Science.gov

Sample records for european community programme

  1. European Community Experiences from the Coalface: Some Lessons from the COMETT Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prosser, Ed, Durando, Marc

    1992-01-01

    COMETT (Community program for Education and Training for Technology) supports practical cooperation between universities and industry in training for technology, through consortia, exchanges, and joint training projects. It stresses the need for strategic thinking in cooperative efforts and the fragility of cooperation and management. Program…

  2. The European Union Food Distribution programme for the Most Deprived Persons of the community, 1987-2013: From agricultural policy to social inclusion policy?

    PubMed

    Caraher, Martin

    2015-07-01

    The European Union Food Distribution programme for the Most Deprived Persons (MDP) of the community ran from 1987 until 2013. It was funded from Common Agricultural Policy budgets. The programme initially made use of surplus foods from the food mountains resulting from intervention stocks. This food was then distributed through aid agencies within member states, coordinated at a national government level. Reform of the CAP and global rises in food prices resulted in an increase in budget from €300 to €500 million Euros in 2010 with the added power to buy food on the open market. This led to a formal challenge to the scheme on the basis that buying goods on the open market shifted the emphasis from an agricultural/financial basis to a social one. A court ruling found that because the program was no longer used for removing surpluses the link to agriculture policy has become tenuous and therefore had no basis in community law. As a result of this legal challenge a number of policy compromises ensured the MDP would continue until the end of 2013 with a reduced budget. The scheme has been superseded by a new scheme in March 2014 called the Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived (FEAD). This is seen as a social programme. The way that policy and politics developed and changed the MDP programme are set out. The article tracks its move from being an agricultural policy to a social welfare one. The key policy players and actors in this move are set out as are the changing context and policy frameworks. The replacement of the MDP by FEAD is discussed as is how intensive lobbying in 2012/13 resulted in the development of a new Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived (FEAD).

  3. European Community Education Cooperation: The First Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Luxembourg).

    Nearly one-third of the European Community population of 320 million is involved daily with some form of education. The Community Education Action Programme celebrated its tenth anniversary in February 1986. The initial thrust was to increase mutual understanding and promote closer relations between the different education systems of member…

  4. European Association of Echocardiography: Research Grant Programme.

    PubMed

    Gargani, Luna; Muraru, Denisa; Badano, Luigi P; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Sicari, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) offers a variety of grants/fellowships to help young professionals in the field of cardiological training or research activities throughout Europe. The number of grants has significantly increased in recent years with contributions from the Associations, Working Groups and Councils of the ESC. The European Association of Echocardiography (EAE) is a registered branch of the ESC and actively takes part in this initiative. One of the aims of EAE is to promote excellence in research in cardiovascular ultrasound and other imaging modalities in Europe. Therefore, since 2008, the EAE offers a Research Grant Programme to help young doctors to obtain research experience in a high standard academic centre (or similar institution oriented to clinical or pre-clinical research) in an ESC member country other than their own. This programme can be considered as a valorization of the geographical mobility as well as cultural exchanges and professional practice in the field of cardiovascular imaging. The programme has been very successful so far, therefore in 2012 the EAE has increased its offer to two grants of 25,000 euros per annum each.

  5. The European eLearning Programme(s): Between Rhetoric and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salajan, Florin D.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a qualitative study conducted by the author on the implications of e-learning programmes for the higher education systems of the member states of the European Union. The study takes a look behind the scenes of the eLearning Programme and other e-learning actions within other European programmes by tapping into…

  6. Sea & Space: a New European Educational Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-01-01

    This spring, teachers across Europe will enjoy support for exciting, novel educational projects on astronomy, navigation and environmental observations. The largely web-based and highly interactive SEA & SPACE programme makes it possible for pupils to perform field experiments and astronomical observations and to obtain and process satellite images. A contest will take the best pupils for one week to Lisbon (Portugal), to Europe's space port in Kourou (French Guyana) where the European launcher lifts off or to ESO's Very Large Telescope at the Cerro Paranal Observatory in Chile, the largest optical telescope in the world. The SEA & SPACE project is a joint initiative of the European Space Agency (ESA) , the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). It builds on these organisations' several years' successful participation in the European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture organised by the European Commission that they intend to continue in 1998. The 1998 World Exhibition EXPO98 in Lisbon will focus on the oceans. This is why the umbrella theme of SEA & SPACE is concerned with the many relations between the oceans and the space that surrounds us, from ancient times to present days. Under the new programme, teaching resources are offered for three major areas, Remote Sensing of Europe's Coastal Environment, Navigation and Oceans of Water. Remote Sensing of Europe's Coastal Environment : observations of the Earth from Space are made accessible to pupils who will appreciate their usefulness through interactive image processing and field observations; Navigation : the capabilities and functioning of different navigation techniques are explored through experiments using navigation by the stars, with GPS, and via satellite images/maps; Oceans of Water : What is the role of water in Nature? How can one detect water from satellites or with telescopes? How much water is there in rivers and floods, in an ocean

  7. European Space Science gets new Programme Director

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    Prof. Southwood, born on 30 June 1945, holds a BA in Mathematics and a Ph.D in Physics from Imperial College, London. He has spent most of his career at Imperial College, apart from two periods at UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles), as Postdoctoral Fellow and later as Visiting Professor. In 1997 he joined ESA as Earth Observation Future Programme Strategy Manager. He is currently Imperial College Pro Rector responsible for external academic affairs. Prof. Southwood has received five awards/honours and held many chairmanships, including those of the Science Programme Committee and Space Science Advisory Committee at ESA. His role as Principal Investigator for the Cassini Saturn Orbiter Magnetometer is his most recent project. He has been active over the years, both in Europe and in the United States, in public outreach on space science. He has around 200 publications and 100 invited papers to his name. "David Southwood ranks among the most prominent space science experts in Europe", said ESA's Director General, Antonio Rodotà, welcoming Prof. Southwood's appointment, "and I am sure that he, like his predecessor, Prof. Bonnet, will do a first-rate job for the excellent scientific community in our member states".

  8. Community nutrition programmes, globalization and sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Herrera, José Carlos

    2006-08-01

    On an international scale, the last seventy-five years have been a period of deep social, economic and political transformation for the developing countries. They have been especially influenced by the international phenomenon of globalization, the benefits of which have been unequally distributed among countries. In this context, the strategies used to improve the general nutritional health of the population of developing countries include broad approaches integrating nutritional interventions in a context of sustainable community development, while valuing the existing relations between fields as diverse as agriculture, education, sociology, economy, health, environment, hygiene and nutrition. The community nutrition programmes are emblematic of these initiatives. Nevertheless, in spite of the increasing evidence of the potential possibilities offered by these programmes to improve the nutritional status and contribute to the development and the self-sufficiency of the community, their success is relatively limited, due to the inappropriate planning, implementation and evaluation of the programmes. In the present article, I attempt to emphasie the importance of community participation of the population of developing countries in the community nutrition programmes within the context of globalization. This process is not only an ethical imperative, but a pragmatic one. It is a crucial step in the process of liberation, democratization and equality that will lead to true sustainable development.

  9. Perspectives for food research and European collaboration in the European Research Area and the new Framework Programme.

    PubMed

    Breslin, L

    2001-08-01

    Since 1987, successive framework programmes have contributed to strengthen European food research through the establishment of networks between research institutions, universities and companies from various European countries. In the FAIR programme (1994-1998), 118 research projects comprising nearly 1,000 participants from the European Union and Associated States have been supported in the food area with a European funding of about [symbol: see text] 108 million. Within the Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources programme (1998-2002), food research is mostly supported within the key action 'food, nutrition and health' with a budget of [symbol: see text] 290 million. After the first four deadlines, 735 eligible research proposals have already been received. Further to their evaluation by a panel of independent experts, 108 proposals have been funded or selected for funding representing a total contribution of about [symbol: see text] 168 million. Among those, several clusters of projects are now running on important topics such as probiotics, coeliac diseases, mycotoxins, GMO, safety and food for the elderly. In addition, technology stimulation measures are largely benefiting SMEs to foster their innovation potential. In January 2000, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "Towards the European Research Area (ERA)" with the objective to contribute to developing better framework conditions for research in Europe. On 21 February 2001, the Commission adopted proposals to be submitted to the European Parliament and Council for the next framework programme for research and innovation (2002-2006). The new framework programme that is becoming one of the financial instruments of the ERA aims at catalysing the integration of European research by: strengthening of links between the Community research effort and national and regional research policies; concentrating on a limited number of priority fields or research to which activities at the

  10. The European space exploration programme: current status of ESA's plans for Moon and Mars exploration.

    PubMed

    Messina, Piero; Vennemann, Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    After a large consultation with the scientific and industrial communities in Europe, the Aurora Space Exploration Programme was unanimously approved at the European Space Agency (ESA) Council at ministerial level in Edinburgh in 2001. This marked the start of the programme's preparation phase that was due to finish by the end of 2004. Aurora features technology development robotic and crewed rehearsal missions aimed at preparing a human mission to Mars by 2033. Due to the evolving context, both international and European, ESA has undertaken a review of the goals and approach of its exploration programme. While maintaining the main robotic missions that had been conceived during Aurora, the European Space Exploration Programme that is currently being proposed to the Aurora participating states and other ESA Member States has a reviewed approach and will feature a greater synergy with other ESA programmes. The paper will present the process that led to the revision of ESA's plans in the field of exploration and will give the current status of the programme.

  11. Inland Water Quality Assessment--A Joint European Masters Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waara, K. -O.; Petersen, A.; Lanaras, T.; Paulauskas, V.; Kleiven, S.; Crosa, G.; Penttinen, O. -P.; Quesada, A.; Kovats, N.; Galinou-Mitsoudi, S.; Lapinska, M.; Newton, A.; Balode, M.; Hindak, F.; Marsalek, B.

    2006-01-01

    At present, there is a European shortage of personnel qualified to adequately address the comprehensive scientific and regulatory requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The joint Masters programme described in this paper will provide students with the requisite expert knowledge and skills to progress the implementation of the WFD.…

  12. What promotes sustainability in Safe Community programmes?

    PubMed Central

    Nordqvist, Cecilia; Timpka, Toomas; Lindqvist, Kent

    2009-01-01

    Background The theory and practice of safety promotion has traditionally focused on the safety of individuals. This study also includes systems, environments, and organizations. Safety promotion programmes are designed to support community health initiatives taking a bottom-up approach. This is a long-term and complex process. The aim of this study was to try to empirically identify factors that promote sustainability in the structures of programmes that are managed and coordinated by the local government. Methods Four focus group sessions with local government politicians and administrators in designated Safe Communities were conducted and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Collaboration was found to be the basis for sustainability. Networks, enabling municipalities to exchange ideas, were reported to positively influence the programmes. Personal contacts rather than organizations themselves, determine whether collaboration is sustained. Participants reported an increase in cross-disciplinary collaboration among staff categories. Administrators and politicians were reported to collaborate well, which was perceived to speed up decision-making and thus to facilitate the programme work. Support from the politicians and the county council was seen as a prerequisite. Participants reported an increased willingness to share information between units, which, in their view, supports sustainability. A structure in which all local authorities' offices were located in close proximity to one another was considered to support collaboration. Appointing a public health coordinator responsible for the programme was seen as a way to strengthen the relational resources of the programme. Conclusion With a public health coordinator, the 'external' negotiating power was concentrated in one person. Also, the 'internal' programme strength increased when the coordination was based on a bureaucratic function rather than on one individual. Increased relational resources

  13. Accreditation of Engineering Programmes: European Perspectives and Challenges in a Global Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augusti, Giuliano

    2007-01-01

    The EUR-ACE Socrates-Tempus project (September 2004/March 2006) proposed a decentralized European system for accreditation of engineering programmes in the "Bologna process" area (European Higher Education Area) at the First and Second Cycle (FC and SC) level (but including "Integrated Programmes", i.e. programmes leading…

  14. ERASMUS: European Community Program for the Development of Student Mobility in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Education, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Describes the European Community's efforts to unify Europe and enhance competitiveness in world markets by improving use of available intellectual potential. Discusses ERASMUS, the European Community Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students. Explains the role of Inter-University Cooperation Programs (ICPs), a course credit transfer…

  15. PRM Programmes of Care and PRM Care Pathways: European Approach, Developments in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Korvin, Georges; Yelnik, Alain P.; Ribinik, Patricia; Calmels, Paul; Le Moine, Francis; Delarque, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The development of European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) physical and rehabilitation medicine programmes of care (PRMPC) and physical and rehabilitation medicine care pathways (PRMCP) in France is a good example of the positive interaction between European and national organizations. PRMPC were defined at the European level to offer a…

  16. Thirty years of European biotechnology programmes: from biomolecular engineering to the bioeconomy.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Alfredo; Magnien, Etienne; Thomas, Daniel

    2013-06-25

    This article traces back thirty years of biotechnology research sponsored by the European Union (EU). It outlines the crucial role played by De Nettancourt, Goffeau and Van Hoeck to promote and prepare the first European programme on biotechnology (1982-1986) run by the European Commission. Following this first biotechnology programme, others followed until the current one, part of the seventh Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration (2007-2013) (FP7). Particular attention is given to the statutory role of the European institutions in the design and orientation of the successive biotechnology programmes, compared to the more informal-yet visionary-role of key individuals upstream to any legislative decision. Examples of success stories and of the role of the biotechnology programmes in addressing societal issues and industrial competitiveness are also presented. Finally, an outline of Horizon 2020, the successor of FP7, is described, together with the role of biotechnology in building the bioeconomy.

  17. The European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP)--a sentinel approach in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA).

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Gianfranco; Cole, Michelle; Unemo, Magnus; Hoffmann, Steen; Ison, Catherine; van de Laar, Marita

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is monitored in the European Union/European Economic Area through the European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP) coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Euro-GASP includes a sentinel surveillance programme which aims to detect in a timely manner changes in resistance patterns and inform treatment guidelines. The programme aims to test a representative number of isolates from each European Union/European Economic Area member state per year for a range of therapeutically relevant antimicrobials through a biannual hybrid centralised/decentralised system. Testing is supported by an External Quality Assurance programme and a laboratory training programme. Participation in the programme has increased to 21 countries in 2012. Euro-GASP has been able to detect the rapid spread of isolates with decreased susceptibility to cefixime across Europe in 2010 and 2011. Results from the programme have informed changes in European treatment guidelines for gonorrhoea and led to the development of the 'Response plan to control and manage the threat of multidrug resistant gonorrhoea in Europe'. Future challenges for Euro-GASP include supporting countries to participate in Euro-GASP through decentralised testing, improving timeliness and epidemiological data quality, and increasing participation from Eastern Europe.

  18. Special Education in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Luxembourg).

    The monograph contains a report on developments and trends in special education within the European community and a selection of the principal papers of a conference on special education in Europe. Chapter 1 contains results of a comparative study presented tabularly and narratively covering all handicaps in Belgium, Denmark, Germany, France,…

  19. Tobacco industry strategies for influencing European Community tobacco advertising legislation.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Mark; Bitton, Asaf; Glantz, Stanton

    2002-04-13

    Restrictions on tobacco company advertising and sponsorship are effective parts of tobacco control programmes worldwide. Through Council Directive 98/43/EC, the European Community (EC) sought to end all tobacco advertising and sponsorship in EC member states by 2006. Initially proposed in 1989, the directive was adopted in 1998, and was annulled by the European Court of Justice in 2000 following a protracted lobbying campaign against the directive by a number of interested organisations including European tobacco companies. A new advertising directive was proposed in May, 2001. We reviewed online collections of tobacco industry documents from US tobacco companies made public under the US Master Settlement Agreement of 1998. Documents reviewed dated from 1978 to 1994 and came from Philip Morris, R J Reynolds, and Brown and Williamson (British American Tobacco) collections. We also obtained approximately 15,000 pages of paper records related to British American Tobacco from its documents' depository in Guildford, UK. This information was supplemented with information in the published literature and consultations with European tobacco control experts. The tobacco industry lobbied against Directive 98/43/EC at the level of EC member state governments as well as on a pan-European level. The industry sought to prevent passage of the directive within the EC legislature, to substitute industry-authored proposals in place of the original directive, and if necessary to use litigation to prevent implementation of the directive after its passage. The tobacco industry sought to delay, and eventually defeat, the EC directive on tobacco advertising and sponsorship by seeking to enlist the aid of figures at the highest levels of European politics while at times attempting to conceal the industry's role. An understanding of these proposed strategies can help European health advocates to pass and implement effective future tobacco control legislation.

  20. Smoking and occupation from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    McCurdy, S; Sunyer, J; Zock, J; Anto, J; Kogevinas, M; European, C

    2003-01-01

    Background: Smoking is among the most important personal and modifiable risk factors for adverse health outcomes. The workplace offers a potentially effective venue for tobacco prevention programmes; identifying occupational groups with high smoking prevalence may assist in targeting such programmes. Aims: To examine smoking prevalence among occupational groups in the European Union. Methods: The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS), a cross sectional health survey conducted in 1992–93, was used to examine smoking prevalence by occupation among 14 565 subjects from 30 centres in 14 participating countries. Results: There was an approximately twofold range in smoking prevalence by occupation. For occupational groups with at least 50 subjects, the highest smoking prevalence was seen in metal making and treating for men (54.3%) and cleaners for women (50.7%). Increased smoking prevalence by occupation persisted after adjustment for age, country, and age at completion of education. Smoking was also increased among occupations with high exposure to mineral dust and gas or fumes. Conclusions: Smoking rates vary significantly by occupation. Prevention efforts in the workplace should focus on occupations with high smoking prevalence and large employment bases. PMID:12937184

  1. Hepatitis B immunisation programmes in European Union, Norway and Iceland: where we were in 2009?

    PubMed

    Mereckiene, Jolita; Cotter, Suzanne; Lopalco, Pierluigi; D'Ancona, Fortunato; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Giambi, Cristina; Johansen, Kari; Dematte, Luca; Salmaso, Stefania; Stefanoff, Pawel; O'Flanagan, Darina

    2010-06-17

    In January 2009 25 European Union (EU) Member States (MSs), Norway and Iceland, participated in a survey seeking information on national hepatitis B vaccination programmes. Details of vaccination policy, schedule, population groups targeted for vaccination, programme funding, vaccine coverage and methods of monitoring of vaccine coverage were obtained. Twenty (74%) countries reported that they have a universal hepatitis B vaccination programme, in addition to immunisation of at risk groups; seven (26%) countries recommend HBV for high risk groups only (with some inter-country variation on groups considered at high risk). Among countries without universal hepatitis B vaccination programmes, the major factor for non-introduction is low disease endemicity.

  2. Partnership Working in Community Alcohol Prevention Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastache, Claudia; Mistral, Willm; Velleman, Richard; Templeton, Lorna

    2008-01-01

    The National Alcohol Harm Reduction Strategy for England places much emphasis on creating partnerships at both national and local levels between government, the drinks industry, health services, police, individuals and communities to tackle alcohol misuse and associated harm and disorder. This article describes the characteristic structures and…

  3. Community based nutrition programmes in Niger.

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, J M

    1997-12-01

    This article describes Niger's community-based nutrition program. The program is based on assessment, analysis, and action. The aims are to improve household food security, to increase self-empowerment among villagers, and to improve child care and feeding and access to health services. The program operated in 75 villages with a population of 80,000, of which 17,000 were children aged under 5 years. The program has achieved a measure of success, and lessons have been learned from the experience. Community-based programs are important to program success and survivability. Integrated programs are necessary when conditions become less enabling. People and donors can become fatigued. Integrated programs represent a shelter from financial declines, competition between programs with identical target populations, and duplication of efforts. Coordinated activities allow for acceleration in the achievement of national objectives and more adequate responses to community needs. Coordinated approaches provide a rational use of human and financial resources and create synergy between various programs. Integrated programs can implement broad-based programs. Integrated community-based programs can be set up in stages and expanded throughout the country gradually.

  4. Community Arts for Health: An Evaluation of a District Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an evaluation of a community arts for health programme in the UK involving the delivery of three separate projects targeted at disadvantaged areas. Design/methodology/approach: Evaluation plans were drawn up for each project, which linked long-term goals, objectives, indicators of success and data…

  5. Photovoltaic pilot projects in the European community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treble, F. C.; Grassi, G.; Schnell, W.

    The paper presents proposals received for the construction of photovoltaic pilot plants as part of the Commission of the European Communities' second 4-year solar energy R and D program. The proposed plants range from 30 to 300 kWp and cover a variety of applications including rural electrification, water pumping, desalination, dairy farming, factories, hospitals, schools and vacation centers. Fifteen projects will be accepted with a total generating capacity of 1 MWp, with preference given to those projects involving the development of new techniques, components and systems.

  6. A Community Engaged Dental Curriculum: A Rural Indigenous Outplacement Programme

    PubMed Central

    Abuzar, Menaka A.; Owen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Background Indigenous people worldwide suffer from poor oral health as compared to non-Indigenous citizens. One of the approaches to bring about improvement in Indigenous oral health is to enhance the service provision by implementing oral health outplacement programmes. A case study of such a programme for dental students in Australia reports how an educational institution can successfully engage with an Indigenous oral health service to provide learning experiences to the students as well as deliver much needed services to the community. Design and Methods The assessment of this ongoing outplacement programme over the period of 2008-14, based on students’ feedback, highlights some of the key beneficial outcomes. Students agreed that the Indigenous outplacement programme improved their understanding of Indigenous issues (mean ± SD: 4.10±0.8; 5 refers to strongly agree on 5-point scale) and increased the possibility that they will practise in Indigenous health (3.66±1.0). They were pleased with the assistance received by clinical supervisors and clinic staff at the Indigenous dental clinic (4.28±0.8). Conclusions This programme has demonstrated that structured student outplacements are valuable in building relations across cultures especially with Indigenous communities. It has also shown that university engagement with the public health sector can be beneficial to both institutions. Significance for public health An oral health outreach programme is one of the suggested approaches to effectively address the endemic issues of poor oral health among Indigenous people around the world. An Indigenous dental clinical outplacement in Australia provides an example of beneficial outcomes of such an approach. It provides dental students with an opportunity to experience the health issues related to Australian Indigenous communities and prepare future graduates to work comfortably in the public health care system. Indigenous people also develop trust and feel

  7. The Revised European Social Fund and Action to Combat Unemployment in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandamme, Francois

    1984-01-01

    The tasks of the European Social Fund, the European Economic Community's social policy instrument, were reviewed in l983 in the light of the worsening unemployment situation and the priority placed on employment and vocational training policies. (Author/SSH)

  8. Education: Guide to European Organizations and Programmes. A Guide to European Organizations Involved in Education, including Individual Programmes and Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Heledd

    This report presents a guide to European organizations involved in education, including individual programs and projects. Entries are brief as they are intended as simple outlines of the organizations or programs, but full addresses and telephone numbers are provided. Divided into four categories, the organizations listed are as follows: (1)…

  9. How Europe Shapes Academic Research: Insights from Participation in European Union Framework Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primeri, Emilia; Reale, Emanuela

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the effects of participating in European Union Framework Programmes (EUFPs) at the level of research units and researchers. We consider EUFPs as policy instruments that contribute to the Europeanisation of academic research and study the changes they produce with respect to: 1) the organisation and activities of Departments,…

  10. Foreign Language Teaching Policies and European Unity: The Dutch National Action Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Els, Theo. J. M.; van Hest, Erna W. C. M.

    1990-01-01

    Describes and reviews the Dutch National Action Programme (NAP) on Foreign Languages, instituted in anticipation of the demands of the 1992 Single European Market. The increasing demand for foreign languages is confirmed, some shortcomings of the current program regarding French and German language learning are identified, and recommendations for…

  11. [Fundamental ethical principles in the European framework programmes for research and development].

    PubMed

    Hirsch, François; Karatzas, Isidoros; Zilgalvis, Pēteris

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission is one of the most important international funding bodies for research conducted in Europe and beyond, including developing countries and countries in transition. Through its framework programmes for research and development, the European Union finances a vast array of projects concerning fields affecting the citizens' health, as well as the researchers' mobility, the development of new technologies or the safeguard of the environment. With the agreement of the European Parliament and of the Council of Ministers, the two decisional authorities of the European Union, the 7th framework programmes was started on December 2006. This program has a budget of 54 billion Euros to be distributed over a 7-year period. Therefore, the European Union aims to fully address the challenge as stated by the European Council of Lisbon (of March 2000) which declared the idea of providing 3% of the GDP of all the Member States for the purpose of research and development. One of the important conditions stated by the Members of the European Parliament to allocate this financing is to ensuring that "the funding research activities respect the fundamental ethical principles". In this article, we will approach this aspect of the evaluation.

  12. Reconciling Energy Use with Environmental Protection in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelrod, Regina S.

    1992-01-01

    Presents the energy and environmental policymaking strategies of the European Community to regulate the consumption of energy. Strategies include the stabilization of carbon dioxide emissions, the creation of the European Environmental Agency, the implementation of the European Energy Charter, the SAVE Program, and economic and fiscal instruments…

  13. Barriers Impact U.S. Marketing to the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Leila

    For a quarter of a century, the United States has been gradually losing market share in the European Community, which accounts for about one-fifth of world trade. The European Community consumes about one-fourth of United States exports, but this represents only about eight percent of its total imports. Three of the barriers contributing to…

  14. Breast cancer in European Union: an update of screening programmes as of March 2014 (review).

    PubMed

    Altobelli, E; Lattanzi, A

    2014-11-01

    Breast cancer, a major cause of female morbidity and mortality, is a global health problem; 2008 data show an incidence of ~450,000 new cases and 140,000 deaths (mean incidence rate 70.7 and mortality rate 16.7, world age-standardized rate per 100,000 women) in European Union Member States. Incidence rates in Western Europe are among the highest in the world. We review the situation of BC screening programmes in European Union. Up to date information on active BC screening programmes was obtained by reviewing the literature and searching national health ministries and cancer service websites. Although BC screening programmes are in place in nearly all European Union countries there are still considerable differences in target population coverage and age and in the techniques deployed. Screening is a mainstay of early BC detection whose main weakness is the rate of participation of the target population. National policies and healthcare planning should aim at maximizing participation in controlled organized screening programmes by identifying and lowering any barriers to adhesion, also with a view to reducing healthcare costs.

  15. Updated programme for harmonization of training in nephrology in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Lappin, David W P; Cannata-Andia, Jorge B

    2013-02-01

    In 1996, the first European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) minimum standards programme in nephrology was published. Since then, medical practice in an expanded European Union (EU) has evolved significantly. These changes have prompted the UEMS Nephrology Section to update and review the programme on harmonization of nephrology training in the EU. Although directives of the EU indicate that a specialist from one EU member state must be recognized in all EU member states, the current practical implications of these directives are limited due to the important existing differences in the EU member states' training programmes. Although not exhaustive, the present document aims to profile a minimum common framework of nephrology training in the EU for both trainers and higher-specialty trainees. The nephrology programme addresses several topics, among them enrolment requirements, duration and organization of the training and a detailed description of the knowledge, competences, practical skills and attitudes necessary to become a specialist in nephrology. Whilst the development of a standard, pan-EU nephrology training programme is not realistic, the UEMS Nephrology section believes that this does not diminish the need for improving harmonization of training in the EU.

  16. Technology-Enhanced Physics Programme for Community-Based Science Learning: Innovative Design and Programme Evaluation in a Theme Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tho, Siew Wei; Chan, Ka Wing; Yeung, Yau Yuen

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new physics education programme is specifically developed for a famous theme park in Hong Kong to provide community-based science learning to her visitors, involving her three newly constructed rides. We make innovative use of digital technologies in this programme and incorporate a rigorous evaluation of the learning…

  17. Solar collector testing in the European community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillett, W. B.; Moon, J. E.; Aranovitch, E.

    Recent work by the Commission of the European Communities Solar Collector Testing Group at the Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy, is reviewed. Five test methods for liquid-heating collectors are described. Data scatter in the results of round-robin outdoor thermal-performance tests (performed at each Group-member laboratory) is analyzed in terms of environmental effects not accounted for in the linear performance model, calibration and precision differences, and real differences due to manufacturing variations. Comparative data on solar-irradiance-pyranometer calibration is presented. Solar-simulator test devices are reported to provide reproducible measurements which accord with outdoor results. Preliminary findings of studies of collector durability, including inspection reports, natural aging observations, development of qualification criteria (high-temperature stagnation, rain/wind penetration, absorber internal pressure, and external thermal shock), and round-robin solar-absorptance and thermal-emittance measurements, are presented. Future work will be directed to the testing of air collectors, installed domestic hot-water systems, and high-perormance evacuated-tube collectors.

  18. Transeuropean Networks for Education and Training: Towards Systems and Services for Effective Educational Networking in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Azevedo, R. Charters

    This paper takes the position that the completion of the Internal Market Programme of the European Community will require free movement of persons, goods, capital, and services, which, in turn, will require a service infrastructure that enables fast and reliable flows between the Member States. The paper begins by explaining the rationale and…

  19. [The ethics review process in the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission].

    PubMed

    Pérez Blanco, V; Hirsch, F; González Pantaleón, P; Kritikos, M; Karatzas, I

    2010-01-01

    The Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission (EC) is one of the most important instruments for public funding of research and technological development. Besides the scientific assessment of each proposal, the ethical issues raised in them are evaluated in accordance with the current European legislation and the ethical principles laid down in the international declarations supported by Member States. Such ethical review is organized by the "Governance and Ethics" Unit (Directorate-General for Research), although it is done by professionals from different sectors and backgrounds who register themselves voluntary in a database.

  20. Community-based livestock breeding programmes: essentials and examples.

    PubMed

    Mueller, J P; Rischkowsky, B; Haile, A; Philipsson, J; Mwai, O; Besbes, B; Valle Zárate, A; Tibbo, M; Mirkena, T; Duguma, G; Sölkner, J; Wurzinger, M

    2015-04-01

    Breeding programmes described as community-based (CBBP) typically relate to low-input systems with farmers having a common interest to improve and share their genetic resources. CBBPs are more frequent with keepers of small ruminants, in particular smallholders of local breeds, than with cattle, pigs or chickens with which farmers may have easier access to alternative programmes. Constraints that limit the adoption of conventional breeding technologies in low-input systems cover a range of organizational and technical aspects. The analysis of 8 CBBPs located in countries of Latin-America, Africa and Asia highlights the importance of bottom-up approaches and involvement of local institutions in the planning and implementation stages. The analysis also reveals a high dependence of these programmes on organizational, technical and financial support. Completely self-sustained CBBPs seem to be difficult to realize. There is a need to implement and document formal socio-economic evaluations of CBBPs to provide governments and other development agencies with the information necessary for creating sustainable CBBPs at larger scales.

  1. European MEDIA Programme: the role of 'language' and 'visual images' in the processes of constructing European culture and identity.

    PubMed

    Bozić-Vrbancić, Senka; Vrbancić, Mario; Orlić, Olga

    2008-12-01

    fields from economic, social and political issues, on the contrary "culture" and "identity" are constructed through social, economic and political relations. Issues of "language" and "images" are central to both of them. By questioning the role that "language" and "visual images play in the construction of European identity and culture, we are considering "language" as well as "visual images" not just as representations, but also as forms of social action. In addition to that, inspired by discourse theory (Laclau 1985, 1994, 2007) and psychoanalysis (Zizek 1989, 1993, 1994; Stavrakakis 1999, 2005, 2007) we explore the libidinal dimension of identification processes. We focus on the European MEDIA Programme in order to analyse how different languages and images are being used to create a sense of "European unity in diversity". Along with Stavrakakis we argue that due to the lack of libidinal investment into discourses of Europeanness, Europe is failing to create a strong supranational identity. However we also show that there have been recent attempts by European policy makers to try and fill this gap through various projects which focus entirely on emotions; which appears to reinforce new possibilities of identification with Europe.

  2. Community Capacity Development in Universities: Empowering Communities through Education Management Programmes in Strathmore University (A Pilot Study)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitawi, Alfred Kirigha

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the issue of community capacity development in a university. The main way communities were empowered was through the education management programmes offered at Strathmore University in Nairobi, Kenya. The research is among the first to examine the issue of community capacity development through university programmes. The…

  3. Relating the bivalve shellfish harvesting area classification criteria in the United States and European Union programmes.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Reese, R A

    2014-06-01

    Estimation of the level of risk of faecal contamination of shellfish harvesting areas is undertaken by monitoring faecal indicator bacteria in seawater samples under the United States programme and shellfish flesh samples under the European Union (EU) programme. Determining the relationship between the two approaches is important for assessing the relative level of public health protection and regulating international trade. The relationship was investigated using both statistical modelling and simple compliance assessment on large international data sets of paired seawater and shellfish samples. The two approaches yielded the same conclusions: EU class A is more stringent than the US Approved category for all species; the US Restrictive standard is more restrictive than EU class B for some bivalve species. Therefore, the classifications under the two programmes are not exactly equivalent.

  4. Teaching nanoscience across scientific and geographical borders A European Master programme in nanoscience and nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesneau, A.; Groeseneken, G.; Heremans, P.; Rep, D.; Rudquist, P.; Schwille, P.; Sluijter, B.; Wendin, G.

    2008-03-01

    Within the Erasmus Mundus Master (EMM) Programme, five European Universities (KU Leuven, Belgium, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, Delft University of Technology and Leiden University, the Netherlands, and the University of Dresden, Germany) have joined forces to offer a unique master programme in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 'EMM-nano', at the cutting edge of state-of-the-art research. The students design and build their individual area of specialisation within nanophysics, nanotechnology, biophysics, biotechnology through their choice of trajectory between the partners. We discuss some of the challenges related to the crossdisciplinary nature of the field, educational activities in cleanrooms, and issues related to the integration of teaching programmes across the borders within Europe.

  5. Older Workers in the European Community, Japan, and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Elizabeth; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Older Workers in the European Community: Pervasive Discrimination, Little Awareness" (Drury); "Aging Workers in Japan: From Reverence to Redundance" (Takada); and "Canada's Labor Market: Older Workers Need Not Apply" (David). (JOW)

  6. Information Policy in the European Community: Balancing Protection and Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillince, J. A. A.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses European Community policy relating to information technology and the information industry. Topics addressed include the information services industry; transborder information flow, including electronic mail, data owner responsibility, and software piracy; digital data networks; electronic data interchange; telecommunications; information…

  7. The International Proteomics Tutorial Programme (IPTP): a teaching tool box for the proteomics community.

    PubMed

    James, Peter

    2011-09-01

    The most critical functions of the various proteomics organisations are the training of young scientists and the dissemination of information to the general scientific community. The education committees of the Human Proteome Organisation (HUPO) and the European Proteomics Association (EuPA) together with their national counterparts are therefore launching the International Proteomics Tutorial Programme to meet these needs. The programme is being led by Peter James (Sweden), Thierry Rabilloud (France) and Kazuyuki Nakamura (Japan). It involves collaboration between the leading proteomics journals: Journal of Proteome Research, Journal of Proteomics, Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, and Proteomics. The overall level is aimed at Masters/PhD level students who are starting out their research and who would benefit from a solid grounding in the techniques used in modern protein-based research. The tutorial program will cover core techniques and basics as an introduction to scientists new to the field. At a later stage the programme may be expanded with a series of more advanced topics focussing on the application of proteomics techniques to biological problem solving. The entire series of articles and slides will be made freely available for teaching use at the Journals and Organisations homepages and at a special website, www.proteomicstutorials.org.

  8. The role of SEA in integrating and balancing high policy objectives in European cohesion funding programmes

    SciTech Connect

    Jiricka, Alexandra Proebstl, Ulrike

    2013-01-15

    Funding programmes for European cohesion policy are a crucial tool to support the sustainability goals of the European Union and national policies of its member states. All these funding programmes require a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) to enhance sustainable development. This article compares five first SEA applications at cohesion policy level to discuss challenges, limitations and benefits of this instrument. In order to support the SEA-process a 'Handbook on SEA for Cohesion Policy 2007-13' (GRDP 2006) was developed. The paper examines the special requirements and challenges at the programme level given the special conditions for stakeholder involvement, integration of SEA in the programme development process and strategies to cope with uncertainties to ensure real compatibility with policy goals. Using action research and in-depth interviews with SEA planners and programme managers enabled us to analyse the suitability of the methodology proposed by the handbook. The results show that some recommendations of the handbook should be changed in order to increase the transparency and to enhance the standard and comparability of the SEA-documents. Overall the SEA proved to be a rather successful tool for the integration of sustainability goals at the EU and national policy levels. Its particular strengths emerged as the process makes uncertainties visible and leads to possible redefinitions while maintaining actual policy goals. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparing five case studies of first applications of SEA at cohesion policy level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overall the SEA proved to be a rather successful tool for the integration of sustainability goals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study makes uncertainties visible and shows how SEA could lead to possible redefinitions.

  9. Technology-Enhanced Physics Programme for Community-Based Science Learning: Innovative Design and Programme Evaluation in a Theme Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tho, Siew Wei; Chan, Ka Wing; Yeung, Yau Yuen

    2015-10-01

    In this study, a new physics education programme is specifically developed for a famous theme park in Hong Kong to provide community-based science learning to her visitors, involving her three newly constructed rides. We make innovative use of digital technologies in this programme and incorporate a rigorous evaluation of the learning effectiveness of the programme. A total of around 200 students from nine local secondary schools participated in both the physics programme and its subsequent evaluation which consists of a combination of research and assessment tools, including pre- and post-multiple-choice tests, a questionnaire survey and an interview as specifically developed for this programme, or adopted from some well-accepted research instruments. Based on the evaluation of students' academic performance, there are two educationally significant findings on enhancing the students' physics learning: (a) traditionally large gender differences in physics performance and interest of learning are mostly eliminated; and (b) a less-exciting ride called the aviator (instead of the most exciting roller-coaster ride) can induce the largest learning effect (or gain in academic performance) amongst teenagers. Besides, findings from the questionnaire survey and interviews of participants are reported to reveal their views, perceptions, positive and negative comments or feedback on this programme which could provide valuable insights for future development of other similar community-based programmes.

  10. Dublin Institute of Technology's Programme for Students Learning with Communities: A Critical Account of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Elena; Bates, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on the process of critically evaluating Dublin Institute of Technology's Programme for Students Learning With Communities after its first year of operation. The programme supports and promotes community-based learning/service-learning across DIT. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is presented in the form of a…

  11. Community-based preparedness programmes and the 2009 Australian bushfires: policy implications derived from applying theory.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, Colin; Gibbs, Lisa; Clark, Rachel

    2014-04-01

    The Victorian Country Fire Authority in Australia runs the Community Fireguard (CFG) programme to assist individuals and communities in preparing for fire. The objective of this qualitative research was to understand the impact of CFG groups on their members' fire preparedness and response during the 2009 Australian bushfires. Social connectedness emerged as a strong theme, leading to an analysis of data using social capital theory. The main strength of the CFG programme was that it was driven by innovative community members; however, concerns arose regarding the extent to which the programme covered all vulnerable areas, which led the research team to explore the theory of diffusion of innovation. The article concludes by stepping back from the evaluation and using both applied theories to reflect on broad options for community fire preparedness programmes in general. The exercise produced two contrasting options for principles underlying community fire preparedness programmes.

  12. A Water Quality Monitoring Programme for Schools and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellerberg, Ian; Ward, Jonet; Smith, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    A water quality monitoring programme for schools is described. The purpose of the programme is to introduce school children to the concept of reporting on the "state of the environment" by raising the awareness of water quality issues and providing skills to monitor water quality. The programme is assessed and its relevance in the…

  13. Good on paper: the gap between programme theory and real-world context in Pakistan's Community Midwife programme

    PubMed Central

    Mumtaz, Z; Levay, A; Bhatti, A; Salway, S

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand why skilled birth attendance—an acknowledged strategy for reducing maternal deaths—has been effective in some settings but is failing in Pakistan and to demonstrate the value of a theory-driven approach to evaluating implementation of maternal healthcare interventions. Design Implementation research was conducted using an institutional ethnographic approach. Setting and population National programme and local community levels in Pakistan. Methods Observations, focus group discussions, and in-depth interviews were conducted with 38 Community Midwives (CMWs), 20 policymakers, 45 healthcare providers and 136 community members. A critical policy document review was conducted. National and local level data were brought together. Main outcomes Alignment of programme theory with real-world practice. Results Data revealed gaps between programme theory, assumptions and reality on the ground. The design of the programme failed to take into account: (1) the incongruity between the role of a midwife and dominant class and gendered norms that devalue such a role; (2) market and consumer behaviour that prevented CMWs from establishing private practices; (3) the complexity of public–private sector cooperation. Uniform deployment policies failed to consider existing provider density and geography. Conclusions Greater attention to programme theory and the ‘real-world’ setting during design of maternal health strategies is needed to achieve consistent results in different contexts. PMID:25315837

  14. The long-term effectiveness of the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) implemented as a community-wide parenting programme

    PubMed Central

    Skar, Ane-Marthe Solheim; von Tetzchner, Stephen; Clucas, Claudine; Sherr, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Short-term effectiveness of the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) for parents in the general population has been studied. The aim of this paper was to investigate the longer term impact of the ICDP programme on parents looking for sustained changes 6–12 months after the programme. For this, a non-clinical caregiver group attending the ICDP programme (N = 79) and a non-attending comparison group (N = 62) completed questionnaires on parenting, psychosocial functioning, and child difficulties before, on completion and 6–12 months after the ICDP programme. Analyses compare changes in scores over time. The results revealed that the ICDP group showed significantly improved scores on parenting measures, less loneliness, and trends towards improved self-efficacy compared to the comparison group 6–12 months after programme completion. The ICDP group also reported that their children spent significantly less time on television and computer games and a trend towards fewer child difficulties. Key positive effects sustained over time but at a somewhat lower level, supporting community-wide implementation of ICDP as a general parenting programme. It is concluded that more intensive training with follow-up sessions should be considered to sustain and boost initial gains. PMID:25431603

  15. European Community Projects on Surface Electromyography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    surface EMG and provided insight in muscular disorders in computer users. Neuromuscular assessment in the Elderly Worker (NEW, 2001-2004) will apply...sport and geriatric medicine. Keywords - electromyography, surface EMG, fine wire EMG, needle EMG, muscles, European Union I. INTRODUCTION...Pullman et al. [3] are “SEMG is considered unacceptable as a clinical t ool i n the diagnosis of neuromuscular disease at t his time.” a nd “SEMG

  16. Social acceptability and perceived impact of a community-led cash transfer programme in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cash transfer programmes are increasingly recognised as promising and scalable interventions that can promote the health and development of children. However, concerns have been raised about the potential for cash transfers to contribute to social division, jealousy and conflict at a community level. Against this background, and in our interest to promote community participation in cash transfer programmes, we examine local perceptions of a community-led cash transfer programme in Eastern Zimbabwe. Methods We collected and analysed data from 35 individual interviews and three focus group discussions, involving 24 key informants (community committee members and programme implementers), 24 cash transfer beneficiaries, of which four were youth, and 14 non-beneficiaries. Transcripts were subjected to thematic analysis and coding to generate concepts. Results Study participants described the programme as participatory, fair and transparent – reducing the likelihood of jealousy. The programme was perceived to have had a substantial impact on children’s health and education, primarily through aiding parents and guardians to better cater for their children’s needs. Moreover, participants alluded to the potential of the programme to facilitate more transformational change, for example by enabling families to invest money in assets and income generating activities and by promoting a community-wide sense of responsibility for the support of orphaned and vulnerable children. Conclusion Community participation, combined with the perceived impact of the cash transfer programme, led community members to speak enthusiastically about the programme. We conclude that community-led cash transfer programmes have the potential to open up for possibilities of participation and community agency that enable social acceptability and limit social divisiveness. PMID:23587136

  17. Community-based dementia day programmes: Common elements and outcome measures.

    PubMed

    Weir, Annie; Fouche, Christa

    2017-04-01

    Dementia Day programmes are considered important in supporting the well-being of both people living with dementia and their caregivers. There is, however, limited evidence on the effectiveness of these programmes. This article reports on a study undertaken in New Zealand on the effectiveness of community-based dementia day programmes. The small-scale pilot study was aimed at investigating the elements that make up an effective client-focused dementia day programme and the methods employed by organisations to measure the outcomes of these programmes. A mixed methods approach was employed with multiple stakeholders. The research revealed that effective day programmes comprised five core elements, and that surveys, reporting and auditing processes are routinely used to measure the quality of outcomes of day programmes. Although these findings are reflective of a specific context, it raises concerns about the nature and availability of evidence informing decisions regarding the design and implementation of day programmes internationally.

  18. Lessons from community participation in health programmes: a review of the post Alma-Ata experience.

    PubMed

    Rifkin, Susan B

    2009-09-01

    The year 2008 marked the 30 year anniversary of Primary Health Care, the health policy of all member nations of the WHO. Community participation was one of the key principles of this policy. This article reviews the experiences of and lessons learned by policy makers, planners and programme managers in attempting to integrate community participation into their health programmes. The lessons, identified in an earlier article by the author, are still relevant today. They help to identify three reasons why integrating community participation into health programmes is so difficult. These reasons are: (1) the dominance of the bio-medical paradigm as the main planning tool for programmes, leading to the view of community participation as an intervention; (2) the lack of in-depth analysis of the perceptions of community members regarding the use of community health workers; and (3) the propensity to use a framework that limits investigation into what works, why and how in community participation in health programmes. Despite these challenges, evidence suggests that community participation has contributed to health improvements at the local level, particularly in poor communities, and will continue to be relevant to programme professionals.

  19. Education of Migrant Workers' Children in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Luxembourg).

    More than two million migrant children within the European community are under the age of 18, and because most are of school age, they must face the problem of fitting into different school systems. Among the obstacles are language barriers, strange environments, cultural differences, differences in school curricula, and home backgrounds in which…

  20. The Recognition of Diplomas in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrighi, Pascal

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes the content and implementation of agreements between member countries of the European Economic Community which are supposed to encourage college student mobility through international educational exchange programs. Admissions policies for foreign students and language difficulties are barriers to student mobility. (AM)

  1. Requirements for Entry to Higher Education in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EURYDICE European Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    This report provides information about student mobility within the European Community, and how it is linked to the requirements for entry to higher education. The report is divided into two sections. The first is a brief discussion of the six specific factors studied: (1) entry requirement qualifications and examinations; (2) entry requirement…

  2. Community-level impact of the reproductive health vouchers programme on service utilization in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Obare, Francis; Warren, Charlotte; Njuki, Rebecca; Abuya, Timothy; Sunday, Joseph; Askew, Ian; Bellows, Ben

    2013-03-01

    This paper examines community-level association between exposure to the reproductive health vouchers programme in Kenya and utilization of services. The data are from a household survey conducted among 2527 women (15-49 years) from voucher and comparable non-voucher sites. Analysis entails cross-tabulations with Chi-square tests and significant tests of proportions as well as estimation of multi-level logit models to predict service utilization by exposure to the programme. The results show that for births occurring after the voucher programme began, women from communities that had been exposed to the programme since 2006 were significantly more likely to have delivered at a health facility and to have received skilled care during delivery compared with those from communities that had not been exposed to the programme at all. There were, however, no significant differences in the timing of first trimester utilization of antenatal care (ANC) and making four or more ANC visits by exposure to the programme. In addition, poor women were significantly less likely to have used safe motherhood services (health facility delivery, skilled delivery care and postnatal care) compared with their non-poor counterparts regardless of exposure to the programme. Nonetheless, a significantly higher proportion of poor women from communities that had been exposed to the programme since 2006 used the services compared with their poor counterparts from communities that had not been exposed to the programme at all. The findings suggest that the programme is associated with increased health facility deliveries and skilled delivery care especially among poor women. However, it has had limited community-level impact on the first trimester timing of antenatal care use and making four or more visits, which remain a challenge despite the high proportion of women in the country that make at least one antenatal care visit during pregnancy.

  3. PRM programmes of care and PRM care pathways: European approach, developments in France.

    PubMed

    de Korvin, Georges; Yelnik, Alain P; Ribinik, Patricia; Calmels, Paul; Le Moine, Francis; Delarque, Alain

    2013-03-01

    The development of European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) physical and rehabilitation medicine programmes of care (PRMPC) and physical and rehabilitation medicine care pathways (PRMCP) in France is a good example of the positive interaction between European and national organizations. PRMPC were defined at the European level to offer a robust template for the description and assessment of physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) clinical activity in various fields and contexts. An accreditation procedure was organized as a peer review. It has started to provide very informative documents. In France, discussions on this topic began in 2000. At the end of the same decade, the European approach fostered the interest of French PRM organizations in a period of negotiating with public authorities about two crucial issues: specifications required for reimbursement of functional instrumental assessments in PRM practice and funding of PRM care in postacute facilities. The French Society of PRM (SOFMER) decided to describe the PRM scope in a systematic way, emphasizing the best balance between patient needs, rehabilitation goals, relevant means and justified funding. Nine 'PRMCP' have been published since 2010 and others are in progress. PRMPC and PRMCP share the same concern about the best response offered by PRM to patients' needs. The first approach is the description of a local organization with respect to both scientific evidence and local conditions. The latter is an outline of PRM intervention related to a multidimensional pattern of patients' situations. Both enhance the role of PRM doctors, whose expertise is necessary for making a synthesis of medical diagnosis and functional assessment, for setting up a patient-centred care strategy and for supervising the rehabilitation team's intervention.

  4. Moving on the Continuum between Teaching and Learning: Communities of Practice in a Student Support Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, Luzelle; Bezuidenhout, Hannemarie

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the experiences of staff members involved in a student support programme. The experiential, social, and student-centred approaches incorporated in this programme provided not only students, but also academics with pathways to lifelong learning. Functioning in a community of practice (CoP) (with students and also…

  5. Using Community Radio in a Rural Women's Post-Literacy Programme in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagaoka, Chizuko; Karki, Manohar

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the literacy and post-literacy needs of rural women in Nepal, describes a pilot study in using community radio to supplement a classroom-based post-literacy programme for these women, analyses the findings of this intervention and considers the implications for similar programmes in other settings.

  6. School Building Design for Feeding Programmes and Community Outreach: Insights from Ghana and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uduku, Ola

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates how school building design can support primary school feeding programmes in low- and middle-income countries. Furthermore it argues for schools to become community "development hubs"; incorporating both local access to education and also to programmes for nutrition, ICT, health education and other services,…

  7. Professional Development on an International Scale: Council of Europe--Pestalozzi Programme Virtual Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mompoint Gaillard, Pascale; Rajic, Višnja

    2014-01-01

    Communities of practice as organisations of learning have developed different forms as: task-based, practice-based or knowledge based communities (Barab et al., 2004). The paper presents a case study of a successful community of practice developed under the umbrella of Council of Europe Pestalozzi programme for teacher development. The programme…

  8. COPERNICUS - The European Union Earth Observation Programme - State of play and way ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Astrid-Christina

    2015-04-01

    Copernicus is the new name of the European Earth Observation Programme, GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security). Copernicus or rather its predecessor was established as an EU programme. It covers all the activities for ensuring an uninterrupted provision of accurate and reliable data and information on environmental issues and security matters to users in charge of policy making, implementation and monitoring, in the EU and its Member States. Copernicus aims at providing Europe with a continuous, independent and reliable access to observation data and information. The EU investment aims at filling the observation gaps, providing access to existing assets and developing operational services. The data policy of the Copernicus programme supports an open, full and free of charge data access that is in line with the data sharing principles of the Group for Earth Observation (GEO). Copernicus is structured in six Services: Marine, Atmosphere, Land and Climate change monitoring as well as support to Emergency and Security. Copernicus uses data from satellites and in-situ sensors such as buoys, balloons or air sensors to provide timely and reliable added-value information and forecasting to support for example, agriculture and fisheries, land use and urban planning, the fight against forest fires, disaster response, maritime transport or air pollution monitoring. The need for continuing such observations is becoming critical, considering the increasing political pressure on public authorities to take informed decisions in the field of environment, security and climate change and the need to respect international agreements. Copernicus also contributes to economic stability and growth by boosting commercial applications (the so-called downstream services) in many different sectors through a full and open access to Copernicus observation data and information products. KEY WORDS: Sentinels, big data, data access, Emergency, Marine, Atmosphere.

  9. Survey of European programmes for the epidemiological surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Bénard, Antoine; Petersen, Eskild; Salamon, Roger; Chêne, Geneviève; Gilbert, Ruth; Salmi, Louis Rachid; for the European Toxo Prevention Study Group (EUROTOXO)

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to describe systems for the epidemiological surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis implemented in European countries. In September 2004, a questionnaire, adapted from the evaluation criteria published by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was sent to a panel of national correspondents in 35 countries in the European geographical area with knowledge of the epidemiological surveillance systems implemented in their countries. Where necessary, we updated the information until July 2007. Responses were received from 28 countries. Some 16 countries reported routine surveillance for toxoplasmosis. In 12 countries (Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, England and Wales, Estonia, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Scotland and Slovakia), surveillance was designed to detect only symptomatic toxoplasmosis, whether congenital or not. Four countries reported surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis, on a regional basis in Italy and on a national basis in Denmark, France and Germany. In conclusion, epidemiological surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis needs to be improved in order to determine the true burden of disease and to assess the effectiveness of and the need for existing prevention programmes. PMID:18445459

  10. Future European emission standards for vehicles: the importance of the UN-ECE Particle Measurement Programme.

    PubMed

    Martini, Giorgio; Giechaskiel, Barouch; Dilara, Panagiota

    2009-07-01

    Traffic-related emissions of fine particles represent one of the main sources of air pollution especially in urban areas. In particular, diesel engines are blamed as one of the main contributors for their inherent high particulate emissions. In order to reduce the impact on human health of particulate emissions from vehicles, new stricter emission standards were considered necessary for Europe. The introduction of very low particulate emission limits has required the development of an improved measurement procedure for particulate mass and a new measurement procedure for particle number. The Particle Measurement Programme (PMP) was established in 2001 on the initiative of some European states to achieve this target. The interlaboratory comparison exercise for light duty vehicles, co-managed by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission and the UK Department of Transport, was completed in 2007, and the results have provided the scientific basis for the new Euro 5/6 limits for particle number and particulate mass. The heavy-duty interlaboratory exercise was started in the second half of 2007 with an exploratory work carried out at the JRC and is still on-going.

  11. Value and Benefits of European Student Mobility for Romanian Students: Experiences and Perspectives of Participants in the ERASMUS Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salajan, Florin D.; Chiper, Sorina

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the experiences and perspectives of Romanian students participating in the ERASMUS Programme, regarding the benefits and value of academic mobility. It situates their accounts in the framework of internationalization and Europeanization processes occurring in Romanian higher education. The study draws on primary data…

  12. Policy Goals of European Integration and Competitiveness in Academic Collaborations: An Examination of Joint Master's and Erasmus Mundus Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papatsiba, Vassiliki

    2014-01-01

    This study examines policy goals pertaining to joint Master's in Europe as presented in Bologna-related and Erasmus Mundus (EM) policy texts. The profile of joint programmes has risen in the aftermath of the Bologna Process (BP), together with the launch of the EU EM. Despite a European policy tradition of cooperation in higher education (HE),…

  13. Understanding geographic origins and history of admixture among chimpanzees in European zoos, with implications for future breeding programmes.

    PubMed

    Hvilsom, C; Frandsen, P; Børsting, C; Carlsen, F; Sallé, B; Simonsen, B T; Siegismund, H R

    2013-06-01

    Despite ample focus on this endangered species, conservation planning for chimpanzees residing outside Africa has proven a challenge because of the lack of ancestry information. Here, we analysed the largest number of chimpanzee samples to date, examining microsatellites in >100 chimpanzees from the range of the species in Africa, and 20% of the European zoo population. We applied the knowledge about subspecies differentiation throughout equatorial Africa to assign origin to chimpanzees in the largest conservation management programme globally. A total of 63% of the genotyped chimpanzees from the European zoos could be assigned to one of the recognized subspecies. The majority being of West African origin (40%) will help consolidate the current breeding programme for this subspecies and the identification of individuals belonging to the two other subspecies so far found in European zoos can form the basis for breeding programmes for these. Individuals of various degree of mixed ancestry made up 37% of the genotyped European zoo population and thus highlight the need for appropriate management programmes guided by genetic analysis to preserve maximum genetic diversity and reduce hybridization among subspecies.

  14. European seaweeds under pressure: Consequences for communities and ecosystem functioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineur, Frédéric; Arenas, Francisco; Assis, Jorge; Davies, Andrew J.; Engelen, Aschwin H.; Fernandes, Francisco; Malta, Erik-jan; Thibaut, Thierry; Van Nguyen, Tu; Vaz-Pinto, Fátima; Vranken, Sofie; Serrão, Ester A.; De Clerck, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Seaweed assemblages represent the dominant autotrophic biomass in many coastal environments, playing a central structural and functional role in several ecosystems. In Europe, seaweed assemblages are highly diverse systems. The combined seaweed flora of different European regions hold around 1550 species (belonging to nearly 500 genera), with new species continuously uncovered, thanks to the emergence of molecular tools. In this manuscript we review the effects of global and local stressors on European seaweeds, their communities, and ecosystem functioning. Following a brief review on the present knowledge on European seaweed diversity and distribution, and the role of seaweed communities in biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, we discuss the effects of biotic homogenization (invasive species) and global climate change (shifts in bioclimatic zones and ocean acidification) on the distribution of individual species and their effect on the structure and functioning of seaweed communities. The arrival of new introduced species (that already account for 5-10% of the European seaweeds) and the regional extirpation of native species resulting from oceans' climate change are creating new diversity scenarios with undetermined functional consequences. Anthropogenic local stressors create additional disruption often altering dramatically assemblage's structure. Hence, we discuss ecosystem level effects of such stressors like harvesting, trampling, habitat modification, overgrazing and eutrophication that impact coastal communities at local scales. Last, we conclude by highlighting significant knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to anticipate the combined effects of global and local stressors on seaweed communities. With physical and biological changes occurring at unexpected pace, marine phycologists should now integrate and join their research efforts to be able to contribute efficiently for the conservation and management of coastal systems.

