Arthur Peters for MCF, Javier Honrubia for BPIF, Christoph Hollenstein for LTP, and Uli Stroth for BAP, for their generous help, suggestions and support. Due to the large number of participants, the smooth and efficient local organization, and the high overall quality of the plenary and invited presentations, the 37th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics can be considered an undeniable success. I hope you will find, in this special issue of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, an interesting and useful account of this event. Outstanding scientists honoured at the 37th European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics During the Conference the EPS Plasma Physics Division rewarded researchers who have achieved outstanding scientific or technological results

  8. Sociality in Diverse Societies: A Regional Analysis across European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koster, Ferry

    2013-01-01

    For a long time, researchers investigate the impact of diversity on society. To measure diversity, either archival data at the national level of census data at the neighborhood level, within a single country are used. Both approaches are limited. The first approach does not allow to investigate variation in diversity within countries and the…

  9. The European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy (1982-2012): 30 years strong.

    PubMed

    van Zundert, André A J; Wildsmith, John A W

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by the earlier establishment of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia, but with a structure to accommodate the diverse languages and health care systems of Europe, the European Society of Regional Anaesthesia (ESRA) held its first scientific meeting in 1982. During the following 30 years, ESRA grew from strength to strength and implemented a number of important educational initiatives, the story of these developments being the subject of this review. ESRA's prime function is to publicize the evidence on regional anesthesia and encourage its further development, but it also led the way in democratizing European anesthesia societies by being the first to open its membership to all. A recent revision of the constitution has further increased the society's democratic nature.Educationally, activities grew from a single annual congress to include zonal meetings, cadaver workshops, a major online program, and collaborations (guidelines and conferences) with other societies. Finally, the introduction of a Diploma qualification in regional anesthesia was an entirely novel project.

  10. A comprehensive fracture prevention strategy in older adults: the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS) statement.

    PubMed

    Blain, H; Masud, T; Dargent-Molina, P; Martin, F C; Rosendahl, E; van der Velde, N; Bousquet, J; Benetos, A; Cooper, C; Kanis, J A; Reginster, J Y; Rizzoli, R; Cortet, B; Barbagallo, M; Dreinhöfer, K E; Vellas, B; Maggi, S; Strandberg, T

    2016-08-01

    Prevention of fragility fractures in older people has become a public health priority, although the most appropriate and cost-effective strategy remains unclear. In the present statement, the Interest Group on Falls and Fracture Prevention of the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society, in collaboration with the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics for the European Region, the European Union of Medical Specialists, and the International Osteoporosis Foundation-European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis, outlines its views on the main points in the current debate in relation to the primary and secondary prevention of falls, the diagnosis and treatment of bone fragility, and the place of combined falls and fracture liaison services for fracture prevention in older people. PMID:27299902

  11. A COMPREHENSIVE FRACTURE PREVENTION STRATEGY IN OLDER ADULTS: THE EUROPEAN UNION GERIATRIC MEDICINE SOCIETY (EUGMS) STATEMENT

    PubMed Central

    BLAIN, H.; MASUD, T.; DARGENT-MOLINA, P.; MARTIN, F.C.; ROSENDAHL, E.; VAN DER VELDE, N.; BOUSQUET, J.; BENETOS, A.; COOPER, C.; KANIS, J.A.; REGINSTER, J.Y.; RIZZOLI, R.; CORTET, B.; BARBAGALLO, M.; DREINHÖFER, K.E.; VELLAS, B.; MAGGI, S.; STRANDBERG, T.

    2016-01-01

    Prevention of fragility fractures in older people has become a public health priority, although the most appropriate and cost-effective strategy remains unclear. In the present statement, the Interest Group on Falls and Fracture Prevention of the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS), in collaboration with the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics for the European Region (IAGG-ER), the European Union of Medical Specialists (EUMS), the International Osteoporosis Foundation - European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis, outlines its views on the main points in the current debate in relation to the primary and secondary prevention of falls, the diagnosis and treatment of bone fragility, and the place of combined falls and fracture liaison services for fracture prevention in older people. PMID:27273355

  12. Reconstructing the history of residence strategies in Indo-European-speaking societies: neo-, uxori-, and virilocality.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Laura

    2011-02-01

    Linguists and archaeologists have used reconstructions of early Indo-European residence strategies to constrain hypotheses about the homeland and trajectory of dispersal of Indo-European languages; however, these reconstructions are largely based on unsystematic and a historical use of the linguistic and ethnographic evidence, coupled with substantial bias in interpretation. Here I use cross-cultural data in a phylogenetic comparative framework to reconstruct the pattern of change in residence strategies in the history of societies speaking Indo-European languages. The analysis provides evidence in support of prevailing virilocality with alternative neolocality for Proto-Indo-European, and that this pattern may have extended back to Proto-Indo-Hittite. These findings bolster interpretations of the archaeological evidence that emphasize the "non-matricentric" structure of early Indo-European society; however, they also counter the notion that early Indo-European society was strongly "patricentric." I discuss implications of these findings in the context of the archaeological and genetic evidence on prehistoric social organization.

  13. Teachers' Professional Learning in a European Learning Society: The Case of Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makopoulou, Kyriaki; Armour, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Background: In the contemporary "knowledge-driven" European society, the quality and relevance of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) for teachers and Physical Education teachers (PE-CPD) has come under scrutiny. National contexts within Europe vary considerably, however, so there is a need to gain analytical insights into PE-CPD structures…

  14. Portfolio: Ceramics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Jane; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes eight art activities using ceramics. Elementary students created ceramic tiles to depict ancient Egyptian and medieval European art, made ceramic cookie stamps, traced bisque plates on sketch paper, constructed clay room-tableaus, and designed clay relief masks. Secondary students pit-fired ceramic pots and designed ceramic Victorian…

  15. Management of precancerous conditions and lesions in the stomach (MAPS): guideline from the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), European Helicobacter Study Group (EHSG), European Society of Pathology (ESP), and the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endoscopia Digestiva (SPED).

    PubMed

    Dinis-Ribeiro, M; Areia, M; de Vries, A C; Marcos-Pinto, R; Monteiro-Soares, M; O'Connor, A; Pereira, C; Pimentel-Nunes, P; Correia, R; Ensari, A; Dumonceau, J M; Machado, J C; Macedo, G; Malfertheiner, P; Matysiak-Budnik, T; Megraud, F; Miki, K; O'Morain, C; Peek, R M; Ponchon, T; Ristimaki, A; Rembacken, B; Carneiro, F; Kuipers, E J

    2012-01-01

    Atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and epithelial dysplasia of the stomach are common and are associated with an increased risk for gastric cancer. In the absence of guidelines, there is wide disparity in the management of patients with these premalignant conditions. The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), the European Helicobacter Study Group (EHSG), the European Society of Pathology (ESP) and the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endoscopia Digestiva (SPED) have therefore combined efforts to develop evidence-based guidelines on the management of patients with precancerous conditions and lesions of the stomach (termed MAPS). A multidisciplinary group of 63 experts from 24 countries developed these recommendations by means of repeat online voting and a meeting in June 2011 in Porto, Portugal. The recommendations emphasize the increased cancer risk in patients with gastric atrophy and metaplasia, and the need for adequate staging in the case of high grade dysplasia, and they focus on treatment and surveillance indications and methods.

  16. Management of precancerous conditions and lesions in the stomach (MAPS): guideline from the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), European Helicobacter Study Group (EHSG), European Society of Pathology (ESP), and the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endoscopia Digestiva (SPED)

    PubMed Central

    Dinis-Ribeiro, M.; Areia, M.; de Vries, A. C.; Marcos-Pinto, R.; Monteiro-Soares, M.; O'Connor, A.; Pereira, C.; Pimentel-Nunes, P.; Correia, R.; Ensari, A.; Dumonceau, J. M.; Machado, J. C.; Macedo, G.; Malfertheiner, P.; Matysiak-Budnik, T.; Megraud, F.; Miki, K.; O'Morain, C.; Peek, R. M.; Ponchon, T.; Ristimaki, A.; Rembacken, B.; Carneiro, F.; Kuipers, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    Atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and epithelial dysplasia of the stomach are common and are associated with an increased risk for gastric cancer. In the absence of guidelines, there is wide disparity in the management of patients with these premalignant conditions. The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), the European Helicobacter Study Group (EHSG), the European Society of Pathology (ESP) and the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endoscopia Digestiva (SPED) have therefore combined efforts to develop evidence-based guidelines on the management of patients with precancerous conditions and lesions of the stomach (termed MAPS). A multidisciplinary group of 63 experts from 24 countries developed these recommendations by means of repeat online voting and a meeting in June 2011 in Porto, Portugal. The recommendations emphasize the increased cancer risk in patients with gastric atrophy and metaplasia, and the need for adequate staging in the case of high grade dysplasia, and they focus on treatment and surveillance indications and methods. PMID:22198778

  17. Reconstructing the history of marriage strategies in Indo-European-speaking societies: monogamy and polygyny.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Laura

    2011-02-01

    Explanations for the emergence of monogamous marriage have focused on the cross-cultural distribution of marriage strategies, thus failing to account for their history. In this paper I reconstruct the pattern of change in marriage strategies in the history of societies speaking Indo-European languages, using cross-cultural data in the systematic and explicitly historical framework afforded by the phylogenetic comparative approach. The analysis provides evidence in support of Proto-Indo-European monogamy, and that this pattern may have extended back to Proto-Indo-Hittite. These reconstructions push the origin of monogamous marriage into prehistory, well beyond the earliest instances documented in the historical record; this, in turn, challenges notions that the cross-cultural distribution of monogamous marriage reflects features of social organization typically associated with Eurasian societies, and with "societal complexity" and "modernization" more generally. I discuss implications of these findings in the context of the archaeological and genetic evidence on prehistoric social organization.

  18. American Thoracic Society-European Respiratory Society Classification of the Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias: Advances in Knowledge since 2002.

    PubMed

    Sverzellati, Nicola; Lynch, David A; Hansell, David M; Johkoh, Takeshi; King, Talmadge E; Travis, William D

    2015-01-01

    In the updated American Thoracic Society-European Respiratory Society classification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs), the major entities have been preserved and grouped into (a) "chronic fibrosing IIPs" (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia), (b) "smoking-related IIPs" (respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease and desquamative interstitial pneumonia), (c) "acute or subacute IIPs" (cryptogenic organizing pneumonia and acute interstitial pneumonia), and (d) "rare IIPs" (lymphoid interstitial pneumonia and idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis). Furthermore, it has been acknowledged that a final diagnosis is not always achievable, and the category "unclassifiable IIP" has been proposed. The diagnostic interpretation of the IIPs is often challenging because other diseases with a known etiology (most notably, connective tissue disease and hypersensitivity pneumonitis) may show similar morphologic patterns. Indeed, more emphasis has been given to the integration of clinical, computed tomographic (CT), and pathologic findings for multidisciplinary diagnosis. Typical CT-based morphologic patterns are associated with the IIPs, and radiologists play an important role in diagnosis and characterization. Optimal CT quality and a systematic approach are both pivotal for evaluation of IIP. Interobserver variation for the various patterns encountered in the IIPs is an issue. It is important for radiologists to understand the longitudinal behavior of IIPs at serial CT examinations, especially for providing a framework for cases that are unclassifiable or in which a histologic diagnosis cannot be obtained.

  19. European ceramic B.I.T. blanket for DEMO: Recent development for the zirconate version

    SciTech Connect

    Bielak, B.; Eid, M.; Fuetterer, M.

    1994-12-31

    Within the framework of the European test-blanket program, CEA and ENEA are jointly developing a DEMO-relevant, helium-cooled, Breeder-Inside-Tube (BIT) ceramic blanket. Two ceramics are possible breeder material candidate: LiAlO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}. Despite the design has been originally developed for aluminate, the CEA has recently focused its work on zirconate. This concept blanket segments are made by a directly-cooled vacuum-tight steel box which contains banana-shaped poloidal breeder modules arranged in rows (6 rows in an outboard segment and 4 rows in an inboard one). A breeder module consists of a pressure vessel containing a bundle of breeder rods surrounded by baffles. Each one of the rods is made-up of a steel tube containing a stack of annular pellets of sintered lithium-zirconate, through which flows helium (the tritium purge gas). The thermo-mechanical analysis has shown that the thermal gradient in the ceramics can be kept at acceptable levels despite the poorer out-of-pile thermo-mechanical properties of zirconate compared to aluminate. Moreover, the neutronic analysis has shown that, besides the maintained tritium-breeding self-sufficiency capability of this blanket, the lower lithium burn-up could be an indication that the zirconate characteristics remains more stable after long term irradiation (i.e., close to the end-of-life fluence of 5 MWa/m{sup 2}).

  20. Combined endobronchial and esophageal endosonography for the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Guideline, in cooperation with the European Respiratory Society (ERS) and the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS).

    PubMed

    Vilmann, Peter; Clementsen, Paul Frost; Colella, Sara; Siemsen, Mette; De Leyn, Paul; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Herth, Felix J; Larghi, Alberto; Vazquez-Sequeiros, Enrique; Vasquez-Sequeiros, Enrique; Hassan, Cesare; Crombag, Laurence; Korevaar, Daniël A; Konge, Lars; Annema, Jouke T

    2015-06-01

    This is an official guideline of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), produced in cooperation with the European Respiratory Society (ERS) and the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS). It addresses the benefit and burden associated with combined endobronchial and esophageal mediastinal nodal staging of lung cancer. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) approach was adopted to define the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence.The article has been co-published with permission in the European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery and the European Respiratory Journal. Recommendations 1 For mediastinal nodal staging in patients with suspected or proven non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with abnormal mediastinal and/or hilar nodes at computed tomography (CT) and/or positron emission tomography (PET), endosonography is recommended over surgical staging as the initial procedure (Recommendation grade A). The combination of endobronchial ultrasound with real-time guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and endoscopic (esophageal) ultrasound with fine needle aspiration, with use of a gastrointestinal (EUS-FNA) or EBUS (EUS-B-FNA) scope, is preferred over either test alone (Recommendation grade C). If the combination of EBUS and EUS-(B) is not available, we suggest that EBUS alone is acceptable (Recommendation grade C).Subsequent surgical staging is recommended, when endosonography does not show malignant nodal involvement (Recommendation grade B). 2 For mediastinal nodal staging in patients with suspected or proven non-small-cell peripheral lung cancer without mediastinal involvement at CT or CT-PET, we suggest that EBUS-TBNA and/or EUS-(B)-FNA should be performed before therapy, provided that one or more of the following conditions is present: (i) enlarged or fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET-avid ipsilateral hilar nodes; (ii) primary tumor without FDG uptake; (iii) tumor size ≥ 3 cm (Fig. 3a

  1. An Official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Statement: Update on Limb Muscle Dysfunction in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Maltais, François; Decramer, Marc; Casaburi, Richard; Barreiro, Esther; Burelle, Yan; Debigaré, Richard; Dekhuijzen, P. N. Richard; Franssen, Frits; Gayan-Ramirez, Ghislaine; Gea, Joaquim; Gosker, Harry R.; Gosselink, Rik; Hayot, Maurice; Hussain, Sabah N. A.; Janssens, Wim; Polkey, Micheal I.; Roca, Josep; Saey, Didier; Schols, Annemie M. W. J.; Spruit, Martijn A.; Steiner, Michael; Taivassalo, Tanja; Troosters, Thierry; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Wagner, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Limb muscle dysfunction is prevalent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and it has important clinical implications, such as reduced exercise tolerance, quality of life, and even survival. Since the previous American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) statement on limb muscle dysfunction, important progress has been made on the characterization of this problem and on our understanding of its pathophysiology and clinical implications. Purpose: The purpose of this document is to update the 1999 ATS/ERS statement on limb muscle dysfunction in COPD. Methods: An interdisciplinary committee of experts from the ATS and ERS Pulmonary Rehabilitation and Clinical Problems assemblies determined that the scope of this document should be limited to limb muscles. Committee members conducted focused reviews of the literature on several topics. A librarian also performed a literature search. An ATS methodologist provided advice to the committee, ensuring that the methodological approach was consistent with ATS standards. Results: We identified important advances in our understanding of the extent and nature of the structural alterations in limb muscles in patients with COPD. Since the last update, landmark studies were published on the mechanisms of development of limb muscle dysfunction in COPD and on the treatment of this condition. We now have a better understanding of the clinical implications of limb muscle dysfunction. Although exercise training is the most potent intervention to address this condition, other therapies, such as neuromuscular electrical stimulation, are emerging. Assessment of limb muscle function can identify patients who are at increased risk of poor clinical outcomes, such as exercise intolerance and premature mortality. Conclusions: Limb muscle dysfunction is a key systemic consequence of COPD. However, there are still important gaps in our knowledge about the mechanisms of development of this problem

  2. Tele-monitoring of ventilator-dependent patients: a European Respiratory Society Statement.

    PubMed

    Ambrosino, Nicolino; Vitacca, Michele; Dreher, Michael; Isetta, Valentina; Montserrat, Josep M; Tonia, Thomy; Turchetti, Giuseppe; Winck, Joao Carlos; Burgos, Felip; Kampelmacher, Michael; Vagheggini, Guido

    2016-09-01

    The estimated prevalence of ventilator-dependent individuals in Europe is 6.6 per 100 000 people. The increasing number and costs of these complex patients make present health organisations largely insufficient to face their needs. As a consequence, their burden lays mostly over families. The need to reduce healthcare costs and to increase safety has prompted the development of tele-monitoring for home ventilatory assistance.A European Respiratory Society Task Force produced a literature research based statement on commonly accepted clinical criteria for indications, follow-up, equipment, facilities, legal and economic issues of tele-monitoring of these patients.Many remote health monitoring systems are available, ensuring safety, feasibility, effectiveness, sustainability and flexibility to face different patients' needs. The legal problems associated with tele-monitoring are still controversial. National and European Union (EU) governments should develop guidelines and ethical, legal, regulatory, technical, administrative standards for remote medicine. The economic advantages, if any, of this new approach must be compared to a "gold standard" of home care that is very variable among different European countries and within each European country.Much more research is needed before considering tele-monitoring a real improvement in the management of these patients. PMID:27390283

  3. Conflict of interest policies and disclosure requirements among European Society of Cardiology National Cardiovascular Journals.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Fernando; Timmis, Adam; Pinto, Fausto J; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Ector, Hugo; Kulakowski, Piotr; Vardas, Panos

    2012-06-01

    Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest (COI) is used by biomedical journals to guarantee credibility and transparency of the scientific process. COI disclosure, however, is not systematically nor consistently dealt with by journals. Recent joint editorial efforts paved the way towards the implementation of uniform vehicles for COI disclosure. This paper provides a comprehensive editorial perspective on classical COI-related issues. New insights into current COI policies and practices among European Society of Cardiology national cardiovascular journals, as derived from a cross-sectional survey using a standardised questionnaire, are discussed.

  4. Conflict of interest policies and disclosure requirements among European Society of Cardiology National Cardiovascular Journals.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Fernando; Timmis, Adam; Pinto, Fausto J; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Ector, Hugo; Kulakowski, Piotr; Vardas, Panos

    2012-05-01

    Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is used by biomedical journals to guarantee credibility and transparency of the scientific process. Conflict of interest disclosure, however, is not systematically nor consistently dealt with by journals. Recent joint editorial efforts paved the way towards the implementation of uniform vehicles for conflicts of interest disclosure. This paper provides a comprehensive editorial perspective on classical conflict of interest-related issues. New insights into current conflicts of interest policies and practices among European Society of Cardiology national cardiovascular journals, as derived from a cross-sectional survey using a standardised questionnaire, are discussed.

  5. Conflict of interest policies and disclosure requirements among European Society of Cardiology National Cardiovascular Journals.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Fernando; Timmis, Adam; Pinto, Fausto J; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Ector, Hugo; Kulakowski, Piotr; Vardas, Panos

    2012-04-01

    Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest (COI) is used by biomedical journals to guarantee credibility and transparency of the scientific process. Conflict of interest disclosure, however, is not systematically nor consistently dealt with by journals. Recent joint editorial efforts paved the way towards the implementation of uniform vehicles for COI disclosure. This paper provides a comprehensive editorial perspective on classical COI-related issues. New insights into the current COI policies and practices among European Society of Cardiology National Cardiovascular Journals, as derived from a cross-sectional survey using a standardised questionnaire, are discussed.

  6. Conflict of interest policies and disclosure requirements among European Society of Cardiology national cardiovascular journals.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Fernando; Timmis, Adam; Pinto, Fausto J; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Ector, Hugo; Kulakowski, Piotr; Vardas, Panos

    2012-01-01

    Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest (COI) is used by biomedical journals to guarantee the credibility and transparency of the scientific process. COI disclosure, however, is not systematically nor consistently dealt with by journals. Recent joint editorial efforts paved the way towards the implementation of uniform vehicles for COI disclosure. This paper provides a comprehensive editorial perspective on classical COI-related issues. New insights into current COI policies and practices among European Society of Cardiology national cardiovascular journals, as derived from a cross-sectional survey using a standardised questionnaire, are discussed.

  7. Conflicts of interest policies and disclosure requirements among European Society of Cardiology national cardiovascular journals.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Fernando; Timmis, Adam; Pinto, Fausto J; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Ector, Hugo; Kulakowski, Piotr; Vardas, Panos

    2012-06-01

    Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest (COI) is used by biomedical journals to guarantee credibility and transparency of the scientific process. COI disclosure, however, is neither systematically nor consistently dealt with by journals. Recent joint editorial efforts paved the way towards the implementation of uniform vehicles for COI disclosure. This article provides a comprehensive editorial perspective on classical COI-related issues. New insights into current COI policies and practices among European Society of Cardiology national cardiovascular journals, as derived from a cross-sectional survey using a standardized questionnaire, are discussed.

  8. Conflict of interest policies and disclosure requirements among European Society of Cardiology National Cardiovascular Journals.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Fernando; Timmis, Adam; Pinto, Fausto J; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Ector, Hugo; Kulakowski, Piotr; Vardas, Panos

    2012-04-01

    Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest (COI) is used by biomedical journals to guarantee credibility and transparency of the scientific process. COI disclosure, however, is not systematically nor consistently dealt with by journals. Recent joint editorial efforts paved the way towards the implementation of uniform vehicles for COI disclosure. This paper provides a comprehensive editorial perspective on classical COI-related issues. New insights into current COI policies and practices among European Society of Cardiology national cardiovascular journals, as derived from a cross-sectional survey using a standardised questionnaire, are discussed.

  9. Conflict of interest policies and disclosure requirements among European Society of Cardiology National Cardiovascular Journals.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Fernando; Timmis, Adam; Pinto, Fausto J; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Ector, Hugo; Kulakowski, Piotr; Vardas, Panos

    2012-01-01

    Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest (COI) is used by biomedical journals to guarantee credibility and transparency of the scientific process. COI disclosure, however, is not systematically nor consistently dealt with by journals. Recent joint editorial efforts paved the way towards the implementation of uniform vehicles for COI disclosure. This paper provides a comprehensive editorial perspective on classical COI-related issues. New insights into current COI policies and practices among European Society of Cardiology national cardiovascular journals, as derived from a cross-sectional survey using a standardised questionnaire, are discussed.

  10. European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Guideline: prophylaxis of post-ERCP pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Dumonceau, J-M; Andriulli, A; Deviere, J; Mariani, A; Rigaux, J; Baron, T H; Testoni, P A

    2010-06-01

    Pancreatitis is the most common complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Risk factors for post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) are both patient-related and procedure-related. Identification of patients at high risk for PEP is important in order to target prophylactic measures. Prevention of PEP includes administration of nonsteroidal inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), use of specific cannulation techniques, and placement of temporary pancreatic stents. The aim of this guideline commissioned by the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) is to provide practical, graded, recommendations for the prevention of PEP.

  11. Esophageal stenting for benign and malignant disease: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Clinical Guideline.

    PubMed

    Spaander, Manon C W; Baron, Todd H; Siersema, Peter D; Fuccio, Lorenzo; Schumacher, Brigitte; Escorsell, Àngels; Garcia-Pagán, Juan-Carlos; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Conio, Massimo; de Ceglie, Antonella; Skowronek, Janusz; Nordsmark, Marianne; Seufferlein, Thomas; Van Gossum, André; Hassan, Cesare; Repici, Alessandro; Bruno, Marco J

    2016-10-01

    This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), endorsed by the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO), the European Society of Digestive Endoscopy (ESDO), and the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN). The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system was adopted to define the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. Main recommendations for malignant disease 1 ESGE recommends placement of partially or fully covered self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) for palliative treatment of malignant dysphagia over laser therapy, photodynamic therapy, and esophageal bypass (strong recommendation, high quality evidence). 2 For patients with longer life expectancy, ESGE recommends brachytherapy as a valid alternative or in addition to stenting in esophageal cancer patients with malignant dysphagia. Brachytherapy may provide a survival advantage and possibly a better quality of life compared to SEMS placement alone. (Strong recommendation, high quality evidence.) 3 ESGE recommends esophageal SEMS placement as the preferred treatment for sealing malignant tracheoesophageal or bronchoesophageal fistula (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 4 ESGE does not recommend the use of concurrent external radiotherapy and esophageal stent treatment. SEMS placement is also not recommended as a bridge to surgery or prior to preoperative chemoradiotherapy. It is associated with a high incidence of adverse events and alternative satisfactory options such as placement of a feeding tube are available. (Strong recommendation, low quality evidence.) Main recommendations for benign disease 1 ESGE recommends against the use of self-expandable stents (SEMSs) as first-line therapy for the management of benign esophageal strictures because of the potential for adverse events, the availability of alternative therapies, and costs (strong

  12. From Policy to Pedagogy: Widening the Discourse and Practice of the Learning Society in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosbie, Veronica

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the policy turn of the "learning society", and how the academic world is responding to new social and political demands. It highlights some of the criticisms levelled at the learning society, as well as the voices of support. The paper also showcases the European Language Portfolio and the Transferable Skills project as two…

  13. Classification of parotidectomies: a proposal of the European Salivary Gland Society.

    PubMed

    Quer, M; Guntinas-Lichius, O; Marchal, F; Vander Poorten, V; Chevalier, D; León, X; Eisele, D; Dulguerov, P

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a comprehensive classification system for parotidectomy operations. Data sources include Medline publications, author's experience, and consensus round table at the Third European Salivary Gland Society (ESGS) Meeting. The Medline database was searched with the term "parotidectomy" and "definition". The various definitions of parotidectomy procedures and parotid gland subdivisions extracted. Previous classification systems re-examined and a new classification proposed by a consensus. The ESGS proposes to subdivide the parotid parenchyma in five levels: I (lateral superior), II (lateral inferior), III (deep inferior), IV (deep superior), V (accessory). A new classification is proposed where the type of resection is divided into formal parotidectomy with facial nerve dissection and extracapsular dissection. Parotidectomies are further classified according to the levels removed, as well as the extra-parotid structures ablated. A new classification of parotidectomy procedures is proposed.

  14. The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Quality Improvement Initiative: developing performance measures.

    PubMed

    Rutter, Matthew D; Senore, Carlo; Bisschops, Raf; Domagk, Dirk; Valori, Roland; Kaminski, Michal F; Spada, Cristiano; Bretthauer, Michael; Bennett, Cathy; Bellisario, Cristina; Minozzi, Silvia; Hassan, Cesare; Rees, Colin; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Hucl, Tomas; Ponchon, Thierry; Aabakken, Lars; Fockens, Paul

    2016-02-01

    The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) and United European Gastroenterology (UEG) have a vision to create a thriving community of endoscopy services across Europe, collaborating with each other to provide high quality, safe, accurate, patient-centered and accessible endoscopic care. Whilst the boundaries of what can be achieved by advanced endoscopy are continually expanding, we believe that one of the most fundamental steps to achieving our goal is to raise the quality of everyday endoscopy. The development of robust, consensus- and evidence-based key performance measures is the first step in this vision. ESGE and UEG have identified quality of endoscopy as a major priority. This paper explains the rationale behind the ESGE Quality Improvement Initiative and describes the processes that were followed. We recommend that all units develop mechanisms for audit and feedback of endoscopist and service performance using the ESGE performance measures that will be published in future issues of this journal over the next year. We urge all endoscopists and endoscopy services to prioritize quality and to ensure that these performance measures are implemented and monitored at a local level, so that we can provide the highest possible care for our patients. PMID:26966520

  15. The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Quality Improvement Initiative: developing performance measures.

    PubMed

    Rutter, Matthew D; Senore, Carlo; Bisschops, Raf; Domagk, Dirk; Valori, Roland; Kaminski, Michal F; Spada, Cristiano; Bretthauer, Michael; Bennett, Cathy; Bellisario, Cristina; Minozzi, Silvia; Hassan, Cesare; Rees, Colin; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Hucl, Tomas; Ponchon, Thierry; Aabakken, Lars; Fockens, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) and United European Gastroenterology (UEG) have a vision to create a thriving community of endoscopy services across Europe, collaborating with each other to provide high quality, safe, accurate, patient-centered and accessible endoscopic care. Whilst the boundaries of what can be achieved by advanced endoscopy are continually expanding, we believe that one of the most fundamental steps to achieving our goal is to raise the quality of everyday endoscopy. The development of robust, consensus- and evidence-based key performance measures is the first step in this vision.ESGE and UEG have identified quality of endoscopy as a major priority. This paper explains the rationale behind the ESGE Quality Improvement Initiative and describes the processes that were followed. We recommend that all units develop mechanisms for audit and feedback of endoscopist and service performance using the ESGE performance measures that will be published in future issues of this journal over the next year. We urge all endoscopists and endoscopy services to prioritize quality and to ensure that these performance measures are implemented and monitored at a local level, so that we can provide the highest possible care for our patients. PMID:26662057

  16. The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Quality Improvement Initiative: developing performance measures

    PubMed Central

    Senore, Carlo; Bisschops, Raf; Domagk, Dirk; Valori, Roland; Kaminski, Michal F.; Spada, Cristiano; Bretthauer, Michael; Bennett, Cathy; Bellisario, Cristina; Minozzi, Silvia; Hassan, Cesare; Rees, Colin; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Hucl, Tomas; Ponchon, Thierry; Aabakken, Lars; Fockens, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) and United European Gastroenterology (UEG) have a vision to create a thriving community of endoscopy services across Europe, collaborating with each other to provide high quality, safe, accurate, patient-centered and accessible endoscopic care. Whilst the boundaries of what can be achieved by advanced endoscopy are continually expanding, we believe that one of the most fundamental steps to achieving our goal is to raise the quality of everyday endoscopy. The development of robust, consensus- and evidence-based key performance measures is the first step in this vision. ESGE and UEG have identified quality of endoscopy as a major priority. This paper explains the rationale behind the ESGE Quality Improvement Initiative and describes the processes that were followed. We recommend that all units develop mechanisms for audit and feedback of endoscopist and service performance using the ESGE performance measures that will be published in future issues of this journal over the next year. We urge all endoscopists and endoscopy services to prioritize quality and to ensure that these performance measures are implemented and monitored at a local level, so that we can provide the highest possible care for our patients. PMID:26966520

  17. The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Quality Improvement Initiative: developing performance measures.

    PubMed

    Rutter, Matthew D; Senore, Carlo; Bisschops, Raf; Domagk, Dirk; Valori, Roland; Kaminski, Michal F; Spada, Cristiano; Bretthauer, Michael; Bennett, Cathy; Bellisario, Cristina; Minozzi, Silvia; Hassan, Cesare; Rees, Colin; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Hucl, Tomas; Ponchon, Thierry; Aabakken, Lars; Fockens, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) and United European Gastroenterology (UEG) have a vision to create a thriving community of endoscopy services across Europe, collaborating with each other to provide high quality, safe, accurate, patient-centered and accessible endoscopic care. Whilst the boundaries of what can be achieved by advanced endoscopy are continually expanding, we believe that one of the most fundamental steps to achieving our goal is to raise the quality of everyday endoscopy. The development of robust, consensus- and evidence-based key performance measures is the first step in this vision.ESGE and UEG have identified quality of endoscopy as a major priority. This paper explains the rationale behind the ESGE Quality Improvement Initiative and describes the processes that were followed. We recommend that all units develop mechanisms for audit and feedback of endoscopist and service performance using the ESGE performance measures that will be published in future issues of this journal over the next year. We urge all endoscopists and endoscopy services to prioritize quality and to ensure that these performance measures are implemented and monitored at a local level, so that we can provide the highest possible care for our patients.

  18. Assessment of acute myocardial infarction: current status and recommendations from the North American society for cardiovascular imaging and the European society of cardiac radiology

    PubMed Central

    Oudkerk, Matthijs; Bluemke, David; Bremerich, Jens; Esteves, Fabio P.; Garcia, Ernest V.; Gutberlet, Matthias; Hundley, W. Gregory; Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Kuijpers, Dirkjan; Kwong, Raymond K.; Nagel, Eike; Lerakis, Stamatios; Oshinski, John; Paul, Jean-François; Underwood, Richard; Wintersperger, Bernd J.; Rees, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of imaging tests that are used in the setting of acute myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndrome. Each has their strengths and limitations. Experts from the European Society of Cardiac Radiology and the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging together with other prominent imagers reviewed the literature. It is clear that there is a definite role for imaging in these patients. While comparative accuracy, convenience and cost have largely guided test decisions in the past, the introduction of newer tests is being held to a higher standard which compares patient outcomes. Multicenter randomized comparative effectiveness trials with outcome measures are required. PMID:20972835

  19. The "Renaissance of the University" in the European Knowledge Society: An Exploration of Principled and Governmental Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    A "renaissance of the university" in the European knowledge society is regarded today as a necessity. However, there is an ongoing debate about what that renaissance should look like. The aim of this article is to take a closer look at these debates, and in particular, the disputes related to the public role of the (future) university in the…

  20. European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases consensus recommendations for rotavirus vaccination in Europe: update 2014.

    PubMed

    Vesikari, Timo; Van Damme, Pierre; Giaquinto, Carlo; Dagan, Ron; Guarino, Alfredo; Szajewska, Hania; Usonis, Vytautas

    2015-06-01

    The first evidence-based recommendations for rotavirus (RV) vaccination in Europe were prepared at the time of licensure of 2 live oral RV vaccines (Rotarix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, and RotaTeq, Sanofi Pasteur MSD) in 2006 and published in 2008. Since then several countries in Europe and more globally have adopted universal RV vaccination of all healthy infants as part of their national immunization programs (NIPs). The experience from these NIPs has produced a wealth of post-introduction effectiveness data that, together with the evidence from prelicensure efficacy trials presented in the 2008 Recommendations, support the case of RV vaccination in Europe. The prelicensure safety trials of Rotarix and RotaTeq, each in populations of more than 60,000 infants, did not reveal risk of intussusception (IS), but postvaccination surveillance in several countries, particularly Australia and Mexico, has established that the risk of IS for both vaccines after the first dose might be between 1:50,000 and 1:80,000. Although it may be argued that the risk is acceptable vis-à-vis the great benefits of RV vaccination, this argument alone may not suffice, and every effort should be made to reduce the risk of IS. Considerable evidence, including postvaccination surveillance data from Germany, suggests that the risk of IS can be reduced by early administration of the first dose of oral RV vaccine. The previous European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases/European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition recommendations held that the first dose of oral RV vaccine should be given between 6 and 12 weeks of age; this recommendation is sustained but with an emphasis toward the lower range of the recommended age, that is, preferably between 6 and 8 weeks of age. At the time of the earlier recommendations, experience of RV vaccination in premature infants and other special target groups was limited. It is now recommended with greater confidence than

  1. European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases consensus recommendations for rotavirus vaccination in Europe: update 2014.

    PubMed

    Vesikari, Timo; Van Damme, Pierre; Giaquinto, Carlo; Dagan, Ron; Guarino, Alfredo; Szajewska, Hania; Usonis, Vytautas

    2015-06-01

    The first evidence-based recommendations for rotavirus (RV) vaccination in Europe were prepared at the time of licensure of 2 live oral RV vaccines (Rotarix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, and RotaTeq, Sanofi Pasteur MSD) in 2006 and published in 2008. Since then several countries in Europe and more globally have adopted universal RV vaccination of all healthy infants as part of their national immunization programs (NIPs). The experience from these NIPs has produced a wealth of post-introduction effectiveness data that, together with the evidence from prelicensure efficacy trials presented in the 2008 Recommendations, support the case of RV vaccination in Europe. The prelicensure safety trials of Rotarix and RotaTeq, each in populations of more than 60,000 infants, did not reveal risk of intussusception (IS), but postvaccination surveillance in several countries, particularly Australia and Mexico, has established that the risk of IS for both vaccines after the first dose might be between 1:50,000 and 1:80,000. Although it may be argued that the risk is acceptable vis-à-vis the great benefits of RV vaccination, this argument alone may not suffice, and every effort should be made to reduce the risk of IS. Considerable evidence, including postvaccination surveillance data from Germany, suggests that the risk of IS can be reduced by early administration of the first dose of oral RV vaccine. The previous European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases/European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition recommendations held that the first dose of oral RV vaccine should be given between 6 and 12 weeks of age; this recommendation is sustained but with an emphasis toward the lower range of the recommended age, that is, preferably between 6 and 8 weeks of age. At the time of the earlier recommendations, experience of RV vaccination in premature infants and other special target groups was limited. It is now recommended with greater confidence than

  2. European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology Consensus Guidelines on Screening, Diagnosis, and Management of Congenital Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Léger, Juliane; Olivieri, Antonella; Donaldson, Malcolm; Torresani, Toni; Krude, Heiko; van Vliet, Guy; Polak, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to formulate practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of congenital hypothyroidism (CH). Evidence: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify key articles relating to the screening, diagnosis, and management of CH. The evidence-based guidelines were developed with the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system, describing both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. In the absence of sufficient evidence, conclusions were based on expert opinion. Consensus Process: Thirty-two participants drawn from the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology and five other major scientific societies in the field of pediatric endocrinology were allocated to working groups with assigned topics and specific questions. Each group searched the literature, evaluated the evidence, and developed a draft document. These papers were debated and finalized by each group before presentation to the full assembly for further discussion and agreement. Recommendations: The recommendations include: worldwide neonatal screening, approaches to assess the cause (including genotyping) and the severity of the disorder, the immediate initiation of appropriate L-T4 supplementation and frequent monitoring to ensure dose adjustments to keep thyroid hormone levels in the target ranges, a trial of treatment in patients suspected of transient CH, regular assessments of developmental and neurosensory functions, consulting health professionals as appropriate, and education about CH. The harmonization of diagnosis, management, and routine health surveillance would not only optimize patient outcomes, but should also facilitate epidemiological studies of the disorder. Individuals with CH require monitoring throughout their lives, particularly during early childhood and pregnancy. PMID:24446653

  3. Heart failure association of the European society of cardiology specialist heart failure curriculum.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, Theresa A; Gardner, Roy S; Lainscak, Mitja; Nielsen, Olav W; Parissis, John; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Anker, Stefan D

    2014-02-01

    It is well established that organized care of heart failure patients, including specialist management by cardiologists, improves patient outcomes. In response to this, other national training bodies (the UK and the USA) have developed heart failure subspecialty curricula within their Cardiology Training Curricula. In addition, European Society of Cardiology (ESC) subspecialty curricula exist for Interventional Cardiology and Heart Rhythm Management. The purpose of this heart failure curriculum is to provide a framework which can be used as a blueprint for training across Europe. This blueprint mirrors other ESC curricula. Each section has three components: the knowledge required, the skills which are necessary, and the professionalism (attitudes and behaviours) which should be attained. The programme is designed to last 2 years. The first year is devoted to the specialist heart failure module. The second year allows completion of the optional modules of advanced imaging, device therapy for implanters, cardiac transplantation, and mechanical circulatory support. The second year can also be devoted to continuation of specialist heart failure training and/or research for those not wishing to continue with the advanced modules.

  4. Management of stable angina: A commentary on the European Society of Cardiology guidelines.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Komajda, Michel; Mugelli, Alessandro; Lopez-Sendón, José; Tamargo, Juan; Camm, John

    2016-09-01

    In 2013 the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) released new guidelines on the management of stable coronary artery disease. These guidelines update and replace the previous ESC guidelines on the management of stable angina pectoris, issued in 2006. There are several new aspects in the 2013 ESC guidelines compared with the 2006 version. This opinion paper provides an in-depth interpretation of the ESC guidelines with regard to these issues, to help physicians in making evidence-based therapeutic choices in their routine clinical practice. The first new element is the definition of stable coronary artery disease itself, which has now broadened from a 'simple' symptom, angina pectoris, to a more complex disease that can even be asymptomatic. In the first-line setting, the major changes in the new guidelines are the upgrading of calcium channel blockers, the distinction between dihydropyridines and non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, and the presence of important statements regarding the combination of calcium channel blockers with beta-blockers. In the second-line setting, the 2013 ESC guidelines recommend the addition of long-acting nitrates, ivabradine, nicorandil or ranolazine to first-line agents. Trimetazidine may also be considered. However, no clear distinction is made among different second-line drugs, despite different quality of evidence in favour of these agents. For example, the use of ranolazine is supported by strong and recent evidence, while data supporting the use of the traditional agents appear relatively scanty. PMID:27222385

  5. The best of respiratory infections from the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress

    PubMed Central

    Polverino, Eva; Bothamley, Graham H.; Goletti, Delia; Heyckendorf, Jan; Aliberti, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The breadth and quality of scientific presentations on clinical and translational research into respiratory infections at the 2015 European Respiratory Society (ERS) International Congress in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, establishes this area as one of the leadings fields in pulmonology. The host–pathogen relationship in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the impact of comorbidities and chronic treatment on clinical outcomes in patients with pneumonia were studied. Various communications were dedicated to bronchiectasis and, in particular, to different prognostic and clinical aspects of this disease, including chronic infection with Pseudomonas and inhaled antibiotic therapy. Recent data from the World Health Organization showed that Europe has the highest number of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases and the poorest countries have the least access to suitable treatments. Latent tuberculosis and different screening programmes were also discussed with particular attention to risk factors such as HIV infection and diabetes. Several biomarkers were proposed to distinguish between active tuberculosis and latent infection. Major treatment trials were discussed (REMOX, RIFQUIN and STREAM). The possibility of once-weekly treatment in the continuation phase (RIAQUIN) was especially exciting. The continuing rise of Mycobacterium abscessus as a significant pathogen was noted. This article reviews some of the best contributions from the Respiratory Infections Assembly to the 2015 ERS International Congress. PMID:27730203

  6. An official European Respiratory Society statement on physical activity in COPD.

    PubMed

    Watz, Henrik; Pitta, Fabio; Rochester, Carolyn L; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; ZuWallack, Richard; Troosters, Thierry; Vaes, Anouk W; Puhan, Milo A; Jehn, Melissa; Polkey, Michael I; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Clini, Enrico M; Toth, Michael; Gimeno-Santos, Elena; Waschki, Benjamin; Esteban, Cristobal; Hayot, Maurice; Casaburi, Richard; Porszasz, Janos; McAuley, Edward; Singh, Sally J; Langer, Daniel; Wouters, Emiel F M; Magnussen, Helgo; Spruit, Martijn A

    2014-12-01

    This European Respiratory Society (ERS) statement provides a comprehensive overview on physical activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A multidisciplinary Task Force of experts representing the ERS Scientific Group 01.02 "Rehabilitation and Chronic Care" determined the overall scope of this statement through consensus. Focused literature reviews were conducted in key topic areas and the final content of this Statement was agreed upon by all members. The current knowledge regarding physical activity in COPD is presented, including the definition of physical activity, the consequences of physical inactivity on lung function decline and COPD incidence, physical activity assessment, prevalence of physical inactivity in COPD, clinical correlates of physical activity, effects of physical inactivity on hospitalisations and mortality, and treatment strategies to improve physical activity in patients with COPD. This Task Force identified multiple major areas of research that need to be addressed further in the coming years. These include, but are not limited to, the disease-modifying potential of increased physical activity, and to further understand how improvements in exercise capacity, dyspnoea and self-efficacy following interventions may translate into increased physical activity. The Task Force recommends that this ERS statement should be reviewed periodically (e.g. every 5-8 years).

  7. Nutritional assessment and therapy in COPD: a European Respiratory Society statement.

    PubMed

    Schols, Annemie M; Ferreira, Ivone M; Franssen, Frits M; Gosker, Harry R; Janssens, Wim; Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Pison, Christophe; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen; Slinde, Frode; Steiner, Michael C; Tkacova, Ruzena; Singh, Sally J

    2014-12-01

    Nutrition and metabolism have been the topic of extensive scientific research in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but clinical awareness of the impact dietary habits, nutritional status and nutritional interventions may have on COPD incidence, progression and outcome is limited. A multidisciplinary Task Force was created by the European Respiratory Society to deliver a summary of the evidence and description of current practice in nutritional assessment and therapy in COPD, and to provide directions for future research. Task Force members conducted focused reviews of the literature on relevant topics, advised by a methodologist. It is well established that nutritional status, and in particular abnormal body composition, is an important independent determinant of COPD outcome. The Task Force identified different metabolic phenotypes of COPD as a basis for nutritional risk profile assessment that is useful in clinical trial design and patient counselling. Nutritional intervention is probably effective in undernourished patients and probably most when combined with an exercise programme. Providing evidence of cost-effectiveness of nutritional intervention is required to support reimbursement and thus increase access to nutritional intervention. Overall, the evidence indicates that a well-balanced diet is beneficial to all COPD patients, not only for its potential pulmonary benefits, but also for its proven benefits in metabolic and cardiovascular risk. PMID:25234804

  8. Live endoscopy events (LEEs): European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Position Statement - Update 2014.

    PubMed

    Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Hassan, Cesare; Meining, Alexander; Aabakken, Lars; Fockens, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) is dedicated to improving the quality of gastrointestinal endoscopy through educational activities such as live endoscopy events (LEEs). The primary utility of LEEs is the educational value for the audience, and patients should not expect additional benefit from being treated during a LEE compared to a routine setting. Although there is no evidence that LEEs entail additional risks for patients, neither can possible unknown risks be excluded as the evidence available is limited. Therefore, necessary measures should be taken to assure patient safety. Patients must be adequately informed that the standard of care will be assured and that their identity will not be revealed. ESGE recommends that an endoscopist not belonging to the hosting unit is named as patient advocate. Clinical indications for the LEE procedures and the educational outputs must be clear and agreed between host and demonstrator teams. ESGE will ensure that in all ESGE-organized LEEs the indications, procedural descriptions, and adverse events will be registered, and that organizers requesting ESGE endorsement can demonstrate such a registry.

  9. Biliary stenting: indications, choice of stents and results: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) clinical guideline.

    PubMed

    Dumonceau, J-M; Tringali, A; Blero, D; Devière, J; Laugiers, R; Heresbach, D; Costamagna, G

    2012-03-01

    This article is part of a combined publication that expresses the current view of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy about endoscopic biliary stenting. The present Clinical Guideline describes short-term and long-term results of biliary stenting depending on indications and stent models; it makes recommendations on when, how, and with which stent to perform biliary drainage in most common clinical settings, including in patients with a potentially resectable malignant biliary obstruction and in those who require palliative drainage of common bile duct or hilar strictures. Treatment of benign conditions (strictures related to chronic pancreatitis, liver transplantation, or cholecystectomy, and leaks and failed biliary stone extraction) and management of complications (including stent revision) are also discussed. A two-page executive summary of evidence statements and recommendations is provided. A separate Technology Review describes the models of biliary stents available and the stenting techniques, including advanced techniques such as insertion of multiple plastic stents, drainage of hilar strictures, retrieval of migrated stents and combined stenting in malignant biliary and duodenal obstructions.The target readership for the Clinical Guideline mostly includes digestive endoscopists, gastroenterologists, oncologists, radiologists, internists, and surgeons while the Technology Review should be most useful to endoscopists who perform biliary drainage.

  10. PREFACE: 13th General Conference of the Condensed Matter Division of the European Physical Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, H.; Klein, R.; Schwoerer, M.

    1993-01-01

    The 13th General Conference of the Condensed Matter Division of the European Physical Society was held in conjunction with the Frühjahrstagung des Arbeitskreises Festkörperphysik der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft from March 29 till April 2, 1993, in Regensburg. The programme comprised 3,134 contributions : 8 Plenary Talks, 171 Invited Talks, 1,480 Contributed Talks, 1,441 Poster Presentations, 1 Public Evening Talk and 33 Exhibitors Reports. The abstracts have been published as Europhysics Conference Abstracts, Volume 17A/Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft 5/1993. The table (see PDF file) shows the distribution of the Plenary and Invited Speakers as well as of the participants according to countries within and outside of Europe. The conference was the largest meeting of physicists held in Germany to date. It was a manifestation of the enormous scientific activity in both basic and applied research in the fields of Condensed Matter Physics in Europe. Most of the research work, which was presented at the conference, was done by young physicists. They represent a large human capital in Europe. Most of the senior physicists and many of our young colleagues maintain scientific cooperations, and also personal friendships, which are and which have been almost independent of national barriers over the past three decades. The latter is to a large extent due to the European Physical Society which always cultivated these contacts, especially between the eastern and western parts of Europe. We would like to express our sincere thanks to the members of the Programme Committee. By their intensive work, which was free from national interests, a scientific programme was prepared, which covered the entire field of Condensed Matter Physics. About 70% of the Plenary and Invited Speakers came from 20 different foreign countries and about 30% from Germany. The meeting therefore has been a truly European Conference. For the young physicists, the number of

  11. The American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy, and the Asian Australasian Federation of Pain Societies Joint Committee recommendations for education and training in ultrasound-guided interventional pain procedures.

    PubMed

    Narouze, Samer N; Provenzano, David; Peng, Philip; Eichenberger, Urs; Lee, Sang Chul; Nicholls, Barry; Moriggl, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in pain medicine for interventional axial, nonaxial, and musculoskeletal pain procedures is rapidly evolving and growing. Because of the lack of specialty-specific guidelines for ultrasonography in pain medicine, an international collaborative effort consisting of members of the Special Interest Group on Ultrasonography in Pain Medicine from the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy, and the Asian Australasian Federation of Pain Societies developed the following recommendations for education and training in ultrasound-guided interventional pain procedures. The purpose of these recommendations is to define the required skills for performing ultrasound-guided pain procedures, the processes for appropriate education, and training and quality improvement. Training algorithms are outlined for practice- and fellowship-based pathways. The previously published American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine and European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy education and teaching recommendations for ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia served as a foundation for the pain medicine recommendations. Although the decision to grant ultrasound privileges occurs at the institutional level, the committee recommends that the training guidelines outlined in this document serve as the foundation for educational training and the advancement of the practice of ultrasonography in pain medicine.

  12. Research education in Europe: an opinion paper by the European Society of Radiology.

    PubMed

    2015-04-01

    Research is a major positive driver for radiology. Therefore, research education needs to be a major topic for the radiology leadership, including the research committee of the ESR. Professional (radiological and non-radiological) and scientific publications as well as Research Committee questionnaires provide the basis for this opinion paper. Although radiology is well-positioned to deal with current and future challenges, there are still some gaps, such as the presence of radiology in basic research, radiology-specific research versus research services for other disciplines, need of adaptation to new research topics, general attitude towards research, issues of career planning, lack of incentives for researchers, gender issues with loss of women from the researcher pipeline, limited financing of research education and variability between countries and institutions. There is no easy answer to such challenges. However, all stakeholders, from the ESR to subspecialty societies, university departments, general radiology departments and the individual radiologist must recognise and promote research within their competencies. Many means and structures are already available but need to be used more extensively and systematically. Additional means need to be developed, scientific and professional trends must be actively followed, and minimal standards in research education should be maintained throughout Europe. Main Messages • Radiology research includes a broad spectrum, from basic to health services research. • Research education needs to be widely available and systematically promoted. • Existing means such as the European Institute for Biomedical Imaging Research (EIBIR) need to be advanced. • New developments in research topics and professional life must be continuously monitored and evaluated. PMID:25763995

  13. PREFACE: The 11th General Conference of the Condensed Matter Division of the European Physical Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeby, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    The 11th General Conference of the Condensed Matter Division of the European Physical Society was held in Exeter from 8-11 April 1991. The annual Condensed Matter meeting of the UK Institute of Physics, which would have been held in December 1990, was not scheduled in order that there should not be two similar meetings too close together. The Exeter EPS conference followed the traditional pattern for Condensed Matter Division conference by covering a very broad range of topics and including several plenary lectures. In addition, there was a lecture from one of the joint Hewlett-Packard prizewinners, Professor D Jerome, and the annual Mott Lecture was presented by Professor R G Clark. The invited lectures were divided into 5 parallel sessions, in part because of lecture theatre sizes, in which the topics roughly divided into semiconductors (2 sessions), metals and magnetism, high Tc superconductivity and heavy fermions, and soft matter and polymers. A number of contributors of abstracts for poster presentation were offered the opportunity of oral presentation. The three, very full poster sessions, were of a high standard and generated much interest and discussion. One can conclude that condensed matter physics is strong and active in Europe. The papers of the invited talks contained in this volume will allow conference participants the opportunity for further study of the work presented and will also allow those unable to attent the meeting to learn of the interesting results presented. With such a broad subject coverage it is difficult to order the papers in a wholly rational way; according they have been brought together under five broad headings. It is a pleasure to thank all those involved in the Organising and Programme Committees (see PDF file for detail) for their contributions to the Conference. The generosity of the Sponsors (see PDF file for list of sponsors) is gratefully acknowledged.

