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Sample records for european expert panel

  1. A Virtual Panel of Expert Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Donald A.

    2000-01-01

    Presents the observations of a panel of research experts who have conducted research on music and the brain. States that the participants are Andrea Halpern, Larry Parsons, Ralph Spintge, and Sandra Trehub. After an introduction of each person, the participants characterized their principal findings. (CMK)

  2. Glyphosate rodent carcinogenicity bioassay expert panel review.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gary M; Berry, Colin; Burns, Michele; de Camargo, Joao Lauro Viana; Greim, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    Glyphosate has been rigorously and extensively tested for carcinogenicity by administration to mice (five studies) and to rats (nine studies). Most authorities have concluded that the evidence does not indicate a cancer risk to humans. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), however, evaluated some of the available data and concluded that glyphosate probably is carcinogenic to humans. The expert panel convened by Intertek assessed the findings used by IARC, as well as the full body of evidence and found the following: (1) the renal neoplastic effects in males of one mouse study are not associated with glyphosate exposure, because they lack statistical significance, strength, consistency, specificity, lack a dose-response pattern, plausibility, and coherence; (2) the strength of association of liver hemangiosarcomas in a different mouse study is absent, lacking consistency, and a dose-response effect and having in high dose males only a significant incidence increase which is within the historical control range; (3) pancreatic islet-cell adenomas (non-significant incidence increase), in two studies of male SD rats did not progress to carcinomas and lacked a dose-response pattern (the highest incidence is in the low dose followed by the high dose); (4) in one of two studies, a non-significant positive trend in the incidence of hepatocellular adenomas in male rats did not lead to progression to carcinomas; (5) in one of two studies, the non-significant positive trend in the incidence of thyroid C-cell adenomas in female rats was not present and there was no progression of adenomas to carcinomas at the end of the study. Application of criteria for causality considerations to the above mentioned tumor types and given the overall weight-of-evidence (WoE), the expert panel concluded that glyphosate is not a carcinogen in laboratory animals.

  3. Design Competitions and Expert Panels: Similar Objectives, Very Different Paths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Responds to Sue Klein's comparative analysis on Design Competitions and Expert Panels (Educational Research, 1997) in which the author addresses drawbacks of the Expert Panels approach to educational product evaluation. Cautions that the approach is so minimalist a strategy that it could inhibit more serious attempts to build a system based on…

  4. Environmental factors and puberty timing: Expert panel research needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    An expert panel reviewed the literature on endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), body size and puberty. The panel concluded that available experimental animal and human data support a possible role of EDCs and body size in relation to alterations in pubertal onset and progressio...

  5. Diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of hyponatremia: expert panel recommendations.

    PubMed

    Verbalis, Joseph G; Goldsmith, Steven R; Greenberg, Arthur; Korzelius, Cynthia; Schrier, Robert W; Sterns, Richard H; Thompson, Christopher J

    2013-10-01

    Hyponatremia is a serious, but often overlooked, electrolyte imbalance that has been independently associated with a wide range of deleterious changes involving many different body systems. Untreated acute hyponatremia can cause substantial morbidity and mortality as a result of osmotically induced cerebral edema, and excessively rapid correction of chronic hyponatremia can cause severe neurologic impairment and death as a result of osmotic demyelination. The diverse etiologies and comorbidities associated with hyponatremia pose substantial challenges in managing this disorder. In 2007, a panel of experts in hyponatremia convened to develop the Hyponatremia Treatment Guidelines 2007: Expert Panel Recommendations that defined strategies for clinicians caring for patients with hyponatremia. In the 6 years since the publication of that document, the field has seen several notable developments, including new evidence on morbidities and complications associated with hyponatremia, the importance of treating mild to moderate hyponatremia, and the efficacy and safety of vasopressin receptor antagonist therapy for hyponatremic patients. Therefore, additional guidance was deemed necessary and a panel of hyponatremia experts (which included all of the original panel members) was convened to update the previous recommendations for optimal current management of this disorder. The updated expert panel recommendations in this document represent recommended approaches for multiple etiologies of hyponatremia that are based on both consensus opinions of experts in hyponatremia and the most recent published data in this field.

  6. TWRS vadose zone contamination issue expert panel report

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, D.S.

    1997-05-01

    When members were first canvassed for participation in the Vadose Zone Expert Panel the stated purpose for convening the Panel was to review a controversial draft report, the SX Tank Farm Report. This report was produced by a DOE Grand Junction Project Office (GJPO) contractor, RUST Geotech, now MACTEC-ERS, for the DOE Richland Office (DOERL). Three meetings were planned for June, July and August, 1995 to review the draft report and to complete a Panel report by mid-September. The Expert Panel has found its efforts confounded by various non-technical issues. The Expert Panel has chosen to address some of the non-technical issues in this Preface rather than to dilute the technical discussion that follows in the body of this independent expert panel status report (Panel Report). Rather than performing a straightforward manuscript review, the Panel was asked to resolve conflicting interpretations of gamma-ray logging measurements performed in vadose zone boreholes (drywells) surrounding the high-level radioactive wastes of the SX tank farm. There are numerous and complex technical issues that must be evaluated before the vertical and radial extent of contaminant migration at the SX tank farm can be accurately assessed. When the Panel first met in early June, 1996, it quickly became apparent that the scientific and technical issues were obscured by policy and institutional affairs which have polarized discussion among various segments of the Hanford organization. This situation reflects the kinds of institutional problems described separately in reports by the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS/NRC), The Hanford Tanks Environmental Impacts and Policy Choices and BmTiers to Science: Technical Management of the Department of Energy Environmental Remediation Program. The Vadose Zone Characterization Program, appears to be caught between conflicting pressures and organizational mandates, some imposed from outside DOE-RL and some self

  7. 21 CFR 516.141 - Qualified expert panels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... funding from the requestor through a contract or research grant (either directly or indirectly through... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Qualified expert panels. 516.141 Section 516.141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  8. 21 CFR 516.141 - Qualified expert panels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... funding from the requestor through a contract or research grant (either directly or indirectly through... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualified expert panels. 516.141 Section 516.141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  9. 21 CFR 516.141 - Qualified expert panels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... funding from the requestor through a contract or research grant (either directly or indirectly through... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Qualified expert panels. 516.141 Section 516.141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  10. 21 CFR 516.141 - Qualified expert panels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... funding from the requestor through a contract or research grant (either directly or indirectly through... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Qualified expert panels. 516.141 Section 516.141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  11. 21 CFR 516.141 - Qualified expert panels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... funding from the requestor through a contract or research grant (either directly or indirectly through... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Qualified expert panels. 516.141 Section 516.141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  12. Cyanide poisoning by fire smoke inhalation: a European expert consensus.

    PubMed

    Anseeuw, Kurt; Delvau, Nicolas; Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; De Iaco, Fabio; Geldner, Götz; Holmström, Peter; Lambert, Yves; Sabbe, Marc

    2013-02-01

    Smoke inhalation is a common cause of cyanide poisoning during fires, resulting in injury and even death. In many cases of smoke inhalation, cyanide has increasingly been recognized as a significant toxicant. The diagnosis of cyanide poisoning remains very difficult, and failure to recognize it may result in inadequate or inappropriate treatment. Findings suggesting cyanide toxicity include the following: (a) a history of enclosed-space fire; (b) any alteration in the level of consciousness; (c) any cardiovascular changes (particularly inexplicable hypotension); and (d) elevated plasma lactate. The feasibility and safety of empiric treatment with hydroxocobalamin for fire smoke victims have been reported in the literature. On the basis of a literature review and a panel discussion, a group of European experts has proposed emergency management protocols for cyanide toxicity in fire smoke victims.

  13. Ultrasound Won't Help Broken Bones Heal, Expert Panel Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163763.html Ultrasound Won't Help Broken Bones Heal, Expert Panel Says Detailed review suggests it's ... LIPUS) -- to help speed the healing of broken bones. But an international panel of experts now says ...

  14. Teaching statistics to nursing students: an expert panel consensus.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Matthew J; Eckardt, Patricia; Higgins, Melinda; Kim, MyoungJin; Schmiege, Sarah J

    2013-06-01

    Statistics education is a necessary element of nursing education, and its inclusion is recommended in the American Association of Colleges of Nursing guidelines for nurse training at all levels. This article presents a cohesive summary of an expert panel discussion, "Teaching Statistics to Nursing Students," held at the 2012 Joint Statistical Meetings. All panelists were statistics experts, had extensive teaching and consulting experience, and held faculty appointments in a U.S.-based nursing college or school. The panel discussed degree-specific curriculum requirements, course content, how to ensure nursing students understand the relevance of statistics, approaches to integrating statistics consulting knowledge, experience with classroom instruction, use of knowledge from the statistics education research field to make improvements in statistics education for nursing students, and classroom pedagogy and instruction on the use of statistical software. Panelists also discussed the need for evidence to make data-informed decisions about statistics education and training for nurses.

  15. Treatment Guidelines for Preoperative Radiation Therapy for Retroperitoneal Sarcoma: Preliminary Consensus of an International Expert Panel

    SciTech Connect

    Baldini, Elizabeth H.; Wang, Dian; Haas, Rick L.M.; Catton, Charles N.; Indelicato, Daniel J.; Kirsch, David G.; Roberge, David; Salerno, Kilian; Deville, Curtiland; Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh; O'Sullivan, Brian; Petersen, Ivy A.; Le Pechoux, Cecile; Abrams, Ross A.; DeLaney, Thomas F.

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: Evidence for external beam radiation therapy (RT) as part of treatment for retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS) is limited. Preoperative RT is the subject of a current randomized trial, but the results will not be available for many years. In the meantime, many practitioners use preoperative RT for RPS, and although this approach is used in practice, there are no radiation treatment guidelines. An international expert panel was convened to develop consensus treatment guidelines for preoperative RT for RPS. Methods and Materials: An expert panel of 15 academic radiation oncologists who specialize in the treatment of sarcoma was assembled. A systematic review of reports related to RT for RPS, RT for extremity sarcoma, and RT-related toxicities for organs at risk was performed. Due to the paucity of high-quality published data on the subject of RT for RPS, consensus recommendations were based largely on expert opinion derived from clinical experience and extrapolation of relevant published reports. It is intended that these clinical practice guidelines be updated as pertinent data become available. Results: Treatment guidelines for preoperative RT for RPS are presented. Conclusions: An international panel of radiation oncologists who specialize in sarcoma reached consensus guidelines for preoperative RT for RPS. Many of the recommendations are based on expert opinion because of the absence of higher level evidence and, thus, are best regarded as preliminary. We emphasize that the role of preoperative RT for RPS has not been proven, and we await data from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) study of preoperative radiotherapy plus surgery versus surgery alone for patients with RPS. Further data are also anticipated pertaining to normal tissue dose constraints, particularly for bowel tolerance. Nonetheless, as we await these data, the guidelines herein can be used to establish treatment uniformity to aid future assessments of efficacy

  16. NTP-CERHR EXPERT PANEL REPORT ON THE REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF ACRYLAMIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Toxicology Program Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (NTP-CERHR) convened an expert panel in May 2004 to evaluate acrylamide. The report of the expert panel, prepared in accordance with CERHR Guidelines, provides a detailed summary of all publi...

  17. Expert Consensus Panel Guidelines on Geriatric Assessment in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    O'Donovan, A.; Mohile, S.G.; Leech, M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite consensus guidelines on best practice in the care of older patients with cancer, geriatric assessment (GA) has yet to be optimally integrated into the field of oncology in most countries. There is a relative lack of consensus in the published literature as to the best approach to take, and there is a degree of uncertainty as to how integration of geriatric medicine principles might optimally predict patient outcomes. The aim of the current study was to obtain consensus on GA in oncology to inform the implementation of a geriatric oncology programme. Methods A four round Delphi process was employed. The Delphi method is a structured group facilitation process, using multiple iterations in order to gain consensus on a given topic Results Consensus was reached on the optimal assessment method and interventions required for the commonly employed domains of GA. Other aspects of GA, such as screening methods and age cutoff for assessment represented a higher degree of disagreement. Discussion The expert panel employed in this study clearly identified the criteria that should be included in a clinical geriatric oncology programme. In the absence of evidence-based guidelines, this may prove useful in the care of older cancer patients. PMID:25757457

  18. Critical Resources for Hospital Surge Capacity: An Expert Consensus Panel

    PubMed Central

    Bayram, Jamil D.; Sauer, Lauren M.; Catlett, Christina; Levin, Scott; Cole, Gai; Kirsch, Thomas D.; Toerper, Matthew; Kelen, Gabor

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hospital surge capacity (HSC) is dependent on the ability to increase or conserve resources. The hospital surge model put forth by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) estimates the resources needed by hospitals to treat casualties resulting from 13 national planning scenarios. However, emergency planners need to know which hospital resource are most critical in order to develop a more accurate plan for HSC in the event of a disaster. Objective: To identify critical hospital resources required in four specific catastrophic scenarios; namely, pandemic influenza, radiation, explosive, and nerve gas. Methods: We convened an expert consensus panel comprised of 23 participants representing health providers (i.e., nurses and physicians), administrators, emergency planners, and specialists. Four disaster scenarios were examined by the panel. Participants were divided into 4 groups of five or six members, each of which were assigned two of four scenarios. They were asked to consider 132 hospital patient care resources- extracted from the AHRQ's hospital surge model- in order to identify the ones that would be critical in their opinion to patient care. The definition for a critical hospital resource was the following: absence of the resource is likely to have a major impact on patient outcomes, i.e., high likelihood of untoward event, possibly death. For items with any disagreement in ranking, we conducted a facilitated discussion (modified Delphi technique) until consensus was reached, which was defined as more than 50% agreement. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) were calculated for each scenario, and across all scenarios as a measure of participant agreement on critical resources. For the critical resources common to all scenarios, Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to measure the distribution of scores across all scenarios. Results: Of the 132 hospital resources, 25 were considered critical for all four scenarios by more than 50% of

  19. Diagnosis and management of AML in adults: 2017 ELN recommendations from an international expert panel

    PubMed Central

    Estey, Elihu; Grimwade, David; Amadori, Sergio; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Büchner, Thomas; Dombret, Hervé; Ebert, Benjamin L.; Fenaux, Pierre; Larson, Richard A.; Levine, Ross L.; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Naoe, Tomoki; Niederwieser, Dietger; Ossenkoppele, Gert J.; Sanz, Miguel; Sierra, Jorge; Tallman, Martin S.; Tien, Hwei-Fang; Wei, Andrew H.; Löwenberg, Bob; Bloomfield, Clara D.

    2017-01-01

    The first edition of the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) recommendations for diagnosis and management of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in adults, published in 2010, has found broad acceptance by physicians and investigators caring for patients with AML. Recent advances, for example, in the discovery of the genomic landscape of the disease, in the development of assays for genetic testing and for detecting minimal residual disease (MRD), as well as in the development of novel antileukemic agents, prompted an international panel to provide updated evidence- and expert opinion-based recommendations. The recommendations include a revised version of the ELN genetic categories, a proposal for a response category based on MRD status, and criteria for progressive disease. PMID:27895058

  20. Diagnosis and management of AML in adults: 2017 ELN recommendations from an international expert panel.

    PubMed

    Döhner, Hartmut; Estey, Elihu; Grimwade, David; Amadori, Sergio; Appelbaum, Frederick R; Büchner, Thomas; Dombret, Hervé; Ebert, Benjamin L; Fenaux, Pierre; Larson, Richard A; Levine, Ross L; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Naoe, Tomoki; Niederwieser, Dietger; Ossenkoppele, Gert J; Sanz, Miguel; Sierra, Jorge; Tallman, Martin S; Tien, Hwei-Fang; Wei, Andrew H; Löwenberg, Bob; Bloomfield, Clara D

    2017-01-26

    The first edition of the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) recommendations for diagnosis and management of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in adults, published in 2010, has found broad acceptance by physicians and investigators caring for patients with AML. Recent advances, for example, in the discovery of the genomic landscape of the disease, in the development of assays for genetic testing and for detecting minimal residual disease (MRD), as well as in the development of novel antileukemic agents, prompted an international panel to provide updated evidence- and expert opinion-based recommendations. The recommendations include a revised version of the ELN genetic categories, a proposal for a response category based on MRD status, and criteria for progressive disease.

  1. Ranibizumab in retinal vein occlusion: treatment recommendations by an expert panel

    PubMed Central

    Gerding, Heinrich; Monés, Jordi; Tadayoni, Ramin; Boscia, Francesco; Pearce, Ian; Priglinger, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a common cause of retinal vascular disease, resulting in potentially irreversible loss of vision despite the existence of several therapeutic options. The humanised monoclonal antibody fragment ranibizumab binds to and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor, a key driver of macular oedema in RVO. In 2010, ranibizumab was approved in the USA for the treatment of macular oedema in RVO and, in 2011, ranibizumab was approved in the European Union for the treatment of visual impairment caused by macular oedema secondary to RVO in branch and central RVO. Ranibizumab provides an additional therapeutic option for this complex disease: an option that was not fully considered during the preparation of current international guidelines. An expert panel was convened to critically evaluate the evidence for treatment with ranibizumab in patients with visual impairment caused by macular oedema secondary to RVO and to develop treatment recommendations, with the aim of assisting physicians to optimise patient treatment. PMID:25075121

  2. Fifth Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project Expert Panel Meeting August 28-29, 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Todd M.; Boomer, Kayle D.

    2015-01-07

    On August 28th and 29th, 2014 the Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project (SSTIP) Expert Panel (Panel) convened in Richland, Washington. This was the Panel’s first meeting since 2011 and, as a result, was focused primarily on updating the Panel on progress in response to the past recommendations (Single-Shell Tank Integrity Expert Panel Report, RPP-RPT-45921, Rev 0, May 2010). This letter documents the Panel’s discussions and feedback on Phase I activities and results.

  3. DELPHI expert panel evaluation of Hanford high level waste tank failure modes and release quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Dunford, G.L.; Han, F.C.

    1996-09-30

    The Failure Modes and Release Quantities of the Hanford High Level Waste Tanks due to postulated accident loads were established by a DELPHI Expert Panel consisting of both on-site and off-site experts in the field of Structure and Release. The Report presents the evaluation process, accident loads, tank structural failure conclusion reached by the panel during the two-day meeting.

  4. Expert panel consensus statement on the optimal use of pomalidomide in relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Dimopoulos, M A; Leleu, X; Palumbo, A; Moreau, P; Delforge, M; Cavo, M; Ludwig, H; Morgan, G J; Davies, F E; Sonneveld, P; Schey, S A; Zweegman, S; Hansson, M; Weisel, K; Mateos, M V; Facon, T; Miguel, J F S

    2014-01-01

    In this report, a panel of European myeloma experts discuss the role of pomalidomide in the treatment of relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). Based on the available evidence, the combination of pomalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone is a well-tolerated and effective treatment option for patients with RRMM who have exhausted treatment with lenalidomide and bortezomib. The optimal starting dose of pomalidomide is 4 mg given on days 1–21 of each 28-day cycle, whereas dexamethasone is administered at a dose of 40 mg weekly (reduced to 20 mg for patients aged >75 years). The treatment should continue until evidence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Dose-modification schemes have been established for patients who develop neutropenia, thrombocytopaenia and other grade 3–4 adverse events during pomalidomide therapy. Guidance on the prevention and management of infections and venous thromboembolism is provided, based on the available clinical evidence and the experience of panel members. The use of pomalidomide in special populations, such as patients with advanced age, renal impairment or unfavourable cytogenetic features, is also discussed. PMID:24496300

  5. Tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda spp.) in the Colorado River basin: Synthesis of an expert panel forum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bloodworth, Benjamin R.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Sher, Anna A.; Manners, Rebecca B.; Bean, Daniel W.; Johnson, Matthew J.; Hinojosa-Huerta, Osvel

    2016-01-01

    In January 2015, the Tamarisk Coalition convened a panel of experts to discuss and present information on probable ecological trajectories in the face of widespread beetle presence and to consider opportunities for restoration and management of riparian systems in the Colorado River Basin (CRB). An in-depth description of the panel discussion follows. 

  6. EXPERT PANEL OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE ASSESSMENT OF FY2008 CORROSION AND STRESS CORROSION CRACKING SIMULANT TESTING PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    BOOMER KD

    2009-01-08

    The Expert Panel Oversight Committee (EPOC) has been overseeing the implementation of selected parts of Recommendation III of the final report, Expert Panel workshop for Hanford Site Double-Shell Tank Waste Chemistry Optimization, RPP-RPT-22126. Recommendation III provided four specific requirements necessary for Panel approval of a proposal to revise the chemistry control limits for the Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs). One of the more significant requirements was successful performance of an accelerated stress corrosion cracking (SCC) experimental program. This testing program has evaluated the optimization of the chemistry controls to prevent corrosion in the interstitial liquid and supernatant regions of the DSTs.

  7. Statistical challenges in nursing education and research: an expert panel consensus.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Matthew J; Higgins, Melinda; Schwartz, Todd A; Staggs, Vincent S

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes an expert panel discussion, "Statistical Challenges in Nursing Research," conducted at the 2013 Joint Statistical Meetings. The panel consisted of doctorally prepared statisticians with faculty appointments in United States-based academic nursing programs. The discussion centered on challenges concerning the use of statistics in nursing education and research. Five domains were identified, including perceptions about statistics, statisticians' roles and responsibilities, interdisciplinary collaboration between statisticians and nurse investigators, statistics education, and the use of statistics in the nursing literature.

  8. Treating Pain in Addicted Patients: Recommendations from an Expert Panel

    PubMed Central

    Cheatle, Martin; Wunsch, Martha; Skoufalos, Alexis; Reddy, Yeshwant

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Clinicians may face pragmatic, ethical, and legal issues when treating addicted patients. Equal pressures exist for clinicians to always address the health care needs of these patients in addition to their addiction. Although controversial, mainly because of the lack of evidence regarding their long-term efficacy, the use of opioids for the treatment of chronic pain management is widespread. Their use for pain management in the addicted population can present even more challenges, especially when evaluating the likelihood of drug-seeking behavior. As the misuse and abuse of opioids continues to burgeon, clinicians must be particularly vigilant when prescribing chronic opioid therapy. The purpose of this article is to summarize recommendations from a recent meeting of experts convened to recommend how primary care physicians should approach treatment of chronic pain for addicted patients when an addiction specialist is not available for a referral. As there is a significant gap in guidelines and recommendations in this specific area of care, this article serves to create a foundation for expanding chronic pain guidelines in the area of treating the addicted population. This summary is designed to be a practical how-to guide for primary care physicians, discussing risk assessment, patient stratification, and recommended therapeutic approaches. (Population Health Management 2014;17:79–89) PMID:24138341

  9. NTP-CERHR EXPERT PANEL REPORT ON THE REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF AMPHETAMINE AND METHAMPHETAMINE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A manuscript describes the results of an expert panel meeting of the NTP Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR). The purpose CERHR is to provide timely, unbiased, scientifically sound evaluations of human and experimental evidence for adverse effects ...

  10. NTP-CERHR EXPERT PANEL REPORT ON REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF METHYLPHENIDATE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A manuscript describes the results of an expert panel meeting of the NTP Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR). The purpose CERHR is to provide timely, unbiased, scientifically sound evaluations of human and experimental evidence for adverse effects on...

  11. Eligibility for renal denervation: experience at 11 European expert centers.

    PubMed

    Persu, Alexandre; Jin, Yu; Baelen, Marie; Vink, Eva; Verloop, Willemien L; Schmidt, Bernhard; Blicher, Marie K; Severino, Francesca; Wuerzner, Grégoire; Taylor, Alison; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Jokhaji, Fadi; Fadl Elmula, Fadl Elmula M; Rosa, Jan; Czarnecka, Danuta; Ehret, Georg; Kahan, Thomas; Renkin, Jean; Widimsky, Jiři; Jacobs, Lotte; Spiering, Wilko; Burnier, Michel; Mark, Patrick B; Menne, Jan; Olsen, Michael H; Blankestijn, Peter J; Kjeldsen, Sverre; Bots, Michiel L; Staessen, Jan A

    2014-06-01

    Based on the SYMPLICITY studies and CE (Conformité Européenne) certification, renal denervation is currently applied as a novel treatment of resistant hypertension in Europe. However, information on the proportion of patients with resistant hypertension qualifying for renal denervation after a thorough work-up and treatment adjustment remains scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the proportion of patients eligible for renal denervation and the reasons for noneligibility at 11 expert centers participating in the European Network COordinating Research on renal Denervation in treatment-resistant hypertension (ENCOReD). The analysis included 731 patients. Age averaged 61.6 years, office blood pressure at screening was 177/96 mm Hg, and the number of blood pressure-lowering drugs taken was 4.1. Specialists referred 75.6% of patients. The proportion of patients eligible for renal denervation according to the SYMPLICITY HTN-2 criteria and each center's criteria was 42.5% (95% confidence interval, 38.0%-47.0%) and 39.7% (36.2%-43.2%), respectively. The main reasons of noneligibility were normalization of blood pressure after treatment adjustment (46.9%), unsuitable renal arterial anatomy (17.0%), and previously undetected secondary causes of hypertension (11.1%). In conclusion, after careful screening and treatment adjustment at hypertension expert centers, only ≈40% of patients referred for renal denervation, mostly by specialists, were eligible for the procedure. The most frequent cause of ineligibility (approximately half of cases) was blood pressure normalization after treatment adjustment by a hypertension specialist. Our findings highlight that hypertension centers with a record in clinical experience and research should remain the gatekeepers before renal denervation is considered.