  15. Assessing participation in a community-based health planning and services programme in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Community participation is increasingly seen as a pre-requisite for successful health service uptake. It is notoriously difficult to assess participation and little has been done to advance tools for the assessment of community participation. In this paper we illustrate an approach that combines a ‘social psychology of participation’ (theory) with ‘spider-grams’ (method) to assess participation and apply it to a Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) programme in rural Ghana. Methods We draw on data from 17 individual in-depth interviews, two focus group discussions and a community conversation with a mix of service users, providers and community health committee members. It was during the community conversation that stakeholders collectively evaluated community participation in the CHPS programme and drew up a spider-gram. Results Thematic analysis of our data shows that participation was sustained through the recognition and use of community resources, CHPS integration with pre-existing community structures, and alignment of CHPS services with community interests. However, male dominance and didactic community leadership and management styles undermined real opportunities for broad-based community empowerment, particularly of women, young people and marginalised men. Conclusion We conclude that combining the ‘spider-gram’ tool and the ‘social psychology of participation’ framework provide health professionals with a useful starting point for assessing community participation and developing recommendations for more participatory and empowering health care programmes. PMID:23803140

  16. Employment and Status of Teachers in State Schools in the European Community. Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EURYDICE Central Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    The educational systems of the European Community Member States vary considerably and comprise a wealth of information about innovations in these nations. Tables on the employment and status of teachers in state schools in the European Community were compiled at the request of the Commission of the European Communities. The information collected…

  17. Critical Pedagogy in the Community Music Education Programmes of Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Paulo Freire (1970) developed critical pedagogy to teach oppressed Brazilian adults to read. Freire documented his ideas in a landmark publication entitled Pedagogy of the Oppressed. This article discusses and reports my findings on Freirean methods evident in music education programmes in Rio de Janeiro, Alvorada, Recife and Sao Caetano.

  18. Review of performance-based incentives in community-based family planning programmes

    PubMed Central

    Bellows, Nicole M; Askew, Ian; Bellows, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Background One strategy for improving family planning (FP) uptake at the community level is the use of performance-based incentives (PBIs), which offer community distributors financial incentives to recruit more users of FP. This article examines the use of PBIs in community-based FP programmes via a literature search of the peer-reviewed and grey literature conducted in April 2013. Results A total of 28 community-based FP programmes in 21 countries were identified as having used PBIs. The most common approach was a sales commission model where distributors received commission for FP products sold, while a referral payment model for long-term methods was also used extensively. Six evaluations were identified that specifically examined the impact of the PBI in community-based FP programmes. Overall, the results of the evaluations are mixed and more research is needed; however, the findings suggest that easy-to-understand PBIs can be successful in increasing the use of FP at the community level. Conclusion For future use of PBIs in community-based FP programmes it is important to consider the ethics of incentivising FP and ensuring that PBIs are non-coercive and choice-enhancing. PMID:25037703

  19. The European community and its standardization efforts in medical informatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattheus, Rudy A.

    1992-07-01

    A summary of the CEN TC 251/4 ''Medical Imaging and Multi-Media'' activities will be given. CEN is the European standardization institute, TC 251 deals with medical informatics. Standardization is a condition for the wide scale use of health care and medical informatics and for the creation of a common market. In the last two years, three important categories-- namely, the Commission of the European Communities with their programs and the mandates, the medical informaticians through their European professional federation, and the national normalization institutes through the European committee--have shown to be aware of this problem and have taken actions. As a result, a number of AIM (Advanced Informatics in Medicine), CEC sponsored projects, the CEC mandates to CEN and EWOS, the EFMI working group on standardization, the technical committee of CEN, and the working groups and project teams of CEN and EWOS are working on the subject. On overview of the CEN TC 251/4 ''Medical Imaging and Multi-Media'' activities will be given, including their relation to other work.

  20. Overview of the ESO instrumentation programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casali, Mark M.; Pasquini, Luca; Ramsay, Suzanne

    2012-09-01

    The ESO instrumentation programme now encompasses both an on-going programme for La-Silla Paranal observatory and a new programme for construction of the instruments for the E-ELT. The scale and ambition of the combined programme will present a future challenge for the European instrument-building community and for ESO as managing organisation. The current status and plans are summarised.

  1. Programme of the Community Network of Reference Laboratories for Human Influenza to improve Influenza Surveillance in Europe.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Adam; Brown, Caroline; Hungnes, Olav; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Valette, Martine; van der Werf, Sylvie; Zambon, Maria

    2006-11-10

    All laboratories participating in the Community Network of Reference Laboratories for Human Influenza in Europe (CNRL) co-ordinated by the European Influenza Surveillance Scheme (EISS) should be able to perform a range of influenza diagnostics. This includes direct detection, culture, typing, subtyping and strain characterisation of influenza viruses, diagnostic serology and the creation of archives for clinical specimens and virus isolates. To improve the capacity and quality of the laboratories of the CNRL and to increase the consistency in performance among all 25 European Union countries plus Norway, Romania, and Switzerland, five task groups were set up in February 2005. These task groups developed work programmes in the areas of virus isolation, antibodies, molecular virology, quality control assessment and antiviral susceptibility testing. This report outlines the programmes and the results achieved in the first half-year of operation of the task groups. The action plans are challenging and it is expected that these efforts will lead to considerable improvements in the performance of the laboratories and in the standardisation of methods employed in Europe with regard to routine influenza surveillance and early warning for emerging viruses.

  2. Teenagers and young adults with cancer in Europe: from national programmes to a European integrated coordinated project.

    PubMed

    Stark, D; Bielack, S; Brugieres, L; Dirksen, U; Duarte, X; Dunn, S; Erdelyi, D J; Grew, T; Hjorth, L; Jazbec, J; Kabickova, E; Konsoulova, A; Kowalczyk, J R; Lassaletta, A; Laurence, V; Lewis, I; Monrabal, A; Morgan, S; Mountzios, G; Olsen, P R; Renard, M; Saeter, G; van der Graaf, W T; Ferrari, A

    2016-05-01

    Over 14 000 patients aged 15-24 are estimated to be diagnosed with cancer in the European Union (EU) each year. Teenagers and young adults (TYA) often fall down gaps between children's and adults cancer services. The specific challenges of providing optimal care to them are described, but we present a summary of recent progress. Progress to overcome these challenges is happening at different rates across Europe. We summarise the European national projects in this field but more recently we have seen the beginnings of European coordination. Within the EU 7th Funding Programme (FP7) European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents programme (ENCCA), a specific European Network for Teenagers and Young Adults with Cancer has held a series of scientific meetings, including professionals, patients and caregivers. This group has proposed unanswered research questions and agreed key features of a high-quality service that can improve outcomes for TYA with cancer, including the primacy of collaboration between adult and paediatric services to eliminate the gap in the management of TYA with cancer.

  3. Developing sustainable social programmes for rural ethnic seniors: perspectives of community stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Winterton, Rachel; Hulme Chambers, Alana

    2016-07-11

    This qualitative study explores barriers to delivering sustainable rural community programmes to increase social participation among Australian ethnic seniors. In 2013, in-depth interviews were conducted with 14 stakeholders across eight rural/regional organisations that had received state government funding to provide social participation initiatives for ethnic seniors. Within interviews, participants were asked to outline factors that had enhanced or hindered their capacity to deliver the funded projects, and their plans for sustainability. Data were analysed thematically in accordance with Shediac-Rizkallah and Bone's (1998) tripartite programme sustainability framework (project design and implementation, organisational setting and broader community environment). Findings indicate that in the context of resource and staffing constraints and a lack of ethnic critical mass, programme sustainability reflected the increased capacity of rural ethnic seniors to integrate into existing community groups and maintain their own groups and activities. However, this is dependent on the ability of mainstream government, health and social care services to cater for diverse cultural needs and preferences, the ability of rural organisations to support ethnic seniors to manage their own cultural groups and activities, and the capacity of funding bodies, rural community and policy structures to maintain cultural sensitivity while compensating for the rural premium. In addition to identifying some key learnings for rural governments, health and community organisations, this research highlights the precarious nature of rural programme sustainability for ethnic seniors in the context of wider community, organisational and policy constraints.

  4. The role of partnership functioning and synergy in achieving sustainability of innovative programmes in community care.

    PubMed

    Cramm, Jane M; Phaff, Sanne; Nieboer, Anna P

    2013-03-01

    This cross-sectional study (conducted in April-May 2011) explored associations between partnership functioning synergy and sustainability of innovative programmes in community care. The study sample consisted of 106 professionals (of 244 individuals contacted) participating in 21 partnerships that implemented different innovative community care programmes in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Partnership functioning was evaluated by assessing leadership, resources administration and efficiency. Synergy was considered the proximal outcome of partnership functioning, which, in turn, influenced the achievement of programme sustainability. On a 5-point scale of increasing sustainability, mean sustainability scores ranged from 1.9 to 4.9. The results of the regression analysis demonstrated that sustainability was positively influenced by leadership (standardised regression coefficient β = 0.32; P < 0.001) and non-financial resources (β = 0.25; P = 0.008). No significant relationship was found between administration or efficiency and programme sustainability. Partnership synergy acted as a mediator for partnership functioning and significantly affected sustainability (β = 0.39; P < 0.001). These findings suggest that the sustainability of innovative programmes in community care is achieved more readily when synergy is created between partners. Synergy was more likely to emerge with boundary-spanning leaders, who understood and appreciated partners' different perspectives, and could bridge their diverse cultures and were comfortable sharing ideas, resources and power. In addition, the acknowledgement of and ability to use members' resources were found to be valuable in engaging partners' involvement and achieving synergy in community care partnerships.

  5. The Cultural Missions Programme: An Early Attempt at Community Development in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubio, Alfredo

    1978-01-01

    The author reviews the "Cultural Missions Programme" of Mexico's educational reform after 1920, in which groups of teachers using Catholic missionary methods fought poverty and ignorance in rural Mexico. These mission programs embody most of the community development principles and are still needed. (MF)

  6. Parent Training: Effectiveness of the Parents Plus Early Years Programme in Community Preschool Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Sarah-Jane; Sharry, John; Streek, Adrienne

    2016-01-01

    Evidenced based parent training (PT) programmes offer an important intervention strategy to improve early behavioural and emotional difficulties for young children. Initial research highlights the benefits of incorporating PT within local community services such as preschools. The present study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the Parents…

  7. An Evaluation of a Community Health Intervention Programme Aimed at Improving Health and Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strachan, G.; Wright, G. D.; Hancock, E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this evaluation was to examine the extent to which participants in the Tailor Made Leisure Package programme experienced any improvement in their health and wellbeing. Design: A quantitative survey. Setting: The Healthy Living Centre initiative is an example of a community-based intervention which was formalized as part…

  8. Community Screening for Preschool Child Inhibition to Offer the "Cool Little Kids" Anxiety Prevention Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatson, Ruth M.; Bayer, Jordana K.; Perry, Alexandra; Mathers, Megan; Hiscock, Harriet; Wake, Melissa; Beesley, Kate; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    Temperamental inhibition has been identified as a key risk factor for childhood anxiety and internalizing problems. An efficacious early prevention programme for shy/inhibited children has been developed; however, accurate, efficient and acceptable screening is needed to support wider implementation. We explore community screening options in the…

  9. Designing a Community-Based Dance Programme for North Korean Female Refugees in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Na, Kyung-Ah; Park, Hyun-Jung; Han, Seok Jin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a community-based dance programme designed for North Korean female defectors in South Korea, with the aim of promoting their physical, psychological, and interpersonal aspects. We set up four research objectives: to look into social contexts of North Korean female refugees in South Korea, to identify the women's desire…

  10. Leadership in School Networks: Findings from the Networked Learning Communities Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jopling, Michael; Spender, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The Networked Learning Community (NLC) programme has been a major research and development activity of the National College of School Leadership (NCSL). One hundred and four voluntary, funded school networks were set up following a process of bidding and selection operated by a core NCSL team, the Networked Learning Group (NLG). A second tranche…

  11. Participation in Network Learning Community Programmes and Standards of Pupil Achievement: Does It Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammons, Pam; Mujtaba, Tamjid; Earl, Lorna; Gu, Qing

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses national assessment and examination data sets in England to test the claim that networked learning activity contributes to raising standards of attainment. Results for primary and secondary schools involved in the large and innovative network learning community (NLC) programme in England funded by the National College for…

  12. Practical Elements in Danish Engineering Programmes, Including the European Project Semester

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jorgen

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark, all engineering programmes in HE have practical elements; for instance, at Bachelor's level, an internship is an integrated part of the programme. Furthermore, Denmark has a long-established tradition of problem-based and project-organized learning, and a large part of students' projects, including their final projects, is done in…

  13. Safety evaluation of phytosterol-esters. Part 9: Results of a European post-launch monitoring programme.

    PubMed

    Lea, L J; Hepburn, P A

    2006-08-01

    Phytosterol-esters were developed by Unilever as a cholesterol lowering novel food ingredient for use initially in vegetable oil spreads. In addition to an extensive package of safety studies and clinical studies a programme of post-launch monitoring (PLM) was developed. PLM was used to address the following questions: (a) Is the product use as predicted/recommended? (b) Are the known effects as predicted? (c) Does the product cause unexpected health effects? The overall conclusions from the PLM programme were: the product is being bought by the target population but intakes are less than the original assumptions made in the risk assessment; long-term use of phytosterol-ester enriched spreads results in a reduction in the serum levels of the most lipophilic carotenoids but at current levels of intake this is unlikely to result in reductions in carotenoids that are of biological significance; evaluation of health related consumer complaints have not indicated any unexpected health effects associated with the use of the product in the marketplace. As part of the European approval under Regulation (EC) No. 258/97 on Novel Foods and Food Ingredients the results of the PLM programme had to be submitted to the European Commission (EC) and reviewed by the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF). They concluded that the study provided valuable information, which complemented the pre-market safety evaluation studies, and that the EC mandatory requirement had been met.

  14. Joint Programmes of Study: An Instrument of European Cooperation in Higher Education. Collection Studies, Education Series No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Alan

    The Council of the European Economic Community (EEC) developed a plan to increase student mobility in higher education across national borders. The plan is characterized by efforts at common policy in such matters as admission, credit transfer and equivalence, a student handbook on opportunities, and a plan for grants for short study visits in…

  15. Empowering communities and strengthening systems to improve transgender health: outcomes from the Pehchan programme in India

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Simran; Mburu, Gitau; Arumugam, Viswanathan; Mattipalli, Naveen; Aher, Abhina; Mehta, Sonal; Robertson, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Transgender populations face inequalities in access to HIV, health and social services. In addition, there is limited documentation of models for providing appropriately tailored services and social support for transgender populations in low- and middle-income countries. This paper presents outcomes of the Global Fund-supported Pehchan programme, which aimed to strengthen community systems and provide HIV, health, legal and social services to transgender communities across 18 Indian states through a rights-based empowerment approach. Methods We used a pre- and post-intervention cross-sectional survey design with retrospective analysis of programmatic data. Using stratified sampling, we identified 268 transgender participants in six Indian states from a total of 48,280 transgender people served by Pehchan through 186 community-based organizations. We quantified the impact of interventions by comparing baseline and end line indicators of accessed health social and legal services. We also assessed end line self-efficacy and collective action with regard to social support networks. Results There were significant increases in community-based demand and use of tailored health, legal, social and psychological services over the time of the Pehchan programme. We report significant increases in access to condoms (12.5%, p<0.001) and condom use at last anal sex with both regular (18.1%, p<0.001) and casual (8.1%, p<0.001) male partners. Access to HIV outreach education and testing and counselling services significantly increased (20.10%, p<0.001; 33.7%, p<0.001). In addition, significant increases in access to emergency crisis response (19.7%, p<0.001), legal support (26.8%, p<0.001) and mental health services (33.0%, p<0.001) were identified. Finally, we note that the Pehchan programme successfully provided a platform for the formation, collectivization and visibility of peer support groups. Conclusions The Pehchan programme's community involvement, rights

  16. Dietary Intake and Eating Behaviours of Obese New Zealand Children and Adolescents Enrolled in a Community-Based Intervention Programme

    PubMed Central

    Wynter, Lisa E.; Butler, Michelle S.; Grant, Cameron C.; Stewart, Joanna M.; Cave, Tami L.; Wild, Cervantée E. K.; Derraik, José G. B.; Cutfield, Wayne S.; Hofman, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to describe dietary intake and eating behaviours of obese children and adolescents, and also to determine how these differ in Indigenous versus non-Indigenous children at enrolment in an obesity programme. Methods Baseline dietary intake and eating behaviour records were assessed from those enrolled in a clinical unblinded randomised controlled trial of a multi-disciplinary intervention. The setting was a community-based obesity programme in Taranaki, New Zealand. Children or adolescents who were enrolled from January 2012 to August 2014, with a BMI ≥98th percentile or >91st centile with weight-related comorbidities were eligible. Results 239 participants (45% Māori, 45% NZ Europeans, 10% other ethnicities), aged 5–17 years were assessed. Two-thirds of participants experienced hyperphagia and half were not satiated after a meal. Comfort eating was reported by 62% of participants, and daily energy intake was above the recommended guidelines for 54%. Fruit and vegetable intake was suboptimal compared with the recommended 5 servings per day (mean 3.5 [SD = 1.9] servings per day), and the mean weekly breakfasts were less than the national average (5.9 vs 6.5; p<0.0001). Median sweet drink intake amongst Māori was twice that of NZ Europeans (250 vs 125 ml per day; p = 0.0002). Conclusions There was a concerning prevalence of abnormal eating behaviours and significant differences in dietary intake between obese participants and their national counterparts. Ethnic differences between Indigenous and non-Indigenous participants were also present, especially in relation to sweet drink consumption. Eating behaviours, especially sweet drink consumption and fruit/vegetable intake need to be addressed. PMID:27880804

  17. Patients’ experiences of a multidisciplinary team-led community case management programme: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Gowing, Alice; Dickinson, Claire; Gorman, Tom; Robinson, Louise; Duncan, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the views and experiences of patients on the care they have received while enrolled on the Northumberland High Risk Patient Programme (NHRPP). This programme involved case finding of frail patients using a multidisciplinary team (MDT)-led community case management programme, and support of patients through care planning and regular reviews using primary, community, secondary and social care professionals. Design A qualitative study using semistructured interviews, which were digitally recorded, transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. Setting Community patients receiving primary care in the county of Northumberland, England. Participants 23 participants took part, of which 16 were patients enrolled on the NHRPP, and 7 carers. GP practices were selected purposively by size, deprivation and location, and patients identified and invited by General Practitioners to participate. Results 4 main themes emerged from the data: awareness and understanding of the NHRPP, confidence in the primary healthcare team, limitations of home care and the active role of being a patient. Despite having a low level of awareness of the details of the NHRPP, participants did think that its broad aim made sense. Participants discussed their high level of satisfaction with their care and access to team members. However, some limitations of alternatives to hospital care were identified, including the need to consider psychological as well as medical needs, the importance of overnight care and the needs of those without informal carers. Finally, participants discussed the active nature of being a patient under the NHRPP if they were to contribute fully to planning and managing their own care. Conclusions This study has identified that a programme of MDT-led case management was generally very well received by patients and their families. However, a number of factors were identified that could improve the implementation of the programme and further research needs to be

  18. Engaging for Excellence: Alumni Relations Programmes in European Higher Education. ICARS Report 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Advancement and Support of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The 2016 ICARS survey reports on data collected September 2015 to November 2015 in the International CASE Alumni Relations Survey. The findings are drawn from 84 responding institutions across 12 European countries. 76 percent of respondents are from the UK and 24 percent are from other European countries. ICARS emphasises the link between alumni…

  19. [From the Nuremberg Alliance Against Depression to a European network (EAAD)--extending community-based awareness-campaigns on national and European level].

    PubMed

    Hegerl, Ulrich; Schäfer, Rita

    2007-09-01

    With the aim to improve the care of depressed patients and to reduce suicidality, the Nuremberg Alliance Against Depression was initiated 2001 in the framework of the German Research Network on Depression and Suicidality (funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research). The Alliance's concept is based on an intervention on four levels: Co-operation with GPs, an information- and awareness-campaign for the broad public, educational training for multipliers such as teachers, priests or geriatric care-givers as well as the support and initiative of self-help-activities. After two years of intervention the number of suicidal acts, the study's main outcome criteria, was significantly reduced by 24 percent compared to the baseline and to a representative control region. Since 2002 the successful four-level-intervention, its concepts and materials have been adapted by other regions within Germany. Nearly 40 community-based local campaigns are forming the German Alliance Against Depression (GAD) and many more regions are interested. On international level the European Alliance Against Depression (EAAD) was established 2004. Funded by the European Commission the four-level-programme is implemented in 17 European countries.

  20. Service and infrastructure needs to support recovery programmes for Indigenous community mental health consumers.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Jan M; Cleary, Michelle; Hunt, Glenn E; Burmeister, Oliver K

    2017-04-01

    Mental health is a major concern in Indigenous communities, as Indigenous people experience poorer health outcomes generally, and poorer social and emotional well-being throughout their lives, compared to non-Indigenous populations. Interviews were conducted with 20 mental health workers from a housing assistance programme for Indigenous clients with mental illness. Service and infrastructure needs identified to support clients were classified under the following overarching theme 'supports along the road to recovery'. Subthemes were: (i) It is OK to seek help; (ii) linking in to the local community; (iii) trusting the workers; and (iv) help with goal setting and having activities that support their achievement. This paper highlights the importance of targeted housing and accommodation support programmes for Indigenous people to prevent homelessness, and the essential services and infrastructure required to support Indigenous clients' mental health needs. These insights may inform service review, workforce development, and further research.

  1. Pan-European resistance monitoring programmes encompassing food-borne bacteria and target pathogens of food-producing and companion animals.

    PubMed

    de Jong, A; Thomas, V; Klein, U; Marion, H; Moyaert, H; Simjee, S; Vallé, M

    2013-05-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a concern both for animal and human health. Veterinary programmes monitoring resistance of animal and zoonotic pathogens are therefore essential. Various European countries have implemented national surveillance programmes, particularly for zoonotic and commensal bacteria, and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is compiling the data. However, harmonisation is identified as a weakness and an essential need in order to compare data across countries. Comparisons of resistance monitoring data among national programmes are hampered by differences between programmes, such as sampling and testing methodology, and different epidemiological cut-off values or clinical breakpoints. Moreover, only very few valid data are available regarding target pathogens both of farm and companion animals. The European Animal Health Study Centre (CEESA) attempts to fill these gaps. The resistance monitoring programmes of CEESA have been a collaboration of veterinary pharmaceutical companies for over a decade and include two different projects: the European Antimicrobial Susceptibility Surveillance in Animals (EASSA) programme, which collects food-borne bacteria at slaughter from healthy animals, and the pathogen programmes that collect first-intention target pathogens from acutely diseased animals. The latter comprises three subprogrammes: VetPath; MycoPath; and ComPath. All CEESA projects include uniform sample collection and bacterial identification to species level in various European Union (EU) member states. A central laboratory conducts quantitative susceptibility testing to antimicrobial agents either important in human medicine or commonly used in veterinary medicine. This 'methodology harmonisation' allows easy comparisons among EU member states and makes the CEESA programmes invaluable to address food safety and antibiotic efficacy.

  2. Using a centralised database system and server in the European Union Framework Programme 7 project SEPServer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heynderickx, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The main objective of the SEPServer project (EU FP7 project 262773) is to produce a new tool, which greatly facilitates the investigation of solar energetic particles (SEPs) and their origin: a server providing SEP data, related electromagnetic (EM) observations and analysis methods, a comprehensive catalogue of the observed SEP events, and educational/outreach material on solar eruptions. The project is coordinated by the University of Helsinki. The project will combine data and knowledge from 11 European partners and several collaborating parties from Europe and US. The datasets provided by the consortium partners are collected in a MySQL database (using the ESA Open Data Interface under licence) on a server operated by DH Consultancy, which also hosts a web interface providing browsing, plotting and post-processing and analysis tools developed by the consortium, as well as a Solar Energetic Particle event catalogue. At this stage of the project, a prototype server has been established, which is presently undergoing testing by users inside the consortium. Using a centralized database has numerous advantages, including: homogeneous storage of the data, which eliminates the need for dataset specific file access routines once the data are ingested in the database; a homogeneous set of metadata describing the datasets on both a global and detailed level, allowing for automated access to and presentation of the various data products; standardised access to the data in different programming environments (e.g. php, IDL); elimination of the need to download data for individual data requests. SEPServer will, thus, add value to several space missions and Earth-based observations by facilitating the coordinated exploitation of and open access to SEP data and related EM observations, and promoting correct use of these data for the entire space research community. This will lead to new knowledge on the production and transport of SEPs during solar eruptions and facilitate the

  3. Can local communities 'sustain' HIV/AIDS programmes? A South African example.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Andrew; Campbell, Catherine; Maimane, Sbongile

    2015-03-01

    Globally, there is a renewed interest in building the local sustainability of HIV/AIDS programmes to ensure that once funders withdraw, local communities can sustain programmes. While the 'local sustainability assumption' is widespread, little research has assessed this. In this article, we assess the sustainability of the Entabeni Project, a community-based intervention that sought to build women's local leadership and capacity to respond to HIV/AIDS through a group of volunteer carers, 3 years after external support was withdrawn. Overall, the sustainability of the Entabeni Project was limited. The wider social and political context undermined volunteer carers' sense that they could affect change, with little external support for them from government and NGOs, who struggled to engage with local community organizations. At the community level, some church leaders and community members recognized the important role of health volunteers, many continued to devalue the work of the carers, especially once there was no external organization to support and validate their work. Within the health volunteer group, despite extensive efforts to change dynamics, it remained dominated by a local male leader who denied others active participation while lacking the skills to meaningfully lead the project. Our case study suggests that the local-sustainability assumption is wishful thinking. Small-scale local projects are unlikely to be able to challenge the broader social and political dynamics hindering their sustainability without meaningful external support.

  4. Synthesising practice guidelines for the development of community-based exercise programmes after stroke

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple guidelines are often available to inform practice in complex interventions. Guidance implementation may be facilitated if it is tailored to particular clinical issues and contexts. It should also aim to specify all elements of interventions that may mediate and modify effectiveness, including both their content and delivery. We conducted a focused synthesis of recommendations from stroke practice guidelines to produce a structured and comprehensive account to facilitate the development of community-based exercise programmes after stroke. Methods Published stroke clinical practice guidelines were searched for recommendations relevant to the content and delivery of community-based exercise interventions after stroke. These were synthesised using a framework based on target intervention outcomes, personal and programme proximal objectives, and recommended strategies. Results Nineteen guidelines were included in the synthesis (STRIDES; STroke Rehabilitation Intervention-Development Evidence Synthesis). Eight target outcomes, 14 proximal objectives, and 94 recommended strategies were identified. The synthesis was structured to present best practice recommendations in a format that could be used by intervention programme developers. It addresses both programme content and context, including personal factors, service standards and delivery issues. Some recommendations relating to content, and many relating to delivery and other contextual issues, were based on low level evidence or expert opinion. Where opinion varied, the synthesis indicates the range of best practice options suggested in guidelines. Conclusions The synthesis may assist implementation of best practice by providing a structured intervention description that focuses on a particular clinical application, addresses practical issues involved in programme development and provision, and illustrates the range of best-practice options available to users where robust evidence is lacking. The

  5. Development of a Community-Based Sex Offender Treatment Programme for Adult Male Clients with a Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Helen

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the development of a community-based sex offender treatment programme for learning disabled clients (CB-SOTP-LD), the Keep Safe Programme (KSP), by the Learning Disabilities Team of County Durham and Darlington Priority Services (CDDPS) NHS Trust. The aim of this paper, by the treatment lead, is to share experiences of…

  6. "For Some Reason, I'm Just Tired": Women Domestic Workers Persisting in Community-Based Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuban, Sondra

    2007-01-01

    A study of women migrant domestic workers in the USA and their reasons for participating and persisting in community-based literacy and ESOL programmes is presented. Case studies and themes were developed about the women's experiences of work life and how it connected to their programme participation. The findings revealed that the women had…

  7. Amsterdam's STI/HIV Programme: An Innovative Strategy to Achieve and Enhance the Participation of Migrant Community-Based Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagemakers, Annemarie; van Husen, Gwen; Barrett, Jennifer B.; Koelen, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The STI/HIV prevention programme in Amsterdam aims to improve the sexual health of Amsterdam residents of African, Antillean, Aruban and Surinamese origins. The programme strategy is to achieve and enhance the participation of migrant community-based organisations (CBOs) in sexual health promotion through a grant scheme and by providing…

  8. Establishing a Korean Language Programme in a European Higher Education Context: Rationale, Curriculum and Assessment Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Lorna; Do, Eunjee

    2013-01-01

    A growth in interest in Korean contemporary culture in Europe has benefitted Korean language studies in Higher Education. This article describes an innovative Korean language programme in the School of Linguistic, Speech and Communication Sciences at Trinity College Dublin, Ireland. Since its establishment as a pilot project in 2010, the Korean…

  9. Population trends in the European Community, 1960-1986.

    PubMed

    Chesnais, J C

    1988-07-01

    Recent trends in fertility, marriage patterns and family formation in the 12 nations of the European Community are discussed. The total period fertility rate in this group of nations has dropped sharply (42%) since 1960, so that the annual growth was 0.15% in 1986. Immigration and the rate of mortality decline have also slowed. There are some variations in regional or national fertility, and in population growth as a result of age structure. The rate of population growth is slowing in all nations except Greece, Ireland and Portugal. The U.K., Belgium, Luxembourg and Denmark have experienced zero growth since 1980. Italy is close to zero growth. France, Netherlands and Spain have higher growth due to age structure. Ireland continues to grow at 1% yearly. In general, large families are disappearing, although different patterns are evident in various states. France shows high progression to the 1st child; many German couples choose to remain childless. People are marrying older, remaining unmarried, divorcing sooner, cohabiting before or after marriage. Non-marital births are common, especially in nordic countries, but still rare in Mediterranean countries. The restricted family norm, of 0, 1, or 2 children is becoming uniform, resulting in fertility well below, 15-40% of replacement.

  10. Presence, characteristics and equity of access to breast cancer screening programmes in 27 European countries in 2010 and 2014. Results from an international survey.

    PubMed

    Deandrea, S; Molina-Barceló, A; Uluturk, A; Moreno, J; Neamtiu, L; Peiró-Pérez, R; Saz-Parkinson, Z; Lopez-Alcalde, J; Lerda, D; Salas, D

    2016-10-01

    The European Union Council Recommendation of 2 December 2003 on cancer screening suggests the implementation of organised, population-based breast cancer screening programmes based on mammography every other year for women aged 50 to 69years, ensuring equal access to screening, taking into account potential needs for targeting particular socioeconomic groups. A European survey on coverage and participation, and key organisational and policy characteristics of the programmes, targeting years 2010 and 2014, was undertaken in 2014. Overall, 27 countries contributed to this survey, 26 of the 28 European Union member states (92.9%) plus Norway. In 2014, 25 countries reported an ongoing population-based programme, one country reported a pilot programme and another was planning a pilot. In eight countries, the target age range was broader than that proposed by the Council Recommendation, and in three countries the full range was not covered. Fifteen countries reported not reaching some vulnerable populations, such as immigrants, prisoners and people without health insurance, while 22 reported that participation was periodically monitored by socioeconomic variables (e.g. age and territory). Organised, population-based breast cancer screening programmes based on routine mammograms are in place in most EU member states. However, there are still differences in the way screening programmes are implemented, and participation by vulnerable populations should be encouraged.

  11. Impact of community educational programmes on foreign body aspiration in Israel.

    PubMed

    Sadan, N; Raz, A; Wolach, B

    1995-10-01

    The study objectives were to determine the impact of a nationwide educational campaign on the incidence of foreign body aspiration (FBA) in Israeli children. Impressed by the alarming number of FBAs, we conducted an educational campaign through the media during 1982-1983. The campaign included television and radio broadcasts, newspaper articles and interviews, and medical educational programmes in community paediatric care centres. Questionnaires were sent to all Departments of Paediatrics in Israel. Results showed a reduction in the incidence of FBA by 35% in 1983 as compared to 1981. Re-evaluation studies conducted in 1992 showed no further reduction of FBA. CONCLUSION. Continuous and extensive educational programmes should be undertaken by the health authorities if FBA is to be prevented. Furthermore, it is important to legislate mandatory labelling of seed and nut containers with the warning that the intake of seeds is dangerous to children under 5 years of age.

  12. From efficacy to effectiveness: selecting indicators for a community-based lactational amenorrhoea method promotion programme.

    PubMed

    Bender, D E; Dusch, E; McCann, M F

    1998-04-01

    This paper reviews the results of clinical trials and community studies of lactational amenorrhoea and its role as a contraceptive method (LAM). Indicators which are used in efficacy trials and effectiveness interventions are compared and sets of indicators of effectiveness appropriate to community-based LAM programmes are recommended. A five-tiered ecological framework is used to facilitate selection of indicators which range from individual to policy level outcomes. The indicator framework is intended as a tool for health practitioners in family planning and maternal and child health service delivery settings who are interested in designing programmatic interventions for the promotion of LAM, particularly among less well-educated women of lower socioeconomic communities.

  13. The Applicability of Behaviour Change in Intervention Programmes Targeted at Ending Female Genital Mutilation in the EU: Integrating Social Cognitive and Community Level Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Katherine; Barrett, Hazel

    2013-01-01

    With increased migration, female genital mutilation (FGM) also referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting is no longer restricted to Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. The European Parliament estimates that up to half a million women living in the EU have been subjected to FGM, with a further 180,000 at risk. Aware of the limited success of campaigns addressing FGM, the World Health Organization recommended a behavioural change approach be implemented in order to end FGM. To date, however, little progress has been made in adopting a behaviour change approach in strategies aimed at ending FGM. Based on research undertaken as part of the EU's Daphne III programme, which researched FGM intervention programmes linked to African communities in the EU (REPLACE), this paper argues that behaviour change has not been implemented due to a lack of understanding relating to the application of the two broad categories of behaviour change approach: individualistic decision-theoretic and community-change game-theoretic approaches, and how they may be integrated to aid our understanding and the development of future intervention strategies. We therefore discuss how these can be integrated and implemented using community-based participatory action research methods with affected communities. PMID:23983698

  14. Accreditation and Quality Assurance for Professional Degree Programmes: Comparing Approaches in Three European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Andrea; Kurth, Detlef; Mironowicz, Izabela

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, considerable progress has been made in establishing and implementing robust, comparable quality assurance processes throughout much of the European higher education sector. However, concerns persist over degree portability and recognition as current systems are rooted in national contexts. In particular, specialised…

  15. University-Enterprise Institutions in Technology Networks. A Study from European RTD Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Arroyabe, Juan Carlos; Arranz, Nieves

    2000-01-01

    A study of 85 university-enterprise training partnerships in the European Union found that their location (academia, business-industry, or technology centers) influenced their functions and autonomy. Most had structural flexibility and a high-skill work force. They facilitate technological development by forming relationships, advising,…

  16. Addressing the social determinants of health: a case study from the Mitanin (community health worker) programme in India.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Sulakshana; Schneider, Helen

    2014-09-01

    The Mitanin Programme, a government community health worker (CHW) programme, was started in Chhattisgarh State of India in 2002. The CHWs (Mitanins) have consistently adopted roles that go beyond health programme-specific interventions to embrace community mobilization and action on local priorities. The aim of this research was to document how and why the Mitanins have been able to act on the social determinants of health, describing the catalysts and processes involved and the enabling programmatic and organizational factors. A qualitative comparative case study of successful action by Mitanin was conducted in two 'blocks', purposefully selected as positive exemplars in two districts of Chhattisgarh. One case focused on malnutrition and the other on gender-based violence. Data collection involved 17 in-depth interviews and 10 group interviews with the full range of stakeholders in both blocks, including community members and programme team. Thematic analysis was done using a broad conceptual framework that was further refined. Action on social determinants involved raising awareness on rights, mobilizing women's collectives, revitalizing local political structures and social action targeting both the community and government service providers. Through these processes, the Mitanins developed identities as agents of change and advocates for the community, both with respect to local cultural and gender norms and in ensuring accountability of service providers. The factors underpinning successful action on social determinants were identified as the significance of the original intent and vision of the programme, and how this was carried through into all aspects of programme design, the role of the Mitanins and their identification with village women, ongoing training and support, and the relative autonomy of the programme. Although the results are not narrowly generalizable and do not necessarily represent the situation of the Mitanin Programme as a whole, the

  17. Addressing the social determinants of health: a case study from the Mitanin (community health worker) programme in India

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The Mitanin Programme, a government community health worker (CHW) programme, was started in Chhattisgarh State of India in 2002. The CHWs (Mitanins) have consistently adopted roles that go beyond health programme-specific interventions to embrace community mobilization and action on local priorities. The aim of this research was to document how and why the Mitanins have been able to act on the social determinants of health, describing the catalysts and processes involved and the enabling programmatic and organizational factors. A qualitative comparative case study of successful action by Mitanin was conducted in two ‘blocks’, purposefully selected as positive exemplars in two districts of Chhattisgarh. One case focused on malnutrition and the other on gender-based violence. Data collection involved 17 in-depth interviews and 10 group interviews with the full range of stakeholders in both blocks, including community members and programme team. Thematic analysis was done using a broad conceptual framework that was further refined. Action on social determinants involved raising awareness on rights, mobilizing women’s collectives, revitalizing local political structures and social action targeting both the community and government service providers. Through these processes, the Mitanins developed identities as agents of change and advocates for the community, both with respect to local cultural and gender norms and in ensuring accountability of service providers. The factors underpinning successful action on social determinants were identified as the significance of the original intent and vision of the programme, and how this was carried through into all aspects of programme design, the role of the Mitanins and their identification with village women, ongoing training and support, and the relative autonomy of the programme. Although the results are not narrowly generalizable and do not necessarily represent the situation of the Mitanin Programme as a whole, the

  18. The use of a modified pairwise comparison method in evaluating critical success factors for community-based rural homestay programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daud, Shahidah Md; Ramli, Razamin; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Kayat, Kalsom; Razak, Rafidah Abd

    2014-12-01

    Tourism industry has become the highlighted sector which has amazingly increased the national income level. Despite the tourism industry being one of the highest income generating sectors, Homestay Programme as a Community-Based Tourism (CBT) product in Malaysia does not absorbed much of the incoming wealth. Homestay Programme refers to a programme in a community where a tourist stays together with a host family and experiences the everyday way of life of the family in both direct and indirect manner. There are over 100 Homestay Programme currently being registered with the Ministry of Culture and Tourism Malaysia which mostly are located in rural areas, but only a few excel and enjoying the fruit of the booming industry. Hence, this article seeks to identify the critical success factors for a Community-Based Rural Homestay Programme in Malaysia. A modified pairwise method is utilized to further evaluate the identified success factors in a more meaningful way. The findings will help Homestay Programme function as a community development tool that manages tourism resources. Thus, help the community in improving local economy and creating job opportunities.

  19. Staff perceptions of change resulting from participation in a European cancer accreditation programme: a snapshot from eight cancer centres

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Abinaya; Wind, Anke; Saghatchian, Mahasti; Thonon, Frederique; Boomsma, Femke; van Harten, Wim H

    2015-01-01

    Background Healthcare accreditation is considered to be an essential quality improvement tool. However, its effectiveness has been critiqued. Methods Twenty-four interviews were conducted with clinicians (five), nurses (six), managers (eight), and basic/translational researchers (five) from eight European cancer centres on changes observed from participating in a European cancer accreditation programme. Data were thematically analysed and verified with participants and checked against auditor’s feedback. Results Four change categories emerged: (i) the growing importance of the nursing and supportive care field (role change). Nurses gained more autonomy/clarity on their daily duties. Importance was given to the hiring and training of supportive care personnel (ii) critical thinking on data integration (strategic change). Managers gained insight on how to integrate institutional level data (iii) improved processes within multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings (procedural change). Clinical staff experienced improved communication between MDTs (iv) building trust (organisational change). Accreditation improved the centre’s credibility with its own staff and externally with funders and patients. No motivational changes were perceived. Researchers perceived no changes. The auditor’s feedback included changes in 13 areas: translational research, biobanks, clinical trials, patient privacy and satisfaction, cancer registries, clinical practice guidelines, patient education, screening, primary prevention, role of nurses, MDT, supportive care, and data integration. However, our study revealed that staff perceived changes only in the last four areas. Conclusion Staff perceived changes in data integration, nursing and supportive care, and in certain clinical aspects. Accreditation programmes must pay attention to the needs of different stakeholder groups, track changes, and observe how/why change happens. PMID:26180546

  20. Perceptions of Participants in a Group, Community, Exercise Programme for People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Rosemary; Coote, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of people with multiple sclerosis of a community based, group exercise programme. Method. A pragmatic programme evaluation approach using qualitative research design was adopted. Focus groups were used to gather data from 14 participants who had taken part in a RCT of community based exercise interventions for PwMS who used at most a stick to walk outdoors. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was used to first identify categories and then to group them into themes. Results. Three themes emerged, psychological benefits, physical benefits, and knowledge gained. The psychological benefits included the role of the group as a social and motivational factor, empowerment, confidence, hope, sense of achievement, and pride. Physical benefits were improved energy and reduced fatigue and improved ability and participation. Knowledge gained caused a shift from thoughts that exercise might do harm, to sufficient knowledge that would give participants confidence to exercise themselves. The role of the group was a key element in the positive outcomes. Conclusions. The qualitative analysis supports the findings of the main trial confirming positive effects of community exercise interventions by reducing the impact of MS and fatigue and improving participation. PMID:26491567

  1. Factors in the Spread of Continuing Training in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aventur, Francois; Campo, Christian; Moebus, Martine

    1999-01-01

    A study compared 17 European countries' initial and continuing vocational training systems. Two kinds of continuing training (CT)--that which is initiated by the employer and that which is intiated by the individual--provide an indicator for comparing the different situations observed throughout the European Community. The two forms are mutually…

  2. From Action to Insight: A Professional Learning Community's Experiences with the European Language Portfolio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristmanson, Paula Lee; Lafargue, Chantal; Culligan, Karla

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on an action research project set in the context of one professional learning community's (PLC's) exploration of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) and the European Language Portfolio (ELP). Teachers of second and foreign languages in a large urban high school examined the potential of principles and tools related…

  3. Evaluating community-based medical education programmes in Africa: A workshop report

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Rebecca J; Baingana, Rhona K; Couper, Ian D; Deery, Christopher B; Nestel, Debra; Ross, Heather; Sagay, Atiene Solomon; Talib, Zohray M

    2015-01-01

    Background The Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) supports medical schools in Africa to increase the capacity and quality of medical education, improve retention of graduates, and promote regionally relevant research. Many MEPI programmes include elements of community-based education (CBE) such as: community placements; clinical rotations in underserved locations, community medicine, or primary health; situational analyses; or student-led research. Methods CapacityPlus and the MEPI Coordinating Center conducted a workshop to share good practices for CBE evaluation, identify approaches that can be used for CBE evaluation in the African context, and strengthen a network of CBE collaborators. Expected outcomes of the workshop included draft evaluation plans for each school and plans for continued collaboration among participants. The workshop focused on approaches and resources for evaluation, guiding exploration of programme evaluation including data collection, sampling, analysis, and reporting. Participants developed logic models capturing inputs, activities, outputs, and expected outcomes of their programmes, and used these models to inform development of evaluation plans. This report describes key insights from the workshop, and highlights plans for CBE evaluation among the MEPI institutions. Results Each school left the workshop with a draft evaluation plan. Participants agreed to maintain communication and identified concrete areas for collaboration moving forward. Since the workshop’s conclusion, nine schools have agreed on next steps for the evaluation process and will begin implementation of their plans. Conclusion This workshop clearly demonstrated the widespread interest in improving CBE evaluation efforts and a need to develop, implement, and disseminate rigorous approaches and tools relevant to the African context. PMID:26523230

  4. Community health workers in national programmes: the case of the family welfare educators of Botswana.

    PubMed

    Walt, G; Ross, D; Gilson, L; Owuor-Omondi, L; Knudsen, T

    1989-01-01

    Community health worker programmes have become a prominent feature of many primary health care schemes in developing countries. This paper, which is based on a larger collaborative study undertaken in 3 countries, focuses on the experiences with such workers in Botswana, and concludes that many of the key issues that were highlighted in the Botswana study are similar to those in other countries. These can be summarized under four headings: unrealistic expectations, poor initial planning, problems of sustainability, and the difficulty of maintaining quality of care. The future success of these workers will depend on their being integrated more systematically into local services, with concomitant strengthening of management support and supervision.

  5. Burden & pattern of illnesses among the tribal communities in central India : A report from a community health programme.

    PubMed

    Jain, Yogesh; Kataria, Raman; Patil, Sushil; Kadam, Suhas; Kataria, Anju; Jain, Rachna; Kurbude, Ravindra; Shinde, Sharayu

    2015-05-01

    Tribals are the most marginalised social category in the country and there is little and scattered information on the actual burden and pattern of illnesses they suffer from. This study provides information on burden and pattern of diseases among tribals, and whether these can be linked to their nutritional status, especially in particularly vulnerable tribal groups (PVTG) seen at a community health programme being run in the tribal areas of Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh States of India. This community based programme, known as Jan Swasthya Sahyog (JSS) has been serving people in over 2500 villages in rural central India. It was found that the tribals had significantly higher proportion of all tuberculosis, sputum positive tuberculosis, severe hypertension, illnesses that require major surgery as a primary therapeutic intervention and cancers than non tribals. The proportions of people with rheumatic heart disease, sickle cell disease and epilepsy were not significantly different between different social groups. Nutritional levels of tribals were poor. Tribals in central India suffer a disproportionate burden of both communicable and non communicable diseases amidst worrisome levels of undernutrition. There is a need for universal health coverage with preferential care for the tribals, especially those belonging to the PVTG. Further, the high level of undernutrition demands a more augmented and universal Public Distribution System.

  6. Developing resuscitation programmes in the community: the tasks ahead for the National Resuscitation Council.

    PubMed

    Anantharaman, V

    2011-08-01

    Singapore has a long way to go to becoming a 'heartsafe' society. Given our small size and culture of hard work in our country, we can achieve a state of good first response by our community citizens through public cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillators training programmes at various key sectors and through the implementation of public access defibrillation in a committed manner. For our second-line responders, investing in technology to improve response times and quality of chest compressions with earlier interventions will go a long way toward strengthening the chain of survival in the community. Building on this strong foundation and having a strong hospital-based cardiac arrest management system will ensure that those who achieve return of spontaneous circulation will more likely remain alive and be discharged from hospital in a neurologically optimal state.

  7. ENVRI Cluster - a community-driven platform of European environmental research infrastructures for providing common solution for science and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorvari, Sanna; Kutsch, Werner; Laj, Paolo; Asmi, Ari; Brus, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    European long-term environmental research infrastructures (often referred as ESFRI RIs) are the core facilities for providing services for scientists in their quest for understanding and predicting the complex Earth system and its functioning that requires long-term efforts to identify environmental changes (trends, thresholds and resilience, interactions and feedbacks). Many of the research infrastructures originally have been developed to respond to the needs of their specific research communities, however, it is clear that strong collaboration among research infrastructures is needed to serve the trans-boundary research requires exploring scientific questions at the intersection of different scientific fields, conducting joint research projects and developing concepts, devices, and methods that can be used to integrate knowledge. European Environmental research infrastructures have already been successfully worked together for many years and have established a cluster - ENVRI cluster - for their collaborative work. ENVRI cluster act as a collaborative platform where the RIs can jointly agree on the common solutions for their operations, draft strategies and policies and share best practices and knowledge. Supporting project for the ENVRI cluster, ENVRIplus project, brings together 21 European research infrastructures and infrastructure networks to work on joint technical solutions, data interoperability, access management, training, strategies and dissemination efforts. ENVRI cluster act as one stop shop for multidisciplinary RI users, other collaborative initiatives, projects and programmes and coordinates and implement jointly agreed RI strategies.

  8. Initial Teacher Training in the Member States of the European Community. Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EURYDICE Central Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    The educational systems among the European Community nations vary considerably and this variety, which is the result of historic and cultural factors, constitutes a great wealth which should be preserved. It is also in the interest of everyone to draw benefit from the experiences and projects of partner countries within the Community. Educational…

  9. The Copernicus programme and its Climate Change Service (C3S): a European answer to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinty, Bernard; Thepaut, Jean-Noel; Dee, Dick

    2016-07-01

    In November 2014, The European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) signed an agreement with the European Commission to deliver two of the Copernicus Earth Observation Programme Services on the Commission's behalf. The ECMWF delivered services - the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) and Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) - will bring a consistent standard to how we measure and predict atmospheric conditions and climate change. They will maximise the potential of past, current and future earth observations - ground, ocean, airborne, satellite - and analyse these to monitor and predict atmospheric conditions and in the future, climate change. With the wealth of free and open data that the services provide, they will help business users to assess the impact of their business decisions and make informed choices, delivering a more energy efficient and climate aware economy. These sound investment decisions now will not only stimulate growth in the short term, but reduce the impact of climate change on the economy and society in the future. C3S is in its proof of concept phase and through its climate data store will provide global and regional climate data reanalyses; multi-model seasonal forecasts; customisable visual data to enable examination of wide range of scenarios and model the impact of changes; access to all the underlying data, including climate data records from various satellite and in-situ observations. In addition, C3S will provide key indicators on climate change drivers (such as carbon dioxide) and impacts (such as reducing glaciers). The aim of these indicators will be to support European adaptation and mitigation policies in a number of economic sectors. The presentation will provide an overview of this newly created Service, its various components and activities, and a roadmap towards achieving a fully operational European Climate Service at the horizon 2019-2020. It will focus on the requirements for quality-assured Observation

  10. Performance of predictors: evaluating sustainability in community-directed treatment projects of the African programme for onchocerciasis control.

    PubMed

    Amazigo, Uche; Okeibunor, Joseph; Matovu, Victoria; Zouré, Honorat; Bump, Jesse; Seketeli, Azodoga

    2007-05-01

    The predictors of sustainability of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) at four implementation levels were evaluated in 41 African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) projects, encompassing 492 communities in 10 countries. A model protocol provided information on indicators corresponding to nine aspects of a project that is likely to be sustainable at community level after the cessation of external support. Six of the nine aspects had components of community ownership as predictors of project sustainability. Quantitative and qualitative assessments were used to obtain individual community scores and an overall sustainability score for each project graded on a scale of 0-4. Of the 41 projects evaluated, 70% scored "satisfactorily" to "highly sustainable" at the community level. We found variations among countries and that health system weaknesses could hamper community efforts in sustaining a project, such as when ivermectin was delivered late. Community ownership was of primary importance to the community score, and the community-level scores correlated with overall project sustainability. The therapeutic coverage achieved in each project correlated with the ratio of volunteer ivermectin distributors per population served. Surprisingly, the performance of these distributors was not affected by the direct incentives offered, and coverage appeared to be highest when cash or in-kind compensation was not given at all. Although further research is required, anecdotal evidence pointed to diverse indirect benefits for distributors-political goodwill, personal satisfaction and altruistic fulfillment. The results demonstrate that community ownership is among the important determining factors of sustainability of community-based programmes.

  11. Outcomes associated with participation in a therapeutic recreation camping programme for children from 15 European countries: Data from the 'Barretstown Studies'.

    PubMed

    Kiernan, Gemma; Gormley, Michael; MacLachlan, Malcolm

    2004-09-01

    In recent years, specialised camping programmes, based largely on the premise of therapeutic recreation, have emerged as a form of intervention for children with chronic illnesses, and their siblings. Although these programmes are proliferating, little systematic evaluation of their outcomes has been undertaken, particularly within a European context. The aim of this research was to investigate the symptom and psychosocial outcomes of The Barretstown Gang Camp therapeutic recreation programme in Ireland, a programme aimed at European children with chronic illnesses and their siblings, in the short and longer term. Measures assessing children's physical, psychological and social functioning, specifically their self-reported physical symptoms, affect, self-esteem and quality of life, were translated into 12 European languages and administered at 3 time periods: 2 weeks before each child participated in the programme (Time 1), 2 weeks after participation (Time 2) and at 6 months following participation (Time 3). Benefits were noted in their experience of physical symptoms, affect pertaining to physiological hyperarousal and quality of life in the short and longer term. Positive changes were also noted in relation to self-esteem as it pertains to global self-worth and physical attractiveness though these were, for the most part, in the longer term only and were preceded by adverse effects in the short term. While some of these positive changes were global, there were group differences based mostly on children's age, and patient/sibling status and to a lesser extent on their nationality. However, no benefits were evident in many aspects of children's functioning, either at a global or a group level, in the short and longer term. These findings clarify previous research and suggest that camping programmes have an important role to play as a complementary intervention in facilitating adjustment to chronic illness.

  12. Coffee, Cake & Culture: Evaluation of an art for health programme for older people in the community.

    PubMed

    Roe, Brenda; McCormick, Sheila; Lucas, Terri; Gallagher, Wendy; Winn, Andrea; Elkin, Sophie

    2016-07-01

    Arts for health initiatives and networks are being developed in a number of countries and an international literature is emerging on the evidence of their benefits to people's health, wellbeing and quality of life. Engagement in cultural and creative arts by older people can increase their morale and self-confidence and provides opportunities for social connection. Museums and galleries are increasingly required to justify their expenditure, reach and impact and some are working in partnership with local councils, hospitals, schools and communities to improve access to their collections. There is a body of literature emerging that describes such initiatives but empirical evidence of their benefits is less developed. This article reports an evaluation of an art for health initiative - Coffee, Cake & Culture organised and delivered by Whitworth Art Gallery and Manchester Museum in 2012 for older people living in a care home and a supported living facility. The study has identified the benefits and impacts of the arts for health programme and its feasibility for older people, with or without diagnosed memory loss - dementia, living in a care home or supported living facility and their care staff. The findings demonstrate there were benefits to the older people and their care staff in terms of wellbeing, social engagement, learning, social inclusion and creativity. These benefits were immediate and continued in the short term on their return home. The majority of older people and care staff had not previously been to the art gallery or museum and the programme encouraged creative arts and cultural appreciation which promoted social inclusion, wellbeing and quality of life. The programme is feasible and important lessons were identified for future planning. Further research involving partnerships of researchers, arts for health curators, artists, care staff, older people and their families is warranted.

  13. Human factors requirements for telerobotic command and control: The European Space Agency experimental programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Space Telerobotics research, performed under contract to the European Space Agency (ESA), concerning the execution of human factors experiments, and ultimately leading to the development of a telerobotics test bed, has been carried out since 1985 by a British Consortium consisting of British Aerospace, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority and, more recently, the UK National Advanced Robotics Research Centre. The principal aim of the first study of the series was to derive preliminary requirements for a teleoperation servicing system, with reference to two mission model scenarios. The first scenario introduced the problem of communications time delays, and their likely effect on the ground-based operator in control of a manipulator system on board an unmanned servicing vehicle in Low Earth Orbit. In the second scenario, the operator was located on the NASA Orbiter aft flight deck, supervising the control of a prototype manipulator in the 'servicing' of an experimental payload in the cargo bay area. Human factors analyses centered on defining the requirements for the teleoperator workstation, such as identifying basic ergonomic requirements for workstation and panel layouts, defining teleoperation strategies, developing alphanumeric and graphic screen formats for the supervision or direct control of the manipulator, and the potential applications of expert system technology. The second study for ESA involved an experimental appraisal of some of the important issues highlighted in the first study, for which relevant human factors data did not exist. Of central importance during the second study was the issue of communications time delays and their effect on the manual control of a teleoperated manipulator from a ground-based command and control station.

  14. Community guide recommendations and state level tobacco control programmes: 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Carol L; Malarcher, Ann M; Clark, Pamela I; Bombard, Jennifer M; Strauss, Warren; Stillman, Frances A

    2007-01-01

    Objective To identify the level of effort state tobacco control programmes and partners have expended on interventions recommended by the community guide and how those efforts have changed over time between 1999 and 2004. Design Longitudinal study. Setting United States. Participants State tobacco control partners, including the state health department, voluntary agencies and tobacco control coalitions. Main outcome measure We used the Strength of Tobacco Control survey responses in 1999, 2002 and 2004 to calculate the mean proportion of state tobacco control partners working on recommended interventions and subsequently analysed changes in effort over time. Results The proportion of state tobacco control partners working to promote clean indoor air legislation remained at more than 70% in all three years. The proportion working to increase taxes on tobacco rose significantly between 1999 and 2002 (from 54% to 70%), and those working to reduce patient costs for tobacco cessation treatments never exceeded 31% in any year. Use of mass media targeting youths decreased significantly in all years (from 40% to 32% to 26%), and the proportion of state tobacco control partners participating in a quitline has increased steadily and significantly in all years (from 24% to 36% to 41%). The level of effort in each area varied widely between states and over time. Conclusions State tobacco control partners are implementing evidence based interventions, but more focus is needed on the tobacco cessation and mass media campaign components of comprehensive tobacco control programmes. PMID:17897990

  15. European community legislation concerning schools of specialisation in orthodontics: the inexplicable inertia of Italy--contradictions and open issues.

    PubMed

    Maino, B Giuliano; Cabrini, Cesare

    2005-01-01

    Orthodontics was the first discipline to be acknowledged as such within the field of dentistry, initially in the USA and subsequently in Europe. The structural changes that led to the birth of the European Union (EU) laid the foundations for the free circulation of professions and services. Nevertheless a deep discrepancy in the quality of training of practitioners from different countries became apparent. It was necessary to address this issue and regulate the training process in order to guarantee a degree of uniformity. Up to this time only the duration of the School of Specialisation in Orthodontics has been set at a minimum of three years. While moving towards an increasing degree of integration of the various EU countries, it becomes paramount to be able to establish a School of Specialisation in Orthodontics with high academic standards based on the Erasmus Programme and above all to be able to award a specialisation degree which is acknowledged first of all in the country where it is issued and also on a wider European level. Freedom of circulation of intellectual activities requires the formal acknowledgement of a qualification, namely the Specialisation in Orthodontics. Also to that end, EFOSA (European Federation of Specialists in Orthodontics) was founded. Furthermore the European Community has, in the meantime, ruled that medical trainees should be remunerated for their work. Dentistry and its specialisations should not follow the model of Medicine given that the two are completely distinct, but many believe that the duration of the School of Specialisation in Orthodontics has to be set as the same as the medical specialisations.

  16. The emergence of community health worker programmes in the late apartheid era in South Africa: An historical analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Ginneken, Nadja; Lewin, Simon; Berridge, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    There is re-emerging interest in community health workers (CHWs) as part of wider policies regarding task-shifting within human resources for health. This paper examines the history of CHW programmes established in South Africa in the later apartheid years (1970s–1994) – a time of innovative initiatives. After 1994, the new democratic government embraced primary healthcare (PHC), however CHW initiatives were not included in their health plan and most of these programmes subsequently collapsed. Since then a wide array of disease-focused CHW projects have emerged, particularly within HIV care. Thirteen oral history interviews and eight witness seminars were conducted in South Africa in April 2008 with founders and CHWs from these earlier programmes. These data were triangulated with written primary sources and analysed using thematic content analysis. The study suggests that 1970s–1990s CHW programmes were seen as innovative, responsive, comprehensive and empowering for staff and communities, a focus which respondents felt was lost within current programmes. The growth of these earlier projects was underpinned by the struggle against apartheid. Respondents felt that the more technical focus of current CHW programmes under-utilise a valuable human resource which previously had a much wider social and health impact. These prior experiences and lessons learned could usefully inform policy-making frameworks for CHWs in South Africa today. PMID:20638169

  17. The emergence of community health worker programmes in the late apartheid era in South Africa: An historical analysis.