  14. Research education in Europe: an opinion paper by the European Society of Radiology.

    PubMed

    2015-04-01

    Research is a major positive driver for radiology. Therefore, research education needs to be a major topic for the radiology leadership, including the research committee of the ESR. Professional (radiological and non-radiological) and scientific publications as well as Research Committee questionnaires provide the basis for this opinion paper. Although radiology is well-positioned to deal with current and future challenges, there are still some gaps, such as the presence of radiology in basic research, radiology-specific research versus research services for other disciplines, need of adaptation to new research topics, general attitude towards research, issues of career planning, lack of incentives for researchers, gender issues with loss of women from the researcher pipeline, limited financing of research education and variability between countries and institutions. There is no easy answer to such challenges. However, all stakeholders, from the ESR to subspecialty societies, university departments, general radiology departments and the individual radiologist must recognise and promote research within their competencies. Many means and structures are already available but need to be used more extensively and systematically. Additional means need to be developed, scientific and professional trends must be actively followed, and minimal standards in research education should be maintained throughout Europe. Main Messages • Radiology research includes a broad spectrum, from basic to health services research. • Research education needs to be widely available and systematically promoted. • Existing means such as the European Institute for Biomedical Imaging Research (EIBIR) need to be advanced. • New developments in research topics and professional life must be continuously monitored and evaluated.

  15. Management of severe perioperative bleeding: guidelines from the European Society of Anaesthesiology.

    PubMed

    Kozek-Langenecker, Sibylle A; Afshari, Arash; Albaladejo, Pierre; Santullano, Cesar Aldecoa Alvarez; De Robertis, Edoardo; Filipescu, Daniela C; Fries, Dietmar; Görlinger, Klaus; Haas, Thorsten; Imberger, Georgina; Jacob, Matthias; Lancé, Marcus; Llau, Juan; Mallett, Sue; Meier, Jens; Rahe-Meyer, Niels; Samama, Charles Marc; Smith, Andrew; Solomon, Cristina; Van der Linden, Philippe; Wikkelsø, Anne Juul; Wouters, Patrick; Wyffels, Piet

    2013-06-01

    The aims of severe perioperative bleeding management are three-fold. First, preoperative identification by anamesis and laboratory testing of those patients for whom the perioperative bleeding risk may be increased. Second, implementation of strategies for correcting preoperative anaemia and stabilisation of the macro- and microcirculations in order to optimise the patient's tolerance to bleeding. Third, targeted procoagulant interventions to reduce the amount of bleeding, morbidity, mortality and costs. The purpose of these guidelines is to provide an overview of current knowledge on the subject with an assessment of the quality of the evidence in order to allow anaesthetists throughout Europe to integrate this knowledge into daily patient care wherever possible. The Guidelines Committee of the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA) formed a task force with members of scientific subcommittees and individual expert members of the ESA. Electronic databases were searched without language restrictions from the year 2000 until 2012. These searches produced 20 664 abstracts. Relevant systematic reviews with meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional surveys were selected. At the suggestion of the ESA Guideline Committee, the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) grading system was initially used to assess the level of evidence and to grade recommendations. During the process of guideline development, the official position of the ESA changed to favour the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. This report includes general recommendations as well as specific recommendations in various fields of surgical interventions. The final draft guideline was posted on the ESA website for four weeks and the link was sent to all ESA members. Comments were collated and the guidelines amended as appropriate. When the final draft was complete, the Guidelines Committee and

  16. Management of severe perioperative bleeding: guidelines from the European Society of Anaesthesiology.

    PubMed

    Kozek-Langenecker, Sibylle A; Afshari, Arash; Albaladejo, Pierre; Santullano, Cesar Aldecoa Alvarez; De Robertis, Edoardo; Filipescu, Daniela C; Fries, Dietmar; Görlinger, Klaus; Haas, Thorsten; Imberger, Georgina; Jacob, Matthias; Lancé, Marcus; Llau, Juan; Mallett, Sue; Meier, Jens; Rahe-Meyer, Niels; Samama, Charles Marc; Smith, Andrew; Solomon, Cristina; Van der Linden, Philippe; Wikkelsø, Anne Juul; Wouters, Patrick; Wyffels, Piet

    2013-06-01

    The aims of severe perioperative bleeding management are three-fold. First, preoperative identification by anamesis and laboratory testing of those patients for whom the perioperative bleeding risk may be increased. Second, implementation of strategies for correcting preoperative anaemia and stabilisation of the macro- and microcirculations in order to optimise the patient's tolerance to bleeding. Third, targeted procoagulant interventions to reduce the amount of bleeding, morbidity, mortality and costs. The purpose of these guidelines is to provide an overview of current knowledge on the subject with an assessment of the quality of the evidence in order to allow anaesthetists throughout Europe to integrate this knowledge into daily patient care wherever possible. The Guidelines Committee of the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA) formed a task force with members of scientific subcommittees and individual expert members of the ESA. Electronic databases were searched without language restrictions from the year 2000 until 2012. These searches produced 20 664 abstracts. Relevant systematic reviews with meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional surveys were selected. At the suggestion of the ESA Guideline Committee, the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) grading system was initially used to assess the level of evidence and to grade recommendations. During the process of guideline development, the official position of the ESA changed to favour the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. This report includes general recommendations as well as specific recommendations in various fields of surgical interventions. The final draft guideline was posted on the ESA website for four weeks and the link was sent to all ESA members. Comments were collated and the guidelines amended as appropriate. When the final draft was complete, the Guidelines Committee and

  17. Non-intubated thoracic surgery—A survey from the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Sorge, Roberto; Akopov, Andrej; Congregado, Miguel; Grodzki, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Background A survey amongst the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) members has been performed to investigate the currents trends, rates of adoption as well as potential for future expansion of non-intubated thoracic surgery (NITS) performed under spontaneous ventilation. Methods A 14-question-based questionnaire has been e-mailed to ESTS members. To facilitate the completion of the questionnaire, questions entailed either quantitative or multiple-choice answers. Investigated issues included previous experience with NITS and number of procedures performed, preferred types of anesthesia protocols (i.e., thoracic epidural anesthesia, intercostal or paravertebral blocks, laryngeal mask, use of additional sedation), type of procedures, ideal candidates for NITS, main advantages and technical disadvantages. Non-univocal answer to multiple-choice questions was permitted. Results Out of 105 responders, 62 reported an experience with NITS. The preferred types of anesthesia were intercostal blocks with (59%) or without (50%) sedation, followed by laryngeal mask with sedation (43%) and thoracic epidural anesthesia with sedation (20%). The most frequently performed procedures included thoracoscopic management of recurrent pleural effusion (98%), pleural decortication for empyema thoracis and lung biopsy for interstitial lung disease (26% each); pericardial window and mediastinal biopsy (20% each). More complex procedures such as lobectomy, lung volume reduction surgery and thymectomy have been performed by a minority of responders (2% each). Poor-risk patients due to co-morbidities (70%) and patients with poor pulmonary function (43%) were considered the ideal candidates. Main advantages included faster, recovery (67%), reduced morbidity (59%) and shorter hospital stay with decreased costs (43% each). Reported technical disadvantages included coughing (59%) and poor maneuverability due to diaphragmatic and lung movements (56%). Overall, 69% of responders indicated

  18. European Society of Endocrinology Clinical Guideline: Treatment of chronic hypoparathyroidism in adults.

    PubMed

    Bollerslev, Jens; Rejnmark, Lars; Marcocci, Claudio; Shoback, Dolores M; Sitges-Serra, Antonio; van Biesen, Wim; Dekkers, Olaf M

    2015-08-01

    Hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT) is a rare (orphan) endocrine disease with low calcium and inappropriately low (insufficient) circulating parathyroid hormone levels, most often in adults secondary to thyroid surgery. Standard treatment is activated vitamin D analogues and calcium supplementation and not replacement of the lacking hormone, as in other hormonal deficiency states. The purpose of this guideline is to provide clinicians with guidance on the treatment and monitoring of chronic HypoPT in adults who do not have end-stage renal disease. We intend to draft a practical guideline, focusing on operationalized recommendations deemed to be useful in the daily management of patients. This guideline was developed and solely sponsored by The European Society of Endocrinology, supported by CBO (Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement) and based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) principles as a methodological base. The clinical question on which the systematic literature search was based and for which available evidence was synthesized was: what is the best treatment for adult patients with chronic HypoPT? This systematic search found 1100 articles, which was reduced to 312 based on title and abstract. The working group assessed these for eligibility in more detail, and 32 full-text articles were assessed. For the final recommendations, other literature was also taken into account. Little evidence is available on how best to treat HypoPT. Data on quality of life and the risk of complications have just started to emerge, and clinical trials on how to optimize therapy are essentially non-existent. Most studies are of limited sample size, hampering firm conclusions. No studies are available relating target calcium levels with clinically relevant endpoints. Hence it is not possible to formulate recommendations based on strict evidence. This guideline is therefore mainly based on how patients are managed in clinical practice

  19. Prophylaxis of post-ERCP pancreatitis: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Guideline - updated June 2014.

    PubMed

    Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Andriulli, Angelo; Elmunzer, B Joseph; Mariani, Alberto; Meister, Tobias; Deviere, Jacques; Marek, Tomasz; Baron, Todd H; Hassan, Cesare; Testoni, Pier A; Kapral, Christine

    2014-09-01

    This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It addresses the prophylaxis of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (post-ERCP) pancreatitis. Main recommendations 1 ESGE recommends routine rectal administration of 100 mg of diclofenac or indomethacin immediately before or after ERCP in all patients without contraindication. In addition to this, in the case of high risk for post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP), the placement of a 5-Fr prophylactic pancreatic stent should be strongly considered. Sublingually administered glyceryl trinitrate or 250 µg somatostatin given in bolus injection might be considered as an option in high risk cases if nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are contraindicated and if prophylactic pancreatic stenting is not possible or successful. 2 ESGE recommends keeping the number of cannulation attempts as low as possible. 3 ESGE suggests restricting the use of a pancreatic guidewire as a backup technique for biliary cannulation to cases with repeated inadvertent cannulation of the pancreatic duct; if this method is used, deep biliary cannulation should be attempted using a guidewire rather than the contrast-assisted method and a prophylactic pancreatic stent should be placed. 4 ESGE suggests that needle-knife fistulotomy should be the preferred precut technique in patients with a bile duct dilated down to the papilla. Conventional precut and transpancreatic sphincterotomy present similar success and complication rates; if conventional precut is selected and pancreatic cannulation is easily obtained, ESGE suggests attempting to place a small-diameter (3-Fr or 5-Fr) pancreatic stent to guide the cut and leaving the pancreatic stent in place at the end of ERCP for a minimum of 12 - 24 hours. 4 ESGE does not recommend endoscopic papillary balloon dilation as an alternative to sphincterotomy in routine ERCP, but it may be advantageous in selected patients; if this

  20. Intraductal biliopancreatic imaging: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) technology review.

    PubMed

    Tringali, Andrea; Lemmers, Arnaud; Meves, Volker; Terheggen, Grischa; Pohl, Jürgen; Manfredi, Guido; Häfner, Michael; Costamagna, Guido; Devière, Jacques; Neuhaus, Horst; Caillol, Fabrice; Giovannini, Marc; Hassan, Cesare; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc

    2015-08-01

    This technology review expresses the current view of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) on the available techniques for intraductal biliopancreatic imaging. The three cholangioscopy techniques are described: the "dual-operator" and " single-operator" mother-baby approaches using dedicated instruments, and the "direct" technique using currently available ultrathin gastroscopes. The mother-baby method is standardized and reproducible, while direct cholangioscopy is technically demanding and its safety requires further evaluation. As well as direct visualization of the bile ducts, cholangioscopy has the further advantage of allowing targeted biopsy. Image quality is still suboptimal for single-operator cholangioscopy, while the other techniques have achieved adequately detailed imaging. The costs of mother-baby cholangioscopy are high and its application in clinical practice should be restricted to selected cases (i.e. indeterminate biliary strictures/intraluminal lesions, difficult biliary stones) and to the setting of tertiary care centers. Peroral pancreatoscopy may find an indication in situations where other imaging modalities (mainly EUS) are inconclusive (i.e. delineation of main duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia extension, sampling of indeterminate main pancreatic duct strictures). Intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) has a poorer performance than EUS in the staging of pancreatic malignancies and can increase the risk of pancreatitis. A promising indication for IDUS could be the evaluation of indeterminate biliary strictures and ampullary tumors. Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) of the bile ducts is a difficult and expensive technique. Appropriate training needs to be established, since interpretation of images is challenging. pCLE can be an important diagnostic tool in the setting of indeterminate biliary strictures.

  1. Moving towards a Learning Society. A CRE-ERT Forum Report on European Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochinaux, Philippe; de Woot, Philippe

    Society is undergoing profound transformations: movement toward a knowledge society, globalization, new patterns of work, unemployment and social exclusion, aging of the population, immigration, transformation of the family, a multimedia revolution, and consumerism. These changes are necessitating better, more balanced education and lifelong…

  2. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy. European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

    PubMed

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2013-11-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. The main goal of this meeting was to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ARTs. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognised and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome before conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from randomised clinical trials to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole-genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (International Standards Organisation - ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving but still remains very heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonisation and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe and beyond. The aim of this paper is to complement previous publications and provide

  3. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy. European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

    PubMed

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2013-11-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. The main goal of this meeting was to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ARTs. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognised and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome before conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from randomised clinical trials to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole-genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (International Standards Organisation - ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving but still remains very heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonisation and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe and beyond. The aim of this paper is to complement previous publications and provide

  4. Papillary cannulation and sphincterotomy techniques at ERCP: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Clinical Guideline.

    PubMed

    Testoni, Pier Alberto; Mariani, Alberto; Aabakken, Lars; Arvanitakis, Marianna; Bories, Erwan; Costamagna, Guido; Devière, Jacques; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mario; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Giovannini, Marc; Gyokeres, Tibor; Hafner, Michael; Halttunen, Jorma; Hassan, Cesare; Lopes, Luis; Papanikolaou, Ioannis S; Tham, Tony C; Tringali, Andrea; van Hooft, Jeanin; Williams, Earl J

    2016-07-01

    This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It provides practical advice on how to achieve successful cannulation and sphincterotomy at minimum risk to the patient. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system was adopted to define the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. Main recommendations 1 ESGE suggests that difficult biliary cannulation is defined by the presence of one or more of the following: more than 5 contacts with the papilla whilst attempting to cannulate; more than 5 minutes spent attempting to cannulate following visualization of the papilla; more than one unintended pancreatic duct cannulation or opacification (low quality evidence, weak recommendation). 2 ESGE recommends the guidewire-assisted technique for primary biliary cannulation, since it reduces the risk of post-ERCP pancreatitis (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation). 3 ESGE recommends using pancreatic guidewire (PGW)-assisted biliary cannulation in patients where biliary cannulation is difficult and repeated unintentional access to the main pancreatic duct occurs (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation). ESGE recommends attempting prophylactic pancreatic stenting in all patients with PGW-assisted attempts at biliary cannulation (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation). 4 ESGE recommends needle-knife fistulotomy as the preferred technique for precutting (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation). ESGE suggests that precutting should be used only by endoscopists who achieve selective biliary cannulation in more than 80 % of cases using standard cannulation techniques (low quality evidence, weak recommendation). When access to the pancreatic duct is easy to obtain, ESGE suggests placement of a pancreatic stent prior to precutting (moderate quality evidence, weak recommendation). 5 ESGE recommends that in patients with a small papilla

  5. PREFACE: 3rd International Congress on Ceramics (ICC3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niihara, Koichi; Ohji, Tatsuki; Sakka, Yoshio

    2011-10-01

    Early in 2005, the American Ceramic Society, the European Ceramic Society and the Ceramic Society of Japan announced a collaborative effort to provide leadership for the global ceramics community that would facilitate the use of ceramic and glass materials. That effort resulted in an agreement to organize a new biennial series of the International Congress on Ceramics, convened by the International Ceramic Federation (ICF). In order to share ideas and visions of the future for ceramic and glass materials, the 1st International Congress on Ceramics (ICC1) was held in Canada, 2006, under the organization of the American Ceramic Society, and the 2nd Congress (ICC2) was held in Italy, 2008, hosted by the European Ceramic Society. Organized by the Ceramic Society of Japan, the 3rd Congress (ICC3) was held in Osaka, Japan, 14-18 November 2010. Incorporating the 23rd Fall Meeting of the Ceramic Society of Japan and the 20th Iketani Conference, ICC3 was also co-organized by the Iketani Science and Technology Foundation, and was endorsed and supported by ICF, Asia-Oceania Ceramic Federation (AOCF) as well as many other organizations. Following the style of the previous two successful Congresses, the program was designed to advance ceramic and glass technologies to the next generation through discussion of the most recent advances and future perspectives, and to engage the worldwide ceramics community in a collective effort to expand the use of these materials in both conventional as well as new and exciting applications. ICC3 consisted of 22 voluntarily organized symposia in the most topical and essential themes of ceramic and glass materials, including Characterization, design and processing technologies Electro, magnetic and optical ceramics and devices Energy and environment related ceramics and systems Bio-ceramics and bio-technologies Ceramics for advanced industry and safety society Innovation in traditional ceramics It also contained the Plenary Session and the

  6. Validation of Microlife BP W100 wrist device assessed according to the European Society of Hypertension and the British Hypertension Society protocols.

    PubMed

    Palatini, Paolo; Dorigatti, Francesca; Bonso, Elisa; Ragazzo, Fabio

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of the Microlife BP W100 device for blood pressure measurement. The device evaluations were performed in 85 participants, by using both the protocol of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and the protocol of the British Hypertension Society (BHS). Initially, the data from 33 participants were examined according to the ESH protocol. Furthermore, 52 participants were then enrolled to fulfill the BHS protocol requirements. In all participants, sequential same arm measurements were made by two trained observers. The device passed all three phases of the ESH protocol for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and was graded A according to the criteria of the BHS protocol for both SBP and DBP. The A/A grade was achieved in low (<130/80 mmHg), medium (130-160/80-100 mmHg) and high (>160/100 mmHg) blood pressure categories. Mean blood pressure difference between BP W100 and observers in the 85 participants was 0.1+/-5.3 mmHg for SBP and 1.1+/-3.4 mmHg for DBP, and thus, the device also met the requirements of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation. In conclusion, these data show that the Microlife BP W100 wrist monitor satisfied the recommended ESH accuracy levels and achieved A/A grade of the BHS protocol across a wide range of blood pressure. PMID:19252436

  7. Federation of the European Pharmacological Societies-fourth annual meeting. Part II. 14-17 July 2004, Porto. Portugal.

    PubMed

    Urch, Catherine

    2004-09-01

    The aims of this Federation of European Pharmacological Societies (EPHAR) meetings are to broaden the understanding of fundamental pharmacology. Rather than present clinically relevant novel therapeutics, most symposia and posters presented data exploring the role of receptors, transmitters and potential agents within a basic science framework. The opening plenary session was given by Sir James Black, and the main meeting revolved around parallel symposia and poster sessions. Most presenters gave a broad overview of the current understanding, with less emphasis on individual compounds, while others developed a theme exploring specific agonists/antagonists and experimental models.

  8. Review of the therapeutic management of Parkinson's disease. Report of a joint task force of the European Federation of Neurological Societies and the Movement Disorder Society-European Section. Part I: early (uncomplicated) Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Horstink, M; Tolosa, E; Bonuccelli, U; Deuschl, G; Friedman, A; Kanovsky, P; Larsen, J P; Lees, A; Oertel, W; Poewe, W; Rascol, O; Sampaio, C

    2006-11-01

    The aim of the study was to provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of early (uncomplicated) Parkinson's disease (PD), based on a review of the literature. Uncomplicated PD refers to patients suffering from the classical motor syndrome of PD only, without treatment-induced motor complications and without neuropsychiatric or autonomic problems. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) database literature searches were conducted. National guidelines were requested from all European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) societies. Non-European guidelines were searched for using MEDLINE. Part I of the guidelines deals with prevention of disease progression, symptomatic treatment of motor features (parkinsonism), and prevention of motor and neuropsychiatric complications of therapy. For each topic, a list of therapeutic interventions is provided, including classification of evidence. Following this, recommendations for management are given, alongside ratings of efficacy. Classifications of evidence and ratings of efficacy are made according to EFNS guidance. In cases where there is insufficient scientific evidence, a consensus statement (good practice point) is made.

  9. Changing Configurations of Adult Education in Transitional Times. Conference Proceedings of the Triennial European Research Conference of the European Society for Research on the Education of Adults (ESREA) (7th, Berlin, Germany, September 4-7, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Käpplinger, Bernd, Ed.; Lichte, Nina, Ed.; Haberzeth, Erik, Ed.; Kulmus, Claudia, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    This book assembles over 50 papers from the 7th Triennial European Research Conference of the European Society for Research on the Education of Adults (ESREA), which was held from the 4th to the 7th of September 2013 at Humboldt-University in Berlin. The title of the conference was "Changing Configurations of Adult Education in Transitional…

  10. Report of a European Society of Cardiology-European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions task force on the evaluation of coronary stents in Europe: executive summary.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Robert A; Serruys, Patrick W; Baumbach, Andreas; Escaned, Javier; Fajadet, Jean; James, Stefan; Joner, Michael; Oktay, Semih; Jüni, Peter; Kastrati, Adnan; Sianos, George; Stefanini, Giulio G; Wijns, William; Windecker, Stephan

    2015-10-01

    The evaluation for European Union market approval of coronary stents falls under the Medical Device Directive that was adopted in 1993. Specific requirements for the assessment of coronary stents are laid out in supplementary advisory documents. In response to a call by the European Commission to make recommendations for a revision of the advisory document on the evaluation of coronary stents (Appendix 1 of MEDDEV 2.7.1), the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) established a Task Force to develop an expert advisory report. As basis for its report, the ESC-EAPCI Task Force reviewed existing processes, established a comprehensive list of all coronary drug-eluting stents that have received a CE mark to date, and undertook a systematic review of the literature of all published randomized clinical trials evaluating clinical and angiographic outcomes of coronary artery stents between 2002 and 2013. Based on these data, the TF provided recommendations to inform a new regulatory process for coronary stents. The main recommendations of the task force include implementation of a standardized non-clinical assessment of stents and a novel clinical evaluation pathway for market approval. The two-stage clinical evaluation plan includes recommendation for an initial pre-market trial with objective performance criteria (OPC) benchmarking using invasive imaging follow-up leading to conditional CE-mark approval and a subsequent mandatory, large-scale randomized trial with clinical endpoint evaluation leading to unconditional CE-mark. The data analysis from the systematic review of the Task Force may provide a basis for determination of OPC for use in future studies. This paper represents an executive summary of the Task Force's report.

  11. Migration Related Socio-Cultural Changes and e-Learning in a European Globalising Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Johan; Trappers, Ann; Brandon, Emily; Ruppol, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    OECD figures (1998-2002) reveal a sharply increasing flow of foreign workers into European countries. Ethnic diversification has become a generalized matter of fact. At the same time, rapidly developing technology and "intellectual globalization" processes--the world wide web--have also become a reality. This complex cluster of changes has an…

  12. Reconstructing the history of marriage and residence strategies in Indo-European-speaking societies.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Laura

    2011-02-01

    This file provides additional information on the data and methods used in Fortunato (2011a, b), and discussion of the results of the fossilization of nodes Proto-Indo-Hittite (PIH) and Proto-Indo-European (PIE) for marriage and residence strategies.

  13. Design and Implementation Aspects of the Geological Data Infrastructure for European Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Krogt, Rob; Pedersen, Mikael; Tulstrup, Jørgen; Robida, François; Serrrano, Jean-Jacques; Grellet, Sylvain; Lee, Kathryn; Harrison, Matthew; Demicheli, Luca; Delfini, Claudia; Hugelier, Sara; van Daalen, Tirza

    2014-05-01

    Digital geological data play a vital role in responding to the key social and economic challenges facing the European and global communities in the 21st century. These challenges include sustainable supply of energy, water and mineral resources, mitigating the impacts of natural hazards, and responding to climate change by exploiting renewable energy sources and capturing and storing greenhouse gases. As a response to these challenges the European geological surveys have enhanced their collaboration to prepare the implementation of a European Geological Data Infrastructure (EGDI), in order to provide easily accessible, interoperable and harmonized geological information on a European and international level. The high-level objective is to create a proper information base that supports the provision of geological services for European and international organisations, international industry and any other stakeholder working at cross-border or international level. It is additionally expected that the easy access to geological data at European level will enhance the development of new applications. The datasets to be served by the EGDI will primarily originate from the National Geological Survey Organisations (NGSO's) in Europe and the infrastructure will build further on the results of past, present and future European research projects and international programs in which these surveys are involved, for example the OneGeology-Europe project that serves regularly updated geological maps at 1:1M scale for the European area via a web portal. To prepare the implementation of the EGDI the NGSO's collaborate under the framework of the EU-FP7 EGDI-Scope study. This paper will present the main results and conclusions of this program, covering the following main issues that are taken into account to achieve the objectives of the EGDI: Stakeholder involvement: The study has exchanged with representative stakeholders from organisations and institutions to cover perspectives from

  14. Diagnosis and management of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Guideline.

    PubMed

    Gralnek, Ian M; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Kuipers, Ernst J; Lanas, Angel; Sanders, David S; Kurien, Matthew; Rotondano, Gianluca; Hucl, Tomas; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mario; Marmo, Riccardo; Racz, Istvan; Arezzo, Alberto; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten; Lesur, Gilles; de Franchis, Roberto; Aabakken, Lars; Veitch, Andrew; Radaelli, Franco; Salgueiro, Paulo; Cardoso, Ricardo; Maia, Luís; Zullo, Angelo; Cipolletta, Livio; Hassan, Cesare

    2015-10-01

    This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It addresses the diagnosis and management of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (NVUGIH). Main Recommendations MR1. ESGE recommends immediate assessment of hemodynamic status in patients who present with acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH), with prompt intravascular volume replacement initially using crystalloid fluids if hemodynamic instability exists (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). MR2. ESGE recommends a restrictive red blood cell transfusion strategy that aims for a target hemoglobin between 7 g/dL and 9 g/dL. A higher target hemoglobin should be considered in patients with significant co-morbidity (e. g., ischemic cardiovascular disease) (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). MR3. ESGE recommends the use of the Glasgow-Blatchford Score (GBS) for pre-endoscopy risk stratification. Outpatients determined to be at very low risk, based upon a GBS score of 0 - 1, do not require early endoscopy nor hospital admission. Discharged patients should be informed of the risk of recurrent bleeding and be advised to maintain contact with the discharging hospital (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). MR4. ESGE recommends initiating high dose intravenous proton pump inhibitors (PPI), intravenous bolus followed by continuous infusion (80 mg then 8 mg/hour), in patients presenting with acute UGIH awaiting upper endoscopy. However, PPI infusion should not delay the performance of early endoscopy (strong recommendation, high quality evidence). MR5. ESGE does not recommend the routine use of nasogastric or orogastric aspiration/lavage in patients presenting with acute UGIH (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). MR6. ESGE recommends intravenous erythromycin (single dose, 250 mg given 30 - 120 minutes prior to upper gastrointestinal [GI] endoscopy) in patients with clinically severe

  15. Papillary cannulation and sphincterotomy techniques at ERCP: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Clinical Guideline.

    PubMed

    Testoni, Pier Alberto; Mariani, Alberto; Aabakken, Lars; Arvanitakis, Marianna; Bories, Erwan; Costamagna, Guido; Devière, Jacques; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mario; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Giovannini, Marc; Gyokeres, Tibor; Hafner, Michael; Halttunen, Jorma; Hassan, Cesare; Lopes, Luis; Papanikolaou, Ioannis S; Tham, Tony C; Tringali, Andrea; van Hooft, Jeanin; Williams, Earl J

    2016-07-01

    This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It provides practical advice on how to achieve successful cannulation and sphincterotomy at minimum risk to the patient. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system was adopted to define the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. Main recommendations 1 ESGE suggests that difficult biliary cannulation is defined by the presence of one or more of the following: more than 5 contacts with the papilla whilst attempting to cannulate; more than 5 minutes spent attempting to cannulate following visualization of the papilla; more than one unintended pancreatic duct cannulation or opacification (low quality evidence, weak recommendation). 2 ESGE recommends the guidewire-assisted technique for primary biliary cannulation, since it reduces the risk of post-ERCP pancreatitis (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation). 3 ESGE recommends using pancreatic guidewire (PGW)-assisted biliary cannulation in patients where biliary cannulation is difficult and repeated unintentional access to the main pancreatic duct occurs (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation). ESGE recommends attempting prophylactic pancreatic stenting in all patients with PGW-assisted attempts at biliary cannulation (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation). 4 ESGE recommends needle-knife fistulotomy as the preferred technique for precutting (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation). ESGE suggests that precutting should be used only by endoscopists who achieve selective biliary cannulation in more than 80 % of cases using standard cannulation techniques (low quality evidence, weak recommendation). When access to the pancreatic duct is easy to obtain, ESGE suggests placement of a pancreatic stent prior to precutting (moderate quality evidence, weak recommendation). 5 ESGE recommends that in patients with a small papilla

  16. Diagnosis and management of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Guideline.

    PubMed

    Gralnek, Ian M; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Kuipers, Ernst J; Lanas, Angel; Sanders, David S; Kurien, Matthew; Rotondano, Gianluca; Hucl, Tomas; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mario; Marmo, Riccardo; Racz, Istvan; Arezzo, Alberto; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten; Lesur, Gilles; de Franchis, Roberto; Aabakken, Lars; Veitch, Andrew; Radaelli, Franco; Salgueiro, Paulo; Cardoso, Ricardo; Maia, Luís; Zullo, Angelo; Cipolletta, Livio; Hassan, Cesare

    2015-10-01

    This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It addresses the diagnosis and management of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (NVUGIH). Main Recommendations MR1. ESGE recommends immediate assessment of hemodynamic status in patients who present with acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH), with prompt intravascular volume replacement initially using crystalloid fluids if hemodynamic instability exists (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). MR2. ESGE recommends a restrictive red blood cell transfusion strategy that aims for a target hemoglobin between 7 g/dL and 9 g/dL. A higher target hemoglobin should be considered in patients with significant co-morbidity (e. g., ischemic cardiovascular disease) (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). MR3. ESGE recommends the use of the Glasgow-Blatchford Score (GBS) for pre-endoscopy risk stratification. Outpatients determined to be at very low risk, based upon a GBS score of 0 - 1, do not require early endoscopy nor hospital admission. Discharged patients should be informed of the risk of recurrent bleeding and be advised to maintain contact with the discharging hospital (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). MR4. ESGE recommends initiating high dose intravenous proton pump inhibitors (PPI), intravenous bolus followed by continuous infusion (80 mg then 8 mg/hour), in patients presenting with acute UGIH awaiting upper endoscopy. However, PPI infusion should not delay the performance of early endoscopy (strong recommendation, high quality evidence). MR5. ESGE does not recommend the routine use of nasogastric or orogastric aspiration/lavage in patients presenting with acute UGIH (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). MR6. ESGE recommends intravenous erythromycin (single dose, 250 mg given 30 - 120 minutes prior to upper gastrointestinal [GI] endoscopy) in patients with clinically severe

  17. The Financing of Adult Learning in Civil Society: A European Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Paul; Bochynek, Bettina

    The financing of adult learning in civil society in Europe was examined in an exploratory study that focused on the relationship between nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the status of financing in the general field of adult learning. Adult education experts from the following countries were subcontracted to develop "country windows" on…

  18. Self-expandable metal stents for obstructing colonic and extracolonic cancer: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Clinical Guideline.

    PubMed

    van Hooft, Jeanin E; van Halsema, Emo E; Vanbiervliet, Geoffroy; Beets-Tan, Regina G H; DeWitt, John M; Donnellan, Fergal; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Glynne-Jones, Robert G T; Hassan, Cesare; Jiménez-Perez, Javier; Meisner, Søren; Muthusamy, V Raman; Parker, Michael C; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc; Sabbagh, Charles; Sagar, Jayesh; Tanis, Pieter J; Vandervoort, Jo; Webster, George J; Manes, Gianpiero; Barthet, Marc A; Repici, Alessandro

    2014-11-01

    This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). This Guideline was also reviewed and endorsed by the Governing Board of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE). The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system was adopted to define the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. Main recommendations The following recommendations should only be applied after a thorough diagnostic evaluation including a contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan. 1 Prophylactic colonic stent placement is not recommended. Colonic stenting should be reserved for patients with clinical symptoms and imaging evidence of malignant large-bowel obstruction, without signs of perforation (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 2 Colonic self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) placement as a bridge to elective surgery is not recommended as a standard treatment of symptomatic left-sided malignant colonic obstruction (strong recommendation, high quality evidence). 3 For patients with potentially curable but obstructing left-sided colonic cancer, stent placement may be considered as an alternative to emergency surgery in those who have an increased risk of postoperative mortality, I. e. American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Physical Status ≥ III and/or age > 70 years (weak recommendation, low quality evidence). 4 SEMS placement is recommended as the preferred treatment for palliation of malignant colonic obstruction (strong recommendation, high quality evidence), except in patients treated or considered for treatment with antiangiogenic drugs (e. g. bevacizumab) (strong recommendation, low quality evidence).

  19. Joint statement of the European Association for the Study of Obesity and the European Society of Hypertension: obesity and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Jens; Toplak, Hermann; Grassi, Guido; Yumuk, Volkan; Kotsis, Vasilios; Engeli, Stefan; Cuspidi, Cesare; Nilsson, Peter M; Finer, Nick; Doehner, Wolfram

    2016-09-01

    Obese individuals are more likely to develop heart failure. Yet, once heart failure is established, the impact of overweight and obesity on prognosis and survival is unclear. The purpose of this joint scientific statement of the European Association for the Study of Obesity and the European Society of Hypertension is to provide an overview on the current scientific literature on obesity and heart failure in terms of prognosis, mechanisms, and clinical management implications. Moreover, the document identifies open questions that ought to be addressed. The need for more tailored weight management recommendations in heart failure will be emphasized and, in line with the emerging evidence, aims to distinguish between primary disease and secondary outcome prevention. In the primary prevention of heart failure, it appears prudent advising obese individuals to lose or achieve a healthy body weight, especially in those with risk factors such as hypertension or type 2 diabetes. However, there is no evidence from clinical trials to guide weight management in overweight or obese patients with established heart failure. Prospective clinical trials are strongly encouraged. PMID:27488547

  20. Joint statement of the European Association for the Study of Obesity and the European Society of Hypertension: obesity and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Jens; Toplak, Hermann; Grassi, Guido; Yumuk, Volkan; Kotsis, Vasilios; Engeli, Stefan; Cuspidi, Cesare; Nilsson, Peter M; Finer, Nick; Doehner, Wolfram

    2016-09-01

    Obese individuals are more likely to develop heart failure. Yet, once heart failure is established, the impact of overweight and obesity on prognosis and survival is unclear. The purpose of this joint scientific statement of the European Association for the Study of Obesity and the European Society of Hypertension is to provide an overview on the current scientific literature on obesity and heart failure in terms of prognosis, mechanisms, and clinical management implications. Moreover, the document identifies open questions that ought to be addressed. The need for more tailored weight management recommendations in heart failure will be emphasized and, in line with the emerging evidence, aims to distinguish between primary disease and secondary outcome prevention. In the primary prevention of heart failure, it appears prudent advising obese individuals to lose or achieve a healthy body weight, especially in those with risk factors such as hypertension or type 2 diabetes. However, there is no evidence from clinical trials to guide weight management in overweight or obese patients with established heart failure. Prospective clinical trials are strongly encouraged.

  1. Holocene archeointensities from mid European ceramics, slags, burned sediments and cherts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapper, Kathrin Lisa; Donadini, Fabio; Hirt, Ann M.

    2015-04-01

    The Earth's geomagnetic field intensity in the past can be determined from archeological artifacts. These archeointensity data are important inputs for geomagnetic field models and local reference curves of Earth's magnetic field. Although archeointensities have been measured on materials for more than half a century ago, data are still scarce before 1000 BC and for the Alpine area in general. This investigation presents new absolute archeointensity data from a time period of 5000-700 BC from Italy and Switzerland. The archeological materials that were studied are ceramics, copper slag, and burned sediments from fireplaces. In addition, we investigated archeointensities from burned cherts, in order to uncover if they are a suitable material for paleomagnetism. Rock magnetic properties of all samples indicate magnetite, and small amounts of maghemite and hematite in the pseudosingle domain range as the ferromagnetic carriers. The IZZI protocol was used for 96 specimens to obtain absolute intensities; 23 ceramics, slags and burned cherts passed the threshold criteria, which we applied. The choice of the threshold values allowed us to obtain the linear part in the Arai diagram, which corresponds to the characteristic remanent magnetization. Burned sediments did not pass the threshold criteria, most probably because they acquired a thermochemical remanent magnetization during their formation. We demonstrate that magnetic susceptibility and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization can be used to select cherts that are suitable for paleointensity determinations. After applying anisotropy and cooling rate corrections, the new archeointensity values are lower for some samples, but fit well with available models and other archeomagnetic data.

  2. Scouting for Drivers of the European Knowledge Society: The Role of Social Participation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidoni, Daniele; Mascherini, Massimiliano; Manca, Anna Rita

    Knowledge is a relational good. The flow of interactions among the individuals of a group provide the necessary opportunities to share the existing knowledge and use it to further accumulate the (human) capital, which is the main productive input for the development of any knowledge economy. In this sense, the opportunities of social interaction are per se a resource and a dimension of knowledge. The analysis of individual civil participation in different kinds of civil formal organizations across Europe further confirms the existence of different European social models and hints to a possible positive parallelism between the effectiveness of economic policies and social policies aimed at fostering social participation.

  3. Position paper on the management of patients with obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension: joint recommendations by the European Society of Hypertension, by the European Respiratory Society and by the members of European COST (COoperation in Scientific and Technological research) ACTION B26 on obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Parati, Gianfranco; Lombardi, Carolina; Hedner, Jan; Bonsignore, Maria R; Grote, Ludger; Tkacova, Ruzena; Levy, Patrick; Riha, Renata; Bassetti, Claudio; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Mancia, Giuseppe; McNicholas, Walter T

    2012-04-01

    This article is aimed at addressing the current state of the art in epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic procedures and treatment options for appropriate management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in cardiovascular (particularly hypertensive) patients, as well as for the management of cardiovascular diseases (particularly arterial hypertension) in OSA patients. The present document is the result of the work done by a panel of experts participating in the European Union COST (COoperation in Scientific and Technological research) ACTION B26 on OSA, with the endorsement of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) and the European Society of Hypertension (ESH). These recommendations are particularly aimed at reminding cardiovascular experts to consider the occurrence of sleep-related breathing disorders in patients with high blood pressure. They are at the same time aimed at reminding respiration experts to consider the occurrence of hypertension in patients with respiratory problems at night.

  4. European Society of Coloproctology consensus on the surgical management of intestinal failure in adults.

    PubMed

    Vaizey, C J; Maeda, Y; Barbosa, E; Bozzetti, F; Calvo, J; Irtun, Ø; Jeppesen, P B; Klek, S; Panisic-Sekeljic, M; Papaconstantinou, I; Pascher, A; Panis, Y; Wallace, W D; Carlson, G; Boermeester, M

    2016-06-01

    Intestinal failure (IF) is a debilitating condition of inadequate nutrition due to an anatomical and/or physiological deficit of the intestine. Surgical management of patients with acute and chronic IF requires expertise to deal with technical challenges and make correct decisions. Dedicated IF units have expertise in patient selection, operative risk assessment and multidisciplinary support such as nutritional input and interventional radiology, which dramatically improve the morbidity and mortality of this complex condition and can beneficially affect the continuing dependence on parenteral nutritional support. Currently there is little guidance to bridge the gap between general surgeons and specialist IF surgeons. Fifteen European experts took part in a consensus process to develop guidance to support surgeons in the management of patients with IF. Based on a systematic literature review, statements were prepared for a modified Delphi process. The evidence for each statement was graded using Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine Levels of Evidence. The current paper contains the statements reflecting the position and practice of leading European experts in IF encompassing the general definition of IF surgery and organization of an IF unit, strategies to prevent IF, management of acute IF, management of wound, fistula and stoma, rehabilitation, intestinal and abdominal reconstruction, criteria for referral to a specialist unit and intestinal transplantation. PMID:26946219

  5. Preoperative evaluation of the adult patient undergoing non-cardiac surgery: guidelines from the European Society of Anaesthesiology.

    PubMed

    De Hert, Stefan; Imberger, Georgina; Carlisle, John; Diemunsch, Pierre; Fritsch, Gerhard; Moppett, Iain; Solca, Maurizio; Staender, Sven; Wappler, Frank; Smith, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of these guidelines on the preoperative evaluation of the adult non-cardiac surgery patient is to present recommendations based on available relevant clinical evidence. The ultimate aims of preoperative evaluation are two-fold. First, we aim to identify those patients for whom the perioperative period may constitute an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, aside from the risks associated with the underlying disease. Second, this should help us to design perioperative strategies that aim to reduce additional perioperative risks. Very few well performed randomised studies on the topic are available and many recommendations rely heavily on expert opinion and are adapted specifically to the healthcare systems in individual countries. This report aims to provide an overview of current knowledge on the subject with an assessment of the quality of the evidence in order to allow anaesthetists all over Europe to integrate - wherever possible - this knowledge into daily patient care. The Guidelines Committee of the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA) formed a task force with members of subcommittees of scientific subcommittees and individual members of the ESA. Electronic databases were searched from the year 2000 until July 2010 without language restrictions. These searches produced 15 425 abstracts. Relevant systematic reviews with meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional surveys were selected. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network grading system was used to assess the level of evidence and to grade recommendations. The final draft guideline was posted on the ESA website for 4 weeks and the link was sent to all ESA members, individual or national (thus including most European national anaesthesia societies). Comments were collated and the guidelines amended as appropriate. When the final draft was complete, the Guidelines Committee and ESA Board ratified the guidelines.

  6. Preoperative evaluation of the adult patient undergoing non-cardiac surgery: guidelines from the European Society of Anaesthesiology.

    PubMed

    De Hert, Stefan; Imberger, Georgina; Carlisle, John; Diemunsch, Pierre; Fritsch, Gerhard; Moppett, Iain; Solca, Maurizio; Staender, Sven; Wappler, Frank; Smith, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of these guidelines on the preoperative evaluation of the adult non-cardiac surgery patient is to present recommendations based on available relevant clinical evidence. The ultimate aims of preoperative evaluation are two-fold. First, we aim to identify those patients for whom the perioperative period may constitute an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, aside from the risks associated with the underlying disease. Second, this should help us to design perioperative strategies that aim to reduce additional perioperative risks. Very few well performed randomised studies on the topic are available and many recommendations rely heavily on expert opinion and are adapted specifically to the healthcare systems in individual countries. This report aims to provide an overview of current knowledge on the subject with an assessment of the quality of the evidence in order to allow anaesthetists all over Europe to integrate - wherever possible - this knowledge into daily patient care. The Guidelines Committee of the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA) formed a task force with members of subcommittees of scientific subcommittees and individual members of the ESA. Electronic databases were searched from the year 2000 until July 2010 without language restrictions. These searches produced 15 425 abstracts. Relevant systematic reviews with meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional surveys were selected. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network grading system was used to assess the level of evidence and to grade recommendations. The final draft guideline was posted on the ESA website for 4 weeks and the link was sent to all ESA members, individual or national (thus including most European national anaesthesia societies). Comments were collated and the guidelines amended as appropriate. When the final draft was complete, the Guidelines Committee and ESA Board ratified the guidelines. PMID

  7. EDITORIAL: Selected Papers from OMS'07, the 2nd Topical Meeting of the European Optical Society on Optical Microsystems (OMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendina, Ivo; Fazio, Eugenio; Ferraro, Pietro

    2008-06-01

    OMS'07 was the 2nd Topical Meeting of the European Optical Society (EOS) on Optical Microsystems (OMS). It was organized by the EOS in the frame of its international topical meeting activity, and after the success of the inaugural meeting was once again held in Italy, 30 September to 3 October 2007, amidst the wonderful scenery of the Island of Capri. The local organizing committee was composed of researchers from `La Sapienza' University in Rome and the National Council of Research (CNR) in Naples, Italy. A selected group of leading scientists in the field formed the international scientific committee. The conference was fully dedicated to the most recent advancements carried out in the field of optical microsystems. More then 150 scientists coming from five continents attended the conference and more than 100 papers were presented, organized into the following sessions: Photonic cystals and metamaterials Optofluidic microsystems and devices Optical microsystems and devices New characterization methods for materials and devices Application of optical systems Optical sources and photodetectors Optical resonators Nonlinear optic devices Micro-optical devices. Four keynote lecturers were invited for the Plenary sessions: Federico Capasso, Harvard University, USA; Bahram Javidi, University of Connecticut, USA (Distinguished Lecturer, Emeritus of LEOS--IEEE Society); Demetri Psaltis, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland; Ammon Yariv, California Institute of Technology, USA. Furthermore, 21 invited speakers opened each session of the conference with their talks. In addition a special session was organized to celebrate eighty years of the Isituto Nazionale di Ottica Applicata (INOA) of CNR. The special invited speaker for this session was Professor Theodor W Hänsch (Nobel Prize in Physics, 2005), who gave a lecture entitled `What can we do with optical frequency combs?' In this special issue of Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics, a selection of the most interesting

  8. The polycystic ovary syndrome: a position statement from the European Society of Endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Conway, Gerard; Dewailly, Didier; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F; Franks, Stephen; Gambineri, Alessandra; Kelestimur, Fahrettin; Macut, Djuro; Micic, Dragan; Pasquali, Renato; Pfeifer, Marija; Pignatelli, Duarte; Pugeat, Michel; Yildiz, Bulent O

    2014-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common ovarian disorder associated with androgen excess in women, which justifies the growing interest of endocrinologists. Great efforts have been made in the last 2 decades to define the syndrome. The presence of three different definitions for the diagnosis of PCOS reflects the phenotypic heterogeneity of the syndrome. Major criteria are required for the diagnosis, which in turn identifies different phenotypes according to the combination of different criteria. In addition, the relevant impact of metabolic issues, specifically insulin resistance and obesity, on the pathogenesis of PCOS, and the susceptibility to develop earlier than expected glucose intolerance states, including type 2 diabetes, has supported the notion that these aspects should be considered when defining the PCOS phenotype and planning potential therapeutic strategies in an affected subject. This paper offers a critical endocrine and European perspective on the debate on the definition of PCOS and summarises all major aspects related to aetiological factors, including early life events, potentially involved in the development of the disorder. Diagnostic tools of PCOS are also discussed, with emphasis on the laboratory evaluation of androgens and other potential biomarkers of ovarian and metabolic dysfunctions. We have also paid specific attention to the role of obesity, sleep disorders and neuropsychological aspects of PCOS and on the relevant pathogenetic aspects of cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, we have discussed how to target treatment choices based according to the phenotype and individual patient's needs. Finally, we have suggested potential areas of translational and clinical research for the future with specific emphasis on hormonal and metabolic aspects of PCOS.

  9. Cardiovascular disease and diabetes in people with severe mental illness position statement from the European Psychiatric Association (EPA), supported by the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).

    PubMed

    De Hert, M; Dekker, J M; Wood, D; Kahl, K G; Holt, R I G; Möller, H-J

    2009-09-01

    People with severe mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia, depression or bipolar disorder, have worse physical health and reduced life expectancy compared to the general population. The excess cardiovascular mortality associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is attributed in part to an increased risk of the modifiable coronary heart disease risk factors; obesity, smoking, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Antipsychotic medication and possibly other psychotropic medication like antidepressants can induce weight gain or worsen other metabolic cardiovascular risk factors. Patients may have limited access to general healthcare with less opportunity for cardiovascular risk screening and prevention than would be expected in a non-psychiatric population. The European Psychiatric Association (EPA), supported by the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) published this statement with the aim of improving the care of patients suffering from severe mental illness. The intention is to initiate cooperation and shared care between the different healthcare professionals and to increase the awareness of psychiatrists and primary care physicians caring for patients with severe mental illness to screen and treat cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes. PMID:19682863

  10. The European Cystic Fibrosis Society Patient Registry: valuable lessons learned on how to sustain a disease registry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Disease registries have the invaluable potential to provide an insight into the natural history of the disease under investigation, to provide useful information (e.g. through health indicators) for planning health care services and to identify suitable groups of patients for clinical trials enrolment. However, the establishment and maintenance of disease registries is a burdensome initiative from economical and organisational points of view and experience sharing on registries management is important to avoid waste of resources. The aim of this paper is to discuss the problems embedded in the institution and management of an international disease registry to warn against common mistakes that can derail the best of intentions: we share the experience of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society Patient Registry, which collects data on almost 30,000 patients from 23 countries. Methods We discuss the major problems that researchers often encounter in the creation and management of disease registries: definition of the aims the registry has to reach, definition of the criteria for patients referral to the registry, definition of the information to record, set up of a data quality process, handling of missing data, maintenance of data confidentiality, regulation of data use and dissemination of research results. Results We give examples on how many crucial aspects were solved by the European Cystic Fibrosis Society Patient Registry regarding objectives, inclusion criteria and variables definition, data management, data quality controls, missing data handling, confidentiality maintenance, data use and results dissemination. Conclusions We suggest an extensive literature research and discussions in working groups with different stake holders, including patient representatives, on the objectives, inclusion criteria and the information to record. We propose to pilot the recording of few variables and test the applicability of their definition first. The use of a

  11. European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases: update of the treatment guidance document for Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Debast, S B; Bauer, M P; Kuijper, E J

    2014-03-01

    In 2009 the first European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infection (ESCMID) treatment guidance document for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) was published. The guideline has been applied widely in clinical practice. In this document an update and review on the comparative effectiveness of the currently available treatment modalities of CDI is given, thereby providing evidence-based recommendations on this issue. A computerized literature search was carried out to investigate randomized and non-randomized trials investigating the effect of an intervention on the clinical outcome of CDI. The Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system was used to grade the strength of our recommendations and the quality of the evidence. The ESCMID and an international team of experts from 11 European countries supported the process. To improve clinical guidance in the treatment of CDI, recommendations are specified for various patient groups, e.g. initial non-severe disease, severe CDI, first recurrence or risk for recurrent disease, multiple recurrences and treatment of CDI when oral administration is not possible. Treatment options that are reviewed include: antibiotics, toxin-binding resins and polymers, immunotherapy, probiotics, and faecal or bacterial intestinal transplantation. Except for very mild CDI that is clearly induced by antibiotic usage antibiotic treatment is advised. The main antibiotics that are recommended are metronidazole, vancomycin and fidaxomicin. Faecal transplantation is strongly recommended for multiple recurrent CDI. In case of perforation of the colon and/or systemic inflammation and deteriorating clinical condition despite antibiotic therapy, total abdominal colectomy or diverting loop ileostomy combined with colonic lavage is recommended.