  12. Management of acromegaly in Latin America: expert panel recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Barkan, Ariel; Bronstein, Marcello D.; Bruno, Oscar D.; Cob, Alejandro; Espinosa-de-los-Monteros, Ana Laura; Gadelha, Monica R.; Garavito, Gloria; Guitelman, Mirtha; Mangupli, Ruth; Portocarrero, Lesly; Sheppard, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although there are international guidelines orienting physicians on how to manage patients with acromegaly, such guidelines should be adapted for use in distinct regions of the world. A panel of neuroendocrinologists convened in Mexico City in August of 2007 to discuss specific considerations in Latin America. Of major discussion was the laboratory evaluation of acromegaly, which requires the use of appropriate tests and the adoption of local institutional standards. As a general rule to ensure diagnosis, the patient’s GH level during an oral glucose tolerance test and IGF-1 level should be evaluated. Furthermore, to guide treatment decisions, both GH and IGF-1 assessments are required. The treatment of patients with acromegaly in Latin America is influenced by local issues of cost, availability and expertise of pituitary neurosurgeons, which should dictate therapeutic choices. Such treatment has undergone profound changes because of the introduction of effective medical interventions that may be used after surgical debulking or as first-line medical therapy in selected cases. Surgical resection remains the mainstay of therapy for small pituitary adenomas (microadenomas), potentially resectable macroadenomas and invasive adenomas causing visual defects. Radiotherapy may be indicated in selected cases when no disease control is achieved despite optimal surgical debulking and medical therapy, when there is no access to somatostatin analogues, or when local issues of cost preclude other therapies. Since not all the diagnostic tools and treatment options are available in all Latin American countries, physicians need to adapt their clinical management decisions to the available local resources and therapeutic options. PMID:19882249

  13. An Interview Series with Members of the ASHP Expert Panel on Formulary Management

    PubMed Central

    Ventola, C. Lee

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the third in a series of three interviews that P&T conducted with several members of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) Expert Panel on Formulary Management. In 2008, ASHP convened this panel of experts to develop revised guidelines for P&T committee and formulary management to replace the previous guidance issued in 1991.1 These revised guidelines include recommendations concerning the review and evaluation of drugs for formulary inclusion, pharmacoeconomic assessments, therapeutic interchange, medication-use evaluations (MUEs), management of drug shortages, and many other important topics. In this series, ASHP experts discuss P&T committee and formulary management guidelines in their respective institutions as well as other observations and insights. In Part 3, the author interviews Sabrina Cole, PharmD, Clinical Specialist, Drug Information, at the Grady Health System in Atlanta, Georgia. PMID:20182559

  14. QT Interval Screening in Methadone Maintenance Treatment: Report of a SAMHSA Expert Panel

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Judith A.; Campbell, Anthony; Killip, Thomas; Kotz, Margaret; Krantz, Mori J.; Kreek, Mary Jeanne; McCarroll, Brian A.; Mehta, Davendra; Payte, J. Thomas; Stimmel, Barry; Taylor, Trusandra; Wilford, Bonnie B.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to enhance patient safety in Opioid Treatment Programs (OTPs), the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) convened a multi-disciplinary Expert Panel on the Cardiac Effects of Methadone. Panel members reviewed the literature, regulatory actions, professional guidances, and OTPs’ experiences regarding adverse cardiac events associated with methadone. The Panel concluded that, to the extent possible, every OTP should have a universal Cardiac Risk Management Plan (incorporating clinical assessment, ECG assessment, risk stratification, and prevention of drug interactions) for all patients, and should strongly consider patient-specific risk minimization strategies (such as careful patient monitoring, obtaining ECGs as indicated by a particular patient’s risk profile, and adjusting the methadone dose as needed) for patients with identified risk factors for adverse cardiac events. The Panel also suggested specific modifications to informed consent documents, patient education, staff education, and methadone protocols. PMID:22026519

  15. An expert panel report of a proposed scientific model demonstrating the effectiveness of antibacterial handwash products.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John M; Dupont, Herbert L; Massaro, Joseph; Sack, David; Schaffner, Donald W

    2012-10-01

    In 2005, a US Food and Drug Administration Nonprescription Drug Advisory Committee (NDAC) review of consumer antiseptic handwash product studies concluded that the data regarding existing products failed to demonstrate any association between specific log reductions of bacteria achieved by antiseptic handwashing and reduction of infection. The NDAC recommended that consumer antibacterial handwashing products should demonstrate a reduction in infection compared with non-antibacterial handwash products. In response to the NDAC review, a consumer product industry-sponsored expert panel meeting was held in October 2007 to review new methods for assessing the efficacy of antibacterial handwashes. The expert panel reviewed a newly proposed model for linking the effectiveness of antibacterial handwashing to infection reduction and made recommendations for conducting future studies designed to demonstrate the efficacy of antibacterial handwash formulations. The panel concluded that using the surrogate infection model to demonstrate efficacy has a sound scientific basis, that the use of Shigella flexneri as a test organism coupled with a modified hand contamination procedure is supported by published data, and that the model represents a realistic test for the efficacy of consumer antibacterial handwash products. This article summarizes the expert panel's deliberations, conclusions, and recommendations.

  16. Identification of recruitment and retention strategies for rehabilitation professionals in Ontario, Canada: results from expert panels

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Diem; Hall, Linda McGillis; Davis, Aileen; Landry, Michel D; Burnett, Dawn; Berg, Katherine; Jaglal, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Background Demand for rehabilitation services is expected to increase due to factors such as an aging population, workforce pressures, rise in chronic and complex multi-system disorders, advances in technology, and changes in interprofessional health service delivery models. However, health human resource (HHR) strategies for Canadian rehabilitation professionals are lagging behind other professional groups such as physicians and nurses. The objectives of this study were: 1) to identify recruitment and retention strategies of rehabilitation professionals including occupational therapists, physical therapists and speech language pathologists from the literature; and 2) to investigate both the importance and feasibility of the identified strategies using expert panels amongst HHR and education experts. Methods A review of the literature was conducted to identify recruitment and retention strategies for rehabilitation professionals. Two expert panels, one on Recruitment and Retention and the other on Education were convened to determine the importance and feasibility of the identified strategies. A modified-delphi process was used to gain consensus and to rate the identified strategies along these two dimensions. Results A total of 34 strategies were identified by the Recruitment and Retention and Education expert panels as being important and feasible for the development of a HHR plan for recruitment and retention of rehabilitation professionals. Seven were categorized under the Quality of Worklife and Work Environment theme, another seven in Financial Incentives and Marketing, two in Workload and Skill Mix, thirteen in Professional Development and five in Education and Training. Conclusion Based on the results from the expert panels, the three major areas of focus for HHR planning in the rehabilitation sector should include strategies addressing Quality of Worklife and Work Environment, Financial Incentives and Marketing and Professional Development. PMID:19068134

  17. Regulation of Dietary Supplements in the Military. Report of an Expert Panel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Supplements in the Military Report of an Expert Panel Ian D. Coulter, Sydne Newberry, Lara Hilton Sponsored by the Samueli Institute The research described in...this report was sponsored by the Samueli Institute and was conducted within the RAND Center for Military Health Policy Research, a strategic...of supplements. In 2008, at the request of the Samueli Institute, RAND Health conducted an informal one-day workshop on the use of dietary

  18. Expert Groups in the Building of European Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to building European public action, expertise is ubiquitous and polymorphic. This article intends to study the ways expertise is being used in the European Commission and the logics underlying its use. The massive use of expertise also has consequences for the practices and identities of actors with whom European institutions…

  19. Economic analysis of complementary, alternative, and integrative medicine: considerations raised by an expert panel

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An international panel of experts was convened to examine the challenges faced in conducting economic analyses of Complementary, Alternative and Integrative Medicine (CAIM). Methods A one and a half-day panel of experts was convened in early 2011 to discuss what was needed to bring about robust economic analysis of CAIM. The goals of the expert panel were to review the current state of the science of economic evaluations in health, and to discuss the issues involved in applying these methods to CAIM, recognizing its unique characteristics. The panel proceedings were audiotaped and a thematic analysis was conducted independently by two researchers. The results were then discussed and differences resolved. This manuscript summarizes the discussions held by the panel members on each theme. Results The panel identified seven major themes regarding economic evaluation that are particularly salient to determining the economics of CAIM: standardization (in order to compare CAIM with conventional therapies, the same basic economic evaluation methods and framework must be used); identifying the question being asked, the audience targeted for the results and whose perspective is being used (e.g., the patient perspective is especially relevant to CAIM because of the high level of self-referral and out-of-pocket payment); the analytic methods to be used (e.g., the importance of treatment description and fidelity); the outcomes to be measured (e.g., it is important to consider a broad range of outcomes, particularly for CAIM therapies, which often treat the whole person rather than a specific symptom or disease); costs (e.g., again because of treating the whole person, the impact of CAIM on overall healthcare costs, rather than only disease-specific costs, should be measured); implementation (e.g., highlighting studies where CAIM allows cost savings may help offset its image as an “add on” cost); and generalizability (e.g., proper reporting can enable study

  20. Genotoxicity Expert Panel review: weight of evidence evaluation of the genotoxicity of glyphosate, glyphosate-based formulations, and aminomethylphosphonic acid.

    PubMed

    Brusick, David; Aardema, Marilyn; Kier, Larry; Kirkland, David; Williams, Gary

    2016-09-01

    In 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) published a monograph concluding there was strong evidence for genotoxicity of glyphosate and glyphosate formulations and moderate evidence for genotoxicity of the metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). These conclusions contradicted earlier extensive reviews supporting the lack of genotoxicity of glyphosate and glyphosate formulations. The IARC Monograph concluded there was strong evidence of induction of oxidative stress by glyphosate, glyphosate formulations, and AMPA. The Expert Panel reviewed the genotoxicity and oxidative stress data considered in the IARC Monograph, together with other available data not considered by IARC. The Expert Panel defined and used a weight of evidence (WoE) approach that included ranking of studies and endpoints by the strength of their linkage to events associated with carcinogenic mechanisms. Importantly, the Expert Panel concluded that there was sufficient information available from a very large number of regulatory genotoxicity studies that should have been considered by IARC. The WoE approach, the inclusion of all relevant regulatory studies, and some differences in interpretation of individual studies led to significantly different conclusions by the Expert Panel compared with the IARC Monograph. The Expert Panel concluded that glyphosate, glyphosate formulations, and AMPA do not pose a genotoxic hazard and the data do not support the IARC Monograph genotoxicity evaluation. With respect to carcinogenicity classification and mechanism, the Expert Panel concluded that evidence relating to an oxidative stress mechanism of carcinogenicity was largely unconvincing and that the data profiles were not consistent with the characteristics of genotoxic carcinogens.

  1. NTP-CERHR expert panel report on the developmental toxicity of soy infant formula.

    PubMed

    McCarver, Gail; Bhatia, Jatinder; Chambers, Christina; Clarke, Robert; Etzel, Ruth; Foster, Warren; Hoyer, Patricia; Leeder, J Steven; Peters, Jeffrey M; Rissman, Emilie; Rybak, Michael; Sherman, Claire; Toppari, Jorma; Turner, Katie

    2011-10-01

    Soy infant formula contains soy protein isolates and is fed to infants as a supplement to or replacement for human milk or cow milk. Soy protein isolates contains estrogenic isoflavones (phytoestrogens) that occur naturally in some legumes, especially soybeans. Phytoestrogens are nonsteroidal, estrogenic compounds. In plants, nearly all phytoestrogens are bound to sugar molecules and these phytoestrogen-sugar complexes are not generally considered hormonally active. Phytoestrogens are found in many food products in addition to soy infant formula, especially soy-based foods such as tofu, soy milk, and in some over-the-counter dietary supplements. Soy infant formula was selected for National Toxicology Program (NTP) evaluation because of (1) the availability of large number of developmental toxicity studies in laboratory animals exposed to the isoflavones found in soy infant formula (namely, genistein) or other soy products, as well as few studies on human infants fed soy infant formula, (2) the availability of information on exposures in infants fed soy infant formula, and (3) public concern for effects on infant or child development. On October 2, 2008 (73 FR 57360), the NTP Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) announced its intention to conduct an updated review of soy infant formula to complete a previous evaluation that was initiated in 2005. Both the current and previous evaluations relied on expert panels to assist the NTP in developing its conclusions on the potential developmental effects associated with the use of soy infant formula, presented in the NTP Brief on Soy Infant Formula. The initial expert panel met on March 15 to 17, 2006, to reach conclusions on the potential developmental and reproductive toxicities of soy infant formula and its predominant isoflavone constituent genistein. The expert panel reports were released for public comment on May 5, 2006 (71 FR 28368). On November 8, 2006 (71 FR 65537), CERHR staff released

  2. Training Future Physicians about Weapons of Mass Destruction: Report of the Expert Panel on Bioterrorism Education for Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.

    The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) convened a multidisciplinary group of experts to share their insights about the learning objectives and educational experiences that they would recommend for the training of future physicians about bioterrorism. The expert panel broadened the scope of their discussion beyond bioterrorism to…

  3. Practical use of azacitidine in higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes: an expert panel opinion.

    PubMed

    Fenaux, Pierre; Bowen, David; Gattermann, Norbert; Hellström-Lindberg, Eva; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Sanz, Guillermo; Santini, Valeria

    2010-11-01

    Azacitidine is currently the only drug to have shown a significant survival benefit over conventional care regimens in patients with International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) intermediate-2 (Int-2) and high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), establishing it as an important new treatment for these individuals. However, several aspects of the practical use of azacitidine remain uncertain. This manuscript outlines recommendations discussed by a panel of experts, providing a practical guide for physicians to ensure optimal management of Int-2 and high-risk patients receiving azacitidine.

  4. Gold standards and expert panels: a pulmonary nodule case study with challenges and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Dave P.; O'Shaughnessy, Kathryn F.; Wood, Susan A.; Castellino, Ronald A.

    2004-05-01

    Comparative evaluations of reader performance using different modalities, e.g. CT with computer-aided detection (CAD) vs. CT without CAD, generally require a "truth" definition based on a gold standard. There are many situations in which a true invariant gold standard is impractical or impossible to obtain. For instance, small pulmonary nodules are generally not assessed by biopsy or resection. In such cases, it is common to use a unanimous consensus or majority agreement from an expert panel as a reference standard for actionability in lieu of the unknown gold standard for disease. Nonetheless, there are three major concerns about expert panel reference standards: (1) actionability is not synonymous with disease (2) it may be possible to obtain different conclusions about which modality is better using different rules (e.g. majority vs. unanimous consensus), and (3) the variability associated with the panelists is not formally captured in the p-values or confidence intervals that are generally produced for estimating the extent to which one modality is superior to the other. A multi-reader-multi-case (MRMC) receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study was performed using 90 cases, 15 readers, and a reference truth based on 3 experienced panelists. The primary analyses were conducted using a reference truth of unanimous consensus regarding actionability (3 out of 3 panelists). To assess the three concerns noted above: (1) additional data from the original radiology reports were compared to the panel (2) the complete analysis was repeated using different definitions of truth, and (3) bootstrap analyses were conducted in which new truth panels were constructed by picking 1, 2, or 3 panelists at random. The definition of the reference truth affected the results for each modality (CT with CAD and CT without CAD) considered by itself, but the effects were similar, so the primary analysis comparing the modalities was robust to the choice of the reference truth.

  5. Health Economics of Dengue: A Systematic Literature Review and Expert Panel's Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Mark E.; Beutels, Philippe; Meltzer, Martin I.; Shepard, Donald S.; Hombach, Joachim; Hutubessy, Raymond; Dessis, Damien; Coudeville, Laurent; Dervaux, Benoit; Wichmann, Ole; Margolis, Harold S.; Kuritsky, Joel N.

    2011-01-01

    Dengue vaccines are currently in development and policymakers need appropriate economic studies to determine their potential financial and public health impact. We searched five databases (PubMed, EMBASE, LILAC, EconLit, and WHOLIS) to identify health economics studies of dengue. Forty-three manuscripts were identified that provided primary data: 32 report economic burden of dengue and nine are comparative economic analyses assessing various interventions. The remaining two were a willingness-to-pay study and a policymaker survey. An expert panel reviewed the existing dengue economic literature and recommended future research to fill information gaps. Although dengue is an important vector-borne disease, the economic literature is relatively sparse and results have often been conflicting because of use of inconsistent assumptions. Health economic research specific to dengue is urgently needed to ensure informed decision making on the various options for controlling and preventing this disease. PMID:21363989

  6. Advancing research on endocrine disrupting chemicals in breast cancer: Expert panel recommendations.

    PubMed

    Teitelbaum, Susan L; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Reinlib, Les

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer incidence continues to increase in the US and Europe, a reflection of the growing influence of environment factors that interact with personal genetics. The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates that there are approximately 10,000 endocrine disrupting chemicals among the common daily exposures that could affect the risk of disease. The daunting tasks of identifying, characterizing, and elucidating the mechanisms of endocrine disrupting chemicals in breast cancer need to be addressed to produce a comprehensive model that will facilitate preventive strategies and public policy. An expert panel met to describe and bring attention to needs linking common environmental exposures, critical windows of exposure, and optimal times of assessment in investigating breast cancer risk. The group included investigators with extensive experience in the use of rodent models and in leading population studies and produced a set of recommendations for effective approaches to gaining insights into the environmental origins of breast cancer across the lifespan.

  7. Education policy implications from the Expert Panel on Electronic Media and Youth Violence.

    PubMed

    Worthen, Maria R

    2007-12-01

    The research from the Expert Panel on Electronic Media and Youth Violence makes a compelling case for why educators and education policymakers should care about the effects of media on youth behavior, and the growing phenomenon of Internet bullying and harassment. The ability of the U.S. education system to respond is limited not only by competing instructional priorities but also by the governance structure of the education system itself. The federal role is limited to a proportionally small amount of funding for states and schools, to raising public awareness, and to providing research and data. States can set priorities, make requirements, and direct funding. Districts and schools ultimately have the most control over prevention program selection and setting social and behavioral norms. Key implications of the panel's research for educators and education policymakers include: Internet bullying is correlated with school behavior problems; Internet bullying behavior may peak in middle school; Internet bullying shares common predictors with verbal and, to some extent, physical bullying; Media literacy programs may mitigate the negative effects of electronic media on youth. Specific recommendations based on these conclusions are discussed, and research priorities for the prevention and education fields are identified.

  8. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV IVb) risk factors and association measures derived by expert panel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2010-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is an OIE-listed pathogen of fish, recently expanding in known host and geographic range in North America. Through a group process designed for subjective probability assessment, an international panel of fish health experts identified and weighted risk factors perceived important to the emergence and spread of the viral genotype, VHSV IVb, within and from the Great Lakes region of the US and Canada. Identified factors included the presence of known VHSV-susceptible species, water temperatures conducive for disease, hydrologic connectivity and proximity to known VHSV-positive areas, untested shipments of live or frozen fish from known positive regions, insufficient regulatory infrastructure for fish health oversight, and uncontrolled exposure to fomites associated with boat and equipment or fish wastes from known VHSV-positive areas. Results provide qualitative insights for use in VHSV surveillance and risk-management planning, and quantitative estimates of contextual risk for use in a Bayesian model combining multiple evidence streams for joint probability assessment of disease freedom status. Consistency checks suggest that the compiled factors positively reflect expert judgment of watershed risk for acquiring VHSV IVb. External validation is recommended as the availability of empirical data permits.

  9. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV IVb) risk factors and association measures derived by expert panel.

    PubMed

    2010-04-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is an OIE-listed pathogen of fish, recently expanding in known host and geographic range in North America. Through a group process designed for subjective probability assessment, an international panel of fish health experts identified and weighted risk factors perceived important to the emergence and spread of the viral genotype, VHSV IVb, within and from the Great Lakes region of the US and Canada. Identified factors included the presence of known VHSV-susceptible species, water temperatures conducive for disease, hydrologic connectivity and proximity to known VHSV-positive areas, untested shipments of live or frozen fish from known positive regions, insufficient regulatory infrastructure for fish health oversight, and uncontrolled exposure to fomites associated with boat and equipment or fish wastes from known VHSV-positive areas. Results provide qualitative insights for use in VHSV surveillance and risk-management planning, and quantitative estimates of contextual risk for use in a Bayesian model combining multiple evidence streams for joint probability assessment of disease freedom status. Consistency checks suggest that the compiled factors positively reflect expert judgment of watershed risk for acquiring VHSV IVb. External validation is recommended as the availability of empirical data permits.

  10. Fasting therapy - an expert panel update of the 2002 consensus guidelines.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmi de Toledo, Françoise; Buchinger, Andreas; Burggrabe, Hilmar; Hölz, Gunter; Kuhn, Christian; Lischka, Eva; Lischka, Norbert; Lützner, Hellmut; May, Wolfgang; Ritzmann-Widderich, Martha; Stange, Rainer; Wessel, Anna; Boschmann, Michael; Peper, Elisabeth; Michalsen, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Fasting for medical purpose (fasting therapy) has a long tradition in Europe and is established as a defined therapeutic approach in specialized fasting hospitals or within clinical departments for integrative medicine. In 2002, the first guidelines for fasting therapy were published following an expert consensus conference; here we present a revised update elaborated by an expert panel. Historical aspects and definitions, indications, methods, forms, and accompanying procedures of fasting as well as safety and quality criteria of fasting interventions are described. Fasting has shown beneficial effects in various chronic diseases with highest level of evidence for rheumatic diseases. Preliminary clinical and observational data and recently revealed mechanisms of fasting and caloric restriction indicate beneficial effects of fasting also in other chronic conditions such as metabolic diseases, pain syndromes, hypertension, chronic inflammatory diseases, atopic diseases, and psychosomatic disorders. Fasting can also be applied for preventing diseases in healthy subjects. In order to guarantee successful use of fasting and to ensure adherence of all safety and quality standards it is mandatory that all interventions during fasting are guided/accompanied by physicians/therapists trained and certified in fasting therapy.

  11. The healthy food environment policy index: findings of an expert panel in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Dominick, Clare; Devi, Anandita; Swinburn, Boyd

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess government actions to improve the healthiness of food environments in New Zealand, based on the healthy food environment policy index. Methods A panel of 52 public health experts rated the extent of government implementation against international best practice for 42 indicators of food environment policy and infrastructure support. Their ratings were informed by documented evidence, validated by government officials and international benchmarks. Findings There was a high level of implementation for some indicators: providing ingredient lists and nutrient declarations and regulating health claims on packaged foods; transparency in policy development; monitoring prevalence of noncommunicable diseases and monitoring risk factors for noncommunicable diseases. There was very little, if any implementation of the following indicators: restrictions on unhealthy food marketing to children; fiscal and food retail policies and protection of national food environments within trade agreements. Interrater reliability was 0.78 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.76–0.79). Based on the implementation gaps, the experts recommended 34 actions, and prioritized seven of these. Conclusion The healthy food environment policy index provides a useful set of indicators that can focus attention on where government action is needed. It is anticipated that this policy index will increase accountability of governments, stimulate government action and support civil society advocacy efforts. PMID:26229200

  12. Designing a biological monitoring program to assess community exposure to chromium: conclusions of an expert panel.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R A; Colton, T; Doull, J; Marks, J G; Smith, R G; Bruce, G M; Finley, B L; Paustenbach, D J

    1993-12-01

    The possible benefits of biological monitoring of large groups of people potentially exposed to environmental contaminants has become an area of much interest in recent years. Because chromite-ore processing residue has been found in some soils in northern New Jersey, urinary chromium monitoring of people in the community was evaluated as a potentially useful tool. In an attempt to identify those who could be exposed and to quantify the magnitude of exposure to the chromium in these soils, the New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH) initiated a public health screening project. In 1992, the NJDOH proposed to evaluate over 4000 people who lived or worked near these sites. Volunteers were administered a questionnaire and were given a limited physical examination, and a single spot urine sample was collected. Because of the difficulties in using urinary chromium to assess low-level exposure and the potential implications of any regulatory decisions that could be based on the results of this project, a panel of experts was convened to evaluate the protocol. The panel consisted of five scientists and physicians with expertise in toxicology, dermatology, epidemiology, biological monitoring, and analytical chemistry. Like a World Health Organization group, the panel concluded that although urine biomonitoring can be useful in evaluating high levels of exposure to chromium, it is not reliable for assessing low-level exposure similar to that which may have occurred in northern New Jersey. The panel also noted that when urinary biomonitoring is to be used to assess the public's possible exposure, a large number of precautions must be taken to ensure the accuracy and usefulness of the results. The single most important recommendation was to collect a second, and perhaps a third, spot urine (or 24-h urine) sample before concluding that a person may be routinely overexposed. These suggestions are applicable to designing a biomonitoring program for nearly any environmental

  13. The Appropriateness of Renal Angioplasty. The ANPARIA Software: A Multidisciplinary Expert Panel Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Gerbaud, Laurent; Manhes, Geraud; Debourse, Juliette; Gouby, Gerald Glanddier, Phyllis-Yvonne; Vader, John-Paul; Boyer, Louis Deteix, Patrice

    2008-11-15

    Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) is an invasive technique that is costly and involves the risk of complications and renal failure. The ability of PTRA to reduce the administration of antihypertensive drugs has been demonstrated. A potentially greater benefit, which nevertheless remains to be proven, is the deferral of the need for chronic dialysis. The aim of the study (ANPARIA) was to assess the appropriateness of PTRA to impact on the evolution of renal function. A standardized expert panel method was used to assess the appropriateness of medical treatment alone or medical treatment with revascularization in various clinical situations. The choice of revascularization by either PTRA or surgery was examined for each clinical situation. Analysis was based on a detailed literature review and on systematically elicited expert opinion, which were obtained during a two-round modified Delphi process. The study provides detailed responses on the appropriateness of PTRA for 1848 distinct clinical scenarios. Depending on the major clinical presentation, appropriateness of revascularization varied from 32% to 75% for individual scenarios (overal 48%). Uncertainty as to revascularization was 41% overall. When revascularization was appropriate, PTRA was favored over surgery in 94% of the scenarios, except in certain cases of aortic atheroma where sugery was the preferred choice. Kidney size >7 cm, absence of coexisting disease, acute renal failure, a high degree of stenosis ({>=}70%), and absence of multiple arteries were identified as predictive variables of favorable appropriateness ratings. Situations such as cardiac failure with pulmonary edema or acute thrombosis of the renal artery were defined as indications for PTRA. This study identified clinical situations in which PTRA or surgery are appropriate for renal artery disease. We built a decision tree which can be used via Internet: the ANPARIA software (http://www

  14. NTP-CERHR expert panel report on the reproductive anddevelopmental toxicity of hydroxyurea

    SciTech Connect

    Liebelt, E.L.; Balk, S.J.; Faber, W.; Fisher, J.W.; Hughes, C.L.; Lanzkron, S.M.; Lewis, K.M.; Marchetti, F.; Mehendale, H.M.; Rogers,J.M.; Shad, A.T.; Skalko, R.G.; Stanek, E.J.

    2007-01-01

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) established the NTP Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) in June 1998. The purpose of CERHR is to provide timely, unbiased, scientifically sound evaluations of human and experimental evidence for adverse effects on reproduction and development caused by agents to which humans may be exposed. Hydroxyurea was selected for evaluation by a CERHR expert panel because of (1) its increasing use in the treatment of sickle cell disease in children and adults, (2) knowledge that it inhibits DNA synthesis and is cytotoxic, and (3) published evidence of its reproductive and developmental toxicity in rodents. Hydroxyurea is FDA-approved for reducing the frequency of painful crises and the need for blood transfusions in adults with sickle cell anemia who experience recurrent moderate-to-severe crises. Hydroxyurea is used in the treatment of cancer, sickle cell disease, and thalassemia. It is the only treatment for sickle cell disease aside from blood transfusion used in children. Hydroxyurea may be used in the treatment of children and adults with sickle cell disease for an extended period of time or for repeated cycles of therapy. Treatment with hydroxyurea may be associated with cytotoxic and myelosuppressive effects, and hydroxyurea is mutagenic.

