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Sample records for european community programme

  1. Commission Work Programme Relating to the Promotion of Innovation in Secondary Education in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium).

    The Commission of the European Communities (CEC) has proposed a program for practical cooperation among Member States in secondary education. The strategies and methods of cooperation developed in two previous action programs must be adapted to the evolving situation of the 1990s. Factors of particular importance are continuing structural change…

  2. Guidance and the School. Working Document. European Community Action Programme. Transition of Young People from Education to Adult and Working Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, John

    This report is one in a series on the work of the 30 pilot projects that form the European Community's second Programme on the Transition from Education to Adult and Working Life. The report reviews new demands on guidance and new approaches that have been developed to meet them, reviews the responses made by the Transition Programme pilot…

  3. European Community Experiences from the Coalface: Some Lessons from the COMETT Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prosser, Ed, Durando, Marc

    1992-01-01

    COMETT (Community program for Education and Training for Technology) supports practical cooperation between universities and industry in training for technology, through consortia, exchanges, and joint training projects. It stresses the need for strategic thinking in cooperative efforts and the fragility of cooperation and management. Program…

  4. The European Union Food Distribution programme for the Most Deprived Persons of the community, 1987-2013: From agricultural policy to social inclusion policy?

    PubMed

    Caraher, Martin

    2015-07-01

    The European Union Food Distribution programme for the Most Deprived Persons (MDP) of the community ran from 1987 until 2013. It was funded from Common Agricultural Policy budgets. The programme initially made use of surplus foods from the food mountains resulting from intervention stocks. This food was then distributed through aid agencies within member states, coordinated at a national government level. Reform of the CAP and global rises in food prices resulted in an increase in budget from €300 to €500 million Euros in 2010 with the added power to buy food on the open market. This led to a formal challenge to the scheme on the basis that buying goods on the open market shifted the emphasis from an agricultural/financial basis to a social one. A court ruling found that because the program was no longer used for removing surpluses the link to agriculture policy has become tenuous and therefore had no basis in community law. As a result of this legal challenge a number of policy compromises ensured the MDP would continue until the end of 2013 with a reduced budget. The scheme has been superseded by a new scheme in March 2014 called the Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived (FEAD). This is seen as a social programme. The way that policy and politics developed and changed the MDP programme are set out. The article tracks its move from being an agricultural policy to a social welfare one. The key policy players and actors in this move are set out as are the changing context and policy frameworks. The replacement of the MDP by FEAD is discussed as is how intensive lobbying in 2012/13 resulted in the development of a new Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived (FEAD).

  5. European Community Education Cooperation: The First Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Luxembourg).

    Nearly one-third of the European Community population of 320 million is involved daily with some form of education. The Community Education Action Programme celebrated its tenth anniversary in February 1986. The initial thrust was to increase mutual understanding and promote closer relations between the different education systems of member…

  6. European Community Education Cooperation: The First Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Luxembourg).

    Nearly one-third of the European Community population of 320 million is involved daily with some form of education. The Community Education Action Programme celebrated its tenth anniversary in February 1986. The initial thrust was to increase mutual understanding and promote closer relations between the different education systems of member…

  7. School-Industry Links. Working Document. European Community Action Programme. Transition of Young People from Education to Adult and Working Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, John

    This report is about recent steps undertaken at national and other levels to help schools in the countries of the European Community develop links with industry or the economic world. It draws particularly on examples from the 30 pilot projects that formed part of the European Community's second program on young people's transition from education…

  8. The European quantum technologies flagship programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, Max F.; Binosi, Daniele; Thew, Rob; Calarco, Tommaso

    2017-09-01

    Quantum technologies, such as quantum communication, computation, simulation as well as sensors and metrology, address and manipulate individual quantum states and make use of superposition and entanglement. Both companies and governments have realised the high disruptive potential of this technology. Consequently, the European Commission has announced an ambitious flagship programme to start in 2018. Here, we sum up the history leading to the quantum technologies flagship programme and outline its envisioned goals and structure. We also give an overview of the strategic research agenda for quantum communication, which the flagship will pursue during its 10-year runtime.

  9. European Association of Echocardiography: Research Grant Programme.

    PubMed

    Gargani, Luna; Muraru, Denisa; Badano, Luigi P; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Sicari, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) offers a variety of grants/fellowships to help young professionals in the field of cardiological training or research activities throughout Europe. The number of grants has significantly increased in recent years with contributions from the Associations, Working Groups and Councils of the ESC. The European Association of Echocardiography (EAE) is a registered branch of the ESC and actively takes part in this initiative. One of the aims of EAE is to promote excellence in research in cardiovascular ultrasound and other imaging modalities in Europe. Therefore, since 2008, the EAE offers a Research Grant Programme to help young doctors to obtain research experience in a high standard academic centre (or similar institution oriented to clinical or pre-clinical research) in an ESC member country other than their own. This programme can be considered as a valorization of the geographical mobility as well as cultural exchanges and professional practice in the field of cardiovascular imaging. The programme has been very successful so far, therefore in 2012 the EAE has increased its offer to two grants of 25,000 euros per annum each.

  10. The European eLearning Programme(s): Between Rhetoric and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salajan, Florin D.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a qualitative study conducted by the author on the implications of e-learning programmes for the higher education systems of the member states of the European Union. The study takes a look behind the scenes of the eLearning Programme and other e-learning actions within other European programmes by tapping into…

  11. The European eLearning Programme(s): Between Rhetoric and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salajan, Florin D.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a qualitative study conducted by the author on the implications of e-learning programmes for the higher education systems of the member states of the European Union. The study takes a look behind the scenes of the eLearning Programme and other e-learning actions within other European programmes by tapping into…

  12. Sea & Space: a New European Educational Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-01-01

    This spring, teachers across Europe will enjoy support for exciting, novel educational projects on astronomy, navigation and environmental observations. The largely web-based and highly interactive SEA & SPACE programme makes it possible for pupils to perform field experiments and astronomical observations and to obtain and process satellite images. A contest will take the best pupils for one week to Lisbon (Portugal), to Europe's space port in Kourou (French Guyana) where the European launcher lifts off or to ESO's Very Large Telescope at the Cerro Paranal Observatory in Chile, the largest optical telescope in the world. The SEA & SPACE project is a joint initiative of the European Space Agency (ESA) , the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). It builds on these organisations' several years' successful participation in the European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture organised by the European Commission that they intend to continue in 1998. The 1998 World Exhibition EXPO98 in Lisbon will focus on the oceans. This is why the umbrella theme of SEA & SPACE is concerned with the many relations between the oceans and the space that surrounds us, from ancient times to present days. Under the new programme, teaching resources are offered for three major areas, Remote Sensing of Europe's Coastal Environment, Navigation and Oceans of Water. Remote Sensing of Europe's Coastal Environment : observations of the Earth from Space are made accessible to pupils who will appreciate their usefulness through interactive image processing and field observations; Navigation : the capabilities and functioning of different navigation techniques are explored through experiments using navigation by the stars, with GPS, and via satellite images/maps; Oceans of Water : What is the role of water in Nature? How can one detect water from satellites or with telescopes? How much water is there in rivers and floods, in an ocean

  13. European Space Science gets new Programme Director

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    Prof. Southwood, born on 30 June 1945, holds a BA in Mathematics and a Ph.D in Physics from Imperial College, London. He has spent most of his career at Imperial College, apart from two periods at UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles), as Postdoctoral Fellow and later as Visiting Professor. In 1997 he joined ESA as Earth Observation Future Programme Strategy Manager. He is currently Imperial College Pro Rector responsible for external academic affairs. Prof. Southwood has received five awards/honours and held many chairmanships, including those of the Science Programme Committee and Space Science Advisory Committee at ESA. His role as Principal Investigator for the Cassini Saturn Orbiter Magnetometer is his most recent project. He has been active over the years, both in Europe and in the United States, in public outreach on space science. He has around 200 publications and 100 invited papers to his name. "David Southwood ranks among the most prominent space science experts in Europe", said ESA's Director General, Antonio Rodotà, welcoming Prof. Southwood's appointment, "and I am sure that he, like his predecessor, Prof. Bonnet, will do a first-rate job for the excellent scientific community in our member states".

  14. Perspectives for food research and European collaboration in the European Research Area and the new Framework Programme.

    PubMed

    Breslin, L

    2001-08-01

    Since 1987, successive framework programmes have contributed to strengthen European food research through the establishment of networks between research institutions, universities and companies from various European countries. In the FAIR programme (1994-1998), 118 research projects comprising nearly 1,000 participants from the European Union and Associated States have been supported in the food area with a European funding of about [symbol: see text] 108 million. Within the Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources programme (1998-2002), food research is mostly supported within the key action 'food, nutrition and health' with a budget of [symbol: see text] 290 million. After the first four deadlines, 735 eligible research proposals have already been received. Further to their evaluation by a panel of independent experts, 108 proposals have been funded or selected for funding representing a total contribution of about [symbol: see text] 168 million. Among those, several clusters of projects are now running on important topics such as probiotics, coeliac diseases, mycotoxins, GMO, safety and food for the elderly. In addition, technology stimulation measures are largely benefiting SMEs to foster their innovation potential. In January 2000, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "Towards the European Research Area (ERA)" with the objective to contribute to developing better framework conditions for research in Europe. On 21 February 2001, the Commission adopted proposals to be submitted to the European Parliament and Council for the next framework programme for research and innovation (2002-2006). The new framework programme that is becoming one of the financial instruments of the ERA aims at catalysing the integration of European research by: strengthening of links between the Community research effort and national and regional research policies; concentrating on a limited number of priority fields or research to which activities at the

  15. Community nutrition programmes, globalization and sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Herrera, José Carlos

    2006-08-01

    On an international scale, the last seventy-five years have been a period of deep social, economic and political transformation for the developing countries. They have been especially influenced by the international phenomenon of globalization, the benefits of which have been unequally distributed among countries. In this context, the strategies used to improve the general nutritional health of the population of developing countries include broad approaches integrating nutritional interventions in a context of sustainable community development, while valuing the existing relations between fields as diverse as agriculture, education, sociology, economy, health, environment, hygiene and nutrition. The community nutrition programmes are emblematic of these initiatives. Nevertheless, in spite of the increasing evidence of the potential possibilities offered by these programmes to improve the nutritional status and contribute to the development and the self-sufficiency of the community, their success is relatively limited, due to the inappropriate planning, implementation and evaluation of the programmes. In the present article, I attempt to emphasie the importance of community participation of the population of developing countries in the community nutrition programmes within the context of globalization. This process is not only an ethical imperative, but a pragmatic one. It is a crucial step in the process of liberation, democratization and equality that will lead to true sustainable development.

  16. Inland Water Quality Assessment--A Joint European Masters Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waara, K. -O.; Petersen, A.; Lanaras, T.; Paulauskas, V.; Kleiven, S.; Crosa, G.; Penttinen, O. -P.; Quesada, A.; Kovats, N.; Galinou-Mitsoudi, S.; Lapinska, M.; Newton, A.; Balode, M.; Hindak, F.; Marsalek, B.

    2006-01-01

    At present, there is a European shortage of personnel qualified to adequately address the comprehensive scientific and regulatory requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The joint Masters programme described in this paper will provide students with the requisite expert knowledge and skills to progress the implementation of the WFD.…

  17. Inland Water Quality Assessment--A Joint European Masters Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waara, K. -O.; Petersen, A.; Lanaras, T.; Paulauskas, V.; Kleiven, S.; Crosa, G.; Penttinen, O. -P.; Quesada, A.; Kovats, N.; Galinou-Mitsoudi, S.; Lapinska, M.; Newton, A.; Balode, M.; Hindak, F.; Marsalek, B.

    2006-01-01

    At present, there is a European shortage of personnel qualified to adequately address the comprehensive scientific and regulatory requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The joint Masters programme described in this paper will provide students with the requisite expert knowledge and skills to progress the implementation of the WFD.…

  18. The European space exploration programme: current status of ESA's plans for Moon and Mars exploration.

    PubMed

    Messina, Piero; Vennemann, Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    After a large consultation with the scientific and industrial communities in Europe, the Aurora Space Exploration Programme was unanimously approved at the European Space Agency (ESA) Council at ministerial level in Edinburgh in 2001. This marked the start of the programme's preparation phase that was due to finish by the end of 2004. Aurora features technology development robotic and crewed rehearsal missions aimed at preparing a human mission to Mars by 2033. Due to the evolving context, both international and European, ESA has undertaken a review of the goals and approach of its exploration programme. While maintaining the main robotic missions that had been conceived during Aurora, the European Space Exploration Programme that is currently being proposed to the Aurora participating states and other ESA Member States has a reviewed approach and will feature a greater synergy with other ESA programmes. The paper will present the process that led to the revision of ESA's plans in the field of exploration and will give the current status of the programme. c2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. What promotes sustainability in Safe Community programmes?

    PubMed Central

    Nordqvist, Cecilia; Timpka, Toomas; Lindqvist, Kent

    2009-01-01

    Background The theory and practice of safety promotion has traditionally focused on the safety of individuals. This study also includes systems, environments, and organizations. Safety promotion programmes are designed to support community health initiatives taking a bottom-up approach. This is a long-term and complex process. The aim of this study was to try to empirically identify factors that promote sustainability in the structures of programmes that are managed and coordinated by the local government. Methods Four focus group sessions with local government politicians and administrators in designated Safe Communities were conducted and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Collaboration was found to be the basis for sustainability. Networks, enabling municipalities to exchange ideas, were reported to positively influence the programmes. Personal contacts rather than organizations themselves, determine whether collaboration is sustained. Participants reported an increase in cross-disciplinary collaboration among staff categories. Administrators and politicians were reported to collaborate well, which was perceived to speed up decision-making and thus to facilitate the programme work. Support from the politicians and the county council was seen as a prerequisite. Participants reported an increased willingness to share information between units, which, in their view, supports sustainability. A structure in which all local authorities' offices were located in close proximity to one another was considered to support collaboration. Appointing a public health coordinator responsible for the programme was seen as a way to strengthen the relational resources of the programme. Conclusion With a public health coordinator, the 'external' negotiating power was concentrated in one person. Also, the 'internal' programme strength increased when the coordination was based on a bureaucratic function rather than on one individual. Increased relational resources

  20. Accreditation of Engineering Programmes: European Perspectives and Challenges in a Global Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augusti, Giuliano

    2007-01-01

    The EUR-ACE Socrates-Tempus project (September 2004/March 2006) proposed a decentralized European system for accreditation of engineering programmes in the "Bologna process" area (European Higher Education Area) at the First and Second Cycle (FC and SC) level (but including "Integrated Programmes", i.e. programmes leading…

  1. Accreditation of Engineering Programmes: European Perspectives and Challenges in a Global Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augusti, Giuliano

    2007-01-01

    The EUR-ACE Socrates-Tempus project (September 2004/March 2006) proposed a decentralized European system for accreditation of engineering programmes in the "Bologna process" area (European Higher Education Area) at the First and Second Cycle (FC and SC) level (but including "Integrated Programmes", i.e. programmes leading…

  2. The European New Car Assessment Programme: A historical review.

    PubMed

    van Ratingen, Michiel; Williams, Aled; Lie, Anders; Seeck, Andre; Castaing, Pierre; Kolke, Reinhard; Adriaenssens, Guido; Miller, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Established in 1997, the European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP) provides consumers with a safety performance assessment for the majority of the most popular cars in Europe. Thanks to its rigorous crash tests, Euro NCAP has rapidly become an important driver safety improvement to new cars. After ten years of rating vehicles, Euro NCAP felt that a change was necessary to stay in tune with rapidly emerging driver assistance and crash avoidance systems and to respond to shifting priorities in road safety. A new overall rating system was introduced that combines the most important aspects of vehicle safety under a single star rating. The overall rating system has allowed Euro NCAP to continue to push for better fitment and higher performance for vehicles sold on the European market. In the coming years, the safety rating is expected to play an important role in the support of the roll-out of highly automated vehicles.

  3. Towards a European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network: the ECRIN programme.

    PubMed

    Demotes-Mainard, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the interconnection of national networks of clinical research centres (CRCs) and clinical trials units (CTUs), the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) programme aims to develop an infrastructure allowing for bottom-up harmonisation of the support and training for, and practice of, clinical research, and to provide public sponsors for biotechnology small and medium-sized companies (SMEs) with support for translational research and multicentre clinical studies in Europe. This will be achieved through an application to the next FP6 'Integrated Infrastructure Initiatives' call. However, prior work is required to improve the reciprocal knowledge of partners in the ECRIN consortium and, as a first step, country-specific workshops will be organised by national networks in order to address the organisation of CRC/CTUs and national networks, and their interaction with the national environment of clinical research; this will enable in-depth discussion addressing the bottlenecks hampering transnational studies.

  4. The Education Structures in the Member States of the European Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EURYDICE Central Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    This document was prepared in response to a comparative study tour undertaken as part of the European Communities Commission's Community Education Programme. It describes the educational structures of Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of German, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxemborg, Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Each country's…

  5. ERASMUS: European Community Program for the Development of Student Mobility in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Education, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Describes the European Community's efforts to unify Europe and enhance competitiveness in world markets by improving use of available intellectual potential. Discusses ERASMUS, the European Community Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students. Explains the role of Inter-University Cooperation Programs (ICPs), a course credit transfer…

  6. PRM Programmes of Care and PRM Care Pathways: European Approach, Developments in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Korvin, Georges; Yelnik, Alain P.; Ribinik, Patricia; Calmels, Paul; Le Moine, Francis; Delarque, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The development of European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) physical and rehabilitation medicine programmes of care (PRMPC) and physical and rehabilitation medicine care pathways (PRMCP) in France is a good example of the positive interaction between European and national organizations. PRMPC were defined at the European level to offer a…

  7. PRM Programmes of Care and PRM Care Pathways: European Approach, Developments in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Korvin, Georges; Yelnik, Alain P.; Ribinik, Patricia; Calmels, Paul; Le Moine, Francis; Delarque, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The development of European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) physical and rehabilitation medicine programmes of care (PRMPC) and physical and rehabilitation medicine care pathways (PRMCP) in France is a good example of the positive interaction between European and national organizations. PRMPC were defined at the European level to offer a…

  8. The European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP)--a sentinel approach in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA).

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Gianfranco; Cole, Michelle; Unemo, Magnus; Hoffmann, Steen; Ison, Catherine; van de Laar, Marita

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is monitored in the European Union/European Economic Area through the European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP) coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Euro-GASP includes a sentinel surveillance programme which aims to detect in a timely manner changes in resistance patterns and inform treatment guidelines. The programme aims to test a representative number of isolates from each European Union/European Economic Area member state per year for a range of therapeutically relevant antimicrobials through a biannual hybrid centralised/decentralised system. Testing is supported by an External Quality Assurance programme and a laboratory training programme. Participation in the programme has increased to 21 countries in 2012. Euro-GASP has been able to detect the rapid spread of isolates with decreased susceptibility to cefixime across Europe in 2010 and 2011. Results from the programme have informed changes in European treatment guidelines for gonorrhoea and led to the development of the 'Response plan to control and manage the threat of multidrug resistant gonorrhoea in Europe'. Future challenges for Euro-GASP include supporting countries to participate in Euro-GASP through decentralised testing, improving timeliness and epidemiological data quality, and increasing participation from Eastern Europe.

  9. Special Education in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Luxembourg).

    The monograph contains a report on developments and trends in special education within the European community and a selection of the principal papers of a conference on special education in Europe. Chapter 1 contains results of a comparative study presented tabularly and narratively covering all handicaps in Belgium, Denmark, Germany, France,…

  10. Creative potential: mental well-being impact assessment of the Liverpool 2008 European capital of culture programme.

    PubMed

    West, H M; Scott-Samuel, A

    2010-04-01

    Culture has a number of potential impacts upon health and well-being. This project was undertaken to assess the potential impacts of the Liverpool 2008 European Capital of Culture programme upon mental well-being, so that positive effects can be maximized and negative impacts reduced, in order that health and well-being are promoted and inequalities are reduced. A mental well-being impact assessment (MWIA) toolkit has been developed, and was piloted in this study. MWIA uses a sequence of procedures designed to systematically assess the effect of projects, programmes and policies upon people's mental well-being and health. The MWIA toolkit was used to explore the potential positive and negative impacts on mental well-being of a sample of projects and policies from the European Capital of Culture programme. This was achieved by asking stakeholders to answer a series of questions, holding participative workshops, constructing a community profile and reviewing the research literature. Recommendations were developed which aim to enhance the impact of the programme on people's mental well-being. As expected, both positive and negative impacts of the European Capital of Culture programme on mental well-being were identified. Fourteen themes were identified as emerging from the workshops, screening and reviewing the research evidence. Based on these data, 33 recommendations were developed by the project steering group and have been presented to the Liverpool Culture Company. The process of conducting the assessment, particularly its participatory nature and its awareness-raising role, had impacts upon mental well-being. The findings demonstrate the potential for the Culture Company programme to have a profound impact upon mental well-being, and highlight areas which could be addressed to optimize the impact of the programme. 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tobacco industry strategies for influencing European Community tobacco advertising legislation.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Mark; Bitton, Asaf; Glantz, Stanton

    2002-04-13

    Restrictions on tobacco company advertising and sponsorship are effective parts of tobacco control programmes worldwide. Through Council Directive 98/43/EC, the European Community (EC) sought to end all tobacco advertising and sponsorship in EC member states by 2006. Initially proposed in 1989, the directive was adopted in 1998, and was annulled by the European Court of Justice in 2000 following a protracted lobbying campaign against the directive by a number of interested organisations including European tobacco companies. A new advertising directive was proposed in May, 2001. We reviewed online collections of tobacco industry documents from US tobacco companies made public under the US Master Settlement Agreement of 1998. Documents reviewed dated from 1978 to 1994 and came from Philip Morris, R J Reynolds, and Brown and Williamson (British American Tobacco) collections. We also obtained approximately 15,000 pages of paper records related to British American Tobacco from its documents' depository in Guildford, UK. This information was supplemented with information in the published literature and consultations with European tobacco control experts. The tobacco industry lobbied against Directive 98/43/EC at the level of EC member state governments as well as on a pan-European level. The industry sought to prevent passage of the directive within the EC legislature, to substitute industry-authored proposals in place of the original directive, and if necessary to use litigation to prevent implementation of the directive after its passage. The tobacco industry sought to delay, and eventually defeat, the EC directive on tobacco advertising and sponsorship by seeking to enlist the aid of figures at the highest levels of European politics while at times attempting to conceal the industry's role. An understanding of these proposed strategies can help European health advocates to pass and implement effective future tobacco control legislation.

  12. "Unplugged": A New European School Programme against Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreeft, Peer Van Der; Wiborg, Gudrun; Galanti, Maria Rosaria; Siliquini, Roberta; Bohrn, Karl; Scatigna, Maria; Lindahl, Ann-Marie; Melero, Juan Carlos; Vassara, Maro; Faggiano, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the rationale, development and application of "Unplugged', a new school programme for the prevention of substance abuse, which is based on the comprehensive social influence approach (CSI). The programme was developed, implemented and evaluated by a cross-disciplinary group of experts in the frame of a multi-centre study…

  13. Smoking and occupation from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    McCurdy, S; Sunyer, J; Zock, J; Anto, J; Kogevinas, M; European, C

    2003-01-01

    Background: Smoking is among the most important personal and modifiable risk factors for adverse health outcomes. The workplace offers a potentially effective venue for tobacco prevention programmes; identifying occupational groups with high smoking prevalence may assist in targeting such programmes. Aims: To examine smoking prevalence among occupational groups in the European Union. Methods: The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS), a cross sectional health survey conducted in 1992–93, was used to examine smoking prevalence by occupation among 14 565 subjects from 30 centres in 14 participating countries. Results: There was an approximately twofold range in smoking prevalence by occupation. For occupational groups with at least 50 subjects, the highest smoking prevalence was seen in metal making and treating for men (54.3%) and cleaners for women (50.7%). Increased smoking prevalence by occupation persisted after adjustment for age, country, and age at completion of education. Smoking was also increased among occupations with high exposure to mineral dust and gas or fumes. Conclusions: Smoking rates vary significantly by occupation. Prevention efforts in the workplace should focus on occupations with high smoking prevalence and large employment bases. PMID:12937184

  14. The European Fusion Research and Development Programme and the ITER Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, B. J.

    2006-07-01

    The EURATOM fusion research and development programme is a well integrated and coordinated programme. It has the objective of ''developing the technology for a safe, sustainable, environmentally responsible and economically viable energy source.'' The programme is focussed on the magnetic confinement approach and supports 23 Associations which involve research entities (many with experimental and technology facilities) each having a bilateral contractual relationship with the European Commission. The paper will describe fusion reactions and present their potential advantages as an energy source. Further, it will describe the EURATOM programme and how it is organised and implemented. The success of the European programme and that of other national programmes, have provided the basis for the international ITER Project, which is the next logical step in the development of fusion energy. The paper will describe ITER, its aims, its design, and the supporting manufacture of prototype components. The European contribution to ITER, the exploitation of the Joint European Torus (JET), and the long-term reactor technology R&D are carried out under the multilateral European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA).

  15. Hepatitis B immunisation programmes in European Union, Norway and Iceland: where we were in 2009?

    PubMed

    Mereckiene, Jolita; Cotter, Suzanne; Lopalco, Pierluigi; D'Ancona, Fortunato; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Giambi, Cristina; Johansen, Kari; Dematte, Luca; Salmaso, Stefania; Stefanoff, Pawel; O'Flanagan, Darina

    2010-06-17

    In January 2009 25 European Union (EU) Member States (MSs), Norway and Iceland, participated in a survey seeking information on national hepatitis B vaccination programmes. Details of vaccination policy, schedule, population groups targeted for vaccination, programme funding, vaccine coverage and methods of monitoring of vaccine coverage were obtained. Twenty (74%) countries reported that they have a universal hepatitis B vaccination programme, in addition to immunisation of at risk groups; seven (26%) countries recommend HBV for high risk groups only (with some inter-country variation on groups considered at high risk). Among countries without universal hepatitis B vaccination programmes, the major factor for non-introduction is low disease endemicity.

  16. Multifaceted ergonomic intervention programme for community nurses: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Szeto, Grace Pui Yuk; Law, Ka Yee; Lee, Edwin; Lau, Titanic; Chan, Shuk Ying; Law, Sheung-Wai

    2010-05-01

    This paper is a report of a pilot study conducted to investigate the effect of a tailor-made ergonomic intervention programme for community nurses. The nursing profession is known to be a high risk group for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Community nurses are at risk as they have to travel to patients' homes and work in varied environments daily. Their occupational risk factors are unique and intervention strategies need to be specially designed to address these issues. The study was conducted from August 2007 to September 2008 in Hong Kong with community nurses from three hospitals. The intervention group (n = 14) received a multi-faceted ergonomic intervention programme over an 8-week period, with group training, onsite individual training, equipment modification, exercise programme, typing and computer workstation advice. The control group (n = 12) received no interventions. Both groups had baseline and follow-up assessments, which included musculoskeletal symptoms, perceived risk factors and functional outcome and physical mobility measures. The intervention group showed statistically significantly improved symptom scores and neck and upper limb functional outcomes at postintervention. The control group showed no change in symptom or functional outcomes. A multifaceted intervention programme may be more effective than interventions that mainly focus on ergonomic training and could be considered by community or home care nursing groups in other countries. The programme was based on risk assessment and may be a useful reference for other nursing groups in other countries.

  17. Stakeholders' perceptions of programme sustainability: findings from a community-based fall prevention programme.

    PubMed

    Hanson, H M; Salmoni, A W

    2011-08-01

    Sustainability of health promotion and injury prevention programmes is a goal of practitioners and an increasingly common requirement of funding bodies. However, less is known about the views held by individual stakeholders involved in such programmes regarding their perceptions of facilitators and barriers to achieving sustainability. This paper aims to share the perceptions of programme sustainability held by key stakeholders involved in a community-based fall prevention programme in three Ontario demonstration communities in Canada. A qualitative case study research design. A holistic multiple case study method was employed. In total, 45 stakeholders involved in various aspects of the project participated from three demonstration sites. Stakeholders' perceptions were gathered on the individual actions they took in an effort to promote sustainability, and the barriers they perceived as preventing or limiting sustainability. Stakeholders reported taking a number of actions to aid programme sustainability, with some actions deemed to be more functional in aiding sustainability than others. Common actions reported by stakeholders included partnership formation, networking and increasing community capacity. Stakeholders also perceived a number of barriers to achieving sustainability, including insufficient human and financial resources, lack of co-ordination and buy-in, heavy reliance on volunteers and an inability to mobilize physicians. Stakeholders' perceptions of sustainability were used to develop recommendations for sustainability for both communities and funding bodies. The views and experiences shared by the stakeholders in this project can serve as lessons learnt to aid in the sustainability of other health promotion and injury prevention programmes in the future. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Building up a European astronomical community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courvoisier, T.

    2013-09-01

    Astronomy is arguably the science that brought most economical benefits throughout mankind history. Keeping time allowed for agriculture, navigation and most human activities. Intellectual pursuit came along the way. In the last century our activity has turned almost exclusively towards the physical study of our far environment. From local our pursuit turned global. Our research context has, however, not yet followed that route, most of the efforts are nationally funded. Looking at a world political map, one sees that Europe is in a rather poor position, being fractionated in very small national entities. The EAS works towards overcoming this by building a European astronomical community extending from the Azores to Russia.

  19. Photovoltaic pilot projects in the European community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treble, F. C.; Grassi, G.; Schnell, W.

    The paper presents proposals received for the construction of photovoltaic pilot plants as part of the Commission of the European Communities' second 4-year solar energy R and D program. The proposed plants range from 30 to 300 kWp and cover a variety of applications including rural electrification, water pumping, desalination, dairy farming, factories, hospitals, schools and vacation centers. Fifteen projects will be accepted with a total generating capacity of 1 MWp, with preference given to those projects involving the development of new techniques, components and systems.

  20. Community based nutrition programmes in Niger.

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, J M

    1997-12-01

    This article describes Niger's community-based nutrition program. The program is based on assessment, analysis, and action. The aims are to improve household food security, to increase self-empowerment among villagers, and to improve child care and feeding and access to health services. The program operated in 75 villages with a population of 80,000, of which 17,000 were children aged under 5 years. The program has achieved a measure of success, and lessons have been learned from the experience. Community-based programs are important to program success and survivability. Integrated programs are necessary when conditions become less enabling. People and donors can become fatigued. Integrated programs represent a shelter from financial declines, competition between programs with identical target populations, and duplication of efforts. Coordinated activities allow for acceleration in the achievement of national objectives and more adequate responses to community needs. Coordinated approaches provide a rational use of human and financial resources and create synergy between various programs. Integrated programs can implement broad-based programs. Integrated community-based programs can be set up in stages and expanded throughout the country gradually.

  1. Partnership Working in Community Alcohol Prevention Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastache, Claudia; Mistral, Willm; Velleman, Richard; Templeton, Lorna

    2008-01-01

    The National Alcohol Harm Reduction Strategy for England places much emphasis on creating partnerships at both national and local levels between government, the drinks industry, health services, police, individuals and communities to tackle alcohol misuse and associated harm and disorder. This article describes the characteristic structures and…

  2. Partnership Working in Community Alcohol Prevention Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastache, Claudia; Mistral, Willm; Velleman, Richard; Templeton, Lorna

    2008-01-01

    The National Alcohol Harm Reduction Strategy for England places much emphasis on creating partnerships at both national and local levels between government, the drinks industry, health services, police, individuals and communities to tackle alcohol misuse and associated harm and disorder. This article describes the characteristic structures and…

  3. Community Food and Nutrition Programme, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Tagwireyi, J

    1997-12-01

    This article describes some program achievements and lessons learned from the Community Food and Nutrition Program in Zimbabwe. The program began initially as a community-based feeding program for children in war-ravaged communities and among displaced children. The program received technical and resource support from multisectoral infrastructure at the national, provincial, district, and village levels. The program emphasis shifted from food relief to food production in areas with the potential for high levels of malnutrition. The program included a feeding effort at pre-school day care centers that relied on locally available foods, a communal production effort that provided beans and groundnuts, and nutrition education. Food production diversified over time to include other produce. The nutrition education component examined the nature and extent of nutrition problems in the entire community and applied solutions. Multisectoral training was provided in the extension program. Child growth monitoring and promotion was used to assess the appropriateness of program targets in vulnerable populations. During 1992's drought, the program provided over 1 million children with a daily supplementary meal. Food was distributed through more than 20,000 feeding centers in villages throughout Zimbabwe. This feeding effort significantly reduced hospital admissions for clinical malnutrition and improved the nutritional status of children. The program success led to a demand for an institutional and policy framework that would include agriculture. It was learned that community organizations had the capacity to effectively manage nutrition programs. Flexibility was necessary in addition to clearly defined aims and staff roles. There must be intersectoral training. Targeting was effective when all the data was analyzed. Programs required a long-term commitment from donors and government.

  4. Community Arts for Health: An Evaluation of a District Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an evaluation of a community arts for health programme in the UK involving the delivery of three separate projects targeted at disadvantaged areas. Design/methodology/approach: Evaluation plans were drawn up for each project, which linked long-term goals, objectives, indicators of success and data…

  5. The Revised European Social Fund and Action to Combat Unemployment in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandamme, Francois

    1984-01-01

    The tasks of the European Social Fund, the European Economic Community's social policy instrument, were reviewed in l983 in the light of the worsening unemployment situation and the priority placed on employment and vocational training policies. (Author/SSH)

  6. Thirty years of European biotechnology programmes: from biomolecular engineering to the bioeconomy.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Alfredo; Magnien, Etienne; Thomas, Daniel

    2013-06-25

    This article traces back thirty years of biotechnology research sponsored by the European Union (EU). It outlines the crucial role played by De Nettancourt, Goffeau and Van Hoeck to promote and prepare the first European programme on biotechnology (1982-1986) run by the European Commission. Following this first biotechnology programme, others followed until the current one, part of the seventh Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration (2007-2013) (FP7). Particular attention is given to the statutory role of the European institutions in the design and orientation of the successive biotechnology programmes, compared to the more informal-yet visionary-role of key individuals upstream to any legislative decision. Examples of success stories and of the role of the biotechnology programmes in addressing societal issues and industrial competitiveness are also presented. Finally, an outline of Horizon 2020, the successor of FP7, is described, together with the role of biotechnology in building the bioeconomy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Community Engaged Dental Curriculum: A Rural Indigenous Outplacement Programme.

    PubMed

    Abuzar, Menaka A; Owen, Julie

    2016-04-26

    Indigenous people worldwide suffer from poor oral health as compared to non-Indigenous citizens. One of the approaches to bring about improvement in Indigenous oral health is to enhance the service provision by implementing oral health outplacement programmes. A case study of such a programme for dental students in Australia reports how an educational institution can successfully engage with an Indigenous oral health service to provide learning experiences to the students as well as deliver much needed services to the community. The assessment of this ongoing outplacement programme over the period of 2008-14, based on students' feedback, highlights some of the key beneficial outcomes. Students agreed that the Indigenous outplacement programme improved their understanding of Indigenous issues (mean ± SD: 4.10±0.8; 5 refers to strongly agree on 5-point scale) and increased the possibility that they will practise in Indigenous health (3.66±1.0). They were pleased with the assistance received by clinical supervisors and clinic staff at the Indigenous dental clinic (4.28±0.8). This programme has demonstrated that structured student outplacements are valuable in building relations across cultures especially with Indigenous communities. It has also shown that university engagement with the public health sector can be beneficial to both institutions. Significance for public healthAn oral health outreach programme is one of the suggested approaches to effectively address the endemic issues of poor oral health among Indigenous people around the world. An Indigenous dental clinical outplacement in Australia provides an example of beneficial outcomes of such an approach. It provides dental students with an opportunity to experience the health issues related to Australian Indigenous communities and prepare future graduates to work comfortably in the public health care system. Indigenous people also develop trust and feel comfortable in receiving oral health care services

  8. A Community Engaged Dental Curriculum: A Rural Indigenous Outplacement Programme

    PubMed Central

    Abuzar, Menaka A.; Owen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Background Indigenous people worldwide suffer from poor oral health as compared to non-Indigenous citizens. One of the approaches to bring about improvement in Indigenous oral health is to enhance the service provision by implementing oral health outplacement programmes. A case study of such a programme for dental students in Australia reports how an educational institution can successfully engage with an Indigenous oral health service to provide learning experiences to the students as well as deliver much needed services to the community. Design and Methods The assessment of this ongoing outplacement programme over the period of 2008-14, based on students’ feedback, highlights some of the key beneficial outcomes. Students agreed that the Indigenous outplacement programme improved their understanding of Indigenous issues (mean ± SD: 4.10±0.8; 5 refers to strongly agree on 5-point scale) and increased the possibility that they will practise in Indigenous health (3.66±1.0). They were pleased with the assistance received by clinical supervisors and clinic staff at the Indigenous dental clinic (4.28±0.8). Conclusions This programme has demonstrated that structured student outplacements are valuable in building relations across cultures especially with Indigenous communities. It has also shown that university engagement with the public health sector can be beneficial to both institutions. Significance for public health An oral health outreach programme is one of the suggested approaches to effectively address the endemic issues of poor oral health among Indigenous people around the world. An Indigenous dental clinical outplacement in Australia provides an example of beneficial outcomes of such an approach. It provides dental students with an opportunity to experience the health issues related to Australian Indigenous communities and prepare future graduates to work comfortably in the public health care system. Indigenous people also develop trust and feel

  9. Education: Guide to European Organizations and Programmes. A Guide to European Organizations Involved in Education, including Individual Programmes and Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Heledd

    This report presents a guide to European organizations involved in education, including individual programs and projects. Entries are brief as they are intended as simple outlines of the organizations or programs, but full addresses and telephone numbers are provided. Divided into four categories, the organizations listed are as follows: (1)…

  10. Education: Guide to European Organizations and Programmes. A Guide to European Organizations Involved in Education, including Individual Programmes and Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Heledd

    This report presents a guide to European organizations involved in education, including individual programs and projects. Entries are brief as they are intended as simple outlines of the organizations or programs, but full addresses and telephone numbers are provided. Divided into four categories, the organizations listed are as follows: (1)…

  11. The IDEFICS community-oriented intervention programme: a new model for childhood obesity prevention in Europe?

    PubMed

    De Henauw, S; Verbestel, V; Mårild, S; Barba, G; Bammann, K; Eiben, G; Hebestreit, A; Iacoviello, L; Gallois, K; Konstabel, K; Kovács, E; Lissner, L; Maes, L; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; Reisch, L; Siani, A; Tornaritis, M; Williams, G; Ahrens, W; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Pigeot, I

    2011-04-01

    The European Union-as well as other parts of the world-faces a major challenge of increasing incidence of overweight/obesity. In particular, the increase in childhood obesity gives rise to a strong imperative for immediate action. Yet, little is known about the effectiveness of community interventions, and further research in this field is needed. There is, however, a growing consensus that such research should start from the paradigm that the current living environments tend to counteract healthy lifestyles. Questioning these environments thoroughly can help to develop new pathways for sustainable health-promoting communities. Against this background, the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study developed and implemented innovative community-oriented intervention programmes for obesity prevention and healthy lifestyle primarily in children aged 2-10 years in eight European countries: Sweden, Estonia, Germany, Belgium, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Cyprus. The IDEFICS community-oriented intervention study mobilised an integrated set of interventional efforts at different levels of society, with the aim of facilitating the adoption of a healthy obesity-preventing lifestyle. The overall programme has been composed of 10 modules: three at community level, six at school level and one for parents. The main focus was on diet, physical activity and stress-coping capacity. The sphere of action encompassed both children and their (grand) parents, schools, local public authorities and influential stakeholders in the community. All materials for the interventions were centrally developed and culturally adapted. So far, the following has been achieved: focus group research, literature review and expert consultations were done in an early phase as a basis for the development of the intervention modules. The intervention mapping protocol was followed as guide for structuring the intervention research. The

  12. European Cardiomyopathy Pilot Registry: EURObservational Research Programme of the European Society of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Perry; Charron, Philippe; Blanes, Juan Ramon Gimeno; Tavazzi, Luigi; Tendera, Michal; Konté, Marème; Laroche, Cécile; Maggioni, Aldo P

    2016-01-07

    Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders associated with premature death due to ventricular arrhythmia or heart failure. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of patients enrolled in the pilot phase of the EURObservational Research Programme (EORP) cardiomyopathy registry. Between 1 December 2012 and 30 November 2013, four cardiomyopathy phenotypes were studied: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), and restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM). Twenty-seven centres in 12 countries participated; 1115 patients were enrolled. The commonest cardiomyopathy was HCM (n = 681), followed by DCM (n = 346), ARVC (n = 59), and RCM (n = 29); 423 patients (46.4% of those reported) had familial disease; and 56 (5.0%) had rare disease phenocopies. Median age at enrolment and diagnosis was 54 [interquartile range (IQR), 42-64] and 46 years (IQR, 32-58), respectively; fewer patients with ARVC and more with RCM were diagnosed in the upper age quartile (P < 0.0001). There was a male predominance for all cardiomyopathies except RCM (P = 0.0023). Most patients were in New York Heart Association functional class I (n = 813) at enrolment; 139 (12.5%) reported syncope, most frequently in ARVC (P = 0.0009). Five hundred and seven (45.5%) patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, 117 (10.6%) endomyocardial biopsy, and 462 (41.4%) genetic testing with a causative mutation reported in 236 individuals (51.1%). 1026 patients (92.0%) were receiving drug therapy; 316 (28.3%) had received an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (highest proportion in ARVC, P < 0.0001). This pilot study shows that services for patients with cardiomyopathy are complex, requiring access to a large range of invasive and non-invasive investigations and involvement of multidisciplinary teams. Treatment regimens are equally multifaceted and show that patients are likely to need long-term follow

  13. How Europe Shapes Academic Research: Insights from Participation in European Union Framework Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primeri, Emilia; Reale, Emanuela

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the effects of participating in European Union Framework Programmes (EUFPs) at the level of research units and researchers. We consider EUFPs as policy instruments that contribute to the Europeanisation of academic research and study the changes they produce with respect to: 1) the organisation and activities of Departments,…

  14. Foreign Language Teaching Policies and European Unity: The Dutch National Action Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Els, Theo. J. M.; van Hest, Erna W. C. M.

    1990-01-01

    Describes and reviews the Dutch National Action Programme (NAP) on Foreign Languages, instituted in anticipation of the demands of the 1992 Single European Market. The increasing demand for foreign languages is confirmed, some shortcomings of the current program regarding French and German language learning are identified, and recommendations for…

  15. How Europe Shapes Academic Research: Insights from Participation in European Union Framework Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primeri, Emilia; Reale, Emanuela

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the effects of participating in European Union Framework Programmes (EUFPs) at the level of research units and researchers. We consider EUFPs as policy instruments that contribute to the Europeanisation of academic research and study the changes they produce with respect to: 1) the organisation and activities of Departments,…

  16. Reconciling Energy Use with Environmental Protection in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelrod, Regina S.

    1992-01-01

    Presents the energy and environmental policymaking strategies of the European Community to regulate the consumption of energy. Strategies include the stabilization of carbon dioxide emissions, the creation of the European Environmental Agency, the implementation of the European Energy Charter, the SAVE Program, and economic and fiscal instruments…

  17. Reconciling Energy Use with Environmental Protection in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelrod, Regina S.

    1992-01-01

    Presents the energy and environmental policymaking strategies of the European Community to regulate the consumption of energy. Strategies include the stabilization of carbon dioxide emissions, the creation of the European Environmental Agency, the implementation of the European Energy Charter, the SAVE Program, and economic and fiscal instruments…

  18. Outcomes and impact of community-based rehabilitation programmes in Chinese communities.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eva Y; Packer, Tanya L

    2017-04-01

    To identify the most common and most valued outcomes of community-based rehabilitation (CBR) in Chinese communities and to map these to the CBR evaluation framework. A multiple, embedded case study design was used. Four CBR programmes in China met the criteria for inclusion and participated. Data collection, via participant "story telling", followed the procedures of the most significant change technique (MSC) over a period for five months. Content analysis with thematic coding was used to detect the common significant changes described in "top-rated" stories and in the entire pool of stories. Meta-analysis using the CBR framework was carried out to enrich the understanding of programme outcomes. A total of 101 stories were collected in the two rounds of story collection from the four programmes. Aggregated results demonstrated that, across all programmes, 78.21% of stories focused on changes in people with disabilities, 9.9% described aspects of programme development, 8.91% reported on outcomes related to CBR workers, and only 2.97% were focused on advocacy. When mapped against the elements of the CBR framework the MSCs among these four programmes were (1) psychosocial changes, (2) increased family participation and (3) improved physical functioning. CBR practice in Chinese communities remains orientated towards an approach of functional rehabilitation rather than community-based inclusive development. Implications for rehabilitation Community-based rehabilitation is a strategy for community-based inclusive development. Commonly reported significant outcomes of community-based rehabilitation programmes in China focus on changes in psychosocial and physical status of people with disabilities and family participation. Community-based rehabilitation in China continues to focus on traditional rehabilitation. New efforts and directions are needed to also include goals of equity and community inclusion. Further efforts to promote the use of CBR guideline with the goal

  19. [Fundamental ethical principles in the European framework programmes for research and development].

    PubMed

    Hirsch, François; Karatzas, Isidoros; Zilgalvis, Pēteris

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission is one of the most important international funding bodies for research conducted in Europe and beyond, including developing countries and countries in transition. Through its framework programmes for research and development, the European Union finances a vast array of projects concerning fields affecting the citizens' health, as well as the researchers' mobility, the development of new technologies or the safeguard of the environment. With the agreement of the European Parliament and of the Council of Ministers, the two decisional authorities of the European Union, the 7th framework programmes was started on December 2006. This program has a budget of 54 billion Euros to be distributed over a 7-year period. Therefore, the European Union aims to fully address the challenge as stated by the European Council of Lisbon (of March 2000) which declared the idea of providing 3% of the GDP of all the Member States for the purpose of research and development. One of the important conditions stated by the Members of the European Parliament to allocate this financing is to ensuring that "the funding research activities respect the fundamental ethical principles". In this article, we will approach this aspect of the evaluation.

  20. Barriers Impact U.S. Marketing to the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Leila

    For a quarter of a century, the United States has been gradually losing market share in the European Community, which accounts for about one-fifth of world trade. The European Community consumes about one-fourth of United States exports, but this represents only about eight percent of its total imports. Three of the barriers contributing to…

  1. Coccolithophorid dynamics: The European Emiliania huxleyi programme, EHUX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Roger P.

    1996-10-01

    The achievements of the MAST II funded EHUX project, an interdisciplinary study of the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi are briefly reviewed. A collection of over 300 clones of E. huxleyi has been maintained to support research on coccolithophorid morphology, physiology, molecular genetics, and the life cycle. Laboratory cultures have also been used for investigations of calcification and calcification gene identification. The photobiology of E. huxleyi, interactions between productivity and the environment, and coccolithophorid growth and production have been studied both in the laboratory and in the Northern North Sea, the latter work being guided by remote sensing. Integrated investigations have been made of the synthesis and degradation of lipid biomarkers produced by E. huxleyi, the formation and microbial degradation of aggregates, and zooplankton grazing and mortality. An extensive programme of mesocosm studies has been carried out with special etophasis on the population dynamics of E. huxleyi, the coupling between calcification and nutrient supply, and the role of viruses in population dynamics. Mathematical simulation models of mesocosm bloom dynamics have been developed, first attempts have been made to develop cell biological models of E. huxleyi, and a model which predicts the timing and magnitudes of blooms of E. huxleyi with particular reference to the seasonal succession in the North Atlantic has been developed.

  2. RLV candidates for European Future Launchers Preparatory Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomatis, Carlo; Bouaziz, Laurent; Franck, Thomas; Kauffmann, Jens

    2009-07-01

    ESA's Future Launcher Preparatory Programme (FLPP) includes system activities and technology developments on materials and structures and propulsion. The overall approach is system-driven, i.e. FLPP aims at defining reference launcher concepts from which will be derived a demonstration logic including in-flight experimental vehicles, and technology development requirements. The paper addresses the launcher concepts studies, and more specifically the analysis of Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) concepts that has been performed in the first part of the FLPP program. The paper provides first elements on the mission requirements, the operations and the ground facilities for the RLV concepts selected as potential FLPP candidates. In particular, operations will likely have a heavy impact on the operability and on the launch cost of RLVs; in this sense, most of the paper content is dedicated to discuss specific operation features, and related infrastructure elements, linked to the considered RLVs. At last, a brief presentation of the next steps of the launcher system activities inside the FLPP is given.

  3. Breast cancer in European Union: an update of screening programmes as of March 2014 (review).

    PubMed

    Altobelli, E; Lattanzi, A

    2014-11-01

    Breast cancer, a major cause of female morbidity and mortality, is a global health problem; 2008 data show an incidence of ~450,000 new cases and 140,000 deaths (mean incidence rate 70.7 and mortality rate 16.7, world age-standardized rate per 100,000 women) in European Union Member States. Incidence rates in Western Europe are among the highest in the world. We review the situation of BC screening programmes in European Union. Up to date information on active BC screening programmes was obtained by reviewing the literature and searching national health ministries and cancer service websites. Although BC screening programmes are in place in nearly all European Union countries there are still considerable differences in target population coverage and age and in the techniques deployed. Screening is a mainstay of early BC detection whose main weakness is the rate of participation of the target population. National policies and healthcare planning should aim at maximizing participation in controlled organized screening programmes by identifying and lowering any barriers to adhesion, also with a view to reducing healthcare costs.

  4. Differences and similarities in rheumatology specialty training programmes across European countries.

    PubMed

    Sivera, Francisca; Ramiro, Sofia; Cikes, Nada; Dougados, Maxime; Gossec, Laure; Kvien, Tore K; Lundberg, Ingrid E; Mandl, Peter; Moorthy, Arumugam; Panchal, Sonia; da Silva, José A P; Bijlsma, Johannes W

    2015-06-01

    To analyse the similarities and discrepancies between the official rheumatology specialty training programmes across Europe. A steering committee defined the main aspects of training to be assessed. In 2013, the rheumatology official training programmes were reviewed for each of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) countries and two local physicians independently extracted data on the structure of training, included competencies and assessments performed. Analyses were descriptive. 41 of the 45 EULAR countries currently provide specialist training in rheumatology; in the remaining four rheumatologists are trained abroad. 36 (88%) had a single national curriculum, one country had two national curricula and four had only local or university-specific curricula. The mean length of training programmes in rheumatology was 45 (SD 19) months, ranging between 3 and 72 months. General internal medicine training was mandatory in 40 (98%) countries, and was performed prior to and/or during the rheumatology training programme (mean length: 33 (19) months). 33 (80%) countries had a formal final examination. Most European countries provide training in rheumatology, but the length, structure, contents and assessments of these training programmes are quite heterogeneous. In order to promote excellence in standards of care and to support physicians' mobility, a certain degree of harmonisation should be encouraged. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Updated programme for harmonization of training in nephrology in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Lappin, David W P; Cannata-Andia, Jorge B

    2013-02-01

    In 1996, the first European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) minimum standards programme in nephrology was published. Since then, medical practice in an expanded European Union (EU) has evolved significantly. These changes have prompted the UEMS Nephrology Section to update and review the programme on harmonization of nephrology training in the EU. Although directives of the EU indicate that a specialist from one EU member state must be recognized in all EU member states, the current practical implications of these directives are limited due to the important existing differences in the EU member states' training programmes. Although not exhaustive, the present document aims to profile a minimum common framework of nephrology training in the EU for both trainers and higher-specialty trainees. The nephrology programme addresses several topics, among them enrolment requirements, duration and organization of the training and a detailed description of the knowledge, competences, practical skills and attitudes necessary to become a specialist in nephrology. Whilst the development of a standard, pan-EU nephrology training programme is not realistic, the UEMS Nephrology section believes that this does not diminish the need for improving harmonization of training in the EU.

  6. Solar collector testing in the European community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillett, W. B.; Moon, J. E.; Aranovitch, E.

    Recent work by the Commission of the European Communities Solar Collector Testing Group at the Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy, is reviewed. Five test methods for liquid-heating collectors are described. Data scatter in the results of round-robin outdoor thermal-performance tests (performed at each Group-member laboratory) is analyzed in terms of environmental effects not accounted for in the linear performance model, calibration and precision differences, and real differences due to manufacturing variations. Comparative data on solar-irradiance-pyranometer calibration is presented. Solar-simulator test devices are reported to provide reproducible measurements which accord with outdoor results. Preliminary findings of studies of collector durability, including inspection reports, natural aging observations, development of qualification criteria (high-temperature stagnation, rain/wind penetration, absorber internal pressure, and external thermal shock), and round-robin solar-absorptance and thermal-emittance measurements, are presented. Future work will be directed to the testing of air collectors, installed domestic hot-water systems, and high-perormance evacuated-tube collectors.

  7. A framework for evaluating community-based rehabilitation programmes in Chinese communities.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eva Yin-Han; Packer, Tanya L; Yau, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to develop an evaluation framework that could effectively describe the quality of community-based rehabilitation (CBR) practice in Chinese communities. This study adopted a case study approach to build and validate a CBR evaluation framework. Core elements of CBR programmes were defined from the literature to form an Initial Framework. Domains and elements of the Initial Framework were then verified with examples of CBR programmes cited in published articles. The revised framework was then further tested for relevance and appropriateness in the real life context through testing in five Chinese CBR programmes. A final framework for evaluating CBR programmes was developed. It consists of 5 domains, 25 categorised core elements and 72 indicators. A comprehensive CBR evaluation framework was built and initially verified with domains, elements and indicators, and is ready for use in Chinese CBR settings.

  8. Lived experiences of a community regarding its involvement in a university community-based education programme.

    PubMed

    Linda, Ntombizodwa S B; Mtshali, Ntombifikile G; Engelbrecht, Charlotte

    2013-05-24

    Community involvement is one of the crucial principles in the implementation of successful community-based education programmes. However, a gap continues to exist between the rhetoric of this principle and the reality of involving or engaging communities in the education of health professionals. This study investigated the experiences of a community regarding its involvement in a community-based education programme offered by a university nursing school in Durban, South Africa. An interpretive existentialist-phenomenological design was employed for its richness in extracting human experiences. Individual interviews were held with school teachers and coordinators from non-government organisations, whilst focus groups were used for school children and community health workers. Although focus group discussions are not well suited for phenomenological studies, they can promote active participation and reduce possible intimidation by providing support through group interaction. Analysis of data was guided by Schweitzer's model for analysing phenomenological data. Themes that emerged from the data include: (1) Community experience of unmet expectations; (2) Benefits to the community from its involvement in the University Nursing School community-based education programme; (3) Existing partnership between the community and the university; (4) Sharing in the case-based learning activities; (5) Awareness of available services, human rights and self-reliance. The researched community indeed benefited in its participation in the University Nursing School (UNS) CBE programme. However, there is a need to improve the communication between partners to make the partnership more sustainable through close relationships and interaction. There is also a need for further research on related aspects of the community's involvement.

  9. Transeuropean Networks for Education and Training: Towards Systems and Services for Effective Educational Networking in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Azevedo, R. Charters

    This paper takes the position that the completion of the Internal Market Programme of the European Community will require free movement of persons, goods, capital, and services, which, in turn, will require a service infrastructure that enables fast and reliable flows between the Member States. The paper begins by explaining the rationale and…

  10. Technology-Enhanced Physics Programme for Community-Based Science Learning: Innovative Design and Programme Evaluation in a Theme Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tho, Siew Wei; Chan, Ka Wing; Yeung, Yau Yuen

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new physics education programme is specifically developed for a famous theme park in Hong Kong to provide community-based science learning to her visitors, involving her three newly constructed rides. We make innovative use of digital technologies in this programme and incorporate a rigorous evaluation of the learning…

  11. Technology-Enhanced Physics Programme for Community-Based Science Learning: Innovative Design and Programme Evaluation in a Theme Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tho, Siew Wei; Chan, Ka Wing; Yeung, Yau Yuen

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new physics education programme is specifically developed for a famous theme park in Hong Kong to provide community-based science learning to her visitors, involving her three newly constructed rides. We make innovative use of digital technologies in this programme and incorporate a rigorous evaluation of the learning…

  12. European MEDIA Programme: the role of 'language' and 'visual images' in the processes of constructing European culture and identity.

    PubMed

    Bozić-Vrbancić, Senka; Vrbancić, Mario; Orlić, Olga

    2008-12-01

    fields from economic, social and political issues, on the contrary "culture" and "identity" are constructed through social, economic and political relations. Issues of "language" and "images" are central to both of them. By questioning the role that "language" and "visual images play in the construction of European identity and culture, we are considering "language" as well as "visual images" not just as representations, but also as forms of social action. In addition to that, inspired by discourse theory (Laclau 1985, 1994, 2007) and psychoanalysis (Zizek 1989, 1993, 1994; Stavrakakis 1999, 2005, 2007) we explore the libidinal dimension of identification processes. We focus on the European MEDIA Programme in order to analyse how different languages and images are being used to create a sense of "European unity in diversity". Along with Stavrakakis we argue that due to the lack of libidinal investment into discourses of Europeanness, Europe is failing to create a strong supranational identity. However we also show that there have been recent attempts by European policy makers to try and fill this gap through various projects which focus entirely on emotions; which appears to reinforce new possibilities of identification with Europe.

  13. [The ethics review process in the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission].

    PubMed

    Pérez Blanco, V; Hirsch, F; González Pantaleón, P; Kritikos, M; Karatzas, I

    2010-01-01

    The Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission (EC) is one of the most important instruments for public funding of research and technological development. Besides the scientific assessment of each proposal, the ethical issues raised in them are evaluated in accordance with the current European legislation and the ethical principles laid down in the international declarations supported by Member States. Such ethical review is organized by the "Governance and Ethics" Unit (Directorate-General for Research), although it is done by professionals from different sectors and backgrounds who register themselves voluntary in a database.

  14. Teaching nanoscience across scientific and geographical borders A European Master programme in nanoscience and nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesneau, A.; Groeseneken, G.; Heremans, P.; Rep, D.; Rudquist, P.; Schwille, P.; Sluijter, B.; Wendin, G.

    2008-03-01

    Within the Erasmus Mundus Master (EMM) Programme, five European Universities (KU Leuven, Belgium, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, Delft University of Technology and Leiden University, the Netherlands, and the University of Dresden, Germany) have joined forces to offer a unique master programme in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 'EMM-nano', at the cutting edge of state-of-the-art research. The students design and build their individual area of specialisation within nanophysics, nanotechnology, biophysics, biotechnology through their choice of trajectory between the partners. We discuss some of the challenges related to the crossdisciplinary nature of the field, educational activities in cleanrooms, and issues related to the integration of teaching programmes across the borders within Europe.

  15. Cooperation and Community: The European Community--A Community of Nations. A Curriculum Unit Recommended for Grades 6-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbeck, Reinhold

    This resource packet introduces students to the notion of community within a European context. Students examine the European Community as a community of independent countries and will become aware of some of the key characteristics of a community. The eight activities focus on developing multiple perspectives through the analysis of European…

  16. Community-based livestock breeding programmes: essentials and examples.

    PubMed

    Mueller, J P; Rischkowsky, B; Haile, A; Philipsson, J; Mwai, O; Besbes, B; Valle Zárate, A; Tibbo, M; Mirkena, T; Duguma, G; Sölkner, J; Wurzinger, M

    2015-04-01

    Breeding programmes described as community-based (CBBP) typically relate to low-input systems with farmers having a common interest to improve and share their genetic resources. CBBPs are more frequent with keepers of small ruminants, in particular smallholders of local breeds, than with cattle, pigs or chickens with which farmers may have easier access to alternative programmes. Constraints that limit the adoption of conventional breeding technologies in low-input systems cover a range of organizational and technical aspects. The analysis of 8 CBBPs located in countries of Latin-America, Africa and Asia highlights the importance of bottom-up approaches and involvement of local institutions in the planning and implementation stages. The analysis also reveals a high dependence of these programmes on organizational, technical and financial support. Completely self-sustained CBBPs seem to be difficult to realize. There is a need to implement and document formal socio-economic evaluations of CBBPs to provide governments and other development agencies with the information necessary for creating sustainable CBBPs at larger scales.

  17. Older Workers in the European Community, Japan, and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Elizabeth; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Older Workers in the European Community: Pervasive Discrimination, Little Awareness" (Drury); "Aging Workers in Japan: From Reverence to Redundance" (Takada); and "Canada's Labor Market: Older Workers Need Not Apply" (David). (JOW)

  18. Information Policy in the European Community: Balancing Protection and Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillince, J. A. A.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses European Community policy relating to information technology and the information industry. Topics addressed include the information services industry; transborder information flow, including electronic mail, data owner responsibility, and software piracy; digital data networks; electronic data interchange; telecommunications; information…

  19. Information Policy in the European Community: Balancing Protection and Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillince, J. A. A.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses European Community policy relating to information technology and the information industry. Topics addressed include the information services industry; transborder information flow, including electronic mail, data owner responsibility, and software piracy; digital data networks; electronic data interchange; telecommunications; information…

  20. Community Capacity Development in Universities: Empowering Communities through Education Management Programmes in Strathmore University (A Pilot Study)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitawi, Alfred Kirigha

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the issue of community capacity development in a university. The main way communities were empowered was through the education management programmes offered at Strathmore University in Nairobi, Kenya. The research is among the first to examine the issue of community capacity development through university programmes. The…

  1. Home- or community-based programmes for treating malaria.

    PubMed

    Okwundu, Charles I; Nagpal, Sukrti; Musekiwa, Alfred; Sinclair, David

    2013-05-31

    Malaria is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, in particular among children and pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. Prompt access to diagnosis and treatment with effective antimalarial drugs is a central component of the World Health Organization's (WHO) strategy for malaria control. Home- or community-based programmes for managing malaria are one strategy that has been proposed to overcome the geographical barrier to malaria treatment.  To evaluate home- and community-based management strategies for treating malaria. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials published in The Cochrane Library; MEDLINE; EMBASE; Science Citation Index; PsycINFO/LIT; CINAHL; WHO clinical trial registry platform; and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials up to September 2012. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs that evaluated the effects of a home- or community-based programme for treating malaria in a malaria endemic setting. Two authors independently screened and selected studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. Where possible the effects of interventions are compared using risk ratios (RR), and presented with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. We identified 10 trials that met the inclusion criteria. The interventions involved brief training of basic-level health workers or mothers, and most provided the antimalarial for free or at a highly subsidized cost. In eight of the studies, fevers were treated presumptively without parasitological confirmation with microscopy or a rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Two studies trained community health workers to use RDTs as a component of community management of fever.Home- or community-based strategies probably increase the number of people with fever who receive an appropriate antimalarial within 24 hours (RR 2.27, 95% CI 1.79 to 2.88 in one trial; RR 9.79, 95% CI 6.87 to 13.95 in a second trial; 3099 participants

  2. Evaluation of a community intervention programme for preschool behaviour problems.

    PubMed

    Elliot, J; Prior, M; Merrigan, C; Ballinger, K

    2002-02-01

    To evaluate an early intervention project focused on improving child prereading skills and parent behaviour-management skills, for 4-year-old children in the western suburbs of Melbourne (Victoria, Australia). Following screening of a large sample of preschoolers, four groups were constructed: (i) children receiving a phonological skills-based prereading package in their normal preschool programme; (ii) children whose parents attended six sessions of child behaviour management skill training; (iii) children who received both interventions; and (iv) a control group. Pre-, post-, 1 and 2 year follow-up measures were taken to assess effects on child behavioural and learning adjustment. This community based intervention resulted in positive effects, despite being of low intensity, in achieving significantly less hyperactive/distractable behaviour in children from the combined intervention group at 2 years postintervention. Anxiety problems were also reduced at the post-treatment phase. The prereading package did not demonstrate any effects on reading skills and was deemed to be insufficiently intensive to affect a population of disadvantaged preschoolers. This universal-type of intervention was well accepted by the community, but there is need for further effort to increase recruitment of families of at-risk children into such programmes.