  12. PREFACE: European Microbeam Analysis Society's 14th European Workshop on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis (EMAS 2015), Portorož, Slovenia, 3-7 May 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llovet, Xavier; Matthews, Michael B.; Čeh, Miran; Langer, Enrico; Žagar, Kristina

    2016-02-01

    This volume of the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 14th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from the 3rd to the 7th of May 2015 in the Grand Hotel Bernardin, Portorož, Slovenia. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a unique format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field.This workshop was organized in collaboration with the Jožef Stefan Institute and SDM - Slovene Society for Microscopy. The technical programme included the following topics: electron probe microanalysis, STEM and EELS, materials applications, cathodoluminescence and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and their applications. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2016 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Columbus, Ohio. The prize went to Shirin Kaboli, of the Department of Metals and Materials Engineering of McGill University (Montréal, Canada), for her talk entitled "Electron channelling contrast reconstruction with electron backscattered diffraction". The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 71 posters from 16 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada, USA, and Australia. A selection of participants with posters was invited

  13. Reporting systems in gastrointestinal endoscopy: Requirements and standards facilitating quality improvement: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy position statement.

    PubMed

    Bretthauer, Michael; Aabakken, Lars; Dekker, Evelien; Kaminski, Michal F; Rösch, Thomas; Hultcrantz, Rolf; Suchanek, Stepan; Jover, Rodrigo; Kuipers, Ernst J; Bisschops, Raf; Spada, Cristiano; Valori, Roland; Domagk, Dirk; Rees, Colin; Rutter, Matthew D

    2016-04-01

    To develop standards for high quality of gastrointestinal endoscopy, the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) has established the ESGE Quality Improvement Committee. A prerequisite for quality assurance and improvement for all gastrointestinal endoscopy procedures is state-of-the-art integrated digital reporting systems for standardized documentation of the procedures. The current paper describes the ESGE's viewpoints on requirements for high-quality endoscopy reporting systems. The following recommendations are issued: Endoscopy reporting systems must be electronic.Endoscopy reporting systems should be integrated into hospital patient record systems.Endoscopy reporting systems should include patient identifiers to facilitate data linkage to other data sources.Endoscopy reporting systems shall restrict the use of free text entry to a minimum, and be based mainly on structured data entry.Separate entry of data for quality or research purposes is discouraged. Automatic data transfer for quality and research purposes must be facilitated.Double entry of data by the endoscopist or associate personnel is discouraged. Available data from outside sources (administrative or medical) must be made available automatically.Endoscopy reporting systems shall enable the inclusion of information on histopathology of detected lesions; patient's satisfaction; adverse events; surveillance recommendations.Endoscopy reporting systems must facilitate easy data retrieval at any time in a universally compatible format.Endoscopy reporting systems must include data fields for key performance indicators as defined by quality improvement committees.Endoscopy reporting systems must facilitate changes in indicators and data entry fields as required by professional organizations.

  14. Requirements and standards facilitating quality improvement for reporting systems in gastrointestinal endoscopy: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Position Statement.

    PubMed

    Bretthauer, Michael; Aabakken, Lars; Dekker, Evelien; Kaminski, Michal F; Rösch, Thomas; Hultcrantz, Rolf; Suchanek, Stepan; Jover, Rodrigo; Kuipers, Ernst J; Bisschops, Raf; Spada, Cristiano; Valori, Roland; Domagk, Dirk; Rees, Colin; Rutter, Matthew D

    2016-03-01

    To develop standards for high quality in gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) has established the ESGE Quality Improvement Committee. A prerequisite for quality assurance and improvement for all GI endoscopy procedures is state-of-the-art integrated digital reporting systems for standardized documentation of the procedures. The current paper describes the ESGE's viewpoints on the requirements for high-quality endoscopy reporting systems in GI endoscopy. Recommendations 1 Endoscopy reporting systems must be electronic. 2 Endoscopy reporting systems should be integrated into hospitals' patient record systems. 3 Endoscopy reporting systems should include patient identifiers to facilitate data linkage to other data sources. 4 Endoscopy reporting systems shall restrict the use of free-text entry to a minimum, and be based mainly on structured data entry. 5 Separate entry of data for quality or research purposes is discouraged. Automatic data transfer for quality and research purposes must be facilitated. 6 Double entry of data by the endoscopist or associate personnel is discouraged. Available data from outside sources (administrative or medical) must be made available automatically. 7 Endoscopy reporting systems shall facilitate the inclusion of information on histopathology of detected lesions, patient satisfaction, adverse events, and surveillance recommendations. 8 Endoscopy reporting systems must facilitate easy data retrieval at any time in a universally compatible format. 9 Endoscopy reporting systems must include data fields for key performance indicators as defined by quality improvement committees. 10 Endoscopy reporting systems must facilitate changes in indicators and data entry fields as required by professional organizations.

  15. Recommendations for the management of patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia: overview of a new European Atherosclerosis Society consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Bruckert, Eric

    2014-09-01

    Although homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) is rare, patients with this disease have a poor prognosis, even when they receive the best available treatment, including pharmacotherapy and apheresis. The current therapeutic gap emphasizes the potential impact of new and developmental treatment options, which include lomitapide, mipomersen, anti-PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies and CETP inhibitors. It is imperative that patients with HoFH receive the most appropriate treatment as early as possible and clinical guidance is needed to provide clinicians with the information they require to expedite diagnosis and initiate effective treatment. Until now, however, guidance on the management of (HoFH) has generally been included as part of broader guidelines on dyslipidemia, FH or low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-apheresis and even in guidelines specifically on FH, HoFH has been under-represented. A consensus statement on recommendations for the management of HoFH has recently been published by a working group of the European Atherosclerosis Society. An outline of the content of the statement is presented in the current paper. PMID:25257074

  16. Report on the activities of the ESHRE Task Force on intracytoplasmic sperm injection. European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

    PubMed

    Tarlatzis, B C

    1996-12-01

    The application of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is rapidly becoming more popular around the world. The European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) Task Force is aiming to collect annually the clinical results and the pregnancy outcomes of ICSI using ejaculated, epididymal and testicular spermatozoa to enable the provision of reliable information on the efficacy and safety of this novel technique. This review summarizes the activities of the ESHRE Task Force on ICSI during the last 2 years. The number of centres performing ICSI as well as the number of ICSI cycles increased significantly from 1993 to 1994. The incidence of oocytes damaged by the procedure was low (7.2-10.6%), whereas the fertilization rate achieved with ejaculated, epididymal and testicular spermatozoa was high (51.1-60.8%), even with extremely impaired semen quality. Thus, 89-93% of patients had an embryo transfer and 21-31% of them achieved a viable pregnancy, irrespective of the origin of the spermatozoon. ICSI results were similar in 1993 and 1994. The follow-up of children born after ICSI revealed no increase in the incidence of major congenital malformations or chromosomal aberrations. These findings are quite reassuring, although the numbers are still too few. Therefore, efforts need to be continued to enhance the database and thus provide a reliable assessment of this new treatment modality.

  17. Open partial horizontal laryngectomies: a proposal for classification by the working committee on nomenclature of the European Laryngological Society.

    PubMed

    Succo, G; Peretti, G; Piazza, C; Remacle, M; Eckel, H E; Chevalier, D; Simo, R; Hantzakos, A G; Rizzotto, G; Lucioni, M; Crosetti, E; Antonelli, A R

    2014-09-01

    We present herein the proposal of the European Laryngological Society working committee on nomenclature for a systematic classification of open partial horizontal laryngectomies (OPHL). This is based on the cranio-caudal extent of laryngeal structures resected, instead of a number of different and heterogeneous variables present in existing nomenclatures, usually referring to eponyms, types of pexy, or inferior limit of resection. According to the proposed classification system, we have defined three types of OPHLs: Type I (formerly defined horizontal supraglottic laryngectomy), Type II (previously called supracricoid laryngectomy), and Type III (also named supratracheal laryngectomy). Use of suffixes "a" and "b" in Type II and III OPHLs reflects sparing or not of the suprahyoid epiglottis. Various extensions to one arytenoid, base of tongue, piriform sinus, and crico-arytenoid unit are indicated by abbreviations (ARY, BOT, PIR, and CAU, respectively). Our proposal is not intended to give a comprehensive algorithm of application of different OPHLs to specific clinical situations, but to serve as the basis for obtaining a common language among the head and neck surgical community. We therefore intend to present this classification system as a simple and intuitive teaching instrument, and a tool to be able to compare surgical series with each other and with non-surgical data.

  18. European Society of Cardiology Guideline-Adherent Antithrombotic Treatment and Risk of Mortality in Asian Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheng-Hung; Liu, Chia-Jen; Chou, Annie Y.; Chao, Tze-Fan; Tuan, Ta-Chuan; Chen, Su-Jung; Wang, Kang-Ling; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Chang, Shih-Lin; Lo, Li-Wei; Hu, Yu-Feng; Chung, Fa-Po; Liao, Jo-Nan; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Wu, Tsu-Juey; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the risk of mortality in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients treated adherent to the 2012 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines for stroke prevention and those who were not treated according to guideline recommendations. This study used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. From 1996 to 2011, 354,649 newly diagnosed AF patients were identified as the study population. Among the study cohort, 45,595 and 309,054 patients were defined as Guideline-Adherent and Non-Adherent groups, respectively. During the follow up of 1,480,280 person-years, 133,552 (37.7%) patients experienced mortality. The risk of mortality was lower among AF patients whose treatment was adherent to the guideline recommendation for stroke prevention than those whose treatment was not (annual risk of mortality = 4.3% versus 10.0%) with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.62 (95% confidence interval = 0.61–0.64, p value < 0.001) after adjusting for age, gender, CHA2DS2-VASc score and antiplatelet therapy. The findings were consistently observed after propensity matching analysis. In conclusion, the risk of mortality was lower for AF patients who were treated according to the antithrombotic recommendations of the 2012 ESC guidelines, guided by the CHA2DS2-VASc score. Better efforts to implement guidelines would lead to improved outcomes for patients with AF. PMID:27498702

  19. Reporting systems in gastrointestinal endoscopy: Requirements and standards facilitating quality improvement: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy position statement.

    PubMed

    Bretthauer, Michael; Aabakken, Lars; Dekker, Evelien; Kaminski, Michal F; Rösch, Thomas; Hultcrantz, Rolf; Suchanek, Stepan; Jover, Rodrigo; Kuipers, Ernst J; Bisschops, Raf; Spada, Cristiano; Valori, Roland; Domagk, Dirk; Rees, Colin; Rutter, Matthew D

    2016-04-01

    To develop standards for high quality of gastrointestinal endoscopy, the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) has established the ESGE Quality Improvement Committee. A prerequisite for quality assurance and improvement for all gastrointestinal endoscopy procedures is state-of-the-art integrated digital reporting systems for standardized documentation of the procedures. The current paper describes the ESGE's viewpoints on requirements for high-quality endoscopy reporting systems. The following recommendations are issued: Endoscopy reporting systems must be electronic.Endoscopy reporting systems should be integrated into hospital patient record systems.Endoscopy reporting systems should include patient identifiers to facilitate data linkage to other data sources.Endoscopy reporting systems shall restrict the use of free text entry to a minimum, and be based mainly on structured data entry.Separate entry of data for quality or research purposes is discouraged. Automatic data transfer for quality and research purposes must be facilitated.Double entry of data by the endoscopist or associate personnel is discouraged. Available data from outside sources (administrative or medical) must be made available automatically.Endoscopy reporting systems shall enable the inclusion of information on histopathology of detected lesions; patient's satisfaction; adverse events; surveillance recommendations.Endoscopy reporting systems must facilitate easy data retrieval at any time in a universally compatible format.Endoscopy reporting systems must include data fields for key performance indicators as defined by quality improvement committees.Endoscopy reporting systems must facilitate changes in indicators and data entry fields as required by professional organizations. PMID:27087943

  20. European Society of Cardiology Guideline-Adherent Antithrombotic Treatment and Risk of Mortality in Asian Patients with Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng-Hung; Liu, Chia-Jen; Chou, Annie Y; Chao, Tze-Fan; Tuan, Ta-Chuan; Chen, Su-Jung; Wang, Kang-Ling; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Chang, Shih-Lin; Lo, Li-Wei; Hu, Yu-Feng; Chung, Fa-Po; Liao, Jo-Nan; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Wu, Tsu-Juey; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the risk of mortality in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients treated adherent to the 2012 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines for stroke prevention and those who were not treated according to guideline recommendations. This study used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. From 1996 to 2011, 354,649 newly diagnosed AF patients were identified as the study population. Among the study cohort, 45,595 and 309,054 patients were defined as Guideline-Adherent and Non-Adherent groups, respectively. During the follow up of 1,480,280 person-years, 133,552 (37.7%) patients experienced mortality. The risk of mortality was lower among AF patients whose treatment was adherent to the guideline recommendation for stroke prevention than those whose treatment was not (annual risk of mortality = 4.3% versus 10.0%) with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.62 (95% confidence interval = 0.61-0.64, p value < 0.001) after adjusting for age, gender, CHA2DS2-VASc score and antiplatelet therapy. The findings were consistently observed after propensity matching analysis. In conclusion, the risk of mortality was lower for AF patients who were treated according to the antithrombotic recommendations of the 2012 ESC guidelines, guided by the CHA2DS2-VASc score. Better efforts to implement guidelines would lead to improved outcomes for patients with AF. PMID:27498702

  1. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 11th European Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-07-01

    This volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 11th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from 10-14 May 2009 in the Hotel Faltom, Gdynia, Poland. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on careers in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very distinct format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. For this workshop EMAS invited speakers on the following topics: EPMA, EBSD, fast energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, three-dimensional microanalysis, and micro-and nanoanalysis in the natural resources industry. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 69 posters from 16 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan and the USA. A number of participants with posters were invited to give short oral presentations of their work in two dedicated sessions. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. Small cash prizes were awarded for the three best posters and for the best oral presentation by a young scientist. The prize for the best poster went to the contribution by G Tylko, S Dubchak, Z Banach and K Turnau, entitled Monte Carlo simulation for an assessment of standard validity and quantitative X-ray microanalysis in plant. Joanna Wojewoda-Budka of the Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Krakow, received the prize for the best oral presentation by a

  2. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 11th European Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-07-01

    This volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 11th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from 10-14 May 2009 in the Hotel Faltom, Gdynia, Poland. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on careers in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very distinct format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. For this workshop EMAS invited speakers on the following topics: EPMA, EBSD, fast energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, three-dimensional microanalysis, and micro-and nanoanalysis in the natural resources industry. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 69 posters from 16 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan and the USA. A number of participants with posters were invited to give short oral presentations of their work in two dedicated sessions. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. Small cash prizes were awarded for the three best posters and for the best oral presentation by a young scientist. The prize for the best poster went to the contribution by G Tylko, S Dubchak, Z Banach and K Turnau, entitled Monte Carlo simulation for an assessment of standard validity and quantitative X-ray microanalysis in plant. Joanna Wojewoda-Budka of the Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Krakow, received the prize for the best oral presentation by a

  3. [Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia: Spanish adaptation of the position paper from the Consensus Panel on Familial Hypercholesterolaemia of the European Atherosclerosis Society. Consensus document of the Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis (SEA) and Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Foundation (FHF)].

    PubMed

    Ascaso, Juan F; Mata, Pedro; Arbona, Cristina; Civeira, Fernando; Valdivielso, Pedro; Masana, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) is a rare life-threatening disease characterized by markedly elevated circulating levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and accelerated, premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD). The Consensus Panel on Familial Hypercholesterolaemia of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) has recently published a clinical guide to diagnose and manage HoFH (Eur Heart J. 2014;35:2146-57). Both the Spanish Society of Atherosclerosis (SEA) and Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Foundation (FHF) consider this European Consensus document of great value and utility. However, there are particularities in our country which advise to have a Spanish adaptation of the European HoFH document in order to approximate this clinical guide to our environment. In Spain, chronic treatment with statins, ezetimibe and resins (colesevelam) has a reduced contribution in the National Health System (NHS) and is one of the few European countries where LDL apheresis is included in the Basic Service Portfolio coverage. This Spanish document also includes clinical experience in the management of these patients in our country. The Drafting Committee emphasizes the need for early identification of HoFH patients, prompt referral to specialized units, and an early and appropriate treatment. These recommendations will provide a guidance for HoFH patient management in Spain. PMID:25757840

  4. [Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia: Spanish adaptation of the position paper from the Consensus Panel on Familial Hypercholesterolaemia of the European Atherosclerosis Society. Consensus document of the Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis (SEA) and Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Foundation (FHF)].

    PubMed

    Ascaso, Juan F; Mata, Pedro; Arbona, Cristina; Civeira, Fernando; Valdivielso, Pedro; Masana, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) is a rare life-threatening disease characterized by markedly elevated circulating levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and accelerated, premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD). The Consensus Panel on Familial Hypercholesterolaemia of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) has recently published a clinical guide to diagnose and manage HoFH (Eur Heart J. 2014;35:2146-57). Both the Spanish Society of Atherosclerosis (SEA) and Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Foundation (FHF) consider this European Consensus document of great value and utility. However, there are particularities in our country which advise to have a Spanish adaptation of the European HoFH document in order to approximate this clinical guide to our environment. In Spain, chronic treatment with statins, ezetimibe and resins (colesevelam) has a reduced contribution in the National Health System (NHS) and is one of the few European countries where LDL apheresis is included in the Basic Service Portfolio coverage. This Spanish document also includes clinical experience in the management of these patients in our country. The Drafting Committee emphasizes the need for early identification of HoFH patients, prompt referral to specialized units, and an early and appropriate treatment. These recommendations will provide a guidance for HoFH patient management in Spain.

  5. European Higher Education Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcal-Grilo, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    In his paper, the author--an academic and former Minister of Education for Portugal--traces the origins of the Bologna Declaration of 1999 and its follow-up studies leading to the Prague Conference of Higher Education Ministers in May 2001. He summarises the outcomes of the Prague Conference, and draws conclusions on the crucial role of…

  6. [Scientific collaboration of the Society of Medicine and Natural Science in Jassy with prominent European scientists during the first decades of its existence].

    PubMed

    Brodel, E G; Ionescu, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    This article details the scientific collaboration of the Society of Medicine and Natural Science in Jassy with prominent European scientists during the first decades of its existence. The intensity of the scientific contacts of the Society of Medicine and Natural Science in Jassy arise from detailed analysis of the correspondence that outlasts time in the state archive of Jassy. 75% of this correspondence was written in German, and most of it was sent from the German Confederate or the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. This influence and contribution of German science in Moldavian natural science development, was undoubtedly in the first half of the 19th century. This can be attributed to dr. Iacob Cihac, one of the founders of the Society, who was born in Aschaffenburg (Germany) and studied medicine in Heidelberg (Germany), before he moved to Moldavia. Based on the initiative of drs. Cihac and Zotta, and not least the financial support of a part of the Moldavian high class and the Moldavian government, the Society of Medicine and Natural Science in Jassy was founded in 1833. This became the first scientific society in the territory of modern Romania. Since the inception of the Moldavian Society of Medicine and Natural Science in Jassy, it has pushed the boundaries of a simple scientific society. This society provides an encyclopedic framework of most of the scientific subjects of the 19th century (medicine, pharmacy, natural science, agronomy, paleontology and geology). It played a major role during the democratization of the Moldavian education system, for example by founding a medical school teaching in the Romanian language in Jassy. The society survived and continued to maintain scientific activities during all the political changes in Moldavia during the 19th century, particularly the revolution of 1848 and the unification process of Romania. The influence and activity of the society in Jassy has continued to make a significant contribution to science and education

  7. Reporting systems in gastrointestinal endoscopy: Requirements and standards facilitating quality improvement: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy position statement

    PubMed Central

    Aabakken, Lars; Dekker, Evelien; Kaminski, Michal F; Rösch, Thomas; Hultcrantz, Rolf; Suchanek, Stepan; Jover, Rodrigo; Kuipers, Ernst J; Bisschops, Raf; Spada, Cristiano; Valori, Roland; Domagk, Dirk; Rees, Colin; Rutter, Matthew D

    2016-01-01

    To develop standards for high quality of gastrointestinal endoscopy, the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) has established the ESGE Quality Improvement Committee. A prerequisite for quality assurance and improvement for all gastrointestinal endoscopy procedures is state-of-the-art integrated digital reporting systems for standardized documentation of the procedures. The current paper describes the ESGE’s viewpoints on requirements for high-quality endoscopy reporting systems. The following recommendations are issued: Endoscopy reporting systems must be electronic.Endoscopy reporting systems should be integrated into hospital patient record systems.Endoscopy reporting systems should include patient identifiers to facilitate data linkage to other data sources.Endoscopy reporting systems shall restrict the use of free text entry to a minimum, and be based mainly on structured data entry.Separate entry of data for quality or research purposes is discouraged. Automatic data transfer for quality and research purposes must be facilitated.Double entry of data by the endoscopist or associate personnel is discouraged. Available data from outside sources (administrative or medical) must be made available automatically.Endoscopy reporting systems shall enable the inclusion of information on histopathology of detected lesions; patient’s satisfaction; adverse events; surveillance recommendations.Endoscopy reporting systems must facilitate easy data retrieval at any time in a universally compatible format.Endoscopy reporting systems must include data fields for key performance indicators as defined by quality improvement committees.Endoscopy reporting systems must facilitate changes in indicators and data entry fields as required by professional organizations. PMID:27087943

  8. Prevention of cisplatin nephrotoxicity: state of the art and recommendations from the European Society of Clinical Pharmacy Special Interest Group on Cancer Care.

    PubMed

    Launay-Vacher, Vincent; Rey, Jean-Baptiste; Isnard-Bagnis, Corinne; Deray, Gilbert; Daouphars, Mikael

    2008-05-01

    Antineoplastic drugs used in the treatment of cancers present with variable renal tolerance profiles. Among drugs with a potential for renal toxicity, platinum salts, and especially cisplatin is a well-known agent that may induce acute and chronic renal failure. The mechanisms of its renal toxicity and the means of its prevention are presented in this article which represent the Clinical Recommendation from the Special Interest Group on Cancer Care of the European Society of Clinical Pharmacy (ESCP).

  9. The need for interaction between assisted reproduction technology and genetics: recommendations of the European Societies of Human Genetics and Human Reproduction and Embryology.

    PubMed

    2006-08-01

    Infertility and reproductive genetic risk are both increasing in our societies because of lifestyle changes and possibly environmental factors. Owing to the magnitude of the problem, they have implications not only at the individual and family levels but also at the community level. This leads to an increasing demand for access to assisted reproduction technology (ART) and genetic services, especially when the cause of infertility may be genetic in origin. The increasing application of genetics in reproductive medicine and vice versa requires closer collaboration between the two disciplines. ART and genetics are rapidly evolving fields where new technologies are currently introduced without sufficient knowledge of their potential long-term effects. As for any medical procedures, there are possible unexpected effects which need to be envisaged to make sure that the balance between benefits and risks is clearly on the benefit side. The development of ART and genetics as scientific activities is creating an opportunity to understand the early stages of human development, which is leading to new and challenging findings/knowledge. However, there are opinions against investigating the early stages of development in humans who deserve respect and attention. For all these reasons, these two societies, European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE), have joined efforts to explore the issues at stake and to set up recommendations to maximize the benefit for the couples in need and for the community.

  10. Survey on intracytoplasmic sperm injection: report from the ESHRE ICSI Task Force. European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

    PubMed

    Tarlatzis, B C; Bili, H

    1998-04-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has revolutionized the treatment of male infertility, since normal fertilization and ongoing pregnancies can be achieved with severely affected spermatozoa. Hence, the application of ICSI is rapidly expanding around the world, necessitating an accurate assessment of the efficacy and safety of this novel technique. The European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) Task Force is gathering data annually on the clinical results, the pregnancy outcome and the follow-up of children born after ICSI using ejaculated, epididymal and testicular spermatozoa, in order to be able to provide reliable information on these important issues. During the 3 years 1993-1995, the number of centres performing ICSI increased from 35 to 101, and the total number of ICSI cycles performed per year rose from 3157 to 23932. The incidence of oocytes damaged by the procedure remained low (<10%) and the fertilization rates obtained with ejaculated, epididymal and testicular spermatozoa in 1995 were 64, 62.5 and 52% respectively. Thus, approximately 90% of the couples had an embryo transfer and the viable pregnancy rate was 21% for ejaculated, 22% for epididymal and 19% for testicular spermatozoa (with 25-30% multiple pregnancies). Furthermore, 3149 transfers of frozen-thawed embryos were performed and 7-11% of them resulted in a viable pregnancy. The ICSI results were similar during this 3 year period, irrespective of the origin of the spermatozoa. The perinatal outcome of children born after ICSI was not different from those born after in-vitro fertilization (IVF) or natural conception, and was only affected by multiplicity. Moreover, the incidence of major or minor malformations was not increased, but the chromosomal, especially the sex-chromosomal, aberration rate was slightly elevated. To summarize, a very high success rate is obtained by ICSI independently of the source of the spermatozoa, verifying the superiority of ICSI over

  11. US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation and European Cystic Fibrosis Society consensus recommendations for the management of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in individuals with cystic fibrosis: executive summary

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, Kenneth N; Saiman, Lisa; Daley, Charles L; Herrmann, Jean-Louis; Nick, Jerry A; Noone, Peadar G; Bilton, Diana; Corris, Paul; Gibson, Ronald L; Hempstead, Sarah E; Koetz, Karsten; Sabadosa, Kathryn A; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Smyth, Alan R; van Ingen, Jakko; Wallace, Richard J; Winthrop, Kevin L; Marshall, Bruce C; Haworth, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous environmental organisms that can cause chronic pulmonary infection, particularly in individuals with pre-existing inflammatory lung disease, such as cystic fibrosis (CF). Pulmonary disease (PD) caused by NTM has emerged as a major threat to the health of individuals with CF, but remains difficult to diagnose and problematic to treat. In response to this challenge, the US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF) and the European Cystic Fibrosis Society (ECFS) convened a panel of 19 experts to develop consensus recommendations for the screening, investigation, diagnosis and management of NTM-PD in individuals with CF. PICO (population, intervention, comparison, outcome) methodology and systematic literature reviews were employed to inform draft recommendations, which were then modified to achieve consensus and subsequently circulated for public consultation within the USA and European CF communities. We have thus generated a series of pragmatic, evidence-based recommendations as an initial step in optimising management for this challenging condition. PMID:26678435

  12. US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation and European Cystic Fibrosis Society consensus recommendations for the management of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in individuals with cystic fibrosis: executive summary.

    PubMed

    Floto, R Andres; Olivier, Kenneth N; Saiman, Lisa; Daley, Charles L; Herrmann, Jean-Louis; Nick, Jerry A; Noone, Peadar G; Bilton, Diana; Corris, Paul; Gibson, Ronald L; Hempstead, Sarah E; Koetz, Karsten; Sabadosa, Kathryn A; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Smyth, Alan R; van Ingen, Jakko; Wallace, Richard J; Winthrop, Kevin L; Marshall, Bruce C; Haworth, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous environmental organisms that can cause chronic pulmonary infection, particularly in individuals with pre-existing inflammatory lung disease, such as cystic fibrosis (CF). Pulmonary disease (PD) caused by NTM has emerged as a major threat to the health of individuals with CF, but remains difficult to diagnose and problematic to treat. In response to this challenge, the US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF) and the European Cystic Fibrosis Society (ECFS) convened a panel of 19 experts to develop consensus recommendations for the screening, investigation, diagnosis and management of NTM-PD in individuals with CF. PICO (population, intervention, comparison, outcome) methodology and systematic literature reviews were employed to inform draft recommendations, which were then modified to achieve consensus and subsequently circulated for public consultation within the USA and European CF communities. We have thus generated a series of pragmatic, evidence-based recommendations as an initial step in optimising management for this challenging condition.

  13. Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome/veno-occlusive disease: current situation and perspectives—a position statement from the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT)

    PubMed Central

    Mohty, M; Malard, F; Abecassis, M; Aerts, E; Alaskar, A S; Aljurf, M; Arat, M; Bader, P; Baron, F; Bazarbachi, A; Blaise, D; Ciceri, F; Corbacioglu, S; Dalle, J-H; Duarte, R F; Fukuda, T; Huynh, A; Masszi, T; Michallet, M; Nagler, A; NiChonghaile, M; Pagluica, T; Peters, C; Petersen, F B; Richardson, P G; Ruutu, T; Savani, B N; Wallhult, E; Yakoub-Agha, I; Carreras, E

    2015-01-01

    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome or veno-occlusive disease (SOS/VOD) is a potentially life-threatening complication of hematopoietic SCT (HSCT). This review aims to highlight, on behalf of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, the current knowledge on SOS/VOD pathophysiology, risk factors, diagnosis and treatments. Our perspectives on SOS/VOD are (i) to accurately identify its risk factors; (ii) to define new criteria for its diagnosis; (iii) to search for SOS/VOD biomarkers and (iv) to propose prospective studies evaluating SOS/VOD prevention and treatment in adults and children. PMID:25798682

  14. Free vascular fibular transfer in congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia: results of the EPOS multicenter study. European Paediatric Orthopaedic Society (EPOS).

    PubMed

    Romanus, B; Bollini, G; Dungl, P; Fixsen, J; Grill, F; Hefti, F; Ippolito, E; Tudisco, C; Wientroub, S

    2000-04-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature, describes the principal author's (B.R.) personal experience and provides the results of the European Paediatric Orthopaedic Society (EPOS) multicenter study. The objective is to evaluate the present status and future role of free vascular fibular transfer in treating congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia. Variables such as the selection of cases, age at operation, technical surgical details and postoperative results will be considered. The data on the EPOS study were incomplete at the time of writing, but the considerable amount of information already amassed is a valuable contribution to this updated report. PMID:10868357

  15. Endoscopy in patients on antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy, including direct oral anticoagulants: British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) and European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Veitch, Andrew M; Vanbiervliet, Geoffroy; Gershlick, Anthony H; Boustiere, Christian; Baglin, Trevor P; Smith, Lesley-Ann; Radaelli, Franco; Knight, Evelyn; Gralnek, Ian M; Hassan, Cesare; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    The risk of endoscopy in patients on antithrombotics depends on the risks of procedural haemorrhage versus thrombosis due to discontinuation of therapy. P2Y12 receptor antagonists (clopidogrel, prasugrel, ticagrelor) For low-risk endoscopic procedures we recommend continuing P2Y12 receptor antagonists as single or dual antiplatelet therapy (low quality evidence, strong recommendation); For high-risk endoscopic procedures in patients at low thrombotic risk, we recommend discontinuing P2Y12 receptor antagonists five days before the procedure (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation). In patients on dual antiplatelet therapy, we suggest continuing aspirin (low quality evidence, weak recommendation). For high-risk endoscopic procedures in patients at high thrombotic risk, we recommend continuing aspirin and liaising with a cardiologist about the risk/benefit of discontinuation of P2Y12 receptor antagonists (high quality evidence, strong recommendation). Warfarin The advice for warfarin is fundamentally unchanged from British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) 2008 guidance. Direct Oral Anticoagulants (DOAC) For low-risk endoscopic procedures we suggest omitting the morning dose of DOAC on the day of the procedure (very low quality evidence, weak recommendation); For high-risk endoscopic procedures, we recommend that the last dose of DOAC be taken ≥48 h before the procedure (very low quality evidence, strong recommendation). For patients on dabigatran with CrCl (or estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR) of 30–50 mL/min we recommend that the last dose of DOAC be taken 72 h before the procedure (very low quality evidence, strong recommendation). In any patient with rapidly deteriorating renal function a haematologist should be consulted (low quality evidence, strong recommendation). PMID:26873868

  16. An Official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Workshop Report: Evaluation of Respiratory Mechanics and Function in the Pediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care Units.

    PubMed

    Peterson-Carmichael, Stacey; Seddon, Paul C; Cheifetz, Ira M; Frerichs, Inéz; Hall, Graham L; Hammer, Jürg; Hantos, Zoltán; van Kaam, Anton H; McEvoy, Cindy T; Newth, Christopher J L; Pillow, J Jane; Rafferty, Gerrard F; Rosenfeld, Margaret; Stocks, Janet; Ranganathan, Sarath C

    2016-02-01

    Ready access to physiologic measures, including respiratory mechanics, lung volumes, and ventilation/perfusion inhomogeneity, could optimize the clinical management of the critically ill pediatric or neonatal patient and minimize lung injury. There are many techniques for measuring respiratory function in infants and children but very limited information on the technical ease and applicability of these tests in the pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit (PICU, NICU) environments. This report summarizes the proceedings of a 2011 American Thoracic Society Workshop critically reviewing techniques available for ventilated and spontaneously breathing infants and children in the ICU. It outlines for each test how readily it is performed at the bedside and how it may impact patient management as well as indicating future areas of potential research collaboration. From expert panel discussions and literature reviews, we conclude that many of the techniques can aid in optimizing respiratory support in the PICU and NICU, quantifying the effect of therapeutic interventions, and guiding ventilator weaning and extubation. Most techniques now have commercially available equipment for the PICU and NICU, and many can generate continuous data points to help with ventilator weaning and other interventions. Technical and validation studies in the PICU and NICU are published for the majority of techniques; some have been used as outcome measures in clinical trials, but few have been assessed specifically for their ability to improve clinical outcomes. Although they show considerable promise, these techniques still require further study in the PICU and NICU together with increased availability of commercial equipment before wider incorporation into daily clinical practice.

  17. Population Aging in the European Information Societies: Towards a Comprehensive Research Agenda in eHealth Innovations for Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Vancea, Mihaela; Solé-Casals, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Population ageing is one of the major social and economic challenges of our contemporary societies. With the advent of the information society, new research and technological developments have been promoted in the field of assistive technologies and information and communication technologies of benefit to elderly people. This article examines the potentialities of new informatics developments in generating solutions to better address elderly people’s daily-life, especially those with chronic illness and/or low autonomy. The authours attempt to propose a research agenda, by exposing various strengts and weaknesses of eHealth innovations for elderly, mainly grounded in secondary sources analysis. PMID:27493837

  18. Population Aging in the European Information Societies: Towards a Comprehensive Research Agenda in eHealth Innovations for Elderly.

    PubMed

    Vancea, Mihaela; Solé-Casals, Jordi

    2016-08-01

    Population ageing is one of the major social and economic challenges of our contemporary societies. With the advent of the information society, new research and technological developments have been promoted in the field of assistive technologies and information and communication technologies of benefit to elderly people. This article examines the potentialities of new informatics developments in generating solutions to better address elderly people's daily-life, especially those with chronic illness and/or low autonomy. The authours attempt to propose a research agenda, by exposing various strengts and weaknesses of eHealth innovations for elderly, mainly grounded in secondary sources analysis. PMID:27493837

  19. Managing Multilingualism in a European Nation-State: Challenges for Sweden. Current Issues in Language and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Sally, Ed.; Huss, Leena, Ed.

    This collection of papers presents a range of views about the three-layered language situation in Sweden, a situation not unlike that in many other countries worldwide. The papers include the following: "Introduction" (Sally Boyd and Leena Huss); "Swedish, English, and the European Union" (Bjorn Melander), which summarizes studies that focus on…

  20. Best practice guidelines in the psychosocial management of HPV-related head and neck cancer: recommendations from the European Head and Neck Cancer Society's Make Sense Campaign.

    PubMed

    Reich, M; Licitra, L; Vermorken, J B; Bernier, J; Parmar, S; Golusinski, W; Castellsagué, X; Leemans, C R

    2016-10-01

    Over the past three decades, oral human papillomavirus (HPV) has been associated with an increase in the incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) in several countries. Specialist oncologists in head and neck cancer are observing a wider range of demographics, sexual behaviours, and survival outcomes with their patients. Additionally, there are fewer smokers, consumers of alcohol, or people of lower socioeconomic status than in previous decades. In order to support patients, the European Head and Neck Society's Make Sense Campaign aims to promote best practice in the management of head and neck cancer through the delivery of counselling, psychological assessment, support with the patient experience following HPV-related cancer diagnosis, sexual impact (in terms of communication, behaviour and prevention), facilitating access to educational resources about HPV in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and OPSCC, and early referral if necessary. New concerns about psychosocial distress and unmet psychosocial needs following diagnosis, therefore, exist throughout the disease and treatment periods. Oncologists treating patients with HPV-related head and neck cancer must integrate new parameters focused on infection risk transmission and sexual topics. The development and dissemination of best practice guidelines through The European Head and Neck Cancer Society Make Sense Campaign will help healthcare professionals to be more confident and resourceful in supporting patients with HPV-related head and neck cancer.

  1. Clinical evaluation of cardiovascular devices: principles, problems, and proposals for European regulatory reform. Report of a policy conference of the European Society of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Alan G; Daubert, Jean-Claude; Van de Werf, Frans; Estes, N A Mark; Smith, Sidney C; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Vardas, Panos E; Komajda, Michel

    2011-07-01

    The European Commission announced in 2008 that a fundamental revision of the medical device directives is being considered in order to clarify and strengthen the current legal framework. The system for testing and approving devices in Europe was established >20 years ago as a 'New Approach' to a previously little-regulated industry. It is recognized by many that the regulatory system has not kept pace with technological advances and changing patterns of medical practice. New legislation will be drafted during 2011, but medical experts have been little involved in this important process. This context makes it an opportune time for a professional association to advise from both clinical and academic perspectives about changes which should be made to improve the safety and efficacy of devices used in clinical practice and to develop more appropriate systems for their clinical evaluation and post-marketing surveillance. This report summarizes how medical devices are regulated and it reviews some serious clinical problems that have occurred with cardiovascular devices. Finally, it presents the main recommendations from a Policy Conference on the Clinical Evaluation of Cardiovascular Devices that was held at the European Heart House in January 2011.

  2. Clinical evaluation of cardiovascular devices: principles, problems, and proposals for European regulatory reform. Report of a policy conference of the European Society of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Alan G; Daubert, Jean-Claude; Van de Werf, Frans; Estes, N A Mark; Smith, Sidney C; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Vardas, Panos E; Komajda, Michel

    2011-07-01

    The European Commission announced in 2008 that a fundamental revision of the medical device directives is being considered in order to clarify and strengthen the current legal framework. The system for testing and approving devices in Europe was established >20 years ago as a 'New Approach' to a previously little-regulated industry. It is recognized by many that the regulatory system has not kept pace with technological advances and changing patterns of medical practice. New legislation will be drafted during 2011, but medical experts have been little involved in this important process. This context makes it an opportune time for a professional association to advise from both clinical and academic perspectives about changes which should be made to improve the safety and efficacy of devices used in clinical practice and to develop more appropriate systems for their clinical evaluation and post-marketing surveillance. This report summarizes how medical devices are regulated and it reviews some serious clinical problems that have occurred with cardiovascular devices. Finally, it presents the main recommendations from a Policy Conference on the Clinical Evaluation of Cardiovascular Devices that was held at the European Heart House in January 2011. PMID:21572115

  3. Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Spanish Society of Cardiology position statement on dyslipidemia management. Differences between the European and American guidelines.

    PubMed

    Lobos Bejarano, José María; Galve, Enrique; Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; Alegría Ezquerra, Eduardo; Armario, Pedro; Brotons Cuixart, Carlos; Camafort Babkowski, Miguel; Cordero Fort, Alberto; Maiques Galán, Antonio; Mantilla Morató, Teresa; Pérez Pérez, Antonio; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Villar Álvarez, Fernando; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2014-11-01

    The publication of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines on the treatment of high blood cholesterol has had a strong impact due to the paradigm shift in its recommendations. The Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Spanish Society of Cardiology reviewed this guideline and compared it with current European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention and dyslipidemia management. The most striking aspect of the American guideline is the elimination of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol treat-to-target strategy and the adoption of a risk reduction strategy in 4 major statin benefit groups. In patients with established cardiovascular disease, both guidelines recommend a similar therapeutic strategy (high-dose potent statins). However, in primary prevention, the application of the American guidelines would substantially increase the number of persons, particularly older people, receiving statin therapy. The elimination of the cholesterol treat-to-target strategy, so strongly rooted in the scientific community, could have a negative impact on clinical practice, create a certain amount of confusion and uncertainty among professionals, and decrease follow-up and patient adherence. Thus, this article reaffirms the recommendations of the European guidelines. Although both guidelines have positive aspects, doubt remains regarding the concerns outlined above. In addition to using risk charts based on the native population, the messages of the European guideline are more appropriate to the Spanish setting and avoid the possible risk of overtreatment with statins in primary prevention.

  4. Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Spanish Society of Cardiology Position Statement on Dyslipidemia Management: differences between the European and American Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Lobos Bejarano, José María; Galve, Enrique; Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; Alegría Ezquerra, Eduardo; Armario, Pedro; Brotons Cuixart, Carlos; Camafort Babkowski, Miguel; Cordero Fort, Alberto; Maiques Galán, Antonio; Mantilla Morató, Teresa; Pérez Pérez, Antonio; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Villar Álvarez, Fernando; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The publication of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines on the treatment of high blood cholesterol has had a strong impact due to the paradigm shift in its recommendations. The Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Spanish Society of Cardiology reviewed this guideline and compared it with current European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention and dyslipidemia management. The most striking aspect of the American guideline is the elimination of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol treat-to-target strategy and the adoption of a risk reduction strategy in 4 major statin benefit groups. In patients with established cardiovascular disease, both guidelines recommend a similar therapeutic strategy (high-dose potent statins). However, in primary prevention, the application of the American guidelines would substantially increase the number of persons, particularly older people, receiving statin therapy. The elimination of the cholesterol treat-to-target strategy, so strongly rooted in the scientific community, could have a negative impact on clinical practice, create a certain amount of confusion and uncertainty among professionals, and decrease follow-up and patient adherence. Thus, this article reaffirms the recommendations of the European guidelines. Although both guidelines have positive aspects, doubt remains regarding the concerns outlined above. In addition to using risk charts based on the native population, the messages of the European guideline are more appropriate to the Spanish setting and avoid the possible risk of overtreatment with statins in primary prevention.

  5. [Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Spanish Society of Cardiology position statement on dyslipidemia management. Differences between the European and American guidelines].

    PubMed

    Lobos Bejarano, José María; Galve, Enrique; Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; Alegría Ezquerra, Eduardo; Armario, Pedro; Brotons Cuixart, Carlos; Camafort Babkowski, Miguel; Cordero Fort, Alberto; Maiques Galán, Antonio; Mantilla Morató, Teresa; Pérez Pérez, Antonio; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Villar Álvarez, Fernando; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The publication of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines on the treatment of high blood cholesterol has had a strong impact due to the paradigm shift in its recommendations. The Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Spanish Society of Cardiology reviewed this guideline and compared it with current European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention and dyslipidemia management. The most striking aspect of the American guideline is the elimination of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol treat-to-target strategy and the adoption of a risk reduction strategy in 4 major statin benefit groups. In patients with established cardiovascular disease, both guidelines recommend a similar therapeutic strategy (high-dose potent statins). However, in primary prevention, the application of the American guidelines would substantially increase the number of persons, particularly older people, receiving statin therapy. The elimination of the cholesterol treat-to-target strategy, so strongly rooted in the scientific community, could have a negative impact on clinical practice, create a certain amount of confusion and uncertainty among professionals, and decrease follow-up and patient adherence. Thus, this article reaffirms the recommendations of the European guidelines. Although both guidelines have positive aspects, doubt remains regarding the concerns outlined above. In addition to using risk charts based on the native population, the messages of the European guideline are more appropriate to the Spanish setting and avoid the possible risk of overtreatment with statins in primary prevention. Full English text available from:www.revespcardiol.org/en.

  6. [Spanish interdisciplinary committee for cardiovascular disease prevention and the spanish society of cardiology position statement on dyslipidemia management. Differences between the European and american guidelines].

    PubMed

    Lobos Bejarano, José María; Galve, Enrique; Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; Alegría Ezquerra, Eduardo; Armario, Pedro; Brotons Cuixart, Carlos; Camafort Babkowski, Miguel; Cordero Fort, Alberto; Maiques Galán, Antonio; Mantilla Morató, Teresa; Pérez Pérez, Antonio; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Villar Álvarez, Fernando; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2015-04-01

    The publication of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines on the treatment of high blood cholesterol has had a strong impact due to the paradigm shift in its recommendations. The Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Spanish Society of Cardiology reviewed this guideline and compared it with current European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention and dyslipidemia management. The most striking aspect of the American guideline is the elimination of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol treat-to-target strategy and the adoption of a risk reduction strategy in 4 major statin benefit groups. In patients with established cardiovascular disease, both guidelines recommend a similar therapeutic strategy (high-dose potent statins). However, in primary prevention, the application of the American guidelines would substantially increase the number of persons, particularly older people, receiving statin therapy. The elimination of the cholesterol treat-to-target strategy, so strongly rooted in the scientific community, could have a negative impact on clinical practice, create a certain amount of confusion and uncertainty among professionals, and decrease follow-up and patient adherence. Thus, this article reaffirms the recommendations of the European guidelines. Although both guidelines have positive aspects, doubt remains regarding the concerns outlined above. In addition to using risk charts based on the native population, the messages of the European guideline are more appropriate to the Spanish setting and avoid the possible risk of overtreatment with statins in primary prevention.

  7. [Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Spanish Society of Cardiology Position Statement on Dyslipidemia Management. Differences Between the European and American Guidelines].

    PubMed

    Lobos Bejarano, José María; Galve, Enrique; Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; Alegría Ezquerra, Eduardo; Armario, Pedro; Brotons Cuixart, Carlos; Camafort Babkowski, Miguel; Cordero Fort, Alberto; Maiques Galán, Antonio; Mantilla Morató, Teresa; Pérez Pérez, Antonio; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Villar Álvarez, Fernando; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The publication of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines on the treatment of high blood cholesterol has had a strong impact due to the paradigm shift in its recommendations. The Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Spanish Society of Cardiology reviewed this guideline and compared it with current European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention and dyslipidemia management. The most striking aspect of the American guideline is the elimination of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol treat-to-target strategy and the adoption of a risk reduction strategy in 4 major statin benefit groups. In patients with established cardiovascular disease, both guidelines recommend a similar therapeutic strategy (high-dose potent statins). However, in primary prevention, the application of the American guidelines would substantially increase the number of persons, particularly older people, receiving statin therapy. The elimination of the cholesterol treat-to-target strategy, so strongly rooted in the scientific community, could have a negative impact on clinical practice, create a certain amount of confusion and uncertainty among professionals, and decrease follow-up and patient adherence. Thus, this article reaffirms the recommendations of the European guidelines. Although both guidelines have positive aspects, doubt remains regarding the concerns outlined above. In addition to using risk charts based on the native population, the messages of the European guideline are more appropriate to the Spanish setting and avoid the possible risk of overtreatment with statins in primary prevention.

  8. ENVRI Cluster - a community-driven platform of European environmental research infrastructures for providing common solution for science and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorvari, Sanna; Kutsch, Werner; Laj, Paolo; Asmi, Ari; Brus, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    European long-term environmental research infrastructures (often referred as ESFRI RIs) are the core facilities for providing services for scientists in their quest for understanding and predicting the complex Earth system and its functioning that requires long-term efforts to identify environmental changes (trends, thresholds and resilience, interactions and feedbacks). Many of the research infrastructures originally have been developed to respond to the needs of their specific research communities, however, it is clear that strong collaboration among research infrastructures is needed to serve the trans-boundary research requires exploring scientific questions at the intersection of different scientific fields, conducting joint research projects and developing concepts, devices, and methods that can be used to integrate knowledge. European Environmental research infrastructures have already been successfully worked together for many years and have established a cluster - ENVRI cluster - for their collaborative work. ENVRI cluster act as a collaborative platform where the RIs can jointly agree on the common solutions for their operations, draft strategies and policies and share best practices and knowledge. Supporting project for the ENVRI cluster, ENVRIplus project, brings together 21 European research infrastructures and infrastructure networks to work on joint technical solutions, data interoperability, access management, training, strategies and dissemination efforts. ENVRI cluster act as one stop shop for multidisciplinary RI users, other collaborative initiatives, projects and programmes and coordinates and implement jointly agreed RI strategies.

  9. Your place or mine? A phylogenetic comparative analysis of marital residence in Indo-European and Austronesian societies.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Laura; Jordan, Fiona

    2010-12-12

    Accurate reconstruction of prehistoric social organization is important if we are to put together satisfactory multidisciplinary scenarios about, for example, the dispersal of human groups. Such considerations apply in the case of Indo-European and Austronesian, two large-scale language families that are thought to represent Neolithic expansions. Ancestral kinship patterns have mostly been inferred through reconstruction of kin terminologies in ancestral proto-languages using the linguistic comparative method, and through geographical or distributional arguments based on the comparative patterns of kin terms and ethnographic kinship 'facts'. While these approaches are detailed and valuable, the processes through which conclusions have been drawn from the data fail to provide explicit criteria for systematic testing of alternative hypotheses. Here, we use language trees derived using phylogenetic tree-building techniques on Indo-European and Austronesian vocabulary data. With these trees, ethnographic data and Bayesian phylogenetic comparative methods, we statistically reconstruct past marital residence and infer rates of cultural change between different residence forms, showing Proto-Indo-European to be virilocal and Proto-Malayo-Polynesian uxorilocal. The instability of uxorilocality and the rare loss of virilocality once gained emerge as common features of both families.

  10. The guidelines issued by the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine regarding the induction of ovulation with metformin in patients with the polycystic ovary syndrome potentially require reconsideration.

    PubMed

    Panidis, Dimitrios; Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Papadakis, Efstathios; Kandaraki, Eleni A; Katsikis, Ilias

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) issued guidelines in Thessaloniki regarding the use of metformin and clomiphene for the induction of ovulation in patients with anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). According to these guidelines, the use of metformin should be limited to patients with impaired glucose tolerance and should be interrupted well before the administration of clomiphene, thus restricting the use of metformin to a minority of patients with PCOS. More recent data suggest that these guidelines potentially require reconsideration. Indeed, metformin appears to be useful in patients with PCOS who have a body mass index within the normal range and present with infertility due to anovulation. Moreover, the combination of metformin with clomiphene appears to be the best treatment choice in patients with PCOS who are resistant to clomiphene, i.e. it should precede the administration of gonadotropins. In addition, the administration of metformin reduces the incidence and severity of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome when given to patients with PCOS who undergo multiple ovulation induction for in vitro fertilization and have a high risk for this syndrome. However, it should be emphasized that more studies are needed to support the above arguments and, more importantly, to determine the factors that predict the success of ovulation induction.

  11. Current state of knowledge on Takotsubo syndrome: a Position Statement from the Taskforce on Takotsubo Syndrome of the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Alexander R; Bossone, Eduardo; Schneider, Birke; Sechtem, Udo; Citro, Rodolfo; Underwood, S Richard; Sheppard, Mary N; Figtree, Gemma A; Parodi, Guido; Akashi, Yoshihiro J; Ruschitzka, Frank; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Omerovic, Elmir

    2016-01-01

    Takotsubo syndrome is an acute reversible heart failure syndrome that is increasingly recognized in modern cardiology practice. This Position Statement from the European Society of Cardiology Heart Failure Association provides a comprehensive review of the various clinical and pathophysiological facets of Takotsubo syndrome, including nomenclature, definition, and diagnosis, primary and secondary clinical subtypes, anatomical variants, triggers, epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, complications, prognosis, clinical investigations, and treatment approaches. Novel structured approaches to diagnosis, risk stratification, and management are presented, with new algorithms to aid decision-making by practising clinicians. These also cover more complex areas (e.g. uncertain diagnosis and delayed presentation) and the management of complex cases with ongoing symptoms after recovery, recurrent episodes, or spontaneous presentation. The unmet needs and future directions for research in this syndrome are also discussed.

