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Sample records for european constitutional state

  1. State Constitutional Law: Teaching and Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    State constitutional law is an emerging area for legal education, partly because of state supreme court decisions relying on state rather than federal constitutional law. Studying state constitutional law highlights similarities and diversity of legal and governmental systems. Interest in establishment of curricula and materials in state law is…

  2. School Choice and State Constitutions' Religion Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komer, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    After the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in "Zelman v. Simmons-Harris," only state religion clauses represent a potential constitutional bar to the inclusion of religious options in properly designed school choice programs. The two most significant are compelled support clauses and Blaine Amendments. Both are frequently misinterpreted by state…

  3. State Constitutionalism: Completing the Interdisciplinary Study of Constitutional Law and Political Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that a complete and accurate understanding of constitutional history and constitutional law requires the study of state constitutions. Maintains that state constitutions contain a coherent political theory that is, in important respects, at variance with the concept of federalism. (CFR)

  4. The United States and the Indian Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Jonathan S.

    India, a huge land with the second largest population in the world, socially and economically poor, and culturally and linguistically diverse, became the largest democracy in the world on November 26, 1949 with the adoption of the Indian Constitution. The goals of that constitution are: (1) the achievement of national unity and stability; (2) the…

  5. Education in the "European Constitution" Compared to Other International Documents: Progression or Retrogression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Javier M.

    2006-01-01

    This article will deal with an analysis of how education appears in the future "European Constitution" that will be the reference point for European Union actions on education issues in coming years, even though it has been questioned by the negative results of the "referendums" in France and Holland. Subsequently, there will…

  6. The Separation of Church and State. Exploring the Constitution Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhirter, Darien A.

    This textbook on the separation of church and state continues the "Exploring the Constitution Series," which introduces important areas of constitutional law. Intended to serve either as a reference work, a supplement to a standard textbook, or as the textbook for a course, this volume covers the constitutional issues of prayer in public…

  7. The Separation of Church and State. Exploring the Constitution Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhirter, Darien A.

    This textbook on the separation of church and state continues the "Exploring the Constitution Series," which introduces important areas of constitutional law. Intended to serve either as a reference work, a supplement to a standard textbook, or as the textbook for a course, this volume covers the constitutional issues of prayer in public…

  8. France Says "Non": Elites, Masses and the Defeat of the European Constitutional Treaty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nossiter, Jason

    2008-01-01

    On Sunday, May 29, 2005, the French Republic endured one of the greatest political shocks in its recent history. By a wide margin, the TCE (Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe) was defeated in a referendum, effectively paralyzing the process of European political integration while simultaneously crippling both the ruling Union Pour le…

  9. Political legitimacy and European monetary union: contracts, constitutionalism and the normative logic of two-level games

    PubMed Central

    Bellamy, Richard; Weale, Albert

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The crisis of the euro area has severely tested the political authority of the European Union (EU). The crisis raises questions of normative legitimacy both because the EU is a normative order and because the construction of economic and monetary union (EMU) rested upon a theory that stressed the normative value of the depoliticization of money. However, this theory neglected the normative logic of the two-level game implicit in EMU. It also neglected the need for an impartial and publically acceptable constitutional order to acknowledge reasonable disagreements. By contrast, we contend that any reconstruction of the EU's economic constitution has to pay attention to reconciling a European monetary order with the legitimacy of member state governance. The EU requires a two-level contract to meet this standard. Member states must treat each other as equals and be representative of and accountable to their citizens on an equitable basis. These criteria entail that the EU's political legitimacy requires a form of demoicracy that we call ‘republican intergovernmentalism’. Only rules that could be acceptable as the product of a political constitution among the peoples of Europe can ultimately meet the required standards of political legitimacy. Such a political constitution could be brought about through empowering national parliaments in EU decision-making. PMID:26924935

  10. Political legitimacy and European monetary union: contracts, constitutionalism and the normative logic of two-level games.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, Richard; Weale, Albert

    2015-02-07

    The crisis of the euro area has severely tested the political authority of the European Union (EU). The crisis raises questions of normative legitimacy both because the EU is a normative order and because the construction of economic and monetary union (EMU) rested upon a theory that stressed the normative value of the depoliticization of money. However, this theory neglected the normative logic of the two-level game implicit in EMU. It also neglected the need for an impartial and publically acceptable constitutional order to acknowledge reasonable disagreements. By contrast, we contend that any reconstruction of the EU's economic constitution has to pay attention to reconciling a European monetary order with the legitimacy of member state governance. The EU requires a two-level contract to meet this standard. Member states must treat each other as equals and be representative of and accountable to their citizens on an equitable basis. These criteria entail that the EU's political legitimacy requires a form of demoicracy that we call 'republican intergovernmentalism'. Only rules that could be acceptable as the product of a political constitution among the peoples of Europe can ultimately meet the required standards of political legitimacy. Such a political constitution could be brought about through empowering national parliaments in EU decision-making.

  11. Constitutional Obligations for Public Education: 50-State Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Within the constitution of each of the 50 states, there is language that mandates the creation of a public education system. The authority for public education falls to states because of a 1973 Supreme Court case which determined that the federal government has no responsibility to provide systems of public education. These constitutional…

  12. Fundamental Laws of the State: The Spanish Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Informacion y Turismo, Madrid (Spain).

    This political document is introduced by the head of the Spanish State, His Excellency Don Francisco Franco Bahamonde in a speech given on 22 November 1966 to the session of the Spanish Cores. The speech outlines in general terms the political and philosophical ideals of His Excellency. The Constitution is presented in several sections including:…

  13. Fundamental Laws of the State: The Spanish Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Informacion y Turismo, Madrid (Spain).

    This political document is introduced by the head of the Spanish State, His Excellency Don Francisco Franco Bahamonde in a speech given on 22 November 1966 to the session of the Spanish Cores. The speech outlines in general terms the political and philosophical ideals of His Excellency. The Constitution is presented in several sections including:…

  14. Network of European regions using space technologies an update on the NEREUS constitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, Marianna; Campostrini, Pierpaolo

    2010-01-01

    The EU and ESA space research and development programmes give a consolidated model for international cooperation. They represent a good framework to develop and enhance different initiatives at global, regional and local level. The impact of space activities covers different areas of interest such as: the development of Earth observation applications for environment monitoring and risk prevention and management, the development of satellite communications and information systems, the exploitation of global satellite positioning and navigation systems, the knowledge of the Universe, the utilisation of ground segment engineering. These activities involve also the regional and local governments. This is particularly evident if we look at the competences of the European regional governments. Several European regions deal with a number of issues in areas linked to space activities. In line with these reflections a number of European regional governments supported by the Committee of the Regions launched the idea to create a Network of European Regions Using Space technologies—NEREUS. This Network is an International non-profit association (AISBL— Association International Sans But Lucratif) under Belgian law. The aim of this paper is to review the course of the initiative since its launch in April 2006, giving an update of the work done for its constitution.

  15. The American Solution: Origins of the United States Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutland, Robert A.

    Tracing the history of events that led to the U.S. Constitutional Convention (1787) and to the eventual ratification of the U.S. Constitution, this book presents numerous reproductions of leaders' portraits, documents, and paintings from the U.S. Library of Congress and other collections. Chapter 1, "Was the Revolution a Blessing or a…

  16. Curriculum Materials for the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, William J.

    1987-01-01

    Emphasizing the educational importance of the bicentennial celebration of the signing of the U.S. Constitution, Miller reviews various curriculum materials related to the topic. Recommends works for all grade levels, citing, among others, LESSONS ON THE CONSTITUTION, LAW AND THE BICENTENNIAL, and computer software entitled THE UNITED STATES…

  17. Constitutional limits to the financing of health care in the Czech Republic and in selected European countries.

    PubMed

    Prudil, Lukás

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the constitutional limits to the financing of health care and especially of public health insurance in the Czech Republic. It describes the current situation in the financing of health care on the basis of the Czech constitutional order as it has been interpreted by the Constitutional Court. Finally it presents an overview of the incorporation of the right to health into the constitutional documents of several European countries with the stress on the right to receive health care "free of charge". It is not typical within the European region to specify in constitutional acts to what extent it is giving the right to health care free-of-charge or more precisely to what extent and for what groups health care is paid for by persons other than by the citizens (patients). The Czech Republic is one of the exceptional cases in which the basic right to health care free-of-charge on the basis of public insurance is given directly by the Constitution.

  18. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Neugebauer, Randy [R-TX-19

    2010-05-26

    House - 07/26/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. The Constitutionality of Education Vouchers under State and Federal Law. House Research Information Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Lisa

    Many states are looking at education vouchers and asking whether a market solution can improve the quality of public education. The answer partially depends on how government and religion will interact and whether states' constitutions or the religion clauses in the United States Constitution will permit voucher plans to include religious schools.…

  20. Restrictions on Medicaid abortions open to challenge on state constitutional grounds.

    PubMed

    Klassel, D

    1980-12-01

    The United States Court (June 30, 1980) held in Harris v. McRae and Williams V. Zbaraz that the federal government and the states may refuse to pay for most abortions needed by Medicaid-eligible women without violating the Constitution. These decisions brought to an end litigation to establish a federal constitutional right to public aid for poor women in deciding whether to continue or terminate a pregnancy. Decisions of a state's highest court resting solely on state law grounds are usually not reviewed by the U.S. Supreme Court, leaving each state free to curve out unique areas of rights and liberties for its population. Attention is directed here to the manner in which state courts may do so in the area of public funding for abortion with focus on the following: abortion and abortion funding under the federal constitution; challenging abortion restrictions on state constitutional grounds; establishing a state constitutional right to abortion; establishing denial of the right to abortion; justifying the interference; discrimination on the basis of wealth; and sex discrimination. The challenging of abortion funding restrictions on state constitutional grounds is a promising legal strategy for advocates of abortion rights. It has increased the chances for success in states that show a willingness to expand on federal constitutional law precedents: states that recognize principles of neutrality in granting government benefits or that provide special constitutional protection to the poor and to women.

  1. Funding Florida's Schools: Adequacy, Costs, and the State Constitution. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Douglas N.

    2004-01-01

    In 1998, Florida voters passed a unique amendment to the state constitution requiring the state to make "adequate provision...for a uniform, efficient, safe, secure, and high quality system of free public schools." This brief examines how Florida courts are likely to interpret this constitutional amendment and whether Florida's funding system will…

  2. Students' Constitutional Right to a Sound Basic Education: New York State's Unfinished Agenda. Part 1. A Roadmap to Constitutional Compliance Ten Years after "CFE v. State"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebell, Michael A.; Wolff, Jessica R.

    2016-01-01

    Ten years have passed since New York's highest court ruled in the landmark school-funding and educational-rights case, "Campaign for Fiscal Equity (CFE) v. State of New York," that the state was violating students' constitutional right to the "opportunity for a sound basic education" and ordered significant reforms of the…

  3. The Justiciability Doctrine and Selected State Education Finance Constitutional Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, R. Craig; Lange, George

    2006-01-01

    Public education funding in the past 40 years has increased significantly, with parties turning to the judiciary in order to address perceived educational opportunity inequities arising from state education finance distribution formulas. As the 21st century opens, the question of public education finance is set squarely before the courts. This…

  4. Constituting Market Citizenship: Regulatory State, Market Making and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayasuriya, Kanishka

    2015-01-01

    The paper makes three claims: first that regulatory state making and market making in higher education is intertwined through a project of market citizenship that shapes the "publicness" of higher education. Second, we argue that these projects of market citizenship are variegated and in Australia has taken the form of accommodation--via…

  5. Georgia and the United States Constitution 1787-1789.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, J. David

    This pamphlet on revolutionary Georgia is one of a series designed for use in the state's public schools. The objective is to present a clear, concise picture of Georgia's history during the American Revolution. The first and major part of the text presents an historical summary. It describes how Georgia was an early and strong supporter of the…

  6. Constituting Market Citizenship: Regulatory State, Market Making and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayasuriya, Kanishka

    2015-01-01

    The paper makes three claims: first that regulatory state making and market making in higher education is intertwined through a project of market citizenship that shapes the "publicness" of higher education. Second, we argue that these projects of market citizenship are variegated and in Australia has taken the form of accommodation--via…

  7. Harmonizing the Chemical Weapons Convention with the United States Constitution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    INSPECTIONS OF PRIVATE SCHEDULE I AND 2 FACILITIES ........ 19 5.1 DESCRIPTION OF ROUTINE INSPECTIONS ........................ 19 5.1.1 Pre -Inspection...34 6.1.4 Pre -inspection Briefing and Inspection Plan ...................... 36 6.1.5 Conduct of Inspections...Knudsen Saudi Arabia Consortium, 576 F. Supp. 516 (D. Md. 1983) (American employers under contract with the United States Army Corps of Engineers to

  8. Non-Religion-Based State Constitutional Challenges to Educational Voucher and Tax Credit Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Preston C., III

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of non-religion-based state constitutional challenges to educational voucher and tax credit/scholarship programs. The first section discusses litigation examining whether education voucher programs violate constitutional provisions requiring the legislature to provide an efficient system of public schools. The…

  9. A More Perfect Union: The Creation of the United States Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruns, Roger

    The history of the United States Constitution is outlined in this account of the 1787 Constitutional Convention. The document is grouped according to 12 topical headings, which follow a brief account of the participation of George Washington and James Madison. Section 1 deals with the conceptualization and development of the Articles of…

  10. Constitutional Law Fundamentals of the State Administration of the Social Sphere in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khamzin, Amangeldy Sh.; Khamzina, Zhanna A.; Oryntayev, Zhambyl K.; Alshurazova, Raushan A.; Sherimkulova, Gulbanu D.; Yermukhametova, Saulegul R.

    2016-01-01

    The study deals with a comprehensive analysis of constitutional fundamentals of state administration of the social sphere in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The content of the constitutional law social sphere institution is unfolded by means of the inter-sectoral analysis of legal regulations of which it consists and the inter-disciplinary study of…

  11. Non-Religion-Based State Constitutional Challenges to Educational Voucher and Tax Credit Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Preston C., III

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of non-religion-based state constitutional challenges to educational voucher and tax credit/scholarship programs. The first section discusses litigation examining whether education voucher programs violate constitutional provisions requiring the legislature to provide an efficient system of public schools. The…

  12. Constitutive immune function in European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, is decreased immediately after an endurance flight in a wind tunnel.

    PubMed

    Nebel, Silke; Bauchinger, Ulf; Buehler, Deborah M; Langlois, Lillie A; Boyles, Michelle; Gerson, Alexander R; Price, Edwin R; McWilliams, Scott R; Guglielmo, Christopher G

    2012-01-15

    Life-history theory predicts that animals face a trade-off in energy allocation between performing strenuous exercise, such as migratory flight, and mounting an immune response. We experimentally tested this prediction by studying immune function in European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, flown in a wind tunnel. Specifically, we predicted that constitutive immune function decreases in response to training and, additionally, in response to immediate exercise. We compared constitutive immune function among three groups: (1) 'untrained' birds that were kept in cages and were not flown; (2) 'trained' birds that received flight training over a 15 day period and performed a 1-4 h continuous flight, after which they rested for 48 h before being sampled; and (3) 'post-flight' birds that differed from the 'trained' group only in being sampled immediately after the final flight. A bird in our trained group represents an individual during migration that has been resting between migratory flights for at least 2 days. A bird in our post-flight group represents an individual that has just completed a migratory flight and has not yet had time to recover. Three of our four indicators (haptoglobin, agglutination and lysis) showed the predicted decrease in immune function in the post-flight group, and two indicators (haptoglobin, agglutination) showed the predicted decreasing trend from the untrained to trained to post-flight group. Haptoglobin levels were negatively correlated with flight duration. No effect of training or flight was detected on leukocyte profiles. Our results suggest that in European starlings, constitutive immune function is decreased more as a result of immediate exercise than of exercise training. Because of the recent emergence of avian-borne diseases, understanding the trade-offs and challenges faced by long-distance migrants has gained a new level of relevance and urgency.

  13. An Angle of Vision: Black Women and the United States Constitution, 1787-1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hine, Darlene Clark

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes how Black women fought for and won basic citizenship rights in the United States. Cites examples which show how the struggle of Black women helped to transform the U.S. Constitution. (Author/BSR)

  14. A "Uniform" Education: Reform of Local Property Tax School Finance Systems through State Constitutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaster, James H.

    1979-01-01

    Examines Wisconsin's school finance system in light of recent legislation and the education clause in the state constitution. Argues for judicial involvement to correct the finance system. Available from Marquette Law Review, 1103 West Wisconsin Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53233. (IRT)

  15. A "Uniform" Education: Reform of Local Property Tax School Finance Systems through State Constitutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaster, James H.

    1979-01-01

    Examines Wisconsin's school finance system in light of recent legislation and the education clause in the state constitution. Argues for judicial involvement to correct the finance system. Available from Marquette Law Review, 1103 West Wisconsin Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53233. (IRT)

  16. State Constitutional Equal Rights Provisions: Legal Tools for Achieving Sex Equity in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Phyllis N.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews court cases and decisions in several states that show how state equal rights amendments have been relied upon to promote sex equality in educational institutions. Illustrates how state equal rights amendments can be applied and/or should be relied upon even when other statutory or constitutional provisions exist. (Author/MJL)

  17. Ethical management in the constitution of a European database for leukodystrophies rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Duchange, Nathalie; Darquy, Sylviane; d'Audiffret, Diane; Callies, Ingrid; Lapointe, Anne-Sophie; Loeve, Boris; Boespflug-Tanguy, Odile; Moutel, Grégoire

    2014-09-01

    The EU LeukoTreat program aims to connect, enlarge and improve existing national databases for leukodystrophies (LDs) and other genetic diseases affecting the white matter of the brain. Ethical issues have been placed high on the agenda by pairing the participating LD expert research teams with experts in medical ethics and LD patient families and associations. The overarching goal is to apply core ethics principles to specific project needs and ensure patient rights and protection in research addressing the context of these rare diseases. This paper looks at how ethical issues were identified and handled at project management level when setting up an ethics committee. Through a work performed as a co-construction between health professionals, ethics experts, and patient representatives, we expose the major ethical issues identified. The committee acts as the forum for tackling specific issues tied to data sharing and patient participation: the thin line between care and research, the need for a charter establishing the commitments binding health professionals and the information items to be delivered. Ongoing feedback on the database, including delivering global results in a broad-audience format, emerged as a key recommendation. Information should be available to all patients in the partner countries developing the database and should be scaled to different patient profiles. This work led to a number of recommendations for ensuring transparency and optimizing the partnership between scientists and patients. Copyright © 2014 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Constitution of the State of Illinois and United States: Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.

    The study guide, intended for adults wishing to obtain a General Educational Development (GED) certificate in Illinois, discusses the U.S. Constitution, the Illinois Constitution, the Declaration of Independence, and rules for displaying the U.S. flag. The objective is to aid adults in passing the constitution component of the GED examination.…

  19. Physiological pace of life: the link between constitutive immunity, developmental period, and metabolic rate in European birds.

    PubMed

    Pap, Péter László; Vágási, Csongor István; Vincze, Orsolya; Osváth, Gergely; Veres-Szászka, Judit; Czirják, Gábor Árpád

    2015-01-01

    Constitutive innate immunity is the first lined of defence against infections, but the causes determining its variability among species are poorly understood. The pace of life hypothesis predicts that species with a fast speed of life, characterized by high energy turnover and short developmental time, invest relatively little in defence in favour of growth and early reproduction, whereas 'slow-living' species are predicted to invest more resources into costly defence. We conducted phylogenetic comparative analysis on 105 European bird species and determined that the number of leukocytes, and the levels of natural antibodies (NAbs) and complement, measured on adult birds, increased or tended to positively correlate with the length of incubation period. However, we found that the length of incubation and fledging periods have opposite effects on immune defence (i.e. immune parameters show a negative association with the length of fledging period). Our results suggest that the contrasting effects of the incubation and fledging periods are related to the timing of the development of immune cells and of NAbs and complement, which largely mature during the embryonic phase of development. In support of this hypothesis, we found that species with a long relative incubation period [i.e. whose total pre-fledging developmental time (incubation plus fledging) consists largely of the incubation period] invested more in constitutive innate immunity. Finally, in support of the pace of life hypothesis, for a subsample of 63 species, we found that the basal metabolic rate significantly or tended to negatively correlate with immune measures.

  20. Provisions of State Constitutional and Statutory Law Governing the Structure of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, A. P.

    This document quotes from and summarizes each of the 50 states' constitutional and statutory provisions establishing the structure, the power, and the duties of the various state committees, commissions, offices, and agencies affecting the governance and control of education. Detailed investigation of the formal body of law revealed the subtle…

  1. Finite element analysis of notch behavior using a state variable constitutive equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dame, L. T.; Stouffer, D. C.; Abuelfoutouh, N.

    1985-01-01

    The state variable constitutive equation of Bodner and Partom was used to calculate the load-strain response of Inconel 718 at 649 C in the root of a notch. The constitutive equation was used with the Bodner-Partom evolution equation and with a second evolution equation that was derived from a potential function of the stress and state variable. Data used in determining constants for the constitutive models was from one-dimensional smooth bar tests. The response was calculated for a plane stress condition at the root of the notch with a finite element code using constant strain triangular elements. Results from both evolution equations compared favorably with the observed experimental response. The accuracy and efficiency of the finite element calculations also compared favorably to existing methods.

  2. Can State Constitutional Provisions Eliminate De Facto Segregation in the Public Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Preston Cary III

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes whether constitutional provisions can compel states to eliminate de facto school segregation, explaining how the Supreme Court's refusal to find that de facto segregation violates the fourteenth amendment's equal protection clause forced the federal judiciary to withdraw from school desegregation; analyzing social scientists' and African…

  3. Free Speech for the Private Employee: Will State Action Rulings Bring the Constitution to the Workplace?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Wayne

    1981-01-01

    Provides a rationale for private sector free speech. Reviews federal cases dealing with free speech in private organizations and assesses the chances of future free speech expansion via state action. Concludes that legislation and not the Constitution is the most viable means of obtaining free speech in the private organization. (PD)

  4. The Constitution of the United States (Adapted). For Use in EMR Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Louise A.

    This special instructional handbook presents a unit of study on the United States Constitution for educable mentally retarded students at the secondary level. The adapted material explains the structure of the national government, and is designed to promote citizenship and patriotic values. Preliminary information includes a glossary of new words,…

  5. 76 FR 18198 - European Union-United States Atlantis Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... European Union-United States Atlantis Program AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education, Department of... Union-(EU) United States (U.S.) Atlantis Program Notice inviting applications for new awards for fiscal.... Atlantis Program, CFDA number 84.116J, must be submitted electronically using the Governmentwide Grants.gov...

  6. On the use of internal state variables in thermoviscoplastic constitutive equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, D. H.; Beek, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The general theory of internal state variables are reviewed to apply it to inelastic metals in use in high temperature environments. In this process, certain constraints and clarifications will be made regarding internal state variables. It is shown that the Helmholtz free energy can be utilized to construct constitutive equations which are appropriate for metallic superalloys. Internal state variables are shown to represent locally averaged measures of dislocation arrangement, dislocation density, and intergranular fracture. The internal state variable model is demonstrated to be a suitable framework for comparison of several currently proposed models for metals and can therefore be used to exhibit history dependence, nonlinearity, and rate as well as temperature sensitivity.

  7. Feasibility of assessing health state by detecting redox state of human body based on Chinese medicine constitution.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling-Ru; Wang, Qi; Wang, Ji; Wang, Qian-Fei; Yang, Ling-Ling; Zheng, Lu-Yu; Zhang, Yan

    2016-08-01

    This article discussed the feasibility of assessing health state by detecting redox state of human body. Firstly, the balance of redox state is the basis of homeostasis, and the balance ability of redox can reflflect health state of human body. Secondly, the redox state of human body is a sensitive index of multiple risk factors of health such as age, external environment and psychological factors. It participates in the occurrence and development of multiple diseases involving metabolic diseases and nervous system diseases, and can serve as a cut-in point for treatment of these diseases. Detecting the redox state of high risk people is signifificantly important for early detection and treatment of disease. The blood plasma and urine could be selected to detect, which is convenient. It is pointed that the indexes not only involve oxidation product and antioxidant enzyme but also redox couple. Chinese medicine constitution reflflects the state of body itself and the ability of adapting to external environment, which is consistent with the connotation of health. It is found that there are nine basic types of constitution in Chinese population, which provides a theoretical basis of health preservation, preventive treatment of disease and personalized treatment. With the combination of redox state detection and the Chinese medicine constitution theory, the heath state can be systemically assessed by conducting large-scale epidemiological survey with classifified detection on redox state of human body.

  8. Whole-Genome Screening of Newborns? The Constitutional Boundaries of State Newborn Screening Programs

    PubMed Central

    King, Jaime S.; Smith, Monica E.

    2016-01-01

    State newborn screening (NBS) programs routinely screen nearly all of the 4 million newborns in the United States each year for ~30 primary conditions and a number of secondary conditions. NBS could be on the cusp of an unprecedented expansion as a result of advances in whole-genome sequencing (WGS). As WGS becomes cheaper and easier and as our knowledge and understanding of human genetics expand, the question of whether WGS has a role to play in state NBS programs becomes increasingly relevant and complex. As geneticists and state public health officials begin to contemplate the technical and procedural details of whether WGS could benefit existing NBS programs, this is an opportune time to revisit the legal framework of state NBS programs. In this article, we examine the constitutional underpinnings of state-mandated NBS and explore the range of current state statutes and regulations that govern the programs. We consider the legal refinements that will be needed to keep state NBS programs within constitutional bounds, focusing on 2 areas of concern: consent procedures and the criteria used to select new conditions for NBS panels. We conclude by providing options for states to consider when contemplating the use of WGS for NBS. PMID:26729704

  9. Whole-Genome Screening of Newborns? The Constitutional Boundaries of State Newborn Screening Programs.

    PubMed

    King, Jaime S; Smith, Monica E

    2016-01-01

    State newborn screening (NBS) programs routinely screen nearly all of the 4 million newborns in the United States each year for ∼30 primary conditions and a number of secondary conditions. NBS could be on the cusp of an unprecedented expansion as a result of advances in whole-genome sequencing (WGS). As WGS becomes cheaper and easier and as our knowledge and understanding of human genetics expand, the question of whether WGS has a role to play in state NBS programs becomes increasingly relevant and complex. As geneticists and state public health officials begin to contemplate the technical and procedural details of whether WGS could benefit existing NBS programs, this is an opportune time to revisit the legal framework of state NBS programs. In this article, we examine the constitutional underpinnings of state-mandated NBS and explore the range of current state statutes and regulations that govern the programs. We consider the legal refinements that will be needed to keep state NBS programs within constitutional bounds, focusing on 2 areas of concern: consent procedures and the criteria used to select new conditions for NBS panels. We conclude by providing options for states to consider when contemplating the use of WGS for NBS.

  10. Paraphrenia: paranoid states of late life. I. European research.

    PubMed

    Bridge, T P; Wyatt, R J

    1980-05-01

    American psychiatry has traditionally viewed late-life paranoid states either as rare or not part of the schizophrenic syndrome. European psychiatry has not subscribed to this view. The literature (chiefly European) is reviewed from the standpoints of history of the disorder, diagnostic reliability, pre-onset sensory loss, the multiple determinants of paranoia, and the response of paraphrenic patients to treatment with phenothiazines. The evidence leads to the conclusion that late-life paranoid states are not rare, and that the diagnosis "paraphrenia" has real clinical utility. Moreover, there seems to be a substantial relationship between schizophrenia and paraphrenia.

  11. Western European Studies in the United States. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Stephen

    The task of this survey was to measure the relative scale of interest in Western European Studies in the United States. Doctoral dissertations and mainstream academic journals in political science, economics, anthropology, geography, sociology, and history were examined for topics dealing with Western Europe. In addition, programs and…

  12. Opportunities to Learn about Europe at School. A Comparative Analysis among European Adolescents in 21 European Member States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhaegen, Soetkin; Hooghe, Marc; Meeusen, Cecil

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the relationship between different learning methods and the formation of European identity among adolescents. The analysis is based on the European module of the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (2009), with 70,502 respondents in 21 European member states. The results show that offering…

  13. Demographic challenges across the European Union Member States.

    PubMed

    Megyesiová, Silvia; Hajduová, Zuzana

    2012-07-01

    The Member States of the European Union are undergoing major demographic changes; these changes are slow but significant. The demographic picture in the EU-27 is clearer: population growth is mainly the result of immigration, fertility is far below the replacement ratio, and the population is growing older, which will be a key demographic challenge in many Member States. All the actual demographic trends will have consequences for health care systems. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Breastfeeding practices and policies in WHO European Region Member States.

    PubMed

    Bagci Bosi, Ayse Tulay; Eriksen, Kamilla Gehrt; Sobko, Tanja; Wijnhoven, Trudy M A; Breda, João

    2016-03-01

    To provide an update on current practices and policy development status concerning breastfeeding in the WHO European Region. National surveys and studies conducted by national health institutions were prioritized. Sub-national data were included where no national data or studies existed. Information on national breastfeeding policies was collected mainly from the WHO Seventh Meeting of Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative Coordinators and European Union projects. Owing to the different data sources and methods, any comparisons between countries must be made with caution. WHO European Member States. Data from fifty-three WHO European Member States were investigated; however, a large proportion had not reported any data. Rates of early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding and continued breastfeeding to 1 year all varied considerably within the WHO European Region. Exclusive breastfeeding rates declined considerably after 4 months, and were low in infants under 6 months and at 6 months of age. The majority of the countries with existing data reported having a national infant and young child feeding policy and the establishment of a national committee on breastfeeding or infant and young child feeding. The majority of the countries with existing data reported having baby-friendly hospitals, although the proportion of baby-friendly hospitals to the total number of national hospitals with maternity units was low in most countries. Breastfeeding practices within the WHO European Region, especially exclusive breastfeeding rates, are far from complying with the WHO recommendations. There are marked differences between countries in breastfeeding practices, infant and young child feeding policy adoption and proportion of baby-friendly hospitals.

  15. 36 CFR 1206.41 - What is a state historical records advisory board and how is it constituted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... records advisory board and how is it constituted? 1206.41 Section 1206.41 Parks, Forests, and Public... how is it constituted? (a) Responsibilities. The board is the central advisory body for historical... board engages in planning; it develops, revises, and submits to the Commission a State plan including...

  16. 36 CFR 1206.41 - What is a state historical records advisory board and how is it constituted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... records advisory board and how is it constituted? 1206.41 Section 1206.41 Parks, Forests, and Public... how is it constituted? (a) Responsibilities. The Board is the central advisory body for historical... Board engages in planning; it develops, revises, and submits to the Commission a state plan including...

  17. Studying United States Constitutional Law: A Personal Experience of a Chinese Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Fengming

    1987-01-01

    A Chinese student of American constitutional law looks at problems and prospects in the application of the American constitutional experience in China and encourages more comparative study of consitutional law. (MSE)

  18. Constitutive and equation of state models using object-oriented programming methods

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, M.K.W.; Peery, J.S.; Budge, K.G.

    1992-01-01

    Large-scale simulations of solid dynamics problems require sophisticated computer hardware, employing specialized or unique features to enhance performance. The developer of computational mechanics codes is not only faced with the task of programming the necessary analysis algorithms, but also of ensuring that the available system capabilities are properly utilized to obtain the highest possible performance. Developing and maintaining the code for a number of computers, ranging from single processor serial workstations to massively parallel vectorized supercomputers, becomes a very difficult, potentially intractable problem. In this paper, we present an approach that seeks to minimize this problem by applying object-oriented programming (OOP) concepts to the development of the RHALE++ hydrodynamics/solid mechanics code that is written in the C++ language. In particular, we use the OOP paradigm to facilitate code development, maintenance, and portability of constitutive and equation of state models.

  19. Constitutive and equation of state models using object-oriented programming methods

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, M.K.W.; Peery, J.S.; Budge, K.G.

    1992-10-01

    Large-scale simulations of solid dynamics problems require sophisticated computer hardware, employing specialized or unique features to enhance performance. The developer of computational mechanics codes is not only faced with the task of programming the necessary analysis algorithms, but also of ensuring that the available system capabilities are properly utilized to obtain the highest possible performance. Developing and maintaining the code for a number of computers, ranging from single processor serial workstations to massively parallel vectorized supercomputers, becomes a very difficult, potentially intractable problem. In this paper, we present an approach that seeks to minimize this problem by applying object-oriented programming (OOP) concepts to the development of the RHALE++ hydrodynamics/solid mechanics code that is written in the C++ language. In particular, we use the OOP paradigm to facilitate code development, maintenance, and portability of constitutive and equation of state models.

  20. The United States Constitution: A Non-Trivial Pursuit. Fifty-Three Radio Scripts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Walter B.

    These 53 radio scripts present the history of the founding and ratification of the U.S. Constitution. Each script is designed to fit within a 2 to 2-1/2 minute time-frame. The titles are: "Introduction to Series" (Promotional Segment); "Did You Know: Our Present Constitution Is Our Second Constitution?"; "The First…

  1. The United States Constitution: A Non-Trivial Pursuit. Fifty-Three Radio Scripts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Walter B.

    These 53 radio scripts present the history of the founding and ratification of the U.S. Constitution. Each script is designed to fit within a 2 to 2-1/2 minute time-frame. The titles are: "Introduction to Series" (Promotional Segment); "Did You Know: Our Present Constitution Is Our Second Constitution?"; "The First…

  2. State Constitutional Commitment to Health and Health Care and Population Health Outcomes: Evidence From Historical US Data

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. I investigated whether the introduction of health and health care provisions in US state constitutions can make health systems more equitable and improve health outcomes by urging state policymakers and administrative agencies to uphold their human rights obligations at state level. Methods. I constructed a panel of infant mortality rates from 50 US states over the period 1929 through 2000 to examine their association with the timing and details of introducing a constitutional right to health and health care provisions. Results. The introduction of a stronger constitutional commitment that obligates state legislature to provide health care was associated with a subsequent reduction in the infant mortality rate of approximately 7.8%. The introduction of provisions explicitly targeting the poor was also associated with a reduction in the infant mortality rate of 6.5%. These health benefits are primarily evident in non-White populations. Conclusions. This empirical result supports Elizabeth Leonard’s view that although state constitutional rights have been poorly enforced through the judiciary, a constitutional expression of health care duties has fueled the political and social process, ultimately allowing states to identify the best way to address citizens’ health inequality concerns. PMID:25905857

  3. Employment and Status of Teachers in State Schools in the European Community. Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EURYDICE Central Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    The educational systems of the European Community Member States vary considerably and comprise a wealth of information about innovations in these nations. Tables on the employment and status of teachers in state schools in the European Community were compiled at the request of the Commission of the European Communities. The information collected…

  4. A Corporate Veto on Health Policy? Global Constitutionalism and Investor-State Dispute Settlement

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Benjamin; Holden, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The importance of trade and investment agreements for health is now widely acknowledged in the literature, with much attention now focused on the impact of investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) mechanisms. However, much of the analysis of such agreements in the health field remains largely descriptive. We theorise the implications of ISDS mechanisms for health policy by integrating the concept of global constitutionalism with veto point theory. It is argued that attempts to ‘constitutionalise’ investment law, through a proliferation of International Investment Agreements (IIAs), has created a series of new veto points at which corporations may seek to block new policies aimed at protecting or enhancing public health. The multiplicity of new veto points in this global ‘spaghetti bowl’ of IIAs creates opportunities for corporations to ‘venue shop’; to exploit the agreements, and associated veto points, through which they are most likely to succeed in blocking or deterring new regulation. These concepts are illustrated with reference to two case studies of investor-state disputes involving a transnational tobacco company, but the implications of the analysis are of equal relevance for a range of other industries and health issues. PMID:27256810

  5. A Corporate Veto on Health Policy? Global Constitutionalism and Investor-State Dispute Settlement.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Benjamin; Holden, Chris

    2016-10-01

    The importance of trade and investment agreements for health is now widely acknowledged in the literature, with much attention now focused on the impact of investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) mechanisms. However, much of the analysis of such agreements in the health field remains largely descriptive. We theorize the implications of ISDS mechanisms for health policy by integrating the concept of global constitutionalism with veto point theory. It is argued that attempts to constitutionalize investment law, through a proliferation of International Investment Agreements (IIAs), has created a series of new veto points at which corporations may seek to block new policies aimed at protecting or enhancing public health. The multiplicity of new veto points in this global "spaghetti bowl" of IIAs creates opportunities for corporations to venue shop; that is, to exploit the agreements, and associated veto points, through which they are most likely to succeed in blocking or deterring new regulation. These concepts are illustrated with reference to two case studies of investor-state disputes involving a transnational tobacco company, but the implications of the analysis are of equal relevance for a range of other industries and health issues. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  6. Constitutional osteochondrodysplasias identifiable at birth. A short review on the state of the art in radiodiagnosis in the late 20th century.

    PubMed

    Gugliantini, P; Maragliano, G; Piscione, M; Licata, G

    1999-03-01

    The value of a systematic radiologic analysis in constitutional osteochondrodysplasias remains underestimated by both neonatologists and radiologists. We report the clinical experience of the Department of Neonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of St. John Hospital in Rome with constitutional osteochondrodysplasias identifiable at birth. We reviewed 2120 cases of newborns hospitalized in our unit from January 1996 to August 1998 and here submitted to at least one direct radiograph of chest and abdomen (the so-called "babygram"). All the newborns were clinically assisted by the same three neonatologists and radiologically followed by the only pediatric radiologist, the external consultant for diagnostic imaging of the Intensive Care Unit of the Neonatology Department. We diagnosed 14 cases of constitutional osteochondrodysplasias (.66%): 4 of them (28.27%) belong to the group considered by the European Society of Pediatric Radiology (ESPR) as lethal before or immediately after birth, while the other 10 (71.43%) belong to different groups of the ESPR classification. Thus, we arbitrarily grouped them into a single pathologic condition, based on their two main features: being generally not lethal and always or very often identifiable at birth. These 10 cases were: 1 campomelic dysplasia, 3 achondroplasias, 2 asphyxiant thoracic dysplasias type Jeune, 1 cherubinic dysplasia, 2 osteogenesis imperfectae, 1 osteopetrosis. We justify the relatively high incidence of constitutional osteochondrodysplasias in our study (.66% versus an average incidence of .076% reported in the world population) on the basis of: a) an increasing number of high-risk newborns in our intensive care unit; b) an improvement in our clinical and radiologic diagnostic skills. We conclude that the state of the art of the diagnosis of constitutional osteochondrodysplasias is still based on the first plain X-ray examination performed at birth because of cardiorespiratory and/or abdominal diseases in

  7. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States relating to parental rights.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Hoekstra, Peter [R-MI-2

    2009-03-31

    House - 04/27/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States to control spending.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Hensarling, Jeb [R-TX-5

    2010-03-03

    House - 06/15/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States relating to marriage.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Lungren, Daniel E. [R-CA-3

    2009-03-04

    House - 03/16/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. A Jigsaw Strategy: Teaching Opposing Viewpoints on the Ratification of the United States Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciardiello, A. Vincent

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that social studies teachers generally agree that critical thinking and cooperative learning skills are two primary instructional goals. Describes a class activity utilizing roleplaying and the cooperative "jigsaw" approach to study the U.S. Constitution. (CFR)

  11. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States relating to Congressional succession.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Rohrabacher, Dana [R-CA-46

    2009-05-20

    House - 06/12/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States regarding the right to vote.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Jackson, Jesse L., Jr. [D-IL-2

    2009-03-03

    House - 03/16/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States to authorize the line item veto.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Platts, Todd Russell [R-PA-19

    2009-01-08

    House - 02/09/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States relating to marriage.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Broun, Paul C. [R-GA-10

    2009-05-07

    House - 06/12/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States relating to voluntary school prayer.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Emerson, Jo Ann [R-MO-8

    2009-01-07

    House - 02/09/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States to balance the Federal budget.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Broun, Paul C. [R-GA-10

    2010-01-27

    House - 03/01/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Proposing a balanced budget amendment to the Constitution of the United States.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Bright, Bobby [D-AL-2

    2010-03-02

    House - 06/15/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Proposing a balanced budget amendment to the Constitution of the United States.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Goodlatte, Bob [R-VA-6

    2009-01-06

    House - 02/09/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Proposing a balanced budget amendment to the Constitution of the United States.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Terry, Lee [R-NE-2

    2010-06-16

    House - 07/26/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Proposing a balanced budget amendment to the Constitution of the United States.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Buchanan, Vern [R-FL-13

    2009-04-22

    House - 06/12/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Establishing public health security in a postwar Iraq: constitutional obstacles and lessons for other federalizing states.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kumanan; Fidler, David P; McDougall, Christopher W; Lazar, Harvey

    2009-06-01

    The public health consequences of the conflict in Iraq will likely continue after the violence has subsided. Reestablishing public health security will require large investments in infrastructure and the creation of effective systems of governance. On the question of governance, the allocation of powers in the new constitution of Iraq is critical. Given the ease with which public health threats cross borders, the constitution needs to grant to the federal government the legal authority to manage such threats and simultaneously meet international requirements. Unfortunately, the draft constitution does not accomplish this objective. If politically possible, the constitution should be amended to provide the federal government with this authority. If not possible, the Iraqi federal government would have two options. It could attempt to use alternative constitutional powers, such as national security powers. This option would be contentious and the results uncertain. Alternatively, the federal government could attempt to establish collaborative relationships with regional governments. Residual sectarian tensions create potential problems for this option, however. Reflecting on the Iraqi situation, we conclude that other federalizing countries emerging from conflict should ensure that their constitutions provide the federal government with the necessary authority to manage threats to public health security effectively.

  2. Proposed Constitution For A University Senate Of Morehead State University. Recommendations Of The Special Committee On University Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehead State Univ., KY.

    This proposed constitution was approved by the faculty of Morehead State University in May 1969, and by the Board of Regents in June 1969. The Senate's duties are to act: as an advisory body in developing institutional policies; as a liaison among various elements in the University and between those elements and the Board of Regents; as a…

  3. Constitutional Law--State Action--Golden v. Biscayne Bay Yacht Club: Preventing Discrimination by Private Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Michael W.