  3. Medical ethics in the European Community.

    PubMed Central

    Riis, P

    1993-01-01

    Increasing European co-operation must take place in many areas, including medical ethics. Against the background of common cultural norms and pluralistic variation within political traditions, religion and lifestyles, Europe will have to converge towards unity within the field of medical ethics. This article examines how such convergence might develop with respect to four major areas: European research ethics committees, democratic health systems, the human genome project and rules for stopping futile treatments. PMID:8459444

  4. The role of SEA in integrating and balancing high policy objectives in European cohesion funding programmes

    SciTech Connect

    Jiricka, Alexandra Proebstl, Ulrike

    2013-01-15

    Funding programmes for European cohesion policy are a crucial tool to support the sustainability goals of the European Union and national policies of its member states. All these funding programmes require a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) to enhance sustainable development. This article compares five first SEA applications at cohesion policy level to discuss challenges, limitations and benefits of this instrument. In order to support the SEA-process a 'Handbook on SEA for Cohesion Policy 2007-13' (GRDP 2006) was developed. The paper examines the special requirements and challenges at the programme level given the special conditions for stakeholder involvement, integration of SEA in the programme development process and strategies to cope with uncertainties to ensure real compatibility with policy goals. Using action research and in-depth interviews with SEA planners and programme managers enabled us to analyse the suitability of the methodology proposed by the handbook. The results show that some recommendations of the handbook should be changed in order to increase the transparency and to enhance the standard and comparability of the SEA-documents. Overall the SEA proved to be a rather successful tool for the integration of sustainability goals at the EU and national policy levels. Its particular strengths emerged as the process makes uncertainties visible and leads to possible redefinitions while maintaining actual policy goals. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparing five case studies of first applications of SEA at cohesion policy level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overall the SEA proved to be a rather successful tool for the integration of sustainability goals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study makes uncertainties visible and shows how SEA could lead to possible redefinitions.

  5. Development and validation of potential structure indicators for evaluating antimicrobial stewardship programmes in European hospitals.

    PubMed

    Buyle, F M; Metz-Gercek, S; Mechtler, R; Kern, W V; Robays, H; Vogelaers, D; Struelens, M J

    2013-09-01

    This study describes the development of structure indicators for hospital antimicrobial stewardship programmes and pilot validation across European hospitals. A multi-disciplinary panel from four European countries developed structure indicators in three steps: identification and listing of indicators, remote ranking of indicators using multi-criteria scoring, selection of indicators in a face-to-face consensus meeting. Additionally, the top-ten indicators were identified as a minimal set of key indicators. A survey was sent to the directors of antimicrobial stewardship programmes in European hospitals. The yes/no answers for the indicators were transformed into numbers in order to calculate the total scores. A list of 58 indicators was selected and categorised into the following topics: antimicrobial stewardship services (12 items), tools (16 items), human resources and mandate (6 items), health care personnel development (4 items), basic diagnostic capabilities (6 items), microbiological rapid tests (2 items), evaluation of microbiological drug resistance data (3 items), antibiotic consumption control (5 items) and drug use monitoring (4 items). The indicator scores, reported by 11 pilot hospitals from five European countries, ranged from 32 to 50 (maximum score = 58) and from 5 to 10 points (maximum score = 10) for, respectively, the complete and the top-ten list. An international panel selected 58 potential structure indicators, among which was a minimal set of ten key structure indicators, that could be useful for assessment of the comprehensiveness and resource-intensity of antimicrobial stewardship programmes. There was significant heterogeneity among participating centres with regard to their score for structural components of effective antimicrobial stewardship.

  6. The International Proteomics Tutorial Programme (IPTP): a teaching tool box for the proteomics community.

    PubMed

    James, Peter

    2011-09-01

    The most critical functions of the various proteomics organisations are the training of young scientists and the dissemination of information to the general scientific community. The education committees of the Human Proteome Organisation (HUPO) and the European Proteomics Association (EuPA) together with their national counterparts are therefore launching the International Proteomics Tutorial Programme to meet these needs. The programme is being led by Peter James (Sweden), Thierry Rabilloud (France) and Kazuyuki Nakamura (Japan). It involves collaboration between the leading proteomics journals: Journal of Proteome Research, Journal of Proteomics, Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, and Proteomics. The overall level is aimed at Masters/PhD level students who are starting out their research and who would benefit from a solid grounding in the techniques used in modern protein-based research. The tutorial program will cover core techniques and basics as an introduction to scientists new to the field. At a later stage the programme may be expanded with a series of more advanced topics focussing on the application of proteomics techniques to biological problem solving. The entire series of articles and slides will be made freely available for teaching use at the Journals and Organisations homepages and at a special website, www.proteomicstutorials.org.

  7. Variation in Community Intervention Programmes and Consequences for Children and Families: The Example of Sure Start Local Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melhuish, Edward; Belsky, Jay; Anning, Angela; Ball, Mog; Barnes, Jacqueline; Romaniuk, Helena; Leyland, Alastair

    2007-01-01

    Background: An area-based initiative, Sure Start Local Programmes (SSLPs), was established by the UK government to reduce social exclusion through improving the well-being of children aged 0-3 years and their families in disadvantaged communities; a true community intervention in that all children under four and their families in specified areas…

  8. Technology-Enhanced Physics Programme for Community-Based Science Learning: Innovative Design and Programme Evaluation in a Theme Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tho, Siew Wei; Chan, Ka Wing; Yeung, Yau Yuen

    2015-10-01

    In this study, a new physics education programme is specifically developed for a famous theme park in Hong Kong to provide community-based science learning to her visitors, involving her three newly constructed rides. We make innovative use of digital technologies in this programme and incorporate a rigorous evaluation of the learning effectiveness of the programme. A total of around 200 students from nine local secondary schools participated in both the physics programme and its subsequent evaluation which consists of a combination of research and assessment tools, including pre- and post-multiple-choice tests, a questionnaire survey and an interview as specifically developed for this programme, or adopted from some well-accepted research instruments. Based on the evaluation of students' academic performance, there are two educationally significant findings on enhancing the students' physics learning: (a) traditionally large gender differences in physics performance and interest of learning are mostly eliminated; and (b) a less-exciting ride called the aviator (instead of the most exciting roller-coaster ride) can induce the largest learning effect (or gain in academic performance) amongst teenagers. Besides, findings from the questionnaire survey and interviews of participants are reported to reveal their views, perceptions, positive and negative comments or feedback on this programme which could provide valuable insights for future development of other similar community-based programmes.

  9. European Community Projects on Surface Electromyography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    surface EMG and provided insight in muscular disorders in computer users. Neuromuscular assessment in the Elderly Worker (NEW, 2001-2004) will apply...sport and geriatric medicine. Keywords - electromyography, surface EMG, fine wire EMG, needle EMG, muscles, European Union I. INTRODUCTION...Pullman et al. [3] are “SEMG is considered unacceptable as a clinical t ool i n the diagnosis of neuromuscular disease at t his time.” a nd “SEMG

  10. Dublin Institute of Technology's Programme for Students Learning with Communities: A Critical Account of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Elena; Bates, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on the process of critically evaluating Dublin Institute of Technology's Programme for Students Learning With Communities after its first year of operation. The programme supports and promotes community-based learning/service-learning across DIT. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is presented in the form of a…

  11. Community-based preparedness programmes and the 2009 Australian bushfires: policy implications derived from applying theory.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, Colin; Gibbs, Lisa; Clark, Rachel

    2014-04-01

    The Victorian Country Fire Authority in Australia runs the Community Fireguard (CFG) programme to assist individuals and communities in preparing for fire. The objective of this qualitative research was to understand the impact of CFG groups on their members' fire preparedness and response during the 2009 Australian bushfires. Social connectedness emerged as a strong theme, leading to an analysis of data using social capital theory. The main strength of the CFG programme was that it was driven by innovative community members; however, concerns arose regarding the extent to which the programme covered all vulnerable areas, which led the research team to explore the theory of diffusion of innovation. The article concludes by stepping back from the evaluation and using both applied theories to reflect on broad options for community fire preparedness programmes in general. The exercise produced two contrasting options for principles underlying community fire preparedness programmes.

  12. A prospective study to evaluate a new residential community reintegration programme for severe chronic brain injury: the Brain Integration Programme.

    PubMed

    Geurtsen, G J; Martina, J D; Van Heugten, C M; Geurts, A C H

    2008-07-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a residential community reintegration programme for participants with chronic sequelae of severe acquired brain injury that hamper community functioning. Prospective cohort study. Twenty-four participants with acquired brain injury (traumatic n = 18; stroke n = 3, tumour n = 2, encephalitis n = 1). Participants had impaired illness awareness, alcohol and drug problems and/or behavioural problems. A skills-oriented programme with modules related to independent living, work, social and emotional well-being. The Community Integration Questionnaire, CES-Depression, EuroQOL, Employability Rating Scale, living situation and work status were scored at the start (T0), end of treatment (T1) and 1-year follow-up (T2). Significant effects on the majority of outcome measures were present at T1. Employability significantly improved at T2 and living independently rose from 42% to over 70%. Participants working increased from 38% to 58% and the hours of work per week increased from 8 to 15. The Brain Integration Programme led to a sustained reduction in experienced problems and improved community integration. It is concluded that even participants with complex problems due to severe brain injury who got stuck in life could improve their social participation and emotional well-being through a residential community reintegration programme.

  13. A Water Quality Monitoring Programme for Schools and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellerberg, Ian; Ward, Jonet; Smith, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    A water quality monitoring programme for schools is described. The purpose of the programme is to introduce school children to the concept of reporting on the "state of the environment" by raising the awareness of water quality issues and providing skills to monitor water quality. The programme is assessed and its relevance in the…

  14. A Water Quality Monitoring Programme for Schools and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellerberg, Ian; Ward, Jonet; Smith, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    A water quality monitoring programme for schools is described. The purpose of the programme is to introduce school children to the concept of reporting on the "state of the environment" by raising the awareness of water quality issues and providing skills to monitor water quality. The programme is assessed and its relevance in the…

  15. Good on paper: the gap between programme theory and real-world context in Pakistan's Community Midwife programme

    PubMed Central

    Mumtaz, Z; Levay, A; Bhatti, A; Salway, S

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand why skilled birth attendance—an acknowledged strategy for reducing maternal deaths—has been effective in some settings but is failing in Pakistan and to demonstrate the value of a theory-driven approach to evaluating implementation of maternal healthcare interventions. Design Implementation research was conducted using an institutional ethnographic approach. Setting and population National programme and local community levels in Pakistan. Methods Observations, focus group discussions, and in-depth interviews were conducted with 38 Community Midwives (CMWs), 20 policymakers, 45 healthcare providers and 136 community members. A critical policy document review was conducted. National and local level data were brought together. Main outcomes Alignment of programme theory with real-world practice. Results Data revealed gaps between programme theory, assumptions and reality on the ground. The design of the programme failed to take into account: (1) the incongruity between the role of a midwife and dominant class and gendered norms that devalue such a role; (2) market and consumer behaviour that prevented CMWs from establishing private practices; (3) the complexity of public–private sector cooperation. Uniform deployment policies failed to consider existing provider density and geography. Conclusions Greater attention to programme theory and the ‘real-world’ setting during design of maternal health strategies is needed to achieve consistent results in different contexts. PMID:25315837

  16. Good on paper: the gap between programme theory and real-world context in Pakistan's Community Midwife programme.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Z; Levay, A; Bhatti, A; Salway, S

    2015-01-01

    To understand why skilled birth attendance-an acknowledged strategy for reducing maternal deaths-has been effective in some settings but is failing in Pakistan and to demonstrate the value of a theory-driven approach to evaluating implementation of maternal healthcare interventions. Implementation research was conducted using an institutional ethnographic approach. National programme and local community levels in Pakistan. Observations, focus group discussions, and in-depth interviews were conducted with 38 Community Midwives (CMWs), 20 policymakers, 45 healthcare providers and 136 community members. A critical policy document review was conducted. National and local level data were brought together. Alignment of programme theory with real-world practice. Data revealed gaps between programme theory, assumptions and reality on the ground. The design of the programme failed to take into account: (1) the incongruity between the role of a midwife and dominant class and gendered norms that devalue such a role; (2) market and consumer behaviour that prevented CMWs from establishing private practices; (3) the complexity of public-private sector cooperation. Uniform deployment policies failed to consider existing provider density and geography. Greater attention to programme theory and the 'real-world' setting during design of maternal health strategies is needed to achieve consistent results in different contexts. © 2014 The Authors. BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  17. The long-term effectiveness of the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) implemented as a community-wide parenting programme

    PubMed Central

    Skar, Ane-Marthe Solheim; von Tetzchner, Stephen; Clucas, Claudine; Sherr, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Short-term effectiveness of the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) for parents in the general population has been studied. The aim of this paper was to investigate the longer term impact of the ICDP programme on parents looking for sustained changes 6–12 months after the programme. For this, a non-clinical caregiver group attending the ICDP programme (N = 79) and a non-attending comparison group (N = 62) completed questionnaires on parenting, psychosocial functioning, and child difficulties before, on completion and 6–12 months after the ICDP programme. Analyses compare changes in scores over time. The results revealed that the ICDP group showed significantly improved scores on parenting measures, less loneliness, and trends towards improved self-efficacy compared to the comparison group 6–12 months after programme completion. The ICDP group also reported that their children spent significantly less time on television and computer games and a trend towards fewer child difficulties. Key positive effects sustained over time but at a somewhat lower level, supporting community-wide implementation of ICDP as a general parenting programme. It is concluded that more intensive training with follow-up sessions should be considered to sustain and boost initial gains. PMID:25431603

  18. Social acceptability and perceived impact of a community-led cash transfer programme in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cash transfer programmes are increasingly recognised as promising and scalable interventions that can promote the health and development of children. However, concerns have been raised about the potential for cash transfers to contribute to social division, jealousy and conflict at a community level. Against this background, and in our interest to promote community participation in cash transfer programmes, we examine local perceptions of a community-led cash transfer programme in Eastern Zimbabwe. Methods We collected and analysed data from 35 individual interviews and three focus group discussions, involving 24 key informants (community committee members and programme implementers), 24 cash transfer beneficiaries, of which four were youth, and 14 non-beneficiaries. Transcripts were subjected to thematic analysis and coding to generate concepts. Results Study participants described the programme as participatory, fair and transparent – reducing the likelihood of jealousy. The programme was perceived to have had a substantial impact on children’s health and education, primarily through aiding parents and guardians to better cater for their children’s needs. Moreover, participants alluded to the potential of the programme to facilitate more transformational change, for example by enabling families to invest money in assets and income generating activities and by promoting a community-wide sense of responsibility for the support of orphaned and vulnerable children. Conclusion Community participation, combined with the perceived impact of the cash transfer programme, led community members to speak enthusiastically about the programme. We conclude that community-led cash transfer programmes have the potential to open up for possibilities of participation and community agency that enable social acceptability and limit social divisiveness. PMID:23587136

  19. Community-based dementia day programmes: Common elements and outcome measures.

    PubMed

    Weir, Annie; Fouche, Christa

    2017-04-01

    Dementia Day programmes are considered important in supporting the well-being of both people living with dementia and their caregivers. There is, however, limited evidence on the effectiveness of these programmes. This article reports on a study undertaken in New Zealand on the effectiveness of community-based dementia day programmes. The small-scale pilot study was aimed at investigating the elements that make up an effective client-focused dementia day programme and the methods employed by organisations to measure the outcomes of these programmes. A mixed methods approach was employed with multiple stakeholders. The research revealed that effective day programmes comprised five core elements, and that surveys, reporting and auditing processes are routinely used to measure the quality of outcomes of day programmes. Although these findings are reflective of a specific context, it raises concerns about the nature and availability of evidence informing decisions regarding the design and implementation of day programmes internationally.

  20. Education of Migrant Workers' Children in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Luxembourg).

    More than two million migrant children within the European community are under the age of 18, and because most are of school age, they must face the problem of fitting into different school systems. Among the obstacles are language barriers, strange environments, cultural differences, differences in school curricula, and home backgrounds in which…

  1. The Recognition of Diplomas in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrighi, Pascal

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes the content and implementation of agreements between member countries of the European Economic Community which are supposed to encourage college student mobility through international educational exchange programs. Admissions policies for foreign students and language difficulties are barriers to student mobility. (AM)

  2. Requirements for Entry to Higher Education in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EURYDICE European Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    This report provides information about student mobility within the European Community, and how it is linked to the requirements for entry to higher education. The report is divided into two sections. The first is a brief discussion of the six specific factors studied: (1) entry requirement qualifications and examinations; (2) entry requirement…

  3. The pollution control policy of the European communities. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    This title provides an analysis of the European Communities' official environmental protection policies. Contents: 1. Objectives, Principles, General Description of Environmental Program; 2. Water; 3. Air; 4. Waste; 5. Chemicals in the Environment; 6. Noise; 7. Economic Aspects of Pollution Control; 8. Research; 9. Preventative Action; 10. Implementation of Directives; 11. International Action. Annexes.

  4. Lessons from community participation in health programmes: a review of the post Alma-Ata experience.

    PubMed

    Rifkin, Susan B

    2009-09-01

    The year 2008 marked the 30 year anniversary of Primary Health Care, the health policy of all member nations of the WHO. Community participation was one of the key principles of this policy. This article reviews the experiences of and lessons learned by policy makers, planners and programme managers in attempting to integrate community participation into their health programmes. The lessons, identified in an earlier article by the author, are still relevant today. They help to identify three reasons why integrating community participation into health programmes is so difficult. These reasons are: (1) the dominance of the bio-medical paradigm as the main planning tool for programmes, leading to the view of community participation as an intervention; (2) the lack of in-depth analysis of the perceptions of community members regarding the use of community health workers; and (3) the propensity to use a framework that limits investigation into what works, why and how in community participation in health programmes. Despite these challenges, evidence suggests that community participation has contributed to health improvements at the local level, particularly in poor communities, and will continue to be relevant to programme professionals.

  5. European Vocational Education Systems. A Guide to Vocational Education and Training in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Helen

    This book describes the 12 vocational education systems conducted by the members of the European Community. The 12 country chapters (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom) follow the same model and are organized into the following six sections: key facts,…

  6. PRM programmes of care and PRM care pathways: European approach, developments in France.

    PubMed

    de Korvin, Georges; Yelnik, Alain P; Ribinik, Patricia; Calmels, Paul; Le Moine, Francis; Delarque, Alain

    2013-03-01

    The development of European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) physical and rehabilitation medicine programmes of care (PRMPC) and physical and rehabilitation medicine care pathways (PRMCP) in France is a good example of the positive interaction between European and national organizations. PRMPC were defined at the European level to offer a robust template for the description and assessment of physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) clinical activity in various fields and contexts. An accreditation procedure was organized as a peer review. It has started to provide very informative documents. In France, discussions on this topic began in 2000. At the end of the same decade, the European approach fostered the interest of French PRM organizations in a period of negotiating with public authorities about two crucial issues: specifications required for reimbursement of functional instrumental assessments in PRM practice and funding of PRM care in postacute facilities. The French Society of PRM (SOFMER) decided to describe the PRM scope in a systematic way, emphasizing the best balance between patient needs, rehabilitation goals, relevant means and justified funding. Nine 'PRMCP' have been published since 2010 and others are in progress. PRMPC and PRMCP share the same concern about the best response offered by PRM to patients' needs. The first approach is the description of a local organization with respect to both scientific evidence and local conditions. The latter is an outline of PRM intervention related to a multidimensional pattern of patients' situations. Both enhance the role of PRM doctors, whose expertise is necessary for making a synthesis of medical diagnosis and functional assessment, for setting up a patient-centred care strategy and for supervising the rehabilitation team's intervention.

  7. Transboundary effects on health care services in the European Community.

    PubMed

    du Pré, F M

    1993-01-01

    This article deals with the rights that community law gives to the medical and allied professions to exercise their professional activities in a member state other than their state of origin. Firstly, the scope of the general economic provisions of the European Community (EC) Treaty is broadly described. Secondly, the specific rules of the EC secondary legislation concerning the harmonization of the national legislations on professional qualifications in the health care sector are reviewed. Lastly, an example is given of the application of these rules in the health care sector by the Court of Justice of the European Community. It is submitted that the exercise of these rights can contribute to transboundary cooperation within the EC in the rendering of health care services to patients in the member states. This is specially relevant in frontier areas.

  8. Development of a fidelity measure for community integration programmes for people with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Parvaneh, Shahriar; Cocks, Errol; Buchanan, Angus; Ghahari, Setareh

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes development of the Assessment of Community Integration Programme Attributes (ACIPA) measure based on a descriptive community integration framework. The purpose of this measure is to allow evaluation of community integration programmes for adults with acquired brain injury (ABI). The Community Integration Framework (CIF) was used to design a fidelity evaluation measure through consultation with 37 participants from five stakeholder groups (practitioners, researchers, policy-makers, people with ABI and family members of people with ABI) using semi-structured interviews, focus groups, iterative surveys and a multi-attribute utility (MAU) method. The resultant measure included seven themes and 21 attributes. Each attribute included indicators and probing questions. Weights were assigned to each theme and constituent attributes. Programme evaluation commonly focuses on outcomes, often overlooking analysis of programme processes. Although it requires further psychometric (reliability and validity) development, the Assessment of Community Integration Programme Attributes may be used to assess the relationship between programme processes and specific outcomes and also to inform the development of programmes aiming to enhance community integration for adults with ABI.

  9. COPERNICUS - The European Union Earth Observation Programme - State of play and way ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Astrid-Christina

    2015-04-01

    Copernicus is the new name of the European Earth Observation Programme, GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security). Copernicus or rather its predecessor was established as an EU programme. It covers all the activities for ensuring an uninterrupted provision of accurate and reliable data and information on environmental issues and security matters to users in charge of policy making, implementation and monitoring, in the EU and its Member States. Copernicus aims at providing Europe with a continuous, independent and reliable access to observation data and information. The EU investment aims at filling the observation gaps, providing access to existing assets and developing operational services. The data policy of the Copernicus programme supports an open, full and free of charge data access that is in line with the data sharing principles of the Group for Earth Observation (GEO). Copernicus is structured in six Services: Marine, Atmosphere, Land and Climate change monitoring as well as support to Emergency and Security. Copernicus uses data from satellites and in-situ sensors such as buoys, balloons or air sensors to provide timely and reliable added-value information and forecasting to support for example, agriculture and fisheries, land use and urban planning, the fight against forest fires, disaster response, maritime transport or air pollution monitoring. The need for continuing such observations is becoming critical, considering the increasing political pressure on public authorities to take informed decisions in the field of environment, security and climate change and the need to respect international agreements. Copernicus also contributes to economic stability and growth by boosting commercial applications (the so-called downstream services) in many different sectors through a full and open access to Copernicus observation data and information products. KEY WORDS: Sentinels, big data, data access, Emergency, Marine, Atmosphere.

  10. Community-level impact of the reproductive health vouchers programme on service utilization in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Obare, Francis; Warren, Charlotte; Njuki, Rebecca; Abuya, Timothy; Sunday, Joseph; Askew, Ian; Bellows, Ben

    2013-03-01

    This paper examines community-level association between exposure to the reproductive health vouchers programme in Kenya and utilization of services. The data are from a household survey conducted among 2527 women (15-49 years) from voucher and comparable non-voucher sites. Analysis entails cross-tabulations with Chi-square tests and significant tests of proportions as well as estimation of multi-level logit models to predict service utilization by exposure to the programme. The results show that for births occurring after the voucher programme began, women from communities that had been exposed to the programme since 2006 were significantly more likely to have delivered at a health facility and to have received skilled care during delivery compared with those from communities that had not been exposed to the programme at all. There were, however, no significant differences in the timing of first trimester utilization of antenatal care (ANC) and making four or more ANC visits by exposure to the programme. In addition, poor women were significantly less likely to have used safe motherhood services (health facility delivery, skilled delivery care and postnatal care) compared with their non-poor counterparts regardless of exposure to the programme. Nonetheless, a significantly higher proportion of poor women from communities that had been exposed to the programme since 2006 used the services compared with their poor counterparts from communities that had not been exposed to the programme at all. The findings suggest that the programme is associated with increased health facility deliveries and skilled delivery care especially among poor women. However, it has had limited community-level impact on the first trimester timing of antenatal care use and making four or more visits, which remain a challenge despite the high proportion of women in the country that make at least one antenatal care visit during pregnancy.

  11. Community-based group aquatic programme for individuals with multiple sclerosis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Salem, Yasser; Scott, Anne Hiller; Karpatkin, Herbert; Concert, George; Haller, Leah; Kaminsky, Eva; Weisbrot, Rivky; Spatz, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of providing a community-based aquatic exercise programme and to examine the effects of a group aquatic exercise programme in individuals with multiple sclerosis. This study illustrates the implementation of a multidisciplinary community-based programme in a university community wellness centre coordinated with a local advocacy group. Eleven subjects with multiple sclerosis participated in a 5-week community-based aquatic exercise programme. Aquatic exercises were held twice weekly for 60 minutes and included aerobic exercises, strength training, flexibility exercises, balance training and walking activities. The 10-Metre Walk test, the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the 'Timed Up and Go' (TUG) test, grip strength and the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale were used to assess motor function. Analysis of the scores demonstrated improved gait speed, BBS, TUG test and grip strength. The average attendance of the training sessions was good (88%), and no incidence of injuries, no incidence of falls and no adverse effects related to the exercise programme were reported. All participants reported that they enjoyed the programme, and they had improved after the training. A community-based aquatic exercise programme is feasible and resulted in improvement in motor functions of individuals with multiple sclerosis. These findings indicate that an aquatic training programme is appropriate and beneficial for individuals with multiple sclerosis and should be considered to augment the rehabilitation of those individuals. This programme may provide a viable model for a community-based wellness programme for people with disability including individuals with multiple sclerosis.

  12. Using Community Radio in a Rural Women's Post-Literacy Programme in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagaoka, Chizuko; Karki, Manohar

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the literacy and post-literacy needs of rural women in Nepal, describes a pilot study in using community radio to supplement a classroom-based post-literacy programme for these women, analyses the findings of this intervention and considers the implications for similar programmes in other settings.

  13. Moving on the Continuum between Teaching and Learning: Communities of Practice in a Student Support Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, Luzelle; Bezuidenhout, Hannemarie

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the experiences of staff members involved in a student support programme. The experiential, social, and student-centred approaches incorporated in this programme provided not only students, but also academics with pathways to lifelong learning. Functioning in a community of practice (CoP) (with students and also…

  14. School Building Design for Feeding Programmes and Community Outreach: Insights from Ghana and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uduku, Ola

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates how school building design can support primary school feeding programmes in low- and middle-income countries. Furthermore it argues for schools to become community "development hubs"; incorporating both local access to education and also to programmes for nutrition, ICT, health education and other services,…

  15. Moving on the Continuum between Teaching and Learning: Communities of Practice in a Student Support Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, Luzelle; Bezuidenhout, Hannemarie

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the experiences of staff members involved in a student support programme. The experiential, social, and student-centred approaches incorporated in this programme provided not only students, but also academics with pathways to lifelong learning. Functioning in a community of practice (CoP) (with students and also…

  16. Professional Development on an International Scale: Council of Europe--Pestalozzi Programme Virtual Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mompoint Gaillard, Pascale; Rajic, Višnja

    2014-01-01

    Communities of practice as organisations of learning have developed different forms as: task-based, practice-based or knowledge based communities (Barab et al., 2004). The paper presents a case study of a successful community of practice developed under the umbrella of Council of Europe Pestalozzi programme for teacher development. The programme…

  17. European seaweeds under pressure: Consequences for communities and ecosystem functioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineur, Frédéric; Arenas, Francisco; Assis, Jorge; Davies, Andrew J.; Engelen, Aschwin H.; Fernandes, Francisco; Malta, Erik-jan; Thibaut, Thierry; Van Nguyen, Tu; Vaz-Pinto, Fátima; Vranken, Sofie; Serrão, Ester A.; De Clerck, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Seaweed assemblages represent the dominant autotrophic biomass in many coastal environments, playing a central structural and functional role in several ecosystems. In Europe, seaweed assemblages are highly diverse systems. The combined seaweed flora of different European regions hold around 1550 species (belonging to nearly 500 genera), with new species continuously uncovered, thanks to the emergence of molecular tools. In this manuscript we review the effects of global and local stressors on European seaweeds, their communities, and ecosystem functioning. Following a brief review on the present knowledge on European seaweed diversity and distribution, and the role of seaweed communities in biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, we discuss the effects of biotic homogenization (invasive species) and global climate change (shifts in bioclimatic zones and ocean acidification) on the distribution of individual species and their effect on the structure and functioning of seaweed communities. The arrival of new introduced species (that already account for 5-10% of the European seaweeds) and the regional extirpation of native species resulting from oceans' climate change are creating new diversity scenarios with undetermined functional consequences. Anthropogenic local stressors create additional disruption often altering dramatically assemblage's structure. Hence, we discuss ecosystem level effects of such stressors like harvesting, trampling, habitat modification, overgrazing and eutrophication that impact coastal communities at local scales. Last, we conclude by highlighting significant knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to anticipate the combined effects of global and local stressors on seaweed communities. With physical and biological changes occurring at unexpected pace, marine phycologists should now integrate and join their research efforts to be able to contribute efficiently for the conservation and management of coastal systems.

  18. Survey of European programmes for the epidemiological surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Bénard, Antoine; Petersen, Eskild; Salamon, Roger; Chêne, Geneviève; Gilbert, Ruth; Salmi, Louis Rachid; for the European Toxo Prevention Study Group (EUROTOXO)

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to describe systems for the epidemiological surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis implemented in European countries. In September 2004, a questionnaire, adapted from the evaluation criteria published by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was sent to a panel of national correspondents in 35 countries in the European geographical area with knowledge of the epidemiological surveillance systems implemented in their countries. Where necessary, we updated the information until July 2007. Responses were received from 28 countries. Some 16 countries reported routine surveillance for toxoplasmosis. In 12 countries (Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, England and Wales, Estonia, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Scotland and Slovakia), surveillance was designed to detect only symptomatic toxoplasmosis, whether congenital or not. Four countries reported surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis, on a regional basis in Italy and on a national basis in Denmark, France and Germany. In conclusion, epidemiological surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis needs to be improved in order to determine the true burden of disease and to assess the effectiveness of and the need for existing prevention programmes. PMID:18445459

  19. Future European emission standards for vehicles: the importance of the UN-ECE Particle Measurement Programme.

    PubMed

    Martini, Giorgio; Giechaskiel, Barouch; Dilara, Panagiota

    2009-07-01

    Traffic-related emissions of fine particles represent one of the main sources of air pollution especially in urban areas. In particular, diesel engines are blamed as one of the main contributors for their inherent high particulate emissions. In order to reduce the impact on human health of particulate emissions from vehicles, new stricter emission standards were considered necessary for Europe. The introduction of very low particulate emission limits has required the development of an improved measurement procedure for particulate mass and a new measurement procedure for particle number. The Particle Measurement Programme (PMP) was established in 2001 on the initiative of some European states to achieve this target. The interlaboratory comparison exercise for light duty vehicles, co-managed by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission and the UK Department of Transport, was completed in 2007, and the results have provided the scientific basis for the new Euro 5/6 limits for particle number and particulate mass. The heavy-duty interlaboratory exercise was started in the second half of 2007 with an exploratory work carried out at the JRC and is still on-going.

  20. Sustaining international partnerships: the European Master of Science Programme in Occupational Therapy, a case study.

    PubMed

    Ilott, Irene; Kottorp, Anders; la Cour, Karen; van Nes, Fenna; Jonsson, Hans; Sadlo, Gaynor

    2013-06-01

    International partnerships are a mechanism for supporting the academic development of occupational therapy and promoting cultural competence. This case study describes the factors that have helped to sustain a post-qualifying programme implemented by five higher education institutions in Denmark, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK since 1999. Data collection methods were documentary analysis and the reflections of a purposive sample of six key informants. Cohort and outcome data, from 193 students from 31 countries who enrolled between 1999 and 2011, are reported. Each cohort comprises students from an average of eight countries to optimize inter-cultural dialogue. Four factors support sustainability. These are 1) supportive professional European networks; 2) timeliness and alignment with European higher education policy; 3) partnership structures and processes that emphasize joint decision making and accountability; and 4) the stimulus and satisfaction associated with internationalization. The main limitations are considering the OT-EuroMaster as an intrinsic case study and using opportunistic data collection that undermines the rigor and transferability of the findings. Future opportunities include doctoral networks, transnational research and sharing our curricula design with other Regions to spread the collaborative, capacity building endeavours more widely. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Exploring the implementation of poslansia, Indonesia's community-based health programme for older people.

    PubMed

    Christiani, Yodi; Byles, Julie E; Tavener, Meredith; Dugdale, Paul

    2016-09-01

    To explore the implementation of poslansia, a community-based integrated health service implemented across Indonesia to improve the health status of older people through health promotion and disease prevention. Data analysis of 307 poslansia surveyed in the 4th wave of Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS-4). We examined the services provided in the programme, resources and perceived problems. The services provided by poslansia focused mostly on risk factor screening and treatment for minor illness, and less on health promotion activities. Lack of support from community health centres, no permanent place for holding poslansia and lack of participant interest in joining the programme were associated with fewer services provided in the programme (P < 0.05). The findings indicate existing support from the community, community health centres and related institutions for poslansia is not adequate for optimal service function. Health awareness among the older population should also be increased for programme sustainability. © 2016 AJA Inc.

  2. Phare Special Preparatory Programme for the European Social Fund: A Composite Report on the National, Supplementary and Local Seminars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This document reports on phases 2 and 3 of the Phare Special Preparatory Programme for the European Social Fund (SPP-ESF), which involved national, supplementary, and local seminars to assess the following countries' needs for assistance from the ESF: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, the Slovak…

  3. Value and Benefits of European Student Mobility for Romanian Students: Experiences and Perspectives of Participants in the ERASMUS Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salajan, Florin D.; Chiper, Sorina

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the experiences and perspectives of Romanian students participating in the ERASMUS Programme, regarding the benefits and value of academic mobility. It situates their accounts in the framework of internationalization and Europeanization processes occurring in Romanian higher education. The study draws on primary data…

  4. Policy Goals of European Integration and Competitiveness in Academic Collaborations: An Examination of Joint Master's and Erasmus Mundus Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papatsiba, Vassiliki

    2014-01-01

    This study examines policy goals pertaining to joint Master's in Europe as presented in Bologna-related and Erasmus Mundus (EM) policy texts. The profile of joint programmes has risen in the aftermath of the Bologna Process (BP), together with the launch of the EU EM. Despite a European policy tradition of cooperation in higher education (HE),…

  5. Understanding geographic origins and history of admixture among chimpanzees in European zoos, with implications for future breeding programmes.

    PubMed

    Hvilsom, C; Frandsen, P; Børsting, C; Carlsen, F; Sallé, B; Simonsen, B T; Siegismund, H R

    2013-06-01

    Despite ample focus on this endangered species, conservation planning for chimpanzees residing outside Africa has proven a challenge because of the lack of ancestry information. Here, we analysed the largest number of chimpanzee samples to date, examining microsatellites in >100 chimpanzees from the range of the species in Africa, and 20% of the European zoo population. We applied the knowledge about subspecies differentiation throughout equatorial Africa to assign origin to chimpanzees in the largest conservation management programme globally. A total of 63% of the genotyped chimpanzees from the European zoos could be assigned to one of the recognized subspecies. The majority being of West African origin (40%) will help consolidate the current breeding programme for this subspecies and the identification of individuals belonging to the two other subspecies so far found in European zoos can form the basis for breeding programmes for these. Individuals of various degree of mixed ancestry made up 37% of the genotyped European zoo population and thus highlight the need for appropriate management programmes guided by genetic analysis to preserve maximum genetic diversity and reduce hybridization among subspecies.

  6. Value and Benefits of European Student Mobility for Romanian Students: Experiences and Perspectives of Participants in the ERASMUS Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salajan, Florin D.; Chiper, Sorina

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the experiences and perspectives of Romanian students participating in the ERASMUS Programme, regarding the benefits and value of academic mobility. It situates their accounts in the framework of internationalization and Europeanization processes occurring in Romanian higher education. The study draws on primary data…

  7. Policy Goals of European Integration and Competitiveness in Academic Collaborations: An Examination of Joint Master's and Erasmus Mundus Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papatsiba, Vassiliki

    2014-01-01

    This study examines policy goals pertaining to joint Master's in Europe as presented in Bologna-related and Erasmus Mundus (EM) policy texts. The profile of joint programmes has risen in the aftermath of the Bologna Process (BP), together with the launch of the EU EM. Despite a European policy tradition of cooperation in higher education (HE),…

  8. Understanding geographic origins and history of admixture among chimpanzees in European zoos, with implications for future breeding programmes

    PubMed Central

    Hvilsom, C; Frandsen, P; Børsting, C; Carlsen, F; Sallé, B; Simonsen, B T; Siegismund, H R

    2013-01-01

    Despite ample focus on this endangered species, conservation planning for chimpanzees residing outside Africa has proven a challenge because of the lack of ancestry information. Here, we analysed the largest number of chimpanzee samples to date, examining microsatellites in >100 chimpanzees from the range of the species in Africa, and 20% of the European zoo population. We applied the knowledge about subspecies differentiation throughout equatorial Africa to assign origin to chimpanzees in the largest conservation management programme globally. A total of 63% of the genotyped chimpanzees from the European zoos could be assigned to one of the recognized subspecies. The majority being of West African origin (40%) will help consolidate the current breeding programme for this subspecies and the identification of individuals belonging to the two other subspecies so far found in European zoos can form the basis for breeding programmes for these. Individuals of various degree of mixed ancestry made up 37% of the genotyped European zoo population and thus highlight the need for appropriate management programmes guided by genetic analysis to preserve maximum genetic diversity and reduce hybridization among subspecies. PMID:23531981

  9. [Applicability and perceived utility of the European Quality Instrument for Health Promotion (EQUIHP) in a health promotion programme].

    PubMed

    Cerdá-Gómez, Rebeca; Paredes-Carbonell, Joan J; López-Sánchez, M Pilar

    2017-03-23

    To describe the results of applying the European Quality Instrument for Health Promotion (EQUIHP) tool in the MIHsalud programme and to discuss its perceived utility by the programme's team members. Evaluation study applying EQUIHP to a health promotion programme. A total of ten MIHsalud staff (eight women and two men) completed the EQUIHP and participated in two group interviews to discuss its perceived utility. The programme obtained a total score of 6.5 points out of 10 in quality. The use of EQUIHP enabled the programme's weaknesses to be identified, such as lack of a communication plan, evaluability and sustainability; as well as its strengths, such as the inclusion of health promotion principles. The MIHsalud team believes that the EQUIHP is a useful tool which can facilitate a comprehensive evaluation of the programme in terms of a health promotion initiative. The use of the EQUIHP has made it possible to evaluate the quality of the programme and to make recommendations for its improvement, and it could be applied to other programmes and activities. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Employment and Status of Teachers in State Schools in the European Community. Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EURYDICE Central Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    The educational systems of the European Community Member States vary considerably and comprise a wealth of information about innovations in these nations. Tables on the employment and status of teachers in state schools in the European Community were compiled at the request of the Commission of the European Communities. The information collected…

  11. The European solar physics community: outcome from a questionnaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parenti, Susanna

    2002-12-01

    At the SPM10 meeting held in Prague, for the first time was organized a "young section" which was dedicated to "the career in Solar Physics" (Aulanier, this issue). Prior to the meeting a questionnaire was distributed to the community with the aim to build statistic on the career. The informations collected in this way relate to personal and professional aspects of the career, how much the countries' policy and the working environment can affect it. Moreover, particular attention was given to the PhD and post-doctorate (post-doc) conditions. From the statistics it comes clear that the European Solar Physics is having a difficult period. Besides the main problems, we found the lack of an integrated European community, the lack of permanent positions, the low salary and the lost of popularity among students. Several ideas were proposed to improve the situation.

  12. Development of molecular imaging in the European radiological community.

    PubMed

    Grenier, Nicolas; Sardanelli, Francesco; Becker, Christoph D; Walecki, Jerzy; Sebag, Guy; Lomas, David John; Krestin, Gabriel P

    2009-03-01

    The recent and concomitant advances in molecular biology and imaging for diagnosis and therapy will place in vivo imaging techniques at the centre of their clinical transfer. Before that, a wide range of multidisciplinary preclinical research is already taking place. The involvement of radiologists in this new field of imaging sciences is therefore absolutely mandatory during these two phases of development. Achievement of such objectives requires the refinement of strategy within the European radiological community and the European Society of Radiology (ESR) will have to drive a number of actions to stimulate the younger generation of radiologists and to facilitate their access to knowledge. For that purpose, a molecular imaging (MI) subcommittee of the ESR Research Committee based on a group of involved radiologists will be constituted to develop contacts with other constitutive committees and associated societies to provide proposals to our community.

  13. Assessing participation in a community-based health planning and services programme in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Community participation is increasingly seen as a pre-requisite for successful health service uptake. It is notoriously difficult to assess participation and little has been done to advance tools for the assessment of community participation. In this paper we illustrate an approach that combines a ‘social psychology of participation’ (theory) with ‘spider-grams’ (method) to assess participation and apply it to a Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) programme in rural Ghana. Methods We draw on data from 17 individual in-depth interviews, two focus group discussions and a community conversation with a mix of service users, providers and community health committee members. It was during the community conversation that stakeholders collectively evaluated community participation in the CHPS programme and drew up a spider-gram. Results Thematic analysis of our data shows that participation was sustained through the recognition and use of community resources, CHPS integration with pre-existing community structures, and alignment of CHPS services with community interests. However, male dominance and didactic community leadership and management styles undermined real opportunities for broad-based community empowerment, particularly of women, young people and marginalised men. Conclusion We conclude that combining the ‘spider-gram’ tool and the ‘social psychology of participation’ framework provide health professionals with a useful starting point for assessing community participation and developing recommendations for more participatory and empowering health care programmes. PMID:23803140

  14. [The new biomedical and health research program of the European Economic Community--BIOMED 1 (1990-94)].

    PubMed

    Coelho, A M

    1992-02-01

    The new EEC Biomedical and Health Research Programme (BIOMED 1) is presented. After a brief introduction on the background of the Programme--in which an overview of the ongoing Medical and Health Research Programme (MHR 4) is given--the main features of the new Programme are pointed out. On what concerns its aims and objectives, concertation and coordination of national research programmes at community level are stressed as well as the need to apply to the maximum possible extent the principles of subsidiary and community added value, in order to ensure an European dimension to the actions which are going to be supported and to achieve the harmonization of research methodologies, procedures and data. As regards the content of the Programme a description is made of its four main areas: Area 1--Development of co-ordinated research on prevention, care and health systems (main topics: drugs and the administration of medicines; risk factors and occupational health; biomedical technology; health services research); Area 2--Major health problems and diseases of great socio-economic impact (AIDS; cancer; cardiovascular disease; mental illness and neurological disease; the ageing process, and age-related health problems and handicaps); Area 3--Human Genoma Analysis (improvement of the genetic map; physical mapping; DNA sequencing; data-handling and databases; technology development and applications of human genome analysis); Area 4--Research on biomedical ethics (compilation of legislation; evaluation of questions of biomedical ethics linked with the Programme; evaluation of the social impact of the Programme and its risks).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. How equitable are community health worker programmes and which programme features influence equity of community health worker services? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    McCollum, Rosalind; Gomez, Woedem; Theobald, Sally; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2016-05-20

    Community health workers (CHWs) are uniquely placed to link communities with the health system, playing a role in improving the reach of health systems and bringing health services closer to hard-to-reach and marginalised groups. A systematic review was conducted to determine the extent of equity of CHW programmes and to identify intervention design factors which influence equity of health outcomes. In accordance with our published protocol, we systematically searched eight databases from 2004 to 2014 for quantitative and qualitative studies which assessed access, utilisation, quality or community empowerment following introduction of a CHW programme according to equity stratifiers (place of residence, gender, socio-economic position and disability). Thirty four papers met inclusion criteria. A thematic framework was applied and data extracted and managed, prior to charting and thematic analysis. To our knowledge this is the first systematic review that describes the extent of equity within CHW programmes and identifies CHW intervention design features which influence equity. CHW programmes were found to promote equity of access and utilisation for community health by reducing inequities relating to place of residence, gender, education and socio-economic position. CHWs can also contribute towards more equitable uptake of referrals at health facility level. There was no clear evidence for equitable quality of services provided by CHWs and limited information regarding the role of the CHW in generating community empowerment to respond to social determinants of health. Factors promoting greater equity of CHW services include recruitment of most poor community members as CHWs, close proximity of services to households, pre-existing social relationship with CHW, provision of home-based services, free service delivery, targeting of poor households, strengthened referral to facility, sensitisation and mobilisation of community. However, if CHW programmes are not well

  16. European Community research on environmental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Sors, A I

    1993-01-01

    Within the 12 Member States of the European Community (EC), environmental policy is now formulated primarily at Community level. As a result, the EC has important regulatory responsibilities for the protection of workers, consumers, and the general public from risks that may arise from environmental chemicals, foremost among them potential carcinogens and mutagens. An important part of EC environmental research and development is intended to provide a scientific basis for these regulations as well as increasing understanding of the basic mechanisms involved in environmental carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. This paper contains a brief introduction to EC environment policy and research, followed by an overview of EC chemicals control activities that are of particular relevance to the research and development program. Community-level research on environmental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis is then reviewed in some detail, including the achievements of recent projects, the scientific content of the current program, and perspectives for the future. PMID:8143645

  17. The European community and its standardization efforts in medical informatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattheus, Rudy A.

    1992-07-01

    A summary of the CEN TC 251/4 ''Medical Imaging and Multi-Media'' activities will be given. CEN is the European standardization institute, TC 251 deals with medical informatics. Standardization is a condition for the wide scale use of health care and medical informatics and for the creation of a common market. In the last two years, three important categories-- namely, the Commission of the European Communities with their programs and the mandates, the medical informaticians through their European professional federation, and the national normalization institutes through the European committee--have shown to be aware of this problem and have taken actions. As a result, a number of AIM (Advanced Informatics in Medicine), CEC sponsored projects, the CEC mandates to CEN and EWOS, the EFMI working group on standardization, the technical committee of CEN, and the working groups and project teams of CEN and EWOS are working on the subject. On overview of the CEN TC 251/4 ''Medical Imaging and Multi-Media'' activities will be given, including their relation to other work.

  18. Critical Pedagogy in the Community Music Education Programmes of Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Paulo Freire (1970) developed critical pedagogy to teach oppressed Brazilian adults to read. Freire documented his ideas in a landmark publication entitled Pedagogy of the Oppressed. This article discusses and reports my findings on Freirean methods evident in music education programmes in Rio de Janeiro, Alvorada, Recife and Sao Caetano.

  19. Critical Pedagogy in the Community Music Education Programmes of Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Paulo Freire (1970) developed critical pedagogy to teach oppressed Brazilian adults to read. Freire documented his ideas in a landmark publication entitled Pedagogy of the Oppressed. This article discusses and reports my findings on Freirean methods evident in music education programmes in Rio de Janeiro, Alvorada, Recife and Sao Caetano.

  20. A kala-azar control programme for remote tribal communities.

    PubMed

    Thakur, C P; Frances Sister; Therese Sister; Victoria Sister; Puspa Sister

    1994-01-01

    Indigenous people have been trained to provide a culturally appropriate kala-azar control programme for the tribal population of Sahibganj, Bihar, India. Cultural resistance to modern medicine has been overcome and the influence of village witch-doctors has been countered.

  1. Community experience of a Pacific Immersion Programme for medical students in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Mauiliu, Melbourne; Sopoaga, Faafetai; Ekeroma, Alec

    2013-06-14

    To obtain the views of the Pacific community about their involvement in a Pacific Immersion Programme, to determine the programme's viability as a resource for medical education. The Pacific Immersion Programme run by the Dunedin School of Medicine had four attachments (March, April, June and September) with local Pacific communities in 2011. Community focus groups were held the week immediately after each attachment. There were two focus group sessions for each attachment, one obtained the views of adults and the other of young people. Focus groups consisted of eight participants recruited through community coordinators and were facilitated by trained research assistants. Sessions were audio recorded and analysed using a thematic framework. Sixty-four members of the community participated in the focus groups. Eight themes emerged from the discussions. The community agreed the Pacific Immersion Programme strengthened community cohesion through efforts to engage the students. There was shared learning and created opportunities for engagement between medical students and the community's younger generation. The Pacific families shared with the students about their health and context through storytelling, dancing and singing and cultural ceremonies. Participants hoped students achieved what they wanted from the programme and the experience was useful for their work in the future. Community based medical education is a unique and useful approach for teaching medical students about the health of a minority community. The purpose of the paper is to highlight the impacts on participating communities. Nurturing established relationships and providing mutual benefits for both partners will ensure this opportunity will be available as a learning resource for future medical students.

  2. Certified Integral Programme Management for R&D European Projects in Marine Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Ayoze; Hildebrandt, silvia; Quevedo, Eduardo; Meme, Simone; Loustau, Josefina; Hernandez-Brito, Joaquin; Llinás, Octavio

    2017-04-01

    The Oceanic Platform of the Canary Islands (PLOCAN) is a multipurpose service centre with novel land-based and sea-based infrastructures to support research, technology development an innovation in the marine and maritime sectors. Its mission is to promote long-term observation and sustainability of the ocean, providing a cost-effective combination of services, such as observatories, test site, base for underwater vehicles, training and innovation hub. PLOCAN has been actively participating in the European Commission Blue Growth strategy to support sustainable growth in the marine and maritime sectors as a whole. As a result, during the period 2014-2016, there has been a particularly high increase in the number of projects in execution in the organization. In order to successfully manage this situation, the development of a robust, effective and certified programme management system has turned out to be essential. To do so, an integral management methodology was specifically created and has successfully passed the ISO 9001:2008 certification in 2016.

  3. Urban planning for healthy cities. A review of the progress of the European Healthy Cities Programme.

    PubMed

    Barton, Hugh; Grant, Marcus

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the progress made by European cities in relation to Healthy Urban Planning (HUP) during Phase IV of the World Health Organization's Healthy Cities programme (2003-2008). The introduction sets out the general principle of HUP, identifying three levels or phases of health and planning integration. This leads on to a more specific analysis of the processes and substance of HUP, which provide criteria for assessment of progress. The assessment itself relies on two sources of data provided by the municipalities: the Annual Review Templates (ARTs) 2008 and the response to the Phase IV General Evaluation Questionnaire. The findings indicate that the evidence from different sources and questions in different sections are encouragingly consistent. The number of cities achieving a good level of understanding and activity in HUP has risen very substantially over the period. In particular, those achieving effective strategic integration of health and planning have increased. A key challenge for the future will be to develop planning frameworks which advance public health concerns in a spatial policy context driven often by market forces. A health in all policies approach could be valuable.

  4. Navy Community of Practice for Programmers and Developers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    centered and should reflect the key characteristics shared among successful communities of practice. Through the use of surveys, interviews, and...key characteristics shared among successful communities of practice. Through the use of surveys, interviews, and observations conducted at the June...AND DEVELOPERS .............................................12 III. KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF SUCCESSFUL COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE

  5. Physical and rehabilitation medicine section and board of the European Union of Medical Specialists. Community context; history of European medical organizations; actions under way.

    PubMed

    De Korvin, G; Delarque, A

    2009-01-01

    The European Community is based on a series of treaties and legal decisions, which result from preliminary documents prepared long before by different organizations and lobbies. The European union of medical specialists (Union européenne des médecins specialists [UEMS]) came into being in order to address the questions raised by European directives (e.g., free circulation of people and services, reciprocal recognition of diplomas, medical training, quality improvements). The specialty sections of the UEMS contribute actively to this work. The physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) section is composed of three committees: the PRM board is devoted to initial and continuing education and has published a harmonized teaching programme and organized a certification procedure, which can be considered as a European seal of quality; the Clinical Affairs Committee is concerned with the quality of PRM care, and it has set up a European accreditation system for PRM programs of care, which will help to describe PRM clinical activity more concretely; and the Professional Practice Committee works on the fields of competence in our specialty. This third committee has already published a White Book, and further documents are being prepared, based on both the International classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) and reference texts developed by the French Federation of PRM.

  6. Teenagers and young adults with cancer in Europe: from national programmes to a European integrated coordinated project.

    PubMed

    Stark, D; Bielack, S; Brugieres, L; Dirksen, U; Duarte, X; Dunn, S; Erdelyi, D J; Grew, T; Hjorth, L; Jazbec, J; Kabickova, E; Konsoulova, A; Kowalczyk, J R; Lassaletta, A; Laurence, V; Lewis, I; Monrabal, A; Morgan, S; Mountzios, G; Olsen, P R; Renard, M; Saeter, G; van der Graaf, W T; Ferrari, A

    2016-05-01

    Over 14 000 patients aged 15-24 are estimated to be diagnosed with cancer in the European Union (EU) each year. Teenagers and young adults (TYA) often fall down gaps between children's and adults cancer services. The specific challenges of providing optimal care to them are described, but we present a summary of recent progress. Progress to overcome these challenges is happening at different rates across Europe. We summarise the European national projects in this field but more recently we have seen the beginnings of European coordination. Within the EU 7th Funding Programme (FP7) European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents programme (ENCCA), a specific European Network for Teenagers and Young Adults with Cancer has held a series of scientific meetings, including professionals, patients and caregivers. This group has proposed unanswered research questions and agreed key features of a high-quality service that can improve outcomes for TYA with cancer, including the primacy of collaboration between adult and paediatric services to eliminate the gap in the management of TYA with cancer.

  7. Review of performance-based incentives in community-based family planning programmes

    PubMed Central

    Bellows, Nicole M; Askew, Ian; Bellows, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Background One strategy for improving family planning (FP) uptake at the community level is the use of performance-based incentives (PBIs), which offer community distributors financial incentives to recruit more users of FP. This article examines the use of PBIs in community-based FP programmes via a literature search of the peer-reviewed and grey literature conducted in April 2013. Results A total of 28 community-based FP programmes in 21 countries were identified as having used PBIs. The most common approach was a sales commission model where distributors received commission for FP products sold, while a referral payment model for long-term methods was also used extensively. Six evaluations were identified that specifically examined the impact of the PBI in community-based FP programmes. Overall, the results of the evaluations are mixed and more research is needed; however, the findings suggest that easy-to-understand PBIs can be successful in increasing the use of FP at the community level. Conclusion For future use of PBIs in community-based FP programmes it is important to consider the ethics of incentivising FP and ensuring that PBIs are non-coercive and choice-enhancing. PMID:25037703

  8. Review of performance-based incentives in community-based family planning programmes.

    PubMed

    Bellows, Nicole M; Askew, Ian; Bellows, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    One strategy for improving family planning (FP) uptake at the community level is the use of performance-based incentives (PBIs), which offer community distributors financial incentives to recruit more users of FP. This article examines the use of PBIs in community-based FP programmes via a literature search of the peer-reviewed and grey literature conducted in April 2013. A total of 28 community-based FP programmes in 21 countries were identified as having used PBIs. The most common approach was a sales commission model where distributors received commission for FP products sold, while a referral payment model for long-term methods was also used extensively. Six evaluations were identified that specifically examined the impact of the PBI in community-based FP programmes. Overall, the results of the evaluations are mixed and more research is needed; however, the findings suggest that easy-to-understand PBIs can be successful in increasing the use of FP at the community level. For future use of PBIs in community-based FP programmes it is important to consider the ethics of incentivising FP and ensuring that PBIs are non-coercive and choice-enhancing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. What do community football players think about different exercise-training programmes? Implications for the delivery of lower limb injury prevention programmes.

    PubMed

    Finch, Caroline F; Doyle, Tim L A; Dempsey, Alasdair R; Elliott, Bruce C; Twomey, Dara M; White, Peta E; Diamantopoulou, Kathy; Young, Warren; Lloyd, David G

    2014-04-01

    Players are the targeted end-users and beneficiaries of exercise-training programmes implemented during coach-led training sessions, and the success of programmes depends upon their active participation. Two variants of an exercise-training programme were incorporated into the regular training schedules of 40 community Australian Football teams, over two seasons. One variant replicated common training practices, while the second was an evidence-based programme to alter biomechanical and neuromuscular factors related to risk of knee injuries. This paper describes the structure of the implemented programmes and compares players' end-of-season views about the programme variants. This study was nested within a larger group-clustered randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of two exercise-training programmes (control and neuromuscular control (NMC)) for preventing knee injuries. A post-season self-report survey, derived from Health Belief Model constructs, included questions to obtain players' views about the benefits and physical challenges of the programme in which they participated. Compared with control players, those who participated in the NMC programme found it to be less physically challenging but more enjoyable and potentially of more benefit. Suggestions from players about potential improvements to the training programme and its future implementation included reducing duration, increasing range of drills/exercises and promoting its injury prevention and other benefits to players. Players provide valuable feedback about the content and focus of implemented exercise-training programmes, that will directly inform the delivery of similar, or more successful, programmes in the future.

  10. Overview of the ESO instrumentation programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casali, Mark M.; Pasquini, Luca; Ramsay, Suzanne

    2012-09-01

    The ESO instrumentation programme now encompasses both an on-going programme for La-Silla Paranal observatory and a new programme for construction of the instruments for the E-ELT. The scale and ambition of the combined programme will present a future challenge for the European instrument-building community and for ESO as managing organisation. The current status and plans are summarised.

  11. Programme of the Community Network of Reference Laboratories for Human Influenza to improve Influenza Surveillance in Europe.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Adam; Brown, Caroline; Hungnes, Olav; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Valette, Martine; van der Werf, Sylvie; Zambon, Maria

    2006-11-10

    All laboratories participating in the Community Network of Reference Laboratories for Human Influenza in Europe (CNRL) co-ordinated by the European Influenza Surveillance Scheme (EISS) should be able to perform a range of influenza diagnostics. This includes direct detection, culture, typing, subtyping and strain characterisation of influenza viruses, diagnostic serology and the creation of archives for clinical specimens and virus isolates. To improve the capacity and quality of the laboratories of the CNRL and to increase the consistency in performance among all 25 European Union countries plus Norway, Romania, and Switzerland, five task groups were set up in February 2005. These task groups developed work programmes in the areas of virus isolation, antibodies, molecular virology, quality control assessment and antiviral susceptibility testing. This report outlines the programmes and the results achieved in the first half-year of operation of the task groups. The action plans are challenging and it is expected that these efforts will lead to considerable improvements in the performance of the laboratories and in the standardisation of methods employed in Europe with regard to routine influenza surveillance and early warning for emerging viruses.

  12. Croatian Muslims--immigrant community of indigenous Europeans.

    PubMed

    Kulenović, Tarik

    2012-03-01

    Subject of this paper is muslim population in Croatia. Its unique position as community of muslim immigrants with indigenous European origin give us plenty of research opportunities. Long history of contacts between muslims and christians on Croatian-Bosnian border evolved in many ways and resulted with today's reality that muslims are part of Croatian society. In modern age, since austrian occupation of Bosnia in 1878. bosnian muslims came to Croatia as workers, refugees, members of state apparatus, students etc. Their descendants are now Croatian citizens in third and fourth generation. Muslims managed to establish formal islamic community. On the personal level, they mix their feeling of belonging with feeling of origin. They act as equal part of Croatian society on whole range of social levels.

  13. Developing sustainable social programmes for rural ethnic seniors: perspectives of community stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Winterton, Rachel; Hulme Chambers, Alana

    2016-07-11

    This qualitative study explores barriers to delivering sustainable rural community programmes to increase social participation among Australian ethnic seniors. In 2013, in-depth interviews were conducted with 14 stakeholders across eight rural/regional organisations that had received state government funding to provide social participation initiatives for ethnic seniors. Within interviews, participants were asked to outline factors that had enhanced or hindered their capacity to deliver the funded projects, and their plans for sustainability. Data were analysed thematically in accordance with Shediac-Rizkallah and Bone's (1998) tripartite programme sustainability framework (project design and implementation, organisational setting and broader community environment). Findings indicate that in the context of resource and staffing constraints and a lack of ethnic critical mass, programme sustainability reflected the increased capacity of rural ethnic seniors to integrate into existing community groups and maintain their own groups and activities. However, this is dependent on the ability of mainstream government, health and social care services to cater for diverse cultural needs and preferences, the ability of rural organisations to support ethnic seniors to manage their own cultural groups and activities, and the capacity of funding bodies, rural community and policy structures to maintain cultural sensitivity while compensating for the rural premium. In addition to identifying some key learnings for rural governments, health and community organisations, this research highlights the precarious nature of rural programme sustainability for ethnic seniors in the context of wider community, organisational and policy constraints.

  14. The role of partnership functioning and synergy in achieving sustainability of innovative programmes in community care.