  15. Standardization of Negative Controls in Diagnostic Immunohistochemistry: Recommendations From the International Ad Hoc Expert Panel

    PubMed Central

    Torlakovic, Emina E.; Francis, Glenn; Garratt, John; Gilks, Blake; Hyjek, Elizabeth; Ibrahim, Merdol; Miller, Rodney; Nielsen, Søren; Petcu, Eugen B.; Swanson, Paul E.; Taylor, Clive R.; Vyberg, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    Standardization of controls, both positive and negative controls, is needed for diagnostic immunohistochemistry (dIHC). The use of IHC-negative controls, irrespective of type, although well established, is not standardized. As such, the relevance and applicability of negative controls continues to challenge both pathologists and laboratory budgets. Despite the clear theoretical notion that appropriate controls serve to demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the dIHC test, it remains unclear which types of positive and negative controls are applicable and/or useful in day-to-day clinical practice. There is a perceived need to provide “best practice recommendations” for the use of negative controls. This perception is driven not only by logistics and cost issues, but also by increased pressure for accurate IHC testing, especially when IHC is performed for predictive markers, the number of which is rising as personalized medicine continues to develop. Herein, an international ad hoc expert panel reviews classification of negative controls relevant to clinical practice, proposes standard terminology for negative controls, considers the total evidence of IHC specificity that is available to pathologists, and develops a set of recommendations for the use of negative controls in dIHC based on “fit-for-use” principles. PMID:24714041

  16. Advancing Symptom Science Through Symptom Cluster Research: Expert Panel Proceedings and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Miaskowski, Christine; Barsevick, Andrea; Berger, Ann; Casagrande, Rocco; Grady, Patricia A; Jacobsen, Paul; Kutner, Jean; Patrick, Donald; Zimmerman, Lani; Xiao, Canhua; Matocha, Martha; Marden, Sue

    2017-04-01

    An overview of proceedings, findings, and recommendations from the workshop on "Advancing Symptom Science Through Symptom Cluster Research" sponsored by the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) and the Office of Rare Diseases Research, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, is presented. This workshop engaged an expert panel in an evidenced-based discussion regarding the state of the science of symptom clusters in chronic conditions including cancer and other rare diseases. An interdisciplinary working group from the extramural research community representing nursing, medicine, oncology, psychology, and bioinformatics was convened at the National Institutes of Health. Based on expertise, members were divided into teams to address key areas: defining characteristics of symptom clusters, priority symptom clusters and underlying mechanisms, measurement issues, targeted interventions, and new analytic strategies. For each area, the evidence was synthesized, limitations and gaps identified, and recommendations for future research delineated. The majority of findings in each area were from studies of oncology patients. However, increasing evidence suggests that symptom clusters occur in patients with other chronic conditions (eg, pulmonary, cardiac, and end-stage renal disease). Nonetheless, symptom cluster research is extremely limited and scientists are just beginning to understand how to investigate symptom clusters by developing frameworks and new methods and approaches. With a focus on personalized care, an understanding of individual susceptibility to symptoms and whether a "driving" symptom exists that triggers other symptoms in the cluster is needed. Also, research aimed at identifying the mechanisms that underlie symptom clusters is essential to developing targeted interventions.

  17. Standardization of negative controls in diagnostic immunohistochemistry: recommendations from the international ad hoc expert panel.

    PubMed

    Torlakovic, Emina E; Francis, Glenn; Garratt, John; Gilks, Blake; Hyjek, Elizabeth; Ibrahim, Merdol; Miller, Rodney; Nielsen, Søren; Petcu, Eugen B; Swanson, Paul E; Taylor, Clive R; Vyberg, Mogens

    2014-04-01

    Standardization of controls, both positive and negative controls, is needed for diagnostic immunohistochemistry (dIHC). The use of IHC-negative controls, irrespective of type, although well established, is not standardized. As such, the relevance and applicability of negative controls continues to challenge both pathologists and laboratory budgets. Despite the clear theoretical notion that appropriate controls serve to demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the dIHC test, it remains unclear which types of positive and negative controls are applicable and/or useful in day-to-day clinical practice. There is a perceived need to provide "best practice recommendations" for the use of negative controls. This perception is driven not only by logistics and cost issues, but also by increased pressure for accurate IHC testing, especially when IHC is performed for predictive markers, the number of which is rising as personalized medicine continues to develop. Herein, an international ad hoc expert panel reviews classification of negative controls relevant to clinical practice, proposes standard terminology for negative controls, considers the total evidence of IHC specificity that is available to pathologists, and develops a set of recommendations for the use of negative controls in dIHC based on "fit-for-use" principles.

  18. Management of neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia in clinical settings: recommendations from a multidisciplinary expert panel.

    PubMed

    Kales, Helen C; Gitlin, Laura N; Lyketsos, Constantine G

    2014-04-01

    Noncognitive neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) of dementia (aggression, agitation, depression, anxiety, delusions, hallucinations, apathy, disinhibition) affect individuals with dementia nearly universally across dementia stages and etiologies. NPS are associated with poor outcomes for individuals with dementia and caregivers, including excess morbidity and mortality, greater healthcare use, and earlier nursing home placement, as well as caregiver stress, depression, and difficulty with employment. Although the Food and Drug Administration has not approved pharmacotherapy for NPS, psychotropic medications are frequently used to manage these symptoms, but in the few cases of proven pharmacological efficacy, significant risk of adverse effects may offset benefits. There is evidence of efficacy and limited potential for adverse effects of nonpharmacological treatments, typically considered first line, but their uptake as preferred treatments remains inadequate in real-world clinical settings. Thus, the field currently finds itself in a predicament in terms of management of these difficult symptoms. It was in this context that the University of Michigan Program for Positive Aging, working in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins Alzheimer's Disease Research Center and Center for Innovative Care in Aging sponsored and convened a multidisciplinary expert panel in Detroit, Michigan, in fall 2011 with three objectives: to define critical elements of care for NPS in dementia; to construct an approach describing the sequential and iterative steps of managing NPS in real-world clinical settings that can be used as a basis for integrating nonpharmacological and pharmacological approaches; and to discuss how the approach generated could be implemented in research and clinical care.

  19. Centers for disease control and prevention expert panel meetings on prevention and treatment of anthrax in adults.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Katherine A; Wright, Mary E; Shadomy, Sean V; Bradley, John S; Morrow, Meredith G; Pavia, Andy T; Rubinstein, Ethan; Holty, Jon-Erik C; Messonnier, Nancy E; Smith, Theresa L; Pesik, Nicki; Treadwell, Tracee A; Bower, William A

    2014-02-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened panels of anthrax experts to review and update guidelines for anthrax postexposure prophylaxis and treatment. The panels included civilian and military anthrax experts and clinicians with experience treating anthrax patients. Specialties represented included internal medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics, infectious disease, emergency medicine, critical care, pulmonology, hematology, and nephrology. Panelists discussed recent patients with systemic anthrax; reviews of published, unpublished, and proprietary data regarding antimicrobial drugs and anthrax antitoxins; and critical care measures of potential benefit to patients with anthrax. This article updates antimicrobial postexposure prophylaxis and antimicrobial and antitoxin treatment options and describes potentially beneficial critical care measures for persons with anthrax, including clinical procedures for infected nonpregnant adults. Changes from previous guidelines include an expanded discussion of critical care and clinical procedures and additional antimicrobial choices, including preferred antimicrobial drug treatment for possible anthrax meningitis.

  20. Antibiotic therapy in the critically ill - expert opinion of the Intensive Care Medicine Scientific Subcommittee of the European Society of Anaesthesiology.

    PubMed

    Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Leone, Marc; Madách, Krisztina; Martin, Claude; Einav, Sharon

    2017-04-01

    Antimicrobial treatment is the cornerstone of infection treatment, and the selection of appropriate antibiotic treatment for critically ill patients is challenging. Clinicians working with critically ill patients usually feel a greater obligation towards their patient than towards maintenance of the delicate ecological balance of prevalent microbiological threats and their resistance patterns. Although antibiotic overtreatment is a frequent phenomenon, patient outcomes need not be compromised when antibiotic treatment is driven by informed decision-making.At the 2016 Euro Anaesthesia Conference (London, UK), the European Society of Anaesthesia Intensive Care Scientific Subcommittee convened an expert panel on antibiotic therapy. This article summarises the main conclusions of the panel, namely the principles of antibiotic therapy that all physicians working with critically ill patients must know.

  1. Antibiotic therapy in critically ill patients: expert opinion of the European Society of Anaesthesia Intensive Care Scientific Subcommittee: A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Leone, Marc; Madách, Krisztina; Martin, Claude; Einav, Sharon

    2017-01-30

    Antimicrobial treatment is the cornerstone of infection treatment, and the selection of appropriate antibiotic treatment for critically ill patients is challenging. Clinicians working with critically ill patients usually feel a greater obligation towards their patient than towards maintenance of the delicate ecological balance of prevalent microbiological threats and their resistance patterns. Although antibiotic overtreatment is a frequent phenomenon, patient outcomes need not be compromised when antibiotic treatment is driven by informed decision-making.At the 2016 Euro Anaesthesia Conference (London, UK), the European Society of Anaesthesia Intensive Care Scientific Subcommittee convened an expert panel on antibiotic therapy. This article summarises the main conclusions of the panel, namely the principles of antibiotic therapy that all physicians working with critically ill patients must know.

  2. European sea bass gill pathology after exposure to cadmium and terbuthylazine: expert versus fractal analysis.

    PubMed

    Manera, M; Giari, L; Depasquale, J A; Dezfuli, B S

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare expert versus fractal analysis as new methods to evaluate branchial lamellar pathology in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) experimentally exposed to cadmium and to terbuthylazine. In particular, guided expert quantitative and fractal analysis were performed on selected images from semithin sections to test possible differences according to exposure class (unexposed, cadmium exposed, or terbuthylazine exposed) and the discrimination power of the two methods. With respect to guided expert quantitative analysis, the following elementary pathological features were assessed according to pre-determined cover classes: 'epithelial lifting', 'epithelial shrinkage', 'epithelial swelling', 'pillar cells coarctation', 'pillar cells detachment', 'channels fusion', 'chloride cells swelling' and 'chloride cells invasion'. Considering fractal analysis, DB (box dimension), DM (mass dimension), Dx (mean fractal dimension) as fractal dimensions and lacunarity from DM and Dx scan types were calculated both from the outlined and skeletonized (one pixel wide lines) images. Despite significant differences among experimental classes, only expert analysis provided good discrimination with correct classification of 91.7 % of the original cases, and of 87.5 % of the cross-validated cases, with a sensitivity of 95.45 % and 91.3 %, respectively, and a specificity of 75 % in both cases. Guided expert quantitative analysis appears to be a reliable method to objectively characterize fish gill pathology and may represent a powerful tool in environmental biomonitoring to ensure proper standardization and reproducibility. Though fractal analysis did not equal the discrimination power of the expert method, it certainly warrants further study to evaluate local variations in complexity or possible multiple scaling rules.

  3. Evaluation Protocol for Review of Method Validation Data by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals Expert Review Panel.

    PubMed

    Gill, Brendon D; Indyk, Harvey E; Blake, Christopher J; Konings, Erik J M; Jacobs, Wesley A; Sullivan, Darryl M

    2015-01-01

    Methods under consideration as part of the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals process are to be evaluated against a set of Standard Method Performance RequirementsSM (SMPRs) via peer review by an expert review panel (ERP). A validation protocol and a checklist have been developed to assist the ERP to evaluate experimental data and to compare multiple candidate methods for each nutrient. Method performance against validation parameters mandated in the SMPRs as well as additional criteria are to be scored, with the method selected by the ERP proceeding to multilaboratory study prior to Final Action approval. These methods are intended to be used by the infant formula industry for the purposes of dispute resolution.

  4. Establishment of an International University: Report of the United Nations Panel of Experts and the Director-General's Proposals in This Connexion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This document contains the report and recommendations of the United Nations Panel of Experts on the Establishment of an International University. The panel feels that such a university would be highly beneficial to all nations. The first function of an International University would be to concern itself with problems such as those of coexistence…

  5. The Report of the Expert Panel on the Sustainable Management of Groundwater in Canada: The Council of Canadian Academies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, J. P.

    2009-05-01

    The Expert Panel on Groundwater was established in response to a request from the Minister of Natural Resources Canada, asking the Council of Canadian Academies to assess what is needed to achieve sustainable management of Canada's groundwater resources, from a science perspective. To this end, the Council of Canadian Academies assembled an interdisciplinary panel of experts who interpreted science, in the context of this assessment, to include natural and social sciences as well as local, provincial, and federal governance. The panel's report, released on May 11th 2009, noted that nearly 10 million Canadians rely on groundwater for household purposes, in addition to uses for agriculture and industry. Both media and public have expressed many recent concerns about water supplies and their quality. The concept of groundwater sustainability developed by the panel encompasses five interrelated goals: three that involve primarily the physical sciences and engineering, and two that are essentially socio-economic in nature. These goals are as follows: i. Protection of groundwater supplies from depletion ii. Protection of groundwater quality from contamination iii. Protection of ecosystem viability iv. Achievement of economic and social well-being v. Application of good governance The achievement of groundwater sustainability requires a careful analysis and balancing of the five goals; a comprehensive sustainability framework for groundwater has not yet been implemented in Canada. Adoption by federal, provincial and local jurisdictions of such a framework, based on the goals outlined above, would be invaluable in guiding efforts to improve the understanding and management of groundwater. To contextualize the components of the sustainability framework, the panel examined a series of case studies that typify examples along a spectrum, from near-sustainable, to situations that are fail to meet the outlined criteria. The panel identified the fragmentation of water management

  6. The European Union Committee of Experts on Rare Diseases: three productive years at the service of the rare disease community.

    PubMed

    Aymé, Ségolène; Rodwell, Charlotte

    2014-02-28

    The European Union Committee of Experts on Rare Diseases was entrusted with aiding the European Commission in a number of tasks, ranging from the monitoring of initiatives, to recommending improvements and actions to be pursued in the future, in addition to helping strengthen liaison at both European and International levels in the field of rare diseases. The three-year mandate of the EUCERD drew to a close in July 2013 with an impressive record. The EUCERD has laid down the foundations for future work so as to continue to advance in the key areas that have been identified as of interest for the rare disease community at large: centres of expertise, European Reference Networks, patient registries and databases, newborn screening, and indicators for national rare disease plans/strategies. The work of the Committee should now be continued by the newly formed European Commission Expert Group on Rare Diseases.

  7. Clinical management of patients with a history of urticaria/angioedema induced by multiple NSAIDs: an expert panel review.

    PubMed

    Asero, Riccardo; Bavbek, Sevim; Blanca, Miguel; Blanca-Lopez, Natalia; Cortellini, Gabriele; Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, Ewa; Quaratino, Donato; Romano, Antonino; Sanchez-Borges, Mario; Torres-Jaen, Maria Josè

    2013-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) represent one of the most frequent causes of drug-induced urticaria/angioedema worldwide. Recent review articles have classified patients experiencing NSAID-induced urticaria/angioedema into different categories, including single reactors, multiple reactors, and multiple reactors with underlying chronic urticaria. Each of these categories requires a different clinical approach. The present article, written by a panel of experts, reports the main recommendations for the practical clinical management of patients with a history of urticaria/angioedema induced by multiple NSAID based on current knowledge.

  8. Final report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel on the safety assessment of cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB).

    PubMed

    Burnett, Christina L; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2012-01-01

    Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) and related amidopropyl betaines are zwitterions used mainly as surfactants in cosmetics. These cosmetic ingredients are similar in their chemistry, in particular with respect to the presence of 3,3-dimethylamino-propylamine (DMAPA) and fatty acid amidopropyl dimethylamine (amidoamine) impurities, which are known as sensitizers. The CIR Expert Panel concluded that because these ingredients present no other significant toxicity, when formulated to be nonsensitizing (which may be based on a quantitative risk assessment), these ingredients are safe for use as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration of this safety assessment.

  9. European Experimental Re-Entry Testbed EXPERT: Qualification of Payloads for Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratti, F.; Gavira, J.; Thirkettle, A. C.; Erba, F.; Muylaert, J.-M.; Walpot, L.; Rembiasz, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The European Experimental Re-entry Test-bed EXPERT is developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) as part of its General Technological Research Program (GSTP). The aim of EXPERT is to improve the understanding of critical aero-thermodynamic phenomena associated with hypersonic re-entry flights. The EXPERT project provides an opportunity to the scientific community and industries throughout Europe to propose and perform experiments in order to obtain aero-thermodynamic data for the validation of numerical models and of ground to flight extrapolation methodologies. During the last years an intense activity has been performed at ESA in order to select the most suitable experiments, bring them to a mature design, manufacture the qualification model and qualify the experiments for flight. ESA staffs coordinated and supported the work of the principal investigators of the experiments from European institutions and industrial organizations in order to maximize the scientific output in compliance with the budget resources made available to the EXPERT project and the programmatic constraints. EXPERT is a re-entry capsule having the shape of a blunted cone. The front part consists of a nose made of ceramic material developed at DLR Stuttgart. No ablative material is implemented so as not to contaminate the specific measurements of Payloads on board. The ceramic nose hosts a set of experiments: the Flush Air Data System (FADS) developed by HTG aiming at collecting free flow data required for post flight analysis, the pyrometer PYREX developed at IRS in Stuttgart collecting data on the temperature and heat flux of the ceramic nose, and the IRS spectrometer RESPECT aiming at resolving the different species generated in the plasma region during re-entry. The sides of the blunted cone are protected by a metallic thermal protection system in which several experiments are located. Two Payloads developed by IRS and VKI are dedicated to the measurement of catalytic effects. One aims

  10. EUREX D: An expert system for failure diagnosis and recovery in the TCS of the European retrievable carrier EURECA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellner, A.; Belau, W.; Schielow, N.

    1987-01-01

    An expert system for diagnosis and recovery of failures in the Freon cooling loop of the European retrievable experiment carrier EURECA is described. The system demonstrates the feasibility of a functional scope of expert diagnostic systems which appears to be essential for practical applications of such systems in space technology. The scope includes early warning and treatment of incomplete information, fault tolerance, identification of failure superpositions, intelligent reaction to unforeseen events, and detailed status display for optimal recovery action.

  11. Criteria for the safety evaluation of flavoring substances. The Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert L; Cohen, Samuel M; Doull, John; Feron, Victor J; Goodman, Jay I; Marnett, Lawrence J; Munro, Ian C; Portoghese, Philip S; Waddell, William J; Wagner, Bernard M; Adams, Timothy B

    2005-08-01

    The current status of the GRAS evaluation program of flavoring substances operated by the Expert Panel of FEMA is discussed. The Panel maintains a rigorous rotating 10-year program of continuous review of scientific data related to the safety evaluation of flavoring substances. The Panel concluded a comprehensive review of the GRAS (GRASa) status of flavors in 1985 and began a second comprehensive review of the same substances and any recently GRAS materials in 1994. This second re-evaluation program of chemical groups of flavor ingredients, recognized as the GRAS reaffirmation (GRASr) program, is scheduled to be completed in 2005. The evaluation criteria used by the Panel during the GRASr program reflects the significant impact of advances in biochemistry, molecular biology and toxicology that have allowed for a more complete understanding of the molecular events associated with toxicity. The interpretation of novel data on the relationship of dose to metabolic fate, formation of protein and DNA adducts, enzyme induction, and the cascade of cellular events leading to toxicity provides a more comprehensive basis upon which to evaluate the safety of the intake of flavor ingredients under conditions of intended use. The interpretation of genotoxicity data is evaluated in the context of other data such as in vivo animal metabolism and lifetime animal feeding studies that are more closely related to actual human experience. Data are not viewed in isolation, but comprise one component that is factored into the Panel's overall safety assessment. The convergence of different methodologies that assess intake of flavoring substances provides a greater degree of confidence in the estimated intake of flavor ingredients. When these intakes are compared to dose levels that in some cases result in related chemical and biological effects and the subsequent toxicity, it is clear that exposure to these substances through flavor use presents no significant human health risk.

  12. The health hazards posed by chromium-contaminated soils in residential and industrial areas: Conclusions of an expert panel

    SciTech Connect

    Paustenbach, D.J.; Rinehart, W.E.; Sheehan, P.J. )

    1991-04-01

    Between 1905 and 1971, over 2 million tons of residue from chromite ore processing was generated in Hudson County, New Jersey, of which substantial amounts were used as fill and tank diking. A panel of medical, toxicology, and risk assessment experts was convened in early 1990 to evaluate the potential health hazards posed by the resulting chromium contaminated soil. The Panel concluded that soils containing concentrations of 75 ppm hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and 1000 ppm total chromium compounds (about 95% was trivalent chromium (Cr(III))) did not pose a significant health hazard to nearby residents and workers. They also determined that exposure to chromium from Hudson County sites posed a negligible cancer hazard to residents. Using risk assessment methods, the Panel estimated that the plausible incremental cancer risk to individuals at residential sites would be substantially less than 1 in 1,000,000. The average measured levels of airborne Cr(VI) at typical industrial sites were more than 1000-fold lower than the current OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL). The maximum plausible increased cancer risk for an average worker at a dusty industrial site was estimated to be less than 1 in 100,000. The Panel also concluded that chromium-containing crystals, which have occasionally been found in Hudson County buildings, do not pose a significant hazard. However, they suggested that were the concentration to exceed 5000 ppm Cr(VI) in the crystals, site-specific health risk assessments would be conducted and remediation considered. The Panel evaluated the dermal hazard posed by chromium-contaminated soil and acknowledged that there is a small group of persons ({approximately} 0.1% of the United States population) who currently have a dermal sensitization to Cr(VI) primarily through occupational exposure.

  13. The role of the pathologist in tissue banking: European Consensus Expert Group Report.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Generoso; Bosman, Fred; Dassesse, Thibaut; Höfler, Heinz; Janin, Anne; Langer, Rupert; Larsimont, Denis; Morente, Manuel M; Riegman, Peter; Schirmacher, Peter; Stanta, Giorgio; Zatloukal, Kurt; Caboux, Elodie; Hainaut, Pierre

    2010-04-01

    Human tissue biobanking encompasses a wide range of activities and study designs and is critical for application of a wide range of new technologies (-"omics") to the discovery of molecular patterns of disease and for implementation of novel biomarkers into clinical trials. Pathology is the cornerstone of hospital-based tissue biobanking. Pathologists not only provide essential information identifying the specimen but also make decisions on what should be biobanked, making sure that the timing of all operations is consistent with both the requirements of clinical diagnosis and the optimal preservation of biological products. This document summarizes the conclusions of a Pathology Expert Group Meeting within the European Biological and Biomolecular Research Infrastructure (BBMRI) Program. These recommendations are aimed at providing guidance for pathologists as well as for institutions hosting biobanks on how to better integrate and support pathological activities within the framework of biobanks that fulfill international standards.

  14. Expert Panel Recommendations for Hanford Double-Shell Tank Life Extension

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Charles W; Bush, Spencer H; Berman, Herbert Stanton; Czajkowski, Carl J; Divine, James R; Posakony, Gerald J; Johnson, A B; Elmore, Monte R; Reynolds, D A; Anantatmula, Ramamohan P; Sindelar, Robert L; Zapp, Philip E

    2001-06-29

    Expert workshops were held in Richland in May 2001 to review the Hanford Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project and make recommendations to extend the life of Hanford's double-shell waste tanks. The workshop scope was limited to corrosion of the primary tank liner, and the main areas for review were waste chemistry control, tank inspection, and corrosion monitoring. Participants were corrosion experts from Hanford, Savannah River Site, Brookhaven National Lab., Pacific Northwest National Lab., and several consultants. This report describes the current state of the three areas of the program, the final recommendations of the workshop, and the rationale for their selection.

  15. The view of European experts regarding health economics for medical nutrition in disease-related malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Freijer, K; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; Russell, C A; Koopmanschap, M A; Kruizenga, H M; Lhachimi, S K; Norman, K; Nuijten, M J C; Schols, J M G A

    2015-05-01

    Health-care systems are currently facing tremendous budget constraints resulting in growing pressure on decision makers and health-care providers to obtain the maximum possible health benefits of the resources available. Choices have to be made, and health economics can help in allocating limited health-care resources among unlimited wants and needs. Attempts to achieve cost reductions often focus on severe pathologies and chronic diseases as they commonly represent high health-care expenditures. In this context, awareness of the considerable financial burden caused by disease-related malnutrition (DRM) is lacking. Possibilities of reducing costs by optimising the management of DRM through medical nutrition will mostly not even be taken into account. During a European expert meeting, the total evaluation of medical nutrition was viewed and discussed. The aim of this meeting was to gain an experts' outline of the key issues relating to the health economic assessment of the use of medical nutrition. This article provides a summary of the observations per discussed item and describes the next steps suggested.

  16. Pathology as the cornerstone of human tissue banking: European consensus expert group report.

    PubMed

    Hainaut, Pierre; Caboux, Elodie; Bevilacqua, Generoso; Bosman, Fref; Dassesse, Thibaut; Hoefler, Heinz; Janin, Anne; Langer, Rupert; Larsimont, Denis; Morente, Manuel; Riegman, Peter; Schirmacher, Peter; Stanta, Giorgio; Zatloukal, Kurt

    2009-09-01

    Aside from ethical considerations, the primary requirement for usage of human tissues in basic or translational research is the thorough characterization of tissues. The second, but equally essential, requirement is that tissues be collected, processed, annotated, and preserved in optimal conditions. These requirements put the pathologist at the center of tissue banking activities and of research aimed at discovering new biomarkers. Pathologists not only provide information identifying the specimen but also make decisions on what materials should be biobanked, on the preservation conditions, and on the timeline of events that precede preservation and storage. This central position calls for increased recognition of the role of the pathologist by the biomolecular community and places new demands on the pathologist's workload and scope of scientific activities. These questions were addressed by an Expert Group Meeting of the European Biological and Biomolecular Research Infrastructure (BBMRI). While detailed recommendations are published elsewhere (Bevilacqua et al., Virchows Archivs, 2010, in press), this article outlines the strategic and technological issues identified by the Expert Group and identifies ways forward for better integration of pathology in the current thrust for development of biomarker-based "personalized medicine."

  17. Highlights of the Report of the Expert Panel on Blood Cholesterol Levels in Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Studies have shown that high blood cholesterol levels play a role in the development of coronary heart disease in adults, and that the process leading to atherosclerosis begins in childhood. To address the problem of high cholesterol levels in children, the Panel on Blood Cholesterol Levels recommends complementary approaches for individuals and…

  18. Heart Rhythm Monitoring in the Constellation Lunar and Launch/Landing EVA Suit: Recommendations from an Expert Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Hamilton, D.; Jones, J. A.; Alexander, D.