  12. Revised diagnosis and severity criteria for sinusoidal obstruction syndrome/veno-occlusive disease in adult patients: a new classification from the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mohty, M; Malard, F; Abecassis, M; Aerts, E; Alaskar, A S; Aljurf, M; Arat, M; Bader, P; Baron, F; Bazarbachi, A; Blaise, D; Ciceri, F; Corbacioglu, S; Dalle, J-H; Dignan, F; Fukuda, T; Huynh, A; Masszi, T; Michallet, M; Nagler, A; NiChonghaile, M; Okamoto, S; Pagliuca, A; Peters, C; Petersen, F B; Richardson, P G; Ruutu, T; Savani, B N; Wallhult, E; Yakoub-Agha, I; Duarte, R F; Carreras, E

    2016-07-01

    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, also known as veno-occlusive disease (SOS/VOD), is a potentially life threatening complication that can develop after hematopoietic cell transplantation. Although SOS/VOD progressively resolves within a few weeks in most patients, the most severe forms result in multi-organ dysfunction and are associated with a high mortality rate (>80%). Therefore, careful attention must be paid to allow an early detection of SOS/VOD, particularly as drugs have now proven to be effective and licensed for its treatment. Unfortunately, current criteria lack sensitivity and specificity, making early identification and severity assessment of SOS/VOD difficult. The aim of this work is to propose a new definition for diagnosis, and a severity-grading system for SOS/VOD in adult patients, on behalf of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. PMID:27183098

  13. Current state of knowledge on Takotsubo syndrome: a Position Statement from the Taskforce on Takotsubo Syndrome of the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Alexander R; Bossone, Eduardo; Schneider, Birke; Sechtem, Udo; Citro, Rodolfo; Underwood, S Richard; Sheppard, Mary N; Figtree, Gemma A; Parodi, Guido; Akashi, Yoshihiro J; Ruschitzka, Frank; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Omerovic, Elmir

    2016-01-01

    Takotsubo syndrome is an acute reversible heart failure syndrome that is increasingly recognized in modern cardiology practice. This Position Statement from the European Society of Cardiology Heart Failure Association provides a comprehensive review of the various clinical and pathophysiological facets of Takotsubo syndrome, including nomenclature, definition, and diagnosis, primary and secondary clinical subtypes, anatomical variants, triggers, epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, complications, prognosis, clinical investigations, and treatment approaches. Novel structured approaches to diagnosis, risk stratification, and management are presented, with new algorithms to aid decision-making by practising clinicians. These also cover more complex areas (e.g. uncertain diagnosis and delayed presentation) and the management of complex cases with ongoing symptoms after recovery, recurrent episodes, or spontaneous presentation. The unmet needs and future directions for research in this syndrome are also discussed. PMID:26548803

  14. Revised diagnosis and severity criteria for sinusoidal obstruction syndrome/veno-occlusive disease in adult patients: a new classification from the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Mohty, M; Malard, F; Abecassis, M; Aerts, E; Alaskar, A S; Aljurf, M; Arat, M; Bader, P; Baron, F; Bazarbachi, A; Blaise, D; Ciceri, F; Corbacioglu, S; Dalle, J-H; Dignan, F; Fukuda, T; Huynh, A; Masszi, T; Michallet, M; Nagler, A; NiChonghaile, M; Okamoto, S; Pagliuca, A; Peters, C; Petersen, F B; Richardson, P G; Ruutu, T; Savani, B N; Wallhult, E; Yakoub-Agha, I; Duarte, R F; Carreras, E

    2016-01-01

    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, also known as veno-occlusive disease (SOS/VOD), is a potentially life threatening complication that can develop after hematopoietic cell transplantation. Although SOS/VOD progressively resolves within a few weeks in most patients, the most severe forms result in multi-organ dysfunction and are associated with a high mortality rate (>80%). Therefore, careful attention must be paid to allow an early detection of SOS/VOD, particularly as drugs have now proven to be effective and licensed for its treatment. Unfortunately, current criteria lack sensitivity and specificity, making early identification and severity assessment of SOS/VOD difficult. The aim of this work is to propose a new definition for diagnosis, and a severity-grading system for SOS/VOD in adult patients, on behalf of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. PMID:27183098

  15. Clinical trials update from the joint European Society and World Congress of Cardiology meeting: PEP-CHF, ACCLAIM and the HHH study.

    PubMed

    Cleland, John G F; Coletta, Alison P; Clark, Andrew L

    2006-10-01

    This article provides information and a commentary on trials relevant to the pathophysiology, prevention and treatment of heart failure, presented at the joint European Society and World Congress of Cardiology meeting held in Barcelona in September 2006. All reports should be considered as preliminary data, as analyses may change in the final publication. The PEP-CHF study suggests that perindopril improves symptoms and functional capacity and may reduce heart failure hospitalisations in patients with diastolic heart failure. Although immune modulation therapy failed to reduce the incidence of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular hospitalisations in the ACCLAIM study, the observed differences in outcome in some heart failure patients warrants further investigation. The HHH study failed to show a beneficial effect of telemonitoring over usual care in patients with heart failure but potentially important country interactions were observed. PMID:17045839

  16. Ultrasound-guided central vascular interventions, comments on the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology guidelines on interventional ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Rudolf; Morf, Susanne; Chiorean, Liliana; Dong, Yi; Cui, Xin-Wu; Atkinson, Nathan S. S.; Jenssen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Central venous access has traditionally been performed on the basis of designated anatomical landmarks. However, due to patients’ individual anatomy and vessel pathology and depending on individual operators’ skill, this landmark approach is associated with a significant failure rate and complication risk. There is substantial evidence demonstrating significant improvement in effectiveness and safety of vascular access by realtime ultrasound (US)-guidance, as compared to the anatomical landmark-guided approach. This review comments on the evidence-based recommendations on US-guided vascular access which have been published recently within the framework of Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound (InVUS) of the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) from a clinical practice point of view. PMID:27747022

  17. Nationwide outcome registrations to improve quality of care in rectal surgery. An initiative of the European Society of Surgical Oncology.

    PubMed

    van Gijn, Willem; Wouters, Michel W J M; Peeters, Koen C M J; van de Velde, Cornelis J H

    2009-06-15

    In recent years there have been significant improvements in rectal cancer treatment. New surgical techniques as well as effective neoadjuvant treatment regimens have contributed to these improvements. Key is to spread these advances towards every rectal cancer patient and to ensure that not only patients who are treated within the framework of clinical trials may benefit from these advancements. Throughout Europe there have been interesting quality programmes that have proved to facilitate the spread of up to date knowledge and skills among medical professionals resulting in improved treatment outcome. Despite these laudable efforts there is still a wide variation in treatment outcome between countries, regions and institutions, which calls for a European audit on cancer treatment outcome. PMID:19031492

  18. Enforcement of presumed-consent policy and willingness to donate organs as identified in the European Union Survey: the role of legislation in reinforcing ideology in pluralistic societies.

    PubMed

    Verheijde, Joseph L; Rady, Mohamed Y; McGregor, Joan L; Friederich-Murray, Catherine

    2009-04-01

    To increase the supply of transplantable organs, some European Union (EU) countries have begun implementing and enforcing presumed consent policies for organ donation. Mossialos and colleagues performed an analysis of samples of citizens in 15 EU countries and found that legislation, enforcement, and awareness of presumed consent policies for organ donation increase people's willingness to donate their own organs and those of a deceased relative. The authors concluded that, in countries with enforced presumed consent, citizens are willing to donate because they accept organ donation as an ideology. This ideology originates in the thinking that organ donation is an implicit communal contract i.e., a mechanism by which individuals pay back society for the inclusion and social support that they have already experienced and hope to experience in the future. Acceptance of this ideology enhances people's willingness to donate organs and the efficiency in pursuing this collective action, thus, paving the way toward increased paternalism in society. We highlight some potential biases that may have been incorporated in the survey design and in Mossialos et al.'s conclusions, including (1) how the survey questions were constructed, (2) whether sufficient information was communicated about organ procurement practices in heart-beating and non-heart-beating donation before participants responded to the survey, and (3) whether respondents' knowledge about donation legislation can be equated with understanding of processes involved in organ donation. We address the consequences of using legislative authority to enforce the ideology of organ donation, thereby superseding the varying moral values, beliefs, and attitudes about human life and culture that are inherent in multicultural societies. PMID:18845356

  19. The European Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology-European Institute of Radiotherapy (ESTRO-EIR) report on 3D CT-based in-room image guidance systems: a practical and technical review and guide.

    PubMed

    Korreman, Stine; Rasch, Coen; McNair, Helen; Verellen, Dirk; Oelfke, Uwe; Maingon, Philippe; Mijnheer, Ben; Khoo, Vincent

    2010-02-01

    The past decade has provided many technological advances in radiotherapy. The European Institute of Radiotherapy (EIR) was established by the European Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) to provide current consensus statement with evidence-based and pragmatic guidelines on topics of practical relevance for radiation oncology. This report focuses primarily on 3D CT-based in-room image guidance (3DCT-IGRT) systems. It will provide an overview and current standing of 3DCT-IGRT systems addressing the rationale, objectives, principles, applications, and process pathways, both clinical and technical for treatment delivery and quality assurance. These are reviewed for four categories of solutions; kV CT and kV CBCT (cone-beam CT) as well as MV CT and MV CBCT. It will also provide a framework and checklist to consider the capability and functionality of these systems as well as the resources needed for implementation. Two different but typical clinical cases (tonsillar and prostate cancer) using 3DCT-IGRT are illustrated with workflow processes via feedback questionnaires from several large clinical centres currently utilizing these systems. The feedback from these clinical centres demonstrates a wide variability based on local practices. This report whilst comprehensive is not exhaustive as this area of development remains a very active field for research and development. However, it should serve as a practical guide and framework for all professional groups within the field, focussed on clinicians, physicists and radiation therapy technologists interested in IGRT.

  20. Clinical trials update from the European Society of Cardiology Meeting 2011: ARISTOTLE, SMART-AV: QLV substudy, SHIFT: echocardiography and quality of life substudies, European CRT Survey, and Basic Science Update.

    PubMed

    Cleland, John G F; Coletta, Alison P; Cullington, Damien; Castiello, Teresa; de Boer, Rudolf A; Clark, Andrew L

    2011-12-01

    This article provides information and a commentary on key trials relevant to the pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of heart failure presented at the European Society of Cardiology meeting held in Paris, France in August 2011. Unpublished reports should be considered as preliminary, since analyses may change in the final publication. Results from ARISTOTLE suggest that apixaban is more effective than warfarin for the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. Electrical dyssynchrony, measured by the time from onset of electrical activity on the surface ECG to activation of myocardium by intrinsic conduction at the pacing site (QLV), was a strong and independent predictor of improvement in ventricular function after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in an observational analysis of a subgroup of patients from the SMART-AV study. Subgroup analyses from SHIFT suggest that heart rate reduction with ivabradine causes favourable left ventricular remodelling and improves quality of life in patients with symptomatic systolic heart failure and an increased heart rate. The European CRT Survey reported outcome data.

  1. Research and the promotion of child health: a position paper of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; Kolacek, Sanja; Phillips, Alan; Troncone, Riccardo; Vandenplas, Yvan; Thapar, Nikhil; Baumann, Ulrich; van Goudoever, Johannes; Mihatsch, Walter; de Swarte, Casper; Benninga, Marc; Mearin, Luisa

    2014-08-01

    Children comprise one-fifth of Europe's population. Promoting child health and development is of key importance for society and its future. This position paper highlights opportunities of investing in gastrointestinal, liver, and nutritional research to promote child health and delineates priorities for research. Investing in child health plays a key role in the promotion of population health, well-being, and disease prevention lifelong, with large health economic benefits. Major opportunities for improving knowledge and translational application arise from recent scientific and technological developments, for example, the long-term impact of early environmental cues interacting with genes. Personalised approaches to therapy and prevention should be enhanced. Deciphering the microbiome and its effects on functions can help in promoting long-term health. Epigenetic research can help to understand how early environmental factors influence later gastrointestinal and hepatic health and disease. A linked nutrition and physical activity strategy can promote health and prevent nutritional deficiencies, inactivity, and chronic noncommunicable diseases, such as diabetes, to ensure optimal health and cognition. Special attention should be devoted to populations with low socioeconomic status, migrant background, and ethnic minorities, and to critical life periods, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, and childhood. Improved understanding of optimal nutrition and on maintaining gut and liver homeostasis throughout childhood will help prevent chronic diseases in later life.

  2. [Catalogue of learning goals for pregraduate education in geriatric medicine. A recommendation of the German Geriatric Society (DGG), the German Society of Gerontology and Geriatrics (DGGG), the Austrian Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (ÖGGG) and the Swiss Society of Geriatric Medicine (SFGG) on the basis of recommendations of the European Union of Medical Specialists Geriatric Medicine Section (UEMS-GMS) 2013].

    PubMed

    Singler, K; Stuck, A E; Masud, T; Goeldlin, A; Roller, R E

    2014-11-01

    Sound knowledge in the care and management of geriatric patients is essential for doctors in almost all medical subspecialties. Therefore, it is important that pregraduate medical education adequately covers the field of geriatric medicine. However, in most medical faculties in Europe today, learning objectives in geriatric medicine are often substandard or not even explicitly addressed. As a first step to encourage undergraduate teaching in geriatric medicine, the European Union of Medical Specialists -Geriatric Medicine Section (UEMS-GMS) recently developed a catalogue of learning goals using a modified Delphi technique in order to encourage education in this field. This catalogue of learning objectives for geriatric medicine focuses on the minimum requirements with specific learning goals in knowledge, skills and attitudes that medical students should have acquired by the end of their studies.In order to ease the implementation of this new, competence-based curriculum among the medical faculties in universities teaching in the German language, the authors translated the published English language curriculum into German and adapted it according to medical language and terms used at German-speaking medical faculties and universities of Austria, Germany and Switzerland. This article contains the final German translation of the curriculum. The Geriatric Medicine Societies of Germany, Austria, and Switzerland formally endorse the present curriculum and recommend that medical faculties adapt their curricula for undergraduate teaching based on this catalogue.

  3. European Society of Endocrinology Clinical Practice Guideline for long-term follow-up of patients operated on for a phaeochromocytoma or a paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Plouin, P F; Amar, L; Dekkers, O M; Fassnacht, M; Gimenez-Roqueplo, A P; Lenders, J W M; Lussey-Lepoutre, C; Steichen, O

    2016-05-01

    Phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare neuroendocrine tumours. Standard treatment is surgical resection. Following complete resection of the primary tumour, patients with PPGL are at risk of developing new tumoural events. The present guideline aims to propose standardised clinical care of long-term follow-up in patients operated on for a PPGL. The guideline has been developed by The European Society of Endocrinology and based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) principles. We performed a systematic review of the literature and analysed the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumours (ENS@T) database. The risk of new events persisted in the long term and was higher for patients with genetic or syndromic diseases. Follow-up in the published cohorts and in the ENS@T database was neither standardised nor exhaustive, resulting in a risk of follow-up bias and in low statistical power beyond 10 years after complete surgery. To inform patients and care providers in this context of low-quality evidence, the Guideline Working Group therefore prepared recommendations on the basis of expert consensus. Key recommendations are the following: we recommend that all patients with PPGL be considered for genetic testing; we recommend assaying plasma or urinary metanephrines every year to screen for local or metastatic recurrences or new tumours; and we suggest follow-up for at least 10 years in all patients operated on for a PPGL. High-risk patients (young patients and those with a genetic disease, a large tumour and/or a paraganglioma) should be offered lifelong annual follow-up.

  4. New ceramics incorporated with industrial by-products as pore formers for sorption of toxic chromium from aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domopoulou, Asimina; Spiliotis, Xenofon; Baklavaridis, Apostolos; Papapolymerou, George; Karayannis, Vayos

    2015-04-01

    The incorporation of secondary resources including various industrial wastes as pore-forming agents into clayey raw material mixtures for the development of tailored porous ceramic microstructures is currently of increasing interest. In the present research, sintered ceramic compacts were developed incorporated with industrial solid by-products as pore formers, and then used as new sorbents for chromium removal from aqueous media. The microstructures obtained were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Sorption potential of chromium from synthetic solutions on the porous ceramics was studied by static adsorption experiments as a function of the pore-former percentage in the ceramic matrix as well as the initial heavy metal (chromium) concentration, solution pH and temperature. Kinetic studies were conducted and adsorption isotherms of chromium were determined using the Langmuir equation. Preliminary experimental results concerning the adsorption characteristics of chromium on the ceramic materials produced appear encouraging for their possible beneficial use as new sorbents for the removal of toxic chromium from aqueous media. Keywords: sorbents, ceramics, industrial solid by-products, pore former, chromium. Acknowledgements: This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program ARCHIMEDES III: Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

  5. New ceramics incorporated with industrial by-products as pore formers for sorption of toxic chromium from aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domopoulou, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    The incorporation of secondary resources including various industrial wastes as pore-forming agents into clayey raw material mixtures for the development of tailored porous ceramic microstructures is currently of increasing interest. In the present research, sintered ceramic compacts were developed incorporated with industrial solid by-products as pore formers, and then used as new sorbents for chromium removal from aqueous media. The microstructures obtained were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Sorption potential of chromium from synthetic solutions on the porous ceramics was studied by static adsorption experiments as a function of the pore-former percentage in the ceramic matrix as well as the initial heavy metal (chromium) concentration, solution pH and temperature. Kinetic studies were conducted and adsorption isotherms of chromium were determined using the Langmuir equation. Preliminary experimental results concerning the adsorption characteristics of chromium on the ceramic materials produced appear encouraging for their possible beneficial use as new sorbents for the removal of toxic chromium from aqueous media. Keywords: sorbents, ceramics, industrial solid by-products, pore-former, chromium. Acknowledgements: This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program ARCHIMEDES III: Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

  6. Cardiovascular risk assessment in low-resource settings: a consensus document of the European Society of Hypertension Working Group on Hypertension and Cardiovascular Risk in Low Resource Settings.

    PubMed

    Modesti, Pietro A; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Agyemang, Charles; Basu, Sanjay; Benetos, Athanase; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Ceriello, Antonio; Del Prato, Stefano; Kalyesubula, Robert; O'Brien, Eoin; Kilama, Michael O; Perlini, Stefano; Picano, Eugenio; Reboldi, Gianpaolo; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Stuckler, David; Twagirumukiza, Marc; Van Bortel, Luc M; Watfa, Ghassan; Zhao, Dong; Parati, Gianfranco

    2014-05-01

    The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 confirms ischemic heart disease and stroke as the leading cause of death and that hypertension is the main associated risk factor worldwide. How best to respond to the rising prevalence of hypertension in resource-deprived settings is a topic of ongoing public-health debate and discussion. In low-income and middle-income countries, socioeconomic inequality and cultural factors play a role both in the development of risk factors and in the access to care. In Europe, cultural barriers and poor communication between health systems and migrants may limit migrants from receiving appropriate prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. To use more efficiently resources available and to make treatment cost-effective at the patient level, cardiovascular risk approach is now recommended. In 2011, The European Society of Hypertension established a Working Group on 'Hypertension and Cardiovascular risk in low resource settings', which brought together cardiologists, diabetologists, nephrologists, clinical trialists, epidemiologists, economists, and other stakeholders to review current strategies for cardiovascular risk assessment in population studies in low-income and middle-income countries, their limitations, possible improvements, and future interests in screening programs. This report summarizes current evidence and presents highlights of unmet needs. PMID:24577410

  7. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and International Society for Cutaneous Lymphoma consensus recommendations for the management of cutaneous B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Senff, Nancy J; Noordijk, Evert M; Kim, Youn H; Bagot, Martine; Berti, Emilio; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Dummer, Reinhard; Duvic, Madeleine; Hoppe, Richard T; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Rosen, Steven T; Vermeer, Maarten H; Whittaker, Sean; Willemze, Rein

    2008-09-01

    Primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas (CBCL) represent approximately 20% to 25% of all primary cutaneous lymphomas. With the advent of the World Health Organization-European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Consensus Classification for Cutaneous Lymphomas in 2005, uniform terminology and classification for this rare group of neoplasms were introduced. However, staging procedures and treatment strategies still vary between different cutaneous lymphoma centers, which may be because consensus recommendations for the management of CBCL have never been published. Based on an extensive literature search and discussions within the EORTC Cutaneous Lymphoma Group and the International Society for Cutaneous Lymphomas, the present report aims to provide uniform recommendations for the management of the 3 main groups of CBCL. Because no systematic reviews or (randomized) controlled trials were available, these recommendations are mainly based on retrospective studies and small cohort studies. Despite these limitations, there was consensus among the members of the multidisciplinary expert panel that these recommendations reflect the state-of-the-art management as currently practiced in major cutaneous lymphoma centers. They may therefore contribute to uniform staging and treatment and form the basis for future clinical trials in patients with a CBCL.

  8. International Committee on Mental Health in Cystic Fibrosis: Cystic Fibrosis Foundation and European Cystic Fibrosis Society consensus statements for screening and treating depression and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Quittner, Alexandra L; Abbott, Janice; Georgiopoulos, Anna M; Goldbeck, Lutz; Smith, Beth; Hempstead, Sarah E; Marshall, Bruce; Sabadosa, Kathryn A; Elborn, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Studies measuring psychological distress in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) have found high rates of both depression and anxiety. Psychological symptoms in both individuals with CF and parent caregivers have been associated with decreased lung function, lower body mass index, worse adherence, worse health-related quality of life, more frequent hospitalisations and increased healthcare costs. To identify and treat depression and anxiety in CF, the CF Foundation and the European CF Society invited a panel of experts, including physicians, psychologists, psychiatrists, nurses, social workers, a pharmacist, parents and an individual with CF, to develop consensus recommendations for clinical care. Over 18 months, this 22-member committee was divided into four workgroups: Screening; Psychological Interventions; Pharmacological Treatments and Implementation and Future Research, and used the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome methodology to develop questions for literature search and review. Searches were conducted in PubMed, PsychINFO, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Psychiatry online and ABDATA by a methodologist at Dartmouth. The committee reviewed 344 articles, drafted statements and set an 80% acceptance for each recommendation statement as a consensus threshold prior to an anonymous voting process. Fifteen guideline recommendation statements for screening and treatment of depression and anxiety in individuals with CF and parent caregivers were finalised by vote. As these recommendations are implemented in CF centres internationally, the process of dissemination, implementation and resource provision should be closely monitored to assess barriers and concerns, validity and use.

  9. International Committee on Mental Health in Cystic Fibrosis: Cystic Fibrosis Foundation and European Cystic Fibrosis Society consensus statements for screening and treating depression and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Quittner, Alexandra L; Abbott, Janice; Georgiopoulos, Anna M; Goldbeck, Lutz; Smith, Beth; Hempstead, Sarah E; Marshall, Bruce; Sabadosa, Kathryn A; Elborn, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Studies measuring psychological distress in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) have found high rates of both depression and anxiety. Psychological symptoms in both individuals with CF and parent caregivers have been associated with decreased lung function, lower body mass index, worse adherence, worse health-related quality of life, more frequent hospitalisations and increased healthcare costs. To identify and treat depression and anxiety in CF, the CF Foundation and the European CF Society invited a panel of experts, including physicians, psychologists, psychiatrists, nurses, social workers, a pharmacist, parents and an individual with CF, to develop consensus recommendations for clinical care. Over 18 months, this 22-member committee was divided into four workgroups: Screening; Psychological Interventions; Pharmacological Treatments and Implementation and Future Research, and used the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome methodology to develop questions for literature search and review. Searches were conducted in PubMed, PsychINFO, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Psychiatry online and ABDATA by a methodologist at Dartmouth. The committee reviewed 344 articles, drafted statements and set an 80% acceptance for each recommendation statement as a consensus threshold prior to an anonymous voting process. Fifteen guideline recommendation statements for screening and treatment of depression and anxiety in individuals with CF and parent caregivers were finalised by vote. As these recommendations are implemented in CF centres internationally, the process of dissemination, implementation and resource provision should be closely monitored to assess barriers and concerns, validity and use. PMID:26452630

  10. US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation and European Cystic Fibrosis Society consensus recommendations for the management of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in individuals with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, Kenneth N; Saiman, Lisa; Daley, Charles L; Herrmann, Jean-Louis; Nick, Jerry A; Noone, Peadar G; Bilton, Diana; Corris, Paul; Gibson, Ronald L; Hempstead, Sarah E; Koetz, Karsten; Sabadosa, Kathryn A; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Smyth, Alan R; van Ingen, Jakko; Wallace, Richard J; Winthrop, Kevin L; Marshall, Bruce C; Haworth, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous environmental organisms that can cause chronic pulmonary infection, particularly in individuals with pre-existing inflammatory lung disease such as cystic fibrosis (CF). Pulmonary disease caused by NTM has emerged as a major threat to the health of individuals with CF but remains difficult to diagnose and problematic to treat. In response to this challenge, the US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF) and the European Cystic Fibrosis Society (ECFS) convened an expert panel of specialists to develop consensus recommendations for the screening, investigation, diagnosis and management of NTM pulmonary disease in individuals with CF. Nineteen experts were invited to participate in the recommendation development process. Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome (PICO) methodology and systematic literature reviews were employed to inform draft recommendations. An anonymous voting process was used by the committee to reach consensus. All committee members were asked to rate each statement on a scale of: 0, completely disagree, to 9, completely agree; with 80% or more of scores between 7 and 9 being considered ‘good’ agreement. Additionally, the committee solicited feedback from the CF communities in the USA and Europe and considered the feedback in the development of the final recommendation statements. Three rounds of voting were conducted to achieve 80% consensus for each recommendation statement. Through this process, we have generated a series of pragmatic, evidence-based recommendations for the screening, investigation, diagnosis and treatment of NTM infection in individuals with CF as an initial step in optimising management for this challenging condition. PMID:26666259

  11. US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation and European Cystic Fibrosis Society consensus recommendations for the management of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in individuals with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Floto, R Andres; Olivier, Kenneth N; Saiman, Lisa; Daley, Charles L; Herrmann, Jean-Louis; Nick, Jerry A; Noone, Peadar G; Bilton, Diana; Corris, Paul; Gibson, Ronald L; Hempstead, Sarah E; Koetz, Karsten; Sabadosa, Kathryn A; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Smyth, Alan R; van Ingen, Jakko; Wallace, Richard J; Winthrop, Kevin L; Marshall, Bruce C; Haworth, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous environmental organisms that can cause chronic pulmonary infection, particularly in individuals with pre-existing inflammatory lung disease such as cystic fibrosis (CF). Pulmonary disease caused by NTM has emerged as a major threat to the health of individuals with CF but remains difficult to diagnose and problematic to treat. In response to this challenge, the US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF) and the European Cystic Fibrosis Society (ECFS) convened an expert panel of specialists to develop consensus recommendations for the screening, investigation, diagnosis and management of NTM pulmonary disease in individuals with CF. Nineteen experts were invited to participate in the recommendation development process. Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome (PICO) methodology and systematic literature reviews were employed to inform draft recommendations. An anonymous voting process was used by the committee to reach consensus. All committee members were asked to rate each statement on a scale of: 0, completely disagree, to 9, completely agree; with 80% or more of scores between 7 and 9 being considered 'good' agreement. Additionally, the committee solicited feedback from the CF communities in the USA and Europe and considered the feedback in the development of the final recommendation statements. Three rounds of voting were conducted to achieve 80% consensus for each recommendation statement. Through this process, we have generated a series of pragmatic, evidence-based recommendations for the screening, investigation, diagnosis and treatment of NTM infection in individuals with CF as an initial step in optimising management for this challenging condition.

  12. Second allogeneic stem cell transplant for aplastic anaemia: a retrospective study by the Severe Aplastic Anaemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cesaro, Simone; Peffault de Latour, Regis; Tridello, Gloria; Pillon, Marta; Carlson, Kristina; Fagioli, Franca; Jouet, Jean-Pierre; Koh, Mickey B C; Panizzolo, Irene Sara; Kyrcz-Krzemien, Slawomira; Maertens, Johan; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Strahm, Brigitte; Blaise, Didier; Maschan, Alexei; Marsh, Judith; Dufour, Carlo

    2015-11-01

    We analysed the outcome of a second allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant (alloHSCT) in 162 patients reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation between 1998 and 2009. Donor origin was a sibling in 110 and an unrelated donor in 52 transplants, respectively. The stem cell source was bone marrow in 31% and peripheral blood in 69% of transplants. The same donor as for the first alloHSCT was used in 81% of transplants whereas a change in the choice of stem cell source was reported in 56% of patients, mainly from bone marrow to peripheral blood. Neutrophil and platelet engraftment occurred in 85% and 72% of patients, after a median time of 15 and 17 days, respectively. Grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and chronic GVHD occurred in 21% and 37% of patients, respectively. Graft failure (GF) occurred in 42 patients (26%). After a median follow-up of 3·5 years, the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 60·7%. In multivariate analysis, the only factor significantly associated with a better outcome was a Karnofsky/Lansky score ≥80 (higher OS). We conclude that a second alloHSCT is feasible rescue option for GF in SAA, with a successful outcome in 60% of cases.

  13. The current and future role of the medical oncologist in the professional care for cancer patients: a position paper by the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO).

    PubMed

    Popescu, R A; Schäfer, R; Califano, R; Eckert, R; Coleman, R; Douillard, J-Y; Cervantes, A; Casali, P G; Sessa, C; Van Cutsem, E; de Vries, E; Pavlidis, N; Fumasoli, K; Wörmann, B; Samonigg, H; Cascinu, S; Cruz Hernández, J J; Howard, A J; Ciardiello, F; Stahel, R A; Piccart, M

    2014-01-01

    The number of cancer patients in Europe is rising and significant advances in basic and applied cancer research are making the provision of optimal care more challenging. The concept of cancer as a systemic, highly heterogeneous and complex disease has increased the awareness that quality cancer care should be provided by a multidisciplinary team (MDT) of highly qualified healthcare professionals. Cancer patients also have the right to benefit from medical progress by receiving optimal treatment from adequately trained and highly skilled medical professionals. Built on the highest standards of professional training and continuing medical education, medical oncology is recognised as an independent medical specialty in many European countries. Medical oncology is a core member of the MDT and offers cancer patients a comprehensive and systemic approach to treatment and care, while ensuring evidence-based, safe and cost-effective use of cancer drugs and preserving the quality of life of cancer patients through the entire 'cancer journey'. Medical oncologists are also engaged in clinical and translational research to promote innovation and new therapies and they contribute to cancer diagnosis, prevention and research, making a difference for patients in a dynamic, stimulating professional environment. Medical oncologists play an important role in shaping the future of healthcare through innovation and are also actively involved at the political level to ensure a maximum contribution of the profession to Society and to tackle future challenges. This position paper summarises the multifarious and vital contributions of medical oncology and medical oncologists to today's and tomorrow's professional cancer care.

  14. Learning, techniques, and complications of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling in gastroenterology: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Technical Guideline.

    PubMed

    Polkowski, M; Larghi, A; Weynand, B; Boustière, C; Giovannini, M; Pujol, B; Dumonceau, J-M

    2012-02-01

    This article is the second of a two-part publication that expresses the current view of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) about endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling, including EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and EUS-guided Trucut biopsy. The first part (the Clinical Guideline) focused on the results obtained with EUS-guided sampling, and the role of this technique in patient management, and made recommendations on circumstances that warrant its use. The current Technical Guideline discusses issues related to learning, techniques, and complications of EUS-guided sampling, and to processing of specimens. Technical issues related to maximizing the diagnostic yield (e.g., rapid on-site cytopathological evaluation, needle diameter, microcore isolation for histopathological examination, and adequate number of needle passes) are discussed and recommendations are made for various settings, including solid and cystic pancreatic lesions, submucosal tumors, and lymph nodes. The target readership for the Clinical Guideline mostly includes gastroenterologists, oncologists, internists, and surgeons while the Technical Guideline should be most useful to endoscopists who perform EUS-guided sampling. A two-page executive summary of evidence statements and recommendations is provided.

  15. Cardiovascular risk assessment in low-resource settings: a consensus document of the European Society of Hypertension Working Group on Hypertension and Cardiovascular Risk in Low Resource Settings

    PubMed Central

    Modesti, Pietro A.; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Agyemang, Charles; Basu, Sanjay; Benetos, Athanase; Cappuccio, Francesco P.; Ceriello, Antonio; Del Prato, Stefano; Kalyesubula, Robert; O’Brien, Eoin; Kilama, Michael O.; Perlini, Stefano; Picano, Eugenio; Reboldi, Gianpaolo; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Stuckler, David; Twagirumukiza, Marc; Van Bortel, Luc M.; Watfa, Ghassan; Zhao, Dong; Parati, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 confirms ischemic heart disease and stroke as the leading cause of death and that hypertension is the main associated risk factor worldwide. How best to respond to the rising prevalence of hypertension in resource-deprived settings is a topic of ongoing public-health debate and discussion. In low-income and middle-income countries, socioeconomic inequality and cultural factors play a role both in the development of risk factors and in the access to care. In Europe, cultural barriers and poor communication between health systems and migrants may limit migrants from receiving appropriate prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. To use more efficiently resources available and to make treatment cost-effective at the patient level, cardiovascular risk approach is now recommended. In 2011, The European Society of Hypertension established a Working Group on ‘Hypertension and Cardiovascular risk in low resource settings’, which brought together cardiologists, diabetologists, nephrologists, clinical trialists, epidemiologists, economists, and other stakeholders to review current strategies for cardiovascular risk assessment in population studies in low-income and middle-income countries, their limitations, possible improvements, and future interests in screening programs. This report summarizes current evidence and presents highlights of unmet needs. PMID:24577410

  16. Validation of the custo screen 400 ambulatory blood pressure-monitoring device according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010

    PubMed Central

    Bramlage, Peter; Deutsch, Cornelia; Krüger, Ralf; Wolf, Andreas; Müller, Peter; Zwingers, Thomas; Beime, Beate; Mengden, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to validate the custo screen 400 ambulatory blood pressure-monitoring (ABPM) device according to the 2010 International Protocol revision of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH-IP). The device can be used for ABPM for up to 72 hours. Materials and methods Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively) were sequentially measured in 33 adult subjects (13 males and 20 females) and compared with a standard mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers). A total of 99 comparison pairs were obtained. Results The custo screen 400 met the requirements of parts 1 and 2 of the ESH-IP revision 2010. The mean difference between the device and reference sphygmomanometer readings was −0.5±4.5 mmHg for SBP and −0.1±3.3 mmHg for DBP. All but one measurement were within the absolute difference of 10 mmHg between the device and the observers for SBP and DBP. The number of absolute differences between the device and the observers within a range of 5 mmHg was 84 of 99 readings for SBP, and 93 of 99 readings for DBP. Conclusion The custo screen 400 ABPM device met the requirements of the 2010 ESH-IP revision, and hence can be recommended for ABPM in adults. To our knowledge, the custo screen 400 is the first device to pass the revised ESH-IP 2010. PMID:24868162

  17. Validation of the A&D BP UA-651 device for home blood pressure measurement according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    PubMed

    Benetti, Elisabetta; Fania, Claudio; Palatini, Paolo

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of the A&D BP UA-651 device for home blood pressure (BP) measurement according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension. Device evaluation was carried out in 33 patients. The mean age of the patients was 48.3±15.5 years, the mean systolic BP was 138.3±24.9 mmHg (range 90-180), the mean diastolic BP was 88.3±13.8 mmHg (range 60-108), and the mean arm circumference was 28.6±3.4 cm (range 23-36). The protocol requirements were followed precisely. The device passed all requirements, fulfilling the standards of the protocol. On average, the device underestimated the systolic BP by 0.4±4.4 mmHg and diastolic BP by 1.3±3.5 mmHg. The device-observer discrepancies were unrelated to patients' clinical characteristics. These data show that the A&D BP UA-651 device fulfilled the requirements for validation by the International Protocol and can be recommended for clinical use in the adult population. PMID:24346435

  18. Validation of the Thermor BIOS BD215 device for home blood pressure measurement according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    PubMed

    Benetti, Elisabetta; Fania, Claudio; Márquez Hernández, Verónica; Palatini, Paolo

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of the Thermor BIOS BD215 device for home blood pressure (BP) measurement according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH). Device evaluation was carried out in 33 patients. The mean age of the patients was 57.0 ± 15.0 years, the mean systolic BP was 142.0 ± 20.3 mmHg (range 100-177 mmHg), the mean diastolic BP was 88.0 ± 14.6 mmHg (range 48-123 mmHg), and the mean arm circumference was 28.0 ± 3.0 cm (range 24-33 cm). The protocol requirements were followed precisely. The device passed all requirements, fulfilling the standards of the protocol. On average, the device overestimated the systolic BP by 0.6 ± 4.2 mmHg and underestimated diastolic BP by -0.5 ± 3.2 mmHg. The device-observer discrepancies were unrelated to patients' clinical characteristics. These data show that the Thermor BIOS BD215 device fulfilled the requirements for validation by the International Protocol and can be recommended for clinical use in the adult population. PMID:24589529

  19. EDITORIAL: Special section: Selected papers from OMS'05, the 1st Topical Meeting of the European Optical Society on Optical Microsystems (OMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendina, Ivo; Fazio, Eugenio; Ferraro, Pietro

    2006-07-01

    OMS'05 is the first international conference wholly dedicated to optical microsystems. It was organized by the European Optical Society (EOS) in the frame of its international topical meeting activity and was held in Italy, September 2005, amidst the wonderful scenery of the Island of Capri. A possible definition of an optical microsystem is a complex system, able to perform one or more sensing and actuation functions, where optical devices are integrated in a smart way with electronic, mechanical and sensing components by taking advantage of the progress in micro- and nano-technologies. The increasing interest in this field arises from the expected applications that would significantly improve the quality of life. The list of possibilities offered by the optical microsystem enabling technologies is very long and seems to increase day by day. We are not only thinking about the next generation of optical telecommunication networks and computers, but also about low-cost, compact microsystems for environmental monitoring, in order to improve safety in the avionic and automotive fields, medical diagnostics and proteomic/genomic studies, or just finding general applications in several industrial fields. The goal of the conference was to involve scientists and young researchers from the main public and private laboratories, giving them the opportunity to present new scientific results and compare their know-how in the exciting and emerging field of optical microsystems. We believe that we succeeded in this. More than 200 scientists from all over the world attended the conference. We had more than 100 oral presentations and approximately 20 from the keynote lectures and invited speeches. It was an opportunity to define the most recent progress carried out in the field and to outline the possible road-map leading to the expected results in the industrial and social fields. We strongly believe that research and technology are closely interconnected at present and cannot

  20. Pulmonary embolism risk stratification by European Society of Cardiology is associated with recurrent venous thromboembolism: Findings from a long-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Zhai, Zhenguo; Yang, Yuanhua; Zhu, Jianguo; Kuang, Tuguang; Xie, Wanmu; Yang, Suqiao; Liu, Fangfang; Gong, Juanni; Shen, Ying H; Wang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrence carries significant mortality and morbidity. Accurate risk assessment and effective treatment for patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is important for VTE recurrence prevention. We examined the association of VTE recurrence with risk stratification and PE treatment. We enrolled 627 patients with a first episode of confirmed PE. Baseline clinical information was collected. PE severity was assessed by the European Society of Cardiology's (ESC) risk stratification, the simplified PE Severity Index (sPESI) and the Qanadli score of clot burden. Patients were followed for 1-5 years. The cumulative recurrent VTE and all-cause death were documented. The association between recurrent VTE and risk factors was analyzed. The cumulative incidences of recurrent VTE were 4.5%, 7.3%, and 13.9% at 1, 2, and 5 years of follow-up, respectively. The VTE recurrence was associated with higher (high- and intermediate-) risk stratification predicted by ESC model (HR 1.838, 95% CI 1.318-2.571, P<0.001), as well as with unprovoked PE (HR 2.809, 95% CI 1.650-4.781, P b 0.001) and varicose veins (HR 4.747, 95% CI 2.634-8.557, P<0.001). The recurrence was negatively associated with longer (≥6 months) anticoagulation (HR 0.473, 95% CI 0.285-0.787, P=0.004), especially in patients with higher risk (HR 0.394, 95% CI 0.211-0.736, P=0.003) and unprovoked PE (HR 0.248, 95% CI 0.122-0.504, P<0.001). ESC high-risk and intermediate-risk PE, unprovoked PE and varicose veins increase recurrence risk. Longer anticoagulation treatment reduces recurrence, especially in higher risk and unprovoked PE patients.

  1. Applicability of the European Society of Cardiology guidelines on management of acute coronary syndromes to people with haemophilia - an assessment by the ADVANCE Working Group.

    PubMed

    Staritz, P; de Moerloose, P; Schutgens, R; Dolan, G

    2013-11-01

    There are no evidence-based guidelines for antithrombotic management in people with haemophilia (PWH) presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The aim of the study was to review the current European Society of Cardiology guidelines, and to consider how best they should be adapted for PWH. Structured communication techniques based on a Delphi-like methodology were used to achieve expert consensus on key aspects of clinical management. The main final statements are as follows: (i) ACS and myocardial revascularization should be managed promptly by a multidisciplinary team that includes a haemophilia expert, (ii) each comprehensive care centre for adult PWH should have a formal clinical referral pathway with a cardiology centre with an emergency unit and 24 h availability of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), (iii) PCI should be performed as soon as possible under adequate clotting factor protection, (iv) bare metal stents are preferred to drug-eluting stents, (v) anticoagulants should only be used in PWH after replacement therapy, (vi) minimum trough levels should not fall below 5-15% in PWH on dual antiplatelet therapy, (vii) the duration of dual antiplatelet therapy after ACS and PCI should be limited to a minimum, (viii) the use of GPIIb-IIIa inhibitors is not recommended in PWH other than in exceptional circumstances, (ix) the use of fibrinolysis may be justified in PWH when primary PCI (within 90 min) is not available ideally under adequate clotting factor management. It is hoped that the results of this initiative will help to guide optimal management of ACS in PWH.

  2. Statin-associated muscle symptoms: impact on statin therapy—European Atherosclerosis Society Consensus Panel Statement on Assessment, Aetiology and Management

    PubMed Central

    Stroes, Erik S.; Thompson, Paul D.; Corsini, Alberto; Vladutiu, Georgirene D.; Raal, Frederick J.; Ray, Kausik K.; Roden, Michael; Stein, Evan; Tokgözoğlu, Lale; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Bruckert, Eric; De Backer, Guy; Krauss, Ronald M.; Laufs, Ulrich; Santos, Raul D.; Hegele, Robert A.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Mach, Francois; März, Winfried; Newman, Connie B.; Wiklund, Olov; Jacobson, Terry A.; Catapano, Alberico L.; Chapman, M. John; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Stroes, Erik; Thompson, Paul D.; Corsini, Alberto; Vladutiu, Georgirene D.; Raal, Frederick J.; Ray, Kausik K.; Roden, Michael; Stein, Evan; Tokgözoğlu, Lale; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Bruckert, Eric; Krauss, Ronald M.; Laufs, Ulrich; Santos, Raul D.; März, Winfried; Newman, Connie B.; John Chapman, M.; Ginsberg, Henry N.; John Chapman, M.; Ginsberg, Henry N.; de Backer, Guy; Catapano, Alberico L.; Hegele, Robert A.; Kees Hovingh, G.; Jacobson, Terry A.; Leiter, Lawrence; Mach, Francois; Wiklund, Olov

    2015-01-01

    Statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS) are one of the principal reasons for statin non-adherence and/or discontinuation, contributing to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. This European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) Consensus Panel overviews current understanding of the pathophysiology of statin-associated myopathy, and provides guidance for diagnosis and management of SAMS. Statin-associated myopathy, with significant elevation of serum creatine kinase (CK), is a rare but serious side effect of statins, affecting 1 per 1000 to 1 per 10 000 people on standard statin doses. Statin-associated muscle symptoms cover a broader range of clinical presentations, usually with normal or minimally elevated CK levels, with a prevalence of 7–29% in registries and observational studies. Preclinical studies show that statins decrease mitochondrial function, attenuate energy production, and alter muscle protein degradation, thereby providing a potential link between statins and muscle symptoms; controlled mechanistic and genetic studies in humans are necessary to further understanding. The Panel proposes to identify SAMS by symptoms typical of statin myalgia (i.e. muscle pain or aching) and their temporal association with discontinuation and response to repetitive statin re-challenge. In people with SAMS, the Panel recommends the use of a maximally tolerated statin dose combined with non-statin lipid-lowering therapies to attain recommended low-density lipoprotein cholesterol targets. The Panel recommends a structured work-up to identify individuals with clinically relevant SAMS generally to at least three different statins, so that they can be offered therapeutic regimens to satisfactorily address their cardiovascular risk. Further research into the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms may offer future therapeutic potential. PMID:25694464

  3. Major morbidity after video-assisted thoracic surgery lung resections: a comparison between the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons definition and the Thoracic Morbidity and Mortality system

    PubMed Central

    Papagiannopoulos, Kostas; Milton, Richard; Kefaloyannis, Emmanuel; Chaudhuri, Nilanjan; Poyser, Emily; Spencer, Nicholas; Brunelli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background The thoracic morbidity and mortality (TM&M) classification system univocally encodes the postoperative adverse events by their management complexity. This study aims to compare the distribution of the severity of complications according to the TM&M system versus the distribution according to the classification proposed by European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) Database in a population of patients submitted to video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lung resection. Methods A total of 227 consecutive patients submitted to VATS lobectomy for lung cancer were analyzed. Any complication developed postoperatively was graded from I to V according to the TM&M system, reflecting the increasing severity of its management. We verified the distribution of the different grades of complications and analyzed their frequency among those defined as “major cardiopulmonary complications” by the ESTS Database. Results Following the ESTS definitions, 20 were the major cardiopulmonary complications [atrial fibrillation (AF): 10, 50%; adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): 1, 5%; pulmonary embolism: 2, 10%; mechanical ventilation >24 h: 1, 5%; pneumonia: 3, 15%; myocardial infarct: 1, 5%; atelectasis requiring bronchoscopy: 2, 10%] of which 9 (45%) were reclassified as minor complications (grade II) by the TM&M classification system. According to the TM&M system, 10/34 (29.4%) of all complications were considered minor (grade I or II) while 21/34 (71.4%) as major (IIIa: 8, 23.5%; IIIb: 4, 11.7%; IVa: 8, 23.5%; IVb: 1, 2.9%; V: 3, 8.8%). Other 14 surgical complications occurred and were classified as major complications according to the TM&M system. Conclusions The distribution of postoperative complications differs between the two classification systems. The TM&M grading system questions the traditional classification of major complications following VATS lung resection and may be used as an additional endpoint for outcome analyses. PMID:26380733

  4. Statin-associated muscle symptoms: impact on statin therapy-European Atherosclerosis Society Consensus Panel Statement on Assessment, Aetiology and Management.

    PubMed

    Stroes, Erik S; Thompson, Paul D; Corsini, Alberto; Vladutiu, Georgirene D; Raal, Frederick J; Ray, Kausik K; Roden, Michael; Stein, Evan; Tokgözoğlu, Lale; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bruckert, Eric; De Backer, Guy; Krauss, Ronald M; Laufs, Ulrich; Santos, Raul D; Hegele, Robert A; Hovingh, G Kees; Leiter, Lawrence A; Mach, Francois; März, Winfried; Newman, Connie B; Wiklund, Olov; Jacobson, Terry A; Catapano, Alberico L; Chapman, M John; Ginsberg, Henry N

    2015-05-01

    Statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS) are one of the principal reasons for statin non-adherence and/or discontinuation, contributing to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. This European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) Consensus Panel overviews current understanding of the pathophysiology of statin-associated myopathy, and provides guidance for diagnosis and management of SAMS. Statin-associated myopathy, with significant elevation of serum creatine kinase (CK), is a rare but serious side effect of statins, affecting 1 per 1000 to 1 per 10 000 people on standard statin doses. Statin-associated muscle symptoms cover a broader range of clinical presentations, usually with normal or minimally elevated CK levels, with a prevalence of 7-29% in registries and observational studies. Preclinical studies show that statins decrease mitochondrial function, attenuate energy production, and alter muscle protein degradation, thereby providing a potential link between statins and muscle symptoms; controlled mechanistic and genetic studies in humans are necessary to further understanding. The Panel proposes to identify SAMS by symptoms typical of statin myalgia (i.e. muscle pain or aching) and their temporal association with discontinuation and response to repetitive statin re-challenge. In people with SAMS, the Panel recommends the use of a maximally tolerated statin dose combined with non-statin lipid-lowering therapies to attain recommended low-density lipoprotein cholesterol targets. The Panel recommends a structured work-up to identify individuals with clinically relevant SAMS generally to at least three different statins, so that they can be offered therapeutic regimens to satisfactorily address their cardiovascular risk. Further research into the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms may offer future therapeutic potential. PMID:25694464

  5. Subtrochanteric fractures after long-term treatment with bisphosphonates: a European Society on Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis, and International Osteoporosis Foundation Working Group Report

    PubMed Central

    Åkesson, K.; Bouxsein, M.; Kanis, J. A.; Napoli, N.; Papapoulos, S.; Reginster, J.-Y.; Cooper, C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary This paper reviews the evidence for an association between atypical subtrochanteric fractures and long-term bisphosphonate use. Clinical case reports/reviews and case–control studies report this association, but retrospective phase III trial analyses show no increased risk. Bisphosphonate use may be associated with atypical subtrochanteric fractures, but the case is yet unproven. Introduction A Working Group of the European Society on Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis and the International Osteoporosis Foundation has reviewed the evidence for a causal association between subtrochanteric fractures and long-term treatment with bisphosphonates, with the aim of identifying areas for further research and providing recommendations for physicians. Methods A PubMed search of literature from 1994 to May 2010 was performed using key search terms, and articles pertinent to subtrochanteric fractures following bisphosphonate use were analysed. Results Several clinical case reports and case reviews report a possible association between atypical fractures at the subtrochanteric region of the femur in bisphosphonate-treated patients. Common features of these ‘atypical’ fractures include prodromal pain, occurrence with minimal/no trauma, a thickened diaphyseal cortex and transverse fracture pattern. Some small case–control studies report the same association, but a large register-based study and retrospective analyses of phase III trials of bisphosphonates do not show an increased risk of subtrochanteric fractures with bisphosphonate use. The number of atypical subtrochanteric fractures in association with bisphosphonates is an estimated one per 1,000 per year. It is recommended that physicians remain vigilant in assessing their patients treated with bisphosphonates for the treatment or prevention of osteoporosis and advise patients of the potential risks. Conclusions Bisphosphonate use may be associated with atypical subtrochanteric

  6. Guidelines on the safety of light-based home-use hair removal devices from the European Society for Laser Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Town, G; Ash, C; Dierickx, C; Fritz, K; Bjerring, P; Haedersdal, M

    2012-07-01

    In the past 5 years since their US introduction, there has been a rapid proliferation of light-based hair removal devices intended for home-use. In the last 2 years in Europe, sales already run into many tens of thousands of units with well-known multi-national companies entering the market. These guidelines provide a definition of light-based home-use technology, to inform healthcare professionals about home-use light-based technology and encourage manufacturers wishing to sell in Europe to adopt 'best practice'. The review presents the current status on standards and regulation issues and considers home-use safety issues, encompassing human, device and electrical safety, given risks to the eyes and skin from optical radiation both to the consumer and persons in the vicinity. Proposed technical measurement methodology is considered with focus on recognized critical parameters for the safe use of light-based hair removal technology including recording the technical performance and safety claims of a range of home-use hair removal devices. The literature review emphasizes potential adverse incidents and safety aspects of treating cosmetic conditions, such as unwanted hair growth. Although some regulations exist, they differ from region to region and there is a specific need for international common principles and guidelines relating to the manufacture, marketing and use of intense pulsed light and laser devices, including manufacturing standards for home-use products intended, amongst others, for cosmetic hair removal and photo-rejuvenation procedures. In these guidelines, the European Society for Laser Dermatology (ESLD) provides a professional view of what 'best practice' may imply for manufacturers and consumers alike. PMID:22211702

  7. Adherence to the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines for chronic heart failure - A national survey of the cardiologists in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to evaluate the awareness of and attitudes towards the 2005 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines for Heart Failure (HF) of the cardiologists in Pakistan and assess barriers to adherence to guidelines. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in person from March to July 2009 to all cardiologists practicing in 4 major cities in Pakistan (Karachi, Lahore, Quetta and Peshawar). A validated, semi-structured questionnaire assessing ESC 2005 Guidelines for HF was used to obtain information from cardiologists. It included questions about awareness and relevance of HF guidelines (See Additional File 1). Respondents' management choices were compared with those of an expert panel based on the guidelines for three fictitious patient cases. Cardiologists were also asked about major barriers to adherence to guidelines. Results A total of 372 cardiologists were approached; 305 consented to participate (overall response rate, 82.0%). The survey showed a very high awareness of CHF guidelines; 97.4% aware of any guideline. About 13.8% considered ESC guidelines as relevant or very relevant for guiding treatment decisions while 92.8% chose AHA guidelines in relevance. 87.2% of respondents perceived that they adhered to the HF guidelines. For the patient cases, the proportions of respondents who made recommendations that completely matched those of the guidelines were 7% (Scenario 1), 0% (Scenario 2) and 20% (Scenario 3). Respondents considered patient compliance (59%) and cost/health economics (50%) as major barriers to guideline implementation. Conclusion We found important self reported departures from recommended HF management guidelines among cardiologists of Pakistan. PMID:22093082

  8. Statin-associated muscle symptoms: impact on statin therapy-European Atherosclerosis Society Consensus Panel Statement on Assessment, Aetiology and Management.