    PubMed

    Cramm, Jane M; Phaff, Sanne; Nieboer, Anna P

    2013-03-01

    This cross-sectional study (conducted in April-May 2011) explored associations between partnership functioning synergy and sustainability of innovative programmes in community care. The study sample consisted of 106 professionals (of 244 individuals contacted) participating in 21 partnerships that implemented different innovative community care programmes in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Partnership functioning was evaluated by assessing leadership, resources administration and efficiency. Synergy was considered the proximal outcome of partnership functioning, which, in turn, influenced the achievement of programme sustainability. On a 5-point scale of increasing sustainability, mean sustainability scores ranged from 1.9 to 4.9. The results of the regression analysis demonstrated that sustainability was positively influenced by leadership (standardised regression coefficient β = 0.32; P < 0.001) and non-financial resources (β = 0.25; P = 0.008). No significant relationship was found between administration or efficiency and programme sustainability. Partnership synergy acted as a mediator for partnership functioning and significantly affected sustainability (β = 0.39; P < 0.001). These findings suggest that the sustainability of innovative programmes in community care is achieved more readily when synergy is created between partners. Synergy was more likely to emerge with boundary-spanning leaders, who understood and appreciated partners' different perspectives, and could bridge their diverse cultures and were comfortable sharing ideas, resources and power. In addition, the acknowledgement of and ability to use members' resources were found to be valuable in engaging partners' involvement and achieving synergy in community care partnerships.

  15. Chasing the dragon: Developing indicators for the assessment of community participation in health programmes.

    PubMed

    Draper, Alizon Katharine; Hewitt, Gillian; Rifkin, Susan

    2010-09-01

    Community participation was identified as one of the key components of Primary Health Care as articulated in the Alma Ata declaration of 1978 and is enjoying a renewal of interest in both low and high income countries. There remains, however, an on-going challenge in how to assess its role in achieving health improvements. This is largely due to the multiplicity of definitions of community participation, which has made it difficult to evaluate its impact on desired programme outcomes, such as uptake and sustainability, as well as broader health improvements. This paper addresses this challenge by first defining a continuum of community participation that captures its many forms, and then incorporates this into an evaluation framework that enables an analysis of the process of participation and links this with health and programme outcomes. The continuum of participation and framework is based upon the spidergram of Rifkin, Muller, and Bichmann (1988), but modified in the light of the growing literature on community participation and also in relation to our original requirements to evaluate the role of community participation in nutrition-related child survival programmes. A case-study is presented to provide a worked example of the evaluation framework and its utility in the evaluation of community participation. While this is a literature-based and retrospective analysis, it demonstrates how the evaluation tool enables a nuanced analysis of the different ways in which communities can participate in the delivery of health-related interventions. It could be used prospectively by those involved in programme design and implementation to further our understanding of community participation and its relationship with health outcomes, as well as key programme outcomes, such as sustainability. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. European Network of Trainees in Obstetrics and Gynaecology: experiences from the 2016 exchange programme in Turin, Italy.

    PubMed

    Eismann, Sabine; Brandl, Mario; Spinnewijn, Laura; Everden, Caroline; Campolo, Federica; Schott, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    The European Network of Trainees in Obstetrics and Gynaecology (ENTOG) is an organization representing trainees from 30 European member countries. Together with the European Board and College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (EBCOG), it seeks to achieve the highest possible standards of training and consequently to improve the quality of medical care in the field of gynaecology and obstetrics. Every year, the ENTOG council meets and holds a scientific meeting in a different European country. To coincide with this, the host country arranges an exchange, to which each member country can send two trainees. This exchange allows trainees to gain insight into both daily clinical work and the structure of the health care system. This article reports the experiences of participants in the May 2016 ENTOG exchange to Turin, Italy. The aim is to outline differences in training between Germany and Italy as well as some striking differences with other European countries. The participants' personal benefit from this unique experience was not only to get familiar with the Italian trainee programme and health care system, but also to exchange experiences among representatives from other European countries and build up a young gynaecological network within Europe.

  17. Practical Elements in Danish Engineering Programmes, Including the European Project Semester

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jorgen

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark, all engineering programmes in HE have practical elements; for instance, at Bachelor's level, an internship is an integrated part of the programme. Furthermore, Denmark has a long-established tradition of problem-based and project-organized learning, and a large part of students' projects, including their final projects, is done in…

  18. Safety evaluation of phytosterol-esters. Part 9: Results of a European post-launch monitoring programme.

    PubMed

    Lea, L J; Hepburn, P A

    2006-08-01

    Phytosterol-esters were developed by Unilever as a cholesterol lowering novel food ingredient for use initially in vegetable oil spreads. In addition to an extensive package of safety studies and clinical studies a programme of post-launch monitoring (PLM) was developed. PLM was used to address the following questions: (a) Is the product use as predicted/recommended? (b) Are the known effects as predicted? (c) Does the product cause unexpected health effects? The overall conclusions from the PLM programme were: the product is being bought by the target population but intakes are less than the original assumptions made in the risk assessment; long-term use of phytosterol-ester enriched spreads results in a reduction in the serum levels of the most lipophilic carotenoids but at current levels of intake this is unlikely to result in reductions in carotenoids that are of biological significance; evaluation of health related consumer complaints have not indicated any unexpected health effects associated with the use of the product in the marketplace. As part of the European approval under Regulation (EC) No. 258/97 on Novel Foods and Food Ingredients the results of the PLM programme had to be submitted to the European Commission (EC) and reviewed by the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF). They concluded that the study provided valuable information, which complemented the pre-market safety evaluation studies, and that the EC mandatory requirement had been met.

  19. Hospital-integrated PACS: R&D effort of the European communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottes, Fenno P.; Bakker, Albert R.; Mattheus, Rudy A.; Osteaux, Michel; Kouwenberg, Jef M.

    1990-08-01

    A PACS research project under the name " FOUNDATIONS FOR A HOSPITAL INThGRATED PICTURE ARCHIVING AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEM" is currently conducted. The overall objective is the modular conception of an experimental knowledge-based medical information management and distribution system. Image/text document access and display will be based on an intelligent user interface for diagnostic image workstations. The concept will comprise the integration of PA.S with the functions of the Hospital Information System. It will be based upon standards and be realized by an interactive collaborationbetween 7 european research groups from universities, hospitals and industries. The multi-disciplinary groups will consist of engineers, computer scientists, medical doctors (both radiologists and clinicians) and physicists. The HIPACS project has a budget of ECU 1.3 million, of which 50% is provided by the Commission of European Communities (CEC) within the scope of the exploratory phase of the Advanced Informatics in Medicine (AIM) research programme. HIPACS is directed by Prof. M. Osteaux, the prime contractor. This paper first explains the backgrounds of the AIM program. Next, the objectives of the HIPACS project are reviewed. The cooperating partners and their (scheduled) research activities are listed. Finally, the continuation of HIPACS within scope of the main phase of AIM is discussed.

  20. Feasibility of an experiential community garden and nutrition programme for youth living in public housing.

    PubMed

    Grier, Karissa; Hill, Jennie L; Reese, Felicia; Covington, Constance; Bennette, Franchennette; MacAuley, Lorien; Zoellner, Jamie

    2015-10-01

    Few published community garden studies have focused on low socio-economic youth living in public housing or used a community-based participatory research approach in conjunction with youth-focused community garden programmes. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility (i.e. demand, acceptability, implementation and limited-effectiveness testing) of a 10-week experiential theory-based gardening and nutrition education programme targeting youth living in public housing. In this mixed-methods feasibility study, demand and acceptability were measured using a combination of pre- and post-programme surveys and interviews. Implementation was measured via field notes and attendance. Limited-effectiveness was measured quantitatively using a pre-post design and repeated-measures ANOVA tests. Two public housing sites in the Dan River Region of south central Virginia, USA. Forty-three youth (primarily African American), twenty-five parents and two site leaders. The positive demand and acceptability findings indicate the high potential of the programme to be used and be suitable for the youth, parents and site leaders. Field notes revealed numerous implementation facilitators and barriers. Youth weekly attendance averaged 4·6 of 10 sessions. Significant improvements (P<0·05) were found for some (e.g. fruit and vegetable asking self-efficacy, overall gardening knowledge, knowledge of MyPlate recommendations), but not all limited-effectiveness measures (e.g. willingness to try fruits and vegetables, fruit and vegetable eating self-efficacy). This community-based participatory research study demonstrates numerous factors that supported and threatened the feasibility of a gardening and nutrition programme targeting youth in public housing. Lessons learned are being used to adapt and strengthen the programme for future efforts targeting fruit and vegetable behaviours.

  1. Designing a Community-Based Dance Programme for North Korean Female Refugees in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Na, Kyung-Ah; Park, Hyun-Jung; Han, Seok Jin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a community-based dance programme designed for North Korean female defectors in South Korea, with the aim of promoting their physical, psychological, and interpersonal aspects. We set up four research objectives: to look into social contexts of North Korean female refugees in South Korea, to identify the women's desire…

  2. Leadership in School Networks: Findings from the Networked Learning Communities Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jopling, Michael; Spender, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The Networked Learning Community (NLC) programme has been a major research and development activity of the National College of School Leadership (NCSL). One hundred and four voluntary, funded school networks were set up following a process of bidding and selection operated by a core NCSL team, the Networked Learning Group (NLG). A second tranche…

  3. Participation in Network Learning Community Programmes and Standards of Pupil Achievement: Does It Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammons, Pam; Mujtaba, Tamjid; Earl, Lorna; Gu, Qing

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses national assessment and examination data sets in England to test the claim that networked learning activity contributes to raising standards of attainment. Results for primary and secondary schools involved in the large and innovative network learning community (NLC) programme in England funded by the National College for…

  4. Community Screening for Preschool Child Inhibition to Offer the "Cool Little Kids" Anxiety Prevention Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatson, Ruth M.; Bayer, Jordana K.; Perry, Alexandra; Mathers, Megan; Hiscock, Harriet; Wake, Melissa; Beesley, Kate; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    Temperamental inhibition has been identified as a key risk factor for childhood anxiety and internalizing problems. An efficacious early prevention programme for shy/inhibited children has been developed; however, accurate, efficient and acceptable screening is needed to support wider implementation. We explore community screening options in the…

  5. An Evaluation of a Community Health Intervention Programme Aimed at Improving Health and Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strachan, G.; Wright, G. D.; Hancock, E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this evaluation was to examine the extent to which participants in the Tailor Made Leisure Package programme experienced any improvement in their health and wellbeing. Design: A quantitative survey. Setting: The Healthy Living Centre initiative is an example of a community-based intervention which was formalized as part…

  6. Building for School and Community. II: France. Programme on Educational Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report is volume 2 in a series of studies conducted and published by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Programme on Educational Building (PEB) on the theme of coordination of school and community facilities. The report is intended to illustrate by means of concrete examples the general conclusions on…

  7. Community Screening for Preschool Child Inhibition to Offer the "Cool Little Kids" Anxiety Prevention Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatson, Ruth M.; Bayer, Jordana K.; Perry, Alexandra; Mathers, Megan; Hiscock, Harriet; Wake, Melissa; Beesley, Kate; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    Temperamental inhibition has been identified as a key risk factor for childhood anxiety and internalizing problems. An efficacious early prevention programme for shy/inhibited children has been developed; however, accurate, efficient and acceptable screening is needed to support wider implementation. We explore community screening options in the…

  8. Parent Training: Effectiveness of the Parents Plus Early Years Programme in Community Preschool Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Sarah-Jane; Sharry, John; Streek, Adrienne

    2016-01-01

    Evidenced based parent training (PT) programmes offer an important intervention strategy to improve early behavioural and emotional difficulties for young children. Initial research highlights the benefits of incorporating PT within local community services such as preschools. The present study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the Parents…

  9. Parent Training: Effectiveness of the Parents Plus Early Years Programme in Community Preschool Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Sarah-Jane; Sharry, John; Streek, Adrienne

    2016-01-01

    Evidenced based parent training (PT) programmes offer an important intervention strategy to improve early behavioural and emotional difficulties for young children. Initial research highlights the benefits of incorporating PT within local community services such as preschools. The present study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the Parents…

  10. The Cultural Missions Programme: An Early Attempt at Community Development in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubio, Alfredo

    1978-01-01

    The author reviews the "Cultural Missions Programme" of Mexico's educational reform after 1920, in which groups of teachers using Catholic missionary methods fought poverty and ignorance in rural Mexico. These mission programs embody most of the community development principles and are still needed. (MF)

  11. The Cultural Missions Programme: An Early Attempt at Community Development in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubio, Alfredo

    1978-01-01

    The author reviews the "Cultural Missions Programme" of Mexico's educational reform after 1920, in which groups of teachers using Catholic missionary methods fought poverty and ignorance in rural Mexico. These mission programs embody most of the community development principles and are still needed. (MF)

  12. Designing a Community-Based Dance Programme for North Korean Female Refugees in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Na, Kyung-Ah; Park, Hyun-Jung; Han, Seok Jin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a community-based dance programme designed for North Korean female defectors in South Korea, with the aim of promoting their physical, psychological, and interpersonal aspects. We set up four research objectives: to look into social contexts of North Korean female refugees in South Korea, to identify the women's desire…

  13. Conceptualisation of knowledge construction in community service-learning programmes in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Mthembu, Sindi Z; Mtshali, Fikile G

    2013-01-01

    Practices in higher education have been criticised for not developing and preparing students for the expertise required in real environments. Literature reports that educational programmes tend to favour knowledge conformation rather than knowledge construction; however, community service learning (CSL) is a powerful pedagogical strategy that encourages students to make meaningful connections between the content in the classroom and real-life experiences as manifested by the communities. Through CSL, learning is achieved by the active construction of knowledge supported by multiple perspectives within meaningful real contexts, and the social interactions amongst students are seen to play a critical role in the processes of learning and cognition. This article reflects facilitators’ perspective of the knowledge construction process as used with students doing community service learning in basic nursing programmes. The aim of this article was to conceptualise the phenomenon of knowledge construction and thereby provide educators with a shared meaning and common understanding, and to analyse the interaction strategies utilised by nurse educators in the process of knowledge construction in community service-learning programmes in basic nursing education. A qualitative research approach based on a grounded theory research design was used in this article. Two nursing education institutions were purposively selected. Structured interviews were conducted with 16 participants. The results revealed that the knowledge construction in community service-learning programmes is conceptualised as having specific determinants, including the use of authentic health-related problems, academic coaching through scaffolding, academic discourse-dialogue, interactive learning in communities of learners, active learning, continuous reflection as well as collaborative and inquiry-based learning. Upon completion of an experience, students create and test generated knowledge in different

  14. Promising performance of a juvenile justice diversion programme in remote Aboriginal communities, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Clough, Alan R; Kim San Lee, Kylie; Conigrave, Katherine M

    2008-07-01

    Diversion from court and prison has been recommended for Indigenous Australian youth who commit offences. As no evaluations of such programmes have been published, we describe processes and early outcomes of a diversion programme in the Northern Territory. From 2003 to 2006, among 1700 remote Indigenous community residents, 35 young people (aged 11-18 years, median 15 years) committed offences. They were diverted from criminal justice and referred to a community-based diversion initiative. Client assessment records and staff interviews furnished data to examine clients' diversion pathways and early programme results. Eighteen clients were reportedly using a substance at the time of their offence; cannabis (n = 9), petrol (n = 5), alcohol (n = 4). The remaining 17 had histories of using one or more of these. Two clients could not complete local diversion programs because they moved to other regions; one case was not pursued for legal reasons, leaving 32 clients exposed to the local programme. By July 2006, four clients were continuing in their programmes, three had breached them, but 25 had completed them in periods ranging from 2 to 60 weeks (median = 26 weeks), a completion rate of 89% (25/28). Just one client re-offended after completing diversion. A high completion rate was achieved despite: a dearth of locally available drug and alcohol treatment services and diversion options; shifts in police approaches; heavy administrative burdens to meet legal requirements; and difficulties communicating across cultural barriers.

  15. Joint Programmes of Study: An Instrument of European Cooperation in Higher Education. Collection Studies, Education Series No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Alan

    The Council of the European Economic Community (EEC) developed a plan to increase student mobility in higher education across national borders. The plan is characterized by efforts at common policy in such matters as admission, credit transfer and equivalence, a student handbook on opportunities, and a plan for grants for short study visits in…

  16. The feasibility of community mobilisation for child injury prevention in rural Nepal: a programme for female community health volunteers.

    PubMed

    Pant, Puspa Raj; Budhathoki, Bharat; Ellis, Matthew; Manandhar, Dharma; Deave, Toity; Mytton, Julie

    2015-04-28

    Injuries accounted for 23% of all deaths in children and adolescents in Nepal during 2010 (n = 3,700). Despite this, there is no national death registration or injury surveillance system. Non-fatal injuries are many times more common than fatal injuries and may leave the injured person with lifelong consequences. Children in low-income settings are exposed to widespread risks of injuries but there is little awareness of how they can be prevented. Community mobilisation has been shown to be effective to reduce maternal and neonatal morbidity. This study aimed to develop a child safety programme and assess the feasibility of delivering the programme through a community mobilisation approach. We developed a culturally appropriate, educational programme for Female Community Health Volunteers that included both primary and secondary prevention materials for unintentional child injuries. We determined the feasibility of evaluating its effectiveness through the mobilisation of women's groups in rural Nepal. Ten women's groups across 9 wards in one village development committee area completed the programme during 6 monthly meetings. Parent-reported injuries were collected through a notification system established for this study. Experience of the programme by women's group participants and leaders was assessed through a structured questionnaire and process measures assessed the delivery and reach of the programme. Programme resources were developed for this setting and adapted following feedback from users. Nine FCHVs received first-aid training and shown how to use the facilitation manual and injury prevention resources. The FCHVs convened 10 women's groups to run over 6 months with 24-29 mothers attending each meeting (290 mothers participated in total). Each group presented their views on child injury risks and proposed prevention activities at local public meetings. Women reported 155 injuries to children under 18 years during 7 months of follow up using the

  17. Engaging for Excellence: Alumni Relations Programmes in European Higher Education. ICARS Report 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Advancement and Support of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The 2016 ICARS survey reports on data collected September 2015 to November 2015 in the International CASE Alumni Relations Survey. The findings are drawn from 84 responding institutions across 12 European countries. 76 percent of respondents are from the UK and 24 percent are from other European countries. ICARS emphasises the link between alumni…

  18. [From the Nuremberg Alliance Against Depression to a European network (EAAD)--extending community-based awareness-campaigns on national and European level].

    PubMed

    Hegerl, Ulrich; Schäfer, Rita

    2007-09-01

    With the aim to improve the care of depressed patients and to reduce suicidality, the Nuremberg Alliance Against Depression was initiated 2001 in the framework of the German Research Network on Depression and Suicidality (funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research). The Alliance's concept is based on an intervention on four levels: Co-operation with GPs, an information- and awareness-campaign for the broad public, educational training for multipliers such as teachers, priests or geriatric care-givers as well as the support and initiative of self-help-activities. After two years of intervention the number of suicidal acts, the study's main outcome criteria, was significantly reduced by 24 percent compared to the baseline and to a representative control region. Since 2002 the successful four-level-intervention, its concepts and materials have been adapted by other regions within Germany. Nearly 40 community-based local campaigns are forming the German Alliance Against Depression (GAD) and many more regions are interested. On international level the European Alliance Against Depression (EAAD) was established 2004. Funded by the European Commission the four-level-programme is implemented in 17 European countries.

  19. Empowering communities and strengthening systems to improve transgender health: outcomes from the Pehchan programme in India

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Simran; Mburu, Gitau; Arumugam, Viswanathan; Mattipalli, Naveen; Aher, Abhina; Mehta, Sonal; Robertson, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Transgender populations face inequalities in access to HIV, health and social services. In addition, there is limited documentation of models for providing appropriately tailored services and social support for transgender populations in low- and middle-income countries. This paper presents outcomes of the Global Fund-supported Pehchan programme, which aimed to strengthen community systems and provide HIV, health, legal and social services to transgender communities across 18 Indian states through a rights-based empowerment approach. Methods We used a pre- and post-intervention cross-sectional survey design with retrospective analysis of programmatic data. Using stratified sampling, we identified 268 transgender participants in six Indian states from a total of 48,280 transgender people served by Pehchan through 186 community-based organizations. We quantified the impact of interventions by comparing baseline and end line indicators of accessed health social and legal services. We also assessed end line self-efficacy and collective action with regard to social support networks. Results There were significant increases in community-based demand and use of tailored health, legal, social and psychological services over the time of the Pehchan programme. We report significant increases in access to condoms (12.5%, p<0.001) and condom use at last anal sex with both regular (18.1%, p<0.001) and casual (8.1%, p<0.001) male partners. Access to HIV outreach education and testing and counselling services significantly increased (20.10%, p<0.001; 33.7%, p<0.001). In addition, significant increases in access to emergency crisis response (19.7%, p<0.001), legal support (26.8%, p<0.001) and mental health services (33.0%, p<0.001) were identified. Finally, we note that the Pehchan programme successfully provided a platform for the formation, collectivization and visibility of peer support groups. Conclusions The Pehchan programme's community involvement, rights

  20. Empowering communities and strengthening systems to improve transgender health: outcomes from the Pehchan programme in India.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Simran; Mburu, Gitau; Arumugam, Viswanathan; Mattipalli, Naveen; Aher, Abhina; Mehta, Sonal; Robertson, James

    2016-01-01

    Transgender populations face inequalities in access to HIV, health and social services. In addition, there is limited documentation of models for providing appropriately tailored services and social support for transgender populations in low- and middle-income countries. This paper presents outcomes of the Global Fund-supported Pehchan programme, which aimed to strengthen community systems and provide HIV, health, legal and social services to transgender communities across 18 Indian states through a rights-based empowerment approach. We used a pre- and post-intervention cross-sectional survey design with retrospective analysis of programmatic data. Using stratified sampling, we identified 268 transgender participants in six Indian states from a total of 48,280 transgender people served by Pehchan through 186 community-based organizations. We quantified the impact of interventions by comparing baseline and end line indicators of accessed health social and legal services. We also assessed end line self-efficacy and collective action with regard to social support networks. There were significant increases in community-based demand and use of tailored health, legal, social and psychological services over the time of the Pehchan programme. We report significant increases in access to condoms (12.5%, p<0.001) and condom use at last anal sex with both regular (18.1%, p<0.001) and casual (8.1%, p<0.001) male partners. Access to HIV outreach education and testing and counselling services significantly increased (20.10%, p<0.001; 33.7%, p<0.001). In addition, significant increases in access to emergency crisis response (19.7%, p<0.001), legal support (26.8%, p<0.001) and mental health services (33.0%, p<0.001) were identified. Finally, we note that the Pehchan programme successfully provided a platform for the formation, collectivization and visibility of peer support groups. The Pehchan programme's community involvement, rights-based collectivization and gender

  1. Dietary Intake and Eating Behaviours of Obese New Zealand Children and Adolescents Enrolled in a Community-Based Intervention Programme

    PubMed Central

    Wynter, Lisa E.; Butler, Michelle S.; Grant, Cameron C.; Stewart, Joanna M.; Cave, Tami L.; Wild, Cervantée E. K.; Derraik, José G. B.; Cutfield, Wayne S.; Hofman, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to describe dietary intake and eating behaviours of obese children and adolescents, and also to determine how these differ in Indigenous versus non-Indigenous children at enrolment in an obesity programme. Methods Baseline dietary intake and eating behaviour records were assessed from those enrolled in a clinical unblinded randomised controlled trial of a multi-disciplinary intervention. The setting was a community-based obesity programme in Taranaki, New Zealand. Children or adolescents who were enrolled from January 2012 to August 2014, with a BMI ≥98th percentile or >91st centile with weight-related comorbidities were eligible. Results 239 participants (45% Māori, 45% NZ Europeans, 10% other ethnicities), aged 5–17 years were assessed. Two-thirds of participants experienced hyperphagia and half were not satiated after a meal. Comfort eating was reported by 62% of participants, and daily energy intake was above the recommended guidelines for 54%. Fruit and vegetable intake was suboptimal compared with the recommended 5 servings per day (mean 3.5 [SD = 1.9] servings per day), and the mean weekly breakfasts were less than the national average (5.9 vs 6.5; p<0.0001). Median sweet drink intake amongst Māori was twice that of NZ Europeans (250 vs 125 ml per day; p = 0.0002). Conclusions There was a concerning prevalence of abnormal eating behaviours and significant differences in dietary intake between obese participants and their national counterparts. Ethnic differences between Indigenous and non-Indigenous participants were also present, especially in relation to sweet drink consumption. Eating behaviours, especially sweet drink consumption and fruit/vegetable intake need to be addressed. PMID:27880804

  2. Illegal use of beta-adrenergic agonists: European Community.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, H A; Noordam, M Y; van Dooren-Flipsen, M M; Schilt, R; Roos, A H

    1998-01-01

    The use of veterinary medicinal products within the European Community is governed by a series of directives and regulations that describe the requirements for safety, quality, and efficacy of these products. Veterinary therapeutic use of beta-agonists has only been approved in the case of clenbuterol for bronchodilatation in horses and calves and for tocolysis in cows. No beta-agonists have been permitted in the European Community for growth-promoting purposes in farm animals. Surveillance for the presence of residues of veterinary agents in food-producing animals and meat is regulated by the Directive 86/469/EEC containing specific guidelines for sampling procedures on farms and in slaughterhouses. The level and frequency of sampling is dependent on the category of compounds and animal species. When positive samples have been identified (above certain action levels), sampling intensity is increased. Results of monitoring programs in EU member states during 1992 and 1993 for the occurrence of residues of beta-agonists in food-producing animals vary substantially with respect to the percentages of positive samples, ranging from 0 to 7%. The variability is partly explained by differences in sampling strategies, detection methods, and action levels applied. Identification of the proper matrices for sampling and detection of beta-agonists is important. In the case of clenbuterol, hair and choroid retinal tissue are appropriate tissues because clenbuterol accumulates in these matrices. A clear decrease in the use of clenbuterol in cattle has been observed in The Netherlands, Germany, Northern Ireland, and Spanish Basque Country over the last 3 yr. This is partly due to intensified surveillance activities at farms and slaughterhouses by governmental agencies and production sector organizations. There are data on human intoxication following consumption of liver or meat from cattle treated with beta-agonists. At the concentrations of clenbuterol measured in contaminated

  3. The impact of a community-based health education programme on oral cancer risk factor awareness among a Gujarati community.

    PubMed

    Siddique, I; Mitchell, D A

    2013-08-01

    To determine any differences in oral cancer risk factor awareness and behaviour among first and second generation Gujarati muslims and to investigate the impact of a community-based health education programme on oral cancer risk factor awareness. Respondents completed a confidential, bilingual questionnaire in English and Gujarati regarding alcohol, tobacco, paan, sopari, paan masala and gutka use before and after a community-based health education programme on oral cancer risk factors. Community Health Fair. Indian Muslim Welfare Association, Batley, West Yorkshire. Ninety-six male and female Gujarati muslims aged 16 to 81 years. Quantitative results on oral cancer risk factor awareness before and after a health education programme. Quantitative figures obtained from the questionnaire with regards to alcohol, tobacco, paan, sopari, paan masala and gutka usage. There were very low levels of alcohol consumption among Gujarati muslims. First generation Gujarati males consumed significantly more tobacco than second generation Gujarati males, difference in proportion 0.30 (0.03 to 0.56, p = 0.03). There was complete absence of paan use among Gujarati females. First generation Gujarati males consumed significantly higher amounts of sopari compared with their male counterparts in the second generation (p = 0.003). There were very low rates of paan masala use. Only first generation Gujarati males consumed gutka. Significantly more first generation males and females correctly identified all oral cancer risk factors after the health education intervention compared with baseline (difference 0.40, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.57, p = <0.001). Significantly more second generation males and females correctly identified all oral cancer risk factors after the health education intervention compared with baseline (difference 0.45, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.61, p = <0.001). Our study demonstrated significant differences in oral cancer risk factor awareness and practices among first and second generation

  4. Staff perceptions of change resulting from participation in a European cancer accreditation programme: a snapshot from eight cancer centres.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Abinaya; Wind, Anke; Saghatchian, Mahasti; Thonon, Frederique; Boomsma, Femke; van Harten, Wim H

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare accreditation is considered to be an essential quality improvement tool. However, its effectiveness has been critiqued. Twenty-four interviews were conducted with clinicians (five), nurses (six), managers (eight), and basic/translational researchers (five) from eight European cancer centres on changes observed from participating in a European cancer accreditation programme. Data were thematically analysed and verified with participants and checked against auditor's feedback. Four change categories emerged: (i) the growing importance of the nursing and supportive care field (role change). Nurses gained more autonomy/clarity on their daily duties. Importance was given to the hiring and training of supportive care personnel (ii) critical thinking on data integration (strategic change). Managers gained insight on how to integrate institutional level data (iii) improved processes within multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings (procedural change). Clinical staff experienced improved communication between MDTs (iv) building trust (organisational change). Accreditation improved the centre's credibility with its own staff and externally with funders and patients. No motivational changes were perceived. Researchers perceived no changes. The auditor's feedback included changes in 13 areas: translational research, biobanks, clinical trials, patient privacy and satisfaction, cancer registries, clinical practice guidelines, patient education, screening, primary prevention, role of nurses, MDT, supportive care, and data integration. However, our study revealed that staff perceived changes only in the last four areas. Staff perceived changes in data integration, nursing and supportive care, and in certain clinical aspects. Accreditation programmes must pay attention to the needs of different stakeholder groups, track changes, and observe how/why change happens.

  5. Will European agricultural policy for school fruit and vegetables improve public health? A review of school fruit and vegetable programmes.

    PubMed

    de Sa, Joia; Lock, Karen

    2008-12-01

    For the first time, public health, particularly obesity, is being seen as a driver of EU agricultural policy. In 2007, European Ministers of Agriculture were asked to back new proposals for school fruit and vegetable programmes as part of agricultural reforms. In 2008, the European Commission conducted an impact assessment to assess the potential impact of this new proposal on health, agricultural markets, social equality and regional cohesion. A systematic review of the effectiveness of interventions to promote fruit and/or vegetable consumption in children in schools, to inform the EC policy development process. School schemes are effective at increasing both intake and knowledge. Of the 30 studies included, 70% increased fruits and vegetables (FV) intake, with none decreasing intake. Twenty-three studies had follow-up periods >1 year and provide some evidence that FV schemes can have long-term impacts on consumption. Only one study led to both increased fruit and vegetable intake and reduction in weight. One study showed that school fruit and vegetable schemes can also help to reduce inequalities in diet. Effective school programmes have used a range of approaches and been organized in ways which vary nationally depending on differences in food supply chain and education systems. EU agriculture policy for school fruits and vegetables schemes should be an effective approach with both public health and agricultural benefits. Aiming to increase FV intake amongst a new generation of consumers, it will support a range of EU policies including obesity and health inequalities.

  6. Pan-European resistance monitoring programmes encompassing food-borne bacteria and target pathogens of food-producing and companion animals.

    PubMed

    de Jong, A; Thomas, V; Klein, U; Marion, H; Moyaert, H; Simjee, S; Vallé, M

    2013-05-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a concern both for animal and human health. Veterinary programmes monitoring resistance of animal and zoonotic pathogens are therefore essential. Various European countries have implemented national surveillance programmes, particularly for zoonotic and commensal bacteria, and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is compiling the data. However, harmonisation is identified as a weakness and an essential need in order to compare data across countries. Comparisons of resistance monitoring data among national programmes are hampered by differences between programmes, such as sampling and testing methodology, and different epidemiological cut-off values or clinical breakpoints. Moreover, only very few valid data are available regarding target pathogens both of farm and companion animals. The European Animal Health Study Centre (CEESA) attempts to fill these gaps. The resistance monitoring programmes of CEESA have been a collaboration of veterinary pharmaceutical companies for over a decade and include two different projects: the European Antimicrobial Susceptibility Surveillance in Animals (EASSA) programme, which collects food-borne bacteria at slaughter from healthy animals, and the pathogen programmes that collect first-intention target pathogens from acutely diseased animals. The latter comprises three subprogrammes: VetPath; MycoPath; and ComPath. All CEESA projects include uniform sample collection and bacterial identification to species level in various European Union (EU) member states. A central laboratory conducts quantitative susceptibility testing to antimicrobial agents either important in human medicine or commonly used in veterinary medicine. This 'methodology harmonisation' allows easy comparisons among EU member states and makes the CEESA programmes invaluable to address food safety and antibiotic efficacy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  7. What works and why? Evaluation of a community nutrition programme in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Havemann, Kirsten; Pridmore, Pat; Tomkins, Andrew; Garn, Kristine Dandanell

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the nutritional impact of a community-based programme that focused on social cohesion and action. The change in nutritional status of children aged 12–60 months was examined over a period of 3 years in Makueni District in Eastern Province of Kenya in six communities in which an intervention programme of Participatory Learning and Action was introduced and in ten communities in which only basic preparations were made but no intervention was started. The intervention was part of the Government of Kenya Community Based Nutrition Programme and was supported by the Government of Denmark. Children aged 12–60 months. Among communities without intervention there were similar levels of underweight (mean Z-score: −1·63 v. −1·50 (NS); % with Z-score<–2: 36·6% v. 34·5% (NS)) and stunting (mean Z-score: −2·0 v. −1·99 (NS); % with Z-score<–2: 44·3% and 47·4% (NS)) at baseline and after 3 years. By contrast, among communities who had received interventions, there were significant improvements after 3 years in the levels of underweight (mean Z-score: −1·66 v. −1·37 (P<0·02); % with Z-score <–2: 42·9% v. 31·4% (P<0·035)) and stunting (mean Z-score: −2·05 v. −1·59 (P<0·05); % with Z-score<–2: 52·7% v. 39·7% (P<0·02)). The results indicate considerable potential for using Participatory Learning and Action as a community-based approach to effectively address child undernutrition. It is suggested that these interventions are developed, implemented and evaluated more widely as a mean of tackling childhood undernutrition and improving child survival and development.

  8. Patients’ experiences of a multidisciplinary team-led community case management programme: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Gowing, Alice; Dickinson, Claire; Gorman, Tom; Robinson, Louise; Duncan, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the views and experiences of patients on the care they have received while enrolled on the Northumberland High Risk Patient Programme (NHRPP). This programme involved case finding of frail patients using a multidisciplinary team (MDT)-led community case management programme, and support of patients through care planning and regular reviews using primary, community, secondary and social care professionals. Design A qualitative study using semistructured interviews, which were digitally recorded, transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. Setting Community patients receiving primary care in the county of Northumberland, England. Participants 23 participants took part, of which 16 were patients enrolled on the NHRPP, and 7 carers. GP practices were selected purposively by size, deprivation and location, and patients identified and invited by General Practitioners to participate. Results 4 main themes emerged from the data: awareness and understanding of the NHRPP, confidence in the primary healthcare team, limitations of home care and the active role of being a patient. Despite having a low level of awareness of the details of the NHRPP, participants did think that its broad aim made sense. Participants discussed their high level of satisfaction with their care and access to team members. However, some limitations of alternatives to hospital care were identified, including the need to consider psychological as well as medical needs, the importance of overnight care and the needs of those without informal carers. Finally, participants discussed the active nature of being a patient under the NHRPP if they were to contribute fully to planning and managing their own care. Conclusions This study has identified that a programme of MDT-led case management was generally very well received by patients and their families. However, a number of factors were identified that could improve the implementation of the programme and further research needs to be

  9. Using a centralised database system and server in the European Union Framework Programme 7 project SEPServer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heynderickx, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The main objective of the SEPServer project (EU FP7 project 262773) is to produce a new tool, which greatly facilitates the investigation of solar energetic particles (SEPs) and their origin: a server providing SEP data, related electromagnetic (EM) observations and analysis methods, a comprehensive catalogue of the observed SEP events, and educational/outreach material on solar eruptions. The project is coordinated by the University of Helsinki. The project will combine data and knowledge from 11 European partners and several collaborating parties from Europe and US. The datasets provided by the consortium partners are collected in a MySQL database (using the ESA Open Data Interface under licence) on a server operated by DH Consultancy, which also hosts a web interface providing browsing, plotting and post-processing and analysis tools developed by the consortium, as well as a Solar Energetic Particle event catalogue. At this stage of the project, a prototype server has been established, which is presently undergoing testing by users inside the consortium. Using a centralized database has numerous advantages, including: homogeneous storage of the data, which eliminates the need for dataset specific file access routines once the data are ingested in the database; a homogeneous set of metadata describing the datasets on both a global and detailed level, allowing for automated access to and presentation of the various data products; standardised access to the data in different programming environments (e.g. php, IDL); elimination of the need to download data for individual data requests. SEPServer will, thus, add value to several space missions and Earth-based observations by facilitating the coordinated exploitation of and open access to SEP data and related EM observations, and promoting correct use of these data for the entire space research community. This will lead to new knowledge on the production and transport of SEPs during solar eruptions and facilitate the

  10. Performance indicators evaluation of the population-based breast cancer screening programme in Northern Portugal using the European Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Bento, Maria José; Gonçalves, Guilherme; Aguiar, Ana; Castro, Clara; Veloso, Vitor; Rodrigues, Vítor

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the first 10 years of operation of the population-based breast cancer screening programme implemented in the Northern Region of Portugal, using selected recommended standard performance indicators. Data from women aged 50-69 screened with two-view mammography, biennially, in the period 2000-2009, were included. Main performance indicators were compared with the recommended levels of the European Guidelines. A total of 202,039 screening examinations were performed, 71,731 (35.5%) in the initial screening and 130,308 (64.5%) in the subsequent screening. Coverage rate by examination reached 74.3% of the target population, in the last period evaluated. Recall rates were 8.1% and 2.4% and cancer detection rates were 4.4/1000 and 2.9/1000 respectively, for initial and subsequent screenings. The breast cancer detection rate, expressed as a multiple of the background expected incidence was 3.1 in initial screen and 2.2 in subsequent screen. The incidence of invasive interval cancers met the desirable recommended levels both the first and second years since last screening examination, in the initial and subsequent screenings. Invasive tumours <15mm were 50.4% and 53.8% of the invasive cancers detected in initial and subsequent screenings. Less favourable size, grading and biomarkers expression were found in interval cancers compared to screen-detected cancers. Breast cancer screening programme in the Northern Region of Portugal was well accepted by the population. Most of the performance indicators were consistent with the desirable levels of the European Guidelines, which indicate an effective screening programme. Future research should verify the consistency of some of these results by using updated information from a larger population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Population trends in the European Community, 1960-1986.

    PubMed

    Chesnais, J C

    1988-07-01

    Recent trends in fertility, marriage patterns and family formation in the 12 nations of the European Community are discussed. The total period fertility rate in this group of nations has dropped sharply (42%) since 1960, so that the annual growth was 0.15% in 1986. Immigration and the rate of mortality decline have also slowed. There are some variations in regional or national fertility, and in population growth as a result of age structure. The rate of population growth is slowing in all nations except Greece, Ireland and Portugal. The U.K., Belgium, Luxembourg and Denmark have experienced zero growth since 1980. Italy is close to zero growth. France, Netherlands and Spain have higher growth due to age structure. Ireland continues to grow at 1% yearly. In general, large families are disappearing, although different patterns are evident in various states. France shows high progression to the 1st child; many German couples choose to remain childless. People are marrying older, remaining unmarried, divorcing sooner, cohabiting before or after marriage. Non-marital births are common, especially in nordic countries, but still rare in Mediterranean countries. The restricted family norm, of 0, 1, or 2 children is becoming uniform, resulting in fertility well below, 15-40% of replacement.

  12. Service and infrastructure needs to support recovery programmes for Indigenous community mental health consumers.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Jan M; Cleary, Michelle; Hunt, Glenn E; Burmeister, Oliver K

    2017-04-01

    Mental health is a major concern in Indigenous communities, as Indigenous people experience poorer health outcomes generally, and poorer social and emotional well-being throughout their lives, compared to non-Indigenous populations. Interviews were conducted with 20 mental health workers from a housing assistance programme for Indigenous clients with mental illness. Service and infrastructure needs identified to support clients were classified under the following overarching theme 'supports along the road to recovery'. Subthemes were: (i) It is OK to seek help; (ii) linking in to the local community; (iii) trusting the workers; and (iv) help with goal setting and having activities that support their achievement. This paper highlights the importance of targeted housing and accommodation support programmes for Indigenous people to prevent homelessness, and the essential services and infrastructure required to support Indigenous clients' mental health needs. These insights may inform service review, workforce development, and further research. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  13. Establishing a Korean Language Programme in a European Higher Education Context: Rationale, Curriculum and Assessment Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Lorna; Do, Eunjee

    2013-01-01

    A growth in interest in Korean contemporary culture in Europe has benefitted Korean language studies in Higher Education. This article describes an innovative Korean language programme in the School of Linguistic, Speech and Communication Sciences at Trinity College Dublin, Ireland. Since its establishment as a pilot project in 2010, the Korean…

  14. Establishing a Korean Language Programme in a European Higher Education Context: Rationale, Curriculum and Assessment Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Lorna; Do, Eunjee

    2013-01-01

    A growth in interest in Korean contemporary culture in Europe has benefitted Korean language studies in Higher Education. This article describes an innovative Korean language programme in the School of Linguistic, Speech and Communication Sciences at Trinity College Dublin, Ireland. Since its establishment as a pilot project in 2010, the Korean…

  15. The female community health volunteer programme in Nepal: decision makers' perceptions of volunteerism, payment and other incentives.

    PubMed

    Glenton, Claire; Scheel, Inger B; Pradhan, Sabina; Lewin, Simon; Hodgins, Stephen; Shrestha, Vijaya

    2010-06-01

    The Female Community Health Volunteer (FCHV) Programme in Nepal has existed since the late 1980s and includes almost 50,000 volunteers. Although volunteer programmes are widely thought to be characterised by high attrition levels, the FCHV Programme loses fewer than 5% of its volunteers annually. The degree to which decision makers understand community health worker motivations and match these with appropriate incentives is likely to influence programme sustainability. The purpose of this study was to explore the views of stakeholders who have participated in the design and implementation of the Female Community Health Volunteer regarding Volunteer motivation and appropriate incentives, and to compare these views with the views and expectations of Volunteers. Semi-structured interviews were carried out in 2009 with 19 purposively selected non-Volunteer stakeholders, including policy makers and programme managers. Results were compared with data from previous studies of Female Community Health Volunteers and from interviews with four Volunteers and two Volunteer activists. Stakeholders saw Volunteers as motivated primarily by social respect, religious and moral duty. The freedom to deliver services at their leisure was seen as central to the volunteer concept. While stakeholders also saw the need for extrinsic incentives such as micro-credit, regular wages were regarded not only as financially unfeasible, but as a potential threat to the Volunteers' social respect, and thereby to their motivation. These views were reflected in interviews with and previous studies of Female Community Health Volunteers, and appear to be influenced by a tradition of volunteering as moral behaviour, a lack of respect for paid government workers, and the Programme's community embeddedness. Our study suggests that it may not be useful to promote a generic range of incentives, such as wages, to improve community health worker programme sustainability. Instead, programmes should ensure that

  16. Can local communities 'sustain' HIV/AIDS programmes? A South African example.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Andrew; Campbell, Catherine; Maimane, Sbongile

    2015-03-01

    Globally, there is a renewed interest in building the local sustainability of HIV/AIDS programmes to ensure that once funders withdraw, local communities can sustain programmes. While the 'local sustainability assumption' is widespread, little research has assessed this. In this article, we assess the sustainability of the Entabeni Project, a community-based intervention that sought to build women's local leadership and capacity to respond to HIV/AIDS through a group of volunteer carers, 3 years after external support was withdrawn. Overall, the sustainability of the Entabeni Project was limited. The wider social and political context undermined volunteer carers' sense that they could affect change, with little external support for them from government and NGOs, who struggled to engage with local community organizations. At the community level, some church leaders and community members recognized the important role of health volunteers, many continued to devalue the work of the carers, especially once there was no external organization to support and validate their work. Within the health volunteer group, despite extensive efforts to change dynamics, it remained dominated by a local male leader who denied others active participation while lacking the skills to meaningfully lead the project. Our case study suggests that the local-sustainability assumption is wishful thinking. Small-scale local projects are unlikely to be able to challenge the broader social and political dynamics hindering their sustainability without meaningful external support.

  17. Synthesising practice guidelines for the development of community-based exercise programmes after stroke

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple guidelines are often available to inform practice in complex interventions. Guidance implementation may be facilitated if it is tailored to particular clinical issues and contexts. It should also aim to specify all elements of interventions that may mediate and modify effectiveness, including both their content and delivery. We conducted a focused synthesis of recommendations from stroke practice guidelines to produce a structured and comprehensive account to facilitate the development of community-based exercise programmes after stroke. Methods Published stroke clinical practice guidelines were searched for recommendations relevant to the content and delivery of community-based exercise interventions after stroke. These were synthesised using a framework based on target intervention outcomes, personal and programme proximal objectives, and recommended strategies. Results Nineteen guidelines were included in the synthesis (STRIDES; STroke Rehabilitation Intervention-Development Evidence Synthesis). Eight target outcomes, 14 proximal objectives, and 94 recommended strategies were identified. The synthesis was structured to present best practice recommendations in a format that could be used by intervention programme developers. It addresses both programme content and context, including personal factors, service standards and delivery issues. Some recommendations relating to content, and many relating to delivery and other contextual issues, were based on low level evidence or expert opinion. Where opinion varied, the synthesis indicates the range of best practice options suggested in guidelines. Conclusions The synthesis may assist implementation of best practice by providing a structured intervention description that focuses on a particular clinical application, addresses practical issues involved in programme development and provision, and illustrates the range of best-practice options available to users where robust evidence is lacking. The

  18. Amsterdam's STI/HIV Programme: An Innovative Strategy to Achieve and Enhance the Participation of Migrant Community-Based Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagemakers, Annemarie; van Husen, Gwen; Barrett, Jennifer B.; Koelen, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The STI/HIV prevention programme in Amsterdam aims to improve the sexual health of Amsterdam residents of African, Antillean, Aruban and Surinamese origins. The programme strategy is to achieve and enhance the participation of migrant community-based organisations (CBOs) in sexual health promotion through a grant scheme and by providing…

  19. Development of a Community-Based Sex Offender Treatment Programme for Adult Male Clients with a Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Helen

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the development of a community-based sex offender treatment programme for learning disabled clients (CB-SOTP-LD), the Keep Safe Programme (KSP), by the Learning Disabilities Team of County Durham and Darlington Priority Services (CDDPS) NHS Trust. The aim of this paper, by the treatment lead, is to share experiences of…

  20. Development of a Community-Based Sex Offender Treatment Programme for Adult Male Clients with a Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Helen

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the development of a community-based sex offender treatment programme for learning disabled clients (CB-SOTP-LD), the Keep Safe Programme (KSP), by the Learning Disabilities Team of County Durham and Darlington Priority Services (CDDPS) NHS Trust. The aim of this paper, by the treatment lead, is to share experiences of…

  1. "For Some Reason, I'm Just Tired": Women Domestic Workers Persisting in Community-Based Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuban, Sondra

    2007-01-01

    A study of women migrant domestic workers in the USA and their reasons for participating and persisting in community-based literacy and ESOL programmes is presented. Case studies and themes were developed about the women's experiences of work life and how it connected to their programme participation. The findings revealed that the women had…

  2. Amsterdam's STI/HIV Programme: An Innovative Strategy to Achieve and Enhance the Participation of Migrant Community-Based Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagemakers, Annemarie; van Husen, Gwen; Barrett, Jennifer B.; Koelen, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The STI/HIV prevention programme in Amsterdam aims to improve the sexual health of Amsterdam residents of African, Antillean, Aruban and Surinamese origins. The programme strategy is to achieve and enhance the participation of migrant community-based organisations (CBOs) in sexual health promotion through a grant scheme and by providing…

  3. Effect on mortality of community-based maternity-care programme in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Fauveau, V; Stewart, K; Khan, S A; Chakraborty, J

    1991-11-09

    Various community-based interventions have been proposed to improve maternity care, but hardly any studies have reported the effect of these measures on maternal mortality. In this study, the efficacy of a maternity-care programme to reduce maternal mortality has been evaluated in the context of a primary health-care project in rural Bangladesh. Trained midwives were posted in villages, and asked to attend as many home-deliveries as possible, detect and manage obstetric complications at onset, and accompany patients requiring referral for higher-level care to the project central maternity clinic. The effect of the programme was evaluated by comparison of direct obstetric maternal mortality ratios between the programme area and a neighbouring control area without midwives. Random assignment of the intervention was not possible but potentially confounding characteristics, including coverage and use of other health and family planning services, were similar in both areas. Maternal mortality ratios due to obstetric complications were similar in both areas during the 3 years preceding the start of the programme. By contrast, during the following 3 years, the ratio was significantly lower in the programme than in the control area (1.4 vs 3.8 per 1000 live births, p = 0.02). The findings suggest that maternal survival can be improved by the posting of midwives at village level, if they are given proper training, means, supervision, and back-up. The inputs for such a programme to succeed and the constraints of its replication on a large scale should not be underestimated.

  4. Free antibiotic and vaccination programmes in community pharmacies of Miami-Dade County, FL, USA.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Timothy P; Suda, Katie J; Mathur, Sunil Kumar; Harriman, David; Pham, Jenny; Aragon, Laura; Abbo, Lilian M; Hooton, Thomas M

    2015-02-01

    Some community pharmacies provide prescribed oral antibiotics for free to incentivize customers. This can influence prescribing practices and may increase inappropriate antibiotic use. Thus, pleas to incorporate education and/or vaccinations into these initiatives have been made by the CDC and IDSA. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of free antibiotic programmes (FAPs) and free vaccination programmes (FVPs) offered by community pharmacies within a major US county. Additionally, we evaluated the association between FAP location and proximate socioeconomic status. A telephone survey was administered to all community pharmacies in operation and located in Miami-Dade County, FL, USA (n=668). Population characteristics at the five-digit ZIP code level were acquired from the 2010 US Census and American Communities Survey. An independent t-test, Kruskal-Wallis and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. A total of 660 community pharmacies agreed to the telephone survey (response rate=98.8%). FAPs were present in 6.8% of pharmacies (n=45) and none incorporated an educational component targeted at patients or prescribers. Ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin were offered by all FAPs and 84.4% provided up to a 14 day supply (n=38). Thirty-four of 72 ZIP codes had an FAP and those with a programme had larger populations and higher incomes (P≤0.05). Family income≥$75,000 (P=0.0002) was an independent predictor of FAP availability. None of the surveyed pharmacies offered a FVP. Frequently provided by chain pharmacies and located in areas of higher income, FAPs within Miami-Dade County offer broad-spectrum antibiotics for long durations without additional education to patients or prescribers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Presence, characteristics and equity of access to breast cancer screening programmes in 27 European countries in 2010 and 2014. Results from an international survey.

    PubMed

    Deandrea, S; Molina-Barceló, A; Uluturk, A; Moreno, J; Neamtiu, L; Peiró-Pérez, R; Saz-Parkinson, Z; Lopez-Alcalde, J; Lerda, D; Salas, D

    2016-10-01

    The European Union Council Recommendation of 2 December 2003 on cancer screening suggests the implementation of organised, population-based breast cancer screening programmes based on mammography every other year for women aged 50 to 69years, ensuring equal access to screening, taking into account potential needs for targeting particular socioeconomic groups. A European survey on coverage and participation, and key organisational and policy characteristics of the programmes, targeting years 2010 and 2014, was undertaken in 2014. Overall, 27 countries contributed to this survey, 26 of the 28 European Union member states (92.9%) plus Norway. In 2014, 25 countries reported an ongoing population-based programme, one country reported a pilot programme and another was planning a pilot. In eight countries, the target age range was broader than that proposed by the Council Recommendation, and in three countries the full range was not covered. Fifteen countries reported not reaching some vulnerable populations, such as immigrants, prisoners and people without health insurance, while 22 reported that participation was periodically monitored by socioeconomic variables (e.g. age and territory). Organised, population-based breast cancer screening programmes based on routine mammograms are in place in most EU member states. However, there are still differences in the way screening programmes are implemented, and participation by vulnerable populations should be encouraged.

  6. Preventing deaths and injuries from house fires: an outcome evaluation of a community-based smoke alarm installation programme.

    PubMed

    Istre, Gregory R; McCoy, Mary A; Moore, Billy J; Roper, Carey; Stephens-Stidham, Shelli; Barnard, Jeffrey J; Carlin, Debra K; Stowe, Martha; Anderson, Ron J

    2014-04-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of community-based smoke alarm (SA) distribution programmes on the occurrence of house fire-related deaths and injuries (HF-D/I). To determine whether the rate of HF-D/I differed for programme houses that had a SA installed through a community-based programme called Operation Installation, versus non-programme houses in the same census tracts that had not received such a SA. Teams of volunteers and firefighters canvassed houses in 36 high-risk target census tracts in Dallas, TX, between April 2001 and April 2011, and installed lithium-powered SAs in houses where residents were present and gave permission. We then followed incidence of HF-D/I among residents of the 8134 programme houses versus the 24 346 non-programme houses. After a mean of 5.2 years of follow-up, the unadjusted HF-D/I rate was 68% lower among residents of programme houses versus non-programme houses (3.1 vs 9.6 per 100 000 population, respectively; rate ratio, 0.32; 95% CI 0.10 to 0.84). Multivariate analysis including several demographic variables showed that the adjusted HF-D/I rate in programme houses was 63% lower than non-programme houses. The programme was most effective in the first 5 years after SA installation, with declining difference in rates after the 6th year, probably due to SAs becoming non-functional during that time. This collaborative, community-based SA installation programme was effective at preventing deaths and injuries from house fires, but the duration of effectiveness was less than 10 years.

  7. University-Enterprise Institutions in Technology Networks. A Study from European RTD Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Arroyabe, Juan Carlos; Arranz, Nieves

    2000-01-01

    A study of 85 university-enterprise training partnerships in the European Union found that their location (academia, business-industry, or technology centers) influenced their functions and autonomy. Most had structural flexibility and a high-skill work force. They facilitate technological development by forming relationships, advising,…

  8. Accreditation and Quality Assurance for Professional Degree Programmes: Comparing Approaches in Three European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Andrea; Kurth, Detlef; Mironowicz, Izabela

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, considerable progress has been made in establishing and implementing robust, comparable quality assurance processes throughout much of the European higher education sector. However, concerns persist over degree portability and recognition as current systems are rooted in national contexts. In particular, specialised…

  9. Accreditation and Quality Assurance for Professional Degree Programmes: Comparing Approaches in Three European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Andrea; Kurth, Detlef; Mironowicz, Izabela

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, considerable progress has been made in establishing and implementing robust, comparable quality assurance processes throughout much of the European higher education sector. However, concerns persist over degree portability and recognition as current systems are rooted in national contexts. In particular, specialised…

  10. Case-control and qualitative study of attrition in a community epilepsy programme in rural India.

    PubMed

    Pal, D K; Das, T; Sengupta, S

    2000-03-01

    Dropout from epilepsy programmes is a serious problem in developing countries and has not been systematically studied before. We set up a community-based programme for children with epilepsy in rural India. The aim of this study was to assess reasons for dropout. We assessed medical and sociodemographic variables for their effect on dropout at 12 months using an unmatched case-control design on 32 cases and 62 controls. We also interviewed the parents of 32 children who dropped out of treatment, using a topic schedule. Two-thirds of the dropouts occurred within the first 6 months of treatment. Severely impaired children were more likely to drop out (odds ratio 4.60, 95% CI: 1.0-21.0) and families who had tried AEDs before were less likely to do so (odds ratio 0.12, 95% CI: 0.015-0.88). Denial of diagnosis, access problems and symptom resolution were the other main reasons underlying attrition. Active ascertainment methods should be reconsidered in community programmes. Very poor families without a male head or with long journey times are at high risk of dropout. People with severe impairments need appropriate integrated rehabilitation.

  11. From Action to Insight: A Professional Learning Community's Experiences with the European Language Portfolio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristmanson, Paula Lee; Lafargue, Chantal; Culligan, Karla

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on an action research project set in the context of one professional learning community's (PLC's) exploration of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) and the European Language Portfolio (ELP). Teachers of second and foreign languages in a large urban high school examined the potential of principles and tools related…

  12. Factors in the Spread of Continuing Training in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aventur, Francois; Campo, Christian; Moebus, Martine

    1999-01-01

    A study compared 17 European countries' initial and continuing vocational training systems. Two kinds of continuing training (CT)--that which is initiated by the employer and that which is intiated by the individual--provide an indicator for comparing the different situations observed throughout the European Community. The two forms are mutually…

  13. Paediatric cardiac surgery in a peripheral European region: is a joint programme a safe alternative to regionalisation?

    PubMed

    Iacona, Gabriele M; Giamberti, Alessandro; Abella, Raul F; Pomè, Giuseppe; Agredo, Julio; Mendieta, Saúl G; Forcano, Antonio; Sobrado, Concepción; Suaréz, Josepha; Peñate, Sonia; Melián, Asunción; Volo, Montserrat; González, Rafael; Antúnez, Marisa L; Falcón, Hipólito L; Cabrera, Francisco J; Rubio, Carlos; Fernández, Javier; Suárez, Pedro; Perera, Cesar; Frigiola, Alessandro

    2017-03-01

    In 2007, a partnership was initiated between a small-volume paediatric cardiac surgery unit located in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, and a large-volume cardiac surgery unit located in Milan, Italy. The main goal of this partnership was to provide surgical treatment to children with CHD in the Canary Islands. An operative algorithm for performing surgery in elective, urgent, and emergency cases was adopted by the this joint programme. Demographic and in-hospital variables were collected from the medical records of all the patients who had undergone surgical intervention for CHD from January, 2009 to March, 2013. Data were introduced into the congenital database of the European Congenital Heart Surgeons Association Congenital Database and the database was interrogated. In total, 65 surgical mission trips were performed during the period of this study. The European Congenital Heart Surgeons Association Congenital Database documented 214 total patients with a mean age at operation of 36.45 months, 316 procedures in total with 198 cardiopulmonary bypass cases, 46 non-cardiopulmonary bypass cases, 26 cardiovascular cases without cardiopulmonary bypass, 22 miscellaneous other types of cases, 16 interventional cardiology cases, six thoracic cases, one non-cardiac, non-thoracic procedure on a cardiac patient with cardiac anaesthesia, and one extracorporeal membrane oxygenation case. The 30-day mortality was 6.07% (13 patients). A joint programme between a small-volume centre and a large-volume centre may represent a valid and reproducible model for safe paediatric cardiac surgery in the context of a peripheral region.

  14. Staff perceptions of change resulting from participation in a European cancer accreditation programme: a snapshot from eight cancer centres

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Abinaya; Wind, Anke; Saghatchian, Mahasti; Thonon, Frederique; Boomsma, Femke; van Harten, Wim H

    2015-01-01

    Background Healthcare accreditation is considered to be an essential quality improvement tool. However, its effectiveness has been critiqued. Methods Twenty-four interviews were conducted with clinicians (five), nurses (six), managers (eight), and basic/translational researchers (five) from eight European cancer centres on changes observed from participating in a European cancer accreditation programme. Data were thematically analysed and verified with participants and checked against auditor’s feedback. Results Four change categories emerged: (i) the growing importance of the nursing and supportive care field (role change). Nurses gained more autonomy/clarity on their daily duties. Importance was given to the hiring and training of supportive care personnel (ii) critical thinking on data integration (strategic change). Managers gained insight on how to integrate institutional level data (iii) improved processes within multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings (procedural change). Clinical staff experienced improved communication between MDTs (iv) building trust (organisational change). Accreditation improved the centre’s credibility with its own staff and externally with funders and patients. No motivational changes were perceived. Researchers perceived no changes. The auditor’s feedback included changes in 13 areas: translational research, biobanks, clinical trials, patient privacy and satisfaction, cancer registries, clinical practice guidelines, patient education, screening, primary prevention, role of nurses, MDT, supportive care, and data integration. However, our study revealed that staff perceived changes only in the last four areas. Conclusion Staff perceived changes in data integration, nursing and supportive care, and in certain clinical aspects. Accreditation programmes must pay attention to the needs of different stakeholder groups, track changes, and observe how/why change happens. PMID:26180546

  15. Coverage of community-based management of severe acute malnutrition programmes in twenty-one countries, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Eleanor; Myatt, Mark; Woodhead, Sophie; Guerrero, Saul; Alvarez, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews coverage data from programmes treating severe acute malnutrition (SAM) collected between July 2012 and June 2013. This is a descriptive study of coverage levels and barriers to coverage collected by coverage assessments of community-based SAM treatment programmes in 21 countries that were supported by the Coverage Monitoring Network. Data from 44 coverage assessments are reviewed. These assessments analyse malnourished populations from 6 to 59 months old to understand the accessibility and coverage of services for treatment of acute malnutrition. The majority of assessments are from sub-Saharan Africa. Most of the programmes (33 of 44) failed to meet context-specific internationally agreed minimum standards for coverage. The mean level of estimated coverage achieved by the programmes in this analysis was 38.3%. The most frequently reported barriers to access were lack of awareness of malnutrition, lack of awareness of the programme, high opportunity costs, inter-programme interface problems, and previous rejection. This study shows that coverage of CMAM is lower than previous analyses of early CTC programmes; therefore reducing programme impact. Barriers to access need to be addressed in order to start improving coverage by paying greater attention to certain activities such as community sensitisation. As barriers are interconnected focusing on specific activities, such as decentralising services to satellite sites, is likely to increase significantly utilisation of nutrition services. Programmes need to ensure that barriers are continuously monitored to ensure timely removal and increased coverage.