    2008-01-01

    Currently there are several physiological monitoring requirements for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) in the Human-Systems Interface Requirements (HSIR) document, including continuous heart rhythm monitoring. However, it is not known whether heart rhythm monitoring in the lunar surface space suit is a necessary capability for lunar surface operations or in launch/landing suit the event of a cabin depressurization enroute to or from the moon. Methods: Current US astronaut corps demographic information was provided to an expert panel of cardiovascular medicine experts, including specialists in electrophysiology, exercise physiology, interventional cardiology and arrhythmia. This information included averages for male/female age, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, cholesterol, inflammatory markers, echocardiogram, ranges for coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores for long duration astronauts, and ranges for heart rate (HR) and metabolic (MET) rates obtained during microgravity and lunar EVA. Results: The panel determined that no uncontrolled hazard was likely to occur in the suit during lunar surface or contingency microgravity ops that would require ECG monitoring in the highly screened US astronaut population. However having the capability for rhythm monitoring inside the vehicle (IVA) was considered critical to manage an astronaut in distress. Discussion: Heart rate (HR) monitoring alone allows effective monitoring of astronaut health and function. Consequently, electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring capability as a clinical tool is not essential in the lunar or launch/landing space suit. However, the panel considered that rhythm monitoring could be useful in certain clinical situations, it was not considered required for safe operations. Also, lunar vehicles should be required to have ECG monitoring capability with a minimum of 5-lead ECG (derived 12- lead) for IVA medical assessments.

  19. The health hazards posed by chromium-contaminated soils in residential and industrial areas: conclusions of an expert panel.

    PubMed

    Paustenbach, D J; Rinehart, W E; Sheehan, P J

    1991-04-01

    Between 1905 and 1971, over 2 million tons of residue from chromite ore processing was generated in Hudson County, New Jersey, of which substantial amounts were used as fill and tank diking. A panel of medical, toxicology, and risk assessment experts was convened in early 1990 to evaluate the potential health hazards posed by the resulting chromium contaminated soil. The Panel concluded that soils containing concentrations of 75 ppm hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and 1000 ppm total chromium compounds (about 95% was trivalent chromium [Cr(III)]) did not pose a significant health hazard to nearby residents and workers. They also determined that exposure to chromium from Hudson County sites posed a negligible cancer hazard to residents. Using risk assessment methods, the Panel estimated that the plausible incremental cancer risk to individuals at residential sites would be substantially less than 1 in 1,000,000. The average measured levels of airborne Cr(VI) at typical industrial sites were more than 1000-fold lower than the current OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL). The maximum plausible increased cancer risk for an average worker at a dusty industrial site was estimated to be less than 1 in 100,000. The Panel also concluded that chromium-containing crystals, which have occasionally been found in Hudson County buildings, do not pose a significant hazard. However, they suggested that were the concentration to exceed 5000 ppm Cr(VI) in the crystals, site-specific health risk assessments would be conducted and remediation considered. The Panel evaluated the dermal hazard posed by chromium-contaminated soil and acknowledged that there is a small group of persons (approximately 0.1% of the United States population) who currently have a dermal sensitization to Cr(VI) primarily through occupational exposure. Based on published studies of human volunteers, the Panel concluded that a small percentage (less than 5%) of persons already sensitized may respond to Cr(VI) in

  20. Expert Panel Consensus for and Analysis of Key Attributes on Websites Devoted to Weight Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stephen L.; Land, Diane; Johnson, Chandrika; Miller, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity presents major challenges to public health in the United States. Trials of web-based interventions for weight control suggest that the Internet is a promising option for program delivery. Purpose: This study sought consensus among experts regarding critical components of successful weight control and to systematically examine…

  1. Heart Rhythm Monitoring in the Constellation Lunar and Launch/Landing EVA Suit: Recommendations from an Expert Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Hamilton, Doug; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Alexander, David

    2009-01-01

    There are currently several physiological monitoring requirements for EVA in the Human-Systems Interface Requirements (HSIR) document. There are questions as to whether the capability to monitor heart rhythm in the lunar surface space suit is a necessary capability for lunar surface operations. Similarly, there are questions as to whether the capability to monitor heart rhythm during a cabin depressurization scenario in the launch/landing space suit is necessary. This presentation seeks to inform space medicine personnel of recommendations made by an expert panel of cardiovascular medicine specialists regarding in-suit ECG heart rhythm monitoring requirements during lunar surface operations. After a review of demographic information and clinical cases and panel discussion, the panel recommended that ECG monitoring capability as a clinical tool was not essential in the lunar space suit; ECG monitoring was not essential in the launch/landing space suit for contingency scenarios; the current hear rate monitoring capability requirement for both launch/landing and lunar space suits should be maintained; lunar vehicles should be required to have ECG monitoring capability with a minimum of 5-lead ECG for IVA medical assessments; and, exercise stress testing for astronaut selection and retention should be changed from the current 85% maximum heart rate limit to maximal, exhaustive 'symptom-limited' testing to maximize diagnostic utility as a screening tool for evaluating the functional capacity of astronauts and their cardiovascular health.

  2. The role of nutrition for pressure ulcer management: national pressure ulcer advisory panel, European pressure ulcer advisory panel, and pan pacific pressure injury alliance white paper.

    PubMed

    Posthauer, Mary Ellen; Banks, Merrilyn; Dorner, Becky; Schols, Jos M G A

    2015-04-01

    Nutrition and hydration play an important role in preserving skin and tissue viability and in supporting tissue repair for pressure ulcer (PrU) healing. The majority of research investigating the relationship between nutrition and wounds focuses on PrUs. This white paper reviews the 2014 National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, and Pan Pacific Pressure Injury Alliance Nutrition Guidelines and discusses nutrition strategies for PrU management.

  3. Expert panel answers questions for Super Safety and Health Day at KSC.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A panel of NASA and contractor senior staff, plus officers from the 45th Space Wing, discuss safety- and health-related concerns in front of an audience of KSC employees as part of Super Safety and Health Day. Moderating at the podium is Loren Shriver, deputy director for Launch & Payload Processing. Seated left to right are Burt Summerfield, associate director of the Biomedical Office; Colonel William S. Swindling, commander, 45th Medical Group, Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; Ron Dittemore, manager, Space Shuttle Programs, Johnson Space Center; Roy Bridges, Center Director; Col. Tom Deppe, vice commander, 45th Space Wing, Patrick Air Force Base; Jim Schoefield, program manager, Payload Ground Operations, Boeing; Bill Hickman, program manager, Space Gateway Support; and Ed Adamek, vice president and associate program manager for Ground Operations, United Space Alliance. Answering a question at the microphone on the floor is Dave King, director, Shuttle Processing. The panel was one of the presentations during KSC's second annual day-long dedication to safety. Most normal work activities were suspended to allow personnel to attend related activities. The theme, 'Safety and Health Go Hand in Hand,' emphasized KSC's commitment to place the safety and health of the public, astronauts, employees and space- related resources first and foremost. Events also included a keynote address, vendor exhibits, and safety training in work groups. The keynote address and panel session were also broadcast internally over NASA television.

  4. Expert panel answers questions for Super Safety and Health Day at KSC.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A panel of NASA and contractor senior staff, plus officers from the 45th Space Wing, discuss safety- and health-related concerns in front of an audience of KSC employees, as part of Super Safety and Health Day. Moderating at the podium is Loren Shriver, deputy director for Launch & Payload Processing. Seated left to right are Burt Summerfield, associate director of the Biomedical Office; Colonel William S. Swindling, commander, 45th Medical Group, Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; Ron Dittemore, manager, Space Shuttle Programs, Johnson Space Center; Roy Bridges, Center Director; Col. Tom Deppe, vice commander, 45th Space Wing, Patrick Air Force Base; Jim Schoefield, program manager, Payload Ground Operations, Boeing; Bill Hickman, program manager, Space Gateway Support; and Ed Adamek, vice president and associate program manager for Ground Operations, United Space Alliance. The panel was one of the presentations during KSC's second annual day-long dedication to safety. Most normal work activities were suspended to allow personnel to attend related activities. The theme, 'Safety and Health Go Hand in Hand,' emphasized KSC's commitment to place the safety and health of the public, astronauts, employees and space-related resources first and foremost. Events also included a keynote address, vendor exhibits, and safety training in work groups. The keynote address and panel session were also broadcast internally over NASA television.

  5. [Musculoskeletal chronic pain: Latin-American expert panel review based on scientific evidence].

    PubMed

    Angulo, J; González, R; Hernández, L; Hernández-Ortiz, A; Jaque, J; Lara-Solares, A; Robles San Roman, M; Vacas, J

    2011-08-01

    Based on the continual medical education, in the first trimester of 2010 an expert in pain meeting has being made at Mexico City. The priority of the research was on educate residents of medical school or at their post graduate years, and the priority was on investigate of how our residents use adequate pain medication. In that first meeting at Mexico City, from different countries, the agreement was on inadequate use of pain treatment caused from inadequate education of the proper indication of drugs and other therapies for muscle skeletal pain. We decided to make a Latin American expert recommendation in chronic muscle pain where we include: epidemiological and socioeconomic pain data, actual classification of NSAIDs, pharmacological and other treatment in pain, and side effects of most popular drugs with actual recommendations. We include Medline guides, reviews, randomized studies and meta-analysis from 2001 to 2010.

  6. Cognitive and Physical Demands of Activities of Daily Living In Older Adults: Validation of Expert Panel Ratings

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Tamara G.; Gleason, Lauren J.; Wong, Bonnie; Habtemariam, Daniel; Jones, Richard N.; Schmitt, Eva M.; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Saczynski, Jane S.; Gross, Alden L.; Bean, Jonathan F.; Brown, Cynthia J.; Fick, Donna M.; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.; O’Connor, Margaret; Tabloski, Patrica A.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Inouye, Sharon K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Difficulties with performance of functional activities may result from cognitive and/or physical impairments. To date, there has not been a clear delineation of the physical and cognitive demands of activities of daily living. Objectives To quantify the relative physical and cognitive demands required to complete typical functional activities in older adults. Design Expert panel survey. Setting Web-based platform. Participants Eleven experts from eight academic medical centers and 300 community dwelling elderly adults age 70 and older scheduled for elective non-cardiac surgery from two academic medical centers. Methods Sum scores of expert ratings were calculated and then validated against objective data collected from a prospective longitudinal study. Main Outcome Measurements Correlation between expert ratings and objective neuropsychological tests (memory, language, complex attention) and physical measures (gait speed and grip strength) for performance-based tasks. Results Managing money, self-administering medications, using the telephone, and preparing meals were rated as requiring significantly more cognitive demand, while walking and transferring, moderately strenuous activities, and climbing stairs were assessed as more physically demanding. Largely cognitive activities correlated with objective neuropsychological performance (r=0.13–0.23, p<.05) and largely physical activities correlated with physical performance (r=0.15–0.46, p<.05). Conclusions Quantifying the degree of cognitive and/or physical demand for completing a specific task adds an additional dimension to standard measures of functional assessment. This additional information may significantly influence decisions about rehabilitation, post-acute care needs, treatment plans, and caregiver education. PMID:25661463

  7. Enlargement Futures Project: Expert Panel on Technology, Knowledge and Learning. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourova, Elissaveta; Ducatel, Ken; Gavigan, James; Scapolo, Fabiana; Di Pietrogiacomo, Paola

    The next 10 years provide an opportunity for the European Union (EU) to renew the science and technology (S&T) base and build necessary knowledge-society capacities and capabilities in Pre-Accession Countries (PACs). Applied research has faced a major downsize; redressing the balance in the research and development systems is urgently needed.…

  8. The war against junk science: the use of expert panels in complex medical-legal scientific litigation.

    PubMed

    Price, J M; Rosenberg, E S

    1998-08-01

    In the legal context, junk science is defined as evidence that is outside of mainstream scientific or medical views. Junk science does not have indicia of reliability and is not generally accepted. Despite the lack of scientific reliability, US courts, expert witnesses and juries are increasingly reliant on junk science in making causation decisions in complex medical liability cases. Courts have accepted junk science even where reliable scientific evidence is available. The United States silicone gel breast implant litigation is a prime example of this phenomenon. The issue of whether silicone breast implants are associated with disease has been a controversial subject for scientists and physicians, an emotional issue for women who have breast implants, and a lucrative business for the lawyers and expert witnesses who are the proponents of junk science. Junk science has provided to juries a quick and convenient explanation for claimed diseases or syndromes which have required years for reliable scientists to conclude are not related to breast implants. The breast implant litigation highlights the often dramatic difference between decisions based upon junk science and decisions grounded in scientific method, fact and reality. Recently, judges involved in the breast implant litigation have become concerned about the use of junk science in light of the growing body of legitimate scientific evidence that breast implants do not cause disease. Several judges have been motivated to take the unique and novel approach of convening scientific panels of independent experts to study the scientific issues and make findings to the court. Through the use of independent scientific experts, several judges have meaningfully assessed the evidence that the litigants present and have prevented or strictly limited the use of junk science in the courtroom. Using this procedure, other judges are weighing the evidence for future cases. This paper will briefly explore the background of

  9. Final report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel amended safety assessment of Calendula officinalis-derived cosmetic ingredients.

    PubMed

    Andersen, F Alan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Calendula officinalis extract, C officinalis flower, C officinalis flower extract, C officinalis flower oil, and C officinalis seed oil are cosmetic ingredients derived from C officinalis. These ingredients may contain minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, sterols and steroids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, tocopherols, quinones, amino acids, and resins. These ingredients were not significantly toxic in single-dose oral studies using animals. The absence of reproductive/developmental toxicity was inferred from repeat-dose studies of coriander oil, with a similar composition. Overall, these ingredients were not genotoxic. They also were not irritating, sensitizing, or photosensitizing in animal or clinical tests but may be mild ocular irritants. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe for use in cosmetics in the practices of use and concentration given in this amended safety assessment.

  10. Enfuvirtide nursing guidelines: a report from the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care Expert Panel on Enfuvirtide.

    PubMed

    Foy, Karlissa; Bradley-Springer, Lucy; Kempner, Toni; Stevens, Lyn; Gahagan, LuAnn

    2005-01-01

    Enfuvirtide is the first of a new class of antiretrovirals know as fusion inhibitors approved for the treatment of HIV infection. It is administered via a subcutaneous injection. The patient is responsible for reconstitution from a powder and self-injection. Nurses caring for patients using enfuvirtide need a solid knowledge base about enfuvirtide administration and side effects in order to effectively educate and manage patients taking enfuvirtide. Enfuvirtide's safety and efficacy reported from phase III trials are summarized. Nursing guidelines were developed by the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care Expert Panel on Enfuvirtide. The guidelines, including suggestions on assessment, education, and management of side effects are reviewed. Teaching tools and resources are offered to assist in patient management. In addition, suggestions for proper syringe disposal and traveling with enfuvirtide are offered.

  11. Multi-criteria decision analysis for health technology assessment in Canada: insights from an expert panel discussion.

    PubMed

    Diaby, Vakaramoko; Goeree, Ron; Hoch, Jeffrey; Siebert, Uwe

    2015-02-01

    Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), a decision-making tool, has received increasing attention in recent years, notably in the healthcare field. For Canada, it is unclear whether and how MCDA should be incorporated into the existing health technology assessment (HTA) decision-making process. To facilitate debate on improving HTA decision-making in Canada, a workshop was held in conjunction with the 8th World Congress on Health Economics of the International Health Economics Association in Toronto, Canada in July 2011. The objective of the workshop was to discuss the potential benefits and challenges related to the use of MCDA for HTA decision-making in Canada. This paper summarizes and discusses the recommendations of an expert panel convened at the workshop to discuss opportunities and concerns with reference to the implementation of MCDA in Canada.

  12. Toward Earlier Inclusion of Pregnant and Postpartum Women in Tuberculosis Drug Trials: Consensus Statements From an International Expert Panel.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amita; Mathad, Jyoti S; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M; Albano, Jessica D; Botgros, Radu; Brown, Vikki; Browning, Renee S; Dawson, Liza; Dooley, Kelly E; Gnanashanmugam, Devasena; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Kim, Peter; Lyerly, Anne D; Mirochnick, Mark; Mofenson, Lynne M; Montepiedra, Grace; Piper, Jeanna; Sahin, Leyla; Savic, Radojka; Smith, Betsy; Spiegel, Hans; Swaminathan, Soumya; Watts, D Heather; White, Amina

    2016-03-15

    Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in women of childbearing age (15-44 years). Despite increased tuberculosis risk during pregnancy, optimal clinical treatment remains unclear: safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic data for many tuberculosis drugs are lacking, and trials of promising new tuberculosis drugs exclude pregnant women. To advance inclusion of pregnant and postpartum women in tuberculosis drug trials, the US National Institutes of Health convened an international expert panel. Discussions generated consensus statements (>75% agreement among panelists) identifying high-priority research areas during pregnancy, including: (1) preventing progression of latent tuberculosis infection, especially in women coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus; (2) evaluating new agents/regimens for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; and (3) evaluating safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of tuberculosis drugs already in use during pregnancy and postpartum. Incorporating pregnant women into clinical trials would extend evidence-based tuberculosis prevention and treatment standards to this special population.

  13. Improving Health Outcomes for Patients with Depression: A Population Health Imperative. Report on an Expert Panel Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Skoufalos, Alexis; Medalia, Alice; Fendrick, A. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Improving Health Outcomes for Patients with Depression: A Population Health Imperative. Report on an Expert Panel Meeting Janice L. Clarke, RN, Alexis Skoufalos, EdD, Alice Medalia, PhD, and A. Mark Fendrick, MD Editorial: A Call to Action: David B. Nash, MD, MBA   S-2 Overview: Depression and the Population Health Imperative   S-3 Promoting Awareness of the Issues and Opportunities for Improvement   S-5 Cognitive Dysfunction in Affective Disorders   S-5 Critical Role of Employers in Improving Health Outcomes for Employees with Depression   S-6 Closing the Behavioral Health Professional and Process Gaps   S-6 Achieving the Triple Aim for Patients with Depressive Disorders   S-6 Improving the Experience of Care for Patients with Depression   S-6 Improving Quality of Care and Health Outcomes for Patients with Depression   S-7 Changing the Cost of Care Discussion from How Much to How Well   S-8 Panel Insights and Recommendations   S-9 Conclusion   S-10 PMID:27636743

  14. Expert Panel Workshop Consensus Statement on the Role of the Environment in the Development of Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Christine G.; Miller, Frederick W.; Pollard, Kenneth Michael; Selmi, Carlo; Germolec, Dori; Joyce, Kelly; Rose, Noel R.; Humble, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases include 80 or more complex disorders characterized by self-reactive, pathologic immune responses in which genetic susceptibility is largely insufficient to determine disease onset. In September 2010, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) organized an expert panel workshop to evaluate the role of environmental factors in autoimmune diseases, and the state of the science regarding relevant mechanisms, animal models, and human studies. The objective of the workshop was to analyze the existing data to identify conclusions that could be drawn regarding environmental exposures and autoimmunity and to identify critical knowledge gaps and areas of uncertainty for future study. This consensus document summarizes key findings from published workshop monographs on areas in which “confident” and “likely” assessments were made, with recommendations for further research. Transcribed notes and slides were reviewed to synthesize an overview on exposure assessment and questions addressed by interdisciplinary panels. Critical advances in the field of autoimmune disease research have been made in the past decade. Collaborative translational and interdisciplinary research is needed to elucidate the role of environmental factors in autoimmune diseases. A focus on exposure assessment methodology is needed to improve the effectiveness of human studies, and more experimental studies are needed to focus on causal mechanisms underlying observed associations of environmental factors with autoimmune disease in humans. PMID:25196523

  15. Meeting the public health challenge of protecting private wells: Proceedings and recommendations from an expert panel workshop.

    PubMed

    Fox, Mary A; Nachman, Keeve E; Anderson, Breeana; Lam, Juleen; Resnick, Beth

    2016-06-01

    Private wells serving fewer than 25 people are federally unregulated, and their users may be exposed to naturally occurring agents of concern such as arsenic and radionuclides, as well as anthropogenic contaminants. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Clean Water for Health Program works to protect private wells and prevent adverse health outcomes for the roughly 15% of Americans who rely on them. To understand current and emerging challenges to the private drinking water supply, an interdisciplinary expert panel workshop on "Future and Emerging Issues for Private Wells" was organized to inform strategic planning for the Clean Water for Health Program. The panel assessed current conditions of ground water as a source for private wells, identified emerging threats, critical gaps in knowledge, and public health needs, and recommended strategies to guide future activities to ensure the safety of private drinking water wells. These strategies addressed topics of broad interest to the environmental public health community including: development of new methods to support citizen science; addressing contaminant mixtures; expanding capacity for well testing; evaluating treatment technologies; building an evidence base on best practices on well owner outreach and stewardship; and research and data needs.

  16. Optimal Stroke Prevention in the Geriatric Patient with Atrial Fibrillation: Position Paper of an Interdisciplinary Expert Panel.

    PubMed

    Bahrmann, P; Wehling, M; Ropers, D; Flohr, J; Leischker, A; Röther, J

    2015-10-01

    The present position paper summarises the outcomes of an expert panel discussion held by hospital-based and office-based physicians with ample experience in the treatment of geriatric patients. The optimal approach to stroke prevention in geriatric patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) has not been adequately clarified. Despite their high risk of stroke and clear indication for anticoagulation according to established risk scores, in practice geriatric AF patients often are withheld treatment because of comorbidities and comedications, concerns about low treatment adherence or fear of bleeding events, in particular due to falls. The panel agreed that geriatric patients should receive oral anticoagulation as a rule, unless a comprehensive neurological and geriatric assessment (including clinical examination, gait tests and validated instruments such as Modified Rankin Scale, Mini-mental state examination or Timed Test of Money Counting) provides sound reasons for refraining from treatment. All patients with a history of falls should be thoroughly evaluated for further evaluation of the causes. Patients with CHADS2 score ≥ 2 should receive anticoagulation even if at high risk for falls. The novel oral anticoagulants (NOAC) facilitate management in the geriatric population with AF (no INR monitoring needed, easier bridging during interventions) and have, based on available data, an improved benefit-risk ratio compared to vitamin K antagonists. Drugs with predominantly non-renal elimination are safer in geriatric patients and should be preferred.

  17. Is this the new smoking? An expert panel review of the York University OHV health benefits study.

    PubMed

    Bissix, Glyn; MacCormick, Keith; Milburn, Chris

    2013-03-01

    Recently, a study by Burr and his associates culminating in three peer reviewed journal articles and a string of press releases emanating from the off-highway vehicle (OHV) industry claimed that increasing riding time on all terrain recreational vehicles (ATVs) and off road motorcycles (ORMs) could meet the basic guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine and Health Canada for sufficient physical activity leading to positive health adaptations. Should this be true, this study could revolutionize the way that health professionals prescribe physical activity. To examine the efficacy of these claims, the authors convened an expert panel to examine these publications to particularly focus on the problem conceptualization, the research methodology including sample selection and controls, the presentation and interpretation of results and the veracity of their conclusions. The experts concluded, while never questioning the laboratory and field measurements, that there were a number of conceptual, methodological and interpretive limitations and errors that rendered the claims of health benefits indefensible. Furthermore, the researchers largely failed to take account of the healthcare costs associated with riding OHVs which according to the epidemiology literature, and particularly for ATVs, are considerable.

  18. Probability encoding of hydrologic parameters for basalt. Elicitation of expert opinions from a panel of five consulting hydrologists

    SciTech Connect

    Runchal, A.K.; Merkhofer, M.W.; Olmsted, E.; Davis, J.D.

    1984-11-01

    The Columbia River basalts underlying the Hanford Site in Washington State are being considered as a possible location for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. To investigate the feasibility of a repository at this site, the hydrologic parameters of the site must be evaluated. Among hydrologic parameters of particular interest are the effective porosity of the Cohassett basalt flow top and flow interior and the vertical-to-horizontal hydraulic conductivity, or anisotropy ratio, of the Cohassett basalt flow interior. The Cohassett basalt flow is the prime candidate horizon for repository studies. Site-specific data for these hydrologic parameters are currently inadequate for the purpose of preliminary assessment of candidate repository performance. To obtain credible, auditable, and independently derived estimates of the specified hydrologic parameters, a panel of five nationally recognized hydrologists was assembled. Their expert judgments were quantified during two rounds of Delphi process by means of a probability encoding method developed to estimate the probability distributions of the selected hydrologic variables. The results indicate significant differences of expert opinion for cumulative probabilities of less than 10% and greater than 90%, but relatively close agreement in the middle ranges of values. The principal causes of the diversity of opinion are believed to be the lack of site-specific data and the absence of a single, widely accepted, conceptual or theoretical basis for analyzing these variables.

  19. A review of the carcinogenic potential of glyphosate by four independent expert panels and comparison to the IARC assessment.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gary M; Aardema, Marilyn; Acquavella, John; Berry, Sir Colin; Brusick, David; Burns, Michele M; de Camargo, Joao Lauro Viana; Garabrant, David; Greim, Helmut A; Kier, Larry D; Kirkland, David J; Marsh, Gary; Solomon, Keith R; Sorahan, Tom; Roberts, Ashley; Weed, Douglas L

    2016-09-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) published a monograph in 2015 concluding that glyphosate is "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) based on limited evidence in humans and sufficient evidence in experimental animals. It was also concluded that there was strong evidence of genotoxicity and oxidative stress. Four Expert Panels have been convened for the purpose of conducting a detailed critique of the evidence in light of IARC's assessment and to review all relevant information pertaining to glyphosate exposure, animal carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, and epidemiologic studies. Two of the Panels (animal bioassay and genetic toxicology) also provided a critique of the IARC position with respect to conclusions made in these areas. The incidences of neoplasms in the animal bioassays were found not to be associated with glyphosate exposure on the basis that they lacked statistical strength, were inconsistent across studies, lacked dose-response relationships, were not associated with preneoplasia, and/or were not plausible from a mechanistic perspective. The overall weight of evidence from the genetic toxicology data supports a conclusion that glyphosate (including GBFs and AMPA) does not pose a genotoxic hazard and therefore, should not be considered support for the classification of glyphosate as a genotoxic carcinogen. The assessment of the epidemiological data found that the data do not support a causal relationship between glyphosate exposure and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma while the data were judged to be too sparse to assess a potential relationship between glyphosate exposure and multiple myeloma. As a result, following the review of the totality of the evidence, the Panels concluded that the data do not support IARC's conclusion that glyphosate is a "probable human carcinogen" and, consistent with previous regulatory assessments, further concluded that glyphosate is unlikely to pose a carcinogenic risk to humans.

  20. Identifying locally advanced basal cell carcinoma eligible for treatment with vismodegib: an expert panel consensus.

    PubMed

    Peris, Ketty; Licitra, Lisa; Ascierto, Paolo A; Corvò, Renzo; Simonacci, Marco; Picciotto, Franco; Gualdi, Giulio; Pellacani, Giovanni; Santoro, Armando

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer worldwide. Most occur on the head and neck, where cosmetic and functional outcomes are critical. BCC can be locally destructive if not diagnosed early and treated appropriately. Surgery is the treatment of choice for the majority of high-risk lesions. Aggressive, recurrent or unresectable tumors can be difficult to manage. Until recently, no approved systemic therapy was available for locally advanced or metastatic BCC inappropriate for surgery or radiotherapy. Vismodegib provides a systemic treatment option. However, a consensus definition of advanced BCC is lacking. A multidisciplinary panel with expertise in oncology, dermatology, dermatologic surgery and radiation oncology proposes a consensus definition based on published evidence and clinical experience.