    PubMed

    Stroes, Erik S; Thompson, Paul D; Corsini, Alberto; Vladutiu, Georgirene D; Raal, Frederick J; Ray, Kausik K; Roden, Michael; Stein, Evan; Tokgözoğlu, Lale; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bruckert, Eric; De Backer, Guy; Krauss, Ronald M; Laufs, Ulrich; Santos, Raul D; Hegele, Robert A; Hovingh, G Kees; Leiter, Lawrence A; Mach, Francois; März, Winfried; Newman, Connie B; Wiklund, Olov; Jacobson, Terry A; Catapano, Alberico L; Chapman, M John; Ginsberg, Henry N

    2015-05-01

    Statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS) are one of the principal reasons for statin non-adherence and/or discontinuation, contributing to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. This European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) Consensus Panel overviews current understanding of the pathophysiology of statin-associated myopathy, and provides guidance for diagnosis and management of SAMS. Statin-associated myopathy, with significant elevation of serum creatine kinase (CK), is a rare but serious side effect of statins, affecting 1 per 1000 to 1 per 10 000 people on standard statin doses. Statin-associated muscle symptoms cover a broader range of clinical presentations, usually with normal or minimally elevated CK levels, with a prevalence of 7-29% in registries and observational studies. Preclinical studies show that statins decrease mitochondrial function, attenuate energy production, and alter muscle protein degradation, thereby providing a potential link between statins and muscle symptoms; controlled mechanistic and genetic studies in humans are necessary to further understanding. The Panel proposes to identify SAMS by symptoms typical of statin myalgia (i.e. muscle pain or aching) and their temporal association with discontinuation and response to repetitive statin re-challenge. In people with SAMS, the Panel recommends the use of a maximally tolerated statin dose combined with non-statin lipid-lowering therapies to attain recommended low-density lipoprotein cholesterol targets. The Panel recommends a structured work-up to identify individuals with clinically relevant SAMS generally to at least three different statins, so that they can be offered therapeutic regimens to satisfactorily address their cardiovascular risk. Further research into the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms may offer future therapeutic potential.

  9. From precision medicine to cancer care through the immunome: highlights from the European Society of Medical Oncology Congress, Madrid, 26–30th September 2014

    PubMed Central

    Curigliano, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The recognition that cancer is a ‘spectrum’ of diseases, and that medical oncologists should achieve ‘convergence’ from ‘divergence’ to treat cancer patients was the main theme of the 2014 European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congress. The meeting assembled 19,859 participants from nearly 134 countries worldwide. The educational content was centered on precision medicine in cancer care, from mutational burden to the immunome, through the epigenome and the proteome. Precision medicine has been defined as the tailoring of medical treatment to the characteristics of an individual patient. Knowing an individual’s genomics has created a remarkable and unprecedented opportunity to improve medical treatment and develop preventative strategies to preserve health. Clinical oncologists across the range of diseases recognise that for precision medicine to take hold, it will require intensive, rigorous validation that these new approaches do indeed improve patient outcomes. Not all molecular alterations are predictive of response to a specific targeted treatment nor are they all druggable, raising issues of cost–benefit, validation of specific biomarkers, and of managing patient expectations. Addressing all these issues will be essential for the medical community to embrace any given opportunities. Along with it, it will also require educational programmes that squarely address the knowledge chasm that currently exists for practicing physicians. The promise of genomic and precision medicine has created greater demands for both those providing the scientific expertise—bioinformatics, statisticians, molecular biologists—and those delivering clinical care—physicians, nurses, psychologists—to the patients. This ESMO 2014 report will highlight the major findings of this outstanding meeting. PMID:25374620

  10. Validation of the 2014 European Society of Cardiology Sudden Cardiac Death Risk Prediction Model in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in a Reference Center in South America.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Adrián; Quiroga, Alejandro; Ochoa, Juan Pablo; Mysuta, Mauricio; Casabé, José Horacio; Biagetti, Marcelo; Guevara, Eduardo; Favaloro, Liliana E; Fava, Agostina M; Galizio, Néstor

    2016-07-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a common cause of death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC). Our aim was to conduct an external and independent validation in South America of the 2014 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) SCD risk prediction model to identify patients requiring an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. This study included 502 consecutive patients with HC followed from March, 1993 to December, 2014. A combined end point of SCD or appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy was assessed. For the quantitative estimation of individual 5-year SCD risk, we used the formula: 1 - 0.998(exp(Prognostic index)). Our database also included the abnormal blood pressure response to exercise as a risk marker. We analyzed the 3 categories of 5-year risk proposed by the ESC: low risk (LR) <4%; intermediate risk (IR) ≥4% to <6%, and high risk (HR) ≥6%. The LR group included 387 patients (77%); the IR group 39 (8%); and the HR group 76 (15%). Fourteen patients (3%) had SCD/appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy (LR: 0%; IR: 2 of 39 [5%]; and HR: 12 of 76 [16%]). In a receiver-operating characteristic curve, the new model proved to be an excellent predictor because the area under the curve for the estimated risk is 0.925 (statistical C: 0.925; 95% CI 0.8884 to 0.9539, p <0.0001). In conclusion, the SCD risk prediction model in HC proposed by the 2014 ESC guidelines was validated in our population and represents an improvement compared with previous approaches. A larger multicenter, independent and external validation of the model with long-term follow-up would be advisable.

  11. Validation of the A&D BP UB-543 wrist device for home blood pressure measurement according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    PubMed

    Fania, Claudio; Benetti, Elisabetta; Palatini, Paolo

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of the A&D BP UB-543 wrist device for home blood pressure (BP) measurement according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension. The A&D BP UB-543 monitor is provided with a correct position guidance (CPG) indicator that ensures the correct placement of the wrist at the heart level. Device evaluation was carried out in 33 patients with the CPG indicator on. The mean age of the patients was 53.1±16.4 years, the mean systolic BP was 141.8±25.1 mmHg (range 84 : 196), the mean diastolic BP was 88.2±14.5 mmHg (range 34 : 132), the mean arm circumference was 29.0±3.6 cm (range 21 : 38), and the mean wrist circumference was 17.5±1.4 cm (range 15 : 20). The protocol requirements were followed precisely. The device passed all requirements, fulfilling the standards of the protocol. On average, the device overestimated the systolic BP by 1.1±2.9 mmHg and underestimated diastolic BP by 0.1±3.0 mmHg. These data show that the A&D BP UB-543 wrist device used correctly with the CPG indicator on met the requirements for validation by the International Protocol and can be recommended for clinical use in the adult population. PMID:25768063

  12. Small-bowel capsule endoscopy and device-assisted enteroscopy for diagnosis and treatment of small-bowel disorders: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Clinical Guideline.

    PubMed

    Pennazio, Marco; Spada, Cristiano; Eliakim, Rami; Keuchel, Martin; May, Andrea; Mulder, Chris J; Rondonotti, Emanuele; Adler, Samuel N; Albert, Joerg; Baltes, Peter; Barbaro, Federico; Cellier, Christophe; Charton, Jean Pierre; Delvaux, Michel; Despott, Edward J; Domagk, Dirk; Klein, Amir; McAlindon, Mark; Rosa, Bruno; Rowse, Georgina; Sanders, David S; Saurin, Jean Christophe; Sidhu, Reena; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Hassan, Cesare; Gralnek, Ian M

    2015-04-01

    This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). The Guideline was also reviewed and endorsed by the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG). It addresses the roles of small-bowel capsule endoscopy and device-assisted enteroscopy for diagnosis and treatment of small-bowel disorders. Main recommendations 1 ESGE recommends small-bowel video capsule endoscopy as the first-line investigation in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). 2 In patients with overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, ESGE recommends performing small-bowel capsule endoscopy as soon as possible after the bleeding episode, optimally within 14 days, in order to maximize the diagnostic yield (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). 3 ESGE does not recommend the routine performance of second-look endoscopy prior to small-bowel capsule endoscopy; however whether to perform second-look endoscopy before capsule endoscopy in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding or iron-deficiency anaemia should be decided on a case-by-case basis (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 4 In patients with positive findings at small-bowel capsule endoscopy, ESGE recommends device-assisted enteroscopy to confirm and possibly treat lesions identified by capsule endoscopy (strong recommendation, high quality evidence). 5 ESGE recommends ileocolonoscopy as the first endoscopic examination for investigating patients with suspected Crohn's disease (strong recommendation, high quality evidence). In patients with suspected Crohn's disease and negative ileocolonoscopy findings, ESGE recommends small-bowel capsule endoscopy as the initial diagnostic modality for investigating the small bowel, in the absence of obstructive symptoms or known stenosis (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence).ESGE does not recommend routine small-bowel imaging or the use of the PillCam patency capsule

  13. Creative Drama and Agricultural Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the interaction of culture and creative drama. Examines agricultural societies under three conditions: historically, from neolithic times; contemporary American Southwest Indian and Polynesian; and modern farming subcultures of European industrial societies. Asks how far agricultural life influences creative drama in agrarian societies.…

  14. On Ceramics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents four ceramics activities for secondary-level art classes. Included are directions for primitive kiln construction and glaze making. Two ceramics design activities are described in which students make bizarrely-shaped lidded jars, feet, and footwear. (AM)

  15. Structural Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of abstracts and slides of papers presented at the NASA Lewis Structural Ceramics Workshop. Collectively, these papers depict the scope of NASA Lewis' structural ceramics program. The technical areas include monolithic SiC and Si3N4 development, ceramic matrix composites, tribology, design methodology, nondestructive evaluation (NDE), fracture mechanics, and corrosion.

  16. INTRODUCTION: Award of the 2004 Hannes Alfvén Prize of the European Physical Society to J W Connor, R J Hastie and J B Taylor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, Jo, Dr

    2004-12-01

    Jack Connor, Jim Hastie and Bryan Taylor The Hannes Alfvén Prize of the European Physical Society for Outstanding Contributions to Plasma Physics (2004) has been awarded to Jack Connor, Jim Hastie and Bryan Taylor `for their seminal contributions to a wide range of issues of fundamental importance to the success of magnetic confinement fusion, including: the development of gyro-kinetic theory; the prediction of the bootstrap current; dimensionless scaling laws; pressure-limiting instabilities, and micro-stability and transport theory'. Jack Connor, Jim Hastie and Bryan Taylor form one of the most successful teams of theoretical physicists in the history of magnetic confinement fusion. They have made important contributions individually, but their greatest discoveries have mostly been accomplished jointly, either in pairs or as a team involving all three. Their early work, in the 1960s, included the development of the gyro-kinetic theory for fine-scale plasma instabilities, which today forms the basis of the most advanced turbulence simulation codes in tokamak and stellarator research. The theoretical prediction of the bootstrap current, made in 1970-71 was not confirmed experimentally for over a decade but is now regarded as crucial to the success of the tokamak as a steady-state fusion power source. Their work on collisional transport also included the prediction of impurity ion accumulation, which is observed in internal transport barriers and is a key concern for long-pulse tokamak operation. The relativistic threshold for runaway electrons, identified in 1975, forms the basis of the most recent tokamak disruption mitigation schemes. In the late 1970s, the team developed the theory for ballooning instabilities, which provided an important ingredient in the `Troyon-Sykes' β-limit—an expression that is still used as a guide to the performance of tokamaks and in the design of ITER. Ballooning mode theory has also contributed to the understanding of

  17. Clinical trials update: Highlights of the Scientific Sessions of Heart Failure 2001, a meeting of the Working Group on Heart Failure of the European Society of Cardiology. CONTAK-CD, CHRISTMAS, OPTIME-CHF.

    PubMed

    Thackray, S; Coletta, A; Jones, P; Dunn, A; Clark, A L; Cleland, J G

    2001-08-01

    This article continues a series of reports summarising recent research developments pertinent to the topic of heart failure. This is a summary of presentations made at Scientific Sessions of Heart Failure 2001, a meeting of the Working Group on Heart Failure of the European Society of Cardiology. Clinical studies of particular interest to people caring for patients with heart failure include CONTAK-CD, CHRISTMAS and further updates on OPTIME-CHF. A brief review of the current status of cardiac resynchronisation therapy is included.

  18. European Approaches To Widening Participation in Higher Education: A Commentary in Light of the Role of the Society for Research into Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggins, Heather

    1999-01-01

    Case studies of Estonia, Bulgaria, and the United Kingdom illustrate how the access and equity agenda in each country reflect national social concerns and priorities and how individual institutions reinterpret national agendas in light of institutional missions and objectives. Sees a role for the Society for Research into Higher Education in…

  19. Heart Failure Society of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Review Course in Advanced Heart Failure and Transplant Cardiology is now available OnDemand! Monday, August 29, 2016! ... than expected, and the FDA... European Society of Cardiology – Heart Failure 2017 October 11, 2016 ESC: Heart ...

  20. Ceramic joining

    SciTech Connect

    Loehman, R.E.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the relation between reactions at ceramic-metal interfaces and the development of strong interfacial bonds in ceramic joining. Studies on a number of systems are described, including silicon nitrides, aluminium nitrides, mullite, and aluminium oxides. Joints can be weakened by stresses such as thermal expansion mismatch. Ceramic joining is used in a variety of applications such as solid oxide fuel cells.

  1. Ceramic burner

    SciTech Connect

    Laux, W.; Hebel, R.; Artelt, P.; Esfeld, G.; Jacob, A.

    1981-03-31

    Improvements in the mixing body and supporting structure of a molded-ceramic-brick burner enable the burner to withstand the vibrations induced during its operation. Designed for the combustion chambers of air heaters, the burner has a mixing body composed of layers of shaped ceramic bricks that interlock and are held together vertically by a ceramic holding bar. The mixing body is shaped like a mushroom - the upper layers have a larger radius than the lower ones.

  2. Ceramic Processing

    SciTech Connect

    EWSUK,KEVIN G.

    1999-11-24

    Ceramics represent a unique class of materials that are distinguished from common metals and plastics by their: (1) high hardness, stiffness, and good wear properties (i.e., abrasion resistance); (2) ability to withstand high temperatures (i.e., refractoriness); (3) chemical durability; and (4) electrical properties that allow them to be electrical insulators, semiconductors, or ionic conductors. Ceramics can be broken down into two general categories, traditional and advanced ceramics. Traditional ceramics include common household products such as clay pots, tiles, pipe, and bricks, porcelain china, sinks, and electrical insulators, and thermally insulating refractory bricks for ovens and fireplaces. Advanced ceramics, also referred to as ''high-tech'' ceramics, include products such as spark plug bodies, piston rings, catalyst supports, and water pump seals for automobiles, thermally insulating tiles for the space shuttle, sodium vapor lamp tubes in streetlights, and the capacitors, resistors, transducers, and varistors in the solid-state electronics we use daily. The major differences between traditional and advanced ceramics are in the processing tolerances and cost. Traditional ceramics are manufactured with inexpensive raw materials, are relatively tolerant of minor process deviations, and are relatively inexpensive. Advanced ceramics are typically made with more refined raw materials and processing to optimize a given property or combination of properties (e.g., mechanical, electrical, dielectric, optical, thermal, physical, and/or magnetic) for a given application. Advanced ceramics generally have improved performance and reliability over traditional ceramics, but are typically more expensive. Additionally, advanced ceramics are typically more sensitive to the chemical and physical defects present in the starting raw materials, or those that are introduced during manufacturing.

  3. Ceramic filters

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, B.L.; Janney, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    Filters were formed from ceramic fibers, organic fibers, and a ceramic bond phase using a papermaking technique. The distribution of particulate ceramic bond phase was determined using a model silicon carbide system. As the ceramic fiber increased in length and diameter the distance between particles decreased. The calculated number of particles per area showed good agreement with the observed value. After firing, the papers were characterized using a biaxial load test. The strength of papers was proportional to the amount of bond phase included in the paper. All samples exhibited strain-tolerant behavior.

  4. Pediatric cyanide poisoning by fire smoke inhalation: a European expert consensus. Toxicology Surveillance System of the Intoxications Working Group of the Spanish Society of Paediatric Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Mintegi, Santiago; Clerigue, Nuria; Tipo, Vincenzo; Ponticiello, Eduardo; Lonati, Davide; Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; Delvau, Nicolas; Anseeuw, Kurt

    2013-11-01

    Most fire-related deaths are attributable to smoke inhalation rather than burns. The inhalation of fire smoke, which contains not only carbon monoxide but also a complex mixture of gases, seems to be the major cause of morbidity and mortality in fire victims, mainly in enclosed spaces. Cyanide gas exposure is quite common during smoke inhalation, and cyanide is present in the blood of fire victims in most cases and may play an important role in death by smoke inhalation. Cyanide poisoning may, however, be difficult to diagnose and treat. In these children, hydrogen cyanide seems to be a major source of concern, and the rapid administration of the antidote, hydroxocobalamin, may be critical for these children.European experts recently met to formulate an algorithm for prehospital and hospital management of adult patients with acute cyanide poisoning. Subsequently, a group of European pediatric experts met to evaluate and adopt that algorithm for use in the pediatric population.

  5. Interventional spine and pain procedures in patients on antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications: guidelines from the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy, the American Academy of Pain Medicine, the International Neuromodulation Society, the North American Neuromodulation Society, and the World Institute of Pain.

    PubMed

    Narouze, Samer; Benzon, Honorio T; Provenzano, David A; Buvanendran, Asokumar; De Andres, José; Deer, Timothy R; Rauck, Richard; Huntoon, Marc A

    2015-01-01

    Interventional spine and pain procedures cover a far broader spectrum than those for regional anesthesia, reflecting diverse targets and goals. When surveyed, interventional pain and spine physicians attending the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ASRA) 11th Annual Pain Medicine Meeting exhorted that existing ASRA guidelines for regional anesthesia in patients on antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications were insufficient for their needs. Those surveyed agreed that procedure-specific and patient-specific factors necessitated separate guidelines for pain and spine procedures. In response, ASRA formed a guidelines committee. After preliminary review of published complication reports and studies, committee members stratified interventional spine and pain procedures according to potential bleeding risk as low-, intermediate-, and high-risk procedures. The ASRA guidelines were deemed largely appropriate for the low- and intermediate-risk categories, but it was agreed that the high-risk targets required an intensive look at issues specific to patient safety and optimal outcomes in pain medicine. The latest evidence was sought through extensive database search strategies and the recommendations were evidence-based when available and pharmacology-driven otherwise. We could not provide strength and grading of these recommendations as there are not enough well-designed large studies concerning interventional pain procedures to support such grading. Although the guidelines could not always be based on randomized studies or on large numbers of patients from pooled databases, it is hoped that they will provide sound recommendations and the evidentiary basis for such recommendations.

  6. Adherence of heart failure patients to exercise: barriers and possible solutions: a position statement of the Study Group on Exercise Training in Heart Failure of the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Conraads, Viviane M; Deaton, Christi; Piotrowicz, Ewa; Santaularia, Nuria; Tierney, Stephanie; Piepoli, Massimo F; Pieske, Burkert; Schmid, Jean-Paul; Dickstein, Kenneth; Ponikowski, Piotr P; Jaarsma, Tiny

    2012-05-01

    The practical management of heart failure remains a challenge. Not only are heart failure patients expected to adhere to a complicated pharmacological regimen, they are also asked to follow salt and fluid restriction, and to cope with various procedures and devices. Furthermore, physical training, whose benefits have been demonstrated, is highly recommended by the recent guidelines issued by the European Society of Cardiology, but it is still severely underutilized in this particular patient population. This position paper addresses the problem of non-adherence, currently recognized as a main obstacle to a wide implementation of physical training. Since the management of chronic heart failure and, even more, of training programmes is a multidisciplinary effort, the current manuscript intends to reach cardiologists, nurses, physiotherapists, as well as psychologists working in the field. PMID:22499542

  7. Advanced information society (9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, Hiroki

    This article discusses the U.S. and European national strategies and policies for information society. Coping with the declining competitiveness in high-tech products and Japanese technological advantages both have been trying hard to strengthen technology base and to deregulate the telecommunications services markets. The U.S. approach in 1980's, unlike its liberalist principle, has been characterized by technological protectlonism and defense-oriented policies. European Communities' approach has been more comprehensive and systematic, investing heavily telecommunication infrastructure, deregulating domestic market, and promoting cooperation of member countries. However, both of these approaches have, so far, been unable to achieve a considerable success.

  8. Structural ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Douglas F.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation gives a brief history of the field of materials sciences and goes on to expound the advantages of the fastest growing area in that field, namely ceramics. Since ceramics are moving to fill the demand for lighter, stronger, more corrosion resistant materials, advancements will rely more on processing and modeling from the atomic scale up which is made possible by advanced analytical, computer, and processing techniques. All information is presented in viewgraph format.

  9. Hemopoietic stem cell transplantation in thalassemia: a report from the European Society for Blood and Bone Marrow Transplantation Hemoglobinopathy Registry, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Baronciani, D; Angelucci, E; Potschger, U; Gaziev, J; Yesilipek, A; Zecca, M; Orofino, M G; Giardini, C; Al-Ahmari, A; Marktel, S; de la Fuente, J; Ghavamzadeh, A; Hussein, A A; Targhetta, C; Pilo, F; Locatelli, F; Dini, G; Bader, P; Peters, C

    2016-04-01

    Allogeneic hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only method currently available to cure transfusion-dependent thalassemia major that has been widely used worldwide. To verify transplantation distribution, demography, activity, policies and outcomes inside the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT), we performed a retrospective non-interventional study, extracting data from the EBMT hemoglobinopathy prospective registry database. We included 1493 consecutive patients with thalassemia major transplanted between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2010. In total, 1359 (91%) transplants were performed on patients <18 years old, 1061 were from a human leukocyte Ag-identical sibling donor. After a median observation time of 2 years, the 2-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS; that is, thalassemia-free survival) were 88 ± 1% and 81 ± 1%, respectively. Transplantation from a human leukocyte Ag-identical sibling offered the best results, with OS and EFS of 91 ± 1% and 83 ± 1%, respectively. No significant differences in survival were reported between countries. The threshold age for optimal transplant outcomes was around 14 years, with an OS of 90-96% and an EFS of 83-93% when transplants were performed before this age. Allogeneic HSCT for thalassemia is a curative approach that is employed internationally and produces excellent results. PMID:26752139

  10. Group dynamics and landscape features constrain the exploration of herds in fusion-fission societies: the case of European roe deer.

    PubMed

    Pays, Olivier; Fortin, Daniel; Gassani, Jean; Duchesne, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Despite the large number of movement studies, the constraints that grouping imposes on movement decisions remain essentially unexplored, even for highly social species. Such constraints could be key, however, to understanding the dynamics and spatial organisation of species living in group fusion-fission systems. We investigated the winter movements (speed and diffusion coefficient) of groups of free-ranging roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), in an agricultural landscape characterised by a mosaic of food and foodless patches. Most groups were short-lived units that merged and split up frequently during the course of a day. Deer groups decreased their speed and diffusion rate in areas where food patches were abundant, as well as when travelling close to main roads and crest lines and far from forests. While accounting for these behavioural adjustments to habitat features, our study revealed some constraints imposed by group foraging: large groups reached the limit of their diffusion rate faster than small groups. The ability of individuals to move rapidly to new foraging locations following patch depression thus decreases with group size. Our results highlight the importance of considering both habitat heterogeneity and group dynamics when predicting the movements of individuals in group fusion-fission societies. Further, we provide empirical evidence that group cohesion can restrain movement and, therefore, the speed at which group members can explore their environment. When maintaining cohesion reduces foraging gains because of movement constraints, leaving the group may become a fitness-rewarding decision, especially when individuals can join other groups located nearby, which would tend to maintain highly dynamical group fusion-fission systems. Our findings also provide the basis for new hypotheses explaining a broad range of ecological patterns, such as the broader diet and longer residency time reported for larger herbivore groups. PMID:22479652

  11. Structural Ceramics Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 30 NIST Structural Ceramics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Structural Ceramics Database (WebSCD) provides evaluated materials property data for a wide range of advanced ceramics known variously as structural ceramics, engineering ceramics, and fine ceramics.

  12. Planetary Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...

  13. News Conference: The Big Bangor Day Meeting Lecture: Charterhouse plays host to a physics day Festival: Science on Stage festival 2013 arrives in Poland Event: Scottish Physics Teachers' Summer School Meeting: Researchers and educators meet at Lund University Conference: Exeter marks the spot Recognition: European Physical Society uncovers an historic site Education: Initial teacher education undergoes big changes Forthcoming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-09-01

    Conference: The Big Bangor Day Meeting Lecture: Charterhouse plays host to a physics day Festival: Science on Stage festival 2013 arrives in Poland Event: Scottish Physics Teachers' Summer School Meeting: Researchers and educators meet at Lund University Conference: Exeter marks the spot Recognition: European Physical Society uncovers an historic site Education: Initial teacher education undergoes big changes Forthcoming events

  14. Participation of women in neurochemistry societies.

    PubMed

    Lees, Marjorie B

    2002-11-01

    Women have made important scientific contributions to the field of neurochemistry, and they have also been leaders in neurochemical societies throughout the world. Here I discuss women's involvement and leadership in six neurochemistry societies: American Society for Neurochemistry, Argentine Society for Neurochemistry, International Society for Neurochemistry, European Society for Neurochemistry, Japanese Society for Neurochemistry, and Asian-Pacific Society for Neurochemistry. The number of women who have been active in these societies and the level of their activity vary considerably. Neurochemical societies in the Western hemisphere, i.e., the American and the Argentine Society for Neurochemistry, have much greater numbers of women who have held office, been on council, or engaged in other leadership activities than in the rest of the world. The limited participation of women in the Japanese Neurochemistry Society relates to Japanese cultural views and was not unexpected. However, the relatively few women leaders in the International Society for Neurochemistry was a surprise. The European Society had a somewhat better record of female participation than did the International Society. The reasons for these differences are partly cultural, but factors related to when each society was formed, how it is organized, and how elections are structured undoubtedly play a role. Further analysis of these observations would be of interest from a sociological and a women's studies point of view.

  15. Materials Research Society Proceedings: Interfaces in Composites, volume 170

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantano, Carlo G.; Chen, Eric J. H.

    1990-11-01

    Reports on the following topics are presented: (1) micromechanics of interfaces; (2) characterization of interfaces; (3) interface reactions in ceramic and metal systems; (4) interface effects in ceramic and metal matrix composites; and (5) interface effects in polymer matrix composites. A list of the materials research society symposium proceedings is also presented.

  16. Comparison between National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines for the diagnosis and management of stable angina: implications for clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Archbold, R Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Cardiologists in the UK use clinical practice guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and from the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) to aid clinical decision-making. This review compares their recommendations regarding stable angina. NICE's diagnostic algorithm changed clinical practice in the UK, with most cardiologists moving from the exercise ECG towards newer, more accurate imaging modalities such as CT and MRI for diagnostic testing in patients with a low or medium probability of coronary artery disease (CAD), and directly to invasive coronary angiography in patients with a high probability of CAD. ESC guidelines are based around stress imaging for most patient groups. Both guidelines stress the importance of optimal medical therapy for patients with stable angina. NICE recommends coronary artery bypass graft surgery to improve prognosis for patients with left main stem and/or proximal 3-vessel disease, whereas the ESC also includes proximal left anterior descending artery disease among its indications for revascularisation to improve prognosis, particularly if there is evidence of myocardial ischaemia. The relation between disease complexity and 5-year clinical outcomes after revascularisation in patients with left main stem and/or 3-vessel CAD has been integrated into ESC guidance through the use of the SYNTAX score to aid treatment selection in this group of patients. Patients with stable angina who have disease involving the proximal left anterior descending artery are less likely to undergo myocardial revascularisation if they are managed according to NICE's guidance compared with the ESC's guidance. PMID:27335655

  17. Validation of the Omron HEM-7201 upper arm blood pressure monitor, for self-measurement in a high altitude environment, according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010

    PubMed Central

    Cho, KaWing; Tian, Maoyi; Lan, Yonghao; Zhao, Xingshan; Yan, Lijing L.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have been conducted on blood pressure monitors and their use at high altitude. This study is the first to evaluate an automated blood pressure device at high altitude following a standard validation protocol. The Omron HEM-7201 upper arm automatic blood pressure monitor was tested for accuracy in Lhasa, Tibet, China (3650 m above sea level) according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010 (ESH-IP2). Thirty-three participants received 9–10 sequential blood pressure measurements alternating from a mercury sphygmomanometer and the device. The mean device-observer measurement difference was 1.0 ± 5.9 mmHg for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and −3.1 ± 4.6 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Of the 99 measurement pairs analyzed, 72, 90, and 97 device readings were within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg, respectively, of the observer measurements for SBP, and 68, 92, and 99 readings for DBP. The number of participants with at least two out of three measurements within 5mmHg was 27 for SBP and 25 for DBP. Three participants had no measurements within 5 mmHg for SBP or DBP. The Omron HEM-7201 passes the ESH-IP2 validation criteria and can therefore be recommended for use in adults in this setting. PMID:23466876

  18. Public-private collaboration in clinical research during pregnancy, lactation, and childhood: joint position statement of the Early Nutrition Academy and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; Benninga, Marc A; Godfrey, Keith M; Hornnes, Peter J; Kolaček, Sanja; Koletzko, Sibylle; Lentze, Michael J; Mader, Silke; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Oepkes, Dick; Oddy, Wendy H; Phillips, Alan; Rzehak, Peter; Socha, Piotr; Szajewska, Hania; Symonds, Michael E; Taminiau, Jan; Thapar, Nikhil; Troncone, Riccardo; Vandenplas, Yvan; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-04-01

    This position statement summarises a view of academia regarding standards for clinical research in collaboration with commercial enterprises, focussing on trials in pregnant women, breast-feeding women, and children. It is based on a review of the available literature and an expert workshop cosponsored by the Early Nutrition Academy and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. Clinical research collaborations between academic investigators and commercial enterprises are encouraged by universities, public funding agencies, and governmental organisations. One reason is a pressing need to obtain evidence on the effects, safety, and benefits of drugs and other commercial products and services. The credibility and value of results obtained through public-private research collaborations have, however, been questioned because many examples of inappropriate research practice have become known. Clinical research in pregnant and breast-feeding women, and in infants and children, raises sensitive scientific, ethical, and societal questions and requires the application of particularly high standards. Here we provide recommendations for the conduct of public-private research collaborations in these populations. In the interest of all stakeholders, these recommendations should contribute to more reliable, credible, and acceptable results of commercially sponsored trials and to reducing the existing credibility gap.

  19. Public-private collaboration in clinical research during pregnancy, lactation, and childhood: joint position statement of the Early Nutrition Academy and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; Benninga, Marc A; Godfrey, Keith M; Hornnes, Peter J; Kolaček, Sanja; Koletzko, Sibylle; Lentze, Michael J; Mader, Silke; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Oepkes, Dick; Oddy, Wendy H; Phillips, Alan; Rzehak, Peter; Socha, Piotr; Szajewska, Hania; Symonds, Michael E; Taminiau, Jan; Thapar, Nikhil; Troncone, Riccardo; Vandenplas, Yvan; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-04-01

    This position statement summarises a view of academia regarding standards for clinical research in collaboration with commercial enterprises, focussing on trials in pregnant women, breast-feeding women, and children. It is based on a review of the available literature and an expert workshop cosponsored by the Early Nutrition Academy and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. Clinical research collaborations between academic investigators and commercial enterprises are encouraged by universities, public funding agencies, and governmental organisations. One reason is a pressing need to obtain evidence on the effects, safety, and benefits of drugs and other commercial products and services. The credibility and value of results obtained through public-private research collaborations have, however, been questioned because many examples of inappropriate research practice have become known. Clinical research in pregnant and breast-feeding women, and in infants and children, raises sensitive scientific, ethical, and societal questions and requires the application of particularly high standards. Here we provide recommendations for the conduct of public-private research collaborations in these populations. In the interest of all stakeholders, these recommendations should contribute to more reliable, credible, and acceptable results of commercially sponsored trials and to reducing the existing credibility gap. PMID:24399212

  20. Discrepancies between two alternative staging systems (European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society 2006 and American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union for International Cancer Control 2010) of neuroendocrine neoplasms of the pancreas. A study of 50 cases.

    PubMed

    Liszka, Łukasz; Pająk, Jacek; Mrowiec, Sławomir; Zielińska-Pająk, Ewa; Gołka, Dariusz; Lampe, Paweł

    2011-04-15

    The aim of our study was to identify and describe potential inconsistencies between two alternative staging systems of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNENs)--the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) system (2006) and the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union for International Cancer Control (AJCC-UICC) system (2010). To address this issue, we performed a retrospective clinico-pathological study of 50 cases of pNENs. We found 9 (18%) cases of ENETS/AJCC-UICC discrepancies regarding the primary tumor stage. They included 7 cases of T2/T3 disagreement and 2 cases of T3/T4 disagreement. In addition, we discussed the issue of potential T1/T2 discrepancy (however, we did not observe any such a case). Another inconsistency was related to the application of different stage prognostic groupings between both systems. In conclusion, the discrepancies between ENETS and AJCC-UICC staging systems for pNENs are relatively frequent and heterogeneous. We believe that they should be rigorously recognized. This is necessary for the evaluation of prognostic factors and the effectiveness of therapeutic options used in patients with pNENs.

  1. European physics impact - to a first approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starckx, Senne

    2013-05-01

    Physics-based industries contributed around 14%, or €3800bn, to the total value of the European economy in 2010 - exceeding that of the construction and retail sectors combined - according to a report by the European Physical Society (EPS).

  2. Autism Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... age, and provide the latest information regarding treatment, education, research, and advocacy. Learn more Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the nation's leading grassroots ...

  3. Synthesis of crystalline ceramics for actinide immobilisation

    SciTech Connect

    Burakov, B.; Gribova, V.; Kitsay, A.; Ojovan, M.; Hyatt, N.C.; Stennett, M.C.

    2007-07-01

    Methods for the synthesis of ceramic wasteforms for the immobilization of actinides are common to those for non-radioactive ceramics: hot uniaxial pressing (HUP); hot isostatic pressing (HIP); cold pressing followed by sintering; melting (for some specific ceramics, such as garnet/perovskite composites). Synthesis of ceramics doped with radionuclides is characterized with some important considerations: all the radionuclides should be incorporated into crystalline structure of durable host-phases in the form of solid solutions and no separate phases of radionuclides should be present in the matrix of final ceramic wasteform; all procedures of starting precursor preparation and ceramic synthesis should follow safety requirements of nuclear industry. Synthesis methods that avoid the use of very high temperatures and pressures and are easily accomplished within the environment of a glove-box or hot cell are preferable. Knowledge transfer between the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI, Russia) and Immobilisation Science Laboratory (ISL, UK) was facilitated in the framework of a joint project supported by UK Royal Society. In order to introduce methods of precursor preparation and ceramic synthesis we selected well-known procedures readily deployable in radiochemical processing plants. We accounted that training should include main types of ceramic wasteforms which are currently discussed for industrial applications. (authors)

  4. A consensus statement on the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) algorithm for the management of knee osteoarthritis-From evidence-based medicine to the real-life setting.

    PubMed

    Bruyère, Olivier; Cooper, Cyrus; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Maheu, Emmanuel; Rannou, François; Branco, Jaime; Luisa Brandi, Maria; Kanis, John A; Altman, Roy D; Hochberg, Marc C; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2016-02-01

    The European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) published a treatment algorithm for the management of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in 2014, which provides practical guidance for the prioritization of interventions. Further analysis of real-world data for OA provides additional evidence in support of pharmacological interventions, in terms of management of OA pain and function, avoidance of adverse events, disease-modifying effects and long-term outcomes, e.g., delay of total joint replacement surgery, and pharmacoeconomic factors such as reduction in healthcare resource utilization. This article provides an updated assessment of the literature for selected interventions in OA, focusing on real-life data, with the aim of providing easy-to-follow advice on how to establish a treatment flow in patients with knee OA in primary care clinical practice, in support of the clinicians' individualized assessment of the patient. In step 1, background maintenance therapy with symptomatic slow-acting drugs for osteoarthritis (SYSADOAs) is recommended, for which high-quality evidence is provided only for the prescription formulations of patented crystalline glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate. Paracetamol may be added for rescue analgesia only, due to limited efficacy and increasing safety signals. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may provide additional symptomatic treatment with the same degree of efficacy as oral NSAIDs without the systemic safety concerns. Oral NSAIDs maintain a central role in step 2 advanced management of persistent symptoms. However, oral NSAIDs are highly heterogeneous in terms of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular safety profile, and patient stratification with careful treatment selection is advocated to maximize the risk:benefit ratio. Intra-articular hyaluronic acid as a next step provides sustained clinical benefit with effects lasting up to 6 months after a short-course of

  5. Comparison of Intensive Chemotherapy and Hypomethylating Agents before Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation for Advanced Myelodysplastic Syndromes: A Study of the Myelodysplastic Syndrome Subcommittee of the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplant Research.

    PubMed

    Potter, Victoria T; Iacobelli, Simona; van Biezen, Anja; Maertens, Johann; Bourhis, Jean-Henri; Passweg, Jakob R; Yakhoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Tabrizi, Reza; Bay, Jacques-Olivier; Chevallier, Patrice; Chalandon, Yves; Huynh, Anne; Cahn, Jean Yves; Ljungman, Per; Craddock, Charles; Lenhoff, Stig; Russell, N H; Fegueux, Nathalie; Socié, Gerard; Benedetto, Bruno; Meijer, Ellen; Mufti, G J; de Witte, Theo; Robin, Marie; Kröger, Nicolaus

    2016-09-01

    The European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplant Research data set was used to retrospectively analyze the outcomes of hypomethylating therapy (HMA) compared with those of conventional chemotherapy (CC) before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in 209 patients with advanced myelodysplastic syndromes. Median follow-up was 22.1 months and the median age of the group was 57.6 years with 37% of the population older than > 60 years. The majority of patients (59%) received reduced-intensity conditioning and 34% and 27% had intermediate-2 and high international prognostic scoring system (IPSS) scores. At time of HSCT, 32% of patients did not achieve complete remission (CR) and 13% had primary refractory disease. On univariate analysis, outcomes at 3 years were not significantly different between HMA and CC for overall survival (OS), relapse-free survival (RFS), cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM): OS (42% versus 35%), RFS (29% versus 31%), CIR (45% versus 40%), and NRM (26% versus 28%). Comparing characteristics of the groups, there were more patients < 55 years old, more patients in CR (68% versus 32%), and fewer patients with primary refractory disease in the CC group than in the HMA group (10% versus 19%, P < .001). Patients with primary refractory disease had worse outcomes than those in CR with regard to OS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41 to 4.13; P = .001), RFS (HR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.37 to 3.76; P = .001), and NRM (HR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.18 to 5.26; P = .016). In addition, an adverse effect of IPSS-R cytogenetic risk group was evident for RFS. In summary, outcomes after HSCT are similar for patients receiving HMA compared with those receiving CC, despite the higher proportion of patients with primary refractory disease in the HMA group. PMID:27264633

  6. Comparison of Intensive Chemotherapy and Hypomethylating Agents before Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation for Advanced Myelodysplastic Syndromes: A Study of the Myelodysplastic Syndrome Subcommittee of the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplant Research.

    PubMed

    Potter, Victoria T; Iacobelli, Simona; van Biezen, Anja; Maertens, Johann; Bourhis, Jean-Henri; Passweg, Jakob R; Yakhoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Tabrizi, Reza; Bay, Jacques-Olivier; Chevallier, Patrice; Chalandon, Yves; Huynh, Anne; Cahn, Jean Yves; Ljungman, Per; Craddock, Charles; Lenhoff, Stig; Russell, N H; Fegueux, Nathalie; Socié, Gerard; Benedetto, Bruno; Meijer, Ellen; Mufti, G J; de Witte, Theo; Robin, Marie; Kröger, Nicolaus

    2016-09-01

    The European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplant Research data set was used to retrospectively analyze the outcomes of hypomethylating therapy (HMA) compared with those of conventional chemotherapy (CC) before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in 209 patients with advanced myelodysplastic syndromes. Median follow-up was 22.1 months and the median age of the group was 57.6 years with 37% of the population older than > 60 years. The majority of patients (59%) received reduced-intensity conditioning and 34% and 27% had intermediate-2 and high international prognostic scoring system (IPSS) scores. At time of HSCT, 32% of patients did not achieve complete remission (CR) and 13% had primary refractory disease. On univariate analysis, outcomes at 3 years were not significantly different between HMA and CC for overall survival (OS), relapse-free survival (RFS), cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM): OS (42% versus 35%), RFS (29% versus 31%), CIR (45% versus 40%), and NRM (26% versus 28%). Comparing characteristics of the groups, there were more patients < 55 years old, more patients in CR (68% versus 32%), and fewer patients with primary refractory disease in the CC group than in the HMA group (10% versus 19%, P < .001). Patients with primary refractory disease had worse outcomes than those in CR with regard to OS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41 to 4.13; P = .001), RFS (HR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.37 to 3.76; P = .001), and NRM (HR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.18 to 5.26; P = .016). In addition, an adverse effect of IPSS-R cytogenetic risk group was evident for RFS. In summary, outcomes after HSCT are similar for patients receiving HMA compared with those receiving CC, despite the higher proportion of patients with primary refractory disease in the HMA group.

  7. A standardised, generic, validated approach to stratify the magnitude of clinical benefit that can be anticipated from anti-cancer therapies: the European Society for Medical Oncology Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale (ESMO-MCBS).

    PubMed

    Cherny, N I; Sullivan, R; Dafni, U; Kerst, J M; Sobrero, A; Zielinski, C; de Vries, E G E; Piccart, M J

    2015-08-01

    The value of any new therapeutic strategy or treatment is determined by the magnitude of its clinical benefit balanced against its cost. Evidence for clinical benefit from new treatment options is derived from clinical research, in particular phase III randomised trials, which generate unbiased data regarding the efficacy, benefit and safety of new therapeutic approaches. To date, there is no standard tool for grading the magnitude of clinical benefit of cancer therapies, which may range from trivial (median progression-free survival advantage of only a few weeks) to substantial (improved long-term survival). Indeed, in the absence of a standardised approach for grading the magnitude of clinical benefit, conclusions and recommendations derived from studies are often hotly disputed and very modest incremental advances have often been presented, discussed and promoted as major advances or 'breakthroughs'. Recognising the importance of presenting clear and unbiased statements regarding the magnitude of the clinical benefit from new therapeutic approaches derived from high-quality clinical trials, the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) has developed a validated and reproducible tool to assess the magnitude of clinical benefit for cancer medicines, the ESMO Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale (ESMO-MCBS). This tool uses a rational, structured and consistent approach to derive a relative ranking of the magnitude of clinically meaningful benefit that can be expected from a new anti-cancer treatment. The ESMO-MCBS is an important first step to the critical public policy issue of value in cancer care, helping to frame the appropriate use of limited public and personal resources to deliver cost-effective and affordable cancer care. The ESMO-MCBS will be a dynamic tool and its criteria will be revised on a regular basis. PMID:26026162

  8. The role of dietary protein and vitamin D in maintaining musculoskeletal health in postmenopausal women: a consensus statement from the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO).

    PubMed

    Rizzoli, René; Stevenson, John C; Bauer, Jürgen M; van Loon, Luc J C; Walrand, Stéphane; Kanis, John A; Cooper, Cyrus; Brandi, Maria-Luisa; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2014-09-01

    From 50 years of age, postmenopausal women are at an increased risk of developing sarcopenia and osteoporosis as a result of deterioration of musculoskeletal health. Both disorders increase the risk of falls and fractures. The risk of developing sarcopenia and osteoporosis may be attenuated through healthy lifestyle changes, which include adequate dietary protein, calcium and vitamin D intakes, and regular physical activity/exercise, besides hormone replacement therapy when appropriate. Protein intake and physical activity are the main anabolic stimuli for muscle protein synthesis. Exercise training leads to increased muscle mass and strength, and the combination of optimal protein intake and exercise produces a greater degree of muscle protein accretion than either intervention alone. Similarly, adequate dietary protein intake and resistance exercise are important contributors to the maintenance of bone strength. Vitamin D helps to maintain muscle mass and strength as well as bone health. These findings suggest that healthy lifestyle measures in women aged >50 years are essential to allow healthy ageing. The European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) recommends optimal dietary protein intake of 1.0-1.2g/kgbodyweight/d with at least 20-25g of high-quality protein at each main meal, with adequate vitamin D intake at 800IU/d to maintain serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels >50nmol/L as well as calcium intake of 1000mg/d, alongside regular physical activity/exercise 3-5 times/week combined with protein intake in close proximity to exercise, in postmenopausal women for prevention of age-related deterioration of musculoskeletal health.

  9. Prediction of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Related Mortality- Lessons Learned from the In-Silico Approach: A European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Acute Leukemia Working Party Data Mining Study

    PubMed Central

    Shouval, Roni; Labopin, Myriam; Unger, Ron; Giebel, Sebastian; Ciceri, Fabio; Schmid, Christoph; Esteve, Jordi; Baron, Frederic; Gorin, Norbert Claude; Savani, Bipin; Shimoni, Avichai; Mohty, Mohamad; Nagler, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    Models for prediction of allogeneic hematopoietic stem transplantation (HSCT) related mortality partially account for transplant risk. Improving predictive accuracy requires understating of prediction limiting factors, such as the statistical methodology used, number and quality of features collected, or simply the population size. Using an in-silico approach (i.e., iterative computerized simulations), based on machine learning (ML) algorithms, we set out to analyze these factors. A cohort of 25,923 adult acute leukemia patients from the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) registry was analyzed. Predictive objective was non-relapse mortality (NRM) 100 days following HSCT. Thousands of prediction models were developed under varying conditions: increasing sample size, specific subpopulations and an increasing number of variables, which were selected and ranked by separate feature selection algorithms. Depending on the algorithm, predictive performance plateaued on a population size of 6,611–8,814 patients, reaching a maximal area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.67. AUCs’ of models developed on specific subpopulation ranged from 0.59 to 0.67 for patients in second complete remission and receiving reduced intensity conditioning, respectively. Only 3–5 variables were necessary to achieve near maximal AUCs. The top 3 ranking variables, shared by all algorithms were disease stage, donor type, and conditioning regimen. Our findings empirically demonstrate that with regards to NRM prediction, few variables “carry the weight” and that traditional HSCT data has been “worn out”. “Breaking through” the predictive boundaries will likely require additional types of inputs. PMID:26942424

  10. Healthy Lifestyle Interventions to Combat Noncommunicable Disease—A Novel Nonhierarchical Connectivity Model for Key Stakeholders: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association, European Society of Cardiology, European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, and American College of Preventive Medicine.

    PubMed

    Arena, Ross; Guazzi, Marco; Lianov, Liana; Whitsel, Laurie; Berra, Kathy; Lavie, Carl J; Kaminsky, Leonard; Williams, Mark; Hivert, Marie-France; Franklin, Nina Cherie; Myers, Jonathan; Dengel, Donald; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Pinto, Fausto J; Cosentino, Francesco; Halle, Martin; Gielen, Stephan; Dendale, Paul; Niebauer, Josef; Pelliccia, Antonio; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo; Corra, Ugo; Piepoli, Massimo F; Guthrie, George; Shurney, Dexter

    2015-08-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have become the primary health concern for most countries around the world. Currently, more than 36 million people worldwide die from NCDs each year, accounting for 63% of annual global deaths; most are preventable. The global financial burden of NCDs is staggering, with an estimated 2010 global cost of $6.3 trillion (US dollars) that is projected to increase to $13 trillion by 2030. A number of NCDs share one or more common predisposing risk factors, all related to lifestyle to some degree: (1) cigarette smoking, (2) hypertension, (3) hyperglycemia, (4) dyslipidemia, (5) obesity, (6) physical inactivity, and (7) poor nutrition. In large part, prevention, control, or even reversal of the aforementioned modifiable risk factors are realized through leading a healthy lifestyle (HL). The challenge is how to initiate the global change, not toward increasing documentation of the scope of the problem but toward true action-creating, implementing, and sustaining HL initiatives that will result in positive, measurable changes in the previously defined poor health metrics. To achieve this task, a paradigm shift in how we approach NCD prevention and treatment is required. The goal of this American Heart Association/European Society of Cardiology/European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation/American College of Preventive Medicine policy statement is to define key stakeholders and highlight their connectivity with respect to HL initiatives. This policy encourages integrated action by all stakeholders to create the needed paradigm shift and achieve broad adoption of HL behaviors on a global scale. PMID:26143646

  11. Emerging Applications of Ceramic and Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorthy, Divya; Ramolina, Dheeyana; Sandou, Sherleena

    2012-07-01

    Almost 500 papers were presented during the 43 sessions of the 27th Annual Cocoa Beach Conference & Exposition on Advanced Ceramics & Composites, which was organized by the Engineering Ceramics Division of the American Ceramic Society and sponsored by several federal agencies: NASA Glenn Research Center, the Army Research Office, the Department of Energy, and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. Many of these papers focused on composites, both ceramic and metal matrix, and discussed mechanical behavior, design, fibers/interfaces, processing, and applications. Potential applications under development include components for armor, nuclear energy, and automobiles. A few of these applications have reached commercialization.

  12. Monolithic ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbell, Thomas P.; Sanders, William A.

    1992-01-01

    A development history and current development status evaluation are presented for SiC and Si3N4 monolithic ceramics. In the absence of widely sought improvements in these materials' toughness, and associated reliability in structural applications, uses will remain restricted to components in noncritical, nonman-rated aerospace applications such as cruise missile and drone gas turbine engine components. In such high temperature engine-section components, projected costs lie below those associated with superalloy-based short-life/expendable engines. Advancements are required in processing technology for the sake of fewer and smaller microstructural flaws.

  13. Environmental durability of ceramics and ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Dennis S.

    1992-01-01

    An account is given of the current understanding of the environmental durability of both monolithic ceramics and ceramic-matrix composites, with a view to the prospective development of methods for the characterization, prediction, and improvement of ceramics' environmental durability. Attention is given to the environmental degradation behaviors of SiC, Si3N4, Al2O3, and glass-ceramic matrix compositions. The focus of corrosion prevention in Si-based ceramics such as SiC and Si3N4 is on the high and low sulfur fuel combustion-product effects encountered in heat engine applications of these ceramics; sintering additives and raw material impurities are noted to play a decisive role in ceramics' high temperature environmental response.

  14. Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia: new insights and guidance for clinicians to improve detection and clinical management. A position paper from the Consensus Panel on Familial Hypercholesterolaemia of the European Atherosclerosis Society

    PubMed Central

    Cuchel, Marina; Bruckert, Eric; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Raal, Frederick J.; Santos, Raul D.; Hegele, Robert A.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Descamps, Olivier S.; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Watts, Gerald F.; Averna, Maurizio; Boileau, Catherine; Borén, Jan; Catapano, Alberico L.; Defesche, Joep C.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Humphries, Steve E.; Kovanen, Petri T.; Masana, Luis; Pajukanta, Päivi; Parhofer, Klaus G.; Ray, Kausik K.; Stalenhoef, Anton F. H.; Stroes, Erik; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Wiegman, Albert; Wiklund, Olov; Chapman, M. John; Cuchel, Marina; Bruckert, Eric; Chapman, M. John; Descamps, Olivier S.; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Hegele, Robert A.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Raal, Frederick J.; Santos, Raul D.; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Watts, Gerald F.; Chapman, M. John; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Averna, Maurizio; Boileau, Catherine; Borén, Jan; Catapano, Alberico L.; Defesche, Joep C.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Humphries, Steve E.; Kovanen, Petri T.; Masana, Luis; Pajukanta, Päivi; Parhofer, Klaus G.; Ray, Kausik K.; Stalenhoef, Anton F. H.; Stroes, Erik; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Wiegman, Albert; Wiklund, Olov

    2014-01-01

    Aims Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) is a rare life-threatening condition characterized by markedly elevated circulating levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and accelerated, premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD). Given recent insights into the heterogeneity of genetic defects and clinical phenotype of HoFH, and the availability of new therapeutic options, this Consensus Panel on Familial Hypercholesterolaemia of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) critically reviewed available data with the aim of providing clinical guidance for the recognition and management of HoFH. Methods and results Early diagnosis of HoFH and prompt initiation of diet and lipid-lowering therapy are critical. Genetic testing may provide a definitive diagnosis, but if unavailable, markedly elevated LDL-C levels together with cutaneous or tendon xanthomas before 10 years, or untreated elevated LDL-C levels consistent with heterozygous FH in both parents, are suggestive of HoFH. We recommend that patients with suspected HoFH are promptly referred to specialist centres for a comprehensive ACVD evaluation and clinical management. Lifestyle intervention and maximal statin therapy are the mainstays of treatment, ideally started in the first year of life or at an initial diagnosis, often with ezetimibe and other lipid-modifying therapy. As patients rarely achieve LDL-C targets, adjunctive lipoprotein apheresis is recommended where available, preferably started by age 5 and no later than 8 years. The number of therapeutic approaches has increased following approval of lomitapide and mipomersen for HoFH. Given the severity of ACVD, we recommend regular follow-up, including Doppler echocardiographic evaluation of the heart and aorta annually, stress testing and, if available, computed tomography coronary angiography every 5 years, or less if deemed necessary. Conclusion This EAS Consensus Panel highlights the need for early identification of Ho

  15. Cryptozoology Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Reports of Loch Ness monsters, Bigfoot, and the Yeti spring u p from time to time, sparking scientific controversy about the veracity of these observations. Now an organization has been established to help cull, analyze, and disseminate information on the alleged creatures. The International Society of Cryptozoology, formed at a January meeting at the U.S. National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution, will serve as the focal point for the investigation, analysis, publication, and discussion of animals of unexpected form or size or of unexpected occurrences in time or space.