    PubMed

    van Ginneken, Nadja; Lewin, Simon; Berridge, Virginia

    2010-09-01

    There is re-emerging interest in community health workers (CHWs) as part of wider policies regarding task-shifting within human resources for health. This paper examines the history of CHW programmes established in South Africa in the later apartheid years (1970s-1994) - a time of innovative initiatives. After 1994, the new democratic government embraced primary healthcare (PHC), however CHW initiatives were not included in their health plan and most of these programmes subsequently collapsed. Since then a wide array of disease-focused CHW projects have emerged, particularly within HIV care. Thirteen oral history interviews and eight witness seminars were conducted in South Africa in April 2008 with founders and CHWs from these earlier programmes. These data were triangulated with written primary sources and analysed using thematic content analysis. The study suggests that 1970s-1990s CHW programmes were seen as innovative, responsive, comprehensive and empowering for staff and communities, a focus which respondents felt was lost within current programmes. The growth of these earlier projects was underpinned by the struggle against apartheid. Respondents felt that the more technical focus of current CHW programmes under-utilise a valuable human resource which previously had a much wider social and health impact. These prior experiences and lessons learned could usefully inform policy-making frameworks for CHWs in South Africa today.

  18. An assessment of implementation of Community-Oriented Primary Care in Kenyan family medicine postgraduate medical education programmes

    PubMed Central

    Shabani, Jacob; Taché, Stephanie; Mohamoud, Gulnaz; Mahoney, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Family medicine postgraduate programmes in Kenya are examining the benefits of Community-Oriented Primary Care (COPC) curriculum, as a method to train residents in population-based approaches to health care delivery. Whilst COPC is an established part of family medicine training in the United States, little is known about its application in Kenya. We sought to conduct a qualitative study to explore the development and implementation of COPC curriculum in the first two family medicine postgraduate programmes in Kenya. Method Semi-structured interviews of COPC educators, practitioners, and academic stakeholders and focus groups of postgraduate students were conducted with COPC educators, practitioners and academic stakeholders in two family medicine postgraduate programmes in Kenya. Discussions were transcribed, inductively coded and thematically analysed. Results Two focus groups with eight family medicine postgraduate students and interviews with five faculty members at two universities were conducted. Two broad themes emerged from the analysis: expected learning outcomes and important community-based enablers. Three learning outcomes were (1) making a community diagnosis, (2) understanding social determinants of health and (3) training in participatory research. Three community-based enablers for sustainability of COPC were (1) partnerships with community health workers, (2) community empowerment and engagement and (3) institutional financial support. Conclusions Our findings illustrate the expected learning outcomes and important community-based enablers associated with the successful implementation of COPC projects in Kenya and will help to inform future curriculum development in Kenya. PMID:28155322

  19. Relaunch of the official community health worker programme in Mozambique: is there a sustainable basis for iCCM policy?

    PubMed Central

    Chilundo, Baltazar GM; Cliff, Julie L; Mariano, Alda RE; Rodríguez, Daniela C; George, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Mozambique, integrated community case management (iCCM) of diarrhoea, malaria and pneumonia is embedded in the national community health worker (CHW) programme, mainstreaming it into government policy and service delivery. Since its inception in 1978, the CHW programme has functioned unevenly, was suspended in 1989, but relaunched in 2010. To assess the long-term success of iCCM in Mozambique, this article addresses whether the current CHW programme exhibits characteristics that facilitate or impede its sustainability. Methodology: We undertook a qualitative case study based on document review (n = 54) and key informant interviews (n = 21) with respondents from the Ministry of Health (MOH), multilateral and bilateral agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Maputo in 2012. Interviews were mostly undertaken in Portuguese and all were coded using NVivo. A sustainability framework guided thematic analysis according to nine domains: strategic planning, organizational capacity, programme adaptation, programme monitoring and evaluation, communications, funding stability, political support, partnerships and public health impact. Results: Government commitment was high, with the MOH leading a consultative process in Maputo and facilitating successful technical coordination. The MOH made strategic decisions to pay CHWs, authorize their prescribing abilities, foster guidance development, support operational planning and incorporate previously excluded ‘old’ CHWs. Nonetheless, policy negotiations excluded certain key actors and uncertainty remains about CHW integration into the civil service and their long-term retention. In addition, reliance on NGOs and donor funding has led to geographic distortions in scaling up, alongside challenges in harmonization. Finally, dependence on external funding, when both external and government funding are declining, may hamper sustainability. Conclusions: Our analysis represents a nuanced assessment of the

  20. Sex and Relationships Education in Schools--Evaluation of a Pilot Programme for the Certification of Community Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, Helen; Tyrer, Paul; Aggleton, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Objective: In support of the UK Government's teenage pregnancy and sexual health strategies, a certificated programme of professional development for school nurses and other community nurses was developed to provide support for personal, social and health education (PSHE) work, including sex and relationships education (SRE), for young people.…

  1. Community Development Workers Programme: Mentoring for Social Transformation in the Public Service in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geber, Hilary; Motlhake, Bona

    2008-01-01

    The new public sector community development workers (CDWs) programme was established in 2004 following ineffective service delivery through chronic under-spending on annual budgets in post-apartheid South Africa. CDWs receive training in learnerships within the National Skills Development Strategy to ensure access to and spending of local…

  2. Impact of a District-Wide Diabetes Prevention Programme Involving Health Education for Children and the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeladevi, Sethu; Sagar, Jayanthi; Pujari, Siddharth; Rani, Padmaja Kumari

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To present results from a district-wide diabetes prevention programme involving health education for school children and the local community. Method: The model of health education that was utilized aimed to secure lifestyle changes and the identification of diabetes risk by school children (aged 9-12 years). The children acted as health…

  3. Multi-Scale Analysis of the European Airspace Using Network Community Detection

    PubMed Central

    Gurtner, Gérald; Vitali, Stefania; Cipolla, Marco; Lillo, Fabrizio; Mantegna, Rosario Nunzio; Miccichè, Salvatore; Pozzi, Simone

    2014-01-01

    We show that the European airspace can be represented as a multi-scale traffic network whose nodes are airports, sectors, or navigation points and links are defined and weighted according to the traffic of flights between the nodes. By using a unique database of the air traffic in the European airspace, we investigate the architecture of these networks with a special emphasis on their community structure. We propose that unsupervised network community detection algorithms can be used to monitor the current use of the airspace and improve it by guiding the design of new ones. Specifically, we compare the performance of several community detection algorithms, both with fixed and variable resolution, and also by using a null model which takes into account the spatial distance between nodes, and we discuss their ability to find communities that could be used to define new control units of the airspace. PMID:24809991

  4. [Demographic and ideational change in the European Community].

    PubMed

    Lesthaeghe, R; Meekers, D

    1987-01-01

    "It is argued in this article that family formation is conditioned not only by economic factors (more particularly changes in opportunity structures for the two sexes), but also by ideational trends. The economic factors could be seen as responsible for period fluctuations that are superimposed on a long term ideationally driven trend with marked cohort contrasts. Value orientations are explored and compared across countries and age groups using the international data set of the European Values Studies. The analysis identifies a scale for the degree of tolerance towards non-conformism (e.g. divorce, abortion, one-parent family, rejection of marriage as an institution...) and the meaning of parenthood. Both are related to a set of other scales (religiosity, morality, leftism, nationalism, materialism, etc.). Theoretical links are also established with the theories of, respectively, Easterlin and Simons concerning the reasons for the recent fertility decline in the West." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE)

  5. A new one year interuniversity Master Programme in Water Resources Management in the French speaking community of Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dassargues, A.; Vanclooster, M.; Xanthoulis, D.; Descy, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    A new one year interuniversity Master Programme in Water Resources Management, organised within the French speaking Community of Belgium is presented. This new programme was launched in September 08. The programme is jointly organised by the « Académie Wallonie-Europe » and the « Académie Louvain ». The programme aims advanced training in the domain of water resources management, targeted to a French speaking audience of undergraduate and graduate students, as well as professionals working in the water sector area. During the training, emphasis is put on the understanding of the processes that determine the fluxes in terrestrial hydrosystems (quantitative and qualitative fluxes). Emphasis is also put on the assessment of different components of the hydrosystem (monitoring and data analysis) and the predictive modelling of the hydrosystem supporting optimal water management. The programme includes both advanced training in basic disciplines related to hydrological sciences (hydrology, climatology, hydrogeology, unsaturated zone hydrology, hydrobiology) and inter-disciplinary training in water resources management. The interdisciplinary teaching team includes hydrogeologists, agronomists, hydrologists, climatologists, hydraulic engineers, hydrobiologists and hydrogeophysicists from the four participating universities. Practical exercises and field work are included in the teaching modules and the master thesis work is oriented towards practical water management problems. The programme is accessible to undergraduate students holding an initial master degree in sciences, applied sciences and engineering. Particular attention is devoted to recruit students from French speaking developing countries.

  6. Hepatitis B and C surveillance and screening programmes in the non-EU/EEA Member States of the WHO European Region: survey findings from 10 countries, 2012.

    PubMed

    Mozalevskis, Antons; Eramova, Irina; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2016-06-02

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemics warrant a comprehensive response based on reliable population-level information about transmission, disease progression and disease burden, with national surveillance systems playing a major role. In order to shed light on the status of surveillance in countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region outside of the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA), we surveyed 18 countries in Central and Eastern Europe. Among the 10 countries that responded, the common features of many surveillance systems included mandatory surveillance, passive case-finding and the reporting of both acute and chronic HBV and HCV. Only some countries had surveillance systems that incorporated the tracking of associated conditions and outcomes such as cirrhosis and liver transplantation. Screening programmes for some key populations appeared to be in place in many countries, but there may be gaps in relation to screening programmes for people who inject drugs, prisoners, sex workers and men who have sex with men. Nonetheless, important components of a surveillance structure are in place in the responding study countries. It is advisable to build on this structure to develop harmonised HBV and HCV surveillance for all 53 Member States of the WHO European Region following the example of the system recently instituted in EU/EEA countries.

  7. Agriculture, Communities, and New Social Movements: East European Ruralities in the Process of Restructuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorlach, Krzysztof; Lostak, Michal; Mooney, Patrick H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the usefulness of the new social movements (NSMs) paradigm in the changing context of East European post-communist societies and their agricultural systems and rural communities. Starting with statements formulated in Western sociology in the context of Western democratic societies about NSMs as a protest against modernity, the…

  8. Training of pathologists in countries belonging to the European Economic Community.

    PubMed Central

    Rinsler, M G

    1977-01-01

    The regulations and procedures for the training and assessment of pathologists engaged in morbid anatomy and histology, medical microbiology, haematology, and clinical chemistry in the countries of the European Economic Community are reviewed. Differences in the terminology used in the description of pathological disciplines are noted. Suggestions are made by which harmonisation of training, which is an EEC objective, could be achieved. PMID:334802

  9. The European Schools: Perspectives of Parents as Participants in a Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez, María A.; Hetterschijt, Caroline; Iglesias, Marcos J.

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of schools as communities of learning and practice, the purpose of the research upon which this article is based has been to analyze the perceptions of families with respect to the strengths, weaknesses, and challenges of the European Schools. The findings of the research show that parents value highly the existence of the…

  10. Valvular heart disease in the community: a European experience.

    PubMed

    Iung, Bernard; Baron, Gabriel; Tornos, Pilar; Gohlke-Bärwolf, Christa; Butchart, Eric G; Vahanian, Alec

    2007-11-01

    The Euro Heart Survey on valvular heart disease included 5001 patients from 92 centers in 25 European countries in 2001: 71.9% had native valve disease and 28.1% had previously undergone valve surgery. Aortic stenosis (AS) and mitral regurgitation (MR) accounted for 43.1 and 33.6%, respectively, of single-valve diseases and were mostly caused by degenerative diseases. Mean age was 69 and 65 years, respectively, and at least one comorbidity was present in 36.3% of patients with AS and 41.7% with MR. Analysis of the therapeutic decision in patients with severe valve diseases showed that symptomatic patients were frequently denied surgery (32.3% in AS after the age of 75 and 51.3% in MR), more on the basis of age and left ventricular function than comorbidities. There was a better concordance between practice and guidelines concerning interventions in asymptomatic patients. These findings underline the need for better implementation of guidelines.

  11. The Community Structure of the European Network of Interlocking Directorates 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Heemskerk, Eelke M.; Daolio, Fabio; Tomassini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The boards of directors at large European companies overlap with each other to a sizable extent both within and across national borders. This could have important economic, political and management consequences. In this work we study in detail the topological structure of the networks that arise from this phenomenon. Using a comprehensive information database, we reconstruct the implicit networks of shared directorates among the top 300 European firms in 2005 and 2010, and suggest a number of novel ways to explore the trans-nationality of such business elite networks. Powerful community detection heuristics indicate that geography still plays an important role: there exist clear communities and they have a distinct national character. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2010 we observe a densification of the boards interlocks network and a larger transnational orientation in its communities. Together with central actors and assortativity analyses, we provide statistical evidence that, at the level of corporate governance, Europe is getting closer. PMID:23894318

  12. Developing national best practice recommendations for harm reduction programmes: Lessons learned from a community-based project.

    PubMed

    Watson, Tara Marie; Strike, Carol; Challacombe, Laurel; Demel, Geoff; Heywood, Diana; Zurba, Nadia

    2017-03-01

    Through promotion of consistent, evidence-based policy and practice, best practice recommendations can improve service delivery. Nationally relevant best practice recommendations, including guidance for programmes that provide service to people who use drugs, are often created and disseminated by government departments or other national organisations. However, funding priorities do not always align with stakeholder- and community-identified needs for such recommendations, particularly in the case of harm reduction. We achieved success in developing and widely disseminating best practice documents for Canadian harm reduction programmes by bringing together a multi-stakeholder, cross-regional team of people with relevant and diverse experience and expertise. In this commentary, we summarise key elements of our experience to contribute to the literature more detailed and transparent dialogue about team processes that hold much promise for developing best practice resources. We describe our project's community-based principles and process of working together (e.g., regularly scheduled teleconferences to overcome geographic distance and facilitate engagement), and integrate post-project insights shared by our team members. Although we missed some opportunities for power-sharing with our community partners, overall team members expressed that the project offered them valuable opportunities to learn from each other. We aim to provide practical considerations for researchers, other stakeholders, and community members who are planning or already engaged in a process of developing best practice recommendations for programmes and interventions that address drug use.

  13. Perceptions of and attitudes to the compulsory community service programme for therapists in KwaZulu-Natal.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nasim Banu; Knight, Stephen; Esterhuizen, Tonya

    2009-01-01

    The success of Community Service programmes initiated globally to recruit health care professionals to provide services in under-served or rural areas depends largely on their attitudes, understanding of the programme's objectives, preparedness for working in these areas and their adaptability. This study assessed rehabilitation therapists' perception and attitude on commencement and completion of their compulsory Community Service programme in KwaZulu-Natal in 2005. Repeat observational cross sectional studies were conducted. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by all therapists on commencement and after completion of their Community Service. The proportion of therapists who indicated that they would work in the public sector in future declined from 50% at onset to 35% by exit and fewer (24%) said they would work in a rural area. Collecting a rural allowance was not associated (p = 0.78) with an expressed interest to work in a rural area or remain at the same institution (p = 0.32). There were significant differences in support and supervision provided between the professional groups (p < 0.001). Particular concerns centred on limited infrastructural support, supervision, training, resources available and language barriers in delivering a better rehabilitation service. Despite the challenges faced, Community Service therapists felt that they had made a difference and that their experience had been personally and professionally rewarding.

  14. [Marketing of medicinal products in the European Community. The Mutual Recognition and Decentralised Procedures].

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Peter

    2008-07-01

    The Mutual Recognition Procedure (MRP) and the Decentralised Procedure (DCP), which were first established in late 2005, can be regarded as the backbone for marketing authorisation of medicinal products in the European Community (EC) and the European Economic Area (EEA). Both procedures are compared and advantages and disadvantages are discussed. However, the focus is more related to current developments than the detailed comparison of both procedures. The role of the Coordination Group for Mutual Recognition and Decentralised Procedures-Human (CMD(h)) and the decision making process in relation to the MRP and DCP is also discussed.

  15. Changes in morbidity and mortality during comprehensive community programme to control cardiovascular diseases during 1972-7 in North Karelia.

    PubMed Central

    Salonen, J T; Puska, P; Mustaniemi, H

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive community programme studying the control of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) was carried out in North Karelia, Finland, between 1972 and 1977. The main objective was to reduce the mortality and morbidity of CVD, particularly in middle-aged men. Changes in the mortality and incidence of CVD were monitored by community-based registers of cases of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke and data on death certificates. During the programme the total mortality in the area decreased by 5% and the mortality from CVD decreased by 13% among men and 31% among women aged 30-64 years. The incidence of AMI fell by 16% among men and 5% among women, while that of cerebral stroke fell by 38% among men and 50% among women. Changes in mortality in North Karelia were compared with those in a matched control area; the difference between the two areas was not significant. The true effect of the programme cannot be deduced from these results, but mortality from CVD and the incidence of AMI and stroke fell during the five years studied. Thus the changes in mortality and morbidity of CVD accorded with the initial objectives of the programme. PMID:519352

  16. Mobile phone short message service messaging for behaviour modification in a community-based weight control programme in Korea.

    PubMed

    Joo, Nam-Seok; Kim, Bom-Taeck

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a community-based anti-obesity programme using mobile phone short message service (SMS) messaging. A total of 927 participants were recruited and visited a public health centre for initial assessment. Mobile phones were used to deliver short messages about diet, exercise and behaviour modification once a week. After a 12-week anti-obesity programme they visited the public health centre again. Four hundred and thirty-three subjects (47%) successfully completed their weight control programme. There were mean reductions of weight, waist circumference and body mass index of 1.6 kg (P < 0.001), 4.3 cm (P < 0.001) and 0.6 kg/m(2) (P < 0.001), respectively. Over two-thirds of the subjects had a reduction in waist circumference of 5-7.5 cm. A post-intervention survey showed that the majority of participants were satisfied with the weekly SMS messages and information brochures delivered by post. SMS messaging may be an effective method of behaviour modification in weight control and anti-obesity health education programmes when promoted by community health centres.

  17. Filling the observational void: Scientific value and quantitative validation of hydrometeorological data from a community-based monitoring programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, David; Forsythe, Nathan; Parkin, Geoff; Gowing, John

    2016-07-01

    This study shows how community-based hydrometeorological monitoring programmes can provide reliable high-quality measurements comparable to formal observations. Time series of daily rainfall, river stage and groundwater levels obtained by a local community in Dangila woreda, northwest Ethiopia, have passed accepted quality control standards and have been statistically validated against formal sources. In a region of low-density and declining formal hydrometeorological monitoring networks, a situation shared by much of the developing world, community-based monitoring can fill the observational void providing improved spatial and temporal characterisation of rainfall, river flow and groundwater levels. Such time series data are invaluable in water resource assessment and management, particularly where, as shown here, gridded rainfall datasets provide gross under or over estimations of rainfall and where groundwater level data are non-existent. Discussions with the local community during workshops held at the setup of the monitoring programme and since have demonstrated that the community have become engaged in the project and have benefited from a greater hydrological knowledge and sense of ownership of their resources. This increased understanding and empowerment is at the relevant scale required for effective community-based participatory management of shallow groundwater and river catchments.

  18. A community empowerment strategy embedded in a routine dengue vector control programme: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Castro, Marta; Sánchez, Lizet; Pérez, Dennis; Carbonell, Nestor; Lefèvre, Pierre; Vanlerberghe, Veerle; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2012-05-01

    The non-sustainability of vertically organised dengue vector control programmes led to pleas for changing the emphasis towards community-based strategies. We conducted a cluster randomised controlled trial with 16 intervention and 16 control clusters to test the effectiveness of a community empowerment strategy intertwined with the routine dengue vector control programme in La Lisa, Havana City, Cuba. The intervention included four components on top of routine control: organisation and management; entomological risk surveillance; capacity building; and community work for vector control. In the control clusters, routine activities continued without interference. The community participation score increased from 1.4 to 3.4. Good knowledge of breeding sites increased by 52.8% and 27.5% in the intervention and control clusters, respectively. There were no changes in adequate Aedes aegypti control practices at household level in the control clusters, but in the intervention clusters adequacy increased by 36.2%. At baseline, the Breteau indices (BI) were approximately 0.1 and were comparable; they fluctuated over time but became different with the launch of the community-based dengue control activities in the intervention clusters. Over the intervention period, the BI remained 53% (95% CI 22-92%) lower in these clusters than in the control clusters. The empowerment strategy increased community involvement and added effectiveness to routine A. aegypti control.

  19. Information system needs in health promotion: a case study of the Safe Community programme using requirements engineering methods.

    PubMed

    Timpka, Toomas; Olvander, Christina; Hallberg, Niklas

    2008-09-01

    The international Safe Community programme was used as the setting for a case study to explore the need for information system support in health promotion programmes. The 14 Safe Communities active in Sweden during 2002 were invited to participate and 13 accepted. A questionnaire on computer usage and a critical incident technique instrument were distributed. Sharing of management information, creating social capital for safety promotion, and injury data recording were found to be key areas that need to be further supported by computer-based information systems. Most respondents reported having access to a personal computer workstation with standard office software. Interest in using more advanced computer applications was low, and there was considerable need for technical user support. Areas where information systems can be used to make health promotion practice more efficient were identified, and patterns of computers usage were described.

  20. The European Bioanalysis Forum community's evaluation, interpretation and implementation of the European Medicines Agency guideline on Bioanalytical Method Validation.

    PubMed

    van Amsterdam, Peter; Companjen, Arjen; Brudny-Kloeppel, Margarete; Golob, Michaela; Luedtke, Silke; Timmerman, Philip

    2013-03-01

    The European Medicines Agency's (EMA) 2011 guideline on bioanalytical method validation (BMV) was evaluated and subsequently intensely discussed by the European Bioanalysis Forum (EBF) during a 2-day workshop (EBF Workshop on the implementation of the EMA guideline on BMV, Château de Limelette, Limelette, Belgium, 15-16 March 2012). The goal of the evaluation and discussions was to come to a uniform interpretation of the guideline and thus to help facilitate a smooth implementation at our laboratories. Up front preparations for the workshop by dedicated teams concentrated on challenges on implementation: ambiguities, technical or operational challenges and issues in general. In addition, common understandings were identified as well as main differences to the 2011 US FDA guideline. The guideline was perceived as being well written with a clear structure, separating method validation from sample analysis and treating all relevant aspects one-by-one in a logical order. It is the first BMV guideline clearly addressing the specifics for ligand binding assays and it shows a good match with current scientific thinking. The EBF community considers the EMA BMV guideline an excellent basis for countries that are in the process of developing or updating their own BMV guideline.

  1. Prospects for European Research and Development in Training & Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiting, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines the prospects for research and development in the education and training fields offered by the European Communities. The position of the EC is explained in relation to the existing and forthcoming Framework Programmes of research and development. The 1987-91 Framework Programme has committed most of its funding to existing…

  2. Evaluation of RugbySmart: a rugby union community injury prevention programme.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, Simon M; Quarrie, Ken L; Hume, Patria A

    2009-05-01

    RugbySmart, a rugby union injury prevention programme, was launched in New Zealand in 2001. It was compulsory for all coaches and referees to complete RugbySmart requirements annually in order to continue coaching or refereeing. After 5 years of implementation the programme partners, Accident Compensation Corporation and New Zealand Rugby Union, evaluated RugbySmart to determine its effectiveness in reducing injuries. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of RugbySmart on reducing injury rates per 100,000 players and resulting injury prevention behaviours. The RugbySmart programme was associated with a decrease in injury claims per 100,000 players in most areas the programme targeted; the programme had negligible impact on non-targeted injury sites. The decrease in injury claims numbers was supported by results from the player behaviour surveys pre- and post-RugbySmart. There was an increase in safe behaviour in the contact situations of tackle, scrum and ruck technique.

  3. Evaluation after five years of the cancer genetic counselling programme of Valencian Community (Eastern Spain).

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Cuerda, Dolores; Salas-Trejo, Dolores

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the cancer genetic counselling programme in Valencian Community using intermediate indicators. Descriptive analysis of organisational and effectiveness indicators from the start in 2005 until December 2010: correct referral of patients according to the area from where they were referred (primary or hospital-based care) and syndrome; families identified as having each syndrome; suitability of the genetic testing for individuals with a cancer diagnosis (index cases, IC) and relatives of ICs with mutations; family size; and results of genetic testing on genes, ICs and relatives. 9,942 individuals attended, 87.7 % were referred by hospital-based care and 8.4 % by primary care. 7,516 patients (79 %) fulfilled cancer genetic counselling criteria (82 % from hospital-based care and 46 % from primary care). Amongst those who fulfilled the criteria, 59 % of referrals were related to hereditary breast ovarian cancer syndrome and 32 % to hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. ICs were found in 3,082 families (78.7 %) and genetic testing was carried out on 91.3 % of them. Pathogenic mutations were detected in 21.8 % of the ICs and the testing was then offered to their relatives (an average of 3 per IC). Pathogenic mutations were found in 54 % of the assessed relatives. Results in 5 years confirm the appropriateness of these facilities, as part of an integrated health service, to identify families and individuals with genetic risk to offer them personalized counselling. Improvements have to be made with regard to the information given to both health professionals and patients about the risk criteria for various syndromes.

  4. "Fortress Europe" and the moral debt burden: immigration from the "South" to the European Economic Community.

    PubMed

    Brochmann, G

    1991-01-01

    In light of the opening of the borders within the EC, scheduled for January 1993, this article "discusses the prospects in Europe concerning immigration from third [world] countries in relation to the internal market, the border control issue and the general policies towards non-EC nationals living within the community. The paper will concentrate on immigration from the 'South', discussing the preconditions for various forms of influx from poor countries in the Third World to the European Community. Attention will also be paid to the conception of the problem in the West, and to the prevailing policy proposals at national and European level. It is contended that development aid will not be a sufficient medicine to curb the immigration pressure in the future."

  5. Making european-style community wind power development work in theUnited States

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark A.

    2004-04-26

    Once primarily a European phenomenon, community wind power development--defined here as one or more locally owned, utility-scale wind turbines interconnected on either the customer or utility side of the meter--is gaining a foothold in an increasing number of states throughout the United States. This article describes the various policies and incentives that Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Massachusetts are using to support community wind power development, and how state and federal support influences the types of projects and ownership structures that are being developed. Experience in these states demonstrates that, with an array of incentives and creative financing schemes targeted at community-scale projects, there are opportunities to make community wind work in the United States.

  6. Pupil Exchange in the European Community Venice Colloquium (October 24-28, 1977). Collection Studies. Education Series No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Luxembourg).

    This publication contains the papers of the Venice Colloquium held in October, 1977 by educators from European countries to discuss the topic of visits and exchanges for pupils. There are seven chapters. Chapter one discusses the context and objectives of the colloquium. Chapter two describes pupil visits and exchanges in the European community.…

  7. Public preferences for vaccination programmes during pandemics caused by pathogens transmitted through respiratory droplets - a discrete choice experiment in four European countries, 2013.

    PubMed

    Determann, Domino; Korfage, Ida J; Fagerlin, Angela; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Bliemer, Michiel C; Voeten, Helene A; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Lambooij, Mattijs S; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W

    2016-06-02

    This study aims to quantify and compare preferences of citizens from different European countries for vaccination programme characteristics during pandemics, caused by pathogens which are transmitted through respiratory droplets. Internet panel members, nationally representative based on age, sex, educational level and region, of four European Union Member States (Netherlands, Poland, Spain, and Sweden, n = 2,068) completed an online discrete choice experiment. These countries, from different geographical areas of Europe, were chosen because of the availability of high-quality Internet panels and because of the cooperation between members of the project entitled Effective Communication in Outbreak Management: development of an evidence-based tool for Europe (ECOM). Data were analysed using panel latent class regression models. In the case of a severe pandemic scenario, vaccine effectiveness was the most important characteristic determining vaccination preference in all countries, followed by the body that advises on vaccination. In Sweden, the advice of family and/or friends and the advice of physicians strongly affected vaccine preferences, in contrast to Poland and Spain, where the advice of (international) health authorities was more decisive. Irrespective of pandemic scenario or vaccination programme characteristics, the predicted vaccination uptakes were lowest in Sweden, and highest in Poland. To increase vaccination uptake during future pandemics, the responsible authorities should align with other important stakeholders in the country and communicate in a coordinated manner.

  8. Changes in hardwood forest understory plant communities in response to European earthworm invasions.

    PubMed

    Hale, Cindy M; Frelich, Lee E; Reich, Peter B

    2006-07-01

    European earthworms are colonizing earthworm-free northern hardwood forests across North America. Leading edges of earthworm invasion provide an opportunity to investigate the response of understory plant communities to earthworm invasion and whether the species composition of the earthworm community influences that response. Four sugar maple-dominated forest sites with active earthworm invasions were identified in the Chippewa National Forest in north central Minnesota, USA. In each site, we established a 30 x 150 m sample grid that spanned a visible leading edge of earthworm invasion and sampled earthworm populations and understory vegetation over four years. Across leading edges of earthworm invasion, increasing total earthworm biomass was associated with decreasing diversity and abundance of herbaceous plants in two of four study sites, and the abundance and density of tree seedlings decreased in three of four study sites. Sample points with the most diverse earthworm species assemblage, independent of biomass, had the lowest plant diversity. Changes in understory plant community composition were most affected by increasing biomass of the earthworm species Lumbricus rubellus. Where L. rubellus was absent there was a diverse community of native herbaceous plants, but where L. rubellus biomass reached its maximum, the herbaceous-plant community was dominated by Carex pensylvanica and Arisaema triphyllum and, in some cases, was completely absent. Evidence from these forest sites suggests that earthworm invasion can lead to dramatic changes in the understory community and that the nature of these changes is influenced by the species composition of the invading earthworm community.

  9. The Innovative Medicines Initiative's New Drugs for Bad Bugs programme: European public-private partnerships for the development of new strategies to tackle antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Kostyanev, T; Bonten, M J M; O'Brien, S; Steel, H; Ross, S; François, B; Tacconelli, E; Winterhalter, M; Stavenger, R A; Karlén, A; Harbarth, S; Hackett, J; Jafri, H S; Vuong, C; MacGowan, A; Witschi, A; Angyalosi, G; Elborn, J S; deWinter, R; Goossens, H

    2016-02-01

    Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is a global public health threat. Despite the emergence of highly resistant organisms and the huge medical need for new drugs, the development of antibacterials has slowed to an unacceptable level worldwide. Numerous government and non-government agencies have called for public-private partnerships and innovative funding mechanisms to address this problem. To respond to this public health crisis, the Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Undertaking programme has invested more than €660 million, with a goal of matched contributions from the European Commission and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations, in the development of new antibacterial strategies. The New Drugs for Bad Bugs (ND4BB) programme, an Innovative Medicines Initiative, has the ultimate goal to boost the fight against ABR at every level from basic science and drug discovery, through clinical development to new business models and responsible use of antibiotics. Seven projects have been launched within the ND4BB programme to achieve this goal. Four of them will include clinical trials of new anti-infective compounds, as well as epidemiological studies on an unprecedented scale, which will increase our knowledge of ABR and specific pathogens, and improve the designs of the clinical trials with new investigational drugs. The need for rapid concerted action has driven the funding of seven topics, each of which should add significantly to progress in the fight against ABR. ND4BB unites expertise and provides a platform where the commitment and resources required by all parties are streamlined into a joint public-private partnership initiative of unprecedented scale.

  10. Improving the performance of community health workers in humanitarian emergencies: a realist evaluation protocol for the PIECES programme

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Brynne; Adams, Ben Jack; Bartoloni, Alex; Alhaydar, Bana; McAuliffe, Eilish; Raven, Joanna; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Vallières, Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Understanding what enhances the motivation and performance of community health workers (CHWs) in humanitarian emergencies represents a key research gap within the field of human resources for health. This paper presents the research protocol for the Performance ImprovEment of CHWs in Emergency Settings (PIECES) research programme. Enhancing Learning and Research in Humanitarian Action (ELRHA) funded the development of this protocol as part of their Health in Humanitarian Crises (R2HC) call (No.19839). PIECES aims to understand what factors improve the performance of CHWs in level III humanitarian emergencies. Methods and analysis The suggested protocol uses a realist evaluation with multiple cases across the 3 country sites: Turkey, Iraq and Lebanon. Working with International Medical Corps (IMC), an initial programme theory was elicited through literature and document reviews, semistructured interviews and focus groups with IMC programme managers and CHWs. Based on this initial theory, this protocol proposes a combination of semistructured interviews, life histories and critical incident narratives, surveys and latent variable modelling of key constructs to explain how contextual factors work to trigger mechanisms for specific outcomes relating to IMC's 300+ CHWs' performance. Participants will also include programme staff, CHWs and programme beneficiaries. Realist approaches will be used to better understand ‘what works, for whom and under what conditions’ for improving CHW performance within humanitarian contexts. Ethics and dissemination Trinity College Dublin's Health Policy and Management/Centre for Global Health Research Ethics Committee gave ethical approval for the protocol development phase. For the full research project, additional ethical approval will be sought from: Université St. Joseph (Lebanon), the Ethics Committee of the Ministry of Health in Baghdad (Iraq) and the Middle East Technical University (Turkey). Dissemination

  11. Effectiveness of a community-based nutrition programme to improve child growth in rural Ethiopia: a cluster randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunhee; Kim, Sungtae; Sinamo, Sisay; Christian, Parul

    2017-01-01

    Few trials have shown that promoting complementary feeding among young children is effective in improving child linear growth in resource-challenged settings. We designed a community-based participatory nutrition promotion (CPNP) programme adapting a Positive Deviance/Hearth approach that engaged mothers in 2-week nutrition sessions using the principles of 'learning by doing' around child feeding. We aimed to test the effectiveness of the CPNP for improving child growth in rural Ethiopia. A cluster randomized trial was implemented by adding the CPNP to the existing government nutrition programmes (six clusters) vs. government programmes only (six clusters). A total of 1790 children aged 6 to 12 months (876 in the intervention and 914 in the control areas) were enrolled and assessed on anthropometry every 3 months for a year. Multi-level mixed-effect regression analysis of longitudinal outcome data (n = 1475) examined the programme impact on growth, adjusting for clustering and enrollment characteristics. Compared with children 6 to 24 months of age in the control area, those in the intervention area had a greater increase in z scores for length-for-age [difference (diff): 0.021 z score/month, 95% CI: 0.008, 0.034] and weight-for-length (diff: 0.042 z score/month, 95% CI: 0.024, 0.059). At the end of the 12-month follow-up, children in the intervention area showed an 8.1% (P = 0.02) and 6.3% (P = 0.046) lower prevalence of stunting and underweight, respectively, after controlling for differences in the prevalence at enrollment, compared with the control group. A novel CPNP programme was effective in improving child growth and reducing undernutrition in this setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Is my drinking a problem? A community-based alcohol intervention programme post-Haiyan in Tacloban City

    PubMed Central

    Czaicki, Adam Edward; Fabrigas, Gloria; Hall, Julie Lyn

    2015-01-01

    Problem Evidence on alcohol use following disasters is scarce. After Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines we wanted to determine whether there were alcohol-related problems among the disaster survivors and to strengthen the appropriate local health service support in Tacloban City. Context Tacloban City is a highly urbanized city that was one of the areas worst hit by Typhoon Haiyan. Prior to Haiyan there was very little support for people with alcohol problems, and the rehabilitation facility was located about 40 km away. Action A pilot community-based alcohol intervention programme was conducted that included: assessment of the extent of alcohol problems in the community and health-care workers baseline knowledge and skills; training of health-care workers on primary care alcohol intervention provision; and community outreach with post-training supervision. Outcome The alcohol screening found 26 (22%) of those attending health care facilities would benefit from some form of alcohol intervention. Health-care workers knowledge on basic alcohol intervention was low. This was strengthened during the training, and at outreach clinics the trained health-care workers were able to identify people with alcohol problems and provide them with treatment plans. Lessons learnt We learnt that there was a problem with alcohol in Tacloban City and that it was possible to run an alcohol intervention programme in the community using minimal resources. Addressing alcohol-related issues in the community is an important public health intervention. While there is a need for policies and guidelines at the national level, a community-based intervention is possible to establish with referral mechanism to specialized care. Training modules for such programs can be further developed and institutionalized. PMID:26767145

  13. Demand generation and social mobilisation for integrated community case management (iCCM) and child health: Lessons learned from successful programmes in Niger and Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Alyssa B; Martin, Sandrine; Cerveau, Teresa; Wetzler, Erica; Berzal, Rocio

    2014-01-01

    Aim We present the approaches used in and outcomes resulting from integrated community case management (iCCM) programmes in Niger and Mozambique with a strong focus on demand generation and social mobilisation. Methods We use a case study approach to describe the programme and contextual elements of the Niger and Mozambique programmes. Results Awareness and utilisation of iCCM services and key family practices increased following the implementation of the Niger and Mozambique iCCM and child survival programmes, as did care–seeking within 24 hours and care–seeking from appropriate, trained providers in Mozambique. These approaches incorporated interpersonal communication activities and community empowerment/participation for collective change, partnerships and networks among key stakeholder groups within communities, media campaigns and advocacy efforts with local and national leaders. Conclusions iCCM programmes that train and equip community health workers and successfully engage and empower community members to adopt new behaviours, have appropriate expectations and to trust community health workers’ ability to assess and treat illnesses can lead to improved care–seeking and utilisation, and community ownership for iCCM. PMID:25520800

  14. Fine Spatial Scale Variation of Soil Microbial Communities under European Beech and Norway Spruce

    PubMed Central

    Nacke, Heiko; Goldmann, Kezia; Schöning, Ingo; Pfeiffer, Birgit; Kaiser, Kristin; Castillo-Villamizar, Genis A.; Schrumpf, Marion; Buscot, François; Daniel, Rolf; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2016-01-01

    The complex interactions between trees and soil microbes in forests as well as their inherent seasonal and spatial variations are poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the effects of major European tree species (Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies (L.) Karst) on soil bacterial and fungal communities. Mineral soil samples were collected from different depths (0–10, 10–20 cm) and at different horizontal distances from beech or spruce trunks (0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 m) in early summer and autumn. We assessed the composition of soil bacterial and fungal communities based on 16S rRNA gene and ITS DNA sequences. Community composition of bacteria and fungi was most strongly affected by soil pH and tree species. Different ectomycorrhizal fungi (e.g., Tylospora) known to establish mutualistic associations with plant roots showed a tree species preference. Moreover, bacterial and fungal community composition showed spatial and seasonal shifts in soil surrounding beech and spruce. The relative abundance of saprotrophic fungi was higher at a depth of 0–10 vs. 10–20 cm depth. This was presumably a result of changes in nutrient availability, as litter input and organic carbon content decreased with soil depth. Overall bacterial community composition showed strong variations under spruce with increasing distance from the tree trunks, which might be attributed in part to higher fine root biomass near spruce trunks. Furthermore, overall bacterial community composition was strongly affected by season under deciduous trees. PMID:28066384

  15. Examining the evidence of under-five mortality reduction in a community-based programme in Gaza, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Edward, Anbrasi; Ernst, Pieter; Taylor, Carl; Becker, Stan; Mazive, Elisio; Perry, Henry

    2007-08-01

    Effective implementation of programmes with the community Integrated Management of Childhood Illness model has demonstrated improvements in care-seeking behaviours and utilisation of health services. The child survival programme implemented in Chokwe district of Gaza province, Mozambique, achieved high coverage for bed net use (80%), oral rehydration therapy for children with diarrhoea (94%) and prompt care-seeking from trained providers for children with danger signs. The project also instituted a community-based vital registration and health information system for routine surveillance of births, deaths and childhood illnesses using an extensive network of 2300 volunteers. Evidence from this system indicated a 66% reduction in infant mortality and a 62% reduction in under-five mortality. To check the reliability of the findings, an independent mortality assessment was carried out using a pregnancy history questionnaire with a sample population of 998 women using standard methodologies applied in the Demographic and Health Surveys. The mortality survey showed reductions of 49% and 42% in infant and under-five mortality, respectively. The leading causes of death identified by verbal autopsies were malaria (30%), neonatal causes (17%) and pneumonia (21.3%). These findings suggest that effective community-based partnerships that support the delivery of health services can contribute to mortality reductions.

  16. How Community Development Programmes Can Foster Re-Engagement with Learning in Disadvantaged Communities: Leadership as Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Pat; Kilpatrick, Sue

    2005-01-01

    Family and community capacity building projects in Tasmania are attempting to address the disadvantage of communities marginalised by socio-economic and other influences. Collaborations between the projects, community members and groups, and education and training organisations, have resulted in a leadership process which has fostered reengagement…

  17. Acceptability of conditions in a community-led cash transfer programme for orphaned and vulnerable children in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Skovdal, Morten; Robertson, Laura; Mushati, Phyllis; Dumba, Lovemore; Sherr, Lorraine; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that a regular and reliable transfer of cash to households with orphaned and vulnerable children has a strong and positive effect on child outcomes. However, conditional cash transfers are considered by some as particularly intrusive and the question on whether or not to apply conditions to cash transfers is an issue of controversy. Contributing to policy debates on the appropriateness of conditions, this article sets out to investigate the overall buy-in of conditions by different stakeholders and to identify pathways that contribute to an acceptability of conditions. The article draws on data from a cluster-randomized trial of a community-led cash transfer programme in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe. An endpoint survey distributed to 5167 households assessed community members’ acceptance of conditions and 35 in-depth interviews and 3 focus groups with a total of 58 adults and 4 youth examined local perceptions of conditions. The study found a significant and widespread acceptance of conditions primarily because they were seen as fair and a proxy for good parenting or guardianship. In a socio-economic context where child grants are not considered a citizen entitlement, community members and cash transfer recipients valued the conditions associated with these grants. The community members interpreted the fulfilment of the conditions as a proxy for achievement and merit, enabling them to participate rather than sit back as passive recipients of aid. Although conditions have a paternalistic undertone and engender the sceptics’ view of conditions being pernicious and even abominable, it is important to recognize that community members, when given the opportunity to participate in programme design and implementation, can take advantage of conditions and appropriate them in a way that helps them manage change and overcome the social divisiveness or conflict that otherwise may arise when some people are identified to benefit and others not. PMID

  18. Acceptability of conditions in a community-led cash transfer programme for orphaned and vulnerable children in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Skovdal, Morten; Robertson, Laura; Mushati, Phyllis; Dumba, Lovemore; Sherr, Lorraine; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2014-10-01

    Evidence suggests that a regular and reliable transfer of cash to households with orphaned and vulnerable children has a strong and positive effect on child outcomes. However, conditional cash transfers are considered by some as particularly intrusive and the question on whether or not to apply conditions to cash transfers is an issue of controversy. Contributing to policy debates on the appropriateness of conditions, this article sets out to investigate the overall buy-in of conditions by different stakeholders and to identify pathways that contribute to an acceptability of conditions. The article draws on data from a cluster-randomized trial of a community-led cash transfer programme in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe. An endpoint survey distributed to 5167 households assessed community members' acceptance of conditions and 35 in-depth interviews and 3 focus groups with a total of 58 adults and 4 youth examined local perceptions of conditions. The study found a significant and widespread acceptance of conditions primarily because they were seen as fair and a proxy for good parenting or guardianship. In a socio-economic context where child grants are not considered a citizen entitlement, community members and cash transfer recipients valued the conditions associated with these grants. The community members interpreted the fulfilment of the conditions as a proxy for achievement and merit, enabling them to participate rather than sit back as passive recipients of aid. Although conditions have a paternalistic undertone and engender the sceptics' view of conditions being pernicious and even abominable, it is important to recognize that community members, when given the opportunity to participate in programme design and implementation, can take advantage of conditions and appropriate them in a way that helps them manage change and overcome the social divisiveness or conflict that otherwise may arise when some people are identified to benefit and others not.

  19. Empowering European communities to improve natural resource management for human well-being: the OPPLA web portal & communities of practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, M.; Brown, C.; Pérez-Soba, M.; Rounsevell, M.; Verweij, P.; Delbaere, B.; Cojocaru, G.; Saarikoski, H.; Harrison, P.; Zellmer, K.

    2014-12-01

    The ecosystem services concept is seen by many as a useful paradigm to support decision-making at the complex interface between science, policy and practice. However, to be successful, it requires a strong willingness for collaboration and joint understanding. In support of this aspiration, OPPLA is being developed as a web portal to enable European communities to better manage ecosystems for human well-being and livelihoods. OPPLA will provide access to a variety of online resources such as tools, case studies, lessons learned, videos, manuals and training and educational materials. It will also provide expert forums and spaces for discussions between researchers, practitioners and decision makers. Hence a critical aspect of the success of OPPLA is the co-evolution of communities of practice. An example of a community of practice is the recently launched Ecosystem Services Community - Scotland (ESCom-Scotland; escomscotland.wordpress.com). ESCom-Scotland aims to support better management of Scotland's natural resources by helping to establish a community of practice between individuals and groups involved in the science, policy and practice behind sustainable ecosystem management. It aspires to encourage the sharing of ideas, increase collaboration and to initiate a support network for those engaging with the ecosystem services concept and it will use the OPPLA resources to support these activities. OPPLA is currently at the developmental stage and was instigated by two large European Commission funded research projects: OPERAs (www.operas-project.eu) and OpenNESS (www.openness-project.eu), with a combined budget of ca. €24m. These projects aim to improve understanding of how ecosystem services contribute to human well-being in different social-ecological systems. Research will establish whether, how and under what conditions the ecosystem services concept can move beyond the academic domain towards practical implementation in support of sustainable ecosystem

  20. European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management - a new Horizon2020 project to serve the international community and improve the accessibility to gravity field products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeggi, Adrian; Weigelt, Matthias; Flechtner, Frank; Guentner, Andreas; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Martinis, Sandro; Bruinsma, Sean; Flury, Jakob; Bourgogne, Stephane

    2015-04-01

    A proposal for a European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM) has been submitted in response to the Earth Observation Call EO-1-2014 of the Horizon 2020 Framework Programme. EGSIEM shall demonstrate that observations of the redistribution of water and ice mass derived from the current GRACE mission, the future GRACE-FO mission, and additional data provide critical and complementary information to more traditional Earth Observation products and open the door for innovative approaches to flood and drought monitoring and forecasting. The EGSIEM project has recently started in January 2015. We present the three key objectives that EGSIEM shall address: 1) to establish a scientific combination service to deliver the best gravity products for applications in Earth and environmental science research based on the unified knowledge of the European GRACE community, 2) to establish a near real-time and regional service to reduce the latency and increase the temporal resolution of the mass redistribution products, and 3) to establish a hydrological and early warning service to develop gravity-based indicators for extreme hydrological events and to demonstrate their value for flood and drought forecasting and monitoring services. All of these services shall be tailored to the various needs of the respective communities. Significant efforts shall be devoted to transform the service products into user-friendly and easy-to-interpret data sets and the development of visualization tools.

  1. Activities for the Education and Vocational Training of Migrant Workers and Their Families in the European Community. Contribution to the Standing Conference of European Ministers of Education from the European Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    Two major areas of concern related to the education and vocational training of migrant workers and their families are concentrated on in this report: the implementation of action programmes, and the preparation and application of community instruments. Specific regulations and directives of the Council are summarized, showing the intent to…

  2. The Creation of Virtual Communities in a Primary Initial Teacher Training Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Anne; Tanner, Doug; Jessop, Tansy

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the conditions that have facilitated the use of a customised virtual learning environment as part of a blended learning approach on a part-time postgraduate initial teacher training programme for prospective primary school teachers. It is based on data gathered as part of a study of the impact of e-learning on students…

  3. High School Music Programmes as Potential Sites for Communities of Practice--A Canadian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Countryman, June

    2009-01-01

    My exploration of the nature of the high school music experience was undertaken with 33 young adults who had graduated from high school one to six years previous to the data collection. All of these participants had been involved in their school music programmes and 30 had not continued formal music study following graduation. One might predict…

  4. Engaging Parents in Parentline Plus' Time to Talk Community Programme as Part of England's Teenage Pregnancy Strategy: Lessons for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Mairi Ann; Davis, Liz; Lindsay, Geoff; Davis, Hilton

    2012-01-01

    Based on 65 interviews with professionals and parents conducted during 2007-2008, this 16-month, mainly qualitative evaluation of Parentline Plus' Time to Talk Community Programme (a preventative initiative within England's teenage pregnancy strategy) found that a community development approach and an ethos of partnership with parents and…

  5. A long-term macroeconomic equilibrium model for the European Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogner, H. H.

    1982-04-01

    A version of MACRO, a highly aggregated, long-term, two-sector general equilibrium model, developed to examine energy-economy linkage, calibrated for the European community, is presented. Based on a range of energy supply scenarios, the impact of rising energy costs on economic activity, the feasibility of common assumptions about price-induced conservation, and the impact of continued high energy levels of energy imports on trade balance were examined, in order to assess model performance. Results suggest that the model meets the requirements for a consistency check of member country energy strategies.

  6. Community perceptions on malaria and care-seeking practices in endemic Indian settings: policy implications for the malaria control programme

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The focus of India’s National Malaria Programme witnessed a paradigm shift recently from health facility to community-based approaches. The current thrust is on diagnosing and treating malaria by community health workers and prevention through free provision of long-lasting insecticidal nets. However, appropriate community awareness and practice are inevitable for the effectiveness of such efforts. In this context, the study assessed community perceptions and practice on malaria and similar febrile illnesses. This evidence base is intended to direct the roll-out of the new strategies and improve community acceptance and utilization of services. Methods A qualitative study involving 26 focus group discussions and 40 key informant interviews was conducted in two districts of Odisha State in India. The key points of discussion were centred on community perceptions and practice regarding malaria prevention and treatment. Thematic analysis of data was performed. Results The 272 respondents consisted of 50% females, three-quarter scheduled tribe community and 30% students. A half of them were literates. Malaria was reported to be the most common disease in their settings with multiple modes of transmission by the FGD participants. Adoption of prevention methods was seasonal with perceived mosquito density. The reported use of bed nets was low and the utilization was determined by seasonality, affordability, intoxication and alternate uses of nets. Although respondents were aware of malaria-related symptoms, care-seeking from traditional healers and unqualified providers was prevalent. The respondents expressed lack of trust in the community health workers due to frequent drug stock-outs. The major determinants of health care seeking were socio-cultural beliefs, age, gender, faith in the service provider, proximity, poverty, and perceived effectiveness of available services. Conclusion Apart from the socio-cultural and behavioural factors, the availability of

  7. The Future Development of the European Union Education, Training and Youth Programmes After 2006: A Public Consultation Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document launches a wide public consultation with all those involved in and with an interest in the European Union's (EU's) education, training, and youth programs called Socrates, Tempus, Leonardo da Vinci, and Youth for Europe. It is the first step toward preparing the new generation of programs to start in 2007 and will inform the…

  8. The effectiveness and safety of syringe vending machines as a component of needle syringe programmes in community settings.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mofizul; Wodak, Alex; Conigrave, Katherine M

    2008-12-01

    Syringe vending machines (SVMs) have been introduced in Europe and Australasia as part of the effort to increase the availability of sterile needles and syringes to injecting drug users (IDUs). This qualitative review of 14 published and grey literature studies examines whether community-based SVMs as a component of a comprehensive needle syringe programme (NSP) assist to reduce the spread of HIV and other blood-borne viruses amongst IDUs. The available evidence suggests that SVMs increase access to sterile injecting equipment, reduce needle and syringe sharing, and are likely to be cost efficient. SVMs also complement other modes of NSP delivery as they are used by IDUs who are less likely to attend staffed NSPs or pharmacies. If installed and properly maintained in a well-chosen location and with the local community well prepared, SVMs can enhance the temporal and geographical availability of sterile injecting equipment.

  9. Air quality management in the WHO European Region--results of a quality assurance and control programme on air quality monitoring (1994-2004).

    PubMed

    Mücke, Hans-Guido

    2008-07-01

    Since the last decade the WHO Collaborating Centre for Air Quality Management and Air Pollution Control, Berlin, Germany, operates a quality assurance and control (QA/QC) programme on air quality monitoring in the WHO European Region. As main activity Intercomparison workshops have been established for air monitoring network laboratories on a regular basis to harmonise air quality measurements, analysis and calibration techniques. 36 air hygiene laboratories of public health and environmental institutions of 24 countries participated in twelve Intercomparisons between 1994 and 2004. The majority was carried out for NO, NO(2), SO(2) and O(3). The results were predominantly satisfactory for automatic methods. The results of manual methods were mainly in a good, and for several concentration levels partly very good accordance with the data obtained by the monitors.

  10. Field studies to determine mancozeb based spray programmes with minimal impact on predatory mites in European vine cultivation.

    PubMed

    Miles, M; Kemmitt, G

    2005-01-01

    Mancozeb is an ethylene bisdithiocarbamate (EBDC) fungicide with contact activity against a wide range of economically important fungal diseases. Its multi-site mode of action means that to date there have been no recorded incidences of resistance developing despite many years of use on high risk diseases. One such disease, Grape downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) has developed resistance to a number of important oomycete specific fungicides following their introduction onto the market. The role of Mancozeb either as a mixing or alternation partner in helping to manage these resistance situations remains critically important. Historical use patterns for mancozeb in tree and vine crops involved many applications of product at high use rates. Although this gave excellent disease control, a negative impact on predatory mites has been reported by researchers. This has lead to the development of mancozeb spray programmes in vines and other crops with a much reduced impact on predatory mites. A range of field studies was conducted in France, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Spain where either 2 or 4 applications of mancozeb containing products were made per season at different spray timings. These trials covered the representative range of uses, agronomic practices, mite species and geographical locations in Europe. In this paper findings from ten field studies in five different vine growing regions in Europe indicated that two to four applications of mancozeb at 1.6 kg a.i./ha as part of a spray programme caused minimal impact on naturally occurring populations of predatory mites which in turn was compatible with Integrated Pest Management programmes and the conservation of predatory mites.

  11. Ethical and social issues in presymptomatic testing for Huntington's disease: a European Community collaborative study. European Community Huntington's Disease Collaborative Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of social and ethical aspects of presymptomatic testing for Huntington's disease has been carried out, based on data on linked DNA markers, from four major testing centres in different European Community countries (Belgium, Italy, Netherlands, and United Kingdom). Information was available on 603 applicants, with 213 final results given, of which 32% gave an increased risk. A series of specific issues and problems were documented systematically for all applicants, results being given on frequency of occurrence and illustrated by individual case histories. The principal issues could be grouped as problems of inappropriate referral, problems involving relatives, and problems relating to disclosure of results. At least one important problem was encountered in 46% of applicants, emphasising the importance of expert counselling, preparation, and support of applicants, and of close liaison between clinical, counselling, and laboratory staff. The extensive and detailed information available for Huntington's disease from this and other studies will be of considerable value in relation to genetic testing for other late onset genetic disorders and will be even more relevant to Huntington's disease now that specific mutation analysis is possible for this disorder. PMID:8133502

  12. European Extremely Large Telescope: some history, and the scientific community's preferences for wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, Gerard

    2008-04-01

    Extremely expensive new telescopes involve a compromise between the extreme ambitions of the scientific community, whose support justifies the financial costs, and the need to have a telescope design which can actually be built today at appropriate cost. In this article I provide a brief history of the process which built community support in Europe for what has become the European Extremely Large Telescope project (E-ELT). I then review remaining tensions between the community science case and day-one technical performance. While the range of very strong scientific cases which support the E-ELT project will largely be delivered, and lead to a quite outstanding scientific return, there are - as always! - demands for even more impressive performance. In addition to what the E-ELT will deliver, much of the community wants high spatial resolution at wavelengths shorter than one micron. Affordable adaptive optics systems will work best, initially at somewhat longer wavelengths. Planned performance enhancement during its operational life is very desirable in the E-ELT.

  13. Outcomes of interprofessional education for Community Mental Health Services in England: the longitudinal evaluation of a postgraduate programme.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, John; Barnes, Di; Dickinson, Claire; Wooff, David

    2006-03-01

    We report a comprehensive, longitudinal evaluation of a two-year, part-time postgraduate programme designed to enable health and social care professionals in England to work together to deliver new community mental health services, including psychosocial interventions (PSIs). The study tracked three successive cohorts of students (N = 111) through their learning. Outcomes were assessed according to the Kirkpatrick/Barr et al. framework using a mixed methodology, which employed both quantitative measures and interviews. The students evaluated the programme positively and appreciated its focus on interprofessional learning and partnership with services users, but mean levels of stress increased and almost one quarter dropped out. There was considerable evidence of professional stereotyping but little evidence of change in these during the programme. Students reported substantial increases in their knowledge and skills in multidisciplinary team working and use of PSIs (p < 0.001). Experiences in the implementation of learning varied; in general, students reported significantly greater role conflict (p = 0.01) compared to a sample of their team colleagues (N = 62), but there was strong evidence from self-report measures (p < 0.001) and work-place interviews that the students' use of PSIs had increased. Users with severe mental health problems (N = 72) randomly selected from caseloads of two cohorts of students improved over six months in terms of their social functioning (p = 0.047) and life satisfaction (p = 0.014). Having controlled statistically for differences in baseline score, those in the intervention (programme) group retained a significant advantage in terms of life skills (p < 0.001) compared to service users in two non-intervention comparison groups (N = 133). Responses on a user-defined measure indicated a high level of satisfaction with students' knowledge, skills and personal qualities. We conclude that that there is strong evidence that a well

  14. "Community Connections": A Programme to Enhance Domestic and International Students' Educational Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Ruth; Clayton, Veronica

    2011-01-01

    It has been widely acknowledged that an important indicator of a successful sojourn for international students is social integration into the host community. Despite seemingly regular opportunities to integrate, many international students report that their interactions with local residents remain superficial. The "Community Connections"…

  15. Community Participation in Rural Ecuador's School Feeding Programme: A Health Promoting School Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Irene; Simovska, Venka

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the debate concerning community participation in school-based health education and health promotion, with regard to food and nutrition. Design/methodology/approach: Based on empirical data generated over the course of one year of fieldwork in three rural communities and schools in Ecuador, the…

  16. Can certified health professionals treat obesity in a community-based programme? A quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Miedema, Baukje; Reading, Stacey A; Hamilton, Ryan A; Morrison, Katherine S; Thompson, Ashley E

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the effectiveness of a non-pharmaceutical programme for obese participants in a rural Eastern Canadian Province using certified health professionals. Design A prospective quasi-experimental design with repeated premeasure and postmeasure. Participants 146 participants with obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m2) from rural and urban communities in an Eastern Canadian Province were divided into four groups. Intervention A 6-month intensive active community-based lifestyle intervention (InI) delivered by Certified Exercise Physiologists, Certified Personal Trainers and Registered Dietitians, followed by 6 months of self-management. A second intervention (InII) was nested in InI and consisted of group-mediated cognitive–behavioral intervention (GMCBI) delivered by an exercise psychologist to two of the four InI groups. Outcomes (1) Improving health outcomes among the participants’ preactive and postactive 6-month intervention and self-management period, (2) Documenting the impact of InII (GMCBI) and location of the intervention (urban vs rural). Results The 6-month active InI significantly improved cardiovascular health for participants who completed the intervention. InII (GMCBI) significantly lowered the attrition rate among the participants. The self-management period was challenging for the participants and they did not make further gains; however, most were able to maintain the gains achieved during the active intervention. The location of the intervention, urban or rural, had little impact on outcomes. Conclusions A community-based programme utilising healthcare professionals other than physicians to treat obese patients was effective based on premeasure and postmeasure. During the self-management phase, the participants were able to maintain the gains. Psychological support is essential to participant retention. PMID:25652801

  17. The European Union Committee of Experts on Rare Diseases: three productive years at the service of the rare disease community.