    1976-01-01

    Although the Supreme Court has refrained from answering whether the membership policies of private clubs can be attacked on state action grounds, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals held in the affirmative in Golden v. Biscayne Bay Yacht Club. It ruled that leasing publicly owned bay bottom land to a yacht club constituted sufficient state…

  4. Constitutional Rights of Children. Prepared for the Subcommittee on the Constitution of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, by the American Law Division, Congressional Research Service of the Library of Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.

    This paper reviews the rights of children as defined by the Constitution of the United States and summarizes a series of Supreme Court decisions which have defined the protections afforded to children by the Constitution. A short historical overview of the legal status of children is provided as background for the report. It is suggested that the…

  5. Constitutional Rights of Children. Prepared for the Subcommittee on the Constitution of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, by the American Law Division, Congressional Research Service of the Library of Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.

    This paper reviews the rights of children as defined by the Constitution of the United States and summarizes a series of Supreme Court decisions which have defined the protections afforded to children by the Constitution. A short historical overview of the legal status of children is provided as background for the report. It is suggested that the…

  6. The Constitutional Amendment Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chism, Kahlil

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the constitutional amendment process. Although the process is not described in great detail, Article V of the United States Constitution allows for and provides instruction on amending the Constitution. While the amendment process currently consists of six steps, the Constitution is nevertheless quite difficult to change.…

  7. The Constitutional Amendment Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chism, Kahlil

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the constitutional amendment process. Although the process is not described in great detail, Article V of the United States Constitution allows for and provides instruction on amending the Constitution. While the amendment process currently consists of six steps, the Constitution is nevertheless quite difficult to change.…

  8. Initial Teacher Training in the Member States of the European Community. Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EURYDICE Central Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    The educational systems among the European Community nations vary considerably and this variety, which is the result of historic and cultural factors, constitutes a great wealth which should be preserved. It is also in the interest of everyone to draw benefit from the experiences and projects of partner countries within the Community. Educational…

  9. Constitution for the United States of America. A Secondary Level Student Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Civic Education, Calabasas, CA.

    This book was designed to provide a basis for understanding constitutional government and for participating in U.S. society. Each lesson within the book's six units contains a statement of purpose and a list of review questions: most also contain problem solving exercises. Unit One introduces students to the study of political philosophy. The…

  10. Subjects of the State within the Russian Federation: Constitutional and Legal Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tumanov, Dmitriy Yu.; Sakhapov, Rinat R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the modern problems of federalism in the Russian Federation. In particular, the article examines the main provisions of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, which regulate the legal status of subjects in the Russian Federation, their rights and responsibilities, limits of autonomy and differentiation…

  11. Proposing a balanced budget amendment to the Constitution of the United States.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Goodlatte, Bob [R-VA-6

    2011-01-05

    11/30/2011 Committee on the Judiciary Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights and Human Rights. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-512. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Failed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Proposing a balanced budget amendment to the Constitution of the United States.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Goodlatte, Bob [R-VA-6

    2011-01-05

    11/30/2011 Committee on the Judiciary Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights and Human Rights. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-512. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Failed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Why Did the Founding Fathers Write the Constitution of the United States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alan

    1987-01-01

    Presents a mock dialogue among Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and Abigail Adams that questions whether the Founding Fathers wrote the U.S. Constitution as defenders of hard-won liberty or as self-serving aristocrats whose sole interest was in preserving their own economic and political positions. (BSR)

  14. Liberty's Legacy: Our Celebration of the Northwest Ordinance and the United States Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peckham, Howard, Ed.

    This catalog was designed to accompany an exhibition to celebrate the bicentennials of the Northwest Ordinance and the U.S. Constitution. The exhibition, a collaborative and cooperative effort of 15 midwest organizations, including 9 universities, 3 scholarly libraries, and 3 historical societies, displayed original historical materials in the…

  15. An Alien's Constitutional Right to Loan, Scholarship and Tuition Benefits at State Supported Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Janette Fenn

    1979-01-01

    Ways in which various statutes discriminate against nonimmigrant alien students are discussed, with the constitutional doctrines of equal protection, due process, and federal preemption considered. California's tuition statute is analyzed. Available from Calif Western Law R, 350 Cedar St, San Diego, CA 92101, $1.50. (MSE)

  16. Proposing a balanced budget amendment to the Constitution of the United States.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Goodlatte, Bob [R-VA-6

    2011-01-05

    Senate - 11/30/2011 Committee on the Judiciary Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights and Human Rights. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-512. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Failed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States relative to taxing the people of the United States progressively.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Jackson, Jesse L., Jr. [D-IL-2

    2009-03-03

    House - 03/16/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Integrating Faith-Based Organizations into State-Funded Pre-K Programs: Resolving Constitutional Conflict. Pre-K Policy Brief Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Dan; Boylan, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    This policy brief addresses federal and state constitutional issues that arise when faith-based organizations participate in state prekindergarten (pre-k) programs and recommends safeguards to ensure that public funding of those programs complies with constitutional principles respecting the separation of church and state and freedom of religion.…

  19. Education and Self-Government: The Right to Education under State Constitutional Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubsch, Allen W.

    1989-01-01

    Examines state court education jurisprudence in three areas: (1) classical liberalism and republicanism; (2) the current understanding of federal equal protection and due process education through United States Supreme Court decisions; and (3) school finance cases litigated in state courts. (MLF)

  20. Solid-State Constitutive Modelling of Glassy Polymers: Coupling the Rolie-Poly Equations for Melts with Anisotropic Viscoplastic Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Focatiis, Davide S. A.; Embery, John; Buckley, C. Paul

    2008-07-01

    This paper investigates the behaviour of a well-characterised monodisperse grade of entangled atactic polystyrene across a very wide temperature and strain rate range through linear and non-linear melt rheology and solid-state deformation. In an effort to construct a constitutive model for large deformations able to describe rheological response right across this wide timescale, two well-established rheological models are combined: the well known RoliePoly (RP) conformational melt model and the Oxford glass-rubber constitutive model for glassy polymers. Comparisons between experimental data and simulations from a numerical implementation of the model illustrate that the model can cope well with the range of deformations in which orientation is limited to length-scales longer than an entanglement length. One approach in which the model can be expanded to incorporate the effects of orientation on shorter length scales using anisotropic viscoplastic flow is briefly discussed.

  1. Solid-State Constitutive Modelling of Glassy Polymers: Coupling the Rolie-Poly Equations for Melts with Anisotropic Viscoplastic Flow

    SciTech Connect

    De Focatiis, Davide S. A.; Buckley, C. Paul; Embery, John

    2008-07-07

    This paper investigates the behaviour of a well-characterised monodisperse grade of entangled atactic polystyrene across a very wide temperature and strain rate range through linear and non-linear melt rheology and solid-state deformation. In an effort to construct a constitutive model for large deformations able to describe rheological response right across this wide timescale, two well-established rheological models are combined: the well known RoliePoly (RP) conformational melt model and the Oxford glass-rubber constitutive model for glassy polymers. Comparisons between experimental data and simulations from a numerical implementation of the model illustrate that the model can cope well with the range of deformations in which orientation is limited to length-scales longer than an entanglement length. One approach in which the model can be expanded to incorporate the effects of orientation on shorter length scales using anisotropic viscoplastic flow is briefly discussed.

  2. A physically based constitutive model for FCC single crystals with a single state variable per slip system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Eralp

    2017-01-01

    A new, simple and physically consistent dislocation-density-based continuum model is developed in a large-strain crystal plasticity framework. All the constitutive laws are expressed in a simple and unique way in terms of a single state variable dislocation density. The proposed physically based model predicts experimental single-crystal stress-strain curves along different crystal directions more accurately than a classical model with widely accepted constitutive laws. The polycrystal texture predictions from the dislocation-density-based and classical models having the same single-crystal stress-strain characteristics are in good agreement with the classical model when Taylor-type homogenization is used in conjunction with enough number of grains.

  3. Twenty-First Century Europe: Emergence of Baltic States into European Alliances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-07

    sources of power supply. Estonia is the only country in the world where oil shale is the primary source of energy, supplying over 75 percent of its total...Unclassified The contributions of Estonia , Latvia, and Lithuania ("the Baltic States") to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the European...23 vi TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY EUROPE: EMERGENCE OF THE BALTIC STATES INTO EUROPEAN ALLIANCES BACKGROUND Estonia , Latvia, and Lithuania are often

  4. Constitutive laws for steady state deformation of metals, a microstructural model

    SciTech Connect

    Nes, E.

    1995-07-15

    Based on extensive investigations of the steady state conditions for creep and hot working, Sellars and McG. Tegart demonstrated that the flow stress was well represented by the following relation: {sigma}{sub s} = 1/{alpha}{prime} Arc sinh (Z/A{prime}){sup 1/n} where {alpha}{prime}, A{prime}, n are temperature independent constants and Z is the Zener-Hollomon parameter, Z = {dot {var_epsilon}} exp U/kT, where {dot {var_epsilon}} is the applied strain rate and U is an activation energy. This relationship is widely used in the modelling of metal forming processes such as hot rolling, forging and extrusion. The objective this work is to explore the possibilities for deriving an alternative, physically based, relationship which is capable of correlating the steady state flow stress both to the alloy condition and the microstructural characteristics of steady state deformation.

  5. Role of constitutive behavior and tumor-host mechanical interactions in the state of stress and growth of solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Voutouri, Chrysovalantis; Mpekris, Fotios; Papageorgis, Panagiotis; Odysseos, Andreani D; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical forces play a crucial role in tumor patho-physiology. Compression of cancer cells inhibits their proliferation rate, induces apoptosis and enhances their invasive and metastatic potential. Additionally, compression of intratumor blood vessels reduces the supply of oxygen, nutrients and drugs, affecting tumor progression and treatment. Despite the great importance of the mechanical microenvironment to the pathology of cancer, there are limited studies for the constitutive modeling and the mechanical properties of tumors and on how these parameters affect tumor growth. Also, the contribution of the host tissue to the growth and state of stress of the tumor remains unclear. To this end, we performed unconfined compression experiments in two tumor types and found that the experimental stress-strain response is better fitted to an exponential constitutive equation compared to the widely used neo-Hookean and Blatz-Ko models. Subsequently, we incorporated the constitutive equations along with the corresponding values of the mechanical properties - calculated by the fit - to a biomechanical model of tumor growth. Interestingly, we found that the evolution of stress and the growth rate of the tumor are independent from the selection of the constitutive equation, but depend strongly on the mechanical interactions with the surrounding host tissue. Particularly, model predictions - in agreement with experimental studies - suggest that the stiffness of solid tumors should exceed a critical value compared with that of the surrounding tissue in order to be able to displace the tissue and grow in size. With the use of the model, we estimated this critical value to be on the order of 1.5. Our results suggest that the direct effect of solid stress on tumor growth involves not only the inhibitory effect of stress on cancer cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis, but also the resistance of the surrounding tissue to tumor expansion.

  6. Federalism, State Sovereignty and the Constitution: Basis and Limits of Congressional Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-05

    leave time he had available under the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 ( FMLA ). The FMLA requires employers to provide employees up to twelve weeks...the a state’s Eleventh Amendment immunity under the FMLA , so that a state employee could recover money damages. The Court found that Congress had

  7. Limits of State Constitutional Guarantees: Lessons from Efforts to Implement Domestic Violence Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacManus, Susan A.; Van Hightower, Nikki R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors discuss implementational difficulties associated with domestic violence policies in states having equal rights amendments. They identify governmental levels, organizations, and actors that have impeded implementation. Discussion is based on difficulties experienced by the Houston Area Women's Center and a telephone survey of National…

  8. Medical Device Regulation: A Comparison of the United States and the European Union.

    PubMed

    Maak, Travis G; Wylie, James D

    2016-08-01

    Medical device regulation is a controversial topic in both the United States and the European Union. Many physicians and innovators in the United States cite a restrictive US FDA regulatory process as the reason for earlier and more rapid clinical advances in Europe. The FDA approval process mandates that a device be proved efficacious compared with a control or be substantially equivalent to a predicate device, whereas the European Union approval process mandates that the device perform its intended function. Stringent, peer-reviewed safety data have not been reported. However, after recent high-profile device failures, political pressure in both the United States and the European Union has favored more restrictive approval processes. Substantial reforms of the European Union process within the next 5 to 10 years will result in a more stringent approach to device regulation, similar to that of the FDA. Changes in the FDA regulatory process have been suggested but are not imminent.

  9. Federalism, State Sovereignty and the Constitution: Basis and Limits of Congressional Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-17

    370 U.S. 241 (1964); Katzenbach v. McClung, 379 U.S. 241 (1964). 49 Perez v. United States, 402 U.S. 146 (1971). 50 Herman Schwartz, Court Tries to...power under §5 of the Fourteenth Amendment, however, has been in flux over the years. In Katzenbach v. Morgan,74 the Court held that §5 of the...scope. In Katzenbach , the Court upheld a portion of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 which barred the application of English literacy requirements to

  10. Federalism, States Sovereignty, and the Constitution: Basis and Limits of Congressional Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    reasoning of these cases, the Court has upheld many diverse CRS-7 48 Id. 49 See Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States, 370 U.S. 241 (1964); Katzenbach ...79 494 U.S. 872 (1990). The scope of Congress’s power under §5 of the Fourteenth Amendment, however, has been in flux over the years. In Katzenbach ...defined by the courts, but to help define its scope. In Katzenbach , the Court upheld a portion of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 that barred the

  11. Optimizing the Parameters of the Rate-and-State Constitutive Law in an Earthquake Clustering Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Console, R.; Murru, M.; Catalli, F.

    2004-12-01

    The phenomenon of earthquake clustering, i.e. the increase of occurrence probability for seismic events close in space and time to other previous earthquakes, has been modeled both by statistical and physical processes. From a statistical viewpoint, the so-called epidemic model (ETAS) introduced by Ogata in 1988 and its variations have become fairly well known in the seismological community. Tests on real seismicity and comparison with a plain time-independent Poissonian model through likelihood-based methods have reliably proved their validity. On the other hand, in the last decade many papers have been published on the so-called Coulomb stress change principle, based on the theory of elasticity, showing qualitatively that an increase of the Coulomb stress in a given area is usually associated with an increase of seismic activity. More specifically, the rate-and-state theory developed by Dieterich in the `90s has been able to give a physical justification to the phenomenon known as Omori law. According to this law, a mainshock is followed by a series of aftershocks whose frequency decreases in time as an inverse power law. In this study we give an outline of the above mentioned stochastic and physical models, and build up an approach by which these models can be merged in a single algorithm and statistically tested. The application to the seismicity of Japan from 1970 to 2003 shows that the new model incorporating the physical concept of the rate-and-state theory performs even better of the purely stochastic model with a smaller number of free parameters

  12. The European influence on workers' compensation reform in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Workers' compensation law in the United States is derived from European models of social insurance introduced in Germany and in England. These two concepts of workers' compensation are found today in the federal and state workers' compensation programs in the United States. All reform proposals in the United States are influenced by the European experience with workers' compensation. In 2006, a reform proposal termed the Public Health Model was made that would abolish the workers' compensation system, and in its place adopt a national disability insurance system for all injuries and illnesses. In the public health model, health and safety professionals would work primarily in public health agencies. The public health model eliminates the physician from any role other than that of privately consulting with the patient and offering advice solely to the patient. The Public Health Model is strongly influenced by the European success with physician consultation with industry and labor. PMID:22151643

  13. The European influence on workers' compensation reform in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ladou, Joseph

    2011-12-07

    Workers' compensation law in the United States is derived from European models of social insurance introduced in Germany and in England. These two concepts of workers' compensation are found today in the federal and state workers' compensation programs in the United States. All reform proposals in the United States are influenced by the European experience with workers' compensation. In 2006, a reform proposal termed the Public Health Model was made that would abolish the workers' compensation system, and in its place adopt a national disability insurance system for all injuries and illnesses. In the public health model, health and safety professionals would work primarily in public health agencies. The public health model eliminates the physician from any role other than that of privately consulting with the patient and offering advice solely to the patient. The Public Health Model is strongly influenced by the European success with physician consultation with industry and labor.

  14. Diminished States? National Power in European Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupfer, Antonia

    2008-01-01

    The increasing research on international organisations' education policy lacks analyses of the relation between international organisations and nation states. This paper aims to analyse the power of nation states in international education policy. Focusing on the new degree system in higher education in Europe, partly from Foucault's…

  15. Diminished States? National Power in European Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupfer, Antonia

    2008-01-01

    The increasing research on international organisations' education policy lacks analyses of the relation between international organisations and nation states. This paper aims to analyse the power of nation states in international education policy. Focusing on the new degree system in higher education in Europe, partly from Foucault's…

  16. Immigration and Natives' Attitudes towards the Welfare State: Evidence from the European Social Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senik, Claudia; Stichnoth, Holger; Van der Straeten, Karine

    2009-01-01

    Does immigration reduce natives' support for the welfare state? Evidence from the European Social Survey (2002/2003) suggests a more qualified relation. For Europe as a whole, there is only weak evidence of a negative association between the perceived presence of immigrants and natives' support for the welfare state. However, this weak average…

  17. Nation-States versus Regions in European Education: Trends, Perspectives, Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitter, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    All over the world formal education is the responsibility of the modern state setting constitutional and legal provisions as well as executing the mechanisms of planning, administration, and control. In principle, this responsibility has not changed since the modern state emerged in Europe at the beginning of the 18th century, regardless of the…

  18. European Sitting Championship: Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Reported Sitting Time in the 28 European Union Member States

    PubMed Central

    Loyen, Anne; van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Bauman, Adrian; Brug, Johannes; Lakerveld, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Objective Sedentary behaviour is increasingly recognized as an important health risk, but comparable data across Europe are scarce. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of self-reported sitting time in adults across and within the 28 European Union Member States. Methods This study reports data from the Special Eurobarometer 412. In 2013, 27,919 randomly selected Europeans (approximately 1000 per Member State) were interviewed face-to-face. Sitting time on a usual day was self-reported and dichotomised into sitting less- and more than 7.5 hours per day. Uni- and multivariate odds ratios of sitting more than 7.5 hours per day were assessed by country and socio-demographic variables using binary logistic regression analyses. The analyses were stratified by country to study the socio-demographic correlates of sitting time within the different countries. Results A total of 26,617 respondents were included in the analyses. Median sitting time was five hours per day. Across Europe, 18.5 percent of the respondents reported to sit more than 7.5 hours per day, with substantial variation between countries (ranging from 8.9 to 32.1 percent). In general, northern European countries reported more sitting than countries in the south of Europe. ‘Current occupation’ and ‘age when stopped education’ were found to be the strongest correlates of sitting time, both across Europe and within most Member States. Compared to manual workers, the odds ratio of sitting more than 7.5 hours per day was 5.00 for people with white collar occupations, 3.84 for students, and 3.65 for managers. Conclusions There is substantial variation in self-reported sitting time among European adults across countries as well as socio-demographic groups. While regular surveillance of (objectively measured) sedentary behaviour is needed, the results of this study provide entry points for developing targeted interventions aimed at highly sedentary populations, such as

  19. Deciding when physicians are unfit to practise: an analysis of responsibilities, policy and practice in 11 European Union member states.

    PubMed

    Struckmann, Verena; Panteli, Dimitra; Legido-Quigley, Helena; Risso-Gill, Isabelle; McKee, Martin; Busse, Reinhard

    2015-08-01

    In 1974, the European Economic Community established mutual recognition of medical qualifications obtained in any of its member states. Subsequently, a series of directives has elaborated on the initial provisions, with the most recent enacted in 2013. However, greater movement of physicians across borders and some high-profile scandals have raised questions about how to prevent a physician sanctioned in one country from simply moving to another, without undermining the principle of free movement. A survey of key informants in 11 European Union (EU) member states was supplemented by a review of peer-reviewed and grey literature, with the results validated by independent reviewers. It examined processes, adjudicative and disciplinary measures that are in place to evaluate physicians about whom concerns arise, and related sanctions, along with other aspects of professional standards and regulation. Overall, responses varied greatly between participating countries, with respect to the institutions responsible for the regulation of medical professions, the investigation processes in place, and the terminology used in each member state. While the types of sanction (removal from the register of medical professionals and/or licence revocation, suspension, dismissal, reprimand, warnings, fines, as well as additional education and training) applied are similar, both the roles of the individuals involved and the level of public disclosure of information vary considerably. However, some key features, such as the involvement of professional peers in disciplinary panels and the involvement of courts in criminal cases, are similar in most member states studied. Given the variation in the regulatory context, individuals and processes involved that is illustrated by our findings, a common understanding of definitions of what constitutes competence to practise, its impairment and its potential impact on patient safety becomes particularly important. Public disclosure of

  20. FXR acetylation is normally dynamically regulated by p300 and SIRT1 but constitutively elevated in metabolic disease states.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Jongsook Kim; Xiao, Zhen; Ponugoti, Bhaskar; Miao, Ji; Fang, Sungsoon; Kanamaluru, Deepthi; Tsang, Stephanie; Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Chiang, Cheng-Ming; Veenstra, Timothy D

    2009-11-01

    The nuclear bile acid receptor FXR is critical for regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Here, we report that FXR is a target of SIRT1, a deacetylase that mediates nutritional and hormonal modulation of hepatic metabolism. Lysine 217 of FXR is the major acetylation site targeted by p300 and SIRT1. Acetylation of FXR increases its stability but inhibits heterodimerization with RXRalpha, DNA binding, and transactivation activity. Downregulation of hepatic SIRT1 increased FXR acetylation with deleterious metabolic outcomes. Surprisingly, in mouse models of metabolic disease, FXR interaction with SIRT1 and p300 was dramatically altered, FXR acetylation levels were elevated, and overexpression of SIRT1 or resveratrol treatment reduced acetylated FXR levels. Our data demonstrate that FXR acetylation is normally dynamically regulated by p300 and SIRT1 but is constitutively elevated in metabolic disease states. Small molecules that inhibit FXR acetylation by targeting SIRT1 or p300 may be promising therapeutic agents for metabolic disorders.

  1. Medical research in emergency research in the European Union member states: tensions between theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Kompanje, Erwin J O; Maas, Andrew I R; Menon, David K; Kesecioglu, Jozef

    2014-04-01

    In almost all of the European Union member states, prior consent by a legal representative is used as a substitute for informed patient consent for non-urgent medical research. Deferred (patient and/or proxy) consent is accepted as a substitute in acute emergency research in approximately half of the member states. In 12 European Union member states emergency research is not mentioned in national law. Medical research in the European Union is covered by the Clinical Trial Directive 2001/20/EC. A proposal for a regulation by the European Commission is currently being examined by the European Parliament and the Council and will replace Directive 2001/20/EC. Deferred patient and/or proxy consent is allowed in the proposed regulation, but does not fit completely in the practice of emergency research. For example, deferred consent is only possible when legal representatives are not available. This criterion will delay inclusion of patients in acute life-threatening conditions in short time frames. As the regulation shall be binding in its entirety in all member states, emergency research in acute situations is still not possible as it should be.

  2. Social inequalities in 'sickness': European welfare states and non-employment among the chronically ill.

    PubMed

    van der Wel, Kjetil A; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine educational inequalities in the risk of non-employment among people with illnesses and how they vary between European countries with different welfare state characteristics. In doing so, the paper adds to the growing literature on welfare states and social inequalities in health by studying the often overlooked 'sickness'-dimension of health, namely employment behaviour among people with illnesses. We use European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) data from 2005 covering 26 European countries linked to country characteristics derived from Eurostat and OECD that include spending on active labour market policies, benefit generosity, income inequality, and employment protection. Using multilevel techniques we find that comprehensive welfare states have lower absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness, as well as more favourable general rates of non-employment. Hence, regarding sickness, welfare resources appear to trump welfare disincentives.

  3. Forced organ donation: the presumed consent to organ donation laws of the various states and the United States Constitution.

    PubMed

    Powhida, A

    1999-01-01

    The issues presented in this Comment pertain to whether there are substantive limits imposed by the Fourteenth Amendment upon the state legislatures which would defeat the recent, tentative steps of many states to pass laws authorizing presumed consent to organ donation. The final and perhaps least effective presumed consent law creates a presumption of consent to organ donation. The potential organ donor makes the choice whether to donate or not during his lifetime. This form of the presumed consent law would probably have the least impact on increasing the number of available donor organs. It permitted the coroner to harvest the eyes and corneas of deceased individuals if the coroner was unaware of objections from either the decedent or the family of the decedent. Presumed consent statutes should be found unconstitutional because they infringe upon a family's property interest in a deceased relative's corpse. However, due to the family's property interest in a relative's deceased body, as set forth in the next section, the result is that presumed consent statutes are unconstitutional. In order to find the presumed consent law unconstitutional, the Court would have to find that either: (a) the Fourteenth Amendment's liberty component included the family's right to determine what happens to a relative's body after death, or (b) that the property component included a vested state law property interest in the dead body.

  4. The Role of European Welfare States in Explaining Resources Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muffels, Ruud; Fouarge, Didier

    2004-01-01

    In a previous paper in this journal (Headey et al., 2000) a comparison was made between three so-called 'best cases' of welfare regime types, the 'Liberal' US, 'the 'Corporatist' Germany and the 'Social-Democratic' Netherlands. The main conclusion was that the Social-Democratic welfare state performed best on nearly all social and economic…

  5. Occupational skin diseases: actual state analysis of patient management pathways in 28 European countries.

    PubMed

    Mahler, V; Aalto-Korte, K; Alfonso, J H; Bakker, J G; Bauer, A; Bensefa-Colas, L; Boman, A; Bourke, J; Bubaš, M; Bulat, P; Chaloupka, J; Constandt, L; Danielsen, T E; Darlenski, R; Dugonik, A; Ettler, K; Gimenez-Arnau, A; Gonçalo, M; Johansen, J D; John, S M; Kiec-Swierczynska, M; Koch, P; Kohánka, V; Krecisz, B; Larese Filon, F; Ljubojević, S; Macan, J; Marinović, B; Matura, M; Mihatsch, P W; Mijakoski, D; Minov, J; Pace, J; Pesonen, M; Ramada Rodilla, J M; Rast, H; Reljic, V; Salavastru, C; Schuster, C; Schuttelaar, M L; Simon, D; Spiewak, R; Jurakic Tončić, R; Urbanček, S; Valiukevičienė, S; Weinert, P; Wilkinson, M; Uter, W

    2017-06-01

    Work-related skin diseases (WSD) are caused or worsened by a professional activity. Occupational skin diseases (OSD) need to fulfil additional legal criteria which differ from country to country. OSD range amongst the five most frequently notified occupational diseases (musculoskeletal diseases, neurologic diseases, lung diseases, diseases of the sensory organs, skin diseases) in Europe. To retrieve information and compare the current state of national frameworks and pathways to manage patients with occupational skin disease with regard to prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation in different European countries. A questionnaire-based survey of the current situation regarding OSD patient management pathways was carried out with experts on occupational dermatology and/or occupational medicine from 28 European countries contributing to the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action TD 1206 (StanDerm) (www.standerm.eu). Besides a national health service or a statutory health insurance, most European member states implemented a second insurance scheme specifically geared at occupational diseases [insurance against occupational risks (synonyms: insurance against work accidents and occupational injuries; statutory social accident insurance)]. Legal standards for the assessment of occupationally triggered diseases with a genetic background differ between different countries, however, in most European member states recognition as OSD is possible. In one-third of the countries UV light-induced tumours can be recognized as OSD under specific conditions. OSD definitions vary between European countries and are not directly comparable, which hampers comparisons between statistics collected in different countries. Awareness of this fact and further efforts for standardization are necessary. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  6. Multiscale verification of water fluxes and states over Pan European river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaniego, Luis; Rakovec, Oldrich; Schaefer, David; Kumar, Rohini; Cuntz, Matthias; Mai, Juliane; Craven, John

    2014-05-01

    Developing the ability to predict the movement of water at regional scales with a spatial resolution from 1 to 5 km is one of grand challenges in land surface modelling. Coping with this grand challenge implies that land surface models (LSM) should be able to make reliable predictions across locations and/or scales other than those used for parameter estimation. Validating LSM only against integral basin response such as streamflow is a necessary but not a sufficient condition to warranty the appropriate partitioning of incoming precipitation and radiation into different water budget components. Extensive in-situ observations of state variables (e.g., soil moisture), on the contrary, are not feasible at regional scales. Remote sensing has been considered as the solution for this dilemma because they constitute a cost-effective source of information and provide a valuable insight about the spatio-temporal patterns of state variables. Their main disadvantage is their large uncertainty. The mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM 5.0 http://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=31389) is used in this study to estimate uncalibrated water fluxes and states and then to investigate which are the effects of conditioning this model with freely available multiple-scale data sets. The main characteristic of mHM is the treatment of the sub-grid variability of input variables and model parameters which clearly distinguishes this model from existing precipitation-runoff models or land surface models. It uses a Multiscale Parameter Regionalization (MPR) to account for the sub-grid variability and to avoid systematic re-calibration. Another key characteristic of mHM is that it can simultaneously estimate fluxes in nested-scales and/or in multiple basins keeping its global parameters (i.e., regionalization coefficients) unaltered across scales and basins. These key characteristics of the model would allow to assimilate disparate sources of information such as satellite data, streamflow gauging stations

  7. Mobbing in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the member states of the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    Mobbing as a specific form of discrimination which applies only to the labor law, is a very young branch of labor law. It began to develop during the eighties of last century. This kind of psychoterror that appears in the workplace, was first spotted, formulated and diagnosed by the Swedish psychologist of German origin prof. Dr. Heinz Lejman (Heinz Leymann July 17, 1932.; Wolfenbuttel, Germany - 1999 Stockholm, Sweden). Today, the legal regulation of mobbing in terms of prevention, rules of behavior and sanctions is indispensable to every modern democratic state. I'll make a comparison of the legislative regulation provided by BiH with several European Union member states. I will compare the results of a survey conducted by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Condition, during the year 2000. In the European Union Member States, with the results of the questionnaire for employees, which I conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The conclusion I came to in this paper is: Bosnia and Herzegovina is lagging behind a lot of European Union member states, both in terms of prevention of mobbing, as well as legislation, that is insufficient to regulate this complex issue. Results of the questionnaire for the employees that I conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina are devastating and alarming.

  8. Economic Goals, Quality Discourse and the Narrowing of European State Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillies, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Quality management theory pervades education policy across Europe. In this article its prevalence is examined through analysis of policy texts drawn from 16 different state systems in Europe, as well as from the European Union and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The article argues that Quality discourse has…

  9. Main bibliographic database in European ethics for EU New Member States.

    PubMed

    Leskosek, Branimir L; Dimec, Jure

    2007-10-11

    The paper presents Eureth.net network's web-based database information system (IS) used by project partners from EU New Member States (NMS) to collect bibliographic records from bioethics domains. The IS development was focused mainly on: records compatibility with other Eureth.net databases; support for all European character sets; minimalisation of network traffic; security issues and low establishment and maintenance costs.

  10. Forming a Transnational Narrative: New Perspectives on European Migrations to the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, David A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to demonstrate the relevance of transnationalism to understanding historical European international migrations to the United States. The author attempts to do this in two ways. First, through analysis and critique of the historical literature, including his own past work, this essay demonstrates the ways in which a…

  11. Economic Goals, Quality Discourse and the Narrowing of European State Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillies, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Quality management theory pervades education policy across Europe. In this article its prevalence is examined through analysis of policy texts drawn from 16 different state systems in Europe, as well as from the European Union and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The article argues that Quality discourse has…

  12. The Multidimensionality of Welfare State Attitudes: A European Cross-National Study.

    PubMed

    Roosma, Femke; Gelissen, John; van Oorschot, Wim

    2013-08-01

    When evaluating the various aspects of the welfare state, people assess some aspects more positively than others. Following a multidimensional approach, this study systematically argues for a framework composed of seven dimensions of the welfare state, which are subject to the opinions of the public. Using confirmatory factor analyses, this conceptual framework of multidimensional welfare attitudes was tested on cross-national data from 22 countries participating in the 2008 European Social Survey. According to our empirical analysis, attitudes towards the welfare state are multidimensional; in general, people are very positive about the welfare state's goals and range, while simultaneously being critical of its efficiency, effectiveness and policy outcomes. We found that these dimensions relate to each other differently in different countries. Eastern/Southern Europeans combine a positive attitude towards the goals and role of government with a more critical attitude towards the welfare state's efficiency and policy outcomes. In contrast, Western/Northern Europeans' attitudes towards the various welfare state dimensions are based partly on a fundamentally positive or negative stance towards the welfare state.

  13. Thomas Jefferson and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Merrill D.

    1987-01-01

    Examines Thomas Jefferson's role in the making and interpretation of the United States Constitution. Discusses the dominant features of Jefferson's constitutional theory; the character of Jefferson's presidency; and Jefferson's ongoing concern about constitutional preservation and change. Lists important dates in the history of the constitution.…

  14. Ethics and constitutional government.

    PubMed

    Albright, James A

    2007-01-01

    The term ethics refers to a set of principles that govern acceptable, proper conduct. Attacks on the Constitution of the United States pose the most serious breach of ethics today. Our country was founded as a republic, not as a democracy. Our Founding Fathers' main concern was to protect citizens from the power of the federal government, so constitutionally, the central government has little or no authority over individual citizens except on federal property. One of the major problems today is the fact that we now have professional politicians. This is due in large part to the lure of financial gain from countless special interest groups. This would change under constitutional law because the federal budget would decrease drastically. Article 1 states that all legislative power is vested in Congress. Congress has only 18 enumerated powers, and almost half of these pertain to defense of the country. Many of our current problems are due to regulatory agencies that have become independent fiefdoms with unconstitutional legislative, as well as executive and judicial, powers. The regulatory agency most relevant to medicine, both clinical care and research, is the FDA. It is now obvious that its basic structure needs to be changed or abolished because its actions are identical to those inherent in authoritarian systems. Constructive change could come from Congress, but it would be most desirable if the Supreme Court would take the lead and reestablish the authority of the Constitution as the Supreme Law of the Land. The FDA's function could be limited to the determination of safety, but preferably its mission would be altered to that of product certification. Defenders of the current system claim that such a drastic change would be too dangerous and their prime example is thalidomide. But it is now known that the market has already solved that problem prior to the government-imposed sanctions. Realistically, market forces and their ramifications, including our legal

  15. [Regulation of food supplements in the European Union and its member states. Part 2].

    PubMed

    Petrenko, A S; Ponomareva, M N; Sukhanov, B P

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses various aspects of the regional (the European Union) and national (European countries) regulation related to food supplements. The use of botanicals and minor bioactive substances in food supplements, and their labelling are studied. The EU principle of mutual recognition is described in the context of current challenges that exist in the regulatory harmonisation between the EU member states. The concept of novel foods and novel ingredients is also presented, and the procedure of their pre-market approval is described in detail. Basic principles of using claims for food supplements are also outlined.

  16. Decree No. 50 of 10 January 1989 amending and adding to the Political Constitution of the State of Coahuila.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Among other things, this Coahuila, Mexico Constitution provides the following: 1) minors have a right to a wholesome life, health, alimentation, education, culture, recreation, preparation for employment, and the achievement of a dignified life within the family; 2) parents have the duty to protect the rights of minors to have their necessities satisfied and to achieve mental and physical health; laws should protect minors from the time of conception and determine ways of supporting their protection by means of public institutions; 3) the elderly have a right to respect and consideration and when they are abandoned, and the state shall promote their well-being through a system of social services that attend to their specific problems of health, food, housing, and recreation; 4) equal rights for men and women are recognized in all areas of cultural, social, legal, political, and economic life; 5) every person has a right to health protection; and 6) every family has a right to dignified and proper housing.

  17. FXR acetylation is normally dynamically regulated by p300 and SIRT1 but constitutively elevated in metabolic disease states

    PubMed Central

    Kemper, Jongsook Kim; Xiao, Zhen; Ponugoti, Bhaskar; Miao, Ji; Fang, Sungsoon; Kanamaluru, Deepthi; Tsang, Stephanie; Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Chiang, Cheng-Ming; Veenstra, Timothy D.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The nuclear bile acid receptor FXR is critical for regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Here we report that FXR is a target of SIRT1, a deacetylase that mediates nutritional and hormonal modulation of hepatic metabolism. Lysine 217 of FXR is the major acetylation site targeted by p300 and SIRT1. Acetylation of FXR increases its stability but inhibits heterodimerization with RXRα, DNA binding, and transactivation activity. Down-regulation of hepatic SIRT1 increased FXR acetylation with deleterious metabolic outcomes. Surprisingly, in mouse models of metabolic disease, FXR interaction with SIRT1 and p300 was dramatically altered, FXR acetylation levels were elevated, and overexpression of SIRT1 or resveratrol treatment reduced acetylated FXR levels. Our data demonstrate that FXR acetylation is normally dynamically regulated by p300 and SIRT1 but is constitutively elevated in metabolic disease states. Small molecules that inhibit FXR acetylation by targeting SIRT1 or p300 may be promising therapeutic agents for metabolic disorders. PMID:19883617

  18. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States allowing the States to call a limited convention solely for the purposes of considering whether to propose a specific amendment to the Constitution.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Minnick, Walter [D-ID-1

    2010-07-30

    House - 09/20/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States to give citizens of the United States the right to propose amendments to the Constitution by an initiative process.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Hoekstra, Peter [R-MI-2

    2010-01-21

    House - 03/01/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. 36 CFR 1206.41 - What is a state historical records advisory board and how is it constituted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... records coordination within the State and for NHPRC State and local records projects within the State. The... reviews all State and local records projects within the State and makes recommendations for State projects... research institutions and organizations in the State. ...

  1. Constitutional Conservatism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Peter

    2009-01-01

    After their dismal performance in election 2008, conservatives are taking stock. As they examine the causes that have driven them into the political wilderness and as they explore paths out, they should also take heart. After all, election 2008 shows that America's constitutional order is working as designed. Indeed, while sorting out their errors…

  2. A balancing act? Work-life balance, health and well-being in European welfare states.

    PubMed

    Lunau, Thorsten; Bambra, Clare; Eikemo, Terje A; van der Wel, Kjetil A; Dragano, Nico

    2014-06-01

    Recent analyses have shown that adverse psychosocial working conditions, such as job strain and effort-reward imbalance, vary by country and welfare state regimes. Another work-related factor with potential impact on health is a poor work-life balance. The aims of this study are to determine the association between a poor work-life balance and poor health across a variety of European countries and to explore the variation of work-life balance between European countries. Data from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey were used with 24,096 employees in 27 European countries. Work-life balance is measured with a question on the fit between working hours and family or social commitments. The WHO-5 well-being index and self-rated general health are used as health indicators. Logistic multilevel models were calculated to assess the association between work-life balance and health indicators and to explore the between-country variation of a poor work-life balance. Employees reporting a poor work-life balance reported more health problems (Poor well-being: OR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.83-2.31; Poor self-rated health: OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.84-2.17). The associations were very similar for men and women. A considerable part of the between-country variation of work-life balance is explained by working hours, working time regulations and welfare state regimes. The best overall work-life balance is reported by Scandinavian men and women. This study provides some evidence on the public health impact of a poor work-life balance and that working time regulations and welfare state characteristics can influence the work-life balance of employees. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  3. Constitution, 29 October 1987.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This document contains provisions of chapter 2 (Rights and Duties of Citizens) of the 1987 Constitution of the Republic of Korea relating to equality of the sexes, freedom of movement, free and compulsory education, equal opportunity at work, social protection, housing, and health care. The Constitution states that all citizens are equal before the law with no discrimination in political, economic, social, or cultural life based on sex, religion, or social status. The Constitution also protects freedom of residence and mobility, the right to an equal education, free compulsory education, and working mothers (with specific protection against discrimination). The Constitution directs the state to promote the welfare and rights of women, enhance the welfare of the aged and the young, and protect those incapable of earning a living. Housing development policies will be used to ensure comfortable housing for all citizens. State protection is afforded to mothers and to the health of all citizens.

  4. Proposing an amendment the Constitution of the United States respecting the right to a clean, safe, and sustainable environment.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Jackson, Jesse L., Jr. [D-IL-2

    2009-03-03

    House - 03/16/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States to protect the rights of crime victims.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Stupak, Bart [D-MI-1

    2009-07-09

    House - 08/19/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States relative to equal rights for men and women.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Maloney, Carolyn B. [D-NY-14

    2009-07-21

    House - 10/19/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States relating to equality of rights and reproductive rights.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Jackson, Jesse L., Jr. [D-IL-2

    2009-03-03

    House - 03/16/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States to repeal the sixteenth article of amendment.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. King, Steve [R-IA-5

    2009-01-08

    House - 02/09/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States giving Congress power to regulate campaign contributions for Federal elections.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Schrader, Kurt [D-OR-5

    2010-05-13

    House - 06/15/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States respecting the right to full employment and balanced growth.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Jackson, Jesse L., Jr. [D-IL-2

    2009-03-03

    House - 03/16/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Delay and restricted access of new molecules in Turkey compared to the United States and European Union

    PubMed Central

    Şahin, Toros; Yeşil, Atakan; Topcu, Türker

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study compares the performances of new-molecule (NM) launches in Turkey with those in the European Union and United States for the years 2007–2013. Methods The Thomson Reuters Newport Horizon for Innovators Database is used to identify NMs with a launch date after January 1, 2007, worldwide and marketing authorization approval after January 1, 2007, in the European Union. The launch dates for the European Union, the United States, and Turkey were retrieved from the same database. Data for Turkey were confirmed via IMS and RxMedia. Results Out of 183 records identified that are launched in the European Union, the United States, or both, 44 of the NMs are launched in Turkey (24%). Conclusion The results of this study show that 24% of the NMs that are launched in either the European Union or United States were able to be launched in Turkey with a mean delay of 821 days (2.25 years). PMID:27226824

  12. Hospital Exemption for Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products: Issue in Application in the European Union Member States.

    PubMed

    Ivaskiene, Tatjana; Mauricas, Mykolas; Ivaska, Justinas

    2017-01-01

    Regulation (EC) 1394/2007 of the European Parliament and the Council on advanced therapy medicinal products and amending Directive 2001/83/EC and Regulation (EC) No 726/2004 allowed the use of non - authorized advanced therapy medicinal products under the certain circumstances. This socalled hospital exemption rule needs to be applied in the each Member State of the European Union individually and for this purpose Member States should provide national procedures and control measures. The aim of this article is to clear up the criteria for hospital exemption listed in Regulation (EC) 1394/2007 and to contrast the difference in implementing hospital exemption rule into national legal regimes on examples of the United Kingdom, Lithuania and Poland.