  1. Food, plant food, and vegetarian diets in the US dietary guidelines: conclusions of an expert panel.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, David R; Haddad, Ella H; Lanou, Amy Joy; Messina, Mark J

    2009-05-01

    We summarize conclusions drawn from a panel discussion at the "Fifth International Congress on Vegetarian Nutrition" about the roles of and emphasis on food, plant food, and vegetarianism in current and future US dietary guidelines. The most general recommendation of the panel was that future dietary guidelines, following the lead of the 2005 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, should emphasize food-based recommendations and thinking to the full extent that evidence allows. Although nutrient-based thinking and Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) may help ensure an adequate diet in the sense that deficiency states are avoided, the emphasis on DRIs may not capture many important nutritional issues and may inhibit a focus on foods. More generally, in the context of the conference on vegetarian nutrition, this report focuses on the history and structure of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, on various plant food-oriented recommendations that are supported by literature evidence, and on mechanisms for participating in the process of forming dietary guidelines. Among recommendations that likely would improve health and the environment, some are oriented toward increased plant food consumption and some toward vegetarianism. The literature on health effects of individual foods and whole lifestyle diets is insufficient and justifies a call for future food-oriented research, including expanding the evidence base for plant-based and vegetarian diets. The Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee's role should be carried forward to creation of a publicly accessible icon (eg, the current pyramid) and related materials to ensure that the science base is fully translated for the public.

  2. Expert Panel Recommendations on Lower Urinary Tract Health of Women Across Their Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Losada, Liliana; Amundsen, Cindy L.; Ashton-Miller, James; Chai, Toby; Close, Clare; Damaser, Margot; DiSanto, Michael; Dmochowski, Roger; Fraser, Matthew O.; Kielb, Stephanie J.; Kuchel, George; Mueller, Elizabeth R.; Parker-Autry, Candace; Wolfe, Alan J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Urologic and kidney problems are common in women across their life span and affect their daily life, including physical activity, sexual relations, social life, and future health. Urological health in women is still understudied and the underlying mechanisms of female urological dysfunctions are not fully understood. The Society for Women's Health Research (SWHR®) recognized the need to have a roundtable discussion where researchers and clinicians would define the current state of knowledge, gaps, and recommendations for future research directions to transform women's urological health. This report summarizes the discussions, which focused on epidemiology, clinical presentation, basic science, prevention strategies, and efficacy of current therapies. Experts around the table agreed on a set of research, education, and policy recommendations that have the potential to dramatically increase awareness and improve women's urological health at all stages of life. PMID:27285829

  3. Improving medicines for children in Canada. Findings of the expert panel on therapeutic products for infants, children and youth.

    PubMed

    Koren, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    With children being largely orphaned from the benefits of drugs, and being managed mostly by medications unapproved by Health Canada, a landmark document was published in September 2014 by the Council of Canadian Academies (CCA) to serve as a blueprint to change this grim reality. The main findings of the panel included: 1. Children take medications, many of which have not been proven safe and effective for their use. 2. Children respond to medications differently from adults; thus, medicines must be studied in children and formulated for children. 3. Studying medicines in children is always possible and in their best interests. 4. In the United States and the European Union, pediatric medicines research is encouraged, required and monitored in ways that offer lessons for Canada. 5. Pediatric medicines research is a Canadian strength, but it requires reinforcement, sustained capacity and infrastructure to realize its full potential.

  4. Executive summary and conclusions from the European Hydration Institute Expert Conference on human hydration, health, and performance.

    PubMed

    Benton, D; Braun, H; Cobo, J C; Edmonds, C; Elmadfa, I; El-Sharkawy, A; Feehally, J; Gellert, R; Holdsworth, J; Kapsokefalou, M; Kenney, W L; Leiper, J B; Macdonald, I A; Maffeis, C; Maughan, R J; Shirreffs, S M; Toth-Heyn, P; Watson, P

    2015-09-01

    On April 7-8, 2014, the European Hydration Institute hosted a small group of experts at Castle Combe Manor House, United Kingdom, to discuss a range of issues related to human hydration, health, and performance. The meeting included 18 recognized experts who brought a wealth of experience and knowledge to the topics under review. Eight selected topics were addressed, with the key issues being briefly presented before an in-depth discussion. Presented here is the executive summary and conclusions from this meeting.

  5. 40 CFR 194.26 - Expert judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., background information provided to experts, and deliberations and formal interactions among experts shall be... and technical views to expert panels as input to any expert elicitation process....

  6. Caring for Our Future: The Content of Prenatal Care. A Report of the Public Health Service Expert Panel on the Content of Prenatal Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This report describes effective approaches for enhancing maternal, infant, and family outcomes based on the scientific and systematic assessment of the content of prenatal care conducted by the Public Health Service's Expert Panel on the Content of Prenatal Care. The range of risks, both medical and psychosocial, that the prenatal care provider…

  7. Aflibercept in wet AMD beyond the first year of treatment: recommendations by an expert roundtable panel.

    PubMed

    McKibbin, M; Devonport, H; Gale, R; Gavin, M; Lotery, A; Mahmood, S; Patel, P J; Ross, A; Sivaprasad, S; Talks, J; Walters, G

    2015-07-01

    This paper provides expert recommendations on administration of aflibercept in wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) after Year 1 (Y1), based on a roundtable discussion held in London, UK in November 2014. The goals of treatment after Y1 are to maintain visual and anatomical gains whilst minimising treatment burden and using resources effectively. The treatment decision should be made at the seventh injection visit (assuming the label has been followed) in Y1, and three approaches are proposed: (a) eyes with active disease on imaging/examination but with stable visual acuity (VA) at the end of Y1 should continue with fixed 8-weekly dosing; (b) eyes with inactive disease on imaging/examination and stable VA should be managed using a 'treat and extend' (T&E) regimen. T&E involves treating and then extending the interval until the next treatment, by 2-week intervals, to a maximum of 12 weeks, provided the disease remains inactive. If there is new evidence of disease activity, treatment is administered and the interval to the next treatment shortened; and (c) if there has been no disease activity for ≥3 consecutive visits, a trial of monitoring without treatment may be appropriate, initiated at the end of Y1 or at any time during Y2. Where possible, VA testing, OCT imaging and injection should be performed at the same visit. The second eye should be monitored to detect fellow eye involvement. In bilateral disease, the re-treatment interval should be driven by the better-seeing eye or, if the VA is similar, the eye with the more active disease.

  8. Treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in resource-constrained settings: expert panel consensus.

    PubMed

    Wiersma, Steven T; McMahon, Brian; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel; Thio, Chloe L; Thursz, Mark; Lim, Seng Gee; Ocama, Ponsiano; Esmat, Gamal; Mendy, Maimuna; Maimuna, Mendy; Bell, David; Vitoria, Marco; Eramova, Irina; Lavanchy, Daniel; Dusheiko, Geoff

    2011-07-01

    Most of the estimated 350 million people with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection live in resource-constrained settings. Up to 25% of those persons will die prematurely of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or cirrhosis. Universal hepatitis B immunization programmes that target infants will have an impact on HBV-related deaths several decades after their introduction. Antiviral agents active against HBV are available; treatment of HBV infection in those who need it has been shown to reduce the risk of HCC and death. It is estimated that 20-30% of persons with HBV infection could benefit from treatment. However, drugs active against HBV are not widely available or utilized in persons infected with HBV. Currently recommended antiviral agents used for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection do not adequately suppress HBV, which is of great concern for the estimated 10% of the HIV-infected persons in Africa who are co-infected with HBV. Progressive liver disease has been shown to occur in co-infected persons whose HBV infection is not suppressed. In view of these concerns, an informal World Health Organization consultation of experts concluded that: chronic HBV is a major public health problem in emerging nations; all HIV-infected persons should be screened for HBV infection; HIV/HBV co-infected persons should be treated with therapies active against both viruses and that reduce the risk of resistance; standards for the management of chronic HBV infection should be adapted to resource-constrained settings. In addition, a research agendum was developed focusing on issues related to prevention and treatment of chronic HBV in resource-constrained settings.

  9. An Interview Series with Members of the ASHP Expert Panel on Formulary Management: Part 3: Sabrina W. Cole, PharmD.

    PubMed

    Ventola, C Lee

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the third in a series of three interviews that P&T conducted with several members of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) Expert Panel on Formulary Management.In 2008, ASHP convened this panel of experts to develop revised guidelines for P&T committee and formulary management to replace the previous guidance issued in 1991.1 These revised guidelines include recommendations concerning the review and evaluation of drugs for formulary inclusion, pharmacoeconomic assessments, therapeutic interchange, medication-use evaluations (MUEs), management of drug shortages, and many other important topics.In this series, ASHP experts discuss P&T committee and formulary management guidelines in their respective institutions as well as other observations and insights. In Part 3, the author interviews Sabrina Cole, PharmD, Clinical Specialist, Drug Information, at the Grady Health System in Atlanta, Georgia.

  10. An expert panel process to evaluate habitat restoration actions in the Columbia River estuary.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Kirk L; Bottom, Daniel L; Hood, W Gregory; Johnson, Gary E; Jones, Kim K; Thom, Ronald M

    2017-03-01

    We describe a process for evaluating proposed ecosystem restoration projects intended to improve survival of juvenile salmon in the Columbia River estuary (CRE). Changes in the Columbia River basin (northwestern USA), including hydropower development, have contributed to the listing of 13 salmon stocks as endangered or threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Habitat restoration in the CRE, from Bonneville Dam to the ocean, is part of a basin-wide, legally mandated effort to mitigate federal hydropower impacts on salmon survival. An Expert Regional Technical Group (ERTG) was established in 2009 to improve and implement a process for assessing and assigning "survival benefit units" (SBUs) to restoration actions. The SBU concept assumes site-specific restoration projects will increase juvenile salmon survival during migration through the 234 km CRE. Assigned SBUs are used to inform selection of restoration projects and gauge mitigation progress. The ERTG standardized the SBU assessment process to improve its scientific integrity, repeatability, and transparency. In lieu of experimental data to quantify the survival benefits of individual restoration actions, the ERTG adopted a conceptual model composed of three assessment criteria-certainty of success, fish opportunity improvements, and habitat capacity improvements-to evaluate restoration projects. Based on these criteria, an algorithm assigned SBUs by integrating potential fish density as an indicator of salmon performance. Between 2009 and 2014, the ERTG assessed SBUs for 55 proposed projects involving a total of 181 restoration actions located across 8 of 9 reaches of the CRE, largely relying on information provided in a project template based on the conceptual model, presentations, discussions with project sponsors, and site visits. Most projects restored tidal inundation to emergent wetlands, improved riparian function, and removed invasive vegetation. The scientific relationship of geomorphic and

  11. Ethical acceptability of research on human-animal chimeric embryos: summary of opinions by the Japanese Expert Panel on Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Hiroshi; Akutsu, Hidenori; Kato, Kazuto

    2015-01-01

    Human-animal chimeric embryos are embryos obtained by introducing human cells into a non-human animal embryo. It is envisaged that the application of human-animal chimeric embryos may make possible many useful research projects including producing three-dimensional human organs in animals and verification of the pluripotency of human ES cells or iPS cells in vivo. The use of human-animal chimeric embryos, however, raises several ethical and moral concerns. The most fundamental one is that human-animal chimeric embryos possess the potential to develop into organisms containing human-derived tissue, which may lead to infringing upon the identity of the human species, and thus impairing human dignity. The Japanese Expert Panel on Bioethics in the Cabinet Office carefully considered the scientific significance and ethical acceptability of the issue and released its "Opinions regarding the handling of research using human-animal chimeric embryos". The Panel proposed a framework of case-by-case review, and suggested that the following points must be carefully reviewed from the perspective of ethical acceptability: (a) Types of animal embryos and types of animals receiving embryo transfers, particularly in dealing with non-human primates; (b) Types of human cells and organs intended for production, particularly in dealing with human nerve or germ cells; and (c) Extent of the period required for post-transfer studies. The scientific knowledge that can be gained from transfer into an animal uterus and from the production of an individual must be clarified to avoid unnecessary generation of chimeric animals. The time is ripe for the scientific community and governments to start discussing the ethical issues for establishing a global consensus.

  12. Outcomes and Recommendations of an Indian Expert Panel for Improved Practice in Controlled Ovarian Stimulation for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    PubMed Central

    Ahemmed, Baiju; Sundarapandian, Vani; Gutgutia, Rohit; Balasubramanyam, Sathya; Jagtap, Richa; Biliangady, Reeta; Gupta, Priti; Jadhav, Sachin; Satwik, Ruma; Thakor, Priti

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To improve success of in vitro fertilization (IVF), assisted reproductive technology (ART) experts addressed four questions. What is optimum oocytes number leading to highest live birth rate (LBR)? Are cohort size and embryo quality correlated? Does gonadotropin type affect oocyte yield? Should “freeze-all” policy be adopted in cycles with progesterone >1.5 ng/mL on day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration? Methods. Electronic database search included ten studies on which panel gave opinions for improving current practice in controlled ovarian stimulation for ART. Results. Strong association existed between retrieved oocytes number (RON) and LBRs. RON impacted likelihood of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Embryo euploidy decreased with age, not with cohort size. Progesterone > 1.5 ng/dL did not impair cycle outcomes in patients with high cohorts and showed disparate results on day of hCG administration. Conclusions. Ovarian stimulation should be designed to retrieve 10–15 oocytes/treatment. Accurate dosage, gonadotropin type, should be selected as per prediction markers of ovarian response. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist based protocols are advised to avoid OHSS. Cumulative pregnancy rate was most relevant pregnancy endpoint in ART. Cycles with serum progesterone ≥1.5 ng/dL on day of hCG administration should not adopt “freeze-all” policy. Further research is needed due to lack of data availability on progesterone threshold or index. PMID:28246628

  13. Topical antifungal-corticosteroid combination therapy for the treatment of superficial mycoses: conclusions of an expert panel meeting.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Martin; Friedrich, Markus; Papini, Manuela; Pujol, Ramon M; Veraldi, Stefano

    2016-06-01

    Superficial fungal infections affect 20-25% of people worldwide and can cause considerable morbidity, particularly if an inflammatory component is present. As superficial fungal infections can be diverse, the treatment should be tailored to the individual needs of the patient and several factors should be taken into account when deciding on the most appropriate treatment option. These include the type, location and surface area of the infection, patient age, degree of inflammation and underlying comorbidities. Although several meta-analyses have shown that there are no significant differences between the numerous available topical antifungal agents with regard to mycological cure, agents differ in their specific intrinsic properties, which can affect their clinical use. The addition of a corticosteroid to an antifungal agent at the initiation of treatment can attenuate the inflammatory symptoms of the infection and is thought to increase patient compliance, reduce the risk of bacterial superinfection and enhance the efficacy of the antifungal agent. However, incorrect use of antifungal-corticosteroid therapy may be associated with treatment failure and adverse effects. This review summarises available treatment options for superficial fungal infections and provides general treatment recommendations based on the consensus outcomes of an Expert Panel meeting on the topical treatment of superficial mycoses.

  14. European Expert Consensus Paper on the implementation of Article 14 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Luke

    2016-11-01

    On 24 November 2015, under the auspices of the European Policy Roundtable on Smoking Cessation, 15 experts on tobacco control and dependence from across the European Union, chaired by Professor Luke Clancy, met in Oslo, Norway, to discuss the implementation of the Tobacco Products Directive and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, namely Article 14. On the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, this paper reports the consensus reached by all Roundtable participants on the need to further advance the availability and access to services to support cessation of tobacco use. The implementation of services to support cessation of tobacco use in line with Article 14 can and should be significantly improved to protect the health of European citizens. The meeting was initiated and funded by Pfizer.

  15. BSCC, Bethesda or other? Terminology in cervical cytology European panel discussion.

    PubMed

    Kocjan, G; Priollet, B C; Desai, M; Koutselini, H; Mahovlic, V; Oliveira, M H; Pohar-Marinsek, Z; Sauer, T; Schenk, U; Shabalova, I; Herbert, A

    2005-06-01

    The European panel agreed that reproducibility and translatability of terminology in cervical cytology were essential, arguing well for harmonization of reporting systems. The majority at this meeting use a modification of the Bethesda system (BS). Local modifications involved reporting subcategories within high grade and low grade lesions, which would not alter the overall translatability of their systems both with each other and BS. The majority agree that low grade lesions with and without koilocytosis should be managed similarly as should high grade lesions (moderate dysplasia/CIN2 or worse). Those systems linking moderate dysplasia with mild rather than severe dysplasia would need to define moderate dysplasia as such, if their results were to be translatable, which would be preferable to their using a different definition of low grade and high grade lesions. Translation between systems might anyway be facilitated by reporting moderate dysplasia as a subcategory within high grade, which was favoured by most of those present. Therefore, there is no need for exact agreement of terminology if broad principles are agreed. This useful discussion adds weight to the British Society for Clinical Cytology recommendation that the new classification should be adopted by the UK National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme. If the new classification is adopted, the UK would join the European consensus opinion on terminology.

  16. Prioritisation of wildlife pathogens to be targeted in European surveillance programmes: Expert-based risk analysis focus on ruminants.

    PubMed

    Ciliberti, Alexandre; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Yon, Lisa; Hutchings, Mike R; Artois, Marc

    2015-03-01

    This study attempted to develop a list of priority pathogens. It is part of a European Union (EU) project dedicated to the surveillance of emerging or re-emerging pathogens of wildlife. Partners of the consortium established an initial list of 138 pathogens of concern, which was reduced to a smaller list of 65 pathogens likely to affect ruminants (i.e., the most costly animal group in the EU over the last 15 years). These 65 pathogens underwent a two-step, expert-based risk analysis: 92 experts graded them with respect to their global importance for animal welfare, species conservation, trade/economic impacts and public health. In step 2, the top 15 pathogens from step 1 were assessed by 69 experts considering seven weighted epidemiological criteria (pathogen variability, host specificity, potential for contagion, speed of spread, presence in Europe, difficulty of surveillance in wildlife and persistence in the environment) for which four options were possible. The responses concerned a wide geographic coverage. The resulting top-list pathogens were ranked as follows: 1. Salmonella enterica, 2. Coxiella burnetii, 3. foot-and-mouth disease virus, 4. Mycobacterium bovis, 5. bluetongue virus, and 6. European tick-borne encephalitis virus. The influence of the characteristics of the respondents, the importance of the levels of uncertainty/variability and the implication of the results are discussed. This work highlights the relevance of developing such lists for preparedness.

  17. Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health (ISSWSH) Expert Consensus Panel Review.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Irwin; Kim, Noel N; Clayton, Anita H; DeRogatis, Leonard R; Giraldi, Annamaria; Parish, Sharon J; Pfaus, James; Simon, James A; Kingsberg, Sheryl A; Meston, Cindy; Stahl, Stephen M; Wallen, Kim; Worsley, Roisin

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health expert consensus panel was to develop a concise, clinically relevant, evidence-based review of the epidemiology, physiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD), a sexual dysfunction affecting approximately 10% of adult women. Etiologic factors include conditions or drugs that decrease brain dopamine, melanocortin, oxytocin, and norepinephrine levels and augment brain serotonin, endocannabinoid, prolactin, and opioid levels. Symptoms include lack or loss of motivation to participate in sexual activity due to absent or decreased spontaneous desire, sexual desire in response to erotic cues or stimulation, or ability to maintain desire or interest through sexual activity for at least 6 months, with accompanying distress. Treatment follows a biopsychosocial model and is guided by history and assessment of symptoms. Sex therapy has been the standard treatment, although there is a paucity of studies assessing efficacy, except for mindfulness-based cognitive behavior therapy. Bupropion and buspirone may be considered off-label treatments for HSDD, despite limited safety and efficacy data. Menopausal women with HSDD may benefit from off-label testosterone treatment, as evidenced by multiple clinical trials reporting some efficacy and short-term safety. Currently, flibanserin is the only Food and Drug Administration-approved medication to treat premenopausal women with generalized acquired HSDD. Based on existing data, we hypothesize that all these therapies alter central inhibitory and excitatory pathways. In conclusion, HSDD significantly affects quality of life in women and can effectively be managed by health care providers with appropriate assessments and individualized treatments.

  18. Regulatory considerations surrounding the deployment of Bt-expressing cowpea in Africa: report of the deliberations of an expert panel.

    PubMed

    Huesing, Joseph; Romeis, Jörg; Ellstrand, Norman; Raybould, Alan; Hellmich, Richard; Wolt, Jeff; Ehlers, Jeff; Dabiré, Clémentine; Fatokun, Christian; Hokanson, Karen; Ishiyaku, Mohammad F; Margam, Venu; Obokoh, Nompumelelo; Mignouna, Jacob; Nangayo, Francis; Ouedraogo, Jeremy; Pasquet, Rémy; Pittendrigh, Barry; Schaal, Barbara; Stein, Jeff; Tamò, Manuele; Murdock, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata spp unguiculata) is adapted to the drier agro-ecological zones of West Africa where it is a major source of dietary protein and widely used as a fodder crop. Improving the productivity of cowpea can enhance food availability and security in West Africa. Insect predation--predominately from the legume pod borer (Maruca vitrata), flower thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) and a complex of pod-sucking bugs (e.g., Clavigralla spp)--is a major yield-limiting factor in West African cowpea production. Dramatic increases in yield are shown when M. vitrata is controlled with insecticides. However, availability, costs, and safety considerations limit pesticides as a viable option for boosting cowpea production. Development of Bt-cowpea through genetic modification (GM) to control the legume pod borer is a promising approach to cowpea improvement. Cowpea expressing the lepidopteran-active Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis is being developed as a first generation Bt-cowpea crop for West Africa. Appropriate stewardship of Bt-cowpea to assure its sustainability under West African conditions is critical to its successful development. A first step in this process is an environmental risk assessment to determine the likelihood and magnitude of adverse effects of the Cry1Ab protein on key environmental protection goals in West Africa. Here we describe the results of an expert panel convened in 2009 to develop the problem formulation phase for Bt-cowpea and to address specific issues around gene flow, non-target arthropods, and insect resistance management.

  19. Using expert panels to determine the level of cancer knowledge required of junior doctors in australia. Part 2: sources of variability.

    PubMed

    Starmer, Darren L; Chapman, Elaine; Millward, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes the sources of variability encountered in the use of an expert panel to review cancer-related knowledge items, necessary for medical students. Variability was observed in the interpretation of written material relating to the definition and rationale for the task to be completed by individual panel members, including the definition of a junior doctor, and levels of understanding and specificity. Panel sessions undertaken in phase II provided facilitated discussion and the ability to clearly define the aims and tasks required of participants, resulting in data of a higher quality. Consensus was achieved in a single session that would have likely taken several iterations of individual data collection to achieve. Eliminating phase I has the potential to remove the majority of variability encountered in this study. Subsequently, the resultant decrease in time demanded of participants would likely result in higher recruitment and participation rates.

  20. Leveraging geospatial data, technology, and methods for improving the health of communities: priorities and strategies from an expert panel convened by the CDC.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Kim; Flanagan, Barry; Jones, Nicholas F; Heitgerd, Janet L

    2010-04-01

    In 2008, CDC convened an expert panel to gather input on the use of geospatial science in surveillance, research and program activities focused on CDC's Healthy Communities Goal. The panel suggested six priorities: spatially enable and strengthen public health surveillance infrastructure; develop metrics for geospatial categorization of community health and health inequity; evaluate the feasibility and validity of standard metrics of community health and health inequities; support and develop GIScience and geospatial analysis; provide geospatial capacity building, training and education; and, engage non-traditional partners. Following the meeting, the strategies and action items suggested by the expert panel were reviewed by a CDC subcommittee to determine priorities relative to ongoing CDC geospatial activities, recognizing that many activities may need to occur either in parallel, or occur multiple times across phases. Phase A of the action items centers on developing leadership support. Phase B focuses on developing internal and external capacity in both physical (e.g., software and hardware) and intellectual infrastructure. Phase C of the action items plan concerns the development and integration of geospatial methods. In summary, the panel members provided critical input to the development of CDC's strategic thinking on integrating geospatial methods and research issues across program efforts in support of its Healthy Communities Goal.

  1. Noninvasive markers of fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Validating the European Liver Fibrosis Panel and exploring simple markers.

    PubMed

    Guha, Indra Neil; Parkes, Julie; Roderick, Paul; Chattopadhyay, Dipanker; Cross, Richard; Harris, Scott; Kaye, Philip; Burt, Alastair D; Ryder, Steve D; Aithal, Guruprasad P; Day, Christopher P; Rosenberg, William M

    2008-02-01

    The detection of fibrosis within nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is important for ascertaining prognosis and the stratification of patients for emerging therapeutic intervention. We validated the Original European Liver Fibrosis panel (OELF) and a simplified algorithm not containing age, the Enhanced Liver fibrosis panel (ELF), in an independent cohort of patients with NAFLD. Furthermore, we explored whether the addition of simple markers to the existing panel test could improve diagnostic performance. One hundred ninety-six consecutively recruited patients from 2 centers were included in the validation study. The diagnostic accuracy of the discriminant scores of the ELF panel, simple markers, and a combined panel were compared using receiver operator curves, predictive values, and a clinical utility model. The ELF panel had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.90 for distinguishing severe fibrosis, 0.82 for moderate fibrosis, and 0.76 for no fibrosis. Simplification of the algorithm by removing age did not alter diagnostic performance. Addition of simple markers to the panel improved diagnostic performance with AUCs of 0.98, 0.93, and 0.84 for the detection of severe fibrosis, moderate fibrosis, and no fibrosis, respectively. The clinical utility model showed that 82% and 88% of liver biopsies could be potentially avoided for the diagnosis of severe fibrosis using ELF and the combined panel, respectively. The ELF panel has good diagnostic accuracy in an independent validation cohort of patients with NAFLD. The addition of established simple markers augments the diagnostic performance across different stages of fibrosis, which will potentially allow superior stratification of patients with NAFLD for emerging therapeutic strategies.