    PubMed

    Aymé, Ségolène; Rodwell, Charlotte

    2014-02-28

    The European Union Committee of Experts on Rare Diseases was entrusted with aiding the European Commission in a number of tasks, ranging from the monitoring of initiatives, to recommending improvements and actions to be pursued in the future, in addition to helping strengthen liaison at both European and International levels in the field of rare diseases. The three-year mandate of the EUCERD drew to a close in July 2013 with an impressive record. The EUCERD has laid down the foundations for future work so as to continue to advance in the key areas that have been identified as of interest for the rare disease community at large: centres of expertise, European Reference Networks, patient registries and databases, newborn screening, and indicators for national rare disease plans/strategies. The work of the Committee should now be continued by the newly formed European Commission Expert Group on Rare Diseases.

  18. Cost of malaria control in China: Henan's consolidation programme from community and government perspectives.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Sukhan; Sleigh, Adrian C.; Liu, Xi-Li

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assist with strategic planning for the eradication of malaria in Henan Province, China, which reached the consolidation phase of malaria control in 1992, when only 318 malaria cases were reported. METHODS: We conducted a prospective two-year study of the costs for Henan's malaria control programme. We used a cost model that could also be applied to other malaria programmes in mainland China, and analysed the cost of the three components of Henan's malaria programme: suspected malaria case management, vector surveillance, and population blood surveys. Primary cost data were collected from the government, and data on suspected malaria patients were collected in two malaria counties (population 2 093 100). We enlisted the help of 260 village doctors in six townships or former communes (population 247 762), and studied all 12 325 reported cases of suspected malaria in their catchment areas in 1994 and 1995. FINDINGS: The average annual government investment in malaria control was estimated to be US$ 111 516 (case-management 59%; active blood surveys 25%; vector surveillance 12%; and contingencies and special projects 4%). The average cost (direct and indirect) for patients seeking treatment for suspected malaria was US$ 3.48, equivalent to 10 days' income for rural residents. Each suspected malaria case cost the government an average of US$ 0.78. CONCLUSION: Further cuts in government funding will increase future costs when epidemic malaria returns; investment in malaria control should therefore continue at least at current levels of US$ 0.03 per person at risk. PMID:12219157

  19. Wild European Apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) Population Dynamics: Insight from Genetics and Ecology in the Rhine Valley. Priorities for a Future Conservation Programme

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzler, Annik; Arnold, Claire; Cornille, Amandine; Bachmann, Olivier; Schnitzler, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The increasing fragmentation of forest habitats and the omnipresence of cultivars potentially threaten the genetic integrity of the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill). However, the conservation status of this species remains unclear in Europe, other than in Belgium and the Czech Republic, where it has been declared an endangered species. The population density of M. sylvestris is higher in the forests of the upper Rhine Valley (France) than in most European forests, with an unbalanced age-structure, an overrepresentation of adults and a tendency to clump. We characterize here the ecology, age-structure and genetic diversity of wild apple populations in the Rhine Valley. We use these data to highlight links to the history of this species and to propose guidelines for future conservation strategies. In total, 255 individual wild apple trees from six forest stands (five floodplain forests and one forest growing in drier conditions) were analysed in the field, collected and genotyped on the basis of data for 15 microsatellite markers. Genetic analyses showed no escaped cultivars and few hybrids with the cultivated apple. Excluding the hybrids, the genetically “pure” populations displayed high levels of genetic diversity and a weak population structure. Age-structure and ecology studies of wild apple populations identified four categories that were not randomly distributed across the forests, reflecting the history of the Rhine forest over the last century. The Rhine wild apple populations, with their ecological strategies, high genetic diversity, and weak traces of crop-to-wild gene flow associated with the history of these floodplain forests, constitute candidate populations for inclusion in future conservation programmes for European wild apple. PMID:24827575

  20. Wild European apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) population dynamics: insight from genetics and ecology in the Rhine Valley. Priorities for a future conservation programme.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, Annik; Arnold, Claire; Cornille, Amandine; Bachmann, Olivier; Schnitzler, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The increasing fragmentation of forest habitats and the omnipresence of cultivars potentially threaten the genetic integrity of the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill). However, the conservation status of this species remains unclear in Europe, other than in Belgium and the Czech Republic, where it has been declared an endangered species. The population density of M. sylvestris is higher in the forests of the upper Rhine Valley (France) than in most European forests, with an unbalanced age-structure, an overrepresentation of adults and a tendency to clump. We characterize here the ecology, age-structure and genetic diversity of wild apple populations in the Rhine Valley. We use these data to highlight links to the history of this species and to propose guidelines for future conservation strategies. In total, 255 individual wild apple trees from six forest stands (five floodplain forests and one forest growing in drier conditions) were analysed in the field, collected and genotyped on the basis of data for 15 microsatellite markers. Genetic analyses showed no escaped cultivars and few hybrids with the cultivated apple. Excluding the hybrids, the genetically "pure" populations displayed high levels of genetic diversity and a weak population structure. Age-structure and ecology studies of wild apple populations identified four categories that were not randomly distributed across the forests, reflecting the history of the Rhine forest over the last century. The Rhine wild apple populations, with their ecological strategies, high genetic diversity, and weak traces of crop-to-wild gene flow associated with the history of these floodplain forests, constitute candidate populations for inclusion in future conservation programmes for European wild apple.

  1. A regional training programme for radiotherapists and allied professionals for the west African health community.

    PubMed

    Durosinmi-Etti, F A; Mouelle-Sone, A

    1993-03-01

    With 47% of the population under 15 years of age and the control of infectious and other communicable diseases, cancer will likely constitute a major health problem in West Africa in future. Radiotherapy facilities and trained manpower to run them are very limited within the subregion. This paper quantifies the severity of the situation and discusses a practical approach aimed at coping with the situation through the organisation of a training programme for radiotherapists, medical physicists and radiation technologists as part of the strategies for cancer control in West Africa. A curriculum is proposed for the training of radiotherapists.

  2. [Revocation of authorizations on GMO under the precautionary principle (with special attention to the Justice Tribunal of the European Communities].

    PubMed

    Escajedo San Epifanio, Leire

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade, the european institutions have done a great effort in order to introduce the precautionary principle, applicable to the management of serious and uncertain risks. Under the protection of the precautionary principle, european authorities and authorities of the member states have partially modified, suspended or revoked authorizations relative to genetically modified organisms. Is it rightful this use of the precautionary principle? This is the matter that the European Communities Justice Court has faced when the affected companies have lodge their appeals against this decisions.

  3. Spatial distribution of subtidal Nematoda communities along the salinity gradient in southern European estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adão, Helena; Alves, Ana Sofia; Patrício, Joana; Neto, João Magalhães; Costa, Maria José; Marques, João Carlos

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated the spatial distribution of subtidal nematode communities along the salinity gradients of two Portuguese estuaries exposed to different degrees of anthropogenic stress: the Mira and the Mondego. The nematode communities were mainly composed of Sabatieria, Metachromadora, Daptonema, Anoplostoma, Sphaerolaimus and Terschellingia species, closely resembling the communities of Northern European estuaries. In both estuaries, nematode density and community composition followed the salinity gradient, naturally establishing three distinct estuarine sections: (i) freshwater and oligohaline - characterised by the presence of freshwater nematodes, low nematode density and diversity; (ii) mesohaline - dominated by Terschellingia, Sabatieria and Daptonema, with low total density and diversity; and (iii) polyhaline and euhaline - where nematodes reached the highest density and diversity, and Paracomesoma, Synonchiella, and Odontophora were dominant. Despite the similarities in community composition and total nematode density, the proportion of different nematode feeding types were remarkably different in the two estuaries. In Mira, selective deposit feeders were dominant in the oligohaline section, while non-selective deposit feeders were dominant in the other sections. On the contrary, in the Mondego estuary, epigrowth-feeders and omnivores/predators were dominant in the freshwater sections and in the euhaline sector of the southern arm. Differences observed along each estuarine gradient were much stronger than overall differences between the two estuaries. In the Mondego estuary, the influence of anthropogenic stressors seemed not to be relevant in determining the nematodes' spatial distribution patterns, therefore suggesting that mesoscale variability responded essentially to natural stressors, characteristic of estuarine gradients. Nevertheless, the proportion of the different feeding types was different between the two estuaries, indicating that the

  4. Prioritisation of wildlife pathogens to be targeted in European surveillance programmes: Expert-based risk analysis focus on ruminants.

    PubMed

    Ciliberti, Alexandre; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Yon, Lisa; Hutchings, Mike R; Artois, Marc

    2015-03-01

    This study attempted to develop a list of priority pathogens. It is part of a European Union (EU) project dedicated to the surveillance of emerging or re-emerging pathogens of wildlife. Partners of the consortium established an initial list of 138 pathogens of concern, which was reduced to a smaller list of 65 pathogens likely to affect ruminants (i.e., the most costly animal group in the EU over the last 15 years). These 65 pathogens underwent a two-step, expert-based risk analysis: 92 experts graded them with respect to their global importance for animal welfare, species conservation, trade/economic impacts and public health. In step 2, the top 15 pathogens from step 1 were assessed by 69 experts considering seven weighted epidemiological criteria (pathogen variability, host specificity, potential for contagion, speed of spread, presence in Europe, difficulty of surveillance in wildlife and persistence in the environment) for which four options were possible. The responses concerned a wide geographic coverage. The resulting top-list pathogens were ranked as follows: 1. Salmonella enterica, 2. Coxiella burnetii, 3. foot-and-mouth disease virus, 4. Mycobacterium bovis, 5. bluetongue virus, and 6. European tick-borne encephalitis virus. The influence of the characteristics of the respondents, the importance of the levels of uncertainty/variability and the implication of the results are discussed. This work highlights the relevance of developing such lists for preparedness.

  5. Biorational control programme for the German cockroach (Blattaria: Blattellidae) in selected urban communities.

    PubMed

    Shahraki, GholamHossein; Bin Ibrahim, Yusof; Noor, Hafidzi Mohd; Rafinejad, Javad; Shahar, Mohd Khadri

    2010-08-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of a biorational control approach using 2% hydramethylnon gel bait on German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.) in some residential and hospital buildings in South Western Iran. In total, three buildings consisting of 150 apartment units and 101 hospital units were monitored weekly via sticky trap for German cockroach infestations over a period of eight months. These infested units were randomly subjected to intervention and control treatments. Pamphlets and posters were provided and lectures were given to support the educational programmes as a tactic of the biorational system. Survey on cockroach index for intervention units showed 67-94% recovery to achieve clean level of infestation for intervention units of the residential buildings and 83% for the hospital. Mean percentage reductions for treatment groups throughout the 15-week treatment period were 76.8% for the residential buildings and 88.1% for the hospital, showing significant differences compared to the control groups. Linear regression of infestation rates were recorded weekly after treatment and their negative slope for treatment groups substantiated significant reductions for interventions. The results of this study showed that biorational control method, using gel bait, educational programmes and sanitation, is an effective way to manage German cockroach infestation.

  6. Community-based health insurance programmes and the national health insurance scheme of Nigeria: challenges to uptake and integration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nigeria has included a regulated community-based health insurance (CBHI) model within its National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). Uptake to date has been disappointing, however. The aim of this study is to review the present status of CBHI in SSA in general to highlight the issues that affect its successful integration within the NHIS of Nigeria and more widely in developing countries. Methods A literature survey using PubMed and EconLit was carried out to identify and review studies that report factors affecting implementation of CBHI in SSA with a focus on Nigeria. Results CBHI schemes with a variety of designs have been introduced across SSA but with generally disappointing results so far. Two exceptions are Ghana and Rwanda, both of which have introduced schemes with effective government control and support coupled with intensive implementation programmes. Poor support for CBHI is repeatedly linked elsewhere with failure to engage and account for the ‘real world’ needs of beneficiaries, lack of clear legislative and regulatory frameworks, inadequate financial support, and unrealistic enrolment requirements. Nigeria’s CBHI-type schemes for the informal sectors of its NHIS have been set up under an appropriate legislative framework, but work is needed to eliminate regressive financing, to involve scheme members in the setting up and management of programmes, to inform and educate more effectively, to eliminate lack of confidence in the schemes, and to address inequity in provision. Targeted subsidies should also be considered. Conclusions Disappointing uptake of CBHI-type NHIS elements in Nigeria can be addressed through closer integration of informal and formal programmes under the NHIS umbrella, with increasing involvement of beneficiaries in scheme design and management, improved communication and education, and targeted financial assistance. PMID:24559409

  7. Accelerating reproductive and child health programme impact with community-based services: the Navrongo experiment in Ghana.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, James F.; Bawah, Ayaga A.; Binka, Fred N.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the demographic and health impact of deploying health service nurses and volunteers to village locations with a view to scaling up results. METHODS: A four-celled plausibility trial was used for testing the impact of aligning community health services with the traditional social institutions that organize village life. Data from the Navrongo Demographic Surveillance System that tracks fertility and mortality events over time were used to estimate impact on fertility and mortality. RESULTS: Assigning nurses to community locations reduced childhood mortality rates by over half in 3 years and accelerated the time taken for attainment of the child survival Millennium Development Goal (MDG) in the study areas to 8 years. Fertility was also reduced by 15%, representing a decline of one birth in the total fertility rate. Programme costs added 1.92 US Dollar per capita to the 6.80 US Dollar per capita primary health care budget. CONCLUSION: Assigning nurses to community locations where they provide basic curative and preventive care substantially reduces childhood mortality and accelerates progress towards attainment of the child survival MDG. Approaches using community volunteers, however, have no impact on mortality. The results also demonstrate that increasing access to contraceptive supplies alone fails to address the social costs of fertility regulation. Effective deployment of volunteers and community mobilization strategies offsets the social constraints on the adoption of contraception. The research in Navrongo thus demonstrates that affordable and sustainable means of combining nurse services with volunteer action can accelerate attainment of both the International Conference on Population and Development agenda and the MDGs. PMID:17242830

  8. Geothermal Field Development in the European Community Objectives, Achievements and Problem Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Ungemach, Pierre

    1983-12-15

    Achievements and problem areas are reviewed with respect to various engineering implications of geothermal field development in the European Community (EC). Current and furture development goals address three resource settings. (a) low enthalpy sources (30-150{degrees}C), an outlook common to all Member states as a result of hot water aquifers flowing in large sedimentary units with normal heat flow, widespread thoughout the EC; (b) high enthalpy sources (<150{degrees}C) in areas of high heat flow which, as a consequence of the geodynamics of the Eurasian plate, are limited to Central and South-West Italy and to Eastern Greece; (c) hot dry rocks (HDR), whose potential for Europe, and also the difficulties in implementing the heat mining concept, are enormous. A large scale experiment conducted at medium depth in Cornwall (UK) proves encouraging though. It has provided the right sort of scientific inputs to the understanding of the mechanics of anisotropic brittle basement rocks.

  9. A community level syphilis prevention programme: outcome data from a controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ross, M; Chatterjee, N; Leonard, L

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the impact of a small media campaign to reduce syphilis through testing, treatment, and condom use in two urban predominantly African-American communities with high syphilis rates. Methods: Data were collected from intervention and comparison zip codes using cross sectional street intercept interviews at baseline and 2 years later (n = 1630) following a small media syphilis prevention campaign with role model story posters, billboards, and other merchandise. Community businesses and a community based organisation served as partners, distributing condoms and small media. Results: Comparing intervention with comparison zip codes, there were significant increases in condom use in last sexual act, and some aspects of knowledge of syphilis. However, there was significant cross contamination of media impact, with respondents in the comparison zip code seeing an average of two media items compared with three in the intervention zip code. Media exposure was associated with significant increases in knowledge of syphilis, testing, and condom use. Conclusions: Targeted community based small media interventions using community partners for distribution are effective in increasing syphilis knowledge, testing, and condom use. PMID:15054168

  10. Micro grants as a stimulus for community action in residential health programmes: a case study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M; Plochg, T; Harting, J; Klazinga, N S; Stronks, K

    2009-09-01

    This paper aimed to explore the contribution of a micro grant financing scheme to community action in terms of residential health-promoting initiatives, interorganizational collaboration and public participation. The scheme was two-fold, consisting of (i) micro grants of 500-3500 Euros, which were easily obtainable by local organizations and (ii) neighbourhood health panels of community and health workers, functioning as a distributing mechanism. Data were collected using three methods: (i) observations of the neighbourhood-based health panels, (ii) in-depth interviews with policy-makers and professionals and (iii) analyses of documents and reports. This study demonstrated the three-fold role of micro grants as a vehicle to enable community action at an organizational level in terms of increased network activities between the local organizations, to set an agenda for the 'health topic' in non-traditional health agencies and to enable a number of health-promoting initiatives. Although these initiatives were attended by small groups of residents normally considered hard to reach, the actual public participation was limited. In their role as a distributing mechanism, the health panels were vital with regard to the achieved impact on the community action. However, certain limitations were also seen, which were related to the governance of the panels. This case study provides evidence to suggest that micro grants have the potential to stimulate community action at an organizational and a residential level, but with the prerequisite that grants be accompanied by increased investments in infrastructure.

  11. Coaching to Quality: Increasing Quality in Early Care and Education Programmes through Community-University Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jaesook Lee; Harte, Helene Arbouet

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes efforts to increase the quality in early care and education through targeted coaching. A collaborative including several community agencies and a university developed a framework of support for early care and education providers, using coaching as its foundational basis, called Coaching to Quality (CTQ). This paper provides a…

  12. A Community Day Care Programme for Psychiatric Patients: The Role of Occupational Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pradad, Akanksha; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the need for and role of occupational therapy in the organization and functioning of a community day care center for psychiatric patients in India. The occupational therapy program involves client evaluation, determination of therapeutic activities, physical exercise, recreational activities, group sessions, family involvement,…

  13. Setting maximum limits for trace elements in baby food in European legislation: the outcome of International Measurement Evaluation Programme®-33.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, F; Baer, I; Robouch, P; Emteborg, H; Can, S Z; Krata, A; Zampella, M; Quétel, C R; Hearn, R; De la Calle, B

    2013-01-01

    The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) of the Joint Research Centre (JRC), a Directorate-General of the European Commission, operates the International Measurement Evaluation Programme® (IMEP). It organises various types of inter-laboratory comparisons in support of European Union policies. This paper presents the results of a proficiency testing exercise (PT) focusing on the determination of total cadmium (Cd) and total lead (Pb) mass fractions in baby food in support to Commission Regulation (EC) 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. The test material used in this exercise was soya-based baby food formula purchased in a local pharmacy and prepared by the Reference Materials Unit of the IRMM for this exercise. Sixty-six laboratories from 23 countries registered to the exercise and 61 of them reported results. Each participant received one bottle containing approximately 15 g of test material. Participants were asked to quantify the measurands in the powder and in the reconstituted formula. Reference values independent from the participants' results were established using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The total Cd mass fraction was determined by IRMM and LGC Ltd (UK), while the total Pb was determined by IRMM. The standard deviation for proficiency assessment σ^ was set at 22% of the assigned value for all measurands. Laboratories were rated with z- and ζ- (zeta) scores in accordance with ISO 13528. The outcome of this exercise is clearly influenced by the very low level of Cd and Pb content in the test material which triggered: a high number of 'less than' values; overestimated values especially for Pb very likely due to contamination; and a visible method influence in the case of Pb (methods based on atomic absorption were not sensitive enough to attain such low limits of detection). The results were also evaluated with regard to the reported limit of

  14. Institutional evolution of a community-based programme for malaria control through larval source management in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Community-based service delivery is vital to the effectiveness, affordability and sustainability of vector control generally, and to labour-intensive larval source management (LSM) programmes in particular. Case description The institutional evolution of a city-level, community-based LSM programme over 14 years in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, illustrates how operational research projects can contribute to public health governance and to the establishment of sustainable service delivery programmes. Implementation, management and governance of this LSM programme is framed within a nested set of spatially-defined relationships between mosquitoes, residents, government and research institutions that build upward from neighbourhood to city and national scales. Discussion and evaluation The clear hierarchical structure associated with vertical, centralized management of decentralized, community-based service delivery, as well as increasingly clear differentiation of partner roles and responsibilities across several spatial scales, contributed to the evolution and subsequent growth of the programme. Conclusions The UMCP was based on the principle of an integrated operational research project that evolved over time as the City Council gradually took more responsibility for management. The central role of Dar es Salaam’s City Council in coordinating LSM implementation enabled that flexibility; the institutionalization of management and planning in local administrative structures enhanced community-mobilization and funding possibilities at national and international levels. Ultimately, the high degree of program ownership by the City Council and three municipalities, coupled with catalytic donor funding and technical support from expert overseas partners have enabled establishment of a sustainable, internally-funded programme implemented by the National Ministry of Health and Social Welfare and supported by national research and training institutes. PMID

  15. The In-Service Training of Teachers in the Twelve Member States of the European Community. Education Policy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, V.; Moisan, C.

    Improvement in the quality of education is a concern shared by all the Member States of the European Community. The in-service training of teachers is a critical factor in the pursuit of this objective. Increasingly rapid changes in society (economic, technological, social, and cultural) mean that teachers are constantly faced with new syllabuses…

  16. Communities of Practice and Participatory Action Research: The Formation of a Synergy for the Development of Museum Programmes for Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampartzaki, Maria; Kypriotaki, Maria; Voreadou, Catherine; Dardioti, Antonia; Stathi, Iasmi

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the integration of two key ideas and working frameworks: a community of educational practice formed by the synergy between a natural history museum and a university department of pre-school education, which undertook participatory action research aimed at the creation of innovative museum programmes for young children. Data…

  17. Are Different Professionals Ready to Support Children of Parents with Mental Illness? Evaluating the Impact of a Pan-European Training Programme.

    PubMed

    Viganò, Giovanni; Kaunonen, Marja; Ryan, Peter; Simpson, Wendy; Dawson, Ian; Tabak, Izabela; Scherbaum, Norbert; Poma, Stefano Zanone

    2017-04-01

    A training package (pre-tested in a pilot phase) about supporting children who have parents with a mental illness and/or with substance misuse (COPMI) was developed and delivered to 131 different professionals from six different European Countries. A questionnaire about importance, awareness and competence on the issue (8 items on knowledge and 15 items on skills) was developed and completed by participants before and after the training. The training was evaluated by participants as generally very successful in terms of improving the importance, awareness and competence of their knowledge and skills, with a statistically significant difference in the pre-/post-analyses (no decreases occurred). Different professional groups performed differently in the pre-training self-rating scores. The participants in some countries were mainly drawn from one professional group (i.e. teachers in Finland, social workers in Germany and psychologists in Poland). It was found that stigma was considered an extremely important concern even before the training, whilst country-specific legal issues were not taken into proper account in the training. Some possibilities for further refinement of the training programme are suggested.

  18. The European Donor Hospital Education Programme (EDHEP): addressing the training needs of doctors and nurses who break bad news, care for the bereaved, and request donation.

    PubMed

    Blok, G A; van Dalen, J; Jager, K J; Ryan, M; Wijnen, R M; Wight, C; Morton, J M; Morley, M; Cohen, B

    1999-01-01

    The competence of critical care staff when it comes to death and organ donation can make the difference between a family's agreeing to or refusing the latter. Doctors and nurses often feel uncomfortable approaching relatives about donation and attribute this to a lack of training. Bereaved relatives express dissatisfaction with inappropriate communication and support when brain death is announced and thereafter when a request for donation is made. The European Donor Hospital Education Programme (EDHEP) was designed to meet the training needs of critical care staff in breaking bad news, caring for the bereaved, and requesting donation. EDHEP is a two-part educational package consisting of a presentation about the donor shortage followed by a one-day workshop. The implementation of EDHEP throughout the world has been facilitated through effective national working groups and standardised "train the trainer" courses. Several countries anecdotally report increases in donation following implementation. Controlled evaluation of the effect(s) of EDHEP, which started at the end of 1995, focuses on the satisfaction of the participants with EDHEP, on the competence of the participants in breaking bad news and requesting donation, on the teamwork regarding death and donation, on the satisfaction of bereaved relatives, and on organ donation rates.

  19. Barriers and facilitators to initial and continued attendance at community-based lifestyle programmes among families of overweight and obese children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, E; Davoren, M P; Harrington, J M; Shiely, F; Perry, I J; McHugh, S M

    2017-02-01

    The success of childhood weight management programmes relies on family engagement. While attendance offers many benefits including the support to make positive lifestyle changes, the majority of families referred to treatment decline. Moreover, for those who do attend, benefits are often compromised by high programme attrition. This systematic review investigated factors influencing attendance at community-based lifestyle programmes among families of overweight or obese children. A narrative synthesis approach was used to allow for the inclusion of quantitative, qualitative and mixed-method study designs. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Results suggest that parents provided the impetus for programme initiation, and this was driven largely by a concern for their child's psychological health and wellbeing. More often than not, children went along without any real reason or interest in attending. Over the course of the programme, however, children's positive social experiences such as having fun and making friends fostered the desire to continue. The stigma surrounding excess weight and the denial of the issue amongst some parents presented barriers to enrolment and warrant further study. This study provides practical recommendations to guide future policy makers, programme delivery teams and researchers in developing strategies to boost recruitment and minimise attrition.

  20. Strategies for optimizing clinic efficiency in a community-based antiretroviral treatment programme in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Alamo, Stella T; Wagner, Glenn J; Ouma, Joseph; Sunday, Pamela; Marie, Laga; Colebunders, Robert; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred

    2013-01-01

    We address a critical aspect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up: poor clinic organization leading to long waiting times and reduced patient retention. Using a before and after study design, time and motion studies and qualitative methods we evaluated the impact of triage and longer clinic appointment intervals (triage) on clinic efficiency in a community-based program in Uganda. We compared time waiting to see and time spent with providers for various patient categories and examined patient and provider satisfaction with the triage. Overall, median time spent at the clinic reduced from 206 to 83 min. Total median time waiting to see providers for stable-ART patients reduced from 102 to 20 min while that for patients undergoing ART preparation reduced 88-37 min. Improved patient flow, patient and provider satisfaction and reduced waiting times allowed for service delivery to more patients using the same staff following the implementation of triage.

  1. Effects of microplastics on European flat oysters, Ostrea edulis and their associated benthic communities.

    PubMed

    Green, Dannielle Senga

    2016-09-01

    Plastic pollution is recognised as an emerging threat to aquatic ecosystems, with microplastics now the most abundant type of marine debris. Health effects caused by microplastics have been demonstrated at the species level, but impacts on ecological communities remain unknown. In this study, impacts of microplastics on the health and biological functioning of European flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) and on the structure of associated macrofaunal assemblages were assessed in an outdoor mesocosm experiment using intact sediment cores. Biodegradable and conventional microplastics were added at low (0.8 μg L(-1)) and high (80 μg L(-1)) doses in the water column repeatedly for 60 days. Effects on the oysters were minimal, but benthic assemblage structures differed and species richness and the total number of organisms were ∼1.2 and 1.5 times greater in control mesocosms than in those exposed to high doses of microplastics. Notably, abundances of juvenile Littorina sp. (periwinkles) and Idotea balthica (an isopod) were ∼2 and 8 times greater in controls than in mesocosms with the high dose of either type of microplastic. In addition, the biomass of Scrobicularia plana (peppery furrow shell clam) was ∼1.5 times greater in controls than in mesocosms with the high dose of microplastics. This work indicates that repeated exposure to high concentrations of microplastics could alter assemblages in an important marine habitat by reducing the abundance of benthic fauna.

  2. International variations in asthma treatment compliance: the results of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS).

    PubMed

    Cerveri, I; Locatelli, F; Zoia, M C; Corsico, A; Accordini, S; de Marco, R

    1999-08-01

    Noncompliance to medication is a major barrier to effective asthma management. Its real extent and geographical variation throughout the world are not yet known. The data on compliance, collected in the framework of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) on 1771 subjects (aged 20-44 yrs) with current asthma identified in 14 countries, offer a unique opportunity to assess the extent of noncompliance and its variation across countries. The median percentage of current asthmatics who had received a medical prescription at least once was 95%. The compliance of those patients who had received a medical prescription was found to be low in all countries (median 67%) but with wide variations, the rate ranging from 40% (USA) to 78% (Iceland). During exacerbations patients' rate of compliance increased to 72%. Age was the only variable which influenced compliance to treatment. A significant, although weak, negative correlation was found between patients' compliance and rate of hospital casualty department or emergency room admissions. This study documents that compliance to the treatment of asthma is poor worldwide and that there are large variations between countries. These results emphasize the necessity for further efforts to improve patients' education and to promulgate the international guidelines.

  3. Experiences participating in a community-based exercise programme from the perspective of people living with HIV: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Chantal A; Henning, Katherine J; Kantarzhi, Sarah R; Kideckel, Tamar B; Yang, Cheryl F M; O'Brien, Kelly K

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to explore the experiences of engaging in a community-based exercise programme (CBEP) from the perspective of people living with HIV (PLWH). Design We conducted a descriptive qualitative study using semistructured interviews. Setting We recruited adults living with HIV who participated in a 16-week CBEP in Toronto, Canada. Participants 11 participants, the majority men (64%), with a median age of 52 years, and living with a median of 5 concurrent health conditions in addition to HIV participated in the study. Outcome measures We asked participants about their overall experiences: strengths, limitations and perceived benefits of the CBEP; factors influencing participation and current level of exercise after completion of the CBEP. We administered a self-reported demographic questionnaire followed by the Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity (RAPA) questionnaire. We analysed interview data using thematic analysis. Results We developed a framework that describes the experiences before, during and after the CBEP; and the perceived impact of the CBEP on health, which influenced the intent to, engagement in and sustainability of exercise among PLWH. Participants described the positive impact of the CBEP on their physical, mental and social health. Interviews were completed at a median of 6 months after the CBEP, when 9 participants reported ongoing engagement in exercise, but to a lesser extent than during the CBEP. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors facilitated or hindered engagement in exercise throughout all phases of the CBEP. The episodic nature of HIV and multimorbidity influenced engagement in exercise and posed challenges to re-engagement after periods of inactivity. Conclusions CBEPs provide an opportunity to enhance physical activity, perceived health outcomes and knowledge about exercise for PLWH. Community-based exercise is a strategy that may be used by health providers to promote engagement in sustained physical activity for PLWH

  4. Ranking the criteria for sustainability of community-based rural homestay programmes from the perspective of the operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Rohaini; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Ramli, Razamin; Kayat, Kalsom; Razak, Rafidah Abd

    2015-12-01

    Homestay is one of the government's products that promote the cultural tourism of country around the world. Homestay in Malaysia is not only thriving, but also its operation is moving gradually toward development of economic growth. Many homestays have been built throughout the country and this will give tourists an opportunity to enjoy the different and interesting environment in Malaysia. However, most of them receive less support from tourists and only certain numbers of homestays have operated consistently. This paper examines eleven sustainability criteria for homestay programme in Malaysia covering environmental, economic and sociocultural dimensions. The required data were collected through a survey of 246 homestay operators using a structured questionnaire. Data obtained was analyzed by utilizing percentage and arithmetic average. The findings revealed that the three most important criteria for homestay to remain sustained in this business area are ability and capacity, leadership and conservation of community resources. In order to improve the business performance of homestays in this country, homestay operators should focus on improving their ability and capacity and focus on enhancing their leadership skills.

  5. Gender and representation in refugee communities: the experience of the Ikafe programme.

    PubMed

    Payne, L; Adoko, J

    1997-06-01

    The Ikafe camp established in 1994 in Uganda for 45,000 refugees from Sudan was treated as a rural development program by Oxfam UK/1. Refugees and Oxfam staff achieved registration, land allocation, distribution of food, water, sanitation, health care, and livelihood development, and the refugees successfully cleared land for cultivation, established nurseries, and instituted community-managed water and sanitation systems. All programming has been achieved through representative structures linked to Ugandan bodies. Despite Oxfam's attempt to provide women with equal representation and an equal voice in decision-making, only a low participation of women was achieved. Analysis of this situation revealed that women in the Sudan traditionally held positions of responsibility. However, in the refugee settlements women sometimes did not learn about meetings or meetings were held at inconvenient times or women lacked free time for meetings. The men feared that women would appropriate jobs the men considered their rightful positions, and women expressed jealousy of prominent women. The existence of a position entitled "Women's Representative" led the refugees to believe that all the other jobs were for men, and they considered the alien Ugandan structures appropriate only for voicing concerns, not for self-management. Thus, refugee representatives were often the men who could speak English. In response, Oxfam reformed the representative structure to insure sex equality and restructured the committee overseeing discipline on Sudanese lines. Oxfam learned that it is important to establish interim structures that can be adapted later and that it is not enough simply to create democratic election procedures and encourage people to elect women.

  6. Community Residency Programme (CRP)--a tool for research and rural health training for medical students.

    PubMed

    Yadav, H

    2002-12-01

    Rural health training is an important element in the training of medical students in the University of Malaya. There is a need for the undergraduates to be familiar with the rural health infrastructure and to understand the social and economic aspects of the rural poor. The objective of the training is to make the students understand the problems faced by the poor in the rural areas so that when they practice in rural health areas, after graduation, they will understand the problems of the rural poor. They will have the knowledge of the diseases in the rural areas and also understand the community and the environmental factors that contribute to the disease. The training lasts' for 4 weeks, one week for lectures on health survey, two weeks for the field trip and one week of data analysis and presentation of their findings to an expert panel. During the field trip the students are divided into groups and they go to different parts of the country. Each group will do a field survey to find out the socio-demography, environmental, economic, nutritional and health problems in the village. In addition to the survey they also do a research project on any topic. The students also do social work, visit places of public health interest like the water treatment plant, sewage disposal, factory visits and others. Apart from technical skills in statistics and epidemiology, various other managerial skills like leadership, teamwork, communications and public relations are also learnt during the training. In conclusion this rural health training is an important aspect of the medical students training as it imparts several skills to them that are needed as a doctor.

  7. Training, supervision and quality of care in selected integrated community case management (iCCM) programmes: A scoping review of programmatic evidence

    PubMed Central

    Bosch–Capblanch, Xavier; Marceau, Claudine

    2014-01-01

    Aim To describe the training, supervision and quality of care components of integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) programmes and to draw lessons learned from existing evaluations of those programmes. Methods Scoping review of reports from 29 selected iCCM programmes purposively provided by stakeholders containing any information relevant to understand quality of care issues. Results The number of people reached by iCCM programmes varied from the tens of thousands to more than a million. All programmes aimed at improving access of vulnerable populations to health care, focusing on the main childhood illnesses, managed by Community Health Workers (CHW), often selected bycommunities. Training and supervision were widely implemented, in different ways and intensities, and often complemented with tools (eg, guides, job aids), supplies, equipment and incentives. Quality of care was measured using many outcomes (eg, access or appropriate treatment). Overall, there seemed to be positive effects for those strategies that involved policy change, organisational change, standardisation of clinical practices and alignment with other programmes. Positive effects were mostly achieved in large multi–component programmes. Mild or no effects have been described on mortality reduction amongst the few programmes for which data on this outcome was available to us. Promising strategies included teaming–up of CHW, micro–franchising or social franchising. On–site training and supervision of CHW have been shown to improve clinical practices. Effects on caregivers seemed positive, with increases in knowledge, care seeking behaviour, or caregivers’ basic disease management. Evidence on iCCM is often of low quality, cannot relate specific interventions or the ways they are implemented with outcomes and lacks standardisation; this limits the capacity to identify promising strategies to improve quality of care. Conclusion Large, multi–faceted, iCCM programmes, with strong

  8. Understanding the motivation and performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of health programmes in Kampala, Uganda: a realist evaluation protocol

    PubMed Central

    Vareilles, Gaëlle; Pommier, Jeanine; Kane, Sumit; Pictet, Gabriel; Marchal, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The recruitment of community health volunteers to support the delivery of health programmes is a well-established approach in many countries, particularly where health services are not readily available. However, studies on management of volunteers are scarce and current research on human resource management of volunteers faces methodological challenges. This paper presents the protocol of a realist evaluation that aims at identifying the factors influencing the performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of a Red Cross immunisation programme in Kampala (Uganda) with a specific focus on motivation. Methods and analysis The realist evaluation cycle structures the protocol. To develop the theoretical basis for the evaluation, the authors conducted interviews and reviewed the literature on community health volunteers’ performance, management and organisational behaviour. This led to the formulation of the initial programme theory, which links the intervention inputs (capacity-building strategies) to the expected outcomes (positive work behaviour) with mechanisms that point in the direction of drivers of motivation. The contextual elements include components such as organisational culture, resource availability, etc. A case study design will be adopted. We define a case as a Red Cross branch, run by a programme manager, and will select two cases at the district level in Kampala. Mixed methods will be used in data collection, including individual interviews of volunteers, participant observation and document review. The thematic analysis will be based on the initial programme theory and will seek for context-mechanism-outcome configurations. Findings from the two cases will be compared. Discussion We discuss the scope for applying realist evaluation and the methodological challenges we encountered in developing this protocol. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethical Committee at Rennes University Hospital

  9. The Erasmus programme for postgraduate education in orthodontics in Europe: an update of the guidelines.

    PubMed

    Huggare, J; Derringer, K A; Eliades, T; Filleul, M P; Kiliaridis, S; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A; Martina, R; Pirttiniemi, P; Ruf, S; Schwestka-Polly, R

    2014-06-01

    In 1989, the ERASMUS Bureau of the European Cultural Foundation of the Commission of the European Communities funded the development of a new 3-year curriculum for postgraduate education in orthodontics. The new curriculum was created by directors for orthodontic education representing 15 European countries. The curriculum entitled 'Three years Postgraduate Programme in Orthodontics: the Final Report of the Erasmus Project' was published 1992. In 2012, the 'Network of Erasmus Based European Orthodontic Programmes' developed and approved an updated version of the guidelines. The core programme consists of eight sections: general biological and medical subjects; basic orthodontic subjects; general orthodontic subjects; orthodontic techniques; interdisciplinary subjects; management of health and safety; practice management, administration, and ethics; extramural educational activities. The programme goals and objectives are described and the competencies to be reached are outlined. These guidelines may serve as a baseline for programme development and quality assessment for postgraduate programme directors, national associations, and governmental bodies and could assist future residents when selecting a postgraduate programme.

  10. Conservation of the European mink (Mustela lutreola): focus on reproduction and reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Amstislavsky, S; Lindeberg, H; Aalto, J; Kennedy, M W

    2008-08-01

    The European mink (Mustela lutreola) is a small mammal, which belongs to the Mustelidae family (Carnivora). Earlier, the range of distribution of this species encompassed much of the European continent. During the 20th century, the numbers of European mink declined and the range of its distribution became reduced to three fragmented populations; today this species faces extinction. The urgent necessity for effective conservation efforts to protect the European mink is accepted by the governmental organizations as well as scientific communities of most European countries. In this paper, the reasons for the disappearance of European mink are reviewed and results of past conservation efforts based on captive breeding and reintroduction programmes are critically evaluated in the broad context of modern concepts of conservation genetics and reproductive biology. The data recently obtained on the reproduction and pre-implantation development of European mink and the prospects of incorporation of modern reproductive technologies into the conservation programme of this species are discussed.

  11. Differences in Soil Fungal Communities between European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Dominated Forests Are Related to Soil and Understory Vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Schöning, Ingo; Boch, Steffen; Gawlich, Melanie; Schnabel, Beatrix; Fischer, Markus; Buscot, François

    2012-01-01

    Fungi are important members of soil microbial communities with a crucial role in biogeochemical processes. Although soil fungi are known to be highly diverse, little is known about factors influencing variations in their diversity and community structure among forests dominated by the same tree species but spread over different regions and under different managements. We analyzed the soil fungal diversity and community composition of managed and unmanaged European beech dominated forests located in three German regions, the Schwäbische Alb in Southwestern, the Hainich-Dün in Central and the Schorfheide Chorin in the Northeastern Germany, using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA pyrotag sequencing. Multiple sequence quality filtering followed by sequence data normalization revealed 1655 fungal operational taxonomic units. Further analysis based on 722 abundant fungal OTUs revealed the phylum Basidiomycota to be dominant (54%) and its community to comprise 71.4% of ectomycorrhizal taxa. Fungal community structure differed significantly (p≤0.001) among the three regions and was characterized by non-random fungal OTUs co-occurrence. Soil parameters, herbaceous understory vegetation, and litter cover affected fungal community structure. However, within each study region we found no difference in fungal community structure between management types. Our results also showed region specific significant correlation patterns between the dominant ectomycorrhizal fungal genera. This suggests that soil fungal communities are region-specific but nevertheless composed of functionally diverse and complementary taxa. PMID:23094057

  12. Understanding the motivation and performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of health programmes in Kampala, Uganda: a realist evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Vareilles, Gaëlle; Marchal, Bruno; Kane, Sumit; Petrič, Taja; Pictet, Gabriel; Pommier, Jeanine

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper presents the results of a realist evaluation that aimed to understand how, why and under what circumstances a Red Cross (RC) capacity-building intervention influences the motivation and the performance of RC community health volunteers involved in the delivery of an immunisation programme in Kampala, Uganda. Method Given the complexity of the intervention, we adopted realist evaluation as our methodological approach and the case study as our study design. Data collection included document review, participant observation and interviews. The constant comparative method was used for the analysis. Two contrasted cases were selected within the five Kampala districts. Each case covers the management of the immunisation programme implemented at a RC branch. In each case, a programme manager and 15 RC volunteers were interviewed. The selection of the volunteers was purposive. Results We found that a capacity-building programme including supervision supportive of autonomy, skills and knowledge enhancement, and adapted to the different subgroups of volunteers, leads to satisfaction of the three key drivers of volunteer motivation: feelings of autonomy, competence and connectedness. This contributes to higher retention, and better task performance and well-being among the volunteers. Enabling contextual conditions include the responsiveness of the Uganda Red Cross Society (URCS) to community needs, and recognition of the work of the volunteers, from the URCS and the community. Conclusions A management approach that caters for the different motivational states and changing needs of the volunteers will lead to better performance. The findings will inform not only the management of community health volunteers, but also the management of all kinds of health workers. PMID:26525721

  13. The European Grid Infrastructure (EGI): Current Status and Perspectives for Astronomy and Astrophysics within EGI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuerli, C.; Taffoni, G.

    2012-09-01

    The European Union has invested heavily in e-science programmes over the past years both at the National and at the European levels with impressive results. One of the most important results of the EU effort is the development of an European Grid e-Infrastructure. In fact, because Grid technology is now recognized as a fundamental component for e-Infrastructures, it has been identified as a strategic priority for Europe. This paper presents: a) the current status of EGI, the European Grid Infrastructure, and of the Astronomical VRC (Virtual Research Community) within it; b) future perspectives and possible evolutions for the Astronomical Community within EGI.

  14. Programmable Logic Controllers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard; Anderson, Kathleen

    This document contains a 40-hour course in programmable logic controllers (PLC), developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The 10 units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to programmable logic controllers; (2) DOS primer; (3) prerequisite…

  15. Occupational exposures and uncontrolled adult-onset asthma in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II.

    PubMed

    Le Moual, Nicole; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Siroux, Valérie; Radon, Katja; Norback, Dan; Torén, Kjell; Olivieri, Mario; Urrutia, Isabel; Cazzoletti, Lucia; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Benke, Geza; Kromhout, Hans; Mirabelli, Maria C; Mehta, Amar J; Schlünssen, Vivi; Sigsgaard, Torben; Blanc, Paul D; Kogevinas, Manolis; Antó, Josep M; Zock, Jan-Paul

    2014-02-01

    Occupational exposure is a well-recognised modifiable risk factor for asthma, but the relationship between occupational exposure and asthma control has not been studied. We aimed to study this association among working-age adults from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). Data were available for 7077 participants (mean age 43 years, 45% never-smokers, 5867 without asthma and 1210 with current asthma). Associations between occupational exposure to specific asthmagens and asthma control status (33% with uncontrolled asthma, based on the Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines) were evaluated using logistic and multinomial regressions, adjusted for age, sex and smoking status, with study areas included as a random effect. Statistically significant positive associations were observed between uncontrolled adult-onset asthma and both past 12-month and 10-year exposure to any occupational asthmagens (OR (95% CI) 1.6 (1.0-2.40) and 1.7 (1.2-2.5), respectively); high (1.7 (1.0-2.8) and 1.9 (1.3-2.9), respectively) and low (1.6 (1.0-2.7) and 1.8 (1.2-2.7), respectively) molecular weight agents; and cleaning agents (2.0 (1.1-3.6) and 2.3 (1.4-3.6), respectively), with stronger associations for long-term exposures. These associations were mainly explained by the exacerbation domain of asthma control and no associations were observed between asthmagens and partly controlled asthma. These findings suggest that occupational exposure to asthmagens is associated with uncontrolled adult-onset asthma. Occupational risk factors should be quickly identified to prevent uncontrolled asthma.

  16. Origin and Evolution of European Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Thierry; Andersen, Paal S.; Skov, Robert L.; De Grassi, Anna; Simões, Patricia Martins; Tristan, Anne; Petersen, Andreas; Aziz, Maliha; Kiil, Kristoffer; Cirković, Ivana; Udo, Edet E.; del Campo, Rosa; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Ahmad, Norazah; Tokajian, Sima; Peters, Georg; Schaumburg, Frieder; Olsson-Liljequist, Barbro; Givskov, Michael; Driebe, Elizabeth E.; Vigh, Henrik E.; Shittu, Adebayo; Ramdani-Bougessa, Nadjia; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Price, Lance B.; Vandenesch, Francois; Larsen, Anders R.; Laurent, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) was recognized in Europe and worldwide in the late 1990s. Within a decade, several genetically and geographically distinct CA-MRSA lineages carrying the small SCCmec type IV and V genetic elements and the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) emerged around the world. In Europe, the predominant CA-MRSA strain belongs to clonal complex 80 (CC80) and is resistant to kanamycin/amikacin and fusidic acid. CC80 was first reported in 1993 but was relatively rare until the late 1990s. It has since been identified throughout North Africa, the Middle East, and Europe, with recent sporadic reports in sub-Saharan Africa. While strongly associated with skin and soft tissue infections, it is rarely found among asymptomatic carriers. Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) CC80 strains are extremely rare except in sub-Saharan Africa. In the current study, we applied whole-genome sequencing to a global collection of both MSSA and MRSA CC80 isolates. Phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest that the European epidemic CA-MRSA lineage is derived from a PVL-positive MSSA ancestor from sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, the tree topology suggests a single acquisition of both the SCCmec element and a plasmid encoding the fusidic acid resistance determinant. Four canonical SNPs distinguish the derived CA-MRSA lineage and include a nonsynonymous mutation in accessory gene regulator C (agrC). These changes were associated with a star-like expansion into Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa in the early 1990s, including multiple cases of cross-continent imports likely driven by human migrations. PMID:25161186

  17. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the food and drink industries of the European community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passant, Neil R.; Richardson, Stephen J.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Gibson, N.; Woodfield, M. J.; van der Lugt, Jan Pieter; Wolsink, Johan H.; Hesselink, Paul G. M.

    Estimates were made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released into the atmosphere as a result of the industrial manufacture and processing of food and drink in the European Community. The estimates were based on a review of literature sources, industrial and government contacts and recent measurements. Data were found on seven food manufacturing sectors (baking, vegetable oil extraction, solid fat processing, animal rendering, fish meal processing, coffee production and sugar beet processing) and three drink manufacturing sectors (brewing, spirit production and wine making). The principle of a data quality label is advocated to illustrate the authors' confidence in the data, and to highlight areas for further research. Emissions of ethanol from bread baking and spirit maturation were found to be the principle sources. However, significant losses of hexane and large quantities of an ill-defined mixture of partially oxidized hydrocarbons were noted principally from seed oil extraction and the drying of plant material, respectively. This latter mixture included low molecular weight aldehydes, carboxylic acids, ketones, amines and esters. However, the precise composition of many emissions were found to be poorly understood. The total emission from the food and drink industry in the EC was calculated as 260 kt yr -1. However, many processes within the target industry were found to be completely uncharacterized and therefore not included in the overall estimate (e.g. soft drink manufacture, production of animal food, flavourings, vinegar, tea, crisps and other fried snacks). Moreover, the use of data quality labels illustrated the fact that many of our estimates were based on limited data. Hence, further emissions monitoring is recommended from identified sources (e.g. processing of sugar beet, solid fat and fish meal) and from uncharacterized sources.

  18. The Isan Culture Maintenance and Revitalisation Programme's Multilingual Signage Attitude Survey: Phase II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, John

    2016-01-01

    This article contextualises and presents to the academic community the full dataset of the Isan Culture Maintenance and Revitalisation Programme's (ICMRP) multilingual signage survey. The ICMRP is a four-year European Union co-sponsored project in Northeast Thailand. This article focuses on one aspect of the project, four surveys each of 1,500…

  19. University Involvement in ESIF 2014-2020 Programme. Innovation and Growth Factsheet Series. No. 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This factsheet, the third in a series on innovation and growth, summarises a recent assessment conducted by Universities UK, HEFCE and the Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG), exploring the extent to which universities in England are engaging with the 2014-2020 European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF) programme. [For the…

  20. A community-based health education programme for bio-environmental control of malaria through folk theatre (Kalajatha) in rural India

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Susanta K; Patil, Rajan R; Tiwari, Satyanarayan; Dash, Aditya P

    2006-01-01

    Background Health education is an important component in disease control programme. Kalajatha is a popular, traditional art form of folk theatre depicting various life processes of a local socio-cultural setting. It is an effective medium of mass communication in the Indian sub-continent especially in rural areas. Using this medium, an operational feasibility health education programme was carried out for malaria control. Methods In December 2001, the Kalajatha events were performed in the evening hours for two weeks in a malaria-affected district in Karnataka State, south India. Thirty local artists including ten governmental and non-governmental organizations actively participated. Impact of this programme was assessed after two months on exposed vs. non-exposed respondents. Results The exposed respondents had significant increase in knowledge and change in attitude about malaria and its control strategies, especially on bio-environmental measures (p < 0.001). They could easily associate clean water with anopheline breeding and the role of larvivorous fish in malaria control. In 2002, the local community actively co-operated and participated in releasing larvivorous fish, which subsequently resulted in a noteworthy reduction of malaria cases. Immediate behavioural changes, especially maintenance of general sanitation and hygiene did not improve as much as expected. Conclusion This study was carried out under the primary health care system involving the local community and various potential partners. Kalajatha conveyed the important messages on malaria control and prevention to the rural community. Similar methods of communication in the health education programme should be intensified with suitable modifications to reach all sectors, if malaria needs to be controlled. PMID:17173672

  1. Improving nutrition in Afghanistan through a community-based growth monitoring and promotion programme: a pre-post evaluation in five districts.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, Maureen; Ickx, Paul; Stanekzai, Hedayatullah; Mashal, Taufiq; Newbrander, William

    2014-01-01

    In Afghanistan, malnutrition in children less than 60 months of age remains high despite nutritional services being offered in health facilities since 2003. Afghanistan's Ministry of Public Health solicited extensive community consultation to develop pictorial community-based growth monitoring and promotion (cGMP) tools to help illiterate community health workers (CHWs) provide nutritional assessment and counselling. The planned evaluation in the five districts where cGMP was implemented demonstrated that a mean weight-for-age (WFA) Z-score of 414 participant children was 0.3 Z-scores higher than that of matched non-participants who lived outside of cGMP programme catchment areas. The mean change in WFA Z-scores at evaluation was 0.3 (95% CI 0.3, 0.4) Z-scores higher than at entry into the programme. The most influential factor on WFA Z-score changes in participants was initial WFA Z-score. Those with an initial WFA Z-score of less than -2 experienced a mean increase of 0.33 (95% CI 0.29, 0.38) WFA Z-scores per session attended, while those with a baseline WFA Z-score of greater than zero showed a decrease of 0.19 (95% CI 0.22, 0.15) WFA Z-scores per session attended. These results are encouraging since they demonstrate that the cGMP programme in Afghanistan for illiterate women has some potential to contribute to improving nutrition, specifically in underweight children of either sex who enter the programme at less than nine months of age and attend 50% or more sessions.

  2. Verifying a biotope classification using benthic communities--an analysis towards the implementation of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Kerstin S; Darr, Alexander; Zettler, Michael L

    2014-01-15

    The HELCOM Red List biotopes project proposed a Baltic Sea wide classification consisting of six levels: The HELCOM Underwater biotopes/habitats classification system (HELCOM HUB). We present a case study from the south-western Baltic Sea where we tested the applicability of this system. More than 500 sampling stations were analyzed regarding macrozoobenthic communities and their linkage to environmental parameters. Based on the analyses of biotic and abiotic data, 21 groups were assigned to 13 biotopes of the classification. For some biotopes varying states of communities were recognized. Even though not all abiotic parameters are considered directly in the hierarchy of the classification in general, all soft-bottom communities could be allocated to a corresponding biotope. The application of the HELCOM HUB for the south-western Baltic Sea is feasible, in regard to the implementation of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive as well as the Baltic Sea Action Plan.

  3. How prepared individuals and communities are for evacuation in tsunami-prone areas in Europe? Findings from the ASTARTE EU Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, Franck; Grancher, Delphine; Goeldner-Gianella, Lydie; Karanci, Nuray; Dogulu, Nilay; Kanoglu, Utku; Zaniboni, Filippo; Tinti, Stefano; Papageorgiou, Antonia; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Constantin, Angela; Moldovan, Iren; El Mouraouah, Azelarab; Benchekroun, Sabah; Birouk, Abdelouahad

    2016-04-01

    Understanding social vulnerability to tsunamis provides risk managers with the required information to determine whether individuals have the capacity to evacuate, and therefore to take mitigation measures to protect their communities. In the frame of the EU programme ASTARTE (Assessment, STrategy And Risk reduction for Tsunamis in Europe), we conducted a questionnaire-based survey among 1,661 people from 41 nationalities living in, working in, or visiting 10 Test Sites from 9 different countries. The questions, which have been translated in 11 languages, focused on tsunami hazard awareness, risk perception, and knowledge of the existing warning systems. Our results confirm our initial hypothesis that low attention is paid in Europe to tsunami risk. Among all type of hazards, either natural or not, tsunami rank first in only one site (Lyngen fjord in Norway), rank third in 3 other sites (Eforie Nord in Romania, Nice and Istanbul), rank 4 in Gulluk Bay, 5 in Sines and Heraklion, and 10 in Siracusa (Sicily) and San Jordi (Balearic Islands). Whatever the respondent's status (i.e. local population, local authorities, or tourists), earthquakes and drawdown of the sea are cited as tsunami warning signs by 43% and 39% of the respondents, respectively. Therefore self-evacuation is not expected for more than half of the population. Considering that most European countries have no early warning system for tsunamis, a disaster is likely to happen in any coastal area exposed to this specific hazard. Furthermore, knowledge of past tsunami events is also very limited: only 22% of people stated that a tsunami has occurred in the past, whereas a deadly tsunami occurs every century in the Mediterranean Sea (e.g. in AD 365, 1660, 1672 or 1956 in the eastern part, 1908, 1979 or 2003 in the western part), and high tsunami waves devastated the Portugal and Moroccan coasts in 1755. Despite this lack of knowledge and awareness of past events, 62% of the respondents think that the site of

  4. Outcomes of a community-based HIV-prevention pilot programme for township men who have sex with men in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Batist, Elizabeth; Brown, Benjamin; Scheibe, Andrew; Baral, Stefan D; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Men who have sex with men (MSM) in Cape Town's townships remain in need of targeted HIV-prevention services. In 2012, a pilot community-based HIV-prevention programme was implemented that aimed to reach MSM in five Cape Town townships, disseminate HIV-prevention information and supplies, and promote the use of condoms and HIV services. Methods Convenience sampling was used to recruit self-identified MSM who were 18 years old or older in five Cape Town townships. The six-month pilot programme trained five community leaders who, along with staff, provided HIV-prevention information and supplies to MSM through small-group meetings, community-based social activities and inter-community events. After the completion of the pilot programme, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with a subset of conveniently sampled participants and with each of the community leaders. Qualitative data were then analyzed thematically. Results Overall, 98 mostly gay-identified black MSM consented to participate, 57 community-based activities were facilitated and 9 inter-community events were conducted. Following their enrolment, 60% (59/98) of participants attended at least one pilot activity. Of those participants, 47% (28/59) attended at least half of the scheduled activities. A total of 36 participants took part in FGDs, and five in-depth interviews were completed with community leaders. Participants reported gaining access to MSM-specific HIV-prevention information, condoms and water-based lubricant through the small-group meetings. Some participants described how their feelings of loneliness, social isolation, self-esteem and self-efficacy were improved after taking part. Conclusions The social activities and group meetings were viable strategies for disseminating HIV-prevention information, condoms and water-based lubricant to MSM in this setting. Many MSM were also able to receive social support, reduce social isolation and improve their

  5. Molecular characterization of the microbial communities in the subcaudal gland secretion of the European badger (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Sin, Yung Wa; Buesching, Christina D; Burke, Terry; Macdonald, David W

    2012-09-01

    Many mammals possess specialized scent glands, which convey information about the marking individual. As the chemical profile of scent marks is likely to be affected by bacteria metabolizing the primary gland products, the variation in bacterial communities between different individuals has been proposed to underpin olfactory communication. However, few studies have investigated the dependency of microbiota residing in the scent organs on the host's individual-specific parameters. Here, we used terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene and clone library construction to investigate the microbial communities in the subcaudal gland secretion of the European badger (Meles meles). As the secretion has been shown to encode individual-specific information, we investigated the correlation of the microbiota with different individual-specific parameters (age, sex, body condition, reproductive status, and season). We discovered a high number of bacterial species (56 operational taxonomic units from four phyla: Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes), dominated by Actinobacteria (76.0%). The bacterial communities of cubs and adults differed significantly. Cubs possessed considerably more diverse communities dominated by Firmicutes, while in adults the communities were less diverse and dominated by Actinobacteria, suggesting that the acquisition of a 'mature bacterial community' is an ontogenetic process related to physiological changes during maturation.