  13. Statement before the Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, on the Operations of the United States Commission on Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, William J.

    This report presents the findings of an investigation and audit of certain aspects of the operations of the United States Commission on Civil Rights commissioned by the Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights. First, each allegation made against the Commission is briefly outlined and then findings are discussed…

  14. The Impact of Teacher Efficacy and Student Engagement on Eleventh-Grade South Carolina U.S History and Constitution End-of-Course State Exam Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persinski, Jacqueline L.

    2015-01-01

    This research study analyzed the impact of teacher self-efficacy and student engagement on eleventh-grade South Carolina U.S. History and Constitution end-of-course state exam scores. Research questions centered on analyzing the relationships between the variables of teacher efficacy, student engagement, and student achievement as measured by the…

  15. Draft of the U.S. Constitution (August 1787) and Schedule of the Compensation of the Senate of the United States (March 1791)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussey, Michael; Greenhut, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This article features two documents which can serve as a starting point for a lesson on public service while students debate the amount of pay that public servants should receive. These are: (1) the printed draft of the Constitution showing George Washington's handwritten corrections that eliminated state payments and included the phrase "to be…

  16. Affidavit and Flyers from the Chinese Boycott Case. The Constitution Community: The Development of the Industrial United States (1870-1900).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Mary Frances

    Under Article I, Section 8, Clause 4, of the United States Constitution, the U.S. Congress is granted the power to "establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization." With passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882, Congress exercised this authority, denying the rights of citizenship to all Chinese immigrants. The Chinese Boycott Case…

  17. Draft of the U.S. Constitution (August 1787) and Schedule of the Compensation of the Senate of the United States (March 1791)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussey, Michael; Greenhut, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This article features two documents which can serve as a starting point for a lesson on public service while students debate the amount of pay that public servants should receive. These are: (1) the printed draft of the Constitution showing George Washington's handwritten corrections that eliminated state payments and included the phrase "to be…

  18. The Impact of Teacher Efficacy and Student Engagement on Eleventh-Grade South Carolina U.S History and Constitution End-of-Course State Exam Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persinski, Jacqueline L.

    2015-01-01

    This research study analyzed the impact of teacher self-efficacy and student engagement on eleventh-grade South Carolina U.S. History and Constitution end-of-course state exam scores. Research questions centered on analyzing the relationships between the variables of teacher efficacy, student engagement, and student achievement as measured by the…

  19. Comparison of VOC regulations in the United States and key European countries

    SciTech Connect

    Woodside, K.R.

    1997-12-31

    The reduction of VOC emissions from developed countries is a matter of global concern, since it is a well documented phenomena that the compounds, when present at ground level, serve as a precursor to the formation of ozone. The presence of ozone is detrimental and a matter of concern to human, animal and plant life. The comprehensive goal of international governmental environmental agencies is to lower the net mass of volatile organic compounds released into the atmosphere, avoiding the ozone forming potential. The methodology of regulating VOC emissions in the United States is well known and understood. Over the past twenty years, the European Community (EC) has devised and adopted a substantial body of environmental legislation which encompasses regulating VOC emissions, applying many approaches to the problem, as well as an emerging overall set of complex standards from the European member states. Determining the equilibrium in protection of human and environmental concerns with the balance of business competition in light of financial liabilities for regulating new and existing facilities has been politically controversial. The regulatory approaches of several key European countries are succinctly synposized and compared to each other and to the familiar regulatory protocol that has been applied in the United States.

  20. Wavelet modeling and prediction of the stability of states: the Roman Empire and the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroshenko, Tatyana Y.; Krysko, Dmitri V.; Dobriyan, Vitalii; Zhigalov, Maksim V.; Vos, Hendrik; Vandenabeele, Peter; Krysko, Vadim A.

    2015-09-01

    How can the stability of a state be quantitatively determined and its future stability predicted? The rise and collapse of empires and states is very complex, and it is exceedingly difficult to understand and predict it. Existing theories are usually formulated as verbal models and, consequently, do not yield sharply defined, quantitative prediction that can be unambiguously validated with data. Here we describe a model that determines whether the state is in a stable or chaotic condition and predicts its future condition. The central model, which we test, is that growth and collapse of states is reflected by the changes of their territories, populations and budgets. The model was simulated within the historical societies of the Roman Empire (400 BC to 400 AD) and the European Union (1957-2007) by using wavelets and analysis of the sign change of the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents. The model matches well with the historical events. During wars and crises, the state becomes unstable; this is reflected in the wavelet analysis by a significant increase in the frequency ω (t) and wavelet coefficients W (ω, t) and the sign of the largest Lyapunov exponent becomes positive, indicating chaos. We successfully reconstructed and forecasted time series in the Roman Empire and the European Union by applying artificial neural network. The proposed model helps to quantitatively determine and forecast the stability of a state.

  1. An overview of Compassionate Use Programs in the European Union member states.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Gayathri; Morampudi, Suman; Chhabra, Pankdeep; Gowda, Arun; Zomorodi, Behsad

    2016-11-01

    The past decade witnessed rapid development of novel drugs and therapeutic biological agents. The marketing authorization for novel therapies is often time consuming and distressing for patients. Earlier clinical trials were the only way to access new drugs under development. However, not every patient meets the enrolment criteria, and participation is difficult for patients with life-threatening, long-lasting or seriously debilitating diseases like rare diseases. Early access programs like "Compassionate Use Program (CUP)" have generated alternative channels for such patients. The European Medical Agency provides regulations and recommendations for compassionate use, upon which every European Union (EU) member state has developed its own rules and regulations. Despite previous reviews and studies, the available information is limited and gaps exist. This literature review explores CUP in 28 EU member states. Data was collected through literature review and use of country-specific search terms from the healthcare domain. Data sources were not limited to databases and articles published in journals, but also included grey literature. The results implied that CUP was present in 20 EU member states (71%). Of 28 EU states, 18 (∼64%) had nationalized regulations and processes were well-defined. Overall, this review identified CUP and its current status and legislation in 28 EU member states. The established legislation for CUP in the EU member states suggest their willingness to adopt processes that facilitate earlier and better access to new medicines. Further research and periodic reviews are warranted to understand the contemporary and future regulatory trends in early access programs.

  2. Making european-style community wind power development work in theUnited States

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark A.

    2004-04-26

    Once primarily a European phenomenon, community wind power development--defined here as one or more locally owned, utility-scale wind turbines interconnected on either the customer or utility side of the meter--is gaining a foothold in an increasing number of states throughout the United States. This article describes the various policies and incentives that Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Massachusetts are using to support community wind power development, and how state and federal support influences the types of projects and ownership structures that are being developed. Experience in these states demonstrates that, with an array of incentives and creative financing schemes targeted at community-scale projects, there are opportunities to make community wind work in the United States.

  3. The Contribution of National Disparities to International Differences in Mortality Between the United States and 7 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Avendano, Mauricio; Berkman, Lisa F.; Bopp, Matthias; Deboosere, Patrick; Lundberg, Olle; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; van Lenthe, Frank J.; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined to what extent the higher mortality in the United States compared to many European countries is explained by larger social disparities within the United States. We estimated the expected US mortality if educational disparities in the United States were similar to those in 7 European countries. Methods. Poisson models were used to quantify the association between education and mortality for men and women aged 30 to 74 years in the United States, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland for the period 1989 to 2003. US data came from the National Health Interview Survey linked to the National Death Index and the European data came from censuses linked to national mortality registries. Results. If people in the United States had the same distribution of education as their European counterparts, the US mortality disadvantage would be larger. However, if educational disparities in mortality within the United States equaled those within Europe, mortality differences between the United States and Europe would be reduced by 20% to 100%. Conclusions. Larger educational disparities in mortality in the United States than in Europe partly explain why US adults have higher mortality than their European counterparts. Policies to reduce mortality among the lower educated will be necessary to bridge the mortality gap between the United States and European countries. PMID:25713947

  4. The contribution of national disparities to international differences in mortality between the United States and 7 European countries.

    PubMed

    van Hedel, Karen; Avendano, Mauricio; Berkman, Lisa F; Bopp, Matthias; Deboosere, Patrick; Lundberg, Olle; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; van Lenthe, Frank J; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2015-04-01

    This study examined to what extent the higher mortality in the United States compared to many European countries is explained by larger social disparities within the United States. We estimated the expected US mortality if educational disparities in the United States were similar to those in 7 European countries. Poisson models were used to quantify the association between education and mortality for men and women aged 30 to 74 years in the United States, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland for the period 1989 to 2003. US data came from the National Health Interview Survey linked to the National Death Index and the European data came from censuses linked to national mortality registries. If people in the United States had the same distribution of education as their European counterparts, the US mortality disadvantage would be larger. However, if educational disparities in mortality within the United States equaled those within Europe, mortality differences between the United States and Europe would be reduced by 20% to 100%. Larger educational disparities in mortality in the United States than in Europe partly explain why US adults have higher mortality than their European counterparts. Policies to reduce mortality among the lower educated will be necessary to bridge the mortality gap between the United States and European countries.

  5. The State of Ethical Learning of Students in the Spanish University System: Considerations for the European Higher Education Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buxarrais, Maria Rosa; Esteban, Francisco; Mellen, Teodor

    2015-01-01

    With the establishment of the European higher education area (EHEA), the ethical learning of students is a matter of central importance in European universities. This paper examines the current state of ethical learning of students in the Spanish university system. We present the results of a descriptive survey, which used a training model for…

  6. The State of Ethical Learning of Students in the Spanish University System: Considerations for the European Higher Education Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buxarrais, Maria Rosa; Esteban, Francisco; Mellen, Teodor

    2015-01-01

    With the establishment of the European higher education area (EHEA), the ethical learning of students is a matter of central importance in European universities. This paper examines the current state of ethical learning of students in the Spanish university system. We present the results of a descriptive survey, which used a training model for…

  7. Scientific collaboration between 'old' and 'new' member states: Did joining the European Union make a difference?

    PubMed

    Makkonen, Teemu; Mitze, Timo

    This paper provides new insights on the effects of the enlargement of the European Union (EU) and European integration by investigating the issue of scientific collaboration within the new EU member states vis-à-vis the old EU member states. The question addressed is whether the EU membership following the two enlargement waves 2004 and 2007 has significantly increased the co-publication intensity of the new member states with other member countries. The empirical results based on data collected from the Web of Science database and Difference-in-Difference estimations point towards a conclusion that joining the EU indeed has had an additional positive impact on the co-publication intensity between the new and old member states and, in particular, within the new member states themselves. These results give tentative support for the successfulness of the EU's science policies in achieving a common 'internal market' in research. We also find evidence for early anticipation effects of the consecutive EU accession.

  8. Governing Education in Europe: A "New" Policy Space of European Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlos, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    European Schools are a particular type of school that are not integrated into any national education system but are nonetheless official educational establishments that constitute a European Schools System (ESS) governed jointly by the Member States of the European Union. This positioning creates particularly interesting issues of governance that…

  9. Governing Education in Europe: A "New" Policy Space of European Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlos, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    European Schools are a particular type of school that are not integrated into any national education system but are nonetheless official educational establishments that constitute a European Schools System (ESS) governed jointly by the Member States of the European Union. This positioning creates particularly interesting issues of governance that…

  10. A joint resolution proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States requiring that the Federal budget be balanced.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Lee, Mike [R-UT

    2011-02-03

    11/30/2011 Committee on the Judiciary Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights and Human Rights. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-512. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. A joint resolution proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States relative to balancing the budget.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. McConnell, Mitch [R-KY

    2011-06-29

    11/30/2011 Committee on the Judiciary Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights and Human Rights. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-512. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. A joint resolution proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States relative to balancing the budget.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. McConnell, Mitch [R-KY

    2011-06-29

    11/30/2011 Committee on the Judiciary Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights and Human Rights. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-512. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. A joint resolution proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States requiring that the Federal budget be balanced.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Lee, Mike [R-UT

    2011-02-03

    Senate - 11/30/2011 Committee on the Judiciary Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights and Human Rights. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-512. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. A joint resolution proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States relative to balancing the budget.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. McConnell, Mitch [R-KY

    2011-06-29

    Senate - 11/30/2011 Committee on the Judiciary Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights and Human Rights. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-512. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. This Constitution: A Bicentennial Chronicle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    This Constitution, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Providing a link between constitutional scholars and the planners of school and public programs observing the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution, this series of the Bicentennial Chronicles features articles that provide a link between scholars of the Constitution and the people who will be planning programs for the public and for the…

  16. Oral health and welfare state regimes: a cross-national analysis of European countries.

    PubMed

    Guarnizo-Herreño, Carol C; Tsakos, Georgios; Sheiham, Aubrey; Watt, Richard G

    2013-06-01

    Very little is known about the potential relationship between welfare state regimes and oral health. This study assessed the oral health of adults in a range of European countries clustered by welfare regimes according to Ferrera's typology and the complementary Eastern type. We analysed data from Eurobarometer wave 72.3, a cross-sectional survey of 31 European countries carried out in 2009. We evaluated three self-reported oral health outcomes: edentulousness, no functional dentition (<20 natural teeth), and oral impacts on daily living. Age-standardized prevalence rates were estimated for each country and for each welfare state regime. The Scandinavian regime showed lower prevalence rates for all outcomes. For edentulousness and no functional dentition, there were higher prevalence rates in the Eastern regime but no significant differences between Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, and Southern regimes. The Southern regime presented a higher prevalence of oral impacts on daily living. Results by country indicated that Sweden had the lowest prevalences for edentulousness and no functional dentition, and Denmark had the lowest prevalence for oral impacts. The results suggest that Scandinavian welfare states, with more redistributive and universal welfare policies, had better population oral health. Future research should provide further insights about the potential mechanisms through which welfare-state regimes would influence oral health.

  17. Oral health and welfare state regimes: a cross-national analysis of European countries

    PubMed Central

    Guarnizo-Herreño, Carol C; Tsakos, Georgios; Sheiham, Aubrey; Watt, Richard G

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the potential relationship between welfare state regimes and oral health. This study assessed the oral health of adults in a range of European countries clustered by welfare regimes according to Ferrera's typology and the complementary Eastern type. We analysed data from Eurobarometer wave 72.3, a cross-sectional survey of 31 European countries carried out in 2009. We evaluated three self-reported oral health outcomes: edentulousness, no functional dentition (<20 natural teeth), and oral impacts on daily living. Age-standardized prevalence rates were estimated for each country and for each welfare state regime. The Scandinavian regime showed lower prevalence rates for all outcomes. For edentulousness and no functional dentition, there were higher prevalence rates in the Eastern regime but no significant differences between Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, and Southern regimes. The Southern regime presented a higher prevalence of oral impacts on daily living. Results by country indicated that Sweden had the lowest prevalences for edentulousness and no functional dentition, and Denmark had the lowest prevalence for oral impacts. The results suggest that Scandinavian welfare states, with more redistributive and universal welfare policies, had better population oral health. Future research should provide further insights about the potential mechanisms through which welfare-state regimes would influence oral health. PMID:23659239

  18. United States/European Union Co-ordination with HR Wallingford on Dredged Material Fate Modelling Improvements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    United States Army EUROPEAN RESEARCH OFFICE OF THE U.S. ARMY London, England CONTRACT NUMBER N68171-01-M-5407 HR Wallingford Report No EX 4891...Netherlands, The United Kingdom , Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany. When all of the comments have been collated the protocols will be finalised. There... United States/European Union Co-ordination with HR Wallingford on Dredged Material Fate Modelling Improvements Final Report – April 2003 by T N Burt

  19. Government financial support for civil aircraft research, technology and development in four European countries and the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, B.; Golaszewski, R.; Patten, C.; Rudman, B.; Scott, R.

    1980-01-01

    Data on the levels of government financial support for civil aircraft airframe and engine (CAAE) research and technology (R&T) in the United States and Europe (United Kingdom, West Germany, France and The Netherlands) and means of comparing these levels are provided. Data are presented for the years 1974-1977. European R&T expenditure data were obtained through visits to each of the four European countries, to the Washington office of the European Communities, and by a search of applicable literature. CAAE R&T expenditure data for the United States were obtained from NASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

  20. Biohistorical approaches to "race" in the United States: Biological distances among African Americans, European Americans, and their ancestors.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Heather J H

    2009-05-01

    Folk taxonomies of race are the categorizations used by people in their everyday judgments concerning the persons around them. As cultural traditions, folk taxonomies may shape gene flow so that it is unequal among groups sharing geography. The history of the United States is one of disparate people being brought together from around the globe, and provides a natural experiment for exploring the relationship between culture and gene flow. The biohistories of African Americans and European Americans were compared to examine whether population histories are shaped by culture when geography and language are shared. Dental morphological data were used to indicate phenotypic similarity, allowing diachronic change through United States history to be considered. Samples represented contemporary and historic African Americans and European Americans and their West African and European ancestral populations (N = 1445). Modified Mahalanobis' D(2) and Mean Measure of Divergence statistics examined how biological distances change through time among the samples. Results suggest the social acceptance for mating between descendents of Western Europeans and Eastern and Southern European migrants to the United States produced relatively rapid gene flow between the groups. Although African Americans have been in the United States much longer than most Eastern and Southern Europeans, social barriers have been historically stronger between them and European Americans. These results indicate that gene flow is in part shaped by cultural factors such as folk taxonomies of race, and have implications for understanding contemporary human variation, relationships among prehistoric populations, and forensic anthropology. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. European monitoring for raptors and owls: state of the art and future needs.

    PubMed

    Kovács, András; Mammen, Ubbo C C; Wernham, Chris V

    2008-09-01

    Sixty-four percent of the 56 raptor and owl species that occur in Europe have an unfavorable conservation status. As well as requiring conservation measures in their own right, raptors and owls function as useful sentinels of wider environmental "health," because they are widespread top predators, relatively easy to monitor, and sensitive to environmental changes at a range of geographical scales. At a time of global acknowledgment of an increasing speed of biodiversity loss, and new, forward-looking and related European Union biodiversity policy, there is an urgent need to improve coordination at a pan-European scale of national initiatives that seek to monitor raptor populations. Here we describe current initiatives that make a contribution to this aim, particularly the current "MEROS" program, the results of a questionnaire survey on the current state of national raptor monitoring across 22 BirdLife Partners in Europe, the challenges faced by any enhanced pan-European monitoring scheme for raptors, and some suggested pathways for efficiently tapping expertise to contribute to such an initiative.

  2. Multilevel Governance and Shared Sovereignty: European Union, Member States, and the FCTC

    PubMed Central

    MAMUDU, HADII M.; STUDLAR, DONLEY T.

    2010-01-01

    The Westphalian idea of sovereignty in international relations has undergone recent transformation. “Shared sovereignty” through multilevel governance describes the responsibility of the European Union (EU) and its Member States in tobacco control policy. We examine how this has occurred on the EU level through directives and recommendations, accession rules for new members, tobacco control campaigns, and financial support for antitobacco nongovernmental organizations. In particular, the negotiation and ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and the participation in the FCTC Conference of the Parties illustrates shared sovereignty. The EU Commission was the lead negotiator for Member States on issues over which it had jurisdiction, while individual Member States, through the EU presidency, could negotiate on issues on which authority was divided or remained with them. Shared sovereignty through multilevel governance has become the norm in the tobacco control policy area for EU members, including having one international organization negotiate within the context of another. PMID:20622934

  3. An overview of Compassionate Use Programs in the European Union member states

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Gayathri; Morampudi, Suman; Chhabra, Pankdeep; Gowda, Arun; Zomorodi, Behsad

    2016-01-01

    Summary The past decade witnessed rapid development of novel drugs and therapeutic biological agents. The marketing authorization for novel therapies is often time consuming and distressing for patients. Earlier clinical trials were the only way to access new drugs under development. However, not every patient meets the enrolment criteria, and participation is difficult for patients with life-threatening, long-lasting or seriously debilitating diseases like rare diseases. Early access programs like “Compassionate Use Program (CUP)” have generated alternative channels for such patients. The European Medical Agency provides regulations and recommendations for compassionate use, upon which every European Union (EU) member state has developed its own rules and regulations. Despite previous reviews and studies, the available information is limited and gaps exist. This literature review explores CUP in 28 EU member states. Data was collected through literature review and use of country-specific search terms from the healthcare domain. Data sources were not limited to databases and articles published in journals, but also included grey literature. The results implied that CUP was present in 20 EU member states (71%). Of 28 EU states, 18 (∼64%) had nationalized regulations and processes were well-defined. Overall, this review identified CUP and its current status and legislation in 28 EU member states. The established legislation for CUP in the EU member states suggest their willingness to adopt processes that facilitate earlier and better access to new medicines. Further research and periodic reviews are warranted to understand the contemporary and future regulatory trends in early access programs. PMID:27904819

  4. Income distribution in the European Union versus in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagielski, Maciej; Duczmal, Rafał; Kutner, Ryszard

    2015-09-01

    We prove that the refined approach-our extension of the Yakovenko et al. formalism-is universal in the sense that it describes well both household incomes in the European Union and individual incomes in the United States for all income social classes. This formalism, supplemented in this work by the entropy analysis, allowed the study of the impact of the recent world-wide financial crisis on the annual incomes of different income social classes. Hence, we find the most painful impact of the crisis on incomes of all income social classes. Furthermore, we indicate the existence of a possible market crisis precursor.

  5. Building co-operative bibliographic databases in European bioethics: a contribution from EU New Member States.

    PubMed

    Dimec, Jure; Leskosek, Branimir

    2007-08-01

    The paper presents a web-based application, developed as a part of the Eurethnet database network, which is being used by project partners from EU New Member States to collect bibliographic records from bioethics domains. The application development was focused mainly on records compatibility with other Eurethnet databases, support for all European character sets, minimalisation of network traffic, and security issues. The time window available for the system development was very small and this problem was solved with our own software for automatic application generation.

  6. Priorities in national space strategies and governance of the member states of the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriaensen, Maarten; Giannopapa, Christina; Sagath, Daniel; Papastefanou, Anastasia

    2015-12-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has twenty Member States with a variety of strategic priorities and governance structures regarding their space activities. A number of countries engage in space activities exclusively though ESA, while others have also their own national space programme. Some consider ESA as their prime space agency and others have additionally their own national agency with respective programmes. The main objective of this paper is to provide an up-to date overview and a holistic assessment of strategic priorities and the national space governance structures in 20 ESA Member States. This analysis and assessment has been conducted by analysing the Member States public documents, information provided at ESA workshop on this topic and though unstructured interviews. The paper is structured to include two main elements: priorities and trends in national space strategies and space governance in ESA Member States. The first part of this paper focuses on the content and analysis of the national space strategies and indicates the main priorities and trends in Member States. The priorities are categorised with regards to technology domains, the role of space in the areas of sustainability and the motivators that boost engagement in space. These vary from one Member State to another and include with different levels of engagement in technology domains amongst others: science and exploration, navigation, Earth observation, human space flight, launchers, telecommunications, and integrated applications. Member States allocate a different role of space as enabling tool adding to the advancement of sustainability areas including: security, resources, environment and climate change, transport and communication, energy, and knowledge and education. The motivators motivating reasoning which enhances or hinders space engagement also differs. The motivators identified are industrial competitiveness, job creation, technology development and transfer, social benefits

  7. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States giving Congress power to prohibit the physical desecration of the flag of the United States.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Emerson, Jo Ann [R-MO-8

    2009-04-30

    House - 06/12/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States regarding the right of all citizens of the United States to a public education of equal high quality.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Jackson, Jesse L., Jr. [D-IL-2

    2009-03-03

    House - 03/16/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States regarding the right of citizens of the United States to health care of equal high quality.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Jackson, Jesse L., Jr. [D-IL-2

    2009-03-03

    House - 03/16/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States regarding presidential election voting rights for residents of all United States territories and commonwealths.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Christensen, Donna M. [D-VI-At Large

    2009-01-06

    House - 02/09/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States permitting Congress and the States to regulate the expenditure of funds by corporations engaging in political speech.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Edwards, Donna F. [D-MD-4

    2010-02-02

    House - 06/15/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States to give citizens of the United States the right to recall elected officials.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Hoekstra, Peter [R-MI-2

    2010-01-21

    House - 03/01/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. The Constitutional Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Maurice

    Changing political, social, economic, and intellectual conditions over the past two hundred years have demanded innovation and adjustment of legal doctrine, thus giving the United States Constitution a character which the framers of the document could not have predicted. Historically, one must not only understand developments since 1787 but also…

  14. The Constitutional Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Maurice

    Changing political, social, economic, and intellectual conditions over the past two hundred years have demanded innovation and adjustment of legal doctrine, thus giving the United States Constitution a character which the framers of the document could not have predicted. Historically, one must not only understand developments since 1787 but also…

  15. Good laboratory practice in the European Community. Role of the commission and the member states: external aspects.

    PubMed

    Berend, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    The paper recalls the history of the development of the OECD principles of good laboratory practice (GLP) and explains why the European Community has a role to play in the area of GLP. It presents briefly the current legal framework in the European Community (Directives 87/18/EEC and 88/320/EEC) and describes the role of the Commission and the member states in the practical implementation of the GLP principles within the European Community. Impacts of GLP on the relations of the European Community with third countries, both within the framework of the OECD and through bilateral trade agreements (mutual recognition agreements, MRA) based on article 133 of the treaty establishing the European Community, are then examined in greater detail.

  16. Constitution, 15 August 1982.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This document reprints major provisions of the 1982 Constitution of Equatorial Guinea. The Constitution calls for protection of the family as the basic building block of society. Foreigners are afforded the same civil rights as citizens and may seek asylum but may not exercise political rights. The Constitution guarantees equality before the law and prohibits discrimination based on ethnic background, race, sex, language, religion, filiation, political or other views, social origin, economic position, or birth. Women are afforded the same rights as men regardless of their marital status. The Constitution also guarantees citizens freedom to travel nationally and internationally and to choose a place of residence. Equatoguineans are also entitled to a standard of living that insures health, nutrition, education, clothing, housing, medical care, and necessary social services. The family policy contained in the Constitution protects all types of legal marriages equally and recognizes nonattachable and inalienable family patrimony. Children are protected from the time of conception, and all inhabitants are guaranteed a basic state education which is compulsory and free. Efforts are also being made to eradicate illiteracy. Women are insured training and promotion for their integration into the active life and development of the country, and farmers are guaranteed traditional ownership of the lands they possess, although the state retains the right of eminent domain.

  17. The genetic ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States.

    PubMed

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Durand, Eric Y; Macpherson, J Michael; Reich, David; Mountain, Joanna L

    2015-01-08

    Over the past 500 years, North America has been the site of ongoing mixing of Native Americans, European settlers, and Africans (brought largely by the trans-Atlantic slave trade), shaping the early history of what became the United States. We studied the genetic ancestry of 5,269 self-described African Americans, 8,663 Latinos, and 148,789 European Americans who are 23andMe customers and show that the legacy of these historical interactions is visible in the genetic ancestry of present-day Americans. We document pervasive mixed ancestry and asymmetrical male and female ancestry contributions in all groups studied. We show that regional ancestry differences reflect historical events, such as early Spanish colonization, waves of immigration from many regions of Europe, and forced relocation of Native Americans within the US. This study sheds light on the fine-scale differences in ancestry within and across the United States and informs our understanding of the relationship between racial and ethnic identities and genetic ancestry. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Genetic Ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Durand, Eric Y.; Macpherson, J. Michael; Reich, David; Mountain, Joanna L.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 500 years, North America has been the site of ongoing mixing of Native Americans, European settlers, and Africans (brought largely by the trans-Atlantic slave trade), shaping the early history of what became the United States. We studied the genetic ancestry of 5,269 self-described African Americans, 8,663 Latinos, and 148,789 European Americans who are 23andMe customers and show that the legacy of these historical interactions is visible in the genetic ancestry of present-day Americans. We document pervasive mixed ancestry and asymmetrical male and female ancestry contributions in all groups studied. We show that regional ancestry differences reflect historical events, such as early Spanish colonization, waves of immigration from many regions of Europe, and forced relocation of Native Americans within the US. This study sheds light on the fine-scale differences in ancestry within and across the United States and informs our understanding of the relationship between racial and ethnic identities and genetic ancestry. PMID:25529636

  19. An analysis of European shale gas policies: Why EU member states are pursuing divergent 'fracking' strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, Ben

    The recent progression in hydraulic fracturing or 'fracking' has enabled energy companies to extract once-considered, inaccessible hydrocarbons. The United States has been at the forefront of this controversial industry, revolutionizing the energy market by becoming the world's largest oil and natural gas producer as a result of its vast shale deposits. Shale oil and gas deposits are not unique to North America, however. EU member states are faced with the dilemma of whether to permit fracking domestically or suspend operations. The United Kingdom and Romania have issued concessions for exploring their reserves, while France and Bulgaria have halted all drilling efforts, citing environmental concerns. This paper evaluates why these four European countries pursued divergent fracking policies, arguing that energy security and Russian-relations are more relevant and powerful explanatory factors than a country's commitment to protecting the environment.

  20. An overview of the current plant biostimulant legislations in different European Member States.

    PubMed

    La Torre, Anna; Battaglia, Valerio; Caradonia, Federica

    2016-02-01

    Plant biostimulants are borderline substances that play an intermediate role between plant protection products and fertilisers. At present, such substances are regulated by national laws and have different names in the various European Member States. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview on the activity of these substances and on the national laws that regulate them, as they vary considerably from one Member State to another. The greatest difficulty in terms of the correct regulatory framework for these substances is related to their heterogeneity. This situation creates uncertainties for operators, control authorities and bodies that certify and control the organic production, and strongly limits the growth of these substances. This problem will be overcome with the amendment of Regulation EC No 2003/2003 which will shortly extend its scope to the category of plant biostimulants included within the fertilising additives.

  1. Of the consequences of the inferred constitutive nature of state of matter possibly characteristic of a class of strongly magnetized plasma in astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdichevsky, Daniel Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    We conjecture that the structure of a class of solar transients (magnetic cloud, MC) is constituted by matter coalescent to a super strong magnetic field, which high temperature manifests itself through the presence of a hot electron gas, possibly constituted by the halo-part of the e-distribution. We identify the presence of this state of matter in strongly magnetized transients in the solar wind beyond a few solar radii from the Sun and extending well beyond 1 AUa. We present a few constitutive properties resulting of a recent thermodynamic study identifying this state of matter. These main outcomes are evaluated for a case study, the June 2, 1998 MC observed with SC Wind. In our view the most relevant outcome is the estimation of its magnetic permeability, two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the vacuum. This implies a highly diamagnetic material. Other properties to be discussed are the anomalous adiabatic behavior of this conjectured e-gas. In addition, and with the help of a simple MHD 3-D evolutionary model of the structureb, we present estimate values to its: (a) acoustic speed, (b) free current density, (c) and low limit to the electrical permittivity.aBerdichevsky, D. B., and K. Schefers, under review (ApJ, 2014).bBerdichevsky, D. B., Sol Phys, 284, 245-259, 2013.

  2. 32 CFR 536.42 - Constitutional torts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Constitutional torts. 536.42 Section 536.42... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.42 Constitutional torts. A claim for violation of the U.S. Constitution does not constitute a state tort and is not cognizable under...

  3. Comparing pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies in Croatia to the European Union Member States

    PubMed Central

    Vogler, Sabine; Habl, Claudia; Bogut, Martina; Vončina, Luka

    2011-01-01

    Aim To perform a comparative analysis of the pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement systems in Croatia and the 27 European Union (EU) Member States. Methods Knowledge about the pharmaceutical systems in Croatia and the 27 EU Member States was acquired by literature review and primary research with stakeholders. Results Pharmaceutical prices are controlled at all levels in Croatia, which is also the case in 21 EU Member States. Like many EU countries, Croatia also applies external price referencing, ie, compares prices with other countries. While the wholesale remuneration by a statutorily regulated linear mark-up is applied in Croatia and in several EU countries, the pharmacy compensation for dispensing reimbursable medicines in the form of a flat rate service fee in Croatia is rare among EU countries, which usually apply a linear or regressive pharmacy mark-up scheme. Like in most EU countries, the Croatian Social Insurance reimburses specific medicines at 100%, whereas patients are charged co-payments for other reimbursable medicines. Criteria for reimbursement include the medicine’s importance from the public health perspective, its therapeutic value, and relative effectiveness. In Croatia and in many EU Member States, reimbursement is based on a reference price system. Conclusion The Croatian pharmaceutical system is similar to those in the EU Member States. Key policies, like external price referencing and reference price systems, which have increasingly been introduced in EU countries are also applied in Croatia and serve the same purpose: to ensure access to medicines while containing public pharmaceutical expenditure. PMID:21495202

  4. [Reliability of data on compliance with Constitutional Amendment 29 reported to the Public Healthcare Budget Information System by municipalities in Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Rogério Fabiano; Bezerra, Adriana Falangola Benjamin; Espírito Santo, Antônio Carlos Gomes do; Sousa, Islândia Maria Carvalho de; Duarte-Neto, Paulo J; Brito e Silva, Keila Silene de

    2009-12-01

    The present study analyzes the reliability of data on compliance with Constitutional Amendment 29 (CA29) reported to the Public Healthcare Budget Information System (known as SIOPS) by municipalities in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. A quantitative, analytical cross-sectional study was conducted using the years 2000 to 2005 as the reference. Invoices audited by the State Accounts Court were used as the parameter for determining reliability of the percentage of compliance with CA29 as reported to SIOPS, using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) to measure data agreement. The results show a mismatch between the databases, suggesting slight to moderate agreement between the SIOPS data and those from the State Accounts Court. The low degree of agreement may result from lack of consensus among municipalities regarding definition of health-related revenues and expenses or the existence of different criteria used by SIOPS and the State Accounts Court for calculating the CA29.

  5. Constituting children's bodily integrity.

    PubMed

    Hill, B Jessie

    2015-04-01

    Children have a constitutional right to bodily integrity. Courts do not hesitate to vindicate that right when children are abused by state actors. Moreover, in at least some cases, a child's right to bodily integrity applies within the family, giving the child the right to avoid unwanted physical intrusions regardless of the parents' wishes. Nonetheless, the scope of this right vis-à-vis the parents is unclear; the extent to which it applies beyond the narrow context of abortion and contraception has been almost entirely unexplored and untheorized. This Article is the first in the legal literature to analyze the constitutional right of minors to bodily integrity within the family by spanning traditionally disparate doctrinal categories such as abortion rights; corporal punishment; medical decisionmaking; and nontherapeutic physical interventions such as tattooing, piercing, and circumcision. However, the constitutional right of minors to bodily integrity raises complex philosophical questions concerning the proper relationship between family and state, as well as difficult doctrinal and theoretical issues concerning the ever-murky idea of state action. This Article canvasses those issues with the ultimate goal of delineating a constitutional right of bodily security and autonomy for children.

  6. Essential Resources: The Constitutional Requirements for Providing All Students in New York State the Opportunity for a Sound Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebell, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    In absence of an existing framework to assess the state's compliance with the court order in "Campaign for Fiscal Equity (CFE) v. State of New York," which guarantees all students the right to an adequate education, the Campaign's first report creates an operational definition for sound basic education. Drawing on relevant state…

  7. Clinical subtypes of bipolar mixed states: validating a broader European definition in 143 cases.

    PubMed

    Perugi, G; Akiskal, H S; Micheli, C; Musetti, L; Paiano, A; Quilici, C; Rossi, L; Cassano, G B

    1997-05-01

    psychotic mood states. These data favor the classical European approach to mixed states over the grossly under-inclusive current official diagnostic systems. The phenomenology of mixed states is more than the mere superposition of opposite affective symptoms and, in many instances, it represents an expansive-excited phase intruding into a depressive temperament, and a melancholic episode intruding into a hyperthymic temperament.

  8. 78 FR 44618 - Delegation by the Secretary of State to the Assistant Secretary for European and Eurasian Affairs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Delegation by the Secretary of State to the Assistant Secretary for European and Eurasian Affairs; U.S...; and pursuant to Executive Order 12048, as amended, I hereby delegate to the Assistant Secretary of...

  9. Africanization in the United States: replacement of feral European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) by an African hybrid swarm.

    PubMed

    Pinto, M Alice; Rubink, William L; Patton, John C; Coulson, Robert N; Johnston, J Spencer

    2005-08-01

    The expansion of Africanized honeybees from South America to the southwestern United States in <50 years is considered one of the most spectacular biological invasions yet documented. In the American tropics, it has been shown that during their expansion Africanized honeybees have low levels of introgressed alleles from resident European populations. In the United States, it has been speculated, but not shown, that Africanized honeybees would hybridize extensively with European honeybees. Here we report a continuous 11-year study investigating temporal changes in the genetic structure of a feral population from the southern United States undergoing Africanization. Our microsatellite data showed that (1) the process of Africanization involved both maternal and paternal bidirectional gene flow between European and Africanized honeybees and (2) the panmitic European population was replaced by panmitic mixtures of A. m. scutellata and European genes within 5 years after Africanization. The post-Africanization gene pool (1998-2001) was composed of a diverse array of recombinant classes with a substantial European genetic contribution (mean 25-37%). Therefore, the resulting feral honeybee population of south Texas was best viewed as a hybrid swarm.

  10. Essential Medicines in National Constitutions

    PubMed Central

    Toebes, Brigit; Hogerzeil, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A constitutional guarantee of access to essential medicines has been identified as an important indicator of government commitment to the progressive realization of the right to the highest attainable standard of health. The objective of this study was to evaluate provisions on access to essential medicines in national constitutions, to identify comprehensive examples of constitutional text on medicines that can be used as a model for other countries, and to evaluate the evolution of constitutional medicines-related rights since 2008. Relevant articles were selected from an inventory of constitutional texts from WHO member states. References to states’ legal obligations under international human rights law were evaluated. Twenty-two constitutions worldwide now oblige governments to protect and/or to fulfill accessibility of, availability of, and/or quality of medicines. Since 2008, state responsibilities to fulfill access to essential medicines have expanded in five constitutions, been maintained in four constitutions, and have regressed in one constitution. Government commitments to essential medicines are an important foundation of health system equity and are included increasingly in state constitutions. PMID:27781006

  11. Validation of disease states in schizophrenia: comparison of cluster analysis between US and European populations.

    PubMed

    Thokagevistk, Katia; Millier, Aurélie; Lenert, Leslie; Sadikhov, Shamil; Moreno, Santiago; Toumi, Mondher

    2016-01-01

    There is controversy as to whether use of statistical clustering methods to identify common disease patterns in schizophrenia identifies patterns generalizable across countries. The goal of this study was to compare disease states identified in a published study (Mohr/Lenert, 2004) considering US patients to disease states in a European cohort (EuroSC) considering English, French, and German patients. Using methods paralleling those in Mohr/Lenert, we conducted a principal component analysis (PCA) on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale items in the EuroSC data set (n=1,208), followed by k-means cluster analyses and a search for an optimal k. The optimal model structure was compared to Mohr/Lenert by assigning discrete severity levels to each cluster in each factor based on the cluster center. A harmonized model was created and patients were assigned to health states using both approaches; agreement rates in state assignment were then calculated. Five factors accounting for 56% of total variance were obtained from PCA. These factors corresponded to positive symptoms (Factor 1), negative symptoms (Factor 2), cognitive impairment (Factor 3), hostility/aggression (Factor 4), and mood disorder (Factor 5) (as in Mohr/Lenert). The optimal number of cluster states was six. The kappa statistic (95% confidence interval) for agreement in state assignment was 0.686 (0.670-0.703). The patterns of schizophrenia effects identified using clustering in two different data sets were reasonably similar. Results suggest the Mohr/Lenert health state model is potentially generalizable to other populations.

  12. Validation of disease states in schizophrenia: comparison of cluster analysis between US and European populations

    PubMed Central

    Thokagevistk, Katia; Millier, Aurélie; Lenert, Leslie; Sadikhov, Shamil; Moreno, Santiago; Toumi, Mondher

    2016-01-01

    Background There is controversy as to whether use of statistical clustering methods to identify common disease patterns in schizophrenia identifies patterns generalizable across countries. Objective The goal of this study was to compare disease states identified in a published study (Mohr/Lenert, 2004) considering US patients to disease states in a European cohort (EuroSC) considering English, French, and German patients. Methods Using methods paralleling those in Mohr/Lenert, we conducted a principal component analysis (PCA) on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale items in the EuroSC data set (n=1,208), followed by k-means cluster analyses and a search for an optimal k. The optimal model structure was compared to Mohr/Lenert by assigning discrete severity levels to each cluster in each factor based on the cluster center. A harmonized model was created and patients were assigned to health states using both approaches; agreement rates in state assignment were then calculated. Results Five factors accounting for 56% of total variance were obtained from PCA. These factors corresponded to positive symptoms (Factor 1), negative symptoms (Factor 2), cognitive impairment (Factor 3), hostility/aggression (Factor 4), and mood disorder (Factor 5) (as in Mohr/Lenert). The optimal number of cluster states was six. The kappa statistic (95% confidence interval) for agreement in state assignment was 0.686 (0.670–0.703). Conclusion The patterns of schizophrenia effects identified using clustering in two different data sets were reasonably similar. Results suggest the Mohr/Lenert health state model is potentially generalizable to other populations. PMID:27386054

  13. Constitutively Elevated Salicylic Acid Levels Alter Photosynthesis and Oxidative State but Not Growth in Transgenic Populus[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Liang-Jiao; Guo, Wenbing; Yuan, Yinan; Anino, Edward O.; Nyamdari, Batbayar; Wilson, Mark C.; Frost, Christopher J.; Chen, Han-Yi; Babst, Benjamin A.; Harding, Scott A.; Tsai, Chung-Jui

    2013-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has long been implicated in plant responses to oxidative stress. SA overproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to dwarfism, making in planta assessment of SA effects difficult in this model system. We report that transgenic Populus tremula × alba expressing a bacterial SA synthase hyperaccumulated SA and SA conjugates without negative growth consequences. In the absence of stress, endogenously elevated SA elicited widespread metabolic and transcriptional changes that resembled those of wild-type plants exposed to oxidative stress-promoting heat treatments. Potential signaling and oxidative stress markers azelaic and gluconic acids as well as antioxidant chlorogenic acids were strongly coregulated with SA, while soluble sugars and other phenylpropanoids were inversely correlated. Photosynthetic responses to heat were attenuated in SA-overproducing plants. Network analysis identified potential drivers of SA-mediated transcriptome rewiring, including receptor-like kinases and WRKY transcription factors. Orthologs of Arabidopsis SA signaling components NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 and thioredoxins were not represented. However, all members of the expanded Populus nucleoredoxin-1 family exhibited increased expression and increased network connectivity in SA-overproducing Populus, suggesting a previously undescribed role in SA-mediated redox regulation. The SA response in Populus involved a reprogramming of carbon uptake and partitioning during stress that is compatible with constitutive chemical defense and sustained growth, contrasting with the SA response in Arabidopsis, which is transient and compromises growth if sustained. PMID:23903318

  14. What Is a Constitution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OAH Magazine of History, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan designed to help students better understand the concept of a constitution, distinguish constitutional law from statutory law, and recognize examples of constitutional government. (BSR)

  15. The healthcare system and provision of oral healthcare in European Union member states. Part 4: Greece.

    PubMed

    Damaskinos, P; Koletsi-Kounari, H; Economou, C; Eaton, K A; Widström, E

    2016-03-11

    This paper presents a description of the healthcare system and how oral healthcare is organised and provided in Greece, a country in a deep economic and social crisis. The national health system is underfunded, with severe gaps in staffing levels and the country has a large private healthcare sector. Oral healthcare has been largely provided in the private sector. Most people are struggling to survive and have no money to spend on general and oral healthcare. Unemployment is rising and access to healthcare services is more difficult than ever. Additionally, there has been an overproduction of dentists and no development of team dentistry. This has led to under or unemployment of dentists in Greece and their migration to other European Union member states, such as the United Kingdom, where over 600 Greek dentists are currently working.