  16. “Know your audience”: A hospital community engagement programme in a non-profit paediatric hospital in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Fox-Lewis, Shivani; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Turner, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this evaluation is to explore the impact of the new hospital community engagement programme (comprised of a Young Persons Advisory Group and a Science Café) on community members and other stakeholders, with regard to their attitudes, skills and degree of engagement in a paediatric hospital in Cambodia. Design Data collection included feedback questionnaires and reflections produced after each YPAG and Science Café event. Further questionnaires and reflective interviews were conducted to gather the views of key stakeholders. Data were analysed by thematic content analysis and numerical data were expressed using descriptive statistics. Results The vast majority of participants expressed their enjoyment and satisfaction of the hospital community engagement programme. Delivering the programme in the right manner for the target audiences, by prioritising their needs was key to this. Participants valued the programmes in terms of the knowledge delivered around good health practices, the skills developed such as confidence and responsibility for their health, and the provision of opportunities to voice their opinions. All stakeholders recognised the importance of the programme in improving the quality of the healthcare service provided at the hospital. Conclusions In order to have a successful hospital community engagement programme, understanding the target audience is essential. The engagement programme must be delivered in the right way to meet the needs of community members, including right communication, right setting, right people and right timing. This will ultimately result in a meaningful programme that is able to empower community members, potentially resulting in lasting change in healthcare practices. In conclusion, the gap between hospitals and the community could narrow, allowing everyone to interact and learn from each other. PMID:28771631

  17. "Know your audience": A hospital community engagement programme in a non-profit paediatric hospital in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Pol, Sreymom; Fox-Lewis, Shivani; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Turner, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this evaluation is to explore the impact of the new hospital community engagement programme (comprised of a Young Persons Advisory Group and a Science Café) on community members and other stakeholders, with regard to their attitudes, skills and degree of engagement in a paediatric hospital in Cambodia. Data collection included feedback questionnaires and reflections produced after each YPAG and Science Café event. Further questionnaires and reflective interviews were conducted to gather the views of key stakeholders. Data were analysed by thematic content analysis and numerical data were expressed using descriptive statistics. The vast majority of participants expressed their enjoyment and satisfaction of the hospital community engagement programme. Delivering the programme in the right manner for the target audiences, by prioritising their needs was key to this. Participants valued the programmes in terms of the knowledge delivered around good health practices, the skills developed such as confidence and responsibility for their health, and the provision of opportunities to voice their opinions. All stakeholders recognised the importance of the programme in improving the quality of the healthcare service provided at the hospital. In order to have a successful hospital community engagement programme, understanding the target audience is essential. The engagement programme must be delivered in the right way to meet the needs of community members, including right communication, right setting, right people and right timing. This will ultimately result in a meaningful programme that is able to empower community members, potentially resulting in lasting change in healthcare practices. In conclusion, the gap between hospitals and the community could narrow, allowing everyone to interact and learn from each other.

  18. Impact of community educational programmes on foreign body aspiration in Israel.

    PubMed

    Sadan, N; Raz, A; Wolach, B

    1995-10-01

    The study objectives were to determine the impact of a nationwide educational campaign on the incidence of foreign body aspiration (FBA) in Israeli children. Impressed by the alarming number of FBAs, we conducted an educational campaign through the media during 1982-1983. The campaign included television and radio broadcasts, newspaper articles and interviews, and medical educational programmes in community paediatric care centres. Questionnaires were sent to all Departments of Paediatrics in Israel. Results showed a reduction in the incidence of FBA by 35% in 1983 as compared to 1981. Re-evaluation studies conducted in 1992 showed no further reduction of FBA. CONCLUSION. Continuous and extensive educational programmes should be undertaken by the health authorities if FBA is to be prevented. Furthermore, it is important to legislate mandatory labelling of seed and nut containers with the warning that the intake of seeds is dangerous to children under 5 years of age.

  19. From efficacy to effectiveness: selecting indicators for a community-based lactational amenorrhoea method promotion programme.

    PubMed

    Bender, D E; Dusch, E; McCann, M F

    1998-04-01

    This paper reviews the results of clinical trials and community studies of lactational amenorrhoea and its role as a contraceptive method (LAM). Indicators which are used in efficacy trials and effectiveness interventions are compared and sets of indicators of effectiveness appropriate to community-based LAM programmes are recommended. A five-tiered ecological framework is used to facilitate selection of indicators which range from individual to policy level outcomes. The indicator framework is intended as a tool for health practitioners in family planning and maternal and child health service delivery settings who are interested in designing programmatic interventions for the promotion of LAM, particularly among less well-educated women of lower socioeconomic communities.

  20. The Applicability of Behaviour Change in Intervention Programmes Targeted at Ending Female Genital Mutilation in the EU: Integrating Social Cognitive and Community Level Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Katherine; Barrett, Hazel

    2013-01-01

    With increased migration, female genital mutilation (FGM) also referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting is no longer restricted to Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. The European Parliament estimates that up to half a million women living in the EU have been subjected to FGM, with a further 180,000 at risk. Aware of the limited success of campaigns addressing FGM, the World Health Organization recommended a behavioural change approach be implemented in order to end FGM. To date, however, little progress has been made in adopting a behaviour change approach in strategies aimed at ending FGM. Based on research undertaken as part of the EU's Daphne III programme, which researched FGM intervention programmes linked to African communities in the EU (REPLACE), this paper argues that behaviour change has not been implemented due to a lack of understanding relating to the application of the two broad categories of behaviour change approach: individualistic decision-theoretic and community-change game-theoretic approaches, and how they may be integrated to aid our understanding and the development of future intervention strategies. We therefore discuss how these can be integrated and implemented using community-based participatory action research methods with affected communities. PMID:23983698

  1. Outcomes of an integrated community-based nurse-led cardiovascular disease prevention programme

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, S B; Kotseva, K; Jennings, C; Atrey, A; Jones, J; Brown, A; Bassett, P; Wood, D A

    2017-01-01

    Background National guidance for England recommends that cardiovascular disease (CVD) should be managed as a family of diseases in the community. Here, we describe the results of such an approach. Methods Patients with established CVD or who were at high multifactorial risk (HRI) underwent a 12-week community-based nurse-led prevention programme (MyAction) that included lifestyle and risk factor management, prescription of medication and weekly exercise and education sessions. Results Over a 6-year period, 3232 patients attended an initial assessment; 63% were male, and 48% belonged to black and minority ethnic groups. 56% attended an end-of-programme assessment, and 33% attended a one year assessment. By the end of the programme, there was a significant reduction in smoking prevalence but only in HRI (−3.7%, p<0.001). Mediterranean diet score increased in both CVD (+1.2, p<0.001) and HRI (+1.5; p<0.001), as did fitness levels (CVD +0.8 estimated Mets maximum, p<0.001, HRI +0.9 estimated Mets maximum, p<0.001) and the proportions achieving their physical activity targets (CVD +40%, p<0.001, HRI +37%, p<0.001). There were significant increases in proportions achieving their blood pressure (CVD +15.4%, p<0.001, HRI +25%, p<0.001 and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol targets (CVD +6%, p=0.004, HRI +23%, p<0.001). Statins and antihypertensive medications significantly increased in HRI. Significant improvements in depression scores and quality-of-life measures were also seen. The majority of improvements were maintained at 1 year. Conclusion These results demonstrate that an integrated vascular prevention programme is feasible in practice and reduces cardiovascular risk in patients with established CVD and in those at high multifactorial risk. PMID:28255098

  2. Addressing the social determinants of health: a case study from the Mitanin (community health worker) programme in India

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The Mitanin Programme, a government community health worker (CHW) programme, was started in Chhattisgarh State of India in 2002. The CHWs (Mitanins) have consistently adopted roles that go beyond health programme-specific interventions to embrace community mobilization and action on local priorities. The aim of this research was to document how and why the Mitanins have been able to act on the social determinants of health, describing the catalysts and processes involved and the enabling programmatic and organizational factors. A qualitative comparative case study of successful action by Mitanin was conducted in two ‘blocks’, purposefully selected as positive exemplars in two districts of Chhattisgarh. One case focused on malnutrition and the other on gender-based violence. Data collection involved 17 in-depth interviews and 10 group interviews with the full range of stakeholders in both blocks, including community members and programme team. Thematic analysis was done using a broad conceptual framework that was further refined. Action on social determinants involved raising awareness on rights, mobilizing women’s collectives, revitalizing local political structures and social action targeting both the community and government service providers. Through these processes, the Mitanins developed identities as agents of change and advocates for the community, both with respect to local cultural and gender norms and in ensuring accountability of service providers. The factors underpinning successful action on social determinants were identified as the significance of the original intent and vision of the programme, and how this was carried through into all aspects of programme design, the role of the Mitanins and their identification with village women, ongoing training and support, and the relative autonomy of the programme. Although the results are not narrowly generalizable and do not necessarily represent the situation of the Mitanin Programme as a whole, the

  3. Addressing the social determinants of health: a case study from the Mitanin (community health worker) programme in India.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Sulakshana; Schneider, Helen

    2014-09-01

    The Mitanin Programme, a government community health worker (CHW) programme, was started in Chhattisgarh State of India in 2002. The CHWs (Mitanins) have consistently adopted roles that go beyond health programme-specific interventions to embrace community mobilization and action on local priorities. The aim of this research was to document how and why the Mitanins have been able to act on the social determinants of health, describing the catalysts and processes involved and the enabling programmatic and organizational factors. A qualitative comparative case study of successful action by Mitanin was conducted in two 'blocks', purposefully selected as positive exemplars in two districts of Chhattisgarh. One case focused on malnutrition and the other on gender-based violence. Data collection involved 17 in-depth interviews and 10 group interviews with the full range of stakeholders in both blocks, including community members and programme team. Thematic analysis was done using a broad conceptual framework that was further refined. Action on social determinants involved raising awareness on rights, mobilizing women's collectives, revitalizing local political structures and social action targeting both the community and government service providers. Through these processes, the Mitanins developed identities as agents of change and advocates for the community, both with respect to local cultural and gender norms and in ensuring accountability of service providers. The factors underpinning successful action on social determinants were identified as the significance of the original intent and vision of the programme, and how this was carried through into all aspects of programme design, the role of the Mitanins and their identification with village women, ongoing training and support, and the relative autonomy of the programme. Although the results are not narrowly generalizable and do not necessarily represent the situation of the Mitanin Programme as a whole, the

  4. The use of a modified pairwise comparison method in evaluating critical success factors for community-based rural homestay programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daud, Shahidah Md; Ramli, Razamin; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Kayat, Kalsom; Razak, Rafidah Abd

    2014-12-01

    Tourism industry has become the highlighted sector which has amazingly increased the national income level. Despite the tourism industry being one of the highest income generating sectors, Homestay Programme as a Community-Based Tourism (CBT) product in Malaysia does not absorbed much of the incoming wealth. Homestay Programme refers to a programme in a community where a tourist stays together with a host family and experiences the everyday way of life of the family in both direct and indirect manner. There are over 100 Homestay Programme currently being registered with the Ministry of Culture and Tourism Malaysia which mostly are located in rural areas, but only a few excel and enjoying the fruit of the booming industry. Hence, this article seeks to identify the critical success factors for a Community-Based Rural Homestay Programme in Malaysia. A modified pairwise method is utilized to further evaluate the identified success factors in a more meaningful way. The findings will help Homestay Programme function as a community development tool that manages tourism resources. Thus, help the community in improving local economy and creating job opportunities.

  5. Perceptions of Participants in a Group, Community, Exercise Programme for People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Rosemary; Coote, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of people with multiple sclerosis of a community based, group exercise programme. Method. A pragmatic programme evaluation approach using qualitative research design was adopted. Focus groups were used to gather data from 14 participants who had taken part in a RCT of community based exercise interventions for PwMS who used at most a stick to walk outdoors. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was used to first identify categories and then to group them into themes. Results. Three themes emerged, psychological benefits, physical benefits, and knowledge gained. The psychological benefits included the role of the group as a social and motivational factor, empowerment, confidence, hope, sense of achievement, and pride. Physical benefits were improved energy and reduced fatigue and improved ability and participation. Knowledge gained caused a shift from thoughts that exercise might do harm, to sufficient knowledge that would give participants confidence to exercise themselves. The role of the group was a key element in the positive outcomes. Conclusions. The qualitative analysis supports the findings of the main trial confirming positive effects of community exercise interventions by reducing the impact of MS and fatigue and improving participation. PMID:26491567

  6. Evaluating a massage therapy training and treatment programme in a remote Aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Charlotte; Vindigni, Dein; Polus, Barbara; Browell, Tuesday; Edgecombe, Gay

    2008-08-01

    To describe a massage therapy and training programme in a remote Aboriginal community in Australia and to develop the frameworks, procedures and processes necessary for future research. Self-report health questionnaires (MYMOP and W-BQ12) and an ethnographic enquiry that included participant observation and 15 interviews with clients and key informants. The project was disrupted by typhoons. Baseline questionnaire responses indicate they may be suitable for this context. Qualitative analysis resulted in a conceptual model of the effects of the programme, which is consistent with a system theory approach. People's accounts were rooted in discussions of the community's history, emotional and physical distress, and limited health care resources. Community-level effects included increasing participation; strengthening local health and educational projects; and opening up new opportunities. Individual level effects included improvement in physical and emotional symptoms, improved function and the receipt of preventative care. As a result of this early stage research, future studies have a conceptual model to guide them and evidence that a mixed method and a participatory methodology may be the most appropriate design.

  7. Evaluating community-based medical education programmes in Africa: A workshop report

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Rebecca J; Baingana, Rhona K; Couper, Ian D; Deery, Christopher B; Nestel, Debra; Ross, Heather; Sagay, Atiene Solomon; Talib, Zohray M

    2015-01-01

    Background The Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) supports medical schools in Africa to increase the capacity and quality of medical education, improve retention of graduates, and promote regionally relevant research. Many MEPI programmes include elements of community-based education (CBE) such as: community placements; clinical rotations in underserved locations, community medicine, or primary health; situational analyses; or student-led research. Methods CapacityPlus and the MEPI Coordinating Center conducted a workshop to share good practices for CBE evaluation, identify approaches that can be used for CBE evaluation in the African context, and strengthen a network of CBE collaborators. Expected outcomes of the workshop included draft evaluation plans for each school and plans for continued collaboration among participants. The workshop focused on approaches and resources for evaluation, guiding exploration of programme evaluation including data collection, sampling, analysis, and reporting. Participants developed logic models capturing inputs, activities, outputs, and expected outcomes of their programmes, and used these models to inform development of evaluation plans. This report describes key insights from the workshop, and highlights plans for CBE evaluation among the MEPI institutions. Results Each school left the workshop with a draft evaluation plan. Participants agreed to maintain communication and identified concrete areas for collaboration moving forward. Since the workshop’s conclusion, nine schools have agreed on next steps for the evaluation process and will begin implementation of their plans. Conclusion This workshop clearly demonstrated the widespread interest in improving CBE evaluation efforts and a need to develop, implement, and disseminate rigorous approaches and tools relevant to the African context. PMID:26523230

  8. ENVRI Cluster - a community-driven platform of European environmental research infrastructures for providing common solution for science and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorvari, Sanna; Kutsch, Werner; Laj, Paolo; Asmi, Ari; Brus, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    European long-term environmental research infrastructures (often referred as ESFRI RIs) are the core facilities for providing services for scientists in their quest for understanding and predicting the complex Earth system and its functioning that requires long-term efforts to identify environmental changes (trends, thresholds and resilience, interactions and feedbacks). Many of the research infrastructures originally have been developed to respond to the needs of their specific research communities, however, it is clear that strong collaboration among research infrastructures is needed to serve the trans-boundary research requires exploring scientific questions at the intersection of different scientific fields, conducting joint research projects and developing concepts, devices, and methods that can be used to integrate knowledge. European Environmental research infrastructures have already been successfully worked together for many years and have established a cluster - ENVRI cluster - for their collaborative work. ENVRI cluster act as a collaborative platform where the RIs can jointly agree on the common solutions for their operations, draft strategies and policies and share best practices and knowledge. Supporting project for the ENVRI cluster, ENVRIplus project, brings together 21 European research infrastructures and infrastructure networks to work on joint technical solutions, data interoperability, access management, training, strategies and dissemination efforts. ENVRI cluster act as one stop shop for multidisciplinary RI users, other collaborative initiatives, projects and programmes and coordinates and implement jointly agreed RI strategies.

  9. Community health workers in national programmes: the case of the family welfare educators of Botswana.

    PubMed

    Walt, G; Ross, D; Gilson, L; Owuor-Omondi, L; Knudsen, T

    1989-01-01

    Community health worker programmes have become a prominent feature of many primary health care schemes in developing countries. This paper, which is based on a larger collaborative study undertaken in 3 countries, focuses on the experiences with such workers in Botswana, and concludes that many of the key issues that were highlighted in the Botswana study are similar to those in other countries. These can be summarized under four headings: unrealistic expectations, poor initial planning, problems of sustainability, and the difficulty of maintaining quality of care. The future success of these workers will depend on their being integrated more systematically into local services, with concomitant strengthening of management support and supervision.

  10. Research support for effective state and community tobacco control programme response to electronic nicotine delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Carol L; Lee, Youn Ok; Curry, Laurel E; Farrelly, Matthew C; Rogers, Todd

    2014-07-01

    To identify unmet research needs of state and community tobacco control practitioners pertaining to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS or e-cigarettes) that would inform policy and practice efforts at the state and community levels, and to describe ENDS-related research and dissemination activities of the National Cancer Institute-funded State and Community Tobacco Control Research Initiative. To determine specific research gaps relevant to state and community tobacco control practice, we analysed survey data collected from tobacco control programmes (TCPs) in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia (N=51). Survey items covered a range of ENDS issues: direct harm to users, harm of secondhand vapour, cessation, flavours, constituents and youth access. There is no ENDS topic on which a majority of state TCP managers feel very informed. They feel least informed about harms of secondhand vapour while also reporting that this information is among the most important for their programme. A majority (N=31) of respondents indicated needs for research on the implications of ENDS products for existing policies. TCP managers report that ENDS research is highly important for practice and need research-based information to inform decision making around the inclusion of ENDS in existing tobacco control policies. For optimal relevance to state and community TCPs, research on ENDS should prioritise study of the health effects of ENDS use and secondhand exposure to ENDS vapour in the context of existing tobacco control policies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Resource-stratified implementation of a community-based breast cancer management programme in Peru.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Catherine; Dvaladze, Allison L; Tsu, Vivien; Jeronimo, Jose; Constant, Tara K Hayes; Romanoff, Anya; Scheel, John R; Patel, Shilpen; Gralow, Julie R; Anderson, Benjamin O

    2017-10-01

    Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates continue to rise in Peru, with related deaths projected to increase from 1208 in 2012, to 2054 in 2030. Despite improvements in national cancer control plans, various barriers to positive breast cancer outcomes remain. Multiorganisational stakeholder collaboration is needed for the development of functional, sustainable early diagnosis, treatment and supportive care programmes with the potential to achieve measurable outcomes. In 2011, PATH, the Peruvian Ministry of Health, the National Cancer Institute in Lima, and the Regional Cancer Institute in Trujillo collaborated to establish the Community-based Program for Breast Health, the aim of which was to improve breast health-care delivery in Peru. A four-step, resource-stratified implementation strategy was used to establish an effective community-based triage programme and a practical early diagnosis scheme within existing multilevel health-care infrastructure. The phased implementation model was initially developed by the Breast Cancer Initiative 2·5: a group of health and non-governmental organisations who collaborate to improve breast cancer outcomes. To date, the Community-based Program for Breast Health has successfully implemented steps 1, 2, and 3 of the Breast Cancer Initiative 2·5 model in Peru, with reports of increased awareness of breast cancer among women, improved capacity for early diagnosis among health workers, and the creation of stronger and more functional linkages between the primary levels (ie, local or community) and higher levels (ie, district, region, and national) of health care. The Community-based Program for Breast Health is a successful example of stakeholder and collaborator involvement-both internal and external to Peru-in the design and implementation of resource-appropriate interventions to increase breast health-care capacity in a middle-income Latin American country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effectiveness of community-based exercise intervention programme in obese adults with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Hung; Chen, Miao-Chuan; Chien, Nai-Hui; Lin, Hsih-Fong

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to change the anthropometric, clinical, biochemical indicators and the rate of metabolic syndrome among obese adults in community. Obesity is an indicator of metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic diseases. Obesity increases national health care expenditure in Taiwan. The high prevalence of obesity is not only a public health issue but also an economic problem. Changes in lifestyle can help to prevent metabolic syndrome for individuals with obesity. A randomised controlled trial was applied. In this randomised controlled trial by location, 136 metabolically abnormal obese individuals were included. The related indicators with metabolic syndrome were measured at baseline and after six months. The experimental group participated in a six-month community-based programme including provided exercise environments, exercise skills and volunteers' reminding. The control group was only provided environment and skills. One hundred and thirty-one participants completed this trail. In comparison with the baseline, the intervention group showed a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (2·34 mg/dl), and decrease in body weight (1·09 kg), waist circumference (3·63 cm), systolic blood pressure (10·52 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (5·21 mmHg), fasting blood glucose (5·84 mg/dl) and body mass index (0·74 kg/m(2) ). In the control group, significant decrease in body mass index and waist circumference were discovered. Compared to the changes between the two groups, the results showed there were significant differences in waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The community-based intervention could help to improve high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, reduce body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose in metabolically abnormal obese. This community-based programme helped metabolically abnormal

  13. Setting standards in the evaluation of community-based health promotion programmes--a unifying approach.

    PubMed

    Judd, J; Frankish, C J; Moulton, G

    2001-12-01

    Community-based health promotion often emphasizes elements of empowerment, participation, multidisciplinary collaboration, capacity building, equity and sustainable development. Such an emphasis may be viewed as being in opposition to equally powerful notions of evidence-based decision making and accountability, and with funders' and government decision-makers' preoccupation with measuring outcomes. These tensions may be fuelled when community practitioners and lay participants feel evaluations are imposed upon them in a manner that fails to appreciate the uniqueness of their community, its programme, and practitioners' skills and experience. This paper attempts to provide an approach that depicts evaluation as being mutually beneficial to both funders/government and practitioners. First, a values stance for health promotion, termed a 'salutogenic' orientation, is proposed as a foundation for the evaluation of community-based health promotion. Secondly, we discuss possible objects of interest, the first component of an evaluation. We then discuss the spirit of the times and its implications for community-based health promotion. Finally, we address the key question of setting standards. A typology of standards is presented. Arbitrary, experiential and utility standards are based on perceived needs and priorities of practitioners, lay participants or professional decision-makers. Historical, scientific and normative standards are driven by empirical, objective data. Propriety and feasibility standards are those wherein the primary concern is for consideration of resources, policies, legislation and administrative factors. The 'model' standards approach is presented as an exemplar of a combined approach that incorporates elements of each of the other standards. We argue that the 'optimal' standard for community-based health promotion depends on the setting and the circumstances. There is no 'magic bullet', 'one-size-fits-all' or 'best' standard. Further, we argue that

  14. An integrated method for evaluating community-based safe water programmes and an application in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    deWilde, Carol Kolb; Milman, Anita; Flores, Yvonne; Salmerón, Jorge; Ray, Isha

    2008-11-01

    The burden of diarrhoeal disease remains high in the developing world. Community-based safe drinking water programmes are being promoted as cost-effective interventions that will help reduce this illness burden. However, the effectiveness of these programmes remains under-investigated. The primary argument of this paper is that the biological exposure reductions underlying safe water interventions vary tremendously over space and time, and studies that only report results of intent-to-treat analyses cannot reveal why such programmes succeed or fail. The paper develops a stepwise evaluation framework to characterize, and so analyse, the technical, financial, social and behavioural factors that underlie exposure and mediate the impact of safe water investments. Relevant factors include physical performance of the water system, community capacity to maintain and manage the systems, and the time and budget constraints of households participating in the programme. The approach draws on the public health, community-based resource management, and household choice literatures to identify modifiable points of failure along the causal pathway to programme impact. The evaluation framework is used to assess the performance and impact of UVWaterworks, a community-based water purification system in rural Mexico, 5 years after the programme began. No impact on diarrhoea incidence was found in this case. The assessment method revealed that (a) household priorities and preferences were a key factor in maintaining exposure to safe drinking water sources, and therefore (b) user convenience was a primary leverage point for programme improvement. The findings indicate that a comprehensive examination of the many factors that influence the performance and impact of safe water programmes is necessary to elucidate why these programmes fail or succeed.

  15. Burden & pattern of illnesses among the tribal communities in central India : A report from a community health programme.

    PubMed

    Jain, Yogesh; Kataria, Raman; Patil, Sushil; Kadam, Suhas; Kataria, Anju; Jain, Rachna; Kurbude, Ravindra; Shinde, Sharayu

    2015-05-01

    Tribals are the most marginalised social category in the country and there is little and scattered information on the actual burden and pattern of illnesses they suffer from. This study provides information on burden and pattern of diseases among tribals, and whether these can be linked to their nutritional status, especially in particularly vulnerable tribal groups (PVTG) seen at a community health programme being run in the tribal areas of Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh States of India. This community based programme, known as Jan Swasthya Sahyog (JSS) has been serving people in over 2500 villages in rural central India. It was found that the tribals had significantly higher proportion of all tuberculosis, sputum positive tuberculosis, severe hypertension, illnesses that require major surgery as a primary therapeutic intervention and cancers than non tribals. The proportions of people with rheumatic heart disease, sickle cell disease and epilepsy were not significantly different between different social groups. Nutritional levels of tribals were poor. Tribals in central India suffer a disproportionate burden of both communicable and non communicable diseases amidst worrisome levels of undernutrition. There is a need for universal health coverage with preferential care for the tribals, especially those belonging to the PVTG. Further, the high level of undernutrition demands a more augmented and universal Public Distribution System.

  16. Handbook for Peer Educators and Community Mobilisers Conducting HIV/AIDS Prevention Programmes in the Informal Sector Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagimu, Majid; Karama, Said; Mbabazi, Jackson; Mularira, Grace N.; Nakawuka, Minah; Kityo, Tom; Ssengonzi, Robert; Ssentongo, Chris; Walakira, Yusuf

    2004-01-01

    This handbook has been developed as a resource to be used by peer/community educators and mobilisers conducting HIV/AIDS prevention programmes in the informal sector workplaces and surrounding communities in Uganda. The handbook provides basic information on a range of topics on HIV and other sexually transmitted infections that can be used by…

  17. Initial Teacher Training in the Member States of the European Community. Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EURYDICE Central Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    The educational systems among the European Community nations vary considerably and this variety, which is the result of historic and cultural factors, constitutes a great wealth which should be preserved. It is also in the interest of everyone to draw benefit from the experiences and projects of partner countries within the Community. Educational…

  18. The role of community programmes and mass events in promoting physical activity to patients.

    PubMed

    Bauman, A; Murphy, N; Lane, A

    2009-01-01

    The challenge for physical activity promotion in clinical contexts is finding ways of encouraging patients to become more active. Brief advice in primary care is effective, in the short term, in increasing physical activity, but is only provided by a few clinicians on a regular basis. The possibilities for public health approaches include others in the practice providing brief advice, or referral to community facilities and programmes. Even these have limited evidence regarding their population reach. Therefore, innovative and alternative solutions are required. This review discusses three potential contributors: clinician advocacy for and engagement in physical activity as role models, referral to mass community participation events, and encouraging attendance at health fairs. These will not solve the inactivity crisis, but could add new approaches for clinicians, in advising their patients to initiate and try to become more physically active.

  19. Developing resuscitation programmes in the community: the tasks ahead for the National Resuscitation Council.

    PubMed

    Anantharaman, V

    2011-08-01

    Singapore has a long way to go to becoming a 'heartsafe' society. Given our small size and culture of hard work in our country, we can achieve a state of good first response by our community citizens through public cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillators training programmes at various key sectors and through the implementation of public access defibrillation in a committed manner. For our second-line responders, investing in technology to improve response times and quality of chest compressions with earlier interventions will go a long way toward strengthening the chain of survival in the community. Building on this strong foundation and having a strong hospital-based cardiac arrest management system will ensure that those who achieve return of spontaneous circulation will more likely remain alive and be discharged from hospital in a neurologically optimal state.

  20. Evaluation of the home and community-based services brain injury Medicaid Waiver Programme in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Cusick, Christopher P; Gerhart, Kenneth A; Mellick, David; Breese, Patricia; Towle, Victor; Whiteneck, Gale G

    2003-11-01

    To evaluate Colorado's Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Waiver programme in terms of functional, community integration and other key psychosocial outcomes. Results of telephone surveys of 66 TBI survivors who had received services through the Colorado Medicaid programme were compared with those of a matched sample not receiving such services. Participants were identified by Colorado's Medicaid programme and a control group was randomly selected from the population-based Colorado Traumatic Brain Injury Registry and Follow-up System. Groups were matched on Glasgow Coma Scale score at injury, age, gender,whether inpatient rehabilitation had been received and the number of years post-injury when the follow-up interview was conducted. All participants completed an extensive follow-up interview, which included CHART, the Sickness Impact Profile, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the SF-12 and questions on symptoms and service use. For four of the evaluated outcomes-relating to mental health problems (SF-12) and alcohol use-the Medicaid Waiver group had significantly fewer problems than the control group. In eight areas, the Waiver group demonstrated poorer outcomes than the control group. The Waiver group scored significantly lower on most measures of societal participation (measured by CHART), needed more help with IADLS (instrumental activities of daily living) and were less likely to be competitively employed. Additionally, Waiver recipients had significantly more case management, physical therapy and group home services and more second rehabilitation admissions than the control group. No significant differences were found for the remaining 62 outcomes that were evaluated. Although there were significant differences between the two groups in a few important areas, it is impossible to conclude that any outcome differences--or lack of differences---are attributable to the Waiver programme alone, since many important potential group differences could not be adequately

  1. The Copernicus programme and its Climate Change Service (C3S): a European answer to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinty, Bernard; Thepaut, Jean-Noel; Dee, Dick

    2016-07-01

    In November 2014, The European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) signed an agreement with the European Commission to deliver two of the Copernicus Earth Observation Programme Services on the Commission's behalf. The ECMWF delivered services - the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) and Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) - will bring a consistent standard to how we measure and predict atmospheric conditions and climate change. They will maximise the potential of past, current and future earth observations - ground, ocean, airborne, satellite - and analyse these to monitor and predict atmospheric conditions and in the future, climate change. With the wealth of free and open data that the services provide, they will help business users to assess the impact of their business decisions and make informed choices, delivering a more energy efficient and climate aware economy. These sound investment decisions now will not only stimulate growth in the short term, but reduce the impact of climate change on the economy and society in the future. C3S is in its proof of concept phase and through its climate data store will provide global and regional climate data reanalyses; multi-model seasonal forecasts; customisable visual data to enable examination of wide range of scenarios and model the impact of changes; access to all the underlying data, including climate data records from various satellite and in-situ observations. In addition, C3S will provide key indicators on climate change drivers (such as carbon dioxide) and impacts (such as reducing glaciers). The aim of these indicators will be to support European adaptation and mitigation policies in a number of economic sectors. The presentation will provide an overview of this newly created Service, its various components and activities, and a roadmap towards achieving a fully operational European Climate Service at the horizon 2019-2020. It will focus on the requirements for quality-assured Observation

  2. [Community assistance programme for children and adolescents with severe mental illness].

    PubMed

    Barcala, Alejandra; Torricelli, Flavia; Alvarez Zunino, Patricia; Marotta, Julio

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the following paper is to present an experience which links the production of knowledge resulting from academic research, with the transmission of said knowledge to the health system -with specific reference to mental health- by means of the implementation of the Community Assistance Programme for Children and/or Adolescents within the City of Buenos Aires. This programme is aimed at children and adolescents afflicted with severe psychological suffering, who consult the Mental Health Services in the public subsector of the City of Buenos Aires. It is the product of clinical institutional experience and of diverse investigations in health systems and services which showed a significant increase in the amount of consultations of children with severe and or complex mental health problems and which brought to light the lack of adequate sanitary response for these children by said sector. Based on the analysis and evaluation of the difficulties and obstacles in the functioning of the system a scheme was devised and implemented which aimed -from its beginning- to favour the possibilities of subjective constitution and integration into the community of these children and adolescents with severe mental deficiencies. By means of an interdisciplinary work consisting in the permanent training of human resources and the setup of intra and intersectional networks, it aims at facilitating accessibility and improving equality of opportunity, thus attempting to guarantee the right to a full protection of the health of children and adolescents.

  3. Vocational Training in the European Community 1995. Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    During 1995, the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP) was moved from Berlin, Germany, to Thessaloniki, Greece. Despite the burdens of the move, progress was made in the following activities: publishing updated CEDEFOP monographs in a variety of official languages; creating a new network for research cooperation on…

  4. Outcomes associated with participation in a therapeutic recreation camping programme for children from 15 European countries: Data from the 'Barretstown Studies'.

    PubMed

    Kiernan, Gemma; Gormley, Michael; MacLachlan, Malcolm

    2004-09-01

    In recent years, specialised camping programmes, based largely on the premise of therapeutic recreation, have emerged as a form of intervention for children with chronic illnesses, and their siblings. Although these programmes are proliferating, little systematic evaluation of their outcomes has been undertaken, particularly within a European context. The aim of this research was to investigate the symptom and psychosocial outcomes of The Barretstown Gang Camp therapeutic recreation programme in Ireland, a programme aimed at European children with chronic illnesses and their siblings, in the short and longer term. Measures assessing children's physical, psychological and social functioning, specifically their self-reported physical symptoms, affect, self-esteem and quality of life, were translated into 12 European languages and administered at 3 time periods: 2 weeks before each child participated in the programme (Time 1), 2 weeks after participation (Time 2) and at 6 months following participation (Time 3). Benefits were noted in their experience of physical symptoms, affect pertaining to physiological hyperarousal and quality of life in the short and longer term. Positive changes were also noted in relation to self-esteem as it pertains to global self-worth and physical attractiveness though these were, for the most part, in the longer term only and were preceded by adverse effects in the short term. While some of these positive changes were global, there were group differences based mostly on children's age, and patient/sibling status and to a lesser extent on their nationality. However, no benefits were evident in many aspects of children's functioning, either at a global or a group level, in the short and longer term. These findings clarify previous research and suggest that camping programmes have an important role to play as a complementary intervention in facilitating adjustment to chronic illness.

  5. Human factors requirements for telerobotic command and control: The European Space Agency experimental programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Space Telerobotics research, performed under contract to the European Space Agency (ESA), concerning the execution of human factors experiments, and ultimately leading to the development of a telerobotics test bed, has been carried out since 1985 by a British Consortium consisting of British Aerospace, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority and, more recently, the UK National Advanced Robotics Research Centre. The principal aim of the first study of the series was to derive preliminary requirements for a teleoperation servicing system, with reference to two mission model scenarios. The first scenario introduced the problem of communications time delays, and their likely effect on the ground-based operator in control of a manipulator system on board an unmanned servicing vehicle in Low Earth Orbit. In the second scenario, the operator was located on the NASA Orbiter aft flight deck, supervising the control of a prototype manipulator in the 'servicing' of an experimental payload in the cargo bay area. Human factors analyses centered on defining the requirements for the teleoperator workstation, such as identifying basic ergonomic requirements for workstation and panel layouts, defining teleoperation strategies, developing alphanumeric and graphic screen formats for the supervision or direct control of the manipulator, and the potential applications of expert system technology. The second study for ESA involved an experimental appraisal of some of the important issues highlighted in the first study, for which relevant human factors data did not exist. Of central importance during the second study was the issue of communications time delays and their effect on the manual control of a teleoperated manipulator from a ground-based command and control station.

  6. [G. Baglivi and scientific European community between rationalism and enlightenment].

    PubMed

    Toscano, A

    2000-01-01

    The Baglivi Correspondence, kept in the Waller Collection at the University Library of Uppsala, has been published in Italy for the first time in 1999. This Correspondence kept in Sweden provides new information about the scientific Italian culture between the second half of the seventeenth century and the beginning of the eighteenth. Moreover, it provides important knowledge on the diffusion the Baglivi's work in the scientific European context at that time.

  7. Art engagement and mental health: experiences of service users of a community-based arts programme at Tate Modern, London.

    PubMed

    McKeown, Eamonn; Weir, Hannele; Berridge, Emma-Jane; Ellis, Liz; Kyratsis, Yiannis

    2016-01-01

    To examine the experiences of mental health service users who took part in an arts-based programme at Tate Modern, a major London art gallery. Exploratory qualitative design. Data were collected using in-depth semi-structured interviews with 10 mental health service users who had taken part in a community-based programme at Tate Modern. Additionally, six art educators from Tate Modern were interviewed. Concepts that emerged from the text were identified using thematic analysis. All participants valued the gallery-based programme. The three overarching thematic areas were: the symbolic and physical context in which the programme workshops were located; the relational and social context of the programme workshops; and reflections on the relationship between the arts-based programme and subsequent mental health. Art galleries are increasingly seen to function as vehicles for popular education with mental health service users. This study adds to the growing body of evidence related to how mental health service users experience and reflect on arts-related programmes targeted at them. This study indicates that emphasis on how users experience gallery-based programmes may contribute to a more nuanced understanding of the relationship between art and mental health. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. European community legislation concerning schools of specialisation in orthodontics: the inexplicable inertia of Italy--contradictions and open issues.

    PubMed

    Maino, B Giuliano; Cabrini, Cesare

    2005-01-01

    Orthodontics was the first discipline to be acknowledged as such within the field of dentistry, initially in the USA and subsequently in Europe. The structural changes that led to the birth of the European Union (EU) laid the foundations for the free circulation of professions and services. Nevertheless a deep discrepancy in the quality of training of practitioners from different countries became apparent. It was necessary to address this issue and regulate the training process in order to guarantee a degree of uniformity. Up to this time only the duration of the School of Specialisation in Orthodontics has been set at a minimum of three years. While moving towards an increasing degree of integration of the various EU countries, it becomes paramount to be able to establish a School of Specialisation in Orthodontics with high academic standards based on the Erasmus Programme and above all to be able to award a specialisation degree which is acknowledged first of all in the country where it is issued and also on a wider European level. Freedom of circulation of intellectual activities requires the formal acknowledgement of a qualification, namely the Specialisation in Orthodontics. Also to that end, EFOSA (European Federation of Specialists in Orthodontics) was founded. Furthermore the European Community has, in the meantime, ruled that medical trainees should be remunerated for their work. Dentistry and its specialisations should not follow the model of Medicine given that the two are completely distinct, but many believe that the duration of the School of Specialisation in Orthodontics has to be set as the same as the medical specialisations.

  9. Performance of predictors: evaluating sustainability in community-directed treatment projects of the African programme for onchocerciasis control.

    PubMed

    Amazigo, Uche; Okeibunor, Joseph; Matovu, Victoria; Zouré, Honorat; Bump, Jesse; Seketeli, Azodoga

    2007-05-01

    The predictors of sustainability of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) at four implementation levels were evaluated in 41 African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) projects, encompassing 492 communities in 10 countries. A model protocol provided information on indicators corresponding to nine aspects of a project that is likely to be sustainable at community level after the cessation of external support. Six of the nine aspects had components of community ownership as predictors of project sustainability. Quantitative and qualitative assessments were used to obtain individual community scores and an overall sustainability score for each project graded on a scale of 0-4. Of the 41 projects evaluated, 70% scored "satisfactorily" to "highly sustainable" at the community level. We found variations among countries and that health system weaknesses could hamper community efforts in sustaining a project, such as when ivermectin was delivered late. Community ownership was of primary importance to the community score, and the community-level scores correlated with overall project sustainability. The therapeutic coverage achieved in each project correlated with the ratio of volunteer ivermectin distributors per population served. Surprisingly, the performance of these distributors was not affected by the direct incentives offered, and coverage appeared to be highest when cash or in-kind compensation was not given at all. Although further research is required, anecdotal evidence pointed to diverse indirect benefits for distributors-political goodwill, personal satisfaction and altruistic fulfillment. The results demonstrate that community ownership is among the important determining factors of sustainability of community-based programmes.

  10. A community-based Falls Management Exercise Programme (FaME) improves balance, walking speed and reduced fear of falling.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Pui Yee; Chan, Wayne; Woo, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Although effective community falls prevention programmes for the older persons have been described, challenges remain in translating proven interventions into daily practice. To evaluate the efficacy, feasibility and acceptability of a falls prevention programme that can be integrated into daily activities in a group of community-dwelling older adults with risk of falling. A cohort study with intervention and comparison groups was designed to evaluate a 36-week group-based falls prevention exercise programme (FaME) in the community setting. Participants were aged 60 years or older, had fallen in the past 12 months, had fear of falling with avoidance of activities or had deficits in balance control. Primary outcome measures included assessment of balance control and mobility; secondary outcome measures included level of physical activity, assessment of fear of falling and health-related quality of life. There were 48 and 51 participants in the intervention and comparison groups, respectively. There were improvements in measurements of balance, walking speed and self-efficacy. The drop out rate was low (14.6% and 3.9% from the intervention and comparison groups, respectively). Overall compliance in the intervention group was 79%. Factors that motivated continued participation include the regular and long-term nature of the programme helping to reinforce their exercise habits, the simplicity of movements and friendliness of the group. The FaME programme improves balance, walking speed and reduces fear of falling. It could be widely promoted and integrated into regular health and social activities in community settings.

  11. Physician empowerment programme; a unique workshop for physician-managers of community clinics.

    PubMed

    Maza, Yafit; Shechter, Efrat; Pur Eizenberg, Neta; Segev, Efrat Gortler; Flugelman, Moshe Y

    2016-10-14

    The physician manager role in the health care system is invaluable as they serve as role models and quality setters. The requirements from physician managers have become more demanding and the role less prestigious; yet burnout and its prevention in this group have received little attention. Physician leadership development programmes have generally dealt directly with skill and knowledge acquisition. The aim of this research was to evaluate an intensive workshop designed to modify attitudes and improve skills of physician-managers of community clinics, through focus on personal well-being and empowerment. Two hundred fifty six physicians affiliated with Clalit Health Services, the largest health maintenance organization in Israel, participated in 16 IMPACT courses during the years 2013-2015. The programme comprised five full days during a two-week period, including an overnight and follow-up meetings three and six weeks later. Theoretical knowledge, experiential learning, practical tools, deep personal exercises, and simulations were conveyed through individual and group work. Topics included: models of self-awareness, outcome thinking, determining a personal and organizational vision, and creating a personal approach to leadership. At the end of each course, and by email at 6 or more months after completion of the course, participants were asked to anonymously respond to closed questions (on a scale of 1-6) and an open question. Mean scores for the contribution of IMPACT to participants' role of physician manager were 5.3 at the end of the course, and 4.7 at 6 or more months later. Mean scores at 6 or more months were 5.0 regarding the contribution of the programme to personal development, 4.4 regarding satisfaction in the role of physician manager, and 4.6 regarding their coping with managerial dilemmas. A workshop that focused on personal growth and self-awareness increased physicians' job satisfaction and their sense of managerial capability, coping with

  12. Coffee, Cake & Culture: Evaluation of an art for health programme for older people in the community.

    PubMed

    Roe, Brenda; McCormick, Sheila; Lucas, Terri; Gallagher, Wendy; Winn, Andrea; Elkin, Sophie

    2016-07-01

    Arts for health initiatives and networks are being developed in a number of countries and an international literature is emerging on the evidence of their benefits to people's health, wellbeing and quality of life. Engagement in cultural and creative arts by older people can increase their morale and self-confidence and provides opportunities for social connection. Museums and galleries are increasingly required to justify their expenditure, reach and impact and some are working in partnership with local councils, hospitals, schools and communities to improve access to their collections. There is a body of literature emerging that describes such initiatives but empirical evidence of their benefits is less developed. This article reports an evaluation of an art for health initiative - Coffee, Cake & Culture organised and delivered by Whitworth Art Gallery and Manchester Museum in 2012 for older people living in a care home and a supported living facility. The study has identified the benefits and impacts of the arts for health programme and its feasibility for older people, with or without diagnosed memory loss - dementia, living in a care home or supported living facility and their care staff. The findings demonstrate there were benefits to the older people and their care staff in terms of wellbeing, social engagement, learning, social inclusion and creativity. These benefits were immediate and continued in the short term on their return home. The majority of older people and care staff had not previously been to the art gallery or museum and the programme encouraged creative arts and cultural appreciation which promoted social inclusion, wellbeing and quality of life. The programme is feasible and important lessons were identified for future planning. Further research involving partnerships of researchers, arts for health curators, artists, care staff, older people and their families is warranted. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Community guide recommendations and state level tobacco control programmes: 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Carol L; Malarcher, Ann M; Clark, Pamela I; Bombard, Jennifer M; Strauss, Warren; Stillman, Frances A

    2007-01-01

    Objective To identify the level of effort state tobacco control programmes and partners have expended on interventions recommended by the community guide and how those efforts have changed over time between 1999 and 2004. Design Longitudinal study. Setting United States. Participants State tobacco control partners, including the state health department, voluntary agencies and tobacco control coalitions. Main outcome measure We used the Strength of Tobacco Control survey responses in 1999, 2002 and 2004 to calculate the mean proportion of state tobacco control partners working on recommended interventions and subsequently analysed changes in effort over time. Results The proportion of state tobacco control partners working to promote clean indoor air legislation remained at more than 70% in all three years. The proportion working to increase taxes on tobacco rose significantly between 1999 and 2002 (from 54% to 70%), and those working to reduce patient costs for tobacco cessation treatments never exceeded 31% in any year. Use of mass media targeting youths decreased significantly in all years (from 40% to 32% to 26%), and the proportion of state tobacco control partners participating in a quitline has increased steadily and significantly in all years (from 24% to 36% to 41%). The level of effort in each area varied widely between states and over time. Conclusions State tobacco control partners are implementing evidence based interventions, but more focus is needed on the tobacco cessation and mass media campaign components of comprehensive tobacco control programmes. PMID:17897990

  14. Cost containment and new priorities in the European community.

    PubMed

    Abel-Smith, B

    1992-01-01

    This article reports on the author's survey of the cost-control measures for health care in 12 European countries during the period from 1983 to 1990. Among these countries the greatest convergence was in the use of the budget as a system of control, reinforced by manpower controls. Budgets were constructed to restrict hospital costs and payments to doctors practicing outside of hospitals. Another strategy was cost sharing for purchase of drugs and, in some cases, for dentistry. Most countries took steps to control expensive medical equipment; others, to restrict entry to medical schools. The European experience demonstrates the technical feasibility of the government's controlling health care costs by regulating supply rather than demand. The key to Europe's success in the use of monopsony power, whereby one purchaser dominates the market. The author contends that regulation works in Europe and questions whether the United States can exert similar control over its coalition of insurers and providers in order to rein in its health care expenses.

  15. The emergence of community health worker programmes in the late apartheid era in South Africa: An historical analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Ginneken, Nadja; Lewin, Simon; Berridge, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    There is re-emerging interest in community health workers (CHWs) as part of wider policies regarding task-shifting within human resources for health. This paper examines the history of CHW programmes established in South Africa in the later apartheid years (1970s–1994) – a time of innovative initiatives. After 1994, the new democratic government embraced primary healthcare (PHC), however CHW initiatives were not included in their health plan and most of these programmes subsequently collapsed. Since then a wide array of disease-focused CHW projects have emerged, particularly within HIV care. Thirteen oral history interviews and eight witness seminars were conducted in South Africa in April 2008 with founders and CHWs from these earlier programmes. These data were triangulated with written primary sources and analysed using thematic content analysis. The study suggests that 1970s–1990s CHW programmes were seen as innovative, responsive, comprehensive and empowering for staff and communities, a focus which respondents felt was lost within current programmes. The growth of these earlier projects was underpinned by the struggle against apartheid. Respondents felt that the more technical focus of current CHW programmes under-utilise a valuable human resource which previously had a much wider social and health impact. These prior experiences and lessons learned could usefully inform policy-making frameworks for CHWs in South Africa today. PMID:20638169

  16. The emergence of community health worker programmes in the late apartheid era in South Africa: An historical analysis.

    PubMed

    van Ginneken, Nadja; Lewin, Simon; Berridge, Virginia

    2010-09-01

    There is re-emerging interest in community health workers (CHWs) as part of wider policies regarding task-shifting within human resources for health. This paper examines the history of CHW programmes established in South Africa in the later apartheid years (1970s-1994) - a time of innovative initiatives. After 1994, the new democratic government embraced primary healthcare (PHC), however CHW initiatives were not included in their health plan and most of these programmes subsequently collapsed. Since then a wide array of disease-focused CHW projects have emerged, particularly within HIV care. Thirteen oral history interviews and eight witness seminars were conducted in South Africa in April 2008 with founders and CHWs from these earlier programmes. These data were triangulated with written primary sources and analysed using thematic content analysis. The study suggests that 1970s-1990s CHW programmes were seen as innovative, responsive, comprehensive and empowering for staff and communities, a focus which respondents felt was lost within current programmes. The growth of these earlier projects was underpinned by the struggle against apartheid. Respondents felt that the more technical focus of current CHW programmes under-utilise a valuable human resource which previously had a much wider social and health impact. These prior experiences and lessons learned could usefully inform policy-making frameworks for CHWs in South Africa today. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An assessment of implementation of Community-Oriented Primary Care in Kenyan family medicine postgraduate medical education programmes

    PubMed Central

    Shabani, Jacob; Taché, Stephanie; Mohamoud, Gulnaz; Mahoney, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Family medicine postgraduate programmes in Kenya are examining the benefits of Community-Oriented Primary Care (COPC) curriculum, as a method to train residents in population-based approaches to health care delivery. Whilst COPC is an established part of family medicine training in the United States, little is known about its application in Kenya. We sought to conduct a qualitative study to explore the development and implementation of COPC curriculum in the first two family medicine postgraduate programmes in Kenya. Method Semi-structured interviews of COPC educators, practitioners, and academic stakeholders and focus groups of postgraduate students were conducted with COPC educators, practitioners and academic stakeholders in two family medicine postgraduate programmes in Kenya. Discussions were transcribed, inductively coded and thematically analysed. Results Two focus groups with eight family medicine postgraduate students and interviews with five faculty members at two universities were conducted. Two broad themes emerged from the analysis: expected learning outcomes and important community-based enablers. Three learning outcomes were (1) making a community diagnosis, (2) understanding social determinants of health and (3) training in participatory research. Three community-based enablers for sustainability of COPC were (1) partnerships with community health workers, (2) community empowerment and engagement and (3) institutional financial support. Conclusions Our findings illustrate the expected learning outcomes and important community-based enablers associated with the successful implementation of COPC projects in Kenya and will help to inform future curriculum development in Kenya. PMID:28155322

  18. Multi-Scale Analysis of the European Airspace Using Network Community Detection

    PubMed Central

    Gurtner, Gérald; Vitali, Stefania; Cipolla, Marco; Lillo, Fabrizio; Mantegna, Rosario Nunzio; Miccichè, Salvatore; Pozzi, Simone

    2014-01-01

    We show that the European airspace can be represented as a multi-scale traffic network whose nodes are airports, sectors, or navigation points and links are defined and weighted according to the traffic of flights between the nodes. By using a unique database of the air traffic in the European airspace, we investigate the architecture of these networks with a special emphasis on their community structure. We propose that unsupervised network community detection algorithms can be used to monitor the current use of the airspace and improve it by guiding the design of new ones. Specifically, we compare the performance of several community detection algorithms, both with fixed and variable resolution, and also by using a null model which takes into account the spatial distance between nodes, and we discuss their ability to find communities that could be used to define new control units of the airspace. PMID:24809991

  19. Morbidity profile in a rural community-based rehabilitation programme in Butembo, North Kivu Province, Congo

    PubMed Central

    Lutala, Prosper M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Medicine in low socio-economic countries is primarily disease-oriented; prevention and rehabilitative care are secondary concerns. Hence, curative care erodes the few resources allocated to health. Despite the well-documented benefits of community-rehabilitation in the management of chronic conditions, little is known about common conditions present in the community in Butembo. Objectives The objective of this study was to determine the conditions encountered during rehabilitation in Butembo and to identify the trends of the five most common conditions during the study period. Method Data were extracted from a rehabilitation programme connect to one centre in Butembo. A descriptive retrospective medical study was performed for the period between 2004 and 2007. Descriptive statistics with percentages were computed. The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the differences with a probability of 5%. Results Cerebral palsy (46.9%), cataract (17.3%), clubfoot (11.8%), glaucoma (6.8%), and cleft lip (4.5%) were the most commonly encountered conditions, with cerebral palsy the most common condition throughout the study period. With regard to gender, male patients were significantly more affected by cataracts (p = 0.0290), clubfoot (p < 0.0100) and glaucoma (p < 0.0100) than female patients. Children aged five or younger had a higher incidence of cerebral palsy (χ2 = 263.2, df = 1, p = 0.0000) cataract (p = 0.0170), clubfoot (p < 0.0010), and glaucoma (p = 0.0010). Additionally, the overall comparisons by gender and age demonstrated differences for the five most common conditions (χ2 = 15.3, df = 4, and p = 0.0040; and χ2 = 114, df = 4, and p < 0.0001 for gender and age, respectively). Conclusion Common conditions and associated factors were identified that will add to the effectiveness of the programme in terms of materials needed, staff skills, and programming. Special skills are still needed to help treat some acute conditions that can be handled

  20. [Demographic and ideational change in the European Community].

    PubMed

    Lesthaeghe, R; Meekers, D

    1987-01-01

    "It is argued in this article that family formation is conditioned not only by economic factors (more particularly changes in opportunity structures for the two sexes), but also by ideational trends. The economic factors could be seen as responsible for period fluctuations that are superimposed on a long term ideationally driven trend with marked cohort contrasts. Value orientations are explored and compared across countries and age groups using the international data set of the European Values Studies. The analysis identifies a scale for the degree of tolerance towards non-conformism (e.g. divorce, abortion, one-parent family, rejection of marriage as an institution...) and the meaning of parenthood. Both are related to a set of other scales (religiosity, morality, leftism, nationalism, materialism, etc.). Theoretical links are also established with the theories of, respectively, Easterlin and Simons concerning the reasons for the recent fertility decline in the West." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE)

  1. Relaunch of the official community health worker programme in Mozambique: is there a sustainable basis for iCCM policy?

    PubMed Central

    Chilundo, Baltazar GM; Cliff, Julie L; Mariano, Alda RE; Rodríguez, Daniela C; George, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Mozambique, integrated community case management (iCCM) of diarrhoea, malaria and pneumonia is embedded in the national community health worker (CHW) programme, mainstreaming it into government policy and service delivery. Since its inception in 1978, the CHW programme has functioned unevenly, was suspended in 1989, but relaunched in 2010. To assess the long-term success of iCCM in Mozambique, this article addresses whether the current CHW programme exhibits characteristics that facilitate or impede its sustainability. Methodology: We undertook a qualitative case study based on document review (n = 54) and key informant interviews (n = 21) with respondents from the Ministry of Health (MOH), multilateral and bilateral agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Maputo in 2012. Interviews were mostly undertaken in Portuguese and all were coded using NVivo. A sustainability framework guided thematic analysis according to nine domains: strategic planning, organizational capacity, programme adaptation, programme monitoring and evaluation, communications, funding stability, political support, partnerships and public health impact. Results: Government commitment was high, with the MOH leading a consultative process in Maputo and facilitating successful technical coordination. The MOH made strategic decisions to pay CHWs, authorize their prescribing abilities, foster guidance development, support operational planning and incorporate previously excluded ‘old’ CHWs. Nonetheless, policy negotiations excluded certain key actors and uncertainty remains about CHW integration into the civil service and their long-term retention. In addition, reliance on NGOs and donor funding has led to geographic distortions in scaling up, alongside challenges in harmonization. Finally, dependence on external funding, when both external and government funding are declining, may hamper sustainability. Conclusions: Our analysis represents a nuanced assessment of the

  2. Relaunch of the official community health worker programme in Mozambique: is there a sustainable basis for iCCM policy?

    PubMed

    Chilundo, Baltazar Gm; Cliff, Julie L; Mariano, Alda Re; Rodríguez, Daniela C; George, Asha

    2015-12-01

    In Mozambique, integrated community case management (iCCM) of diarrhoea, malaria and pneumonia is embedded in the national community health worker (CHW) programme, mainstreaming it into government policy and service delivery. Since its inception in 1978, the CHW programme has functioned unevenly, was suspended in 1989, but relaunched in 2010. To assess the long-term success of iCCM in Mozambique, this article addresses whether the current CHW programme exhibits characteristics that facilitate or impede its sustainability. We undertook a qualitative case study based on document review (n = 54) and key informant interviews (n = 21) with respondents from the Ministry of Health (MOH), multilateral and bilateral agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Maputo in 2012. Interviews were mostly undertaken in Portuguese and all were coded using NVivo. A sustainability framework guided thematic analysis according to nine domains: strategic planning, organizational capacity, programme adaptation, programme monitoring and evaluation, communications, funding stability, political support, partnerships and public health impact. Government commitment was high, with the MOH leading a consultative process in Maputo and facilitating successful technical coordination. The MOH made strategic decisions to pay CHWs, authorize their prescribing abilities, foster guidance development, support operational planning and incorporate previously excluded 'old' CHWs. Nonetheless, policy negotiations excluded certain key actors and uncertainty remains about CHW integration into the civil service and their long-term retention. In addition, reliance on NGOs and donor funding has led to geographic distortions in scaling up, alongside challenges in harmonization. Finally, dependence on external funding, when both external and government funding are declining, may hamper sustainability. Our analysis represents a nuanced assessment of the various domains that influence CHW programme

  3. Could targeted exercise programmes prevent lower limb injury in community Australian football?

    PubMed

    Andrew, Nadine; Gabbe, Belinda J; Cook, Jill; Lloyd, David G; Donnelly, Cyril J; Nash, Clare; Finch, Caroline F

    2013-08-01

    Australian football is a popular sport in Australia, at both the community and elite levels. It is a high-speed contact sport with a higher incidence of medically treated injuries when compared with most other organized sports. Hamstring injuries, ligament injuries to the knee or ankle, hip/groin injuries and tendinopathies are particularly common and often result in considerable time lost from sport. Consequently, the prevention of lower limb injuries is a priority for both community and elite Australian football organizations. There is considerable literature available on exercise programmes aimed at reducing lower limb injuries in Australian football and other running-related sports. The quality and outcomes of these studies have varied considerably, but indicate that exercise protocols may be an effective means of preventing lower limb injuries. Despite this, there has been limited high-quality and systematic evaluation of these data. The aim of this literature review is to systematically evaluate the evidence about the benefits of lower limb injury prevention exercise protocols aimed at reducing the most common severe lower limb injuries in Australian football. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Bone Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialized Register, MEDLINE and other electronic databases were searched, from January 1990 to December 2010. Papers reporting the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, cohort and case-control studies were extracted. Primary outcomes were injury reduction or risk factor identification and/or modification. Secondary outcomes were adherence to any trialled interventions, injury severity and adverse effects such as secondary injuries and muscle soreness. The methodological quality of extracted manuscripts was assessed and results were collated. Forty-seven papers were identified and reviewed of which 18 related to hamstring injury, eight related to knee or ankle ligament injury, five

  4. Exploring competing experiences and expectations of the revitalized community health worker programme in Mozambique: an equity analysis.

    PubMed

    Give, Celso Soares; Sidat, Mohsin; Ormel, Hermen; Ndima, Sozinho; McCollum, Rosalind; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    Mozambique launched its revitalized community health programme in 2010 in response to inequitable coverage and quality of health services. The programme is focused on health promotion and disease prevention, with 20 % of community health workers' (known in Mozambique as Agentes Polivalentes Elementares (APEs)) time spent on curative services and 80 % on activities promoting health and preventing illness. We set out to conduct a health system and equity analysis, exploring experiences and expectations of APEs, community members and healthcare workers supervising APEs. This exploratory qualitative study captured the perspectives of a range of participants including women caring for children under 5 years (service clients), community leaders, service providers (APEs) and their supervisors. Participants in the Moamba and Manhiça districts, located in Maputo Province (Mozambique), were selected purposively. In total, 29 in-depth interviews and 9 focus group discussions were conducted in the local language and/or Portuguese. A framework approach was used for analysis, assisted by NVivo10 software. Our analysis revealed that health equity is viewed as linked to the quality and coverage of the APE programme. Demand and supply factors interplay to shape health equity. The availability of responsive and appropriate services led to tensions between community expectations for curative services (and APEs' willingness to perform them) and official policy focusing APE efforts mainly on preventive services and health promotion. The demand for more curative services by community members is a result of having limited access to healthcare services other than those offered by APEs. This study highlights the need to pay attention to the determinants of demand and supply of community interventions in health, to understand the opportunities and challenges of the difficult interface role played by APEs and to create communication among stakeholders in order to build a stronger, more

  5. Impact of a District-Wide Diabetes Prevention Programme Involving Health Education for Children and the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeladevi, Sethu; Sagar, Jayanthi; Pujari, Siddharth; Rani, Padmaja Kumari

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To present results from a district-wide diabetes prevention programme involving health education for school children and the local community. Method: The model of health education that was utilized aimed to secure lifestyle changes and the identification of diabetes risk by school children (aged 9-12 years). The children acted as health…

  6. Community Development Workers Programme: Mentoring for Social Transformation in the Public Service in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geber, Hilary; Motlhake, Bona

    2008-01-01

    The new public sector community development workers (CDWs) programme was established in 2004 following ineffective service delivery through chronic under-spending on annual budgets in post-apartheid South Africa. CDWs receive training in learnerships within the National Skills Development Strategy to ensure access to and spending of local…

  7. Community Development Workers Programme: Mentoring for Social Transformation in the Public Service in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geber, Hilary; Motlhake, Bona

    2008-01-01

    The new public sector community development workers (CDWs) programme was established in 2004 following ineffective service delivery through chronic under-spending on annual budgets in post-apartheid South Africa. CDWs receive training in learnerships within the National Skills Development Strategy to ensure access to and spending of local…

  8. Sex and Relationships Education in Schools--Evaluation of a Pilot Programme for the Certification of Community Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, Helen; Tyrer, Paul; Aggleton, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Objective: In support of the UK Government's teenage pregnancy and sexual health strategies, a certificated programme of professional development for school nurses and other community nurses was developed to provide support for personal, social and health education (PSHE) work, including sex and relationships education (SRE), for young people.…

  9. Impact of a District-Wide Diabetes Prevention Programme Involving Health Education for Children and the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeladevi, Sethu; Sagar, Jayanthi; Pujari, Siddharth; Rani, Padmaja Kumari

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To present results from a district-wide diabetes prevention programme involving health education for school children and the local community. Method: The model of health education that was utilized aimed to secure lifestyle changes and the identification of diabetes risk by school children (aged 9-12 years). The children acted as health…

  10. Supporting Police Community Support Officers to Become Effective School Link Officers: Key Stakeholder Perceptions of a Pilot Professional Development Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lorraine; Trotman, Dave

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a pilot professional development programme designed to support police community support officers (PCSOs) to become effective school link officers (SLOs) within urban secondary schools in the English West Midlands. Findings are presented via perceptions of key stakeholders: SLOs themselves; school-based mentors…

  11. Training of pathologists in countries belonging to the European Economic Community.

    PubMed Central

    Rinsler, M G

    1977-01-01

    The regulations and procedures for the training and assessment of pathologists engaged in morbid anatomy and histology, medical microbiology, haematology, and clinical chemistry in the countries of the European Economic Community are reviewed. Differences in the terminology used in the description of pathological disciplines are noted. Suggestions are made by which harmonisation of training, which is an EEC objective, could be achieved. PMID:334802

  12. To What Extent Do Teachers in European Countries Differ in Their Professional Community Practices?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomos, Catalina

    2017-01-01

    Within comparative school effectiveness research facilitated by large-scale data across countries, this article presents the results of the testing for measurement invariance of the latent concept of Professional Community (PC) across 23 European countries and more than 35,000 teachers in secondary schools. The newly proposed Multiple-Group Factor…

  13. The European Schools: Perspectives of Parents as Participants in a Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez, María A.; Hetterschijt, Caroline; Iglesias, Marcos J.