  6. Facilitators and Barriers to Uptake of an Extended Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention Programme in Ghana: A Qualitative Study of Caregivers and Community Health Workers

    PubMed Central

    Mahama, Princess R.; Tagbor, Harry; Cairns, Matt; Newell, James N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) is currently recommended for children under five in areas where malaria transmission is highly seasonal. We explored children’s caregivers’ and community health workers’ (CHWs) responses to an extended 5-month SMC programme. Methods Thirteen in-depth interviews and eight focus group discussions explored optimal and suboptimal ‘uptake’ of SMC to examine facilitators and barriers to caregivers’ uptake. Results There did not appear to be major differences between caregivers of children with optimal and sub-optimal SMC uptake in terms of their knowledge of malaria, their perceptions of the effect of SMC on a child’s health, nor their understanding of chemoprevention. Caregivers experienced difficulty in prioritising SMC for well children, perceiving medication being for treatment rather than prevention. Prior to the study, caregivers had become accustomed to rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) for malaria, and therefore blood testing for malaria during the baseline survey at the start of the SMC programme may have positively influenced uptake. Facilitators of uptake included caregivers’ trust in and respect for administrators of SMC (including CHWs), access to medication and supportive (family) networks. Barriers to uptake related to poor communication of timings of community gatherings, travel distances, absence during SMC home deliveries, and limited demand for SMC due to lack of previous experience. Future delivery of SMC by trained CHWs would be acceptable to caregivers. Conclusion A combination of caregivers’ physical access to SMC medication, the drug regimen, trust in the medical profession and perceived norms around malaria prevention all likely influenced caregivers’ level of uptake. SMC programmes need to consider: 1) developing supportive, accessible and flexible modes of drug administration including home delivery and village community kiosks; 2) improving demand for preventive medication

  7. The potential impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement on American dental licensure: a European community model.

    PubMed

    Paul, D P

    2000-01-01

    Appropriate licensure is a significant barrier to entry to the practice of dentistry. The history of dental licensure in the United States is briefly examined, and current dental licensure requirements in the United States and Mexico are noted. The impact that establishment of the European Community had on dental licensure in Europe is examined, noting that changes were the result of political, rather than professional, input. Requirements of NAFTA are examined to see how they will impact current American dental licensure requirements. Some migration of dental professionals between the United States and Mexico is expected as a result of NAFTA.

  8. A Changing Europe: The Maturation of the European Community and How It Will Affect the Trans-Atlantic Link

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    to the two Germanies agreeing to cohabitate without the official sanction of matrimony and hoping I that as time passes their common-law marriage will...intent can be realized and what hindrances U there are to US involvement in Europe. 3 52 R. Hornick, "The Peace Dividend: Myth and Reality," Tim 12 Feb...Summer 1988. I Hornick, R. "The Peace Dividend: Myth and Reality." Time 12 February 1990, p. 22. Howe, Robert. The European Community’s 1992 Plan

  9. A new methodology based on littoral community cartography dominated by macroalgae for the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Enric; Torras, Xavier; Pinedo, Susana; García, María; Mangialajo, Luisa; de Torres, Mariona

    2007-01-01

    Macroalgae is a biological key element for the assessment of the ecological status in coastal waters in the frame of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, 2000/60/EC). Here we propose a methodology for monitoring water quality based on the cartography of littoral and upper-sublittoral rocky-shore communities (CARLIT, in short). With the use of spatial databases, GIS, and available information about the value of rocky-shore communities as indicators of water quality, it is possible to obtain an environmental quality index representative of the ecological status of rocky coasts. This index, which completely fulfils the requirements of the WFD, is expressed as a ratio between the observed values in the sector of shore that is being assessed and the expected value in a reference condition zone with the same substrate and coastal morphology (Ecological Quality Ratio, EQR). The application of this index to the coast of Catalonia (North-Western Mediterranean) is presented.

  10. Tigecycline versus levofloxacin for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia: European experience.

    PubMed

    Dartois, N; Castaing, N; Gandjini, H; Cooper, A

    2008-10-01

    Tigecycline (TGC), a first-in-class glycylcycline that has been approved for treating complicated skin and skin structure infections and complicated intra-abdominal infections, has an expanded spectrum of activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, anaerobic, and atypical bacteria, including resistant strains. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of TGC with levofloxacin (LEV) in adult hospitalised patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in a randomised, doubleblind, phase 3 multinational trial. This analysis evaluated TGC efficacy and safety in the European region. Hospitalised patients from 53 centres in 18 countries received 7-14 days of i.v. TGC (100-mg loading dose followed by 50 mg every 12 hours) or i.v. LEV (500 mg once or twice daily). Co-primary efficacy endpoints were clinical response in clinically evaluable (CE) and clinical modified intent-to-treat (c-mITT) populations at test-of-cure (TOC). Results indicated that 358 patients received at least 1 dose of study medication (mITT: TGC 177, LEV 181), 245 were CE (TGC 125, LEV 120). Demographics were similar in both groups and the majority of patients had a Fine Pneumonia Severity Index of II to IV (84.4% TGC, 78.2% LEV, mITT). At TOC (CE), TGC cured 112/125 patients (89.6%; 95% CI 82.9, 94.3) and LEV cured 103/120 patients (85.8%; 95% CI 78.3, 91.5), absolute difference of TGC-LEV 3.8% (95% CI -5.3, 12.8; test for noninferiority p<0.001). For those CE patients with a Fine score of

  11. The Modern University as an Imagined Community: European Dreams and Belarusian Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark S.; Tereshkovich, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores various aspects of modern Belarusian national identity through an analysis of two connected case studies, the development of the flagship national university, Belarusian State University (BSU) in Minsk and of the European Humanities University (EHU), a private institution founded in Minsk in 1992 with international funding.…

  12. The Contribution of Work-Based Supervision to Interprofessional Learning on a Masters Programme in Community Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Di

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the contribution of work-based supervision to an education programme in mental health from the perspectives of supervisors and supervisees. It attempts to clarify the supervisory role by looking at the literature together with supervisors' reported learning and development needs. Supervisors responded positively to a…

  13. Application of Internal Factors of Urbanite Female Learner's Participation in Mass Literacy Programme for Community Based Learning and Outreach Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saah, Albert Amoah; Mensah, Joseph Adia

    2013-01-01

    Community based learning and outreach is a strategy through which academic institutions worldwide including University of Ghana have successfully stayed relevant to less privileged communities; they exist in bringing benefits of education to their (less privileged communities) doorstep. Learner's participation has been an objective that any adult…

  14. Safe communities in China as a strategy for injury prevention and safety promotion programmes in the era of rapid economic growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-Mei; Dalal, Koustuv

    2013-02-01

    Due to its rapid economic development, China is facing a huge health, social, and economic burden resulting from injuries. The study's objective was to examine Safe Communities in China as a strategy for injury prevention and safety promotion programmes in the era of rapid economic growth. Literature searches in English and Chinese, which included grey literature, were performed on the Chinese Journal Full-text Search System and Medline, using the words "Safe Community", "injury", "economics", and "prevention". The results showed that the existing 35 recognized members of the International Safe Community Network have not placed due emphasis on suicide prevention, which is one of the leading problems in both rural and urban China. A few groups, such as children, the elderly, cyclists, and pedestrians, have received due emphasis, while other vulnerable groups, such as migrant workers, motorcyclists, students, players, and farmers have not received the necessary attention from the Safe Community perspective. As the evidence describes, Safe Communities in China can be a very effective strategy for injury prevention, but four aspects need to be strengthened in the future: (1) establish and strengthen the policy and regulations in terms of injury prevention at the national level; (2) create a system to involve professional organizations and personnel in projects; (3) consider the economic development status of different parts of China; and (4) intentional injury prevention should receive greater attention.

  15. Radioactive Waste Management - A Priority Thematic Area Within The Euratom 6th Framework Programme (2002-2006)

    SciTech Connect

    Raynal, M.; von Maravic, H.

    2003-02-24

    The European Union's Sixth Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development and the specific EURATOM Framework Programme for Research and Training in Nuclear Energy (2002-2006)-EURATOM FP6--are the major building blocks for the European Commission to strengthen the foundations of the European Research Area, an open market for knowledge and science in Europe. The absence of a broadly agreed approach for radioactive waste management and disposal in the European Union caused the European Commission to raise the issue to a priority key area of research and development within EURATOM FP6. The sub-programme is aimed at looking to a widely agreed approach to waste disposal and will explore also the technical and economic potential of concepts for nuclear energy generation able to make better use of fissile material and generate less waste. To achieve these goals, participating research institutions are invited to invest in durable and structured partnerships by implementing ''new instruments'' for projects--Integrated Projects and Network of Excellence. In 2002 the European Commission consulted the research community on its readiness to prepare actions that use these ''new instruments'' for research topics in the priority area ''management of radioactive waste'' to assist in preparation of the work programme 2002-2006 of the EURATOM FP6. In parallel and under the last call for proposals of EURATOM FP5 the Commission launched two topic-related ''Thematic Networks'' that are bringing European research forces together and will create potential interest for future development within FP6.

  16. [European community guidelines and standards in indoor air quality: what proposals for Italy].

    PubMed

    Settimo, Gaetano; D'Alessandro, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Indoor air quality is an issue on which to focus because of the increasing number of exposed population and in view of the strong public feeling on this issue. This paper reports the rules of EU and several European countries about indoor air quality, focusing on the initiatives performed in Italy to respond to WHO recommendations. Several EU countries have introduced in their legislation rules relating to indoor air quality. At the moment, in Italy, a reference rule has not been issued. For this reason, up to date main informations concerning some guidelines or reference values in indoor air, to be used for a first comparison, are those obtained by the scientific literature, or by the guidelines issued by other European countries or, for analogy, by other standard values such as limit or reference values regarding outdoor air. Even the EU, while reaffirming the priority of energy efficiency measures, recommends healthier indoor environments and the development of a specific European strategy on the issue of indoor air quality. The National Study Group on indoor pollution of the Italian National Health Institute (ISS), is working for the development of shared technical and scientific documents, in order to provide greater uniformity of actions at national level, waiting for a legal framework for indoor air quality, in the light of the indication already produced by the WHO.

  17. The Impact of the Free Swimming Programme in a Local Community in the South East of England: Giving with One Hand, Taking Away with the Other

    PubMed Central

    Kokolakakis, Themis; Pappous, Athanasios Sakis; Meadows, Steve

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of the introduction of the Free Swimming Programme (FSP) in a local community (not identified to preserve anonymity) in the South East of England. The question has been approached in a variety of ways: by using primary quantitative data from leisure centres and logistic regressions based on the Active People Survey (APS). Problems are identified related to the introduction of the FSP in this community and suggestions are made for future policy. A brief examination of swimming participation in England enables researchers to place this community into a national context. The problems and policies of sport organisation developed in this community are not dissimilar to a more general application reflecting the English experience; in this sense it is anticipated that the findings will enable managers of sport organisations, along with public health policy makers, to focus more effectively on raising sport participation. The unique selling points of this article are the examination of FSP for adult participants, the local analysis of junior and senior participation, and the overall assessment of the policy based on APS. PMID:25913188

  18. The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA): Effects after 24 and 30 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Hein; Dijk, Froukje; Wetzels, Joyce; Mudde, Aart; Kremers, Stef; Ariza, Carles; Vitoria, Paulo Duarte; Fielder, Anne; Holm, Klavs; Janssen, Karin; Lehtovuori, Riku; Candel, Math

    2006-01-01

    The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA) study in six countries tested the effects of a comprehensive smoking prevention approach after 24 (T3; N = 10751) and 30 months (T4; N = 9282). The programme targeted four levels, i.e. adolescents in schools, school policies, parents and the community. In Portugal, 12.4% of the T1…

  19. Diversity and community ecology of forest epiphyte testate amoebae from European Russia.

    PubMed

    Payne, Richard J; Belyakova, Olga; Mazei, Yuri

    2015-10-01

    Testate amoebae are an abundant group of microorganisms which make a significant contribution to the diversity of protist life. Most of the world's potential habitats for testate amoebae have been barely studied and when such places are investigated they frequently reveal novel communities and species. Here we consider the testate amoeba communities associated with boreal forest epiphytes (mosses and lichens); an environment which we argue has been under-researched. We present a dataset of 165 samples from four regions of western Russia and analyse these data in relation to micro-habitat position and selected environmental data. The testate amoebae of epiphytes are abundant but dominated by ubiquitous species. We show that there are trends toward a lower species richness and test concentration with greater elevation on the trunk and in lichens compared to mosses. There are considerable differences in community composition between sampling regions. Of all measured environmental variables only moisture content showed a significant relationship with testate amoeba community structure. Our data highlight how little is known about testate amoeba communities of this habitat and call for greater research efforts, particularly in less-studied regions and biomes.

  20. Ceim ar Cheim, Step by Step--Community Music Programme in an Irish Probation Centre: A Personal Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiernan, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Proactive instruction and alternative education have progressively become the schooling of choice for many non-traditional learners in Ireland. Community training, probation and Traveller support centers endeavour to take an existing curriculum and tailor it to such learners' needs. One community based education and training centre funded by the…

  1. Discussions with Adults and Youth to Inform the Development of a Community-Based Tobacco Control Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, Monika; Tewari, Abha; Dhavan, Poonam; Nazar, Gaurang P.; Stigler, Melissa H.; Juneja, Neeru S.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Reddy, K. Srinath

    2013-01-01

    Project Advancing Cessation of Tobacco in Vulnerable Indian Tobacco Consuming Youth (ACTIVITY) is a community-based group randomized intervention trial focused on disadvantaged youth (aged 10-19 years) residing in 14 low-income communities (slums and resettlement colonies) in Delhi, India. This article discusses the findings of Focus Group…

  2. Physiotherapist-designed aquatic exercise programme for community-dwelling elders with osteoarthritis of the knee: a Hong Kong pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lau, Mary C K; Lam, Joseph K S; Siu, Eva; Fung, Carmen S W; Li, Kevin T Y; Lam, Margaret W F

    2014-02-01

    OBJECTIVES. To examine the effectiveness and feasibility of a community-based aquatic exercise programme for elders with osteoarthritis of the knee. DESIGN. Prospective intervention study, with a before-and-after design. SETTING. Community elders. PARTICIPANTS. Twenty elders aged 65 years or above (mean, 72 years) attending four Elderly Health Centres of the Department of Health who had suffered from osteoarthritis of the knee for at least 3 years and with mild-to-severe knee pain. INTERVENTION. A 10-week aquatic exercise programme designed and led by physiotherapists. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. Range of motion and power of extension of the knees, functional reach test, repeated sit-to-stand test, and the Chinese Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2. RESULTS. There was an improvement in the median range of knee flexion from 115° to 125° (P<0.01) and the median strength of the quadriceps from 9 kg to 21 kg (P<0.001). The median score of the functional reach test increased from 20 cm to 28 cm (P<0.001) and the repeated sit-to-stand test from 10 to 14 repetitions (P<0.001). Also, there was an improvement in the mobility level (P<0.01), walking and bending ability of the trunk (P<0.05), levels of pain (P<0.01) and mood (P<0.01), and the total score (P<0.01) in the Chinese Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2. CONCLUSIONS. Physiotherapist-designed aquatic exercise has definite benefits in terms of physical and psychosocial functioning, and should be promoted as one of the strategies to enhance long-term self-management of community elders with knee osteoarthritis.

  3. Results from two years of field studies to determine Mancozeb based spray programmes with minimal impact on predatory mites in European vine cultivation.

    PubMed

    Miles, M; Kemmitt, G; Valverde, P

    2006-01-01

    Mancozeb is a dithiocarbamate fungicide with contact activity against a wide range of economically important fungal diseases. Its multi-site mode of action means that to date there have been no recorded incidences of resistance developing despite many years of use on high risk diseases. One such disease, Grape downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) has developed resistance to a wide range of important oomycete specific fungicides following their introduction onto the market. The role of Mancozeb either as a mixing or alternation partner in helping to manage these resistance situations remains critically important. Historical use patterns for mancozeb in tree and vine crops involved many applications of product at high use rates. Although this gave excellent disease control, a negative impact on predatory mites was often reported by researchers. This has lead to the development of mancozeb spray programmes in vines and other crops with a much reduced impact on predatory mites. A range of field studies was conducted over two years in France, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Spain where 2, 3 or 4 applications of mancozeb containing products were made per season at different spray timings. In this paper findings from field studies over two years in five different vine growing regions in Europe indicated that two to four applications of mancozeb at 1.6 kg a.i./ha as part of a spray programme caused minimal impact on naturally occurring populations of predatory mites which in turn was compatible with Integrated Pest Management programmes and the conservation of predatory mites.

  4. Trip report: European Communities 1989 International Conference on Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations, Brussels, Belgium, October 24-27, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, W.N.

    1989-01-01

    The European community is conducting research on the decommissioning of nuclear installations. The prime objective is to develop effective techniques to ensure the protection of man and his environment against the potential hazards of nuclear installations that have been shut down. The results of the 1979--1983 research program were presented in a conference held in Luxembourg. This program was primarily concerned with decommissioning nuclear power plants. The 1984--1988 program was extended to all types of nuclear installations. Fuel fabrication, enrichment and reprocessing plants, and research and development facilities having fulfilled their useful purposes are also awaiting decommissioning. This Program has produced numerous scientific and technical achievements. Great progress has in particular been achieved in the reduction of metal waste arising from decommissioning, due to advances in areas such as the development of aggressive decontamination procedures and of techniques for melting and recycling low-level radioactive waste metal.

  5. The Impact on Education for Librarianship and Information Studies of the Bologna Process and Related European Commission Programmes--and Some Outstanding Issues in Europe and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    The Bologna Declaration of 1999 is the basis for continuing reforms in higher education intended to support international mobility in employment within the European Union. This paper describes the standardised structure and nomenclature for courses that have been implemented, together with a credit transfer system, a quality assurance regime, and…

  6. Scaling up strategies of the chronic respiratory disease programme of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (Action Plan B3: Area 5).

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Farrell, J; Crooks, G; Hellings, P; Bel, E H; Bewick, M; Chavannes, N H; de Sousa, J Correia; Cruz, A A; Haahtela, T; Joos, G; Khaltaev, N; Malva, J; Muraro, A; Nogues, M; Palkonen, S; Pedersen, S; Robalo-Cordeiro, C; Samolinski, B; Strandberg, T; Valiulis, A; Yorgancioglu, A; Zuberbier, T; Bedbrook, A; Aberer, W; Adachi, M; Agusti, A; Akdis, C A; Akdis, M; Ankri, J; Alonso, A; Annesi-Maesano, I; Ansotegui, I J; Anto, J M; Arnavielhe, S; Arshad, H; Bai, C; Baiardini, I; Bachert, C; Baigenzhin, A K; Barbara, C; Bateman, E D; Beghé, B; Kheder, A Ben; Bennoor, K S; Benson, M; Bergmann, K C; Bieber, T; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Bjermer, L; Blain, H; Blasi, F; Boner, A L; Bonini, M; Bonini, S; Bosnic-Anticevitch, S; Boulet, L P; Bourret, R; Bousquet, P J; Braido, F; Briggs, A H; Brightling, C E; Brozek, J; Buhl, R; Burney, P G; Bush, A; Caballero-Fonseca, F; Caimmi, D; Calderon, M A; Calverley, P M; Camargos, P A M; Canonica, G W; Camuzat, T; Carlsen, K H; Carr, W; Carriazo, A; Casale, T; Cepeda Sarabia, A M; Chatzi, L; Chen, Y Z; Chiron, R; Chkhartishvili, E; Chuchalin, A G; Chung, K F; Ciprandi, G; Cirule, I; Cox, L; Costa, D J; Custovic, A; Dahl, R; Dahlen, S E; Darsow, U; De Carlo, G; De Blay, F; Dedeu, T; Deleanu, D; De Manuel Keenoy, E; Demoly, P; Denburg, J A; Devillier, P; Didier, A; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Djukanovic, R; Dokic, D; Douagui, H; Dray, G; Dubakiene, R; Durham, S R; Dykewicz, M S; El-Gamal, Y; Emuzyte, R; Fabbri, L M; Fletcher, M; Fiocchi, A; Fink Wagner, A; Fonseca, J; Fokkens, W J; Forastiere, F; Frith, P; Gaga, M; Gamkrelidze, A; Garces, J; Garcia-Aymerich, J; Gemicioğlu, B; Gereda, J E; González Diaz, S; Gotua, M; Grisle, I; Grouse, L; Gutter, Z; Guzmán, M A; Heaney, L G; Hellquist-Dahl, B; Henderson, D; Hendry, A; Heinrich, J; Heve, D; Horak, F; Hourihane, J O' B; Howarth, P; Humbert, M; Hyland, M E; Illario, M; Ivancevich, J C; Jardim, J R; Jares, E J; Jeandel, C; Jenkins, C; Johnston, S L; Jonquet, O; Julge, K; Jung, K S; Just, J; Kaidashev, I; Kaitov, M R; Kalayci, O; Kalyoncu, A F; Keil, T; Keith, P K; Klimek, L; Koffi N'Goran, B; Kolek, V; Koppelman, G H; Kowalski, M L; Kull, I; Kuna, P; Kvedariene, V; Lambrecht, B; Lau, S; Larenas-Linnemann, D; Laune, D; Le, L T T; Lieberman, P; Lipworth, B; Li, J; Lodrup Carlsen, K; Louis, R; MacNee, W; Magard, Y; Magnan, A; Mahboub, B; Mair, A; Majer, I; Makela, M J; Manning, P; Mara, S; Marshall, G D; Masjedi, M R; Matignon, P; Maurer, M; Mavale-Manuel, S; Melén, E; Melo-Gomes, E; Meltzer, E O; Menzies-Gow, A; Merk, H; Michel, J P; Miculinic, N; Mihaltan, F; Milenkovic, B; Mohammad, G M Y; Molimard, M; Momas, I; Montilla-Santana, A; Morais-Almeida, M; Morgan, M; Mösges, R; Mullol, J; Nafti, S; Namazova-Baranova, L; Naclerio, R; Neou, A; Neffen, H; Nekam, K; Niggemann, B; Ninot, G; Nyembue, T D; O'Hehir, R E; Ohta, K; Okamoto, Y; Okubo, K; Ouedraogo, S; Paggiaro, P; Pali-Schöll, I; Panzner, P; Papadopoulos, N; Papi, A; Park, H S; Passalacqua, G; Pavord, I; Pawankar, R; Pengelly, R; Pfaar, O; Picard, R; Pigearias, B; Pin, I; Plavec, D; Poethig, D; Pohl, W; Popov, T A; Portejoie, F; Potter, P; Postma, D; Price, D; Rabe, K F; Raciborski, F; Radier Pontal, F; Repka-Ramirez, S; Reitamo, S; Rennard, S; Rodenas, F; Roberts, J; Roca, J; Rodriguez Mañas, L; Rolland, C; Roman Rodriguez, M; Romano, A; Rosado-Pinto, J; Rosario, N; Rosenwasser, L; Rottem, M; Ryan, D; Sanchez-Borges, M; Scadding, G K; Schunemann, H J; Serrano, E; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Schulz, H; Sheikh, A; Shields, M; Siafakas, N; Sibille, Y; Similowski, T; Simons, F E R; Sisul, J C; Skrindo, I; Smit, H A; Solé, D; Sooronbaev, T; Spranger, O; Stelmach, R; Sterk, P J; Sunyer, J; Thijs, C; To, T; Todo-Bom, A; Triggiani, M; Valenta, R; Valero, A L; Valia, E; Valovirta, E; Van Ganse, E; van Hage, M; Vandenplas, O; Vasankari, T; Vellas, B; Vestbo, J; Vezzani, G; Vichyanond, P; Viegi, G; Vogelmeier, C; Vontetsianos, T; Wagenmann, M; Wallaert, B; Walker, S; Wang, D Y; Wahn, U; Wickman, M; Williams, D M; Williams, S; Wright, J; Yawn, B P; Yiallouros, P K; Yusuf, O M; Zaidi, A; Zar, H J; Zernotti, M E; Zhang, L; Zhong, N; Zidarn, M; Mercier, J

    2016-01-01

    Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) focuses on the integrated care of chronic diseases. Area 5 (Care Pathways) was initiated using chronic respiratory diseases as a model. The chronic respiratory disease action plan includes (1) AIRWAYS integrated care pathways (ICPs), (2) the joint initiative between the Reference site MACVIA-LR (Contre les MAladies Chroniques pour un VIeillissement Actif) and ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma), (3) Commitments for Action to the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing and the AIRWAYS ICPs network. It is deployed in collaboration with the World Health Organization Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD). The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing has proposed a 5-step framework for developing an individual scaling up strategy: (1) what to scale up: (1-a) databases of good practices, (1-b) assessment of viability of the scaling up of good practices, (1-c) classification of good practices for local replication and (2) how to scale up: (2-a) facilitating partnerships for scaling up, (2-b) implementation of key success factors and lessons learnt, including emerging technologies for individualised and predictive medicine. This strategy has already been applied to the chronic respiratory disease action plan of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing.

  7. European Forum on Educational Administration. Report on the Intervisitation Programme in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1980. (Mainz, West Germany, August 24-31, 1980.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopes, Clive, Ed.

    A number of educators formed a network and established the European Forum on Educational Administration. The Forum's program described in this publication had a duration of one week consisting of a day of intensive orientation to the Federal Republic of Germany's education system, two and a half days of visits to educational institutions in the…

  8. Child Sexual Abuse Consequences in Community Samples of Latino and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Michael D.; Munoz, David T.; Carmona, Jennifer Vargas

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Research investigating the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) in community samples of adolescents has been limited. This study aims to identify sexual abuse among ethnically diverse high school adolescents of both genders and evaluate their psycho-emotional consequences. Method: Through the use of self-report instruments, a sample of…

  9. Evaluating a European knowledge hub on climate change in agriculture: Are we building a better connected community?

    PubMed

    Saetnan, Eli Rudinow; Kipling, Richard Philip

    2016-01-01

    In order to maintain food security and sustainability of production under climate change, interdisciplinary and international collaboration in research is essential. In the EU, knowledge hubs are important funding instruments for the development of an interconnected European Research Area. Here, network analysis was used to assess whether the pilot knowledge hub MACSUR has affected interdisciplinary collaboration, using co-authorship of peer reviewed articles as a measure of collaboration. The broad community of all authors identified as active in the field of agriculture and climate change was increasingly well connected over the period studied. Between knowledge hub members, changes in network parameters suggest an increase in collaborative interaction beyond that expected due to network growth, and greater than that found in the broader community. Given that interdisciplinary networks often take several years to have an impact on research outputs, these changes within the relatively new MACSUR community provide evidence that the knowledge hub structure has been effective in stimulating collaboration. However, analysis showed that knowledge hub partners were initially well-connected, suggesting that the initiative may have gathered together researchers with particular resources or inclinations towards collaborative working. Long term, consistent funding and ongoing reflection to improve networking structures may be necessary to sustain the early positive signs from MACSUR, to extend its success to a wider community of researchers, or to repeat it in less connected fields of science. Tackling complex challenges such as climate change will require research structures that can effectively support and utilise the diversity of talents beyond the already well-connected core of scientists at major research institutes. But network research shows that this core, well-connected group are vital brokers in achieving wider integration.

  10. Global climate change in large European rivers: long-term effects on macroinvertebrate communities and potential local confounding factors.

    PubMed

    Floury, Mathieu; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe; Ferreol, Martial; Delattre, Cecile; Souchon, Yves

    2013-04-01

    Aquatic species living in running waters are widely acknowledged to be vulnerable to climate-induced, thermal and hydrological fluctuations. Climate changes can interact with other environmental changes to determine structural and functional attributes of communities. Although such complex interactions are most likely to occur in a multiple-stressor context as frequently encountered in large rivers, they have received little attention in such ecosystems. In this study, we aimed at specifically addressing the issue of relative long-term effects of global and local changes on benthic macroinvertebrate communities in multistressed large rivers. We assessed effects of hydroclimatic vs. water quality factors on invertebrate community structure and composition over 30 years (1979-2008) in the Middle Loire River, France. As observed in other large European rivers, water warming over the three decades (+0.9 °C between 1979-1988 and 1999-2008) and to a lesser extent discharge reduction (-80 m(3) s(-1) ) were significantly involved in the disappearance or decrease in taxa typical from fast running, cold waters (e.g. Chloroperlidae and Potamanthidae). They explained also a major part of the appearance and increase of taxa typical from slow flowing or standing waters and warmer temperatures, including invasive species (e.g. Corbicula sp. and Atyaephyra desmarestii). However, this shift towards a generalist and pollution tolerant assemblage was partially confounded by local improvement in water quality (i.e. phosphate input reduction by about two thirds and eutrophication limitation by almost one half), explaining a significant part of the settlement of new pollution-sensitive taxa (e.g. the caddisfly Brachycentridae and Philopotamidae families) during the last years of the study period. The regain in such taxa allowed maintaining a certain level of specialization in the invertebrate community despite climate change effects.

  11. What do community health workers have to say about their work, and how can this inform improved programme design? A case study with CHWs within Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Martin; Geniets, Anne; Winters, Niall; Rega, Isabella; Mbae, Simon M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Community health workers (CHWs) are used increasingly in the world to address shortages of health workers and the lack of a pervasive national health system. However, while their role is often described at a policy level, it is not clear how these ideals are instantiated in practice, how best to support this work, or how the work is interpreted by local actors. CHWs are often spoken about or spoken for, but there is little evidence of CHWs’ own characterisation of their practice, which raises questions for global health advocates regarding power and participation in CHW programmes. This paper addresses this issue. Design A case study approach was undertaken in a series of four steps. Firstly, groups of CHWs from two communities met and reported what their daily work consisted of. Secondly, individual CHWs were interviewed so that they could provide fuller, more detailed accounts of their work and experiences; in addition, community health extension workers and community health committee members were interviewed, to provide alternative perspectives. Thirdly, notes and observations were taken in community meetings and monthly meetings. The data were then analysed thematically, creating an account of how CHWs describe their own work, and the tensions and challenges that they face. Results The thematic analysis of the interview data explored the structure of CHW's work, in terms of the frequency and range of visits, activities undertaken during visits (monitoring, referral, etc.) and the wider context of their work (links to the community and health service, limited training, coordination and mutual support through action and discussion days, etc.), and provided an opportunity for CHWs to explain their motivations, concerns and how they understood their role. The importance of these findings as a contribution to the field is evidenced by the depth and detail of their descriptive power. One important aspect of this is that CHWs’ accounts of both successes

  12. Outcomes of a community-based treatment programme for people with acquired brain injury in the chronic phase: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Middag-van Spanje, Marij; Smeets, Sanne; van Haastregt, Jolanda; van Heugten, Caroline

    2017-03-28

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the outcomes of Brainz, a low intensity community-based treatment programme for people with acquired brain injury (ABI). Participants were 62 people with sustained ABI (5.2 years post-injury, SD = 4.5) and 35 family caregivers. Participants attended two to five cognitive and physical group modules and received two hours of individual home treatment every two weeks. Primary outcomes for people with ABI were participation, perceived difficulties in daily life and need of care, level of goal attainment, and self-esteem. Primary family caregiver outcome was perceived burden of care. Attrition rate of people with ABI was 24% (n = 15), and of family caregivers was 31% (n = 11). People with ABI were more satisfied with the level of their participation after completing Brainz (p < .01), but showed no change in participation frequency or in restrictions (both ps > .01). They perceived fewer difficulties in daily life and less need of care (both ps < .01). Also, in two cognitive modules people improved on their goal achievement (p < .01). However, their self-esteem was reduced (p < .01). Caregiver burden was reduced (p < .01). This study has provided preliminary evidence of the effectiveness of a combined group-based clinical and individual home-based treatment programme, but more research is needed, preferably in larger controlled studies.

  13. Needs assessment for adapting TB directly observed treatment intervention programme in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A community-based participatory research approach

    PubMed Central

    Khoza, Lunic B.; Van den Borne, Hubertus B.; Lebese, Rachel T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Limpopo Province is one of the hardest hit by tuberculosis and human immune virus infections in the country. The province has been implementing a directly observed treatment strategy since 1996. However, the cure rate was 64% in 2015 and remains far from the set target by the World Health Organization of 85%. Poor health-care seeking and adherence behaviours were identified as major risk behaviours. Aim To apply a Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) approach in identifying barriers and facilitators to health-care seeking and adherence to treatment, and to determine strategies and messages in order to inform the design of an adapted intervention programme. Setting This study was conducted in three districts in the Limpopo Province, Capricorn, Mopani and Sekhukhune districts. Methods The community participatory research approach was applied. Purposive sampling was used to sample participants. Focus group discussions were used to collect data. Participatory analysis was used comparing findings within and across all the participants. Results A total of 161 participated in the study. Participants included coordinators, professional nurses, supporters and patients. Major modifiable behavioural-related barriers were lack of knowledge about tuberculosis, misinformation and misperceptions cultural beliefs, stigma and refusal of treatment support. Environment-related barriers were attitudes of health workers, lack of support by family and community, lack of food and use of alcohol and drugs. Strategies and messages included persuasive and motivational messages to promote healthy behaviour. Conclusion Joint programmatic collaboration between the community and academic researchers is really needed for interventions to address the needs of the community. PMID:27542290

  14. High diversity of protistan plankton communities in remote high mountain lakes in the European Alps and the Himalayan mountains

    PubMed Central

    Kammerlander, Barbara; Breiner, Hans-Werner; Filker, Sabine; Sommaruga, Ruben; Sonntag, Bettina; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the genetic diversity (V4 region of the 18S rRNA) of planktonic microbial eukaryotes in four high mountain lakes including two remote biogeographic regions (the Himalayan mountains and the European Alps) and distinct habitat types (clear and glacier-fed turbid lakes). The recorded high genetic diversity in these lakes was far beyond of what is described from high mountain lake plankton. In total, we detected representatives from 66 families with the main taxon groups being Alveolata (55.0% OTUs97%, operational taxonomic units), Stramenopiles (34.0% OTUs97%), Cryptophyta (4.0% OTUs97%), Chloroplastida (3.6% OTUs97%) and Fungi (1.7% OTUs97%). Centrohelida, Choanomonada, Rhizaria, Katablepharidae and Telonema were represented by <1% OTUs97%. Himalayan lakes harbored a higher plankton diversity compared to the Alpine lakes (Shannon index). Community structures were significantly different between lake types and biogeographic regions (Fisher exact test, P < 0.01). Network analysis revealed that more families of the Chloroplastida (10 vs 5) and the Stramenopiles (14 vs 8) were found in the Himalayan lakes than in the Alpine lakes and none of the fungal families was shared between them. Biogeographic aspects as well as ecological factors such as water turbidity may structure the microbial eukaryote plankton communities in such remote lakes. PMID:25764458

  15. High diversity of protistan plankton communities in remote high mountain lakes in the European Alps and the Himalayan mountains.

    PubMed

    Kammerlander, Barbara; Breiner, Hans-Werner; Filker, Sabine; Sommaruga, Ruben; Sonntag, Bettina; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed the genetic diversity (V4 region of the 18S rRNA) of planktonic microbial eukaryotes in four high mountain lakes including two remote biogeographic regions (the Himalayan mountains and the European Alps) and distinct habitat types (clear and glacier-fed turbid lakes). The recorded high genetic diversity in these lakes was far beyond of what is described from high mountain lake plankton. In total, we detected representatives from 66 families with the main taxon groups being Alveolata (55.0% OTUs 97%, operational taxonomic units), Stramenopiles (34.0% OTUs 97%), Cryptophyta (4.0% OTUs 97%), Chloroplastida (3.6% OTUs 97%) and Fungi (1.7% OTUs 97%). Centrohelida, Choanomonada, Rhizaria, Katablepharidae and Telonema were represented by <1% OTUs 97%. Himalayan lakes harbored a higher plankton diversity compared to the Alpine lakes (Shannon index). Community structures were significantly different between lake types and biogeographic regions (Fisher exact test, P < 0.01). Network analysis revealed that more families of the Chloroplastida (10 vs 5) and the Stramenopiles (14 vs 8) were found in the Himalayan lakes than in the Alpine lakes and none of the fungal families was shared between them. Biogeographic aspects as well as ecological factors such as water turbidity may structure the microbial eukaryote plankton communities in such remote lakes.

  16. A cluster-randomised controlled trial integrating a community-based water, sanitation and hygiene programme, with mass distribution of albendazole to reduce intestinal parasites in Timor-Leste: the WASH for WORMS research protocol

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Susana Vaz; McCarthy, James S; Traub, Rebecca; Andrews, Ross M; Black, Jim; Gray, Darren; Weking, Edmund; Atkinson, Jo-An; Campbell, Suzy; Francis, Naomi; Vallely, Andrew; Williams, Gail; Clements, Archie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is limited evidence demonstrating the benefits of community-based water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programmes on infections with soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and intestinal protozoa. Our study aims to contribute to that evidence base by investigating the effectiveness of combining two complementary approaches for control of STH: periodic mass administration of albendazole, and delivery of a community-based WASH programme. Methods and analysis WASH for WORMS is a cluster-randomised controlled trial to test the hypothesis that a community-based WASH intervention integrated with periodic mass distribution of albendazole will be more effective in reducing infections with STH and protozoa than mass deworming alone. All 18 participating rural communities in Timor-Leste receive mass chemotherapy every 6 months. Half the communities also receive the community-based WASH programme. Primary outcomes are the cumulative incidence of infection with STH. Secondary outcomes include the prevalence of protozoa; intensity of infection with STH; as well as morbidity indicators (anaemia, stunting and wasting). Each of the trial outcomes will be compared between control and intervention communities. End points will be measured 2 years after the first albendazole distribution; and midpoints are measured at 6 months intervals (12 months for haemoglobin and anthropometric indexes). Mixed-methods research will also be conducted in order to identify barriers and enablers associated with the acceptability and uptake of the WASH programme. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was obtained from the human ethics committees at the University of Queensland, Australian National University, Timorese Ministry of Health, and University of Melbourne. The results of the trial will be published in peer-reviewed journals presented at national and international conferences, and disseminated to relevant stakeholders in health and WASH programmes. This study is funded

  17. Power, pleasure, pain, and shame: assimilating gender and sexuality into community-centred reproductive health and HIV prevention programmes in India.

    PubMed

    Kambou, S Degnan; Magar, V; Hora, G; Mukherjee, A

    2007-01-01

    Inspired by the vision of the Millennium Declaration, CARE and ICRW (International Centre for Research on Women) partnered with the Inner Spaces, Outer Faces Initiative (ISOFI) to learn how to more effectively integrate gender and sexuality into CARE's sexual and reproductive health programmes. Drawing from lessons learned from gender mainstreaming, ISOFI focuses initially on fostering personal change among staff, helping them to explore their own gender and sexuality 'baggage' and supporting transformation of their 'inner space'. ISOFI then gradually integrates mechanisms to promote organizational change, and finally extends to community development practice, the 'outer face'. As a system promoting change in organizational culture and practice, ISOFI features structured iterative loops of reflection and learning, action and experimentation, and analysis and assimilation. This article describes the ISOFI Innovation System, and reports on ISOFI-generated learning and innovation in sex positive HIV prevention programming for truckers and reproductive health interventions for women in India.

  18. How can community health programmes build enabling environments for transformative communication? Experiences from India and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Catherine; Cornish, Flora

    2012-05-01

    Much research has examined how to empower the poor to articulate demands for health-enabling living conditions. Less is known about creating receptive social environments where the powerful heed the voices of the poor. We explore the potential for 'transformative communication' between the poor and the powerful, through comparing two well-documented case studies of HIV/AIDS management. The Entabeni Project in South Africa sought to empower impoverished women to deliver home-based nursing to people with AIDS. It successfully provided short-term welfare, but did not achieve local leadership or sustainability. The Sonagachi Project in India, an HIV-prevention programme targeting female sex workers, became locally led and sustainable. We highlight the strategies through which Sonagachi, but not Entabeni, altered the material, symbolic and relational contexts of participants' lives, enabling transformative communication and opportunities for sexual health-enabling social change.

  19. Plant community assembly at small scales: Spatial vs. environmental factors in a European grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Sebastian; Hempel, Stefan; Ristow, Michael; Rillig, Matthias C.; Kowarik, Ingo; Caruso, Tancredi

    2015-02-01

    Dispersal limitation and environmental conditions are crucial drivers of plant species distribution and establishment. As these factors operate at different spatial scales, we asked: Do the environmental factors known to determine community assembly at broad scales operate at fine scales (few meters)? How much do these factors account for community variation at fine scales? In which way do biotic and abiotic interactions drive changes in species composition? We surveyed the plant community within a dry grassland along a very steep gradient of soil characteristics like pH and nutrients. We used a spatially explicit sampling design, based on three replicated macroplots of 15 × 15, 12 × 12 and 12 × 12 m in extent. Soil samples were taken to quantify several soil properties (carbon, nitrogen, plant available phosphorus, pH, water content and dehydrogenase activity as a proxy for overall microbial activity). We performed variance partitioning to assess the effect of these variables on plant composition and statistically controlled for spatial autocorrelation via eigenvector mapping. We also applied null model analysis to test for non-random patterns in species co-occurrence using randomization schemes that account for patterns expected under species interactions. At a fine spatial scale, environmental factors explained 18% of variation when controlling for spatial autocorrelation in the distribution of plant species, whereas purely spatial processes accounted for 14% variation. Null model analysis showed that species spatially segregated in a non-random way and these spatial patterns could be due to a combination of environmental filtering and biotic interactions. Our grassland study suggests that environmental factors found to be directly relevant in broad scale studies are present also at small scales, but are supplemented by spatial processes and more direct interactions like competition.

  20. The effect of social relationships on survival in elderly residents of a Southern European community: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Laso, Angel; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Otero, Angel

    2007-01-01

    Background Comparative evidence regarding the effects of social relationships on mortality in Mediterranean communities will increase our knowledge of their strengths and the ways in which they influence longevity across cultures. Men and women may benefit differently from social relationships because of cultural differences in gender roles. Psychosocial mechanisms such as social support, which may explain the effects of social networks, may also vary by culture. Methods Detailed information on the social relationships of a representative sample of 1,174 community-dwelling older adults was collected in Leganés, a city in central Spain. Mortality over a 6-year follow-up period was ascertained. Information on socio-demographic, health and disability variables was also collected. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted separately for men and women and for the combined sample. Results Having a confidant was associated with a 25% (95% CI 5–40%) reduction in the mortality risk. The hazard ratio for lack of social participation was 1.5 (95% CI 1.3–1.7). Being engaged in meaningful roles protected against mortality, while receipt of emotional support did not affect survival. These results were comparable for men and women. Having contact with all family ties was associated with reduced mortality only in men. Structural aspects of social networks make a unique contribution to survival, independently of emotional support and the role played in the lives of significant others. Conclusion In this elderly Southern European population, the beneficial effects of social networks, social participation, engagement in the life of significant others and having a confidant call for public policies that foster intergenerational and community exchanges. PMID:17678536

  1. European national healthy city networks: the impact of an elite epistemic community.

    PubMed

    Heritage, Zoë; Green, Geoff

    2013-10-01

    National healthy cities networks (NNs) were created 20 years ago to support the development of healthy cities within the WHO Europe Region. Using the concept of epistemic communities, the evolution and impact of NNs is considered, as is their future development. Healthy cities national networks are providing information, training and support to member cities. In many cases, they are also involved in supporting national public health policy development and disseminating out healthy city principles to other local authorities. National networks are a fragile but an extremely valuable resource for sharing public health knowledge.

  2. Tuberculosis case-finding through a village outreach programme in a rural setting in southern Ethiopia: community randomized trial.

    PubMed Central

    Shargie, Estifanos Biru; Mørkve, Odd; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether case-finding through community outreach in a rural setting has an effect on case-notification rate, symptom duration, and treatment outcome of smear-positive tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: We randomly allocated 32 rural communities to intervention or control groups. In intervention communities, health workers from seven health centres held monthly diagnostic outreach clinics at which they obtained sputum samples for sputum microscopy from symptomatic TB suspects. In addition, trained community promoters distributed leaflets and discussed symptoms of TB during house visits and at popular gatherings. Symptomatic individuals were encouraged to visit the outreach team or a nearby health facility. In control communities, cases were detected through passive case-finding among symptomatic suspects reporting to health facilities. Smear-positive TB patients from the intervention and control communities diagnosed during the study period were prospectively enrolled. FINDINGS: In the 1-year study period, 159 and 221 cases of smear-positive TB were detected in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Case-notification rates in all age groups were 124.6/10(5) and 98.1/10(5) person-years, respectively (P = 0.12). The corresponding rates in adults older than 14 years were 207/10(5) and 158/10(5) person-years, respectively (P = 0.09). The proportion of patients with >3 months' symptom duration was 41% in the intervention group compared with 63% in the control group (P<0.001). Pre-treatment symptom duration in the intervention group fell by 55-60% compared with 3-20% in the control group. In the intervention and control groups, 81% and 75%, respectively of patients successfully completed treatment (P = 0.12). CONCLUSION: The intervention was effective in improving the speed but not the extent of case finding for smear-positive TB in this setting. Both groups had comparable treatment outcomes. PMID:16501728

  3. Copernicus Earth observation programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žlebir, Silvo

    European Earth observation program Copernicus is an EU-wide programme that integrates satellite data, in-situ data and modeling to provide user-focused information services to support policymakers, researchers, businesses and citizens. Land monitoring service and Emergency service are fully operational already, Atmosphere monitoring service and Marine environment monitoring service are preoperational and will become fully operational in the following year, while Climate change service and Security service are in an earlier development phase. New series of a number of dedicated satellite missions will be launched in the following years, operated by the European Space Agency and EUMETSAT, starting with Sentinel 1A satellite early this year. Ground based, air-borne and sea-borne in-situ data are provided by different international networks and organizations, EU member states networks etc. European Union is devoting a particular attention to secure a sustainable long-term operational provision of the services. Copernicus is also stated as a European Union’s most important contribution to Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The status and the recent development of the Copernicus programme will be presented, together with its future perspective. As Copernicus services have already demonstrated their usability and effectiveness, some interesting cases of their deployment will be presented. Copernicus free and open data policy, supported by a recently adopted EU legislative act, will also be presented.

  4. ERASMUS Student Mobility Programmes 1991/92 in the View of the Local Directors. ERASMUS Monographs No. 19. Werkstattberichte-Band 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiworm, Friedhelm; Teichler, Ulrich

    This publication reports on a survey of 2,682 local directors of ERASMUS (Action Scheme for the Mobility of Students), a program of international student exchange of the European Community states. Central sections describing study findings in detail cover profiles of the Inter-University Cooperation Programme (ICP) partners surveyed; duties,…

  5. The contribution of nitrogen deposition to the eutrophication signal in understorey plant communities of European forests.

    PubMed

    van Dobben, Han F; de Vries, Wim

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated effects of atmospheric deposition of nitrogen on the composition of forest understorey vegetation both in space and time, using repeated data from the European wide monitoring program ICP-Forests, which focuses on normally managed forest. Our aim was to assess whether both spatial and temporal effects of deposition can be detected by a multiple regression approach using data from managed forests over a relatively short time interval, in which changes in the tree layer are limited. To characterize the vegetation, we used indicators derived from cover percentages per species using multivariate statistics and indicators derived from the presence/absence, that is, species numbers and Ellenberg's indicator values. As explanatory variables, we used climate, altitude, tree species, stand age, and soil chemistry, besides deposition of nitrate, ammonia and sulfate. We analyzed the effects of abiotic conditions at a single point in time by canonical correspondence analysis and multiple regression. The relation between the change in vegetation and abiotic conditions was analyzed using redundancy analysis and multiple regression, for a subset of the plots that had both abiotic data and enough species to compute a mean Ellenberg N value per plot using a minimum of three species. Results showed that the spatial variation in the vegetation is mainly due to "traditional" factors such as soil type and climate, but a statistically significant part of the variation could be ascribed to atmospheric deposition of nitrate. The change in the vegetation over the past c. 10 years was also significantly correlated to nitrate deposition. Although the effect of deposition on the individual species could not be clearly defined, the effect on the vegetation as a whole was a shift toward nitrophytic species as witnessed by an increase in mean Ellenberg's indicator value.

  6. The development of Sustainability Graduate Community (SGC) as a learning pathway for sustainability education - a framework for engineering programmes in Malaysia Technical Universities Network (MTUN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johan, Kartina; Mohd Turan, Faiz

    2016-11-01

    ‘Environmental and sustainability’ is one of the Program Outcome (PO) designated by the Board of Engineers Malaysia (BEM) as one of the accreditation program requirement. However, to-date the implementation of sustainability elements in engineering programme in the technical universities in Malaysia is within individual faculty's curriculum plan and lack of university-level structured learning pathway, which enable all students to have access to an education in sustainability across all disciplines. Sustainability Graduate Community (SGC) is a framework designed to provide a learning pathway in the curriculum of engineering programs to inculcate sustainability education among engineering graduates. This paper aims to study the required attributes in Sustainability Graduate Community (SGC) framework to produce graduates who are not just engineers but also skilful in sustainability competencies using Global Project Management (GPM) P5 Standard for Sustainability. The development of the conceptual framework is to provide a constructive teaching and learning plan for educators and policy makers to work on together in developing the Sustainability Graduates (SG), the new kind of graduates from Malaysia Technical Universities Network (MTUN) in Malaysia who are literate in sustainability practices. The framework also support the call for developing holistic students based on Malaysian Education Blueprint (Higher Education) and address the gap between the statuses of engineering qualification to the expected competencies from industries in Malaysia in particular by achieving the SG attributes outlined in the framework

  7. Outcome results for the Ma'alahi Youth Project, a Tongan community-based obesity prevention programme for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fotu, K F; Millar, L; Mavoa, H; Kremer, P; Moodie, M; Snowdon, W; Utter, J; Vivili, P; Schultz, J T; Malakellis, M; McCabe, M P; Roberts, G; Swinburn, B A

    2011-11-01

    Tonga has a very high prevalence of obesity with steep increases during youth, making adolescence a critical time for obesity prevention. The Ma'alahi Youth Project, the Tongan arm of the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project, was a 3-year, quasi-experimental study of community-based interventions among adolescents in three districts on Tonga's main island (Tongatapu) compared to the island of Vava'u. Interventions focused mainly on capacity building, social marketing, education and activities promoting physical activity and local fruit and vegetables. The evaluation used a longitudinal design (mean follow-up duration 2.4 years). Both intervention and comparison groups showed similar large increases in overweight and obesity prevalence (10.1% points, n = 815; 12.6% points, n = 897 respectively). Apart from a small relative decrease in percentage body fat in the intervention group (-1.5%, P < 0.0001), there were no differences in outcomes for any anthropometric variables between groups and behavioural changes did not follow a clear positive pattern. In conclusion, the Ma'alahi Youth Project had no impact on the large increase in prevalence of overweight and obesity among Tongan adolescents. Community-based interventions in such populations with high obesity prevalence may require more intensive or longer interventions, as well as specific strategies targeting the substantial socio-cultural barriers to achieving a healthy weight.

  8. Discussions with adults and youth to inform the development of a community-based tobacco control programme

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Monika; Tewari, Abha; Dhavan, Poonam; Nazar, Gaurang P.; Stigler, Melissa H.; Juneja, Neeru S.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Reddy, K. Srinath

    2013-01-01

    Project Advancing Cessation of Tobacco in Vulnerable Indian Tobacco Consuming Youth (ACTIVITY) is a community-based group randomized intervention trial focused on disadvantaged youth (aged 10–19 years) residing in 14 low-income communities (slums and resettlement colonies) in Delhi, India. This article discusses the findings of Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) conducted to inform the development and test the appropriateness of Project ACTIVITY’s intervention model. The findings of the FGDs facilitated the understanding of factors contributing to increased tobacco uptake and cessation (both smoking and smokeless tobacco) among youth in this setting. Twenty-two FGDs were conducted with youth (10–19 years) and adults in two urban slums in Delhi. Key findings revealed: (i) youth and adults had limited knowledge about long-term health consequences of tobacco use; (ii) socio-environmental determinants and peer pressure were important variables influencing initiation of tobacco use; (iii) lack of motivation, support and sufficient skills hinder tobacco cessation and (iv) active involvement of community, family, religious leaders, local policy makers and health professionals is important in creating and reinforcing tobacco-free norms. The results of these FGDs aided in finalizing the intervention model for Project ACTIVITY and guided its intervention development. PMID:22824533

  9. Pathogens, prejudice, and politics: the role of the global health community in the European refugee crisis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mishal S; Osei-Kofi, Anna; Omar, Abbas; Kirkbride, Hilary; Kessel, Anthony; Abbara, Aula; Heymann, David; Zumla, Alimuddin; Dar, Osman

    2016-08-01

    Involuntary migration is a crucially important global challenge from an economic, social, and public health perspective. The number of displaced people reached an unprecedented level in 2015, at a total of 60 million worldwide, with more than 1 million crossing into Europe in the past year alone. Migrants and refugees are often perceived to carry a higher load of infectious diseases, despite no systematic association. We propose three important contributions that the global health community can make to help address infectious disease risks and global health inequalities worldwide, with a particular focus on the refugee crisis in Europe. First, policy decisions should be based on a sound evidence base regarding health risks and burdens to health systems, rather than prejudice or unfounded fears. Second, for incoming refugees, we must focus on building inclusive, cost-effective health services to promote collective health security. Finally, alongside protracted conflicts, widening of health and socioeconomic inequalities between high-income and lower-income countries should be acknowledged as major drivers for the global refugee crisis, and fully considered in planning long-term solutions.

  10. Co-operation with eastern European countries taking ENAC as an example

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.

    1994-12-31

    In the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident, the European Community launched an ambitious programme of nuclear safety assistance. The purpose of this programme is to improve the safety of the Nuclear Power stations in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union plants. It was felt in the Western European nuclear industry that the emphasis should be on finding practical solutions to improve the most urgent problems. To achieve this objective, the nuclear industry in Western Europe founded a consortium called ENAC (European Nuclear Assistance Consortium) comprising companies form seven European countries (Great Britain, France, Germany, Spain, Belgium, Italy, Netherlands). The co-operation between these companies and the Russian designers would ensure that the solutions developed meet the approval of all interested parties.

  11. The European Long-range Research Initiative (LRI): A decade of contributions to human health protection, exposure modelling and environmental integrity.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Jacob; Fritsche, Ellen; Schoeters, Greet; Kimber, Ian

    2015-11-04

    The European Long-range Research Initiative (LRI) was launched in 2000. The objective of this programme is to provide increased understanding of the potential impact of chemicals on human health and the environment. The aim has been to reduce uncertainty associated with innovation, and to promote evidence-based decision making. In pursuing these objectives the LRI has commissioned independent scientific research in institutions throughout Europe and beyond. The portfolio of research supported by the LRI has delivered significant contributions to risk assessment sciences. In addition, the LRI programme has benefited the broader scientific community. In this review article members of the Cefic European Scientific Advisory Panel (ESAP), the body charged with providing oversight of the LRI programme, illustrate some of those achievements by reference to specific areas of research (respiratory allergy, human biomonitoring, environment and wildlife), and also the contribution made to the development of European scientists through the annual LRI Award Programme.