  16. Public Funding of Clinical-Stage Antibiotic Development in the United States and European Union

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The health and national security challenge of antibiotic resistance has led governments to adopt policies to stimulate new antibiotic R&D. Government programs that directly fund late-stage clinical development of antibiotics have emerged, including the Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial Program of the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority in the United States, and the New Drugs for Bad Bugs program of the Innovative Medicines Initiative in the European Union. These efforts are collectively investing nearly $1 billion and are supporting nearly 20% of the global antibiotic pipeline. This article describes these programs, including the antibiotics and their targeted pathogens and clinical indications, as well as program mechanisms for project eligibility, selection, governance, funding, and IP management. Preliminary assessment of the impact of these mechanisms on the success of the programs is provided. PMID:26042859

  17. Public funding of clinical-stage antibiotic development in the United States and European Union.

    PubMed

    Eichberg, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The health and national security challenge of antibiotic resistance has led governments to adopt policies to stimulate new antibiotic R&D. Government programs that directly fund late-stage clinical development of antibiotics have emerged, including the Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial Program of the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority in the United States, and the New Drugs for Bad Bugs program of the Innovative Medicines Initiative in the European Union. These efforts are collectively investing nearly $1 billion and are supporting nearly 20% of the global antibiotic pipeline. This article describes these programs, including the antibiotics and their targeted pathogens and clinical indications, as well as program mechanisms for project eligibility, selection, governance, funding, and IP management. Preliminary assessment of the impact of these mechanisms on the success of the programs is provided.

  18. An Enhanced Steady-State Constitutive Model for Semi-solid Forming of Al7075 Based on Cross Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshkabadi, Ramin; Pouyafar, Vahid; Javdani, Akbar; Faraji, Ghader

    2017-09-01

    The parameters of the Cross model were determined in a wide range of shear rates close to industrial conditions using rapid compression tests and backward extrusion experiments. The Cross model fitted well with experimental results at low shear rates, but it almost broke down at high shear rates. In this paper, a new steady-state model was proposed for semi-solid forming of Al7075 considering the effects of the yield stress, entrapped liquid, and shear rate using the Cross model. The yield stress of the alloy was estimated in the semi-solid state by extrapolating the viscosity at the least applicable shear rates. The results showed that the new model eliminated the Cross model's deviations, and it can be used for accurate prediction of the steady-state flow behavior of the semi-solid alloy in a wide range of shear rates.

  19. An Enhanced Steady-State Constitutive Model for Semi-solid Forming of Al7075 Based on Cross Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshkabadi, Ramin; Pouyafar, Vahid; Javdani, Akbar; Faraji, Ghader

    2017-07-01

    The parameters of the Cross model were determined in a wide range of shear rates close to industrial conditions using rapid compression tests and backward extrusion experiments. The Cross model fitted well with experimental results at low shear rates, but it almost broke down at high shear rates. In this paper, a new steady-state model was proposed for semi-solid forming of Al7075 considering the effects of the yield stress, entrapped liquid, and shear rate using the Cross model. The yield stress of the alloy was estimated in the semi-solid state by extrapolating the viscosity at the least applicable shear rates. The results showed that the new model eliminated the Cross model's deviations, and it can be used for accurate prediction of the steady-state flow behavior of the semi-solid alloy in a wide range of shear rates.

  20. Is climate an important driver of post-European vegetation change in the Eastern United States?

    PubMed

    Nowacki, Gregory J; Abrams, Marc D

    2015-01-01

    Many ecological phenomena combine to direct vegetation trends over time, with climate and disturbance playing prominent roles. To help decipher their relative importance during Euro-American times, we employed a unique approach whereby tree species/genera were partitioned into temperature, shade tolerance, and pyrogenicity classes and applied to comparative tree-census data. Our megadata analysis of 190 datasets determined the relative impacts of climate vs. altered disturbance regimes for various biomes across the eastern United States. As the Euro-American period (ca. 1500 to today) spans two major climatic periods, from Little Ice Age to the Anthropocene, vegetation changes consistent with warming were expected. In most cases, however, European disturbance overrode regional climate, but in a manner that varied across the Tension Zone Line. To the north, intensive and expansive early European disturbance resulted in the ubiquitous loss of conifers and large increases of Acer, Populus, and Quercus in northern hardwoods, whereas to the south, these disturbances perpetuated the dominance of Quercus in central hardwoods. Acer increases and associated mesophication in Quercus-Pinus systems were delayed until mid 20th century fire suppression. This led to significant warm to cool shifts in temperature class where cool-adapted Acer saccharum increased and temperature neutral changes where warm-adapted Acer rubrum increased. In both cases, these shifts were attributed to fire suppression rather than climate change. Because mesophication is ongoing, eastern US forests formed during the catastrophic disturbance era followed by fire suppression will remain in climate disequilibrium into the foreseeable future. Overall, the results of our study suggest that altered disturbance regimes rather than climate had the greatest influence on vegetation composition and dynamics in the eastern United States over multiple centuries. Land-use change often trumped or negated the impacts

  1. Determinants of electoral support for anti-gay marriage constitutional amendments: an examination of 2006 votes on ballot measures in the states.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Raymond Christopher; Salka, William M

    2009-01-01

    In the fall of 2006, seven states passed constitutional amendments banning gay marriage. This study examines the determinants of support for those measures, as expressed by the countywide vote in favor of each gay marriage ban. A number of hypotheses are explored that examine the urban/rural nature of each county, as well as the political and demographic characteristics of county residents. The findings indicate that countywide support for the Republican Party, and lower income and education levels, are associated with support for gay marriage bans.

  2. The European Social Fund: The Commission, the Member State and Levels of Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brine, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    The European Social Fund (ESF) is the European Union structural fund that redistributes funds to facilitate vocational education and training (VET). With the exception of the Common Agricultural Policy it is the EU's largest instrument for redistribution. Currently linked to the European Employment Strategy it match-funds, and through its…

  3. Stating the Obvious: The European Qualifications Framework is "Not" a Neutral Evidence-Based Policy Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Pia

    2010-01-01

    In European Union policy documents, the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) is described as a neutral tool embedded in an evidence-based policy process. Its purpose is to improve the transparency, comparability and portability of qualifications in the European Union. The aim of this article is to denaturalise the EQF discourse through a…

  4. The European Social Fund: The Commission, the Member State and Levels of Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brine, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    The European Social Fund (ESF) is the European Union structural fund that redistributes funds to facilitate vocational education and training (VET). With the exception of the Common Agricultural Policy it is the EU's largest instrument for redistribution. Currently linked to the European Employment Strategy it match-funds, and through its…

  5. The preferred role and perceived performance of the welfare state: European welfare attitudes from a multidimensional perspective.

    PubMed

    Roosma, Femke; van Oorschot, Wim; Gelissen, John

    2014-03-01

    Welfare state support has two core dimensions: attitudes about what the welfare state should do and beliefs about its actual performance. People can combine any position on one dimension with any position on the other, yielding four opinion clusters: people can combine preferences for a relatively strong role of the welfare state with a perception of a relatively low or high welfare state performance; likewise, people preferring a small role of the welfare state can perceive a high or low performing welfare state. We apply Latent Class Factor Analysis to data of 22 European countries from the 2008/9 European Social Survey. We find that each of the four clusters contains a substantial proportion of respondents that differs between welfare regimes. In addition, cluster membership is also related to covariates that measure people's structural positions and ideological preferences.

  6. On Common Constitutional Ground: How Georgia's Scholarship Tax Credits Mirror Other State Programs and Expand Educational Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Dick M., II.; Erickson, Angela C.

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, Georgia launched a tax-credit scholarship program to expand educational opportunities for the state's pre-K through 12th-grade students by providing them scholarships to attend private schools. Georgia's scholarship tax credit program will help over 13,000 children get the best education for their needs at secular and religious private…

  7. Memorandum of a Conference with President Eisenhower after Sputnik. The Constitution Community: Postwar United States (1945 to Early 1970s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traill, David

    After World War II ended in 1945, the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR) emerged as the two dominant countries in the post-war world. An arms race began, and this constant pursuit for respect and supremacy was called the Cold War. On October 4, 1957, the USSR launched the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile, with the first…

  8. Photographs and Pamphlet about Nuclear Fallout. The Constitution Community: Postwar United States (1945 to Early 1970s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawlor, John M., Jr.

    In August 1945, the United States unleashed an atomic weapon against the Japanese at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and brought an end to World War II. These bombs killed in two ways -- by the blast's magnitude and resulting firestorm, and by nuclear fallout. After the Soviet Union exploded its first atom bomb in 1949, the Cold War waged between the two…

  9. Documents Related to "Brown v. Board of Education." The Constitution Community: Postwar United States (1945 to Early 1970s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Mary Frances

    On May 17, 1954, U.S. Supreme Court Justice Earl Warren delivered the unanimous ruling in the landmark civil rights case "Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas." State-sanctioned segregation of public schools was declared a violation of the 14th Amendment and was unconstitutional. This historic decision marked the end of the…

  10. Classification of the European Union member states according to the relative level of sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Anna, Bluszcz

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays methods of measurement and assessment of the level of sustained development at the international, national and regional level are a current research problem, which requires multi-dimensional analysis. The relative assessment of the sustainability level of the European Union member states and the comparative analysis of the position of Poland relative to other countries was the aim of the conducted studies in the article. EU member states were treated as objects in the multi-dimensional space. Dimensions of space were specified by ten diagnostic variables describing the sustainability level of UE countries in three dimensions, i.e., social, economic and environmental. Because the compiled statistical data were expressed in different units of measure, taxonomic methods were used for building an aggregated measure to assess the level of sustainable development of EU member states, which through normalisation of variables enabled the comparative analysis between countries. Methodology of studies consisted of eight stages, which included, among others: defining data matrices, calculating the variability coefficient for all variables, which variability coefficient was under 10 %, division of variables into stimulants and destimulants, selection of the method of variable normalisation, developing matrices of normalised data, selection of the formula and calculating the aggregated indicator of the relative level of sustainable development of the EU countries, calculating partial development indicators for three studies dimensions: social, economic and environmental and the classification of the EU countries according to the relative level of sustainable development. Statistical date were collected based on the Polish Central Statistical Office publication.

  11. 32 CFR 536.42 - Constitutional torts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.42 Constitutional torts. A claim for violation of the U.S. Constitution does not constitute a state tort and is not cognizable under... partially payable as a state tort. For example, a Fifth Amendment taking may be payable in an altered...

  12. 32 CFR 536.42 - Constitutional torts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.42 Constitutional torts. A claim for violation of the U.S. Constitution does not constitute a state tort and is not cognizable under... partially payable as a state tort. For example, a Fifth Amendment taking may be payable in an altered...

  13. 32 CFR 536.42 - Constitutional torts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.42 Constitutional torts. A claim for violation of the U.S. Constitution does not constitute a state tort and is not cognizable under... partially payable as a state tort. For example, a Fifth Amendment taking may be payable in an altered...

  14. 32 CFR 536.42 - Constitutional torts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.42 Constitutional torts. A claim for violation of the U.S. Constitution does not constitute a state tort and is not cognizable under... partially payable as a state tort. For example, a Fifth Amendment taking may be payable in an altered...

  15. Disparity in Dental Attendance Among Older Adult Populations: A Comparative Analysis Across Selected European Countries and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Manski, Richard; Moeller, John; Chen, Haiyan; Widström, Eeva; Listl, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study addresses the extent to which diversity in dental attendance across population subgroups exists within and between the United States and selected European countries. Method The analyses relied on 2006/2007 data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and 2004–2006 data from of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) in the United States for respondents aged 51 years and older. Logistic regression models were estimated to identify impacts of dental care coverage and oral as well as general health status on dental care use. Results We were unable to discern significant differences in dental attendance across population subgroups in countries with and without social health insurance, between the USA and European countries, and between European countries classified by social welfare regime. Patterns of diverse dental use were found, but they did not appear predominately in countries classified by welfare state regime or by presence or absence of social health insurance. Conclusions Findings of this study suggest that income and education have stronger and more persistent correlation with dental use than the correlation between dental insurance and dental use across European countries. We conclude that (1) higher overall rates of coverage in most European countries, compared to relatively lower rates in the USA, contribute to this finding and that (2) policies targeted to improving the income of older persons and their awareness of the importance of oral health care in both Europe and the USA can contribute to improving the use of dental services. PMID:26465093

  16. The Constitution and Citizenship Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Rebecca S.

    The paper takes the position that the study and understanding of the United States Constitution should be a critical part of citizenship education, especially as its Bicentennial approaches. Several factors suggest that the Constitution has become the most durable document of its kind in history, and that its teaching should be centered in both…

  17. Reported foodborne outbreaks due to fresh produce in the United States and European Union: trends and causes.

    PubMed

    Callejón, Raquel M; Rodríguez-Naranjo, M Isabel; Ubeda, Cristina; Hornedo-Ortega, Ruth; Garcia-Parrilla, M Carmen; Troncoso, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of fruit and vegetables continues to rise in the United States and European Union due to healthy lifestyle recommendations. Meanwhile, the rate of foodborne illness caused by the consumption of these products remains high in both regions, representing a significant public health and financial issue. This study addresses the occurrence of reported foodborne outbreaks associated with fresh fruits and vegetables consumption in the United States and European Union during the period 2004-2012, where data are available. Special attention is paid to those pathogens responsible for these outbreaks, the mechanisms of contamination, and the fresh produce vehicles involved. Norovirus is shown to be responsible for most of the produce-related outbreaks, followed by Salmonella. Norovirus is mainly linked with the consumption of salad in the United States and of berries in the European Union, as demonstrated by the Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). Salmonella was the leading cause of multistate produce outbreaks in the United States and was the pathogen involved in the majority of sprouts-associated outbreaks. As is reflected in the MCA, the pattern of fresh produce outbreaks differed in the United States and European Union by the type of microorganism and the food vehicle involved.

  18. The Constitution: Perspectives on Contemporary American Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close Up Foundation, Arlington, VA.

    Four articles expressing the views of nine prominent United States citizens about the Constitution provide a context for reflecting on the meaning of the Constitution in present-day America. In "Why Has the Constitution Endured So Long?" Don Edwards, chairman of the House Civil and Constitutional Rights Subcommittee, discusses why the…

  19. The state of measles and rubella in the WHO European Region, 2013.

    PubMed

    Muscat, M; Shefer, A; Ben Mamou, M; Spataru, R; Jankovic, D; Deshevoy, S; Butler, R; Pfeifer, D

    2014-05-01

    Measles and rubella persist in the World Health Organization European Region despite long-standing and widespread use of vaccines against them. Our aim was to review the epidemiology of measles and rubella in relation to the goal of eliminating these diseases from the Region by 2015. We report on the number of measles and rubella cases by country in 2012 and present an analysis of preliminary measles and rubella surveillance data for 2013. We analysed data of these diseases for 2013 by age group, diagnosis confirmation (clinical, laboratory-confirmed and epidemiologically linked), and vaccination, hospitalization and importation status. We also report on measles-related deaths. For 2012, there were 26,785 [corrected] measles cases and 29,601 rubella cases reported in the Region. For 2013, these figures were 31,520 and 39,367 respectively. Most measles cases in 2013 (96%; n = 30,178) were reported by nine countries: Georgia (7830), Germany (1773), Italy (2216), the Netherlands (2499), Romania (1074), the Russian Federation (2174), Turkey (7404), Ukraine (3308) and the United Kingdom (1900). In 2013, most measles cases were among unvaccinated persons and over one in three patients were aged 20 years and older. For 2013, almost all rubella cases were reported by Poland (n = 38,585; 98%). High population immunity and high-quality surveillance are the cornerstones to eliminate measles and rubella. Without sustained political commitment and accelerated action by Member States and partners, the elimination of measles and rubella in the WHO European Region may not be achieved.

  20. Reproductive state modulates testosterone-induced singing in adult female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Rouse, Melvin L; Stevenson, Tyler J; Fortune, Eric S; Ball, Gregory F

    2015-06-01

    European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) exhibit seasonal changes in singing and in the volumes of the neural substrate. Increases in song nuclei volume are mediated at least in part by increases in day length, which is also associated with increases in plasma testosterone (T), reproductive activity, and singing behavior in males. The correlations between photoperiod (i.e. daylength), T, reproductive state and singing hamper our ability to disentangle causal relationships. We investigated how photoperiodic-induced variation in reproductive state modulates the effects of T on singing behavior and song nuclei volumes in adult female starlings. Female starlings do not naturally produce measureable levels of circulating T but nevertheless respond to exogenous T, which induces male-like singing. We manipulated photoperiod by placing birds in a photosensitive or photorefractory state and then treated them with T-filled or empty silastic implants. We recorded morning singing behavior for 3 weeks, after which we assessed reproductive condition and measured song nuclei volumes. We found that T-treated photosensitive birds sang significantly more than all other groups including T-treated photorefractory birds. All T-treated birds had larger song nuclei volumes than with blank-treated birds (despite photorefractory T-treated birds not increasing song-rate). There was no effect of photoperiod on the song nuclei volumes of T-treated birds. These data show that the behavioral effects of exogenous T can be modulated by reproductive state in adult female songbirds. Furthermore, these data are consistent with other observations that increases in singing rate in response to T are not necessarily due to the direct effects of T on song nuclei volume. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reproductive state modulates testosterone-induced singing in adult female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Tyler J.; Fortune, Eric S.; Ball, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) exhibit seasonal changes in singing and in the volumes of the neural substrate. Increases in song nuclei volume are mediated at least in part by increases in day length, which is also associated with increases in plasma testosterone (T), reproductive activity, and singing behavior in males. The correlations between photoperiod (i.e. daylength), T, reproductive state and singing hamper our ability to disentangle causal relationships. We investigated how photoperiodic-induced variation in reproductive state modulates the effects of T on singing behavior and song nuclei volumes in adult female starlings. Female Starlings do not naturally produce measureable levels of circulating T but nevertheless respond to exogenous T, which induces male-like singing. We manipulated photoperiod by placing birds in a photosensitive or photorefractory state and then treated them with T-filled or empty silastic implants. We recorded morning singing behavior for three weeks, after which we assessed reproductive condition and measured song nuclei volumes. We found that T-treated photosensitive birds sang significantly more than all other groups including T-treated photorefractory birds. All T-treated birds had larger song nuclei volumes than with blank-treated birds (despite photorefractory T-treated birds not increasing song-rate). There was no effect of photoperiod on the song nuclei volumes of T-treated birds. These data show that the behavioral effects of exogenous T can be modulated by reproductive state in adult female songbirds. Furthermore, these data are consistent with other observations that increases in singing rate in response to T are not necessarily due to the direct effects of T on song nuclei volume. PMID:25989596

  2. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

  3. Constitutional Amendment Relating to School Prayer. Hearing on S.J. Res. 2: A Joint Resolution Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States Relating to Voluntary Silent Prayer or Reflection, before the Subcommittee on the Constitution of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session (June 19, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    Senate Joint Resolution 2 calls for an amendment to the U.S. Constitution to allow voluntary silent prayer or reflection in public schools. The hearing report consists of testimony on the proposed legislation by expert witnesses, prepared statements by various individuals and organizations, and newspaper article reprints and Supreme Court opinions…

  4. [Genetically modified plants and food safety. State of the art and discussion in the European Union].

    PubMed

    Schauzu, M

    2004-09-01

    Placing genetically modified (GM) plants and derived products on the European Union's (EU) market has been regulated by a Community Directive since 1990. This directive was complemented by a regulation specific for genetically modified and other novel foods in 1997. Specific labelling requirements have been applicable for GM foods since 1998. The law requires a pre-market safety assessment for which criteria have been elaborated and continuously adapted in accordance with the state of the art by national and international bodies and organisations. Consequently, only genetically modified products that have been demonstrated to be as safe as their conventional counterparts can be commercialized. However, the poor acceptance of genetically modified foods has led to a de facto moratorium since 1998. It is based on the lack of a qualified majority of EU member states necessary for authorization to place genetically modified plants and derived foods on the market. New Community Regulations are intended to end this moratorium by providing a harmonized and transparent safety assessment, a centralised authorization procedure, extended labelling provisions and a traceability system for genetically modified organisms (GMO) and derived food and feed.

  5. [Health state of aluminum industry workers in the European North of Russia].

    PubMed

    Siurin, S A

    2015-01-01

    Despite the constant performed improvement of technological processes, working conditions in the aluminum industry compose an increased risk of work-stipulated and occupational diseases. An examination of 1172 workers from aluminum facilities of European North of Russia showed that in the structure of their health state disorders and the pathology of the musculoskeletal system of dystrophic-degenerative character (29.8%) have the particular importance and the most commonly diagnosed disease is deforming osteoarthritis (8.6%). Conditions of the work in the professions "anode worker" and "electrolysis worker" (OR = 1.20; CI: 1.07-1.34), as well as the impact of aluminum production waste and the polluting the environment (OR = 1.62; CI 1.44-1.82) increase the risk of diseases of the musculoskeletal system. In the structure of occupational pathology diseases of the respiratory (39.6%) and musculoskeletal (38.5%) systems are of the most importance. There were made conclusions about the necessity of the optimization of working conditions in the aluminum industry, restoration of the state of the environment and the improvement of the medical methods of the prevention of health disorders in this contingent of workers.

  6. Synthetic biology regulation and governance: Lessons from TAPIC for the United States, European Union, and Singapore.

    PubMed

    Trump, Benjamin D

    2017-08-02

    Synthetic biology is an emerging technology with potential benefits to various fields, yet also contains potential risks to human and environmental health. The field remains in an emerging state with limited quantitative guidance and a small but growing population of international researchers that conduct work within this field. Given the uncertain nature of this technology, an adaptive and anticipatory governance framework may be necessary to balance the potential benefits that may accrue from the technology's continued research alongside a desire to reduce or eliminate potential risks that may arise. However, such developments must account for the unique political and institutional factors that form a government's risk culture - something that can facilitate or impede the development of adaptive synthetic biology governance moving forward. The TAPIC framework helps illustrate those factors that are essential to develop good governance for emerging technologies like synthetic biology. Specifically, an application of TAPIC to synthetic biology governance indicates that the factors of accountability, participation, and integrity must be bolstered to improve technology governance in governments like with the United States, European Union, and Singapore. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Analysis of agonism and inverse agonism in functional assays with constitutive activity: estimation of orthosteric ligand affinity constants for active and inactive receptor states.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, Frederick J; Suga, Hinako; Griffin, Michael T

    2011-08-01

    We describe a modification of receptor theory for the estimation of observed affinities (K(obs)) and relative efficacies of orthosteric ligands in functional assays that exhibit constitutive activity. Our theory includes parameters for the fractions of the occupied receptor population in the active (intrinsic efficacy, ε) and inactive (ε(i)) states and analogous parameters for the fractions of the free receptor population in the active (ε(sys)) and inactive (ε(i-sys)) states. The total stimulus represents the summation of the active states of the free and occupied receptor populations. A modified operational model is developed that expresses the response as a logistic function of the total stimulus. This function includes the standard parameters related to affinity and efficacy (K(obs) and τ) as well as a parameter proportional to the activity of the free receptor complex, τ(sys). Two related parameters are proportional to the fraction of the free (τ(i-sys)) and occupied (τ(i)) receptor populations in the inactive state. We show that the estimates of the affinity constants of orthosteric ligands for the active (K(b)) and inactive (K(a)) states of the receptor are equivalent to τK(obs)/τ(sys) and τ(i)K(obs)/τ(i-sys), respectively. We verify our method with computer simulation techniques and apply it to the analysis of M(2) and M(3) muscarinic receptors. Our method is applicable in the analysis of ligand bias in drug discovery programs.

  8. Towards the Learning Region: Education and Regional Innovation in the European Union and the United States. CEDEFOP Reference Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhan, Barry, Ed.; Attwell, Graham, Ed.; Deitmer, Ludger, Ed.

    This book provides an overview of innovative education practices throughout regions in the United States (US) and Europe. It contains 16 papers written by experts from the educational, economic, and regional development fields in the US and the European Union (EU). Introductory materials are: a foreword (David O'Sullivan); preface (Stavros…

  9. Biology of the European oak borer in Michigan, United States of America, with comparisons to the native twolined chestnut borer

    Treesearch

    Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack

    2014-01-01

    In 2010-2011, we studied the European oak borer (EOB), Agrilus sulcicollis Lacordaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in Michigan, United States of America, and made comparisons with the native twolined chestnut borer (TLCB), Agrilus bilineatus (Weber). EOB adult flight began and peaked before TLCB. More EOB females were captured on...

  10. Tree mortality following defoliation by the European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) in the United States: a review

    Treesearch

    Christopher B. Davidson; Kurt W. Gottschalk; James E. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    This review presents information related to defoliation by the European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) and subsequent tree mortality in the eastern United States. The literature describing defoliation-induced tree mortality is extensive, yet questions still remain concerning (1) the association between initial stand composition and subsequent tree...

  11. The In-Service Training of Teachers in the Twelve Member States of the European Community. Education Policy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, V.; Moisan, C.

    Improvement in the quality of education is a concern shared by all the Member States of the European Community. The in-service training of teachers is a critical factor in the pursuit of this objective. Increasingly rapid changes in society (economic, technological, social, and cultural) mean that teachers are constantly faced with new syllabuses…

  12. Current Models of Investor State Dispute Settlement Are Bad for Health: The European Union Could Offer an Alternative

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2017-01-01

    In this commentary, we endorse concerns about the health impact of the trans-pacific partnership (TPP), paying particular attention to its mechanisms for investor state dispute settlement. We then describe the different, judge-led approach being advocated by the European Commission team negotiating the Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, arguing that, while not perfect, it offers significant advantages. PMID:28812799

  13. The President and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toler, Frank

    1988-01-01

    Intended for ninth grade students, this ten day unit focuses on the constitutional powers of the President of the United States. Included are worksheets, vocabulary, writing assignments, tests, and quizzes. (JDH)

  14. Borderlines: Maps and the spread of the Westphalian state from Europe to Asia Part One - The European Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering, S.

    2013-11-01

    For researchers and students of International Relations (IR), one date looms larger than all others: 1648. The end of the Thirty Years War, formalised by the signing of the Treaties of Osnabrück and Münster, led to a period known as the 'Peace of Westphalia'. Westphalia represented a fundamental change in the power balance of European politics: instead of the Holy Roman Empire holding supreme authority, power would now rest with states themselves, manifested in terms of sovereignty, territory and equality. One of the chief ways in which these 'Westphalian' states would cement this authority was through the use of maps. Before 1648, there was little on a European map to indicate where one country ended and another one began. But after 1648, this all changes: these new Westphalian states are represented with bright colours and clearly marked boundaries, defining borders and becoming an important part in creating the state and justifying its sovereignty. The role which maps have played in the spread of the Westphalian state is only just beginning to be researched. Yet the limited efforts to date have all focussed on Europe. This is unfortunate, as today, while Europe has, according to some observers, moved into a stage in which Westphalia is no longer a useful model with which to understand the state and the ways in which it relates to sovereignty, government, power and the individual, the old Westphalian model of the state has more recently been exported all around the world. Many have contended that while the Westphalian state is no longer relevant to Europe, it was never relevant to the rest of the world. In existing work, the researcher has mapped the spread of the Westphalian state in the twentieth century, using Geographic Information Systems (GIS; see Pickering 2012). This paper, while complementary to the earlier research, will employ a quite different methodology. Having studied hundreds of European maps provided by European libraries, it is clear that the

  15. What factors influence smoking prevalence and smoke free policy enactment across the European Union Member States.

    PubMed

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; McNeill, Ann; Murray, Rachael; Britton, John

    2011-01-01

    Smoking prevention should be a primary public health priority for all governments, and effective preventive policies have been identified for decades. The heterogeneity of smoking prevalence between European Union (EU) Member States therefore reflects, at least in part, a failure by governments to prioritise public health over tobacco industry or possibly other financial interests, and hence potentially government corruption. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that smoking prevalence is higher in countries with high levels of public sector corruption, and explore the ecological association between smoking prevalence and a range of other national characteristics in current EU Member States. Ecological data from 27 EU Member States were used to estimate univariate and multivariate correlations between smoking prevalence and the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, and a range of other national characteristics including economic development, social inclusion, quality of life and importance of religion. We also explored the association between the Corruption Perceptions Index and measures of the extent to which smoke-free policies have been enacted and are enforced. In univariate analysis, smoking prevalence was significantly higher in countries with higher scores for corruption, material deprivation, and gender inequality; and lower in countries with higher per capita Gross Domestic Product, social spending, life satisfaction and human development scores. In multivariate analysis, only the corruption perception index was independently related to smoking prevalence. Exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplace was also correlated with corruption, independently from smoking prevalence, but not with the measures of national smoke-free policy implementation. Corruption appears to be an important risk factor for failure of national tobacco control activity in EU countries, and the extent to which key tobacco control policies have been

  16. What Factors Influence Smoking Prevalence and Smoke Free Policy Enactment across the European Union Member States

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; McNeill, Ann; Murray, Rachael; Britton, John

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking prevention should be a primary public health priority for all governments, and effective preventive policies have been identified for decades. The heterogeneity of smoking prevalence between European Union (EU) Member States therefore reflects, at least in part, a failure by governments to prioritise public health over tobacco industry or possibly other financial interests, and hence potentially government corruption. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that smoking prevalence is higher in countries with high levels of public sector corruption, and explore the ecological association between smoking prevalence and a range of other national characteristics in current EU Member States. Methods Ecological data from 27 EU Member States were used to estimate univariate and multivariate correlations between smoking prevalence and the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, and a range of other national characteristics including economic development, social inclusion, quality of life and importance of religion. We also explored the association between the Corruption Perceptions Index and measures of the extent to which smoke-free policies have been enacted and are enforced. Results In univariate analysis, smoking prevalence was significantly higher in countries with higher scores for corruption, material deprivation, and gender inequality; and lower in countries with higher per capita Gross Domestic Product, social spending, life satisfaction and human development scores. In multivariate analysis, only the corruption perception index was independently related to smoking prevalence. Exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplace was also correlated with corruption, independently from smoking prevalence, but not with the measures of national smoke-free policy implementation. Conclusions Corruption appears to be an important risk factor for failure of national tobacco control activity in EU countries, and the extent to which key

  17. Euthanasia and assisted suicide in selected European countries and US states: systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Steck, Nicole; Egger, Matthias; Maessen, Maud; Reisch, Thomas; Zwahlen, Marcel

    2013-10-01

    Legal in some European countries and US states, physician-assisted suicide and voluntary active euthanasia remain under debate in these and other countries. The aim of the study was to examine numbers, characteristics, and trends over time for assisted dying in regions where these practices are legal: Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Oregon, Washington, and Montana. This was a systematic review of journal articles and official reports. Medline and Embase databases were searched for relevant studies, from inception to end of 2012. We searched the websites of the health authorities of all eligible countries and states for reports on physician-assisted suicide or euthanasia and included publications that reported on cases of physician-assisted suicide or euthanasia. We extracted information on the total number of assisted deaths, its proportion in relation to all deaths, and socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of individuals assisted to die. A total of 1043 publications were identified; 25 articles and reports were retained, including series of reported cases, physician surveys, and reviews of death certificates. The percentage of physician-assisted deaths among all deaths ranged from 0.1%-0.2% in the US states and Luxembourg to 1.8%-2.9% in the Netherlands. Percentages of cases reported to the authorities increased in most countries over time. The typical person who died with assistance was a well-educated male cancer patient, aged 60-85 years. Despite some common characteristics between countries, we found wide variation in the extent and specific characteristics of those who died an assisted death.

  18. Constitution, 29 March 1987.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This document contains provisions of Haiti's 1987 Constitution relating to the family; the protection of children, aliens, and refugees; and individual rights. The age of majority in Haiti is 18, and political and civil rights are attained at age 21 regardless of sex or marital status. Haitians are equal before the law but native-born Haitians who have never renounced their nationality have special advantages. Human rights are guaranteed in conformity with the Universal Declaration of the Rights of Man. Every citizen has the right to decent housing, education, food, and social security. The state is obligated to provide citizens with appropriate means to protect, maintain, and restore their health. Primary schooling is compulsory and free. Aliens in Haiti enjoy the protection offered citizens, including a limited right to own real property. Political refugees have a right to asylum. The family is considered the foundation of society and enjoys state protection regardless of whether the family is constituted within the bonds of marriage. Legal protection is afforded mothers, children, and the aged. The Constitution also calls for creation of a Family Code to ensure protection and respect for the rights of the family.

  19. Constitution, 30 September 1987.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This document reprints provisions of Suriname's 1987 Constitution relating to freedom of movement, equality of the sexes, the right to life, the right to physical integrity, equal opportunity in employment, the family, children, maternity benefits, the right to health care, parental responsibilities, free and compulsory education, illiteracy, and housing. All citizens enjoy freedom of movement within the bounds of the law. All people within the territory may claim protection of their person and property, and discrimination is forbidden on the basis of birth, sex, race, language, religion, education, political beliefs, economic position, or other status. Torture or inhuman treatment and punishment is banned, and the right to life is protected by the law. The state guarantees the right to work, and all employees have the right to equal remuneration for equal work, safe working conditions, and sufficient rest and recreation. The family is protected, and husbands and wives are equal before the law. Children have the right to protection, and working women are entitled to paid maternity leave. The state promotes the right to good health by systematic improvements in living and working conditions and dissemination of health education. The right to education is protected by the provision of free general primary education and efforts of the state to enable all citizens to achieve the highest educational levels possible. The Constitution also calls for the institution of a plan to allow the state to create public housing.

  20. The Current State and Developments in Gerontology in European Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Martha

    2003-01-01

    In Europe, 47 gerontology programs offer academic degrees and 11 offer postvocational certificates. Diversity of terminology and qualifications suggests a need for coordination. European Union members are development a European Master Gerontology program with equally structured core modules. Coursework must account for different countries' social…

  1. Developing and testing of search filters for the new European Union Member States' research.

    PubMed

    Radut, Dan Silviu; Sanz-Valero, Javier

    2010-09-01

    To develop and apply search filters retrieving the scientific output (SO) after 2000 focusing on Public Health (PH) of the new European Union (EU) Member States after the 2004 and 2007 enlargements. Twelve geographical filters (GFs) were designed and applied to retrieve references added since 2001 in Medline (accessed through PubMed) and originated in the new EU countries. The PH area was accessed using Medical Subject Heading terms. The filters were evaluated through a manual check and the agreement/non-agreement percentages were calculated. A number of 99 912 articles revealing the total SO and 6502 articles focusing on PH were retrieved. More than 66% were published abroad and more than 80% in English. The evaluation revealed an average agreement percentage of 98.97%. The results were compared with those obtained by using simple search strategies. Twelve GFs applied to medline retrieved references belonging to twelve countries for a specific period of time. The evaluation of the GFs through the manual check demonstrated effectiveness of these filters. Complementary studies would be advisable to focus on the development of search filters to retrieve complete and accurate information.

  2. Biosimilars: A consideration of the regulations in the United States and European union.

    PubMed

    Daller, Justin

    2016-04-01

    Biosimilars are defined as biological products that are highly similar to a reference product, notwithstanding minor differences in clinically inactive components. Biosimilars show no clinically meaningful differences in safety, purity, and potency of the product in comparison to the reference product. With the ever looming patent expiry of some major high cost biologics, biosimilar production is becoming ever more lucrative to companies. Europe (EU) set the precedent, followed by the United States (US) in early 2012, for the approval process for biosimilars. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of the regulatory processes in the US and EU and to determine the requirements of each in the approval process of a biosimilar. The current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency's (EMA) guidance documents for biosimilars were reviewed revealing a need for further clarifications, as well as specifically addressing Celltrion's and Sandoz's application for approval for the biosimilars infliximab and filgrastim, respectively. Currently, the FDA and EMA focus on comparability in terms of the clinical, pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD), preclinical, biological activity, and physiochemical characterization results, as well as requiring a robust and consistent manufacturing process. Both the EU and US have prepared guidance documents for biosimilars that will result in biotherapeutics that are as safe and efficacious as the innovator product but the necessity exists to globally harmonize international nonproprietary naming nomenclature and clarify how the concept of pharmacovigilance, extrapolation, and interchangeability will be handled and regulated in the future.

  3. Educational inequalities in health in European welfare states: a social expenditure approach.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Espen; van der Wel, Kjetil A

    2013-03-01

    A puzzle in comparative health inequality research is the finding that egalitarian welfare states do not necessarily demonstrate narrow health inequalities. This paper interrogates into this puzzle by moving beyond welfare regimes to examine how welfare spending affect inequalities in self-rated across Europe. We operationalise welfare spending in four different ways and compare both absolute and relative health inequalities, as well as the level of poor self-rated health in the low education group across varying levels of social spending. The paper employs data from the EU Statistics of Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) and includes a sample of approximately 245,000 individuals aged 25-80+ years from 18 European countries. The data were examined by means of gender stratified multilevel logistic regression analyses. The results show that social expenditures are associated with lower health inequalities among women and, to a lesser degree, among men. Especially those with primary education benefit from high social transfers as compared with those who have tertiary education. This means that lower educational inequalities in health - in absolute and relative terms- are linked to higher social spending. The four different operationalisations of social spending produce similar patterns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of amount of biomedical research originating from the European Union and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Falagas, Matthew E

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine and compare the research productivity of the European Union, the four “candidate” countries (those currently waiting to join the EU), and the United States in several fields of biomedical sciences. Design A retrospective observational study—bibliometric analysis. Data sources Manuscripts published by authors from each country separately and from each group of countries for the period 1994 to 2004 and included in the Essential Science Indicators database of the Institute of Scientific Information. Main outcome measures Number of published articles and number of citations, adjusted for gross domestic product and population size. Results 1 485 749 articles were published by authors from the EU compared with 1 356 805 from the US. The research productivity of the first 15 countries to join the EU, adjusted for population, was lower (76%) than that of the US—and even lower (66%) when the 10 newest EU countries were included in the analysis. Conclusion The newest EU members and the EU candidate countries need further help and resources to increase their productivity, thereby improving the productivity of the EU as a whole. PMID:16037452

  5. Comparison of amount of biomedical research originating from the European Union and the United States.

    PubMed

    Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Falagas, Matthew E

    2005-07-23

    To examine and compare the research productivity of the European Union, the four "candidate" countries (those currently waiting to join the EU), and the United States in several fields of biomedical sciences. A retrospective observational study-bibliometric analysis. Manuscripts published by authors from each country separately and from each group of countries for the period 1994 to 2004 and included in the Essential Science Indicators database of the Institute of Scientific Information. Number of published articles and number of citations, adjusted for gross domestic product and population size. 1,485,749 articles were published by authors from the EU compared with 1,356,805 from the US. The research productivity of the first 15 countries to join the EU, adjusted for population, was lower (76%) than that of the US-and even lower (66%) when the 10 newest EU countries were included in the analysis. The newest EU members and the EU candidate countries need further help and resources to increase their productivity, thereby improving the productivity of the EU as a whole.

  6. The current state of midwifery and development of midwifery research in four European countries.

    PubMed

    Luyben, Ans G; Wijnen, Hennie A A; Oblasser, Claudia; Perrenoud, Patricia; Gross, Mechthild M

    2013-05-01

    to describe the current state of midwifery and explore the development of midwifery research during the last two decades in four non-English speaking European countries in order to understand what factors influenced the course of establishing research as a professional activity. qualitative collective case study. Germany, Austria, Switzerland and the Netherlands. with the ICM Workshop in Germany in 1989 as a central starting point for midwifery research in all four countries, different courses, in timing as well as content, characterised its development in the individual countries. Major factors contributing to this development during the last decades involved the history and character of midwifery, initiatives of individual midwifery researchers, alliances with other professions and the transition of midwifery programmes into higher education. Whereas midwifery research is currently established as a professional role in all countries, future challenges involve the creation of its own profile and identity, while building up its own academic workforce and strengthening the role of midwifery in multidisciplinary alliances. although a common vision was shared between the four countries in 1989, midwifery research developed as a context-specific phenomenon related to the character of midwifery and education in each country. These factors have to be taken into account in the further development of midwifery as an academic discipline at a national as well as at an international level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mutatis Mutandis? The Court of Justice of the European Union Rules that Member States May Be Allowed to Impose Non-Resident Student Quotas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this month, the Court of Justice of the European Union (the Court), ruled that European Union (EU) member states can impose non-resident student quotas in certain circumstances. The Court, whose job is to ensure that all EU member states interpret and apply EU legislation in the same way, recently made the ruling in response to a…

  8. Mutatis Mutandis? The Court of Justice of the European Union Rules that Member States May Be Allowed to Impose Non-Resident Student Quotas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this month, the Court of Justice of the European Union (the Court), ruled that European Union (EU) member states can impose non-resident student quotas in certain circumstances. The Court, whose job is to ensure that all EU member states interpret and apply EU legislation in the same way, recently made the ruling in response to a…

  9. Impact of state updating and multi-parametric ensemble for streamflow hindcasting in European river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, S. J.; Rakovec, O.; Kumar, R.; Samaniego, L. E.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate and reliable streamflow prediction is essential to mitigate social and economic damage coming from water-related disasters such as flood and drought. Sequential data assimilation (DA) may facilitate improved streamflow prediction using real-time observations to correct internal model states. In conventional DA methods such as state updating, parametric uncertainty is often ignored mainly due to practical limitations of methodology to specify modeling uncertainty with limited ensemble members. However, if parametric uncertainty related with routing and runoff components is not incorporated properly, predictive uncertainty by model ensemble may be insufficient to capture dynamics of observations, which may deteriorate predictability. Recently, a multi-scale parameter regionalization (MPR) method was proposed to make hydrologic predictions at different scales using a same set of model parameters without losing much of the model performance. The MPR method incorporated within the mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM, http://www.ufz.de/mhm) could effectively represent and control uncertainty of high-dimensional parameters in a distributed model using global parameters. In this study, we evaluate impacts of streamflow data assimilation over European river basins. Especially, a multi-parametric ensemble approach is tested to consider the effects of parametric uncertainty in DA. Because augmentation of parameters is not required within an assimilation window, the approach could be more stable with limited ensemble members and have potential for operational uses. To consider the response times and non-Gaussian characteristics of internal hydrologic processes, lagged particle filtering is utilized. The presentation will be focused on gains and limitations of streamflow data assimilation and multi-parametric ensemble method over large-scale basins.