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of schools as communities of learning and practice, the purpose of the research upon which this article is based has been to analyze the perceptions of families with respect to the strengths, weaknesses, and challenges of the European Schools. The findings of the research show that parents value highly the existence of the…

  14. The Origins and Development of the European Community Educational Indicators Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Anne; And Others

    This paper outlines the origins and development of the European Community Educational Indicators Project that began in 1992. It reviews past literature relating to the various definitions of an indicator that have been used and the conceptual models that have been adopted. A description of the objectives of the project is followed by an analysis…

  15. Agriculture, Communities, and New Social Movements: East European Ruralities in the Process of Restructuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorlach, Krzysztof; Lostak, Michal; Mooney, Patrick H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the usefulness of the new social movements (NSMs) paradigm in the changing context of East European post-communist societies and their agricultural systems and rural communities. Starting with statements formulated in Western sociology in the context of Western democratic societies about NSMs as a protest against modernity, the…

  16. The European Schools: Perspectives of Parents as Participants in a Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez, María A.; Hetterschijt, Caroline; Iglesias, Marcos J.

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of schools as communities of learning and practice, the purpose of the research upon which this article is based has been to analyze the perceptions of families with respect to the strengths, weaknesses, and challenges of the European Schools. The findings of the research show that parents value highly the existence of the…

  17. An assessment of implementation of CommunityOriented Primary Care in Kenyan family medicine postgraduate medical education programmes.

    PubMed

    Nelligan, Ian J; Shabani, Jacob; Taché, Stephanie; Mohamoud, Gulnaz; Mahoney, Megan

    2016-12-02

    Family medicine postgraduate programmes in Kenya are examining the benefits of Community-Oriented Primary Care (COPC) curriculum, as a method to train residents in population-based approaches to health care delivery. Whilst COPC is an established part of family medicine training in the United States, little is known about its application in Kenya. We sought to conduct a qualitative study to explore the development and implementation of COPC curriculum in the first two family medicine postgraduate programmes in Kenya. Semi-structured interviews of COPC educators, practitioners, and academic stakeholders and focus groups of postgraduate students were conducted with COPC educators, practitioners and academic stakeholders in two family medicine postgraduate programmes in Kenya. Discussions were transcribed, inductively coded and thematically analysed. Two focus groups with eight family medicine postgraduate students and interviews with five faculty members at two universities were conducted. Two broad themes emerged from the analysis: expected learning outcomes and important community-based enablers. Three learning outcomes were (1) making a community diagnosis, (2) understanding social determinants of health and (3) training in participatory research. Three community-based enablers for sustainability of COPC were (1) partnerships with community health workers, (2) community empowerment and engagement and (3) institutional financial support. Our findings illustrate the expected learning outcomes and important communitybased enablers associated with the successful implementation of COPC projects in Kenya and will help to inform future curriculum development in Kenya.

  18. Hepatitis B and C surveillance and screening programmes in the non-EU/EEA Member States of the WHO European Region: survey findings from 10 countries, 2012.

    PubMed

    Mozalevskis, Antons; Eramova, Irina; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2016-06-02

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemics warrant a comprehensive response based on reliable population-level information about transmission, disease progression and disease burden, with national surveillance systems playing a major role. In order to shed light on the status of surveillance in countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region outside of the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA), we surveyed 18 countries in Central and Eastern Europe. Among the 10 countries that responded, the common features of many surveillance systems included mandatory surveillance, passive case-finding and the reporting of both acute and chronic HBV and HCV. Only some countries had surveillance systems that incorporated the tracking of associated conditions and outcomes such as cirrhosis and liver transplantation. Screening programmes for some key populations appeared to be in place in many countries, but there may be gaps in relation to screening programmes for people who inject drugs, prisoners, sex workers and men who have sex with men. Nonetheless, important components of a surveillance structure are in place in the responding study countries. It is advisable to build on this structure to develop harmonised HBV and HCV surveillance for all 53 Member States of the WHO European Region following the example of the system recently instituted in EU/EEA countries.

  19. Development of a childhood obesity prevention programme with a focus on UK South Asian communities.

    PubMed

    Pallan, Miranda; Parry, Jayne; Cheng, K K; Adab, Peymané

    2013-12-01

    We report the development of a childhood obesity prevention intervention for UK South Asian primary school-aged children, guided by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for complex intervention development and evaluation. We combined information gained from a literature review, stakeholder focus groups, an expert group, review of local resources and mapping to the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO framework) in an intervention development process. The study took place in 2007 in Birmingham, UK. Contextual information from the stakeholder focus groups was essential for informing intervention development. The expert group defined guiding principles for the intervention. Informing intervention design by assessing existing local resources addressed intervention sustainability. The use of the ANGELO framework ensured a comprehensive environmental approach to intervention development. The intervention consisted of two broad processes; increasing children's physical activity levels through school, and increasing skills of families through activity-based learning. The developed intervention is being evaluated in a major study. The intervention development process has resulted in a tailored intervention programme to prevent childhood obesity in UK South Asian communities, but also intervention processes that could be applied to other communities and tailored to local context. © 2013.

  20. Valvular heart disease in the community: a European experience.

    PubMed

    Iung, Bernard; Baron, Gabriel; Tornos, Pilar; Gohlke-Bärwolf, Christa; Butchart, Eric G; Vahanian, Alec

    2007-11-01

    The Euro Heart Survey on valvular heart disease included 5001 patients from 92 centers in 25 European countries in 2001: 71.9% had native valve disease and 28.1% had previously undergone valve surgery. Aortic stenosis (AS) and mitral regurgitation (MR) accounted for 43.1 and 33.6%, respectively, of single-valve diseases and were mostly caused by degenerative diseases. Mean age was 69 and 65 years, respectively, and at least one comorbidity was present in 36.3% of patients with AS and 41.7% with MR. Analysis of the therapeutic decision in patients with severe valve diseases showed that symptomatic patients were frequently denied surgery (32.3% in AS after the age of 75 and 51.3% in MR), more on the basis of age and left ventricular function than comorbidities. There was a better concordance between practice and guidelines concerning interventions in asymptomatic patients. These findings underline the need for better implementation of guidelines.

  1. Unity in Diversity - The European Union: An Evolving Community. A Social Studies Unit Recommended for Grades 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbeck, Reinhold; And Others

    This unit introduces students to the concept of community in general and how individual entities cooperate to make decisions. By examining historical events that led to the formation of the European Community, students are introduced to a community in an international context. The six lessons include: (1) "Cooperation and Community"; (2)…

  2. Non-European traditional herbal medicines in Europe: a community herbal monograph perspective.

    PubMed

    Qu, Liping; Zou, Wenjun; Zhou, Zhenxiang; Zhang, Tingmo; Greef, JanVander; Wang, Mei

    2014-10-28

    The European Directive 2004/24/EC introducing a simplified registration procedure for traditional herbal medicinal products, plays an important role in harmonising the current legislation framework for all herbal medicinal products in the European Union (EU). Although substantial achievements have been made under the new scheme, only a limited number of herbal medicinal products from non-European traditions commonly used in Europe have been registered. Therefore, identification of the obstacles, and determination of appropriate means to overcome the major challenges in the registration of non-European traditional herbal medicinal products are of critical importance for the EU herbal medicinal product market. The primary aims of this study were to understand the key issues and obstacles to registration of non-European traditional herbal medicinal products within the EU. The findings may identify the need for more attention on the Community herbal monographs elaborated by the Herbal Medicinal Products Committee (HMPC), as well as further evidence based scientific research on non-European herbal substances/preparations by the scientific community. A systematic evaluation of the herbal substances and preparations included in Community herbal monographs and public statements has been carried out. The focus was herbal substances and preparations derived from non-European traditions. Of the 109 adopted Community herbal monographs, 10 are herbal substances used in Chinese traditional medicine. Where the HMPC issued a public statement because it was unable to elaborate a monograph more than half-involved herbal substances/preparations from non-European traditions. The main reasons herbal substances/preparations from non-European traditions were not accepted for inclusion in the Community herbal monographs have been identified as due to unfulfilled requirements of Directive 2004/24/EC. The most common reasons were the lack of evidence to demonstrate a 15-year minimum

  3. Leadership and governance of community health worker programmes at scale: a cross case analysis of provincial implementation in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Helen; Nxumalo, Nonhlanhla

    2017-09-15

    National community health worker (CHW) programmes are returning to favour as an integral part of primary health care systems, often on the back of pre-existing community based initiatives. There are significant challenges to the integration and support of such programmes, and they require coordination and stewardship at all levels of the health system. This paper explores the leadership and governance tasks of large-scale CHW programmes at sub-national level, through the case of national reforms to South Africa's community based sector, referred to as the Ward Based Outreach Team (WBOT) strategy. A cross case analysis of leadership and governance roles, drawing on three case studies of adoption and implementation of the WBOTs strategy at provincial level (Western Cape, North West and Gauteng) was conducted. The primary case studies mapped system components and assessed implementation processes and contexts. They involved teams of researchers and over 200 interviews with stakeholders from senior to frontline, document reviews and analyses of routine data. The secondary, cross case analysis specifically focused on the issues and challenges facing, and strategies adopted by provincial and district policy makers and managers, as they engaged with the new national mandate. From this key sub-national leadership and governance roles were formulated. Four key roles are identified and discussed: 1. Negotiating a fit between national mandates and provincial and district histories and strategies of community based services 2. Defining new organisational and accountability relationships between CHWs, local health services, communities and NGOs 3. Revising and developing new aligned and integrated planning, human resource, financing and information systems 4. Leading change by building new collective visions, mobilising political, including budgetary, support and designing implementation strategies. This analysis, from real-life systems, adds to understanding of the processes

  4. Good laboratory practice in the European Community. Role of the commission and the member states: external aspects.

    PubMed

    Berend, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    The paper recalls the history of the development of the OECD principles of good laboratory practice (GLP) and explains why the European Community has a role to play in the area of GLP. It presents briefly the current legal framework in the European Community (Directives 87/18/EEC and 88/320/EEC) and describes the role of the Commission and the member states in the practical implementation of the GLP principles within the European Community. Impacts of GLP on the relations of the European Community with third countries, both within the framework of the OECD and through bilateral trade agreements (mutual recognition agreements, MRA) based on article 133 of the treaty establishing the European Community, are then examined in greater detail.

  5. Community participation and sustainability--evidence over 25 years in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme.

    PubMed

    Norberg, Margareta; Blomstedt, Yulia; Lönnberg, Göran; Nyström, Lennarth; Stenlund, Hans; Wall, Stig; Weinehall, Lars

    2012-12-17

    Selection bias and declining participation rates are of concern in many long-term epidemiological studies. The Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) was launched in 1985 as a response to alarming reports on elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in Västerbotten County in Northern Sweden. The VIP invites women and men to a health examination and health counselling during the year of their 40th, 50th, and 60th birthdays. To evaluate trends in participation rates and determinants of participation in the VIP from 1990 to 2006. Registry data on socio-economic status from Statistics Sweden, and mortality and hospitalisation data from the National Board of Health and Welfare, both covering the whole Swedish population, were linked to the VIP and analysed for participants and non-participants. During 1990-2006, 117,710 individuals were eligible to participate in the VIP, and 40,472 of them were eligible to participate twice. There were 96,560 observations for participants and 61,622 for non-participants. The overall participation rate increased from 56 to 65%. Participants and non-participants had minimal differences in education and age. Initial small differences by sex and degree of urban residence decreased over time. Despite an increasing participation rate in all groups, those with low income or who were single had an approximately 10% lower participation rate than those with high or medium-income or who were married or cohabitating. Sustainability of the VIP is based on organisational integration into primary health care services and targeting of the entire middle-aged population. This enables the programme to meet population expectations of health promotion and to identify high-risk individuals who are then entered into routine preventive health care services. This has the potential to increase participation rates, to minimise social selection bias, and to reinforce other community-based interventions.

  6. Community participation and sustainability - evidence over 25 years in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme.

    PubMed

    Norberg, Margareta; Blomstedt, Yulia; Lönnberg, Göran; Nyström, Lennarth; Stenlund, Hans; Wall, Stig; Weinehall, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Selection bias and declining participation rates are of concern in many long-term epidemiological studies. The Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) was launched in 1985 as a response to alarming reports on elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in Västerbotten County in Northern Sweden. The VIP invites women and men to a health examination and health counselling during the year of their 40th, 50th, and 60th birthdays. To evaluate trends in participation rates and determinants of participation in the VIP from 1990 to 2006. Registry data on socio-economic status from Statistics Sweden, and mortality and hospitalisation data from the National Board of Health and Welfare, both covering the whole Swedish population, were linked to the VIP and analysed for participants and non-participants. During 1990-2006, 117,710 individuals were eligible to participate in the VIP, and 40,472 of them were eligible to participate twice. There were 96,560 observations for participants and 61,622 for non-participants. The overall participation rate increased from 56 to 65%. Participants and non-participants had minimal differences in education and age. Initial small differences by sex and degree of urban residence decreased over time. Despite an increasing participation rate in all groups, those with low income or who were single had an approximately 10% lower participation rate than those with high or medium-income or who were married or cohabitating. Sustainability of the VIP is based on organisational integration into primary health care services and targeting of the entire middle-aged population. This enables the programme to meet population expectations of health promotion and to identify high-risk individuals who are then entered into routine preventive health care services. This has the potential to increase participation rates, to minimise social selection bias, and to reinforce other community-based interventions.

  7. Addressing basic resource needs to improve primary care quality: a community collaboration programme.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Seth A; Hulberg, A Catherine; Hong, Clemens; Stowell, Brian J; Tirozzi, Karen J; Traore, Carine Y; Atlas, Steven J

    2016-03-01

    Unmet basic resource needs, such as difficulty affording healthcare, medications, food and housing, may contribute to worse healthcare quality indicators, but interventions are hampered by lack of specific knowledge regarding the distribution of unmet basic resource needs and their association with priority clinical conditions and health service use patterns. Cross-sectional study of primary care patients in two urban academic practices from 1 October 2013 to 30 April 2014. Patients were screened for unmet needs and enrolled in a programme to link them with community resources. Key measures included patient report of unmet basic resource needs, clinical conditions prioritised by quality improvement programmes (hypertension, diabetes and depression), and health service use patterns such as frequent emergency department (ED) visits (>2 in the preceding year) and frequent clinic 'no-shows' (>1 in the preceding year). 416 patients with unmet needs were included, and compared with 2750 patients who did not report needs. The most common types of needs reported were: difficulties affording healthcare (46.5%), food (40.1%) and utilities (36.3%). Patients who reported unmet needs were more likely to have depression (17.8% vs 9.5%, p<0.0001), diabetes (32.7% vs 20.4%, p<0.0001), hypertension (54.3% vs 46.3%, p=0.002), be frequent ED users (11.3% vs 5.4%, p<0.0001), and have frequent 'no-shows' to clinic (21.6% vs 11.9%, p<0.0001). Difficulty affording healthcare and food are particularly common needs among patients with priority conditions. Strategies to identify and address unmet needs as part of routine care may be an important way to improve healthcare quality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. A EUropean study on effectiveness and sustainability of current Cardiac Rehabilitation programmes in the Elderly: Design of the EU-CaRE randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Eva; Meindersma, Esther P; van der Velde, Astrid E; Gonzalez-Juanatey, Jose R; Iliou, Marie Christine; Ardissino, Diego; Zoccai, Giuseppe Biondi; Zeymer, Uwe; Prins, Leonie F; Van't Hof, Arnoud Wj; Wilhelm, Matthias; de Kluiver, Ed P

    2016-10-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is an evidence-based intervention to increase survival and quality of life. Yet studies consistently show that elderly patients are less frequently referred to CR, show less uptake and more often drop out of CR programmes. The European study on effectiveness and sustainability of current cardiac rehabilitation programmes in the elderly (EU-CaRE) project consists of an observational study and an open prospective, investigator-initiated multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) involving mobile telemonitoring guided CR (mCR). The aim of EU-CaRE is to map the efficiency of current CR of the elderly in Europe, and to investigate whether mCR is an effective alternative in terms of efficacy, adherence and sustainability. The EU-CaRE study includes patients aged 65 years or older with ischaemic heart disease or who have undergone heart valve surgery. A total of 1760 patients participating in existing CR programmes in eight regions of Europe will be included. Of patients declining regular CR, 238 will be included in the RCT and randomised in two study arms. The experimental group (mCR) will receive a personalised home-based programme while the control group will receive no advice or coaching throughout the study period. Outcomes will be assessed after the end of CR and at 12 months follow-up. The primary outcome is VO2peak and secondary outcomes include variables describing CR uptake, adherence, efficacy and sustainability. The study will provide important information to improve CR in the elderly. The EU-CaRE RCT is the first European multicentre study of mCR as an alternative for elderly patients not attending usual CR. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.

  9. The Community Structure of the European Network of Interlocking Directorates 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Heemskerk, Eelke M.; Daolio, Fabio; Tomassini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The boards of directors at large European companies overlap with each other to a sizable extent both within and across national borders. This could have important economic, political and management consequences. In this work we study in detail the topological structure of the networks that arise from this phenomenon. Using a comprehensive information database, we reconstruct the implicit networks of shared directorates among the top 300 European firms in 2005 and 2010, and suggest a number of novel ways to explore the trans-nationality of such business elite networks. Powerful community detection heuristics indicate that geography still plays an important role: there exist clear communities and they have a distinct national character. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2010 we observe a densification of the boards interlocks network and a larger transnational orientation in its communities. Together with central actors and assortativity analyses, we provide statistical evidence that, at the level of corporate governance, Europe is getting closer. PMID:23894318

  10. The community structure of the European network of interlocking directorates 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Heemskerk, Eelke M; Daolio, Fabio; Tomassini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The boards of directors at large European companies overlap with each other to a sizable extent both within and across national borders. This could have important economic, political and management consequences. In this work we study in detail the topological structure of the networks that arise from this phenomenon. Using a comprehensive information database, we reconstruct the implicit networks of shared directorates among the top 300 European firms in 2005 and 2010, and suggest a number of novel ways to explore the trans-nationality of such business elite networks. Powerful community detection heuristics indicate that geography still plays an important role: there exist clear communities and they have a distinct national character. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2010 we observe a densification of the boards interlocks network and a larger transnational orientation in its communities. Together with central actors and assortativity analyses, we provide statistical evidence that, at the level of corporate governance, Europe is getting closer.

  11. A new one year interuniversity Master Programme in Water Resources Management in the French speaking community of Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dassargues, A.; Vanclooster, M.; Xanthoulis, D.; Descy, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    A new one year interuniversity Master Programme in Water Resources Management, organised within the French speaking Community of Belgium is presented. This new programme was launched in September 08. The programme is jointly organised by the « Académie Wallonie-Europe » and the « Académie Louvain ». The programme aims advanced training in the domain of water resources management, targeted to a French speaking audience of undergraduate and graduate students, as well as professionals working in the water sector area. During the training, emphasis is put on the understanding of the processes that determine the fluxes in terrestrial hydrosystems (quantitative and qualitative fluxes). Emphasis is also put on the assessment of different components of the hydrosystem (monitoring and data analysis) and the predictive modelling of the hydrosystem supporting optimal water management. The programme includes both advanced training in basic disciplines related to hydrological sciences (hydrology, climatology, hydrogeology, unsaturated zone hydrology, hydrobiology) and inter-disciplinary training in water resources management. The interdisciplinary teaching team includes hydrogeologists, agronomists, hydrologists, climatologists, hydraulic engineers, hydrobiologists and hydrogeophysicists from the four participating universities. Practical exercises and field work are included in the teaching modules and the master thesis work is oriented towards practical water management problems. The programme is accessible to undergraduate students holding an initial master degree in sciences, applied sciences and engineering. Particular attention is devoted to recruit students from French speaking developing countries.

  12. Study protocol: a randomised controlled trial of a nurse-led community-based self-management programme for improving recovery among community-residing stroke survivors.

    PubMed

    Lo, Suzanne Hoi Shan; Chang, Anne Marie; Chau, Janita Pak Chun

    2016-08-15

    Recovery after stroke is long-term and demanding. Optimising community-residing stroke survivors' capability to self-manage their health is integral. Recent systematic reviews have shown that stroke self-management programmes were associated with significant improvement in stroke survivors' health-related quality of life and self-efficacy. However some programmes were not designed with an underpinning theoretical framework. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of a nurse-led stroke self-management programme with usual care on recovery of community-residing stroke survivors. A single-blinded, two-arm, randomised controlled trial will be conducted. Patients with a history of first or recurrent ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke who will be discharged to home settings will be recruited from acute stroke units of three acute public hospitals in Hong Kong. The estimated sample size is 160 (80 participants per group). Eligible participants will be randomised to receive either usual care or a 4-week nurse-led community-based self-management programme plus usual care after discharge. The programme, underpinned by Bandura's constructs of self-efficacy and outcome expectation, includes one individual home visit, two community-based group sessions, and three follow-up phone calls. Primary outcomes include stroke survivors' self-efficacy and outcome expectation of performing self-management behaviours. Secondary outcomes include health-related quality of life, satisfaction with performance of self-management behaviours, depressive symptoms, and community reintegration. Participants will be assessed at baseline and at 8 weeks after randomisation. Generalised estimating equations will be performed to evaluate the significance of changes in outcomes over time by treatment condition. Research ethics approvals were obtained. It is expected that stroke survivors receiving the stroke self-management programme will have improved self-efficacy, outcome expectation, and

  13. Evaluating the delivery, impact, costs and benefits of an active lives programme for older people living in the community.

    PubMed

    Gandy, Rob; Bell, Amelia; McClelland, Bob; Roe, Brenda

    2017-03-01

    Aim Age UK Lancashire received Big Lottery funding to deliver an active lives programme from January 2012 to December 2014 to the population of West Lancashire aged over 50 years. The overall aims of the associated evaluation were to measure older people's experiences of participating in the programme, identify the impacts on their health and well-being and their suggestions for services development, and establish the costs and benefits of the programme. The World Health Organisation recommends older people should be able to achieve physical, social and mental well-being throughout their lives, and that international, national and local policies should be developed to support older adults, promote their independence and well-being, and encourage physical exercise. Consequently, the West Lancashire programme was to establish preventative community support for older people to assist in improving their well-being and physical and mental health, particularly those isolated due to age-related illness or disability. It was to provide interventions not available from local social care providers. A mixed methods approach was adopted, with the qualitative evaluation utilising focus groups to establish people's experiences, identify impacts on their health and well-being, and suggestions for services development. This paper describes the quantitative evaluation, which involved three surveys and a costs analysis. The surveys were scheduled to give timely feedback to management about programme delivery and content, and overall benefits of participation. Findings The active lives programme and groups offered a wide range of flexible and local activities that provided benefits for older people in terms of health and well-being, social well-being and quality of life, and reducing social isolation. There was interconnectivity between these benefits. The programme was delivered in an affordable and flexible manner. Such programmes should be made more widely available.

  14. [Marketing of medicinal products in the European Community. The Mutual Recognition and Decentralised Procedures].

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Peter

    2008-07-01

    The Mutual Recognition Procedure (MRP) and the Decentralised Procedure (DCP), which were first established in late 2005, can be regarded as the backbone for marketing authorisation of medicinal products in the European Community (EC) and the European Economic Area (EEA). Both procedures are compared and advantages and disadvantages are discussed. However, the focus is more related to current developments than the detailed comparison of both procedures. The role of the Coordination Group for Mutual Recognition and Decentralised Procedures-Human (CMD(h)) and the decision making process in relation to the MRP and DCP is also discussed.

  15. Planning the diffusion of a neck-injury prevention programme among community rugby union coaches.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Alex; Poulos, Roslyn G

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a theory-informed and evidence-informed, context-specific diffusion plan for the Mayday Safety Procedure (MSP) among community rugby coaches in regional New South Wales, Australia. Step 5 of Intervention Mapping was used to plan strategies to enhance MSP adoption and implementation. Coaches were identified as the primary MSP adopters and implementers within a system including administrators, players and referees. A local advisory group was established to ensure context relevance. Performance objectives (eg, attend MSP training for coaches) and determinants of adoption and implementation behaviour (eg, knowledge, beliefs, skills and environment) were identified, informed by Social Cognitive Theory. Adoption and implementation matrices were developed and change-objectives for coaches were identified (eg, skills to deliver MSP training to players). Finally, intervention methods and specific strategies (eg, coach education, social marketing and policy and by-law development) were identified based on advisory group member experience, evidence of effective coach safety behaviour-change interventions and Diffusion of Innovations theory. This is the first published example of a systematic approach to plan injury prevention programme diffusion in community sports. The key strengths of this approach were an effective researcher-practitioner partnership; actively engaging local sports administrators; targeting specific behaviour determinants, informed by theory and evidence; and taking context-related practical strengths and constraints into consideration. The major challenges were the time involved in using a systematic diffusion planning approach for the first time; and finding a planning language that was acceptable and meaningful to researchers and practitioners.

  16. Informed participation in the Valencian Community Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme from a gender perspective.

    PubMed

    Molina-Barceló, Ana; Peiró-Pérez, Rosana; Vanaclocha, Mercedes; Vallés, Guillermo; Guaita, Laura; Salas, Dolores

    2016-10-10

    To examine the factors that influence informed participation in a Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme (CRCSP) from a gender perspective. Cross-sectional telephone survey directed to men and women invited to participate (2009-2010) in the Valencian Community CRCSP (Spain). 785 subjects. participation in CRCSP and being informed. Bivariate and multivariate analysis using logistic regression models (95% confidence interval [95%CI], p <0.05). Being a woman (odds ratio [OR]: 1.52; 95%CI: 1.06-2.19), receiving information from a general practitioner (OR: 1.64; 95%CI: 1.05-2.55) and being informed (OR: 1.54; 95%CI: 1.08-2.21) are related to participation. Men are more likely to participate if they live with a partner (OR: 6.26; 95%CI: 1.82-21.49); and are more informed if they have family responsibilities (OR: 2.53; 95%CI: 1.39-4.63). Information about CRCSP, involving primary health care professionals and including specific actions directed at men and at women, could contribute to improve informed participation with a gender equity perspective. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Perceptions of and attitudes to the compulsory community service programme for therapists in KwaZulu-Natal.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nasim Banu; Knight, Stephen; Esterhuizen, Tonya

    2009-01-01

    The success of Community Service programmes initiated globally to recruit health care professionals to provide services in under-served or rural areas depends largely on their attitudes, understanding of the programme's objectives, preparedness for working in these areas and their adaptability. This study assessed rehabilitation therapists' perception and attitude on commencement and completion of their compulsory Community Service programme in KwaZulu-Natal in 2005. Repeat observational cross sectional studies were conducted. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by all therapists on commencement and after completion of their Community Service. The proportion of therapists who indicated that they would work in the public sector in future declined from 50% at onset to 35% by exit and fewer (24%) said they would work in a rural area. Collecting a rural allowance was not associated (p = 0.78) with an expressed interest to work in a rural area or remain at the same institution (p = 0.32). There were significant differences in support and supervision provided between the professional groups (p < 0.001). Particular concerns centred on limited infrastructural support, supervision, training, resources available and language barriers in delivering a better rehabilitation service. Despite the challenges faced, Community Service therapists felt that they had made a difference and that their experience had been personally and professionally rewarding.

  18. Developing national best practice recommendations for harm reduction programmes: Lessons learned from a community-based project.

    PubMed

    Watson, Tara Marie; Strike, Carol; Challacombe, Laurel; Demel, Geoff; Heywood, Diana; Zurba, Nadia

    2017-03-01

    Through promotion of consistent, evidence-based policy and practice, best practice recommendations can improve service delivery. Nationally relevant best practice recommendations, including guidance for programmes that provide service to people who use drugs, are often created and disseminated by government departments or other national organisations. However, funding priorities do not always align with stakeholder- and community-identified needs for such recommendations, particularly in the case of harm reduction. We achieved success in developing and widely disseminating best practice documents for Canadian harm reduction programmes by bringing together a multi-stakeholder, cross-regional team of people with relevant and diverse experience and expertise. In this commentary, we summarise key elements of our experience to contribute to the literature more detailed and transparent dialogue about team processes that hold much promise for developing best practice resources. We describe our project's community-based principles and process of working together (e.g., regularly scheduled teleconferences to overcome geographic distance and facilitate engagement), and integrate post-project insights shared by our team members. Although we missed some opportunities for power-sharing with our community partners, overall team members expressed that the project offered them valuable opportunities to learn from each other. We aim to provide practical considerations for researchers, other stakeholders, and community members who are planning or already engaged in a process of developing best practice recommendations for programmes and interventions that address drug use.

  19. Motivational interviewing and exercise programme for community-dwelling older persons with chronic pain: a randomised controlled study.

    PubMed

    Tse, Mimi M Y; Vong, Sinfia K S; Tang, Shuk Kwan

    2013-07-01

    To examine the effectiveness of an integrated motivational interviewing and physical exercise programme on pain, physical and psychological function, quality of life, self-efficacy, and compliance with exercise for community-dwelling older persons with chronic pain. Chronic pain is common among older persons. Indeed, motivation for managing pain is poor, and may cause negative consequences. Motivational interviewing maybe effective in treating chronic pain. Single-blinded randomised control study. Older persons with chronic pain (n = 56) were recruited from two elderly community centres. They were blinded from the group allocation. The programme was conducted by an motivational interviewing-trained physiotherapist and registered nurses. Participants in the experimental group received an 8-week integrated motivational interviewing and physical exercise programme, while the control group received regular activities in the centre. Motivational interviewing used open-ended questions to encourage participants to express and recognise their pain and behaviours and professional feedback was given accordingly. Pain intensity, pain self-efficacy, anxiety, happiness, depression, mobility and quality of life were measured before and after the motivational interviewing and physical exercise programme. Attendance and compliance rate of the programme was calculated in the experimental group. Significant improvements in pain intensity, pain self-efficacy, anxiety, happiness and mobility after the motivational interviewing and physical exercise programme (all p < 0.05) for experimental group, while no significant improvement in control group except on the happiness scale. Regarding group differences in the outcome measures, the change scores on pain intensity, state anxiety and depression were significantly better in the experimental group. Motivational interviewing and physical exercise programme is effective in improving pain, physical mobility, psychological well-being and self

  20. PRECEDE-PROCEED model modification in community-based oral health promotion by using the linear structural relations programme.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Makoto; Komabayashi, Takashi; Sasahara, Hisako; Okada, Mitsugi; Taguchi, Norihiro; Ogawa, Tetsuji

    2010-01-01

    The PRECEDE-PROCEED (P-P) model is a framework for designing health education/promotion programmes. While the P-P model has been used to design community-based oral health programmes, outcome assessments of the model are seldom reported. The aim of the present study was to explore whether pathways in the P-P model accurately reflect the current status of environmental/behavioural assessment in a Japanese community and to examine whether using the linear structural relations (LISREL) programme would improve the model. In a community health centre in Japan, a questionnaire with 29 items regarding oral health was distributed to 824 mothers with 3-year-old children. The items were compiled into eight variables that were tested using the LISREL programme. Goodness-of-fit index (GFI), adjusted goodness-of-fit index (AGFI) and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) were statistically analysed before and after P-P model modification. The GFI, AGFI and RMSEA were 0.913, 0.776 and 0.161 before, and 0.975, 0.939 and 0.075 after P-P model modification, respectively. Indirect effects on the quality of life from the predisposing, reinforcing and enabling factors became stronger than those in the initial P-P model. The overall fit of the modified P-P model was significantly better than that of the P-P model without modification, which did not accurately reflect the status of environmental/behavioural assessment in the community. The modified P-P model reflected the current status of environmental/behavioural assessment in the community. Health education models should be tested rigorously to ensure that they fit the reality of people's behaviour.

  1. Human resources and models of mental healthcare integration into primary and community care in India: Case studies of 72 programmes.

    PubMed

    van Ginneken, Nadja; Maheedhariah, Meera S; Ghani, Sarah; Ramakrishna, Jayashree; Raja, Anusha; Patel, Vikram

    2017-01-01

    Given the scarcity of specialist mental healthcare in India, diverse community mental healthcare models have evolved. This study explores and compares Indian models of mental healthcare delivered by primary-level workers (PHW), and health workers' roles within these. We aim to describe current service delivery to identify feasible and acceptable models with potential for scaling up. Seventy two programmes (governmental and non-governmental) across 12 states were visited. 246 PHWs, coordinators, leaders, specialists and other staff were interviewed to understand the programme structure, the model of mental health delivery and health workers' roles. Data were analysed using framework analysis. Programmes were categorised using an existing framework of collaborative and non-collaborative models of primary mental healthcare. A new model was identified: the specialist community model, whereby PHWs are trained within specialist programmes to provide community support and treatment for those with severe mental disorders. Most collaborative and specialist community models used lay health workers rather than doctors. Both these models used care managers. PHWs and care managers received support often through multiple specialist and non-specialist organisations from voluntary and government sectors. Many projects still use a simple yet ineffective model of training without supervision (training and identification/referral models). Indian models differ significantly to those in high-income countries-there are less professional PHWs used across all models. There is also intensive specialist involvement particularly in the community outreach and collaborative care models. Excessive reliance on specialists inhibits their scalability, though they may be useful in targeted interventions for severe mental disorders. We propose a revised framework of models based on our findings. The current priorities are to evaluate the comparative effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and scalability

  2. Health-seeking behaviour and community perceptions of childhood undernutrition and a community management of acute malnutrition (CMAM) programme in rural Bihar, India: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Burtscher, Doris; Burza, Sakib

    2015-12-01

    Since 2009, Médecins Sans Frontières has implemented a community management of acute malnutrition (CMAM) programme in rural Biraul block, Bihar State, India that has admitted over 10 000 severely malnourished children but has struggled with poor coverage and default rates. With the aim of improving programme outcomes we undertook a qualitative study to understand community perceptions of childhood undernutrition, the CMAM programme and how these affected health-seeking behaviour. Semi-structured and narrative interviews were undertaken with families of severely malnourished children, non-undernourished children and traditional and allopathic health-care workers. Analysis of transcripts was by qualitative content analysis. Biraul, Bihar State, India, 2010. One hundred and fifty people were interviewed in individual or group discussions during fifty-eight interviews. Undernutrition was not viewed as a disease; instead, local disease concepts were identified that described the clinical spectrum of undernutrition. These concepts informed perception, so caregivers were unlikely to consult health workers if children were 'only skinny'. Hindu and Muslim priests and other traditional health practitioners were more regularly consulted and perceived as easier to access than allopathic health facilities. Senior family members and village elders had significant influence on the health-seeking behaviour of parents of severely malnourished children. The results reaffirm how health education and CMAM programmes should encompass local disease concepts, beliefs and motivations to improve awareness that undernutrition is a disease and one that can be treated. CMAM is well accepted by the community; however, programmes must do better to engage communities, including traditional healers, to enable development of a holistic approach within existing social structures.

  3. Prospects for European Research and Development in Training & Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiting, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines the prospects for research and development in the education and training fields offered by the European Communities. The position of the EC is explained in relation to the existing and forthcoming Framework Programmes of research and development. The 1987-91 Framework Programme has committed most of its funding to existing…

  4. The effectiveness of community-based rehabilitation programmes: an impact evaluation of a quasi-randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Vincenzo; Biggeri, Mario; Deepak, Sunil; Trani, Jean-Francois

    2014-11-01

    Community-based rehabilitation (CBR) programmes have been described as highly effective means of promoting the rights and opportunities of persons with disabilities (PwD). Although CBR is often the main way in which PwD in low-income and middle-income countries access rehabilitation services, there is little literature providing rigorous evaluation of their impact on people's well-being. Data were collected in the Mandya and Ramanagar districts (Karnataka state, India), between December 2009 and May 2010. In total 2540 PwD were interviewed using stratified random sampling: 1919 CBR beneficiaries (who joined the programme between 1997 and 2009) and 621 persons who were living in villages not covered by the programme. We controlled for the systematic differences between people joining and not joining the programme using the propensity score matching method controlling for covariates at individual and village level. We evaluated the impact of the programme on the subgroups of PwD who are disadvantaged on the dimensions of interest: access to pensions, use of aid appliances, access to paid jobs and improvement in personal-practical autonomy after 4 and 7 years of joining the CBR. We observed a positive and significant impact of the programme on access to services, rights and opportunities of PwD. The results indicate that compared with the control group access to pensions and allowances, aid appliances, access to paid jobs and personal-practical autonomy increased by 29.7%, 9.4%, 12.3% and 36.2%, respectively, after 7 years. The CBR programme analysed has a positive impact on access to services and the well-being of PwD who are particularly deprived on outcomes of interest. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Changes in morbidity and mortality during comprehensive community programme to control cardiovascular diseases during 1972-7 in North Karelia.

    PubMed Central

    Salonen, J T; Puska, P; Mustaniemi, H

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive community programme studying the control of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) was carried out in North Karelia, Finland, between 1972 and 1977. The main objective was to reduce the mortality and morbidity of CVD, particularly in middle-aged men. Changes in the mortality and incidence of CVD were monitored by community-based registers of cases of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke and data on death certificates. During the programme the total mortality in the area decreased by 5% and the mortality from CVD decreased by 13% among men and 31% among women aged 30-64 years. The incidence of AMI fell by 16% among men and 5% among women, while that of cerebral stroke fell by 38% among men and 50% among women. Changes in mortality in North Karelia were compared with those in a matched control area; the difference between the two areas was not significant. The true effect of the programme cannot be deduced from these results, but mortality from CVD and the incidence of AMI and stroke fell during the five years studied. Thus the changes in mortality and morbidity of CVD accorded with the initial objectives of the programme. PMID:519352

  6. Mobile phone short message service messaging for behaviour modification in a community-based weight control programme in Korea.

    PubMed

    Joo, Nam-Seok; Kim, Bom-Taeck

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a community-based anti-obesity programme using mobile phone short message service (SMS) messaging. A total of 927 participants were recruited and visited a public health centre for initial assessment. Mobile phones were used to deliver short messages about diet, exercise and behaviour modification once a week. After a 12-week anti-obesity programme they visited the public health centre again. Four hundred and thirty-three subjects (47%) successfully completed their weight control programme. There were mean reductions of weight, waist circumference and body mass index of 1.6 kg (P < 0.001), 4.3 cm (P < 0.001) and 0.6 kg/m(2) (P < 0.001), respectively. Over two-thirds of the subjects had a reduction in waist circumference of 5-7.5 cm. A post-intervention survey showed that the majority of participants were satisfied with the weekly SMS messages and information brochures delivered by post. SMS messaging may be an effective method of behaviour modification in weight control and anti-obesity health education programmes when promoted by community health centres.

  7. A community empowerment strategy embedded in a routine dengue vector control programme: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Castro, Marta; Sánchez, Lizet; Pérez, Dennis; Carbonell, Nestor; Lefèvre, Pierre; Vanlerberghe, Veerle; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2012-05-01

    The non-sustainability of vertically organised dengue vector control programmes led to pleas for changing the emphasis towards community-based strategies. We conducted a cluster randomised controlled trial with 16 intervention and 16 control clusters to test the effectiveness of a community empowerment strategy intertwined with the routine dengue vector control programme in La Lisa, Havana City, Cuba. The intervention included four components on top of routine control: organisation and management; entomological risk surveillance; capacity building; and community work for vector control. In the control clusters, routine activities continued without interference. The community participation score increased from 1.4 to 3.4. Good knowledge of breeding sites increased by 52.8% and 27.5% in the intervention and control clusters, respectively. There were no changes in adequate Aedes aegypti control practices at household level in the control clusters, but in the intervention clusters adequacy increased by 36.2%. At baseline, the Breteau indices (BI) were approximately 0.1 and were comparable; they fluctuated over time but became different with the launch of the community-based dengue control activities in the intervention clusters. Over the intervention period, the BI remained 53% (95% CI 22-92%) lower in these clusters than in the control clusters. The empowerment strategy increased community involvement and added effectiveness to routine A. aegypti control.

  8. Filling the observational void: Scientific value and quantitative validation of hydrometeorological data from a community-based monitoring programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, David; Forsythe, Nathan; Parkin, Geoff; Gowing, John

    2016-07-01

    This study shows how community-based hydrometeorological monitoring programmes can provide reliable high-quality measurements comparable to formal observations. Time series of daily rainfall, river stage and groundwater levels obtained by a local community in Dangila woreda, northwest Ethiopia, have passed accepted quality control standards and have been statistically validated against formal sources. In a region of low-density and declining formal hydrometeorological monitoring networks, a situation shared by much of the developing world, community-based monitoring can fill the observational void providing improved spatial and temporal characterisation of rainfall, river flow and groundwater levels. Such time series data are invaluable in water resource assessment and management, particularly where, as shown here, gridded rainfall datasets provide gross under or over estimations of rainfall and where groundwater level data are non-existent. Discussions with the local community during workshops held at the setup of the monitoring programme and since have demonstrated that the community have become engaged in the project and have benefited from a greater hydrological knowledge and sense of ownership of their resources. This increased understanding and empowerment is at the relevant scale required for effective community-based participatory management of shallow groundwater and river catchments.

  9. "Fortress Europe" and the moral debt burden: immigration from the "South" to the European Economic Community.

    PubMed

    Brochmann, G

    1991-01-01

    In light of the opening of the borders within the EC, scheduled for January 1993, this article "discusses the prospects in Europe concerning immigration from third [world] countries in relation to the internal market, the border control issue and the general policies towards non-EC nationals living within the community. The paper will concentrate on immigration from the 'South', discussing the preconditions for various forms of influx from poor countries in the Third World to the European Community. Attention will also be paid to the conception of the problem in the West, and to the prevailing policy proposals at national and European level. It is contended that development aid will not be a sufficient medicine to curb the immigration pressure in the future."

  10. Making european-style community wind power development work in theUnited States

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark A.

    2004-04-26

    Once primarily a European phenomenon, community wind power development--defined here as one or more locally owned, utility-scale wind turbines interconnected on either the customer or utility side of the meter--is gaining a foothold in an increasing number of states throughout the United States. This article describes the various policies and incentives that Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Massachusetts are using to support community wind power development, and how state and federal support influences the types of projects and ownership structures that are being developed. Experience in these states demonstrates that, with an array of incentives and creative financing schemes targeted at community-scale projects, there are opportunities to make community wind work in the United States.

  11. Information system needs in health promotion: a case study of the Safe Community programme using requirements engineering methods.

    PubMed

    Timpka, Toomas; Olvander, Christina; Hallberg, Niklas

    2008-09-01

    The international Safe Community programme was used as the setting for a case study to explore the need for information system support in health promotion programmes. The 14 Safe Communities active in Sweden during 2002 were invited to participate and 13 accepted. A questionnaire on computer usage and a critical incident technique instrument were distributed. Sharing of management information, creating social capital for safety promotion, and injury data recording were found to be key areas that need to be further supported by computer-based information systems. Most respondents reported having access to a personal computer workstation with standard office software. Interest in using more advanced computer applications was low, and there was considerable need for technical user support. Areas where information systems can be used to make health promotion practice more efficient were identified, and patterns of computers usage were described.

  12. Strange Encounters on the Road to Lifelong Learning: The European Economic Community Meets Permanent Education in 1973

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hake, Barry J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines policy formation on education in the European Economic Community during the early 1970s surrounding the 1973 report For a "Community Policy on Education", known as the Janne Report. It examines Community policy-making processes that gave rise to the Janne Report. The text of the Janne Report is analysed with regard to…

  13. Performance of community health workers managing malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea under the community case management programme in central Uganda: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bagonza, James; Kibira, Simon P S; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus

    2014-09-18

    Lay community health workers (CHWs) have been widely used to provide curative interventions in communities that have traditionally lacked access to health care. Optimal performance of CHWs managing children with malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea in communities is desired if a reduction in childhood morbidity and mortality is to be achieved. This study assessed factors influencing performance of CHWs managing malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea under the Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) programme in Wakiso district, central Uganda. A cross sectional study was conducted among 336 CHWs. Data was collected using interviews and record reviews. Performance was measured using composite scores based on the core activities of CHWs under the iCCM programme. These core activities included: treating children under five years, referring severely sick children including newborns, home visits, counseling caregivers on home care, record keeping and community sensitization. Descriptive and inferential statistics using odds ratios were done to determine factors influencing performance of CHWs. Of the 336 respondents, 242 (72%) were females and the overall level of good performance was 21.7% (95% CI, 17.3-26.1%). Factors significantly associated with performance were: sex (females) (AOR 2.65; 95% CI, 1.29 -5.43), community support (AOR 2.29; 95% CI, 1.27-4.14), receiving feedback from health facilities (AOR 4.90; 95% CI, 2.52-9.51) and having drugs in the previous three months (AOR 2.99; 95% CI, 1.64-5.42). Only one in every five CHWs performed optimally under the iCCM programme. Strategies to improve drug supply, community support and feedback provision from the formal health system are necessary to improve the performance of CHWs.

  14. Evaluation of RugbySmart: a rugby union community injury prevention programme.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, Simon M; Quarrie, Ken L; Hume, Patria A

    2009-05-01

    RugbySmart, a rugby union injury prevention programme, was launched in New Zealand in 2001. It was compulsory for all coaches and referees to complete RugbySmart requirements annually in order to continue coaching or refereeing. After 5 years of implementation the programme partners, Accident Compensation Corporation and New Zealand Rugby Union, evaluated RugbySmart to determine its effectiveness in reducing injuries. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of RugbySmart on reducing injury rates per 100,000 players and resulting injury prevention behaviours. The RugbySmart programme was associated with a decrease in injury claims per 100,000 players in most areas the programme targeted; the programme had negligible impact on non-targeted injury sites. The decrease in injury claims numbers was supported by results from the player behaviour surveys pre- and post-RugbySmart. There was an increase in safe behaviour in the contact situations of tackle, scrum and ruck technique.

  15. A critical hybrid realist-outcomes systematic review of relationships between medical education programmes and communities: BEME Guide No. 35.

    PubMed

    Ellaway, R H; O'Gorman, L; Strasser, R; Marsh, D C; Graves, L; Fink, P; Cervin, C

    2016-01-01

    The relationships between medical schools and communities have long inspired and troubled medical education programmes. Successive models of community-oriented, community-based and community-engaged medical education have promised much and delivered to varying degrees. A two-armed realist systematic review was undertaken to explore and synthesize the evidence on medical school-community relationships. One arm used standard outcomes criteria (Kirkpatrick levels), the other a realist approach seeking out the underlying contexts, mechanisms and outcomes. 38 reviewers completed 489 realist reviews and 271 outcomes reviews; 334 articles were reviewed in the realist arm and 181 in the outcomes arm. Analyses were based on: descriptive statistics on both articles and reviews; the outcomes involved; the quality of the evidence presented; realist contexts, mechanisms, and outcomes; and an analysis of underlying discursive themes. The literature on medical school-community relationships is heterogeneous and largely idiographic, with no common standards for what a community is, who represents communities, what a relationship is based on, or whose needs are or should be being addressed or considered. Community relationships can benefit medical education, even if it is not always clear why or how. There is much opportunity to improve the quality and precision of scholarship in this area.

  16. Community-based programmes to promote use of bicycle helmets in children aged 0-14 years: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Spinks, Anneliese; Turner, Cathy; McClure, Rod; Acton, Caroline; Nixon, Jim

    2005-09-01

    Hospital-based research has shown that wearing a helmet reduces the risk of head injury in bicycle riders. These studies have provided the impetus for community-wide interventions to increase the numbers of cyclists who wear helmets; however, the effectiveness of such programmes is undetermined. This study employs extensive search strategies to review the scientific literature to establish the effectiveness of community-wide programmes to increase helmet use among cyclists. Thirteen community-wide intervention studies using substantive methodologies were located in 16 published papers. The community-wide interventions include mandating helmet wearing, education campaigns, distribution of free or subsidized helmets or, more frequently, combinations of all of these methods of influence. All studies reported success in influencing helmet wearing across communities. However, none of the studies reveals enough detail of the mix or techniques employed in the interventions to replicate the interventions. While it is encouraging that all of the studies showed positive results, the way forward for further implementation of helmet wearing is for adequate documentation of successful interventions.

  17. Evaluation after five years of the cancer genetic counselling programme of Valencian Community (Eastern Spain).

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Cuerda, Dolores; Salas-Trejo, Dolores

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the cancer genetic counselling programme in Valencian Community using intermediate indicators. Descriptive analysis of organisational and effectiveness indicators from the start in 2005 until December 2010: correct referral of patients according to the area from where they were referred (primary or hospital-based care) and syndrome; families identified as having each syndrome; suitability of the genetic testing for individuals with a cancer diagnosis (index cases, IC) and relatives of ICs with mutations; family size; and results of genetic testing on genes, ICs and relatives. 9,942 individuals attended, 87.7 % were referred by hospital-based care and 8.4 % by primary care. 7,516 patients (79 %) fulfilled cancer genetic counselling criteria (82 % from hospital-based care and 46 % from primary care). Amongst those who fulfilled the criteria, 59 % of referrals were related to hereditary breast ovarian cancer syndrome and 32 % to hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. ICs were found in 3,082 families (78.7 %) and genetic testing was carried out on 91.3 % of them. Pathogenic mutations were detected in 21.8 % of the ICs and the testing was then offered to their relatives (an average of 3 per IC). Pathogenic mutations were found in 54 % of the assessed relatives. Results in 5 years confirm the appropriateness of these facilities, as part of an integrated health service, to identify families and individuals with genetic risk to offer them personalized counselling. Improvements have to be made with regard to the information given to both health professionals and patients about the risk criteria for various syndromes.

  18. Changes in hardwood forest understory plant communities in response to European earthworm invasions.

    PubMed

    Hale, Cindy M; Frelich, Lee E; Reich, Peter B

    2006-07-01

    European earthworms are colonizing earthworm-free northern hardwood forests across North America. Leading edges of earthworm invasion provide an opportunity to investigate the response of understory plant communities to earthworm invasion and whether the species composition of the earthworm community influences that response. Four sugar maple-dominated forest sites with active earthworm invasions were identified in the Chippewa National Forest in north central Minnesota, USA. In each site, we established a 30 x 150 m sample grid that spanned a visible leading edge of earthworm invasion and sampled earthworm populations and understory vegetation over four years. Across leading edges of earthworm invasion, increasing total earthworm biomass was associated with decreasing diversity and abundance of herbaceous plants in two of four study sites, and the abundance and density of tree seedlings decreased in three of four study sites. Sample points with the most diverse earthworm species assemblage, independent of biomass, had the lowest plant diversity. Changes in understory plant community composition were most affected by increasing biomass of the earthworm species Lumbricus rubellus. Where L. rubellus was absent there was a diverse community of native herbaceous plants, but where L. rubellus biomass reached its maximum, the herbaceous-plant community was dominated by Carex pensylvanica and Arisaema triphyllum and, in some cases, was completely absent. Evidence from these forest sites suggests that earthworm invasion can lead to dramatic changes in the understory community and that the nature of these changes is influenced by the species composition of the invading earthworm community.

  19. Pupil Exchange in the European Community Venice Colloquium (October 24-28, 1977). Collection Studies. Education Series No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Luxembourg).

    This publication contains the papers of the Venice Colloquium held in October, 1977 by educators from European countries to discuss the topic of visits and exchanges for pupils. There are seven chapters. Chapter one discusses the context and objectives of the colloquium. Chapter two describes pupil visits and exchanges in the European community.…

  20. Evaluation of the Pharmacy Safety Climate Questionnaire in European community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Phipps, Denham L; De Bie, Jolanda; Herborg, Hanne; Guerreiro, Mara; Eickhoff, Christiane; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando; Bouvy, Marcel L; Rossing, Charlotte; Mueller, Uta; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the internal reliability, factor structure and construct validity of the Pharmacy Safety Climate Questionnaire (PSCQ) when applied to a pan-European sample of community pharmacies. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Community pharmacies in Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal and Great Britain. A total of 4105 members of the community pharmacy workforce, all drawn from one of the five participating countries. Each participant completed a copy of the Pharmacy Safety Climate Questionnaire in his or her respective language and rated the perceived safety of the pharmacy in which he or she worked. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the data identified four factors that accounted for item responses, with 24 of the original 34 items loading onto them. They were labelled organizational learning, blame culture, working conditions and safety focus. These factors were found to have an acceptable level of reliability (with Cronbach's alpha values ranging from 0.70 to 0.92) and to predict the rating of pharmacy safety. This study provided information on the PSCQ's psychometric properties when used in community pharmacies in different European countries. A modified version of the original PSCQ (known as PSCQ-4) is presented, and further work is proposed to demonstrate its application to safety improvements in pharmacies.

  1. Public preferences for vaccination programmes during pandemics caused by pathogens transmitted through respiratory droplets - a discrete choice experiment in four European countries, 2013.

    PubMed

    Determann, Domino; Korfage, Ida J; Fagerlin, Angela; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Bliemer, Michiel C; Voeten, Helene A; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Lambooij, Mattijs S; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W

    2016-06-02

    This study aims to quantify and compare preferences of citizens from different European countries for vaccination programme characteristics during pandemics, caused by pathogens which are transmitted through respiratory droplets. Internet panel members, nationally representative based on age, sex, educational level and region, of four European Union Member States (Netherlands, Poland, Spain, and Sweden, n = 2,068) completed an online discrete choice experiment. These countries, from different geographical areas of Europe, were chosen because of the availability of high-quality Internet panels and because of the cooperation between members of the project entitled Effective Communication in Outbreak Management: development of an evidence-based tool for Europe (ECOM). Data were analysed using panel latent class regression models. In the case of a severe pandemic scenario, vaccine effectiveness was the most important characteristic determining vaccination preference in all countries, followed by the body that advises on vaccination. In Sweden, the advice of family and/or friends and the advice of physicians strongly affected vaccine preferences, in contrast to Poland and Spain, where the advice of (international) health authorities was more decisive. Irrespective of pandemic scenario or vaccination programme characteristics, the predicted vaccination uptakes were lowest in Sweden, and highest in Poland. To increase vaccination uptake during future pandemics, the responsible authorities should align with other important stakeholders in the country and communicate in a coordinated manner.

  2. Implementing an intensified antibiotic stewardship programme targeting cephalosporin and fluoroquinolone use in a 200-bed community hospital in Germany.

    PubMed

    Borde, J P; Litterst, S; Ruhnke, M; Feik, R; Hübner, J; deWith, K; Kaier, K; Kern, W V

    2015-02-01

    Prescription of third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones has been linked to an increasing incidence of gram-negative bacteria producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and nosocomial infection with Clostridium difficile. Antibiotic stewardship (ABS) programmes offer evidence-based tools to control antibiotic prescription rates and thereby influence the incidence of nosocomial infection and contain the development of multidrug-resistant bacteria, but there is limited experience with such programmes at community hospitals. We implemented an ABS programme at a 200-bed community hospital and aimed at a > 30 % reduction of cephalosporin and fluoroquinolone consumption within 1 year. Pharmacy data were obtained to estimate hospital-wide drug use density expressed in WHO-ATC-defined daily doses (DDD) or hospital-adapted recommended daily doses (RDD) per 1,000 patient days. The effect of the ABS intervention on drug use density was analysed using interrupted time-series analysis for the periods between January 2011 and March 2013 as pre-intervention, and between April 2013 and March 2014 as post-intervention period. The CDI incidence was calculated based on microbiology laboratory data. Cephalosporin use (measured in RDD/1,000 patient days) decreased by 33 %, and fluoroquinolone use decreased by 31 %, respectively. Interrupted time-series analysis confirmed significant changes in the drug use density trends for both cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones after the intervention as well as for total antibiotic use that decreased by 11 % while no significant effect was noted for CDI incidence rates. ABS programmes can be effective in community hospitals and may help establish ecologically advantageous antibiotic strategies when needed.

  3. Costs of a community-based glaucoma detection programme: analysis of the Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection and Treatment Project.

    PubMed

    Pizzi, Laura T; Waisbourd, Michael; Hark, Lisa; Sembhi, Harjeet; Lee, Paul; Crews, John E; Saaddine, Jinan B; Steele, Deon; Katz, L Jay

    2017-06-27

    Glaucoma is the foremost cause of irreversible blindness, and more than 50% of cases remain undiagnosed. Our objective was to report the costs of a glaucoma detection programme operationalised through Philadelphia community centres. The analysis was performed using a healthcare system perspective in 2013 US dollars. Costs of examination and educational workshops were captured. Measures were total programme costs, cost/case of glaucoma detected and cost/case of any ocular disease detected (including glaucoma). Diagnoses are reported at the individual level (therefore representing a diagnosis made in one or both eyes). Staff time was captured during site visits to 15 of 43 sites and included time to deliver examinations and workshops, supervision, training and travel. Staff time was converted to costs by applying wage and fringe benefit costs from the US Bureau of Labor Statistics. Non-staff costs (equipment and mileage) were collected using study logs. Participants with previously diagnosed glaucoma were excluded. 1649 participants were examined. Mean total per-participant examination time was 56 min (SD 4). Mean total examination cost/participant was $139. The cost/case of glaucoma newly identified (open-angle glaucoma, angle-closure glaucoma, glaucoma suspect, or primary angle closure) was $420 and cost/case for any ocular disease identified was $273. Glaucoma examinations delivered through this programme provided significant health benefit to hard-to-reach communities. On a per-person basis, examinations were fairly low cost, though opportunities exist to improve efficiency. Findings serve as an important benchmark for planning future community-based glaucoma examination programmes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Effects of a dietary self-management programme for community-dwelling older adults: a quasi-experimental design.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su-Hui; Huang, Yu-Ping; Shao, Jung-Hua

    2016-08-16

    Nutritional health plays a crucial role in determining successful ageing and differs by different living area. Although nutritional interventions have long been advocated, little research has directly assessed the effectiveness of nutritional interventions on community-dwelling older adults in urban and rural areas and compared intervention effects on these two populations. To examine the effectiveness of a 12-week dietary self-management programme for salt-, fluid-, fat- and cholesterol-intake behaviours of community-dwelling older adults and to compare these effects in rural- and urban-dwelling older adults. For this quasi-experimental two-group study, older adults (≥65 years old) were recruited from two randomly selected public health centres in a rural north-eastern county and a northern city of Taiwan from January through December 2011. Outcomes included nutritional status, nutritional self-efficacy and health locus of control. Data were collected at baseline and 12 weeks later. To compare changes in outcome variables over time between the control (usual care) and intervention (nutritional programme) groups and between the urban- and rural-dwelling participants in the experimental group, we used generalised estimating equation analysis. Of the 129 participants, 120 completed this study (58 in the intervention group and 62 in the control group). After 12 weeks, the intervention group had significantly better nutritional status and higher internal health locus of control than the control group. Moreover, older rural participants who received the intervention tended towards higher nutritional self-efficacy and internal health locus of control than their urban counterparts. Our research findings support the positive effect of our nutritional self-management programme for community-dwelling older adults. The knowledge gained from this study can help stakeholders recognise the need for healthcare policy to establish effective strategies and sustainable

  5. The Innovative Medicines Initiative's New Drugs for Bad Bugs programme: European public-private partnerships for the development of new strategies to tackle antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Kostyanev, T; Bonten, M J M; O'Brien, S; Steel, H; Ross, S; François, B; Tacconelli, E; Winterhalter, M; Stavenger, R A; Karlén, A; Harbarth, S; Hackett, J; Jafri, H S; Vuong, C; MacGowan, A; Witschi, A; Angyalosi, G; Elborn, J S; deWinter, R; Goossens, H

    2016-02-01

    Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is a global public health threat. Despite the emergence of highly resistant organisms and the huge medical need for new drugs, the development of antibacterials has slowed to an unacceptable level worldwide. Numerous government and non-government agencies have called for public-private partnerships and innovative funding mechanisms to address this problem. To respond to this public health crisis, the Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Undertaking programme has invested more than €660 million, with a goal of matched contributions from the European Commission and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations, in the development of new antibacterial strategies. The New Drugs for Bad Bugs (ND4BB) programme, an Innovative Medicines Initiative, has the ultimate goal to boost the fight against ABR at every level from basic science and drug discovery, through clinical development to new business models and responsible use of antibiotics. Seven projects have been launched within the ND4BB programme to achieve this goal. Four of them will include clinical trials of new anti-infective compounds, as well as epidemiological studies on an unprecedented scale, which will increase our knowledge of ABR and specific pathogens, and improve the designs of the clinical trials with new investigational drugs. The need for rapid concerted action has driven the funding of seven topics, each of which should add significantly to progress in the fight against ABR. ND4BB unites expertise and provides a platform where the commitment and resources required by all parties are streamlined into a joint public-private partnership initiative of unprecedented scale.