  12. Actor interfaces and practices of power in a community health worker programme: a South African study of unintended policy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Uta; Gilson, Lucy

    2013-07-01

    This paper makes a contribution to a much-neglected aspect of policy analysis: the practice of power in implementation. Practices of power are at the heart of every policy process, yet are rarely explicitly explored in the health policy literature. This paper provides a detailed study of micro-practices of power by those at the frontline of service delivery in the implementation of a national community health worker policy in one rural South African sub-district. The paper is based on a small-scale qualitative study which collected data through observations, interviews and focus group discussions with health services and facility managers, community health workers and community members. Practices of power were analysed using VeneKlasen and Miller's categorization of multiple dimensions of power, as power over, power with, power to and power within. Furthermore, the concept of 'actor interface analysis' allowed exploration of different actors' experience, interests and their specific location in the landscape of local health system governance. The study revealed that almost all policy actors exercised some form of power, from authoritative power, derived from hierarchy and budget control, to the discretionary power of those working at lower levels to withhold labour or organize in-service training. Each of these practices of power had their rationale in different actors' efforts to make the intervention 'fit' their understandings of local reality. While each had a limited impact on policy outcomes, their cumulative effect produced a significant thinning down of the policy's intent. However, discretionary power was not always used to undermine policy. One manager's use of discretionary power in fact led to a partial reconstruction of the original policy intent. The paper concludes that understanding and being responsive to the complexity of local realities, interests and contexts and the multi-layered practices of power may allow managers to adopt more appropriate

  13. Comparing a paper based monitoring and evaluation system to a mHealth system to support the national community health worker programme, South Africa: an evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In an attempt to address a complex disease burden, including improving progress towards MDGs 4 and 5, South Africa recently introduced a re-engineered Primary Health Care (PHC) strategy, which has led to the development of a national community health worker (CHW) programme. The present study explored the development of a cell phone-based and paper-based monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system to support the work of the CHWs. Methods One sub-district in the North West province was identified for the evaluation. One outreach team comprising ten CHWs maintained both the paper forms and mHealth system to record household data on community-based services. A comparative analysis was done to calculate the correspondence between the paper and phone records. A focus group discussion was conducted with the CHWs. Clinical referrals, data accuracy and supervised visits were compared and analysed for the paper and phone systems. Results Compared to the mHealth system where data accuracy was assured, 40% of the CHWs showed a consistently high level (>90% correspondence) of data transfer accuracy on paper. Overall, there was an improvement over time, and by the fifth month, all CHWs achieved a correspondence of 90% or above between phone and paper data. The most common error that occurred was summing the total number of visits and/or activities across the five household activity indicators. Few supervised home visits were recorded in either system and there was no evidence of the team leader following up on the automatic notifications received on their cell phones. Conclusions The evaluation emphasizes the need for regular supervision for both systems and rigorous and ongoing assessments of data quality for the paper system. Formalization of a mHealth M&E system for PHC outreach teams delivering community based services could offer greater accuracy of M&E and enhance supervision systems for CHWs. PMID:25106499

  14. Mental health of carers of children affected by HIV attending community-based programmes in South Africa and Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Skeen, Sarah; Tomlinson, Mark; Macedo, Ana; Croome, Natasha; Sherr, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    There is strong evidence that both adults and children infected with and affected by HIV have high levels of mental health burden. Yet there have been few studies investigating carer mental health outcomes in the context of HIV in Malawi and South Africa. The objective of this study was to assess the mental health of carers of children affected by HIV as a part of the Child Community Care study, which aims to generate evidence on the effectiveness of community-based organisation (CBO) services to improve child outcomes. In a cross sectional study, we interviewed 952 carers of children (aged 4 to 13 years) attending 28 randomly selected CBOs funded by 11 major donors in South Africa and Malawi. Psychological morbidity was measured using the Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ) and suicidal ideation was measured using an item from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Carers were asked about care-seeking for emotional problems. Overall, 28% of carers scored above the clinical cut-off for current psychological morbidity and 12.2% reported suicidal ideation. We used logistic regression models to test factors associated with poor outcomes. Household unemployment, living with a sick family member, and perceived lack of support from the community were associated with both psychological morbidity and suicidal ideation in carers. Reported child food insecurity was also associated with psychological morbidity. In addition, carers living in South Africa were more likely to present with psychological morbidity and suicidal ideation than carers in Malawi. Rates of help-seeking for mental health problems were low. Carers of children affected by HIV are at risk for mental health problems as a result of HIV, socio-economic, care-giving and community factors. We call for increased recognition of the potential role of CBOs in providing mental health care and support for families as a means to improve equity in mental health care. Specifically, we highlight the need for increased

  15. Fault2SHA- A European Working group to link faults and Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment communities in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotti, Oona; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The key questions we ask are: What is the best strategy to fill in the gap in knowledge and know-how in Europe when considering faults in seismic hazard assessments? Are field geologists providing the relevant information for seismic hazard assessment? Are seismic hazard analysts interpreting field data appropriately? Is the full range of uncertainties associated with the characterization of faults correctly understood and propagated in the computations? How can fault-modellers contribute to a better representation of the long-term behaviour of fault-networks in seismic hazard studies? Providing answers to these questions is fundamental, in order to reduce the consequences of future earthquakes and improve the reliability of seismic hazard assessments. An informal working group was thus created at a meeting in Paris in November 2014, partly financed by the Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, with the aim to motivate exchanges between field geologists, fault modellers and seismic hazard practitioners. A variety of approaches were presented at the meeting and a clear gap emerged between some field geologists, that are not necessarily familiar with probabilistic seismic hazard assessment methods and needs and practitioners that do not necessarily propagate the "full" uncertainty associated with the characterization of faults. The group thus decided to meet again a year later in Chieti (Italy), to share concepts and ideas through a specific exercise on a test case study. Some solutions emerged but many problems of seismic source characterizations with people working in the field as well as with people tackling models of interacting faults remained. Now, in Wien, we want to open the group and launch a call for the European community at large to contribute to the discussion. The 2016 EGU session Fault2SHA is motivated by such an urgency to increase the number of round tables on this topic and debate on the peculiarities of using faults in seismic hazard

  16. Effect of National Schistosomiasis Control Programme on Taenia solium taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis in rural communities of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Harrison, Wendy; Ndawi, Benedict; Lekule, Faustin; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2016-09-01

    Taenia solium is found throughout sub-Saharan Africa and co-endemic with schistosomiasis in many regions. Taenia solium leads to taeniosis and neurocysticercosis - the leading cause of preventable epilepsy globally. This study aimed to assess the effects of the National Schistosomiasis Control Programme on prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis over a four year period in Tanzania. School-based mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel was carried out based on schistosomiasis endemicity. Four human and five porcine cross-sectional surveys were carried out from 2012 to 2015 in Mbozi and Mbeya district in Tanzania. Three rounds of school-based MDA of praziquantel were delivered in Mbozi and two in Mbeya. The prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis was estimated annually. Stool samples were collected from humans and prevalence of taeniosis estimated by copro-Ag-ELISA. Blood samples from pigs were collected to estimate cysticercosis prevalence by Ag-ELISA. "Track-and-treat" of taeniosis cases was carried out after each survey. In total 12082 stool samples and 4579 porcine serum samples were collected. Significantly fewer children (≤ 15) from Mbozi were infected throughout the study than children from Mbeya who showed a significant decrease in copro-Ag prevalence after the first treatment only. During the final survey in Mbozi the prevalence of taeniosis in adults (1.8%) was significantly lower (p = 0.031, OR 0.40, CI: 0.17-0.89), compared to baseline (4.1%). The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis (8%) had also dropped significantly (p = 0.002, OR 0.49, CI: 0.32-0.76) in this district compared to baseline (13%), whereas no significant difference was seen in Mbeya compared to baseline. The study suggests that three rounds of MDA targeting schistosomiasis in school-aged children combined with 'track-and-treat' contributed to a reduction in prevalence of T. solium in this population, and also had a spillover effect on adults in treated

  17. [Human cloning in the activities of the European Union].

    PubMed

    Mik, C

    2001-01-01

    The European Union has been concerned with human cloning since the late 80. It resulted from inclusion of biotechnology into the sphere of European integration. The attitude of the European Union in the domain of human cloning was shaped, in principle in the second part of the 90. As the Community law stands at present, the European Union is not able to regulate all aspects of the cloning of human beings. It has no general power to decide in that sphere, especially, as far as bioethic aspects are concerned. The cloning of human beings in the European Union is understood as a process aiming at producing new human being, genetically identical with another live or dead human being. Thus the notion of human cloning is reduced to reproductive cloning. Three instruments are at the disposal of the European Union in the domain of human cloning. The first is prohibition of reproductive cloning as a general principle of Community law. However, that principle is not the result of judicial activity of the European Court of Justice (as general principles normally are), but the logical consequence of views formally expressed by the European Parliament, the Council of the Europe as well as the Commission. The principle was finally included in the Charter of fundamental rights of the European Union. The second instrument is an imperative prohibition of patent granting to biotechnological inventions on human reproductive cloning. Last, but not least, the Union applies a prohibition of financing scientific research connected with human cloning from the budget of the European Communities within the V Framework Programme in the field of research and technological development.

  18. A retrospective observational analysis to identify patient and treatment-related predictors of outcomes in a community mental health programme

    PubMed Central

    Green, Stuart A; Honeybourne, Emmi; Chalkley, Sylvia R; Price, Geraint; Bell, Derek; Green, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to identify patient and treatment factors that affect clinical outcomes of community psychological therapy through the development of a predictive model using historic data from 2 services in London. In addition, the study aims to assess the completeness of data collection, explore how treatment outcomes are discriminated using current criteria for classifying recovery, and assess the feasibility and need for undertaking a future larger population analysis. Design Observational, retrospective discriminant analysis. Setting 2 London community mental health services that provide psychological therapies for common mental disorders including anxiety and depression. Participants A total of 7388 patients attended the services between February 2009 and May 2012, of which 4393 (59%) completed therapy, or there was an agreement to end therapy, and were included in the study. Primary and secondary outcome measures Different combinations of the clinical outcome scores for anxiety Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 and depression Patient Health Questionnaire-9 were used to construct different treatment outcomes. Results The predictive models were able to assign a positive or negative clinical outcome to each patient based on 5 independent pre-treatment variables, with an accuracy of 69.4% and 79.3%, respectively: initial severity of anxiety and depression, ethnicity, deprivation and gender. The number of sessions attended/missed were also important factors identified in recovery. Conclusions Predicting whether patients are likely to have a positive outcome following treatment at entry might allow suitable modification of scheduled treatment, possibly resulting in improvements in outcomes. The model also highlights factors not only associated with poorer outcomes but inextricably linked to prevalence of common mental disorders, emphasising the importance of social determinants not only in poor health but also poor recovery. PMID:25995234

  19. Erasmus Mundus SEN: The Inclusive Scholarship Programme?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinbergs, Christopher J.; Jones, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    The Erasmus Mundus MA/Mgr in Special Education Needs (EM SEN) was created as a Masters Course funded by the European Commission's Erasmus Mundus Programme (EMP) to challenge and educate students in inclusive policy and practice in education. Yet, it is debatable the extent to which this programme embodies the values of an inclusive approach,…

  20. The EuroDIVERSITY Programme: Challenges of Biodiversity Science in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonckheere, I.

    2009-04-01

    , multidisciplinary collaborative research projects, which are expected to contribute to this goal by initiating or strengthening major collaborative research efforts. Some projects are dealing primarily with microbial diversity (COMIX, METHECO, MiCROSYSTEMS), others try to investigate the biogeochemistry in grassland and forest ecosystems (BEGIN, BioCycle), the landscape and community ecology of biodiversity changes (ASSEMBLE, AGRIPOPES, EcoTRADE), and others focus on the diversity in freshwater (BIOPOOL, MOLARCH). In 2009, the EuroDIVERSITY Programme will integrate the different European research teams involved with collaborative field work campaigns over Europe, international workshops and conferences, as well as joint peer-review publications. For more information about the Programme and its activities, please check the Programme website: www.esf.org/eurodiversity

  1. New contraceptive eligibility checklists for provision of combined oral contraceptives and depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate in community-based programmes.

    PubMed Central

    Stang, A.; Schwingl, P.; Rivera, R.

    2000-01-01

    Community-based services (CBS) have long used checklists to determine eligibility for contraceptive method use, in particular for combined oral contraceptives (COCs) and the 3-month injectable contraceptive depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). As safety information changes, however, checklists can quickly become outdated. Inconsistent checklists and eligibility criteria often cause uneven access to contraceptives. In 1996, WHO produced updated eligibility criteria for the use of all contraceptive methods. Based on these criteria, new checklists for COCs and DMPA were developed. This article describes the new checklists and their development. Several rounds of expert review produced checklists that were correct, comprehensible and consistent with the eligibility requirements. Nevertheless, field-testing of the checklists revealed that approximately half (48%) of the respondents felt that one or more questions still needed greater comprehensibility. These findings indicated the need for a checklist guide. In March 2000, WHO convened a meeting of experts to review the medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use. The article reflects also the resulting updated checklist. PMID:10994285

  2. Community-based physical activity and nutrition programme for adults with metabolic syndrome in Vietnam: study protocol for a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Van Dinh; Lee, Andy H; Jancey, Jonine; James, Anthony P; Howat, Peter; Thi Phuong Mai, Le

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes. In Vietnam, more than one-quarter of its population aged 50–65 have MetS. This cluster-randomised controlled trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to increase levels of physical activity and improve dietary behaviours among Vietnamese adults aged 50–65 years with MetS. Method and analysis This 6-month community-based intervention includes a range of strategies to improve physical activity and nutrition for adults with MetS in Hanam, a province located in northern Vietnam. 600 participants will be recruited from 6 communes with 100 participants per commune. The 6 selected communes will be randomly allocated to either an intervention group (m=3; n=300) or a control group (m=3; n=300). The intervention comprises booklets, education sessions, resistance bands and attending local walking groups that provide information and encourage participants to improve their physical activity and healthy eating behaviours during the 6-month period. The control group participants will receive standard and 1-time advice. Social cognitive theory is the theoretical concept underpinning this study. Measurements will be taken at baseline and postintervention to evaluate programme effectiveness. Ethics and dissemination The research protocol was approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee (approval number: HR139/2014). The results of the study will be disseminated through publications, reports and conference presentations. Trial registration number ACTRN12614000811606. PMID:27256094

  3. Epidemiological study of mental morbidity in an urban slum community in India for the development of a community mental health programme.

    PubMed

    Silvanus, V; Subramanian, P

    2012-03-01

    A crossectional field study was carried out in an urban slum in order to assess the prevalence and nature of mental morbidity and identify stressors in the community. A face to face interview was conducted with the help of a questionnaire. The interview consisted of three sections as follows: Data identifying the informant by age, sex, marital status, education, occupation, age at marriage, number of members, children and monthly income. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 5- item version used as a screening instrument to assess the present mental health status of the informant and data of past illnesses in self or family and questions framed to elicit perceptions regarding mental illness, alcoholism, their causation and treatment. The subjects who scored above 2 ie 3,4,and 5 in the GHQ were requested to follow up at the Mental Health OPD and subjected to a standardized psychiatric interview by a Psychiatrist. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Third Revised (DSM 3 R) criteria were used for diagnosis. After the interview and examination, the appropriate treatment was instituted. A total of 443 individuals were screened. The overall prevalence rate of mental illness in the community was 61 per thousand. It is estimated that the case rate ranges from 38 to 84 per thousand within 95% confidence limits. The overall severity ranged from mild to severe morbidity. The prevalence of severe mental morbidity which includes psychosis, depressive illness, mental retardation was 22.5 per thousand. Neurosis (63.31%) especially Major Depression and Adjustment disorder, Psychosis (10.00%), Somatization disorder (6.66%) and Psychiatric symptoms secondary to physical illness were the major groups of illness. Women were found to have more mental health problems than men. The morbidity pattern also differs significantly with the gender. Neurosis was seen more among the female subjects. There was a significant association of mental health problems with low educational status

  4. Retention and mortality outcomes from a community-supported public–private HIV treatment programme in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Mburu, Gitau; Paing, Aung Zayar; Myint, Nwe Ni; Di, Win; Thu, Kaung Htet; Ram, Mala; Hoffmann, Christopher J; Wang, Bangyuan; Naing, Soe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a growing interest in the potential contribution the private sector can make towards increasing access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low- and middle-income settings. This article describes a public–private partnership that was developed to expand HIV care capacity in Yangon, Myanmar. The partnership was between private sector general practitioners (GPs) and a community-based non-governmental organization (International HIV/AIDS Alliance). Methods Retrospective analysis of 2119 patient records dating from March 2009 to April 2015 was conducted. Outcomes assessed were immunological response, loss to follow-up, all-cause mortality, and alive and retained in care. Follow-up time was calculated from the date of registration to the date of death, loss to follow-up, transfer out, or if still alive and known to be in care, until April 2015. Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify predictors of loss to follow-up and mortality. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis was used to estimate survival function of being alive and retained in care. Results The median number of patients for each of the 16 GPs was 42 (interquartile range (IQR): 25–227), and the median follow-up period was 13 months. The median patient age was 35 years (IQR: 30–41); 56.6% were men, 62 and 11.8% were in WHO Stage III and Stage IV at registration, respectively; median CD4 count at registration was 177 cells/mm3; and 90.7% were on ART in April 2015. The median CD4 count at registration increased from 122 cells/mm3 in 2009 to 194 cells/mm3 in 2014. Among patients on ART, CD4 counts increased from a median of 187 cells/mm3 at registration to 436 cells/mm3 at 36 months. The median time to initiation of ART among eligible patients was 29 days, with 93.8% of eligible patients being initiated on ART within 90 days. Overall, 3.3% patients were lost to follow-up, 4.2% transferred out to other health facilities, and 8.3% died during the follow-up period. Crude mortality rate

  5. Population prevalence of asthma and its determinants based on European Community Respiratory Health Survey in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background No population study has explored the population distribution of adult asthma in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The objective is to estimate asthma prevalence in general population in UAE. Methods Using standard European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) questionnaires and tools, this is a cross-sectional assessment of a random sample of the population in established quotas of the seven Emirates in the UAE. We surveyed 1,220 participants, of which 63.2% were male, and 20.1% were UAE Nationals, with a mean (SD) age of 32.9 (14.1) years. Results Prevalence of individual respiratory symptoms from the ECRHS screening questionnaire in all participants were generally ranging 8 - 10%, while participants 20-44 years presented lower prevalence in all symptoms (p < 0.05). The expected male:female ratio of reported wheezing and asthma attacks and its treatment by age was not observed. Participating women reported more individual symptoms than men. Overall, there were 15.4% (95% C.I. 13.5 - 17.5) participants who fulfilled our screening criteria for asthma, while for consistency with ECRHS, there were 12.1% (95% C.I. 10.4 - 14.1) participants who fulfilled the ECRHS asthma definition, being 9.8% (95% C.I. 7.8 - 12.2) of those 20-44 years, that is 8.6% of male and 11.8% of female young adults participating. Conclusion We conclude that asthma is common in the UAE, and gender differences are not observed in reported asthma symptoms in young adults. This being the first population based study exploring the prevalence of asthma and its determinants in the United Arab Emirates based on the ECRHS. PMID:22340199

  6. Interaction between gas cooking and GSTM1 null genotype in bronchial responsiveness: results from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, André F S; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Castro-Giner, Francesc; Minelli, Cosetta; Accordini, Simone; Sørheim, Inga-Cecilie; Pin, Isabelle; Kogevinas, Manolis; Jõgi, Rain; Balding, David J; Norbäck, Dan; Verlato, Giuseppe; Olivieri, Mario; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Janson, Christer; Zock, Jan-Paul; Heinrich, Joachim; Jarvis, Deborah L

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased bronchial responsiveness is characteristic of asthma. Gas cooking, which is a major indoor source of the highly oxidant nitrogen dioxide, has been associated with respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function. However, little is known about the effect of gas cooking on bronchial responsiveness and on how this relationship may be modified by variants in the genes GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1, which influence antioxidant defences. Methods The study was performed in subjects with forced expiratory volume in one second at least 70% of predicted who took part in the multicentre European Community Respiratory Health Survey, had bronchial responsiveness assessed by methacholine challenge and had been genotyped for GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1-rs1695. Information on the use of gas for cooking was obtained from interviewer-led questionnaires. Effect modification by genotype on the association between the use of gas for cooking and bronchial responsiveness was assessed within each participating country, and estimates combined using meta-analysis. Results Overall, gas cooking, as compared with cooking with electricity, was not associated with bronchial responsiveness (β=−0.08, 95% CI −0.40 to 0.25, p=0.648). However, GSTM1 significantly modified this effect (β for interaction=−0.75, 95% CI −1.16 to −0.33, p=4×10−4), with GSTM1 null subjects showing more responsiveness if they cooked with gas. No effect modification by GSTT1 or GSTP1-rs1695 genotypes was observed. Conclusions Increased bronchial responsiveness was associated with gas cooking among subjects with the GSTM1 null genotype. This may reflect the oxidant effects on the bronchi of exposure to nitrogen dioxide. PMID:24613990

  7. The design of a community lifestyle programme to improve the physical and psychological well-being of pregnant women with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or more

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Obesity is a global public health issue. Having a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or more (classifying a person as obese) at the start of pregnancy is a significant risk factor for maternal and fetal morbidity. There is a dearth of evidence to inform suitable inteventions to support pregnant women with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or more. Here we describe a study protocol to test the feasibility of a variety of potential healthy lifestyle interventions for pregnant women with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or more in a community based programme. Methods/Design Four hundred women will be approached to attend a 10-week community lifestyle programme. The programme will be provided as a supplement to standard antenatal care. The programme is multi-faceted, aimed at equipping participants with the skills and knowledge needed to adopt healthy behaviours. The social (cognitive) learning theory will be used as a tool to encourage behaviour change, the behaviour change techniques are underpinned by five theoretical components; self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, goal setting, feedback and positive reinforcement. The main outcomes are pregnancy weight gain and caesarean section rate. Other important outcomes include clinical outcomes (e.g., birth weight) and psychological outcomes (e.g., well-being). Secondary outcomes include women's experience of pregnancy and health care services, amount of physical activity, food intake and the suitability of the intervention components. A prospective study using quantitative and qualitative methods will inform the feasibility of implementing the community lifestyle programme with pregnant women with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or more. Mixed methods of data collection will be used, including diaries, focus groups/interviews, pedometers, validated and specifically designed questionnaires, a programme register, weight gain during pregnancy and perinatal outcome data. Discussion Findings from this current feasibility study will inform future interventions and NHS services and

  8. NSF announces diversity programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruesi, Liz

    2016-04-01

    The US National Science Foundation (NSF) has initiated a new funding programme that will create schemes to increase diversity in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The initiative - Inclusion across the Nation of Communities of Learners of Underrepresented Discoverers in Engineering and Science (INCLUDES) - aims to increase the participation of women, those with a low socioeconomic status, people with disabilities and those from minority racial backgrounds.

  9. Programmable Pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    St. Jude Medical's Cardiac Rhythm Management Division, formerly known as Pacesetter Systems, Inc., incorporated Apollo technology into the development of the programmable pacemaker system. This consists of the implantable pacemaker together with a physician's console containing the programmer and a data printer. Physician can communicate with patient's pacemaker by means of wireless telemetry signals transmitted through the communicating head held over the patient's chest. Where earlier pacemakers deliver a fixed type of stimulus once implanted, Programalith enables surgery free "fine tuning" of device to best suit the patient's changing needs.

  10. Programmable Pulser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Eric; Merolla, Anthony

    1988-01-01

    User controls number of clock pulses to prevent burnout. New digital programmable pulser circuit in three formats; freely running, counted, and single pulse. Operates at frequencies up to 5 MHz, with no special consideration given to layout of components or to terminations. Pulser based on sequential circuit with four states and binary counter with appropriate decoding logic. Number of programmable pulses increased beyond 127 by addition of another counter and decoding logic. For very large pulse counts and/or very high frequencies, use synchronous counters to avoid errors caused by propagation delays. Invaluable tool for initial verification or diagnosis of digital or digitally controlled circuity.

  11. The Adaptation of a School-Based Health Promotion Programme for Youth with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Community-Engaged Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Kristie L.; Bandini, Linda G.; Folta, Sara C.; Wansink, Brian; Must, Aviva

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evidenced-based health promotion programmes for youth with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD) are notably absent. Barriers include a lack of understanding of how to adapt existing evidence-based programmes to their needs, maximize inclusion and support mutual goals of health and autonomy. Methods: We undertook a…

  12. The Effects and Costs of a Group-Based Education Programme for Self-Management of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. A Community-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molsted, Stig; Tribler, Jane; Poulsen, Peter B.; Snorgaard, Ole

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide epidemic of Type 2 diabetes necessitates evidence-based self-management education programmes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and costs of an empowerment-based structured diabetes self-management education programme in an unselected group of patients with Type 2 diabetes. Seven hundred and two patients…

  13. Impact of a Community-Based Programme for Motor Development on Gross Motor Skills and Cognitive Function in Preschool Children from Disadvantaged Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Catherine E.; Achmat, Masturah; Forbes, Jared; Lambert, Estelle V.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the studies were to assess the impact of the Little Champs programme for motor development on (1) the gross motor skills, and (2) cognitive function of children in the programme. In study 1, 118 children from one Early Childhood Development Centre (ECDC) were tested using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, and in study 2, 83…

  14. The use of community herbal monographs to facilitate registrations and authorisations of herbal medicinal products in the European Union 2004-2012.

    PubMed

    Peschel, Wieland

    2014-12-02

    The provisions for the simplified registration of traditional herbal medicinal products in the European Union were introduced by Directive 2004/24/EC amending Directive 2001/83/EC (Chapter 2a) in 2004. Since implementation in the European member states until December 2012 a total of 1015 registrations (traditional use) and 514 authorisations (well-established use) have been granted for products containing substances/ preparations from about 200 different herbal drugs. The overall number of received applications with more than one third still under assessment suggests a further increase for the next years. This review summarises the main features of registered and authorised herbal medicinal products in the EU and evaluates available data against provisions of Directive 2004/24/EC and European standards established by the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products at the European Medicines Agency. The supportive function of Community herbal monographs is described as regards availability and their use in national procedures, which is complemented by an analysis of specific future challenges from experiences made with the implementation of Directive 2004/24/EC so far.

  15. Parental smoking in childhood and adult obstructive lung disease: results from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Svanes, C; Omenaas, E; Jarvis, D; Chinn, S; Gulsvik, A; Burney, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: Early exposure to parental smoking appears to influence the development of the airways and predispose to respiratory symptoms. A study was undertaken to determine whether the consequences of parental smoking could be traced in adulthood. Methods: Information from interviewer-led questionnaires was available for 18 922 subjects aged 20–44 years from random population samples in 37 areas participating in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Lung function data were available for 15 901 subjects. Results: In men, father's smoking in childhood was associated with more respiratory symptoms (ORwheeze 1.13 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.28); never smokers: ORwheeze 1.21 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.50)) and there was a dose-dependent association between number of parents smoking and wheeze (one: OR 1.08 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.24); both: OR 1.24 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.47); ptrend = 0.010). A reduced ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) to forced vital capacity (FVC) was related to father's smoking (-0.3% (95% CI -0.6 to 0)) and number of parents smoking (ptrend <0.001) among men. In women, mother's smoking was associated with more respiratory symptoms and poorer lung function (ORwheeze 1.15 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.31), never smokers: ORwheeze 1.21 (95% CI 0.98–1.51); FEV1 -24 ml (95% CI -45 to -3); FEV1/FVC ratio -0.6% (95% CI -0.9 to -0.3)). These effects were possibly accounted for by maternal smoking in pregnancy (ORwheeze 1.39 (95% CI 1.17 to 1.65); FEV1 -23 ml (95% CI -52 to 7); FEV1/FVC ratio -0.9% (95% CI -1.3 to -0.4)) as there was no association with paternal smoking among women (interaction by sex, p<0.05). These results were homogeneous across centres. Conclusion: Both intrauterine and environmental exposure to parental tobacco smoking was related to more respiratory symptoms and poorer lung function in adulthood in this multicultural study. The age window of particular vulnerability appeared to differ by sex, postnatal exposure being important only in men

  16. Achieving high coverage of larval-stage mosquito surveillance: challenges for a community-based mosquito control programme in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Preventing malaria by controlling mosquitoes in their larval stages requires regular sensitive monitoring of vector populations and intervention coverage. The study assessed the effectiveness of operational, community-based larval habitat surveillance systems within the Urban Malaria Control Programme (UMCP) in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were carried out to assess the ability of community-owned resource persons (CORPs) to detect mosquito breeding sites and larvae in areas with and without larviciding. Potential environmental and programmatic determinants of habitat detection coverage and detection sensitivity of mosquito larvae were recorded during guided walks with 64 different CORPs to assess the accuracy of data each had collected the previous day. Results CORPs reported the presence of 66.2% of all aquatic habitats (1,963/2,965), but only detected Anopheles larvae in 12.6% (29/230) of habitats that contained them. Detection sensitivity was particularly low for late-stage Anopheles (2.7%, 3/111), the most direct programmatic indicator of malaria vector productivity. Whether a CORP found a wet habitat or not was associated with his/her unfamiliarity with the area (Odds Ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 0.16 [0.130, 0.203], P < 0.001), the habitat type (P < 0.001) or a fence around the compound (OR [95%CI] = 0.50 [0.386, 0.646], P < 0.001). The majority of mosquito larvae (Anophelines 57.8% (133/230) and Culicines 55.9% (461/825) were not reported because their habitats were not found. The only factor affecting detection of Anopheline larvae in habitats that were reported by CORPs was larviciding, which reduced sensitivity (OR [95%CI] = 0.37 [0.142, 0.965], P = 0.042). Conclusions Accessibility of habitats in urban settings presents a major challenge because the majority of compounds are fenced for security reasons. Furthermore, CORPs under-reported larvae especially where larvicides were applied. This UMCP

  17. Evaluating the Level of Degree Programmes in Higher Education: Conceptual Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rexwinkel, Trudy; Haenen, Jacques; Pilot, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the level of degree programmes became crucial with the Bologna Agreement in 1999 when European ministers agreed to implement common bachelor's and master's degree programmes and a common system of quality assurance. The European Quality Assurance system demands evaluation of the degree programme level based on valid and reliable…

  18. Lessons for Research Policy and Practice: The Case of Co-Enquiry Research with Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Emily; Schunko, Christoph; Corbera, Esteve; Ruiz Mallén, Isabel; Vogl, Christian R.; Martin, Gary; Arrázola, Susana; Bandeira, Fábio Pedro; Calvo Boyero, Diana; Camacho Benavides, Claudia; Cardoso, Thiago Mota; Chan-Dzul, Albert; Conde, Esther; del Campo García, Carlos; Huanca, Tomás; Sampaio, José Augusto Laranjeiras; Oliveros Lopez, Sara; Porter-Bolland, Luciana; Ruiz Betancourt, Olga

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between institutional funding for research and community-based or co-enquiry research practice. It examines the implementation of co-enquiry research in the COMBIOSERVE project, which was funded by the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme for research and innovation, between the years 2012 and…

  19. Adult and adolescent livestock productive asset transfer programmes to improve mental health, economic stability and family and community relationships in rural South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo: a protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Anjalee; Perrin, Nancy A; Remy, Mitima Mpanano; Alfred, Mirindi Bacikenge; Arsene, Kajabika Binkurhorhwa; Nadine, Mwinja Bufole; Heri, Banyewesize Jean; Clovis, Mitima Murhula; Glass, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction People living in poverty have limited access to traditional financial institutions. Microfinance programmes are designed to meet this gap and show promise in improving income, economic productivity and health. Our Congolese–US community academic research partnership developed two livestock productive asset transfer programmes, Pigs for Peace (PFP) and Rabbits for Resilience (RFR), to address the interlinked health, social and economic well-being of individuals, their families and communities. The community-based randomised controlled trials examine the effectiveness of PFP and RFR to improve health, economic stability, and family and community relationships among male and female adults and adolescents living in 10 rural, postconflict villages of eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods and analysis PFP participants include adult permanent residents of rural villages; adolescent participants in RFR include male and female adolescents 10–15 years old living in the selected rural villages. Participants were randomised to intervention or delayed control group. Participants in PFP completed baseline interview prior to intervention and follow-up interview at 6, 12 and 18 months postintervention. In RFR, participants completed baseline interview prior to intervention and follow-up interview at 6, 12 and 18 months postbaseline. The primary outcome of both trials, the change in baseline mental health distress at 18 months in the intervention group (adults, adolescents) compared to control group, is used to calculate sample size. Ethics and dissemination The Johns Hopkins Medical Institute Internal Review Board approved this protocol. A committee of respected Congolese educators and community members (due to lack of local ethics review board) approved the study. The findings will provide important information on the potential for community-led sustainable development initiatives to build on traditional livelihood (livestock raising, agriculture

  20. Managing nutritional programmes in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sheikholeslam, R; Abdollahi, Z; Haghighi, F N

    2004-11-01

    Improving community nutrition in developing countries requires a detailed epidemiological picture of the prevalent nutritional problems in different regions and age groups. This makes it possible to identify priorities, sensitize policy-makers, establish political commitment and design appropriate community programmes for income generation and education for the best use of food resources. Experiences acquired from community-based nutritional programmes show that ownership of a programme by the community and using a tailor-made approach are essential factors in the successful implementation of programmes. A multifaceted approach is needed, involving a range of sectors-agriculture, commerce, education and health--and commitment at all levels from government to communities and individuals.

  1. Europeanizing Education: Governing a New Policy Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawn, Martin; Grek, Sotiria

    2012-01-01

    The study of common and diverse effects in the field of education across Europe is a growing field of inquiry and research. It is the result of many actions, networks and programmes over the last few decades and the development of common European education policies. "Europeanizing Education" describes the origins of European education…

  2. Comparative decline in funding of European Commission malaria vaccine projects: what next for the European scientists working in this field?

    PubMed

    Thøgersen, Regitze L; Holder, Anthony A; Hill, Adrian V S; Arnot, David E; Imoukhuede, Egeruan B; Leroy, Odile

    2011-09-01

    Since 2000, under the Fifth and subsequent Framework Programmes, the European Commission has funded research to spur the development of a malaria vaccine. This funding has contributed to the promotion of an integrated infrastructure consisting of European basic, applied and clinical scientists in academia and small and medium enterprises, together with partners in Africa. Research has added basic understanding of what is required of a malaria vaccine, allowing selected candidates to be prioritized and some to be moved forward into clinical trials. To end the health burden of malaria, and its economic and social impact on development, the international community has now essentially committed itself to the eventual eradication of malaria. Given the current tentative advances towards elimination or eradication of malaria in many endemic areas, malaria vaccines constitute an additional and almost certainly essential component of any strategic plan to interrupt transmission of malaria. However, funding for malaria vaccines has been substantially reduced in the Seventh Framework Programme compared with earlier Framework Programmes, and without further support the gains made by earlier European investment will be lost.

  3. An Analysis of the Effects of European Community 1992 on the United States DoD Acquisition Environment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    range of imports including steel, automobiles, sugar , semiconductors, lumber and machine tools. Occasionally the U.S. cabinet officers wold take note...remainder of this literature review. Ccrrpetitie FadiwS -European Technolgy Ccrpernb to U.S in Mar0 Delse BlUdgets 1987 - EC- We Standard Could Favor

  4. Translating the CercleS European Language Portfolio into Portuguese for Plurilingual Development in a Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arau Ribeiro, María del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    In this paper plurilingual and autonomy building activities are described with reference to the CercleS European Language Portfolio and some parts of the original Council of Europe Language Portfolio. For this extracurricular plurilingual learning project in Portugal, eight second-year female students studying for a degree in Executive Secretarial…

  5. The effects and costs of a group-based education programme for self-management of patients with Type 2 diabetes. A community-based study.

    PubMed

    Molsted, Stig; Tribler, Jane; Poulsen, Peter B; Snorgaard, Ole

    2012-10-01

    The worldwide epidemic of Type 2 diabetes necessitates evidence-based self-management education programmes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and costs of an empowerment-based structured diabetes self-management education programme in an unselected group of patients with Type 2 diabetes. Seven hundred and two patients undergoing treatment by general practitioners (GPs) were included. The education comprised three modules over a 12-month period. It was based on the empowerment philosophy. The education followed a written curriculum, and the educators were given special training in its use. Glycemic control (HbA1c) was found to improve from 7.34 ± 1.34 to 6.88 ± 1.09%, P < 0.001 and body weight decreased from 90.9 ± 19.3 to 87.1 ± 18.1 kg, P < 0.001, following the education programme. Moreover, significant improvements were found in terms of fasting blood glucose, blood pressure, female waist circumference, lipid profile, quality of life, physical activity and the patients' knowledge of diabetes whilst the number of visits to GPs declined. This study supports the use of an empowerment vision as a basis for an interdisciplinary group-based education programme with individuals with Type 2 diabetes. Moreover, the costs of implementing this education programme were found to be minimal.

  6. New pathways in the evaluation of programmes for men who perpetrate violence against their female partners.

    PubMed

    Wojnicka, Katarzyna; Scambor, Christian; Kraus, Heinrich

    2016-08-01

    Today, evaluation research in the field of intervention programmes for men who perpetrate violence against their female partners still makes a fragmentary impression. Across Europe various evaluation studies have been performed. However, the methodologies applied are too heterogeneous to allow the combination of the results in a meta-analytical way. In this paper we propose a future pathway for organising outcome evaluation studies of domestic violence perpetrator programmes in community settings, so that today's problems in this field can be overcome. In a pragmatic framework that acknowledges the limited pre-conditions for evaluation studies in the area of domestic violence perpetrator programmes as it is today, feasible approaches for outcome evaluation are outlined, with recent developments in the field taken as starting points. The framework for organising future evaluation studies of work with perpetrators of domestic violence is presented together with a strategy to promote this framework. International networks of practitioners and researchers play a central role in this strategy through upskilling the area of practical work, preparing the ground for evaluation research and improving cooperation between practitioners and researchers. This paper is based on the results of the European funded project IMPACT (under the Daphne-III-funding programme of the European Commission).

  7. Long-term evolution of fish communities in European mountainous rivers: past log driving effects, river management and species introduction (Salzach River, Danube).

    PubMed

    Haidvogl, Gertrud; Pont, Didier; Dolak, Horst; Hohensinner, Severin

    Using historical sources from the turn of the 19th to the 20th century, we investigated the long-term evolution of the fish community in a mountainous river network and the influence of different human uses and management measures. Within the alpine Salzach catchment, historical presence was reconstructed for 26 fish species, abundance classes for 19 species. Due to channelization, flood protection and dam erections, the spatial distribution of fish species was reduced during the 20th century. Many rheophilic and eurytopic fish species historically inhabited river reaches along a wide longitudinal profile and were present in more upstream river reaches than nowadays. The decrease of species diversity in the headwater sections is a consequence of lost lateral connectivity. Strongest effects are reported for sensitive species requiring different habitat types during their life cycles (especially pike, nase, Danube salmon). One of the most important shifts from the historical fish community to the present one reflects the deliberate introduction of fish species for fisheries. Rainbow trout and brook trout, absent from the historical fish assemblage, today represent up to 29 % of the total number of fish occurrences. In contrast, log driving, one of the most common historical pressures in European mountainous rivers, did not show significant negative effects on the past fish ecological situation. This result strongly differs from the impacts of log driving and deforestation demonstrated for recent times, and could be related to the change in log driving practices during the 20th century and to the high societal value of fish before the industrialization period along with other historical pressures affecting fish in rivers without log driving. In general, our results can be valid for a large number of European mountainous rivers. They highlight the usefulness of such detailed historical studies for our understanding of the long-term evolution of fish communities and

  8. Longitudinal Follow-Up of Weight Change in the Context of a Community-Based Health Promotion Programme for Adults with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, G. R.; Kerr, M. P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Obesity has been identified as a major health concern in adults with intellectual disabilities. This study evaluates a health promotion programme delivered by a NHS department for adults with intellectual disabilities. Method: Routine NHS data were collated and analysed descriptively. One hundred and ninety one adults with intellectual…

  9. Acid deposition and vehicle emissions: European environmental pressures on Britain

    SciTech Connect

    Brackley, P.

    1987-01-01

    This study, from the Joint Energy Programme and the Policy Studies Institute, examines the increasing political pressure being placed on Britain by members of the European community to take major steps toward improved environmental protection. Taking acid rain and vehicle emissions as typical examples of the conflict, the author examines Sweden, West Germany and France, as well as Britain, and unravels the criticisms, the arguments and the various approaches being taken to deal with environmental concerns. His conclusions point to widespread conflicts between differing national priorities and indicate that Britain may not be the only 'black sheep' in this continuing debate.

  10. "Cosmic Vision": the new ESA Science Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    demonstration mission (2006) for LISA, a joint mission with NASA, searching for gravitational waves (2011). In addition the Agency is committed to cooperation with NASA in NGST (the Next Generation Space Telescope), the successor of the Hubble Space telescope, with launch in 2010. STEP (2005), the mission to test of the nature of mass and the basis of mechanics, relies on a decision by NASA, the major partner. The production groups are more than scientific groupings. Missions within each will be built synergistically using common technologies and engineering teams where possible. Such a scenario is going to rely on specific commitment to new ways of working: - The implementation of BepiColombo and Solar Orbiter with international partners. Both missions will be implemented as a single activity, leading to significant savings. - The implementation of Herschel/Planck and Eddington in a single project, re-using the same bus. This implies a launch of Eddington not later than 2008. - Major technical changes reducing the cost of GAIA with no science loss. GAIA will be launched no later than 2012, the date agreed in Bern. - Significant gains through new technology in cost effectiveness of spacecraft development and procurement. - The timely availability of payloads, one of the current pressing problems. - Acceptance of increased managerial complexity and overall programmatic risk. Obviously, the implementation of such an ambitious programme requires full commitment of all involved parties, namely industry, the Executive, the national funding agencies and the scientific community from the start. Initially the Executive had included in its proposal also VENUS EXPRESS, which would have started immediately. However, the Director of the Science Programme felt that the precondition had not been met and decided to withdraw the proposal. The Executive is going to have to keep such an attitude in the future if it is to implement the programme successfully. Increased programmatic risk means

  11. The BGAN extension programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Juan J.; Trachtman, Eyal; Richharia, Madhavendra

    2005-11-01

    Mobile satellite telecommunications systems have undergone an enormous evolution in the last decades, with the interest in having advanced telecommunications services available on demand, anywhere and at any time, leading to incredible advances. The demand for braodband data is therefore rapidly gathering pace, but current solutions are finding it increasingly difficult to combine large bandwidth with ubiquitous coverage, reliability and portability. The BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network) system, designed to operate with the Inmarsat-4 satellites, provides breakthrough services that meet all of these requirements. It will enable broadband connection on the move, delivering all the key tools of the modern office. Recognising the great impact that Inmarsat's BGAN system will have on the European satellite communications industry, and the benefits that it will bring to a wide range of European industries, in 2003 ESA initiated the "BGAN Extension" project. Its primary goals are to provide the full range of BGAN services to truly mobile platforms, operating in aeronautical, vehicular and maritime environments, and to introduce a multicast service capability. The project is supported by the ARTES Programme which establishes a collaboration agreement between ESA, Inmarsat and a group of key industrial and academic institutions which includes EMS, Logica, Nera and the University of Surrey (UK).

  12. European Study Tour Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Vicki L.; Mitchell, Kenneth E.

    Guidelines are presented for planning and financing European study tours at the community college level. First, a rationale for incorporating study tours of Europe within the community college curriculum is presented and the benefits of such tours in providing students with experiences they could not normally have are outlined. Next, the paper…

  13. Examining the psychometric validity of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R) in a community sample of African American and European American adults.

    PubMed

    Chakawa, Ayanda; Butler, Robert C; Shapiro, Steven K

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R), focusing on a sample drawn from a geographic region in the United States that has not been included in previously published research on the MEIM-R. Data were obtained from a community-based sample of 105 African American (AA) and 91 European American (EA) adults located in the state of Alabama. The MEIM-R was best represented by two constructs-exploration and commitment. AA adults reported higher levels of racial/ethnic identity exploration and commitment than EA adults. Differential item functioning was found among 1 of the exploration items. The current study provides additional support for the structural validity of the MEIM-R. Further research on the invariance of responses to the MEIM-R across a variety of sociodemographic factors is still necessary.

  14. The School in Its Relations with the Community. Standing Conference of European Ministers of Education, Tenth Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanbergen, F.

    The report presents a composite analysis of documents relating to school-community relationships which were produced from 1971-77 under the auspices of the Council of Europe. Intended as an educational policy planning aid, the study inventories theoretical approaches and practical problems as they have appeared in recent research documents and…

  15. Comparing the community composition of European and eastern Chinese waterbirds and the influence of human factors on the China waterbird community.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Willem F; Cao, Lei; Barter, Mark; Wang, Xin; Sun, Mengmeng; van Oeveren, Herman; de Leeuw, Jan; Barzen, Jeb; Prins, Herbert H T

    2011-02-01

    We compared the European and eastern Chinese waterbird assemblages and checked whether the effects of human disturbance could be detected in the assemblages' composition. For the different Chinese provinces, we expected to find a negative effect of economic development on the mean bird species mass and on the proportion of bentivorous, piscivorous and insectivorous bird species. We also expected to find relatively fewer large species in the Chinese assemblage. Species rank-abundance curves were relatively similar, but China had significantly more species with smaller body masses. The China assemblage was characterized by relatively higher abundance of heavy-bodied species, contrary to our expectations. Mean bird body mass decreased in China with increasing disturbance and increasing gross domestic product (GDP). For coastal provinces in China the percentage of bentivorous, piscivorous and insectivorous bird species declined with increasing GDP, maybe through the increased use of pesticides or fertilizer.

  16. A longitudinal process analysis of mother-child emotional relationships in a rural Appalachian European American community.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Suwalsky, Joan T D

    2012-09-01

    This prospective longitudinal study examines emotional relationships in 58 Appalachian mother-child dyads observed at home at 5 and 20 months. Between infancy and toddlerhood, 3 of 4 dimensions of dyadic emotional relationships were stable, and three remained continuous in their mean level. Increasing maternal age was associated with greater maternal sensitivity and structuring and with more responsive and involving children. Marital status and father presence in the home as well as maternal openness, parenting knowledge, investment, and satisfaction accounted for effects of maternal age on dyadic emotional relationships. This longitudinal process analysis provides unique insights into temporal dynamics of mother-child emotional relationships and their determinants in an underserved and underresearched US community. Implications for community-specific interventions are discussed.

  17. Does the EUA Institutional Evaluation Programme Contribute to Quality Improvement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavares, Diana Amado; Rosa, Maria Joao; Amaral, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to reflect on the relevance of the Institutional Evaluation Programme (IEP) of the European University Association (EUA) to universities' quality improvement. It aims to analyse IEP follow-up reports to determine whether the programme contributes to the development of a quality improvement culture.…

  18. Bilinguismo e immigrazione: una nota sociolinguistica al piano europeo di mantenimento delle lingue nazionali nelle comunita di emigrati (Bilingualism and Immigration: A Sociolinguistic View of the European Plan for the Maintainance of National Languages in Immigrant Communities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosi, Arturo

    1979-01-01

    Outlines the European Economic Community's (EEC) plan for the maintainance of national languages among immigrants. Describes the variety of objectives behind the EEC's linguistic policy as incompatible with the creation of a unified instructional approach. Emphasizes that dialects spoken within immigrant families create additional problems in…

  19. ESO Fellowship Programme 2007/2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-06-01

    The European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere awards several postdoctoral fellowships each year. The goal of these fellowships is to offer young scientists op-portunities and facilities to enhance their research programmes by facilitating close contact between young astronomers and the activities and staff at one of the world's foremost observatories.

  20. Human vaccine research in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Ole F; Lonnroth, Anna; Mulligan, Bernard

    2009-01-29

    The use of vaccines is saving millions of lives every year across the globe, but a number of important diseases such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, TB and hepatitis C continue to frustrate attempts to produce effective vaccines against them. Confronting these challenges will require new approaches and increased research efforts by the scientific community. The Sixth Framework Programme (FP6; 2002-2006) of the European Commission (EC) has been an important catalyst in this direction by allocating a financial contribution of more than EUR 210 million to a wide variety of vaccine research activities, ranging from basic vaccinology, translational research to clinical application of vaccines. Taken together, around 581 research groups from 52 countries are participating in the vaccine activities of FP6. This impressive number signals a new spirit of collaborative research, which will facilitate the exploitation of the immense possibilities in modern vaccinology.

  1. Utilization of sounding rockets and balloons in the German Space Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preu, Peter; Friker, Achim; Frings, Wolfgang; Püttmann, Norbert

    2005-08-01

    Sounding rockets and balloons are important tools of Germany's Space Programme. DLR manages these activities and promotes scientific experiments and validation programmes within (1) Space Science, (2) Earth Observation, (3) Microgravity Research and (4) Re-entry Technologies (SHEFEX). In Space Science the present focus is at atmospheric research. Concerning Earth Observation balloon-borne measurements play a key role in the validation of atmospheric satellite sounders (ENVISAT). TEXUS and MAXUS sounding rockets are successfully used for short duration microgravity experiments. The Sharp Edge Flight Experiment SHEFEX will deliver data from a hypersonic flight for the validation of a new Thermal Protection System (TPS), wind tunnel testing and numerical analysis of aerothermodynamics. Signing the Revised Esrange and Andøya Special Project (EASP) Agreement 2006-2010 in June 2004 Germany has made an essential contribution to the long-term availability of the Scandinavian ranges for the European science community.

  2. [The European Vision Institute. Opening up new frontiers?].

    PubMed

    Zrenner, E; Cunha-Vaz, J; Sahel, J A; Sillito, A; Scholl, H P N; Wheeler-Schilling, T H

    2006-02-01

    The European Vision Institute EEIG (EVI) creates a new legal entity based on Community law to facilitate and encourage cross-border co-operation in vision research. Its major objectives are to conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination and other programmes with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight and the special health problems and requirements of the blind and visually disabled. EVI aims to foster centres in the EU in capacity building for innovative projects, to increase the flexibility, attractiveness and competitiveness of research careers, especially for young researchers. In addition, EVI will serve to co-ordinate activities with patient organisations and to build a pan-European platform for clinical trials.

  3. The EC’s (European Community’s) Common Agricultural Policy: Agropolitics and the Prospects for Reform,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-04

    been a dramatic rise in agricultural production throughout the Community . When judged against its original objectives ( security of food supplies at...R-A65 129 THE E S P EANCCO MUN ITY’S) COMMON ARICULT UARAL 1/1 -t 9 POLICA ROPO L!TC 5AND THE PROSPECTS FOR REFORM(U) DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE COLL...Unclassified SECUIRITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE I&a REPORT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION R ________________ V * Uncl ass ifIi sd 2a. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION

  4. Architecture for an advanced biomedical collaboration domain for the European paediatric cancer research community (ABCD-4-E).

    PubMed

    Nitzlnader, Michael; Falgenhauer, Markus; Gossy, Christian; Schreier, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Today, progress in biomedical research often depends on large, interdisciplinary research projects and tailored information and communication technology (ICT) support. In the context of the European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents (ENCCA) project the exchange of data between data source (Source Domain) and data consumer (Consumer Domain) systems in a distributed computing environment needs to be facilitated. This work presents the requirements and the corresponding solution architecture of the Advanced Biomedical Collaboration Domain for Europe (ABCD-4-E). The proposed concept utilises public as well as private cloud systems, the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) framework and web-based applications to provide the core capabilities in accordance with privacy and security needs. The utility of crucial parts of the concept was evaluated by prototypic implementation. A discussion of the design indicates that the requirements of ENCCA are fully met. A whole system demonstration is currently being prepared to verify that ABCD-4-E has the potential to evolve into a domain-bridging collaboration platform in the future.

  5. GMES Space Component: Programme overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschbacher, J.; Milagro-Perez, M. P.

    2012-04-01

    The European Union (EU) and the European Space Agency (ESA) have developed the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme as Europe's answer to the vital need for joined-up data about our climate, environment and security. Through a unique combination of satellite, atmospheric and Earth-based monitoring systems, the initiative will provide new insight into the state of the land, sea and air, providing policymakers, scientists, businesses and the public with accurate and timely information. GMES capabilities include monitoring and forecasting of climatic change, flood risks, soil and coastal erosion, crop and fish resources, air pollution, greenhouse gases, iceberg distribution and snow cover, among others. To accomplish this, GMES has been divided into three main components: Space, In-situ and Services. The Space Component, led by ESA, comprises five types of new satellites called Sentinels that are being developed by ESA specifically to meet the needs of GMES, the first of which to be launched in 2013. These missions carry a range of technologies, such as radar and multi-spectral imaging instruments for land, ocean and atmospheric monitoring. In addition, access to data from the so-called Contributing Missions guarantees that European space infrastructure is fully used for GMES. An integrated Ground Segment ensures access to Sentinels and Contributing Missions data. The in-situ component, under the coordination of the European Environment Agency (EEA), is composed of atmospheric and Earth based monitoring systems, and based on established networks and programmes at European and international levels. The European Commission is in charge of implementing the services component of GMES and of leading GMES overall. GMES services, fed with data from the Space and In-situ components, will provide essential information in five main domains, atmosphere, ocean and land monitoring as well as emergency response and security. Climate change has been added

  6. The paradox of the long-term positive effects of a North American crayfish on a European community of predators.

    PubMed

    Tablado, Zulima; Tella, José L; Sánchez-Zapata, José A; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2010-10-01

    Invasions of non-native species are one of the major causes of losses of native species. In some cases, however, non-natives may also have positive effects on native species. We investigated the potential facilitative effects of the North American red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) on the community of predators in southwestern Spain. To do so, we examined the diets of predators in the area and their population trends since introduction of the crayfish. Most predator species consumed red swamp crayfish, which sometimes occurred in over 50% of their diet samples. Moreover, the abundance of species preying on crayfish increased significantly in the area as opposed to the abundance of herbivores and to predator populations in other areas of Europe, where those predators are even considered threatened. Thus, we report the first case in which one non-native species is both beneficial because it provides prey for threatened species and detrimental because it can drive species at lower trophic levels to extinction. Increases in predator numbers that are associated with non-native species of prey, especially when some of these predators are also invasive non-natives, may increase levels of predation on other species and produce cascading effects that threaten native biota at longer temporal and larger spatial scales. Future management plans should include the complexity of interactions between invasive non-natives and the entire native community, the feasibility of successful removal of non-native species, and the potential social and economic interests in the area.

  7. Traditional healers as caregivers to HIV/AIDS clients and other terminally challenged persons in Kanye community home-based care programme (CHBC), Botswana.

    PubMed

    Kange'ethe, Simon Murote

    2009-09-01

    The research study done at the Kanye village of Botswana was qualitative in design and exploratory in nature. While the broad goal aimed at assessing the contributions of caregivers in the Kanye CHBC programme, this article aims at evaluating the traditional Healers' contribution as providers of care to HIV/AIDS patients and other chronically ill persons. The study conveniently involved all the 140 registered caregivers in the Kanye programme, but with only 82 caregivers turning up for focus group discussions. The caregivers were grouped in 10 focus group discussions, and all of the 5 CHBC nurses were subjected to one-on-one interviews. Both the focus group discussions and one-on-one interviews with the nurses used two slightly different interview schedules as data collection instruments. The study findings revealed that traditional healers are important players in caregiving of persons with various ailments but their role, position and contribution in the battle against HIV/AIDS is fast waning with time. The government has been challenged to map out strategies of collaboration between the two systems as traditional healers can complement the services of biomedical practitioners in this era of HIV/AIDS.

  8. Infections Caused By Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus European Clone (ST80) In Slovenia Between 2006 And 2013

    PubMed Central

    Jurca, Tomaž; Harlander, Tatjana; Košir, Marta; Zajc, Urška; Golob, Majda; Zdovc, Irena; Grmek Košnik, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction According to the existing literature, a heterogeneous sequence type (ST) or clones of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) circulate in Europe. In Europe, the European clone that belongs to sequence type ST80 is predominant. Methods The aim of the study was to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics and epidemiological data of CA-MRSA ST80 and its occurrence in Slovenia. We retrospectively analyzed those CA-MRSA isolates that were isolated during microbiological procedures in microbiological laboratories between 2006 and 2013. Only CA-MRSA isolates from the national collection of CA-MRSA strains that belonged to ST80 (European clone) were analyzed. We determined the Pantone-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), mec A genes, exfoliative toxin genes and type of staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCCmec) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We determined also spa type and sequence type. Results ST80 was confirmed in only 2 (0.5%) out of 385 CA-MRSA isolates, collected in a national collection of CAMRSA. Both isolates were positive for the PVL genes, mec A gene, exfoliative toxin type D gene and SCCmec IV. One CA-MRSA isolate was confirmed in a wound swab taken from a 47-year-old male, and the second was isolated from blood cultures of a 69-year-old female. No epidemiological connections between them were found. Conclusions In Slovenia CA-MRSA infections caused by ST80 are rare. In the future, it is necessary that a surveillance study of CA-MRSA at the national level continues and CA-MRSA be considered as a public health threat. PMID:27284382

  9. Composition of Fish Communities in a European Macrotidal Salt Marsh (the Mont Saint-Michel Bay, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laffaille, P.; Feunteun, E.; Lefeuvre, J.-C.