  2. Biofuels and Food Security. A report by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-15

    In October 2011, the UN Committee on World Food Security (CFS) recommended a ''review of biofuels policies -- where applicable and if necessary -- according to balanced science-based assessments of the opportunities and challenges that they may represent for food security so that biofuels can be produced where it is socially, economically and environmentally feasible to do so''. In line with this, the CFS requested the HLPE (High Level Panel of Experts) to ''conduct a science-based comparative literature analysis taking into consideration the work produced by the FAO and Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP) of the positive and negative effects of biofuels on food security''. Recommendations from the report include the following. Food security policies and biofuel policies cannot be separated because they mutually interact. Food security and the right to food should be priority concerns in the design of any biofuel policy. Governments should adopt the principle: biofuels shall not compromise food security and therefore should be managed so that food access or the resources necessary for the production of food, principally land, biodiversity, water and labour are not put at risk. The CFS should undertake action to ensure that this principle is operable in the very varied contexts in which all countries find themselves. Given the trend to the emergence of a global biofuels market, and a context moving from policy-driven to market-driven biofuels, there is an urgent need for close and pro-active coordination of food security, biofuel/bioenergy policies and energy policies, at national and international levels, as well as rapid response mechanisms in case of crisis. There is also an urgent need to create an enabling, responsible climate for food and non-food investments compatible with food security. The HLPE recommends that governments adopt a coordinated food security and energy security strategy, which would require articulation around the following five axes

  3. Evaluation of a panel of expert pathologists: review of the diagnosis and histological classification of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas in a population-based cancer registry.

    PubMed

    Strobbe, Leonie; van der Schans, Saskia A M; Heijker, Sanneke; Meijer, Jos W R; Mattijssen, E J M Vera; Mandigers, Carolien M P W; de Kievit, Ineke M; Raemaekers, John M M; Hebeda, Konnie M; van Krieken, J Han J M

    2014-05-01

    Abstract Correct histological classification of malignant lymphomas is important but has always been a difficult challenge. Since 2001 the World Health Organization (WHO) classification has been used, which should make it easier to define distinct disease entities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a panel of expert hematopathologists in reviewing the diagnosis of malignant lymphomas and to examine whether the discordance between primary and panel diagnoses has declined throughout the years. All patients with a primary malignant lymphoma diagnosed between 2000-2001 and 2005-2006 were identified through the population based cancer registry. All diagnoses were reviewed by a panel of three expert pathologists. In 2000-2001, 344 patients were included, and in 2005-2006, 370 patients. The overall discordance rate decreased from 14% in 2000-2001 to 9% in 2005-2006 (p = 0.06). We were able to identify lymphoma subgroups with the highest discordance rates and lowest discordance rates (mantle cell lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma), which remained unchanged throughout the years. Based on these results we would propose to review all cases of malignant lymphoma with the exception of mantle cell lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma, when the initial pathologist has no doubt about the diagnosis.

  4. Expert Views on the Implementation of Teacher Professional Development in European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipowski, Katrin; Jorde, Doris; Prenzel, Manfred; Seidel, Tina

    2011-01-01

    International comparisons in science (and mathematics) education show the relevance of teaching quality for learning outcomes. Teacher professional development (TPD) is hence considered particularly relevant for improving teaching and learning in science. The study at hand is part of a European network initiative named Mind the Gap that explores…

  5. Child vaccination policies in Europe: a report from the Summits of Independent European Vaccination Experts.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Heinz J; Booy, Robert; Weil-Olivier, Catherine; Van Damme, Pierre; Cohen, Robert; Peltola, Heikki

    2003-02-01

    Despite the proven safety and efficacy of vaccines, common vaccine-preventable diseases such as measles are not yet controlled in all European countries. This is largely due to three factors. First, vaccination systems differ widely throughout Europe and they vary between highly centralised and totally decentralised systems. Both have advantages and disadvantages, but without doubt they can all work locally. "Harmonisation" in this field is neither a prerequisite nor a guarantee for success. Second, perception of vaccination--and this includes education of the public--is most crucial. In this field the media play an important part, but their ability or will to communicate complicated scientific matters in an appropriate way to the public is often insufficient. Third, political will may be the single most important factor for success in vaccination. Only if the European Union comes up with and implements common vaccination goals with firm deadlines can the best health through vaccination of all Europeans be accomplished. The system as well as the schedule used would then be of minor importance.

  6. Diagnostic procedures for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC): recommendations of the European Expert Group

    PubMed Central

    Dietel, Manfred; Bubendorf, Lukas; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C; Dooms, Christophe; Elmberger, Göran; García, Rosa Calero; Kerr, Keith M; Lim, Eric; López-Ríos, Fernando; Thunnissen, Erik; Van Schil, Paul E; von Laffert, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Background There is currently no Europe-wide consensus on the appropriate preanalytical measures and workflow to optimise procedures for tissue-based molecular testing of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To address this, a group of lung cancer experts (see list of authors) convened to discuss and propose standard operating procedures (SOPs) for NSCLC. Methods Based on earlier meetings and scientific expertise on lung cancer, a multidisciplinary group meeting was aligned. The aim was to include all relevant aspects concerning NSCLC diagnosis. After careful consideration, the following topics were selected and each was reviewed by the experts: surgical resection and sampling; biopsy procedures for analysis; preanalytical and other variables affecting quality of tissue; tissue conservation; testing procedures for epidermal growth factor receptor, anaplastic lymphoma kinase and ROS proto-oncogene 1, receptor tyrosine kinase (ROS1) in lung tissue and cytological specimens; as well as standardised reporting and quality control (QC). Finally, an optimal workflow was described. Results Suggested optimal procedures and workflows are discussed in detail. The broad consensus was that the complex workflow presented can only be executed effectively by an interdisciplinary approach using a well-trained team. Conclusions To optimise diagnosis and treatment of patients with NSCLC, it is essential to establish SOPs that are adaptable to the local situation. In addition, a continuous QC system and a local multidisciplinary tumour-type-oriented board are essential. PMID:26530085

  7. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE EXPERT PANEL OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE MEETING ON DOUBLE-SHELL TANK CORROSION MONITORING AND TESTING HELD AUGUST 4-5 2008

    SciTech Connect

    BOOMER KD

    2009-01-08

    The Expert Panel Oversight Committee (EPOC) on Double-Shell Tank Corrosion Monitoring and Testing has been overseeing the Fiscal Year FY 2008 experimental program being performed at CC Technologies (CCT) to optimize the chemistry control for corrosion limits in Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs). The EPOC met at the M & D Professional Services Conference Facility on August 4 and 5, 2008 to discuss various aspects of that responsibility including FY 2009 planning. Formal presentations were made to update the EPOC on the these subjects.

  8. Catheter venography for the assessment of internal jugular veins and azygous vein: position statement by expert panel of the International Society for Neurovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Simka, Marian; Hubbard, David; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Dake, Michael D; Sclafani, Salvatore J A; Al-Omari, Mamoon; Eisele, Carlos G; Haskal, Ziv J; Ludyga, Tomasz; Miloševič, Zoran V; Sievert, Horst; Stehling, Michael K; Zapf, Stefan; Zorc, Marjeta

    2013-05-01

    This document by an expert panel of the International Society for Neurovascular Disease is aimed at presenting current technique and interpretation of catheter venography of the internal jugular veins, azygous vein and other veins draining the central nervous system. Although interventionalists agree on general rules, significant differences exist in terms of details of venographic technique and interpretations of angiographic pictures. It is also suggested that debatable findings should be investigated using multimodal diagnostics. Finally, the authors recommend that any publication on chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency should include detailed description of venographic technique used, to facilitate a comparison of published results in this area.

  9. Development of Cardiovascular Quality Indicators for Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results from an International Expert Panel Using a Novel Online Process

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Claire E. H.; Marshall, Deborah A; Alvarez, Nanette; John Mancini, G. B.; Lacaille, Diane; Keeling, Stephanie; Aviña-Zubieta, J. Antonio; Khodyakov, Dmitry; Barnabe, Cheryl; Faris, Peter; Smith, Alexa; Noormohamed, Raheem; Hazlewood, Glen; Martin, Liam O.; Esdaile, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have a high risk of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). We developed CVD quality indicators (QIs) for screening and use in Rheumatology clinics. Methods A systematic review of the literature on CVD risk reduction in RA and the general population was conducted. Based on the best practices identified from this review, a draft set of 12 candidate QIs were presented to a Canadian panel of rheumatologists and cardiologists (n=6) from three academic centers to achieve consensus on the QI specifications. The resulting 11 QIs were then evaluated by an online modified-Delphi panel of multidisciplinary health professionals and patients (n = 43) to determine their relevance, validity and feasibility in three rounds of online voting and threaded discussion using a modified RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Methodology. Results Response rates for the online panel were 86%. All 11 QIs were rated as highly relevant, valid and feasible (median rating ≥7 on a 1–9 scale) with no significant disagreement. The final QI set addresses the following themes: communication to primary care about increased CV risk in RA, CV risk assessment, defining smoking status and providing cessation counseling, screening and addressing hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes, exercise recommendations, body mass index screening and lifestyle counseling, minimizing corticosteroid use and communicating to patients at high risk of CVD about the risks/benefits of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Conclusion Eleven QIs for CVD care in RA patients have been developed and are rated as highly relevant, valid and feasible by an international multidisciplinary panel. PMID:26178275

  10. Early detection of lung cancer: a statement from an expert panel of the Swiss university hospitals on lung cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Frauenfelder, T; Puhan, M A; Lazor, R; von Garnier, C; Bremerich, J; Niemann, T; Christe, A; Montet, X; Gautschi, O; Weder, W; Kohler, M

    2014-01-01

    The discussion about setting up a program for lung cancer screening was launched with the publication of the results of the National Lung Screening Trial, which suggested reduced mortality in high-risk subjects undergoing CT screening. However, important questions about the benefit-harm balance and the details of a screening program and its cost-effectiveness remain unanswered. A panel of specialists in chest radiology, respiratory medicine, epidemiology, and thoracic surgery representing all Swiss university hospitals prepared this joint statement following several meetings. The panel argues that premature and uncontrolled introduction of a lung cancer screening program may cause substantial harm that may remain undetected without rigorous quality control. This position paper focuses on the requirements of running such a program with the objective of harmonizing efforts across the involved specialties and institutions and defining quality standards. The underlying statement includes information on current evidence for a reduction in mortality with lung cancer screening and the potential epidemiologic implications of such a program in Switzerland. Furthermore, requirements for lung cancer screening centers are defined, and recommendations for both the CT technique and the algorithm for lung nodule assessment are provided. In addition, related issues such as patient management, registry, and funding are addressed. Based on the current state of the knowledge, the panel concludes that lung cancer screening in Switzerland should be undertaken exclusively within a national observational study in order to provide answers to several critical questions before considering broad population-based screening for lung cancer.

  11. From diagnosis to therapy in lung cancer: management of CT detected pulmonary nodules, a summary of the 2015 Chinese-German Lung Cancer Expert Panel

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chunxia; Meyer, Mathias; Pirker, Robert; Voigt, Wieland; Shi, Jingyun; Pilz, Lothar; Huber, Rudolf M.; Wu, Yilong; Wang, Jinghong; He, Yonglan; Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Jian; Zhi, Xiuyi; Shi, Meiqi; Zhu, Bo; Schoenberg, Stefan S.; Henzler, Thomas; Roessner, Eric Dominic

    2016-01-01

    The first Chinese-German Lung Cancer Expert Panel was held in November 2015 one day after the 7th Chinese-German Lung Cancer Forum, Shanghai. The intention of the meeting was to discuss strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer within the context of lung cancer screening. Improved risk classification criteria and novel imaging approaches for screening populations are highly required as more than half of lung cancer cases are false positive during the initial screening round if the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demographic criteria [≥30 pack years (PY) of cigarettes, age ≥55 years] are applied. Moreover, if the NLST criteria are applied to the Chinese population a high number of lung cancer patients are not diagnosed due to non-smoking related risk factors in China. The primary goal in the evaluation of pulmonary nodules (PN) is to determine whether they are malignant or benign. Volumetric based screening concepts such as investigated in the Dutch-Belgian randomized lung cancer screening trial (NELSON) seem to achieve higher specificity. Chest CT is the best imaging technique to identify the origin and location of the nodule since 20% of suspected PN found on chest X-ray turn out to be non-pulmonary lesions. Moreover, novel state-of-the-art CT systems can reduce the radiation dose for lung cancer screening acquisitions down to a level of 0.1 mSv with improved image quality to novel reconstruction techniques and thus reduce concerns related to chest CT as the primary screening technology. The aim of the first part of this manuscript was to summarize the current status of novel diagnostic techniques used for lung cancer screening and minimally invasive treatment techniques for progressive PNs that were discussed during the first Chinese-German Lung Cancer. This part should serve as an educational part for the readership of the techniques that were discussed during the Expert Panel. The second part summarizes the consensus recommendations

  12. From diagnosis to therapy in lung cancer: management of CT detected pulmonary nodules, a summary of the 2015 Chinese-German Lung Cancer Expert Panel.

    PubMed

    Su, Chunxia; Meyer, Mathias; Pirker, Robert; Voigt, Wieland; Shi, Jingyun; Pilz, Lothar; Huber, Rudolf M; Wu, Yilong; Wang, Jinghong; He, Yonglan; Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Jian; Zhi, Xiuyi; Shi, Meiqi; Zhu, Bo; Schoenberg, Stefan S; Henzler, Thomas; Manegold, Christian; Zhou, Caicun; Roessner, Eric Dominic

    2016-08-01

    The first Chinese-German Lung Cancer Expert Panel was held in November 2015 one day after the 7th Chinese-German Lung Cancer Forum, Shanghai. The intention of the meeting was to discuss strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer within the context of lung cancer screening. Improved risk classification criteria and novel imaging approaches for screening populations are highly required as more than half of lung cancer cases are false positive during the initial screening round if the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demographic criteria [≥30 pack years (PY) of cigarettes, age ≥55 years] are applied. Moreover, if the NLST criteria are applied to the Chinese population a high number of lung cancer patients are not diagnosed due to non-smoking related risk factors in China. The primary goal in the evaluation of pulmonary nodules (PN) is to determine whether they are malignant or benign. Volumetric based screening concepts such as investigated in the Dutch-Belgian randomized lung cancer screening trial (NELSON) seem to achieve higher specificity. Chest CT is the best imaging technique to identify the origin and location of the nodule since 20% of suspected PN found on chest X-ray turn out to be non-pulmonary lesions. Moreover, novel state-of-the-art CT systems can reduce the radiation dose for lung cancer screening acquisitions down to a level of 0.1 mSv with improved image quality to novel reconstruction techniques and thus reduce concerns related to chest CT as the primary screening technology. The aim of the first part of this manuscript was to summarize the current status of novel diagnostic techniques used for lung cancer screening and minimally invasive treatment techniques for progressive PNs that were discussed during the first Chinese-German Lung Cancer. This part should serve as an educational part for the readership of the techniques that were discussed during the Expert Panel. The second part summarizes the consensus recommendations

  13. Using the dynamic indicators of basic early literacy skills with students who are deaf or hard of hearing: perspectives of a panel of experts.

    PubMed

    Luckner, John L

    2013-01-01

    Early literacy skills serve as the foundation for the development of subsequent reading skills and strategies. Increasingly, educators are administering early literacy assessments to identify young students who are at risk for reading failure and providing them with additional evidence based interventions. The most widely used assessments for reading in preschools and elementary schools for typical hearing students are the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS). The purpose of this study was to gather the perceptions of a panel of experts in the area of reading and individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing regarding the potential appropriateness of using the subtests of the DIBELS with students who are deaf or hard of hearing. Results, as well as practical and research implications, are provided.

  14. Management of adult patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis: recommendations from an expert panel on behalf of Euro-Histio-Net

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) is an orphan disease of clonal dendritic cells which may affect any organ of the body. Most of the knowledge about the diagnosis and therapy is based on pedriatic studies. Adult LCH patients are often evaluated by physicians who focus on only the most obviously affected organ without sufficient evaluation of other systems, resulting in patients being underdiagnosed and/or incompletely staged. Furthermore they may be treated with pediatric-based therapies which are less effective and sometimes more toxic for adults. The published literature on adult LCH cases lacks a comprehensive discussion on the differences between pediatric and adult patients and there are no recommendations for evaluation and comparative therapies. In order to fill this void, a number of experts in this field cooperated to develop the first recommendations for management of adult patients with LCH. Key questions were selected according to the clinical relevance focusing on diagnostic work up, therapy, and follow up. Based on the available literature up to December 2012, recommendations were established, drafts were commented by the entire group, and redrafted by the executive editor. The quality of evidence of the recommendations is predominantly attributed to the level of expert opinion. Final agreement was by consensus. PMID:23672541

  15. Estimates of the solubilities of waste element radionuclides in waste isolation pilot plant brines: A report by the expert panel on the source term

    SciTech Connect

    Hobart, D.E. |; Bruton, C.J. |; Millero, F.J. |; Chou, I.M. |; Trauth, K.M.; Anderson, D.R.

    1996-05-01

    Evaluation of the long-term performance of the WIPP includes estimation of the cumulative releases of radionuclide elements to the accessible environment. Nonradioactive lead is added because of the large quantity expected in WIPP wastes. To estimate the solubilities of these elements in WIPP brines, the Panel used the following approach. Existing thermodynamic data were used to identify the most likely aqueous species in solution through the construction of aqueous speciation diagrams. Existing thermodynamic data and expert judgment were used to identify potential solubility-limiting solid phases. Thermodynamic data were used to calculate the activities of the radionuclide aqueous species in equilibrium with each solid. Activity coefficients of the radionuclide-bearing aqueous species were estimated using Pitzer`s equations. These activity coefficients were then used to calculate the concentration of each radionuclide at the 0.1 and 0.9 fractiles. The 0.5 fractile was chosen to represent experimental data with activity coefficient corrections as described above. Expert judgment was used to develop the 0.0, 0.25, 0.75, and 1.0 fractiles by considering the sensitivity of solubility to the potential variability in the composition of brine and gas, and the extent of waste contaminants, and extending the probability distributions accordingly. The results were used in the 1991 and 1992 performance assessment calculations. 68 refs.

  16. External genital warts: report of the American Medical Association Consensus Conference. AMA Expert Panel on External Genital Warts.

    PubMed

    Beutner, K R; Reitano, M V; Richwald, G A; Wiley, D J

    1998-10-01

    A consensus process was undertaken to describe and evaluate current information and practice regarding the diagnosis, treatment, and evaluation of patients with external genital warts (EGWs) and their sex partners. This process developed a number of key statements that were based on strong evidence in the literature or reasonable suppositions and opinions of experts. Key statements included the following. In most cases, EGWs can be diagnosed clinically by visual inspection. No one treatment is ideal for all patients or all warts. Women with EGWs and female sex partners of men with EGWs are at increased risk for human papillomavirus-related cervical disease and, like all women, should be screened for cervical cancer. The diagnosis of EGWs in children requires a sexual abuse evaluation. Clinicians who treat EGWs have a responsibility to counsel patients and to provide information about the infectivity, diagnosis, treatment, and natural history of EGWs and general information about sexual health and other sexually transmitted diseases.

  17. WTEC panel report on European nuclear instrumentation and controls. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.D.; Lanning, D.D.; Johnson, P.M.H.; Shelton, R.D.

    1991-12-01

    A study of instrumentation and controls (I and C) technology used in nuclear power plants in Europe was conducted by a panel of US specialists. This study plants in Europe was conducted by a panel of US specialists. This study included a review of the literature on the subject, followed by a visit to some of the leading organizations in Europe in the field nuclear I and C. Areas covered are: (1) role of the operator and control room design; (2) transition from analog to digital technology; (3) computerized operator support systems for fault management; (4) control strategies and techniques; (5) Nuclear power plant I and C architecture; (6) instrumentation and (7) computer standards and tools. The finding relate to poor reactions.

  18. A combined reference panel from the 1000 Genomes and UK10K projects improved rare variant imputation in European and Chinese samples.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wen-Chi; Zheng, Hou-Feng; Cheng, Chia-Ho; Yan, Han; Wang, Li; Han, Fang; Richards, J Brent; Karasik, David; Kiel, Douglas P; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang

    2016-12-22

    Imputation using the 1000 Genomes haplotype reference panel has been widely adapted to estimate genotypes in genome wide association studies. To evaluate imputation quality with a relatively larger reference panel and a reference panel composed of different ethnic populations, we conducted imputations in the Framingham Heart Study and the North Chinese Study using a combined reference panel from the 1000 Genomes (N = 1,092) and UK10K (N = 3,781) projects. For rare variants with 0.01% < MAF ≤ 0.5%, imputation in the Framingham Heart Study with the combined reference panel increased well-imputed genotypes (with imputation quality score ≥0.4) from 62.9% to 76.1% when compared to imputation with the 1000 Genomes. For the North Chinese samples, imputation of rare variants with 0.01% < MAF ≤ 0.5% with the combined reference panel increased well-imputed genotypes by from 49.8% to 61.8%. The predominant European ancestry of the UK10K and the combined reference panels may explain why there was less of an increase in imputation success in the North Chinese samples. Our results underscore the importance and potential of larger reference panels to impute rare variants, while recognizing that increasing ethnic specific variants in reference panels may result in better imputation for genotypes in some ethnic groups.

  19. A combined reference panel from the 1000 Genomes and UK10K projects improved rare variant imputation in European and Chinese samples

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Wen-Chi; Zheng, Hou-Feng; Cheng, Chia-Ho; Yan, Han; Wang, Li; Han, Fang; Richards, J. Brent; Karasik, David; Kiel, Douglas P.; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    Imputation using the 1000 Genomes haplotype reference panel has been widely adapted to estimate genotypes in genome wide association studies. To evaluate imputation quality with a relatively larger reference panel and a reference panel composed of different ethnic populations, we conducted imputations in the Framingham Heart Study and the North Chinese Study using a combined reference panel from the 1000 Genomes (N = 1,092) and UK10K (N = 3,781) projects. For rare variants with 0.01% < MAF ≤ 0.5%, imputation in the Framingham Heart Study with the combined reference panel increased well-imputed genotypes (with imputation quality score ≥0.4) from 62.9% to 76.1% when compared to imputation with the 1000 Genomes. For the North Chinese samples, imputation of rare variants with 0.01% < MAF ≤ 0.5% with the combined reference panel increased well-imputed genotypes by from 49.8% to 61.8%. The predominant European ancestry of the UK10K and the combined reference panels may explain why there was less of an increase in imputation success in the North Chinese samples. Our results underscore the importance and potential of larger reference panels to impute rare variants, while recognizing that increasing ethnic specific variants in reference panels may result in better imputation for genotypes in some ethnic groups. PMID:28004816

  20. Pediatric cyanide poisoning by fire smoke inhalation: a European expert consensus. Toxicology Surveillance System of the Intoxications Working Group of the Spanish Society of Paediatric Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Mintegi, Santiago; Clerigue, Nuria; Tipo, Vincenzo; Ponticiello, Eduardo; Lonati, Davide; Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; Delvau, Nicolas; Anseeuw, Kurt

    2013-11-01

    Most fire-related deaths are attributable to smoke inhalation rather than burns. The inhalation of fire smoke, which contains not only carbon monoxide but also a complex mixture of gases, seems to be the major cause of morbidity and mortality in fire victims, mainly in enclosed spaces. Cyanide gas exposure is quite common during smoke inhalation, and cyanide is present in the blood of fire victims in most cases and may play an important role in death by smoke inhalation. Cyanide poisoning may, however, be difficult to diagnose and treat. In these children, hydrogen cyanide seems to be a major source of concern, and the rapid administration of the antidote, hydroxocobalamin, may be critical for these children.European experts recently met to formulate an algorithm for prehospital and hospital management of adult patients with acute cyanide poisoning. Subsequently, a group of European pediatric experts met to evaluate and adopt that algorithm for use in the pediatric population.

  1. Defining European preparedness and research needs regarding emerging infectious animal diseases: results from a Delphi expert consultation.

    PubMed

    Wentholt, M T A; Cardoen, S; Imberechts, H; Van Huffel, X; Ooms, B W; Frewer, L J

    2012-02-01

    Emerging and major infectious animal diseases can have significant international impact on social, economic and environmental level, and are being driven by various factors. Prevention and control measures should be prepared at both national and international level to mitigate these disease risks. Research to support such policy development is mostly carried out at national level and dedicated transnational research programmes are still in its infancy. This research reports on part of a process to develop a common strategic research agenda on emerging and major infectious diseases of livestock in Europe, covering a 5-15-year time span. A two round online Delphi study was conducted to explore the views of experts on issues relating to research needs on emerging infectious diseases of livestock in Europe. Drivers that may influence the incidence of emerging infectious animal diseases in both the short (next 5 years) and medium term (10-15 years) were identified. Drivers related to regulatory measures and biological science developments were thought to decrease the incidence, and socio-economic factors to increase the incidence of emerging infectious animal diseases. From the first round a list of threats to animal health was compiled and participants combined these threats with relevant drivers in the second round. Next to identifying threats to animal health, also possible mitigatory actions to reduce the negative impact of these threats were identified. Participants emphasised that interdisciplinary research is needed to understand drivers of emerging infectious animal diseases, as well as to develop prevention and control measures which are both socio-economic and technical. From this it can be concluded that interdisciplinary research combining both natural and social research themes is required. Some of the European member states research budget needs to be allocated so that effective prevention and mitigation strategies can be developed.

  2. Phenotypic variability in a panel of strawberry cultivars from North America and the European Union

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phenotypic diversity in 96 antique and modern cultivars from the European Union and North America was evaluated in Michigan and Oregon, in 2011 and 2012. A total of thirty-five fruit and developmental characteristics were measured. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed among cultivars...

  3. Risk assessment of gene flow from genetically engineered virus resistant cassava to wild relatives in Africa: an expert panel report.

    PubMed

    Hokanson, Karen E; Ellstrand, Norman C; Dixon, Alfred G O; Kulembeka, Heneriko P; Olsen, Kenneth M; Raybould, Alan

    2016-02-01

    The probability and consequences of gene flow to wild relatives is typically considered in the environmental risk assessment of genetically engineered crops. This is a report from a discussion by a group of experts who used a problem formulation approach to consider existing information for risk assessment of gene flow from cassava (Manihot esculenta) genetically engineered for virus resistance to the 'wild' (naturalized) relative M. glaziovii in East Africa. Two environmental harms were considered in this case: (1) loss of genetic diversity in the germplasm pool, and (2) loss of valued species, ecosystem resources, or crop yield and quality due to weediness or invasiveness of wild relatives. Based on existing information, it was concluded that gene flow will occur, but it is not likely that this will reduce the genetic diversity in the germplasm pool. There is little existing information about the impact of the virus in natural populations that could be used to inform a prediction about whether virus resistance would lead to an increase in reproduction or survival, hence abundance of M. glaziovii. However, an increase in the abundance of M. glaziovii should be manageable, and would not necessarily lead to the identified environmental harms.

  4. Learning from Consumer-Oriented Review Efforts To Guide the Development of a System of Expert Panels To Identify and Share Promising and Exemplary Products and Programs. Working Papers. Volumes One and Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. Office of Reform Assistance and Dissemination.