  10. Assessment of collection schemes for packaging and other recyclable waste in European Union-28 Member States and capital cities.

    PubMed

    Seyring, Nicole; Dollhofer, Marie; Weißenbacher, Jakob; Bakas, Ioannis; McKinnon, David

    2016-09-01

    The Waste Framework Directive obliged European Union Member States to set up separate collection systems to promote high quality recycling for at least paper, metal, plastic and glass by 2015. As implementation of the requirement varies across European Union Member States, the European Commission contracted BiPRO GmbH/Copenhagen Resource Institute to assess the separate collection schemes in the 28 European Union Member States, focusing on capital cities and on metal, plastic, glass (with packaging as the main source), paper/cardboard and bio-waste. The study includes an assessment of the legal framework for, and the practical implementation of, collection systems in the European Union-28 Member States and an in depth-analysis of systems applied in all capital cities. It covers collection systems that collect one or more of the five waste streams separately from residual waste/mixed municipal waste at source (including strict separation, co-mingled systems, door-to-door, bring-point collection and civic amenity sites). A scoreboard including 13 indicators is elaborated in order to measure the performance of the systems with the capture rates as key indicators to identify best performers. Best performance are by the cities of Ljubljana, Helsinki and Tallinn, leading to the key conclusion that door-to-door collection, at least for paper and bio-waste, and the implementation of pay-as-you-throw schemes results in high capture and thus high recycling rates of packaging and other municipal waste. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Renewable energy and greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sectors of European Union member states: a panel data analysis.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Hélde Araujo; De Melo Faria, Alexandre Magno; Fuinhas, José Alberto; Marques, António Cardoso

    2017-06-15

    In the last two decades, there has been a rich debate about the environmental degradation that results from exposure to solid urban waste. Growing public concern with environmental issues has led to the implementation of various strategic plans for waste management in several developed countries, especially in the European Union. In this paper, the relationships were assessed between economic growth, renewable energy extraction and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the waste sector. The Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis was analysed for the member states of the European Union, in the presence of electricity generation, landfill and GHG emissions for the period 1995 to 2012. The results revealed that there is no inverted-U-shaped relationship between income and GHG emissions in European Union countries. The renewable fuel extracted from waste contributes to a reduction in GHG, and although the electricity produced also increases emissions somewhat, they would be far greater if the waste-based generation of renewable energy did not take place. The waste sector needs to strengthen its political, economic, institutional and social communication instruments to meet its aims for mitigating the levels of pollutants generated by European economies. To achieve the objectives of the Horizon 2020 programme, currently in force in the countries of the European Union, it will be necessary to increase the share of renewable energy in the energy mix.

  12. European scientific notes. Volume 34, Number 9

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, W.V.; Peters, D.J.

    1980-09-30

    This is a monthly publication presenting brief articles concerning recent developments in European Scientific Research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to American scientists by calling attention to current development and to institutions and individuals engaged in these scientific efforts. The articles are written primarily by members of the staff of ORNL and occasionally articles are prepared by, or in cooperation with, members of the scientific staffs of the United States Air Force's European Office of Aerospace Research and Development and the United States ARmy Research and Standardization Group. Articles are also contributed by visiting Stateside scientists.

  13. 3 CFR 8562 - Proclamation 8562 of September 16, 2010. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Constitution Week, 2010By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The summer of 1787 was a... Convention in Philadelphia established a Constitution for the United States of America, signing the finished... taking a solemn oath to “support and defend the Constitution and laws of the United States of...

  14. 3 CFR 9019 - Proclamation 9019 of September 16, 2013. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Constitution Week, 2013By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In May of 1787... each year as “Constitution Week.” NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of... through September 23, 2013, as Constitution Week. I encourage Federal, State, and local officials, as...

  15. COPERNICUS - The European Union Earth Observation Programme - State of play and way ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Astrid-Christina

    2015-04-01

    Copernicus is the new name of the European Earth Observation Programme, GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security). Copernicus or rather its predecessor was established as an EU programme. It covers all the activities for ensuring an uninterrupted provision of accurate and reliable data and information on environmental issues and security matters to users in charge of policy making, implementation and monitoring, in the EU and its Member States. Copernicus aims at providing Europe with a continuous, independent and reliable access to observation data and information. The EU investment aims at filling the observation gaps, providing access to existing assets and developing operational services. The data policy of the Copernicus programme supports an open, full and free of charge data access that is in line with the data sharing principles of the Group for Earth Observation (GEO). Copernicus is structured in six Services: Marine, Atmosphere, Land and Climate change monitoring as well as support to Emergency and Security. Copernicus uses data from satellites and in-situ sensors such as buoys, balloons or air sensors to provide timely and reliable added-value information and forecasting to support for example, agriculture and fisheries, land use and urban planning, the fight against forest fires, disaster response, maritime transport or air pollution monitoring. The need for continuing such observations is becoming critical, considering the increasing political pressure on public authorities to take informed decisions in the field of environment, security and climate change and the need to respect international agreements. Copernicus also contributes to economic stability and growth by boosting commercial applications (the so-called downstream services) in many different sectors through a full and open access to Copernicus observation data and information products. KEY WORDS: Sentinels, big data, data access, Emergency, Marine, Atmosphere.

  16. Estimation of the receptor-state affinity constants of ligands in functional studies using wild type and constitutively active mutant receptors: Implications for estimation of agonist bias.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, Frederick J; Stein, Richard S L

    We describe a method for estimating the affinities of ligands for active and inactive states of a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Our protocol involves measuring agonist-induced signaling responses of a wild type GPCR and a constitutively active mutant of it under control conditions and after partial receptor inactivation or reduced receptor expression. Our subsequent analysis is based on the assumption that the activating mutation increases receptor isomerization into the active state without affecting the affinities of ligands for receptor states. A means of confirming this assumption is provided. Global nonlinear regression analysis yields estimates of 1) the active (Kact) and inactive (Kinact) receptor-state affinity constants, 2) the isomerization constant of the unoccupied receptor (Kq-obs), and 3) the sensitivity constant of the signaling pathway (KE-obs). The latter two parameters define the output response of the receptor, and hence, their ratio (Kq-obs/KE) is a useful measure of system bias. If the cellular system is reasonably stable and the Kq-obs and KE-obs values of the signaling pathway are known, the Kact and Kinact values of additional agonists can be estimated in subsequent experiments on cells expressing the wild type receptor. We validated our method through computer simulation, an analytical proof, and analysis of previously published data. Our approach provides 1) a more meaningful analysis of structure-activity relationships, 2) a means of validating in silico docking experiments on active and inactive receptor structures and 3) an absolute, in contrast to relative, measure of agonist bias.

  17. Is there still a place for gene patents in Australia? Implications of recent United States and European case law.

    PubMed

    Ridley, Alexandra; Nicol, Dianne

    2011-12-01

    This article considers the ramifications of recent United States and European litigation relating to patents claiming rights to genes associated with hereditary forms of breast cancer (the so-called BRCA genes) for recently commenced Australian litigation relating to the same subject matter. The article is contextualised with brief summaries of the relevant patent law, the science of genetics, the history of the BRCA genes and an overview of the activities of the patent holder. The analysis of first instance and appeal decisions on the validity of the United States BRCA patents shows the final outcome is still highly uncertain in that jurisdiction, while the European litigation provides little assistance in predicting the outcome of the Australian action. This article concludes that the outcome of the Australian litigation is an issue that cannot be determined with any certainty due to the lack of specific, relevant precedents both in Australia and in other jurisdictions.

  18. Constitution, 5 May 1989.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This document contains provisions of Cambodia's Constitution of May 5, 1989. Article 7 gives men and women equal rights in marriage and the family, calls for monogamous marriages, and affords social protection to mothers and children. Article 8 guides parent-child relationships. The 14th article defines state property, and the 15th gives citizens full rights to own, use, and inherit land. The use of agricultural and forested land can only be changed with permission. Article 22 assigns educational responsibilities to the state, including free elementary education and a gradual expansion of higher education. Adult literacy classes are also promoted. Article 26 guarantees free medical consultations, and article 27 gives women a 90-day paid maternity leave. Breast-feeding women are also given special privileges. Article 33 guarantees the right to pay equity and to social security benefits. Article 36 grants the freedom to travel, the inviolability of homes, and privacy in correspondence of all types.

  19. Status of implementation and organization of cancer screening in the European Union Member States - summary results from the second European screening report.

    PubMed

    Basu, Partha; Ponti, Antonio; Anttila, Ahti; Ronco, Guglielmo; Senore, Carlo; Vale, Diama Bhadra; Segnan, Nereo; Tomatis, Mariano; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Primic Žakelj, Maja; Dillner, Joakim; Elfström, Klara Miriam; Lönnberg, Stefan; Sankaranaryanan, Rengaswamy

    2017-09-23

    The second report on the implementation status of cancer screening in European Union (EU) was published in 2017. The report described the implementation status, protocols and organization (updated till 2016) and invitation coverage (for index year 2013) of breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening in the EU. Experts in screening programme monitoring (N=80) from the EU Member States having access to requisite information in their respective countries provided data on breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening through online questionnaires. Data was collected for screening performed in the framework of publicly mandated programmes only. Filled in questionnaires were received from 26 Member States for all three sites and from one Member State for breast cancer only. Substantial improvement in screening implementation using population-based approach was documented. Among the age-eligible women, 94.7% were residents of Member States implementing or planning population-based breast cancer screening in 2016, compared to 91.6% in 2007. The corresponding figures for cervical cancer screening were 72.3% and 51.3% in 2016 and 2007 respectively. Most significant improvement was documented for colorectal cancer screening with roll-out ongoing or completed in 17 Member States in 2016, compared to only five in 2007. So the access to population-based screening increased to 72.4% of the age-eligible populations in 2016 as opposed to only 42.6% in 2007. The invitation coverage was highly variable, ranging from 0.2%-111% for breast cancer, 7.6%-105% for cervical cancer and 1.8%-127% for colorectal cancer in the target populations. In spite of the considerable progress, much work remains to be done to achieve optimal effectiveness. Continued monitoring, regular feedbacks and periodic reporting are needed to ensure the desired impacts of the programmes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 UICC.

  20. Characterization of Emerging European-Like Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Isolates in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Ropp, Susan L.; Mahlum Wees, Carrie E.; Fang, Ying; Nelson, Eric A.; Rossow, Kurt D.; Bien, Melissa; Arndt, Bill; Preszler, Sarah; Steen, Pamela; Christopher-Hennings, Jane; Collins, James E.; Benfield, David A.; Faaberg, Kay S.

    2004-01-01

    European-like field isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) have recently emerged in North America. The full-length genomic sequence of an index isolate characterized in 1999, strain EuroPRRSV, served as the reference strain for further studies of the evolution and epidemiology of European-like isolates (type 1) in the United States. Strain EuroPRRSV shared 90.1 to 100% amino acid identity with the prototype European strain, Lelystad, within the structural and nonstructural open reading frames (ORFs) and 95.3% overall nucleotide identity. The 5′ untranslated region and two nonstructural regions within ORF 1 were closely examined due to significant divergence from strain Lelystad. A 51-bp deletion in a region within ORF 1a, coding for nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2), was observed. Sequence analysis of the structural ORFs 2 to 7 of additional European-like isolates indicated that these isolates share 93% nucleotide identity with one another and 95 to 96% identity with the Lelystad strain but only 70% identity with the North American reference strain VR-2332. Phylogenetic analysis with published PRRSV ORF 3, 5, and 7 nucleotide sequences indicated that these newly emerging isolates form a clade with the Lelystad and United Kingdom PRRSV isolates. Detailed analysis of four of these isolates with a panel of 60 monoclonal antibodies directed against the structural proteins confirmed a recognition pattern that was more consistent with strain Lelystad than with other North American isolates. PMID:15016889

  1. Discrepancies in cancer incidence and mortality and its relationship to health expenditure in the 27 European Union member states.

    PubMed

    Ades, F; Senterre, C; de Azambuja, E; Sullivan, R; Popescu, R; Parent, F; Piccart, M

    2013-11-01

    The European Union (EU) is a confederation of 27 member states, the institutions of which work according to negotiated decisions. The EU has implemented similar legislation and a common market, and has adopted the same currency in most of its member states. Although financing health systems is a responsibility of the national governments, the EU has enacted the Charter of Fundamental Rights to standardize public health policies. However, for historical reasons, health policy and health expenditure is not uniform across the 27 EU member states (EU-27). We hypothesized that increased health expenditure would be associated with better cancer outcome and that this would be most apparent in breast cancer, because of the availability of effective screening methods and treatments. Using publically available data from the World Health Organization, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank, we assessed associations between cancer indicators and wealth and health indicators. To do so, we constructed scatter plots and used the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. A marked difference in wealth and health expenditure indicators was observed between Eastern and Western European countries, with Western European being the higher. Higher wealth and higher health expenditures were associated both with increased cancer incidence and decreased cancer mortality. In breast cancer, the association with incidence was stronger. We created mortality/incidence ratios and observed that the more spent on health, the fewer the deaths after a cancer diagnosis. Despite the initiatives to standardize public health policies of the EU-27, health expenditure continues to be higher in Western European countries and this is associated with better cancer outcome in these countries.

  2. Theoretical Issues of the Constitutional Regulation Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhussupova, Guldaray B.; Zhailyaubayev, Rassul T.; Ukin, Symbat K.; Shunayeva, Sylu M.; Nurmagambetov, Rachit G.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to define the concept of "constitutional regulation mechanism." The definition of the concept of "constitutional regulation mechanism" will give jurists and legislators a theoretical framework for developing legal sciences, such as the constitutional law and the theory of state and law. The…

  3. Antithetical Ethics: Kenneth Burke and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Virginia

    1995-01-01

    Shows how the textuality of the United States Constitution, the most venerable of classic democratic icons, might be exploited to nurture postmodern ethics. Shows how Kenneth Burke's reading of the Constitution accords with and augments the postmodern theories of J.-F. Lyotard and S. Jarratt. Discusses a postmodern Constitution and the…

  4. [Regulation of food supplements in the European Union and its member states. Part I].

    PubMed

    Petrenko, A S; Ponomareva, M N; Sukhanov, B P

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses aspects of the regional (the European Union) and national (European countries) regulation of food supplements. The definition of the supplement category is given. The contemporary issues of nutrition in developed countries are discussed, and the essential role of food supplements in the diet is emphasized. In particular, the use of vitamins, minerals, botanicals and their chemical constituents in food supplements as well as the issue of setting maximum daily limits are discussed. The positive lists of vitamins, minerals and their chemical modifications are presented. The paper also outlines aspects of supplement safety, requirements for their labelling and pre-market notification procedure.

  5. Anticipation of Occupation and Qualification Trends in the European Union: Innovations for Effective Anticipation of Qualification and Competence Trends and the Adaptation of VET Provision in Member States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellin, Burkart, Ed.

    The approaches being taken and innovations being adopted at the national and European levels to anticipate occupation and qualification trends in the European Union (EU) were examined in a survey of the 15 EU member states. The survey findings were presented by country and in a synthesis. In addition, the findings for Belgium were broken down by…

  6. Does Europe Matter? A Comparative Study of Young People's Identifications with Europe at a State School and a European School in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savvides, Nicola; Faas, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which young people in predominantly middle-class environments identify with Europe and considers the influence of European education policy, school ethos and curricula. We compare data drawn from individual and focus group interviews with students aged 15-17 at a state school and a European School in England.…

  7. Does Europe Matter? A Comparative Study of Young People's Identifications with Europe at a State School and a European School in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savvides, Nicola; Faas, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which young people in predominantly middle-class environments identify with Europe and considers the influence of European education policy, school ethos and curricula. We compare data drawn from individual and focus group interviews with students aged 15-17 at a state school and a European School in England.…

  8. Constitution, 3 February 1987.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This document contains provisions of the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines. The state policies reprinted from Article 2 note that the state recognizes the sanctity of family life and protects the life of the mother and of the unborn from conception. Women and men are afforded equality before the law. The state prioritizes education, science and technology, arts, culture, and sports and promotes comprehensive rural development and agrarian reform. Provisions reprinted from Article 13 (Social Justice and Human Rights) cover agrarian and natural resources reform, urban land reform and housing, health, and protection of women in the workforce. Sections from Article 14 (Education, Science and Technology, Arts, Culture, and Sports) set forth the state's duty to make quality education accessible to all citizens through a compulsory system of free public education, provision of incentives to deserving students, encouragement of informal education, and provision of adult education. Article 15, on the family, recognizes the family as the foundation of the nation and marriage as the foundation of the family. Spouses have the right to found a family, children have the right to appropriate care, the family has the right to a living wage and income, families or family associations have the right to participate in the planning and implementation of policies and programs that affect them, and the family has the duty to care for its elderly.

  9. The Education Structures in the Member States of the European Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EURYDICE Central Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    This document was prepared in response to a comparative study tour undertaken as part of the European Communities Commission's Community Education Programme. It describes the educational structures of Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of German, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxemborg, Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Each country's…

  10. Understanding successful resistance management: The European corn borer and Bt corn in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been a major pest of corn and other crops in North America since its accidental introduction nearly a hundred years ago. Wide adoption of transgenic corn that expresses toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, referred to as Bt c...

  11. THE JOINT EUROPEAN-UNITED STATES NDEA INSTITUTE FOR ADVANCED STUDY, MANNHEIM-HEIDELBERG.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VAN TESLAAR, A.P.

    THE EUROPEAN COORDINATOR AND RESIDENT CO-DIRECTOR OF THE MANNHEIM-HEIDELBERG BRANCH OF THE SUMMER 1966 LANGUAGE INSTITUTE IN FRANCE AND GERMANY PREPARED THIS EVALUATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL VENTURE. DESIGNED TO ANALYZE THE INNOVATIONAL ASPECTS OF THE 1966 INSTITUTE WITH THE IDEA OF STRENGTHENING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THIS AND SIMILAR PROGRAMS, THE…

  12. Hairdresser and Beautician Training in the EU Member States. European Report. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni Cheallaigh, Martina

    This document contains information on the vocational education and training available in each of 11 European Community (EC) member countries to individuals preparing for employment as hairdressers and beauticians. The information presented was gathered from relevant national bodies in 11 EC countries (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece,…

  13. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, U. S.

    1984-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review of applicable constitutive models with selection of two for detailed comparison with a wide range of experimental tests was conducted. The experimental matrix contained uniaxial and biaxial tensile, creep, stress relaxation, and cyclic fatigue tests at temperatures to 1093 C and strain rates from .0000001 to .001/sec. Some nonisothermal cycles will also be run. The constitutive models will be incorporated into the MARC finite element structural analysis program with a demonstration computation made for advanced turbine blade configuration. In the code development work, particular emphasis is being placed on developing efficient integration algorithms for the highly nonlinear and stiff constitutive equations. Another area of emphasis is the appropriate and efficient methodology for determing constitutive constants from a minimum extent of experimental data.

  14. 3 CFR 8714 - Proclamation 8714 of September 16, 2011. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Constitution Week, 2011By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In the summer of 1787... months of fierce debate and hard-fought compromise, the delegates signed the Constitution of the United States. For more than two centuries, the Constitution has presided as the supreme law of the...

  15. Measures To Fight School Failure in the Member States of the European Community. Summary Report Prepared by the EURYDICE European Unit for the Meeting of Senior Officials in June 1992 under the Portuguese Presidency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EURYDICE European Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    In addition to personal and social consequences, school failure among Member States of the European Community is a major economic liability. Member States have used a variety of measures to counter school failure. It is generally agreed that socioeconomic, cultural, and personal factors all contribute to school failure. Indicators of school…

  16. [Body mass index and other anthropometric parameters of the physical state in relation with age and individual-typological specific of women constitution].

    PubMed

    Nikityuk, D B; Nikolenko, V N; Klochkova, S V; Minnibaev, T Sh

    2015-01-01

    The physical state of body construction of 651 practically health women 20-55 years old were studied by using a complex of anthropometric and bioelectric methods (conditional norm, slavonians, inhabitants of Moscow region). The leptosome constitutional group was established in 152 cases (23.3%), mesosome group was exposes in 259 cases (39.8%), megalosome group was revealed in 189 cases (29.0%) and indeterminate group was fixed in 78 cases (8.0%). Women of mesoplastic somatotype were established in 26.9%, sthenoplastic somatotype--in 16.7%, picnic somatotype--in 13.7%, subathletic somatorype--in 11.5%, euriplastic somatotype--in 12.3%, athletic somatotype--in 5.2% and asthenic somatotype--in 1.7%. Sizes and weight parameters were depending on type of women body construction. Norm of body mass index for asthenic women was fixed as 16.9; for sthenoplastic somatotype--20.3; for athletic somatotype--23.1; for subathletic somatotype--24.2; for mesoplastic somatotype--24.6; for euriplastic somatotype--24.7; for picnic somatotype--26.2. The length of women body was varied from 158.2 +/- 0.5 (152.0-165.0) cm for sthenoplastic somatotype and 159.6 +/- 0.4 (152.0- 164.8) cm for mesoplastic somatotype to 169.4 +/- 1.7 (162.2-187.4) cm for athletic somatotype. Body weight was also in correspondence with type of constitution. It was 47.8 +/- 0.6 (44.2-54.6) kg for asthenic somatotype, 50.6 +/- 0.4 (42.6-54.2) kg for sthenoplastic somatotype, 62.2 +/- 0.2 (56.3-64.9) kg for mesoplastic somatotype, 68.6 +/- 0.7 (64.5-82.7) kg for picnic somatotype, 66.2 +/- 1.0 (62.0-76.5) kg for athletic somatotype, 68.2 +/- 1.0 (63.4-76.5) kg for subathletic somatotype and 75.0 +/- 1.0 (68.4-92.5) kg for euriplastic somatotype. Mass of bone component was minimal for women of picnic somatotype (6.4 +/- 0.1 kg) as well as asthenic somatotype (7.3 +/- 0.3 kg) and maximal for subathletic (9.3 +/- 0.1 kg) and euriplastic (9.4 +/- 0.1 kg) somatotypes. Skeletal muscles mass was varied from 18.7 +/- 0

  17. Constitutive models in LAME.

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

    2007-09-01

    The Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) provides a common repository for constitutive models that can be used in computational solid mechanics codes. A number of models including both hypoelastic (rate) and hyperelastic (total strain) constitutive forms have been implemented in LAME. The structure and testing of LAME is described in Scherzinger and Hammerand ([3] and [4]). The purpose of the present report is to describe the material models which have already been implemented into LAME. The descriptions are designed to give useful information to both analysts and code developers. Thus far, 33 non-ITAR/non-CRADA protected material models have been incorporated. These include everything from the simple isotropic linear elastic models to a number of elastic-plastic models for metals to models for honeycomb, foams, potting epoxies and rubber. A complete description of each model is outside the scope of the current report. Rather, the aim here is to delineate the properties, state variables, functions, and methods for each model. However, a brief description of some of the constitutive details is provided for a number of the material models. Where appropriate, the SAND reports available for each model have been cited. Many models have state variable aliases for some or all of their state variables. These alias names can be used for outputting desired quantities. The state variable aliases available for results output have been listed in this report. However, not all models use these aliases. For those models, no state variable names are listed. Nevertheless, the number of state variables employed by each model is always given. Currently, there are four possible functions for a material model. This report lists which of these four methods are employed in each material model. As far as analysts are concerned, this information is included only for the awareness purposes. The analyst can take confidence in the fact that model has been properly implemented

  18. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States to give States the right to repeal Federal laws and regulations when ratified by the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Bishop, Rob [R-UT-1

    2010-11-30

    House - 12/20/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Joint United States-European Union Theoretical and Practical Course on Molecular Approaches for In Situ Biogradation

    SciTech Connect

    Suflita, Joseph M.; Duncan, Kathleen E.

    2010-08-14

    The Joint United States - European Union Theoretical and Practical Course on Molecular Approaches for in situ Biodegradation was held May 24 through June 7 at The University of Oklahoma. Twenty-four graduate and postgraduate students from both the United States and the European Union attended the course. Nine states and ten European countries were represented. Students were assigned living quarters and laboratory partners to maximize interactions between US and EU participants as well as to mix people with different technical backgrounds together. The students used the latest methods in molecular biology to characterize beneficial microorganisms and genes involved in the biodegradation of pollutants at a nearby landfill as well as an active hydrocarbon-producing site, part of which is undergoing bioremediation. Seminars by distinguished scientists were organized to expose the students to the breadth of the environmental field, including field assay and engineering applications, laboratory scale bioreactors, microbiology, genetics, regulation, pathway analysis, design of recombinant bacteria, and application of the associated techniques to the field. Lectures were given by various OU faculty on the principles behind the techniques to be used in the laboratory. These lectures included troubleshooting hints and encouraged questions and comments from the audience. The laboratory experiments covered chemical, microbiological, and molecular genetic analyses of soils; bioavailability of contaminants; enrichment cultures; gene probing; PCR amplification of known genes and gene families; identification of microbes based traditional and nontraditional approaches, nutritional capabilities, and 16S rRNA sequence; mRNA detection; and enzyme assays. Field trips were made to the USGS landfill field sampling site, and to the Tall Grass Prairie Preserve, a Nature Conservancy site which also featured long-term studies of bioremediation of crude oil and brine spills by one of the

  20. 3 CFR 8862 - Proclamation 8862 of September 13, 2012. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Constitution has guided our progress from 13 to 50 United States that stretch from sea to shining sea. It has... reach. As we mark this 225th anniversary of the signing of our Constitution, we also recognize the...

  1. Wind Technology, Cost, and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States: 2007 - 2012; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, Maureen

    2015-06-15

    This presentation provides a summary of IEA Wind Task 26 report on Wind Technology, Cost, and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States: 2007-2012

  2. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States to permit the penalty of death for the rape of a child.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Gohmert, Louie [R-TX-1

    2009-05-07

    House - 06/12/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States to limit the number of consecutive terms that a Member of Congress may serve.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Hall, Ralph M. [R-TX-4

    2010-01-21

    House - 03/01/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States to limit the number of consecutive terms that a Member of Congress may serve.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Platts, Todd Russell [R-PA-19

    2009-01-08

    House - 02/09/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States to limit the number of years Representatives and Senators may serve.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Price, Tom [R-GA-6

    2009-12-14

    House - 03/01/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution to provide for a balanced budget for the United States Government and for greater accountability in the enactment of tax legislation.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Emerson, Jo Ann [R-MO-8

    2009-01-07

    House - 02/09/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. The European Dimension in Vocational Training. Experiences and Tasks of Vocational Training Policy in the Member States of the European Union. Congress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Richard, Ed.; Reuling, Jochen, Ed.

    This volume contains presentations and workshop papers from the International Congress on "The European Dimension of Vocational Training--Experiences and Tasks" that provided those with responsibility for vocational training a forum for analyzing and discussing challenges that have emerged from European cooperation in vocational…

  8. [The State of Measles and Rubella in the WHO European region].

    PubMed

    Muscat, Mark; Ben Mamou, Myriam; Shefer, Abigail; Jankovic, Dragan; Deshevoy, Sergei; Butler, Robb

    2015-01-01

    The long-standing and widespread use of vaccines against measles has resulted in a dramatic decline in cases and measles mortality worldwide compared with the pre-vaccination era.All regions of the World Health Organization (WHO) have measles elimination goals and the WHO regions of the Americas, Europe and Western Pacific also have rubella elimination goals. This article aims to report on progress toward elimination of measles and rubella in the WHO European Region based on the latest available data. We also discuss current challenges and actions needed to reach this goal in the Region. Despite substantial progress made towards controlling measles and rubella, the countries of the WHO European Region continue to face challenges in interrupting endemic transmission of these diseases. Widespread outbreaks and endemic transmission of measles and rubella persisted in some countries of the Region in 2014 and have continued in 2015. Interrupting endemic transmission in each and every country is necessary to declare elimination for the entire Region. High population immunity and high-quality surveillance are the cornerstones to eliminate measles and rubella. In the absence of sustained political commitment and implementation of the required strategies by all countries, the goal of eliminating these diseases in the WHO European Region is at stake.

  9. CAF-like state in primary skin fibroblasts with constitutional BRCA1 epimutation sheds new light on tumor suppressor deficiency-related changes in healthy tissue

    PubMed Central

    Etzold, Anna; Galetzka, Danuta; Weis, Eva; Bartsch, Oliver; Haaf, Thomas; Spix, Claudia; Itzel, Timo; Schweiger, Susann; Strand, Dennis; Strand, Susanne; Zechner, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Constitutive epimutations of tumor suppressor genes are increasingly considered as cancer predisposing factors equally to sequence mutations. In light of the emerging role of the microenvironment for cancer predisposition, initiation, and progression, we aimed to characterize the consequences of a BRCA1 epimutation in cells of mesenchymal origin. We performed a comprehensive molecular and cellular comparison of primary dermal fibroblasts taken from a monozygous twin pair discordant for recurrent cancers and BRCA1 epimutation, whose exceptional clinical case we previously reported in this journal. Comparative transcriptome analysis identified differential expression of extracellular matrix-related genes and pro-tumorigenic growth factors, such as collagens and CXC chemokines. Moreover, genes known to be key markers of so called cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), such as ACTA2, FAP, PDPN, and TNC, were upregulated in fibroblasts of the affected twin (BRCA1mosMe) in comparison to those of the healthy twin (BRCA1wt). Further analyses detected CAF-typical cellular features, including an elevated growth rate, enhanced migration, altered actin architecture and increased production of ketone bodies in BRCA1mosMe fibroblasts compared to BRCA1wt fibroblasts. In addition, conditioned medium of BRCA1mosMe fibroblasts was more potent than conditioned medium of BRCA1wt fibroblasts to promote cell proliferation in an epithelial and a cancer cell line. Our data demonstrate, that a CAF-like state is not an exclusive feature of tumor-associated tissue but also exists in healthy tissue with tumor suppressor deficiency. The naturally occurring phenomenon of twin fibroblasts differing in their BRCA1 methylation status revealed to be a unique powerful tool for exploring tumor suppressor deficiency-related changes in healthy tissue, reinforcing their significance for cancer predisposition. PMID:26949839

  10. Criminalization of stalking in Italy: one of the last among the current European member states' anti-stalking laws.

    PubMed

    De Fazio, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates the state of knowledge on stalking in Italy from the first scientific review published in 2001 to the recent anti-stalking law, which became effective in February 2009, introducing a new article in the existing Italian Penal Code. In recent years the interest in stalking has increased progressively, such that it is now possible to find official data on the prevalence of the phenomenon in Italy. At the same time, European research activity has moved from the recognition of the phenomenon to analysis of pathways for a victim's assessment of stalking risk and enactment of legal regulation. The new law is described and analyzed.

  11. Take Advantage of Constitution Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Bonnie F.

    2008-01-01

    The announcement of the mandate for Constitution and Citizenship Day shortly before September, 2005, probably led to groans of dismay. Not another "must-do" for teachers and schools already stressed by federal and state requirements for standardized tests, increasingly rigid curricula, and scrutiny from the public and officials. But the…

  12. Take Advantage of Constitution Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Bonnie F.

    2008-01-01

    The announcement of the mandate for Constitution and Citizenship Day shortly before September, 2005, probably led to groans of dismay. Not another "must-do" for teachers and schools already stressed by federal and state requirements for standardized tests, increasingly rigid curricula, and scrutiny from the public and officials. But the…

  13. Constitution, 5 October 1988.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the constitution adopted by Brazil on 5 October 1988. This constitution seeks to promote the welfare of all citizens without discrimination. The equality of all citizens is guaranteed, and the equal rights of women are specifically mentioned. Property rights are also guaranteed and defined. Female inmates are granted the right to remain with their children while breast feeding. Workers are guaranteed a minimum wage, a family allowance for dependents, maternity/paternity leave, specific incentives to protect the labor market for women, retirement benefits, free day care for preschool-age children, pay equity, and equal rights between tenured and sporadically employed workers. Agrarian reform provisions are given, including the authority to expropriate land. Social and economic policies to promote health are called for, and public health services are to be decentralized, to be integrated, and to foster community participation. Pension plan and social assistance provisions are outlined as are duties of the state in regard to education. The amount of money to be dedicated to education is set out, and a national educational plan is called for to achieve such goals as the eradication of illiteracy, the universalization of school attendance, the improvement of instruction, and the provision of vocational training. Specific measures are set out to protect and preserve the environment. Family policy deals with issues of marriage, the definition of a family, divorce, the right to family planning services, and the deterrence of domestic violence. Social protection provisions cover mothers and children, handicapped persons, and protection of minors. Finally, the customs and rights of Indians are protected, with special provisions given to protect land tenure and to protect the rights of Indians in water resource development and prospecting and mining activities.

  14. Women and the Constitution. Curriculum Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor, Molly Murphy

    The purpose of this curriculum unit is to give students a better understanding of the history of the relationship between women and constitutional issues. The study of women and the United States Constitution is an important reminder of the complexity of a democracy. In the United States, even today, the ideology of freedom and justice is often…

  15. Resources for Teaching about the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Cheryl B.

    1987-01-01

    Describes eight resources for teaching about the United States Constitution available from ERIC. Described are instructional materials for junior and senior high school students on such topics as (1) the role of the U.S. Supreme Court, (2) freedom of the press, (3) the history of the United States Constitution, and (4) problems of the…

  16. Contesting the Constitution: The Constitutional Dialogues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilenski, Ferdinand Alexi

    This historical dramatization, prepared for presentation at the 1985 Wyoming Chatauqua, contains three dialogues, set during the administration of President Thomas Jefferson and presenting the issues surrounding the drafting and ratification of the U.S. Constitution. The dialogues are designed to be presented in three segments to permit discussion…

  17. Contesting the Constitution: The Constitutional Dialogues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilenski, Ferdinand Alexi

    This historical dramatization, prepared for presentation at the 1985 Wyoming Chatauqua, contains three dialogues, set during the administration of President Thomas Jefferson and presenting the issues surrounding the drafting and ratification of the U.S. Constitution. The dialogues are designed to be presented in three segments to permit discussion…

  18. State-of-the-art of waste wood supply chain in Germany and selected European countries.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Carlos A; Hora, Guido

    2017-09-23

    According to the statistic office of the European Union (Eurostat), Germany is the main producer of waste wood in Europe followed by France, United Kingdom, Italy and Finland. Based on the characteristics of the waste wood, it can be classified in four (4) categories: A I, A II, A III and A IV. This paper focuses in the A I waste wood since is the only category able to be used directly for both material and energy purposes without a previously pre-treatment. Currently, most of this waste wood is used for direct energy production due to the previous government legislation that promoted its use directly in incineration facilities. However, the newest Renewable Energy Act (EEG 2017) may promote the cascade-use of A I waste wood prior to be intended for energy purposes. Nonetheless, the government incentives to the energy sector is not the only bottleneck that the use of A I waste wood as raw material in the wood-based industry has to overcome. The peak availability, collection logistics (collection centers and transportation) and recycling facility location are some of the parameters that must be considered in order to design the "best" supply chain network for A I waste wood. This work presents a detailed description of the effect of the hierarchical strategic decision in the proper design of the waste wood supply chain. Additionally, the global picture of waste wood recycling in different European countries (UK, Italy and Finland) is briefly presented. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Committee of Ministry to Member States on the European Sports Charter: Recommendation No. R(92)13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1992

    This recommendation urges European governments to base their national policies for sport on the European Sports Charter, to invite their national sports organizations to take account of principles set out in the European Sports Charter in the elaboration of their policies, and to take steps to ensure a wide dissemination of the European Sports…

  20. Food contamination control in European new Member States and associated candidate countries: data collected within the SAFEFOODNET project.

    PubMed

    Maggioni, Silvia; Benfenati, Emilio; Colosio, Claudio; Moretto, Angelo; Roots, Ott; Tasiopoulou, Stavroula; Visentin, Sara

    2009-05-01

    This paper reports the results obtained from the data collected within the European Commission funded project SAFEFOODNET regarding the state of the art in the control of chemical food contaminants in twelve European New Member States and one Associated Candidate Country (Turkey). Information has been gathered on institutions involved in food chemical contamination control, types of contaminants and matrices analyzed, procedures for data quality assurance, purposes of the analyses and accessibility of data in the participant countries. The resulting picture points out the general availability of adequate capabilities for the analysis of food contaminants in the laboratories in charge of control and the performance of the analysis of a large variety of chemicals (persistent organic pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, mycotoxins, heavy metals, radionuclides) in almost each country with few exceptions (dioxins in Bulgaria, Turkey, Latvia, persistent organic pollutants in Lithuania and Malta, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Malta). The application of validated analytical methods and the process of laboratory accreditation are partially fulfilled within the investigated countries, but still forthcoming for some countries, as in Romania, Turkey and Malta. Information collected on food controls is only partially available online and the language used is prevalently local and English to a lesser extent.

  1. Urinary BPA measurements in children and mothers from six European member states: Overall results and determinants of exposure.

    PubMed

    Covaci, Adrian; Den Hond, Elly; Geens, Tinne; Govarts, Eva; Koppen, Gudrun; Frederiksen, Hanne; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Mørck, Thit A; Gutleb, Arno C; Guignard, Cedric; Cocco, Emanuelle; Horvat, Milena; Heath, Ester; Kosjek, Tina; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Castaño, Argelia; Esteban, Marta; Cutanda, Francisco; Ramos, Juan José; Berglund, Marika; Larsson, Kristin; Jönsson, Bo A G; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Bloemen, Louis; Sepai, Ovnair; Exley, Karen; Schoeters, Greet; Angerer, Jürgen; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Aerts, Dominique; Koch, Holger M

    2015-08-01

    For the first time in Europe, both European-wide and country-specific levels of urinary Bisphenol A (BPA) were obtained through a harmonized protocol for participant recruitment, sampling and quality controlled biomarker analysis in the frame of the twin projects COPHES and DEMOCOPHES. 674 child-mother pairs were recruited through schools or population registers from six European member states (Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden). Children (5-12 y) and mothers donated a urine sample. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, life style, dietary habits, and educational level of the parents was provided by mothers. After exclusion of urine samples with creatinine values below 300 mg/L or above 3000 mg/L, 653 children and 639 mothers remained for which BPA was measured. The geometric mean (with 95% confidence intervals) and 90th percentile were calculated for BPA separately in children and in mothers and were named "European reference values". After adjustment for confounders (age and creatinine), average exposure values in each country were compared with the mean of the "European reference values" by means of a weighted analysis of variance. Overall geometric means of all countries (95% CI) adjusted for urinary creatinine, age and gender were 2.04 (1.87-2.24) µg/L and 1.88 (1.71-2.07) µg/L for children (n=653) and mothers (n=639), respectively. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify significant environmental, geographical, personal or life style related determinants. Consumption of canned food and social class (represented by the highest educational level of the family) were the most important predictors for the urinary levels of BPA in mothers and children. The individual BPA levels in children were significantly correlated with the levels in their mothers (r=0.265, p<0.001), which may suggest a possible common environmental/dietary factor that influences the biomarker level in each pair. Exposure of the general European

  2. A 27-locus STR assay to meet all United States and European law enforcement agency standards.

    PubMed

    Schumm, James W; Gutierrez-Mateo, Cristina; Tan, Eugene; Selden, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Different national and international agencies have selected specific STR sets for forensic database use. To enhance database comparison across national and international borders, a 27-locus multiplex system was developed comprising all 15 STR loci of the European standard set, the current 13 STR loci of the CODIS core, the proposed 22 STR loci of the expanded CODIS core, 4 additional commonly used STR loci, and the amelogenin locus. Development required iterative primer design to resolve primer-related artifacts, amplicon sizing, and locus-to-locus balance issues. The 19.5-min assay incorporated newly developed six-dye chemistry analyzed using a novel microfluidic electrophoresis instrument capable of simultaneous detection and discrimination of 8 or more fluorescent dyes. The 27-locus multiplex offers the potential for a new international STR standard permitting laboratories in any jurisdiction to use a single reaction to determine profiles for loci they typically generate plus an expanded common STR profiling set of global interest.