  6. Fine Spatial Scale Variation of Soil Microbial Communities under European Beech and Norway Spruce

    PubMed Central

    Nacke, Heiko; Goldmann, Kezia; Schöning, Ingo; Pfeiffer, Birgit; Kaiser, Kristin; Castillo-Villamizar, Genis A.; Schrumpf, Marion; Buscot, François; Daniel, Rolf; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2016-01-01

    The complex interactions between trees and soil microbes in forests as well as their inherent seasonal and spatial variations are poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the effects of major European tree species (Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies (L.) Karst) on soil bacterial and fungal communities. Mineral soil samples were collected from different depths (0–10, 10–20 cm) and at different horizontal distances from beech or spruce trunks (0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 m) in early summer and autumn. We assessed the composition of soil bacterial and fungal communities based on 16S rRNA gene and ITS DNA sequences. Community composition of bacteria and fungi was most strongly affected by soil pH and tree species. Different ectomycorrhizal fungi (e.g., Tylospora) known to establish mutualistic associations with plant roots showed a tree species preference. Moreover, bacterial and fungal community composition showed spatial and seasonal shifts in soil surrounding beech and spruce. The relative abundance of saprotrophic fungi was higher at a depth of 0–10 vs. 10–20 cm depth. This was presumably a result of changes in nutrient availability, as litter input and organic carbon content decreased with soil depth. Overall bacterial community composition showed strong variations under spruce with increasing distance from the tree trunks, which might be attributed in part to higher fine root biomass near spruce trunks. Furthermore, overall bacterial community composition was strongly affected by season under deciduous trees. PMID:28066384

  7. Does the Committee Peer Review Select the Best Applicants for Funding? An Investigation of the Selection Process for Two European Molecular Biology Organization Programmes

    PubMed Central

    Bornmann, Lutz; Wallon, Gerlind; Ledin, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Does peer review fulfill its declared objective of identifying the best science and the best scientists? In order to answer this question we analyzed the Long-Term Fellowship and the Young Investigator programmes of the European Molecular Biology Organization. Both programmes aim to identify and support the best post doctoral fellows and young group leaders in the life sciences. We checked the association between the selection decisions and the scientific performance of the applicants. Our study involved publication and citation data for 668 applicants to the Long-Term Fellowship programme from the year 1998 (130 approved, 538 rejected) and 297 applicants to the Young Investigator programme (39 approved and 258 rejected applicants) from the years 2001 and 2002. If quantity and impact of research publications are used as a criterion for scientific achievement, the results of (zero-truncated) negative binomial models show that the peer review process indeed selects scientists who perform on a higher level than the rejected ones subsequent to application. We determined the extent of errors due to over-estimation (type I errors) and under-estimation (type 2 errors) of future scientific performance. Our statistical analyses point out that between 26% and 48% of the decisions made to award or reject an application show one of both error types. Even though for a part of the applicants, the selection committee did not correctly estimate the applicant's future performance, the results show a statistically significant association between selection decisions and the applicants' scientific achievements, if quantity and impact of research publications are used as a criterion for scientific achievement. PMID:18941530

  8. Activities for the Education and Vocational Training of Migrant Workers and Their Families in the European Community. Contribution to the Standing Conference of European Ministers of Education from the European Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    Two major areas of concern related to the education and vocational training of migrant workers and their families are concentrated on in this report: the implementation of action programmes, and the preparation and application of community instruments. Specific regulations and directives of the Council are summarized, showing the intent to…

  9. Improving the performance of community health workers in humanitarian emergencies: a realist evaluation protocol for the PIECES programme

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Brynne; Adams, Ben Jack; Bartoloni, Alex; Alhaydar, Bana; McAuliffe, Eilish; Raven, Joanna; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Vallières, Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Understanding what enhances the motivation and performance of community health workers (CHWs) in humanitarian emergencies represents a key research gap within the field of human resources for health. This paper presents the research protocol for the Performance ImprovEment of CHWs in Emergency Settings (PIECES) research programme. Enhancing Learning and Research in Humanitarian Action (ELRHA) funded the development of this protocol as part of their Health in Humanitarian Crises (R2HC) call (No.19839). PIECES aims to understand what factors improve the performance of CHWs in level III humanitarian emergencies. Methods and analysis The suggested protocol uses a realist evaluation with multiple cases across the 3 country sites: Turkey, Iraq and Lebanon. Working with International Medical Corps (IMC), an initial programme theory was elicited through literature and document reviews, semistructured interviews and focus groups with IMC programme managers and CHWs. Based on this initial theory, this protocol proposes a combination of semistructured interviews, life histories and critical incident narratives, surveys and latent variable modelling of key constructs to explain how contextual factors work to trigger mechanisms for specific outcomes relating to IMC's 300+ CHWs' performance. Participants will also include programme staff, CHWs and programme beneficiaries. Realist approaches will be used to better understand ‘what works, for whom and under what conditions’ for improving CHW performance within humanitarian contexts. Ethics and dissemination Trinity College Dublin's Health Policy and Management/Centre for Global Health Research Ethics Committee gave ethical approval for the protocol development phase. For the full research project, additional ethical approval will be sought from: Université St. Joseph (Lebanon), the Ethics Committee of the Ministry of Health in Baghdad (Iraq) and the Middle East Technical University (Turkey). Dissemination

  10. Improving the performance of community health workers in humanitarian emergencies: a realist evaluation protocol for the PIECES programme.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Brynne; Adams, Ben Jack; Bartoloni, Alex; Alhaydar, Bana; McAuliffe, Eilish; Raven, Joanna; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Vallières, Frédérique

    2016-08-16

    Understanding what enhances the motivation and performance of community health workers (CHWs) in humanitarian emergencies represents a key research gap within the field of human resources for health. This paper presents the research protocol for the Performance ImprovEment of CHWs in Emergency Settings (PIECES) research programme. Enhancing Learning and Research in Humanitarian Action (ELRHA) funded the development of this protocol as part of their Health in Humanitarian Crises (R2HC) call (No.19839). PIECES aims to understand what factors improve the performance of CHWs in level III humanitarian emergencies. The suggested protocol uses a realist evaluation with multiple cases across the 3 country sites: Turkey, Iraq and Lebanon. Working with International Medical Corps (IMC), an initial programme theory was elicited through literature and document reviews, semistructured interviews and focus groups with IMC programme managers and CHWs. Based on this initial theory, this protocol proposes a combination of semistructured interviews, life histories and critical incident narratives, surveys and latent variable modelling of key constructs to explain how contextual factors work to trigger mechanisms for specific outcomes relating to IMC's 300+ CHWs' performance. Participants will also include programme staff, CHWs and programme beneficiaries. Realist approaches will be used to better understand 'what works, for whom and under what conditions' for improving CHW performance within humanitarian contexts. Trinity College Dublin's Health Policy and Management/Centre for Global Health Research Ethics Committee gave ethical approval for the protocol development phase. For the full research project, additional ethical approval will be sought from: Université St. Joseph (Lebanon), the Ethics Committee of the Ministry of Health in Baghdad (Iraq) and the Middle East Technical University (Turkey). Dissemination activities will involve a mixture of research feedback, policy briefs

  11. Empowering European communities to improve natural resource management for human well-being: the OPPLA web portal & communities of practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, M.; Brown, C.; Pérez-Soba, M.; Rounsevell, M.; Verweij, P.; Delbaere, B.; Cojocaru, G.; Saarikoski, H.; Harrison, P.; Zellmer, K.

    2014-12-01

    The ecosystem services concept is seen by many as a useful paradigm to support decision-making at the complex interface between science, policy and practice. However, to be successful, it requires a strong willingness for collaboration and joint understanding. In support of this aspiration, OPPLA is being developed as a web portal to enable European communities to better manage ecosystems for human well-being and livelihoods. OPPLA will provide access to a variety of online resources such as tools, case studies, lessons learned, videos, manuals and training and educational materials. It will also provide expert forums and spaces for discussions between researchers, practitioners and decision makers. Hence a critical aspect of the success of OPPLA is the co-evolution of communities of practice. An example of a community of practice is the recently launched Ecosystem Services Community - Scotland (ESCom-Scotland; escomscotland.wordpress.com). ESCom-Scotland aims to support better management of Scotland's natural resources by helping to establish a community of practice between individuals and groups involved in the science, policy and practice behind sustainable ecosystem management. It aspires to encourage the sharing of ideas, increase collaboration and to initiate a support network for those engaging with the ecosystem services concept and it will use the OPPLA resources to support these activities. OPPLA is currently at the developmental stage and was instigated by two large European Commission funded research projects: OPERAs (www.operas-project.eu) and OpenNESS (www.openness-project.eu), with a combined budget of ca. €24m. These projects aim to improve understanding of how ecosystem services contribute to human well-being in different social-ecological systems. Research will establish whether, how and under what conditions the ecosystem services concept can move beyond the academic domain towards practical implementation in support of sustainable ecosystem

  12. Improving treatment access and primary care referrals for depression in a national community-based outreach programme for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Nyunt, Ma Shwe Zin; Ko, Soo Meng; Kumar, Rajeev; Fones, Calvin C S; Ng, Tze Pin

    2009-11-01

    Mental illness is highly prevalent and disabling, but is under-treated. Outreach services attempt to overcome system and personal barriers to care, but there are few reports of their effects in improving access and use of mental health services. In the Community-based Early Psychiatric Interventional Strategy (CEPIS) programme in Singapore, community nurses routinely screened seniors for depressive symptoms, and provided psychoeducation and referral for primary care treatment. We evaluated the impact of the outreach programme and the extent to which determinants of treatment-seeking were altered by removing socioeconomic, physical and cognitive barriers to care. Participants were screened using the geriatric depression scale (GDS) and independently assessed using structured clinical interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnosis. Treatment-seeking at 1 month post-outreach was compared retrospectively to pre-outreach spontaneous treatment-seeking in the previous 1 year. Among 4633 participants, 370 (8%) with depressive symptoms included 214 (57.8%) with diagnosed mental disorder(s). Pre-outreach treatment-seeking was 10.3%. The programme resulted in 73.8% being successfully referred to GP treatment. Pre-outreach treatment-seeking was significantly associated with a diagnosed mental disorder (OR = 2.22), fair or poor self-reported mental health (OR = 3.26), > or = 10 depressive symptoms (OR = 3.18), perceived need for professional help (OR = 3.58), > or = 3 medical comorbidities (OR = 2.67), younger age <70 (OR = 2.55), female gender (OR = 3.58) and at least primary education (OR = 3.06). All but a few of these predisposing and enabling variables were not associated with post-outreach treatment-seeking. By eliminating socioeconomic, physical and cognitive barriers, equitable care provided in an outreach programme vastly increased referrals for primary care treatment for depression. Copyright 2009 John Wiley

  13. Is my drinking a problem? A community-based alcohol intervention programme post-Haiyan in Tacloban City

    PubMed Central

    Czaicki, Adam Edward; Fabrigas, Gloria; Hall, Julie Lyn

    2015-01-01

    Problem Evidence on alcohol use following disasters is scarce. After Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines we wanted to determine whether there were alcohol-related problems among the disaster survivors and to strengthen the appropriate local health service support in Tacloban City. Context Tacloban City is a highly urbanized city that was one of the areas worst hit by Typhoon Haiyan. Prior to Haiyan there was very little support for people with alcohol problems, and the rehabilitation facility was located about 40 km away. Action A pilot community-based alcohol intervention programme was conducted that included: assessment of the extent of alcohol problems in the community and health-care workers baseline knowledge and skills; training of health-care workers on primary care alcohol intervention provision; and community outreach with post-training supervision. Outcome The alcohol screening found 26 (22%) of those attending health care facilities would benefit from some form of alcohol intervention. Health-care workers knowledge on basic alcohol intervention was low. This was strengthened during the training, and at outreach clinics the trained health-care workers were able to identify people with alcohol problems and provide them with treatment plans. Lessons learnt We learnt that there was a problem with alcohol in Tacloban City and that it was possible to run an alcohol intervention programme in the community using minimal resources. Addressing alcohol-related issues in the community is an important public health intervention. While there is a need for policies and guidelines at the national level, a community-based intervention is possible to establish with referral mechanism to specialized care. Training modules for such programs can be further developed and institutionalized. PMID:26767145

  14. Is my drinking a problem? A community-based alcohol intervention programme post-Haiyan in Tacloban City.

    PubMed

    Czaicki, Adam Edward; Fabrigas, Gloria; Gocotano, Allison; Hall, Julie Lyn

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on alcohol use following disasters is scarce. After Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines we wanted to determine whether there were alcohol-related problems among the disaster survivors and to strengthen the appropriate local health service support in Tacloban City. Tacloban City is a highly urbanized city that was one of the areas worst hit by Typhoon Haiyan. Prior to Haiyan there was very little support for people with alcohol problems, and the rehabilitation facility was located about 40 km away. A pilot community-based alcohol intervention programme was conducted that included: assessment of the extent of alcohol problems in the community and health-care workers baseline knowledge and skills; training of health-care workers on primary care alcohol intervention provision; and community outreach with post-training supervision. The alcohol screening found 26 (22%) of those attending health care facilities would benefit from some form of alcohol intervention. Health-care workers knowledge on basic alcohol intervention was low. This was strengthened during the training, and at outreach clinics the trained health-care workers were able to identify people with alcohol problems and provide them with treatment plans. We learnt that there was a problem with alcohol in Tacloban City and that it was possible to run an alcohol intervention programme in the community using minimal resources. Addressing alcohol-related issues in the community is an important public health intervention. While there is a need for policies and guidelines at the national level, a community-based intervention is possible to establish with referral mechanism to specialized care. Training modules for such programs can be further developed and institutionalized.

  15. European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management - a new Horizon2020 project to serve the international community and improve the accessibility to gravity field products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeggi, Adrian; Weigelt, Matthias; Flechtner, Frank; Guentner, Andreas; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Martinis, Sandro; Bruinsma, Sean; Flury, Jakob; Bourgogne, Stephane

    2015-04-01

    A proposal for a European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM) has been submitted in response to the Earth Observation Call EO-1-2014 of the Horizon 2020 Framework Programme. EGSIEM shall demonstrate that observations of the redistribution of water and ice mass derived from the current GRACE mission, the future GRACE-FO mission, and additional data provide critical and complementary information to more traditional Earth Observation products and open the door for innovative approaches to flood and drought monitoring and forecasting. The EGSIEM project has recently started in January 2015. We present the three key objectives that EGSIEM shall address: 1) to establish a scientific combination service to deliver the best gravity products for applications in Earth and environmental science research based on the unified knowledge of the European GRACE community, 2) to establish a near real-time and regional service to reduce the latency and increase the temporal resolution of the mass redistribution products, and 3) to establish a hydrological and early warning service to develop gravity-based indicators for extreme hydrological events and to demonstrate their value for flood and drought forecasting and monitoring services. All of these services shall be tailored to the various needs of the respective communities. Significant efforts shall be devoted to transform the service products into user-friendly and easy-to-interpret data sets and the development of visualization tools.

  16. Preventing deaths and injuries from house fires: a cost-benefit analysis of a community-based smoke alarm installation programme.

    PubMed

    Yellman, Merissa A; Peterson, Cora; McCoy, Mary A; Stephens-Stidham, Shelli; Caton, Emily; Barnard, Jeffrey J; Padgett, Ted O; Florence, Curtis; Istre, Gregory R

    2017-02-09

    Operation Installation (OI), a community-based smoke alarm installation programme in Dallas, Texas, targets houses in high-risk urban census tracts. Residents of houses that received OI installation (or programme houses) had 68% fewer medically treated house fire injuries (non-fatal and fatal) compared with residents of non-programme houses over an average of 5.2 years of follow-up during an effectiveness evaluation conducted from 2001 to 2011. To estimate the cost-benefit of OI. A mathematical model incorporated programme cost and effectiveness data as directly observed in OI. The estimated cost per smoke alarm installed was based on a retrospective analysis of OI expenditures from administrative records, 2006-2011. Injury incidence assumptions for a population that had the OI programme compared with the same population without the OI programme was based on the previous OI effectiveness study, 2001-2011. Unit costs for medical care and lost productivity associated with fire injuries were from a national public database. From a combined payers' perspective limited to direct programme and medical costs, the estimated incremental cost per fire injury averted through the OI installation programme was $128,800 (2013 US$). When a conservative estimate of lost productivity among victims was included, the incremental cost per fire injury averted was negative, suggesting long-term cost savings from the programme. The OI programme from 2001 to 2011 resulted in an estimated net savings of $3.8 million, or a $3.21 return on investment for every dollar spent on the programme using a societal cost perspective. Community smoke alarm installation programmes could be cost-beneficial in high-fire-risk neighbourhoods. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Demand generation and social mobilisation for integrated community case management (iCCM) and child health: Lessons learned from successful programmes in Niger and Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Alyssa B; Martin, Sandrine; Cerveau, Teresa; Wetzler, Erica; Berzal, Rocio

    2014-12-01

    We present the approaches used in and outcomes resulting from integrated community case management (iCCM) programmes in Niger and Mozambique with a strong focus on demand generation and social mobilisation. We use a case study approach to describe the programme and contextual elements of the Niger and Mozambique programmes. Awareness and utilisation of iCCM services and key family practices increased following the implementation of the Niger and Mozambique iCCM and child survival programmes, as did care-seeking within 24 hours and care-seeking from appropriate, trained providers in Mozambique. These approaches incorporated interpersonal communication activities and community empowerment/participation for collective change, partnerships and networks among key stakeholder groups within communities, media campaigns and advocacy efforts with local and national leaders. iCCM programmes that train and equip community health workers and successfully engage and empower community members to adopt new behaviours, have appropriate expectations and to trust community health workers' ability to assess and treat illnesses can lead to improved care-seeking and utilisation, and community ownership for iCCM.

  18. Demand generation and social mobilisation for integrated community case management (iCCM) and child health: Lessons learned from successful programmes in Niger and Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Alyssa B; Martin, Sandrine; Cerveau, Teresa; Wetzler, Erica; Berzal, Rocio

    2014-01-01

    Aim We present the approaches used in and outcomes resulting from integrated community case management (iCCM) programmes in Niger and Mozambique with a strong focus on demand generation and social mobilisation. Methods We use a case study approach to describe the programme and contextual elements of the Niger and Mozambique programmes. Results Awareness and utilisation of iCCM services and key family practices increased following the implementation of the Niger and Mozambique iCCM and child survival programmes, as did care–seeking within 24 hours and care–seeking from appropriate, trained providers in Mozambique. These approaches incorporated interpersonal communication activities and community empowerment/participation for collective change, partnerships and networks among key stakeholder groups within communities, media campaigns and advocacy efforts with local and national leaders. Conclusions iCCM programmes that train and equip community health workers and successfully engage and empower community members to adopt new behaviours, have appropriate expectations and to trust community health workers’ ability to assess and treat illnesses can lead to improved care–seeking and utilisation, and community ownership for iCCM. PMID:25520800

  19. Developing the continuum of dental education: including dental foundation trainers in the delivery of a community-based clinical teaching programme.

    PubMed

    Lynch, C D; Ash, P J; Chadwick, B L; Herbert, R A; Cowpe, J G

    2012-11-01

    Despite advances in evidence-based dental school educational programmes, the charge is sometimes made that dental students are 'no longer as good as they used to be'. Recent modifications have meant that dental education is now a 'life-long experience', of which dental school is the initial, albeit very important, component. Contemporary dental students will normally enter dental foundation (DF) training on completion of dental school. As such there may be value in including DF trainers in dental school teaching programmes. The aim of this paper is to report the experiences, feedback and opinions of these DF trainers following their first-hand experience of the community-based clinical teaching programme at Cardiff, and assess if their perspectives of contemporary dental student education changed following this. DF trainers were invited to attend the community-based clinical teaching programme at Cardiff on an observer basis. Twenty-four DF trainers attended, following which evaluation questionnaires were completed. Information sought included opinions and attitudes to the teaching programme, the physical environment in which the teaching programme took place, knowledge and attitudes towards community-based clinical teaching and modifications that DF trainers would make to the teaching programme to further improve the knowledge, skills and attributes of dental school graduates for DF training. Responses were received from 20 DF trainers (response rate = 83%). All 20 respondents felt that the teaching provided within the community-based clinical teaching programme was appropriate, with one respondent noting that it was like 'a day in the life of a dental practice', 'where anything could present'. Sixteen respondents were satisfied with the scope and content of the community-based clinical teaching programme, with a small number recommending inclusion of teaching in relation to inlays/onlays (n = 2), simple orthodontics (n = 1) and splinting (n = 1). Eighteen

  20. A long-term macroeconomic equilibrium model for the European Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogner, H. H.

    1982-04-01

    A version of MACRO, a highly aggregated, long-term, two-sector general equilibrium model, developed to examine energy-economy linkage, calibrated for the European community, is presented. Based on a range of energy supply scenarios, the impact of rising energy costs on economic activity, the feasibility of common assumptions about price-induced conservation, and the impact of continued high energy levels of energy imports on trade balance were examined, in order to assess model performance. Results suggest that the model meets the requirements for a consistency check of member country energy strategies.

  1. Examining the evidence of under-five mortality reduction in a community-based programme in Gaza, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Edward, Anbrasi; Ernst, Pieter; Taylor, Carl; Becker, Stan; Mazive, Elisio; Perry, Henry

    2007-08-01

    Effective implementation of programmes with the community Integrated Management of Childhood Illness model has demonstrated improvements in care-seeking behaviours and utilisation of health services. The child survival programme implemented in Chokwe district of Gaza province, Mozambique, achieved high coverage for bed net use (80%), oral rehydration therapy for children with diarrhoea (94%) and prompt care-seeking from trained providers for children with danger signs. The project also instituted a community-based vital registration and health information system for routine surveillance of births, deaths and childhood illnesses using an extensive network of 2300 volunteers. Evidence from this system indicated a 66% reduction in infant mortality and a 62% reduction in under-five mortality. To check the reliability of the findings, an independent mortality assessment was carried out using a pregnancy history questionnaire with a sample population of 998 women using standard methodologies applied in the Demographic and Health Surveys. The mortality survey showed reductions of 49% and 42% in infant and under-five mortality, respectively. The leading causes of death identified by verbal autopsies were malaria (30%), neonatal causes (17%) and pneumonia (21.3%). These findings suggest that effective community-based partnerships that support the delivery of health services can contribute to mortality reductions.

  2. Parasite communities of European perch, Perca fluviatilis L. (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Percidae) from Lake Łebsko (Central Coast, Poland).

    PubMed

    Morozińska-Gogol, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    Communities of parasites of European perch from lake Łebsko were studied and compared with similar communities from the Polish coastal zone. Parasites comprised 18 autogenic and 5 allogenic species. Most individual parasites belonged to allogenic species and were in larval stages. The majority of specimens were eye parasites with Tylodelphys clavata as the eudominant species. The dominant species, Acanthocephalus lucii, belongs to the intestine parasite community. Three marine species were found: Bothriocephalus scorpii, Hysterothylacium aduncum and Echinorchynhus gadi. The results indicate that the parasite fauna consists mostly of freshwater species, common in various types of European waters, while marine species were rarely observed.

  3. The Future Development of the European Union Education, Training and Youth Programmes After 2006: A Public Consultation Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document launches a wide public consultation with all those involved in and with an interest in the European Union's (EU's) education, training, and youth programs called Socrates, Tempus, Leonardo da Vinci, and Youth for Europe. It is the first step toward preparing the new generation of programs to start in 2007 and will inform the…

  4. Acceptability of conditions in a community-led cash transfer programme for orphaned and vulnerable children in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Skovdal, Morten; Robertson, Laura; Mushati, Phyllis; Dumba, Lovemore; Sherr, Lorraine; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that a regular and reliable transfer of cash to households with orphaned and vulnerable children has a strong and positive effect on child outcomes. However, conditional cash transfers are considered by some as particularly intrusive and the question on whether or not to apply conditions to cash transfers is an issue of controversy. Contributing to policy debates on the appropriateness of conditions, this article sets out to investigate the overall buy-in of conditions by different stakeholders and to identify pathways that contribute to an acceptability of conditions. The article draws on data from a cluster-randomized trial of a community-led cash transfer programme in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe. An endpoint survey distributed to 5167 households assessed community members’ acceptance of conditions and 35 in-depth interviews and 3 focus groups with a total of 58 adults and 4 youth examined local perceptions of conditions. The study found a significant and widespread acceptance of conditions primarily because they were seen as fair and a proxy for good parenting or guardianship. In a socio-economic context where child grants are not considered a citizen entitlement, community members and cash transfer recipients valued the conditions associated with these grants. The community members interpreted the fulfilment of the conditions as a proxy for achievement and merit, enabling them to participate rather than sit back as passive recipients of aid. Although conditions have a paternalistic undertone and engender the sceptics’ view of conditions being pernicious and even abominable, it is important to recognize that community members, when given the opportunity to participate in programme design and implementation, can take advantage of conditions and appropriate them in a way that helps them manage change and overcome the social divisiveness or conflict that otherwise may arise when some people are identified to benefit and others not. PMID

  5. Acceptability of conditions in a community-led cash transfer programme for orphaned and vulnerable children in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Skovdal, Morten; Robertson, Laura; Mushati, Phyllis; Dumba, Lovemore; Sherr, Lorraine; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2014-10-01

    Evidence suggests that a regular and reliable transfer of cash to households with orphaned and vulnerable children has a strong and positive effect on child outcomes. However, conditional cash transfers are considered by some as particularly intrusive and the question on whether or not to apply conditions to cash transfers is an issue of controversy. Contributing to policy debates on the appropriateness of conditions, this article sets out to investigate the overall buy-in of conditions by different stakeholders and to identify pathways that contribute to an acceptability of conditions. The article draws on data from a cluster-randomized trial of a community-led cash transfer programme in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe. An endpoint survey distributed to 5167 households assessed community members' acceptance of conditions and 35 in-depth interviews and 3 focus groups with a total of 58 adults and 4 youth examined local perceptions of conditions. The study found a significant and widespread acceptance of conditions primarily because they were seen as fair and a proxy for good parenting or guardianship. In a socio-economic context where child grants are not considered a citizen entitlement, community members and cash transfer recipients valued the conditions associated with these grants. The community members interpreted the fulfilment of the conditions as a proxy for achievement and merit, enabling them to participate rather than sit back as passive recipients of aid. Although conditions have a paternalistic undertone and engender the sceptics' view of conditions being pernicious and even abominable, it is important to recognize that community members, when given the opportunity to participate in programme design and implementation, can take advantage of conditions and appropriate them in a way that helps them manage change and overcome the social divisiveness or conflict that otherwise may arise when some people are identified to benefit and others not.

  6. Air quality management in the WHO European Region--results of a quality assurance and control programme on air quality monitoring (1994-2004).

    PubMed

    Mücke, Hans-Guido

    2008-07-01

    Since the last decade the WHO Collaborating Centre for Air Quality Management and Air Pollution Control, Berlin, Germany, operates a quality assurance and control (QA/QC) programme on air quality monitoring in the WHO European Region. As main activity Intercomparison workshops have been established for air monitoring network laboratories on a regular basis to harmonise air quality measurements, analysis and calibration techniques. 36 air hygiene laboratories of public health and environmental institutions of 24 countries participated in twelve Intercomparisons between 1994 and 2004. The majority was carried out for NO, NO(2), SO(2) and O(3). The results were predominantly satisfactory for automatic methods. The results of manual methods were mainly in a good, and for several concentration levels partly very good accordance with the data obtained by the monitors.

  7. High School Music Programmes as Potential Sites for Communities of Practice--A Canadian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Countryman, June

    2009-01-01

    My exploration of the nature of the high school music experience was undertaken with 33 young adults who had graduated from high school one to six years previous to the data collection. All of these participants had been involved in their school music programmes and 30 had not continued formal music study following graduation. One might predict…

  8. High School Music Programmes as Potential Sites for Communities of Practice--A Canadian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Countryman, June

    2009-01-01

    My exploration of the nature of the high school music experience was undertaken with 33 young adults who had graduated from high school one to six years previous to the data collection. All of these participants had been involved in their school music programmes and 30 had not continued formal music study following graduation. One might predict…

  9. The Creation of Virtual Communities in a Primary Initial Teacher Training Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Anne; Tanner, Doug; Jessop, Tansy

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the conditions that have facilitated the use of a customised virtual learning environment as part of a blended learning approach on a part-time postgraduate initial teacher training programme for prospective primary school teachers. It is based on data gathered as part of a study of the impact of e-learning on students…

  10. Engaging Parents in Parentline Plus' Time to Talk Community Programme as Part of England's Teenage Pregnancy Strategy: Lessons for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Mairi Ann; Davis, Liz; Lindsay, Geoff; Davis, Hilton

    2012-01-01

    Based on 65 interviews with professionals and parents conducted during 2007-2008, this 16-month, mainly qualitative evaluation of Parentline Plus' Time to Talk Community Programme (a preventative initiative within England's teenage pregnancy strategy) found that a community development approach and an ethos of partnership with parents and…

  11. Engaging Parents in Parentline Plus' Time to Talk Community Programme as Part of England's Teenage Pregnancy Strategy: Lessons for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Mairi Ann; Davis, Liz; Lindsay, Geoff; Davis, Hilton

    2012-01-01

    Based on 65 interviews with professionals and parents conducted during 2007-2008, this 16-month, mainly qualitative evaluation of Parentline Plus' Time to Talk Community Programme (a preventative initiative within England's teenage pregnancy strategy) found that a community development approach and an ethos of partnership with parents and…

  12. Ethical and social issues in presymptomatic testing for Huntington's disease: a European Community collaborative study. European Community Huntington's Disease Collaborative Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of social and ethical aspects of presymptomatic testing for Huntington's disease has been carried out, based on data on linked DNA markers, from four major testing centres in different European Community countries (Belgium, Italy, Netherlands, and United Kingdom). Information was available on 603 applicants, with 213 final results given, of which 32% gave an increased risk. A series of specific issues and problems were documented systematically for all applicants, results being given on frequency of occurrence and illustrated by individual case histories. The principal issues could be grouped as problems of inappropriate referral, problems involving relatives, and problems relating to disclosure of results. At least one important problem was encountered in 46% of applicants, emphasising the importance of expert counselling, preparation, and support of applicants, and of close liaison between clinical, counselling, and laboratory staff. The extensive and detailed information available for Huntington's disease from this and other studies will be of considerable value in relation to genetic testing for other late onset genetic disorders and will be even more relevant to Huntington's disease now that specific mutation analysis is possible for this disorder. PMID:8133502

  13. Field studies to determine mancozeb based spray programmes with minimal impact on predatory mites in European vine cultivation.

    PubMed

    Miles, M; Kemmitt, G

    2005-01-01

    Mancozeb is an ethylene bisdithiocarbamate (EBDC) fungicide with contact activity against a wide range of economically important fungal diseases. Its multi-site mode of action means that to date there have been no recorded incidences of resistance developing despite many years of use on high risk diseases. One such disease, Grape downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) has developed resistance to a number of important oomycete specific fungicides following their introduction onto the market. The role of Mancozeb either as a mixing or alternation partner in helping to manage these resistance situations remains critically important. Historical use patterns for mancozeb in tree and vine crops involved many applications of product at high use rates. Although this gave excellent disease control, a negative impact on predatory mites has been reported by researchers. This has lead to the development of mancozeb spray programmes in vines and other crops with a much reduced impact on predatory mites. A range of field studies was conducted in France, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Spain where either 2 or 4 applications of mancozeb containing products were made per season at different spray timings. These trials covered the representative range of uses, agronomic practices, mite species and geographical locations in Europe. In this paper findings from ten field studies in five different vine growing regions in Europe indicated that two to four applications of mancozeb at 1.6 kg a.i./ha as part of a spray programme caused minimal impact on naturally occurring populations of predatory mites which in turn was compatible with Integrated Pest Management programmes and the conservation of predatory mites.

  14. European Extremely Large Telescope: some history, and the scientific community's preferences for wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, Gerard

    2008-04-01

    Extremely expensive new telescopes involve a compromise between the extreme ambitions of the scientific community, whose support justifies the financial costs, and the need to have a telescope design which can actually be built today at appropriate cost. In this article I provide a brief history of the process which built community support in Europe for what has become the European Extremely Large Telescope project (E-ELT). I then review remaining tensions between the community science case and day-one technical performance. While the range of very strong scientific cases which support the E-ELT project will largely be delivered, and lead to a quite outstanding scientific return, there are - as always! - demands for even more impressive performance. In addition to what the E-ELT will deliver, much of the community wants high spatial resolution at wavelengths shorter than one micron. Affordable adaptive optics systems will work best, initially at somewhat longer wavelengths. Planned performance enhancement during its operational life is very desirable in the E-ELT.

  15. Community perceptions on malaria and care-seeking practices in endemic Indian settings: policy implications for the malaria control programme

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The focus of India’s National Malaria Programme witnessed a paradigm shift recently from health facility to community-based approaches. The current thrust is on diagnosing and treating malaria by community health workers and prevention through free provision of long-lasting insecticidal nets. However, appropriate community awareness and practice are inevitable for the effectiveness of such efforts. In this context, the study assessed community perceptions and practice on malaria and similar febrile illnesses. This evidence base is intended to direct the roll-out of the new strategies and improve community acceptance and utilization of services. Methods A qualitative study involving 26 focus group discussions and 40 key informant interviews was conducted in two districts of Odisha State in India. The key points of discussion were centred on community perceptions and practice regarding malaria prevention and treatment. Thematic analysis of data was performed. Results The 272 respondents consisted of 50% females, three-quarter scheduled tribe community and 30% students. A half of them were literates. Malaria was reported to be the most common disease in their settings with multiple modes of transmission by the FGD participants. Adoption of prevention methods was seasonal with perceived mosquito density. The reported use of bed nets was low and the utilization was determined by seasonality, affordability, intoxication and alternate uses of nets. Although respondents were aware of malaria-related symptoms, care-seeking from traditional healers and unqualified providers was prevalent. The respondents expressed lack of trust in the community health workers due to frequent drug stock-outs. The major determinants of health care seeking were socio-cultural beliefs, age, gender, faith in the service provider, proximity, poverty, and perceived effectiveness of available services. Conclusion Apart from the socio-cultural and behavioural factors, the availability of

  16. The effectiveness and safety of syringe vending machines as a component of needle syringe programmes in community settings.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mofizul; Wodak, Alex; Conigrave, Katherine M

    2008-12-01

    Syringe vending machines (SVMs) have been introduced in Europe and Australasia as part of the effort to increase the availability of sterile needles and syringes to injecting drug users (IDUs). This qualitative review of 14 published and grey literature studies examines whether community-based SVMs as a component of a comprehensive needle syringe programme (NSP) assist to reduce the spread of HIV and other blood-borne viruses amongst IDUs. The available evidence suggests that SVMs increase access to sterile injecting equipment, reduce needle and syringe sharing, and are likely to be cost efficient. SVMs also complement other modes of NSP delivery as they are used by IDUs who are less likely to attend staffed NSPs or pharmacies. If installed and properly maintained in a well-chosen location and with the local community well prepared, SVMs can enhance the temporal and geographical availability of sterile injecting equipment.

  17. The European Union Committee of Experts on Rare Diseases: three productive years at the service of the rare disease community.

    PubMed

    Aymé, Ségolène; Rodwell, Charlotte

    2014-02-28

    The European Union Committee of Experts on Rare Diseases was entrusted with aiding the European Commission in a number of tasks, ranging from the monitoring of initiatives, to recommending improvements and actions to be pursued in the future, in addition to helping strengthen liaison at both European and International levels in the field of rare diseases. The three-year mandate of the EUCERD drew to a close in July 2013 with an impressive record. The EUCERD has laid down the foundations for future work so as to continue to advance in the key areas that have been identified as of interest for the rare disease community at large: centres of expertise, European Reference Networks, patient registries and databases, newborn screening, and indicators for national rare disease plans/strategies. The work of the Committee should now be continued by the newly formed European Commission Expert Group on Rare Diseases.

  18. Medication therapy management services in community pharmacy: a pilot programme in HIV specialty pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Rosenquist, Ashley; Best, Brookie M; Miller, Teresa A; Gilmer, Todd P; Hirsch, Jan D

    2010-12-01

    Pharmacist-provided medication therapy management services (MTMS) have been shown to increase patient's adherence to medications, improve health outcomes and reduce overall medical costs. The purpose of this study was to describe a pilot programme that provided pharmacy-based MTMS for patients with HIV/AIDS in the state of California, USA. Pharmacists from the 10 pilot pharmacies were surveyed using an online data collection tool. Information was collected to describe the types of MTMS offered, proportion of patients actively using specific MTMS, pharmacist beliefs regarding effect on patient outcomes and barriers to providing MTMS, ability to offer MTMS without pilot programme funding and specialized pharmacist or staff training. Each responding pharmacy (7 of 10) varied in the number of HIV/AIDS patients served and prescription volume. All pharmacists had completed HIV/AIDS-related continuing education programmes, and some had other advanced training. The type of MTMS being offered varied at each pharmacy with 'individualized counselling by a pharmacist when overuse or underuse was detected' and 'refill reminders by telephone' being actively used by the largest proportion of patients. Most, but not all, pharmacists cited reimbursement as a barrier to MTMS provision. Pharmacists believed the MTMS they provide resulted in improved satisfaction (patient and provider), medication usage, therapeutics response and patient quality of life. The type of MTMS offered, and proportion of patients actively using, varied among participating pilot pharmacies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. [Revocation of authorizations on GMO under the precautionary principle (with special attention to the Justice Tribunal of the European Communities].

    PubMed

    Escajedo San Epifanio, Leire

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade, the european institutions have done a great effort in order to introduce the precautionary principle, applicable to the management of serious and uncertain risks. Under the protection of the precautionary principle, european authorities and authorities of the member states have partially modified, suspended or revoked authorizations relative to genetically modified organisms. Is it rightful this use of the precautionary principle? This is the matter that the European Communities Justice Court has faced when the affected companies have lodge their appeals against this decisions.

  20. ESC-EURObservational Research Programme: the Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Pilot Study, conducted by the European Heart Rhythm Association.

    PubMed

    Arbelo, Elena; Brugada, Josep; Hindricks, Gerhard; Maggioni, Aldo; Tavazzi, Luigi; Vardas, Panos; Anselme, Frédéric; Inama, Giuseppe; Jais, Pierre; Kalarus, Zbigniew; Kautzner, Josef; Lewalter, Thorsten; Mairesse, Georges; Perez-Villacastin, Julian; Riahi, Sam; Taborsky, Milos; Theodorakis, George; Trines, Serge

    2012-08-01

    The Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Pilot Study is a prospective, multinational registry conducted by the European Heart Rhythm Association of the European Society of Cardiology that has been designed to describe the clinical epidemiology of patients undergoing an atrial fibrillation (AFib) ablation procedure, and the diagnostic/therapeutic processes applied in these patients across Europe. We present the results of the short-term (in-hospital) analysis. A total of 72 centres in 10 European countries were asked to enrol 20 consecutive patients scheduled for a first AFib ablation procedure. Between October 2010 and May 2011, 1410 patients were included, of which 1391 underwent an AFib ablation (98.7%). The median age was 60 years [inter-quartile range (IQR) 52-66], and 28% were females. Two-thirds presented paroxysmal AFib and 38% lone AFib. Symptoms were present in 86%. The indications for ablation were mostly symptomatic AFib, but in over a third of patients there was also a desire for a drug-free lifestyle and the maintenance of sinus rhythm. Pulmonary vein isolation was attempted in 98.4% of patients, the roof line in 21.3% and the mitral isthmus line in 12.8%. Complex-fractionated atrial electrograms were targeted in 17.9% and the ganglionated plexi in 3.3%. Complications occurred in 7.7%, of which 1.7% was major (i.e. cardiac perforation, myocardial infraction, endocarditis, cardiac arrest, stroke, hemothorax, pneumothorax, and sepsis). The median duration of hospitalization was 3 days (IQR 2-4). At discharge, 91.4% of patients were in sinus rhythm, 88.3% of patients were given vitamin K antagonists, and 67% antiarrhythmic medication. There was one death after the ablation procedure. The AFib Ablation Pilot Study provides crucial information on AF ablation in clinical practice across Europe. These data are relevant for further improvement of the management strategies of patients suffering from atrial fibrillation.

  1. Wild European Apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) Population Dynamics: Insight from Genetics and Ecology in the Rhine Valley. Priorities for a Future Conservation Programme

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzler, Annik; Arnold, Claire; Cornille, Amandine; Bachmann, Olivier; Schnitzler, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The increasing fragmentation of forest habitats and the omnipresence of cultivars potentially threaten the genetic integrity of the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill). However, the conservation status of this species remains unclear in Europe, other than in Belgium and the Czech Republic, where it has been declared an endangered species. The population density of M. sylvestris is higher in the forests of the upper Rhine Valley (France) than in most European forests, with an unbalanced age-structure, an overrepresentation of adults and a tendency to clump. We characterize here the ecology, age-structure and genetic diversity of wild apple populations in the Rhine Valley. We use these data to highlight links to the history of this species and to propose guidelines for future conservation strategies. In total, 255 individual wild apple trees from six forest stands (five floodplain forests and one forest growing in drier conditions) were analysed in the field, collected and genotyped on the basis of data for 15 microsatellite markers. Genetic analyses showed no escaped cultivars and few hybrids with the cultivated apple. Excluding the hybrids, the genetically “pure” populations displayed high levels of genetic diversity and a weak population structure. Age-structure and ecology studies of wild apple populations identified four categories that were not randomly distributed across the forests, reflecting the history of the Rhine forest over the last century. The Rhine wild apple populations, with their ecological strategies, high genetic diversity, and weak traces of crop-to-wild gene flow associated with the history of these floodplain forests, constitute candidate populations for inclusion in future conservation programmes for European wild apple. PMID:24827575

  2. Wild European apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) population dynamics: insight from genetics and ecology in the Rhine Valley. Priorities for a future conservation programme.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, Annik; Arnold, Claire; Cornille, Amandine; Bachmann, Olivier; Schnitzler, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The increasing fragmentation of forest habitats and the omnipresence of cultivars potentially threaten the genetic integrity of the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill). However, the conservation status of this species remains unclear in Europe, other than in Belgium and the Czech Republic, where it has been declared an endangered species. The population density of M. sylvestris is higher in the forests of the upper Rhine Valley (France) than in most European forests, with an unbalanced age-structure, an overrepresentation of adults and a tendency to clump. We characterize here the ecology, age-structure and genetic diversity of wild apple populations in the Rhine Valley. We use these data to highlight links to the history of this species and to propose guidelines for future conservation strategies. In total, 255 individual wild apple trees from six forest stands (five floodplain forests and one forest growing in drier conditions) were analysed in the field, collected and genotyped on the basis of data for 15 microsatellite markers. Genetic analyses showed no escaped cultivars and few hybrids with the cultivated apple. Excluding the hybrids, the genetically "pure" populations displayed high levels of genetic diversity and a weak population structure. Age-structure and ecology studies of wild apple populations identified four categories that were not randomly distributed across the forests, reflecting the history of the Rhine forest over the last century. The Rhine wild apple populations, with their ecological strategies, high genetic diversity, and weak traces of crop-to-wild gene flow associated with the history of these floodplain forests, constitute candidate populations for inclusion in future conservation programmes for European wild apple.

  3. Spatial distribution of subtidal Nematoda communities along the salinity gradient in southern European estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adão, Helena; Alves, Ana Sofia; Patrício, Joana; Neto, João Magalhães; Costa, Maria José; Marques, João Carlos

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated the spatial distribution of subtidal nematode communities along the salinity gradients of two Portuguese estuaries exposed to different degrees of anthropogenic stress: the Mira and the Mondego. The nematode communities were mainly composed of Sabatieria, Metachromadora, Daptonema, Anoplostoma, Sphaerolaimus and Terschellingia species, closely resembling the communities of Northern European estuaries. In both estuaries, nematode density and community composition followed the salinity gradient, naturally establishing three distinct estuarine sections: (i) freshwater and oligohaline - characterised by the presence of freshwater nematodes, low nematode density and diversity; (ii) mesohaline - dominated by Terschellingia, Sabatieria and Daptonema, with low total density and diversity; and (iii) polyhaline and euhaline - where nematodes reached the highest density and diversity, and Paracomesoma, Synonchiella, and Odontophora were dominant. Despite the similarities in community composition and total nematode density, the proportion of different nematode feeding types were remarkably different in the two estuaries. In Mira, selective deposit feeders were dominant in the oligohaline section, while non-selective deposit feeders were dominant in the other sections. On the contrary, in the Mondego estuary, epigrowth-feeders and omnivores/predators were dominant in the freshwater sections and in the euhaline sector of the southern arm. Differences observed along each estuarine gradient were much stronger than overall differences between the two estuaries. In the Mondego estuary, the influence of anthropogenic stressors seemed not to be relevant in determining the nematodes' spatial distribution patterns, therefore suggesting that mesoscale variability responded essentially to natural stressors, characteristic of estuarine gradients. Nevertheless, the proportion of the different feeding types was different between the two estuaries, indicating that the

  4. Early initiation of and exclusive breastfeeding in large-scale community-based programmes in Bolivia and Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Baker, Elizabeth Jean; Sanei, Linda C; Franklin, Nadra

    2006-12-01

    About one-fourth to one-half of all infant deaths in developing countries occur in the first week of life. Immediate breastfeeding within the first hour, followed by early exclusive breastfeeding, improves the health and survival status of newborns. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that breastfeeding practices, crucial to infant health, can be improved at scale in developing countries. During 1999-2003, the LINKAGES Project, funded by the United States Agency for International Development, implemented its community-based model to bring about rapid change in individual behaviours and community norms regarding early and exclusive breastfeeding, at a scale [LINKAGES' definition of 'scale' was adapted from a CORE Group background paper on 'Scaling-up' maternal, newborn, and child health services, 11 July 2005] that could achieve significant public-health impact. 'Scale' was defined as bringing improved infant-feeding practices to more people over a wider geographic area, more quickly, more equitably, and with sustainability as a goal. During this time, country-specific programmes were designed and implemented in Bolivia and Madagascar, with catchment populations of one million and six million respectively. These country programmes were implemented with multiple local government, private voluntary organizations, and partners of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) through existing health and nutrition activities. Breastfeeding was an entry point to work at all levels of the healthcare system and, within communities, using policy/advocacy and training for healthcare workers, with a particular emphasis on front-line health workers and community members. Harmonized messages and materials, including mass media, were developed and used by partners. Timely initiation of breastfeeding was one indicator measured. Data collected through rapid assessment surveys showed statistically significant increases (p<0.001) in timely initiation of breastfeeding in both the

  5. Prioritisation of wildlife pathogens to be targeted in European surveillance programmes: Expert-based risk analysis focus on ruminants.

    PubMed

    Ciliberti, Alexandre; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Yon, Lisa; Hutchings, Mike R; Artois, Marc

    2015-03-01

    This study attempted to develop a list of priority pathogens. It is part of a European Union (EU) project dedicated to the surveillance of emerging or re-emerging pathogens of wildlife. Partners of the consortium established an initial list of 138 pathogens of concern, which was reduced to a smaller list of 65 pathogens likely to affect ruminants (i.e., the most costly animal group in the EU over the last 15 years). These 65 pathogens underwent a two-step, expert-based risk analysis: 92 experts graded them with respect to their global importance for animal welfare, species conservation, trade/economic impacts and public health. In step 2, the top 15 pathogens from step 1 were assessed by 69 experts considering seven weighted epidemiological criteria (pathogen variability, host specificity, potential for contagion, speed of spread, presence in Europe, difficulty of surveillance in wildlife and persistence in the environment) for which four options were possible. The responses concerned a wide geographic coverage. The resulting top-list pathogens were ranked as follows: 1. Salmonella enterica, 2. Coxiella burnetii, 3. foot-and-mouth disease virus, 4. Mycobacterium bovis, 5. bluetongue virus, and 6. European tick-borne encephalitis virus. The influence of the characteristics of the respondents, the importance of the levels of uncertainty/variability and the implication of the results are discussed. This work highlights the relevance of developing such lists for preparedness.

  6. Evaluation of cardiovascular risk-lowering health benefits accruing from laboratory-based, community-based and exercise-referral exercise programmes.

    PubMed

    Webb, R; Thompson, J E S; Ruffino, J-S; Davies, N A; Watkeys, L; Hooper, S; Jones, P M; Walters, G; Clayton, D; Thomas, A W; Morris, K; Llewellyn, D H; Ward, M; Wyatt-Williams, J; McDonnell, B J

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of community-based exercise programmes to facilitate public participation in exercise and hence improved cardiovascular health, we assessed the respective impacts of: a continuously monitored exercise programme based within our university (study 1); a Valleys Regional Park-facilitated community-based outdoor exercise programme (study 2); a Wales National Exercise Referral Scheme-delivered exercise-referral programme (study 3). Biomolecular (monocytic PPARγ target gene expression), vascular haemodynamic (central/peripheral blood pressure, arterial stiffness), clinical (insulin sensitivity, blood lipids) and anthropometric (body mass index, waist circumference, heart rate) parameters were investigated using RT-PCR, applanation tonometry, chemical analysis and standard anthropometric techniques. In studies 1-3, 22/28, 32/65 and 11/14 participants adhered to their respective exercise programmes, and underwent significant increases in physical activity levels. Importantly, beneficial effects similar to those seen in our previous studies (eg, modulations in expression of monocytic PPARγ target genes, decreases in blood pressure/arterial stiffness, improvements in blood lipids/insulin sensitivity) were observed (albeit to slightly differing extents) only in participants who adhered to their respective exercise programmes. While study 1 achieved more intense exercise and more pronounced beneficial effects, significant cardiovascular risk-lowering health benefits related to biomolecular markers, blood pressure, arterial stiffness and blood lipids were achieved via community/referral-based delivery modes in studies 2 and 3. Because cardiovascular health benefits were observed in all 3 studies, we conclude that the majority of benefits previously reported in laboratory-based studies can also be achieved in community-based/exercise-referral settings. These findings may be of use in guiding policymakers with regard to introduction and/or continued

  7. Outcomes of interprofessional education for Community Mental Health Services in England: the longitudinal evaluation of a postgraduate programme.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, John; Barnes, Di; Dickinson, Claire; Wooff, David

    2006-03-01

    We report a comprehensive, longitudinal evaluation of a two-year, part-time postgraduate programme designed to enable health and social care professionals in England to work together to deliver new community mental health services, including psychosocial interventions (PSIs). The study tracked three successive cohorts of students (N = 111) through their learning. Outcomes were assessed according to the Kirkpatrick/Barr et al. framework using a mixed methodology, which employed both quantitative measures and interviews. The students evaluated the programme positively and appreciated its focus on interprofessional learning and partnership with services users, but mean levels of stress increased and almost one quarter dropped out. There was considerable evidence of professional stereotyping but little evidence of change in these during the programme. Students reported substantial increases in their knowledge and skills in multidisciplinary team working and use of PSIs (p < 0.001). Experiences in the implementation of learning varied; in general, students reported significantly greater role conflict (p = 0.01) compared to a sample of their team colleagues (N = 62), but there was strong evidence from self-report measures (p < 0.001) and work-place interviews that the students' use of PSIs had increased. Users with severe mental health problems (N = 72) randomly selected from caseloads of two cohorts of students improved over six months in terms of their social functioning (p = 0.047) and life satisfaction (p = 0.014). Having controlled statistically for differences in baseline score, those in the intervention (programme) group retained a significant advantage in terms of life skills (p < 0.001) compared to service users in two non-intervention comparison groups (N = 133). Responses on a user-defined measure indicated a high level of satisfaction with students' knowledge, skills and personal qualities. We conclude that that there is strong evidence that a well

  8. "Community Connections": A Programme to Enhance Domestic and International Students' Educational Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Ruth; Clayton, Veronica

    2011-01-01

    It has been widely acknowledged that an important indicator of a successful sojourn for international students is social integration into the host community. Despite seemingly regular opportunities to integrate, many international students report that their interactions with local residents remain superficial. The "Community Connections"…

  9. Teachers as Sojourners: Transitory Communities in Short Study-Abroad Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleeson, Margaret; Tait, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative case study examines a sojourn in an English speaking country for a group of experienced teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL). Sojourner learning was interpreted through a community of practice perspective. These participants formed a transitory community in the host country to support their academic and social learning.…

  10. "Community Connections": A Programme to Enhance Domestic and International Students' Educational Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Ruth; Clayton, Veronica

    2011-01-01

    It has been widely acknowledged that an important indicator of a successful sojourn for international students is social integration into the host community. Despite seemingly regular opportunities to integrate, many international students report that their interactions with local residents remain superficial. The "Community Connections"…

  11. Community Participation in Rural Ecuador's School Feeding Programme: A Health Promoting School Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Irene; Simovska, Venka

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the debate concerning community participation in school-based health education and health promotion, with regard to food and nutrition. Design/methodology/approach: Based on empirical data generated over the course of one year of fieldwork in three rural communities and schools in Ecuador, the…

  12. Community Participation in Rural Ecuador's School Feeding Programme: A Health Promoting School Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Irene; Simovska, Venka

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the debate concerning community participation in school-based health education and health promotion, with regard to food and nutrition. Design/methodology/approach: Based on empirical data generated over the course of one year of fieldwork in three rural communities and schools in Ecuador, the…

  13. Supervision of community health workers in Mozambique: a qualitative study of factors influencing motivation and programme implementation.

    PubMed

    Ndima, Sozinho Daniel; Sidat, Mohsin; Give, Celso; Ormel, Hermen; Kok, Maryse Catelijne; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) in Mozambique (known as Agentes Polivalentes Elementares (APEs)) are key actors in providing health services in rural communities. Supervision of CHWs has been shown to improve their work, although details of how it is implemented are scarce. In Mozambique, APE supervision structures and scope of work are clearly outlined in policy and rely on supervisors at the health facility of reference. The aim of this study was to understand how and which aspects of supervision impact on APE motivation and programme implementation. Qualitative research methodologies were used. Twenty-nine in-depth interviews were conducted to capture experiences and perceptions of purposefully selected participants. These included APEs, health facility supervisors, district APE supervisors and community leaders. Interviews were recorded, translated and transcribed, prior to the development of a thematic framework. Supervision was structured as dictated by policy but in practice was irregular and infrequent, which participants identified as affecting APE's motivation. When it did occur, supervision was felt to focus more on fault-finding than being supportive in nature and did not address all areas of APE's work - factors that APEs identified as demotivating. Supervisors, in turn, felt unsupported and felt this negatively impacted performance. They had a high workload in health facilities, where they had multiple roles, including provision of health services, taking care of administrative issues and supervising APEs in communities. A lack of resources for supervision activities was identified, and supervisors felt caught up in administrative issues around APE allowances that they were unable to solve. Many supervisors were not trained in providing supportive supervision. Community governance and accountability mechanisms were only partially able to fill the gaps left by the supervision provided by the health system. The findings indicate the need for an improved

  14. Can certified health professionals treat obesity in a community-based programme? A quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Miedema, Baukje; Reading, Stacey A; Hamilton, Ryan A; Morrison, Katherine S; Thompson, Ashley E

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the effectiveness of a non-pharmaceutical programme for obese participants in a rural Eastern Canadian Province using certified health professionals. Design A prospective quasi-experimental design with repeated premeasure and postmeasure. Participants 146 participants with obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m2) from rural and urban communities in an Eastern Canadian Province were divided into four groups. Intervention A 6-month intensive active community-based lifestyle intervention (InI) delivered by Certified Exercise Physiologists, Certified Personal Trainers and Registered Dietitians, followed by 6 months of self-management. A second intervention (InII) was nested in InI and consisted of group-mediated cognitive–behavioral intervention (GMCBI) delivered by an exercise psychologist to two of the four InI groups. Outcomes (1) Improving health outcomes among the participants’ preactive and postactive 6-month intervention and self-management period, (2) Documenting the impact of InII (GMCBI) and location of the intervention (urban vs rural). Results The 6-month active InI significantly improved cardiovascular health for participants who completed the intervention. InII (GMCBI) significantly lowered the attrition rate among the participants. The self-management period was challenging for the participants and they did not make further gains; however, most were able to maintain the gains achieved during the active intervention. The location of the intervention, urban or rural, had little impact on outcomes. Conclusions A community-based programme utilising healthcare professionals other than physicians to treat obese patients was effective based on premeasure and postmeasure. During the self-management phase, the participants were able to maintain the gains. Psychological support is essential to participant retention. PMID:25652801

  15. Can a self-management programme delivered by a community pharmacist improve asthma control? A randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Barbanel, D; Eldridge, S; Griffiths, C

    2003-10-01

    No randomised studies have addressed whether self-management for asthma can be successfully delivered by community pharmacists. Most randomised trials of asthma self-management have recruited participants from secondary care; there is uncertainty regarding its effectiveness in primary care. A randomised controlled study was undertaken to determine whether a community pharmacist could improve asthma control using self-management advice for individuals recruited during attendance at a community pharmacy. Twenty four adults attending a community pharmacy in Tower Hamlets, east London for routine asthma medication were randomised into two groups: the intervention group received self-management advice from the pharmacist with weekly telephone follow up for 3 months and the control group received no input from the pharmacist. Participants self-completed the North of England asthma symptom scale at baseline and 3 months later. The groups were well matched at baseline for demographic characteristics and mean (SD) symptom scores (26.3 (4.8) and 27.8 (3.7) in the intervention and control groups, respectively). Symptom scores improved in the intervention group and marginally worsened in the control group to 20.3 (4.2) and 28.1 (3.5), respectively (p<0.001; difference adjusted for baseline scores=7.0 (95% CI 4.4 to 9.5). A self-management programme delivered by a community pharmacist can improve asthma control in individuals recruited at a community pharmacy. Further studies should attempt to confirm these findings using larger samples and a wider range of outcome measures.

  16. Geothermal Field Development in the European Community Objectives, Achievements and Problem Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Ungemach, Pierre

    1983-12-15

    Achievements and problem areas are reviewed with respect to various engineering implications of geothermal field development in the European Community (EC). Current and furture development goals address three resource settings. (a) low enthalpy sources (30-150{degrees}C), an outlook common to all Member states as a result of hot water aquifers flowing in large sedimentary units with normal heat flow, widespread thoughout the EC; (b) high enthalpy sources (<150{degrees}C) in areas of high heat flow which, as a consequence of the geodynamics of the Eurasian plate, are limited to Central and South-West Italy and to Eastern Greece; (c) hot dry rocks (HDR), whose potential for Europe, and also the difficulties in implementing the heat mining concept, are enormous. A large scale experiment conducted at medium depth in Cornwall (UK) proves encouraging though. It has provided the right sort of scientific inputs to the understanding of the mechanics of anisotropic brittle basement rocks.

  17. Cost of malaria control in China: Henan's consolidation programme from community and government perspectives.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Sukhan; Sleigh, Adrian C.; Liu, Xi-Li

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assist with strategic planning for the eradication of malaria in Henan Province, China, which reached the consolidation phase of malaria control in 1992, when only 318 malaria cases were reported. METHODS: We conducted a prospective two-year study of the costs for Henan's malaria control programme. We used a cost model that could also be applied to other malaria programmes in mainland China, and analysed the cost of the three components of Henan's malaria programme: suspected malaria case management, vector surveillance, and population blood surveys. Primary cost data were collected from the government, and data on suspected malaria patients were collected in two malaria counties (population 2 093 100). We enlisted the help of 260 village doctors in six townships or former communes (population 247 762), and studied all 12 325 reported cases of suspected malaria in their catchment areas in 1994 and 1995. FINDINGS: The average annual government investment in malaria control was estimated to be US$ 111 516 (case-management 59%; active blood surveys 25%; vector surveillance 12%; and contingencies and special projects 4%). The average cost (direct and indirect) for patients seeking treatment for suspected malaria was US$ 3.48, equivalent to 10 days' income for rural residents. Each suspected malaria case cost the government an average of US$ 0.78. CONCLUSION: Further cuts in government funding will increase future costs when epidemic malaria returns; investment in malaria control should therefore continue at least at current levels of US$ 0.03 per person at risk. PMID:12219157

  18. A regional training programme for radiotherapists and allied professionals for the west African health community.

    PubMed

    Durosinmi-Etti, F A; Mouelle-Sone, A

    1993-03-01

    With 47% of the population under 15 years of age and the control of infectious and other communicable diseases, cancer will likely constitute a major health problem in West Africa in future. Radiotherapy facilities and trained manpower to run them are very limited within the subregion. This paper quantifies the severity of the situation and discusses a practical approach aimed at coping with the situation through the organisation of a training programme for radiotherapists, medical physicists and radiation technologists as part of the strategies for cancer control in West Africa. A curriculum is proposed for the training of radiotherapists.

  19. Biorational control programme for the German cockroach (Blattaria: Blattellidae) in selected urban communities.

    PubMed

    Shahraki, GholamHossein; Bin Ibrahim, Yusof; Noor, Hafidzi Mohd; Rafinejad, Javad; Shahar, Mohd Khadri

    2010-08-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of a biorational control approach using 2% hydramethylnon gel bait on German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.) in some residential and hospital buildings in South Western Iran. In total, three buildings consisting of 150 apartment units and 101 hospital units were monitored weekly via sticky trap for German cockroach infestations over a period of eight months. These infested units were randomly subjected to intervention and control treatments. Pamphlets and posters were provided and lectures were given to support the educational programmes as a tactic of the biorational system. Survey on cockroach index for intervention units showed 67-94% recovery to achieve clean level of infestation for intervention units of the residential buildings and 83% for the hospital. Mean percentage reductions for treatment groups throughout the 15-week treatment period were 76.8% for the residential buildings and 88.1% for the hospital, showing significant differences compared to the control groups. Linear regression of infestation rates were recorded weekly after treatment and their negative slope for treatment groups substantiated significant reductions for interventions. The results of this study showed that biorational control method, using gel bait, educational programmes and sanitation, is an effective way to manage German cockroach infestation.