  16. Dental ceramics: An update.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Arvind; Shenoy, Nina

    2010-10-01

    In the last few decades, there have been tremendous advances in the mechanical properties and methods of fabrication of ceramic materials. While porcelain-based materials are still a major component of the market, there have been moves to replace metal ceramics systems with all ceramic systems. Advances in bonding techniques have increased the range and scope for use of ceramics in dentistry. In this brief review, we will discuss advances in ceramic materials and fabrication techniques. Examples of the microstructure property relationships for these ceramic materials will also be addressed.

  17. Ceramic electrolyte coating methods

    DOEpatents

    Seabaugh, Matthew M.; Swartz, Scott L.; Dawson, William J.; McCormick, Buddy E.

    2004-10-12

    Processes for preparing aqueous suspensions of a nanoscale ceramic electrolyte material such as yttrium-stabilized zirconia. The invention also includes a process for preparing an aqueous coating slurry of a nanoscale ceramic electrolyte material. The invention further includes a process for depositing an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material on pre-sintered, partially sintered, and unsintered ceramic substrates and products made by this process.

  18. Ceramic to metal seal

    DOEpatents

    Snow, Gary S.; Wilcox, Paul D.

    1976-01-01

    Providing a high strength, hermetic ceramic to metal seal by essentially heating a wire-like metal gasket and a ceramic member, which have been chemically cleaned, while simultaneously deforming from about 50 to 95 percent the metal gasket against the ceramic member at a temperature of about 30 to 75 percent of the melting temperature of the metal gasket.

  19. Brittleness of ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroupa, F.

    1984-01-01

    The main characteristics of mechanical properties of ceramics are summarized and the causes of their brittleness, especially the limited mobility of dislocations, are discussed. The possibility of improving the fracture toughness of ceramics and the basic research needs relating to technology, structure and mechanical properties of ceramics are stressed in connection with their possible applications in engineering at high temperature.

  20. Thin film ceramic thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

  1. Ceramic gas turbine shroud

    DOEpatents

    Shi, Jun; Green, Kevin E.

    2014-07-22

    An example gas turbine engine shroud includes a first annular ceramic wall having an inner side for resisting high temperature turbine engine gasses and an outer side with a plurality of radial slots. A second annular metallic wall is positioned radially outwardly of and enclosing the first annular ceramic wall and has a plurality of tabs in communication with the slot of the first annular ceramic wall. The tabs of the second annular metallic wall and slots of the first annular ceramic wall are in communication such that the first annular ceramic wall and second annular metallic wall are affixed.

  2. Forming of superplastic ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.R.; Wadsworth, J.; Nieh, T.G.

    1994-05-01

    Superplasticity in ceramics has now advanced to the stage that technologically viable superplastic deformation processing can be performed. In this paper, examples of superplastic forming and diffusion bonding of ceramic components are given. Recent work in biaxial gas-pressure forming of several ceramics is provided. These include yttria-stabilized, tetragonal zirconia (YTZP), a 20% alumina/YTZP composite, and silicon. In addition, the concurrent superplastic forming and diffusion bonding of a hybrid ceramic-metal structure are presented. These forming processes offer technological advantages of greater dimensional control and increased variety and complexity of shapes than is possible with conventional ceramic shaping technology.

  3. Zeo-pigment for traditional ceramic industry

    SciTech Connect

    Valdes, J.J.P.; Rodriguez, A.V.; Caraballo, M.M.

    1996-12-31

    In the present work the possibility of using natural zeolites mixed with soluble salts for ceramic pigment elaboration (further named zeo-pigment) is studied. The mixture of zeolite with salts is thermally treated to produce the pigment, this procedure was followed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The obtained zeo-pigments were used to colour the porcelanized ceramic stoneware tiles at the experimental production. As it is known, it is possible to prepare a wide range of colours in these type of tiles by adding specific stains to the mixture of raw materials during grinding in the amount of 0.5 to 5 %, in this way any product called marbleized, mottled, granite, etc. ware is obtained. It is important to remember that when stains are added to the basic white body in order to produce one-color porcelanized ceramic stoneware, this does not involve great problems for the production. The physical properties of experimental produced ceramics, coloured by zeo-pigments, were studied according to European standard test. The present work is intended to be useful from the point of view of pollution prevention and waste minimization, regarding the utilization of soluble salts contained in some industrial wastes for the elaboration of ceramic pigments.

  4. Phase Equilibria and Crystallography of Ceramic Oxides

    PubMed Central

    Wong-Ng, W.; Roth, R. S.; Vanderah, T. A.; McMurdie, H. F.

    2001-01-01

    Research in phase equilibria and crystallography has been a tradition in the Ceramics Division at National Bureau of Standards/National Institute of Standatrds and Technology (NBS/NIST) since the early thirties. In the early years, effort was concentrated in areas of Portland cement, ceramic glazes and glasses, instrument bearings, and battery materials. In the past 40 years, a large portion of the work was related to electronic materials, including ferroelectrics, piezoelectrics, ionic conductors, dielectrics, microwave dielectrics, and high-temperature superconductors. As a result of the phase equilibria studies, many new compounds have been discovered. Some of these discoveries have had a significant impact on US industry. Structure determinations of these new phases have often been carried out as a joint effort among NBS/NIST colleagues and also with outside collaborators using both single crystal and neutron and x-ray powder diffraction techniques. All phase equilibria diagrams were included in Phase Diagrams for Ceramists, which are collaborative publications between The American Ceramic Society (ACerS) and NBS/NIST. All x-ray powder diffraction patterns have been included in the Powder Diffraction File (PDF). This article gives a brief account of the history of the development of the phase equilibria and crystallographic research on ceramic oxides in the Ceramics Division. Represented systems, particularly electronic materials, are highlighted. PMID:27500068

  5. The Training of Teachers of the Children of Migrant Workers: Cultural Values and Education in a Multi-cultural Society. Report of the European Teachers' Seminar (13th, Donaueschingen, Federal Republic of Germany, 19-24 October 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Jorgen S., Comp.

    Summaries of seven reports presented at the teachers' seminar focus on teacher training for a multi-cultural society, with an emphasis on Muslim migrant children. Three papers discuss the general circumstances of Muslim immigrants in Europe, the implications for educational practice and structures, a Muslim view of the problems faced by Muslim…

  6. Summary and Analysis of the Feedback from Civil Society as Part of the Consultation on the Commission's Memorandum on Lifelong Learning. Supporting Document to the Communication from the Commission Making a European Area of Lifelong Learning a Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document presents a Consultation Platform formed by seven major networks to maximize impact of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and civil society organizations on development of the Communication on Lifelong Learning. Section 2 is a summary of platform conclusions structured according to these six key messages in the Memorandum on…

  7. The friction and wear of ceramic/ceramic and ceramic/metal combinations in sliding contact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1993-01-01

    The tribological characteristics of ceramics sliding on ceramics are compared to those of ceramics sliding on a nickel based turbine alloy. The friction and wear of oxide ceramics and silicon-based ceramics in air at temperatures from room ambient to 900 C (in a few cases to 1200 C) were measured for a hemispherically-tipped pin on a flat sliding contact geometry. In general, especially at high temperature, friction and wear were lower for ceramic/metal combinations than for ceramic/ceramic combinations. The better tribological performance for ceramic/metal combinations is attributed primarily to the lubricious nature of the oxidized surface of the metal.

  8. Issues in diagnosis of small B cell lymphoid neoplasms involving the bone marrow and peripheral blood. Report on the Bone Marrow Workshop of the XVIIth meeting of the European Association for Haematopathology and the Society for Hematopathology.

    PubMed

    Porwit, Anna; Fend, Falko; Kremer, Marcus; Orazi, Attilio; Safali, Mükerrem; van der Walt, Jon

    2016-09-01

    Small B cell lymphoid neoplasms are the most common lymphoproliferative disorders involving peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM). The Bone Marrow Workshop (BMW) organized by the European Bone Marrow Working Group (EBMWG) of the European Association for Haematopathology (EAHP) during the XVIIth EAHP Meeting in Istanbul, October 2014, was dedicated to discussion of cases illustrating how the recent advances in immunophenotyping, molecular techniques and cytogenetics provide better understanding and classification of these entities. Submitted cases were grouped into following categories: (i) cases illustrating diagnostic difficulties in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL); (ii) cases of BM manifestations of small B cell lymphoid neoplasms other than CLL; (iii) transformation of small B cell lymphoid neoplasms in the BM; and (iv) multiclonality and composite lymphomas in the BM. This report summarizes presented cases and conclusions of the BMW and provides practical recommendations for classification of the BM manifestations of small B cell lymphoid neoplasms based on the current state of knowledge. PMID:27208429

  9. Analyses of fine paste ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Sabloff, J A

    1980-01-01

    Four chapters are included: history of Brookhaven fine paste ceramics project, chemical and mathematical procedures employed in Mayan fine paste ceramics project, and compositional and archaeological perspectives on the Mayan fine paste ceramics. (DLC)

  10. Ceramic tamper-revealing seals

    DOEpatents

    Kupperman, David S.; Raptis, Apostolos C.; Sheen, Shuh-Haw

    1992-01-01

    A flexible metal or ceramic cable with composite ceramic ends, or a u-shaped ceramic connecting element attached to a binding element plate or block cast from alumina or zirconium, and connected to the connecting element by shrink fitting.

  11. Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites

    SciTech Connect

    2002-09-01

    Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites demonstrate the high-temperature stability of ceramics--with an increased fracture toughness resulting from the fiber reinforcement of the composite. The material optimization performed under the continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) included a series of systematic optimizations. The overall goals were to define the processing window, to increase the robustinous of the process, to increase process yield while reducing costs, and to define the complexity of parts that could be fabricated.

  12. Vascular surgery: the European perspective.

    PubMed

    Harris, P

    1999-09-01

    Isaac Newton, among others, observed that 'we see so far because we are standing upon the shoulders of giants'. In vascular surgery most of the giants have been European, and this is a heritage which we as Europeans can take pride in and build upon if we chose to do so. As in other areas of life, commitment is essential in order to influence the future. For vascular surgeons in Europe this means active participation in the European scientific societies for vascular surgery and in the UEMS. The main value of the EBSQ.VASC assessments to date has been to expose the uneven standards of training in vascular surgery within the European Union. Only if action follows to address these inequalities will the tactics of the European Board of Vascular Surgery be vindicated.

  13. Method of sintering ceramic materials

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.

    1992-01-01

    A method for sintering ceramic materials is described. A ceramic article is coated with layers of protective coatings such as boron nitride, graphite foil, and niobium. The coated ceramic article is embedded in a container containing refractory metal oxide granules and placed within a microwave oven. The ceramic article is heated by microwave energy to a temperature sufficient to sinter the ceramic article to form a densified ceramic article having a density equal to or greater than 90% of theoretical density.

  14. Method of sintering ceramic materials

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.

    1992-11-17

    A method for sintering ceramic materials is described. A ceramic article is coated with layers of protective coatings such as boron nitride, graphite foil, and niobium. The coated ceramic article is embedded in a container containing refractory metal oxide granules and placed within a microwave oven. The ceramic article is heated by microwave energy to a temperature sufficient to sinter the ceramic article to form a densified ceramic article having a density equal to or greater than 90% of theoretical density. 2 figs.

  15. Alumina-based ceramic composite

    DOEpatents

    Alexander, Kathleen B.; Tiegs, Terry N.; Becher, Paul F.; Waters, Shirley B.

    1996-01-01

    An improved ceramic composite comprising oxide ceramic particulates, nonoxide ceramic particulates selected from the group consisting of carbides, borides, nitrides of silicon and transition metals and mixtures thereof, and a ductile binder selected from the group consisting of metallic, intermetallic alloys and mixtures thereof is described. The ceramic composite is made by blending powders of the ceramic particulates and the ductile to form a mixture and consolidating the mixture of under conditions of temperature and pressure sufficient to produce a densified ceramic composite.

  16. Measuring Fracture Times Of Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlichta, Paul J.; Bister, Leo; Bickler, Donald G.

    1989-01-01

    Electrical measurements complement or replace fast cinematography. Electronic system measures microsecond time intervals between impacts of projectiles on ceramic tiles and fracture tiles. Used in research on ceramics and ceramic-based composite materials such as armor. Hardness and low density of ceramics enable them to disintegrate projectiles more efficiently than metals. Projectile approaches ceramic tile specimen. Penetrating foil squares of triggering device activate display and recording instruments. As ceramic and resistive film break oscilloscope plots increase in electrical resistance of film.

  17. Ceramic brush seals development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Harold

    1994-01-01

    The following topics are discussed in this viewgraph presentation: ceramic brush seals, research and development, manufacturing, brazed assembly development, controlling braze flow, fiber selection, and braze results.

  18. Corrosion of Ceramic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    1999-01-01

    Non-oxide ceramics are promising materials for a range of high temperature applications. Selected current and future applications are listed. In all such applications, the ceramics are exposed to high temperature gases. Therefore it is critical to understand the response of these materials to their environment. The variables to be considered here include both the type of ceramic and the environment to which it is exposed. Non-oxide ceramics include borides, nitrides, and carbides. Most high temperature corrosion environments contain oxygen and hence the emphasis of this chapter will be on oxidation processes.

  19. Defect production in ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Kinoshita, C.

    1997-08-01

    A review is given of several important defect production and accumulation parameters for irradiated ceramics. Materials covered in this review include alumina, magnesia, spinel silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminum nitride and diamond. Whereas threshold displacement energies for many ceramics are known within a reasonable level of uncertainty (with notable exceptions being AIN and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), relatively little information exists on the equally important parameters of surviving defect fraction (defect production efficiency) and point defect migration energies for most ceramics. Very little fundamental displacement damage information is available for nitride ceramics. The role of subthreshold irradiation on defect migration and microstructural evolution is also briefly discussed.

  20. Mineral resources of Peru's ancient societies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, W.E.

    2003-01-01

    Northern Peru has an exceptionally rich archaeological heritage that includes metalwork, ceramics and textiles. The success of at least a half-dozen pre-Columbian societies dating back 3,000 years and subsequent Spanish colonization in the 1400s has rested on the effective use of northern Peru's abundant resources. In the summer of 2000, my son Matt and I learned about that connection firsthand by volunteering at the Santa Rita B archaeological site in the Chao Valley near Trujillo in northern Peru. Riding donkey-back through the Andes and talking with local people, we got our hands dirty in the rich archaeology and geology of the area. We were able to correlate mineral occurrences to their various roles in society - opening a window into the region's fascinating past. From construction to metallurgy, pre-Columbian societies flourished and advanced because of their understanding and use of the available mineral resources.

  1. Creating Civil Societies: The University's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daxner, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The president emeritus of Carl von Ossietzky University in Germany describes a research project examining the university's role in creating a democratic citizenship, prompted by the European Union's need to create societies in which citizens can participate actively in determining their own future. (EV)

  2. Risk, society and system failure.

    PubMed

    Scalliet, Pierre

    2006-09-01

    Modern societies are risk societies. Together with the formidable development of complex technologies (chemical industry, energy production, mass transportation, etc), new hazards have emerged. Sharing danger is the hallmark of modernity, as large industrial accidents can now have countrywide, or even, worldwide consequences. The Chernobyl explosion for example, has smeared large European surfaces with radioactive materials, across borders and nations, without any regard for who was responsible and who was the victim. Complex technologies should therefore be managed with great foresightness, particularly focusing on preventive management. A sound understanding of the (minor) role of human errors of operators and the (major) role of process design is a pre-requisite for appropriate management. This also applies to the complex business of radiotherapy, as the same organisational principles apply than in the heavy industry: restrict the role of operators, expect their mistakes, design in a mistake-proof way, accept the burden of preventive maintenances, supervise maintenance carefully and, above all, invest in safety.

  3. Mathematical Modelling in European Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri, Rita Borromeo

    2013-01-01

    Teaching and learning of mathematical modelling has become a key competence within school curricula and educational standards in many countries of the world. The term mathematical modelling, its meaning, and how it can be implemented in mathematics lessons have been intensively discussed during several Conferences of the European Society for…

  4. Some ceramic options

    SciTech Connect

    Zievers, J.F.; Eggerstedt, P.M.; Aguilar, P.C.; Zievers, E.C.

    1993-06-01

    Ceramic candle filters have proven to be an effective means of removing particulates to levels exceeding New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) in high temperature applications. The traditional {open_quotes}hard{close_quotes} ceramic filter elements, typically formed form granules however, have shown to be susceptible to failure from physical shock, thermal stress, and chemical attack. Additionally, these hard, dense candles can be costly and present internal filter design problems due to their relatively high weight. A good deal has been written about to use to porous ceramics in the filtration of high temperature gases for removal of particulate matter. Unlike the dense, granular ceramic filter elements, vacuum formed chopped ceramic fiber (VFCF) filters represent an attractive alternative. Composed of commercially available chopped ceramic fibers and utilizing existing vacuum forming technology, low cost filter elements with excellent physical and thermal shock resistance are now available. The ceramic fiber filter {open_quotes}skeleton{close_quotes} can be {open_quotes}post-treated{close_quotes} with refractory materials to enhance strength and chemical resistance, as well as to change permeability to suit a particular application. Also, because the ceramic fiber skeleton has greater porosity and is composed of low density materials, the final product is significantly lighter in weight than the traditional dense ceramic elements, making overall filter design an easier task. The use of ceramics extends beyond that of filter elements, however. Ceramics in the form of refractory have long been used to protect metal structures from high temperature and abrasion, and an extensive body of literature deals with this subject.

  5. Ceramic Technology Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The Ceramic Technology Project was developed by the USDOE Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project, part of the OTS's Materials Development Program, was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTS's automotive technology programs. Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the USDOE and NASA advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. These programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. A five-year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. In July 1990 the original plan was updated through the estimated completion of development in 1993. The objective is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on the structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to US industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities.

  6. Industrial Ceramics: Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    The expanding use of ceramic products in today's world can be seen in the areas of communications, construction, aerospace, textiles, metallurgy, atomic energy, and electronics. The demands of science have brought ceramics from an art to an industry using mass production and automated processes which requires the services of great numbers as the…

  7. Method of making a modified ceramic-ceramic composite

    DOEpatents

    Weaver, Billy L.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Stinton, David P.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of making a shaped ceramic-ceramic composite articles, such as gas-fired radiant heat burner tubes, heat exchangers, flame dispersers, and other furnace elements, having a formed-on ceramic-ceramic composite thereon.

  8. Mounting for ceramic scroll

    DOEpatents

    Petty, Jack D.

    1993-01-01

    A mounting for a ceramic scroll on a metal engine block of a gas turbine engine includes a first ceramic ring and a pair of cross key connections between the first ceramic ring, the ceramic scroll, and the engine block. The cross key connections support the scroll on the engine block independent of relative radial thermal growth and for bodily movement toward an annular mounting shoulder on the engine. The scroll has an uninterrupted annular shoulder facing the mounting shoulder on the engine block. A second ceramic ring is captured between mounting shoulder and the uninterrupted shoulder on the scroll when the latter is bodily shifted toward the mouting shoulder to define a gas seal between the scroll and the engine block.

  9. Ceramic heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    LaHaye, P.G.; Rahman, F.H.; Lebeau, T.P.; Severin, B.K.

    1998-06-16

    A tube containment system is disclosed. The tube containment system does not significantly reduce heat transfer through the tube wall. The contained tube is internally pressurized, and is formed from a ceramic material having high strength, high thermal conductivity, and good thermal shock resistance. The tube containment system includes at least one ceramic fiber braid material disposed about the internally pressurized tube. The material is disposed about the tube in a predetermined axial spacing arrangement. The ceramic fiber braid is present in an amount sufficient to contain the tube if the tube becomes fractured. The tube containment system can also include a plurality of ceramic ring-shaped structures, in contact with the outer surface of the tube, and positioned between the tube and the ceramic fiber braid material, and/or at least one transducer positioned within tube for reducing the internal volume and, therefore, the energy of any shrapnel resulting from a tube fracture. 6 figs.

  10. Ceramic heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    LaHaye, Paul G.; Rahman, Faress H.; Lebeau, Thomas P. E.; Severin, Barbara K.

    1998-01-01

    A tube containment system. The tube containment system does not significantly reduce heat transfer through the tube wall. The contained tube is internally pressurized, and is formed from a ceramic material having high strength, high thermal conductivity, and good thermal shock resistance. The tube containment system includes at least one ceramic fiber braid material disposed about the internally pressurized tube. The material is disposed about the tube in a predetermined axial spacing arrangement. The ceramic fiber braid is present in an amount sufficient to contain the tube if the tube becomes fractured. The tube containment system can also include a plurality of ceramic ring-shaped structures, in contact with the outer surface of the tube, and positioned between the tube and the ceramic fiber braid material, and/or at least one transducer positioned within tube for reducing the internal volume and, therefore, the energy of any shrapnel resulting from a tube fracture.

  11. Ceramic Masks--A Multi-Cultural Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Elizabeth E.

    1978-01-01

    The creation of ceramic masks in reaction to the film, Roots, focused on the functions of the masks themselves within a particular society, the materials and techniques used to create these masks, and the identification of typical shapes of heads and facial features on the masks in each culture. (Author/RK)

  12. The Engagement of Older People in Civil Society Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principi, Andrea; Chiatti, Carlos; Lamura, Giovanni; Frerichs, Frerich

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews recent international literature on the opportunities and restrictions experienced by older people to act as volunteers in civil society organizations. Our aim was to develop a conceptual framework applicable to the European ageing society. This aim was pursued through a computerized database search focused on studies analyzing…

  13. [Blood pressure measurement--do not sweat the small stuff and it is all small stuff?! Position paper of the Croatian national referral center for hypertension, center of excellence of the European Society of Hypertension].

    PubMed

    Vrdoljak, Ana; Vrkić, Tajana Zeljković; Kos, Jelena; Vitale, Ksenija; Premuzić, Vedran; Laganović, Mario; Jelaković, Bojan

    2014-01-01

    Office blood pressure measurement using mercury sphygmomanometer is the gold standard for making diagnoses of hypertension, evaluation of cardiovascular risk and estimation of obtained control of treated hypertensives. The vast majority of epidemiologic data are based on this method. However, the importance of blood pressure variability, white coat effect as well as availability of simple devices, home and ambulatory blood pressure measurements became routine parts in routine clinical work. As mercury will be soon forbidden in clinical work such devices and methodology will be even more important. In everyday clinical practice all three techniques should be implemented and in this paper advantages and drawbacks of all techniques are discussed. In the end, based on recent data and recommendations of international societies, diagnostic algorithm was proposed. Additionally, we described the technique of non-invasive central blood pressure measurement, determination of pulse wave velocity and calculation of augmentation index, new proposed risk factors. PMID:24720154

  14. Use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors to prevent relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A position statement of the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Giebel, Sebastian; Czyz, Anna; Ottmann, Oliver; Baron, Frederic; Brissot, Eolia; Ciceri, Fabio; Cornelissen, Jan J; Esteve, Jordi; Gorin, Norbert-Claude; Savani, Bipin; Schmid, Christoph; Mohty, Mohamad; Nagler, Arnon

    2016-10-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) is a standard of care for patients with Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) to first-line therapy has improved overall outcomes; however, a significant proportion of patients still relapse after alloHSCT. Posttransplant TKI maintenance was demonstrated to reduce the risk of relapse in a large retrospective study and, therefore, should be considered a valuable option. This consensus paper, written on behalf of the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, presents an overview of clinical studies on the use of TKIs after alloHSCT and proposes practical recommendations regarding the choice of TKI, treatment timing, and dosage. It is hoped that these recommendations will become the state of art in this field and, more importantly, lead to a reduction of Ph-positive ALL relapse after alloHSCT. Cancer 2016;122:2941-2951. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:27309127

  15. Politics and Policies of Promoting Multilingualism in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romaine, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the politics of policies promoting multilingualism in the European Union (EU), specifically in light of the recently released European Union Civil Society Platform on Multilingualism. As the most far-reaching and ambitious policy document issued by the European Commission, the Platform warrants close scrutiny at a significant…

  16. High pressure ceramic joint

    DOEpatents

    Ward, M.E.; Harkins, B.D.

    1993-11-30

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures. 4 figures.

  17. High pressure ceramic joint

    DOEpatents

    Ward, Michael E.; Harkins, Bruce D.

    1993-01-01

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

  18. Ceramics for engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiser, James D.; Levine, Stanley R.; Dicarlo, James A.

    1987-01-01

    Structural ceramics were under nearly continuous development for various heat engine applications since the early 1970s. These efforts were sustained by the properties that ceramics offer in the areas of high-temperature strength, environmental resistance, and low density and the large benefits in system efficiency and performance that can result. The promise of ceramics was not realized because their brittle nature results in high sensitivity to microscopic flaws and catastrophic fracture behavior. This translated into low reliability for ceramic components and thus limited their application in engines. For structural ceramics to successfully make inroads into the terrestrial heat engine market requires further advances in low cost, net shape fabrication of high reliability components, and improvements in properties such as toughness, and strength. These advances will lead to very limited use of ceramics in noncritical applications in aerospace engines. For critical aerospace applications, an additional requirement is that the components display markedly improved toughness and noncatastrophic or graceful fracture. Thus the major emphasis is on fiber-reinforced ceramics.

  19. EACVI/HFA Cardiac Oncology Toxicity Registry in breast cancer patients: rationale, study design, and methodology (EACVI/HFA COT Registry)--EURObservational Research Program of the European Society of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Lancellotti, Patrizio; Anker, Stefan D; Donal, Erwan; Edvardsen, Thor; Popescu, Bogdan A; Farmakis, Dimitrios; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Habib, Gilbert; Maggioni, Aldo P; Jerusalem, Guy; Galderisi, Maurizio

    2015-05-01

    The goal of adjuvant anti-cancer therapies is cure with limited or no side effects, in particular long-term side effects with negative impact on quality of life. In the palliative setting disease control, quality of life and overall survival are important end points. Partly due to improvements in treatment, the population of cancer survivors is large and growing. However, anti-cancer drug-related cardiotoxicity (ADRC) is the leading cause of treatment-associated mortality in cancer survivors. It is one of the most common post-treatment problems among 5- to 10-year survivors of adult cancer. This is particularly true for breast cancer, the most common cancer in women. The EACVI/HFA COT registry is designed for comprehensive data collection and evaluation of the current European practice in terms of diagnosis and management of ADRC in breast cancer patients. The COT registry will be carried out in two continuing phases, the pilot study phase involving 13 countries followed by the long-term registry in which all the 56 ESC countries will be invited to participate. With the COT registry, several critical information will be obtained: on predisposing factors for the development of ADRC, the rate of subclinical LV dysfunction and its transition to overt heart failure, the clinical impact and outcome of ADRC.

  20. Society of Thoracic Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    ... With Its Intense Demands New Website from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Puts the Power of Information ... Hotel Discount for STS Members Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. All rights reserved. Expanded Proprietary ...

  1. Society of Interventional Radiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... comments to CMS on two MACRA coding issues; society is engaged with CMS as they develop codes ... radiology case studies Developed by ACR Copyright © 2016 Society of Interventional Radiology. All rights reserved. 3975 Fair ...

  2. European Community.

    PubMed

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well. PMID:12177941

  3. Professional Scientific Societies, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Robert E.; And Others

    Reported are the findings of a study of scientific societies in the United States. Some 449 professional organizations were considered of which 284 conformed to the validation criteria for inclusion. Data gathering was most successful on membership, current dues, society history, and purpose and less successful on topics related to society income…

  4. Making Ceramic Cameras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squibb, Matt

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to make a clay camera. This idea of creating functional cameras from clay allows students to experience ceramics, photography, and painting all in one unit. (Contains 1 resource and 3 online resources.)

  5. Corrosion resistant ceramic materials

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1996-07-23

    Ceramic materials are disclosed which exhibit stability in severely-corrosive environments having high alkali-metal activity, high sulfur/sulfide activity and/or molten halides at temperatures of 200--550 C or organic salt (including SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) at temperatures of 25--200 C. These sulfide ceramics form stoichiometric (single-phase) compounds with sulfides of Ca, Li, Na, K, Al, Mg, Si, Y, La, Ce, Ga, Ba, Zr and Sr and show melting-points that are sufficiently low and have excellent wettability with many metals (Fe, Ni, Mo) to easily form metal/ceramic seals. Ceramic compositions are also formulated to adequately match thermal expansion coefficient of adjacent metal components. 1 fig.

  6. Corrosion resistant ceramic materials

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    Ceramic materials which exhibit stability in severely-corrosive environments having high alkali-metal activity, high sulfur/sulfide activity and/or molten halides at temperatures of 200.degree.-550.degree. C. or organic salt (including SO.sub.2 and SO.sub.2 Cl.sub.2) at temperatures of 25.degree.-200.degree. C. These sulfide ceramics form stoichiometric (single-phase) compounds with sulfides of Ca, Li, Na, K, Al, Mg, Si, Y, La, Ce, Ga, Ba, Zr and Sr and show melting-points that are sufficiently low and have excellent wettability with many metals (Fe, Ni, Mo) to easily form metal/ceramic seals. Ceramic compositions are also formulated to adequately match thermal expansion coefficient of adjacent metal components.

  7. Corrosion resistant ceramic materials

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1995-01-01

    Ceramic materials which exhibit stability in severely-corrosive environments having high alkali-metal activity, high sulfur/sulfide activity and/or molten halides at temperatures of 200.degree.-550.degree. C. or organic salt (including SO.sub.2 and SO.sub.2 Cl.sub.2) at temperatures of 25.degree.-200.degree. C. These sulfide ceramics form stoichiometric (single-phase) compounds with sulfides of Ca, Li, Na, K, Al, Mg, Si, Y, La, Ce, Ga, Ba, Zr and Sr and show melting-points that are sufficiently low and have excellent wettability with many metals (Fe, Ni, Mo) to easily form metal/ceramic seals. Ceramic compositions are also formulated to adequately match thermal expansion coefficient of adjacent metal components.

  8. Experiments with ceramic coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynn, E. K.; Rollins, C. T.

    1968-01-01

    Report describes the procedures and techniques used in the application of a ceramic coating and the evaluation of test parts through observation of the cracks that occur in this coating due to loading.

  9. Ceramic breeder materials

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    The breeding blanket is a key component of the fusion reactor because it directly involves tritium breeding and energy extraction, both of which are critical to development of fusion power. The lithium ceramics continue to show promise as candidate breeder materials. This promise was recognized by the International Thermonuclear Reactor (ITER) design team in its selection of ceramics as the first option for the ITER breeder material. Blanket design studies have indicated properties in the candidate materials data base that need further investigation. Current studies are focusing on tritium release behavior at high burnup, changes in thermophysical properties with burnup, compatibility between the ceramic breeder and beryllium multiplier, and phase changes with burnup. Laboratory and in-reactor tests, some as part of an international collaboration for development of ceramic breeder materials, are underway. 32 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Ceramic heat pipe development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrigan, M.

    1980-09-01

    Ceramic materials used in conventional brickwork heat exchanger configurations increase allowable temperatures; however, joint leakage problems limit use of these designs. Ceramic tube heat exchanger designs reduce these problems but still require sliding joints and compliant tube end seals. Ceramic heat pipe based recuperator designs eliminate the sealing problems that limited the high temperature heat recovery installations. Heat pipe recuperators offer high corrosion and abrasion resistance, high temperature capability, reduced leakage, element redundancy, and simplified replacement and cleaning. The development of ceramic heat pipe recuperator elements involves the selection and test of materials and fabrication techniques having production potential, evaluation of technology in subscale tests, design and test of components for full scale recuperator applications, and demonstration of heat pipes in subscale and full scale recuperator installation.

  11. Super Thin Ceramic Coatings

    NASA Video Gallery

    New technology being developed at NASA's Glenn Research Center creates super thin ceramic coatings on engine components. The Plasma Spray – Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) rig uses a powerful ...

  12. Light emitting ceramic device

    DOEpatents

    Valentine, Paul; Edwards, Doreen D.; Walker, Jr., William John; Slack, Lyle H.; Brown, Wayne Douglas; Osborne, Cathy; Norton, Michael; Begley, Richard

    2010-05-18

    A light-emitting ceramic based panel, hereafter termed "electroceramescent" panel, is herein claimed. The electroceramescent panel is formed on a substrate providing mechanical support as well as serving as the base electrode for the device. One or more semiconductive ceramic layers directly overlay the substrate, and electrical conductivity and ionic diffusion are controlled. Light emitting regions overlay the semiconductive ceramic layers, and said regions consist sequentially of a layer of a ceramic insulation layer and an electroluminescent layer, comprised of doped phosphors or the equivalent. One or more conductive top electrode layers having optically transmissive areas overlay the light emitting regions, and a multi-layered top barrier cover comprising one or more optically transmissive non-combustible insulation layers overlay said top electrode regions.

  13. Advanced Ceramics Property Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan; Helfinstine, John; Quinn, George; Gonczy, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical and physical properties of ceramic bodies can be difficult to measure correctly unless the proper techniques are used. The Advanced Ceramics Committee of ASTM, C-28, has developed dozens of consensus test standards and practices to measure various properties of a ceramic monolith, composite, or coating. The standards give the "what, how, how not, and why" for measurement of many mechanical, physical, thermal, and performance properties. Using these standards will provide accurate, reliable, and complete data for rigorous comparisons with other test results from your test lab, or another. The C-28 Committee has involved academics, producers, and users of ceramics to write and continually update more than 45 standards since the committee's inception in 1986. Included in this poster is a pictogram of the C-28 standards and information on how to obtain individual copies with full details or the complete collection of standards in one volume.

  14. Ceramic fiber filter technology

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, B.L.; Janney, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    Fibrous filters have been used for centuries to protect individuals from dust, disease, smoke, and other gases or particulates. In the 1970s and 1980s ceramic filters were developed for filtration of hot exhaust gases from diesel engines. Tubular, or candle, filters have been made to remove particles from gases in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification-combined-cycle power plants. Very efficient filtration is necessary in power plants to protect the turbine blades. The limited lifespan of ceramic candle filters has been a major obstacle in their development. The present work is focused on forming fibrous ceramic filters using a papermaking technique. These filters are highly porous and therefore very lightweight. The papermaking process consists of filtering a slurry of ceramic fibers through a steel screen to form paper. Papermaking and the selection of materials will be discussed, as well as preliminary results describing the geometry of papers and relative strengths.

  15. Fibrous ceramic insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, H. E.

    1982-01-01

    Some of the reusable heat shielding materials used to protect the Space Shuttles, their manufacturing processes, properties, and applications are discussed. Emphases is upon ceramic materials. Space Shuttle Orbiter tiles are discussed.

  16. Fibrous ceramic insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, H.E.

    1982-11-01

    Some of the reusable heat shielding materials used to protect the Space Shuttles, their manufacturing processes, properties, and applications are discussed. Emphasis is upon ceramic materials. Space Shuttle Orbiter tiles are discussed.

  17. FOREWORD: Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Akio; Hishita, Shunichi; Osada, Minoru; Haneda, Hajime

    2010-10-01

    Ceramics, as broadly defined, include all materials other than organic substances and metals, either crystalline or amorphous. They have been used by humans since early history and have contributed considerably to improving the quality of our life. In most cases, however, high-temperature treatment is necessary to prepare ceramics. This burdens the environment and there is therefore a great need for new ceramics processing methods. Recent technologically advanced ceramics are often composed of nanocrystallites, which have great potential for innovation in terms of exploring practical applications of nanomaterials and, consequently, reducing the environmental load. The ceramics industry had long flourished in Asia, particularly in East Asia, and even today, this region is leading the development of related materials. In line with these traditions, Japanese and Korean ceramics societies have been co-sponsoring seminars on ceramics since the 1980s. Having become more international in scope and context, a series of these seminars is now known as the International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics. This focus issue contains eight key articles presented at the 26th International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics held on 24-26 November 2010 at the Tsukuba International Congress Center. In particular, Fabbri et al review electrode materials for protonic solid-oxide fuel cells, and Kamiya et al outline the present situation and future prospects for transparent transistors, particularly those based on amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O films. Eitel et al discuss the progress in engineering high-strain lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. Kim and Kumar review a simple processing method for producing porous ceramics using polysiloxane precursors, Kamiya and Iijima focus on surface modification and characterization of nanomaterials, and Wan et al briefly review the strategy of reducing lattice thermal conductivity of thermoelectric materials and propose new materials for thermoelectric devices

  18. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Yahnke, Mark S.; Shlomo, Golan; Anderson, Marc A.

    1994-01-01

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

  19. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2000-07-01

    This is the fourth quarterly report on a new study to develop a ceramic membrane/metal joint. The first experiments using the La-Sr-Fe-O ceramic are reported. Some of the analysis performed on the samples obtained are commented upon. A set of experiments to characterize the mechanical strength and thermal fatigue properties of the joints has been designed and begun. Finite element models of joints used to model residual stresses are described.

  20. Ceramic electrolyte coating and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Seabaugh, Matthew M.; Swartz, Scott L.; Dawson, William J.; McCormick, Buddy E.

    2007-08-28

    Aqueous coating slurries useful in depositing a dense coating of a ceramic electrolyte material (e.g., yttrium-stabilized zirconia) onto a porous substrate of a ceramic electrode material (e.g., lanthanum strontium manganite or nickel/zirconia) and processes for preparing an aqueous suspension of a ceramic electrolyte material and an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material. The invention also includes processes for depositing an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material onto pre-sintered, partially sintered, and unsintered ceramic substrates and products made by this process.

  1. Industry turns to ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Constance, J.

    1990-03-01

    Developments in the area of ceramic composites, which can be used to construct stronger, lighter weight, and more fuel-efficient aircraft, are examined. Ceramic composites are applicable aircraft braking systems, hypersonic fuselage skins, engine parts, and missile guidance fins. The production and testing of new ceramic composites are discussed. Consideration is given to the production of ceramic composites of an alumina or aluminum nitride matrix; developing glass ceramic matrix composites and silicon nitride matrix composites; and improving synthesis and processing technology to enhance the reliability of ceramic composites.

  2. Clinical application of bio ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anu, Sharma; Gayatri, Sharma

    2016-05-01

    Ceramics are the inorganic crystalline material. These are used in various field such as biomedical, electrical, electronics, aerospace, automotive and optical etc. Bio ceramics are the one of the most active areas of research. Bio ceramics are the ceramics which are biocompatible. The unique properties of bio ceramics make them an attractive option for medical applications and offer some potential advantages over other materials. During the past three decades, a number of major advances have been made in the field of bio ceramics. This review focuses on the use of these materials in variety of clinical scenarios.

  3. Alumina-based ceramic composite

    DOEpatents

    Alexander, K.B.; Tiegs, T.N.; Becher, P.F.; Waters, S.B.

    1996-07-23

    An improved ceramic composite comprising oxide ceramic particulates, nonoxide ceramic particulates selected from the group consisting of carbides, borides, nitrides of silicon and transition metals and mixtures thereof, and a ductile binder selected from the group consisting of metallic, intermetallic alloys and mixtures thereof is described. The ceramic composite is made by blending powders of the ceramic particulates and the ductile to form a mixture and consolidating the mixture of under conditions of temperature and pressure sufficient to produce a densified ceramic composite. 5 figs.

  4. All-ceramic alternatives to conventional metal-ceramic restorations.

    PubMed

    McLaren, E A

    1998-03-01

    In the search for the ultimate esthetic restorative material, many new all-ceramic systems have been introduced to the market. One such system, In-Ceram, is primarily crystalline in nature, whereas all other forms of ceramics used in dentistry consist primarily of a glass matrix with a crystalline phase as a filler. In-Cream can be used to make all-ceramic crowns and fixed partial denture frameworks. Three forms of In-Ceram, based on alumina, spinal (a mixture of alumina and magnesia), or zirconia, make it possible to fabricate frameworks of various translucencies by using different processing techniques. This article discusses clinical indications and contraindications for the use of In-Ceram Alumina and In-Ceram Spinell all-ceramic restorations. Particular attention is given to cement considerations using several clinical examples.

  5. European Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Ivan, Ed.; Blochmann, Georg M., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    A special six-article section of this journal is devoted to the theme of "European Education" (EU): (1) "Reform of EU Educational Policy" (Volker Thomas); (2) "Living in Europe, Working for Europe" (Volker Thomas); (3) "EURES Helps to Find Jobs" (Volker Thomas); (4) "Help for Higher Education Institutions in Central and Eastern Europe" (Siegbert…

  6. Fundamental tribological properties of ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.; Miyoshi, K.

    1985-01-01

    When a ceramic is brought into contact with itself, another ceramic, or a metal, strong bond forces can develop between the materials. Adhesion between a ceramic and itself or another solid are discussed from a theoretical consideration of the nature of the surfaces and experimentally by relating bond forces to the interface resulting from solid state contact. Elastic, plastic, and fracture behavior of ceramics in solid-state contact are discussed as they relate to friction and wear. The contact load necessary to initiate fracture in ceramics is shown to be appreciably reduced with tangential motion. Both friction and wear of ceramics are anisotropic and relate to crystal structure as with metals. Both free energy of oxide formation and the d valence bond character of metals are related to the friction and wear characteristics for metals in contact with ceramics. Lubrication is found to increase the critical load necessary to initiate fracture of ceramics with sliding or rubbing contact.

  7. Piezoelectric Ceramics and Their Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinn, I.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the piezoelectric effect in ceramics and presents a quantitative representation of this effect. Explains the processes involved in the manufacture of piezoelectric ceramics, the materials used, and the situations in which they are applied. (GS)

  8. Microstructure and properties of ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamano, K.

    1984-01-01

    The history of research into the microstructure and properties of ceramic ware is discussed; methods of producing ceramics with particular characteristics are investigated. Bubbles, sintering, cracks, and electron microscopy are discussed.

  9. Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañedo, Luis

    2008-08-01

    In July 2007 physicians, biologists and physicists that have collaborated in previous meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society constituted the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism with the purpose of promote scientific study of the interaction of electromagnetic energy (at frequencies ranging from zero Hertz through those of visible light) and acoustic energy with biological systems. A second goal was to increase the contribution of medical and biological professionals in the meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society. The following paragraphs summarize some objectives of the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism for the next two years.

  10. Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Canedo, Luis

    2008-08-11

    In July 2007 physicians, biologists and physicists that have collaborated in previous meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society constituted the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism with the purpose of promote scientific study of the interaction of electromagnetic energy (at frequencies ranging from zero Hertz through those of visible light) and acoustic energy with biological systems. A second goal was to increase the contribution of medical and biological professionals in the meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society. The following paragraphs summarize some objectives of the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism for the next two years.

  11. Ceramic microstructure and adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    When a ceramic is brought into contact with a ceramic, a polymer, or a metal, strong bond forces can develop between the materials. The bonding forces will depend upon the state of the surfaces, cleanliness and the fundamental properties of the two solids, both surface and bulk. Adhesion between a ceramic and another solid are discussed from a theoretical consideration of the nature of the surfaces and experimentally by relating bond forces to interface resulting from solid state contact. Surface properties of ceramics correlated with adhesion include, orientation, reconstruction and diffusion as well as the chemistry of the surface specie. Where a ceramic is in contact with a metal their interactive chemistry and bond strength is considered. Bulk properties examined include elastic and plastic behavior in the surficial regions, cohesive binding energies, crystal structures and crystallographic orientation. Materials examined with respect to interfacial adhesive interactions include silicon carbide, nickel zinc ferrite, manganese zinc ferrite, and aluminum oxide. The surfaces of the contacting solids are studied both in the atomic or molecularly clean state and in the presence of selected surface contaminants.

  12. Ceramic combustor mounting

    DOEpatents

    Hoffman, Melvin G.; Janneck, Frank W.

    1982-01-01

    A combustor for a gas turbine engine includes a metal engine block including a wall portion defining a housing for a combustor having ceramic liner components. A ceramic outlet duct is supported by a compliant seal on the metal block and a reaction chamber liner is stacked thereon and partly closed at one end by a ceramic bypass swirl plate which is spring loaded by a plurality of circumferentially spaced, spring loaded guide rods and wherein each of the guide rods has one end thereof directed exteriorly of a metal cover plate on the engine block to react against externally located biasing springs cooled by ambient air and wherein the rod spring support arrangement maintains the stacked ceramic components together so that a normal force is maintained on the seal between the outlet duct and the engine block under all operating conditions. The support arrangement also is operative to accommodate a substantial difference in thermal expansion between the ceramic liner components of the combustor and the metal material of the engine block.

  13. FATIGUE OF DENTAL CERAMICS

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Sailer, Irena; Lawn, Brian R

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Clinical data on survival rates reveal that all-ceramic dental prostheses are susceptible to fracture from repetitive occlusal loading. The objective of this review is to examine the underlying mechanisms of fatigue in current and future dental ceramics. Data/sources The nature of various fatigue modes is elucidated using fracture test data on ceramic layer specimens from the dental and biomechanics literature. Conclusions Failure modes can change over a lifetime, depending on restoration geometry, loading conditions and material properties. Modes that operate in single-cycle loading may be dominated by alternative modes in multi-cycle loading. While post-mortem examination of failed prostheses can determine the sources of certain fractures, the evolution of these fractures en route to failure remains poorly understood. Whereas it is commonly held that loss of load-bearing capacity of dental ceramics in repetitive loading is attributable to chemically-assisted 'slow crack growth' in the presence of water, we demonstrate the existence of more deleterious fatigue mechanisms, mechanical rather than chemical in nature. Neglecting to account for mechanical fatigue can lead to gross overestimates in predicted survival rates. Clinical significance Strategies for prolonging the clinical lifetimes of ceramic restorations are proposed based on a crack-containment philosophy. PMID:24135295

  14. Ceramic microstructure and adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    When a ceramic is brought into contact with a ceramic, a polymer, or a metal, strong bond forces can develop between the materials. The bonding forces will depend upon the state of the surfaces, cleanliness and the fundamental properties of the two solids, both surface and bulk. Adhesion between a ceramic and another solid are discussed from a theoretical consideration of the nature of the surfaces and experimentally by relating bond forces to interface resulting from solid state contact. Surface properties of ceramics correlated with adhesion include, orientation, reconstruction and diffusion as well as the chemistry of the surface specie. Where a ceramic is in contact with a metal their interactive chemistry and bond strength is considered. Bulk properties examined include elastic and plastic behavior in the surficial regions, cohesive binding energies, crystal structures and crystallographic orientation. Materials examined with respect to interfacial adhesive interactions include silicon carbide, nickel zinc ferrite, manganese zinc ferrite, and aluminum oxide. The surfaces of the contacting solids are studied both in the atomic or molecularly clean state and in the presence of selected surface contaminants.

  15. Ceramic impregnated superabrasives

    DOEpatents

    Radtke, Robert P.; Sherman, Andrew

    2009-02-10

    A superabrasive fracture resistant compact is formed by depositing successive layers of ceramic throughout the network of open pores in a thermally stable self-bonded polycrystalline diamond or cubic boron nitride preform. The void volume in the preform is from approximately 2 to 10 percent of the volume of the preform, and the average pore size is below approximately 3000 nanometers. The preform is evacuated and infiltrated under at least about 1500 pounds per square inch pressure with a liquid pre-ceramic polymerizable precursor. The precursor is infiltrated into the preform at or below the boiling point of the precursor. The precursor is polymerized into a solid phase material. The excess is removed from the outside of the preform, and the polymer is pyrolized to form a ceramic. The process is repeated at least once more so as to achieve upwards of 90 percent filling of the original void volume. When the remaining void volume drops below about 1 percent the physical properties of the compact, such as fracture resistance, improve substantially. Multiple infiltration cycles result in the deposition of sufficient ceramic to reduce the void volume to below 0.5 percent. The fracture resistance of the compacts in which the pores are lined with formed in situ ceramic is generally at least one and one-half times that of the starting preforms.

  16. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2000-10-01

    This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  17. Lightweight ceramic insulation and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, David J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A process is disclosed for manufacturing a low density ceramic powder which can be formed to make a lightweight material for insulation or other construction. The ceramic product made from the process has a final density of less than 25 to about 1 percent of the theoretical weight of the ceramic powder. The ceramic product is lightweight and can be made to withstand high temperatures greater than 1400 C.

  18. Ceramic automotive Stirling engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

  19. Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

  20. Nondestructive evaluation of advanced ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, Stanley J.; Kautz, Harold E.

    1988-01-01

    A review is presented of Lewis Research Center efforts to develop nondestructive evaluation techniques for characterizing advanced ceramic materials. Various approaches involved the use of analytical ultrasonics to characterize monolythic ceramic microstructures, acousto-ultrasonics for characterizing ceramic matrix composites, damage monitoring in impact specimens by microfocus X-ray radiography and scanning ultrasonics, and high resolution computed X-ray tomography to identify structural features in fiber reinforced ceramics.

  1. Plutonium immobilization in glass and ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Knecht, D.A.; Murphy, W.M.

    1996-05-01

    The Materials Research Society Nineteenth Annual Symposium on the Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management was held in Boston on November 27 to December 1, 1995. Over 150 papers were presented at the Symposium dealing with all aspects of nuclear waste management and disposal. Fourteen oral sessions and on poster session included a Plenary session on surplus plutonium dispositioning and waste forms. The proceedings, to be published in April, 1996, will provide a highly respected, referred compilation of the state of scientific development in the field of nuclear waste management. This paper provides a brief overview of the selected Symposium papers that are applicable to plutonium immobilization and plutonium waste form performance. Waste forms that were described at the Symposium cover most of the candidate Pu immobilization options under consideration, including borosilicate glass with a melting temperature of 1150 {degrees}C, a higher temperature (1450 {degrees}C) lanthanide glass, single phase ceramics, multi-phase ceramics, and multi-phase crystal-glass composites (glass-ceramics or slags). These Symposium papers selected for this overview provide the current status of the technology in these areas and give references to the relevant literature.

  2. Ceramic tamper-revealing seals

    DOEpatents

    Kupperman, D.S.; Raptis, A.C.; Sheen, S.H.

    1992-12-08

    A flexible metal or ceramic cable is described with composite ceramic ends, or a U-shaped ceramic connecting element attached to a binding element plate or block cast from alumina or zirconium, and connected to the connecting element by shrink fitting. 7 figs.

  3. Assessment of ceramic membrane filters

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, R.K.; Geyer, H.K.; Im, K.H.

    1995-08-01

    The objectives of this project include the development of analytical models for evaluating the fluid mechanics of membrane coated, dead-end ceramic filters, and to determine the effects of thermal and thermo-chemical aging on the material properties of emerging ceramic hot gas filters. A honeycomb cordierite monolith with a thin ceramic coating and a rigid candle filter were evaluated.

  4. Ceramic coatings on smooth surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A. (Inventor); Brindley, W. J. (Inventor); Rouge, C. J. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A metallic coating is plasma sprayed onto a smooth surface of a metal alloy substitute or on a bond coating. An initial thin ceramic layer is low pressure sprayed onto the smooth surface of the substrate or bond coating. Another ceramic layer is atmospheric plasma sprayed onto the initial ceramic layer.