  3. Interpreting the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  4. Constitutional Issues and Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Important constitutional issues are presented in a manner appropriate for use in the classroom. Case studies and events from the history of Iowa are used to illuminate the Constitution and Bill of Rights. Freedom of expression and students' rights are discussed in "The Black Armband Case"; free exercise of religion as won by the Iowa's…

  5. The Constitution by Cell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhut, Stephanie; Jones, Megan

    2010-01-01

    On their visit to the National Archives Experience in Washington, D.C., students in Jenni Ashley and Gay Brock's U.S. history classes at the Potomac School in McLean, Virginia, participated in a pilot program called "The Constitution by Cell." Armed with their cell phones, a basic understanding of the Constitution, and a willingness to…

  6. Teaching About the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Charles S.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews "The U.S. Constitution Then and Now," a two-unit program using the integrated database and word processing capabilities of AppleWorks. For grades 7-12, the units simulate the constitutional convention and the principles of free speech and privacy. Concludes that with adequate time, the program can provide a potentially powerful…

  7. Interpreting the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  8. The Constitution by Cell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhut, Stephanie; Jones, Megan

    2010-01-01

    On their visit to the National Archives Experience in Washington, D.C., students in Jenni Ashley and Gay Brock's U.S. history classes at the Potomac School in McLean, Virginia, participated in a pilot program called "The Constitution by Cell." Armed with their cell phones, a basic understanding of the Constitution, and a willingness to…

  9. Welfare state regime life courses: the development of western European welfare state regimes and age-related patterns of educational inequalities in self-reported health.

    PubMed

    Bambra, Clare; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Eikemo, Terje A

    2010-01-01

    This article uses data from three waves of the European Social Survey (2002, 2004, 2006) to compare educational inequalities in self-reported health (good vs. bad) and limiting longstanding illness in six age groups based on decade of birth (1930s-1980s) in 17 countries, categorized into four welfare state regimes (Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Scandinavian, Southern). The authors hypothesized that health inequalities in these age groups would vary because of their different welfare state experiences-welfare state regime life courses-both temporally, in terms of different phases of welfare state development (inequalities smaller among older people), and spatially, in terms of welfare state regime type (inequalities smaller among older Scandinavians). The findings are that inequalities in health tended to increase, not decrease, with age. Similarly, inequalities in health were not smallest in the Scandinavian regime or among the older Scandinavian cohorts. In keeping with the rest of the literature, the Bismarckian and Southern regimes had smaller educational inequalities in health. Longitudinal analysis that integrates wider public health factors or makes smaller comparisons may be a more productive way of analyzing cross-national variations in health inequalities and their relationship to welfare state life courses.

  10. Disparity in Dental Coverage Among Older Adult Populations: A Comparative Analysis Across Selected European Countries and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Manski, Richard; Moeller, John; Chen, Haiyan; Widström, Eeva; Lee, Jinkook; Listl, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Background Insurance against the cost risks associated with prevention and treatment of oral diseases can reduce inequalities in dental care use and oral health. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of variation in dental insurance coverage for older adult populations within and between the United States and various European countries. Method The analyses relied on 2006/2007 data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and 2004-2006 data from of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) in the United States for respondents aged 51 years and older. A series of logistic regression models was estimated to identify disparities in dental coverage. Results The highest extent of significant insurance differences between various population subgroups was found for the United States. In comparison with countries belonging to the Eastern and Southern welfare state regimes, a lower number of significant coverage differences occurred for Scandinavian countries. Countries categorized as having comprehensive public insurance coverage showed a tendency towards less insurance variation within their populations than countries categorized as not having comprehensive public coverage, exceptions being Poland and Switzerland. Conclusions The findings of the present study suggest that significant variations in dental coverage exist within all elderly populations examined and the extent of inequalities also differs between countries. By and large, the observed variations corroborate the perception that population dental coverage is more equally distributed under public subsidy. This could be relevant information for decision makers who seek to improve policies towards more equitable dental coverage. PMID:25363376

  11. Teachers' and prospective teachers' explanations of liquid-state phenomena: A comparative study involving three European countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, Laurinda; Mendoza, José; Borsese, Aldo

    2007-02-01

    As contact with liquids occurs from an early stage in individuals' lives, children construct explanations for liquids and liquid-state phenomena. These may differ from the accepted scientific explanations, interfere with formal teaching, and even persist until entry into higher education. The objective of this investigation is to compare student-teachers' and in-service science teachers' explanations for liquid-state phenomena, in three European countries. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire applied to 195 Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish in-service science teachers. Data analysis revealed poor performance among participants, showing low percentages of correct answers. In addition, no systematic differences were found between participants from the three countries, and teaching experience seems to minimize some of the conceptual difficulties showed by in-service teachers. Globally, science education seems to have had a limited effect on student-teachers' and in-service science teachers' conceptions. We conclude that more attention should be paid to the liquid state in both initial and continuing teacher education programs so that teachers can understand more clearly liquid-state phenomena and succeed in explaining them to their students.

  12. Application and sensitivity testing of a eutrophication assessment method on coastal systems in the United States and European Union.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, João Gomes; Bricker, Suzanne B; Simas, Teresa Castro

    2007-03-01

    The Assessment of Estuarine Trophic Status (ASSETS) screening model has been extended to allow its application to both estuarine and coastal systems. The model, which combines elements of pressure, state and response, was tested on four systems: Maryland Coastal Bays and Long Island Sound in the United States and The Firth of Clyde (Scotland) and Tagus Estuary (Portugal) in the European Union. The overall scores were: Maryland Coastal Bays: Bad; Firth of Clyde: Poor; Tagus Estuary: Good. Long Island Sound was modelled along a timeline, using 1991 data (score: Bad) and 2002 data (score: Moderate). The improvement registered for Long Island Sound is a consequence of the reduction in nutrient loading, and the ASSETS score changed accordingly. The two main areas where developments are needed are (a) In the definition of type-specific ranges for eutrophication parameters, due to the recognition that natural or pristine conditions may vary widely, and the use of a uniform set of thresholds artificially penalizes some systems and potentially leads to misclassification; (b) In the definition and quantification of measures which will result in an improved state through a change in pressures, as well as in the definition of appropriate metrics through which response may be assessed. One possibility is the use of detailed research models where different response scenarios potentially produce changes in pressure and state. These outputs may be used to drive screening models and analyze the suitability of candidate metrics for evaluating management options.

  13. Future Intelligent Power Grids: Analysis of the vision in the European Union and the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Coll-Mayor, Debora; Paget, Mia L.; Lightner, Eric M.

    2007-04-01

    The future of power grids is expected to involve an increasing level of intelligence and integration of new information and communication technologies in every aspect of the electricity system, from demand-side devices to wide-scale distributed generation to a variety of energy markets. This paper provides a general outlook of the definition of this future in the U.S. and the European Union and compares two approaches—GridWiseTM and SmartGrid. It describes the contexts in both the worlds, as they influence the two visions of the future intelligent power grid, and as they form foundations at each respective federal level for supporting research in this field. The similarities and complementarities of the two research programs are examined. Within the framework of a solid precedence for trans-Atlantic cooperation in energy research, the time would seem optimal to set in motion active collaboration and educational exchange on GridWise and SmartGrid research. This paper will help energy policy makers to better understand the key issues determining the two different approaches and the two different policies derived from them; as well as a comparison of the solution provided in each case. This work will also be useful for researchers and industry decision makers to be aware of trans-Atlantic approaches, opportunities, and resources looking toward future, more intelligent and interconnected power grids.

  14. Understanding successful resistance management: the European corn borer and Bt corn in the United States.

    PubMed

    Siegfried, Blair D; Hellmich, Richard L

    2012-01-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been a major pest of corn and other crops in North America since its accidental introduction nearly a hundred years ago. Wide adoption of transgenic corn hybrids that express toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, referred to as Bt corn, has suppressed corn borer populations and reduced the pest status of this insect in parts of the Corn Belt. Continued suppression of this pest, however, will depend on managing potential resistance to Bt corn, currently through the high-dose refuge (HDR) strategy. In this review, we describe what has been learned with regard to O. nubilalis resistance to Bt toxins either through laboratory selection experiments or isolation of resistance from field populations. We also describe the essential components of the HDR strategy as they relate to O. nubilalis biology and ecology. Additionally, recent developments in insect resistance management (IRM) specific to O. nubilalis that may affect the continued sustainability of this technology are considered.

  15. Losses of Ammonia and Nitrate from Agriculture and Their Effect on Nitrogen Recovery in the European Union and the United States between 1900 and 2050.

    PubMed

    van Grinsven, Hans J M; Bouwman, Lex; Cassman, Kenneth G; van Es, Harold M; McCrackin, Michelle L; Beusen, Arthur H W

    2015-03-01

    Historical trends and levels of nitrogen (N) budgets and emissions to air and water in the European Union and the United States are markedly different. Agro-environmental policy approaches also differ, with emphasis on voluntary or incentive-based schemes in the United States versus a more regulatory approach in the European Union. This paper explores the implications of these differences for attaining long-term policy targets for air and water quality. Nutrient surplus problems were more severe in the European Union than in the United States during the 1970s and 1980s. The EU Nitrates and National Emission Ceilings directives contributed to decreases in fertilizer use, N surplus, and ammonia (NH) emissions, whereas in the United States they stabilized, although NH emissions are still increasing. These differences were analyzed using statistical data for 1900-2005 and the global IMAGE model. IMAGE could reproduce NH emissions and soil N surpluses at different scales (European Union and United States, country and state) and N loads in the Rhine and Mississippi. The regulation-driven changes during the past 25 yr in the European Union have reduced public concerns and have brought agricultural N loads to the aquatic environment closer to US levels. Despite differences in agro-environmental policies and agricultural structure (more N-fixing soybean and more spatially separated feed and livestock production in the United States than in the European Union), current N use efficiency in US and EU crop production is similar. IMAGE projections for the IAASTD-baseline scenario indicate that N loading to the environment in 2050 will be similar to current levels. In the United States, environmental N loads will remain substantially smaller than in the European Union, whereas agricultural production in 2050 in the United States will increase by 30% relative to 2005, as compared with an increase of 8% in the European Union. However, in the United States, even rigorous mitigation

  16. Interfacing of Science, Medicine and Law: The Stem Cell Patent Controversy in the United States and the European Union.

    PubMed

    Davey, Sonya; Davey, Neil; Gu, Qian; Xu, Na; Vatsa, Rajet; Devalaraja, Samir; Harris, Paul; Gannavaram, Sreenivas; Dave, Raj; Chakrabarty, Ananda

    2015-01-01

    The patent eligibility of stem cells-particularly those derived from human embryos-has long been under debate in both the scientific and legal communities. On the basis of moral grounds, the European Patent Office (EPO) has refrained from granting patents for stem cells obtained through the destruction of human embryos. On the contrary, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has historically granted patents regarding the isolation and use of human embryonic and other stem cells. To date, these US patents remain valid despite an increasing onslaught of challenges in court. However, recent precedents established in US courts significantly narrow the scope of patent eligibility within biotechnology. This article compares the implications of recent legal changes on stem cell patent eligibility between the EU and US.

  17. Interfacing of Science, Medicine and Law: The Stem Cell Patent Controversy in the United States and the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Sonya; Davey, Neil; Gu, Qian; Xu, Na; Vatsa, Rajet; Devalaraja, Samir; Harris, Paul; Gannavaram, Sreenivas; Dave, Raj; Chakrabarty, Ananda

    2015-01-01

    The patent eligibility of stem cells–particularly those derived from human embryos–has long been under debate in both the scientific and legal communities. On the basis of moral grounds, the European Patent Office (EPO) has refrained from granting patents for stem cells obtained through the destruction of human embryos. On the contrary, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has historically granted patents regarding the isolation and use of human embryonic and other stem cells. To date, these US patents remain valid despite an increasing onslaught of challenges in court. However, recent precedents established in US courts significantly narrow the scope of patent eligibility within biotechnology. This article compares the implications of recent legal changes on stem cell patent eligibility between the EU and US. PMID:26618158

  18. Dermatologic relationships between the United States and German-speaking countries: part 3--the Europeans come to the United States.

    PubMed

    Burgdorf, Walter H C; Bickers, David R

    2013-10-01

    Following World War II, dermatology in German-speaking Europe faced enormous challenges, including the need to rebuild damaged or destroyed facilities, the replacement of the loss of many prewar leaders, and a raging venereal disease epidemic. Restoration of academic excellence and leadership required that young German-speaking dermatologists had to seek additional training in the United States, thereby reversing the historical trends of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Some of the initial visitors included Herbert Goldschmidt, Egon Macher, Gerd Steigleder, and Klaus Wolff. By the 1970s, there were numerous German-speaking scholars coming to the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, with Albert Kligman and then to the Dermatology Branch at the National Institutes of Health and the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, and subsequently many other centers. Today, most of the leaders of German-speaking departments of dermatology have had some training in the United States.

  19. The Meaning of Religion: A Constitutional Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, Edward R.

    The problems of formulating a legal definition of religion as used in the U.S. Constitution may be traced through the Supreme Court's interpretation of the word. According to the U.S. Constitution, religious tests cannot be required for any office or public trust under the central government. The Bill of Rights states that the national government…

  20. The Constitution in the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Paul L.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the development of the United States Constitution in the twentieth century up to and including the Burger Court. Contends that interpreting the Constitution is an important issue of our times. Consequently argues that we should teach students about the development of this document. (RKM)

  1. Constitution, 1989. [Selected provisions].

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Chapter XII of the Hungarian Constitution, 1989, details the Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens. Everyone lawfully within the territory of Hungary has the right to liberty of movement and the freedom to choose his or her residence, except when restricted by law, including the right to leave his or her residence or county. The Republic of Hungary grants asylum to foreign citizens who were persecuted for racial, religious ethnic, linguistic, or political reasons. Men and women shall equally enjoy all civil, political, economic, social and political rights. Mothers are entitled to special care and protection before and after childbirth; women and juveniles are protected at work by special regulations. Every child has the right to special care an assistance from his or her family, the State, and society, for appropriate physical, spiritual, and moral development. Parents shall decide the kind of education their children receive. Hungary grants equal rights to all person within its territories, without regard to race, color, sex, language, religion, political, or other opinion, national, and social origin, property, birth and other status. Prejudicial discrimination shall be severely punished. Everyone has the right to work, to the free choice of employment and profession and to equal pay for equal work. Citizens have the right to social security, including social services necessary in old age, sickness, disability, widowhood, orphanhood an unemployment through no fault of their own. Hungary guarantees the right to culture for its citizens and realized this right by free and compulsory elementary education, by secondary and higher education which is accessible to all on the basis of capacity, and by the financial support of those receiving an education.

  2. Internet Access in the European Union and in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Johannes M.; Berne, Michel; Maitland, Carleen F.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the effects of public policies towards traditional communications infrastructures on Internet access in Europe and the United States. Discusses competitive strategies and describes the influence of regulatory policies affecting market entry and the pricing of services on Internet access, based on empirical findings. (Author/LRW)

  3. Internet Access in the European Union and in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Johannes M.; Berne, Michel; Maitland, Carleen F.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the effects of public policies towards traditional communications infrastructures on Internet access in Europe and the United States. Discusses competitive strategies and describes the influence of regulatory policies affecting market entry and the pricing of services on Internet access, based on empirical findings. (Author/LRW)

  4. The healthcare system and the provision of oral healthcare in European Union member states: Part 5: Romania.

    PubMed

    Oancea, R; Amariei, C; Eaton, K A; Widström, E

    2016-04-01

    Romania is one of the newest member states of the European Union (EU). It has 13 dental schools, 14,841 dentists and 2,935 dental technicians providing oral health care for a population, at 31 December 2014, of 21.3 million. The shift from a communist system to a democratic or capitalist society has contributed to an enormous change in the proportion of public and private sector oral health services. The lack of public funds during the post-communist years has contributed to a dependency on private oral healthcare rather than the government financed public provision. Affordability and social awareness have together established a mixed economy for oral health care costs and oral healthcare is growing slowly compared with other developed EU member states. At the same time, there has been overproduction of new dentists (currently 1500 graduate annually). This has led to un and under-employment and emigration of dentists to other EU member states. This paper explains the current oral healthcare system in Romania and changes in recent years.

  5. Solid State Ionics: from Michael Faraday to green energy—the European dimension

    PubMed Central

    Funke, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Ionics has its roots essentially in Europe. First foundations were laid by Michael Faraday who discovered the solid electrolytes Ag2S and PbF2 and coined terms such as cation and anion, electrode and electrolyte. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the main lines of development toward Solid State Ionics, pursued in Europe, concerned the linear laws of transport, structural analysis, disorder and entropy and the electrochemical storage and conversion of energy. Fundamental contributions were then made by Walther Nernst, who derived the Nernst equation and detected ionic conduction in heterovalently doped zirconia, which he utilized in his Nernst lamp. Another big step forward was the discovery of the extraordinary properties of alpha silver iodide in 1914. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, the concept of point defects was established by Yakov Il'ich Frenkel, Walter Schottky and Carl Wagner, including the development of point-defect thermodynamics by Schottky and Wagner. In terms of point defects, ionic (and electronic) transport in ionic crystals became easy to visualize. In an ‘evolving scheme of materials science’, point disorder precedes structural disorder, as displayed by the AgI-type solid electrolytes (and other ionic crystals), by ion-conducting glasses, polymer electrolytes and nano-composites. During the last few decades, much progress has been made in finding and investigating novel solid electrolytes and in using them for the preservation of our environment, in particular in advanced solid state battery systems, fuel cells and sensors. Since 1972, international conferences have been held in the field of Solid State Ionics, and the International Society for Solid State Ionics was founded at one of them, held at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, in 1987. PMID:27877585

  6. Solid State Ionics: from Michael Faraday to green energy-the European dimension.

    PubMed

    Funke, Klaus

    2013-08-01

    Solid State Ionics has its roots essentially in Europe. First foundations were laid by Michael Faraday who discovered the solid electrolytes Ag2S and PbF2 and coined terms such as cation and anion, electrode and electrolyte. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the main lines of development toward Solid State Ionics, pursued in Europe, concerned the linear laws of transport, structural analysis, disorder and entropy and the electrochemical storage and conversion of energy. Fundamental contributions were then made by Walther Nernst, who derived the Nernst equation and detected ionic conduction in heterovalently doped zirconia, which he utilized in his Nernst lamp. Another big step forward was the discovery of the extraordinary properties of alpha silver iodide in 1914. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, the concept of point defects was established by Yakov Il'ich Frenkel, Walter Schottky and Carl Wagner, including the development of point-defect thermodynamics by Schottky and Wagner. In terms of point defects, ionic (and electronic) transport in ionic crystals became easy to visualize. In an 'evolving scheme of materials science', point disorder precedes structural disorder, as displayed by the AgI-type solid electrolytes (and other ionic crystals), by ion-conducting glasses, polymer electrolytes and nano-composites. During the last few decades, much progress has been made in finding and investigating novel solid electrolytes and in using them for the preservation of our environment, in particular in advanced solid state battery systems, fuel cells and sensors. Since 1972, international conferences have been held in the field of Solid State Ionics, and the International Society for Solid State Ionics was founded at one of them, held at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, in 1987.

  7. Solid State Ionics: from Michael Faraday to green energy—the European dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funke, Klaus

    2013-08-01

    Solid State Ionics has its roots essentially in Europe. First foundations were laid by Michael Faraday who discovered the solid electrolytes Ag2S and PbF2 and coined terms such as cation and anion, electrode and electrolyte. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the main lines of development toward Solid State Ionics, pursued in Europe, concerned the linear laws of transport, structural analysis, disorder and entropy and the electrochemical storage and conversion of energy. Fundamental contributions were then made by Walther Nernst, who derived the Nernst equation and detected ionic conduction in heterovalently doped zirconia, which he utilized in his Nernst lamp. Another big step forward was the discovery of the extraordinary properties of alpha silver iodide in 1914. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, the concept of point defects was established by Yakov Il'ich Frenkel, Walter Schottky and Carl Wagner, including the development of point-defect thermodynamics by Schottky and Wagner. In terms of point defects, ionic (and electronic) transport in ionic crystals became easy to visualize. In an ‘evolving scheme of materials science’, point disorder precedes structural disorder, as displayed by the AgI-type solid electrolytes (and other ionic crystals), by ion-conducting glasses, polymer electrolytes and nano-composites. During the last few decades, much progress has been made in finding and investigating novel solid electrolytes and in using them for the preservation of our environment, in particular in advanced solid state battery systems, fuel cells and sensors. Since 1972, international conferences have been held in the field of Solid State Ionics, and the International Society for Solid State Ionics was founded at one of them, held at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, in 1987.

  8. The Law of the Constitution: A Bicentennial Lecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meese, Edwin, III

    This paper discusses the distinction between the Constitution and constitutional law. The Constitution is the fundamental law of the United States. It creates the institutions of government, enumerates the powers of these institutions, and delineates areas government may not enter. The Constitution is the instrument by which the consent of the…

  9. Causes of European emigration to the United States. A humanistic approach.

    PubMed

    Oishi, S

    1983-12-01

    During the nineteenth century and the first quarter of the twentieth century around thirty million people emigrated from Europe to the United States. Causes of these vast movements of people are explained in this paper. The three main causes were a rapid increase in population, class rule and economic modernization. Personal reasons are mentioned and discrimination against religious and ethnic minority groups are touched upon. Two inventions, the steamship and the railroad are referred to insofar as they helped the emigrants and were a cause of hardship for the poor people of Europe. Although causes of emigration fall under the heading of historical facts, they are considered in this paper as causes of suffering for the destitute of Europe who made up the largest number of emigrants to the United States.

  10. Mobile device use while driving--United States and seven European countries, 2011.

    PubMed

    2013-03-15

    Road traffic crashes are a global public health problem, contributing to an estimated 1.3 million deaths annually. Known risk factors for road traffic crashes and related injuries and deaths include speed, alcohol, nonuse of restraints, and nonuse of helmets. More recently, driver distraction has become an emerging concern. To assess the prevalence of mobile device use while driving in Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, the United Kingdom (UK), and the United States, CDC analyzed data from the 2011 EuroPNStyles and HealthStyles surveys. Prevalence estimates for self-reported talking on a cell phone while driving and reading or sending text or e-mail messages while driving were calculated. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, among drivers ages 18-64 years, the prevalence of talking on a cell phone while driving at least once in the past 30 days ranged from 21% in the UK to 69% in the United States, and the prevalence of drivers who had read or sent text or e-mail messages while driving at least once in the past 30 days ranged from 15% in Spain to 31% in Portugal and the United States. Lessons learned from successful road safety efforts aimed at reducing other risky driving behaviors, such as seat belt nonuse and alcohol-impaired driving, could be helpful to the United States and other countries in addressing this issue. Strategies such as legislation combined with high-visibility enforcement and public education campaigns deserve further research to determine their effectiveness in reducing mobile device use while driving. Additionally, the role of emerging vehicle and mobile communication technologies in reducing distracted driving-related crashes should be explored.

  11. Poland’s Role in European and World System of States 1979-2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    with a “plastic ballpoint pen , decorated with a photograph of the Pope.” 5 It was an unprecedented situation, because for the first time in the history...pressing national interest in the specific campaign in Iraq.”21 The third set of rationales regarded moral issues such as the humanitarian promotion of...resulting from it. 111 The United States of America should specifically promise Poland to respond militarily, if Poland were to become the target of

  12. The Future Role of the United States in European Security: Determining Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    Reconsideration (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1963), p. 15. 7. Matloff, Strategic Planning, p. 287. 8. Matloff, Strategic Planning, p. 342. 9. John Ehrman... Johns Hopkins University Press, 1974), pp. 213- 31. 21. David W. Tarr, American Strategy in the Nuclear Age (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1966...pp. 4-5. 23. John Lewis Gaddis, The United States and the Origins of the Cold War 1941-1947 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1972), pp. 252-53

  13. [Women, gender, and the Constitution].

    PubMed

    1993-12-01

    Although all the constitutions of Latin America directly or indirectly acknowledge the juridical equality of the sexes, these patriarchal societies continue to maintain institutional power in male hands and to neutralize legal actions favoring women. International instruments such as the Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, approved by the UN in 1979, have given a firmer basis to policies and actions to improve the status of women. Obstacles to full equality of Latin American women are rooted in economic and sociopolitical factors, but lack of true political will also plays a significant role. A number of new laws in the past several years as well as the new Constitution have improved the legal position of Colombian women. The new Constitution recognizes fundamental rights that may be claimed directly before a judge, and social, economic, and collective rights requiring legislative development. Article 43 of the new Constitution states that women will not be subjected to any form of discrimination. Another norm states that women will enjoy special assistance and protection before and after childbirth, in recognition of the social functions of maternity. Article 43 also states that women who are heads of households will receive special assistance, but the corresponding regulations have not yet been promulgated. The mechanism of tutelage has become an important recourse that has been used in several cases in which fundamental rights of women have been violated or threatened because of their sex. The order of tutelage has been used in cases of adolescents expelled from school for pregnancy and of abused wives, as well as to force recognition of the social and economic contributions of housework.

  14. The Constitutionality of Compulsory Attendance at Religious Exercises in Religious Institutions of Higher Education Which Are the Recipients of State and Federal Financial Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habecker, Eugene B.

    The legal problems with which a religious higher education institution must deal if it receives state and/or federal financial assistance and requires attendance at its religious exercises are discussed. Selected state and federal court cases are reviewed and analyzed, including the United States cases of Tilton v. Richardson (1971), Lemon v.…

  15. C-terminal truncated cannabinoid receptor 1 coexpressed with G protein trimer in Sf9 cells exists in a precoupled state and shows constitutive activity.

    PubMed

    Chillakuri, Chandramouli Reddy; Reinhart, Christoph; Michel, Hartmut

    2007-12-01

    We have investigated the existence of a precoupled form of the distal C-terminal truncated cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1-417) and heterotrimeric G proteins in a heterologous insect cell expression system. CB1-417 showed higher production levels than the full-length receptor. The production levels obtained in our expression system were double the values reported in the literature. We also observed that at least the distal C-terminus of the receptor was not involved in receptor dimerization, as was predicted in the literature. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we found that CB1-417 and Galpha(i1)beta(1)gamma(2) proteins were colocalized in the cells. GTPgammaS binding assays with the Sf9 cell membranes containing CB1-417 and the G protein trimer showed that the receptor could constitutively activate the Galpha(i1) protein in the absence of agonists. A CB1-specific antagonist (SR 141716A) inhibited this constitutive activity of the truncated receptor. We found that the CB1-417/Galpha(i1)beta(1)gamma(2) complex could be solubilized from Sf9 cell membranes and coimmunoprecipitated. In this study, we have proven that the receptor and G proteins can be coexpressed in higher yields using Sf9 cells, and that the protein complex is stable in detergent solution. Thus, our system can be used to produce sufficient quantities of the protein complex to start structural studies.

  16. Black carbon physical properties and mixing state in the European megacity Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laborde, M.; Crippa, M.; Tritscher, T.; Jurányi, Z.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Marchand, N.; Eckhardt, S.; Stohl, A.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Weingartner, E.; Gysel, M.

    2012-09-01

    Aerosol hygroscopicity and black carbon (BC) properties were characterised during wintertime in Paris, one of the biggest European megacities. Hygroscopic growth factor (GF) distributions, characterised by distinct modes of more-hygroscopic background aerosol and non- or slightly hygroscopic aerosol of local (or regional) origin, revealed an increase of the relative contribution of the local sources compared to the background aerosol with decreasing particle size. BC particles in Paris were mainly originating from fresh traffic emissions, whereas biomass burning was only a minor contribution. The mass size distribution of the BC cores peaked on average at a BC core mass equivalent diameter of DMEV≈150 nm. The BC particles were moderately coated (Δcoat≈30 nm on average for BC cores with DMEV =160-260 nm) and an average mass absorption coefficient (MAC) of ~8.6 m2 g-1 at the wavelength λ = 880 nm was observed. Different time periods were selected to investigate the properties of BC particles as a function of source and air mass type. The traffic emissions were found to be non-hygroscopic (GF ≈ 1.0), and essentially all particles with a dry mobility diameter larger than D0 = 110 nm contained a BC core. BC from traffic emissions was further characterised by literally no coating (Δcoat ≈2 nm), the smallest maximum of the BC core mass size distribution (DMEV≈100 nm) and the smallest MAC (~7.3 m2 g-1 at λ = 880 nm). The biomass burning aerosol was slightly more-hygroscopic than the traffic emissions (with a distinct slightly hygroscopic mode peaking at GF≈1.1-1.2). Furthermore, only a minor fraction (\\leqslant 10%) of the slightly hygroscopic particles with GF\\geqslant 1.1 (and D0 = 265 nm) contained a detectable BC core. The BC particles from biomass burning were found to have a medium coating thickness as well as slightly larger mean BC core sizes and MAC values compared to traffic emissions. The aerosol observed under the influence of aged air masses

  17. Capturing the Essence of the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMorrow, Catherine

    1987-01-01

    Offers three sample lesson plans for elementary grades designed to demonstrate the religious values inherent in the United States Constitution. Each lesson plan focuses on one amendment and includes a discussion of class activities. (DMM)

  18. The Impact of Strong Climate Change on Inter-state Balancing in a Fully-renewable Simplified European Electricity System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohland, Jan; Witthaut, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Electricity systems with a high penetration of renewables are strongly affected by weather patterns. Due to the variability of the climate system, a substantial fraction of energy supply needs to be provided by dispatchable power plants even if the consumption is on average balanced by renewables (e.g. Rodriguez et al. [2014]). In an interconnected system like the European electricity grid, benefits can arise from balancing generation mismatches spatially as long as overproduction in one region coincides with lack of generation in another region. These benefits might change as the climate changes and we thus investigate alterations of correlations between wind timeseries and Backup energy requirements. Our analysis is based on a five member model-ensemble from the EUROCORDEX initiative and we focus on onshore wind energy. We use the highest temporal (3h) and spatial (0.11°) resolution available to capture the intermittent and spatially diverse nature of renewable generation. In view of inter-model spread and other uncertainties, we use the strong climate change scenario rcp8.5 in order to obtain a high signal-to-noise ratio. We argue that rcp8.5 is best suited to reveal interesting interactions between climate change and renewable electricity system despite the fact that is in contradiction to the UNFCCC temperature goals (e.g. Schleussner et al. [2016]). We report spatially inhomogeneous alterations of correlations. In particular, we find increasing correlations between central and northern European states and decreasing correlations at the south-western and south-eastern margins of Europe. This hints to a lowering of balancing potentials within central and northern Europe due to climate change. A possible explanation might be associated to polar amplification and increasing frequencies of blocking events (Coumou [2015]). Moreover, we compute wind energy generation using a single-turbine model and a semi-random deployment procedure as developed in Monforti et al

  19. Expressing the sense of the House of Representatives that judicial determinations regarding the meaning of the Constitution of the United States should not be based on judgments, laws, or pronouncements of foreign institutions unless such foreign judgments, laws, or pronouncements inform an understanding of the original meaning of the Constitution of the United States.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Goodlatte, Bob [R-VA-6

    2009-05-21

    House - 08/19/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Assessing the quality of corporate social responsibility reports: the case of reporting practices in selected European Union member states.

    PubMed

    Hąbek, Patrycja; Wolniak, Radosław

    The organization may communicate its engagement in sustainability and may presents results achieved in this field by creating and publishing corporate social responsibility (CSR) reports. Today, we can observe a growing number of companies issuing such reports as a part of their annual reports or as stand-alone CSR reports. Despite the increase in the number of such reports their quality is different. CSR reports do not always provide complete data that readers desire, which in turn intensifies the problem with the evaluation and comparison of the organization's results achieved in this scope. Differences also occur between reporting models used in different EU countries caused by, inter alia, differently applied EU legislation on the disclosure of non-financial information in different Member States. This paper is one of the first attempts to perform a quantitative and qualitative analysis of corporate sustainability reporting practices in several European Union countries. The purpose of this article is to present the current state of CSR reporting practices in selected EU Member States and identify the differences in the quality and level of this kind of practices, taking into account the mandatory and voluntary model of disclosure. The study included separate CSR reports as well as annual reports with CSR sections and integrated reports published in 2012 in six selected EU Member States. The authors have used a specific evaluation tool in the examination of the individual reports. The assessment questionnaire consists of seventeen criteria grouped into two categories (relevance and credibility of information). In order to assess the quality of examined reports, the authors aggregated the indicators related with the reporting practices. The findings show that the quality level of the studied reports is generally low. Referring to its components, the relevance of the information provided in the assessed reports is at the higher level than its credibility. The

  1. Climate remains an important driver of post-European vegetation change in the eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neil Pederson,; Anthony W. D’Amato,; James M. Dyer,; Foster, David R.; Goldblum, David; Hart, Justin L.; Hessl, Amy E.; Iverson, Louis R.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Martin-Benito, Dario; McCarthy, Brian C.; McEwan, Ryan W.; Mladenoff, David J.; Parker, Albert J.; Shuman, Bryan; Williams, John W.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of climate on forest change during the past century in the eastern United States was evaluated in a recent paper (Nowacki & Abrams, 2014) that centers on an increase in ‘highly competitive mesophytic hardwoods’ (Nowacki & Abrams, 2008) and a concomitant decrease in the more xerophytic Quercus species. Nowacki & Abrams (2014) concluded that climate change has not contributed significantly to observed changes in forest composition. However, the authors restrict their focus to a single element of climate: increasing temperature since the end of the Little Ice Age ca. 150 years ago. In their study, species were binned into four classifications (e.g., Acer saccharum – ‘cool-adapted’, Acer rubrum – ‘warm-adapted’) based on average annual temperature within each species range in the United States, reducing the multifaceted character of climate into a single, categorical measure. The broad temperature classes not only veil the many biologically relevant aspects of temperature (e.g., seasonal and extreme temperatures) but they may also mask other influences, both climatic (e.g., moisture sensitivity) and nonclimatic (e.g., competition).

  2. Effects of European land use on contemporary tree-climate relationships in the northeastern United States: Implications for predictive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goring, S. J.; Cogbill, C. V.; Dawson, A.; Hooten, M.; McLachlan, J. S.; Mladenoff, D. J.; Paciorek, C. J.; Ruid, M.; Tipton, J.; Williams, J. W.; Record, S.; Matthes, J. H.; Dietze, M.

    2014-12-01

    Much of our understanding of the climatic controls on tree species distributions is based on contemporary observational datasets. For example, forest inventory analysis (FIA) and other spatial datasets are used to build correlative models of climate suitability for plant taxa for use in environmental niche models. More complex dynamic models rely on species interactions, physiological processes, and competition, among other processes, that are also parameterized against contemporary data. However, as much as a quarter of the forested region in the upper Midwestern United States may be considered novel relative to pre-settlement baselines (Goring et al. submitted). Hence, modern surveys or even long-term datasets may represent only a portion of the ecological or climate space taxa might occupy. Using gridded datasets of pre-settlement vegetation for the northeastern United States from Town Propritor Suveys and the Public Land Survey, we examine the effects of European land-use conversion - logging, agricultural conversion and re-establishment - on climate-vegetation relationships. We show that in regions where land-use change is climatically biased, such as conversion to agriculture along the prairie-forest boundary, impacts on the realized climatic niches for various tree taxa can be significant. Improving predicted distributions of taxa is critical for planning and mitigating the effects of widespread shifts in forest composition resulting from climate change. Using pre-settlement data can improve our understanding of the potential niches occupied by major forest taxa, improving the predictive abilities of environmental niche and mechanistic models.

  3. Does culture affect divorce? evidence from European immigrants in the United States.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Delia; Marcén, Miriam; Sevilla, Almudena

    2013-06-01

    This article explores the role of culture in determining divorce by examining country-of-origin differences in divorce rates of immigrants in the United States. Because childhood-arriving immigrants are all exposed to a common set of U.S. laws and institutions, we interpret relationships between their divorce tendencies and home-country divorce rates as evidence of the effect of culture. Our results are robust to controlling for several home-country variables, including average church attendance and gross domestic product (GDP). Moreover, specifications with country-of-origin fixed effects suggest that immigrants from countries with low divorce rates are especially less likely to be divorced if they reside among a large number of coethnics. Supplemental analyses indicate that divorce culture has a stronger impact on the divorce decisions of females than of males, pointing to a potentially gendered nature of divorce taboos.

  4. [The right to health. Constitutional dimensions].

    PubMed

    Pestalozza, C

    2007-09-01

    A fundamental "right to health" is expressly guaranteed by the constitutions of several Bundesländer, but unknown to the German Federal Constitution. Instead the Federal Constitutional Court has - especially on the basis of related human rights - developed the obligation of the State to protect everybody's life and physical integrity, which in some respects comes near to a "right to health". The State's autonomy in financial matters, the scarcity of its financial resources and the individual's natural responsibility for his own health though advise against exaggerated hopes set in a "right to health".

  5. Standard Setting in Relation to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: The Case of the State Examination of Dutch as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechger, Timo M.; Kuijper, Henk; Maris, Gunter

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on two related studies carried out to link the State examination of Dutch as a second language to the Common European Framework of Reference for languages (CEFR). In the first study, key persons from institutions for higher education were asked to determine the minimally required language level of beginning students. In the…

  6. Competence and Human Resource Development in Multinational Companies in Three European Union Member States: A Comparative Analysis between Austria, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitsch, Jorg; Kollinger, Iris; Warmerdam, John; Moerel, Hans; Konrad, John; Burell, Catherine; Guile, David

    A comparative analysis of human resources development and management in the subsidiaries of three multinational companies (Xerox, Glaxo Wellcome, and AXA Nordstern Colonia) was conducted in these three European Union (EU) member states: Austria, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. Case studies were used, focusing on competence needs and…

  7. A Comparative Analysis of E-Learning Policy Formulation in the European Union and the United States: Discursive Convergence and Divergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erichsen, Elizabeth Roumell; Salajan, Florin D.

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a framework that compares the content and purposes of "federal" level European Union (EU) and United States (US) e-learning policy to ascertain trends, patterns, and points of convergence and divergence across the years 1994-2010. It reveals that the EU and US are applying similar rhetoric for policy framing,…

  8. Standard Setting in Relation to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: The Case of the State Examination of Dutch as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechger, Timo M.; Kuijper, Henk; Maris, Gunter

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on two related studies carried out to link the State examination of Dutch as a second language to the Common European Framework of Reference for languages (CEFR). In the first study, key persons from institutions for higher education were asked to determine the minimally required language level of beginning students. In the…

  9. A Comparative Study of the Trends in Career and Technical Education Among European Countries, the United States, and the Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Robert T. Y.

    Theories influencing the development of trends in career and technical education (CTE) in Europe, the United States, and the Republic of China (Taiwan)were examined. The analysis established that, when determining the goals of CTE and areas of focus of efforts to improve CTE curricula and delivery, European countries focus on theories related to…

  10. Measures Taken in the Member States of the European Union To Assist Young People Who Have Left the Education System without Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EURYDICE European Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    European Union Member States gather information on students who drop out without qualification so that they may know how to help this population. This report presents the broad range of measures, arrangements, and systems that exist for supervising, monitoring, training, and providing for dropouts. The text defines the categories used for the…

  11. A Comparative Analysis of E-Learning Policy Formulation in the European Union and the United States: Discursive Convergence and Divergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erichsen, Elizabeth Roumell; Salajan, Florin D.

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a framework that compares the content and purposes of "federal" level European Union (EU) and United States (US) e-learning policy to ascertain trends, patterns, and points of convergence and divergence across the years 1994-2010. It reveals that the EU and US are applying similar rhetoric for policy framing,…

  12. The Role of Disordered-Eating Cognitions and Psychological Flexibility on Distress in Asian American and European American College Females in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Akihiko; Le, Jane; Cohen, Lindsey L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated whether different forms of disordered-eating-related cognitions and psychological flexibility were associated with psychological distress among female Asian American and European American college students in the United States. Disordered-eating-related cognitions examined in the present study included thoughts (a)…

  13. The Role of Disordered-Eating Cognitions and Psychological Flexibility on Distress in Asian American and European American College Females in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Akihiko; Le, Jane; Cohen, Lindsey L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated whether different forms of disordered-eating-related cognitions and psychological flexibility were associated with psychological distress among female Asian American and European American college students in the United States. Disordered-eating-related cognitions examined in the present study included thoughts (a)…

  14. Educational Finance Law: Constitutional Challenges to State Aid Plans--An Analysis of Strategies. Second Edition. NOLPE Monograph Series, No. 58.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, R. Craig; Thompson, David C.

    The rationales for various state-finance distribution formulas, from 1896 to the present, are explained along with the rationales of the lawsuits questioning their validity. Chapter 1 describes attempts at financial equity from 1896 to the 1950s. Chapter 2 examines the current status of financing public education, emphasizing a state's obligation…

  15. Educational Finance Law: Constitutional Challenges to State Aid Plans--An Analysis of Strategies. Second Edition. NOLPE Monograph Series, No. 58.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, R. Craig; Thompson, David C.

    The rationales for various state-finance distribution formulas, from 1896 to the present, are explained along with the rationales of the lawsuits questioning their validity. Chapter 1 describes attempts at financial equity from 1896 to the 1950s. Chapter 2 examines the current status of financing public education, emphasizing a state's obligation…

  16. Occupational cancer in the European part of the Commonwealth of Independent States.

    PubMed Central

    Bulbulyan, M A; Boffetta, P

    1999-01-01

    Precise information on the number of workers currently exposed to carcinogens in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is lacking. However, the large number of workers employed in high-risk industries such as the chemical and metal industries suggests that the number of workers potentially exposed to carcinogens may be large. In the CIS, women account for almost 50% of the industrial work force. Although no precise data are available on the number of cancers caused by occupational exposures, indirect evidence suggests that the magnitude of the problem is comparable to that observed in Western Europe, representing some 20,000 cases per year. The large number of women employed in the past and at present in industries that create potential exposure to carcinogens is a special characteristic of the CIS. In recent years an increasing amount of high-quality research has been conducted on occupational cancer in the CIS; there is, however, room for further improvement. International training programs should be established, and funds from international research and development programs should be devoted to this area. In recent years, following privatization of many large-scale industries, access to employment and exposure data is becoming increasingly difficult. PMID:10350512

  17. Active animal health surveillance in European Union Member States: gaps and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Bisdorff, B; Schauer, B; Taylor, N; Rodríguez-Prieto, V; Comin, A; Brouwer, A; Dórea, F; Drewe, J; Hoinville, L; Lindberg, A; Martinez Avilés, M; Martínez-López, B; Peyre, M; Pinto Ferreira, J; Rushton, J; VAN Schaik, G; Stärk, K D C; Staubach, C; Vicente-Rubiano, M; Witteveen, G; Pfeiffer, D; Häsler, B

    2017-03-01

    Animal health surveillance enables the detection and control of animal diseases including zoonoses. Under the EU-FP7 project RISKSUR, a survey was conducted in 11 EU Member States and Switzerland to describe active surveillance components in 2011 managed by the public or private sector and identify gaps and opportunities. Information was collected about hazard, target population, geographical focus, legal obligation, management, surveillance design, risk-based sampling, and multi-hazard surveillance. Two countries were excluded due to incompleteness of data. Most of the 664 components targeted cattle (26·7%), pigs (17·5%) or poultry (16·0%). The most common surveillance objectives were demonstrating freedom from disease (43·8%) and case detection (26·8%). Over half of components applied risk-based sampling (57·1%), but mainly focused on a single population stratum (targeted risk-based) rather than differentiating between risk levels of different strata (stratified risk-based). About a third of components were multi-hazard (37·3%). Both risk-based sampling and multi-hazard surveillance were used more frequently in privately funded components. The study identified several gaps (e.g. lack of systematic documentation, inconsistent application of terminology) and opportunities (e.g. stratified risk-based sampling). The greater flexibility provided by the new EU Animal Health Law means that systematic evaluation of surveillance alternatives will be required to optimize cost-effectiveness.