  20. Community-based health insurance programmes and the national health insurance scheme of Nigeria: challenges to uptake and integration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nigeria has included a regulated community-based health insurance (CBHI) model within its National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). Uptake to date has been disappointing, however. The aim of this study is to review the present status of CBHI in SSA in general to highlight the issues that affect its successful integration within the NHIS of Nigeria and more widely in developing countries. Methods A literature survey using PubMed and EconLit was carried out to identify and review studies that report factors affecting implementation of CBHI in SSA with a focus on Nigeria. Results CBHI schemes with a variety of designs have been introduced across SSA but with generally disappointing results so far. Two exceptions are Ghana and Rwanda, both of which have introduced schemes with effective government control and support coupled with intensive implementation programmes. Poor support for CBHI is repeatedly linked elsewhere with failure to engage and account for the ‘real world’ needs of beneficiaries, lack of clear legislative and regulatory frameworks, inadequate financial support, and unrealistic enrolment requirements. Nigeria’s CBHI-type schemes for the informal sectors of its NHIS have been set up under an appropriate legislative framework, but work is needed to eliminate regressive financing, to involve scheme members in the setting up and management of programmes, to inform and educate more effectively, to eliminate lack of confidence in the schemes, and to address inequity in provision. Targeted subsidies should also be considered. Conclusions Disappointing uptake of CBHI-type NHIS elements in Nigeria can be addressed through closer integration of informal and formal programmes under the NHIS umbrella, with increasing involvement of beneficiaries in scheme design and management, improved communication and education, and targeted financial assistance. PMID:24559409

  1. Effectiveness of a group diabetes education programme in underserved communities in South Africa: pragmatic cluster randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Mash, Bob; Levitt, Naomi; Steyn, Krisela; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Rollnick, Stephen

    2012-12-24

    Diabetes is an important contributor to the burden of disease in South Africa and prevalence rates as high as 33% have been recorded in Cape Town. Previous studies show that quality of care and health outcomes are poor. The development of an effective education programme should impact on self-care, lifestyle change and adherence to medication; and lead to better control of diabetes, fewer complications and better quality of life. Pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trialParticipants: Type 2 diabetic patients attending 45 public sector community health centres in Cape TownInterventions: The intervention group will receive 4 sessions of group diabetes education delivered by a health promotion officer in a guiding style. The control group will receive usual care which consists of ad hoc advice during consultations and occasional educational talks in the waiting room. To evaluate the effectiveness of the group diabetes education programmeOutcomes: diabetes self-care activities, 5% weight loss, 1% reduction in HbA1c. self-efficacy, locus of control, mean blood pressure, mean weight loss, mean waist circumference, mean HbA1c, mean total cholesterol, quality of lifeRandomisation: Computer generated random numbersBlinding: Patients, health promoters and research assistants could not be blinded to the health centre's allocationNumbers randomized: Seventeen health centres (34 in total) will be randomly assigned to either control or intervention groups. A sample size of 1360 patients in 34 clusters of 40 patients will give a power of 80% to detect the primary outcomes with 5% precision. Altogether 720 patients were recruited in the intervention arm and 850 in the control arm giving a total of 1570. The study will inform policy makers and managers of the district health system, particularly in low to middle income countries, if this programme can be implemented more widely. Pan African Clinical Trial Registry PACTR201205000380384.

  2. Serving the Community and Learning a Foreign Language: Evaluating a Service-Learning Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Frank A.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated a service learning program in Spanish, in which learners of Spanish provide various forms of social services to native speakers in local communities in the target language, to assess its impact on learner motivation and attitudes. (Author/VWL)

  3. "Don't wait for them to come to you, you go to them". A qualitative study of recruitment approaches in community based walking programmes in the UK.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Anne; Brennan, Graham; Kelly, Paul; McAdam, Chloe; Mutrie, Nanette; Foster, Charles

    2012-08-10

    This study aimed to examine the experiences of walking promotion professionals on the range and effectiveness of recruitment strategies used within community based walking programmes within the United Kingdom. Two researchers recruited and conducted semi-structured interviews with managers and project co-ordinators of community based walking programmes, across the UK, using a purposive sampling frame. Twenty eight interviews were conducted, with community projects targeting participants by age, physical activity status, socio-demographic characteristics (i.e. ethnic group) or by health status. Three case studies were also conducted with programmes aiming to recruit priority groups and also demonstrating innovative recruitment methods. Data analysis adopted an approach using analytic induction. Two types of programmes were identified: those with explicit health aims and those without. Programme aims which required targeting of specific groups adopted more specific recruitment methods. The selection of recruitment method was dependent on the respondent's awareness of 'what works' and the resource capacity at their disposal. Word of mouth was perceived to be the most effective means of recruitment but using this approach took time and effort to build relationships with target groups, usually through a third party. Perceived effectiveness of recruitment was assessed by number of participants rather than numbers of the right participants. Some programmes, particularly those targeting younger adult participants, recruited using new social communication media. Where adopted, social marketing recruitment strategies tended to promote the 'social' rather than the 'health' benefits of walking. Effective walking programme recruitment seems to require trained, strategic, labour intensive, word-of-mouth communication, often in partnerships, in order to understand needs and develop trust and motivation within disengaged sedentary communities. Walking promotion professionals

  4. Accelerating reproductive and child health programme impact with community-based services: the Navrongo experiment in Ghana.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, James F.; Bawah, Ayaga A.; Binka, Fred N.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the demographic and health impact of deploying health service nurses and volunteers to village locations with a view to scaling up results. METHODS: A four-celled plausibility trial was used for testing the impact of aligning community health services with the traditional social institutions that organize village life. Data from the Navrongo Demographic Surveillance System that tracks fertility and mortality events over time were used to estimate impact on fertility and mortality. RESULTS: Assigning nurses to community locations reduced childhood mortality rates by over half in 3 years and accelerated the time taken for attainment of the child survival Millennium Development Goal (MDG) in the study areas to 8 years. Fertility was also reduced by 15%, representing a decline of one birth in the total fertility rate. Programme costs added 1.92 US Dollar per capita to the 6.80 US Dollar per capita primary health care budget. CONCLUSION: Assigning nurses to community locations where they provide basic curative and preventive care substantially reduces childhood mortality and accelerates progress towards attainment of the child survival MDG. Approaches using community volunteers, however, have no impact on mortality. The results also demonstrate that increasing access to contraceptive supplies alone fails to address the social costs of fertility regulation. Effective deployment of volunteers and community mobilization strategies offsets the social constraints on the adoption of contraception. The research in Navrongo thus demonstrates that affordable and sustainable means of combining nurse services with volunteer action can accelerate attainment of both the International Conference on Population and Development agenda and the MDGs. PMID:17242830

  5. Students' and families' expenditures to attend a nursing programme in 2011-2012: a comparison of five southern European countries.

    PubMed

    Palese, Alvisa; Bortoluzzi, Guido; Achil, Illarj; Jarosova, Darja; Notara, Venetia; Vagka, Elissabet; Andrascikova, Stefania; Rybarova, Lubica; Skela-Savič, Brigita

    2014-02-01

    To compare students' and families' nursing education expenditures across Europe. Nursing education costs are affected by investments in public education. The remaining costs fall on the shoulders of students and their families. While remaining somewhat understudied, public and student expenditure for nursing education is becoming critical in the current crisis context. Comparative studies on education costs are inevitably affected by a currency bias. Therefore, a standard measure named the Purchasing Power Standard, which has received no attention in nursing research, has been introduced. A mixed-method study incorporating qualitative and quantitative study designs was undertaken in 2011-2012. Five nursing faculties located in the Czech Republic, Greece, Italy, Slovakia and Slovenia were included in the study. A questionnaire evaluating students' expenditures was developed in five languages and validated. Six hundred and twenty-five full-time students were recruited. A Slovakian student wishing to pursue a nursing career is required to commit an amount of money per year that corresponds to 15% of the average annual income of a Slovakian citizen. Lower percentages were required by students in Greece (10%), Italy (11%) and Slovenia (12%), while Czech students bore the lowest costs (5%). None of the countries involved was supporting nursing students through either direct or indirect financial incentives. Students in some countries were also required to buy and maintain uniforms. There is a need to develop supportive policies, especially in those countries where nursing programmes are expensive and may not be accessible to all talented and motivated students due to limited public support in education and the current economic context. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. European models of long-term care in the home and community.

    PubMed

    Coleman, B J

    1995-01-01

    In the 1980s, faced with a rapidly increasing elderly population and soaring costs of health and long-term care services, many European governments began to reexamine fiscal policies that often encouraged institutionalization of frail and dependent elders. A number of these countries have now turned to new models of home and community-based care. This report describes home care policies that serve the needs of frail elders in Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Great Britain, with special attention to experimental projects that have tested varying approaches for providing high quality, low-cost care in the home and in the community. The central governments in these countries have developed long-term care systems that improve quality of care, ensure more efficient delivery of services, and control or lower costs. They have (1) discouraged the building of additional nursing homes and instead supported the development and expansion of a range of housing alternatives; (2) shifted greater responsibility to local governments for delivering long-term care services, bringing those services closer to those who need them; (3) developed care management techniques that enable care providers to better target appropriate services to each elderly client; and (4) provided incentives for different types of care providers to coordinate their work, resulting in improved service delivery and greater client satisfaction.

  7. Species-specific effects of Asian and European earthworms on microbial communities in Mid-Atlantic deciduous forests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Earthworm species with different feeding, burrowing, and/or casting behaviors can lead to distinct microbial communities through complex direct and indirect processes. European earthworm invasion into temperate deciduous forests in North America has been shown to alter microbial biomass in the soil ...

  8. The In-Service Training of Teachers in the Twelve Member States of the European Community. Education Policy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, V.; Moisan, C.

    Improvement in the quality of education is a concern shared by all the Member States of the European Community. The in-service training of teachers is a critical factor in the pursuit of this objective. Increasingly rapid changes in society (economic, technological, social, and cultural) mean that teachers are constantly faced with new syllabuses…

  9. A community level syphilis prevention programme: outcome data from a controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ross, M; Chatterjee, N; Leonard, L

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the impact of a small media campaign to reduce syphilis through testing, treatment, and condom use in two urban predominantly African-American communities with high syphilis rates. Methods: Data were collected from intervention and comparison zip codes using cross sectional street intercept interviews at baseline and 2 years later (n = 1630) following a small media syphilis prevention campaign with role model story posters, billboards, and other merchandise. Community businesses and a community based organisation served as partners, distributing condoms and small media. Results: Comparing intervention with comparison zip codes, there were significant increases in condom use in last sexual act, and some aspects of knowledge of syphilis. However, there was significant cross contamination of media impact, with respondents in the comparison zip code seeing an average of two media items compared with three in the intervention zip code. Media exposure was associated with significant increases in knowledge of syphilis, testing, and condom use. Conclusions: Targeted community based small media interventions using community partners for distribution are effective in increasing syphilis knowledge, testing, and condom use. PMID:15054168

  10. Micro grants as a stimulus for community action in residential health programmes: a case study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M; Plochg, T; Harting, J; Klazinga, N S; Stronks, K

    2009-09-01

    This paper aimed to explore the contribution of a micro grant financing scheme to community action in terms of residential health-promoting initiatives, interorganizational collaboration and public participation. The scheme was two-fold, consisting of (i) micro grants of 500-3500 Euros, which were easily obtainable by local organizations and (ii) neighbourhood health panels of community and health workers, functioning as a distributing mechanism. Data were collected using three methods: (i) observations of the neighbourhood-based health panels, (ii) in-depth interviews with policy-makers and professionals and (iii) analyses of documents and reports. This study demonstrated the three-fold role of micro grants as a vehicle to enable community action at an organizational level in terms of increased network activities between the local organizations, to set an agenda for the 'health topic' in non-traditional health agencies and to enable a number of health-promoting initiatives. Although these initiatives were attended by small groups of residents normally considered hard to reach, the actual public participation was limited. In their role as a distributing mechanism, the health panels were vital with regard to the achieved impact on the community action. However, certain limitations were also seen, which were related to the governance of the panels. This case study provides evidence to suggest that micro grants have the potential to stimulate community action at an organizational and a residential level, but with the prerequisite that grants be accompanied by increased investments in infrastructure.

  11. Setting maximum limits for trace elements in baby food in European legislation: the outcome of International Measurement Evaluation Programme®-33.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, F; Baer, I; Robouch, P; Emteborg, H; Can, S Z; Krata, A; Zampella, M; Quétel, C R; Hearn, R; De la Calle, B

    2013-01-01

    The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) of the Joint Research Centre (JRC), a Directorate-General of the European Commission, operates the International Measurement Evaluation Programme® (IMEP). It organises various types of inter-laboratory comparisons in support of European Union policies. This paper presents the results of a proficiency testing exercise (PT) focusing on the determination of total cadmium (Cd) and total lead (Pb) mass fractions in baby food in support to Commission Regulation (EC) 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. The test material used in this exercise was soya-based baby food formula purchased in a local pharmacy and prepared by the Reference Materials Unit of the IRMM for this exercise. Sixty-six laboratories from 23 countries registered to the exercise and 61 of them reported results. Each participant received one bottle containing approximately 15 g of test material. Participants were asked to quantify the measurands in the powder and in the reconstituted formula. Reference values independent from the participants' results were established using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The total Cd mass fraction was determined by IRMM and LGC Ltd (UK), while the total Pb was determined by IRMM. The standard deviation for proficiency assessment σ^ was set at 22% of the assigned value for all measurands. Laboratories were rated with z- and ζ- (zeta) scores in accordance with ISO 13528. The outcome of this exercise is clearly influenced by the very low level of Cd and Pb content in the test material which triggered: a high number of 'less than' values; overestimated values especially for Pb very likely due to contamination; and a visible method influence in the case of Pb (methods based on atomic absorption were not sensitive enough to attain such low limits of detection). The results were also evaluated with regard to the reported limit of

  12. Second-Line Antiretroviral Therapy in a Workplace and Community-Based Treatment Programme in South Africa: Determinants of Virological Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Victoria; Fielding, Katherine; Charalambous, Salome; Mampho, Mildred; Churchyard, Gavin; Phillips, Andrew; Grant, Alison D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes in resource-limited settings mature, more patients are experiencing virological failure. Without resistance testing, deciding who should switch to second-line ART can be difficult. The consequences for second-line outcomes are unclear. In a workplace- and community-based multi-site programme, with 6-monthly virological monitoring, we describe outcomes and predictors of viral suppression on second-line, protease inhibitor-based ART. Methods: We used prospectively collected clinic data from patients commencing first-line ART between 1/1/03 and 31/12/08 to construct a study cohort of patients switched to second-line ART in the presence of a viral load (VL) ≥400 copies/ml. Predictors of VL<400 copies/ml within 15 months of switch were assessed using modified Poisson regression to estimate risk ratios. Results: 205 workplace patients (91.7% male; median age 43 yrs) and 212 community patients (38.7% male; median age 36 yrs) switched regimens. At switch compared to community patients, workplace patients had a longer duration of viraemia, higher VL, lower CD4 count, and higher reported non-adherence on first-line ART. Non-adherence was the reported reason for switching in a higher proportion of workplace patients. Following switch, 48.3% (workplace) and 72.0% (community) achieved VL<400, with non-adherence (17.9% vs. 1.4%) and virological rebound (35.6% vs. 13.2% with available measures) reported more commonly in the workplace programme. In adjusted analysis of the workplace programme, lower switch VL and younger age were associated with VL<400. In the community programme, shorter duration of viraemia, higher CD4 count and transfers into programme on ART were associated with VL<400. Conclusion: High levels of viral suppression on second-line ART can be, but are not always, achieved in multi-site treatment programmes with both individual- and programme-level factors influencing outcomes. Strategies to support both

  13. A Community Day Care Programme for Psychiatric Patients: The Role of Occupational Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pradad, Akanksha; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the need for and role of occupational therapy in the organization and functioning of a community day care center for psychiatric patients in India. The occupational therapy program involves client evaluation, determination of therapeutic activities, physical exercise, recreational activities, group sessions, family involvement,…

  14. A Community-Based Rehabilitation Programme for Pre-School Disabled Children in Guyana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Brian

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents a rationale for and evaluation of community-based rehabilitation (CBR). A CBR program implemented with 53 preschool disabled children in rural areas of Guyana found that the children's development improved significantly; the parents were willing to be involved; and parents' attitudes toward their children, themselves, and their…

  15. Coaching to Quality: Increasing Quality in Early Care and Education Programmes through Community-University Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jaesook Lee; Harte, Helene Arbouet

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes efforts to increase the quality in early care and education through targeted coaching. A collaborative including several community agencies and a university developed a framework of support for early care and education providers, using coaching as its foundational basis, called Coaching to Quality (CTQ). This paper provides a…

  16. A Community Day Care Programme for Psychiatric Patients: The Role of Occupational Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pradad, Akanksha; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the need for and role of occupational therapy in the organization and functioning of a community day care center for psychiatric patients in India. The occupational therapy program involves client evaluation, determination of therapeutic activities, physical exercise, recreational activities, group sessions, family involvement,…

  17. The European Donor Hospital Education Programme (EDHEP): addressing the training needs of doctors and nurses who break bad news, care for the bereaved, and request donation.

    PubMed

    Blok, G A; van Dalen, J; Jager, K J; Ryan, M; Wijnen, R M; Wight, C; Morton, J M; Morley, M; Cohen, B

    1999-01-01

    The competence of critical care staff when it comes to death and organ donation can make the difference between a family's agreeing to or refusing the latter. Doctors and nurses often feel uncomfortable approaching relatives about donation and attribute this to a lack of training. Bereaved relatives express dissatisfaction with inappropriate communication and support when brain death is announced and thereafter when a request for donation is made. The European Donor Hospital Education Programme (EDHEP) was designed to meet the training needs of critical care staff in breaking bad news, caring for the bereaved, and requesting donation. EDHEP is a two-part educational package consisting of a presentation about the donor shortage followed by a one-day workshop. The implementation of EDHEP throughout the world has been facilitated through effective national working groups and standardised "train the trainer" courses. Several countries anecdotally report increases in donation following implementation. Controlled evaluation of the effect(s) of EDHEP, which started at the end of 1995, focuses on the satisfaction of the participants with EDHEP, on the competence of the participants in breaking bad news and requesting donation, on the teamwork regarding death and donation, on the satisfaction of bereaved relatives, and on organ donation rates.

  18. Are Different Professionals Ready to Support Children of Parents with Mental Illness? Evaluating the Impact of a Pan-European Training Programme.

    PubMed

    Viganò, Giovanni; Kaunonen, Marja; Ryan, Peter; Simpson, Wendy; Dawson, Ian; Tabak, Izabela; Scherbaum, Norbert; Poma, Stefano Zanone

    2017-04-01

    A training package (pre-tested in a pilot phase) about supporting children who have parents with a mental illness and/or with substance misuse (COPMI) was developed and delivered to 131 different professionals from six different European Countries. A questionnaire about importance, awareness and competence on the issue (8 items on knowledge and 15 items on skills) was developed and completed by participants before and after the training. The training was evaluated by participants as generally very successful in terms of improving the importance, awareness and competence of their knowledge and skills, with a statistically significant difference in the pre-/post-analyses (no decreases occurred). Different professional groups performed differently in the pre-training self-rating scores. The participants in some countries were mainly drawn from one professional group (i.e. teachers in Finland, social workers in Germany and psychologists in Poland). It was found that stigma was considered an extremely important concern even before the training, whilst country-specific legal issues were not taken into proper account in the training. Some possibilities for further refinement of the training programme are suggested.

  19. Institutional evolution of a community-based programme for malaria control through larval source management in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Chaki, Prosper P; Kannady, Khadija; Mtasiwa, Deo; Tanner, Marcel; Mshinda, Hassan; Kelly, Ann H; Killeen, Gerry F

    2014-06-25

    Community-based service delivery is vital to the effectiveness, affordability and sustainability of vector control generally, and to labour-intensive larval source management (LSM) programmes in particular. The institutional evolution of a city-level, community-based LSM programme over 14 years in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, illustrates how operational research projects can contribute to public health governance and to the establishment of sustainable service delivery programmes. Implementation, management and governance of this LSM programme is framed within a nested set of spatially-defined relationships between mosquitoes, residents, government and research institutions that build upward from neighbourhood to city and national scales. The clear hierarchical structure associated with vertical, centralized management of decentralized, community-based service delivery, as well as increasingly clear differentiation of partner roles and responsibilities across several spatial scales, contributed to the evolution and subsequent growth of the programme. The UMCP was based on the principle of an integrated operational research project that evolved over time as the City Council gradually took more responsibility for management. The central role of Dar es Salaam's City Council in coordinating LSM implementation enabled that flexibility; the institutionalization of management and planning in local administrative structures enhanced community-mobilization and funding possibilities at national and international levels. Ultimately, the high degree of program ownership by the City Council and three municipalities, coupled with catalytic donor funding and technical support from expert overseas partners have enabled establishment of a sustainable, internally-funded programme implemented by the National Ministry of Health and Social Welfare and supported by national research and training institutes.

  20. Institutional evolution of a community-based programme for malaria control through larval source management in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Community-based service delivery is vital to the effectiveness, affordability and sustainability of vector control generally, and to labour-intensive larval source management (LSM) programmes in particular. Case description The institutional evolution of a city-level, community-based LSM programme over 14 years in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, illustrates how operational research projects can contribute to public health governance and to the establishment of sustainable service delivery programmes. Implementation, management and governance of this LSM programme is framed within a nested set of spatially-defined relationships between mosquitoes, residents, government and research institutions that build upward from neighbourhood to city and national scales. Discussion and evaluation The clear hierarchical structure associated with vertical, centralized management of decentralized, community-based service delivery, as well as increasingly clear differentiation of partner roles and responsibilities across several spatial scales, contributed to the evolution and subsequent growth of the programme. Conclusions The UMCP was based on the principle of an integrated operational research project that evolved over time as the City Council gradually took more responsibility for management. The central role of Dar es Salaam’s City Council in coordinating LSM implementation enabled that flexibility; the institutionalization of management and planning in local administrative structures enhanced community-mobilization and funding possibilities at national and international levels. Ultimately, the high degree of program ownership by the City Council and three municipalities, coupled with catalytic donor funding and technical support from expert overseas partners have enabled establishment of a sustainable, internally-funded programme implemented by the National Ministry of Health and Social Welfare and supported by national research and training institutes. PMID

  1. Developing the future Indigenous health workforce: The feasibility and impact of a student-led placement programme in remote Indigenous communities.

    PubMed

    Warren, Johanna M; Irish, Georgina L; Purbrick, Brydie; Li, Joule J; Li, Xi; Fitzpatrick, Danielle J; Faull, Randall J

    2016-10-01

    To describe and evaluate a programme where medical students designed and implemented Indigenous health placements for students with an interest in rural/Indigenous health. In 2011, a student-led programme at the University of Adelaide was set up to give medical students the opportunity to undertake outreach trips and clinical placements in remote Indigenous communities. Twenty-four medical students attended trips to remote communities between 2012 and 2014. Here we evaluate our programme using a single-arm experimental design. Responses to questionnaire items before and after attending an outreach placement, scored on 6-point Likert scales. Following their remote Indigenous health placement, participants expressed a significantly higher mean likelihood of working in an Indigenous community in the future (3.17 (2.69-3.64) versus 4.00 (3.65-4.35); P < 0.007). Furthermore, after their placement participants felt better prepared to work in Indigenous communities (mean 1.79 (1.44-2.14) versus 3.21 (2.88-3.54); P < 0.001). A placement programme initiated and run by medical students can provide meaningful exposure to Indigenous health. Implementation of this student-led model in other medical schools may encourage nationwide development of the Indigenous health workforce. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  2. Communities of Practice and Participatory Action Research: The Formation of a Synergy for the Development of Museum Programmes for Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampartzaki, Maria; Kypriotaki, Maria; Voreadou, Catherine; Dardioti, Antonia; Stathi, Iasmi

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the integration of two key ideas and working frameworks: a community of educational practice formed by the synergy between a natural history museum and a university department of pre-school education, which undertook participatory action research aimed at the creation of innovative museum programmes for young children. Data…

  3. Do community-based rehabilitation programmes promote the participation of persons with disabilities? A case control study from Mandya District, in India.

    PubMed

    Biggeri, Mario; Deepak, Sunil; Mauro, Vincenzo; Trani, Jean-Francois; Kumar, Jayanth; Ramasamy, Parthipan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we measure the effectiveness of Community-Based Rehabilitation (CBR) programmes in promoting the well-being of people with disabilities and removing the barriers to their participation in family and community decision-making processes. To evaluate the impact of the CBR programme, we use data from a large-scale control study in Karnataka, India. Propensity score matching is used to evaluate the impacts on disabled persons after 2, 4 and 7 years of entering the CBR. The theoretical framework for the analysis is based on the CBR guidelines, which are combined with the International Classification of Functionings (ICF), the United Nations Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities (UN CRPD) and Amartya Sen's capability approach. CBR has a positive impact on the well-being of persons with disabilities participating in the programme and particularly on their participation within the family and the society at large. CBR programmes have a multidimensional and positive impact on individual and collective capabilities; on individual, agency and social empowerment. Implications for Rehabilitation Community-Based Rehabilitation (CBR) can make a lasting difference in the life of persons with disabilities. CBR improves participation and inclusion of persons with disabilities in the family and in the community.

  4. Psychological and social consequences of community carrier screening programme for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Watson, E K; Mayall, E S; Lamb, J; Chapple, J; Williamson, R

    1992-07-25

    We have assessed the effect of screening for cystic fibrosis (CF) carrier status on anxiety levels, attitudes, knowledge and actions of participants in a pilot programme conducted through primary health care services. Over 3000 individuals were screened and 100 carriers with no previous family history were identified. Varying degrees of anxiety were found to be associated initially with a positive result, but most of this was allayed by genetic counselling, and we find no adverse long-term psychological consequences in carriers. Most discussed carrier status with their partner (89%), parents, other relatives and also with friends; 87% of partners to whom testing was suggested have been screened. Those testing positive indicated that knowledge of carrier status would be considered in future reproductive decisions, and after 6 months carriers retained a reasonable level of knowledge about CF and its inheritance. Carriers and non-carriers uniformly approve of screening and are glad to have been tested. Knowledge of CF in the sample of non-carriers has also increased after testing, suggesting screening may improve understanding of CF among the entire target population. Fears of possible social costs of screening may be ill-founded.

  5. Health impact of water and sanitation infrastructure reconstruction programmes in eight Central American communities affected by Hurricane Mitch.

    PubMed

    Moll, Deborah M; McElroy, Rebecca H; Sabogal, Raquel; Corrales, Lana F; Gelting, Richard J

    2007-03-01

    In response to Hurricane Mitch, which struck Central America in October-November 1998, the American Red Cross (ARC) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) collaborated on a 3-year evaluation of the public health impact of ARC's water, sanitation and hygiene education activities in eight study areas in Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala. The evaluation compared: 1) access to and use of water and sanitation facilities, 2) the use of hygienic behaviours, and 3) diarrhoeal prevalence in children younger than 3 years of age before (February 2000) and after (February 2002) the interventions had been implemented. The evaluation included household and key informant interviews designed to measure these three components. Water quality of community water sources and household water was evaluated by measuring levels of indicator bacteria. During the final survey, an infrastructure evaluation provided a review of the design, construction, and current operation and maintenance of the water systems and latrines. The integrated water and sanitation infrastructure interventions and hygiene education programmes implemented following Hurricane Mitch effectively decreased diarrhoea prevalence in the target communities.

  6. Infant health effects of a nurse-community health worker home visitation programme: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Meghea, C I; Li, B; Zhu, Q; Raffo, J E; Lindsay, J K; Moore, J S; Roman, L A

    2013-01-01

      Home visiting is supported as a way to improve child health and development. Home visiting has been usually provided by nurses or community health workers (CHWs). Few studies compared the child health advantages of a nurse-CHW team approach over nurse prenatal and postnatal home visiting.   A randomized trial was conducted with Medicaid-insured pregnant women in Kent County, Michigan. Pregnant women were assigned to a team intervention including nurse-CHW home visitation, or standard community care (CC) including nurse home visitation. Morbidity was assessed in 530 infants over their first 12 months of life from medical claims and reported by the mother.   There were no differences in overall child health between the nurse-CHW intervention and the CC arm over the first year of life. There were fewer mother-reported asthma/wheezing/croup diagnostics in the team intervention group among infants whose mothers have low psychosocial resources (13% vs. 27%, P = 0.01; adjusted OR = 0.4, P = 0.01). There were no differences in diagnosed asthma/wheezing/croup documented by medical claims. There were no differences in immunizations, hospitalizations and ear infections.   There was no strong evidence that infant health was improved by the addition of CHWs to a programme of CC that included nurse home visitation. Targeting such interventions at common health problems of infancy and childhood or at diagnosed chronic conditions may prove more successful. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Impact of community-based support services on antiretroviral treatment programme delivery and outcomes in resource-limited countries: a synthetic review.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Edwin; Van Damme, Wim; van Rensburg, Dingie; Masquillier, Caroline; Meulemans, Herman

    2012-07-09

    Task-shifting to lay community health providers is increasingly suggested as a potential strategy to overcome the barriers to sustainable antiretroviral treatment (ART) scale-up in high-HIV-prevalence, resource-limited settings. The dearth of systematic scientific evidence on the contributory role and function of these forms of community mobilisation has rendered a formal evaluation of the published results of existing community support programmes a research priority. We reviewed the relevant published work for the period from November 2003 to December 2011 in accordance with the guidelines for a synthetic review. ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, BioMed Central, OVID Medline, PubMed, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts and a number of relevant websites were searched. The reviewed literature reported an unambiguous positive impact of community support on a wide range of aspects, including access, coverage, adherence, virological and immunological outcomes, patient retention and survival. Looking at the mechanisms through which community support can impact ART programmes, the review indicates that community support initiatives are a promising strategy to address five often cited challenges to ART scale-up, namely (1) the lack of integration of ART services into the general health system; (2) the growing need for comprehensive care, (3) patient empowerment, (4) and defaulter tracing; and (5) the crippling shortage in human resources for health. The literature indicates that by linking HIV/AIDS-care to other primary health care programmes, by providing psychosocial care in addition to the technical-medical care from nurses and doctors, by empowering patients towards self-management and by tracing defaulters, well-organised community support initiatives are a vital part of any sustainable public-sector ART programme. The review demonstrates that community support initiatives are a potentially effective strategy to address the growing shortage of

  8. Impact of community-based support services on antiretroviral treatment programme delivery and outcomes in resource-limited countries: a synthetic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Task-shifting to lay community health providers is increasingly suggested as a potential strategy to overcome the barriers to sustainable antiretroviral treatment (ART) scale-up in high-HIV-prevalence, resource-limited settings. The dearth of systematic scientific evidence on the contributory role and function of these forms of community mobilisation has rendered a formal evaluation of the published results of existing community support programmes a research priority. Methods We reviewed the relevant published work for the period from November 2003 to December 2011 in accordance with the guidelines for a synthetic review. ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, BioMed Central, OVID Medline, PubMed, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts and a number of relevant websites were searched. Results The reviewed literature reported an unambiguous positive impact of community support on a wide range of aspects, including access, coverage, adherence, virological and immunological outcomes, patient retention and survival. Looking at the mechanisms through which community support can impact ART programmes, the review indicates that community support initiatives are a promising strategy to address five often cited challenges to ART scale-up, namely (1) the lack of integration of ART services into the general health system; (2) the growing need for comprehensive care, (3) patient empowerment, (4) and defaulter tracing; and (5) the crippling shortage in human resources for health. The literature indicates that by linking HIV/AIDS-care to other primary health care programmes, by providing psychosocial care in addition to the technical-medical care from nurses and doctors, by empowering patients towards self-management and by tracing defaulters, well-organised community support initiatives are a vital part of any sustainable public-sector ART programme. Conclusions The review demonstrates that community support initiatives are a potentially effective

  9. Effects of the upper atmosphere on terrestrial and space communications: the new cost 271 action of the European scientific community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolesi, B.; Cander, Lj. R.

    During the last decade important results have been obtained by the two COST Actions (Co-operation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research) promoted by the European Union: the PRIME (Prediction and Retrospective Ionospheric Modelling over Europe) and the IITS (Improved Quality of Service in Ionospheric Telecommunication Systems Planning and Operation). The European scientific community involved in the ionospheric physics, radio propagation and space science has then proposed a new 4 years Action on the effects of the upper atmosphere on terrestrial and Earth space communications. The objectives and the most important directions of this recently accepted COST271 project are here shortly outlined.

  10. Uptake and effectiveness of a community pharmacy intervention programme to improve asthma management.

    PubMed

    Bereznicki, B J; Peterson, G; Jackson, S; Walters, E H; George, J; Stewart, K; March, G J

    2013-06-01

    Pharmacists frequently see patients with asthma in the community who have suboptimal management. This study aimed to compare the uptake and effectiveness of pharmacist-initiated mailed and face-to-face interventions for patients whose asthma may not be well managed. Seventy-one community pharmacies in South Australia, Tasmania and Victoria (Australia) installed a software application that data-mined dispensing records, generating a list of patients who had received six or more asthma reliever inhalers in the preceding 12 months. The pharmacists were randomized, by pharmacy, to perform either a mailed or face-to-face intervention, whereby these patients received educational material and a referral to their general practitioner (GP) for an asthma management review. Matching patients from each pharmacy were also randomly assigned to a control group for 'usual care'. A total of 1483 patients were identified and grouped as follows: 510 (34·4%) mailed intervention, 480 (32·4%) face-to-face intervention and 493 (33·2%) controls. Significantly fewer face-to-face interventions were offered than mailed interventions (66·6% vs. 89·4%, respectively; χ(2) = 64·2, P < 0·0001). There were significant improvements in the preventer-to-reliever ratio after the intervention period (P < 0·0001) in each group. In a per-protocol analysis, the magnitude of improvement in the face-to-face intervention group was greater than in the mailed intervention group. The reverse was true in an intention-to-treat analysis. The improvement in the P : R ratios was mainly due to significant decreases in reliever usage. Community pharmacy dispensing records can effectively identify patients with suboptimal asthma management, who can then be referred to their GP for review. Time constraints in busy pharmacies may limit the uptake and effectiveness of face-to-face interventions in the 'real world' setting, making mailed interventions an attractive option. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. 'Pedometers cost buttons': the feasibility of implementing a pedometer based walking programme within the community.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Rebecca; Fenwick, Elisabeth; Baker, Graham; McAdam, Chloe; Fitzsimons, Claire; Mutrie, Nanette

    2011-03-31

    Recent studies have suggested that walking interventions may be effective (at least in the short term) at increasing physical activity amongst those people who are the most inactive. This is a leading objective of contemporary public health policy in the UK and worldwide. However, before committing money from limited budgets to implement walking interventions more widely in the community, policymakers will want to know whether similar impacts can be expected and whether any changes will be required to the process to ensure uptake and success. This paper utilises the findings from a recent community-based pedometer study (Walking for Wellbeing in the West - WWW) undertaken in Glasgow, Scotland to address issues of feasibility. An economic analysis of the WWW study assessed the costs of the interventions (minimal and maximal) and combined these with the effects to present incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (cost/person achieving the target of an additional 15,000 steps/week). A qualitative evaluation, involving focus group discussions with WWW participants and short interviews with members of the WWW research team, explored perceived benefits and barriers associated with walking, as well as the successful aspects and challenges associated with the interventions. The incremental cost effectiveness associated with the interventions was estimated as £92 and £591 per person achieving the target for the minimal and maximal interventions respectively. The qualitative evaluation gave insight into the process by which the results were achieved, and identified several barriers and facilitators that would need to be addressed before implementing the interventions in the wider community, in order to ensure their effective transfer. These included assessing the impact of the relationship between researchers and participants on the results, and the motivational importance of monitoring and assessing performance. The results suggest that pedometer based walking interventions

  12. Inhalation Incidents and Respiratory Health: Results From the European Community Respiratory Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Mirabelli, Maria C.; Olivieri, Mario; Kromhout, Hans; Norbäck, Dan; Radon, Katja; Torén, Kjell; van Sprundel, Marc; Villani, Simona; Zock, Jan-Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background Inhalation incidents are an important cause of acute respiratory symptoms, but little is known about how these incidents affect chronic respiratory health. Methods We assessed reported inhalation incidents among 3,763 European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) participants with and without cough, phlegm, asthma, wheezing or bronchial hyperresponsiveness. We then examined whether inhalation incidents during the 9-year ECRHS follow-up period were associated with a new onset of any of these respiratory outcomes among 2,809 participants who were free of all five outcomes at the time of the baseline ECRHS survey. Results Inhalation incidents were reported by 5% of participants, with higher percentages reported among individuals with asthma-related outcomes at the time of the baseline survey. Among participants without symptoms at baseline, our analyses generated non-statistically significant elevated estimates of the risk of cough, phlegm, asthma and wheezing and a non-statistically significant inverse estimate of the risk of bronchial hyperresponsiveness among participants who reported an inhalation incident compared to those without such an event reported. Discussion Our findings provide limited evidence of an association between inhalation incidents and asthma-related symptoms. These data could be affected by differences in the reporting of inhalation incidents according to symptom status at the time of the baseline survey; they should thus be interpreted with caution. PMID:18942122

  13. Urinary incontinence in community-dwelling older Mexican American and European American women.

    PubMed

    Markland, Alayne D; Gerety, Meghan B; Goode, Patricia S; Kraus, Stephen R; Cornell, John; Hazuda, Helen P

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to measure prevalence and correlates of urinary incontinence in community-dwelling Mexican American (MA) and European American (EA) women from a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a longitudinal cohort. Participants were MA and EA women, aged 65 years and older, in the San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (SALSA), of whom 421 (97.4%) responded to the question "How often do you have difficulty holding your urine until you can get to a toilet." Measurements included sociodemographic, functional, cognitive, psychosocial, and clinical status variables derived from bilingual interviews and performance-based tests. Urinary incontinence prevalence was 36.6% (n=154). MA women reported less incontinence than did EAs (29% versus 45%, p=0.001). In multivariable analyses in MA women, urinary incontinence correlated with the presence of fecal incontinence (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.1-14.0) and more dependency in activities of daily living (1.4, 1.1-1.8) after controlling for significant sociodemographic factors. In EA women, only age >75 (4.2, 1.4-12.4) was associated with urinary incontinence. MA women were less likely to report incontinence compared to EAs, despite MAs having increased number of children, less education, higher BMI, and more diabetes. Further research is needed to evaluate risk factors for urinary incontinence among MA women.

  14. European community can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by sixty percent: A feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Mot, E.; Baar, H.J.W. de

    1993-06-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in the European Community (EC) can be reduced by roughly 60 percent. A great many measures need to be taken to reach this reduction, with a total annual cost of ECU 55 milliard. Fossil fuel use is the main cause of CO{sub 2} emissions into the atmosphere; CO{sub 2} emissions are to a large extent responsible for the greenhouse effect. Energy saving (conservation) and nuclear energy appear to be the least expensive methods of CO{sub 2} abatement, directly followed by renewables. More expensive alternatives include the separation of CO{sub 2} at the source (e.g., power plants), followed by storage in depleted gas fields, aquifers, or in the ocean. Biological options, such as reforestation and energy farming, are the most expensive abatement methods; however, they do have secondary advantages, such as avoided fallow premiums and avoided export premiums on cereals. Application of all measures together can lead to the 60 percent reduction goal. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Next generation capacity building for the GEOSS community - an European approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bye, B. L.

    2016-12-01

    The Group on Earth observation embarked on the next 10 year phase with an ambition to streamline and futher develop its achievements in building the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). The NextGEOSS project evolves the European vision of GEOSS data exploitation for innovation and business, relying on the three main pillars of engaging communities, delivering technological developments and advocating the use of GEOSS, in order to support the creation and deployment of Earth observation based innovative research activities and commercial services. In this presentation we will present the new integrated approach to capacity building engaging the various actors involved in the entire value-chain from data providers to decision-makers. A presentation of the general approach together with concrete pilot cases will be included.In this work it will be shown how we integrate new technological development and societial change enabling GEO and GEOSS to adapt to the current environment. The result is important for better decision-making and better use of our limited resources to manage our planet.

  16. Evidence based policy making in the European Union: the role of the scientific community.

    PubMed

    Majcen, Špela

    2017-03-01

    In the times when the acquis of the European Union (EU) has developed so far as to reach a high level of technical complexity, in particular in certain policy fields such as environmental legislation, it is important to look at what kind of information and data policy decisions are based on. This position paper looks at the extent to which evidence-based decision-making process is being considered in the EU institutions when it comes to adopting legislation in the field of environment at the EU level. The paper calls for closer collaboration between scientists and decision-makers in view of ensuring that correct data is understood and taken into consideration when drafting, amending, negotiating and adopting new legal texts at all levels of the EU decision-making process. It concludes that better awareness of the need for such collaboration among the decision-makers as well as the scientific community would benefit the process and quality of the final outcomes (legislation).

  17. International variations in asthma treatment compliance: the results of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS).

    PubMed

    Cerveri, I; Locatelli, F; Zoia, M C; Corsico, A; Accordini, S; de Marco, R

    1999-08-01

    Noncompliance to medication is a major barrier to effective asthma management. Its real extent and geographical variation throughout the world are not yet known. The data on compliance, collected in the framework of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) on 1771 subjects (aged 20-44 yrs) with current asthma identified in 14 countries, offer a unique opportunity to assess the extent of noncompliance and its variation across countries. The median percentage of current asthmatics who had received a medical prescription at least once was 95%. The compliance of those patients who had received a medical prescription was found to be low in all countries (median 67%) but with wide variations, the rate ranging from 40% (USA) to 78% (Iceland). During exacerbations patients' rate of compliance increased to 72%. Age was the only variable which influenced compliance to treatment. A significant, although weak, negative correlation was found between patients' compliance and rate of hospital casualty department or emergency room admissions. This study documents that compliance to the treatment of asthma is poor worldwide and that there are large variations between countries. These results emphasize the necessity for further efforts to improve patients' education and to promulgate the international guidelines.

  18. Effects of microplastics on European flat oysters, Ostrea edulis and their associated benthic communities.

    PubMed

    Green, Dannielle Senga

    2016-09-01

    Plastic pollution is recognised as an emerging threat to aquatic ecosystems, with microplastics now the most abundant type of marine debris. Health effects caused by microplastics have been demonstrated at the species level, but impacts on ecological communities remain unknown. In this study, impacts of microplastics on the health and biological functioning of European flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) and on the structure of associated macrofaunal assemblages were assessed in an outdoor mesocosm experiment using intact sediment cores. Biodegradable and conventional microplastics were added at low (0.8 μg L(-1)) and high (80 μg L(-1)) doses in the water column repeatedly for 60 days. Effects on the oysters were minimal, but benthic assemblage structures differed and species richness and the total number of organisms were ∼1.2 and 1.5 times greater in control mesocosms than in those exposed to high doses of microplastics. Notably, abundances of juvenile Littorina sp. (periwinkles) and Idotea balthica (an isopod) were ∼2 and 8 times greater in controls than in mesocosms with the high dose of either type of microplastic. In addition, the biomass of Scrobicularia plana (peppery furrow shell clam) was ∼1.5 times greater in controls than in mesocosms with the high dose of microplastics. This work indicates that repeated exposure to high concentrations of microplastics could alter assemblages in an important marine habitat by reducing the abundance of benthic fauna. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Barriers and facilitators to initial and continued attendance at community-based lifestyle programmes among families of overweight and obese children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, E; Davoren, M P; Harrington, J M; Shiely, F; Perry, I J; McHugh, S M

    2017-02-01

    The success of childhood weight management programmes relies on family engagement. While attendance offers many benefits including the support to make positive lifestyle changes, the majority of families referred to treatment decline. Moreover, for those who do attend, benefits are often compromised by high programme attrition. This systematic review investigated factors influencing attendance at community-based lifestyle programmes among families of overweight or obese children. A narrative synthesis approach was used to allow for the inclusion of quantitative, qualitative and mixed-method study designs. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Results suggest that parents provided the impetus for programme initiation, and this was driven largely by a concern for their child's psychological health and wellbeing. More often than not, children went along without any real reason or interest in attending. Over the course of the programme, however, children's positive social experiences such as having fun and making friends fostered the desire to continue. The stigma surrounding excess weight and the denial of the issue amongst some parents presented barriers to enrolment and warrant further study. This study provides practical recommendations to guide future policy makers, programme delivery teams and researchers in developing strategies to boost recruitment and minimise attrition.

  20. Barriers and facilitators to the implementation of a community-based, multidisciplinary, family-focused childhood weight management programme in Ireland: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, Emily; Harrington, Janas M; Shiely, Frances; Perry, Ivan J; McHugh, Sheena M

    2017-08-28

    To explore the barriers and facilitators experienced by those implementing a government-funded, community-based childhood weight management programme. Qualitative using semistructured interviews. Two geographical regions in the south and west of Ireland. 29 national-level and local-level stakeholders responsible for implementing the programme, including professionals from dietetics, psychology, public health nursing, physiotherapy, health promotion and administration. Framework analysis was used to identify barriers and facilitators, which were mapped onto six levels of factors influencing implementation outlined by Grol and Wensing: the innovation, the individual professional, the patient, the social context, the organisational context and the external environment. Most barriers occurred at the level of the organisational context. For all stakeholders, barriers arose due to the multidisciplinary nature of the programme, including the lack of role clarity and added complexity of working in different locations. Health professionals' low-perceived self-efficacy in approaching the subject of weight with parents and parental resistance to hearing about their child's weight status were barriers to programme implementation at the individual professional and patient levels, respectively. The main facilitators of implementation, occurring at the level of the health professional, included stakeholders' recognition of the need for a weight management programme and personal interest in the area of childhood obesity. Having a local lead and supportive colleagues were further implementation drivers. This study highlights the complexities associated with implementing a multidisciplinary childhood weight management programme, particularly translating such a programme to a community setting. Our results suggest the assignment of clear roles and responsibilities, the provision of sufficient practical training and resources, and organisational support play pivotal roles in

  1. A realist synthesis of the evidence on outreach programmes for health improvement of Traveller Communities

    PubMed Central

    Lhussier, M.; Carr, S.M.; Forster, N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Improving the health of Traveller Communities is an international public health concern but there is little evidence on effective interventions. This study aimed to explain how, for whom and in what circumstances outreach works in Traveller Communities. Methods A realist synthesis was undertaken. Systematic literature searches were conducted between August and November 2011. Grey literature was sought and key stakeholders were involved throughout the review process. Iterative steps of data extraction, analysis and synthesis, followed by additional searches were undertaken. Results An explanatory framework details how, why and in what circumstances participation, behaviour change or social capital development happened. The trust status of outreach workers is an important context of outreach interventions, in conjunction with their ability to negotiate the intervention focus. The higher the outreach worker's trust status, the lower the imperative that they negotiate the intervention focus. A ‘menu’ of reasoning mechanisms is presented, leading to key engagement outcomes. Conclusions Adopting a realist analysis, this study offers a framework with explanatory purchase as to the potential of outreach to improve health in marginalized groups. PMID:26232206

  2. A community-based integrated nutrition research programme to alleviate poverty: baseline survey.

    PubMed

    Oldewage-Theron, W H; Dicks, E G; Napier, C E; Rutengwe, R

    2005-04-01

    The United Nation's Children Fund (UNICEF) has indicated that urban poverty is primarily found in squatter settlements. At present, 13.5% of all South African households live in informal settlements. The main hypothesis for this empirical study was that micromechanisms would not negatively influence food, nutrition and health of residents in an informal settlement in the Vaal Triangle, South Africa. This hypothesis was tested empirically against the UNICEF framework of the immediate, underlying and basic causes of malnutrition. The purpose of this study was to establish a situation analysis of children and women before designing any intervention. The objectives covered in this paper include Phases I and II of the project, namely planning of the project and determining the demographic and health profile of the sample as part of a situation analysis. This is a community participatory project. After a strategic participatory planning workshop with stakeholders, a plan of operation document, guiding all field undertakings, was drawn up (Phase 1), followed by a cross-sectional baseline survey (Phase II), situation analysis (Phase III), and implementation of community-based intervention studies (Phase IV). Impact measurement will follow in Phase V. After the planning meeting and obtaining consent, a pretested, structured demographic and health questionnaire was used to obtain data from 357 randomly selected households in an informal settlement. Data were statistically analysed for means and standard deviations. The findings of the workshop evaluation indicated that 100% of the participants (n = 34) agreed that a need existed for this project, 74% (n = 24) understood the relevance, and 64% (n = 22) realized the importance for sustainable community development. In the baseline survey, 89% of the respondents lived in zinc shacks with two rooms or less (32.2%), three or four rooms (41.5%) or four rooms or more (26.3%). The household size was six people or more (33%), five

  3. The efficacy of self-management programmes for increasing physical activity in community-dwelling adults with acquired brain injury (ABI): a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jones, Taryn M; Hush, Julia M; Dear, Blake F; Titov, Nickolai; Dean, Catherine M

    2014-04-21

    Acquired brain injury (ABI), often arising from stroke or trauma, is a common cause of long-term disability, physical inactivity and poor health outcomes globally. Individuals with ABI face many barriers to increasing physical activity, such as impaired mobility, access to services and knowledge regarding management of physical activity. Self-management programmes aim to build skills to enable an individual to manage their condition, including their physical activity levels, over a long period of time. Programme delivery modes can include traditional face-to-face methods, or remote delivery, such as via the Internet. However, it is unknown how effective these programmes are at specifically improving physical activity in community-dwelling adults with ABI, or how effective and acceptable remote delivery of self-management programmes is for this population. We will conduct a comprehensive search for articles indexed on MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, AMED, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PEDro and Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) databases that assess the efficacy of a self-management intervention, which aims to enhance levels of physical activity in adults living in the community with ABI. Two independent reviewers will screen studies for eligibility, assess risk of bias, and extract relevant data. Where possible, a meta-analysis will be performed to calculate the overall effect size of self-management interventions on physical activity levels and on outcomes associated with physical activity. A comparison will also be made between face-to-face and remote delivery modes of self-management programmes, in order to examine efficacy and acceptability. A content analysis of self-management programmes will also be conducted to compare aspects of the intervention that are associated with more favourable outcomes. This systematic review aims to review the efficacy of self-management programmes aimed at increasing physical activity

  4. The efficacy of self-management programmes for increasing physical activity in community-dwelling adults with acquired brain injury (ABI): a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acquired brain injury (ABI), often arising from stroke or trauma, is a common cause of long-term disability, physical inactivity and poor health outcomes globally. Individuals with ABI face many barriers to increasing physical activity, such as impaired mobility, access to services and knowledge regarding management of physical activity. Self-management programmes aim to build skills to enable an individual to manage their condition, including their physical activity levels, over a long period of time. Programme delivery modes can include traditional face-to-face methods, or remote delivery, such as via the Internet. However, it is unknown how effective these programmes are at specifically improving physical activity in community-dwelling adults with ABI, or how effective and acceptable remote delivery of self-management programmes is for this population. Methods/Design We will conduct a comprehensive search for articles indexed on MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, AMED, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PEDro and Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) databases that assess the efficacy of a self-management intervention, which aims to enhance levels of physical activity in adults living in the community with ABI. Two independent reviewers will screen studies for eligibility, assess risk of bias, and extract relevant data. Where possible, a meta-analysis will be performed to calculate the overall effect size of self-management interventions on physical activity levels and on outcomes associated with physical activity. A comparison will also be made between face-to-face and remote delivery modes of self-management programmes, in order to examine efficacy and acceptability. A content analysis of self-management programmes will also be conducted to compare aspects of the intervention that are associated with more favourable outcomes. Discussion This systematic review aims to review the efficacy of self-management programmes

  5. Spatial spillover effects of a community action programme targeting on-licensed premises on violent assaults: evidence from a natural experiment.

    PubMed

    Brännström, Lars; Trolldal, Björn; Menke, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Spatial dependencies may influence the success of community action strategies to prevent and reduce harmful alcohol use. This study examined the effectiveness of a multicomponent Responsible Beverage Service (RBS) programme targeting on-licensed premises on police-recorded assaults in Swedish municipalities. It was expected that the implementation of the programme within any given municipality had an indirect effect by reducing violent assaults in adjacent municipalities. This study was a natural experiment exploiting the temporal and spatial variation in the implementation of the RBS programme to predict change in the rate of violent assaults in all Swedish municipalities during 1996-2009 (n=288; T=14; N=4 032). Yearly police-recorded violent assaults per 100,000 inhabitants aged 15 and above committed on weekend nights were used as a dependent variable. Programme fidelity was identified by means of survey data. A semilogarithmic fixed-effects spatial panel regression model was used to estimate the direct, indirect and total effects of the programme. The direct, indirect and total effects were -1.8% (95% CI -4.4% to 0.8%), -5.8% (95% CI -11.5% to -0.1%) and -7.6% (95% CI -13.2% to -2.2%), respectively. Averaged over time and across all municipalities, implementing one additional programme component in all municipalities will thus reduce violent assaults in one typical municipality by nearly 8%. The indirect effect of the programme was three times larger than its direct effect. Failing to account for such local spillover effects can result in a considerable underestimation of the programme's total impact and may lead to erroneous policy recommendations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Strategies for optimizing clinic efficiency in a community-based antiretroviral treatment programme in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Alamo, Stella T; Wagner, Glenn J; Ouma, Joseph; Sunday, Pamela; Marie, Laga; Colebunders, Robert; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred

    2013-01-01

    We address a critical aspect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up: poor clinic organization leading to long waiting times and reduced patient retention. Using a before and after study design, time and motion studies and qualitative methods we evaluated the impact of triage and longer clinic appointment intervals (triage) on clinic efficiency in a community-based program in Uganda. We compared time waiting to see and time spent with providers for various patient categories and examined patient and provider satisfaction with the triage. Overall, median time spent at the clinic reduced from 206 to 83 min. Total median time waiting to see providers for stable-ART patients reduced from 102 to 20 min while that for patients undergoing ART preparation reduced 88-37 min. Improved patient flow, patient and provider satisfaction and reduced waiting times allowed for service delivery to more patients using the same staff following the implementation of triage.

  7. Polish and European management strategies in patients with atrial fibrillation. Data from the EURObservational Research Programme-Atrial Fibrillation General Registry Pilot Phase (EORP-AF Pilot).

    PubMed

    Lenarczyk, Radosław; Mitręga, Katarzyna; Mazurek, Michał; Janion, Marianna; Opolski, Grzegorz; Drożdż, Jarosław; Streb, Witold; Fuglewicz, Artur; Sokal, Adam; Laroche, Cécile; Lip, Gregory Y H; Kalarus, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Despite continued efforts of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) to unify management of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) across Europe, interregional differences in guideline adherence are likely. The aim of the study was to compare treatment strategies depending on baseline characteristics of AF patients between Poland and other members of the European Union (EU). We analyzed the baseline data and treatment strategies in participants of the ESC registry: the EURObservational Research Programme-Atrial Fibrillation General Registry Pilot Phase. A total of 3119 consecutive patients with AF diagnosed within the last year were included in 67 centers from 9 countries, including 419 patients enrolled in 15 Polish centers. A rhythm control strategy was more frequent in Poland than in other EU countries (20.8% vs 11.9%; P <0.0001). Catheter ablation for AF was also used more frequently in Polish cardiology wards (13.9% vs 8.3%; P = 0.0017), while amiodarone at discharge was used less frequently (12.0% vs 22.7%; P <0.0001). In-hospital use of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and non-VKA anticoagulants was less frequent in Polish patients with a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 2 or higher than in patients from other EU countries (61.1% vs 79.0%; P <0.0001), but overall anticoagulation rates at discharge were similar to those in other countries (83.3% vs 82.6%). A rhythm control-oriented strategy in patients with AF with the use of ablation in cardiology wards is more frequent in Poland than in other EU countries. Similar to other EU countries, compliance with the ESC guidelines regarding anticoagulation in AF patients is suboptimal in Poland. Undertreatment was observed in a significant proportion of patients at high risk of stroke, while a large group of low-risk patients are overtreated. Differences between the types of recruiting centers in Poland and other EU countries might have influenced the results.

  8. A prospective survey in European Society of Cardiology member countries of atrial fibrillation management: baseline results of EURObservational Research Programme Atrial Fibrillation (EORP-AF) Pilot General Registry.

    PubMed

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Laroche, Cécile; Dan, Gheorghe-Andrei; Santini, Massimo; Kalarus, Zbigniew; Rasmussen, Lars Hvilsted; Oliveira, Mário Martins; Mairesse, Georges; Crijns, Harry J G M; Simantirakis, Emmanouil; Atar, Dan; Kirchhof, Paulus; Vardas, Panos; Tavazzi, Luigi; Maggioni, Aldo P

    2014-03-01

    Given the advances in atrial fibrillation (AF) management and the availability of new European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines, there is a need for the systematic collection of contemporary data regarding the management and treatment of AF in ESC member countries. We conducted a registry of consecutive in- and outpatients with AF presenting to cardiologists in nine participating ESC countries. All patients with an ECG-documented diagnosis of AF confirmed in the year prior to enrolment were eligible. We enroled a total of 3119 patients from February 2012 to March 2013, with full data on clinical subtype available for 3049 patients (40.4% female; mean age 68.8 years). Common comorbidities were hypertension, coronary disease, and heart failure. Lone AF was present in only 3.9% (122 patients). Asymptomatic AF was common, particularly among those with permanent AF. Amiodarone was the most common antiarrhythmic agent used (∼20%), while beta-blockers and digoxin were the most used rate control drugs. Oral anticoagulants (OACs) were used in 80% overall, most often vitamin K antagonists (71.6%), with novel OACs being used in 8.4%. Other antithrombotics (mostly antiplatelet therapy, especially aspirin) were still used in one-third of the patients, and no antithrombotic treatment in only 4.8%. Oral anticoagulants were used in 56.4% of CHA2DS2-VASc = 0, with 26.3% having no antithrombotic therapy. A high HAS-BLED score was not used to exclude OAC use, but there was a trend towards more aspirin use in the presence of a high HAS-BLED score. The EURObservational Research Programme Atrial Fibrillation (EORP-AF) Pilot Registry has provided systematic collection of contemporary data regarding the management and treatment of AF by cardiologists in ESC member countries. Oral anticoagulant use has increased, but novel OAC use was still low. Compliance with the treatment guidelines for patients with the lowest and higher stroke risk scores remains suboptimal.

  9. Experiences participating in a community-based exercise programme from the perspective of people living with HIV: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Chantal A; Henning, Katherine J; Kantarzhi, Sarah R; Kideckel, Tamar B; Yang, Cheryl F M; O'Brien, Kelly K

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to explore the experiences of engaging in a community-based exercise programme (CBEP) from the perspective of people living with HIV (PLWH). Design We conducted a descriptive qualitative study using semistructured interviews. Setting We recruited adults living with HIV who participated in a 16-week CBEP in Toronto, Canada. Participants 11 participants, the majority men (64%), with a median age of 52 years, and living with a median of 5 concurrent health conditions in addition to HIV participated in the study. Outcome measures We asked participants about their overall experiences: strengths, limitations and perceived benefits of the CBEP; factors influencing participation and current level of exercise after completion of the CBEP. We administered a self-reported demographic questionnaire followed by the Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity (RAPA) questionnaire. We analysed interview data using thematic analysis. Results We developed a framework that describes the experiences before, during and after the CBEP; and the perceived impact of the CBEP on health, which influenced the intent to, engagement in and sustainability of exercise among PLWH. Participants described the positive impact of the CBEP on their physical, mental and social health. Interviews were completed at a median of 6 months after the CBEP, when 9 participants reported ongoing engagement in exercise, but to a lesser extent than during the CBEP. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors facilitated or hindered engagement in exercise throughout all phases of the CBEP. The episodic nature of HIV and multimorbidity influenced engagement in exercise and posed challenges to re-engagement after periods of inactivity. Conclusions CBEPs provide an opportunity to enhance physical activity, perceived health outcomes and knowledge about exercise for PLWH. Community-based exercise is a strategy that may be used by health providers to promote engagement in sustained physical activity for PLWH

  10. Differences in Soil Fungal Communities between European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Dominated Forests Are Related to Soil and Understory Vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Schöning, Ingo; Boch, Steffen; Gawlich, Melanie; Schnabel, Beatrix; Fischer, Markus; Buscot, François

    2012-01-01

    Fungi are important members of soil microbial communities with a crucial role in biogeochemical processes. Although soil fungi are known to be highly diverse, little is known about factors influencing variations in their diversity and community structure among forests dominated by the same tree species but spread over different regions and under different managements. We analyzed the soil fungal diversity and community composition of managed and unmanaged European beech dominated forests located in three German regions, the Schwäbische Alb in Southwestern, the Hainich-Dün in Central and the Schorfheide Chorin in the Northeastern Germany, using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA pyrotag sequencing. Multiple sequence quality filtering followed by sequence data normalization revealed 1655 fungal operational taxonomic units. Further analysis based on 722 abundant fungal OTUs revealed the phylum Basidiomycota to be dominant (54%) and its community to comprise 71.4% of ectomycorrhizal taxa. Fungal community structure differed significantly (p≤0.001) among the three regions and was characterized by non-random fungal OTUs co-occurrence. Soil parameters, herbaceous understory vegetation, and litter cover affected fungal community structure. However, within each study region we found no difference in fungal community structure between management types. Our results also showed region specific significant correlation patterns between the dominant ectomycorrhizal fungal genera. This suggests that soil fungal communities are region-specific but nevertheless composed of functionally diverse and complementary taxa. PMID:23094057

  11. Ranking the criteria for sustainability of community-based rural homestay programmes from the perspective of the operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Rohaini; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Ramli, Razamin; Kayat, Kalsom; Razak, Rafidah Abd

    2015-12-01

    Homestay is one of the government's products that promote the cultural tourism of country around the world. Homestay in Malaysia is not only thriving, but also its operation is moving gradually toward development of economic growth. Many homestays have been built throughout the country and this will give tourists an opportunity to enjoy the different and interesting environment in Malaysia. However, most of them receive less support from tourists and only certain numbers of homestays have operated consistently. This paper examines eleven sustainability criteria for homestay programme in Malaysia covering environmental, economic and sociocultural dimensions. The required data were collected through a survey of 246 homestay operators using a structured questionnaire. Data obtained was analyzed by utilizing percentage and arithmetic average. The findings revealed that the three most important criteria for homestay to remain sustained in this business area are ability and capacity, leadership and conservation of community resources. In order to improve the business performance of homestays in this country, homestay operators should focus on improving their ability and capacity and focus on enhancing their leadership skills.

  12. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy in a community-based pulmonary rehabilitation programme: A controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Luk, Edwin K; Gorelik, Alexandra; Irving, Louis; Khan, Fary

    2017-03-06

    To investigate whether the use of cognitive behavioural therapy in pulmonary rehabilitation addresses the depression and anxiety burden and thereby improves rehabilitation outcomes. Prospective controlled clinical trial. A total of 70 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who were referred to a community centre for pulmonary rehabilitation. Patients were allocated to either the control group, consisting of pulmonary rehabilitation alone, or to the treatment group, receiving pulmonary rehabilitation and an additional 6 sessions of group-based cognitive behavioural therapy. Assessments consisting of questionnaires and walk tests were conducted pre- and post-pulmonary rehabilitation. A total of 28 patients were enrolled. The cognitive behavioural therapy group had significant improvements in exercise capacity following pulmonary rehabilitation (mean change 32.9 m, p = 0.043), which was maintained at 3 months post-pulmonary rehabilitation (mean change 23.4 m, p = 0.045). Patients in the cognitive behavioural therapy group showed significant short-term improvements in fatigue, stress and depression (mean change 2.4, p = 0.016, 3.9, p = 0.024 and 4.3, p = 0.047, respectively) and a 3-month post-pulmonary rehabilitation improvement in anxiety score (mean change 3.1, p = 0.01). No significant changes were seen in the control group. The addition of cognitive behavioural therapy improved patients' physical, psychological and quality of life results. Cognitive behavioural therapy should be considered for inclusion in a pulmonary rehabilitation programme to enhance outcomes.