  5. Ceramic regenerator program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, Jerrold E.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating an Air Turbo Ramjet (ATR) regenerator containing intricate hydraulic passages from a ceramic material in order to allow operation with high temperature combustion gas and to reduce weight as compared with metallic materials was demonstrated. Platelet technology, ceramic tape casting, and multilayer ceramic packaging techniques were used in this fabrication of subscale silicon nitride components. Proof-of-concept demonstrations were performed to simulate a methane cooled regenerator for an ATR engine. The regenerator vane was designed to operate at realistic service conditions, i.e., 600 psi in a 3500 R (3040 F), 500 fps combustion gas environment. A total of six regenerators were fabricated and tested. The regenerators were shown to be able to withstand internal pressurization to 1575 psi. They were subjected to testing in 500 fps, 3560 R (3100 F) air/propane combustion products and were operated satisfactorily for an excess of 100 hr and 40 thermal cycles which exceeded 2460 R (2000 F).

  6. Erosion of composite ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Routbort, J.L.

    1992-08-01

    The theoretical basis to describe solid-particle erosion of monolithic ceramics is well developed. In many cases, the models can account for the impact velocity, impact angle and erodent-size dependencies of the steady-state erosion rate. In addition, the models account for effects of materials parameters such as fracture toughness and hardness. Steady-state erosion measurements on a wide variety of composite ceramics, including SiC whisker-reinforced Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] containing Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] or SiC whiskers, Y[sub 2]O[sub 3]-stabilized ZrO[sub 2] reinforced with SiC whiskers, and duplex-microstructure Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] have been reported. The theories developed for monolithic ceramics are, however, less successful in describing the results for composites.

  7. Erosion of composite ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Routbort, J.L.

    1992-08-01

    The theoretical basis to describe solid-particle erosion of monolithic ceramics is well developed. In many cases, the models can account for the impact velocity, impact angle and erodent-size dependencies of the steady-state erosion rate. In addition, the models account for effects of materials parameters such as fracture toughness and hardness. Steady-state erosion measurements on a wide variety of composite ceramics, including SiC whisker-reinforced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} containing Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} or SiC whiskers, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2} reinforced with SiC whiskers, and duplex-microstructure Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} have been reported. The theories developed for monolithic ceramics are, however, less successful in describing the results for composites.

  8. Whisker reinforced glass ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschfeld, D.A.; Brown, J.J. Jr.

    1996-06-03

    The process for making an in-situ whisker reinforced glass-ceramic that is up to 1.5 times as strong as conventional glass-ceramics was developed at Virginia Tech and patented in 1993. This technology has been identified as having commercial potential for use in high temperature heat exchanger applications for the electric power generation field by the National Center for Appropriate Technology (NCAT). This technology was licensed by MATVA, Inc., a small Virginia business, for further development. In particular, the goal of this project was to develop a property database and conduct initial testing of heat exchanger prototypes to demonstrate its potential application. This final report describes how the glass precursor was formed, physical properties of the glass-ceramic, techniques for making heat exchanger prototypes.

  9. Ceramic vane drive joint

    DOEpatents

    Smale, Charles H.

    1981-01-01

    A variable geometry gas turbine has an array of ceramic composition vanes positioned by an actuating ring coupled through a plurality of circumferentially spaced turbine vane levers to the outer end of a metallic vane drive shaft at each of the ceramic vanes. Each of the ceramic vanes has an end slot of bow tie configuration including flared end segments and a center slot therebetween. Each of the vane drive shafts has a cross head with ends thereof spaced with respect to the sides of the end slot to define clearance for free expansion of the cross head with respect to the vane and the cross head being configured to uniformly distribute drive loads across bearing surfaces of the vane slot.

  10. TNM classification system for primary cutaneous lymphomas other than mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome: a proposal of the International Society for Cutaneous Lymphomas (ISCL) and the Cutaneous Lymphoma Task Force of the European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC).

    PubMed

    Kim, Youn H; Willemze, Rein; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Whittaker, Sean; Olsen, Elise A; Ranki, Annamari; Dummer, Reinhard; Hoppe, Richard T

    2007-07-15

    Currently availabel staging systems for non-Hodgkin lymphomas are not useful for clinical staging classification of most primary cutaneous lymphomas. The tumor, node, metastases (TNM) system used for mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS) is not appropriate for other primary cutaneous lymphomas. A usable, unified staging system would improve the communication about the state of disease, selection of appropriate management, standardization of enrollment/response criteria in clinical trials, and collection/analysis of prospective survival data. Toward this goal, during the recent meetings of the International Society for Cutaneous Lymphomas (ISCL) and the cutaneous lymphoma task force of the European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), the representatives have established a consensus proposal of a TNM classification system applicable for all primary cutaneous lymphomas other than MF and SS. Due to the clinical and pathologic heterogeneity of the cutaneous lymphomas, the currently proposed TNM system is meant to be primarily an anatomic documentation of disease extent and not to be used as a prognostic guide.

  11. Verification of Ceramic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behar-Lafenetre, Stephanie; Cornillon, Laurence; Rancurel, Michael; De Graaf, Dennis; Hartmann, Peter; Coe, Graham; Laine, Benoit

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the “Mechanical Design and Verification Methodologies for Ceramic Structures” contract [1] awarded by ESA, Thales Alenia Space has investigated literature and practices in affiliated industries to propose a methodological guideline for verification of ceramic spacecraft and instrument structures. It has been written in order to be applicable to most types of ceramic or glass-ceramic materials - typically Cesic®, HBCesic®, Silicon Nitride, Silicon Carbide and ZERODUR®. The proposed guideline describes the activities to be performed at material level in order to cover all the specific aspects of ceramics (Weibull distribution, brittle behaviour, sub-critical crack growth). Elementary tests and their post-processing methods are described, and recommendations for optimization of the test plan are given in order to have a consistent database. The application of this method is shown on an example in a dedicated article [7]. Then the verification activities to be performed at system level are described. This includes classical verification activities based on relevant standard (ECSS Verification [4]), plus specific analytical, testing and inspection features. The analysis methodology takes into account the specific behaviour of ceramic materials, especially the statistical distribution of failures (Weibull) and the method to transfer it from elementary data to a full-scale structure. The demonstration of the efficiency of this method is described in a dedicated article [8]. The verification is completed by classical full-scale testing activities. Indications about proof testing, case of use and implementation are given and specific inspection and protection measures are described. These additional activities are necessary to ensure the required reliability. The aim of the guideline is to describe how to reach the same reliability level as for structures made of more classical materials (metals, composites).

  12. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of

  13. Geologists' Role in Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bally, A. W.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    At a meeting sponsored by the Geological Society of America, earth scientists examined their function in society. Participants concluded that earth scientists are not providing a rationale for value judgments concerning the use and limitations of the earth and a program aimed at understanding solid-Earth resource systems is needed. (BT)

  14. Schools, Violence, and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Allan M., Ed.

    The seeming increase of violence in American society and its schools has become a pressing issue. Some researchers argue that the American education system mirrors the dynamics of society. The articles in this book address the following issues: the extent of violence in American schools; the forms that violence takes; its root causes; the effects…

  15. Navigating the Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Joyce

    This paper explores the idea of an information society from different perspectives, raises issues that are relevant to university libraries, and offers a way forward to some future developments. The first section provides a sketch of the information society in Australia and presents statistics on readiness, intensity, and impacts from reports…

  16. Environment, energy, and society

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, C.R.; Buttel, F.R.

    1986-01-01

    This book delineates the major ways in which human society and the environment affect each other. To study the structure of societies, it employs three conceptual models, or sociological paradigms, conservative, liberal, and radical. The book explains the courses in environmental sociology, international development, natural resources, agriculture, and urban or regional planning.

  17. Environment Conscious Ceramics (Ecoceramics)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Levine, Stanley R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Environment conscious ceramics (Ecoceramics) are a new class of materials, which can be produced with renewable natural resources (wood) or wood wastes (wood sawdust). Silicon carbide-based ecoceramics have been fabricated by reactive infiltration of carbonaceous preforms by molten silicon or silicon-refractory metal alloys. These carbonaceous preforms have been fabricated by pyrolysis of solid wood bodies at 1000 C. The fabrication approach, microstructure, and mechanical properties of SiC-based ecoceramics are presented. Ecoceramics have tailorable properties and behave like ceramic materials manufactured by conventional approaches.

  18. Supported microporous ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Webster, Elizabeth; Anderson, Marc

    1993-01-01

    A method for permformation of microporous ceramic membranes onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal or metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or molecular sieving having mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms.

  19. Supported microporous ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Webster, E.; Anderson, M.

    1993-12-14

    A method for the formation of microporous ceramic membranes onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal or metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or molecular sieving having mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms. 4 figures.

  20. Ceramic component for electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, David D.

    1979-01-01

    A ceramic component suitable for preparing MHD generator electrodes consists of HfO.sub.2 and sufficient Tb.sub.4 O.sub.7 to stabilize at least 60 volume percent of the HfO.sub.2 into the cubic structure. The ceramic component may also contain a small amount of PrO.sub.2, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 or a mixture of both to improve stability and electronic conductivity of the electrode. The component is highly resistant to corrosion by molten potassium seed and molten coal slag in the MHD fluid and exhibits both ionic and electronic conductivity.

  1. Ceramic powder compaction

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, S.J.; Ewsuk, K.G.; Mahoney, F.M.

    1995-12-31

    With the objective of developing a predictive model for ceramic powder compaction we have investigated methods for characterizing density gradients in ceramic powder compacts, reviewed and compared existing compaction models, conducted compaction experiments on a spray dried alumina powder, and conducted mechanical tests and compaction experiments on model granular materials. Die filling and particle packing, and the behavior of individual granules play an important role in determining compaction behavior and should be incorporated into realistic compaction models. These results support the use of discrete element modeling techniques and statistical mechanics principals to develop a comprehensive model for compaction, something that should be achievable with computers with parallel processing capabilities.

  2. Microwave sintering of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, W.B.

    1989-01-01

    Successful adaptation of microwave heating to the densification of ceramic materials require a marriage of microwave and materials technologies. Using an interdisciplinary team of microwave and materials engineers, we have successfully demonstrated the ability to density ceramic materials over a wide range of temperatures. Microstructural evolution during microwave sintering has been found to be significantly different from that observed in conventional sintering. Our results and those of others indicate that microwave sintering has the potential to fabricate components to near net shape with mechanical properties equivalent to hot pressed or hot isostatically pressed material. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  3. Why ceramic engines?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadler, H. L.

    1984-01-01

    Oil is still a problem for the U.S. and its allies. Transportation uses 61 percent of U.S. oil and its share is increasing, so more efficient technology should be concentrated there. Trucks' share of oil use is increasing because they are already much more efficient than autos. The primary truck opportunities are streamlining, more efficient engines, and shifting freight to railroads. More efficient engines are possible using ceramics to allow elimination of cooling systems and better use of waste exhaust heat. A 60 percent improvement seems possible if ceramics can be made tough enough and durable enough.

  4. Performance of Dental Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Rekow, E.D.; Silva, N.R.F.A.; Coelho, P.G.; Zhang, Y.; Guess, P.; Thompson, V.P.

    2011-01-01

    The clinical success of modern dental ceramics depends on an array of factors, ranging from initial physical properties of the material itself, to the fabrication and clinical procedures that inevitably damage these brittle materials, and the oral environment. Understanding the influence of these factors on clinical performance has engaged the dental, ceramics, and engineering communities alike. The objective of this review is to first summarize clinical, experimental, and analytic results reported in the recent literature. Additionally, it seeks to address how this new information adds insight into predictive test procedures and reveals challenges for future improvements. PMID:21224408

  5. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Yahnke, M.S.; Shlomo, G.; Anderson, M.A.

    1994-08-30

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range. 2 figs.

  6. Integration Science and Technology of Advanced Ceramics for Energy and Environmental Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of new and innovative materials has been known to culminate in major turning points in human history. The transformative impact and functional manifestation of new materials have been demonstrated in every historical era by their integration into new products, systems, assemblies, and devices. In modern times, the integration of new materials into usable products has a special relevance for the technological development and economic competitiveness of industrial societies. Advanced ceramic technologies dramatically impact the energy and environmental landscape due to potential wide scale applications in all aspects of energy production, storage, distribution, conservation, and efficiency. Examples include gas turbine propulsion systems, fuel cells, thermoelectrics, photovoltaics, distribution and transmission systems based on superconductors, nuclear power generation, and waste disposal. Robust ceramic integration technologies enable hierarchical design and manufacturing of intricate ceramic components starting with geometrically simpler units that are subsequently joined to themselves and/or to metals to create components with progressively higher levels of complexity and functionality. However, for the development of robust and reliable integrated systems with optimum performance under different operating conditions, the detailed understanding of various thermochemical and thermomechanical factors is critical. Different approaches are required for the integration of ceramic-metal and ceramic-ceramic systems across length scales (macro to nano). In this presentation, a few examples of integration of ceramic to metals and ceramic to ceramic systems will be presented. Various challenges and opportunities in design, fabrication, and testing of integrated similar (ceramic-ceramic) and dissimilar (ceramic-metal) material systems will be discussed. Potential opportunities and need for the development of innovative design philosophies, approaches, and

  7. Ceramics: rationale for material selection.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Edward A; Whiteman, Yair Y

    2010-01-01

    All imaginable types of materials and techniques, from very conservative ceramic restorations to very complex restorations of either metal or high-strength crystalline ceramics veneered with porcelain, have been introduced and tried throughout the years, with varying levels of success. However, there is considerable misinformation and a general lack of published rational treatment planning guidelines about when to use the ceramics available in dentistry. This article provides a systematic process for treatment planning with ceramic materials. Specific guidelines are outlined for the appropriate clinical conditions for using the various ceramic materials.

  8. Tribological properties of structural ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.; Miyoshi, K.

    1985-01-01

    The tribological and lubricated behavior of both oxide and nonoxide ceramics are reviewed in this chapter. Ceramics are examined in contact with themselves, other harder materials and metals. Elastic, plastic and fracture behavior of ceramics in solid state contact is discussed. The contact load necessary to initiate fracture in ceramics is shown to be appreciably reduced with tangential motion. Both friction and wear of ceramics are anisotropic and relate to crystal structure as has been observed with metals. Grit size effects in two and three body abrasive wear are observed for ceramics. Both free energy of oxide formation and the d valence bond character of metals are related to the friction and wear characteristics for metals in contact with ceramics. Surface contaminants affect friction and adhesive wear. For example, carbon on silicon carbide and chlorine on aluminum oxide reduce friction while oxygen on metal surfaces in contact with ceramics increases friction. Lubrication increases the critical load necessary to initiate fracture of ceramics both in indentation and with sliding or rubbing. Ceramics compositions both as coatings and in composites are described for the high temperature lubrication of both alloys and ceramics.

  9. Ceramic transactions: Ceramic joining. Volume 77

    SciTech Connect

    Reimanis, I.E.; Henager, C.H. Jr.; Tomsia, A.P.

    1997-11-01

    The advent of new materials for engineering applications almost always brings a new challenge: how will these new materials be joined to a larger engineering structure? New ceramic materials are being developed for a wide variety of applications in areas such as power generation, energy conversion, automotive and aerospace, with specific applications including heat exchangers, fuel cells, turbocharger rotors, combustor liners, and for many other applications. Typically the new materials will be exposed to more hostile environments with respect to temperature, corrosion, and stress than materials in the past, and thus, many of the conventional joining techniques developed for less hostile environments do not work. Understanding fundamental issues in joining enables the development of new techniques to be able to utilize new materials. A previous DOE workshop defined fundamental and critical issues in ceramic joining and classified them into four general areas: joining techniques; joint failure; residual stress; and characterization and testing. The present international symposium is an effort to discuss some of these fundamental issues and to define areas for future research. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the energy database for articles from this symposium.

  10. Light-weight ceramic insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Ming-Ta S. (Inventor); Chen, Timothy S. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Ultra-high temperature, light-weight, ceramic insulation such as ceramic tile is obtained by pyrolyzing a siloxane gel derived from the reaction of at least one organo dialkoxy silane and at least one tetralkoxy silane in an acid or base liquid medium. The reaction mixture of the tetra- and dialkoxy silanes may contain also an effective amount of a mono- or trialkoxy silane to obtain the siloxane gel. The siloxane gel is dried at ambient pressures to form a siloxane ceramic precursor without significant shrinkage. The siloxane ceramic precursor is subsequently pyrolyzed, in an inert atmosphere, to form the black ceramic insulation comprising atoms of silicon, carbon and oxygen. The ceramic insulation, can be characterized as a porous, uniform ceramic tile resistant to oxidation at temperatures ranging as high as 1700.degree. C. and is particularly useful as lightweight tiles for spacecraft and other high-temperature insulation applications.

  11. Metal to ceramic sealed joint

    DOEpatents

    Lasecki, J.V.; Novak, R.F.; McBride, J.R.

    1991-08-27

    A metal to ceramic sealed joint which can withstand wide variations in temperature and maintain a good seal is provided for use in a device adapted to withstand thermal cycling from about 20 to about 1000 degrees C. The sealed joint includes a metal member, a ceramic member having an end portion, and an active metal braze forming a joint to seal the metal member to the ceramic member. The joint is positioned remote from the end portion of the ceramic member to avoid stresses at the ends or edges of the ceramic member. The sealed joint is particularly suited for use to form sealed metal to ceramic joints in a thermoelectric generator such as a sodium heat engine where a solid ceramic electrolyte is joined to metal parts in the system. 11 figures.

  12. Metal to ceramic sealed joint

    DOEpatents

    Lasecki, John V.; Novak, Robert F.; McBride, James R.

    1991-01-01

    A metal to ceramic sealed joint which can withstand wide variations in temperature and maintain a good seal is provided for use in a device adapted to withstand thermal cycling from about 20 to about 1000 degrees C. The sealed joint includes a metal member, a ceramic member having an end portion, and an active metal braze forming a joint to seal the metal member to the ceramic member. The joint is positioned remote from the end portion of the ceramic member to avoid stresses at the ends or edges of the ceramic member. The sealed joint is particularly suited for use to form sealed metal to ceramic joints in a thermoelectric generator such as a sodium heat engine where a solid ceramic electrolyte is joined to metal parts in the system.

  13. Society News: Workshop helps new GJI authors; Free eBook for schools; EGU awards medal; AGU elects Fellow; Support your Society; New Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-04-01

    Early-career researchers and postgraduates are invited to attend an Author Workshop at the 2012 European Geosciences Union General Assembly in Vienna. The following were elected Fellows of the Society on 10 February 2012:

  14. Refractory ceramic fibers

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Refractory ceramic fibers ; CASRN Not found Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  15. Microporous alumina ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A.; Sheng, Guangyao

    1993-01-01

    Several methods are disclosed for the preparation microporous alumina ceramic membranes. For the first time, porous alumina membranes are made which have mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms and substantially no pores larger than that size. The methods are based on improved sol-gel techniques.

  16. Coated ceramic breeder materials

    DOEpatents

    Tam, Shiu-Wing; Johnson, Carl E.

    1987-04-07

    A breeder material for use in a breeder blanket of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The breeder material comprises a core material of lithium containing ceramic particles which has been coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO, which coating has a higher thermal conductivity than the core material.

  17. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendfra Nagabhushana

    2001-07-01

    The mechanical properties of model systems were analyzed. A reasonably accurate finite element model was implemented and a rational metric to predict the strength of ceramic/metal concentrical joints was developed. The mode of failure of the ceramic/metal joints was determined and the importance of the mechanical properties of the braze material was assessed. Thermal cycling experiments were performed on the model systems and the results were discussed. Additionally, experiments using the concept of placing diffusion barriers on the ceramic surface to limit the extent of the reaction with the braze were performed. It was also observed that the nature and morphology of the reaction zone depends greatly on the nature of the perovskite structure being used. From the experiments, it is observed that the presence of Cr in the Fe-occupied sites decreases the tendency of Fe to segregate and to precipitate out of the lattice. In these new experiments, Ni was observed to play a major role in the decomposition of the ceramic substrate.

  18. Silicon carbide ceramic production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, K.; Shinohara, N.

    1984-01-01

    A method to produce sintered silicon carbide ceramics in which powdery carbonaceous components with a dispersant are mixed with silicon carbide powder, shaped as required with or without drying, and fired in nonoxidation atmosphere is described. Carbon black is used as the carbonaceous component.

  19. Microporous alumina ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, M.A.; Guangyao Sheng.

    1993-05-04

    Several methods are disclosed for the preparation microporous alumina ceramic membranes. For the first time, porous alumina membranes are made which have mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms and substantially no pores larger than that size. The methods are based on improved sol-gel techniques.

  20. Coated ceramic breeder materials

    DOEpatents

    Tam, Shiu-Wing; Johnson, Carl E.

    1987-01-01

    A breeder material for use in a breeder blanket of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The breeder material comprises a core material of lithium containing ceramic particles which has been coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO, which coating has a higher thermal conductivity than the core material.

  1. Microwave processing of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Recent work in the areas of microwave processing and joining of ceramics is briefly reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of microwave processing as well as some of the current issues in the field are discussed. Current state and potential for future commercialization of this technology is also addressed.

  2. Microwave processing of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.D.

    1993-04-01

    Recent work in the areas of microwave processing and joining of ceramics is briefly reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of microwave processing as well as some of the current issues in the field are discussed. Current state and potential for future commercialization of this technology is also addressed.

  3. Astronomy in the society and culture of Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leedjärv, Laurits

    2011-06-01

    History and present state of astronomy in a small North-Eastern European country are considered. There is a rather big number (about 35) of professional astronomers in Estonia, including 21 IAU members. Through some outstanding persons, astronomy in Estonia has significant relations with the society. The same can be said about the culture. Well-developed astronomy has contributed into the cooperation of Estonia with the European Space Agency, and thus, has an indirect effect to the country's economy.

  4. Ceramic Laser Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Soules, T F; Clapsaddle, B J; Landingham, R L; Schaffers, K I

    2005-02-15

    Transparent ceramic materials have several major advantages over single crystals in laser applications, not the least of which is the ability to make large aperture parts in a robust manufacturing process. After more than a decade of working on making transparent YAG:Nd, Japanese workers have recently succeeded in demonstrating samples that performed as laser gain media as well as their single crystal counterparts. Since then several laser materials have been made and evaluated. For these reasons, developing ceramic laser materials is the most exciting and futuristic materials topic in today's major solid-state laser conferences. We have established a good working relationship with Konoshima Ltd., the Japanese producer of the best ceramic laser materials, and have procured and evaluated slabs designed by us for use in our high-powered SSHCL. Our measurements indicate that these materials will work in the SSHCL, and we have nearly completed retrofitting the SSHCL with four of the largest transparent ceramic YAG:Nd slabs in existence. We have also begun our own effort to make this material and have produced samples with various degrees of transparency/translucency. We are in the process of carrying out an extensive design-of-experiments to establish the significant process variables for making transparent YAG. Finally because transparent ceramics afford much greater flexibility in the design of lasers, we have been exploring the potential for much larger apertures, new materials, for example for the Mercury laser, other designs for SSHL, such as, edge pumping designs, slabs with built in ASE suppression, etc. This work has just beginning.

  5. Ceramic tubesheet design analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mallett, R.H.; Swindeman, R.W.

    1996-06-01

    A transport combustor is being commissioned at the Southern Services facility in Wilsonville, Alabama to provide a gaseous product for the assessment of hot-gas filtering systems. One of the barrier filters incorporates a ceramic tubesheet to support candle filters. The ceramic tubesheet, designed and manufactured by Industrial Filter and Pump Manufacturing Company (EF&PM), is unique and offers distinct advantages over metallic systems in terms of density, resistance to corrosion, and resistance to creep at operating temperatures above 815{degrees}C (1500{degrees}F). Nevertheless, the operational requirements of the ceramic tubesheet are severe. The tubesheet is almost 1.5 m in (55 in.) in diameter, has many penetrations, and must support the weight of the ceramic filters, coal ash accumulation, and a pressure drop (one atmosphere). Further, thermal stresses related to steady state and transient conditions will occur. To gain a better understanding of the structural performance limitations, a contract was placed with Mallett Technology, Inc. to perform a thermal and structural analysis of the tubesheet design. The design analysis specification and a preliminary design analysis were completed in the early part of 1995. The analyses indicated that modifications to the design were necessary to reduce thermal stress, and it was necessary to complete the redesign before the final thermal/mechanical analysis could be undertaken. The preliminary analysis identified the need to confirm that the physical and mechanical properties data used in the design were representative of the material in the tubesheet. Subsequently, few exploratory tests were performed at ORNL to evaluate the ceramic structural material.

  6. Chemists Creating a European Identity through Conferences and Journals.

    PubMed

    Oro, Luis A

    2016-09-01

    " … The 6th EuCheMS Chemistry Congress will take place in Seville in September 2016. EuCheMS represents more than 160 000 chemists from more than 40 member societies. ChemPubSoc Europe is an organization of 16 European chemical societies from 15 countries. These initiatives have contributed significantly to the creation of a European identity for chemistry …" Read more in the Editorial by Luis A. Oro.

  7. Ceramic oxide powders and the formation thereof

    DOEpatents

    Katz, J.L.; Chenghung Hung.

    1993-12-07

    Ceramic oxide powders and a method for their preparation. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby two or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein said precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders are determined by process conditions. 14 figures.

  8. Ceramic oxide powders and the formation thereof

    DOEpatents

    Katz, Joseph L.; Hung, Cheng-Hung

    1993-01-01

    Ceramic oxide powders and a method for their preparation. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby two or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein said precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders are determined by process conditions.

  9. Radiation and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Edward I.

    1974-01-01

    Presents a discussion of the risks, to society, from radiation-associated technologies and urges that science teachers help the public understand the decision-making process relative to nuclear power as well as the problems and alternatives. (PEB)

  10. Ehlers-Danlos Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical and Scientific Board Staff Volunteer Leaders The Ehlers-Danlos Society Center for EDS Research & Clinical Care Our History Close Ehlers-Danlos Info What is EDS? EDS Diagnostics EDS Types ...

  11. National Multiple Sclerosis Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Join the Community Stay Informed Corporate Support National Multiple Sclerosis Society Our Mission: People affected by MS can ... 10.5 Million in New Research to Stop Multiple Sclerosis, Restore Function and End MS Forever October 11, ...

  12. Changing anthropology, changing society.

    PubMed

    Varughese, Heather

    2009-12-01

    Fifty years after the founding of the field of medical anthropology, the Society for Medical Anthropology of the American Anthropological Association held its first independent meeting on September 24-27, 2009, at Yale University.

  13. National MPS Society (Mucopolysaccharidoses)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2017 National MPS Society board of directors. The election will run through Nov. 1, and all voting ... Survey Results Board of Directors Board of Directors Election 2016 Financial Information 2014 – 2015 Financial Report Annual ...

  14. National Rosacea Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... opinion counts! Help us learn more about social perceptions of rosacea. How to Donate to the Society ... Your Opinion Count Take the survey on social perceptions of rosacea. arrow Your initial visit to the ...

  15. European Organizations of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

    PubMed

    Tederko, Piotr; Kujawa, Jolanta; Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) is a basic medical specialty officially recognized in Europe since 1962. This article briefly presents the significance, attainments and tasks recently undertaken by the leading structures responsible for international harmonization and management of the specialty within healthcare systems in Europe and for scientific development: the Section and Board of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS-PRM), European Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine (AEMR) and European Society of PRM (ESPRM). The concept of rehabilitation according to the biopsychosocial model of functioning recently promoted by the World Health Organization (WHO) closely follows the assumptions of the Polish Model of Rehabilitation, formulated in the 1960's and approved by the WHO in 1970. Since its accession to the European Union in 2004, Poland has been gradually increasing active participation in the European structures of PRM.

  16. Consumption in the Information Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zherebin, V. M.; Ermakova, N. A.; Makhrova, O. N.

    2010-01-01

    The current state of the economy in the developed countries make it possible to characterize them using concepts and terms such as the postindustrial society, the new economy, the service economy, the creative economy, the posteconomic society, the information society, the knowledge society, and the consumer society. Among these terms and…

  17. Oxidation and Corrosion of Ceramics and Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Lee, Kang N.

    2000-01-01

    Ceramics and ceramic matrix composites are candidates for numerous applications in high temperature environments with aggressive gases and possible corrosive deposits. There is a growing realization that high temperature oxidation and corrosion issues must be considered. There are many facets to these studies, which have been extensively covered in some recent reviews. The focus of this paper is on current research, over the past two years. In the authors' view, the most important oxidation and corrosion studies have focused on four major areas during this time frame. These are; (I) Oxidation of precursor-based ceramics; (II) Studies of the interphase material in ceramic matrix composites; (III) Water vapor interactions with ceramics, particularly in combustion environments; and (IV) Development of refractory oxide coatings for silicon-based ceramics. In this paper, we shall explore the most current work in each of these areas.

  18. Integrally cored ceramic investment casting mold fabricated by ceramic stereolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Chang-Jun

    Superalloy airfoils are produced by investment casting (IC), which uses ceramic cores and wax patterns with ceramic shell molds. Hollow cored superalloy airfoils in a gas turbine engine are an example of complex IC parts. The complex internal hollow cavities of the airfoil are designed to conduct cooling air through one or more passageways. These complex internal passageways have been fabricated by a lost wax process requiring several processing steps; core preparation, injection molding for wax pattern, and dipping process for ceramic shell molds. Several steps generate problems such as high cost and decreased accuracy of the ceramic mold. For example, costly tooling and production delay are required to produce mold dies for complex cores and wax patterns used in injection molding, resulting in a big obstacle for prototypes and smaller production runs. Rather than using separate cores, patterns, and shell molds, it would be advantageous to directly produce a mold that has the casting cavity and the ceramic core by one process. Ceramic stereolithography (CerSLA) can be used to directly fabricate the integrally cored ceramic casting mold (ICCM). CerSLA builds ceramic green objects from CAD files from many thin liquid layers of powder in monomer, which are solidified by polymerization with a UV laser, thereby "writing" the design for each slice. This dissertation addresses the integrally cored casting ceramic mold (ICCM), the ceramic core with a ceramic mold shell in a single patternless construction, fabricated by ceramic stereolithography (CerSLA). CerSLA is considered as an alternative method to replace lost wax processes, for small production runs or designs too complex for conventional cores and patterns. The main topic is the development of methods to successfully fabricate an ICCM by CerSLA from refractory silica, as well as related issues. The related issues are the segregation of coarse fused silica powders in a layer, the degree of segregation parameter to

  19. Ceramic Stereolithography: Additive Manufacturing for Ceramics by Photopolymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halloran, John W.

    2016-07-01

    Ceramic stereolithography and related additive manufacturing methods involving photopolymerization of ceramic powder suspensions are reviewed in terms of the capabilities of current devices. The practical fundamentals of the cure depth, cure width, and cure profile are related to the optical properties of the monomer, ceramic, and photo-active components. Postpolymerization steps, including harvesting and cleaning the objects, binder burnout, and sintering, are discussed and compared with conventional methods. The prospects for practical manufacturing are discussed.

  20. Religion, Modernity and Social Rights in European Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambeta, Evie

    2008-01-01

    Religion, as social construct and institutional reality, has played a pivotal role in shaping European societies. In spite of the impact of Enlightenment theories in the formation of European modernity, institutionalized religions and established churches have managed to maintain their influence in the public domain. Educational systems, the par…

  1. Developing the European Citizen: Investing in Europe's Democratic Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziuban, Charles D.; Cornett, Jeffery W.; Pitts, Annette Boyd; Setenyi, Janos; Gal, Tibor; Eich, Laszlo

    2007-01-01

    Recognizing that democracy is not a static concept and that it should be learned and lived on a daily basis, the Council of Europe has named 2005 the European Year of Citizenship through Education. Citizens of European Union (EU) member countries face new challenges in their participation as citizens in a democratic society. While EU citizenship…

  2. The European artificial organ scene: present status.

    PubMed

    Vanholder, Raymond; del Cañizo, Juan F; Sauer, Igor M; Stegmayr, Bernd

    2005-06-01

    This article summarizes the current evolutions regarding artificial organs in Europe. The review emanates from the activities by four of the work groups of the European Society for Artificial Organs (ESAO) and is essentially based on the reports by these work groups at the latest ESAO meeting in Warsaw, Poland (2004). The topics are: apheresis, heart support, liver support, uremic toxins.

  3. Positron annihilation in transparent ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husband, P.; Bartošová, I.; Slugeň, V.; Selim, F. A.

    2016-01-01

    Transparent ceramics are emerging as excellent candidates for many photonic applications including laser, scintillation and illumination. However achieving perfect transparency is essential in these applications and requires high technology processing and complete understanding for the ceramic microstructure and its effect on the optical properties. Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is the perfect tool to study porosity and defects. It has been applied to investigate many ceramic structures; and transparent ceramics field may be greatly advanced by applying PAS. In this work positron lifetime (PLT) measurements were carried out in parallel with optical studies on yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics in order to gain an understanding for their structure at the atomic level and its effect on the transparency and light scattering. The study confirmed that PAS can provide useful information on their microstructure and guide the technology of manufacturing and advancing transparent ceramics.

  4. Ceramic hot-gas filter

    DOEpatents

    Connolly, E.S.; Forsythe, G.D.; Domanski, D.M.; Chambers, J.A.; Rajendran, G.P.

    1999-05-11

    A ceramic hot-gas candle filter is described having a porous support of filament-wound oxide ceramic yarn at least partially surrounded by a porous refractory oxide ceramic matrix, and a membrane layer on at least one surface thereof. The membrane layer may be on the outer surface, the inner surface, or both the outer and inner surface of the porous support. The membrane layer may be formed of an ordered arrangement of circularly wound, continuous filament oxide ceramic yarn, a ceramic filler material which is less permeable than the filament-wound support structure, or some combination of continuous filament and filler material. A particularly effective membrane layer features circularly wound filament with gaps intentionally placed between adjacent windings, and a filler material of ceramic particulates uniformly distributed throughout the gap region. The filter can withstand thermal cycling during back pulse cleaning and is resistant to chemical degradation at high temperatures.

  5. Ceramic hot-gas filter

    DOEpatents

    Connolly, Elizabeth Sokolinski; Forsythe, George Daniel; Domanski, Daniel Matthew; Chambers, Jeffrey Allen; Rajendran, Govindasamy Paramasivam

    1999-01-01

    A ceramic hot-gas candle filter having a porous support of filament-wound oxide ceramic yarn at least partially surrounded by a porous refractory oxide ceramic matrix, and a membrane layer on at least one surface thereof. The membrane layer may be on the outer surface, the inner surface, or both the outer and inner surface of the porous support. The membrane layer may be formed of an ordered arrangement of circularly wound, continuous filament oxide ceramic yarn, a ceramic filler material which is less permeable than the filament-wound support structure, or some combination of continuous filament and filler material. A particularly effective membrane layer features circularly wound filament with gaps intentionally placed between adjacent windings, and a filler material of ceramic particulates uniformly distributed throughout the gap region. The filter can withstand thermal cycling during backpulse cleaning and is resistant to chemical degradation at high temperatures.

  6. Seal between metal and ceramic conduits

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, Richard Paul; Tentarelli, Stephen Clyde

    2015-02-03

    A seal between a ceramic conduit and a metal conduit of an ion transport membrane device consisting of a sealing surface of ceramic conduit, a sealing surface of ceramic conduit, a single gasket body, and a single compliant interlayer.

  7. Ceramics for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a variety of uses in both near-term fusion devices and in commercial powerplants. These materials must retain adequate structural and electrical properties under conditions of neutron, particle, and ionizing irradiation; thermal and applied stresses; and physical and chemical sputtering. Ceramics such as Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ and SiC are currently under study for fusion applications, and results to date show widely-varying response to the fusion environment. Materials can be identified today which will meet initial operating requirements, but improvements in physical properties are needed to achieve satisfactory lifetimes for critical applications.

  8. Ceramic composite coating

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, George G.

    1997-01-01

    A thin, room-temperature-curing, ceramic composite for coating and patching etal substrates comprises a sol gel silica glass matrix filled with finely ground particles or fibers, preferably alumina. The sol gel glass is made by adding ethanol to water to form a first mixture, then separately adding ethanol to tetraethyl orthosilicate to form a second mixture, then slowly adding the first to the second mixture to make a third mixture, and making a slurry by adding the finely ground particles or fibers to the third mixture. The composite can be applied by spraying, brushing or trowelling. If applied to patch fine cracks, densification of the ceramic composite may be obtained to enhance sealing by applying heat during curing.

  9. Ceramic composite coating

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, G.G.

    1997-01-21

    A thin, room-temperature-curing, ceramic composite for coating and patching metal substrates comprises a sol gel silica glass matrix filled with finely ground particles or fibers, preferably alumina. The sol gel glass is made by adding ethanol to water to form a first mixture, then separately adding ethanol to tetraethyl orthosilicate to form a second mixture, then slowly adding the first to the second mixture to make a third mixture, and making a slurry by adding the finely ground particles or fibers to the third mixture. The composite can be applied by spraying, brushing or trowelling. If applied to patch fine cracks, densification of the ceramic composite may be obtained to enhance sealing by applying heat during curing.

  10. Ceramic Composite Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  11. Laser in Ceramics Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Bajrang; Jain, Pankaj

    LASER, an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation have unique properties, Which make it differ from ordinary light such as it is highly coherent, monochromatic, negligible divergence and scattering loss and a intense beam of electromagnetic radiation or light. It also occur in a wide range of wavelength/frequency (from Ultraviolet to Infrared), energy/power and beam-mode/configurations ; Due to these unique properties, it have use in wide application of ceramic processing for industrial manufacturing, fabrication of electronic circuit such as marking, serializing, engraving, cutting, micro-structuring because laser only produces localized heating, without any contact and thermal stress on the any part during processing. So there is no risk of fracturing that occurs during mechanical sawing and also reduce Cost of processing. The discussion in this paper highlight the application of laser in ceramics processing.

  12. Laser machining of ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Laudel, A.

    1980-01-01

    The Kansas City Division of The Bendix Corporation manufactures hybrid microcircuits (HMCs) using both thin film and thick film technologies. Laser machining is used to contour the ceramic substrates and to drill holes in the ceramic for frontside-backside interconnections (vias) and holes for mounting components. A 1000 W CO/sub 2/ type laser is used. The laser machining process, and methods used for removing protruding debris and debris from holes, for cleaning the machined surfaces, and for refiring are described. The laser machining process described consistently produces vias, component holes and contours with acceptable surface quality, hole locations, diameter, flatness and metallization adhesion. There are no cracks indicated by dipping in fluorescent dye penetrant and the substances are resistant to repeated thermal shock.

  13. Ceramic composite coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, G.G.

    1991-12-31

    A thin, room-temperature-curing, ceramic composite for coating and patching metal substrates comprises a sol gel silica glass matrix filled with finely ground particles or fibers, preferably alumina. The sol gel glass is made by adding ethanol to water to form a first mixture, then separately adding ethanol to tetraethyl orthosilicate to form a second mixture, then slowly adding the first to the second mixture to make a third mixture, and making a slurry by adding the finely ground particles or fibers to the third mixture. The composite can be applied by spraying, brushing or trowelling. If applied to patch fine cracks, densification of the ceramic composite may be obtained to enhance sealing by applying heat during curing.

  14. Ceramic fabrication R D

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This project is separated into three tasks. The first task is a design and modeling effort to be carried out by MSE, Inc. The purpose of this task is to develop and analyze designs for various cohesive ceramic fabrication (CCF) components, including an MHD electrode for strategic defense initiative (SDI) applications and a high stress, low cost, reinforced ceramic component for armor applications. The MHD electrode design is substantially completed. A layered structure composed of molybdenum disilicide graded with quartz glass has been designed and analyzed using finite element methods. The design demonstrates the fabrication capabilities of the CCF process. The high stress, armor application component will be silicon carbide reinforced alumina in thick plates. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Interdisciplinarity. Papers Presented at the SRHE European Symposium on Interdisciplinary Courses in European Education, 13 September 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Society for Research into Higher Education, Ltd., London (England).

    Papers are presented from the 1975 Society for Research into Higher Education European Symposium on Interdisciplinary (ID) Courses in European Education. Section one of the symposium on "philosophy and background" consists of an introduction by Professor Berger and discussion. Section two on "some ID courses" consists of the following papers: "The…

  16. Testing Ceramics for Diesel Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1985-01-01

    Adaptation of diesel engine allows prestressed ceramic materials evaluated under realistic pressure, temperature, and stress without introducing extraneous stress. Ceramic specimen part of prechamber of research engine. Specimen held in place by clamp, introduces required axial compressive stress. Specimen -- cylindrical shell -- surrounded by chamber vented or pressurized to introduce requisite radial stress in ceramic. Pressure chamber also serves as safety shield in case speimen disintegrates. Materials under consideration as cylinder liners for diesel engines.

  17. Tailored Ceramics for Laser Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hollingsworth, Joel

    2007-12-10

    Transparent ceramics match or exceed the performance of single-crystal materials in laser applications, with a more-robust fabrication process. Controlling the distribution of optical dopants in transparent ceramics would allow qualitative improvements in amplifier slab design by allowing gain and loss to be varied within the material. My work aims to achieve a controlled pattern or gradient of dopant prior to sintering, in order to produce tailored ceramics.

  18. Processing method for superconducting ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Bloom, Ira D.; Poeppel, Roger B.; Flandermeyer, Brian K.

    1993-02-02

    A process for preparing a superconducting ceramic and particularly YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-.delta., where .delta. is in the order of about 0.1-0.4, is carried out using a polymeric binder which decomposes below its ignition point to reduce carbon residue between the grains of the sintered ceramic and a nonhydroxylic organic solvent to limit the problems with water or certain alcohols on the ceramic composition.

  19. Processing method for superconducting ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Bloom, Ira D.; Poeppel, Roger B.; Flandermeyer, Brian K.

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing a superconducting ceramic and particularly YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-.delta., where .delta. is in the order of about 0.1-0.4, is carried out using a polymeric binder which decomposes below its ignition point to reduce carbon residue between the grains of the sintered ceramic and a nonhydroxylic organic solvent to limit the problems with water or certain alcohols on the ceramic composition.

  20. Miniature ceramic fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Lessing, Paul A.; Zuppero, Anthony C.

    1997-06-24

    A miniature power source assembly capable of providing portable electricity is provided. A preferred embodiment of the power source assembly employing a fuel tank, fuel pump and control, air pump, heat management system, power chamber, power conditioning and power storage. The power chamber utilizes a ceramic fuel cell to produce the electricity. Incoming hydro carbon fuel is automatically reformed within the power chamber. Electrochemical combustion of hydrogen then produces electricity.

  1. Superplastic forging nitride ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Panda, Prakash C.; Seydel, Edgar R.; Raj, Rishi

    1988-03-22

    The invention relates to producing relatively flaw free silicon nitride ceramic shapes requiring little or no machining by superplastic forging This invention herein was made in part under Department of Energy Grant DE-AC01-84ER80167, creating certain rights in the United States Government. The invention was also made in part under New York State Science and Technology Grant SB1R 1985-10.

  2. Joined ceramic product

    DOEpatents

    Henager, Jr., Charles W [Kennewick, WA; Brimhall, John L [West Richland, WA

    2001-08-21

    According to the present invention, a joined product is at least two ceramic parts, specifically bi-element carbide parts with a bond joint therebetween, wherein the bond joint has a metal silicon phase. The bi-element carbide refers to compounds of MC, M.sub.2 C, M.sub.4 C and combinations thereof, where M is a first element and C is carbon. The metal silicon phase may be a metal silicon carbide ternary phase, or a metal silicide.

  3. Microprobes aluminosilicate ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A.; Sheng, Guangyao

    1993-01-01

    Methods have been developed to make mixed alumina-silicate and aluminosilicate particulate microporous ceramic membranes. One method involves the making of separate alumina and silica sols which are then mixed. Another method involves the creation of a combined sol with aluminosilicate particles. The resulting combined alumina and silica membranes have high surface area, a very small pore size, and a very good temperature stability.

  4. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2001-12-01

    Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals. This project has the following 6 main tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  5. [Pharmaceutical ceramics by Buthaud].

    PubMed

    Devaux, G; Arléry, S

    1977-01-01

    In 1928 in Bordeaux, the ceramics manufacturer René Buthaud (1886-1986) created, in the neo-classical style that is typical of his work, four large pharmacists' jars, for display in a city dispensary. These pieces are presented here, each one decorated differently, with the back showing variations on the theme of the serpent and the front the design of tall, unclothed women holding objects Symbolic of the pharmceutical art.

  6. Multifracture of ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Weitsman, Y.J.; Zhu, H.

    1992-03-01

    This work presents a mechanistic model for the multifracture process of uniaxially reinforced fibrous ceramic composites under monotonically increasing tension parallel to the fiber direction. The model employs an energy criterion to account for the progression of matrix cracks, bridged by intact fibers, and Weibull failure statistics to relate the failure of the fibers. Consideration is given to the interactions between the foregoing failure processes as well as to the effects of various material parameters on the response of the composite.

  7. Ceramic stationary gas turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Roode, M. van

    1995-10-01

    The performance of current industrial gas turbines is limited by the temperature and strength capabilities of the metallic structural materials in the engine hot section. Because of their superior high-temperature strength and durability, ceramics can be used as structural materials for hot section components (blades, nozzles, combustor liners) in innovative designs at increased turbine firing temperatures. The benefits include the ability to increase the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) to about 1200{degrees}C ({approx}2200{degrees}F) or more with uncooled ceramics. It has been projected that fully optimized stationary gas turbines would have a {approx}20 percent gain in thermal efficiency and {approx}40 percent gain in output power in simple cycle compared to all metal-engines with air-cooled components. Annual fuel savings in cogeneration in the U.S. would be on the order of 0.2 Quad by 2010. Emissions reductions to under 10 ppmv NO{sub x} are also forecast. This paper describes the progress on a three-phase, 6-year program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, to achieve significant performance improvements and emissions reductions in stationary gas turbines by replacing metallic hot section components with ceramic parts. Progress is being reported for the period September 1, 1994, through September 30, 1995.

  8. Ceramic stationary gas turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Roode, M. van

    1995-12-31

    The performance of current industrial gas turbines is limited by the temperature and strength capabilities of the metallic structural materials in the engine hot section. Because of their superior high-temperature strength and durability, ceramics can be used as structural materials for hot section components (blades, nozzles, combustor liners) in innovative designs at increased turbine firing temperatures. The benefits include the ability to increase the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) to about 1200{degrees}C ({approx}2200{degrees}F) or more with uncooled ceramics. It has been projected that fully optimized stationary gas turbines would have a {approx}20 percent gain in thermal efficiency and {approx}40 percent gain in output power in simple cycle compared to all metal-engines with air-cooled components. Annual fuel savings in cogeneration in the U.S. would be on the order of 0.2 Quad by 2010. Emissions reductions to under 10 ppmv NO{sub x} are also forecast. This paper describes the progress on a three-phase, 6-year program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, to achieve significant performance improvements and emissions reductions in stationary gas turbines by replacing metallic hot section components with ceramic parts. Progress is being reported for the period September 1, 1994, through September 30, 1995.

  9. Dental ceramics: a current review.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Nathaniel C; Burgess, John O

    2014-03-01

    Ceramics are used for many dental applications and are characterized in various ways, including by their hardness, brittleness, thermal and electrical insulation, and biocompatibility. The ceramics most commonly used in dentistry are oxides, particularly silicon dioxide (SiO2), or silica; aluminum oxide (Al2O3), or alumina; and zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), or zirconia. This article reviews the microstructure of current dental ceramic materials and how it relates to their mechanical properties, clinical techniques, and optical properties. Typical ceramics currently in use are described, and their clinically relevant properties such as strength, fracture, polishability, and wear are compared. Cementation methods are also discussed.

  10. The open society.

    PubMed

    Opel, J R

    1984-07-27

    The open society, unlike the closed society, requires constant citizen thought and action to ensure that it will continue to survive and prosper. Today in the United States we should give particular attention to three immediate problems. We should reinvigorate our national economic health and international competitiveness, particularly by reducing our unprecedented budget deficits and reforming our tax system. We must strengthen our scientific and engineering vitality, particularly in graduate engineering education and in secondary school instruction in science and mathematics. And we should work with our allies in the free industrialized world to keep our international open society as open as possible, encouraging a flow of people and information and ideas across national boundaries while instituting sensible and efficient safeguards against leakage of critical military technology to the Soviet Union. PMID:17813240

  11. Advanced information society(2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuyama, Keiichi

    Our modern life is full of information and information infiltrates into our daily life. Networking of the telecommunication is extended to society, company, and individual level. Although we have just entered the advanced information society, business world and our daily life have been steadily transformed by the advancement of information network. This advancement of information brings a big influence on economy, and will play they the main role in the expansion of domestic demands. This paper tries to view the image of coming advanced information society, focusing on the transforming businessman's life and the situation of our daily life, which became wealthy by the spread of daily life information and the visual information by satellite system, in the development of the intelligent city.

  12. Tsunami Science for Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, E. N.

    2014-12-01

    As the decade of mega-tsunamis has unfolded with new data, the science of tsunami has advanced at an unprecedented pace. Our responsibility to society should guide the use of these new scientific discoveries to better prepare society for the next tsunami. This presentation will focus on the impacts of the 2004 and 2011 tsunamis and new societal expectations accompanying enhanced funding for tsunami research. A list of scientific products, including tsunami hazard maps, tsunami energy scale, real-time tsunami flooding estimates, and real-time current velocities in harbors will be presented to illustrate society's need for relevant, easy to understand tsunami information. Appropriate use of these tsunami scientific products will be presented to demonstrate greater tsunami resilience for tsunami threatened coastlines. Finally, a scientific infrastructure is proposed to ensure that these products are both scientifically sound and represent today's best practices to protect the scientific integrity of the products as well as the safety of coastal residents.

  13. Responsive or Responsible? Democratic Education for the Global Networked Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert

    2013-01-01

    In this article, which is based on an invited keynote presentation given at the 14th biennial conference of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI), the author discusses the question of how education should respond to the ongoing rise of the global networked society. He provides an analysis of the history and…

  14. Models of Lifelong Learning and the "Knowledge Society"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Andy

    2006-01-01

    Many of the current policy debates in Europe focus on what kind of "knowledge economy" or "knowledge society" would be best in the future if it is to combine both economic competitiveness and social cohesion. Should European economies move increasingly towards the so-called Anglo-Saxon model of flexible labour markets and high employment…

  15. Mobilising Concepts: Intellectual Technologies in the Ordering of Learning Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Lifelong learning and a learning society are important planks of European Union (EU) policy. Drawing upon the work of Foucault and Rose, this article examines some of the intellectual technologies that are deployed in the ordering of these policy goals. It argues that research is one such technology and examines EU Framework Projects to explore…

  16. Active Ageing in a Greying Society: Training for All Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessel, Roger

    2008-01-01

    With the ageing of society, policy-makers are aware of the need to retain older workers in employment. Across Europe, lifelong learning is increasingly important. Adults who remain active longer need (re-)training to maintain their productivity. However, vocational training tends to decline with age. The article analyses European employment policy…

  17. Science and Society Colloquium

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".

  18. Science and Society Colloquium

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-10

    Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".

  19. Society's expectations of health

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Edmund

    1975-01-01

    Sir Edmund Leach argues that doctors in the modern world, fortified by the traditional concept that the life of the sick person must at all costs be preserved, are to some extent guilty of the false antitheses current today between youth and age. Moreover youth means health, age illness and senility. Until this imbalance is corrected society will be in danger of `a kind of civil war between the generations'. Society must be taught again that mortality cannot be avoided or conquered by medical science, and at the same time that `health' is not enshrined in the young alone. PMID:1177271

  20. Advanced information society(7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Toshihiro

    Various threats are hiding in advanced informationalized society. As we see car accident problems in motorization society light aspects necessarily accompy shady ones. Under the changing circumstances of advanced informationalization added values of information has become much higher. It causes computer crime, hacker, computer virus to come to the surface. In addition it can be said that infringement of intellectual property and privacy are threats brought by advanced information. Against these threats legal, institutional and insurance measures have been progressed, and newly security industry has been established. However, they are not adequate individually or totally. The future vision should be clarified, and countermeasures according to the visions have to be considered.