    2000-10-01

    At least 100 fish species are known to be present in the intertidal areas (estuaries, mudflats and salt marshes) of Mont Saint-Michel Bay. These and other comparable shallow marine coastal waters, such as estuaries and lagoons, play a nursery role for many fish species. However, in Europe little attention has been paid to the value of tidal salt marshes for fishes. Between March 1996 and April 1999, 120 tides were sampled in a tidal creek. A total of 31 species were caught. This community was largely dominated by mullets ( Liza ramada represent 87% of the total biomass) and sand gobies ( Pomatoschistus minutus and P. lozanoi represent 82% of the total numbers). These species and also Gasterosteus aculeatus , Syngnathus rostellatus, Dicentrarchus labrax, Mugil spp., Liza aurata and Sprattus sprattus were the most frequent species (>50% of monthly frequency of occurrence). In Europe, salt marshes and their creeks are flooded only during high spring tides. So, fishes only invade this environment during short immersion periods, and no species can be considered as marsh resident. But, the salt marsh was colonized by fish every time the tide reached the creek, and during the short time of flood, dominant fishes fed actively and exploited the high productivity. Nevertheless, this study shows that there is little interannual variation in the fish community and there are three ' seasons ' in the fish fauna of the marsh. Marine straggler and marine estuarine dependent species colonize marshes between spring (recruitment period in the bay) and autumn before returning into deeper adjacent waters. Estuarine fishes are present all year round with maximum abundances in the end of summer. The presence of fishes confirms that this kind of wetland plays an important trophic and nursery role for these species. Differences in densities and stages distribution of these species into Mont Saint-Michel systems (tidal mudflats, estuaries and tidal salt marshes) can reduce the trophic

  10. Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll…

  11. Antiretroviral treatment outcomes from a nurse-driven, community-supported HIV/AIDS treatment programme in rural Lesotho: observational cohort assessment at two years

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Lesotho has the third highest HIV prevalence in the world (an adult prevalence of 23.2%). Despite a lack of resources for health, the country has implemented state-of-the-art antiretroviral treatment guidelines, including early initiation of treatment (<350 cells/mm3), tenofovir in first line, and nurse-initiated and managed HIV care, including antiretroviral therapy (ART), at primary health care level. Programme approach We describe two-year outcomes of a decentralized HIV/AIDS care programme run by Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, and the Christian Health Association of Lesotho in Scott catchment area, a rural health zone covering 14 clinics and one district hospital. Outcome data are described through a retrospective cohort analysis of adults and children initiated on ART between 2006 and 2008. Discussion and Evaluation Overall, 13,243 people have been enrolled in HIV care (5% children), and 5376 initiated on ART (6.5% children), 80% at primary care level. Between 2006 and 2008, annual enrolment more than doubled for adults and children, with no major external increase in human resources. The proportion of adults arriving sick (CD4 <50 cells/mm3) decreased from 22.2% in 2006 to 11.9% in 2008. Twelve-month outcomes are satisfactory in terms of mortality (11% for adults; 9% for children) and loss to follow up (8.8%). At 12 months, 80% of adults and 89% of children were alive and in care, meaning they were still taking their treatment; at 24 months, 77% of adults remained in care. Conclusion Despite major resource constraints, Lesotho is comparing favourably with its better resourced neighbour, using the latest international ART recommendations. The successful two-year outcomes are further evidence that HIV/AIDS care and treatment can be provided effectively at the primary care level. The programme highlights how improving HIV care strengthened the primary health care system, and validates

  12. Using the intervention mapping protocol to develop a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in a multi-centre European project: the IDEFICS intervention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased during the past decades and is now considered an urgent public health problem. Although stabilizing trends in obesity prevalence have been identified in parts of Europe, preventive efforts in children are still needed. Using the socio-ecological approach as the underlying theoretical perspective, the IDEFICS project aimed to develop, implement and evaluate a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in eight European countries. The aim of the present manuscript was to describe the content and developmental process of the IDEFICS intervention. Methods The intervention mapping protocol (IMP) was used to develop the community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in 3 to 10 years old children. It is a theory- and evidence-based tool for the structured planning and development of health promotion programs that requires the completion of six different steps. These steps were elaborated by two coordinating centers and discussed with the other participating centers until agreement was reached. Focus group research was performed in all participating centers to provide an informed basis for intervention development. Results The application of the IMP resulted in an overall intervention framework with ten intervention modules targeting environmental and personal factors through the family, the school and the community. The summary results of the focus group research were used to inform the development of the overall intervention. The cultural adaptation of the overall intervention was realised by using country specific focus group results. The need for cultural adaptation was considered during the entire process to improve program adoption and implementation. A plan was developed to evaluate program effectiveness and quality of implementation. Conclusions The IDEFICS project developed a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity by using to

  13. Evaluating the effectiveness of a home-based exercise programme delivered through a tablet computer for preventing falls in older community-dwelling people over 2 years: study protocol for the Standing Tall randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Delbaere, K; Valenzuela, T; Woodbury, A; Davies, T; Yeong, J; Steffens, D; Miles, L; Pickett, L; Zijlstra, G A R; Clemson, L; Close, J C T; Howard, K; Lord, S R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In order to prevent falls, older people should exercise for at least 2 h per week for 6 months, with a strong focus on balance exercises. This article describes the design of a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based exercise programme delivered through a tablet computer to prevent falls in older people. Methods and analysis Participants aged 70 years or older, living in the community in Sydney will be recruited and randomly allocated to an intervention or control group. The intervention consists of a tailored, home-based balance training delivered through a tablet computer. Intervention participants will be asked to complete 2 h of exercises per week for 2 years. Both groups will receive an education programme focused on health-related information relevant to older adults, delivered through the tablet computer via weekly fact sheets. Primary outcome measures include number of fallers and falls rate recorded in weekly fall diaries at 12 months. A sample size of 500 will be necessary to see an effect on falls rate. Secondary outcome measures include concern about falling, depressive symptoms, health-related quality of life and physical activity levels (in all 500 participants); and physiological fall risk, balance, functional mobility, gait, stepping and cognitive performance (in a subsample of 200 participants). Adherence, acceptability, usability and enjoyment will be recorded in intervention group participants over 2 years. Data will be analysed using the intention-to-treat principle. Secondary analyses are planned in people with greater adherence. Economic analyses will be assessed from a health and community care provider perspective. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from UNSW Ethics Committee in December 2014 (ref number HC#14/266). Outcomes will be disseminated through publication in peer-reviewed journals and presentations at international conferences. Trial registration number

  14. Quality Assessment and Development in the Course of the EFMD CEL Programme Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, C.; Seufert, S.; Euler, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the experiences and learnings derived from the European Foundation for Management Development's programme accreditation teChnology-Enhanced Learning (EFMD CEL) programme accreditation. The EFMD CEL quality framework is briefly described, and an overview of the programmes that have pursued accreditation is presented.…

  15. Implementation of Open Educational Resources in a Nursing Programme: Experiences and Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elf, Marie; Ossiannilsson, Ebba; Neljesjö, Maria; Jansson, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The IMPOER project (implementation of open educational resources, OER) aimed to implement OER in a nursing programme at Dalarna University, Sweden. The university and its nursing programme have long engaged in e-learning, and the nursing programme has recently been awarded the European Association of Distance Teaching Universities E-xcellence…

  16. Control programme for cystic echinococcosis in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Irabedra, Pilar; Ferreira, Ciro; Sayes, Julio; Elola, Susana; Rodríguez, Miriam; Morel, Noelia; Segura, Sebastian; Santos, Estela Dos; Guisantes, Jorge A

    2016-05-24

    Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community's participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed.

  17. Scientific Programme Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-02-01

    Scientific Programme Committee A. Blondel, University of Geneva A. Cervera, IFIC M. Dracos, IN2P3 I. Efhymiopoulos, CERN J. Ellis, CERN S. Geer, FNAL R. Garoby, CERN M. Goodman, ANL D. Harris, FNAL T. Hasegawa, KEK P. Huber, Virginia Tech. D. Kaplan, IIT Y.D. Kim, Sejong University H. Kirk, BNL Y. Kuno, Osaka University K. Long, Imperial College N.K. Mondal, TIFR J. Morfin, FNAL Y. Mori, Kyoto University K. Nishikawa, KEK V. Palladino, University of Napoli C. Prior, RAL F.J.P. Soler, University of Glasgow J. Strait, FNAL R. Svoboda, University of California Davis F. Terranova, LN Frascati M. Zisman, LBNL Local Organizing Committee E. Benedetto, CERN/NTUA C. Blanchard, University of Geneva A. Blondel, University of Geneva (co-chair) I. Efthymiopoulos, CERN (co-chair) F. Dufour, University of Geneva F. Girard-Madoux, CERN E. Gschwendtner, CERN A. Korzenev, University of Geneva M. Morer-Olafsen, CERN S. Murphy, University of Geneva G. Prior, CERN G. Wikström, University of Geneva E. Wildner, CERN Sponsors EuCARD European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) Swiss Institute for Particle Physics (CHIPP) University of Geneva

  18. Sarcopenia and falls in community-dwelling elderly subjects in Japan: Defining sarcopenia according to criteria of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, Yoshimi; Watanabe, Misuzu; Sun, Wei; Sugiura, Yumiko; Hayashida, Itsushi; Kusabiraki, Toshiyuki; Tamaki, Junko

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the association between sarcopenia (using the definition of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People) and fall in the past year among community-dwelling Japanese elderly. Subjects were 1110 community-dwelling Japanese aged 65 or older. We used bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to measure muscle mass, grip strength to measure muscle strength, and usual walking speed to measure physical performance in a baseline study. "Sarcopenia" was characterized by low muscle mass and low muscle strength or low physical performance. "Presarcopenia" was characterized only by low muscle mass. Subjects who did not have any of these deficiencies were classified as "normal." We then administered a questionnaire assessing age, sex, household status, chronic illness, lifestyle-related habits, and fall. This study showed the prevalence of fall was 16.9% and 21.3% in men and women, respectively, while that of sarcopenia was 13.4% and 14.9% in men and women, respectively. In men and women, the prevalence of sarcopenia was higher among those who had fallen. A logistic regression analysis using age, body fat, current drinker status, and physical inactivity for men, and age, body fat, smoking, and diabetes for women as covariate variables revealed that sarcopenia was significantly associated with a history of fall. The odds ratio for fall in the sarcopenia group relative to the normal group was 4.42 (95%CI 2.08-9.39) in men and 2.34 (95%CI 1.39-3.94) in women. This study revealed sarcopenia to be associated with falling in elderly Japanese. Sarcopenia prevention interventions may help prevent falls among elderly individuals.

  19. Breaking the ground for the European research area - The conference "European research 2002"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, C.

    2002-12-01

    In the days November 11-13, about 9000 scientists, science administrators and policy makers gathered in Brussels to attend the Launch Conference for the ‘6th Framework Programme of the European Community for research, technological development and demonstration activities' - or for short, ‘FP-6'. While most participants came from the member states of the European Union, candidate countries and associated states, the meeting was in fact attended by people from 65 countries, demonstrating the wide scope and the importance of the process set in motion to create the European Research Area. Some 50 TV teams and 230 journalists from the print media covered the event, which El País, the leading Spanish newspaper, described as ‘The Science Summit in Brussels'. The strong media interest bears witness to the fact that science and technology (and with them, also education) are playing an increasingly important and visible role in the public sphere and that the organization and execution of research, as well as the exploitation of scientific results, are assuming importance in the mainstream political debate.

  20. The El-Barta Child and Family Project--Community Based Early Child Care and Development Programme: An Integrated Approach. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanyasunya, Andrew Ropilo; Lesolayia, Moses S.

    The advent of schooling, the cash economy, and new political systems have brought about many situations providing challenges to the Samburu and the Turkana nomadic pastoralists in northern Kenya. This report details the experiences of the staff of the El-barta project in working with communities within a situation of isolation, harsh climatic…

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Materials Interface Interactions Test: Papers presented at the Commission of European Communities workshop on in situ testing of radioactive waste forms and engineered barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Molecke, M.A.; Sorensen, N.R.; Wicks, G.G.

    1993-08-01

    The three papers in this report were presented at the second international workshop to feature the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Materials Interface Interactions Test (MIIT). This Workshop on In Situ Tests on Radioactive Waste Forms and Engineered Barriers was held in Corsendonk, Belgium, on October 13--16, 1992, and was sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC). The Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre D`Energie Nucleaire (SCK/CEN, Belgium), and the US Department of Energy (via Savannah River) also cosponsored this workshop. Workshop participants from Belgium, France, Germany, Sweden, and the United States gathered to discuss the status, results and overviews of the MIIT program. Nine of the twenty-five total workshop papers were presented on the status and results from the WIPP MIIT program after the five-year in situ conclusion of the program. The total number of published MIIT papers is now up to almost forty. Posttest laboratory analyses are still in progress at multiple participating laboratories. The first MIIT paper in this document, by Wicks and Molecke, provides an overview of the entire test program and focuses on the waste form samples. The second paper, by Molecke and Wicks, concentrates on technical details and repository relevant observations on the in situ conduct, sampling, and termination operations of the MIIT. The third paper, by Sorensen and Molecke, presents and summarizes the available laboratory, posttest corrosion data and results for all of the candidate waste container or overpack metal specimens included in the MIIT program.

  2. Effects of invasive European bird cherry (Prunus padus) on leaf litter processing by aquatic invertebrate shredder communities in urban Alaskan streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roon, David A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Wurtz, Tricia L.

    2014-01-01

    European bird cherry (Prunus padus) (EBC) is an invasive ornamental tree that is spreading rapidly in riparian forests of urban Alaska. To determine how the spread of EBC affects leaf litter processing by aquatic invertebrate shredders, we conducted complementary leaf pack experiments in two streams located in Anchorage, Alaska. The first experiment contrasted invasive EBC with three native tree species—thin-leaf alder (Alnus tenuifolia), paper birch (Betula neoalaskana), and black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa)—in one reach of Chester Creek; finding that EBC leaf litter broke down significantly faster than birch and cottonwood, but at a similar rate to alder. The second experiment contrasted EBC with alder in four reaches of Campbell and Chester creeks; finding that while EBC leaf litter broke down significantly faster than alder in Chester Creek, EBC broke down at a similar rate to alder in Campbell Creek. Although EBC sometimes supported fewer shredders by both count and mass, shredder communities did not differ significantly between EBC and native plants. Collectively, these data suggest that invasive EBC is not currently exhibiting strong negative impacts on leaf litter processing in these streams, but could if it continues to spread and further displaces native species over time.

  3. Software Safety Assurance of Programmable Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berens, Kalynnda

    2002-01-01

    Programmable Logic (PLC, FPGA, ASIC) devices are hybrids - hardware devices that are designed and programmed like software. As such, they fall in an assurance gray area. Programmable Logic is usually tested and verified as hardware, and the software aspects are ignored, potentially leading to safety or mission success concerns. The objective of this proposal is to first determine where and how Programmable Logic (PL) is used within NASA and document the current methods of assurance. Once that is known, raise awareness of the PL software aspects within the NASA engineering community and provide guidance for the use and assurance of PL form a software perspective.

  4. Community-owned resource persons for malaria vector control: enabling factors and challenges in an operational programme in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Community participation in vector control and health services in general is of great interest to public health practitioners in developing countries, but remains complex and poorly understood. The Urban Malaria Control Program (UMCP) in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania, implements larval control of malaria vector mosquitoes. The UMCP delegates responsibility for routine mosquito control and surveillance to community-owned resource persons (CORPs), recruited from within local communities via the elected local government. Methods A mixed method, cross-sectional survey assessed the ability of CORPs to detect mosquito breeding sites and larvae, and investigated demographic characteristics of the CORPs, their reasons for participating in the UMCP, and their work performance. Detection coverage was estimated as the proportion of wet habitats found by the investigator which had been reported by CORP. Detection sensitivity was estimated as the proportion of wet habitats found by the CORPS which the investigator found to contain Anopheles larvae that were also reported to be occupied by the CORP. Results The CORPs themselves perceived their role as professional rather than voluntary, with participation being a de facto form of employment. Habitat detection coverage was lower among CORPs that were recruited through the program administrative staff, compared to CORPs recruited by local government officials or health committees (Odds Ratio = 0.660, 95% confidence interval = [0.438, 0.995], P = 0.047). Staff living within their areas of responsibility had > 70% higher detection sensitivity for both Anopheline (P = 0.016) and Culicine (P = 0.012): positive habitats compared to those living outside those same areas. Discussion and conclusions Improved employment conditions as well as involving the local health committees in recruiting individual program staff, communication and community engagement skills are required to optimize achieving effective community

  5. A European Space for Education Looking for Its Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlstrom, Ninni

    2010-01-01

    The open method of coordination (OMC) within the Lisbon strategy is discussed in terms of a European Space for Education and "programme ontology". The focus is on indicators and the European dimension, and how they "work" in the forming of contents and identities in this European Space for Education. The OMC is analyzed in…

  6. Putting Dreyfus into Action: The European Credit Transfer System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitsch, Jorg; Luomi-Messerer, Karin; Becker, Matthias; Spottl, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to look closely at the development of a European Credit Transfer System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET). The European Commission, together with the member States, are working on it and several pilot projects have been initiated within the Leonardo da Vinci Programme of the European Commission.…

  7. Project Report ECLIPSE: European Citizenship Learning Program for Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bombardelli, Olga

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a European project, the Comenius ECLIPSE project (European Citizenship Learning in a Programme for Secondary Education) developed by six European partners coordinated by the University of Trento in the years 2011-2014. ECLIPSE (co-financed by the EACEA--Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency) aims at developing,…

  8. European Music Year 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  9. Programmes, resources, and needs of HIV-prevention nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Africa, Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    KELLY, J. A.; SOMLAI, A. M.; BENOTSCH, E. G.; AMIRKHANIAN, Y. A.; FERNANDEZ, M. I.; STEVENSON, L. Y.; SITZLER, C. A.; MCAULIFFE, T. L.; BROWN, K. D.; OPGENORTH, K. M.

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the programmes, resources, and needs of HIV-prevention nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in 75 countries in Africa, Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Multiple databases and expert recommendations were used to identify one major HIV-prevention NGO in the capital or a large city in each country, and in-depth interviews were conducted with each NGO Director. Most NGOs are carrying out their programmes with minimal funding and few regularly employed personnel. Most are highly dependent on international donors, but reliance on small grants with short funding periods limits programme development capacity. HIV-prevention activities varied by region, with African NGOs most likely to use peer education and community awareness events; Eastern European NGOs most likely to offer needle exchange; Latin American NGOs to have resource centres and offer risk reduction programmes; and Caribbean organizations to use mass education approaches. Across regions, NGOs most often targeted the general public and youth, although specialized at-risk groups were the additional focus of attention in some regions. Limited funding, governmental indifference or opposition, AIDS stigma, and social discomfort discussing sex were often cited as barriers to new HIV-prevention programmes. NGOs are critical service providers. However, their funding, programmes, and resource capacities must be strengthened if NGOs are to realize their full potential in HIV prevention. PMID:16282071

  10. The MISTRALS programme data portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Laurence; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brosolo, Laetitia; Cloché, Sophie; Descloitres, Jacques; Ferré, Hélène; Focsa, Loredana; Labatut, Laurent; Mastrorillo, Laurence; Mière, Arnaud; Petit de la Villéon, Loïc; Ramage, Karim; Schmechtig, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) is a decennial programme for systematic observations and research dedicated to the understanding of the Mediterranean Basin environmental process and its evolution under the planet global change. It is composed of eight multidisciplinary projects that cover all the components of the Earth system (atmosphere, ocean, continental surfaces, lithosphere...) and their interactions, many disciplines (physics, chemistry, marine biogeochemistry, biology, geology, sociology...) and different time scales. For example Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment (HyMeX) aims at improving the predictability of rainfall extreme events, and assessing the social and economic vulnerability to extreme events and adaptation capacity, and Paleo Mediterranean Experiment (PaleoMeX) is dedicated to the study of the interactions between climate, societies and civilizations of the Mediterranean world during the last 10000 years. Many long term monitoring research networks are associated with MISTRALS, like Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment (MOOSE), Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (CORSICA) and the environmental observations from Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies (MEUST-SE). Therefore, the data generated or used by the different MISTRALS projects are very heterogeneous. They include in situ observations, satellite products, model outputs, qualitative field surveys... Some datasets are automatically produced by operational networks, and others come from research instruments and analysis procedures. They correspond to different time scales (historical time series, observatories, campaigns...) and are managed by different data centres. They originate from many scientific communities, with varied data sharing cultures, specific expectations, and using

  11. The MISTRALS programme data portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Laurence; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brosolo, Laetitia; Cloché, Sophie; Descloitres, Jacques; Ferré, Hélène; Focsa, Loredana; Henriot, Nicolas; Labatut, Laurent; Mière, Arnaud; Petit de la Villéon, Loïc; Ramage, Karim; Schmechtig, Catherine; Vermeulen, Anne; André, François

    2015-04-01

    Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) is a decennial programme for systematic observations and research dedicated to the understanding of the Mediterranean Basin environmental process and its evolution under the planet global change. It is composed of eight multidisciplinary projects that cover all the components of the Earth system (atmosphere, ocean, continental surfaces, lithosphere...) and their interactions, all the disciplines (physics, chemistry, marine biogeochemistry, biology, geology, sociology...) and different time scales. For example Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment (HyMeX) aims at improving the predictability of rainfall extreme events, and assessing the social and economic vulnerability to extreme events and adaptation capacity. Paleo Mediterranean Experiment (PaleoMeX) is dedicated to the study of the interactions between climate, societies and civilizations of the Mediterranean world during the last 10000 years. Many long term monitoring research networks are associated with MISTRALS, such as Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment (MOOSE), Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (CORSICA) and the environmental observations from Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies (MEUST-SE). Therefore, the data generated or used by the different MISTRALS projects are very heterogeneous. They include in situ observations, satellite products, model outputs, social sciences surveys... Some datasets are automatically produced by operational networks, and others come from research instruments and analysis procedures. They correspond to different time scales (historical time series, observatories, campaigns...) and are managed by several data centres. They originate from many scientific communities, with different data sharing practices, specific expectations and using

  12. The MISTRALS programme data portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissebrat, Guillaume; Albert-Aguilar, Alexandre; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Cloché, Sophie; Darras, Sabine; Descloitres, Jacques; Ferré, Hélène; Fleury, Laurence; Focsa, Loredana; Henriot, Nicolas; Labatut, Laurent; Petit de la Villéon, Loïc; Ramage, Karim; Schmechtig, Catherine; Vermeulen, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) is a decennial programme for systematic observations and research dedicated to the understanding of the Mediterranean Basin environmental process and its evolution under the planet global change. It is composed of eight multidisciplinary projects that cover all the components of the Earth system (atmosphere, ocean, continental surfaces, lithosphere...) and their interactions, all the disciplines (physics, chemistry, marine biogeochemistry, biology, geology, sociology...) and different time scales. For example Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment (HyMeX) aims at improving the predictability of rainfall extreme events, and assessing the social and economic vulnerability to extreme events and adaptation capacity. Paleo Mediterranean Experiment (PaleoMeX) is dedicated to the study of the interactions between climate, societies and civilizations of the Mediterranean world during the last 10000 years. Many long term monitoring research networks are associated with MISTRALS, such as Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment (MOOSE), Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (CORSICA) and the environmental observations from Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies (MEUST-SE). Therefore, the data generated or used by the different MISTRALS projects are very heterogeneous. They include in situ observations, satellite products, model outputs, social sciences surveys... Some datasets are automatically produced by operational networks, and others come from research instruments and analysis procedures. They correspond to different time scales (historical time series, observatories, campaigns...) and are managed by several data centres. They originate from many scientific communities, with different data sharing practices, specific expectations and using

  13. Managing Vocational Education and Training in Central and Eastern European Countries. Report of a Programme on the Training of Researchers in the Management of Vocational Education and Training. IIEP Research and Studies Programme. The Development of Human Resources: New Trends in Technical and Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caillods, Francoise; And Others

    This document provides materials prepared for and discussed at a workshop to analyze the problems facing Central and Eastern European countries in the management of the vocational education and training (VET) system. Part I gives an outline of the major research findings and reflects the discussions of the workshop. "Management of Vocational…

  14. The evaluation of technical models used for major-accident hazard installations. Report to Commission of the European Communities Directorate General 12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britter, R. E.

    1991-08-01

    Models are used in many ways by individuals and organizations within the European Community. Within the context of major technological hazards decisions of considerable importance are based wholly, or partly, on these models. The quality, that is the fitness-for-purpose, of these models will differ and there is obviously an interest in both the relative quality of one model against another and the absolute quality of any particular model. This leads to the evaluation of model quality and to methods by which model quality might be improved. It is noted that models are a principal method for the transfer of technology but also that the nature, role, and limitations of models is frequently misunderstood. There is a widespread demand for guidance on model quality and consequently on the development of evaluation techniques. The CEC is an appropriate body to have a role in the study of the quality and the management of quality of technical models. The evaluation of the quality of technical models entails: (1) an assurance of correct coding of algorithms is required and this is probably straightforward; (2) a statistical model validation is required and this entails comparison with experimental data sets (considerable care is required in performing such a validation, in particular in determination of an appropriate protocol to ensure unambiguous conclusions to be drawn from the validation); and (3) a model assessment including a scientific review and other less objective aspects is also required and should be given equal weight to a statistical model validation. Actions which may lead to an improvement in model quality are presented.

  15. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, P.; Partnership, Emso

    2009-04-01

    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. EMSO will reply also to the need expressed in the frame of GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) to develop a marine segment integrated in the in situ and satellite global monitoring system. The EMSO development relays upon the synergy between the scientific community and the industry to improve the European competitiveness with respect to countries like USA/Canada, NEPTUNE, VENUS and MARS projects, Taiwan, MACHO project, and Japan, DONET project. In Europe the development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90, and presently supported by EU initiatives. The EMSO infrastructure will constitute the extension to the sea of the land-based networks. Examples of data recorded by seafloor observatories will be presented. EMSO is presently at the stage of Preparatory Phase (PP), funded in the EC FP7 Capacities Programme. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years with the participation of 12 Institutions representing 12 countries. EMSO potential will be significantly increased also with the interaction with other Research Infrastructures addressed to Earth Science. 2. IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph Waldmann); IMI-Irish Marine Institute (Ireland, ref. Michael Gillooly); UTM-CSIC-Unidad de

  16. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap (Report 2006, http://cordis.europa.eu/esfri/roadmap.htm), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. The development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90 and is being supported by several EU initiatives, as the on-going ESONET-NoE, coordinated by IFREMER (2007-2011, http://www.esonet-emso.org/esonet-noe/), and aims at gathering together the Research Community of the Ocean Observatories. In 2006 the FP7 Capacities Programme launched a call for Preparatory Phase (PP) projects, that will provide the support to create the legal and organisational entities in charge of managing the infrastructures, and coordinating the financial effort among the countries. Under this call the EMSO-PP project was approved in 2007 with the coordination of INGV and the participation of other 11 Institutions of 11 countries. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years. The EMSO is a key-infrastructure both for Ocean Sciences and for Solid Earth Sciences. In this respect it will enhance and complement profitably the capabilities of other European research infrastructures such as EPOS, ERICON-Aurora Borealis, and SIOS. The perspective of the synergy among EMSO and other ESFRI Research Infrastructures will be outlined. EMSO Partners: IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph

  17. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-12-01

    The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was

  18. Key principles to improve programmes and interventions in complementary feeding.

    PubMed

    Lutter, Chessa K; Iannotti, Lora; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Guyon, Agnes; Daelmans, Bernadette; Robert, Rebecca; Haider, Rukhsana

    2013-09-01

    Although there are some examples of successful complementary feeding programmes to promote healthy growth and prevent stunting at the community level, to date there are few, if any, examples of successful programmes at scale. A lack of systematic process and impact evaluations on pilot projects to generate lessons learned has precluded scaling up of effective programmes. Programmes to effect positive change in nutrition rarely follow systematic planning, implementation, and evaluation (PIE) processes to enhance effectiveness over the long term. As a result a set of programme-oriented key principles to promote healthy growth remains elusive. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap by proposing a set of principles to improve programmes and interventions to promote healthy growth and development. Identifying such principles for programme success has three requirements: rethinking traditional paradigms used to promote improved infant and young child feeding; ensuring better linkages to delivery platforms; and, improving programming. Following the PIE model for programmes and learning from experiences from four relatively large-scale programmes described in this paper, 10 key principles are identified in the areas of programme planning, programme implementation, programme evaluation, and dissemination, replication, and scaling up. Nonetheless, numerous operational research questions remain, some of which are highlighted in this paper.

  19. Control programme for cystic echinococcosis in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Irabedra, Pilar; Ferreira, Ciro; Sayes, Julio; Elola, Susana; Rodríguez, Miriam; Morel, Noelia; Segura, Sebastian; dos Santos, Estela; Guisantes, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community’s participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed. PMID:27223652

  20. European Space Science Scales New Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-06-01

    , Ulysses will have an unprecedented birds'-eye view of the day star's northern reaches. will it find the same anomaly as that observed last year above the south pole? Will the north magnetic pole prove to be as astonishingly inexistent as its southerly counterpart did last summer? The measurements collected during the next three months will be decisive in continuing the global investigation of the star that heats and sustains life on Earth. Moreover, there; could be other surprises in store for solar astrophysicists. For, at their request, ESA and NASA have decided to extend the Ulysses mission by six yews, from 1995 to 2001, so as to allow them to observe the Sun during a period of magnetic activity. With three new missions - ISO, Soho and Cluster - due to be launched and a fourth - Ulysses - embarking on a critical exploration phase, 1995 marks a crucial stage in the history of European space science. But all this is no mere coincidence. It should rather be seen as the result of a sustained planning effort that started ten years ago and is now coming up to its half-way point. For in 1985, at the request of the scientists themselves, ESA set up a 20-year (1985-2005) programme designed to pave the way for ambitious science missions. In other words, giving Europe the wherewithal to play its proper part in peaceful exploration of the universe. The "Horizon 2000" plan was devised solely according to certain key criteria: scientific excellence, project coherence, balance, technological content and realistic budgeting. Management efficiency in particular has allowed Horizon 2000 today to work to a budget of ECU 343 million (12.8iln of ESA's general budget), equivalent in terms of purchasing power to European space science funding twenty-five yews ago. The missions comprising Horizon 2000 were proposed by the scientific community and then selected by groups of leading research scien16sts. They include qualified beacon projects, "Cornerstone missions", costing the equivalent of

  1. The Northland fluoridation advocacy programme: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Sunitha; Thomas, David R

    2008-12-01

    On 20 July 2006, the Far North District Council resolved to fluoridate Kaitaia and Kaikohe. This was the first such initiative by any Territorial Local Authority (TLA) in New Zealand for 23 years, and resulted from a fluoridation advocacy programme. This paper describes the programme implementation, assesses its consistency with the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi, and critically examines the collaboration between the fluoride advocate and the key stakeholders. Process evaluation identified three main categories of programme implementation: policy advocacy, community action projects, and media advocacy. The collaboration of iwi, Maori health providers and the community suggests that the programme was consistent with the principles (partnership, participation and protection) ofthe Treaty ofWaitangi. Media advocacy played an important role in reflecting and engaging community views on fluoridation, and it influenced decision-making by the Far North District Council. The simultaneous, combined 'top-down and bottom-up' approach was an effective and successful strategy for fluoridation advocacy in the community. Less integrated approaches implemented on their own (such as the 'top down' approach in Whangarei and the 'bottom-up' approach in Dargaville) were not effective.

  2. Risk assessment for the design of a risk-based surveillance programme for fish farms in Switzerland (in accordance with Council Directive 2006/88/EC of the European Union).

    PubMed

    Diserens, N; Presi, P; Bernet, D; Schüpbach-Regula, G

    2013-12-01

    Swiss aquaculture farms were assessed according to their risk of acquiring or spreading viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) and infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN). Risk factors for the introduction and spread of VHS and IHN were defined and assessed using published data and expert opinions. Among the 357 aquaculture farms identified in Switzerland, 49.3% were categorised as high risk, 49.0% as medium risk and 1.7% as low risk. According to the new Directive 2006/88/EC for aquaculture of the European Union, the frequency of farm inspections must be derived from their risk levels. A sensitivity analysis showed that water supply and fish movements were highly influential on the output of the risk assessment regarding the introduction of VHS and IHN. Fish movements were also highly influential on the risk assessment output regarding the spread of these diseases.

  3. Diagnosing the determinants of vaccine hesitancy in specific subgroups: The Guide to Tailoring Immunization Programmes (TIP).

    PubMed

    Butler, Robb; MacDonald, Noni E

    2015-08-14

    Despite relatively high vaccination coverage rates in the European Region, vaccine hesitancy is undermining individual and community protection from vaccine preventable diseases. At the request of its European Technical Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (ETAGE), the Vaccine-preventable Diseases and Immunization Programme of the WHO Regional Office for Europe (WHO/EURO) developed tools to help countries address hesitancy more effectively. The Guide to Tailoring Immunization Programmes (TIP), an evidence and theory based behavioral insight framework, issued in 2013, provides tools to (1) identify vaccine hesitant population subgroups, (2) diagnose their demand- and supply-side immunization barriers and enablers and (3) design evidence-informed responses to hesitancy appropriate to the subgroup setting, context and vaccine. The Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) through its Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy has closely followed the development, implementation, use and evolution of TIP concluding that TIP, with local adaptation, could be a valuable tool for use in all WHO regions, to help address countries' vaccine hesitancy problems. The TIP principles are applicable to communicable, noncommunicable and emergency planning where behavioral decisions influence outcomes.

  4. HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan--a regional programme of measures for the marine environment based on the Ecosystem Approach.

    PubMed

    Backer, Hermanni; Leppänen, Juha-Markku; Brusendorff, Anne Christine; Forsius, Kaj; Stankiewicz, Monika; Mehtonen, Jukka; Pyhälä, Minna; Laamanen, Maria; Paulomäki, Hanna; Vlasov, Nikolay; Haaranen, Tarja

    2010-05-01

    The Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) Baltic Sea Action Plan, adopted by the coastal countries of the Baltic Sea and the European Community in November 2007, is a regional intergovernmental programme of measures for the protection and management of the marine environment explicitly based on the Ecosystem Approach. The Action Plan is structured around a set of Ecological Objectives used to define indicators and targets, including effect-based nutrient input ceilings, and to monitor implementation. The Action Plan strongly links Baltic marine environmental concerns to important socio-economic fields such as agriculture and fisheries and promotes cross-sectoral tools including marine spatial planning. Due to complementarities with the European Union (EU) Marine Strategy Framework Directive, the Action Plan is in essence a pilot for this process without neglecting the important role of the Russian Federation - the only Baltic coastal country not a member of the EU.

  5. Americium Oxide Surrogates for European Radioisotope Power Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkinson, E. J.; Ambrosi, R. M.; Williams, H. R.; Sarsfield, M. J.; Tinsley, T. P.; Stephenson, K.

    2014-07-01

    The European space nuclear power programme comprises two main research areas: fuel source development and the development of conversion technologies, which are thermoelectric or dynamic, for electricity production. This abstract addresses the former.

  6. The use of arithmetic average method in identifying critical success criteria for Homestay Programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daud, Shahidah Md; Ramli, Razamin; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Kayat, Kalsom; Razak, Rafidah Abd

    2015-12-01

    Malaysian Homestay is very unique. It is classified as Community Based Tourism (CBT). Homestay Programme which is a community events where a tourist stays together with a host family for a period of time and enjoying cultural exchange besides having new experiences. Homestay programme has booming the tourism industry since there is over 100 Homestay Programme currently being registered with the Ministry of Culture and Tourism Malaysia. However, only few Homestay Programme enjoying the benefits of success Homestay Programme. Hence, this article seeks to identify the critical success factors for a Homestay Programme in Malaysia. An Arithmetic Average method is utilized to further evaluate the identified success factors in a more meaningful way. The findings will help Homestay Programme function as a community development tool that manages tourism resources. Thus, help the community in improving local economy and creating job opportunities.

  7. School Inclusion Programmes (SIPS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drossinou-Korea, Maria; Matousi, Dimitra; Panopoulos, Nikolaos; Paraskevopoulou, Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to understand the school inclusion programmes (SIPs) for students with special educational needs (SEN). The methodology was conducted in the field of special education (SE) and focuses on three case studies of students who was supported by SIPs. The Targeted, Individual, Structured, Inclusion Programme for students…

  8. Current Research in European Vocational Education and Human Resource Development. Proceedings of the Programme Presented by the Research Network on Vocational Education and Training (VETNET) at the European Conference of Educational Research (ECER) (4th, Lille, France, September 5-8, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Sabine, Ed.; Dif, M'Hamed, Ed.

    These proceedings are comprised of 23 presentations on research in European vocational education and human resource development. Papers include "Developing Information and Communication Technology Capability in Higher Education in the United Kingdom (UK)" (Nick Boreham); "Methodological Issues in the Study of Organizational…

  9. Current Research in European Vocational Education and Human Resource Development. Proceedings of the Programme Presented By the Research Network on Vocational Education and Training (VETNET) at the European Conference of Educational Research (ECER) (3rd, Edinburgh, Scotland, September 20-23, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Sabine, Ed.; Raffe, David, Ed.

    These 24 papers represent the proceedings of a program presented by the research network on vocational education and training (VET). They include "School-Arranged or Market-Governed Workplace Training?" (Ulla Arnell-Gustafsson); "Prospects for Mutual Learning and Transnational Transfer of Innovative Practice in European VET"…

  10. Good practices and health policy analysis in European sports stadia: results from the 'Healthy Stadia' project.

    PubMed

    Drygas, Wojciech; Ruszkowska, Joanna; Philpott, Matthew; Björkström, Olav; Parker, Mike; Ireland, Robin; Roncarolo, Federico; Tenconi, Maria

    2013-06-01

    Sport plays an important role within society and sports stadia provide significant settings for public health strategies. In addition to being places of mass gathering, stadia are often located in less affluent areas and are traditionally attended by 'harder to reach' communities. Unfortunately sports stadia and the clubs they host are rarely perceived as places that promote healthy lifestyles. Fast food, alcohol and tobacco are commonly advertized, served and consumed during sports games giving the spectators and TV fans contradictory messages concerning healthy choices. As part of a wider programme of work part-funded by the European Union, a study was therefore designed to explore current 'good practice' relating to positive health interventions in sports stadia across a number of European countries. Using a specially designed questionnaire, information about health policies and good practices relating to food offerings in stadia, physical activity promotion among local communities, tobacco policy, positive mental health initiatives, environmental sustainability practices and social responsibility policies were collected in 10 European countries (England and Northern Ireland, Finland, Georgia, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Spain and Sweden) involving 88 stadia. The audit results show that stadia health policies differ considerably between specific countries and sports. Based on the literature analysed, the examples of good practices collected through the study, and the subsequent instigation of a European Healthy Stadia Network, it shows that there is considerable potential for stadia to become health promoting settings.

  11. 11th European VLBI Network Symposium & Users Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Bordeaux (LAB) at the University of Bordeaux (France), on behalf of the European VLBI Consortium, hosted the 11th European VLBI Network (EVN) Symposium and EVN Users Meeting on October 9-12, 2012. The Symposium was held at the "Chambre de Commerce et d'Industrie de Bordeaux", located in the "Palais de la Bourse", in the center of Bordeaux. The conference highlighted the latest scientific results and technical developments from VLBI, space VLBI and e-VLBI. All fields of astrophysics were concerned - stellar, galactic and extragalactic - as well as astrometry and planetary science. Presentations addressing synergy between (e-)VLBI and other new or planned radio facilities (ALMA, LOFAR, e-MERLIN,...) or instruments at other wavelengths (Fermi, CTA, Gaia,...) were also an integral part of the program. The scientific program was organized in 11 sessions including 71 oral presentations, with an additional 43 posters available for viewing during the entire length of the conference. An EVN Users Meeting was also held during one of the evening to foster interaction between the EVN users and the EVN organization. The symposium was attended by a total of 122 delegates originating from 47 institutes world-wide, sharing new VLBI science and innovations while also building links with other communities. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement no 283393 (RadioNet3).

  12. Mobility as a Continuum: European Commission Mobility Policies for Schools and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvir, Yuval; Yemini, Miri

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the rationale and aims of European Commission (EC) mobility programmes for schools and higher education systems, namely the Comenius and the European Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students (ERASMUS) funding schemes. Our findings indicate that the aims, rationales and means of mobility programmes for the school…

  13. Developing a European Practitioner Qualification: The TRAVORS2 Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Stan

    2013-01-01

    The TRAVORS projects, supported by the European Union's Lifelong Learning Programme, ran between 2008 and 2012. Their object was to develop training programmes for disability employment practitioners across nine countries based on proven approaches both to vocational rehabilitation and to skills training. The second of the two projects aimed to…

  14. Aurora europe's space exploration programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongaro, F.; Swings, J. P.; Condessa, R.

    2003-04-01

    What will happen after the ISS in terms of space exploration, specifically to the human presence beyond Earth? What will be the role of Europe in the future international venture to explore space? What are the most immediate actions to be undertaken in Europe in order to best profit from the efforts made through the participation in the ISS and to position Europe's capabilities according to its interests? As approved by the Ministers at the Edinburgh Council in November 2001, the European Space Exploration Programme - Aurora - is ESA's programme in charge of defining and implementing the long term plan for human and robotic exploration of the Solar system. The Aurora programme started in 2002 and extends until the end goal of Aurora: the first human mission to Mars, expected in the 2025-2030 time-frame. The approach of Aurora is to implement a robust development of technologies and robotic missions, in parallel to the utilization phase of the ISS, to prepare for a continuous and sustainable future of human space exploration (which shall include the Moon, Mars and the asteroids as targets), in which Europe will be a valuable partner. Two classes of missions are foreseen in the programme's strategy: Flagships, defined as major missions driving to soft landing, in-situ analysis, sample return from other planetary bodies and eventually human missions; and Arrows, defined as cost-capped, short development time missions to demonstrate new technologies or mission approaches, or to exploit opportunities for payloads on European or international missions. So far the participating national delegations have approved two Flagships (ExoMars and Mars Sample Return) and two Arrows (Earth Re-entry and Mars Aerocapture) for phase A industrial studies. Although the last call for ideas of Aurora resulted in the definition of two Flagship missions targeted to Mars, the next one might be aimed to the Moon. At this stage the role of the Moon, on the path of Mars exploration is not

  15. Survey of surveillance systems and select prevention activities for hepatitis B and C, European Union/European Economic Area, 2009.

    PubMed

    Duffell, E F; van de Laar, M J

    2015-04-02

    Hepatitis B and C viral infections are leading causes of hepatic cirrhosis and cancer. The incidence and prevalence of both hepatitis B and C varies across European countries. European wide surveillance data help to understand the dynamic epidemiology of hepatitis B and C, which is important for the implementation and effectiveness of prevention and control activities.Comparison of surveillance data between countries in Europe is hampered by the differences in national healthcare and reporting systems. This report presents the results of a survey in 2009 which was undertaken to collect baseline information on surveillance systems and core prevention programmes for hepatitis B and C in individual European Union/ European Economic Area countries. The results provide key information to aid the interpretation of surveillance data, and while indicating heterogeneity in national surveillance systems and programmes, they highlight the potential of these systems. This resource has supported the implementation of a standardised European enhanced surveillance programme.

  16. Policy Formulation and Networks of Practice in European eLearning: The Emergence of a European E-Learning Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salajan, Florin D.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the emergence of a European E-Learning Area (EELA) as a consequence of three factors that can be observed in the e-learning developments over the past decade. The first factor consists of the carving of a policy sector in e-learning via formal instruments such as the eLearning Programme, the Lifelong Learning Programme and…

  17. Changing Education through Learning Spaces: Impacts of the Portuguese School Buildings' Renovation Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloso, Luísa; Marques, Joana S.; Duarte, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    In this article we present findings from the evaluation study of a nation-wide school renovation programme in Portugal. The aim is to analyse policy implementation, taking into account school community participation, discussing how the programme requirement to involve users in the renovation was met, examining perceptions of the programme's…

  18. The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing Synergies: Protocol for a Prospective Observational Study to Measure the Impact of a Community-Based Program on Prevention and Mitigation of Frailty (ICP – PMF) in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Liotta, G; Orfila, F; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M; Roller-Winsberger, R; Illario, M; Musian, D; Alvino, S; O’Caoimh, R; Cano, A; Molloy, W; Iaccarino, G; Marazzi, MC; Inzerilli, MC; Madaro, O; Paul, C; Csonka, P; Vince, AC; Menditto, E; Maggio, M; Scarcella, P; Gilardi, F; Lucaroni, F; Abete, P; Girardi, V; Barra, R; Palombi, L

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this paper is to describe the protocol of the study “Impact of a Community-based Program on Prevention and Mitigation of Frailty in community-dwelling older adults” developed in the framework of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing. This proposal has been developed by the Partnership Action groups on frailty, fall prevention and polypharmacy in older. The proposal wants to assess the impact of community-based programs aimed to counteract three main outcomes related to frailty: hospitalization, institutionalization and death. Bringing together researchers from seven European countries, the proposal aims to achieve the critical mass and the geographical extension enough to provide information useful to all older European citizens. An observational study will be carried out to calculate the incidence of the different outcomes in relation to the various interventions that will be assessed; results will be compared with data coming from already established national, regional and local dataset using the observed/expected approach. The sample will be made up by at least 2000 citizens for each outcome. All the citizens will be assessed at the baseline with two multidimensional questionnaires: the RISC questionnaire and the Short Functional Geriatric Evaluation questionnaire. The outcomes will be assessed every six-twelve months PMID:27896228

  19. SOTANCP3 Scientific Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-12-01

    The programme for the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics" which was held at the KGU (Kanto Gakuin University) Kannai Media Center (8th floor of Yokohoma Media Business Center (YMBC))

  20. FAST joins Breakthrough programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The 180m Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) - the world's largest single-aperture radio receiver - has become part of the Breakthrough Listen programme, which launched in July 2015 to look for intelligent life beyond Earth.

  1. Programmes in Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, L. R.

    1976-01-01

    The various types and forms of credit and non-credit university continuing education programmes are described in these extracts from a paper presented at the Hyderabad conference on university continuing education. (ABM)

  2. IFLA's Programme of ISBDs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Dorothy

    1978-01-01

    The article outlines the evolution, development, and current operational programme of the ISBD's (International Standard Bibliographic Description) within the framework of IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations). (Author/JAB)

  3. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, and some total dose results.

  4. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, heavy ion test results, and some total dose results.

  5. Factors Contributing to 50-ft Walking Speed and Observed Ethnic Differences in Older Community-Dwelling Mexican Americans and European Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hazuda, Helen P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mexican Americans comprise the most rapidly growing segment of the older US population and are reported to have poorer functional health than European Americans, but few studies have examined factors contributing to ethnic differences in walking speed between Mexican Americans and European Americans. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine factors that contribute to walking speed and observed ethnic differences in walking speed in older Mexican Americans and European Americans using the disablement process model (DPM) as a guide. Design This was an observational, cross-sectional study. Methods Participants were 703 Mexican American and European American older adults (aged 65 years and older) who completed the baseline examination of the San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (SALSA). Hierarchical regression models were performed to identify the contribution of contextual, lifestyle/anthropometric, disease, and impairment variables to walking speed and to ethnic differences in walking speed. Results The ethic difference in unadjusted mean walking speed (Mexican Americans=1.17 m/s, European Americans=1.29 m/s) was fully explained by adjustment for contextual (ie, age, sex, education, income) and lifestyle/anthropometric (ie, body mass index, height, physical activity) variables; adjusted mean walking speed in both ethnic groups was 1.23 m/s. Contextual variables explained 20.3% of the variance in walking speed, and lifestyle/anthropometric variables explained an additional 8.4%. Diseases (ie, diabetes, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) explained an additional 1.9% of the variance in walking speed; impairments (ie, FEV1, upper leg pain, and lower extremity strength and range of motion) contributed an additional 5.5%. Thus, both nonmodifiable (ie, contextual, height) and modifiable (ie, impairments, body mass index, physical activity) factors contributed to walking speed in older Mexican Americans and European Americans. Limitations

  6. The Citizen's Effect: 25 Features about the Europe for Citizens Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reding, Viviane

    2012-01-01

    Public forums and shared spaces in which citizens can debate and deliberate have always constituted essential elements of a democratic society. Today, the Europe for Citizens Programme serves to create a modern European agora. Launched in 2007, the programme supports initiatives that bring people together in international and intercultural…

  7. Reformation of the Macedonian Teacher Education Programme, 1999-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper considers the theme of reform and change during the restructuring of the Macedonian Teacher Education programme at the University of Skopje, undertaken by a Tempus Phare project during 1999-2001. Background: The project was commissioned by the European Union following a report by Bethall (1997), a consultant on Teacher…

  8. The Winds of Change: Higher Education Management Programmes in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pausits, Attila; Pellert, Ada

    2009-01-01

    Amid the Bologna Process and as a direct effect of it, European higher education institutions have to rethink their core institutional policies in order to effectively deal with the increasing demands and needs of their "customers" and society at large. The higher education management programmes across Europe, with some specific needs…

  9. Evaluating Doctoral Programmes in Africa: Context and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Michael; Backhouse, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Models of doctoral education in Africa remained similar to those in European universities, well into the 2000s. However, there has been an increasing realisation that such programmes are ill-suited for the African realities. With recent efforts to revitalise higher education in Africa, considerable attention has been placed on the need to explore…

  10. The Rise of the Information Society amongst European Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salajan, Florin D.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the information society discourse in the European Union in relation to the European Commission's eLearning programmes, based on selected academics' conceptualisation of the term. It reveals a mixed picture of the perceptions that academics have of the information society in their respective countries. The findings indicate…

  11. Kindergarten Reading and Writing Curricula in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tafa, Eufimia

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the current literacy programmes in European Union kindergarten curricula support and enhance young children's reading and writing development. This study investigated whether the kindergarten curricula of 10 European countries: Britain, Belgium, France, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Luxembourg, Portugal,…

  12. Reframing European Doctoral Training for the New ERA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repeckaite, Daiva

    2016-01-01

    In 2014 the institutionalization of European higher education and training, as well as research and innovation, policy entered a new phase: a number of financial instruments were simplified and merged. The Erasmus Mundus programme, wherein consortia of European and overseas universities built joint master's or doctoral degrees, was split into two…

  13. Vocational Education and Training in Greece: The European Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paleocrassas, Stamatis

    1992-01-01

    Gives a brief review of Greece's current vocational education/training system, compares it to European models, describes the European Community process of harmonization of vocational qualifications, and discusses new legislation establishing a national vocational education/training system. (SK)

  14. A Grand Vision for European Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-09-01

    , community-based Infrastructure Roadmap, crucial to keep Europe at the forefront of astronomical research," says de Zeeuw. ESO PR Photo 44a/07 European astronomy today is fully competitive on the global scene and is at the forefront in many domains with such breakthroughs as the first detection of a planet around a sun-like star, the successful landing on Titan, the proof that a massive black hole exists in the centre of our own Galaxy, the discovery of gravitational arcs around galaxy clusters, and the proof that most Gamma Ray Bursts are caused by huge exploding stars. The rise of European astronomy to this top position by the end of last century has been achieved through extensive cooperation and coordination of efforts, in particular through ESO for optical astronomy and ESA for space astronomy. To strengthen this position and to extend it to all branches of astronomy and all nations of the new Europe, a group of European funding agencies set up the ASTRONET programme with the goal to establish a comprehensive long-term development plan of European astronomy. ASTRONET therefore covers all astrophysical domains from cosmology to the Solar system, and every observing window, from space and from the ground, and from electromagnetic radiation to particles and gravitational waves. It addresses the whole astronomical 'food chain' from infrastructure and technology development to observation, data access, modelling and theory, and the human resources needed to make it all work. This effort is quite similar in scope to the 'decadal surveys' conducted in the USA over the last half-century, but unlike its American counterpart, ASTRONET was set up directly by the national funding agencies, with strong support from the European Commission. "A shared long-term Science Vision for European astronomy is the fundamental first step in the process, soon to be followed by a detailed infrastructure and technology development roadmap," says Johannes Andersen (NOTSA, Denmark), the ASTRONET

  15. ETF Work Programme, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This document describes the proposed 2003 activities of the European Training Foundation (ETF) to support vocational education and training reform in non-European Union (EU) countries in the context of the EU's external relations program. The activities listed cover these four main groups of countries across three continents: the Mediterranean…

  16. [Vaccination: a programme for the whole life].

    PubMed

    Lang, Pierre Olivier; Michel, Jean-Pierre

    2010-11-10

    In 2010 in Switzerland, vaccine-preventable infectious diseases still cause a significant morbi-mortality, notably among old adults. While the vaccination-based prevention in the aged population has been neglected for a long time, the two European geriatrics and gerontology societies, EUGMS, IAGG-ER has recently proposed a vaccine schedule dedicated to adults aged over 60 and promote a life-course vaccination programme. To convince of the importance of such measures in Switzerland, this article: recounts the beneficial impact of vaccines on the incidence of measles, pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus as well as influenza and pneumococcal diseases; presents the burden of these infectious diseases among the population no or insufficiently immunized; demonstrates that vaccinating in the respect of a life-course vaccine programme will reduce considerably the burden of these infectious disease.

  17. The effect a of community-based social marketing campaign on recruitment and retention of low-income groups into physical activity programmes - a controlled before-and-after study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The beneficial effect of physical activity for the prevention of a range of chronic diseases is widely acknowledged. These conditions are most prevalent in low-income groups where physical activity levels are consistently lower. Social marketing is the government’s recommended approach to promoting physical activity but evidence of its effectiveness is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a social marketing campaign on the monthly recruitment, attendance and retention levels at a community-based physical activity programme in a low income area. Methods A six-month social marketing campaign was designed and delivered in a highly-deprived suburban neighbourhood. Analysis of variance was used to assess effects on recruitment and attendance. χ2 tests of independence were used to compare dropouts and adherers and effectiveness of recruitment mechanisms. Percentages were used to compare adherence rates at intervention, pre-existing sessions in the intervention area and control area sessions. Results Attendance data were collected weekly and presented and analysed monthly to provide a view of changing participation over the six month intervention period, as compared to attendance at pre-existing sessions in the intervention area and in a control area. Recruitment into intervention sessions was significantly greater than into pre-existing and control area sessions in Month 1 (18.13v1.04 p = .007, 18.13v.30 p=.005), Month 5 (3.45v.84 p=.007, 3.45v.30 p<.001) and Month 6 (5.60v.65 p<.001, 5.60v.25 p<.001). Attendance at intervention sessions was significantly greater in all six months than at pre-existing and control area sessions; Month 1 (38.83v7.17 p<.001, 38.83v4.67, p<.001), Month 2 (21.45v6.20 p<.001, 21.45v4.00, p<.001), Month 3 (9.57v6.15 p<.001, 9.57v3.77, p<.001), Month 4 (17.35v7.31 p<.001, 17.35v4.75, p<.001), Month 5 (20.33v8.81 p=.007, 20.33v4.54 p<.001) and Month 6 (28.72v8.28 p<.001, 28.72v.4.00 p<.001). Drop

  18. National radon programmes and policies: the RADPAR recommendations.

    PubMed

    Bochicchio, F; Hulka, J; Ringer, W; Rovenská, K; Fojtikova, I; Venoso, G; Bradley, E J; Fenton, D; Gruson, M; Arvela, H; Holmgren, O; Quindos, L; McLaughlin, J; Collignan, B; Gray, A; Grosche, B; Jiranek, M; Kalimeri, K; Kephalopoulos, S; Kreuzer, M; Schlesinger, D; Zeeb, H; Bartzis, J

    2014-07-01

    Results from epidemiological studies on lung cancer and radon exposure in dwellings and mines led to a significant revision of recommendations and regulations of international organisations, such as WHO, IAEA, Nordic Countries, European Commission. Within the European project RADPAR, scientists from 18 institutions of 14 European countries worked together for 3 y (2009-12). Among other reports, a comprehensive booklet of recommendations was produced with the aim that they should be useful both for countries with a well-developed radon programme and for countries with little experience on radon issues. In this paper, the main RADPAR recommendations on radon programmes and policies are described and discussed. These recommendations should be very useful in preparing a national action plan, required by the recent Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom.

  19. Surfaces and Interfaces of Ceramic Materials. Programme

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    Univ. Aveiro, Portugal P26 / 3’epariamn ofan AIO ,,-r0 ’ sol fgm L MONTANARO, Politecnico, Torno, Italy 1030- 11.00 Coffeebreak 11.00- 12.15 ROUND...Division Centre National de la Recherche Scientifiaue. France European Research Office of US Army ISA Riber. France PROGRAMME (%J TL = Tutorial lecture L ...Invited lecture (Seminar) 3:. L - P= Contrbuted paperS i 3 189 I SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 4 14.00 - 22.0 Reception and registration of participants MONDAY

  20. Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology (NERIES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eck, T.; Giardini, D.; Bossu, R.; Wiemer, S.

    2008-12-01

    NERIES (Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology) is an Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (I3) project within the Sixth Framework Programme of the European Commission (EC). The project consortium consists of 25 participants from 13 different European countries. It is currently the largest earth science project ever funded by the EC. The goal of NERIES is to integrate European seismological observatories and research institutes into one integrated cyber-infrastructure for seismological data serving the research community, civil protection authorities and the general public. The EC provides funds for the networking and research. The participants provide the necessary hardware investments, mostly through national resources. NERIES consists of 13 subprojects (networking and research activities) and 5 facilities providing access through grants (Transnational Access). The project is coordinated by ORFEUS in close cooperation with the EMSC. The individual subprojects address different issues such as: extension of the Virtual European Broadband Seismic Network (VEBSN) from 140 to about 500 stations, implementing the core European Integrated Waveform Data Archive (EIDA) consisting of ODC-KNMI, GFZ, INGV and IPGP and a distributed archive of historical Data. Providing access to data gathered by acceleration networks within Europe and its surroundings and deploys Ocean Bottom Seismometers in coordination with relevant Ocean bottom projects like ESONET. Tot facilitate access to this diverse and distributed data NERIES invests a significant portion of its resources to implementing a portal for which a beta release is planned to be release in the autumn of 2008. The research project main goal is to produce products and tools facilitating data interpretation and analysis. These tools include a European reference (velocity) model, real-time hazard tools, shakemaps and lossmaps, site response determination software and tools, and automatic tools to manage and

  1. The uefa euro 2012 anti-doping programme - scientific review.

    PubMed

    Earl, M; Vouillamoz, M; Kwiatkowska, D; Turek-Lepa, E; Pokrywka, A; Saugy, M; Baume, N; Gmeiner, G

    2014-06-01

    The final tournament of the UEFA European Football Championship is one of the top sporting events in the world, and a high-profile event of this kind requires a well-planned and well-executed anti-doping programme to ensure the integrity of results in the competition. UEFA EURO 2012 presented a unique logistical challenge, with the tournament spread across two countries, both covering a large geographical area. This paper discusses the planning and delivery of both the pre tournament out-of-competition (OOC) testing programme and the in-competition (IC) programme, as well as reviewing the activities of doping control officers (DCOs), the whereabouts programme and assessing the sample collection and transport process. The analytical approach applied is also discussed, along with an overview of the distribution of T/E ratios and blood parameters.

  2. Education and European integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, John

    1992-11-01

    The main purpose of this article is to discuss the implications for education and training of the movement towards integration in Europe in the historic context of the creation of a single market within the European Community (EC) and the end of the Communist regimes in Central and Eastern Europe. The experience of the EC is used to illustrate trends and problems in the development of international cooperation in education and training. Common concerns and priorities throughout the new Europe are then identified and discussed. These include the pursuit of quality in schooling, efforts to serve the interests of disadvantaged learners, and the treatment of European Studies in the curriculum, including the improvement of the teaching of foreign languages.

  3. International Heliophysical Year: European Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briand, C.

    2007-08-01

    The First European General Assembly of the "International Heliophysical Year" (IHY) took place at the headquarters of the Centre Nationial de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in Paris, France, 10-13 January 2006. There were 113 participants representing 27 nations. The science concerned with the International Heliophysical Year programme was first illustrated. Then, the status of current instruments as well as practical information on the campaign management policy was given. Twenty European National Coordinators described the progress of their IHY activities. Representatives from Egypt, Angola and the coordinator of the Balkan, Black and Caspian Sea Region also reported on the progress of IHY activities in their respective regions. People from the IHY Secretariat provided a summary of the global IHY efforts including the United Nations Basic Space Sciences Program. In the education and public outreach front, a variety of activities have been planned: TV and radio shows, board games on space weather, specific programmes for schools and universities, workshops for teachers are some of the actions that were presented by the delegates. Beyond of these national and individual initiatives, specific activities requiring European coordination were discussed. This paper provides an extended summary of the main talks and discussions that held during the meeting.

  4. Eliminating Language Barriers Online at European Prisons (ELBEP): A Case-Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkan, M.; Toprak, E.; Kumtepe, A. T.; Kumtepe, E. Genc; Ataizi, M.; Pilanci, H.; Mutlu, M. E.; Kayabas, I.; Kayabas, B. Kip

    2011-01-01

    ELBEP (Eliminating Language Barriers in European Prisons Through Open and Distance Education Technology) is a multilateral project funded by the European Union (EU) Lifelong Learning, Grundtvig (Adult Education) Programme. It aims to overcome language/communication problems between prison staff and foreign inmates at European prisons via online…

  5. ESA's satellite communications programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholome, P.

    1985-02-01

    The developmental history, current status, and future plans of the ESA satellite-communications programs are discussed in a general survey and illustrated with network diagrams and maps. Consideration is given to the parallel development of national and European direct-broadcast systems and telecommunications networks, the position of the European space and electronics industries in the growing world market, the impact of technological improvements (both in satellite systems and in ground-based networks), and the technological and commercial advantages of integrated space-terrestrial networks. The needs for a European definition of the precise national and international roles of satellite communications, for maximum speed in implementing such decisions (before the technology becomes obsolete), and for increased cooperation and standardization to assure European equipment manufacturers a reasonable share of the market are stressed.