  13. Promotion of safe sex: evaluation of a community-level intervention programme in gay bars, saunas and sex shops.

    PubMed

    Godin, Gaston; Naccache, Hermine; Cote, Francoise; Leclerc, Robert; Frechette, Mario; Alary, Michel

    2008-04-01

    This study was an evaluation of a safe sex promotion programme in gay bars, saunas and sex shops in Québec City. The impact of the intervention on safe sex was assessed by means of an interrupted sequential pre-interventions and post-interventions quasi-experimental design with independent samples. At each measurement time, approximately 320 individuals were recruited in gay bars and saunas and were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The intervention had a significant impact on safe sex mainly among the 18-29 age group (relative risk = 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI95%] = 0.55-0.92), even after controlling for the effect of gay venue frequentation. Thus, the effect size of the intervention corresponds to a significant reduction of 29% in risky unprotected anal sex among this age group. Implementation of a theory-based community-level intervention has a positive impact on reducing unsafe sex practices, particularly among the 18-29 age group. However, if the preventive activities are not maintained on a regular basis, there is recrudescence in unsafe sex practices.

  14. Conservation of the European mink (Mustela lutreola): focus on reproduction and reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Amstislavsky, S; Lindeberg, H; Aalto, J; Kennedy, M W

    2008-08-01

    The European mink (Mustela lutreola) is a small mammal, which belongs to the Mustelidae family (Carnivora). Earlier, the range of distribution of this species encompassed much of the European continent. During the 20th century, the numbers of European mink declined and the range of its distribution became reduced to three fragmented populations; today this species faces extinction. The urgent necessity for effective conservation efforts to protect the European mink is accepted by the governmental organizations as well as scientific communities of most European countries. In this paper, the reasons for the disappearance of European mink are reviewed and results of past conservation efforts based on captive breeding and reintroduction programmes are critically evaluated in the broad context of modern concepts of conservation genetics and reproductive biology. The data recently obtained on the reproduction and pre-implantation development of European mink and the prospects of incorporation of modern reproductive technologies into the conservation programme of this species are discussed.

  15. Integration of HIV Care into Community Management of Acute Childhood Malnutrition Permits Good Outcomes: Retrospective Analysis of Three Years of a Programme in Lusaka

    PubMed Central

    Amadi, Beatrice; Imikendu, Mercy; Sakala, Milika; Banda, Rosemary; Kelly, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background While HIV has had a major impact on health care in southern Africa, there are few data on its impact on acute malnutrition in children in the community. We report an analysis of outcomes in a large programme of community management of acute malnutrition in the south of Lusaka. Programme Activities and Analysis Over 3 years, 68,707 assessments for undernutrition were conducted house-to-house, and children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) or moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) were enrolled into either Outpatient Therapeutic Programme (OTP) or Supplementary Feeding Programme (SFP) respectively. Case records were analysed using tabulation and unconditional logistic regression. Findings 1,859 children (889 boys, 970 girls; median age 16 months) with MAM (n = 664) or SAM (n = 1,195) were identified. Of 1,796 children whose parents consented to testing, 185 (10.3%) were HIV positive. Altogether 1,163 (62.6%) were discharged as recovered from acute malnutrition. Case fatality while in the programme was 4.2% in children with SAM and 0.5% in those with MAM (RR of SAM 10.9; 95%CI 3.4,34.8; P<0.0001), and higher in children with HIV infection (RR 5.2, 95%CI 2.9, 9.0; P<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, HIV (OR 5.2; 95%CI 2.6, 10.1; P<0.0001), MUAC <11.5cm (OR 4.1; 95%CI 2.2, 7.4; P<0.0001) and the first year of the programme (OR 1.9; 95%CI 1.0, 3.4; P = 0.04) all increased mortality. Children with HIV infection who were able to initiate antiretroviral therapy had lower mortality (RR 0.23; 95%CI 0.10, 0.57; P = 0.0008). Interpretation Our programme suggests that a comprehensive community malnutrition programme, incorporating HIV care, can achieve low mortality even in a population heavily affected by HIV. PMID:26943124

  16. Community Residency Programme (CRP)--a tool for research and rural health training for medical students.

    PubMed

    Yadav, H

    2002-12-01

    Rural health training is an important element in the training of medical students in the University of Malaya. There is a need for the undergraduates to be familiar with the rural health infrastructure and to understand the social and economic aspects of the rural poor. The objective of the training is to make the students understand the problems faced by the poor in the rural areas so that when they practice in rural health areas, after graduation, they will understand the problems of the rural poor. They will have the knowledge of the diseases in the rural areas and also understand the community and the environmental factors that contribute to the disease. The training lasts' for 4 weeks, one week for lectures on health survey, two weeks for the field trip and one week of data analysis and presentation of their findings to an expert panel. During the field trip the students are divided into groups and they go to different parts of the country. Each group will do a field survey to find out the socio-demography, environmental, economic, nutritional and health problems in the village. In addition to the survey they also do a research project on any topic. The students also do social work, visit places of public health interest like the water treatment plant, sewage disposal, factory visits and others. Apart from technical skills in statistics and epidemiology, various other managerial skills like leadership, teamwork, communications and public relations are also learnt during the training. In conclusion this rural health training is an important aspect of the medical students training as it imparts several skills to them that are needed as a doctor.

  17. Gender and representation in refugee communities: the experience of the Ikafe programme.

    PubMed

    Payne, L; Adoko, J

    1997-06-01

    The Ikafe camp established in 1994 in Uganda for 45,000 refugees from Sudan was treated as a rural development program by Oxfam UK/1. Refugees and Oxfam staff achieved registration, land allocation, distribution of food, water, sanitation, health care, and livelihood development, and the refugees successfully cleared land for cultivation, established nurseries, and instituted community-managed water and sanitation systems. All programming has been achieved through representative structures linked to Ugandan bodies. Despite Oxfam's attempt to provide women with equal representation and an equal voice in decision-making, only a low participation of women was achieved. Analysis of this situation revealed that women in the Sudan traditionally held positions of responsibility. However, in the refugee settlements women sometimes did not learn about meetings or meetings were held at inconvenient times or women lacked free time for meetings. The men feared that women would appropriate jobs the men considered their rightful positions, and women expressed jealousy of prominent women. The existence of a position entitled "Women's Representative" led the refugees to believe that all the other jobs were for men, and they considered the alien Ugandan structures appropriate only for voicing concerns, not for self-management. Thus, refugee representatives were often the men who could speak English. In response, Oxfam reformed the representative structure to insure sex equality and restructured the committee overseeing discipline on Sudanese lines. Oxfam learned that it is important to establish interim structures that can be adapted later and that it is not enough simply to create democratic election procedures and encourage people to elect women.

  18. [European Community Respiratory Health Survey: The main results so far with special reference to Iceland.].

    PubMed

    Gíslason, Davíð; Bjœrnsdóttir, Unnur Steina; Blœndal, Thornorsteinn; Gíslason, Thornórarinn

    2002-12-01

    The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) was the first project embarked on extensive study of geographical difference between countries with regards to asthma and atopy incidence in a young adult population. The same methodology and definitions were used at all study sites. The purpose of this article is to review the published results of the ECRHS with a special emphasis on the findings from the Icelandic population, and compare these results with those from the participants from the other nations and study sites. Compiled results from all study sites participating in the ECHRS hereto published were reviewed. The compiled data are derived from approximately 140.000 individuals aged 20-44 (birth-years 1946-71) from 22 nations and 48 study sites. The Icelandic population was chosen from the greater Reykjavik metropolitan area. Subjects responded to seven questions on respiratory symptoms, diagnosis of asthma and use of asthma medications. In the latter part of the investigation, 800 individuals were randomly selected from each study site. They were asked to respond to a detailed questionnaire. Subsequently spirometry, methacholine challange and skin prick testing to 11-12 common aeroallergens was performed. Additionally, allergen specific IgE and total IgE was measured. Somewhat fewer sites participated in this latter part: 17 nations and 37 study sites. The findings are presented from two angles: the compiled data from all study sites and the results from the Icelandic population; specifically comparing the Icelandic data with the participants from the other nations. The study showed a geographical difference in the incidence of asthma, bronchial hyper- responsiveness and other respiratory symptoms. In the first part of the study, an eight-fold difference in wheezing, six-fold difference in asthma, ten-fold difference in physician- diagnosed asthma and a four-fold difference in the prevalence of allergic rhinitis was found between the study sites

  19. Training, supervision and quality of care in selected integrated community case management (iCCM) programmes: A scoping review of programmatic evidence

    PubMed Central

    Bosch–Capblanch, Xavier; Marceau, Claudine

    2014-01-01

    Aim To describe the training, supervision and quality of care components of integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) programmes and to draw lessons learned from existing evaluations of those programmes. Methods Scoping review of reports from 29 selected iCCM programmes purposively provided by stakeholders containing any information relevant to understand quality of care issues. Results The number of people reached by iCCM programmes varied from the tens of thousands to more than a million. All programmes aimed at improving access of vulnerable populations to health care, focusing on the main childhood illnesses, managed by Community Health Workers (CHW), often selected bycommunities. Training and supervision were widely implemented, in different ways and intensities, and often complemented with tools (eg, guides, job aids), supplies, equipment and incentives. Quality of care was measured using many outcomes (eg, access or appropriate treatment). Overall, there seemed to be positive effects for those strategies that involved policy change, organisational change, standardisation of clinical practices and alignment with other programmes. Positive effects were mostly achieved in large multi–component programmes. Mild or no effects have been described on mortality reduction amongst the few programmes for which data on this outcome was available to us. Promising strategies included teaming–up of CHW, micro–franchising or social franchising. On–site training and supervision of CHW have been shown to improve clinical practices. Effects on caregivers seemed positive, with increases in knowledge, care seeking behaviour, or caregivers’ basic disease management. Evidence on iCCM is often of low quality, cannot relate specific interventions or the ways they are implemented with outcomes and lacks standardisation; this limits the capacity to identify promising strategies to improve quality of care. Conclusion Large, multi–faceted, iCCM programmes, with strong

  20. Payday, ponchos, and promotions: a qualitative analysis of perspectives from non-governmental organization programme managers on community health worker motivation and incentives.

    PubMed

    B-Lajoie, Marie-Renée; Hulme, Jennifer; Johnson, Kirsten

    2014-12-05

    Community health workers (CHWs) have been central to broadening the access and coverage of preventative and curative health services worldwide. Much has been debated about how to best remunerate and incentivize this workforce, varying from volunteers to full time workers. Policy bodies, including the WHO and USAID, now advocate for regular stipends. This qualitative study examines the perspective of health programme managers from 16 international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) who directly oversee programmes in resource-limited settings. It aimed to explore institutional guidelines and approaches to designing CHW incentives, and inquire about how NGO managers are adapting their approaches to working with CHWs in this shifting political and funding climate. Second, it meant to understand the position of stakeholders who design and manage non-governmental organization-run CHW programmes on what they consider priorities to boost CHW motivation. Individuals were recruited using typical case sampling through chain referral at the semi-annual CORE Group meeting in the spring of 2012. Semi-structured interviews were guided by a peer reviewed tool. Two reviewers analyzed the transcripts for thematic saturation. Six key factors influenced programme manager decision-making: National-level government policy, donor practice, implicit organizational approaches, programmatic, cultural, and community contexts, experiences and values of managers, and the nature of the work asked of CHWs. Programme managers strongly relied on national government to provide clear guidance on CHW incentives schemes. Perspectives on remuneration varied greatly, from fears that it is unsustainable, to the view that it is a basic human right, and a mechanism to achieve greater gender equity. Programme managers were interested in exploring career paths and innovative financing schemes for CHWs, such as endowment funds or material sales, to heighten local ownership and sustainability of programmes

  1. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the food and drink industries of the European community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passant, Neil R.; Richardson, Stephen J.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Gibson, N.; Woodfield, M. J.; van der Lugt, Jan Pieter; Wolsink, Johan H.; Hesselink, Paul G. M.

    Estimates were made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released into the atmosphere as a result of the industrial manufacture and processing of food and drink in the European Community. The estimates were based on a review of literature sources, industrial and government contacts and recent measurements. Data were found on seven food manufacturing sectors (baking, vegetable oil extraction, solid fat processing, animal rendering, fish meal processing, coffee production and sugar beet processing) and three drink manufacturing sectors (brewing, spirit production and wine making). The principle of a data quality label is advocated to illustrate the authors' confidence in the data, and to highlight areas for further research. Emissions of ethanol from bread baking and spirit maturation were found to be the principle sources. However, significant losses of hexane and large quantities of an ill-defined mixture of partially oxidized hydrocarbons were noted principally from seed oil extraction and the drying of plant material, respectively. This latter mixture included low molecular weight aldehydes, carboxylic acids, ketones, amines and esters. However, the precise composition of many emissions were found to be poorly understood. The total emission from the food and drink industry in the EC was calculated as 260 kt yr -1. However, many processes within the target industry were found to be completely uncharacterized and therefore not included in the overall estimate (e.g. soft drink manufacture, production of animal food, flavourings, vinegar, tea, crisps and other fried snacks). Moreover, the use of data quality labels illustrated the fact that many of our estimates were based on limited data. Hence, further emissions monitoring is recommended from identified sources (e.g. processing of sugar beet, solid fat and fish meal) and from uncharacterized sources.

  2. Occupational exposures and uncontrolled adult-onset asthma in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II.

    PubMed

    Le Moual, Nicole; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Siroux, Valérie; Radon, Katja; Norback, Dan; Torén, Kjell; Olivieri, Mario; Urrutia, Isabel; Cazzoletti, Lucia; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Benke, Geza; Kromhout, Hans; Mirabelli, Maria C; Mehta, Amar J; Schlünssen, Vivi; Sigsgaard, Torben; Blanc, Paul D; Kogevinas, Manolis; Antó, Josep M; Zock, Jan-Paul

    2014-02-01

    Occupational exposure is a well-recognised modifiable risk factor for asthma, but the relationship between occupational exposure and asthma control has not been studied. We aimed to study this association among working-age adults from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). Data were available for 7077 participants (mean age 43 years, 45% never-smokers, 5867 without asthma and 1210 with current asthma). Associations between occupational exposure to specific asthmagens and asthma control status (33% with uncontrolled asthma, based on the Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines) were evaluated using logistic and multinomial regressions, adjusted for age, sex and smoking status, with study areas included as a random effect. Statistically significant positive associations were observed between uncontrolled adult-onset asthma and both past 12-month and 10-year exposure to any occupational asthmagens (OR (95% CI) 1.6 (1.0-2.40) and 1.7 (1.2-2.5), respectively); high (1.7 (1.0-2.8) and 1.9 (1.3-2.9), respectively) and low (1.6 (1.0-2.7) and 1.8 (1.2-2.7), respectively) molecular weight agents; and cleaning agents (2.0 (1.1-3.6) and 2.3 (1.4-3.6), respectively), with stronger associations for long-term exposures. These associations were mainly explained by the exacerbation domain of asthma control and no associations were observed between asthmagens and partly controlled asthma. These findings suggest that occupational exposure to asthmagens is associated with uncontrolled adult-onset asthma. Occupational risk factors should be quickly identified to prevent uncontrolled asthma.

  3. Origin and Evolution of European Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Thierry; Andersen, Paal S.; Skov, Robert L.; De Grassi, Anna; Simões, Patricia Martins; Tristan, Anne; Petersen, Andreas; Aziz, Maliha; Kiil, Kristoffer; Cirković, Ivana; Udo, Edet E.; del Campo, Rosa; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Ahmad, Norazah; Tokajian, Sima; Peters, Georg; Schaumburg, Frieder; Olsson-Liljequist, Barbro; Givskov, Michael; Driebe, Elizabeth E.; Vigh, Henrik E.; Shittu, Adebayo; Ramdani-Bougessa, Nadjia; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Price, Lance B.; Vandenesch, Francois; Larsen, Anders R.; Laurent, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) was recognized in Europe and worldwide in the late 1990s. Within a decade, several genetically and geographically distinct CA-MRSA lineages carrying the small SCCmec type IV and V genetic elements and the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) emerged around the world. In Europe, the predominant CA-MRSA strain belongs to clonal complex 80 (CC80) and is resistant to kanamycin/amikacin and fusidic acid. CC80 was first reported in 1993 but was relatively rare until the late 1990s. It has since been identified throughout North Africa, the Middle East, and Europe, with recent sporadic reports in sub-Saharan Africa. While strongly associated with skin and soft tissue infections, it is rarely found among asymptomatic carriers. Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) CC80 strains are extremely rare except in sub-Saharan Africa. In the current study, we applied whole-genome sequencing to a global collection of both MSSA and MRSA CC80 isolates. Phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest that the European epidemic CA-MRSA lineage is derived from a PVL-positive MSSA ancestor from sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, the tree topology suggests a single acquisition of both the SCCmec element and a plasmid encoding the fusidic acid resistance determinant. Four canonical SNPs distinguish the derived CA-MRSA lineage and include a nonsynonymous mutation in accessory gene regulator C (agrC). These changes were associated with a star-like expansion into Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa in the early 1990s, including multiple cases of cross-continent imports likely driven by human migrations. PMID:25161186

  4. Home-based life saving skills in Matlab, Bangladesh: a process evaluation of a community-based maternal child health programme.

    PubMed

    Dynes, Michelle; Rahman, Aminur; Beck, Diana; Moran, Allisyn; Rahman, Anisur; Pervin, Jesmin; Yunus, Mohammad; Rashid, Md Harunor; Gazi, Tamanna; Kanti Biswas, Kamal; Buffington, Sandra; Patterson, Joan M; Sibley, Lynn

    2011-02-01

    to conduct and describe results from a process evaluation of home-based life saving skills (HBLSS) one year post-implementation. a non-experimental, descriptive design was utilised employing both qualitative and quantitative techniques for data collection including: (1) key informant interviews, (2) group discussions, (3) performance testing, and (4) review of programme data. rural Matlab, Bangladesh in the sub-district of Chandpur. 41 community health research workers (CHRW), five pregnant women, 14 support persons and four programme co-ordinators. HBLSS is a family-centred approach to improving recognition of and referral for potentially life-threatening maternal and newborn complications. In June 2007, four HBLSS meetings were implemented in Matlab by 41 CHRW with all pregnant women in the study area. (1) knowledge retention among CHRW, (2) programme coverage, and (3) strengths and challenges in HBLSS implementation. results revealed rapid integration of the programme into the Matlab community with nearly 4500 HBLSS contacts with 2409 pregnant women between 15 June 2007 and 31 March 2008. Over 51% of pregnant women attended all four HBLSS meetings. Knowledge testing of CHRW showed strong retention with an increase in mean scores between immediate post-training and one-year post-training (from 78.7% to 92.7% and from 77.8% to 97.7% for two different HBLSS modules). Strengths of the HBLSS programme include high satisfaction among pregnant women, dedication of CHRW to the community, and strong organisation and supervision by programme staff. Challenges include lack of involvement of men, loss of two master trainers, and limited access to comprehensive emergency obstetric care at some referral sites. the HBLSS programme was successfully implemented as a result of the high level of support and supervision by the maternal, newborn and child health staff at ICDDR,B. This evaluation highlights the value of community health workers in the fight against maternal and

  5. The Erasmus programme for postgraduate education in orthodontics in Europe: an update of the guidelines.

    PubMed

    Huggare, J; Derringer, K A; Eliades, T; Filleul, M P; Kiliaridis, S; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A; Martina, R; Pirttiniemi, P; Ruf, S; Schwestka-Polly, R

    2014-06-01

    In 1989, the ERASMUS Bureau of the European Cultural Foundation of the Commission of the European Communities funded the development of a new 3-year curriculum for postgraduate education in orthodontics. The new curriculum was created by directors for orthodontic education representing 15 European countries. The curriculum entitled 'Three years Postgraduate Programme in Orthodontics: the Final Report of the Erasmus Project' was published 1992. In 2012, the 'Network of Erasmus Based European Orthodontic Programmes' developed and approved an updated version of the guidelines. The core programme consists of eight sections: general biological and medical subjects; basic orthodontic subjects; general orthodontic subjects; orthodontic techniques; interdisciplinary subjects; management of health and safety; practice management, administration, and ethics; extramural educational activities. The programme goals and objectives are described and the competencies to be reached are outlined. These guidelines may serve as a baseline for programme development and quality assessment for postgraduate programme directors, national associations, and governmental bodies and could assist future residents when selecting a postgraduate programme.

  6. Understanding the motivation and performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of health programmes in Kampala, Uganda: a realist evaluation protocol.

    PubMed

    Vareilles, Gaëlle; Pommier, Jeanine; Kane, Sumit; Pictet, Gabriel; Marchal, Bruno

    2015-01-28

    The recruitment of community health volunteers to support the delivery of health programmes is a well-established approach in many countries, particularly where health services are not readily available. However, studies on management of volunteers are scarce and current research on human resource management of volunteers faces methodological challenges. This paper presents the protocol of a realist evaluation that aims at identifying the factors influencing the performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of a Red Cross immunisation programme in Kampala (Uganda) with a specific focus on motivation. The realist evaluation cycle structures the protocol. To develop the theoretical basis for the evaluation, the authors conducted interviews and reviewed the literature on community health volunteers' performance, management and organisational behaviour. This led to the formulation of the initial programme theory, which links the intervention inputs (capacity-building strategies) to the expected outcomes (positive work behaviour) with mechanisms that point in the direction of drivers of motivation. The contextual elements include components such as organisational culture, resource availability, etc. A case study design will be adopted. We define a case as a Red Cross branch, run by a programme manager, and will select two cases at the district level in Kampala. Mixed methods will be used in data collection, including individual interviews of volunteers, participant observation and document review. The thematic analysis will be based on the initial programme theory and will seek for context-mechanism-outcome configurations. Findings from the two cases will be compared. We discuss the scope for applying realist evaluation and the methodological challenges we encountered in developing this protocol. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee at Rennes University Hospital, France. Results will be published in scientific journals, and communicated

  7. Understanding the motivation and performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of health programmes in Kampala, Uganda: a realist evaluation protocol

    PubMed Central

    Vareilles, Gaëlle; Pommier, Jeanine; Kane, Sumit; Pictet, Gabriel; Marchal, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The recruitment of community health volunteers to support the delivery of health programmes is a well-established approach in many countries, particularly where health services are not readily available. However, studies on management of volunteers are scarce and current research on human resource management of volunteers faces methodological challenges. This paper presents the protocol of a realist evaluation that aims at identifying the factors influencing the performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of a Red Cross immunisation programme in Kampala (Uganda) with a specific focus on motivation. Methods and analysis The realist evaluation cycle structures the protocol. To develop the theoretical basis for the evaluation, the authors conducted interviews and reviewed the literature on community health volunteers’ performance, management and organisational behaviour. This led to the formulation of the initial programme theory, which links the intervention inputs (capacity-building strategies) to the expected outcomes (positive work behaviour) with mechanisms that point in the direction of drivers of motivation. The contextual elements include components such as organisational culture, resource availability, etc. A case study design will be adopted. We define a case as a Red Cross branch, run by a programme manager, and will select two cases at the district level in Kampala. Mixed methods will be used in data collection, including individual interviews of volunteers, participant observation and document review. The thematic analysis will be based on the initial programme theory and will seek for context-mechanism-outcome configurations. Findings from the two cases will be compared. Discussion We discuss the scope for applying realist evaluation and the methodological challenges we encountered in developing this protocol. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethical Committee at Rennes University Hospital

  8. Free formula milk in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission programme: voices of a peri-urban community in South Africa on policy change.

    PubMed

    Ijumba, Petrida; Doherty, Tanya; Jackson, Debra; Tomlinson, Mark; Sanders, David; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2013-10-01

    In 2001, South Africa began implementing the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programme. This programme included distribution of free formula milk for infants up to 6 months of age at all public health facilities. Effective from 1 January 2011, KwaZulu-Natal became the first province to phase out free formula milk from its PMTCT programme. On 23 August 2011, the South African National Department of Health adopted promotion of exclusive breastfeeding as the national infant feeding strategy and made a decision to withdraw free formula milk from the PMTCT programme. To explore the perceptions and understanding of households at community level on the policy decision to phase out free formula milk from the PMTCT programme in South Africa. An exploratory qualitative study was conducted amongst women enrolled in a community randomized trial known as Good Start III. Focus group discussions were held with grandmothers, fathers and teenage mothers; and in-depth interviews were performed with HIV-positive and HIV-negative mothers. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Identified themes included: (1) variations in awareness and lack of understanding of the basis for the policy change, (2) abuse of and dysfunctional policy as perceived reasons for policy change and (3) proposed strategies for communicating the policy change. There is an urgent need to develop a multifaceted communication strategy clearly articulating the reasons for the infant feeding policy change and promoting the new breastfeeding strategy. The communication strategy should take into account inputs from the community. With a supportive environment and one national infant feeding strategy, South Africa has an opportunity to reverse years of poor infant feeding practices and to improve the health of all children in the country.

  9. The European Grid Infrastructure (EGI): Current Status and Perspectives for Astronomy and Astrophysics within EGI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuerli, C.; Taffoni, G.

    2012-09-01

    The European Union has invested heavily in e-science programmes over the past years both at the National and at the European levels with impressive results. One of the most important results of the EU effort is the development of an European Grid e-Infrastructure. In fact, because Grid technology is now recognized as a fundamental component for e-Infrastructures, it has been identified as a strategic priority for Europe. This paper presents: a) the current status of EGI, the European Grid Infrastructure, and of the Astronomical VRC (Virtual Research Community) within it; b) future perspectives and possible evolutions for the Astronomical Community within EGI.

  10. EMMA--the European mouse mutant archive.

    PubMed

    Hagn, Michael; Marschall, Susan; Hrabè de Angelis, Martin

    2007-09-01

    The European Mouse Mutant Archive (EMMA) offers the worldwide scientific community a free archiving service for its mutant mouse lines and access to a wide range of disease models and other research tools. EMMA is currently comprised of seven partners who operate as the primary mouse repository in Europe. EMMA' s primary objectives are to establish and manage a unified repository for maintaining mouse mutations and to make them available to the scientific community. In addition to these core services, the consortium can generate germ-free (axenic) mice for its customers and also hosts courses in cryopreservation. EMMA is a founder member of the Federation of International Mouse Resources (FIMRe). The EMMA network is funded by the participating institutes, national research programmes and the European Commission Research Infrastructures Programme.

  11. Understanding the motivation and performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of health programmes in Kampala, Uganda: a realist evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Vareilles, Gaëlle; Marchal, Bruno; Kane, Sumit; Petrič, Taja; Pictet, Gabriel; Pommier, Jeanine

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper presents the results of a realist evaluation that aimed to understand how, why and under what circumstances a Red Cross (RC) capacity-building intervention influences the motivation and the performance of RC community health volunteers involved in the delivery of an immunisation programme in Kampala, Uganda. Method Given the complexity of the intervention, we adopted realist evaluation as our methodological approach and the case study as our study design. Data collection included document review, participant observation and interviews. The constant comparative method was used for the analysis. Two contrasted cases were selected within the five Kampala districts. Each case covers the management of the immunisation programme implemented at a RC branch. In each case, a programme manager and 15 RC volunteers were interviewed. The selection of the volunteers was purposive. Results We found that a capacity-building programme including supervision supportive of autonomy, skills and knowledge enhancement, and adapted to the different subgroups of volunteers, leads to satisfaction of the three key drivers of volunteer motivation: feelings of autonomy, competence and connectedness. This contributes to higher retention, and better task performance and well-being among the volunteers. Enabling contextual conditions include the responsiveness of the Uganda Red Cross Society (URCS) to community needs, and recognition of the work of the volunteers, from the URCS and the community. Conclusions A management approach that caters for the different motivational states and changing needs of the volunteers will lead to better performance. The findings will inform not only the management of community health volunteers, but also the management of all kinds of health workers. PMID:26525721

  12. Understanding the motivation and performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of health programmes in Kampala, Uganda: a realist evaluation.

    PubMed

    Vareilles, Gaëlle; Marchal, Bruno; Kane, Sumit; Petrič, Taja; Pictet, Gabriel; Pommier, Jeanine

    2015-11-02

    This paper presents the results of a realist evaluation that aimed to understand how, why and under what circumstances a Red Cross (RC) capacity-building intervention influences the motivation and the performance of RC community health volunteers involved in the delivery of an immunisation programme in Kampala, Uganda. Given the complexity of the intervention, we adopted realist evaluation as our methodological approach and the case study as our study design. Data collection included document review, participant observation and interviews. The constant comparative method was used for the analysis. Two contrasted cases were selected within the five Kampala districts. Each case covers the management of the immunisation programme implemented at a RC branch. In each case, a programme manager and 15 RC volunteers were interviewed. The selection of the volunteers was purposive. We found that a capacity-building programme including supervision supportive of autonomy, skills and knowledge enhancement, and adapted to the different subgroups of volunteers, leads to satisfaction of the three key drivers of volunteer motivation: feelings of autonomy, competence and connectedness. This contributes to higher retention, and better task performance and well-being among the volunteers. Enabling contextual conditions include the responsiveness of the Uganda Red Cross Society (URCS) to community needs, and recognition of the work of the volunteers, from the URCS and the community. A management approach that caters for the different motivational states and changing needs of the volunteers will lead to better performance. The findings will inform not only the management of community health volunteers, but also the management of all kinds of health workers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Effect of a community intervention programme promoting social interactions on functional disability prevention for older adults: propensity score matching and instrumental variable analyses, JAGES Taketoyo study

    PubMed Central

    Hikichi, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori; Aida, Jun; Takeda, Tokunori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Background The efficacy of promoting social interactions to improve the health of older adults is not fully established due to residual confounding and selection bias. Methods The government of Taketoyo town, Aichi Prefecture, Japan, developed a resident-centred community intervention programme called ‘community salons’, providing opportunities for social interactions among local older residents. To evaluate the impact of the programme, we conducted questionnaire surveys for all older residents of Taketoyo. We carried out a baseline survey in July 2006 (prior to the introduction of the programme) and assessed the onset of functional disability during March 2012. We analysed the data of 2421 older people. In addition to the standard Cox proportional hazard regression, we conducted Cox regression with propensity score matching (PSM) and an instrumental variable (IV) analysis, using the number of community salons within a radius of 350 m from the participant's home as an instrument. Results In the 5 years after the first salon was launched, the salon participants showed a 6.3% lower incidence of functional disability compared with non-participants. Even adjusting for sex, age, equivalent income, educational attainment, higher level activities of daily living and depression, the Cox adjusted HR for becoming disabled was 0.49 (95% CI 0.33 to 0.72). Similar results were observed using PSM (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.83) and IV-Cox analysis (HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.74). Conclusions A community health promotion programme focused on increasing social interactions among older adults may be effective in preventing the onset of disability. PMID:25888596

  14. Programmable Logic Controllers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard; Anderson, Kathleen

    This document contains a 40-hour course in programmable logic controllers (PLC), developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The 10 units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to programmable logic controllers; (2) DOS primer; (3) prerequisite…

  15. Integration of HIV Care into Community Management of Acute Childhood Malnutrition Permits Good Outcomes: Retrospective Analysis of Three Years of a Programme in Lusaka.

    PubMed

    Amadi, Beatrice; Imikendu, Mercy; Sakala, Milika; Banda, Rosemary; Kelly, Paul

    2016-01-01

    While HIV has had a major impact on health care in southern Africa, there are few data on its impact on acute malnutrition in children in the community. We report an analysis of outcomes in a large programme of community management of acute malnutrition in the south of Lusaka. Over 3 years, 68,707 assessments for undernutrition were conducted house-to-house, and children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) or moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) were enrolled into either Outpatient Therapeutic Programme (OTP) or Supplementary Feeding Programme (SFP) respectively. Case records were analysed using tabulation and unconditional logistic regression. 1,859 children (889 boys, 970 girls; median age 16 months) with MAM (n = 664) or SAM (n = 1,195) were identified. Of 1,796 children whose parents consented to testing, 185 (10.3%) were HIV positive. Altogether 1,163 (62.6%) were discharged as recovered from acute malnutrition. Case fatality while in the programme was 4.2% in children with SAM and 0.5% in those with MAM (RR of SAM 10.9; 95%CI 3.4,34.8; P<0.0001), and higher in children with HIV infection (RR 5.2, 95%CI 2.9, 9.0; P<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, HIV (OR 5.2; 95%CI 2.6, 10.1; P<0.0001), MUAC <11.5 cm (OR 4.1; 95%CI 2.2, 7.4; P<0.0001) and the first year of the programme (OR 1.9; 95%CI 1.0, 3.4; P = 0.04) all increased mortality. Children with HIV infection who were able to initiate antiretroviral therapy had lower mortality (RR 0.23; 95%CI 0.10, 0.57; P = 0.0008). Our programme suggests that a comprehensive community malnutrition programme, incorporating HIV care, can achieve low mortality even in a population heavily affected by HIV.

  16. European scientists' proposals for HORIZON 2000+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-10-01

    This programme, which has been given the name Horizon 2000+, will be presented to the press at 0900h on Monday 17 October 1994 at ESA Headquarters in Paris by Professor Lodewijk Woltjer, who chaired the committee of European scientific community representatives set up to consider the proposals submitted, and Professor Roger Bonnet, ESA's Science Programme Director. Journalists wishing to attend this press breakfast are requested to complete and return the attached form, if possible by fax: (33.1) 42.73.76.90.

  17. Verifying a biotope classification using benthic communities--an analysis towards the implementation of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Kerstin S; Darr, Alexander; Zettler, Michael L

    2014-01-15

    The HELCOM Red List biotopes project proposed a Baltic Sea wide classification consisting of six levels: The HELCOM Underwater biotopes/habitats classification system (HELCOM HUB). We present a case study from the south-western Baltic Sea where we tested the applicability of this system. More than 500 sampling stations were analyzed regarding macrozoobenthic communities and their linkage to environmental parameters. Based on the analyses of biotic and abiotic data, 21 groups were assigned to 13 biotopes of the classification. For some biotopes varying states of communities were recognized. Even though not all abiotic parameters are considered directly in the hierarchy of the classification in general, all soft-bottom communities could be allocated to a corresponding biotope. The application of the HELCOM HUB for the south-western Baltic Sea is feasible, in regard to the implementation of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive as well as the Baltic Sea Action Plan.

  18. University Involvement in ESIF 2014-2020 Programme. Innovation and Growth Factsheet Series. No. 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This factsheet, the third in a series on innovation and growth, summarises a recent assessment conducted by Universities UK, HEFCE and the Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG), exploring the extent to which universities in England are engaging with the 2014-2020 European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF) programme. [For the…

  19. The Isan Culture Maintenance and Revitalisation Programme's Multilingual Signage Attitude Survey: Phase II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, John

    2016-01-01

    This article contextualises and presents to the academic community the full dataset of the Isan Culture Maintenance and Revitalisation Programme's (ICMRP) multilingual signage survey. The ICMRP is a four-year European Union co-sponsored project in Northeast Thailand. This article focuses on one aspect of the project, four surveys each of 1,500…

  20. University Involvement in ESIF 2014-2020 Programme. Innovation and Growth Factsheet Series. No. 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This factsheet, the third in a series on innovation and growth, summarises a recent assessment conducted by Universities UK, HEFCE and the Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG), exploring the extent to which universities in England are engaging with the 2014-2020 European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF) programme. [For the…

  1. The Isan Culture Maintenance and Revitalisation Programme's Multilingual Signage Attitude Survey: Phase II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, John

    2016-01-01

    This article contextualises and presents to the academic community the full dataset of the Isan Culture Maintenance and Revitalisation Programme's (ICMRP) multilingual signage survey. The ICMRP is a four-year European Union co-sponsored project in Northeast Thailand. This article focuses on one aspect of the project, four surveys each of 1,500…

  2. Twelve-week physical and leisure activity programme improved cognitive function in community-dwelling elderly subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kamegaya, Tadahiko; Araki, Yumi; Kigure, Hanami; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2014-03-01

    Japan is one of the most rapidly ageing societies in the world. A number of municipalities have started services for the prevention of cognitive decline for community-dwelling elderly individuals, but the effectiveness of these services is currently insufficient. Our study explored the efficacy of a comprehensive intervention programme consisting of physical and leisure activities to prevent cognitive decline in community-dwelling elderly subjects. We administered a 12-week intervention programme consisting of physical and leisure activities aimed at enhancing participants' motivation to participate and support one another by providing a pleasant atmosphere, empathetic communication, praise, and errorless support. This programme for the prevention of cognitive decline was conducted as a service by the city of Maebashi. All participants underwent the Five-Cog test, which evaluated the cognitive domains of attention, memory, visuospatial function, language, and reasoning. Executive function was evaluated by the Wechsler Digit Symbol Substitution Test and Yamaguchi Kanji-Symbol Substitution Test. Subjective health status, level of social support, functional capacity, subjective quality of life, and depressive symptoms were assessed with a questionnaire. Grip strength test, timed up-and-go test, 5-m maximum walking times test, and functional reach test were performed to evaluate physical function. Fifty-two participants were randomly allocated to intervention (n = 26) and control (n = 26) groups. Twenty-six participants, aged between 65-87 years, received intervention once a week at a community centre. The programme was conducted by health-care professionals, with the help of senior citizen volunteers. The intervention group (n = 19) showed significant improvement on the analogy task of the Five-Cog test (F(1,38) = 4.242, P = 0.046) and improved quality of life (F(1,38) = 4.773, P = 0.035) as compared to the control group (n = 24). A community-based 12-week

  3. Mortality of babies enrolled in a community-based support programme: CONI PLUS (Care of Next Infant Plus).

    PubMed

    Waite, Alison J; Coombs, Robert C; McKenzie, Angela; Daman-Willems, Charlotte; Cohen, Marta C; Campbell, Michael J; Carpenter, Robert G

    2015-07-01

    To report mortality in babies enrolled on a community-based programme, Care of Next Infant Plus (CONI PLUS), which primarily supports parents anxious because of previous sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) in their extended family or following an apparent life threatening event (ALTE) in their baby. Prospective observational study from 1996 to 2010 in the UK. Of 6487 babies enrolled, 37 died (5.7 per 1000). There were 2789 (43.0%) SUDI related babies of whom, six died suddenly and unexpectedly (2.15 per 1000). Four babies were sharing a sofa at night or a bed with parent(s) who smoked or had consumed alcohol. Of the 1882 (29.0%) babies enrolled following an ALTE, five died suddenly and unexpectedly (2.66 per 1000): four unexplained and one due to infection. None occurred while sharing a sleep surface, and at least three died during the day. The remaining 1816 (28%) babies were enrolled for other reasons. Seven died suddenly and unexpectedly (3.85 per 1000), two were unexplained and none associated with bed sharing. The number of SUDI deaths in babies enrolled on CONI PLUS is higher than expected from UK averages. Deaths in babies enrolled because of family history of SUDI were mostly associated with inappropriate sharing of a sleep surface at night and mostly outside the peak age range for sudden infant death. The opposite is true for those enrolled following an ALTE. The number of deaths is small but findings suggest a different mechanism for death in these two groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Molecular characterization of the microbial communities in the subcaudal gland secretion of the European badger (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Sin, Yung Wa; Buesching, Christina D; Burke, Terry; Macdonald, David W

    2012-09-01

    Many mammals possess specialized scent glands, which convey information about the marking individual. As the chemical profile of scent marks is likely to be affected by bacteria metabolizing the primary gland products, the variation in bacterial communities between different individuals has been proposed to underpin olfactory communication. However, few studies have investigated the dependency of microbiota residing in the scent organs on the host's individual-specific parameters. Here, we used terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene and clone library construction to investigate the microbial communities in the subcaudal gland secretion of the European badger (Meles meles). As the secretion has been shown to encode individual-specific information, we investigated the correlation of the microbiota with different individual-specific parameters (age, sex, body condition, reproductive status, and season). We discovered a high number of bacterial species (56 operational taxonomic units from four phyla: Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes), dominated by Actinobacteria (76.0%). The bacterial communities of cubs and adults differed significantly. Cubs possessed considerably more diverse communities dominated by Firmicutes, while in adults the communities were less diverse and dominated by Actinobacteria, suggesting that the acquisition of a 'mature bacterial community' is an ontogenetic process related to physiological changes during maturation.

  5. A community-based health education programme for bio-environmental control of malaria through folk theatre (Kalajatha) in rural India

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Susanta K; Patil, Rajan R; Tiwari, Satyanarayan; Dash, Aditya P

    2006-01-01

    Background Health education is an important component in disease control programme. Kalajatha is a popular, traditional art form of folk theatre depicting various life processes of a local socio-cultural setting. It is an effective medium of mass communication in the Indian sub-continent especially in rural areas. Using this medium, an operational feasibility health education programme was carried out for malaria control. Methods In December 2001, the Kalajatha events were performed in the evening hours for two weeks in a malaria-affected district in Karnataka State, south India. Thirty local artists including ten governmental and non-governmental organizations actively participated. Impact of this programme was assessed after two months on exposed vs. non-exposed respondents. Results The exposed respondents had significant increase in knowledge and change in attitude about malaria and its control strategies, especially on bio-environmental measures (p < 0.001). They could easily associate clean water with anopheline breeding and the role of larvivorous fish in malaria control. In 2002, the local community actively co-operated and participated in releasing larvivorous fish, which subsequently resulted in a noteworthy reduction of malaria cases. Immediate behavioural changes, especially maintenance of general sanitation and hygiene did not improve as much as expected. Conclusion This study was carried out under the primary health care system involving the local community and various potential partners. Kalajatha conveyed the important messages on malaria control and prevention to the rural community. Similar methods of communication in the health education programme should be intensified with suitable modifications to reach all sectors, if malaria needs to be controlled. PMID:17173672

  6. Improving nutrition in Afghanistan through a community-based growth monitoring and promotion programme: A pre-post evaluation in five districts

    PubMed Central

    Mayhew, Maureen; Ickx, Paul; Stanekzai, Hedayatullah; Mashal, Taufiq; Newbrander, William

    2014-01-01

    In Afghanistan, malnutrition in children less than 60 months of age remains high despite nutritional services being offered in health facilities since 2003. Afghanistan's Ministry of Public Health solicited extensive community consultation to develop pictorial community-based growth monitoring and promotion (cGMP) tools to help illiterate community health workers (CHWs) provide nutritional assessment and counselling. The planned evaluation in the five districts where cGMP was implemented demonstrated that a mean weight-for-age (WFA) Z-score of 414 participant children was 0.3 Z-scores higher than that of matched non-participants who lived outside of cGMP programme catchment areas. The mean change in WFA Z-scores at evaluation was 0.3 (95% CI 0.3, 0.4) Z-scores higher than at entry into the programme. The most influential factor on WFA Z-score changes in participants was initial WFA Z-score. Those with an initial WFA Z-score of less than −2 experienced a mean increase of 0.33 (95% CI 0.29, 0.38) WFA Z-scores per session attended, while those with a baseline WFA Z-score of greater than zero showed a decrease of 0.19 (95% CI 0.22, 0.15) WFA Z-scores per session attended. These results are encouraging since they demonstrate that the cGMP programme in Afghanistan for illiterate women has some potential to contribute to improving nutrition, specifically in underweight children of either sex who enter the programme at less than nine months of age and attend 50% or more sessions. PMID:24852811

  7. Improving nutrition in Afghanistan through a community-based growth monitoring and promotion programme: a pre-post evaluation in five districts.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, Maureen; Ickx, Paul; Stanekzai, Hedayatullah; Mashal, Taufiq; Newbrander, William

    2014-01-01

    In Afghanistan, malnutrition in children less than 60 months of age remains high despite nutritional services being offered in health facilities since 2003. Afghanistan's Ministry of Public Health solicited extensive community consultation to develop pictorial community-based growth monitoring and promotion (cGMP) tools to help illiterate community health workers (CHWs) provide nutritional assessment and counselling. The planned evaluation in the five districts where cGMP was implemented demonstrated that a mean weight-for-age (WFA) Z-score of 414 participant children was 0.3 Z-scores higher than that of matched non-participants who lived outside of cGMP programme catchment areas. The mean change in WFA Z-scores at evaluation was 0.3 (95% CI 0.3, 0.4) Z-scores higher than at entry into the programme. The most influential factor on WFA Z-score changes in participants was initial WFA Z-score. Those with an initial WFA Z-score of less than -2 experienced a mean increase of 0.33 (95% CI 0.29, 0.38) WFA Z-scores per session attended, while those with a baseline WFA Z-score of greater than zero showed a decrease of 0.19 (95% CI 0.22, 0.15) WFA Z-scores per session attended. These results are encouraging since they demonstrate that the cGMP programme in Afghanistan for illiterate women has some potential to contribute to improving nutrition, specifically in underweight children of either sex who enter the programme at less than nine months of age and attend 50% or more sessions.

  8. How prepared individuals and communities are for evacuation in tsunami-prone areas in Europe? Findings from the ASTARTE EU Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, Franck; Grancher, Delphine; Goeldner-Gianella, Lydie; Karanci, Nuray; Dogulu, Nilay; Kanoglu, Utku; Zaniboni, Filippo; Tinti, Stefano; Papageorgiou, Antonia; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Constantin, Angela; Moldovan, Iren; El Mouraouah, Azelarab; Benchekroun, Sabah; Birouk, Abdelouahad

    2016-04-01

    Understanding social vulnerability to tsunamis provides risk managers with the required information to determine whether individuals have the capacity to evacuate, and therefore to take mitigation measures to protect their communities. In the frame of the EU programme ASTARTE (Assessment, STrategy And Risk reduction for Tsunamis in Europe), we conducted a questionnaire-based survey among 1,661 people from 41 nationalities living in, working in, or visiting 10 Test Sites from 9 different countries. The questions, which have been translated in 11 languages, focused on tsunami hazard awareness, risk perception, and knowledge of the existing warning systems. Our results confirm our initial hypothesis that low attention is paid in Europe to tsunami risk. Among all type of hazards, either natural or not, tsunami rank first in only one site (Lyngen fjord in Norway), rank third in 3 other sites (Eforie Nord in Romania, Nice and Istanbul), rank 4 in Gulluk Bay, 5 in Sines and Heraklion, and 10 in Siracusa (Sicily) and San Jordi (Balearic Islands). Whatever the respondent's status (i.e. local population, local authorities, or tourists), earthquakes and drawdown of the sea are cited as tsunami warning signs by 43% and 39% of the respondents, respectively. Therefore self-evacuation is not expected for more than half of the population. Considering that most European countries have no early warning system for tsunamis, a disaster is likely to happen in any coastal area exposed to this specific hazard. Furthermore, knowledge of past tsunami events is also very limited: only 22% of people stated that a tsunami has occurred in the past, whereas a deadly tsunami occurs every century in the Mediterranean Sea (e.g. in AD 365, 1660, 1672 or 1956 in the eastern part, 1908, 1979 or 2003 in the western part), and high tsunami waves devastated the Portugal and Moroccan coasts in 1755. Despite this lack of knowledge and awareness of past events, 62% of the respondents think that the site of

  9. ESA to unveil its new science programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    The science community, European industry, the ESA Executive and cooperating space agencies in Europe and elsewhere have been consulted, and sometimes challenged, to find the best ways to maximise science value for money. The exercise is now over following intensive consultations with ESA's Space Science Advisory Committee (SSAC) and the Member States represented by the Science Programme Committee (SPC). After final SPC approval at the meeting on 22/23 May there will be a new programme and a new implementation plan. The results of this meeting will then be presented to the press on 27 May, in Paris, by the ESA Director of Science, in the presence of the chairmen of the SSAC and SPC. Media representatives wishing to attend the press breakfast are kindly requested to complete the attached reply form and fax it back to ESA Media Relations, Fax: +33.(0)1.5369.7690 For more information, please contact: ESA - Communication Department Media Relations Office Tel: +33 (0)1.53.69.71.55 Fax: +33 (0)1.53.69.76.90 ESA's Science Programme Agenda Monday 27 May 2002 - 08:30-10:00 ESA Headquarters, 8/10 rue Mario Nikis, 75015 Paris 08:30 Registration & breakfast 08:45 Introduction , by Hugo Marée, Science Programme Coordination Office 08:50 Presentation of the new ESA Science Programme, by Prof. David Southwood, ESA Director of Science 09:10 Question &Answer session

  10. Outcomes of a community-based HIV-prevention pilot programme for township men who have sex with men in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Batist, Elizabeth; Brown, Benjamin; Scheibe, Andrew; Baral, Stefan D; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Men who have sex with men (MSM) in Cape Town's townships remain in need of targeted HIV-prevention services. In 2012, a pilot community-based HIV-prevention programme was implemented that aimed to reach MSM in five Cape Town townships, disseminate HIV-prevention information and supplies, and promote the use of condoms and HIV services. Methods Convenience sampling was used to recruit self-identified MSM who were 18 years old or older in five Cape Town townships. The six-month pilot programme trained five community leaders who, along with staff, provided HIV-prevention information and supplies to MSM through small-group meetings, community-based social activities and inter-community events. After the completion of the pilot programme, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with a subset of conveniently sampled participants and with each of the community leaders. Qualitative data were then analyzed thematically. Results Overall, 98 mostly gay-identified black MSM consented to participate, 57 community-based activities were facilitated and 9 inter-community events were conducted. Following their enrolment, 60% (59/98) of participants attended at least one pilot activity. Of those participants, 47% (28/59) attended at least half of the scheduled activities. A total of 36 participants took part in FGDs, and five in-depth interviews were completed with community leaders. Participants reported gaining access to MSM-specific HIV-prevention information, condoms and water-based lubricant through the small-group meetings. Some participants described how their feelings of loneliness, social isolation, self-esteem and self-efficacy were improved after taking part. Conclusions The social activities and group meetings were viable strategies for disseminating HIV-prevention information, condoms and water-based lubricant to MSM in this setting. Many MSM were also able to receive social support, reduce social isolation and improve their

  11. Culture at the centre of community based aged care in a remote Australian Indigenous setting: a case study of the development of Yuendumu Old People's Programme.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kay; Grundy, John J; Nelson, Harry J

    2010-01-01

    Yuendumu is a Warlpiri Aboriginal community 300 km north west of Alice Springs in Central Australia. Since emerging from the welfare period in the early 1970s, a range of services have evolved with the aim of developing a comprehensive community based aged care service. In 2000 Mampu Maninja-kurlangu Jarlu Patu-ku Aboriginal Corporation (Yuendumu Old Peoples Programme; YOPP) commenced operation to manage the developing services. This case study aims to describe, from the analytic standpoint of community control and cultural comfort, the main features of the 'Family Model of Care', which underpins the operations of the service and YOPP management processes. Data were mostly generated from participant observation by the authors in the development and management of YOPP between 1993 and 2009. A literature review of Indigenous history and public health in Central Australia was also undertaken, which was supplemented by a review of Programme documentation, including evaluations, needs assessments and annual reports. The design and operations of YOPP are embodied in a documented 'Family Model of Care' which provides important lessons for the provision of aged care in a cross-cultural context. According to the concepts 'community control' and 'cultural comfort' outlined in this article, mainstream services can function in a complementary and supportive manner with professional services being accountable and responsive to a local management system that is governed by the structures and norms of community tradition. The notions of 'cultural comfort' and 'community control' as operating principles have enabled YOPP to continue under the management of local people, sustain core cultural strengths and values, and meet the needs for increased quality of care for the aged in Yuendumu. This model of care emphasizes and recognizes paradigms of mutual competence between traditional and mainstream human service culture, and offers important lessons for improvement to the quality of

  12. Electronic capture of dispensing data by the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme: a consultation study of community and hospital pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Harrison-Woolrych, Mira; Jamieson, Simon; Malik, Muzaffar; Holt, Alec; Herbison, Peter

    2011-04-01

    To obtain pharmacists' views on proposals for electronic transmission of dispensing data to the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme (IMMP). Consultation with a randomly selected group of 100 community pharmacists and all 28 hospital pharmacies in New Zealand was conducted by postal survey. A specific questionnaire was designed to obtain pharmacists' views on several aspects of electronic data transmission including willingness to co-operate with a new system, awareness of other electronic systems and views on security. Survey response rates were 95% for community pharmacists and 73% for hospital pharmacists. Ninety (95%) of the community pharmacists and 18 (95%) of the hospital pharmacists who responded stated they would use the IMMP proposed method of electronic data transmission. Some 91% of community pharmacists and 100% of hospital pharmacists considered the proposed new method would be equally or more secure than the present hard-copy system of posting dispensing records. There is a high level of support from New Zealand pharmacists for electronic capture of prescription dispensing data for medicines monitored by the IMMP. This electronic method will now be implemented. Development of such systems is important for enhancing patient safety and pharmacovigilance programmes worldwide. © 2011 The Authors. IJPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. A Changing Europe: The Maturation of the European Community and How It Will Affect the Trans-Atlantic Link

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    to the two Germanies agreeing to cohabitate without the official sanction of matrimony and hoping I that as time passes their common-law marriage will...intent can be realized and what hindrances U there are to US involvement in Europe. 3 52 R. Hornick, "The Peace Dividend: Myth and Reality," Tim 12 Feb...Summer 1988. I Hornick, R. "The Peace Dividend: Myth and Reality." Time 12 February 1990, p. 22. Howe, Robert. The European Community’s 1992 Plan

  14. A review of documentation requirements for preclinical sections, for marketing submissions in the European Community, Japan and the USA.

    PubMed

    Marr, A P; Scales, M D

    1993-01-01

    Standardization of the documentation requirements for preclinical sections, for marketing submissions in the European Community (EC), Japan and the USA is proposed. It is unnecessary to standardize the leading summaries of submissions as their format is predicated by the way in which the regulatory authorities review applications. Harmonization of the technical sections will reduce the duplication of effort expended by pharmaceutical companies to produce documentation specific for each regulatory authority. Elimination of requirements specific to individual authorities will further reduce the resource requirements. The proposals made in this paper are aimed to increase the 'user-friendliness' of the preclinical documentation and therefore expedite the review process.

  15. The potential impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement on American dental licensure: a European community model.

    PubMed

    Paul, D P

    2000-01-01

    Appropriate licensure is a significant barrier to entry to the practice of dentistry. The history of dental licensure in the United States is briefly examined, and current dental licensure requirements in the United States and Mexico are noted. The impact that establishment of the European Community had on dental licensure in Europe is examined, noting that changes were the result of political, rather than professional, input. Requirements of NAFTA are examined to see how they will impact current American dental licensure requirements. Some migration of dental professionals between the United States and Mexico is expected as a result of NAFTA.

  16. A proposed adaptation of the European Foundation for Quality Management Excellence Model to physical activity programmes for the elderly - development of a quality self-assessment tool using a modified Delphi process

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been a growing concern in designing physical activity (PA) programmes for elderly people, since evidence suggests that such health promotion interventions may reduce the deleterious effects of the ageing process. Complete programme evaluations are a necessary prerequisite to continuous quality improvements. Being able to refine, adapt and create tools that are suited to the realities and contexts of PA programmes for the elderly in order to support its continuous improvement is, therefore, crucial. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop a self-assessment tool for PA programmes for the elderly. Methods A 3-round Delphi process was conducted via the Internet with 43 national experts in PA for the elderly, management and delivery of PA programmes for the elderly, sports management, quality management and gerontology, asking experts to identify the propositions that they considered relevant for inclusion in the self-assessment tool. Experts reviewed a list of proposed statements, based on the criteria and sub-criteria from the European Foundation for Quality Management Excellence Model (EFQM) and PA guidelines for older adults and rated each proposition from 1 to 8 (disagree to agree) and modified and/or added propositions. Propositions receiving either bottom or top scores of greater than 70% were considered to have achieved consensus to drop or retain, respectively. Results In round 1, of the 196 originally-proposed statements (best practice principles), the experts modified 41, added 1 and achieved consensus on 93. In round 2, a total of 104 propositions were presented, of which experts modified 39 and achieved consensus on 53. In the last round, of 51 proposed statements, the experts achieved consensus on 19. After 3 rounds of rating, experts had not achieved consensus on 32 propositions. The resulting tool consisted of 165 statements that assess nine management areas involved in the development of PA programmes for the elderly. Conclusion

  17. Evaluation of a community awareness programme to reduce delays in referrals to early intervention services and enhance early detection of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Evans, Brynmor; Sweeney, Angela; Hinton, Mark; Morant, Nicola; Pilling, Stephen; Leibowitz, Judy; Killaspy, Helen; Tanskanen, Sanna; Totman, Jonathan; Armstrong, Jessica; Johnson, Sonia

    2015-05-02

    Reducing treatment delay and coercive pathways to care are accepted aims for Early Intervention Services (EIS) for people experiencing first episode psychosis but how to achieve this is unclear. A one-year community awareness programme was implemented in a London EIS team, targeting staff in non-health service community organisations. The programme comprised psycho-educational workshops and EIS link workers, and offering direct referral routes to EIS. Its feasibility and its impact on duration of untreated psychosis and pathways to EIS were evaluated. Evaluation comprised: pre and post questionnaires with workshop participants assessing knowledge and attitudes to psychosis and mental health services; and a comparison of new service users' "service DUP"(time from first psychotic symptom to first contact with EIS) and pathways to care in the intervention year and preceding year. Focus groups sought stakeholders' views regarding the benefits and limitations of the programme and what else might promote help-seeking. 41 workshops at 36 community organisations were attended by 367 staff. 19 follow up workshops were conducted and 16 services were allocated an EIS link worker. Participants' knowledge and attitudes to psychosis and attitudes to mental health services improved significantly following workshops. In the year of the intervention, only 6 of 110 new service users reached EIS directly via community organisations. For all new referrals accepted by EIS, in the intervention year compared to the previous year, there was no difference in mean or median service DUP. A clear impact on pathways to care could not be discerned. Stakeholders suggested that barriers to referral remained. These included: uncertainty about the signs of early psychosis, disengagement by young people when becoming unwell, and worries about stigma or coercive treatment from mental health services. More general, youth focused, mental health services were proposed. The community awareness programme

  18. Facilitators and Barriers to Uptake of an Extended Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention Programme in Ghana: A Qualitative Study of Caregivers and Community Health Workers

    PubMed Central

    Mahama, Princess R.; Tagbor, Harry; Cairns, Matt; Newell, James N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) is currently recommended for children under five in areas where malaria transmission is highly seasonal. We explored children’s caregivers’ and community health workers’ (CHWs) responses to an extended 5-month SMC programme. Methods Thirteen in-depth interviews and eight focus group discussions explored optimal and suboptimal ‘uptake’ of SMC to examine facilitators and barriers to caregivers’ uptake. Results There did not appear to be major differences between caregivers of children with optimal and sub-optimal SMC uptake in terms of their knowledge of malaria, their perceptions of the effect of SMC on a child’s health, nor their understanding of chemoprevention. Caregivers experienced difficulty in prioritising SMC for well children, perceiving medication being for treatment rather than prevention. Prior to the study, caregivers had become accustomed to rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) for malaria, and therefore blood testing for malaria during the baseline survey at the start of the SMC programme may have positively influenced uptake. Facilitators of uptake included caregivers’ trust in and respect for administrators of SMC (including CHWs), access to medication and supportive (family) networks. Barriers to uptake related to poor communication of timings of community gatherings, travel distances, absence during SMC home deliveries, and limited demand for SMC due to lack of previous experience. Future delivery of SMC by trained CHWs would be acceptable to caregivers. Conclusion A combination of caregivers’ physical access to SMC medication, the drug regimen, trust in the medical profession and perceived norms around malaria prevention all likely influenced caregivers’ level of uptake. SMC programmes need to consider: 1) developing supportive, accessible and flexible modes of drug administration including home delivery and village community kiosks; 2) improving demand for preventive medication

  19. Impact of a community-based exercise programme on physical fitness in middle-aged and older patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Romeu; Sousa, Nelson; Themudo-Barata, José; Reis, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Physical fitness is related to all-cause mortality, quality of life and risk of falls in patients with type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to analyse the impact of a long-term community-based combined exercise program (aerobic+resistance+agility/balance+flexibility) developed with minimum and low-cost material resources on physical fitness in middle-aged and older patients with type 2 diabetes. This was a non-experimental pre-post evaluation study. Participants (N=43; 62.92±5.92 years old) were engaged in a community-based supervised exercise programme (consisting of combined aerobic, resistance, agility/balance and flexibility exercises; three sessions per week; 70min per session) of 9 months' duration. Aerobic fitness (6-Minute Walk Test), muscle strength (30-Second Chair Stand Test), agility/balance (Timed Up and Go Test) and flexibility (Chair Sit and Reach Test) were assessed before (baseline) and after the exercise intervention. Significant improvements in the performance of the 6-Minute Walk Test (Δ=8.20%, p<0.001), 30-Second Chair Stand Test (Δ=28.84%, p<0.001), Timed Up and Go Test (Δ=14.31%, p<0.001), and Chair Sit and Reach Test (Δ=102.90%, p<0.001) were identified between baseline and end-exercise intervention time points. A long-term community-based combined exercise programme, developed with low-cost exercise strategies, produced significant benefits in physical fitness in middle-aged and older patients with type 2 diabetes. This supervised group exercise programme significantly improved aerobic fitness, muscle strength, agility/balance and flexibility, assessed with field tests in community settings. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Tigecycline versus levofloxacin for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia: European experience.

    PubMed

    Dartois, N; Castaing, N; Gandjini, H; Cooper, A

    2008-10-01

    Tigecycline (TGC), a first-in-class glycylcycline that has been approved for treating complicated skin and skin structure infections and complicated intra-abdominal infections, has an expanded spectrum of activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, anaerobic, and atypical bacteria, including resistant strains. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of TGC with levofloxacin (LEV) in adult hospitalised patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in a randomised, doubleblind, phase 3 multinational trial. This analysis evaluated TGC efficacy and safety in the European region. Hospitalised patients from 53 centres in 18 countries received 7-14 days of i.v. TGC (100-mg loading dose followed by 50 mg every 12 hours) or i.v. LEV (500 mg once or twice daily). Co-primary efficacy endpoints were clinical response in clinically evaluable (CE)