  1. Structural ceramics containing electric arc furnace dust.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulos, V N; Papandreou, A; Kanellopoulou, D; Stournaras, C J

    2013-11-15

    In the present work the stabilization of electric arc furnace dust EAFD waste in structural clay ceramics was investigated. EAFD was collected over eleven production days. The collected waste was characterized for its chemical composition by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. By powder XRD the crystal structure was studied while the fineness of the material was determined by a laser particle size analyzer. The environmental characterization was carried out by testing the dust according to EN12457 standard. Zn, Pb and Cd were leaching from the sample in significant amounts. The objective of this study is to investigate the stabilization properties of EAFD/clay ceramic structures and the potential of EAFD utilization into structural ceramics production (blocks). Mixtures of clay with 2.5% and 5% EAFD content were studied by TG/DTA, XRD, SEM, EN12457 standard leaching and mechanical properties as a function of firing temperature at 850, 900 and 950 °C. All laboratory facilities maintained 20 ± 1 °C. Consequently, a pilot-scale experiment was conducted with an addition of 2.5% and 5% EAFD to the extrusion mixture for the production of blocks. During blocks manufacturing, the firing step reached 950 °C in a tunnel kiln. Laboratory heating/cooling gradients were similar to pilot scale production firing. The as produced blocks were then subjected to quality control tests, i.e. dimensions according to EN772-17, water absorbance according to EN772-6, and compressive strength according to EN772-1 standard, in laboratory facilities certified under EN17025. The data obtained showed that the incorporation of EAFD resulted in an increase of mechanical strength. Moreover, leaching tests performed according to the Europeans standards on the EAFD-block samples showed that the quantities of heavy metals leached from crushed blocks were within the regulatory limits. Thus the EAFD-blocks can be regarded as material of no environmental concern.

  2. Structural ceramics containing electric arc furnace dust.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulos, V N; Papandreou, A; Kanellopoulou, D; Stournaras, C J

    2013-11-15

    In the present work the stabilization of electric arc furnace dust EAFD waste in structural clay ceramics was investigated. EAFD was collected over eleven production days. The collected waste was characterized for its chemical composition by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. By powder XRD the crystal structure was studied while the fineness of the material was determined by a laser particle size analyzer. The environmental characterization was carried out by testing the dust according to EN12457 standard. Zn, Pb and Cd were leaching from the sample in significant amounts. The objective of this study is to investigate the stabilization properties of EAFD/clay ceramic structures and the potential of EAFD utilization into structural ceramics production (blocks). Mixtures of clay with 2.5% and 5% EAFD content were studied by TG/DTA, XRD, SEM, EN12457 standard leaching and mechanical properties as a function of firing temperature at 850, 900 and 950 °C. All laboratory facilities maintained 20 ± 1 °C. Consequently, a pilot-scale experiment was conducted with an addition of 2.5% and 5% EAFD to the extrusion mixture for the production of blocks. During blocks manufacturing, the firing step reached 950 °C in a tunnel kiln. Laboratory heating/cooling gradients were similar to pilot scale production firing. The as produced blocks were then subjected to quality control tests, i.e. dimensions according to EN772-17, water absorbance according to EN772-6, and compressive strength according to EN772-1 standard, in laboratory facilities certified under EN17025. The data obtained showed that the incorporation of EAFD resulted in an increase of mechanical strength. Moreover, leaching tests performed according to the Europeans standards on the EAFD-block samples showed that the quantities of heavy metals leached from crushed blocks were within the regulatory limits. Thus the EAFD-blocks can be regarded as material of no environmental concern. PMID:24012962

  3. 75 FR 5109 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... Notice of Inventory Completion published in the Federal Register (69 FR 68162-68169, November 23, 2004... black-on-white ceramic plate, is present. Cranial morphology is consistent with physical features common... the Colorado Historical Society later the same year. Cranial morphology is consistent with...

  4. [Medical societies in modern China-China Medical Missionary Association].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan-Ming

    2011-07-01

    In modern times, the development and exchange of scientific research were promoted greatly by establishments of scientific societies in the west. In the second half of the 17(th) century, medical societies such as the Berlin Royal Society of Medicine, the Paris Surgical Society, the Edinburgh Medical Society and the London Medical Society appeared in sequence, which promoted the progress of European medicine greatly by means of medical conferences and journals. At the end of the 19(th) century, in order to promote medical missions and education, western missionaries drew lessons from the medical society system and founded the China Medical Missionary Association (CMMA). The association was dedicated to work in four fields: terminology standardization, missionary hospitals, medical education and study on endemic disease. CMMA accelerated the development of medical missions and the spread of western medicine. As members of CMMA must be of religious orders, many scholars were not qualified to join in, which resulted in limitation of academic research and exchange. With the return of overseas students, Chinese scholars majoring in western medicine enhanced the awareness of medical knowledge. As a result, western medical societies were established one by one, including the Shanghai Medical Association, the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association, the Chinese Medical Association and the Society of Chinese Medicines of the Republic of China. Established in 1915, the Chinese Medical Association had members who also belonged to the CMMA, so the Chinese Medical Association made reference to the CMMA for its organization, function, operating mechanism, journals, etc..

  5. Braze material for joining ceramic to metal and ceramic to ceramic surfaces and joined ceramic to metal and ceramic to ceramic article

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Thomas K.; Novak, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    An improved active metal braze filler material is provided in which the coefficient of thermal expansion of the braze filler is more closely matched with that of the ceramic and metal, or two ceramics, to provide ceramic to metal, or ceramic to ceramic, sealed joints and articles which can withstand both high temperatures and repeated thermal cycling without failing. The braze filler material comprises a mixture of a material, preferably in the form of a powder, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, tungsten, silicon carbide and mixtures thereof, and an active metal filler material selected from the group consisting of alloys or mixtures of nickel and titanium, alloys or mixtures of nickel and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of nickel, titanium, and copper, alloys or mixtures of nickel, titanium, and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of niobium and nickel, alloys or mixtures of niobium and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of niobium and titanium, alloys or mixtures of niobium, titanium, and nickel, alloys or mixtures of niobium, zirconium, and nickel, and alloys or mixtures of niobium, titanium, zirconium, and nickel. The powder component is selected such that its coefficient of thermal expansion will effect the overall coefficient of thermal expansion of the braze material so that it more closely matches the coefficients of thermal expansion of the ceramic and metal parts to be joined.

  6. Braze material for joining ceramic to metal and ceramic to ceramic surfaces and joined ceramic to metal and ceramic to ceramic article

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, T.K.; Novak, R.F.

    1991-05-07

    An improved active metal braze filler material is provided in which the coefficient of thermal expansion of the braze filler is more closely matched with that of the ceramic and metal, or two ceramics, to provide ceramic to metal, or ceramic to ceramic, sealed joints and articles which can withstand both high temperatures and repeated thermal cycling without failing. The braze filler material comprises a mixture of a material, preferably in the form of a powder, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, tungsten, silicon carbide and mixtures thereof, and an active metal filler material selected from the group consisting of alloys or mixtures of nickel and titanium, alloys or mixtures of nickel and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of nickel, titanium, and copper, alloys or mixtures of nickel, titanium, and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of niobium and nickel, alloys or mixtures of niobium and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of niobium and titanium, alloys or mixtures of niobium, titanium, and nickel, alloys or mixtures of niobium, zirconium, and nickel, and alloys or mixtures of niobium, titanium, zirconium, and nickel. The powder component is selected such that its coefficient of thermal expansion will effect the overall coefficient of thermal expansion of the braze material so that it more closely matches the coefficients of thermal expansion of the ceramic and metal parts to be joined. 3 figures.

  7. Fluorescent Lamp Glass Waste Incorporation into Clay Ceramic: A Perfect Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morais, Alline Sardinha Cordeiro; Vieira, Carlos Maurício Fontes; Rodriguez, Rubén Jesus Sanchez; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Candido, Veronica Scarpini; Ferreira, Carlos Luiz

    2016-09-01

    The mandatory use of fluorescent lamps as part of a Brazilian energy-saving program generates a huge number of spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs). After operational life, SFLs cannot be disposed as common garbage owing to mercury and lead contamination. Recycling methods separate contaminated glass tubes and promote cleaning for reuse. In this work, glass from decontaminated SFLs was incorporated into clay ceramics, not only as an environmental solution for such glass wastes and clay mining reduction but also due to technical and economical advantages. Up to 30 wt.% of incorporation, a significant improvement in fired ceramic flexural strength and a decrease in water absorption was observed. A prospective analysis showed clay ceramic incorporation as an environmentally correct and technical alternative for recycling the enormous amount of SFLs disposed of in Brazil. This could also be a solution for other world clay ceramic producers, such as US, China and some European countries.

  8. Fluorescent Lamp Glass Waste Incorporation into Clay Ceramic: A Perfect Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morais, Alline Sardinha Cordeiro; Vieira, Carlos Maurício Fontes; Rodriguez, Rubén Jesus Sanchez; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Candido, Veronica Scarpini; Ferreira, Carlos Luiz

    2016-06-01

    The mandatory use of fluorescent lamps as part of a Brazilian energy-saving program generates a huge number of spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs). After operational life, SFLs cannot be disposed as common garbage owing to mercury and lead contamination. Recycling methods separate contaminated glass tubes and promote cleaning for reuse. In this work, glass from decontaminated SFLs was incorporated into clay ceramics, not only as an environmental solution for such glass wastes and clay mining reduction but also due to technical and economical advantages. Up to 30 wt.% of incorporation, a significant improvement in fired ceramic flexural strength and a decrease in water absorption was observed. A prospective analysis showed clay ceramic incorporation as an environmentally correct and technical alternative for recycling the enormous amount of SFLs disposed of in Brazil. This could also be a solution for other world clay ceramic producers, such as US, China and some European countries.

  9. American Society of Echocardiography

    MedlinePlus

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow ... 2016 · Executive Theme · Genesis Framework by StudioPress · WordPress · Log in Membership ▼ Member Portal Log In Join ASE ...

  10. Teaching Global Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peet, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Describes the course, "Global Society," for first-year International Studies students at a Massachusetts liberal arts college. The course, which takes a historical approach, informs students about the nature, history, and present characteristics of the global system, taking theoretical, historical, and critical approaches that stress the…

  11. [The Closing Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, Kingman, Jr.

    At the root of student unrest are two basic factors: (1) the "involuntary campus," and (2) the "manipulated society." Many students attend a university not because they want to, but because of parental pressure, to avoid the draft, to get the right job, or to satisfy the notion that in order to be really accomplished it is necessary to have a…

  12. Multiethnic Societies and Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, John H., II

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that sociology must reconceptualize the meaning of multiethnic societies and regions and also advance theories about how such social organizations came into being and transform themselves through conflicting and peaceful processes. Briefly reviews traditional approaches and outlines new areas of study. (MJP)

  13. Mind, Society, and Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meacham, Jack

    1996-01-01

    Uses example of racism to compare Vygotsky's and Piaget's perspectives on the development of mind within the framework of questions regarding the mutual influence of societies and individuals. Notes that Vygotsky emphasizes knowledge transmission from older to younger, whereas Piaget emphasizes construction of new knowledge with potential for…

  14. Exploratory of society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cederman, L.-E.; Conte, R.; Helbing, D.; Nowak, A.; Schweitzer, F.; Vespignani, A.

    2012-11-01

    A huge flow of quantitative social, demographic and behavioral data is becoming available that traces the activities and interactions of individuals, social patterns, transportation infrastructures and travel fluxes. This has caused, together with innovative computational techniques and methods for modeling social actions in hybrid (natural and artificial) societies, a qualitative change in the ways we model socio-technical systems. For the first time, society can be studied in a comprehensive fashion that addresses social and behavioral complexity. In other words we are in the position to envision the development of large data and computational cyber infrastructure defining an exploratory of society that provides quantitative anticipatory, explanatory and scenario analysis capabilities ranging from emerging infectious disease to conflict and crime surges. The goal of the exploratory of society is to provide the basic infrastructure embedding the framework of tools and knowledge needed for the design of forecast/anticipatory/crisis management approaches to socio technical systems, supporting future decision making procedures by accelerating the scientific cycle that goes from data generation to predictions.

  15. Big Society, Big Deal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Political leaders like to put forward guiding ideas or themes which pull their individual decisions into a broader narrative. For John Major it was Back to Basics, for Tony Blair it was the Third Way and for David Cameron it is the Big Society. While Mr. Blair relied on Lord Giddens to add intellectual weight to his idea, Mr. Cameron's legacy idea…

  16. The Learning Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Zee, Hendrik

    1991-01-01

    Strategic issues in the development of a learning society are (1) broadening the definition of learning; (2) making the goal of learning growth toward completeness; (3) increasing collective competence; (4) fostering autonomy in learners; and (5) stressing a political approach to learning (the right to learn as a civil right). (SK)

  17. Science Serves Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, G. C.

    This book discusses how some of the topics taught in a conventional physics course have been used to solve interesting technical problems in industry, medicine, agriculture, transportation, and other areas of society. The topics include heat, optics, magnetism and electricity, nuclear physics, and sound. (MLH)

  18. The Learning Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Inst. for Advanced Research, Toronto (Ontario).

    This publication focuses on the challenges faced by modern societies as they seek to plan for competing in the global economy, educating the population for new competencies, maintaining the social fabric for nurturing and socializing the next generation, and providing opportunities for the health and well-being of all citizens. Emphasis is placed…

  19. Researching Society and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, Clive, Ed.

    This book provides theoretically informed guidance to practicing the key research methods for investigating society and culture. It is a text in both methods and methodology, in which the importance of understanding the historical, theoretical and institutional context in which particular methods have developed is stressed. The contributors of the…

  20. Man--Society--Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taxis, Linda A., Ed.

    The 32nd annual American Industrial Arts Association (AIAA) Convention was held in Louisville in 1970. Topics for the AIAA general session addresses were: (1) "Industrial Arts--The Blender Between Social Form and Technical Function," (2) "Technology and Society: Present and Future Challenges," (3) "A Student-Oriented Industrial Arts," (4) "Man:…

  1. Ceramics for transportation engines - siren or solution

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, P.S.

    1989-03-01

    This paper first reviews the challenges facing transportation engines, particularly cyclic-combustion engines (CCE), which, in numbers, bear the major burden of providing both personal and commercial transportation for mankind. While challenges are not new to CCE, it is imperative that answers be found to these challenges both for the welfare of society and for the survival of CCE. As background for understanding possible answers to these challenges and the part that new materials will play in meeting these challenges, this paper will try to summarize our new and increased understanding of the basic structure of matter. This understanding is essential to comprehending the relationship between atomic and molecular structure, microscopic structure, material processing, and the properties of the resulting materials. The paper will then try to summarize the state of knowledge concerning the use of an old but new material, ceramics, in meeting the challenges faced by cyclic-combustion engines.

  2. Lightweight high performance ceramic material

    DOEpatents

    Nunn, Stephen D [Knoxville, TN

    2008-09-02

    A sintered ceramic composition includes at least 50 wt. % boron carbide and at least 0.01 wt. % of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu, the sintered ceramic composition being characterized by a density of at least 90% of theoretical density.

  3. Method of forming ceramic bricks

    DOEpatents

    Poeppel, R.B.; Claar, T.D.; Silkowski, P.

    1987-04-22

    A method for forming free standing ceramic bricks for use as tritium breeder material is disclosed. Aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate are mixed with an organic hydrocolloid dispersion and powdered lithium carbonate, spray dried, and ceramic bricks formed by molding in a die and firing.

  4. Method of forming ceramic bricks

    DOEpatents

    Poeppel, Roger B.; Claar, Terry D.; Silkowski, Peter

    1988-09-06

    A method for forming free standing ceramic bricks for use as tritium breeder material is disclosed. Aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate are mixed with an organic hydrocolloid dispersion and powdered lithium carbonate, spray dried, and ceramic bricks formed by molding in a die and firing.

  5. Method of forming ceramic bricks

    DOEpatents

    Poeppel, Roger B.; Claar, Terry D.; Silkowski, Peter

    1988-01-01

    A method for forming free standing ceramic bricks for use as tritium breeder material is disclosed. Aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate are mixed with an organic hydrocolloid dispersion and powdered lithium carbonate, spray dried, and ceramic bricks formed by molding in a die and firing.

  6. Ceramic applications in turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, J. A.; Janovicz, M. A.; Thrasher, S. R.

    1981-01-01

    Development testing activities on the 1900 F-configuration ceramic parts were completed, 2070 F-configuration ceramic component rig and engine testing was initiated, and the conceptual design for the 2265 F-configuration engine was identified. Fabrication of the 2070 F-configuration ceramic parts continued, along with burner rig development testing of the 2070 F-configuration metal combustor in preparation for 1132 C (2070 F) qualification test conditions. Shakedown testing of the hot engine simulator (HES) rig was also completed in preparation for testing of a spin rig-qualified ceramic-bladed rotor assembly at 1132 C (2070 F) test conditions. Concurrently, ceramics from new sources and alternate materials continued to be evaluated, and fabrication of 2070 F-configuration ceramic component from these new sources continued. Cold spin testing of the critical 2070 F-configuration blade continued in the spin test rig to qualify a set of ceramic blades at 117% engine speed for the gasifier turbine rotor. Rig testing of the ceramic-bladed gasifier turbine rotor assembly at 108% engine speed was also performed, which resulted in the failure of one blade. The new three-piece hot seal with the nickel oxide/calcium fluoride wearface composition was qualified in the regenerator rig and introduced to engine operation wiwth marginal success.

  7. Ceramic membrane development in NGK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Kiyoshi; Sakai, Hitoshi

    2011-05-01

    NGK Insulators, Ltd. was established in 1919 to manufacture the electric porcelain insulators for power transmission lines. Since then, our business has grown as one of the world-leading ceramics manufacturing companies and currently supply with the various environmentally-benign ceramic products to worldwide. In this paper, ceramic membrane development in NGK is described in detail. We have been selling ceramic microfiltration (MF) membranes and ultra-filtration (UF) membranes for many years to be used for solid/liquid separation in various fields such as pharmaceutical, chemical, food and semiconductor industries. In Corporate R&D, new ceramic membranes with sub-nanometer sized pores, which are fabricated on top of the membrane filters as support, are under development for gas and liquid/liquid separation processes.

  8. Protective coating for ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A. (Inventor); Churchward, Rex A. (Inventor); Lowe, David M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A protective coating for ceramic materials such as those made of silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, zirconium oxide, aluminoborosilicate and silicon dioxide, and a thermal control structure comprising a ceramic material having coated thereon the protective coating. The protective coating contains, in admixture, silicon dioxide powder, colloidal silicon dioxide, water, and one or more emittance agents selected from silicon tetraboride, silicon hexaboride, silicon carbide, molybdenum disilicide, tungsten disilicide and zirconium diboride. In another aspect, the protective coating is coated on a flexible ceramic fabric which is the outer cover of a composite insulation. In yet another aspect, a metallic foil is bonded to the outer surface of a ceramic fabric outer cover of a composite insulation via the protective coating. A primary application of this invention is as a protective coating for ceramic materials used in a heat shield for space vehicles subjected to very high aero-convective heating environments.

  9. Ceramic applications in turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, H. E.; Heitman, P. W.; Lindgren, L. C.; Thrasher, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    The application of ceramic components to demonstrate improved cycle efficiency by raising the operating temperature of the existing Allison IGI 404 vehicular gas turbine engine is discussed. This effort was called the Ceramic Applications in Turbine Engines (CATE) program and has successfully demonstrated ceramic components. Among these components are two design configurations featuring stationary and rotating caramic components in the IGT 404 engine. A complete discussion of all phases of the program, design, materials development, fabrication of ceramic components, and testing-including rig, engine, and vehicle demonstation test are presented. During the CATE program, a ceramic technology base was established that is now being applied to automotive and other gas turbine engine programs. This technology base is outlined and also provides a description of the CATE program accomplishments.

  10. Ceramic component for electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, David D.; Bates, J. Lambert

    1980-01-01

    A ceramic component suitable for preparing MHD generator electrodes having the compositional formula: Y.sub.x (Mg.sub.y Cr.sub.z).sub.w Al.sub.(1-w) O.sub.3 where x=0.9 to 1.05, y=0.02 to 0.2, z=0.8 to 1.05 and w=1.0 to 0.5. The component is resistant to the formation of hydration products in an MHD environment, has good electrical conductivity and exhibits a lower electrochemical corrosion rate than do comparable compositions of lanthanum chromite.

  11. TRANSFORMATION TOUGHENING IN CERAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A. G.; Marshall, D. B.; Burlingame, N. H.

    1980-12-01

    The origin of transformation toughening in ceramics is examined using two separate approaches: one based on the stress field ahead of the crack and the other on the changes in thermodynamic potential during a crack increment. Both approaches yield essentially similar predictions of trends in toughness with particle size, temperature, composition, etc. The stress intensity analysis provides fully quantitative predictions of the toughness. These indicate that the shielding of the crack by the transformation zone only develops in the presence of a transformed wake, leading to R-curve behavior.

  12. Ceramic heat pipe wick

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidenberg, Benjamin (Inventor); Swanson, Theodore (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A wick for use in a capillary loop pump heat pipe is disclosed. The wick material is an essentially uniformly porous, permeable, open-cell, silicon dioxide/aluminum oxide inorganic ceramic foam having a silica fiber ratio, by weight, of about 78 to 22, respectively, a density of 6 lbs/cu ft, and an average pore size of less than 5 microns. A representative material having these characteristics is Lockheed Missile and Space Company, Inc.'s HTP 6-22. This material is fully compatible with the freons and anhydrous ammonia and allows for the use of these very efficient working fluids, and others, in capillary loops.

  13. Civil Society, Citizenship and Learning. Bochum Studies in International Adult Education, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bron, Agnieszka, Ed.; Schemmann, Michael, Ed.

    This second volume of the Bochum Studies in International Adult Education presents a variety of different perspectives on the topics of citizenship and civil society. Its goal is to give an overview of the European discourse on citizenship and civil society and on the discourse in some selected countries. Part I is comprised of the first of 14…

  14. Teaching and Learning--Towards the Learning Society. White Paper on Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education, Training, and Youth.

    Among the many changes occurring in European society, three "factors of upheaval" are particularly important: the information society, internationalization, and the scientific and technical fields. Education and training can provide two possible solutions to eliminate their pernicious effects. The first involves reintroducing the merits of a broad…

  15. High-temperature corrosion resistance of ceramics and ceramic coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Tortorelli, P.F.

    1996-06-01

    Ceramics and ceramic composites offer the potential to operate fossil energy systems at the higher temperatures necessary for improved energy efficiency and better environmental control. However, because many fossil fuel-derived processes contain sulfur, chlorine, and carbon, as well as oxygen, degradation from high-temperature corrosion and environmental effects arising from reactions of solids with gases and condensable products is a common life-determining factor in operating systems. Ceramic-based products are not immune to such degradation; adequate corrosion resistance must be assured to exploit the technical and economic potential of such materials. This is normally accomplished by using stable, sound oxides that exist in their bulk form, that naturally grow as surface layers upon exposure to an oxidizing environment, or that are deposited as a coating on a susceptible material. It is therefore important to examine the critical issues with respect to more environmental stability of ceramics that have the potential to be corrosion resistant in particular fossil environments. Key aspects include not only chemical compatibility, but the influence of the environment on the mechanical behavior of the ceramic materials. In addition, for coatings, the mechanical reliability of the ceramic is a key issue in that an otherwise corrosion-resistant surface layer must remain sound and adherent in order to provide protection to the underlying substrate. The purpose of this work is to support the development of advanced ceramics and ceramic composites for applications in fossil environments by examining critical issues related to high-temperature corrosion resistance. More specifically, the overall objective of this task is to examine the chemical compatibility and reliability of potentially corrosion-resistant ceramics being developed as protective overcoats and/or structural materials as parts of other work elements funded by the AR&TD Program.

  16. Shrinking societies favor procreation.

    PubMed

    Kent, M M

    1999-12-01

    Low birth rates and unprecedented improvements in life expectancy had brought a shrinking society to a rapidly expanding retirement-age population. In 1999, people aged 65 and older make up 15% or more of the populations in 19 countries. Furthermore, 14 country populations are already experiencing natural decrease, and a lot more will start to decline early in the 21st century. Due to this predicament, concerned countries have created policies that may encourage more childbearing by easing the opportunity costs of raising children. Among the policies are: 1) paid maternity and paternity leaves until a child is 2-3 years; 2) free child care; 3) tax breaks for large families; 4) family housing allowance; 5) cash paid to parents for raising a child. Governments of the shrinking societies believed that these policies could influence fertility because it affects the socioeconomic setting in which childbearing decisions are made. This paper also discusses Hungary, Japan, and Sweden fertility policies. PMID:12295635

  17. Quality and human society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, W.

    1991-02-01

    Quality of products and services is seen as a necessity in our modern world. Quality also has important cross-links to safety in our society. It is however suggested, that human beings are living in their industrial environment under the stress of a fractured personality with anxieties and frustrations. Some cultural comparisons with other industrial nations are given. Quality control tailored to human nature is recommended.

  18. Evolution, museums and society.

    PubMed

    MacFadden, Bruce J

    2008-11-01

    Visitors to natural history museums have an incomplete understanding of evolution. Although they are relatively knowledgeable about fossils and geological time, they have a poor understanding of natural selection. Museums in the 21st century can effectively increase public understanding of evolution through interactive displays, novel content (e.g. genomics), engaging videos and cyberexhibits that communicate to a broad spectrum of society, both within the exhibit halls as well as outside the museum.

  19. Joining of ceramics for high temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilpas, Martti

    1987-01-01

    Summarized is a literature survey of the methods for joining ceramics to ceramics or ceramics to metals for high temperature applications. Also mechanical properties and potential applications of the joints are considered. The joining of ceramics is usually carried out by brazing or diffusion bonding. Especially the latter has been found useful, increasing the application of bonded ceramics. The possibility of using electron beam and laser beam welding for joining ceramics has also recently been investigated. The bonding of ceramics has found numerous applications typical for high operating temperatures, i.e., sensors and thermocouples.

  20. History society launches journal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    A fledgling international organization plans to launch, in the next few months, a journal devoted to the study of the history of the earth sciences. The journal, to be published by the History of Earth Sciences Society (HESS), will be edited by Gerald M. Friedman ot the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.HESS will promote interest and scholarship in the history of the earth sciences by publishing the semiannual journal, by organizing meetings about the history of earth sciences, and by supporting the efforts of other associations displaying similar interests, according to the society's draft constitution. An organizational meeting to ratify the constitution and to elect officers will be held in conjunction with the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America in October. The interim officers and the proposed slate for 1983 include David B. Kitts (University of Oklahoma, Norman), president; Albert V. Carrozi (University of Illinois, Urbana), president-elect; and Ellis L. Yochelson (U.S. Geological Survey, National Museum of Natural History), secretary.

  1. Ceramic fiber reinforced filter

    DOEpatents

    Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.

  2. Integral Textile Ceramic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, David B.; Cox, Brian N.

    2008-08-01

    A new paradigm for ceramic composite structural components enables functionality in heat exchange, transpiration, detailed shape, and thermal strain management that significantly exceeds the prior art. The paradigm is based on the use of three-dimensional fiber reinforcement that is tailored to the specific shape, stress, and thermal requirements of a structural application and therefore generally requires innovative textile methods for each realization. Key features include the attainment of thin skins (less than 1 mm) that are nevertheless structurally robust, transpiration holes formed without cutting fibers, double curvature, compliant integral attachment to other structures that avoids thermal stress buildup, and microcomposite ceramic matrices that minimize spalling and allow the formation of smooth surfaces. All these features can be combined into structures of very varied gross shape and function, using a wide range of materials such as all-oxide systems and SiC and carbon fibers in SiC matrices. Illustrations are drawn from rocket nozzles, thermal protection systems, and gas turbine engines. The new design challenges that arise for such material/structure systems are being met by specialized computational modeling that departs significantly in the representation of materials behavior from that used in conventional finite element methods.

  3. Ceramic fabrication R D

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This project is separated into three tasks. The first task is a design and modelling effort to be carried out by MSE, Inc. The purpose of this task is to develop and analyze designs for various cohesive ceramic fabrication (CCF) components, principally an MHD electrode for strategic defense initiative (SDI) applications. A high stress, low cost, ceramic component is to be selected, designed and, if possible, analyzed. The final design for the MHD electrode comprised a layered structure of molybdenum disilicide graded with quartz glass. The design demonstrates the fabrication capabilities of the CCF process. The high stress component was targeted at armor applications and will be thick alumina plate. Silicon carbide reinforcement of the alumina will be explored. Task 2 is directed at establishing a mechanical properties data base for monolithic and laminated alumina fabricated using the CCF process. Task 3 involved production of a solid oxide fuel cell model electrode; however, work ceased when it became apparent that successful integration of the electrode modules would require additional time. Currently, work is principally focused on the production of thick CCF alumina plates; three test plates were ballistically tested and showed a very satisfactory performance. Silicon carbide reinforcement of the CCF alumina is being explored. Effort on the CCF processing of molybdenum disilicide (a nonoxide material) continued at a reduced level. Sinter aids were explored, and densities of 87% theoretical density on pressureless sintered dry pressed pellets were achieved. 1 ref., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Ceramic fabrication R D

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This project is separated into three tasks. The first task is a design and modeling effort to be carried out by MSE, Inc. The purpose of this task is to develop and analyze designs for various cohesive ceramic fabrication (CCF) components. This quarter, the advanced molybdenum disicilide MHD electrode design was essentially completed. Final refinements will be made after molybdenum disilicide processing results are available and the final layer compositions are established. Work involving whisker incorporation was initiated on the high stress component. It is unlikely that whiskers will become low cost, so particulate reinforcement will be pursued. Modeling work will resume once a suitable aluminum oxide/silicon carbide composition is selected that can be fired to acceptable densities by pressureless sintering. Task 2, subcontracted to Applied Technology Laboratories (ATL), is principally directed at establishing a property data base for monolithic and laminated alumina fabricated using the CCF process. This quarter, ATL demonstrated that the CCF process does not compromise the flexure strength of alumina. Task 3, subcontracted to Ceramics Binder Systems, Inc., focused on CCF silicon carbide particulate reinforced alumina and on the development of processing procedures for nonoxide molybdenum disilicide. Preliminary results indicate that achieving high densities in silicon carbide particulate reinforced aluminum oxide will be difficult. Molybdenum disilicide results are encouraging, and it is clear that the CCF process will work with this nonoxide material. 3 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1983-10-04

    A method for producing a ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by microwaving, mixes a slurry of glass sealing material and coupling agent and applies same to ceramic workpieces. The slurry and workpieces are placed together, insulated and then microwaved at a power, time and frequency sufficient to cause a liquid phase reaction in the slurry. The reaction of the glass sealing material forms a chemically different seal than that which would be formed by conventional heating because it is formed by a diffusion rather than by wetting of the reactants.

  6. Ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1985-01-01

    A method for producing a ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by microwaving, mixes a slurry of glass sealing material and coupling agent and applies same to ceramic workpieces. The slurry and workpieces are placed together, insulated and then microwaved at a power, time and frequency sufficient to cause a liquid phase reaction in the slurry. The reaction of the glass sealing material forms a chemically different seal than that which would be formed by conventional heating because it is formed by a diffusion rather than by wetting of the reactants.

  7. [Fifty years of cooperation--FEBS and Polish Biochemical Society].

    PubMed

    Barańska, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    This year, the Federation of European Biochemical Societies (FEBS) celebrates its 50th anniversary. The Polish Biochemical Society, represented by the Society's President, Kazimierz Zakrzewski, was a founding member of the organization. The text presents a history of collaboration between FEBS and Polish Biochemical Society, the participation of Polish Biochemical Society members in different FEBS activities, as well as the role they played in running the Federation. Author describes FEBS Congresses which taken place in Warsaw, the first 3rd FEBS Meeting in 1966 and then 29th Congress in 2004. The profiles of Jakub Karol Parnas, the founding father of the Polish biochemistry and some crucial Presidents of the Society, are also presented. The text describes Parnas Conferences, organized jointly by Polish and Ukrainian Biochemical Societies from 1996, and growing from 2011 into three-nation event with participation of Ukrainian, Israeli and Polish scientists, largely due to significant help from FEBS. Summarizing the last few years, author judge the cooperation between the Federation and the Polish Biochemical Society as optimal.

  8. High pressure ceramic heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Harkins, B.D.; Ward, M.E.

    1998-09-22

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present header assembly when used with recuperators reduces the brittle effect of a portion of the ceramic components. Thus, the present header assembly used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present header assembly is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a strengthening reinforcing member being in spaced relationship to the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The header assembly is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in contacting relationship with the first ceramic member, the second ceramic member and the strengthening reinforcing member. The present header assembly provides a high strength load bearing header assembly having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures. 5 figs.

  9. High pressure ceramic heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Harkins, Bruce D.; Ward, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present header assembly when used with recuperators reduces the brittle effect of a portion of the ceramic components. Thus, the present header assembly used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present header assembly is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a reinforcing member being in spaced relationship to the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The header assembly is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in contacting relationship with the first ceramic member, the second ceramic member and the reinforcing member and having a strengthening member wrapped around the refractory material. The present header assembly provides a high strength load bearing header assembly having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

  10. High pressure ceramic heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Harkins, Bruce D.; Ward, Michael E.

    1998-01-01

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present header assembly when used with recuperators reduces the brittle effect of a portion of the ceramic components. Thus, the present header assembly used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present header assembly is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a strengthening reinforcing member being in spaced relationship to the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The header assembly is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in contacting relationship with the first ceramic member, the second ceramic member and the strengthening reinforcing member. The present header assembly provides a high strength load bearing header assembly having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

  11. Dental ceramics: current thinking and trends.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J Robert

    2004-04-01

    Dental ceramics are presented within a simplifying framework allowing for understanding of their composition and development. The meaning of strength and details of the fracture process are explored, and recommendations are given regarding making structural comparisons among ceramics. Assessment of clinical survival data is dealt with, and literature is reviewed on the clinical behavior of metal-ceramic and all-ceramic systems. Practical aspects are presented regarding the choice and use of dental ceramics.

  12. Psychological Aspects of European Cosmology in American Society: African and European Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Joseph A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the Eurocentric nature of the United States social reality, and investigates psychological and mental health implications for the African-American community. Outlines the basic themes, emphases and criteria of Euro-American cosmology and describes how it can come to dominate the Afro-American's self-consciousness. Suggests ways to…

  13. Hardness of ion implanted ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, W.C.; McHargue, C.J.; Farlow, G.C.; White, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    It has been established that the wear behavior of ceramic materials can be modified through ion implantation. Studies have been done to characterize the effect of implantation on the structure and composition of ceramic surfaces. To understand how these changes affect the wear properties of the ceramic, other mechanical properties must be measured. To accomplish this, a commercially available ultra low load hardness tester has been used to characterize Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ with different implanted species and doses. The hardness of the base material is compared with the highly damaged crystalline state as well as the amorphous material.

  14. Dynamic crack arrest in ceramics and ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, A. S.; Yang, K. H.

    1989-01-01

    The results of past dynamic crack arrest experiments involving structural ceramics and ceramic composites are reviewed and analyzed. The lack of dynamic crack arrest in very brittle materials is discussed and contrasted with dynamic crack arrest in somewhat brittle metallic and polymeric materials. Numerical analyses show that the lack of crack arrest is due to reduced dynamic fracture resistance of the material and is not due to the kinetic energy.

  15. American Head and Neck Society

    MedlinePlus

    American Head & Neck Society Mission Statement: Advance Education, Research, and Quality of Care for the head and neck oncology patient. American Head & Neck Society | AHNS The mission of the AHNS is ...

  16. Science, Society and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, K. S.; Teich, A. H.

    2010-12-01

    Apart from the journals they produce, scientific societies play an important role in communicating scientific findings and norms to the broader society. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) includes among its goals to promote and defend the integrity of science and its use; provide a voice for science on societal issues; promote the responsible use of science in public policy; and increase public engagement with science and technology. AAAS websites and programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/wwc/book.htm) and ScienceCareers.org (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org), provide tools for scientists to become more directly engaged in effectively communicating their findings and involved in the policy process. Education programs work to build the next generation of scientists and a science-literate public. To bridge the current communication gap between scientists, the public and policymakers, AAAS, like other scientific societies, maintains policy and outreach programs with limited budgets and staff. AAAS works to engage policymakers and provide scientific underpinning to key issues through congressional briefings, meetings, policy briefs, and media outreach. AAAS responds to challenges to accepted scientific findings and processes through op-eds, letters to government officials, resolutions, and Board statements. Some of these initiatives occur on a local level in partnership with local civic leaders, whose endorsement makes them more powerful. On a national scale, they assure that the voice of science is included in the debate. The changing media landscape presents opportunities and challenges for future AAAS endeavors.

  17. Dispersed metal-toughened ceramics and ceramic brazing

    SciTech Connect

    Moorhead, A.J.; Tiegs, T.N.; Lauf, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    An alumina (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) based material that contains approximately 1 vol % finely dispersed platinum or chromium was developed for use in high temperature thermal-shock resistant electrical insulators. The work at ORNL is divided into two areas: (1) development of DMT ceramics; and (2) development of brazing filler metals suitable for making ceramic-to-ceramic and ceramic-to-metal brazements. The DMT ceramics and brazements are intended for service at elevated temperatures and at high stress levels in the dirty environments of advanced heat engines. The development and characterization of DMT ceramics includes processing (powder preparation, densification and heat treatment) and detailed measurement of mechanical and physical properties (strength, fracture toughness, and thermal conductivity). The brazing work includes: (1) the formulation and melting of small quantities of experimental brazing filler metals; (2) evaluation of the wetting and bonding behavior of these filler metals on Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, partially stabilized zirconia and ..cap alpha..-SiC in a sessile drop apparatus; and (3) determine the short-term strength and fracture toughness of brazements.

  18. Ceramic formation on metallic surfaces (ceramization) for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Rieu, J

    1993-01-01

    Surface transformations can be performed on metals in order to combine their load-bearing properties to the inertness and wear resistance of ceramics. In a joint prosthesis, metals are useful for their high fatigue strength and ductility, but they are more sensitive to superficial corrosion and wear than ceramics. Coating a ceramic on metal surface will improve the qualities of the metallic component. The various ways of transforming a metallic surface into a ceramic one are described. First, the surface treatments to improve the friction and wear properties are analysed. Coatings and surface transformations give superficial inert compounds. Many techniques are used to create hard, corrosion resistant layers on the surface. The processes may involve heating of the treated parts. But some metals cannot be heated without an alteration of their mechanical properties. The adhesion strength--and thus, the lifetime--of the ceramic layers depend on the binding forces and on the structure of the interfaces between the bulk metal and the outermost ceramic. Coatings generally have a lower adhesion strength than in-situ formed phases and the risk of peeling is higher. Second, the plasma-sprayed coatings performed to improve the bone anchorage are described. This review does not deal with bioactive materials. So, only the alumina coatings and their mechanical compatibility advantage are present.

  19. Rethinking Cells to Society

    PubMed Central

    Antonucci, Toni C.; Webster, Noah J.

    2015-01-01

    It is an exciting time to be a developmental scientist. We have advanced theoretical frameworks and developed ground-breaking methods for addressing questions of interest, ranging literally from cells to society. We know more now than we have ever known about human development and the base of acquired knowledge is increasing exponentially. In this paper we share some thoughts about where we are in the science of human development, how we got there, what may be going wrong and what may be going right. Finally, we offer some thoughts about where we go from here to assure that in the future we achieve the best developmental science possible. PMID:25642155

  20. Measurement and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Terence J.; Kovalevsky, Jean

    2004-10-01

    In modern society, metrology is a hidden infrastructure, that affects most human activities. Several domains in which measurements, and therefore metrology, play a crucial role are presented and illustrated with examples: manufacturing industries, navigation, telecommunications, medicine, environment, and scientific research. The BIPM and the national metrology institutes are at the top of traceability chains, which guarantee that all measurements are performed in conformity with the International System of Units (SI) and are therefore comparable. Finally, some indications of the economic benefits of metrology are given. To cite this article: T.J. Quinn, J. Kovalevsky, C. R. Physique 5 (2004).

  1. Lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B.E. Jr.

    1986-12-02

    This patent describes a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic composition which, based on total composition weight, consists essentially of a solid solution of lead zirconate and lead titanate in a PbZrO/sub 3/:PbTiO/sub 3/ ratio from about 0.505:0.495 to about 0.54:0.46; a halide salt selected from the group consisting of fluorides and chlorides of alkali metal and alkaline earth elements and mixtures thereof except for francium and radium in an amount from about 0.5 to 2 weight percent; and an oxide selected from the group consisting of magnesium, barium, scandium, aluminum, lanthanum, praesodynium, neodymium, samarium, and mixtures thereof in an amount from about 0.5 to about 6 weight percent, the relative amount of oxide being from about 1 to about 4 times that of the halide.

  2. Creep in electronic ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Routbort, J. L.; Goretta, K. C.; Arellano-Lopez, A. R.

    2000-04-27

    High-temperature creep measurements combined with microstructural investigations can be used to elucidate deformation mechanisms that can be related to the diffusion kinetics and defect chemistry of the minority species. This paper will review the theoretical basis for this correlation and illustrate it with examples from some important electronic ceramics having a perovskite structure. Recent results on BaTiO{sub 3}, (La{sub 1{minus}x}Sr){sub 1{minus}y}MnO{sub 3+{delta}}, YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub x}, (Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} and Sr(Fe,Co){sub 1.5}O{sub x} will be presented.

  3. Lightweight Ceramic Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, W. H.; Creedon, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    Fiber burnout process yields low densities. Low density attained by process of sacrificial burnout. Graphite or carbon fibers mixed into slurry of silica, alumina, and boron-compound fibers in amounts ranging from 25 to 75 percent of total fiber content by weight. Mixture formed into blocks and dried. Blocks placed in kiln and heated to 1,600 degrees F(870 degrees C) for several hours. Graphite or carbon fibers slowly oxidize away, leaving voids and reducing block density. Finally, blocks heated to 2,350 degrees F (1,290 degrees C) for 90 minutes to bond remaining ceramic fibers together. Developed for use on Space Shuttle and other spacecraft, rigid insulation machined to requisite shape and bonded in place.

  4. Ceramic turbine nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, J.E.; Norton, P.F.

    1996-12-17

    A turbine nozzle and shroud assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The metallic components have a preestablished rate of thermal expansion greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine nozzle vane assembly. The turbine nozzle vane assembly includes a plurality of segmented vane defining a first vane segment and a second vane segment, each of the first and second vane segments having a vertical portion, and each of the first vane segments and the second vane segments being positioned in functional relationship one to another within a recess formed within an outer shroud and an inner shroud. The turbine nozzle and shroud assembly provides an economical, reliable and effective ceramic component having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being less than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the other component. 4 figs.

  5. Ceramic turbine nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, James E.; Norton, Paul F.

    1996-01-01

    A turbine nozzle and shroud assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The metallic components having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine nozzle vane assembly. The turbine nozzle vane assembly includes a plurality of segmented vane defining a first vane segment and a second vane segment. Each of the first and second vane segments having a vertical portion. Each of the first vane segments and the second vane segments being positioned in functional relationship one to another within a recess formed within an outer shroud and an inner shroud. The turbine nozzle and shroud assembly provides an economical, reliable and effective ceramic component having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being less than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the other component.

  6. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2003-01-01

    In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment are begun. The studies are to be in parallel with LSFCO composition to characterize the segregation of cations and slow crack growth in environmental conditions. La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} has also been characterized for paramagnetic ordering at room temperature and the evolution of magnetic moments as a function of temperature are investigated. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport.

  7. Ceramic Cerami Turbine Nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, Gary L.

    1997-04-01

    A turbine nozzle vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The metallic components having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine nozzle vane assembly. The turbine nozzle vane assembly includes an outer shroud and an inner shroud having a plurality of horizontally segmented vanes therebetween being positioned by a connecting member positioning segmented vanes in functional relationship one to another. The turbine nozzle vane assembly provides an economical, reliable and effective ceramic component having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the other component.

  8. Education in a Technological Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVore, Paul W., Ed.; Smith, Wil J., Ed.

    Technological change places increased responsibility on the educational system of a democratic society to prepare citizens for intelligent participation in government. This conference was held to analyze the nature of the technological society and the role of education in preparing the individual for membership in that society. The papers…

  9. Prospects for a Learning Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohliger, John

    1975-01-01

    The author raises six serious doubts about the directions adult education is taking toward a society mistakenly termed "learning society," which is in fact an "instructional society." An ominous vision of "womb-to-tomb" schooling is evoked by the author's quotations from prominent adult educators who criticize this trend. (Author/AJ)

  10. Creation of a ceramics handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, W. J.; Filatovs, G. J.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to develop a ceramics handbook defining properties and parameters necessary for thermostructural design. Continuing efforts toward this goal, and in particular toward the evolution of a reliable predictor of fracture from current literature, are described.

  11. Ceramic powder for sintering materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akiya, H.; Saito, A.

    1984-01-01

    Surface activity of ceramic powders such as MgO and Al2O3, for use in sintering with sp. emphasis on their particle size, shape, particle size distribution, packing, and coexisting additives and impurities are reviewed.

  12. Ceramic regenerator systems development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fucinari, C. A.; Rahnke, C. J.; Rao, V. D. N.; Vallance, J. K.

    1980-01-01

    The DOE/NASA Ceramic Regenerator Design and Reliability Program aims to develop ceramic regenerator cores that can be used in passenger car and industrial/truck gas turbine engines. The major cause of failure of early gas turbine regenerators was found to be chemical attack of the ceramic material. Improved materials and design concepts aimed at reducing or eliminating chemical attack were placed on durability test in Ford 707 industrial gas turbine engines late in 1974. Results of 53,065 hours of turbine engine durability testing are described. Two materials, aluminum silicate and magnesium aluminum silicate, show promise. Five aluminum silicate cores attained the durability objective of 10,000 hours at 800 C (1472 F). Another aluminum silicate core shows minimal evidence of chemical attack after 8071 hours at 982 C (1800 F). Results obtained in ceramic material screening tests, aerothermodynamic performance tests, stress analysis, cost studies, and material specifications are included.

  13. Recent progress in ceramic joining

    SciTech Connect

    Loehman, R.E.

    1998-09-01

    Both fundamental and practical aspects of ceramic joining are understood well enough for many, if not most, applications requiring moderate strengths at room temperature. This paper argues that the two greatest needs in ceramic joining are for techniques to join buried interfaces by selective heating, and methods for joining ceramics for use at temperatures of 800 to 1,200 C. Heating with microwave radiation or with high-energy electron beams has been used to join buried ceramic interfaces, for example SiC to SiC. Joints with varying levels of strength at temperatures of 600 to 1,000 C have been made using four techniques: (1) transient liquid phase bonding; (2) joining with refractory braze alloys; (3) joining with refractory glass compositions; and (4) joining using preceramic polymers. Joint strengths as high as 550 MPa at 1,000 C have been reported for silicon nitride-silicon nitride bonds tested in four-point flexure.

  14. Inorganic glass ceramic slip rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glossbrenner, E. W.; Cole, S. R.

    1972-01-01

    Prototypes of slip rings have been fabricated from ceramic glass, a material which is highly resistant to deterioration due to high temperature. Slip ring assemblies were not structurally damaged by mechanical tests and performed statisfactorily for 200 hours.

  15. Process for producing advanced ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Kwong, Kyei-Sing

    1996-01-01

    A process for the synthesis of homogeneous advanced ceramics such as SiC+AlN, SiAlON, SiC+Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, and Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 +AlN from natural clays such as kaolin, halloysite and montmorillonite by an intercalation and heat treatment method. Included are the steps of refining clays, intercalating organic compounds into the layered structure of clays, drying the intercalated mixture, firing the treated atmospheres and grinding the loosely agglomerated structure. Advanced ceramics produced by this procedure have the advantages of homogeneity, cost effectiveness, simplicity of manufacture, ease of grind and a short process time. Advanced ceramics produced by this process can be used for refractory, wear part and structure ceramics.

  16. Ceramic automotive Stirling engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musikant, S.; Chiu, W.; Darooka, D.; Mullings, D. M.; Johnson, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A conceptual design study for a Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine (CASE) is performed. Year 1990 structural ceramic technology is assumed. Structural and performance analyses of the conceptual design are performed as well as a manufacturing and cost analysis. The general conclusions from this study are that such an engine would be 10-26% more efficient over its performance map than the current metal Automotive Stirling Reference Engine (ASRE). Cost of such a ceramic engine is likely to be somewhat higher than that of the ASRE but engine cost is very sensitive to the ultimate cost of the high purity, ceramic powder raw materials required to fabricate high performance parts. When the design study is projected to the year 2000 technology, substantinal net efficiency improvements, on the order of 25 to 46% over the ASRE, are computed.

  17. Ceramic Production and Craft Specialization in the Prehispanic Philippines, A.D. 500 to 1600

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niziolek, Lisa Christine

    In the millennium prior to Spanish contact, the political economies of lowland societies in the Philippines, such as Tanjay (A.D. 500-1600) on southeastern Negros Island in the central Philippines, underwent significant social, political, and economic changes. Foreign trade with China increased, the circulation of wealth through events such as ritual feasting and bridewealth exchanges expanded, inter-polity competition through slave-raiding and warfare heightened, and agriculture intensified. It also has been hypothesized that the production of craft goods such as pottery and metal implements became increasingly specialized and centralized at polity centers. Tanjay, a historically-known chiefdom, was among them. This dissertation examines changes in the organization of ceramic production using the results of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis of close to 300 ceramic samples. In addition to geochemical analysis, this research draws on Chinese accounts of trade from the late first millennium and early second millennium A.D.; Spanish colonial accounts of exploration and conquest from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; ethnographic research on traditional Philippine societies and ceramic production; ethnoarchaeological investigations of pottery production, exchange, and use; and archaeological work that has taken place in the Bais-Tanjay region of Negros Island for more than 30 years. Rather than finding clear evidence that ceramics became more compositionally standardized or homogeneous over time, this analysis reveals that a dynamic and complex pattern of local, dispersed pottery production existed alongside increasingly centralized and specialized production of ceramic materials.

  18. Abstracted model for ceramic coating

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J C; Stockman, C

    1998-11-14

    Engineers are exploring several mechanisms to delay corrosive attack of the CAM (corrosion allowance material) by dripping water, including drip shields and ceramic coatings. Ceramic coatings deposited with high-velocity oxyfuels (HVOF's) have exhibited a porosity of only 2% at a thickness of 0.15 cm. The primary goal of this document is to provide a detailed description of an abstracted process-level model for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) that has been developed to account for the inhibition of corrosion by protective ceramic coatings. A second goal was to address as many of the issues raised during a recent peer review as possible (direct reaction of liquid water with carbon steel, stress corrosion cracking of the ceramic coating, bending stresses in coatings of finite thickness, limitations of simple correction factors, etc.). During the periods of dry oxidation (T ≥ 100°C) and humid-air corrosion (T ≤ 100°C & RH < 8O%), it is assumed that the growth rate of oxide on the surface is diminished in proportion to the surface covered by solid ceramic. The mass transfer impedance imposed by a ceramic coating with gas-filled pores is assumed to be negligible. During the period of aqueous phase corrosion (T ≤ 100°C & RH ≥ 80%), it is assumed that the overall mass transfer resistance governing the corrosion rate is due to the combined resistance of ceramic coating & interfacial corrosion products. Two porosity models (simple cylinder & cylinder-sphere chain) are considered in estimation of the mass transfer resistance of the ceramic coating. It is evident that substantial impedance to 0₂ transport is encountered if pores are filled with liquid water. It may be possible to use a sealant to eliminate porosity. Spallation (rupture) of the ceramic coating is assumed to occur if the stress introduced by the expanding corrosion products at the ceramic- CAM interface exceeds fracture stress. Since this model does not account for the possibility of

  19. Metal-ceramic joint assembly

    DOEpatents

    Li, Jian

    2002-01-01

    A metal-ceramic joint assembly in which a brazing alloy is situated between metallic and ceramic members. The metallic member is either an aluminum-containing stainless steel, a high chromium-content ferritic stainless steel or an iron nickel alloy with a corrosion protection coating. The brazing alloy, in turn, is either an Au-based or Ni-based alloy with a brazing temperature in the range of 9500 to 1200.degree. C.

  20. Glass and ceramics. [lunar resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, Larry A.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of glasses and ceramics can be produced from bulk lunar materials or from separated components. Glassy products include sintered regolith, quenched molten basalt, and transparent glass formed from fused plagioclase. No research has been carried out on lunar material or close simulants, so properties are not known in detail; however, common glass technologies such as molding and spinning seem feasible. Possible methods for producing glass and ceramic materials are discussed along with some potential uses of the resulting products.