  6. The ESA Space Situational Awareness Preparatory Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrinsky, Nicolas

    A new ESA Programme on Space Situational Awareness (SSA) has been approved during the ESA Council at Ministerial level in November 2008. A preparatory phase is in progress, covering the timeframe 2009 -2012. It concentrates on the architectural design of the SSA System, its governance and data policy, as well as on the provision of precursor services based on the federation of existing National and European assets. A continuation of the SSA programme will be proposed at the next Ministerial Council for the years 2012 and onwards. The SSA Preparatory Programme covers three distinct segments, namely: -Space Surveillance and Tracking of artificial objects orbiting the Earth -Space Weather -Near Earth Objects Each of the above segments has a strong relation with Science and is supported by specific RD Programmes at National, EC and ESA levels. In this paper, the scientific aspects of the three SSA Segments are outlined and the following main topics developed: • Space Surveillance: statistical models of the evolution of the space debris population in Earth-bound orbits, study of active mitigation measures, impact analysis, tracking and char-acterisation principles based on radar and optical techniques. • Space Weather: awareness of the natural space environment, detection and forecasting of space weather effects and interferences, analysis of appropriate ground and space-based sensors for the monitoring of the Sun, the solar wind, the radiation belts, the magnetosphere and the ionosphere. • Near Earth Objects (NEOs): methods for determination of physical characteristics of newly discovered objects, study of appropriate sensors based on radar and optical techniques, iden-tification and ranking of collision risks of NEOs with the Earth, study of possible mitigation measures (e.g. Don Quichotes project). The research topics undertaken during the preparatory programme, as well as those foreseen during the next phase, possibly with a strong international cooperation

  7. European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management - Project Overview and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeggi, A.; Jean, Y.; Weigelt, M. L. B.; Flechtner, F.; Gruber, C.; Guntner, A.; Gouweleeuw, B.; Mayer-Gürr, T.; Kvas, A.; Martinis, S.; Zwenzer, H.; Bruinsma, S.; Lemoine, J. M.; Flury, J.; Bourgogne, S.

    2015-12-01

    The project European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM) of the Horizon 2020 Framework Programme for Research and Innovation of the European Commission has started in January 2015. EGSIEM shall demonstrate that observations of the redistribution of water and ice mass derived from the current GRACE mission, the future GRACE-FO mission, and additional data provide critical and complementary information to more traditional Earth Observation products and open the door for innovative approaches to flood and drought monitoring and forecasting. We give an overview of the project and present first results from the three key objectives that EGSIEM shall address: 1) to establish a scientific combination service to deliver the best gravity products for applications in Earth and environmental science research based on the unified knowledge of the European GRACE community, 2) to establish a near real-time and regional service to reduce the latency and increase the temporal resolution of the mass redistribution products, and 3) to establish a hydrological and early warning service to develop gravity-based indicators for extreme hydrological events and to demonstrate their value for flood and drought forecasting and monitoring services. All of these services shall be tailored to the various needs of the respective communities. Significant efforts shall also be devoted to transform the service products into user-friendly and easy-to-interpret data sets and the development of visualization tools.

  8. European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management - Status and project highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer-Guerr, Torsten; Adrian, Jäggi; Meyer, Ulrich; Jean, Yoomin; Susnik, Andreja; Weigelt, Matthias; van Dam, Tonie; Flechtner, Frank; Gruber, Christian; Güntner, Andreas; Gouweleeuw, Ben; Kvas, Andreas; Klinger, Beate; Flury, Jakob; Bruinsma, Sean; Lemoine, Jean-Michel; Zwenzner, Hendrik; Bourgogne, Stephane; Bandikova, Tamara

    2016-04-01

    The European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM) is a project of the Horizon 2020 Framework Programme for Research and Innovation of the European Commission. EGSIEM shall demonstrate that observations of the redistribution of water and ice mass derived from the current GRACE mission, the future GRACE-FO mission, and additional data provide critical and complementary information to more traditional Earth Observation products and open the door for innovative approaches to flood and drought monitoring and forecasting. In the frame of EGSIEM three key services should established: 1) a scientific combination service to deliver the best gravity products for applications in Earth and environmental science research based on the unified knowledge of the European GRACE community, 2) a near real-time and regional service to reduce the latency and increase the temporal resolution of the mass redistribution products, and 3) a hydrological and early warning service to develop gravity-based indicators for extreme hydrological events and to demonstrate their value for flood and drought forecasting and monitoring services. All of these services shall be tailored to the various needs of the respective communities. Significant efforts shall also be devoted to transform the service products into user-friendly and easy-to-interpret data sets and the development of visualization tools. In this talk the status of the ongoing project is presented and selected results are discussed.

  9. European and Intercultural Dimension in Greek Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damanakis, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Negotiations concerning Greece's accession into the European Union began as early as 1961, when a cooperation agreement was signed between Greece and the European Economic Community. These negotiations were concluded 20 years later, on 1 January 1981, when Greece became the tenth full member of the EU. The next major step in Greece's progress…

  10. The Future of Copyright Management: European Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battisti, Michele

    This paper presents European perspectives on the future of copyright management. The first section is an overview of intellectual property rights in Europe, including differences between copyright countries and "droit d'auteur" countries. The second section addresses European Community legal policy, including examples related to the…

  11. Attitudes of Europeans toward Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ageing International, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Two Commission of European Communities surveys of people over age 15 and of those over 60 demonstrated a widespread belief that older people deserve public support and services and face employment discrimination. Socioeconomic factors influenced older people's sense of security and life satisfaction. Positive intergenerational attitudes appeared.…

  12. Programmable physiological infusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.; Adachi, R. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A programmable physiological infusion device and method are provided wherein a program source, such as a paper tape, is used to actuate an infusion pump in accordance with a desired program. The system is particularly applicable for dispensing calcium in a variety of waveforms.

  13. Work Programme, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Cedefop's work programme 2014 constitutes an ambitious attempt to preserve its core activities, respond to new requests and ensure previous quality standards while respecting resource constraints. Nevertheless, it also reflects the risk that the Centre's ability to deliver its mission and increasing demands may be affected by further budgetary…

  14. Backgrounder: The MAB Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Office of Public Information.

    The Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) was launched in November 1971 under the auspices of Unesco. Its aim is to help to develop scientific knowledge with a view to the rational management and conservation of natural resources, to train qualified personnel in this field, and to disseminate the knowledge acquired both to the decision-makers and…

  15. Developing Online Doctoral Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipere, Ngoni

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to identify best practices in online doctoral programming and to synthesise these practices into a framework for developing online doctoral programmes. The field of online doctoral studies is nascent and presents challenges for conventional forms of literature review. The literature was therefore reviewed using a…

  16. Computer Programmer/Analyst.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication contains 25 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of computer programmer/analyst, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 25 units are as…

  17. Conceptualizing Programme Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Salochana

    2013-01-01

    The main thrust of this paper deals with the conceptualization of theory-driven evaluation pertaining to a tutor training programme. Conceptualization of evaluation, in this case, is an integration between a conceptualization model as well as a theoretical framework in the form of activity theory. Existing examples of frameworks of programme…

  18. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will start a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issues section discussing worst-case analysis requirements.

  19. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will continue a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issue's section discussing the use of Root-Sum-Square calculations for digital delays.

  20. Programmable calculator stress analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gulick, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Advanced programmable alphanumeric calculators are well suited for closed-form calculation of pressure-vessel stresses. They offer adequate computing power, portability, special programming features, and simple interactive execution procedures. Representative programs that demonstrate calculator capabilities are presented. Problems treated are stress and strength calculations in thick-walled pressure vessels and the computation of stresses near head/pressure-vessel junctures.

  1. An update on EUMETSAT programmes and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaes, K. Dieter; Holmlund, Kenneth

    2016-09-01

    EUMETSAT is providing space based observations for operational meteorology and climate monitoring. The observations are measured by geostationary and sun-synchronous polar orbiting satellites in the frame of mandatory programmes. In the frame of optional programmes further observations for altimetry and oceanography are collected and disseminated. In the frame of third party programmes, EUMETSAT makes available data from other agencies' satellites to the user community. Since summer 2015 MSG-4 complements the current operational fleet of operational geostationary spacecraft, Meteosat-7, which is the last satellite of the first generation and the three satellites of the Second Generation of Meteosat, Meteosat-8, Meteosat-9 and Meteosat-10. MSG-4 became Meteosat-11 and was stored in orbit after successful commissioning. Two satellites of the EUMETSAT Polar System (EPS) provide data from sunsynchronous polar orbit. Metop-B, the second of a series of three satellites, launched in September 2012 and Metop-A, the first of the series, in orbit since October 2006 provide operational services. The satellites belong to the Initial Joint Polar System (IJPS) with the US. EUMETSAT's first optional programme continues to provide data from the Jason-2 satellite since summer 2008. As follow on the Jason-3 satellite was launched in January 2016 and is currently in commissioning. To assure continuity development of Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) is ongoing. The EPS-SG programme was fully approved in summer 2015. In the frame of the Copernicus Programme (formerly GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security)) EUMETSAT will operate the marine part of the Sentinel-3 satellite. It was launched in February 2016 and is currently under commissioning.

  2. Mutual Recognition of the Food and Drug Administration and European Community Member State Conformity Assessment Procedures; pharmaceutical GMP inspection reports, medical device quality system evaluation reports, and certain medical device premarket evaluation reports--FDA. Proposed rule.

    PubMed

    1998-04-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is proposing to amend its regulations pursuant to an international agreement that is expected to be concluded between the United States and the European Community (EC) (Ref. 1). Under the terms of that agreement, FDA may normally endorse good manufacturing practice (GMP) inspection reports for pharmaceuticals provided by equivalent EC Member State regulatory authorities and medical device quality system evaluation reports and certain medical device premarket evaluation reports provided by equivalent conformity assessment bodies. FDA is taking this action to enhance its ability to ensure the safety and efficacy of pharmaceuticals and medical devices through more efficient and effective utilization of its regulatory resources. The agency is requesting comments on the proposed rule.

  3. Community-Owned wind power development: The challenge of applying the European model in the United States, and how states are addressing that challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark

    2004-03-28

    Local farmers, towns, schools, and individual investors are, however, beginning to invest in wind power. With the help of state policy and clean energy fund support, new federal incentives, and creative local wind developers who have devised ownership structures that maximize the value of both state and federal support, community wind power is beginning to take a foothold in parts of the US, in particular the upper Midwest. The purpose of this report is to describe that foothold, as well as the state support that helped to create it. There are a number of reasons why states are becoming increasingly interested in community wind power. In rural Midwestern states such as Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Illinois, community wind is seen as a way to help supplement and stabilize farmer income, and thereby contribute to the preservation of farming communities and the rural landscapes and values they create. In the Northeast, densely populated states such as Massachusetts are turning to community-scale wind development to increase not only the amount of wind power on the grid, but also the public's knowledge, perception, and acceptance of wind power. In still other areas--such as the Pacific Northwest, which is already home to several large wind farms--states are simply responding to strong interest from local constituents who see community wind power as a way to take responsibility for, and mitigate the environmental impact of, electricity generation. But what exactly is ''community wind power''? Definitions vary widely, ranging from behind-the-meter installations to the Danish wind ''cooperatives'' to wind projects owned by municipal utilities. Possible defining criteria include: project size (small vs. large projects); purpose (to offset end-use power consumption vs. to sell power to the grid); ownership (single local vs. multiple local vs. municipal utility vs. commercial owners); and interconnection (behind the meter vs. to the distribution grid vs. to the

  4. Astrobiology Road Mapping (AstRoMap) - A project within FP7 of the European Commission: First results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Gomez, Felipe; Capria, Maria Teresa; Palomba, Ernesto; Walter, Nicolas; Rettberg, Petra; Muller, Christian; Horneck, Gerda

    AstRoMap (Astrobiology and Planetary Exploration Road Mapping) is a funded project formulated in the 5th Call of the European Commission FP7 framework. The main objectives of the AstRoMap are: 1. Identify the main astrobiology issues to be addressed by Europe in the next decades in relation with space exploration 2. Identify potential mission concepts that would allow addressing these issues 3. Identify the technology developments required to enable these missions 4. Provide a prioritized roadmap integrating science and technology activities as well as ground-based approach 5. Map scientific knowledge related to astrobiology in Europe To reach those objectives, AstRoMap is executed within the following steps: 1. Community consultation. In order to map the European astrobiology landscape and to provide a collaborative networking platform for this community, the AstRoMap project hosts a database of scientists (European and beyond) interested in astrobiology and planetary exploration (see: http://www.astromap.eu/database.html). It reflects the demography and the research and teaching activities of the astrobiology community, as well as their professional profiles and involvement in astrobiology projects. Considering future aspects of astrobiology in Europe, the need for more astrobiology-dedicated funding programmes at the EU level, especially for cross-disciplinary groups, was stressed. This might eventually lead to the creation of a European laboratory of Astrobiology, or even of a European Astrobiology Institute. 2. Workshops organisation. On the basis of the feedbacks from the community consultation, the potential participants and interesting topics are being identified to take part in the following workshops: 1-. Origin of organic compounds, steps to life; 2. Physico-chemical boundary conditions for habitability 3. Biosignatures as facilitating life detection 4. Origin of the Solar system 3. Astrobiology road-mapping. Based on the results and major conclusions

  5. Adult Education and Social Change: The European Network. Network of Adult Education and Community Development Schemes. Report of a Seminar (El Escorial, Spain, April 24-26, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Science, Madrid (Spain).

    These proceedings report on a seminar to review the Network of Adult Education and Community Development Schemes as it had been operating in Spain since 1986. An opening address (Jose Cartagena) discusses achievements to date, including making the most of available resources and introducing new working methods through the established liaison…

  6. Projected Range Contractions of European Protected Oceanic Montane Plant Communities: Focus on Climate Change Impacts Is Essential for Their Future Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Skeffington, Micheline Sheehy

    2014-01-01

    Global climate is rapidly changing and while many studies have investigated the potential impacts of this on the distribution of montane plant species and communities, few have focused on those with oceanic montane affinities. In Europe, highly sensitive bryophyte species reach their optimum occurrence, highest diversity and abundance in the north-west hyperoceanic regions, while a number of montane vascular plant species occur here at the edge of their range. This study evaluates the potential impact of climate change on the distribution of these species and assesses the implications for EU Habitats Directive-protected oceanic montane plant communities. We applied an ensemble of species distribution modelling techniques, using atlas data of 30 vascular plant and bryophyte species, to calculate range changes under projected future climate change. The future effectiveness of the protected area network to conserve these species was evaluated using gap analysis. We found that the majority of these montane species are projected to lose suitable climate space, primarily at lower altitudes, or that areas of suitable climate will principally shift northwards. In particular, rare oceanic montane bryophytes have poor dispersal capacity and are likely to be especially vulnerable to contractions in their current climate space. Significantly different projected range change responses were found between 1) oceanic montane bryophytes and vascular plants; 2) species belonging to different montane plant communities; 3) species categorised according to different biomes and eastern limit classifications. The inclusion of topographical variables in addition to climate, significantly improved the statistical and spatial performance of models. The current protected area network is projected to become less effective, especially for specialised arctic-montane species, posing a challenge to conserving oceanic montane plant communities. Conservation management plans need significantly

  7. Projected range contractions of European protected oceanic montane plant communities: focus on climate change impacts is essential for their future conservation.

    PubMed

    Hodd, Rory L; Bourke, David; Skeffington, Micheline Sheehy

    2014-01-01

    Global climate is rapidly changing and while many studies have investigated the potential impacts of this on the distribution of montane plant species and communities, few have focused on those with oceanic montane affinities. In Europe, highly sensitive bryophyte species reach their optimum occurrence, highest diversity and abundance in the north-west hyperoceanic regions, while a number of montane vascular plant species occur here at the edge of their range. This study evaluates the potential impact of climate change on the distribution of these species and assesses the implications for EU Habitats Directive-protected oceanic montane plant communities. We applied an ensemble of species distribution modelling techniques, using atlas data of 30 vascular plant and bryophyte species, to calculate range changes under projected future climate change. The future effectiveness of the protected area network to conserve these species was evaluated using gap analysis. We found that the majority of these montane species are projected to lose suitable climate space, primarily at lower altitudes, or that areas of suitable climate will principally shift northwards. In particular, rare oceanic montane bryophytes have poor dispersal capacity and are likely to be especially vulnerable to contractions in their current climate space. Significantly different projected range change responses were found between 1) oceanic montane bryophytes and vascular plants; 2) species belonging to different montane plant communities; 3) species categorised according to different biomes and eastern limit classifications. The inclusion of topographical variables in addition to climate, significantly improved the statistical and spatial performance of models. The current protected area network is projected to become less effective, especially for specialised arctic-montane species, posing a challenge to conserving oceanic montane plant communities. Conservation management plans need significantly

  8. UMIST, IDN, NTUA, TUM, ULB: A Successful European Exchange Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borne, Pierre; Singh, Madan G.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the exchange programs that existed for a decade in the fields of automatic control and computer science including the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, the "Institut Industriel du Nord," the National Technical University of Athens, the Technical University of Munich, and the Free University of…

  9. Uptake of Space Technologies - An Educational Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacai, Hina; Zolotikova, Svetlana; Young, Mandy; Cowsill, Rhys; Wells, Alan; Monks, Paul; Archibald, Alexandra; Smith, Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Earth Observation data and remote sensing technologies have been maturing into useful tools that can be utilised by local authorities and businesses to aid in activates such as monitoring climate change trends and managing agricultural land and water uses. The European Earth observation programme Copernicus, previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), provides the means to collect and process multi-source EO and environmental data that supports policy developments at the European level. At the regional and local level, the Copernicus programme has been initiated through Regional Contact Office (RCO), which provide knowledge, training, and access to expertise both locally and at a European level through the network of RCOs established across Europe in the DORIS_Net (Downstream Observatory organised by Regions active In Space - Network) project (Grant Agreement No. 262789 Coordination and support action (Coordinating) FP7 SPA.2010.1.1-07 "Fostering downstream activities and links with regions"). In the East Midlands UK RCO, educational and training workshops and modules have been organised to highlight the wider range of tools and application available to businesses and local authorities in the region. Engagement with businesses and LRA highlighted the need to have a tiered system of training to build awareness prior to investigating innovative solutions and space technology uses for societal benefits. In this paper we outline education and training programmes which have been developed at G-STEP (GMES - Science and Technology Education Partnership), University of Leicester, UK to open up the Copernicus programme through the Regional Contact Office to downstream users such as local businesses and LRAs. Innovative methods to introduce the operational uses of Space technologies in real cases through e-learning modules and web-based tools will be described and examples of good practice for educational training in these sectors will be

  10. Steps in the Right Direction, against the Odds, an Evaluation of a Community-Based Programme Aiming to Reduce Inactivity and Improve Health and Morale in Overweight and Obese School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Claire; Lewis, Kiara; Manby, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The study describes an evaluation of a 48-week physical activity and nutritional education programme for overweight/obese school-age children using quantitative and qualitative methods. The majority of participants were obese or severely obese when enrolled, and while some improvements in body mass index, self-esteem and engagement in a range of…

  11. Mission Specific Platforms: Past achievements and future developments in European led ocean research drilling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotterill, Carol; McInroy, David; Stevenson, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Mission Specific Platform (MSP) expeditions are operated by the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD). Each MSP expedition is unique within the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). In order to complement the abilities of the JOIDES Resolution and the Chikyu, the ECORD Science Operator (ESO) must source vessels and technology suitable for each MSP proposal on a case-by-case basis. The result is that ESO can meet scientific requirements in a flexible manner, whilst maintaining the measurements required for the IODP legacy programme. The process of tendering within EU journals for vessels and technology means that the planning process for each MSP Expedition starts many years in advance of the operational phase. Involvement of proposal proponents from this early stage often leads to the recognition for technological research and development to best meet the scientific aims and objectives. One example of this is the planning for the Atlantis Massif proposal, with collaborative development between the British Geological Survey (BGS) and MARUM, University of Bremen, on suitable instruments for seabed drills, with the European Petrophysics Consortium (EPC) driving the development of suitable wireline logging tools that can be used in association with such seabed systems. Other technological developments being undertaken within the European IODP community include in-situ pressure sampling for gas hydrate expeditions, deep biosphere and fluid sampling equipment and CORK technology. This multi-national collaborative approach is also employed by ESO in the operational phase. IODP Expedition 302 ACEX saw vessel and ice management support from Russia and Sweden to facilitate the first drilling undertaken in Arctic sea ice. A review of MSP expeditions past, present and future reveal the significant impact of European led operations and scientific research within the current IODP programme, and also looking forward to the start of the new International

  12. Implementing biosecurity education: approaches, resources and programmes.

    PubMed

    Minehata, Masamichi; Sture, Judi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Whitby, Simon

    2013-12-01

    This paper aims to present possible approaches, resources and programmes to introduce the topic of biosecurity to life scientists and engineers at the higher education level. Firstly, we summarise key findings from a number of international surveys on biosecurity education that have been carried out in the United States, Europe, Israel and the Asia-Pacific region. Secondly, we describe the development of our openly-accessible education resource, illustrating the scope and content of these materials. Thirdly, we report on actual cases of biosecurity education that have been implemented. These include achievements in and lessons derived from the implementation of biosecurity education at the National Defense Medical College in Japan. These experiences are followed by presentation of the expert-level "Train-the-Trainer" programmes subsequently launched by the University of Bradford in the United Kingdom. These examples will help readers to understand how educators can enhance their own understanding about biosecurity issues and how they can then disseminate their knowledge through development of their own customised, relevantly-targeted and stage-tailored education programmes within their own life science communities. By providing these examples, we argue that education for life scientists, policy-makers and other stakeholders about social responsibility on dual-use issues is easily achievable and need not be expensive, time-consuming or over-burdening. We suggest that recurring classes or courses be held at appropriate times during educational programmes to accommodate the developing expertise and advancing learning stages of students.

  13. Implementing Biosecurity Education: Approaches, Resources and Programmes

    PubMed Central

    Minehata, Masamichi; Sture, Judi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Whitby, Simon

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to present possible approaches, resources and programmes to introduce the topic of biosecurity to life scientists and engineers at the higher education level. Firstly, we summarise key findings from a number of international surveys on biosecurity education that have been carried out in the United States, Europe, Israel and the Asia–Pacific region. Secondly, we describe the development of our openly-accessible education resource, illustrating the scope and content of these materials. Thirdly, we report on actual cases of biosecurity education that have been implemented. These include achievements in and lessons derived from the implementation of biosecurity education at the National Defense Medical College in Japan. These experiences are followed by presentation of the expert-level “Train-the-Trainer” programmes subsequently launched by the University of Bradford in the United Kingdom. These examples will help readers to understand how educators can enhance their own understanding about biosecurity issues and how they can then disseminate their knowledge through development of their own customised, relevantly-targeted and stage-tailored education programmes within their own life science communities. By providing these examples, we argue that education for life scientists, policy-makers and other stakeholders about social responsibility on dual-use issues is easily achievable and need not be expensive, time-consuming or over-burdening. We suggest that recurring classes or courses be held at appropriate times during educational programmes to accommodate the developing expertise and advancing learning stages of students. PMID:22038099

  14. A study on toxic and essential elements in rice from the Republic of Kazakhstan: comparing the level of contamination in rice from the European Community.

    PubMed

    Tattibayeva, D; Nebot, C; Miranda, J M; Cepeda, A; Mateyev, E; Erkebaev, M; Franco, C M

    2016-02-01

    Selected toxic elements (total As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Sr, U and V) and essential elements (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) were analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in unpolished and milled rice collected from Kazakhstan and milled rice from Spain and Portugal to evaluate the potential health risk to the population. Arsenic species (arsenite, arsenate, arsenobetaine, dimethylarsinate and monomethilarsonate) were analyzed using HPLC-IC-MS. From 146 samples analyzed, none of them exceeded the maximum limit set by the European Legislation for Cd or Pb or values recommended by the Codex Alimentarius. Concentrations of Sr, U and V were below LOD and those of Hg, Pb, Co and Cr between European Food Safety Authority.

  15. European Union research in support of environment and health: Building scientific evidence base for policy.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Tuomo; Hoeveler, Arnd; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra

    2017-04-03

    Opinion polls show that the European Union citizens are increasingly concerned about the impact of environmental factors on their health. In order to respond and provide solid scientific evidence for the numerous policies related to the protection of human health and the environment managed at the Union level, the European Union made a substantial investment in research and innovation in the past two decades through its Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, including the current programme, Horizon 2020, which started in 2014. This policy review paper analysed the portfolio of forty collaborative projects relevant to environment and health, which received a total amount of around 228 million euros from the EU. It gives details on their contents and general scientific trends observed, the profiles of the participating countries and institutions, and the potential policy implications of the results obtained. The increasing knowledge base is needed to make informed policy decisions in Europe and beyond, and should be useful to many stakeholders including the scientific community and regulatory authorities.

  16. Spain at Europe’s Crossroads: Prospects for Spanish Integration to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the European Economic Community.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    of modern techniques and materials. The most important agricultural products continue to be olives and olive oil , cereals, fruits, vegetables, and...within the Community, but he was also echoing his own farmers, who vehemently oppose the admission of another major producer of wine, 44 _A olive oil , and... olive oil , grapes, wine and canned products are protected. In a free market, the Spanish believe, they can undersell these producers because their

  17. Programmable calculator stress analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gulick, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper assesses the suitability of advanced programmable alphanumeric calculators for closed form calculation of pressure vessel stresses and offers, as their advantages, adequate computing power, portability, special programming features, and simple interactive execution procedures. Representative programs which demonstrate their capacities are presented. Problems dealing with stress and strength calculations in thick-walled pressure vessels and with the computation of stresses near head/pressure vessel junctures are treated. Assessed favorably in this paper as useful contributors to computeraided design of pressure vessels, programmable alphanumeric calculators have areas of implementation in checking finite element results, aiding in the development of an intuitive understanding of stresses and their parameter dependencies, and evaluating rapidly a variety of preliminary designs.

  18. Punch Card Programmable Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word “PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS” using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world. PMID:25738834

  19. Punch card programmable microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word "PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS" using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world.

  20. News Conference: Physics brings the community together Training: CERN trains physics teachers Education: World conference fosters physics collaborations Lecture: Physics education live at ASE Prize: Physics teacher wins first Moore medal Festival: European presidents patronize Science on Stage festival Videoconference: Videoconference brings Durban closer to the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-03-01

    Conference: Physics brings the community together Training: CERN trains physics teachers Education: World conference fosters physics collaborations Lecture: Physics education live at ASE Prize: Physics teacher wins first Moore medal Festival: European presidents patronize Science on Stage festival Videoconference: Videoconference brings Durban closer to the classroom

  1. Programmable matter by folding

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, E.; An, B.; Benbernou, N. M.; Tanaka, H.; Kim, S.; Demaine, E. D.; Rus, D.; Wood, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Programmable matter is a material whose properties can be programmed to achieve specific shapes or stiffnesses upon command. This concept requires constituent elements to interact and rearrange intelligently in order to meet the goal. This paper considers achieving programmable sheets that can form themselves in different shapes autonomously by folding. Past approaches to creating transforming machines have been limited by the small feature sizes, the large number of components, and the associated complexity of communication among the units. We seek to mitigate these difficulties through the unique concept of self-folding origami with universal crease patterns. This approach exploits a single sheet composed of interconnected triangular sections. The sheet is able to fold into a set of predetermined shapes using embedded actuation. To implement this self-folding origami concept, we have developed a scalable end-to-end planning and fabrication process. Given a set of desired objects, the system computes an optimized design for a single sheet and multiple controllers to achieve each of the desired objects. The material, called programmable matter by folding, is an example of a system capable of achieving multiple shapes for multiple functions. PMID:20616049

  2. Programmability in AIPS++

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hjellming, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    AIPS++ is an Astronomical Information Processing System being designed and implemented by an international consortium of NRAO and six other radio astronomy institutions in Australia, India, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the USA. AIPS++ is intended to replace the functionality of AIPS, to be more easily programmable, and will be implemented in C++ using object-oriented techniques. Programmability in AIPS++ is planned at three levels. The first level will be that of a command-line interpreter with characteristics similar to IDL and PV-Wave, but with an intensive set of operations appropriate to telescope data handling, image formation, and image processing. The third level will be in C++ with extensive use of class libraries for both basic operations and advanced applications. The third level will allow input and output of data between external FORTRAN programs and AIPS++ telescope and image databases. In addition to summarizing the above programmability characteristics, this talk will given an overview of the classes currently being designed for telescope data calibration and editing, image formation, and the 'toolkit' of mathematical 'objects' that will perform most of the processing in AIPS++.

  3. Smart programmable wireless microaccelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Subramanian, Hareesh; Varadan, Vasundara V.

    1998-07-01

    The integration of MEMS, SAW devices and required microelectronics and conformal antenna to realize a programmable wireless accelerometer is presented in this paper. This unique combination of technologies results in a novel accelerometer that can be remotely sensed by a microwave system with the advantage of no power requirements at the sensor site. The microaccelerometer presented is simple in construction and easy to manufacture with existing silicon micromachining techniques. Programmable accelerometers can be achieved with splitfinger interdigital transducers (IDTs) as reflecting structures. If IDTs are short circuited or capacitively loaded, the wave propagates without any reflection whereas in an open circuit configuration, the IDTs reflect the incoming SAW signal. The programmable accelerometers can thus be achieved by using an external circuitry on a semiconductor chip using hybrid technology. The relatively small size of the sensor makes it an ideal conformal sensor. The accelerometer finds application as air bag deployment sensors, vibration sensors for noise control, deflection and strain sensors, inertial and dimensional positioning systems, ABS/traction control, smart suspension, active roll stabilization and four wheel steering. The wireless accelerometer is very attractive to study the response of a `dummy' in automobile crash test.

  4. Australian Staphylococcus aureus Sepsis Outcome Programme annual report, 2013.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Geoffrey W; Nimmo, Graeme R; Daly, Denise A; Le, Tam T; Pearson, Julie C; Tan, Hui-Leen; Robinson, James O; Collignon, Peter J; McLaws, Mary-Louise; Turnidge, John D

    2014-12-31

    From 1 January to 31 December 2013, around Australia 26 institutions around Australia participated in the Australian Staphylococcal Sepsis Outcome Programme (ASSOP). The aim of ASSOP 2013 was to determine the proportion of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) isolates in Australia that are antimicrobial resistant, (with particular emphasis on susceptibility to methicillin) and to characterise the molecular epidemiology of the isolates. Overall 19.1% of the 2,010 SAB episodes were methicillin resistant, which is significantly higher than that reported in most European countries. Although the SAB 30-day all cause mortality appears to be decreasing in Australia, methicillin-resistant SAB associated mortality remains high (20.1%) and was significantly higher than methicillin-sensitive SAB associated mortality (13%) (P< 0.0001). With the exception of the ß-lactams and erythromycin, antimicrobial resistance in methicillin sensitive S. aureus remains rare. However, in addition to the ß-lactams, approximately 50% of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were resistant to erythromycin and ciprofloxacin and approximately 20% were resistant to co-trimoxazole, tetracycline and gentamicin. Linezolid, daptomycin and teicoplanin resistance was detected in a small number of S. aureus isolates. Resistance to vancomycin was not detected. Resistance was largely attributable to 2 healthcare associated MRSA clones; ST22-IV [2B] (EMRSA-15) and ST239-III [3A] (Aus-2/3 EMRSA). ST22-IV [2B] (EMRSA-15) has now become the predominant healthcare associated clone in Australia. Approximately 60% of methicillin-resistant SAB were due to community associated clones. Although polyclonal, almost 50% of community associated clones were characterised as ST93-IV [2B] (Queensland CA-MRSA) and ST1-IV [2B] (WA1). CA-MRSA, in particular the ST45-V [5C2&5] (WA84) clone, has acquired multiple antimicrobial resistance determinants including ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin and

  5. A European Perspective on the Promotion of Women's Career Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasonen, Lahja Johanna

    Although commitment to equal opportunities in employment has been a major component of European Community legislation and although increasing numbers of European women are entering professions, women throughout Europe still face many barriers to advancing in their professions. Since the early 1970s, European governments including Finland have…

  6. European Law: Ending Discrimination against Girls in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendel, Margherita

    1992-01-01

    Examines how the European Convention on Human Rights and its case law could combat sexist education and develop concepts of philosophical convictions, the European Community's duty, and children's rights. Considers feminist strategies for improving girls' education, English and European procedural laws, and difficulties of using English law. (RLC)

  7. The Organisation and Management of a European Educational Satellite System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, A. W.

    This paper looks at the possible roles that the European Economic Community (EEC), as a pan-European quasi-governmental institution, might play in the management and organization of a European educational satellite system. The argument is made that there is a need for the EEC Commission to play an ongoing, regulatory role in this area. An…

  8. COBA-Cohort: a prospective cohort of HIV-negative men who have sex with men, attending community-based HIV testing services in five European countries (a study protocol)

    PubMed Central

    Fernàndez-López, Laura; Fuertes, Ricardo; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Pichon, François; Cigan, Bojan; Chanos, Sophocles; Meireles, Paula; Morel, Stéphane; Slaaen Kaye, Per; Agustí, Cristina; Klavs, Irena; Casabona, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Community-based voluntary counselling and testing (CBVCT) services for men who have sex with men (MSM) can reach those most-at-risk and provide an environment for gay men that is likely to be non-stigmatising. Longitudinal data on the behaviour of HIV-negative MSM are scarce in Europe. The aim of this protocol, developed during the Euro HIV Early Diagnosis And Treatment (EDAT) project, is to implement a multicentre community-based cohort of HIV-negative MSM attending 15 CBVCT services in 5 European countries. Research objectives (1) To describe the patterns of CBVCT use, (2) to estimate HIV incidence, and to identify determinants of (3) HIV seroconversion and (4) HIV and/or sexually transmitted infection (STI) test-seeking behaviour. Methods and analysis All MSM aged 18 years or over and who had a negative HIV test result are invited to participate in the COmmunity-BAsed Cohort (COBA-Cohort). Study enrolment started in February 2015, and is due to continue for at least 12 months at each study site. Follow-up frequency depends on the testing recommendations in each country (at least 1 test per year). Sociodemographic data are collected at baseline; baseline and follow-up questionnaires both gather data on attitudes and perceptions, discrimination, HIV/STI testing history, sexual behaviour, condom use, and pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis. Descriptive, exploratory and multivariate analyses will be performed to address the main research objectives of this study, using appropriate statistical tests and models. These analyses will be performed on the whole cohort data and stratified by study site or country. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Public Health authorities of each country where the study is being implemented. Findings from the COBA-Cohort study will be summarised in a report to the European Commission, and in leaflets to be distributed to study participants. Articles and conference abstracts will be submitted to peer

  9. Securitizing the Arctic indigenous peoples: A community security perspective with special reference to the Sámi of the European high north

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Kamrul

    2016-09-01

    The theory of securitization-the so-called Copenhagen school-centers the concept of security on various identified threats. Security based on the collective identity by which a society preserves its essential characteristics has been defined as community security, or societal security. The underlying principle of the Copenhagen school is that state-based, sovereignty-oriented security is ineffective unless the other components of security threats are addressed. The concept of human security, developed nearly simultaneously to that of securitization, identifies threat components at the sub-state level which are not traditionally understood as security concerns. Both schools of security thought are similar as they offer nontraditional approaches to understanding the concept of security. In this article, I explore securitization theory and the concept of human security to elaborate community perspectives in the understanding of security. In a case study, I investigate the security concerns of the indigenous peoples of the Arctic. The transformation of the Arctic by climate change and its impacts has resulted in new challenges and opportunities, so I explore how indigenous peoples in general and the Sámi in particular understand security which promotes their societal security. Although I show that this group of people deserves recognition and the ability to exercise greater authority, I conclude that diverse concepts of security do not by any means undermine the core traditional concept of security. These aspects of security remain subject to scrutiny by states and exist in a vertical structure. The Sámi, therefore, rely on affirmative actions by states to enjoy greater rights to maintain their community security.

  10. Outstanding challenges in the seismological study of volcanic processes: Results from recent U.S. and European community-wide discussion workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, D. C.; Rodgers, M.; Mather, T. A.; Power, J. A.; Pyle, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Observations of volcanically induced seismicity are essential for eruption forecasting and for real-time and near-real-time warnings of hazardous volcanic activity. Studies of volcanic seismicity and of seismic wave propagation also provide critical understanding of subsurface magmatic systems and the physical processes associated with magma genesis, transport, and eruption. However, desipite significant advances in recent years, our ability to successfully forecast volcanic eruptions and fully understand subsurface volcanic processes is limited by our current understanding of the source processes of volcano-seismic events, the effects on seismic wave propagation within volcanic structures, limited data, and even the non-standardized terminology used to describe seismic waveforms. Progress in volcano seismology is further hampered by inconsistent data formats and standards, lack of state-of-the-art hardware and professional technical staff, as well as a lack of widely adopted analysis techniques and software. Addressing these challenges will not only advance scientific understanding of volcanoes, but also will lead to more accurate forecasts and warnings of hazardous volcanic eruptions that would ultimately save lives and property world-wide. Two recent workshops held in Anchorage, Alaska, and Oxford, UK, represent important steps towards developing a relationship among members of the academic community and government agencies, focused around a shared, long-term vision for volcano seismology. Recommendations arising from the two workshops fall into six categories: 1) Ongoing and enhanced community-wide discussions, 2) data and code curation and dissemination, 3) code development, 4) development of resources for more comprehensive data mining, 5) enhanced strategic seismic data collection, and 6) enhanced integration of multiple datasets (including seismicity) to understand all states of volcano activity through space and time. As presented sequentially above, these

  11. GAP Flow Measurements During the Mesoscale Alpine Programme

    SciTech Connect

    Mayr, G.; Armi, L.; Arnold, S.; Banta, Robert M.; Darby, Lisa S.; Durran, D. D.; Flamant, C.; Gabersek, S.; Gohm, A.; Mayr, R.; Mobbs, S.; Nance, L. B.; Vergeiner, I.; Vergeiner, J.; Whiteman, Charles D.

    2004-04-30

    This article provides an overview of the Gap Flow sub-program of the Mesoscale Alpine Programme, a major international meteorological field experiment conducted in the European Alps. The article describes the initial results of an investigation of the wind flow through the Brenner Pass gap in the east-west oriented central section of the European Alps under conditions of south foehn. The overview describes the objectives of the experiments, the instrumentation used for the field investigation, and the mesoscale model simulations. Initial findings of the scientific program are provided.

  12. 12th European VLBI Network Symposium and Users Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarchi, Andrea; Giroletti, Marcello; Feretti, Luigina

    The Istituto di Radioastronomia (IRA) di Bologna and the Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari (OAC), on behalf of the European VLBI Consortium, hosted the 12th European VLBI Network (EVN) Symposium and Users Meeting. The Conference was held from 7th to 10th of October at the Hotel Regina Margherita, in the center of Cagliari. The latest scientific results and technical developments from VLBI, and, in particular, e-VLBI and space-VLBI (RadioAstron) outcomes were reported. The timing of this meeting coincided with the first successful observational tests of the Sardinia Radio Telescopes within the EVN, and with a number of results from new and upgraded radio facilities around the globe, such as e-MERLIN, ALMA, and the SKA pathfinders. The symposium was attended by 133 participants from all over the world, with the Asian community represented by more than 20 colleagues. The program of the meeting consisted of 70 oral contributions (including 8 invited speakers) and 50 poster that covered a very wide range of VLBI topics both in galactic and extragalactic astrophysics (e.g., AGN, stellar evolution from birth to death, astrometry, and planetary science) as well as technological developments and future international collaborations. The scientific program also included a visit to the 64-m Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) and the EVN Users Meeting, where astronomers have provided useful feedback on various matters regarding EVN operations. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013) under grant agreement No 283393 (RadioNet3). EDITORIAL BOARD: Andrea Tarchi, Marcello Giroletti, Luigina Feretti

  13. A programmable Fortran preprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Rosing, M.

    1995-06-01

    A programmable Fortran preprocessor is described. It allows users to define compile time operations that can examine and modify the source tree before it is compiled with a traditional compiler. This intermediate step allows the definition of routines and operations that adapt to the context in which they are used. Context sensitive operations increase the flexibility of abstractions that can be built without degrading efficiency, as compared to using traditional run time based abstractions such as libraries or objects. The preprocessor is described briefly along with an example of how it is used to add CMFortran array operations to Fortran77. Other preprocessors that have been implemented are also briefly described.

  14. Flexible programmable logic module

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  15. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1999-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter the focus is on some experimental data on low voltage drop out regulators to support mixed 5 and 3.3 volt systems. A discussion of the Small Explorer WIRE spacecraft will also be given. Lastly, we show take a first look at robust state machines in Hardware Description Languages (VHDL) and their use in critical systems. If you have information that you would like to submit or an area you would like discussed or researched, please give me a call or e-mail.

  16. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  17. Selection in backcross programmes

    PubMed Central

    Hospital, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    Backcrossing is a well-known and long established breeding scheme where a characteristic is introgressed from a donor parent into the genomic background of a recurrent parent. The various uses of backcrossing in modern genetics, particularly with the help of molecular markers, are reviewed here. Selection in backcross programmes is used to either improve the genetic value of plant and animal populations or fine map quantitative trait loci. Both cases are helpful in our understanding of the genetic bases of quantitative traits variation. PMID:16048792

  18. Perspectives in marine science: A European point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, K.-G.

    1995-03-01

    Marine research has always been a field in science which was particularly open to, and at times dependent on, international cooperation, and this has become even more obvious during the last decade when issues of global change became central to any discussion. The global nature of scientific and other problems, required the development of new concepts and led to the establishment of new structures in research, coordination and funding on an international level. In Europe the 12 member European Community often served as a nucleus for larger networks and initiatives (e.g. COST, EUREKA), and in 1989 the EC itself launched a specific programme on marine research and technology (MAST). The various initiatives are not meant to replace, national efforts but to complement them — where added value arises from international cooperation, e.g. in global programmes like IGBP, WCRP and their various core projects. The focus of support for these programmes through international funding agencies and networks is not primarily on additional research money but more on structural support and coordination. In contrast, the MAST targeted projects on the North Atlantic margin and the Mediterranean also receive substantial basic support, and are designed to fill gaps left by other international research projects. Both EC and other projects profit from the coordinating measures offered by the EC Commission. A more efficient use of facilities (research vessels, special equipment) can be achieved by having central information services. Well-integrated international projects also require additional efforts in standardization of instrumentation, methods and units, with respect to sampling, sample processing and data treatment. Furthermore, the scope of the task to tackle questions of global change demands the development of new technologies like ROVs, biosensors, automatized sample and data acquisition and treatment, etc. Full exploitation of the results in scientific, political and

  19. Comparative in vitro activity of oral antimicrobial agents against Enterobacteriaceae from patients with community-acquired urinary tract infections in three European countries.

    PubMed

    Kresken, M; Körber-Irrgang, B; Biedenbach, D J; Batista, N; Besard, V; Cantón, R; García-Castillo, M; Kalka-Moll, W; Pascual, A; Schwarz, R; Van Meensel, B; Wisplinghoff, H; Seifert, H

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacteriaceae causing community-acquired urinary tract infections were examined in selected outpatient clinics and hospitals in Belgium, Germany and Spain using EUCAST breakpoints for susceptibility. A total of 1190 isolates were collected. Escherichia coli isolates were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (28.1%), ciprofloxacin (23.4%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (21.4%) compared with fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin (each, <1.5%). Ceftibuten (MIC50/90 0.25/0.5 mg/L) and ceftriaxone activity (MIC50/90 ≤0.25 mg/L) was comparable. Ceftibuten (MIC90 ≤0.25 mg/L) was also active against Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella spp. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase phenotypes were 7.1% for E. coli, 5.6% for Klebsiella pneumoniae and 0.4% for P. mirabilis. Resistance was common among men and elderly women.

  20. Discovery of Western European R1b1a2 Y chromosome variants in 1000 genomes project data: an online community approach.

    PubMed

    Rocca, Richard A; Magoon, Gregory; Reynolds, David F; Krahn, Thomas; Tilroe, Vincent O; Op den Velde Boots, Peter M; Grierson, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    The authors have used an online community approach, and tools that were readily available via the Internet, to discover genealogically and therefore phylogenetically relevant Y-chromosome polymorphisms within core haplogroup R1b1a2-L11/S127 (rs9786076). Presented here is the analysis of 135 unrelated L11 derived samples from the 1000 Genomes Project. We were able to discover new variants and build a much more complex phylogenetic relationship for L11 sub-clades. Many of the variants were further validated using PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing. The identification of these new variants will help further the understanding of population history including patrilineal migrations in Western and Central Europe where R1b1a2 is the most frequent haplogroup. The fine-grained phylogenetic tree we present here will also help to refine historical genetic dating studies. Our findings demonstrate the power of citizen science for analysis of whole genome sequence data.

  1. Creating capacity through partnership: a palliative care skills development programme.

    PubMed

    Kelsall, Kay; Brennan, Ebony; Cole, Teresa

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the development and implementation of a recurrently funded, rolling, 6-month palliative care secondment programme for NHS community staff nurses based in a rural health economy in Southwest England. The programme is a key tool in a wider development plan for improving access to, and the quality of, palliative and end-of-life care for a dispersed rural population. This is part of a much bigger programme of integration to meet the shared challenges of service capacity, equity, and sustainability that are presented by the geographical and demographical profile of the locality. The 'bigger picture' is defined and set in the context of the national drive and evidence base for integration in order to explain the reasons behind the secondment programme. This is followed by outlining the iterative process of design and implementation--the 'what?' and 'how?'--and key learning points to date are shared.

  2. Population genetic screening programmes: principles, techniques, practices, and policies.

    PubMed

    Godard, Béatrice; ten Kate, Leo; Evers-Kiebooms, Gerry; Aymé, Ségolène

    2003-12-01

    This paper examines the professional and scientific views on the principles, techniques, practices, and policies that impact on the population genetic screening programmes in Europe. This paper focuses on the issues surrounding potential screening programmes, which require further discussion before their introduction. It aims to increase, among the health-care professions and health policy-makers, awareness of the potential screening programmes as an issue of increasing concern to public health. The methods comprised primarily the review of the existing professional guidelines, regulatory frameworks and other documents related to population genetic screening programmes in Europe. Then, the questions that need debate, in regard to different types of genetic screening before and after birth, were examined. Screening for conditions such as cystic fibrosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, familial hypercholesterolemia, fragile X syndrome, hemochromatosis, and cancer susceptibility was discussed. Special issues related to genetic screening were also examined, such as informed consent, family aspects, commercialization, the players on the scene and monitoring genetic screening programmes. Afterwards, these questions were debated by 51 experts from 15 European countries during an international workshop organized by the European Society of Human Genetics Public and Professional Policy Committee in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 19-20, November, 1999. Arguments for and against starting screening programmes have been put forward. It has been questioned whether genetic screening differs from other types of screening and testing in terms of ethical issues. The general impression on the future of genetic screening is that one wants to 'proceed with caution', with more active impetus from the side of patients' organizations and more reluctance from the policy-makers. The latter try to obviate the potential problems about the abortion and eugenics issues that might be perceived as a

  3. Programmable digital modem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poklemba, John J.

    1991-11-01

    The design of the Programmable Digital Modem (PDM) is outlined. The PDM will be capable of operating with numerous modulation techniques including: 2-, 4-, 8- and 16-ary phase shift keying (PSK), minimum shift keying (MSK), and 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), with spectral occupancy from 1.2x to 2x the data symbol rate. It will also be programmable for transmission rates ranging from 2.34 to 300 Mbit/s, where the maximum symbol rate is 75 Msymbol/s. Furthermore, these parameters will be executable in independent burst, dependent burst, or continuous mode. In dependent burst mode the carrier and clock oscillator sources are common from burst to burst. To achieve as broad a set of requirements as these, it is clear that the essential signal processing must be digital. In addition, to avoid hardware changes when the operational parameters are changed, a fixed interface to an analog intermediate frequency (IF) is necessary for transmission; and, common system level architectures are necessary for the modulator and demodulator. Lastly, to minimize size and power, as much of the design as possible will be implemented with application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips.

  4. Programmable digital modem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poklemba, John J.

    1991-01-01

    The design of the Programmable Digital Modem (PDM) is outlined. The PDM will be capable of operating with numerous modulation techniques including: 2-, 4-, 8- and 16-ary phase shift keying (PSK), minimum shift keying (MSK), and 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), with spectral occupancy from 1.2x to 2x the data symbol rate. It will also be programmable for transmission rates ranging from 2.34 to 300 Mbit/s, where the maximum symbol rate is 75 Msymbol/s. Furthermore, these parameters will be executable in independent burst, dependent burst, or continuous mode. In dependent burst mode the carrier and clock oscillator sources are common from burst to burst. To achieve as broad a set of requirements as these, it is clear that the essential signal processing must be digital. In addition, to avoid hardware changes when the operational parameters are changed, a fixed interface to an analog intermediate frequency (IF) is necessary for transmission; and, common system level architectures are necessary for the modulator and demodulator. Lastly, to minimize size and power, as much of the design as possible will be implemented with application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips.

  5. Nano-education from a European perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malsch, I.

    2008-03-01

    At a global level, educating the nanotechnology workforce has been discussed since the beginning of the new millennium. Scientists, engineers and technicians should be trained in nanotechnology. Most educators prefer training students first in their own discipline at the Bachelor level (physics, chemistry, biology, etc) followed by specialisation in nanoscience and technology at the Master's level. Some favour a broad interdisciplinary basic training in different nanosciences followed by specialisation in a particular application area. What constitutes a good nanoscience curriculum is also being discussed, as well as the application of e-learning methodologies. The European Union is stimulating the development of nanoscience education in universities. The Erasmus Mundus programme is funding nanoscience and nanotechnology education programmes involving universities in several European countries. The policy debate in Europe is moving towards vocational training in nanotechnology for educating the technicians needed in industry and research. The EU vocational training institute CEDEFOP published a report in 2005 The EU funded European gateway to nanotechnology Nanoforum has stimulated the accessibility of nano-education throughout Europe with reports and online databases of education courses and materials. For university education, they list courses at the Bachelor, Master's, and PhD level as well as short courses. The EU funded EuroIndiaNet project also reviewed Nano-education courses at the Master's level, short courses, e-learning programmes, summerschools and vocational training courses. In this presentation, I review Nanoforum and other publications on nano-education in Europe and highlight current trends and gaps.

  6. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve.

  7. Programmable pH buffers

    DOEpatents

    Gough, Dara Van; Huber, Dale L.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Roberts, Mark E.

    2017-01-24

    A programmable pH buffer comprises a copolymer that changes pK.sub.a at a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) in water. The copolymer comprises a thermally programmable polymer that undergoes a hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic phase change at the LCST and an electrolytic polymer that exhibits acid-base properties that are responsive to the phase change. The programmable pH buffer can be used to sequester CO.sub.2 into water.

  8. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, Antonio J.; Butler, Michael A.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Senturia, Stephen D.

    1998-01-01

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers).

  9. Era-Planet the European Network for Observing Our Changing Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirrone, N.; Cinnirella, S.; Nativi, S.; Sprovieri, F.; Hedgecock, I. M.

    2016-06-01

    In the last decade a significant number of projects and programmes in different domains of Earth Observation and environmental monitoring have generated a substantial amount of data and knowledge on different aspects related to environmental quality and sustainability. Big data generated by in-situ or satellite platforms are being collected and archived with a plethora of systems and instruments making difficult the sharing of data and transfer of knowledge to stakeholders and policy makers to support key economic and societal sectors. The overarching goal of ERAPLANET is to strengthen the European Research Area in the domain of Earth Observation in coherence with the European participation in the Group on Earth Observation (GEO) and Copernicus. The expected impact is to strengthen European leadership within the forthcoming GEO 2015-2025 Work Plan. ERA-PLANET is designed to reinforce the interface with user communities, whose needs the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) intends to address. It will provide more accurate, comprehensive and authoritative information to policy and decision-makers in key societal benefit areas, such as Smart Cities and Resilient Societies; Resource efficiency and Environmental management; Global changes and Environmental treaties; Polar areas and Natural resources. ERA-PLANET will provide advanced decision-support tools and technologies aimed to better monitor our global environment and share the information and knowledge available in the different domains of Earth Observation.

  10. Access point analysis: what do adolescents in South Africa say about tobacco control programmes?

    PubMed

    Swart, Dehran; Panday, Saadhna; Reddy, S Priscilla; Bergström, Erik; de Vries, Hein

    2006-06-01

    This paper explores adolescent preferences for the setting, timing, delivery format, provider and key elements of tobacco control programmes. The need for programme sensitivity towards urban/rural, gender and ethnic subgroups is also discussed. Schools were purposively selected from the Southern Cape-Karoo Region, South Africa. Twelve prevention and nine cessation focus group discussions were conducted with Grade 6-8 students and Grade 8-9 smokers and ex-smokers, respectively. Adolescents reported similar preferences for prevention and cessation programmes. Although they were unaware of smoking prevention or cessation programmes, they reported a willingness to participate in such programmes. Programmes should include school-based activities that are supported by out-of-school activities held over weekends and holidays. Non-judgemental and empathetic teachers and peers, as well as ex-smokers were preferred as programme providers. School-based participatory delivery formats should be supported by community-based mass media approaches. Programmes can be jointly presented to boys and girls of diverse ethnic backgrounds with some gender-sensitive sessions. Programme participation and sustainability would be enhanced if it were exciting, fun filled and integrated into their daily lives. School-based programmes must be embedded within comprehensive approaches that involve community- and policy-level interventions.

  11. Evaluating the Impact of an Environmental Education Programme: An Empirical Study in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Mallen, Isabel; Barraza, Laura; Bodenhorn, Barbara; Reyes-Garcia, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    This study draws on information from 11 in-depth interviews, two focus groups and 72 written questionnaires to evaluate an extra-curricular environmental education programme on forestry designed for preparatory school students from a small rural community in Mexico. Specifically, the study assessed the impact of the programme on the ecological…

  12. A Distributed Model for Managing Academic Staff in an International Online Academic Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, Yoram M.; Leng, Paul H.

    2007-01-01

    Online delivery of programmes of Higher Education typically involves a distributed community of students interacting with a single university site, at which the teachers, learning resources and administration of the programme are located. The alternative model, of a fully "Virtual University", which assumes no physical campus, poses…

  13. Brief Report: An Evaluation of an Australian Autism-Specific, Early Intervention Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paynter, Jessica M.; Riley, Emma P.; Beamish, Wendi; Scott, James G.; Heussler, Helen S.

    2015-01-01

    There is a relative paucity of evidence examining the effectiveness of early intervention for young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, in particular those delivered through educationally-based programmes. This study aimed to evaluate the real world effectiveness of a community-based autism-specific early learning and intervention programme in…

  14. One of many lessons from the European Mental Health Integration Index.

    PubMed

    Murawiec, Sławomir; Krysta, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    The Mental Health Integration Index developed by the Economist Intelligence Unit describes and explores the challenges of European countries of integrating people with mental illness into society and employment, within the European Union's 28 Member States, plus Norway and Switzerland. Countries have been ranked according to estimation based on indicators of their degree of commitment to support those living with mental illness into society and employment. The Index is based on a list of indicators including the environment for those with mental illness, their access to medical help and services, their opportunities--specifically job-related--and the governance of the system, including human rights issues and efforts to combat stigma. The indicators were developed in consultation with a panel of independent experts on mental health. Key findings of the research are that Germany's strong healthcare system and generous social provision put it at the top of the Index, with the UK and Scandinavian states not far behind. However, examples of best practice "islands of excellence" in integration are not limited to the leading countries and exists in all European Countries. The Index reveals also the discrepancy between perfect legislation and poor implementation of it in practice in many European countries. It proposes that the investment figure is a proxy for seriousness in establishing good policy and practice. According to the Index some reform plans including entire national mental health programmes are largely aspirational and are grossly under-funded. Moreover various levels of government responsible for the implementation of its component parts are largely ignoring its implementation. When we consider the legislation as an promise to professionals and people with mental health problems, this promise is largely unfulfilled. The is a need for strong leadership in mental health changes process, policy capacity and real financial investments in the way of The European

  15. Handbook to the Conservation Section of the International Biological Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, E. M.

    Dealing with the organization and activities of one section of the International Biological Programme (IBP), the Conservation Section (CT - Conservation of Terrestrial Communities), this handbook provides an overview of one scientific effort within the worldwide conservation movement. Requirements for a World Conservation Program are described to…

  16. Living Smart Homes: A Pilot Australian Sustainability Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie; Bell, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    This article documents the rationale and experience of a pilot Australian sustainability education programme, "Living Smart Homes" (LSH) based on a community-based social marketing model. Inspired by the Australian "Land for Wildlife" scheme, LSH is designed to engage homeowners with sustainable practices through face-to-face…

  17. Child health and education in Kenyan schools programmes.

    PubMed

    Fleming, J

    1991-03-01

    Jane Fleming describes the health education in schools programme launched by the Aga Khan Health Services in Kisumu, Kenya. The project has brought major improvements in child health and mortality rates as well as better health awareness to the community as a whole.

  18. Alternative Education Programmes and Middle School Dropout in Honduras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jeffery H.; Aguilar, Claudia R.; Alas, Mario; Castellanos, Renán Rápalo; Castro, Levi; Enamorado, Ramón; Fonseca, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Honduras has made steady progress in expanding post-primary school coverage in recent years, but many rural communities still do not provide a middle (lower secondary) school. As a result, Honduras has implemented a number of middle school alternative programmes designed to meet the needs of at-risk populations throughout the country. This article…

  19. Bringing the Outside World into an Intensive English Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillyard, Lindsey; Reppen, Randi; Vasquez, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the efforts of an intensive English programme to design a class that addressed the challenges of bringing authentic English into the curriculum. This class exposed students to a variety of authentic English language input, while providing support. Through this class, students volunteered with various community organizations.…

  20. Commentary on the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froese-Germain, Bernie

    2013-01-01

    Every three years the focus of the international education community shifts to the release of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) study conducted by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). No other international study of education commands as much attention as PISA. In an age of intense global…