  18. Resolution and Letter to Congress from the Constitutional Convention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the drafting of the United States Constitution. The United States Constitution is the longest-lasting written national constitution in the world. Its four parchment pages serve as the blueprint for a government under which more than 290 million Americans live. It holds great significance for the American people and for others…

  19. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States relative to abolishing personal income, estate, and gift taxes and prohibiting the United States Government from engaging in business in competition with its citizens.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Paul, Ron [R-TX-14

    2009-04-30

    House - 06/12/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States to give citizens of the United States the right to enact and repeal laws by voting on legislation in a national election.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Hoekstra, Peter [R-MI-2

    2010-01-21

    House - 03/01/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Constitutional Law--Elective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Joan; Wood, Robert J.

    The elective unit on Constitutional Law is intended for 11th and 12th grade students. The unit is designed around major course goals which are to develop those concepts whereby students recognize and understand the following three topic areas: 1) Role of the Federal Judicial Branch of Government, 2) Supreme Court Cases Involving the Three Branches…

  2. Sexuality and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copelon, Rhonda

    1987-01-01

    Argues for abortion rights and protection of intimate decisions and relationships. Describes the role and position of women in eighteenth century American society as a means of exposing the fallacy of the anti-abortion movement's insistence on adherence to constitutional text. Discusses the recent attempts to overturn the Roe v. Wade ruling. (PS)

  3. Gender and the Constitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Ruth Bader

    1975-01-01

    In discussing the constitutional aspects of the sex-role debate in the U.S. the author traces the tradition, compares the present criterion of equal protection to the equal rights argument, and analyzes the equality principle with reference to affirmative action and to childbearing and childrearing, supporting the proposed equal rights amendment.…

  4. The Constitution in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the experiences middle school students on a field trip to the new Constitution in Action Learning Lab in the Boeing Learning Center at the National Archives can expect. There, middle school students take on the roles of archivists and researchers collecting and analyzing primary sources from the holdings of…

  5. Sexuality and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copelon, Rhonda

    1987-01-01

    Argues for abortion rights and protection of intimate decisions and relationships. Describes the role and position of women in eighteenth century American society as a means of exposing the fallacy of the anti-abortion movement's insistence on adherence to constitutional text. Discusses the recent attempts to overturn the Roe v. Wade ruling. (PS)

  6. South Africa's Constitutional Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getman, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Describes the striking dichotomy of South Africa's beauty and the squalor resulting from the apartheid policies of the government. Reviews reactions of black South Africans to recent constitutional changes and details efforts to secure more sweeping reform. Includes stories of several individuals who have taken actions which oppose the system of…

  7. [Socioeconomic Costs of Asthma in the European Union, United States and Canada: A Systematic Review].

    PubMed

    Puig-Junoy, Jaume; Pascual-Argenté, Natàlia

    2017-03-09

    Asthma is responsible for a large number of doctor and emergency visits due to exacerbations and inadequate control of the disease, which give rise to very high associated economic costs. The social cost of asthma comprises both the healthcare and non-healthcare costs. The purpose of this study was to analyse up-to-date estimates of the social cost of asthma, with special reference to the influence of level of severity and degree of control. A systematic review of original cost-of-illness studies of asthma published in English or Spanish between January 2004 and December 2014 and indexed in PubMed, IBECS or IME was conducted. 29 cost-of-illness studies of asthma were identified, 21 of which used the societal perspective. Only 10 studies estimated the incremental cost of asthma with a control group, and none of them refers to EU countries. Of these 10, only 4 were regarded as high-quality evidence, insofar as they combined a matched control with regression models. The annual incremental cost of asthma in adults ranged from €416 to €5,317. The incremental healthcare cost of asthma increased with level of severity, from €964 for intermittent asthma to €11,703 for severe persistent asthma in adults. In adults, the incremental non-healthcare cost of asthma ranged from €136 to €3,461. Selected studies in this review show great heterogeneity due to different population characteristics, study designs and valuation methods, which limits their comparability. However, it can be concluded that incremental healthcare costs of asthma, compared to people without asthma, exceeds seven hundred Euros (valued in 2013) in most of the reviwed estimation for several countries. This figure is greater for studies from the United States. The incremental cost per patient increases very rapidly with level of severity and decreases with asthma patient control.

  8. Close view of the south facade on Constitution Avenue to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close view of the south facade on Constitution Avenue to show main entrance - United States Department of Justice, Constitution Avenue between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. Sources and mixing state of size-resolved elemental carbon particles in a European megacity: Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, R. M.; Sciare, J.; Poulain, L.; Kamili, K.; Merkel, M.; Müller, T.; Wiedensohler, A.; Eckhardt, S.; Stohl, A.; Sarda-Estève, R.; McGillicuddy, E.; O'Connor, I. P.; Sodeau, J. R.; Wenger, J. C.

    2012-02-01

    compared with 85% and 15% respectively for BC estimated from the aethalometer model. On average, the mass size distribution for EC particles is bimodal; the smaller mode is attributed to locally emitted, mostly externally mixed EC particles, while the larger mode is dominated by aged, internally mixed ECOCNOx particles associated with continental transport events. Periods of continental influence were identified using the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) "FLEXPART". A consistent minimum between the two EC mass size modes was observed at approximately 400 nm for the measurement period. EC particles below this size are attributed to local emissions using chemical mixing state information and contribute 79% of the scaled ATOFMS EC particle mass, while particles above this size are attributed to continental transport events and contribute 21% of the EC particle mass. These results clearly demonstrate the potential benefit of monitoring size-resolved mass concentrations for the separation of local and continental EC emissions. Knowledge of the relative input of these emissions is essential for assessing the effectiveness of local abatement strategies.

  10. Sources and mixing state of size-resolved elemental carbon particles in a European megacity: Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, R. M.; Sciare, J.; Poulain, L.; Kamili, K.; Merkel, M.; Müller, T.; Wiedensohler, A.; Eckhardt, S.; Stohl, A.; Sarda-Estève, R.; McGillicuddy, E.; O'Connor, I. P.; Sodeau, J. R.; Wenger, J. C.

    2011-11-01

    compared with 85 % and 15 % respectively for BC estimated from the aethalometer model. On average, the mass size distribution for EC particles is bimodal; the smaller mode is attributed to locally emitted, mostly externally mixed EC particles, while the larger mode is dominated by aged, internally mixed ECOCNOx particles associated with continental transport events. Periods of continental influence were identified using the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) "FLEXPART". A consistent minimum between the two EC mass size modes was observed at approximately 400 nm for the measurement period. EC particles below this size are attributed to local emissions using chemical mixing state information and contribute 79 % of the scaled ATOFMS EC particle mass, while particles above this size are attributed to continental transport events and contribute 21 % of the EC particle mass. These results clearly demonstrate the potential benefit of monitoring size-resolved mass concentrations for the separation of local and continental EC emissions. Knowledge of the relative input of these emissions is essential for assessing the effectiveness of local abatement strategies.

  11. A Space for the European Higher Education Area: The Guidance from the EU Court of Justice to Member States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwikkers, Peter; van Wageningen, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The European Court of Justice has developed a body of jurisprudence that regulates issues such as access, capacity, quality, student allowances and labour market needs, and that should be considered at least an even more important contribution to the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) than the Bologna process. The Bressol and Chaverot cases…

  12. Visions of Future Intelligent Power Grids: Synergies for Collaboration Between the European Union and the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Coll-Mayor, Debora; Paget, Mia L.; Lightner, Eric M.; Sanchez-Jimenez, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    The future of power grids is expected to involve an increasing level of intelligence and integration of new information and communication technologies in every aspect of the electricity system, from demand-side devices to wide-scale distributed generation to a variety of energy markets. The vision of this future in the United States and the European Union is known as GridWiseTM and SmartGrid, respectively. The results of the examination of similarities and complementarities of the two research programs are presented in this paper. Within the framework of a solid precedence for trans-Atlantic cooperation in energy research, the time would seem optimal to set in motion active collaboration and educational exchange on GridWise and SmartGrid research. This paper will provide energy professionals with a comparison of the solutions developed in each case, to be aware of trans-Atlantic approaches, opportunities, and resources looking toward future, more intelligent and interconnected power grids.

  13. Veterinary drug residues in seafood inspected by the European Union, United States, Canada, and Japan from 2000 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Love, David C; Rodman, Sarah; Neff, Roni A; Nachman, Keeve E

    2011-09-01

    Veterinary drugs are used to treat or prevent a wide array of production-related diseases in aquaculture. Residues of these drugs in seafood products may pose risks to consumers, prompting governments to set drug residue tolerance levels and inspect seafood for violations of these standards. This study characterizes veterinary drug inspection policies and violations among four inspecting bodies (European Union (E.U.), United States (U.S.), Canada, and Japan), using government-collected veterinary drug violation data from 2000 to 2009. Most veterinary drug violations were detected in species that are commonly farm-raised. Asian seafood products, including shrimp and prawns, catfish (or fish sold as catfish), crab, tilapia, eel, and Chilean salmon were most frequently in violation of veterinary drug residue standards. Vietnam had the greatest number of violations among exporting countries. Concentrations of most veterinary drugs in seafood found in violation did not differ between inspecting bodies that reported drug concentrations. Transparency in seafood inspection reporting varied widely among inspecting bodies. Estimation of violations in the untested fraction of seafood was precluded by a lack of information from inspecting bodies regarding the distinction between targeted and random sampling. Increased transparency could facilitate a more rigorous characterization of public health risks from consuming imported seafood.

  14. The risk of Rift Valley fever virus introduction and establishment in the United States and European Union

    PubMed Central

    Rolin, Alicia I; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Kulkarni, Manisha A

    2013-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arthropod-borne disease resulting in severe morbidity and mortality in both human and ruminant populations. First identified in Kenya in 1930, the geographical range of RVFV has been largely constrained to the African continent, yet has recently spread to new regions, and is identified as a priority disease with potential for geographic emergence. We present a systematic literature review assessing the potential for RVFV introduction and establishment in the United States (US) and European Union (EU). Viable pathways for the introduction of RVFV include: transport of virus-carrying vectors, importation of viremic hosts and intentional entry of RVFV as a biological weapon. It is generally assumed that the risk of RVFV introduction into the US or EU is low. We argue that the risk of sporadic introduction is likely high, though currently an insufficient proportion of such introductions coincide with optimal environmental conditions. Future global trends may increase the likelihood of risk factors for RVFV spread. PMID:26038446

  15. Constitutive modeling of inelastic anisotropic material response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stouffer, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    A constitutive equation was developed to predict the inelastic thermomechanical response of single crystal turbine blades. These equations are essential for developing accurate finite element models of hot section components and contribute significantly to the understanding and prediction of crack initiation and propagation. The method used was limited to unified state variable constitutive equations. Two approaches to developing an anisotropic constitutive equation were reviewed. One approach was to apply the Stouffer-Bodner representation for deformation induced anisotropy to materials with an initial anisotropy such as single crystals. The second approach was to determine the global inelastic strain rate from the contribution of the slip in each of the possible crystallographic slip systems. A three dimensional finite element is being developed with a variable constitutive equation link that can be used for constitutive equation development and to predict the response of an experiment using the actual specimen geometry and loading conditions.

  16. Oxidative DNA damage and antioxidant defenses in the European common lizard (Lacerta vivipara) in supercooled and frozen states.

    PubMed

    Voituron, Yann; Servais, Stéphane; Romestaing, Caroline; Douki, Thierry; Barré, Hervé

    2006-02-01

    The European common lizard (Lacerta vivipara) tolerates long periods at sub-zero temperatures, either in the supercooled or the frozen state. Both physiological conditions limit oxygen availability to tissues, compelling lizards to cope with potential oxidative stress during the transition from ischemic/anoxic conditions to reperfusion with aerated blood during recovery. To determine whether antioxidant defenses are implicated in the survival of lizards when facing sub-zero temperatures, we monitored the activities of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress either during supercooling or during freezing exposures (20 h at -2.5 degrees C) and 24 h after thawing in two organs of lizards--muscle and liver. Supercooling induced a significant increase in the total SOD and GPx activity in muscle (by 67 and 157%, respectively), but freezing had almost no effect on enzyme activity, either in muscle or in liver. By contrast, thawed lizards exhibited higher GPx activity in both organs (a 133% increase in muscle and 59% increase in liver) and a significant decrease in liver catalase activity (a 47% difference between control and thawed lizards). These data show that supercooling (but not freezing) triggers activation of the antioxidant system and this may be in anticipation of the overgeneration of oxyradicals when the temperature increases (while thawing or at the end of supercooling). Oxidative stress was assessed from the content of 8-oxodGuo and the different DNA adducts resulting from lipid peroxidation, but it was unaltered whatever the physiological state of the lizards, thus demonstrating the efficiency of the antioxidant system that has been developed by this species. Overall, antioxidant defenses appear to be part of the adaptive machinery for reptilian tolerance to sub-zero temperatures.

  17. Telegram from Senator Joseph McCarthy to President Harry S. Truman. The Constitution Community: Postwar United States (1945 to Early 1970s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Tom

    As soon as World War II ended, the United States and the Soviet Union began a struggle for supremacy. It was against the backdrop of the Cold War that the threat of internal subversion and external attack began to preoccupy Congress. On February 9, 1950, Senator Joseph McCarthy gave a speech in Wheeling, West Virginia, where he claimed to have in…

  18. Unborn children as constitutional persons.

    PubMed

    Roden, Gregory J

    2010-01-01

    In Roe v. Wade, the state of Texas argued that "the fetus is a 'person' within the language and meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment." To which Justice Harry Blackmun responded, "If this suggestion of personhood is established, the appellant's case, of course, collapses, for the fetus' right to life would then be guaranteed specifically by the Amendment." However, Justice Blackmun then came to the conclusion "that the word 'person,' as used in the Fourteenth Amendment, does not include the unborn." In this article, it is argued that unborn children are indeed "persons" within the language and meaning of the Fourteenth and Fifth Amendments. As there is no constitutional text explicitly holding unborn children to be, or not to be, "persons," this argument will be based on the "historical understanding and practice, the structure of the Constitution, and thejurisprudence of [the Supreme] Court." Specifically, it is argued that the Constitution does not confer upon the federal government a specifically enumerated power to grant or deny "personhood" under the Fourteenth Amendment. Rather, the power to recognize or deny unborn children as the holders of rights and duties has been historically exercised by the states. The Roe opinion and other Supreme Court cases implicitly recognize this function of state sovereignty. The states did exercise this power and held unborn children to be persons under the property, tort, and criminal law of the several states at the time Roe was decided. As an effect of the unanimity of the states in holding unborn children to be persons under criminal, tort, and property law, the text of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment compels federal protection of unborn persons. Furthermore, to the extent Justice Blackmun examined the substantive law in these disciplines, his findings are clearly erroneous and as a whole amount to judicial error. Moreover, as a matter of procedure, according to the due process standards recognized in

  19. Constitutively Active Rhodopsin and Retinal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Park, Paul Shin-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Rhodopsin is the light receptor in rod photoreceptor cells of the retina that initiates scotopic vision. In the dark, rhodopsin is bound to the chromophore 11-cis retinal, which locks the receptor in an inactive state. The maintenance of an inactive rhodopsin in the dark is critical for rod photoreceptor cells to remain highly sensitive. Perturbations by mutation or absence of 11-cis retinal can cause rhodopsin to become constitutively active, which leads to the desensitization of photoreceptor cells and, in some instances, retinal degeneration. Constitutive activity can arise in rhodopsin by various mechanisms and can cause a variety of inherited retinal diseases including Leber congenital amaurosis, congenital night blindness, and retinitis pigmentosa. In this review, the molecular and structural properties of different constitutively active forms of rhodopsin are overviewed and the possibility that constitutive activity can arise from different active-state conformations is discussed. PMID:24931191

  20. The Constitution in Other Lands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bill of Rights in Action, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Designed for classroom teaching, this document contains articles on the new constitutions of Japan, South Korea, and the Philippine Islands which were modeled in part on the U.S. Constitution. These countries' experiences with constitutional government are examined, and whether or not the U.S. Constitution can be a suitable model for other…

  1. Correlates of self-reported exposure to advertising of tobacco products and electronic cigarettes across 28 European Union member states.

    PubMed

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Laverty, Anthony A; Fernandez, Esteve; Mons, Ute; Tigova, Olena; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2017-06-12

    Despite advertising bans in most European Union (EU) member states, outlets for promotion of tobacco products and especially e-cigarettes still exist. This study aimed to assess the correlates of self-reported exposure to tobacco products and e-cigarettee advertising in the EU. We analysed data from wave 82.4 of the Eurobarometer survey (November-December 2014), collected through interviews in 28 EU member states (n=27 801 aged ≥15 years) and data on bans of tobacco advertising extracted from the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS, 2013). We used multilevel logistic regression to assess sociodemographic correlates of self-reported exposure to any tobacco and e-cigarette advertisements. 40% and 41.5% of the respondents reported having seen any e-cigarette and tobacco product advertisement respectively within the past year. Current smokers, males, younger respondents, those with financial difficulties, people who had tried e-cigarettes and daily internet users were more likely to report having seen an e-cigarette and a tobacco product advertisement. Respondents in countries with more comprehensive advertising bans were less likely to self-report exposure to any tobacco advertisements (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.79 to 0.96 for one-unit increase in TCS advertising score), but not e-cigarette advertisements (OR 1.08; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.22). Ten years after ratification of the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, self-reported exposure to tobacco and e-cigarette advertising in the EU is higher in e-cigarette and tobacco users, as well as those with internet access. The implementation of the Tobacco Products Directive may result in significant changes in e-cigarette advertising, therefore improved monitoring of advertising exposure is required in the coming years. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Verification of a European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) loss equation in the major corn production region of the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Dillehay, B L; Calvin, D D; Roth, G W; Hyde, J A; Kuldau, G A; Kratochvil, R J; Russo, J M; Voight, D G

    2005-02-01

    Field studies in Pennsylvania and Maryland were conducted during 2000, 2001, and 2002 to test the applicability of published yield loss relationships developed in central Pennsylvania for European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), management in warmer, longer season corn, Zea mays L., grain production regions of the northeastern United States. Both isoline hybrids and non-Bt lead hybrids were compared against Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) hybrids to measure effects of the pest on yield. The European corn borer economic analysis model was used to make site-specific predictions of loss per European corn borer larva for comparison with measured yield loss per larva. Although the model did not predict loss per larva at a field level, it did predict loss at a regional level. The model predicted an overall percentage of yield loss per larva of 2.69+/-0.12% over the region, which was similar to the measured yield loss per larva of 2.66+/-0.59% for isoline hybrids and 3.08+/-0.51% for lead hybrids. The model, on average, provided a good prediction of percentage of yield loss per larva within the climatic zones of 1100-1700 degree-days (DD) (base threshold 12.5 degrees C). Our results suggest that the yield loss relationship developed in Central Pennsylvania, when matched to the timing of third instar second generation European corn borer stalk tunneling is adequate for major corn grain production zones of the northeast United States.

  3. Constitutive Parameter Measurement Using Double Ridge Waveguide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    CONSTITUTIVE PARAMETER MEASUREMENT USING DOUBLE RIDGE WAVEGUIDE THESIS Nathan J. Lehman, Captain, USAF AFIT-ENG-13-M-30 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE...copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENG-13-M-30 CONSTITUTIVE PARAMETER MEASUREMENT USING DOUBLE RIDGE WAVEGUIDE THESIS Presented to the Faculty...PARAMETER MEASUREMENT USING DOUBLE RIDGE WAVEGUIDE Nathan J. Lehman, B.S.E.E. Captain, USAF Approved: Michael Havrilla, PhD (Chairman) Maj Milo Hyde, PhD

  4. Ohio's School Finance System: Constitutional or Unconstitutional?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulach, Clete

    Since June 1979, when the Ohio Supreme Court declared Ohio's finance system constitutional, that system has continued to deteriorate, as evidenced by the number of districts borrowing from the school loan fund. Moreover, the supreme courts of four other states have recently declared their state financing systems unconstitutional. This paper…

  5. Fetal pain, abortion, viability, and the Constitution.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn; Sayeed, Sadath

    2011-01-01

    In early 2010, the Nebraska state legislature passed a new abortion restricting law asserting a new, compelling state interest in preventing fetal pain. In this article, we review existing constitutional abortion doctrine and note difficulties presented by persistent legal attention to a socially derived viability construct. We then offer a substantive biological, ethical, and legal critique of the new fetal pain rationale.

  6. How Does Medical Device Regulation Perform in the United States and the European Union? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Daniel B.; Xu, Shuai; Kesselheim, Aaron S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Policymakers and regulators in the United States (US) and the European Union (EU) are weighing reforms to their medical device approval and post-market surveillance systems. Data may be available that identify strengths and weakness of the approaches to medical device regulation in these settings. Methods and Findings We performed a systematic review to find empirical studies evaluating medical device regulation in the US or EU. We searched Medline using two nested categories that included medical devices and glossary terms attributable to the US Food and Drug Administration and the EU, following PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews. We supplemented this search with a review of the US Government Accountability Office online database for reports on US Food and Drug Administration device regulation, consultations with local experts in the field, manual reference mining of selected articles, and Google searches using the same key terms used in the Medline search. We found studies of premarket evaluation and timing (n = 9), studies of device recalls (n = 8), and surveys of device manufacturers (n = 3). These studies provide evidence of quality problems in pre-market submissions in the US, provide conflicting views of device safety based largely on recall data, and relay perceptions of some industry leaders from self-surveys. Conclusions Few studies have quantitatively assessed medical device regulation in either the US or EU. Existing studies of US and EU device approval and post-market evaluation performance suggest that policy reforms are necessary for both systems, including improving classification of devices in the US and promoting transparency and post-market oversight in the EU. Assessment of regulatory performance in both settings is limited by lack of data on post-approval safety outcomes. Changes to these device approval and post-marketing systems must be accompanied by ongoing research to ensure that there is better assessment of

  7. Marital status, labour force activity and mortality: A study of the United States and 6 European countries

    PubMed Central

    van Hedel, Karen; van Lenthe, Frank J; Avendano, Mauricio; Bopp, Matthias; Esnaola, Santiago; Kovács, Katalin; Martikainen, Pekka; Regidor, Enrique; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2015-01-01

    Aims Labour force activity and marriage share some of the pathways through which they potentially influence health. In this paper, we examine whether marriage and labour force participation interact in the way they influence mortality in the United States and six European countries. Methods We used data from the US National Health Interview Survey linked to the National Death Index, and national mortality registry data for Austria, England/Wales, Finland, Hungary, Norway and Spain (Basque country) during 1999-2007 for men and women aged 30-59 at baseline. Poisson regression was used to estimate both additive (the relative excess risk due to interaction) and multiplicative interactions between marriage and labour force activity on mortality. Results Labour force inactivity was associated with higher mortality, but this association was stronger for unmarried than married individuals. Likewise, being unmarried was associated with higher mortality, but this association was stronger for inactive than for active individuals. To illustrate, among US women out of the labour force, being unmarried was associated with a 3.98 (95%CI:3.28-4.82) times higher risk of dying than being married, whereas the relative risk was 2.49 (95%CI:2.10-2.94) for women active in the labour market. Although this interaction between marriage and labour force activity was only significant for women on a multiplicative scale, there was a significant additive interaction for both men and women. The pattern was similar across all countries. Conclusions Marriage attenuates the increased mortality risk associated with labour force inactivity, while labour force activity attenuates the mortality risk associated with being unmarried. Our study emphasizes the importance of public health and social policies that improve the health and well-being of men and women who are both unmarried and inactive. PMID:25868643

  8. The Impact of the Equal Rights Amendment. Part 1. Hearings before the Subcommittee on the Constitution of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First and Second Sessions (May 26, September 13, November 1, 1983; January 24, February 21, March 20, April 23, and May 23, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    Presented are eight congressional hearings on a joint resolution proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States relative to equal rights for women and men. The hearings focus on a constitutional overview; the impact of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) on private and parochial education, military law and policy, abortion policy,…

  9. Constitution of ethnozoological semantic domains: meaning and inclusiveness of the lexeme "insect" for the inhabitants of the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos-Fita, Dídac; Costa-Neto, Eraldo M; Schiavetti, Alexandre

    2011-06-01

    This article deals with the sociocultural construction of the 'insect' and 'animal' domains by the inhabitants of the county of Pedra Branca (municipality of Santa Terezinha, Bahia State, Brazil). The fieldwork was performed from September 2006 to July 2007. The data was obtained by means of open-ended interviews of 74 individuals of both genders whose ages ranged from 4 to 89 years old. The results show that the interviewees were unable to say in an accurate and secure way a specific definition for each domain. Depending on how a given animal is culturally interpreted, it could belong to the semantic domain 'animal' or 'insect', being representative of one or another group. However, in practice, such a distinction between these two semantic domains appears as something tenuous and ambiguous. Researchers who carry out biodiversity inventories should pay attention to the ethnocategory 'insect' during their studies, especially if these involve the participation of traditional community representatives.

  10. Biosimilars: impact of biologic product life cycle and European experience on the regulatory trajectory in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Islah; Kaspar, Ben; Sharma, Uma

    2012-02-01

    Biosimilars are defined as biologic products that are highly similar to reference products, notwithstanding minor differences in clinically inactive components, with no clinically meaningful differences between the biologic product and the reference product in terms of safety profile, purity, and potency. Due to the high cost of innovator biologics, as well as an increase in the number of these products reaching patent expiry, the development of a process for approving biosimilar products has become a crucial regulatory issue in the United States. This commentary explores the relationship between structural/biophysical variation and the risk/benefit profile of biosimilars and reference biologics that have undergone process changes in the context of the most recent biophysical, nonclinical, and clinical data available. The search strategy used PubMed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE for the retrieval of documents pertaining to biologic manufacturing, comparative analysis of biosimilars and originator biologics, and relevant review articles on biosimilars. For regulatory documents pertaining to the processes of the approval of biosimilars, biologics, and generics, a search for legislative decisions, briefing summaries, concept papers, guidance, and evaluations of approved and rejected applications for biosimilars published by the World Health Organization, US Food and Drug Administration, European Medicines Agency (EMA), and other national regulatory authorities was conducted. Selected articles from key opinion leaders and manufacturers were also reviewed. These searches were conducted to provide a review of historical and contemporary issues in the consideration of the current status of worldwide biosimilar use and regulation. A total of 18 marketing applications covering 9 development programs were surveyed. Of these, 14 applications were approved and 4 were rejected by the EMA. None of the biosimilars were reported to have evidence of significant clinical variation relative

  11. The Impact of Total Liberalization of Domestic Air Transport on the Social Welfare and on the Dynamic of Competition: Comparison Between the United States and the European Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zbidi, Karim

    2003-01-01

    Since the lst of April 1997 date of the implementation of the third package of the liberalization, air transport, within the european Union has become totally liberalized. In the United States the deregulation of domestic air traffic was earlier and faster since it took place in October 1978 after the adoption of the only act of deregulation. This paper, in its first part, deals with the liberalization of the industry of air traffic in the european union. After a comparison with US system based on market demand, fare policy and network restrictions, we present our descriptive results coming from treatments on the OAG data. These results present several aspects such as the evolution of the competitive structure of the intra-european routes, the level of airport dominance and the growth of hub structure. The second part of the paper presents models of entry in the airline industry. As profitability" of route flown explains correctly decisions taken by airlines to serve or not a route, the paper focuses on the specification and the estimation of the determinants of city, pair profitability in the european union. Treatments done on the OAG data show a rapid development of leasing space agreement (partial and total) and code sharing practices between 1995 and 2000 in Europe that's why we differentiate first between the two type of competitive strategy of entry(direct entry and leasing space agreement) and second between the competitive strategy of entry and the alliance strategy of code sharing. So the estimation of model will be able to answer the question if the european air transport market is contestable and in case not to see if the decision of entry is more directed by the level of airport dominance (as in the domestic United States market)or essentially by the competitive structure of the routes. We try to explain the nature of entry(directleasing or code sharing) by the different levels of these two determinants.

  12. Constitutive stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor alpha selectively promotes the self-renewal of mesenchymal progenitors and maintains mesenchymal stromal cells in an undifferentiated state

    PubMed Central

    Park, In-Ho; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Choi, Hyun-Kyung; Shim, Jae-Seung; Whang, Soo-Young; June Hahn, Sang; Kwon, Oh-Joo; Oh, Il-Hoan

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing use of culture-expanded mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for cell therapies, factors that regulate the cellular characteristics of MSCs have been of major interest. Oxygen concentration has been shown to influence the functions of MSCs, as well as other normal and malignant stem cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of hypoxic responses and the precise role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α), the master regulatory protein of hypoxia, in MSCs remain unclear, due to the limited span of Hif-1α stabilization and the complex network of hypoxic responses. In this study, to further define the significance of Hif-1α in MSC function during their self-renewal and terminal differentiation, we established adult bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs that are able to sustain high level expression of ubiquitin-resistant Hif-1α during such long-term biological processes. Using this model, we show that the stabilization of Hif-1α proteins exerts a selective influence on colony-forming mesenchymal progenitors promoting their self-renewal and proliferation, without affecting the proliferation of the MSC mass population. Moreover, Hif-1α stabilization in MSCs led to the induction of pluripotent genes (oct-4 and klf-4) and the inhibition of their terminal differentiation into osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. These results provide insights into the previously unrecognized roles of Hif-1α proteins in maintaining the primitive state of primary MSCs and on the cellular heterogeneities in hypoxic responses among MSC populations. PMID:24071737

  13. Constitutive stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor alpha selectively promotes the self-renewal of mesenchymal progenitors and maintains mesenchymal stromal cells in an undifferentiated state.

    PubMed

    Park, In-Ho; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Choi, Hyun-Kyung; Shim, Jae-Seung; Whang, Soo-Young; Hahn, Sang June; Kwon, Oh-Joo; Oh, Il-Hoan

    2013-09-27

    With the increasing use of culture-expanded mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for cell therapies, factors that regulate the cellular characteristics of MSCs have been of major interest. Oxygen concentration has been shown to influence the functions of MSCs, as well as other normal and malignant stem cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of hypoxic responses and the precise role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α), the master regulatory protein of hypoxia, in MSCs remain unclear, due to the limited span of Hif-1α stabilization and the complex network of hypoxic responses. In this study, to further define the significance of Hif-1α in MSC function during their self-renewal and terminal differentiation, we established adult bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs that are able to sustain high level expression of ubiquitin-resistant Hif-1α during such long-term biological processes. Using this model, we show that the stabilization of Hif-1α proteins exerts a selective influence on colony-forming mesenchymal progenitors promoting their self-renewal and proliferation, without affecting the proliferation of the MSC mass population. Moreover, Hif-1α stabilization in MSCs led to the induction of pluripotent genes (oct-4 and klf-4) and the inhibition of their terminal differentiation into osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. These results provide insights into the previously unrecognized roles of Hif-1α proteins in maintaining the primitive state of primary MSCs and on the cellular heterogeneities in hypoxic responses among MSC populations.

  14. Modeling seismic wave propagation across the European plate: structural models and numerical techniques, state-of-the-art and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, Andrea; Danecek, Peter; Molinari, Irene; Postpischl, Luca; Schivardi, Renata; Serretti, Paola; Tondi, Maria Rosaria

    2010-05-01

    Together with the building and maintenance of observational and data banking infrastructures - i.e. an integrated organization of coordinated sensor networks, in conjunction with connected data banks and efficient data retrieval tools - a strategic vision for bolstering the future development of geophysics in Europe should also address the essential issue of improving our current ability to model coherently the propagation of seismic waves across the European plate. This impacts on fundamental matters, such as correctly locating earthquakes, imaging detailed earthquake source properties, modeling ground shaking, inferring geodynamic processes. To this extent, we both need detailed imaging of shallow and deep earth structure, and accurate modeling of seismic waves by numerical methods. Our current abilities appear somewhat limited, but emerging technologies may enable soon a significant leap towards better accuracy and reliability. To contribute to this debate, we present here the state-of-the-art of knowledge of earth structure and numerical wave modeling in the European plate, as the result of a comprehensive study towards the definition of a continental-scale reference model. Our model includes a description of crustal structure (EPcrust) merging information deriving from previous studies - large-scale compilations, seismic prospection, receiver functions, inversion of surface wave dispersion measurements and Green functions from noise correlation. We use a simple description of crustal structure, with laterally-varying sediment and cristalline layers thickness, density, and seismic parameters. This a priori crustal model improves the overall fit to observed Bouguer anomaly maps over CRUST2.0. The new crustal model is then used as a constraint in the inversion for mantle shear wave speed, based on fitting Love and Rayleigh surface wave dispersion. The new mantle model sensibly improves over global S models in the imaging of shallow asthenospheric (slow) anomalies

  15. Hepatitis B and C surveillance and screening programmes in the non-EU/EEA Member States of the WHO European Region: survey findings from 10 countries, 2012.

    PubMed

    Mozalevskis, Antons; Eramova, Irina; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2016-06-02

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemics warrant a comprehensive response based on reliable population-level information about transmission, disease progression and disease burden, with national surveillance systems playing a major role. In order to shed light on the status of surveillance in countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region outside of the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA), we surveyed 18 countries in Central and Eastern Europe. Among the 10 countries that responded, the common features of many surveillance systems included mandatory surveillance, passive case-finding and the reporting of both acute and chronic HBV and HCV. Only some countries had surveillance systems that incorporated the tracking of associated conditions and outcomes such as cirrhosis and liver transplantation. Screening programmes for some key populations appeared to be in place in many countries, but there may be gaps in relation to screening programmes for people who inject drugs, prisoners, sex workers and men who have sex with men. Nonetheless, important components of a surveillance structure are in place in the responding study countries. It is advisable to build on this structure to develop harmonised HBV and HCV surveillance for all 53 Member States of the WHO European Region following the example of the system recently instituted in EU/EEA countries.

  16. In quest of constitutional principles of "neurolaw".

    PubMed

    Pizzetti, Federico Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    The growing use of brain imaging technology and the developing of cognitive neuroscience pose unaccustomed challenges to legal systems. Until now, the fields of Law much affected are the civil and criminal law and procedure, but the constitutional dimension of "neurolaw" cannot be easily underestimated. As the capacity to investigate and to trace brain mechanisms and functional neural activities increases, it becomes urgent the recognition and definition of the unalienable rights and fundamental values in respect of this new techno-scientific power, that must be protected and safeguard at "constitutional level" of norms such as: human dignity, personal identity, authenticity and the pursuit of individual "happiness". As the same as for the law regulating research and experimentation on human genome adopted in the past years, one may also argue if the above mentioned fundamental principles of "neurolaw" must be fixed and disciplined also at European and International level.

  17. Education and the Constitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haubenreich, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The last 50 years have seen a massive increase in the federal role in public education in the United States and a marked increase in the tension between the federal government and the states with respect to control over education. This article investigates the history of education in America, particularly with respect to federal versus state…

  18. Education and the Constitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haubenreich, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The last 50 years have seen a massive increase in the federal role in public education in the United States and a marked increase in the tension between the federal government and the states with respect to control over education. This article investigates the history of education in America, particularly with respect to federal versus state…

  19. Two-year trends and predictors of e-cigarette use in 27 European Union member states.

    PubMed

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Laverty, Anthony A; Gerovasili, Vasiliki; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed changes in levels of ever use, perceptions of harm from e-cigarettes and sociodemographic correlates of use among European Union (EU) adults during 2012-2014, as well as determinants of current use in 2014. We analysed data from the 2012 (n=26 751) and 2014 (n=26 792) waves of the adult Special Eurobarometer for Tobacco survey. Point prevalence of current and ever use was calculated and logistic regression assessed correlates of current use and changes in ever use, and perception of harm. Correlates examined included age, gender, tobacco smoking, education, area of residence, difficulties in paying bills and reasons for trying an e-cigarette. The prevalence of ever use of e-cigarettes increased from 7.2% in 2012 to 11.6% in 2014 (adjusted OR (aOR)=1.91). EU-wide coefficient of variation in ever e-cigarette use was 42.1% in 2012 and 33.4% in 2014. The perception that e-cigarettes are harmful increased from 27.1% in 2012 to 51.6% in 2014 (aOR=2.99), but there were major differences in prevalence and trends between member states. Among those who reported that they had ever tried an e-cigarette in the 2014 survey, 15.3% defined themselves as current users. Those who tried an e-cigarette to quit smoking were more likely to be current users (aOR=2.82). Ever use of e-cigarettes increased during 2012-2014. People who started using e-cigarettes to quit smoking tobacco were more likely to be current users, but the trends vary by country. These findings underscore the need for more research into factors influencing e-cigarette use and its potential benefits and harms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. The Bicentennial of the U.S. Constitution: Reaching New Heights for an Enterprising Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Mark W.

    1985-01-01

    Presents the author's reflections on the importance of the United States Constitution and on the Constitution Bicentennial as an opportunity to stimulate public awareness and appreciation for the Constitution. (MCG)

  1. How Democratic Is the Constitution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldwin, Robert A., Ed.; Schambra, William A., Ed.

    Designed to help prepare the nation for a thoughtful observance of the Constitutional bicentennial, this publication contains seven essays on the topic of democracy and the Constitution. "Democracy and the Constitution" (Gordon S. Wood) looks at the popular and democratic rhetoric used to justify the federalist system in the late 1700's.…

  2. Scientometric Approaches to Better Visibility of European Educational Research Publications: A State-of-the-Art-Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botte, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on methodological approaches to evaluate the relevance and quality of educational research publications. In the first section it focuses on the ISI Social Science Citation Index and shows that this standard instrument for bibliometric measurement is insufficient for the representation of European educational research. In the…

  3. An Analysis of the Effects of European Community 1992 on the United States DoD Acquisition Environment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    range of imports including steel, automobiles, sugar , semiconductors, lumber and machine tools. Occasionally the U.S. cabinet officers wold take note...remainder of this literature review. Ccrrpetitie FadiwS -European Technolgy Ccrpernb to U.S in Mar0 Delse BlUdgets 1987 - EC- We Standard Could Favor

  4. Projecting Long-Term Care Expenditure in Four European Union Member States: The Influence of Demographic Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa-Font, Joan; Wittenberg, Raphael; Patxot, Concepcio; Comas-Herrera, Adelina; Gori, Cristiano; di Maio, Alessandra; Pickard, Linda; Pozzi, Alessandro; Rothgang, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the sensitivity of future long-term care demand and expenditure estimates to official demographic projections in four selected European countries: Germany, Spain, Italy and the United Kingdom. It uses standardised methodology in the form of a macro-simulation exercise and finds evidence for significant differences in…

  5. Managing Multilingualism in a European Nation-State: Challenges for Sweden. Current Issues in Language and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Sally, Ed.; Huss, Leena, Ed.

    This collection of papers presents a range of views about the three-layered language situation in Sweden, a situation not unlike that in many other countries worldwide. The papers include the following: "Introduction" (Sally Boyd and Leena Huss); "Swedish, English, and the European Union" (Bjorn Melander), which summarizes…

  6. Managing Multilingualism in a European Nation-State: Challenges for Sweden. Current Issues in Language and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Sally, Ed.; Huss, Leena, Ed.

    This collection of papers presents a range of views about the three-layered language situation in Sweden, a situation not unlike that in many other countries worldwide. The papers include the following: "Introduction" (Sally Boyd and Leena Huss); "Swedish, English, and the European Union" (Bjorn Melander), which summarizes…

  7. A VIEW OF TURKEY AND EUROPEAN RELATIONS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF MEDICAL LEGISLATION: AN ASSESMENT OF STATE OF PLAY.

    PubMed

    Ekmekçi, Perihan Elif; Arda, Berna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect the situation of health legislation alignment in Turkey in its accession process to the European Union and Customs Union Agreement, and to discuss the the EU's health priorities of in parallel with the Turkish ones. The health legislation alignment processes consist of three titles which are: European Union alignment process, the harmonization done in the framework of membership to Council of Europe, and the obligations under the Customs Union Agreement. Significant human resources are required for the adoption of the legislations which make ethically imperative the discussion of whether there is a harmony among the priorities of both parities. Unless this harmony and paralellisim is shown, the human resources appointed for the adoption of health legislation process would not prove their efficiency and effectiveness. In this article, the Customs Union and formal negotiations for full EU membership are included in the phrase "the alignment process to European Union". Council Decisions 1/95 and 2/97 ground on the obligations provided by the Customs Union Agreement. The reference document used to discuss the formal negotiation process for full membership to European Union is the Turkish National Program for the Adoption of the EU Acquis 2008-2013. The legislative obligations of Turkey arising from its membership of the Council of Europe, which has significant contributions to the medical legislation especially in the field of medical ethics, are also included in this article.

  8. [Migrants on the periphery: Indigenous Brazilians, European and Japanese immigrants in the state of Paraná during the early decades of the twentieth century].

    PubMed

    Prutsch, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the processes of cultural transformation in Brazil resulting from European and Japanese immigrants, who brought cultural patterns and distinct identities and were transformed by interaction with the culture of the host country. Taking the example of the state of Paraná, the article offers a mosaic of cultures in transition through the study of micro-stories. It addresses the clash between Austro-Polish and Austro-Ukrainian immigrants with Botocudos Indians; the discourse of Alberto Frič on persecution against indigenous Brazilian Indians at the 16th International Congress of Americanists in Vienna; the colonization in northern Paraná by Europeans; Japanese immigration as an element of the "exotic other," as well as political conflicts in the pluriethnic colony of Rolândia.