    These volumes contain working papers related to the development of the Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI) Facilitated System of Expert Panels. Introductory papers by Susan Klein, Michael Scriven, Sharon Bobbitt and Susan Klein, and Michael Scriven and Lois-ellin Datta (printed in both volumes) set the stage for the discussions…

  5. Daily baseline skin care in the prevention, treatment, and supportive care of skin toxicity in oncology patients: recommendations from a multinational expert panel

    PubMed Central

    Bensadoun, René-Jean; Humbert, Phillipe; Krutman, Jean; Luger, Thomas; Triller, Raoul; Rougier, André; Seite, Sophie; Dreno, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Skin reactions due to radiotherapy and chemotherapy are a significant problem for an important number of cancer patients. While effective for treating cancer, they disturb cutaneous barrier function, causing a reaction soon after initiation of treatment that impacts patient quality of life. Managing these symptoms with cosmetics and nonpharmaceutical skin care products for camouflage or personal hygiene may be important for increasing patient self-esteem. However, inappropriate product choice or use could worsen side effects. Although recommendations exist for the pharmaceutical treatment of skin reactions, there are no recommendations for the choice or use of dermatologic skin care products for oncology patients. The present guidelines were developed by a board of European experts in dermatology and oncology to provide cancer care professionals with guidance for the appropriate use of non-pharmaceutical, dermocosmetic skin care management of cutaneous toxicities associated with radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy, including epidermal growth factor inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. The experts hope that these recommendations will improve the management of cutaneous side effects and hence quality of life for oncology patients. PMID:24353440

  6. Comprehensive Diagnostic Assessment of Health Status of Patients with Asthma or COPD: A Delphi Panel Study among Dutch Experts.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, Edmée F M M; Van't Hul, Alex J; Birnie, Erwin; Chavannes, Niels H; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P M H; In't Veen, Johannes C C M

    2017-04-01

    A comprehensive diagnostic assessment is needed to improve understanding of the health status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma. Therefore, this study investigated which components and subsequent instruments should be part of a holistic assessment in secondary care. We also explored which data need to be exchanged for an adequate transfer of patients between primary and secondary care, and vice versa. A cross-sectional Web-based survey was conducted among Dutch healthcare professionals using a Delphi-like procedure; these included professionals working in primary or secondary care, medical advisors of health insurance companies and patients' representatives. The national guidelines were used as a starting point, resulting in a questionnaire addressing 55 components related to a comprehensive diagnostic assessment, covering the domains physiological impairments, symptoms, functional limitations and quality of life. Of the 151 experts and stakeholders invited, 92 (60.9%) completed the first round and 79 (52.3%) the second round; most respondents were pulmonologists. There was a high level of agreement between respondents from primary versus secondary care regarding which components should be measured during a comprehensive assessment of patients with asthma or COPD in secondary care and the instruments to measure these components. Regarding the exchange of information, upon referral, pulmonologists required little information from the general practitioners, whereas general practitioners required more extensive information after referral. An overview is provided of what should be part of a holistic assessment of health status in asthma and COPD. This information can be used as input for integrated care pathways.

  7. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in thalassemia major and sickle cell disease: indications and management recommendations from an international expert panel.

    PubMed

    Angelucci, Emanuele; Matthes-Martin, Susanne; Baronciani, Donatella; Bernaudin, Françoise; Bonanomi, Sonia; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Dalle, Jean-Hugues; Di Bartolomeo, Paolo; de Heredia, Cristina Díaz; Dickerhoff, Roswitha; Giardini, Claudio; Gluckman, Eliane; Hussein, Ayad Achmed; Kamani, Naynesh; Minkov, Milen; Locatelli, Franco; Rocha, Vanderson; Sedlacek, Petr; Smiers, Frans; Thuret, Isabelle; Yaniv, Isaac; Cavazzana, Marina; Peters, Christina

    2014-05-01

    Thalassemia major and sickle cell disease are the two most widely disseminated hereditary hemoglobinopathies in the world. The outlook for affected individuals has improved in recent years due to advances in medical management in the prevention and treatment of complications. However, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is still the only available curative option. The use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been increasing, and outcomes today have substantially improved compared with the past three decades. Current experience world-wide is that more than 90% of patients now survive hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and disease-free survival is around 80%. However, only a few controlled trials have been reported, and decisions on patient selection for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and transplant management remain principally dependent on data from retrospective analyses and on the clinical experience of the transplant centers. This consensus document from the European Blood and Marrow Transplantation Inborn Error Working Party and the Paediatric Diseases Working Party aims to report new data and provide consensus-based recommendations on indications for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and transplant management.

  8. Statin intolerance – an attempt at a unified definition. Position paper from an International Lipid Expert Panel

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Manfredi; Toth, Peter P.; Farnier, Michel; Davidson, Michael H.; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Athyros, Vasilis; Djuric, Dragan M.; Ezhov, Marat V.; Greenfield, Robert S.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kostner, Karam; Serban, Corina; Lighezan, Daniel; Fras, Zlatko; Moriarty, Patrick M.; Muntner, Paul; Goudev, Assen; Ceska, Richard; Nicholls, Stephen J.; Broncel, Marlena; Nikolic, Dragana; Pella, Daniel; Puri, Raman; Rysz, Jacek; Wong, Nathan D.; Bajnok, Laszlo; Jones, Steven R.; Ray, Kausik K.; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P.

    2015-01-01

    Statins are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in clinical practice. They are usually well tolerated and effectively prevent cardiovascular events. Most adverse effects associated with statin therapy are muscle-related. The recent statement of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) has focused on statin associated muscle symptoms (SAMS), and avoided the use of the term ‘statin intolerance’. Although muscle syndromes are the most common adverse effects observed after statin therapy, excluding other side effects might underestimate the number of patients with statin intolerance, which might be observed in 10–15% of patients. In clinical practice, statin intolerance limits effective treatment of patients at risk of, or with, cardiovascular disease. Knowledge of the most common adverse effects of statin therapy that might cause statin intolerance and the clear definition of this phenomenon is crucial to effectively treat patients with lipid disorders. Therefore, the aim of this position paper was to suggest a unified definition of statin intolerance, and to complement the recent EAS statement on SAMS, where the pathophysiology, diagnosis and the management were comprehensively presented. PMID:25861286

  9. Final report of the cosmetic ingredient review expert panel on the safety assessment of Polyisobutene and Hydrogenated Polyisobutene as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    controls. Neither Polyisobutene nor Hydrogenated Polyisobutene were ocular irritants, nor were they dermal irritants or sensitizers. Polyisobutene was not comedogenic in a rabbit ear study. Polyisobutene did not induce transformation in the Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation assay, but did enhance 3-methylcholanthrene-induced transformation of C3H/10T1/2 cells. In a carcinogenicity study in mice, Polyisobutene was not carcinogenic, nor did it promote the carcinogenicity of 7,12-dimethylbenz(alpha)anthracene. Clinical patch tests uncovered no evidence of dermal irritation and repeat-insult patch tests with a product containing 4% Hydrogenated Polyisobutene or 1.44% Hydrogenated Polyisobutene found no reactions greater than slight erythema. These products also were not phototoxic or photoallergenic. The product containing 4% Hydrogenated Polyisobutene was not an ocular irritant in a clinical test. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel recognized that there are data gaps regarding use and concentration of these ingredients. However, the overall information available on the types of products in which these ingredients are used and at what concentrations indicate a pattern of use, which was considered by the Expert Panel in assessing safety. Although there is an absence of dermal absorption data for Polyisobutene and Hydrogenated Polyisobutene, the available octanol water partition coefficient data and the low solubility in water suggest very slow absorption, so additional data are not needed. Gastrointestinal absorption is also not a major concern due to the low solubility of these chemicals. Although one in vitro study did report that Polyisobutene did promote cellular transformation, a mouse study did not find evidence of tumor promotion. Because lifetime exposure studies using rats and dogs exposed to Polybutene failed to demonstrate any carcinogenic or tumor promotion effect, and a three-generation reproductive/developmental toxicity study produced

  10. Performance of the FilmArray® blood culture identification panel utilized by non-expert staff compared with conventional microbial identification and antimicrobial resistance gene detection from positive blood cultures.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Morgan H; Relich, Ryan F; Davis, Thomas E; Schmitt, Bryan H

    2016-07-01

    Utilization of commercially available rapid platforms for microbial identification from positive blood cultures is useful during periods of, or in laboratories with, limited expert staffing. We compared the results of the FilmArray® BCID Panel performed by non-expert technologists to those of conventional methods for organism identification performed by skilled microbiologists. Within 8 h of signalling positive by a continuous monitoring blood culture system, positive bottles were analysed by the FilmArray BCID Panel. Data from these analyses were compared to standard-of-care testing, which included conventional and automated methods. To gauge the ease of use of the BCID Panel by non-expert staff, technologists unfamiliar with diagnostic bacteriology performed the testing without prior knowledge of the Gram stain results, or even whether organisms were detected. Identifications of 172/200 (86 %) positive blood cultures using the BCID Panel were consistent with identifications provided by standard-of-care methods. Standard-of-care testing identified organisms in 20 positive blood cultures, which were not represented on the BCID Panel. Seven (3.5 %) blood cultures demonstrated a discrepancy between the methods, which could not be attributed to either a lack of representation on the panel or unclear separate detection of organisms in a mixed blood culture of a shared genus or grouping of organisms, e.g. Staphylococcus or Enterobacteriaceae . One (0.5 %) blood culture yielded invalid results on two separate panels, so it was eliminated from the study. The easy-to-use FilmArray® technology shows good correlation with blood culture identification and antibiotic resistance detection performed by conventional methods. This technology may be particularly useful in laboratories with limited staffing or limited technical expertise.

  11. Treatment of Elderly Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Results of an International Expert Panel Meeting of the Italian Association of Thoracic Oncology.

    PubMed

    Gridelli, Cesare; Balducci, Lodovico; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Di Maio, Massimo; Felip, Enriqueta; Langer, Corey; Lilenbaum, Rogerio C; Perrone, Francesco; Senan, Suresh; de Marinis, Filippo

    2015-09-01

    Most patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are elderly, and age has important implications for their management and treatment. In May 2014, the Italian Association of Thoracic Oncology organized an International Experts Panel Meeting with the intent to review the available evidence regarding the treatment of elderly patients with NSCLC and to discuss the implications for clinical practice and future research in this field; this article summarizes the panelists' conclusions. All patients aged more than 70 years should receive an assessment of physiologic age, including mortality and toxicity prediction. Age itself does not contraindicate adjuvant chemotherapy after resection. Elderly patients with locally advanced NSCLC should be considered for combined chemo-radiotherapy. In the advanced setting, the combination of carboplatin/paclitaxel results in prolonged survival compared with single-agent gemcitabine or vinorelbine, albeit with increased toxicity. In fit selected patients, other carboplatin-based or cisplatin-based regimens are feasible, but randomized trials specifically showing survival prolongation in elderly patients are lacking. The survival benefit for bevacizumab added to chemotherapy seems limited to patients aged less than 75 years. In unfit elderly patients, single agents are recommended. Regardless of age, patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC, and those who have never smoked independently of their histologic subtype, should be tested for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement. In patients with NSCLC harboring EGFR mutation or ALK rearrangement, targeted drugs are feasible and well tolerated.

  12. Measuring Success in Health Care Value-Based Purchasing Programs: Findings from an Environmental Scan, Literature Review, and Expert Panel Discussions.

    PubMed

    Damberg, Cheryl L; Sorbero, Melony E; Lovejoy, Susan L; Martsolf, Grant R; Raaen, Laura; Mandel, Daniel

    2014-12-30

    Value-based purchasing (VBP) refers to a broad set of performance-based payment strategies that link financial incentives to health care providers' performance on a set of defined measures in an effort to achieve better value. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services is advancing the implementation of VBP across an array of health care settings in the Medicare program in response to requirements in the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, and policymakers are grappling with many decisions about how best to design and implement VBP programs so that they are successful in achieving stated goals. This article summarizes the current state of knowledge about VBP based on a review of the published literature, a review of publicly available documentation from VBP programs, and discussions with an expert panel composed of VBP program sponsors, health care providers and health systems, and academic researchers with VBP evaluation expertise. Three types of VBP models were the focus of the review: (1) pay-for-performance programs, (2) accountable care organizations, and (3) bundled payment programs. The authors report on VBP program goals and what constitutes success; the evidence on the impact of these programs; factors that characterize high- and low-performing providers in VBP programs; the measures, incentive structures, and benchmarks used by VBP programs; evidence on spillover effects and unintended consequences; and gaps in the knowledge base.

  13. Derived Reference Doses (RfDs) for the environmental degradates of the herbicides alachlor and acetochlor: results of an independent expert panel deliberation.

    PubMed

    Gadagbui, Bernard; Maier, Andrew; Dourson, Michael; Parker, Ann; Willis, Alison; Christopher, John P; Hicks, Lebelle; Ramasamy, Santhini; Roberts, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    An independent peer expert panel was convened under the auspices of the Alliance for Risk Assessment (ARA) to review toxicology data and derive oral Reference Doses (RfDs) for four environmental degradates of the acetanilide herbicides, alachlor and acetochlor. The degradates included in this evaluation were (1) alachlor tertiary-ethanesulfonic acid (ESA), (2) alachlor tertiary-oxanilic acid (OXA), (3) acetochlor ESA, and (4) acetochlor OXA. Each degradate was judged to have sufficient data for developing low to medium confidence RfD, with use of an additional uncertainty factor (UF) to cover data gaps. Body weight decreases were identified as the most sensitive treatment-related adverse effect for RfD development. A composite UF of 1000 (10 for human variability in sensitivity, 10 for interspecies differences in sensitivity, and 10 for subchronic to chronic and database deficiency combined; i.e., 10(A)x10(H)x10(S&D)) for each degradate was considered reasonable, while noting that an argument could be made for an UF of 3000 (10(A)x10(H)x30(S&D)). Based on the available data, an oral RfD of 0.2 mg/kg-day is recommended for both acetochlor ESA and acetochlor OXA and an oral RfD of 0.8 mg/kg-day is recommended for both alachlor ESA and alachlor OXA.

  14. A Review of Traditional and Novel Treatments for Seizures in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Findings from a Systematic Review and Expert Panel

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Richard E.; Rossignol, Daniel; Casanova, Manuel F.; Brown, Gregory L.; Martin, Victoria; Edelson, Stephen; Coben, Robert; Lewine, Jeffrey; Slattery, John C.; Lau, Chrystal; Hardy, Paul; Fatemi, S. Hossein; Folsom, Timothy D.; MacFabe, Derrick; Adams, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that seizures are commonly associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the effectiveness of treatments for seizures has not been well studied in individuals with ASD. This manuscript reviews both traditional and novel treatments for seizures associated with ASD. Studies were selected by systematically searching major electronic databases and by a panel of experts that treat ASD individuals. Only a few anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) have undergone carefully controlled trials in ASD, but these trials examined outcomes other than seizures. Several lines of evidence point to valproate, lamotrigine, and levetiracetam as the most effective and tolerable AEDs for individuals with ASD. Limited evidence supports the use of traditional non-AED treatments, such as the ketogenic and modified Atkins diet, multiple subpial transections, immunomodulation, and neurofeedback treatments. Although specific treatments may be more appropriate for specific genetic and metabolic syndromes associated with ASD and seizures, there are few studies which have documented the effectiveness of treatments for seizures for specific syndromes. Limited evidence supports l-carnitine, multivitamins, and N-acetyl-l-cysteine in mitochondrial disease and dysfunction, folinic acid in cerebral folate abnormalities and early treatment with vigabatrin in tuberous sclerosis complex. Finally, there is limited evidence for a number of novel treatments, particularly magnesium with pyridoxine, omega-3 fatty acids, the gluten-free casein-free diet, and low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic simulation. Zinc and l-carnosine are potential novel treatments supported by basic research but not clinical studies. This review demonstrates the wide variety of treatments used to treat seizures in individuals with ASD as well as the striking lack of clinical trials performed to support the use of these treatments. Additional studies concerning these treatments for controlling seizures in individuals

  15. External quality mechanisms for health care: summary of the ExPeRT project on visitatie, accreditation, EFQM and ISO assessment in European Union countries. External Peer Review Techniques. European Foundation for Quality Management. International Organization for Standardization.

    PubMed

    Shaw, C D

    2000-06-01

    This paper is a summary of the operation, findings and conclusions of a European Union project on external peer review techniques, termed 'ExPeRT', to research the scope, mechanisms and use of external quality mechanisms in the improvement of health care. Many of the themes outlined are described in detail in other papers that have been prepared specifically for this issue of The International Journal for Quality in Health Care. Although the emphasis of this project and of this issue of the Journal is on Europe, the conclusions are more widely relevant.

  16. Management goals for type 1 Gaucher disease: An expert consensus document from the European working group on Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Biegstraaten, M; Cox, T M; Belmatoug, N; Berger, M G; Collin-Histed, T; Vom Dahl, S; Di Rocco, M; Fraga, C; Giona, F; Giraldo, P; Hasanhodzic, M; Hughes, D A; Iversen, P O; Kiewiet, A I; Lukina, E; Machaczka, M; Marinakis, T; Mengel, E; Pastores, G M; Plöckinger, U; Rosenbaum, H; Serratrice, C; Symeonidis, A; Szer, J; Timmerman, J; Tylki-Szymańska, A; Weisz Hubshman, M; Zafeiriou, D I; Zimran, A; Hollak, C E M

    2016-10-24

    Gaucher Disease type 1 (GD1) is a lysosomal disorder that affects many systems. Therapy improves the principal manifestations of the condition and, as a consequence, many patients show a modified phenotype which reflects manifestations of their disease that are refractory to treatment. More generally, it is increasingly recognised that information as to how a patient feels and functions [obtained by patient- reported outcome measurements (PROMs)] is critical to any comprehensive evaluation of treatment. A new set of management goals for GD1 in which both trends are reflected is needed. To this end, a modified Delphi procedure among 25 experts was performed. Based on a literature review and with input from patients, 65 potential goals were formulated as statements. Consensus was considered to be reached when ≥75% of the participants agreed to include that specific statement in the management goals. There was agreement on 42 statements. In addition to the traditional goals concerning haematological, visceral and bone manifestations, improvement in quality of life, fatigue and social participation, as well as early detection of long-term complications or associated diseases were included. When applying this set of goals in medical practice, the clinical status of the individual patient should be taken into account.

  17. Expert Cold Structure Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, T.; Demuysere, P.

    2011-05-01

    The EXPERT Program is funded by ESA. The objective of the EXPERT mission is to perform a sub-orbital flight during which measurements of critical aero- thermodynamic phenomena will be obtained by using state-of-the-art instrumentation. As part of the EXPERT Flight Segment, the responsibility of the Cold Structure Development Design, Manufacturing and Validation was committed to the Belgian industrial team SONACA/SABCA. The EXPERT Cold Structure includes the Launcher Adapter, the Bottom Panel, the Upper Panel, two Cross Panels and the Parachute Bay. An additional Launcher Adapter was manufactured for the separation tests. The selected assembly definition and manufacturing technologies ( machined parts and sandwich panels) were dictated classically by the mass and stiffness, but also by the CoG location and the sensitive separation interface. Used as support for the various on-board equipment, the Cold Structure is fixed to but thermally uncoupled from the PM 1000 thermal shield. It is protect on its bottom panel by a thermal blanket. As it is a protoflight, analysis was the main tool for the verification. Low level stiffness and modal analysis tests have also been performed on the Cold Structure equipped with its ballast. It allowed to complete its qualification and to prepare SONACA/SABCA support for the system dynamic tests foreseen in 2011. The structure was finally coated with a thermal control black painting and delivered on time to Thales Alenia Space-Italy end of March 201.

  18. Report of an Expert Panel on the reanalysis by of a 90-day study conducted by Monsanto in support of the safety of a genetically modified corn variety (MON 863).

    PubMed

    Doull, J; Gaylor, D; Greim, H A; Lovell, D P; Lynch, B; Munro, I C

    2007-11-01

    MON 863, a genetically engineered corn variety that contains the gene for modified Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Bb1 protein to protect against corn rootworm, was tested in a 90-day toxicity study as part of the process to gain regulatory approval. This study was reanalyzed by Séralini et al. who contended that the study showed possible hepatorenal effects of MON 863. An Expert Panel was convened to assess the original study results as analyzed by the Monsanto Company and the reanalysis conducted by Séralini et al. The Expert Panel concludes that the Séralini et al. reanalysis provided no evidence to indicate that MON 863 was associated with adverse effects in the 90-day rat study. In each case, statistical findings reported by both Monsanto and Séralini et al. were considered to be unrelated to treatment or of no biological or clinical importance because they failed to demonstrate a dose-response relationship, reproducibility over time, association with other relevant changes (e.g., histopathology), occurrence in both sexes, difference outside the normal range of variation, or biological plausibility with respect to cause-and-effect. The Séralini et al. reanalysis does not advance any new scientific data to indicate that MON 863 caused adverse effects in the 90-day rat study.

  19. FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Experts on the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel provide independent scientific advice to the EPA on a wide range of health and safety issues related to pesticides.

  20. Probability encoding of hydrologic parameters for basalt. Elicitation of expert opinions from a panel of three basalt waste isolation project staff hydrologists

    SciTech Connect

    Runchal, A.K.; Merkhofer, M.W.; Olmsted, E.; Davis, J.D.

    1984-11-01

    The present study implemented a probability encoding method to estimate the probability distributions of selected hydrologic variables for the Cohassett basalt flow top and flow interior, and the anisotropy ratio of the interior of the Cohassett basalt flow beneath the Hanford Site. Site-speciic data for these hydrologic parameters are currently inadequate for the purpose of preliminary assessment of candidate repository performance. However, this information is required to complete preliminary performance assessment studies. Rockwell chose a probability encoding method developed by SRI International to generate credible and auditable estimates of the probability distributions of effective porosity and hydraulic conductivity anisotropy. The results indicate significant differences of opinion among the experts. This was especially true of the values of the effective porosity of the Cohassett basalt flow interior for which estimates differ by more than five orders of magnitude. The experts are in greater agreement about the values of effective porosity of the Cohassett basalt flow top; their estimates for this variable are generally within one to two orders of magnitiude of each other. For anisotropy ratio, the expert estimates are generally within two or three orders of magnitude of each other. Based on this study, the Rockwell hydrologists estimate the effective porosity of the Cohassett basalt flow top to be generally higher than do the independent experts. For the effective porosity of the Cohassett basalt flow top, the estimates of the Rockwell hydrologists indicate a smaller uncertainty than do the estimates of the independent experts. On the other hand, for the effective porosity and anisotropy ratio of the Cohassett basalt flow interior, the estimates of the Rockwell hydrologists indicate a larger uncertainty than do the estimates of the independent experts.

  1. MASSACHUSETTS DIVISION OF FISHERIES AND WILDLIFE ADAPTATION PLANNING USING AN EXPERT PANEL BASED HABITAT VULNERABLITY ASSESSMENT John O'Leary, MA Div. of Fisheries and Wildlife and Hector Galbraith, Ph d. Climate Change Initiative, Manomet Center for Conservation Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, J. A.; Galbraith, H.

    2010-12-01

    We are using the results from a recently completed Habitat Vulnerability Assessment (HVA) for adaptation planning within the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. We used Regional Downscale Climate Projections to provide exposure information for the assessment and an Expert Panel of biologists to provide information on the sensitivity and adaptive capacity of the habitat types we assessed. We estimated the vulnerability of 22 key habitat types which were identified in the State Wildlife Action Plan (SWAP). Results of the expert panel based HVA include a relative ranking of vulnerability to climate change for these habitats within Massachusetts, a confidence score for the estimated vulnerability for each habitat type evaluated and a narrative identifying the factors which influence the vulnerability of the habitat. We also evaluated the vulnerability of the Species in Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) from the SWAP to climate change conditions. The SGCN are linked to their primary habitat types. The HVA results along with recommendations from the National Academies Report: Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change America’s Climate Choices: Panel on Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change will inform “climate smart” adaptation strategies for agency management, acquisition, and research and monitoring programs that build on and do not replace existing implementation strategies. We believe that the adaptation planning process that we outline in this presentation could serve as a model for resource agencies and others who are in the process of developing their response to anticipated impacts from climate change conditions. We are also engaged in a collaborative effort to conduct a Regional Habitat Vulnerability Assessment (RHVA). Results form the RHVA will provide the MDFW with the ability to assess adaptation strategies based on regional need.

  2. The European strategy on low dose risk research and the role of radiation quality according to the recommendations of the "ad hoc" High Level and Expert Group (HLEG).

    PubMed

    Belli, Mauro; Ottolenghi, Andrea; Weiss, Wolfgang

    2010-08-01

    Health effects of exposures at low doses and/or low dose rates are recognized as requiring intensive research activity to answer several questions. To address these issues at a strategic level in Europe, with the perspective of integrating national and EC efforts (in particular those within the Euratom research programmes), a "European High Level and Expert Group (HLEG) on low dose risk research" was formed and carried out its work during 2008. The Group produced a report published by the European Commission in 2009 and available on the website http://www.hleg.de . The more important research issues identified by the HLEG were as follows: (a) the shape of dose-response for cancer; (b) the tissue sensitivities for cancer induction; (c) the individual variability in cancer risk; (d) the effects of radiation quality (type); (e) the risks from internal radiation exposure; and (f) the risks of, and dose response relationships for, non-cancer diseases. In this paper, the radiation quality issues are especially considered, since they are closely linked to health problems and related radioprotection in space and in emerging radiotherapeutic techniques (i.e., hadrontherapy). The peculiar features of low-fluence, high-LET radiation exposures can question in particular the validity of the radiation-weighting factor (w ( R )) approach. Specific strategies are therefore needed to assess such risks. A multi-scale/systems biology approach, based on mechanistic studies coordinated with molecular-epidemiological studies, is considered essential to elucidate differences and similarities between specific effects of low- and high-LET radiation.

  3. Statin-associated muscle symptoms: impact on statin therapy-European Atherosclerosis Society Consensus Panel Statement on Assessment, Aetiology and Management.