  9. Globalization of Constitutional Law and Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissbrodt, David

    1993-01-01

    Two issues are discussed: (1) reasons for raising global and international human rights issues in constitutional law, civil rights, and administrative law courses in United States law schools; and (2) barriers to globalization of courses and ways to overcome them. (MSE)

  10. Does the Constitution Protect the Despised?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Richard L; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presented is the history of the Scottsboro case, in which eight Black men were found guilty and sentenced to death for raping two White women in Alabama. At the heart of the Scottsboro trials was the issue of whether the U.S. Constitution established standards of justice in state criminal trials. (RM)

  11. Globalization of Constitutional Law and Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissbrodt, David

    1993-01-01

    Two issues are discussed: (1) reasons for raising global and international human rights issues in constitutional law, civil rights, and administrative law courses in United States law schools; and (2) barriers to globalization of courses and ways to overcome them. (MSE)

  12. Constitution 200: A Bicentennial Collection of Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Mary A., Ed.; And Others

    Constitutional essays which formed the basis of public assemblies throughout three states are compiled in this book. The first three essays consider the U.S. government principles of federalism, judicial review, and the separation of powers. Michael L. Benedict proposes that the question of ultimate sovereignty has been answered differently by…

  13. The U.S. Constitution and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Betsy

    Although education is primarily a state function, its importance to our society makes it fertile ground for litigation. The Constitution--by authorizing the Congress to enact legislation--constrains and prescribes what happens in schools. Legislative histories, especially since the early 1960s, are outlined here. The major topics include:…

  14. The European surveillance activities EARSS and ESAC in the context of ABS International.

    PubMed

    Metz-Gercek, Sigrid; Mittermayer, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Development of resistance obstructs the successful use of antimicrobial drugs, since shortly after each and every introduction of a new antibiotic resistant pathogens have emerged. The hope of being able to reverse or at least slow down the occurrence of antibiotic resistance has led to a number of actions and initiatives. The project "ABS International - Implementing antibiotic strategies for appropriate use of antibiotics in hospitals in member states of the European Union", together with the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS) and the European Surveillance on Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC), covers a large proportion of possible actions against antibiotic resistance. The data generated by EARSS and ESAC are an essential prerequisite for targeted interventions to cope with the problem of antibiotic resistance. The project ABS International constitutes an impressive initiative to optimize the situation in hospitals in nine European member states.

  15. [Pediatric drug development: ICH harmonized tripartite guideline E11 within the United States of America, the European Union, and Japan].

    PubMed

    Pflieger, M; Bertram, D

    2014-10-01

    To address the lack of appropriate pediatric drugs available on the global market, in 2000 the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) issued the ICH E11 guideline regarding the Clinical Investigation of Medicinal Products in the Pediatric Population. This guideline considerably changes the environment of drug development for children. It has been written specifically to harmonize, promote, and facilitate high-quality and ethical clinical research for children within the ICH regions, i.e., the United States of America (USA), the European Union (EU), and Japan. This article details the various regulations applicable in each ICH region following the publication of the guideline. The framework of rewards, incentives, and obligations for pharmaceutical companies established for the development of pediatric drugs are compared. It appears that the USA and the EU have both developed specific regulations for pediatric drug development while Japan has not. However, in Japan, pharmaceutical companies (PCs) are encouraged to develop pediatric drugs voluntarily, and they may be granted additional months of market exclusivity or the postponement of the drug re-examination deadline. In both the USA and the EU, regulations aimed to increase the number of clinical studies conducted in children, in order to ensure that the necessary data are generated, determining the conditions in which a drug may be authorized to treat the pediatric population. PCs are encouraged to develop pediatric assessment, including pediatric clinical trials, which is described in a pediatric plan submitted to the relevant authorities. A system of rewards for PCs submitting an application for marketing authorization containing pediatric use information has been put in place to cover the additional investment for testing drugs in children. Subject to conditions, these rewards consist in a 6-month extension of the patent or

  16. The Impact to NATO and the United States of the European Union’s Military Rapid-Reaction Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Orenstein , Ph.D. _________________________________________, Member Major Patrick R. Allen, M.A. Accepted this 31st day of May 2002 by...improving European military capabilities, 19 November. Accessed on-line, 2 February 2002, <http://www.defense-aerospace.com/data/verbatim/data/ve236> Evans ...1 Reynolds Ave., Building 111 Fort Leavenworth, KS 66027-1352 5. Harold S. Orenstein , Ph.D. Combined Arms Doctrine Directorate ATTN: ATZL-FD-CD 1

  17. Constitutionality of Compulsory Arbitration Statutes in Public Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staudohar, Paul D.

    1976-01-01

    Reviews state supreme court rulings on constitutionality issues raised by compulsory arbitration for public employees. Cases are reviewed for the states of Wyoming, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Nebraska, Maine, Michigan, New York, South Dakota, Oklahoma, and Washington. Concludes that courts have generally upheld the constitutionality of such…

  18. The Religious Student in Public Education: Resolving a Constitutional Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toms, Robert L.; Whitehead, John W.

    1978-01-01

    Author contends that student religious clubs have a constitutional right to exist in the public schools, because such meetings are within the scope of the First and Fourteenth Amendments of the United States Constitution. Landmark Supreme Court church-state decisions are cited. Available from Emory University School of Law, 1722 North Decatur…

  19. The Constitutionality of School Choice in New Hampshire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Charles G., III; Komer, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    Does a "school choice" program, under which state funds are disbursed on a neutral basis to parents in the form of a voucher to defray the cost of sending their children to a school of their choice, run afoul of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, or of the New Hampshire Constitution? No. A…

  20. 20 CFR 645.300 - What constitutes an allowable match?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What constitutes an allowable match? 645.300... What constitutes an allowable match? (a) A State is entitled to receive two (2) dollars of Federal funds for every one (1) dollar of State match expenditures, up to the amount available for allotment to...

  1. 20 CFR 645.300 - What constitutes an allowable match?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What constitutes an allowable match? 645.300... What constitutes an allowable match? (a) A State is entitled to receive two (2) dollars of Federal funds for every one (1) dollar of State match expenditures, up to the amount available for allotment to...

  2. 20 CFR 645.300 - What constitutes an allowable match?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What constitutes an allowable match? 645.300... What constitutes an allowable match? (a) A State is entitled to receive two (2) dollars of Federal funds for every one (1) dollar of State match expenditures, up to the amount available for allotment to...

  3. 20 CFR 645.300 - What constitutes an allowable match?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What constitutes an allowable match? 645.300... What constitutes an allowable match? (a) A State is entitled to receive two (2) dollars of Federal funds for every one (1) dollar of State match expenditures, up to the amount available for allotment to...

  4. Constitutionality of Compulsory Arbitration Statutes in Public Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staudohar, Paul D.

    1976-01-01

    Reviews state supreme court rulings on constitutionality issues raised by compulsory arbitration for public employees. Cases are reviewed for the states of Wyoming, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Nebraska, Maine, Michigan, New York, South Dakota, Oklahoma, and Washington. Concludes that courts have generally upheld the constitutionality of such…

  5. Essential Medicines in National Constitutions: Progress Since 2008.

    PubMed

    Katrina Perehudoff, S; Toebes, Brigit; Hogerzeil, Hans

    2016-06-01

    A constitutional guarantee of access to essential medicines has been identified as an important indicator of government commitment to the progressive realization of the right to the highest attainable standard of health. The objective of this study was to evaluate provisions on access to essential medicines in national constitutions, to identify comprehensive examples of constitutional text on medicines that can be used as a model for other countries, and to evaluate the evolution of constitutional medicines-related rights since 2008. Relevant articles were selected from an inventory of constitutional texts from WHO member states. References to states' legal obligations under international human rights law were evaluated. Twenty-two constitutions worldwide now oblige governments to protect and/or to fulfill accessibility of, availability of, and/or quality of medicines. Since 2008, state responsibilities to fulfill access to essential medicines have expanded in five constitutions, been maintained in four constitutions, and have regressed in one constitution. Government commitments to essential medicines are an important foundation of health system equity and are included increasingly in state constitutions.

  6. EUROPEAN SCIENTIFIC NOTES NO. 22-4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to both American and European scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications . (Author)

  7. European Scientific Notes, Volume 23, Number 12,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to both American and European scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications . (Author)

  8. A Mutation in Transmembrane Domain 7 (TM7) of Excitatory Amino Acid Transporters Disrupts the Substrate-dependent Gating of the Intrinsic Anion Conductance and Drives the Channel into a Constitutively Open State*

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Salazar, Delany; Jiang, Jie; Divito, Christopher B.; Garcia-Olivares, Jennie; Amara, Susan G.

    2015-01-01

    In the mammalian central nervous system, excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) are responsible for the clearance of glutamate after synaptic release. This energetically demanding activity is crucial for precise neuronal communication and for maintaining extracellular glutamate concentrations below neurotoxic levels. In addition to their ability to recapture glutamate from the extracellular space, EAATs exhibit a sodium- and glutamate-gated anion conductance. Here we show that substitution of a conserved positively charged residue (Arg-388, hEAAT1) in transmembrane domain 7 with a negatively charged amino acid eliminates the ability of glutamate to further activate the anion conductance. When expressed in oocytes, R388D or R388E mutants show large anion currents that display no further increase in amplitude after application of saturating concentrations of Na+ and glutamate. They also show a substantially reduced transport activity. The mutant transporters appear to exist preferentially in a sodium- and glutamate-independent constitutive open channel state that rarely transitions to complete the transport cycle. In addition, the accessibility of cytoplasmic residues to membrane-permeant modifying reagents supports the idea that this substrate-independent open state correlates with an intermediate outward facing conformation of the transporter. Our data provide additional insights into the mechanism by which substrates gate the anion conductance in EAATs and suggest that in EAAT1, Arg-388 is a critical element for the structural coupling between the substrate translocation and the gating mechanisms of the EAAT-associated anion channel. PMID:26203187

  9. Thermoelastic constitutive equations for chemically hardening materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, B. W.; Levitsky, M.

    1974-01-01

    Thermoelastic constitutive equations are derived for a material undergoing solidification or hardening as the result of a chemical reaction. The derivation is based upon a two component model whose composition is determined by the degree of hardening, and makes use of strain-energy considerations. Constitutive equations take the form of stress rate-strain rate relations, in which the coefficients are time-dependent functions of the composition. Specific results are developed for the case of a material of constant bulk modulus which undergoes a transition from an initial liquidlike state into an isotropic elastic solid. Potential applications are discussed.

  10. IEA Wind Task 26. Wind Technology, Cost, and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States: 2007–2012

    SciTech Connect

    Vitina, Aisma; Lüers, Silke; Wallasch, Anna-Kathrin; Berkhout, Volker; Duffy, Aidan; Cleary, Brendan; Husabø, Lief I.; Weir, David E.; Lacal-Arántegui, Roberto; Hand, Maureen; Lantz, Eric; Belyeu, Kathy; Wiser, Ryan H; Bolinger, Mark; Hoen, Ben

    2015-06-01

    The International Energy Agency Implementing Agreement for cooperation in Research, Development, and Deployment of Wind Energy Systems (IEA Wind) Task 26—The Cost of Wind Energy represents an international collaboration dedicated to exploring past, present and future cost of wind energy. This report provides an overview of recent trends in wind plant technology, cost, and performance in those countries that are currently represented by participating organizations in IEA Wind Task 26: Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, and the United States as well as the European Union.

  11. Population genomic analysis uncovers African and European admixture in Drosophila melanogaster populations from the south-eastern United States and Caribbean Islands.

    PubMed

    Kao, Joyce Y; Zubair, Asif; Salomon, Matthew P; Nuzhdin, Sergey V; Campo, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is postulated to have colonized North America in the past several 100 years in two waves. Flies from Europe colonized the east coast United States while flies from Africa inhabited the Caribbean, which if true, make the south-east US and Caribbean Islands a secondary contact zone for African and European D. melanogaster. This scenario has been proposed based on phenotypes and limited genetic data. In our study, we have sequenced individual whole genomes of flies from populations in the south-east US and Caribbean Islands and examined these populations in conjunction with population sequences from the west coast US, Africa, and Europe. We find that west coast US populations are closely related to the European population, likely reflecting a rapid westward expansion upon first settlements into North America. We also find genomic evidence of African and European admixture in south-east US and Caribbean populations, with a clinal pattern of decreasing proportions of African ancestry with higher latitude. Our genomic analysis of D. melanogaster populations from the south-east US and Caribbean Islands provides more evidence for the Caribbean Islands as the source of previously reported novel African alleles found in other east coast US populations. We also find the border between the south-east US and the Caribbean island to be the admixture hot zone where distinctly African-like Caribbean flies become genomically more similar to European-like south-east US flies. Our findings have important implications for previous studies examining the generation of east coast US clines via selection.

  12. Constitutional Issues--Watergate and the Constitution. Teaching with Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    When U.S. President Richard Nixon resigned in 1974 in the wake of the Watergate scandal, it was only the second time that impeachment of a president had been considered. Although the U.S. Constitution has provisions for a person removed from office to be indicted, there are no guidelines in the Constitution about a President who has resigned. The…

  13. A survey of unified constitutive theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, K. S.; Lindholm, U. S.; Bodner, S. R.; Walker, K. P.

    1985-01-01

    The state of the art of time temperature dependent elastic viscoplastic constitutive theories which are based on the unified approach werre assessed. This class of constitutive theories is characterized by the use of kinetic equations and internal variables with appropriate evolutionary equations for treating all aspects of inelastic deformation including plasticity, creep, and stress relaxation. More than 10 such unified theories which are shown to satisfy the uniqueness and stability criteria imposed by Drucker's postulate and Ponter's inequalities are identified. The theories are compared for the types of flow law, kinetic equation, evolutionary equation of the internal variables, and treatment of temperature dependence. The similarities and differences of these theories are outlined in terms of mathematical formulations and illustrated by comparisons of theoretical calculations with experimental results which include monotonic stress-strain curves, cyclic hysteresis loops, creep and stress relaxation rates, and thermomechanical loops. Numerical methods used for integrating these stiff time temperature dependent constitutive equations are reviewed.

  14. A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Reis, Martina; Wang, Yongqi; Bono Maurizio Sacchi Bassi, Adalberto

    2013-11-01

    A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures is formulated. The intermolecular interactions among the constituents of the mixture are accounted for through additional freedom degrees to each constituent of the mixture. Balance equations for polar reacting continuum mixtures are accordingly formulated and a proper set of constitutive equations is derived with basis in the Müller-Liu formulation of the second law of thermodynamics. Moreover, the non-equilibrium and equilibrium responses of the reacting mixture are investigated in detail by emphasizing the inner and reactive structures of the medium. From the balance laws and constitutive relations, the effects of molecular structure of constituents upon the fluid flow are studied. It is also demonstrated that the local thermodynamic equilibrium state can be reached without imposing that the set of independent constitutive variables is time independent, neither spatially homogeneous nor null. The resulting constitutive relations presented throughout this work are of relevance to many practical applications, such as swelling of clays, developing of bio and polymeric membranes, and use of electrorheological fluids in industrial processes. The first author acknowledges financial support from National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) and German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).

  15. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States to provide that Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the number of persons in each State who are citizens of the United States.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Miller, Candice S. [R-MI-10

    2009-01-07

    House - 02/09/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States to prohibit the President from entering into a treaty or other international agreement that would provide for the United States to adopt as legal tender in the United States a currency issued by an entity other than the United States.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Bachmann, Michele [R-MN-6

    2009-03-25

    House - 04/27/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Bi-isotropic constitutive relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihvola, A. H.; Lindell, I. V.

    1991-03-01

    The constitutive relations of general bi-isotropic media, requiring four material parameters, can be written in different ways to describe their electromagnetic behavior. This communication contains a two-way 'dictionary' between a proposed formulation of the constitutive relations with three other sets of relations, generalized from relations used for chiral materials.

  18. The Constitution and American Radicalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobel, Jules

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the history of the following movements' attitudes towards the Constitution: (1) abolition; (2) feminism; (3) trade unions; (4) socialism and communism; and (5) civil rights and anti-war. Maintains that the tensions in these movements' towards the Constitution represent basic contradictions in the document itself. (PS)

  19. Constitutional Law and Liberal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clor, Harry

    1985-01-01

    By studying constitutional law, students learn about the relationship between democratic theory and practice, one of the main concerns of liberal education. The mind is enlarged when it must apply ethical standards and political ideas to real human problems. How a political science professor teaches constitutional law is discussed. (RM)

  20. Reordering American Constitutional Law Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Scott D.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that constitutional law is the cornerstone of an undergraduate public law curriculum. Asserts that there is a welcome trend toward teaching the subject over a two-semester sequence, instead of only one. Describes course content and teaching strategies used in a college constitutional law course. (CFR)

  1. How Capitalistic Is the Constitution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldwin, Robert A., Ed.; Schambra, William A., Ed.

    Second in a three-part series designed to help prepare the nation for a thoughtful observance of the Constitutional bicentennial, this publication contains seven essays on the topic of capitalism and the Constitution. "American Democracy and the Acquisitive Spirit" (Marc F. Plattner) supports the argument that the framers of the…

  2. Constitution And Bylaws: 2004 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Distance Education and Training Council, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document contains the constitution and bylaws of the Distance Education and Training Council. The constitution and bylaws include 13 articles. Sections include: Name; Mission and Goals; Administration of the Council; Membership; Meetings; The Commission; Terms of Office; Officers; Committees; Compensation; Dues and Assessments; Miscellaneous…

  3. The Constitution and Its Critics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    In planning a freshman undergraduate curriculum with colleagues recently, the question arose as to what type of understanding educators wanted to impart to their students about the Constitution. The alleged defects of the Constitution that these books point to are wide-ranging and can be classified into various categories. Some problems--such as…

  4. Constitutive model for porous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, A.M.; Lee, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    A simple pressure versus porosity compaction model is developed to calculate the response of granular porous bed materials to shock impact. The model provides a scheme for calculating compaction behavior when relatively limited material data are available. While the model was developed to study porous explosives and propellants, it has been applied to a much wider range of materials. The early development of porous material models, such as that of Hermann, required empirical dynamic compaction data. Erkman and Edwards successfully applied the early theory to unreacted porous high explosives using a Gruneisen equation of state without yield behavior and without trapped gas in the pores. Butcher included viscoelastic rate dependance in pore collapse. The theoretical treatment of Carroll and Holt is centered on the collapse of a circular pore and includes radial inertia terms and a complex set of stress, strain and strain rate constitutive parameters. Unfortunately data required for these parameters are generally not available. The model described here is also centered on the collapse of a circular pore, but utilizes a simpler elastic-plastic static equilibrium pore collapse mechanism without strain rate dependence, or radial inertia terms. It does include trapped gas inside the pore, a solid material flow stress that creates both a yield point and a variation in solid material pressure with radius. The solid is described by a Mie-Gruneisen type EOS. Comparisons show that this model will accurately estimate major mechanical features which have been observed in compaction experiments.

  5. Comparison of ultraviolet A light protection standards in the United States and European Union through in vitro measurements of commercially available sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Steven Q; Xu, Haoming; Stanfield, Joseph W; Osterwalder, Uli; Herzog, Bernd

    2017-07-01

    The importance of adequate ultraviolet A light (UVA) protection has become apparent in recent years. The United States and Europe have different standards for assessing UVA protection in sunscreen products. We sought to measure the in vitro critical wavelength (CW) and UVA protection factor (PF) of commercially available US sunscreen products and see if they meet standards set by the United States and the European Union. Twenty sunscreen products with sun protection factors ranging from 15 to 100+ were analyzed. Two in vitro UVA protection tests were conducted in accordance with the 2011 US Food and Drug Administration final rule and the 2012 International Organization for Standardization method for sunscreen effectiveness testing. The CW of the tested sunscreens ranged from 367 to 382 nm, and the UVA PF of the products ranged from 6.1 to 32. Nineteen of 20 sunscreens (95%) met the US requirement of CW >370 nm. Eleven of 20 sunscreens (55%) met the EU desired ratio of UVA PF/SPF > 1:3. The study only evaluated a small number of sunscreen products. The majority of tested sunscreens offered adequate UVA protection according to US Food and Drug Administration guidelines for broad-spectrum status, but almost half of the sunscreens tested did not pass standards set in the European Union. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Solid-state Marx based two-switch voltage modulator for the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator at the European Organization for Nuclear Research

    SciTech Connect

    Redondo, L. M.; Canacsinh, H.; Ferrao, N.; Mendes, C.; Silva, J. Fernando; Soares, R.; Schipper, J.; Fowler, A.

    2010-07-15

    A new circuit topology is proposed to replace the actual pulse transformer and thyratron based resonant modulator that supplies the 60 kV target potential for the ion acceleration of the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator, the stability of which is critical for the mass resolution downstream separator, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The improved modulator uses two solid-state switches working together, each one based on the Marx generator concept, operating as series and parallel switches, reducing the stress on the series stacked semiconductors, and also as auxiliary pulse generator in order to fulfill the target requirements. Preliminary results of a 10 kV prototype, using 1200 V insulated gate bipolar transistors and capacitors in the solid-state Marx circuits, ten stages each, with an electrical equivalent circuit of the target, are presented, demonstrating both the improved voltage stability and pulse flexibility potential wanted for this new modulator.

  7. Solid-state Marx based two-switch voltage modulator for the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator at the European Organization for Nuclear Research.

    PubMed

    Redondo, L M; Silva, J Fernando; Canacsinh, H; Ferrão, N; Mendes, C; Soares, R; Schipper, J; Fowler, A

    2010-07-01

    A new circuit topology is proposed to replace the actual pulse transformer and thyratron based resonant modulator that supplies the 60 kV target potential for the ion acceleration of the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator, the stability of which is critical for the mass resolution downstream separator, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The improved modulator uses two solid-state switches working together, each one based on the Marx generator concept, operating as series and parallel switches, reducing the stress on the series stacked semiconductors, and also as auxiliary pulse generator in order to fulfill the target requirements. Preliminary results of a 10 kV prototype, using 1200 V insulated gate bipolar transistors and capacitors in the solid-state Marx circuits, ten stages each, with an electrical equivalent circuit of the target, are presented, demonstrating both the improved voltage stability and pulse flexibility potential wanted for this new modulator.

  8. European Scientific Notes, Volume 24, Number 1,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The publication presents brief articles concerning recent developments in European scientific research. It is hoped that these articles (which do not constitute part of the scientific literature) may prove of value to both American and European scientists by disclosing interesting information well in advance of the usual scientific publications . (Author)

  9. Focusing on the Constitution: Opportunities for Social Scientists in the Bicentennial Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pikcunas, Diane D.

    1988-01-01

    States that the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution, celebrated between 1987 and 1991, provides opportunities for the social studies curriculum. Discusses the need for increased knowledge of the Constitution and presents an approach to better understanding. (GEA)

  10. Towards constitutive equations for the deep Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennett, B. L. N.

    2017-09-01

    A new formulation of constitutive equations for states of high compression is introduced for isotropic media, exploiting a separation between hydrostatic and deviatoric components in strain energy. The strain energy is represented as functions of strain invariants, with one purely volumetric component and the other which vanishes for purely hydrostatic deformation. This approach preserves the form of familiar equations of state through the volumetric component, but allows the addition of volume and pressure dependence of the shear modulus from the deviatoric term. A suitable shear modulus representation to accompany a Keane equation of state is demonstrated.

  11. The effects of public health policies on population health and health inequalities in European welfare states: protocol for an umbrella review.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Katie; Bambra, Clare; McNamara, Courtney; Huijts, Tim; Todd, Adam

    2016-04-08

    The welfare state is potentially an important macro-level determinant of health that also moderates the extent, and impact, of socio-economic inequalities in exposure to the social determinants of health. The welfare state has three main policy domains: health care, social policy (e.g. social transfers and education) and public health policy. This is the protocol for an umbrella review to examine the latter; its aim is to assess how European welfare states influence the social determinants of health inequalities institutionally through public health policies. A systematic review methodology will be used to identify systematic reviews from high-income countries (including additional EU-28 members) that describe the health and health equity effects of upstream public health interventions. Interventions will focus on primary and secondary prevention policies including fiscal measures, regulation, education, preventative treatment and screening across ten public health domains (tobacco; alcohol; food and nutrition; reproductive health services; the control of infectious diseases; screening; mental health; road traffic injuries; air, land and water pollution; and workplace regulations). Twenty databases will be searched using a pre-determined search strategy to evaluate population-level public health interventions. Understanding the impact of specific public health policy interventions will help to establish causality in terms of the effects of welfare states on population health and health inequalities. The review will document contextual information on how population-level public health interventions are organised, implemented and delivered. This information can be used to identify effective interventions that could be implemented to reduce health inequalities between and within European countries. PROSPERO CRD42016025283.

  12. State School Taxes and School Funds and their Apportionment: A Report on the Practices of the Forty-Eight Commonwealths Constituting the United States of America. Bulletin, 1928, No. 29

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Fletcher Harper; Zimmerman, Bruce Lewis

    1928-01-01

    There is scarcely a State in the Union today which is not confronted with many difficult problems due to a lack of adequate school revenues. The increasing numbers demanding education and the increasing demands placed upon the schools have led to enormous increases in expenditures. There is every reason for believing that these expenditures will…

  13. Historic, pre-European settlement, and present-day contribution of wild ruminants to enteric methane emissions in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hristov, A N

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this analysis were to estimate historic (pre-European settlement) enteric CH(4) emissions from wild ruminants in the contiguous United States and compare these with present-day CH(4) emissions from farmed ruminants. The analysis included bison, elk (wapiti), and deer (white-tailed and mule). Wild ruminants such as moose, antelope (pronghorn), caribou, and mountain sheep and goat were not included in the analysis because their natural range is mostly outside the contiguous United States or because they have relatively small population sizes. Data for presettlement and present-day population sizes, animal BW, feed intake, and CH(4) emission factors were adopted from various sources. Present-day CH(4) emissions from livestock were from recent United States Environmental Protection Agency estimates. The most important factor determining CH(4) emissions from wild ruminants in the presettlement period was the size of the bison population. Overall, enteric CH(4) emissions from bison, elk, and deer in the presettlement period were about 86% (assuming bison population size of 50 million) of the current CH(4) emissions from farmed ruminants in the United States. Present-day CH(4) emissions from wild ruminants (bison, elk, and deer) were estimated at 0.28 Tg/yr, or 4.3% of the emissions from domestic ruminants. Due to its population size (estimated at 25 million), the white-tailed deer is the most significant present-day wild ruminant contributor to enteric CH(4) emissions in the contiguous United States.

  14. Constitutional aneuploidy and cancer predisposition†

    PubMed Central

    Ganmore, Ithamar; Smooha, Gil; Izraeli, Shai

    2009-01-01

    Constitutional aneuploidies are rare syndromes associated with multiple developmental abnormalities and the alterations in the risk for specific cancers. Acquired somatic chromosomal aneuploidies are the most common genetic aberrations in sporadic cancers. Thus studies of these rare constitutional aneuploidy syndromes are important not only for patient counseling and clinical management, but also for deciphering the mechanisms by which chromosomal aneuploidy affect cancer initiation and progression. Here we review the major constitutional aneuploidy syndromes and suggest some general mechanisms for the associated cancer predisposition. PMID:19297405

  15. Remarks on turbulent constitutive relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Lumley, John L.

    1993-01-01

    The paper demonstrates that the concept of turbulent constitutive relations can be used to construct general models for various turbulent correlations. Some of the Generalized Cayley-Hamilton formulas for relating tensor products of higher extension to tensor products of lower extension are introduced. The combination of dimensional analysis and invariant theory can lead to 'turbulent constitutive relations' (or general turbulence models) for, in principle, any turbulent correlations. As examples, the constitutive relations for Reynolds stresses and scalar fluxes are derived. The results are consistent with ones from Renormalization Group (RNG) theory and two-scale Direct-Interaction Approximation (DIA) method, but with a more general form.

  16. Washington upholds HIV exposure law as constitutional.

    PubMed

    1999-12-24

    A Washington State appeals court has rejected a constitutional challenge to a law that makes the intentional spreading of HIV to sex partners a crime. The court rejected the notion that the criminal exposure law violated the equal protection clause of the U.S. and State constitutions because it singled out those infected with HIV for unequal treatment. The court saw the law applied specific conduct to all, infected and non-infected alike, not specific groups of people. A second argument that the defendants were denied right of procreation was rejected because those rights are not protected if the defendant intended to inflict bodily injury. In this case, the defendant, [name removed], knowing his HIV status, willingly had sex with several women without warning them of his status or using a condom. The court viewed this behavior as acting with intent to inflict harm. An earlier case involving an HIV-specific criminal exposure law is described.

  17. Integration through Europeanization: Ukraine’s Policy Towards the European Union

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    Europeanization . The Orange Revolution of late 2004, and the implementation of the European Neighbourhood Policy , significantly improved Ukraine’s European ...of the European Neighbourhood Policy , significantly improved Ukraine’s European prospects. This thesis examines Ukraine’s efforts to undertake the... Neighbourhood Policy and Ukraine is one of six post-Soviet states invited to cooperate with the European Union within the multilateral

  18. Are Sanctions on Employers Constitutional?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollobin, Ira

    1988-01-01

    Questions the constitutional validity of employer sanctions used to deter illegal immigration under the Immigration Reform and Control Act. Points out the anomaly of using criminal penalties to deter a civil, administrative violation. (FMW)

  19. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Are Sanctions on Employers Constitutional?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollobin, Ira

    1988-01-01

    Questions the constitutional validity of employer sanctions used to deter illegal immigration under the Immigration Reform and Control Act. Points out the anomaly of using criminal penalties to deter a civil, administrative violation. (FMW)

  1. The Constitution's Prescription for Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Lucinda

    1986-01-01

    Examines how the framers of the Constitution came to choose our system of government, how that system was designed to function, and how the separation of powers has served to maintain our democracy despite attempts to violate it. (JDH)

  2. The Constitution's Prescription for Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Lucinda

    1986-01-01

    Examines how the framers of the Constitution came to choose our system of government, how that system was designed to function, and how the separation of powers has served to maintain our democracy despite attempts to violate it. (JDH)

  3. Initiative for the Bicentennial of the U.S. Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    The 200th anniversary of the United States Constitution offers a singular occasion for encouraging renewed scholarly interest in and public reflection about the principles and foundations of constitutional government. Toward that end, this publication presents categories and guidelines within each of the National Endowment for the Humanities…

  4. Elevation view of one of the doorways on the Constitution ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of one of the doorways on the Constitution Avenue side of the building; the door is flanked by monumental neoclassical urns carved from granite - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. Perspective view of the south elevation; this facade faces Constitution ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of the south elevation; this facade faces Constitution Avenue and is nineteen bays long with twelve single columns and two sets of paired columns - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaswamy, V. G.; Vanstone, R. H.; Dame, L. T.; Laflen, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    The unified constitutive theories for application to typical isotropic cast nickel base supperalloys used for air-cooled turbine blades were evaluated. The specific modeling aspects evaluated were: uniaxial, monotonic, cyclic, creep, relaxation, multiaxial, notch, and thermomechanical behavior. Further development of the constitutive theories to model thermal history effects, refinement of the material test procedures, evaluation of coating effects, and verification of the models in an alternate material will be accomplished in a follow-on for this base program.

  7. Kenya Promulgates a New Constitution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-10

    issues of governance , rights and individual freedoms. Subsequently a process to write a new constitution started in 2003. It was all inclusive and...all inclusive and participatory in decision-making. The process for reviewing the constitution was reactivated in earnest and delegates drawn from...changes in the separation of powers between the three arms of government , major matters of citizenship , the Bill of Rights, the devolution of government

  8. National Reports on the State of Social Science Information and Documentation in 16 European Countries. Reports Presented to the ECSSID General Conference (European Cooperation in Social Science Information and Documentation, 4th, Athens, Greece, October 21-23, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saelen, Kirsti Thesen, Ed.

    Papers presented at the fourth European Cooperation in Social Science Information and Documentation (ECSSID) General Conference provide information on developments in the field in 16 European countries. According to the general outlines provided for these reports, the presentations focus on developments after 1977, thus supplementing information…

  9. Constitutive Equation for Anisotropic Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazacu, O.

    2006-12-01

    In many rocks, due to the existence of well-defined fabric elements such as bedding, layering, foliation or lamination planes, or due to the existence of linear structures, anisotropy can be important. The symmetries most frequently encountered are: transverse isotropy and orthotropy. By adopting both theoretical and experimental approaches, many authors have investigated the effect of the presence within the rock of pronounced anisotropic feature on the mechanical behavior in the elastic regime and on strength properties. Fewer attempts however have been made to capture the anisotropy of rocks in the plastic range. In this paper an elastic/viscoplastic non-associated constitutive equation for an initially transversely isotropic material is presented. The model captures the observed dependency of the elastic moduli on the stress state. The limit of the elastic domain is given by an yield function whose expression is a priori unknown and is determined from data. The basic assumption adopted is that the type of anisotropy of the rock does not change during the deformation process. The anisotropy is thus described by a fourth order tensor invariant with respect to any transformation belonging to the symmetry group of the material. This tensor is assumed to be constant: it does not depend on time nor on deformation; A is involved in the expression of the flow rule, of the yield function, and of the failure criterion in the form of a transformed stress tensor. The components of the anisotropic tensor A are determined from the compressive strengths in conjunction with an anisotropic short- term failure The irreversibility is supposed to be due to transient creep, the irreversible stress work per unit volume being considered as hardening parameter. The adequacy of the model is demonstrated by applying it to a stratified sedimentary rock, Tournemire shale.

  10. European Stroke Science Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Mattle, Heinrich P.; Brainin, Michael; Chamorro, Angel; Diener, Hans Christoph; Hacke, Werner; Leys, Didier; Norrving, Bo; Ward, Nick

    2012-01-01

    The European Stroke Organisation (ESO) held its first European Stroke Science Workshop in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany (15-17 December 2011). Stroke experts based in Europe were invited to present and discuss their current research. The scope of the workshop was to review the most recent findings of selected topics in stroke, to exchange ideas, to stimulate new research and to enhance collaboration between European stroke research groups. Seven scientific sessions were held, each starting with a keynote lecture to review the state of the art of the given topic, followed by 4 or 5 short presentations by experts. They were asked to limit their presentations to 10 slides containing only recent information. The meeting was organized by the executive committee of the ESO (Heinrich Mattle, chairman, Michael Brainin, Angel Chamorro, Werner Hacke, Didier Leys) and supported by the European Stroke Conference (Michael Hennerici). In this article we summarize the main contents of this successful workshop. PMID:22836350

  11. Links between breeding readiness, opioid immunolabeling, and the affective state induced by hearing male courtship song in female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Riters, Lauren V.; Ellis, Jesse M. S.; Angyal, Caroline S.; Borkowski, Vincent; Cordes, Melissa A.; Stevenson, Sharon A.

    2013-01-01

    Male courtship vocalizations represent a potent signal designed to attract females; however, not all females find male signals equally attractive. We explored the possibility that the affective state induced by hearing courtship vocalizations depends on the motivational state of a receiver. We used a conditioned place preference test of reward to determine the extent to which the rewarding properties of hearing male courtship song differed in female European starlings categorized as nest box owners (a sign of breeding readiness) or non-owners. Nest box owners developed a preference for a chamber in which they previously heard male courtship song. Non-owners displayed no preference for a chamber in which they previously heard song. Positive correlations were identified between the preference a female developed for the song-paired chamber and female nesting and dominance behaviors observed prior to conditioning (indices of the motivation to breed). Immunolabeling for met-enkephalin (an opioid neuropeptide involved in reward) in the medial preoptic nucleus, ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and periaqueductal gray was higher in females with compared to those without nest boxes. Both nest box entries and song-induced place preference also correlated positively with met-enkephalin labeling in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. These findings indicate that the reward value of vocal signals is linked to individual differences in motivational state; and that differences in enkephalin activity may play a role in modifying an individual’s motivational state and/or the reward value of song. PMID:23473880

  12. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States to repeal the twenty-second article of amendment, thereby removing the limitation on the number of terms an individual may serve as President.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Serrano, Jose E. [D-NY-16

    2009-01-06

    House - 02/09/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States prohibiting corporations and labor organizations from using operating funds for advertisements in connection with any campaign for election for Federal office.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Boswell, Leonard L. [D-IA-3

    2010-01-21

    House - 03/01/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States relating to limitations on the amounts of contributions and expenditures that may be made in connection with campaigns for election to public office.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Kaptur, Marcy [D-OH-9

    2009-01-08

    House - 02/09/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Current European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, injury levels in the northeastern United States and the value of Bt field corn.

    PubMed

    Bohnenblust, Eric W; Breining, James A; Shaffer, John A; Fleischer, Shelby J; Roth, Gregory W; Tooker, John F

    2014-11-01

    Recent evidence indicates that some populations of European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), have declined to historic lows owing to widespread adoption of Bt corn hybrids. To understand current ECB populations in Pennsylvania field corn, the authors assessed larval damage in Bt and non-Bt corn hybrids at 29 sites over 3 years. The influence of Bt adoption rates, land cover types and moth activity on levels of ECB damage was also considered. Bt hybrids reduced ECB damage when compared with non-Bt, but these differences inconsistently translated to higher yields and, because of higher seed costs, rarely improved profits. No relationships were detected between land use or Bt adoption and ECB damage rates, but positive relationships were found between plant damage and captures of Z-race ECB moths in pheromone traps in the PestWatch network. ECB damage levels were generally low and appear to be declining across Pennsylvania. In many locations, farmers may gain greater profits by planting competitive non-Bt hybrids; however, Bt hybrids remain valuable control options, particularly in the parts of Pennsylvania where ECB populations persist. Moth captures from PestWatch appear to provide insight into where Bt hybrids are most valuable. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Herbal medicinal products versus botanical-food supplements in the European market: state of art and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bilia, Anna Rita

    2015-01-01

    Botanical products marketed in Europe are diverse, classified as herbal medicinal products, dietary supplements, cosmetics, foods and beverages depending on the relevant applicable legislation. Many factors are taken into account in the classification of a botanical product (e.g. intended use, labeling, preparations and dosages) according to how it is placed on the market. Herbal medicinal products (HMPs) can only be sold in pharmacies, under the supervision of a pharmacist, and are marketed after full or simplified registration procedures according to their classification, i.e. as over-the-counter drugs (OTC) available without special restrictions and prescription only medicine (POM), which must be prescribed by a licensed medical practitioner. The dietary supplement segment is also sold in the market in dose form (such as capsules, tablets, ampoules of liquids, drops etc) and represents 15-20% of the botanical market at the European level with high variability among each country (i.e. in Italy it reaches up to 80%). In many cases the distinction between medicinal products and food supplements has generated borderline botanical-sourced products, which generally produce confusion and mislead the consumers. As a consequence, there is an urgent need of consumer education and in addition to collect comprehensive data and make this database systematically available to herbalists, nutritionists and medical specialists for a proper classification and harmonization of the use of botanical ingredients, and, as consequence, a correct use of these products.

  17. Disparities in suicide mortality trends between United States of America and 25 European countries: retrospective analysis of WHO mortality database.

    PubMed

    Fond, Guillaume; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Boucekine, Mohamed; Zendjidjian, Xavier; Brunel, Lore; Lancon, Christophe; Auquier, Pascal; Boyer, Laurent

    2016-02-17

    The objective was to examine changes in temporal trends in suicide mortality in 26 Western countries by retrospective trend analysis of the WHO mortality database on causes of deaths. From 1990 to 2010, there was a median reduction in suicide mortality of 22.7%, ranging from a 46% reduction in Estonia to a 26.2% increase in Romania. Suicide mortality decreased by ≥ 20% in 15 countries, and the reduction tended to be greater in countries with higher mortality in 1990. In most of the central European countries mortality strongly declined. The median changes in the age groups were -25.3% (range -62.9% to 72.6%) in people aged 15-24 years, -36.9% (-60.5% to 32.4%) in 25-34 years, -3.6% (-57.1% to 92%) in 35-54 years, -12.2% (-37% to 65,7%) in 55-74 years and -16.1% (-54.5% to 166.7%) in ≥ 75 years. Suicide prevention programs in youths and in the elderly seem to be effective (at least in females for the elderly) and efforts should be pursued in this way. However, suicide mortality of the people aged 35-54 years has increased in half of the studied countries between 1990 and 2010. Public policies should further orientate their efforts toward this population.

  18. Disparities in suicide mortality trends between United States of America and 25 European countries: retrospective analysis of WHO mortality database

    PubMed Central

    Fond, Guillaume; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Boucekine, Mohamed; Zendjidjian, Xavier; Brunel, Lore; Lancon, Christophe; Auquier, Pascal; Boyer, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to examine changes in temporal trends in suicide mortality in 26 Western countries by retrospective trend analysis of the WHO mortality database on causes of deaths. From 1990 to 2010, there was a median reduction in suicide mortality of 22.7%, ranging from a 46% reduction in Estonia to a 26.2% increase in Romania. Suicide mortality decreased by ≥20% in 15 countries, and the reduction tended to be greater in countries with higher mortality in 1990. In most of the central European countries mortality strongly declined. The median changes in the age groups were −25.3% (range −62.9% to 72.6%) in people aged 15–24 years, −36.9% (−60.5% to 32.4%) in 25–34 years, −3.6% (−57.1% to 92%) in 35–54 years, −12.2% (−37% to 65,7%) in 55–74 years and −16.1% (−54.5% to 166.7%) in ≥75 years. Suicide prevention programs in youths and in the elderly seem to be effective (at least in females for the elderly) and efforts should be pursued in this way. However, suicide mortality of the people aged 35–54 years has increased in half of the studied countries between 1990 and 2010. Public policies should further orientate their efforts toward this population. PMID:26883796

  19. Nonlinear Constitutive Relations for High Temperature Application, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Nonlinear constitutive relations for high temperature applications were discussed. The state of the art in nonlinear constitutive modeling of high temperature materials was reviewed and the need for future research and development efforts in this area was identified. Considerable research efforts are urgently needed in the development of nonlinear constitutive relations for high temperature applications prompted by recent advances in high temperature materials technology and new demands on material and component performance. Topics discussed include: constitutive modeling, numerical methods, material testing, and structural applications.

  20. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D.

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.