    PubMed

    Stroes, Erik S; Thompson, Paul D; Corsini, Alberto; Vladutiu, Georgirene D; Raal, Frederick J; Ray, Kausik K; Roden, Michael; Stein, Evan; Tokgözoğlu, Lale; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bruckert, Eric; De Backer, Guy; Krauss, Ronald M; Laufs, Ulrich; Santos, Raul D; Hegele, Robert A; Hovingh, G Kees; Leiter, Lawrence A; Mach, Francois; März, Winfried; Newman, Connie B; Wiklund, Olov; Jacobson, Terry A; Catapano, Alberico L; Chapman, M John; Ginsberg, Henry N

    2015-05-01

    Statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS) are one of the principal reasons for statin non-adherence and/or discontinuation, contributing to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. This European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) Consensus Panel overviews current understanding of the pathophysiology of statin-associated myopathy, and provides guidance for diagnosis and management of SAMS. Statin-associated myopathy, with significant elevation of serum creatine kinase (CK), is a rare but serious side effect of statins, affecting 1 per 1000 to 1 per 10 000 people on standard statin doses. Statin-associated muscle symptoms cover a broader range of clinical presentations, usually with normal or minimally elevated CK levels, with a prevalence of 7-29% in registries and observational studies. Preclinical studies show that statins decrease mitochondrial function, attenuate energy production, and alter muscle protein degradation, thereby providing a potential link between statins and muscle symptoms; controlled mechanistic and genetic studies in humans are necessary to further understanding. The Panel proposes to identify SAMS by symptoms typical of statin myalgia (i.e. muscle pain or aching) and their temporal association with discontinuation and response to repetitive statin re-challenge. In people with SAMS, the Panel recommends the use of a maximally tolerated statin dose combined with non-statin lipid-lowering therapies to attain recommended low-density lipoprotein cholesterol targets. The Panel recommends a structured work-up to identify individuals with clinically relevant SAMS generally to at least three different statins, so that they can be offered therapeutic regimens to satisfactorily address their cardiovascular risk. Further research into the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms may offer future therapeutic potential.

  4. Breast Cancer Screening in the Era of Density Notification Legislation: Summary of 2014 Massachusetts Experience and Suggestion of An Evidence-Based Management Algorithm by Multi-disciplinary Expert Panel

    PubMed Central

    Freer, Phoebe E.; Slanetz, Priscilla J.; Haas, Jennifer S.; Tung, Nadine M.; Hughes, Kevin S.; Armstrong, Katrina; Semine, A. Alan; Troyan, Susan L.; Birdwell, Robyn L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Stemming from breast density notification legislation in Massachusetts effective 2015, we sought to develop a collaborative evidence-based approach to density notification that could be used by practitioners across the state. Our goal was to develop an evidence-based consensus management algorithm to help patients and health care providers follow best practices to implement a coordinated, evidence-based, cost-effective, sustainable practice and to standardize care in recommendations for supplemental screening. Methods We formed the Massachusetts Breast Risk Education and Assessment Task Force (MA-BREAST) a multi-institutional, multi-disciplinary panel of expert radiologists, surgeons, primary care physicians, and oncologists to develop a collaborative approach to density notification legislation. Using evidence-based data from the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review (ICER), the Cochrane review, National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines, American Cancer Society (ACS) recommendations, and American College of Radiology (ACR) appropriateness criteria, the group collaboratively developed an evidence-based best-practices algorithm. Results The expert consensus algorithm uses breast density as one element in the risk stratification to determine the need for supplemental screening. Women with dense breasts and otherwise low risk (<15% lifetime risk), do not routinely require supplemental screening per the expert consensus. Women of high risk (>20% lifetime) should consider supplemental screening MRI in addition to routine mammography regardless of breast density. Conclusion We report the development of the multi-disciplinary collaborative approach to density notification. We propose a risk stratification algorithm to assess personal level of risk to determine the need for supplemental screening for an individual woman. PMID:26290416

  5. Breast cancer screening in the era of density notification legislation: summary of 2014 Massachusetts experience and suggestion of an evidence-based management algorithm by multi-disciplinary expert panel.

    PubMed

    Freer, Phoebe E; Slanetz, Priscilla J; Haas, Jennifer S; Tung, Nadine M; Hughes, Kevin S; Armstrong, Katrina; Semine, A Alan; Troyan, Susan L; Birdwell, Robyn L

    2015-09-01

    Stemming from breast density notification legislation in Massachusetts effective 2015, we sought to develop a collaborative evidence-based approach to density notification that could be used by practitioners across the state. Our goal was to develop an evidence-based consensus management algorithm to help patients and health care providers follow best practices to implement a coordinated, evidence-based, cost-effective, sustainable practice and to standardize care in recommendations for supplemental screening. We formed the Massachusetts Breast Risk Education and Assessment Task Force (MA-BREAST) a multi-institutional, multi-disciplinary panel of expert radiologists, surgeons, primary care physicians, and oncologists to develop a collaborative approach to density notification legislation. Using evidence-based data from the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review, the Cochrane review, National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines, American Cancer Society recommendations, and American College of Radiology appropriateness criteria, the group collaboratively developed an evidence-based best-practices algorithm. The expert consensus algorithm uses breast density as one element in the risk stratification to determine the need for supplemental screening. Women with dense breasts and otherwise low risk (<15% lifetime risk), do not routinely require supplemental screening per the expert consensus. Women of high risk (>20% lifetime) should consider supplemental screening MRI in addition to routine mammography regardless of breast density. We report the development of the multi-disciplinary collaborative approach to density notification. We propose a risk stratification algorithm to assess personal level of risk to determine the need for supplemental screening for an individual woman.

  6. Inter-disciplinary European guidelines on surgery of severe obesity.

    PubMed

    Fried, M; Hainer, V; Basdevant, A; Buchwald, H; Deitel, M; Finer, N; Greve, J W M; Horber, F; Mathus-Vliegen, E; Scopinaro, N; Steffen, R; Tsigos, C; Weiner, R; Widhalm, K

    2007-04-01

    In 2005, for the first time in European history, an extraordinary Expert panel named 'The BSCG' (Bariatric Scientific Collaborative Group), was appointed through joint effort of the major European Scientific Societies which are active in the field of obesity management. Societies that constituted this panel were: IFSO - International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity, IFSO-EC - International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity - European Chapter, EASO - European Association for Study of Obesity, ECOG - European Childhood Obesity Group, together with the IOTF (International Obesity Task Force) which was represented during the completion process by its representative. The BSCG was composed not only of the top officers representing the respective Scientific Societies (four acting presidents, two past presidents, one honorary president, two executive directors), but was balanced with the presence of many other key opinion leaders in the field of obesity. The BSCG composition allowed the coverage of key disciplines in comprehensive obesity management, as well as reflecting European geographical and ethnic diversity. This joint BSCG expert panel convened several meetings which were entirely focused on guidelines creation, during the past two years. There was a specific effort to develop clinical guidelines, which will reflect current knowledge, expertise and evidence based data on morbid obesity treatment.

  7. Interdisciplinary European guidelines on surgery of severe obesity.

    PubMed

    Fried, Martin; Hainer, Vojtĕch; Basdevant, Arnaud; Buchwald, Henry; Deitel, Mervyn; Finer, Nicholas; Greve, Jan Willem M; Horber, Fritz; Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth; Scopinaro, Nicola; Steffen, Rudolf; Tsigos, Constantine; Weiner, Rudolf; Widhalm, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, for the first time in European history, an extraordinary expert panel named BSCG (Bariatric Scientific Collaborative Group), was appointed through joint effort of the major European scientific societies which are active in the field of obesity management. Societies that constituted this panel were: IFSO - International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity, IFSO-EC - International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity - European Chapter, EASO - European Association for Study of Obesity, ECOG - European Childhood Obesity Group, together with the IOTF (International Obesity Task Force) which was represented during the completion process by its representative. The BSCG was composed not only of the top officers representing the respective scientific societies (four acting presidents, two past presidents, one honorary president, two executive directors), but was balanced with the presence of many other key opinion leaders in the field of obesity. The BSCG composition allowed the coverage of key disciplines in comprehensive obesity management, as well as reflecting European geographical and ethnic diversity. This joint BSCG expert panel convened several meetings which were entirely focused on guidelines creation, during the past 2 years. There was a specific effort to develop clinical guidelines, which will reflect current knowledge, expertise and evidence based data on morbid obesity treatment.

  8. Regulatory Considerations for the Clinical and Research Use of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS): review and recommendations from an expert panel

    PubMed Central

    Fregni, F; Nitsche, MA; Loo, C.K.; Brunoni, AR; Marangolo, P; Leite, J; Carvalho, S; Bolognini, N; Caumo, W; Paik, NJ; Simis, M; Ueda, K; Ekhitari, H; Luu, P; Tucker, DM; Tyler, WJ; Brunelin, J; Datta, A; Juan, CH; Venkatasubramanian, G; Boggio, PS; Bikson, M

    2014-01-01

    The field of transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has experienced significant growth in the past 15 years. One of the tES techniques leading this increased interest is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Significant research efforts have been devoted to determining the clinical potential of tDCS in humans. Despite the promising results obtained with tDCS in basic and clinical neuroscience, further progress has been impeded by a lack of clarity on international regulatory pathways. We therefore convened a group of research and clinician experts on tDCS to review the research and clinical use of tDCS. In this report, we review the regulatory status of tDCS, and we summarize the results according to research, off-label and compassionate use of tDCS in the following countries: Australia, Brazil, France, Germany, India, Iran, Italy, Portugal, South Korea, Taiwan and United States. Research use, off label treatment and compassionate use of tDCS are employed in most of the countries reviewed in this study. It is critical that a global or local effort is organized to pursue definite evidence to either approve and regulate or restrict the use of tDCS in clinical practice on the basis of adequate randomized controlled treatment trials. PMID:25983531

  9. Analysis of global variability in 15 established and 5 new European Standard Set (ESS) STRs using the CEPH human genome diversity panel.

    PubMed

    Phillips, C; Fernandez-Formoso, L; Garcia-Magariños, M; Porras, L; Tvedebrink, T; Amigo, J; Fondevila, M; Gomez-Tato, A; Alvarez-Dios, J; Freire-Aradas, A; Gomez-Carballa, A; Mosquera-Miguel, A; Carracedo, A; Lareu, M V

    2011-06-01

    The CEPH human genome diversity cell line panel (CEPH-HGDP) of 51 globally distributed populations was used to analyze patterns of variability in 20 core human identification STRs. The markers typed comprised the 15 STRs of Identifiler, one of the most widely used forensic STR multiplexes, plus five recently introduced European Standard Set (ESS) STRs: D1S1656, D2S441, D10S1248, D12S391 and D22S1045. From the genotypes obtained for the ESS STRs we identified rare, intermediate or off-ladder alleles that had not been previously reported for these loci. Examples of novel ESS STR alleles found were characterized by sequence analysis. This revealed extensive repeat structure variation in three ESS STRs, with D12S391 showing particularly high variability for tandem runs of AGAT and AGAC repeat units. The global geographic distribution of the CEPH panel samples gave an opportunity to study in detail the extent of substructure shown by the 20 STRs amongst populations and between their parent population groups. An assessment was made of the forensic informativeness of the new ESS STRs compared to the loci they will replace: CSF1PO, D5S818, D7S820, D13S317 and TPOX, with results showing a clear enhancement of discrimination power using multiplexes that genotype the new ESS loci. We also measured the ability of Identifiler and ESS STRs to infer the ancestry of the CEPH-HGDP samples and demonstrate that forensic STRs in large multiplexes have the potential to differentiate the major population groups but only with sufficient reliability when used with other ancestry-informative markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms. Finally we checked for possible association by linkage between the two ESS multiplex STRs closely positioned on chromosome-12: vWA and D12S391 by examining paired genotypes from the complete CEPH data set.

  10. Neuropathic pain phenotyping by international consensus (NeuroPPIC) for genetic studies: a NeuPSIG systematic review, Delphi survey, and expert panel recommendations.

    PubMed

    van Hecke, Oliver; Kamerman, Peter R; Attal, Nadine; Baron, Ralf; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Bennett, David L H; Bennett, Michael I; Bouhassira, Didier; Diatchenko, Luda; Freeman, Roy; Freynhagen, Rainer; Haanpää, Maija; Jensen, Troels S; Raja, Srinivasa N; Rice, Andrew S C; Seltzer, Zeʼev; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E; Yarnitsky, David; Smith, Blair H

    2015-11-01

    For genetic research to contribute more fully to furthering our knowledge of neuropathic pain, we require an agreed, valid, and feasible approach to phenotyping, to allow collaboration and replication in samples of sufficient size. Results from genetic studies on neuropathic pain have been inconsistent and have met with replication difficulties, in part because of differences in phenotypes used for case ascertainment. Because there is no consensus on the nature of these phenotypes, nor on the methods of collecting them, this study aimed to provide guidelines on collecting and reporting phenotypes in cases and controls for genetic studies. Consensus was achieved through a staged approach: (1) systematic literature review to identify all neuropathic pain phenotypes used in previous genetic studies; (2) Delphi survey to identify the most useful neuropathic pain phenotypes and their validity and feasibility; and (3) meeting of experts to reach consensus on the optimal phenotype(s) to be collected from patients with neuropathic pain for genetic studies. A basic "entry level" set of phenotypes was identified for any genetic study of neuropathic pain. This set identifies cases of "possible" neuropathic pain, and controls, and includes: (1) a validated symptom-based questionnaire to determine whether any pain is likely to be neuropathic; (2) body chart or checklist to identify whether the area of pain distribution is neuroanatomically logical; and (3) details of pain history (intensity, duration, any formal diagnosis). This NeuroPPIC "entry level" set of phenotypes can be expanded by more extensive and specific measures, as determined by scientific requirements and resource availability.

  11. How to Meet the Last OIE Expert Surveillance Panel Recommendations on Equine Influenza (EI) Vaccine Composition: A Review of the Process Required for the Recombinant Canarypox-Based EI Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Paillot, Romain; Rash, Nicola L.; Garrett, Dion; Prowse-Davis, Leah; Montesso, Fernando; Cullinane, Ann; Lemaitre, Laurent; Thibault, Jean-Christophe; Wittreck, Sonia; Dancer, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination is highly effective to prevent, control, and limit the impact of equine influenza (EI), a major respiratory disease of horses. However, EI vaccines should contain relevant equine influenza virus (EIV) strains for optimal protection. The OIE expert surveillance panel annually reviews EIV evolution and, since 2010, the use of Florida clade 1 and 2 sub-lineages representative vaccine strains is recommended. This report summarises the development process of a fully- updated recombinant canarypox-based EI vaccine in order to meet the last OIE recommendations, including the vaccine mode of action, production steps and schedule. The EI vaccine ProteqFlu contains 2 recombinant canarypox viruses expressing the haemagglutinin of the A/equine/Ohio/03 and A/equine/Richmond/1/07 isolates (Florida clade 1 and 2 sub-lineages, respectively). The updated EI vaccine was tested for efficacy against the representative Florida clade 2 EIV strain A/equine/Richmond/1/07 in the Welsh mountain pony model. Protective antibody response, clinical signs of disease and virus shedding were compared with unvaccinated control ponies. Significant protection was measured in vaccinated ponies, which supports the vaccine registration. The recombinant canarypox-based EI vaccine was the first fully updated EI vaccine available in the EU, which will help to minimise the increasing risk of vaccine breakdown due to constant EIV evolution through antigenic drift. PMID:27897990

  12. How to Meet the Last OIE Expert Surveillance Panel Recommendations on Equine Influenza (EI) Vaccine Composition: A Review of the Process Required for the Recombinant Canarypox-Based EI Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Paillot, Romain; Rash, Nicola L; Garrett, Dion; Prowse-Davis, Leah; Montesso, Fernando; Cullinane, Ann; Lemaitre, Laurent; Thibault, Jean-Christophe; Wittreck, Sonia; Dancer, Agnes

    2016-11-25

    Vaccination is highly effective to prevent, control, and limit the impact of equine influenza (EI), a major respiratory disease of horses. However, EI vaccines should contain relevant equine influenza virus (EIV) strains for optimal protection. The OIE expert surveillance panel annually reviews EIV evolution and, since 2010, the use of Florida clade 1 and 2 sub-lineages representative vaccine strains is recommended. This report summarises the development process of a fully- updated recombinant canarypox-based EI vaccine in order to meet the last OIE recommendations, including the vaccine mode of action, production steps and schedule. The EI vaccine ProteqFlu contains 2 recombinant canarypox viruses expressing the haemagglutinin of the A/equine/Ohio/03 and A/equine/Richmond/1/07 isolates (Florida clade 1 and 2 sub-lineages, respectively). The updated EI vaccine was tested for efficacy against the representative Florida clade 2 EIV strain A/equine/Richmond/1/07 in the Welsh mountain pony model. Protective antibody response, clinical signs of disease and virus shedding were compared with unvaccinated control ponies. Significant protection was measured in vaccinated ponies, which supports the vaccine registration. The recombinant canarypox-based EI vaccine was the first fully updated EI vaccine available in the EU, which will help to minimise the increasing risk of vaccine breakdown due to constant EIV evolution through antigenic drift.

  13. Cancer, cigarette smoking and premature death in Europe: a review including the Recommendations of European Cancer Experts Consensus Meeting, Helsinki, October 1996.

    PubMed

    Boyle, P

    1997-05-01

    cause of adult death in the world. For men in developed countries, the full effects of smoking can already be seen. Tobacco now causes one-third of all male deaths in middle age (plus one fifth in old age). Tobacco is a cause of about half of all male cancer deaths in middle age (plus one-third in old age). Of those who start smoking in their teenage years and keep on smoking, about half will be killed by tobacco. Half of these deaths will be in middle age (35-69) and each will lose an average of 20-25 years of non-smoker life expectancy. In non-smokers in many countries, cancer mortality is decreasing slowly and total mortality rapidly. The war against cancer is being won slowly: the effects of cigarette smoking are holding back this victory. Lung cancer now kills more women in the United States each year than breast cancer. For women in developed countries, the peak of the tobacco epidemic has not yet arrived. Tobacco now causes almost one-third of all deaths in women in middle age in the United States. Although it has only 5% of the world's female population, the United States has 50% of the world's deaths from smoking in women. Tobacco smoking is a major cause of premature death. Throughout Europe, in 1990 tobacco smoking caused three quarters of a million deaths in middle age (between 35 and 69). In the Member States of the European Union in 1990 there were over one quarter of a million deaths in middle age directly caused by tobacco smoking: there were 219700 in men and 31900 in women. There were many more deaths caused by tobacco at older ages. In countries of central and eastern Europe, including the former USSR, there were 441200 deaths in middle age in men and 42100 deaths in women. There is a need for urgent action to help contain this important and unnecessary loss of life. In formulating Recommendations, the European Cancer Experts Consensus Committee recognised that Tobacco Control depends on various parts of society and not only on the individual.

  14. Expert Biogeographers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarski, Marsha

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an alternative way of teaching about biomes by having students become expert biogeographers. In order to become experts students need to first find out what a biogeographer does. Doing an online search lets students find out for themselves what the responsibilities are of people who work in this field. A good place to visit…

  15. Assessment of avionics technology in European aerospace organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinec, D. A.; Baumbick, Robert; Hitt, Ellis; Leondes, Cornelius; Mayton, Monica; Schwind, Joseph; Traybar, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the observations and recommendations made by a technical panel formed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The panel, comprising prominent experts in the avionics field, was tasked to visit various organizations in Europe to assess the level of technology planned for use in manufactured civil avionics in the future. The primary purpose of the study was to assess avionics systems planned for implementation or already employed on civil aircraft and to evaluate future research, development, and engineering (RD&E) programs, address avionic systems and aircraft programs. The ultimate goal is to ensure that the technology addressed by NASa programs is commensurate with the needs of the aerospace industry at an international level. The panel focused on specific technologies, including guidance and control systems, advanced cockpit displays, sensors and data networks, and fly-by-wire/fly-by-light systems. However, discussions the panel had with the European organizations were not limited to these topics.

  16. Expert Seeker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Becerra

    2003-01-01

    Expert Seeker is a computer program of the knowledge-management-system (KMS) type that falls within the category of expertise-locator systems. The main goal of the KMS system implemented by Expert Seeker is to organize and distribute knowledge of who are the domain experts within and without a given institution, company, or other organization. The intent in developing this KMS was to enable the re-use of organizational knowledge and provide a methodology for querying existing information (including structured, semistructured, and unstructured information) in a way that could help identify organizational experts. More specifically, Expert Seeker was developed to make it possible, by use of an intranet, to do any or all of the following: Assist an employee in identifying who has the skills needed for specific projects and to determine whether the experts so identified are available. Assist managers in identifying employees who may need training opportunities. Assist managers in determining what expertise is lost when employees retire or otherwise leave. Facilitate the development of new ways of identifying opportunities for innovation and minimization of duplicated efforts. Assist employees in achieving competitive advantages through the application of knowledge-management concepts and related systems. Assist external organizations in requesting speakers for specific engagements or determining from whom they might be able to request help via electronic mail. Help foster an environment of collaboration for rapid development in today's environment, in which it is increasingly necessary to assemble teams of experts from government, universities, research laboratories, and industries, to quickly solve problems anytime, anywhere. Make experts more visible. Provide a central repository of information about employees, including information that, heretofore, has typically not been captured by the human-resources systems (e.g., information about past projects, patents, or

  17. Treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation or ALK gene rearrangement: results of an international expert panel meeting of the Italian Association of Thoracic Oncology.

    PubMed

    Gridelli, Cesare; de Marinis, Filippo; Cappuzzo, Federico; Di Maio, Massimo; Hirsch, Fred R; Mok, Tony; Morgillo, Floriana; Rosell, Rafael; Spigel, David R; Yang, James Chih-Hsin; Ciardiello, Fortunato

    2014-05-01

    The availability of targeted drugs has made the assessment of the EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangement critical in choosing the optimal treatment for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In May 2013, the Italian Association of Thoracic Oncology (AIOT) organized an International Experts Panel Meeting to review strengths and limitations of the available evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of advanced NSCLC with EGFR or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) alterations and to discuss implications for clinical practice and future clinical research. All patients with advanced NSCLC, with the exclusion of pure squamous cell carcinoma in former or current smokers, should be tested for EGFR mutations and ALK rearrangements before decisions are made on first-line treatment. First-line treatment of EGFR-mutated cases should be with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). Any available agent (gefitinib, erlotinib, or afatinib) can be used, until further data from comparative studies may better guide TKI selection. As general rule, and when clinically feasible, results of EGFR mutational status should be awaited before starting first-line treatment. Panelists agreed that the use of crizotinib is justified in any line of treatment. Although solid evidence supporting the continuation of EGFR TKIs or crizotinib beyond progression is lacking, in some cases (minimal, asymptomatic progression, or oligoprogression manageable by local therapy), treatment continuation beyond progression could be justified. Experimental strategies to target tumor heterogeneity and to treat patients after failure of EGFR TKIs or crizotinib are considered high-priority areas of research. A number of relevant research priorities were identified to optimize available treatment options.

  18. 78 FR 5184 - Special Emphasis Panel Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Special Emphasis Panel Meeting AGENCY: Agency... Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Special Emphasis Panel (SEP) meeting on ``Patient Centered Outcomes... INFORMATION: A Special Emphasis Panel is a group of experts in fields related to health care research who...

  19. Multinational evidence-based recommendations for pain management by pharmacotherapy in inflammatory arthritis: integrating systematic literature research and expert opinion of a broad panel of rheumatologists in the 3e Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Colebatch, Alexandra N.; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Edwards, Christopher J.; Adams, Karen; Englbrecht, Matthias; Hazlewood, Glen; Marks, Jonathan L.; Radner, Helga; Ramiro, Sofia; Richards, Bethan L.; Tarner, Ingo H.; Aletaha, Daniel; Bombardier, Claire; Landewé, Robert B.; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Bijlsma, Johannes W. J.; Branco, Jaime C.; Bykerk, Vivian P.; da Rocha Castelar Pinheiro, Geraldo; Catrina, Anca I.; Hannonen, Pekka; Kiely, Patrick; Leeb, Burkhard; Lie, Elisabeth; Martinez-Osuna, Píndaro; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; Østergaard, Mikkel; Westhovens, Rene; Zochling, Jane; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To develop evidence-based recommendations for pain management by pharmacotherapy in patients with inflammatory arthritis (IA). Methods. A total of 453 rheumatologists from 17 countries participated in the 2010 3e (Evidence, Expertise, Exchange) Initiative. Using a formal voting process, 89 rheumatologists representing all 17 countries selected 10 clinical questions regarding the use of pain medications in IA. Bibliographic fellows undertook a systematic literature review for each question, using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL and 2008–09 European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/ACR abstracts. Relevant studies were retrieved for data extraction and quality assessment. Rheumatologists from each country used this evidence to develop a set of national recommendations. Multinational recommendations were then formulated and assessed for agreement and the potential impact on clinical practice. Results. A total of 49 242 references were identified, from which 167 studies were included in the systematic reviews. One clinical question regarding different comorbidities was divided into two separate reviews, resulting in 11 recommendations in total. Oxford levels of evidence were applied to each recommendation. The recommendations related to the efficacy and safety of various analgesic medications, pain measurement scales and pain management in the pre-conception period, pregnancy and lactation. Finally, an algorithm for the pharmacological management of pain in IA was developed. Twenty per cent of rheumatologists reported that the algorithm would change their practice, and 75% felt the algorithm was in accordance with their current practice. Conclusions. Eleven evidence-based recommendations on the management of pain by pharmacotherapy in IA were developed. They are supported by a large panel of rheumatologists from 17 countries, thus enhancing their utility in clinical practice. PMID:22447886

  20. Multinational evidence-based recommendations for the use of methotrexate in rheumatic disorders with a focus on rheumatoid arthritis: integrating systematic literature research and expert opinion of a broad international panel of rheumatologists in the 3E Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Visser, K; Katchamart, W; Loza, E; Martinez-Lopez, J A; Salliot, C; Trudeau, J; Bombardier, C; Carmona, L; van der Heijde, D; Bijlsma, J W J; Boumpas, D T; Canhao, H; Edwards, C J; Hamuryudan, V; Kvien, T K; Leeb, B F; Martín-Mola, E M; Mielants, H; Müller-Ladner, U; Murphy, G; Østergaard, M; Pereira, I A; Ramos-Remus, C; Valentini, G; Zochling, J; Dougados, M

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To develop evidence-based recommendations for the use of methotrexate in daily clinical practice in rheumatic disorders. Methods: 751 rheumatologists from 17 countries participated in the 3E (Evidence, Expertise, Exchange) Initiative of 2007–8 consisting of three separate rounds of discussions and Delphi votes. Ten clinical questions concerning the use of methotrexate in rheumatic disorders were formulated. A systematic literature search in Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and 2005–7 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism meeting abstracts was conducted. Selected articles were systematically reviewed and the evidence was appraised according to the Oxford levels of evidence. Each country elaborated a set of national recommendations. Finally, multinational recommendations were formulated and agreement among the participants and the potential impact on their clinical practice was assessed. Results: A total of 16 979 references was identified, of which 304 articles were included in the systematic reviews. Ten multinational key recommendations on the use of methotrexate were formulated. Nine recommendations were specific for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), including the work-up before initiating methotrexate, optimal dosage and route, use of folic acid, monitoring, management of hepatotoxicity, long-term safety, mono versus combination therapy and management in the perioperative period and before/during pregnancy. One recommendation concerned methotrexate as a steroid-sparing agent in other rheumatic diseases. Conclusions: Ten recommendations for the use of methotrexate in daily clinical practice focussed on RA were developed, which are evidence based and supported by a large panel of rheumatologists, enhancing their validity and practical use. PMID:19033291

  1. Weekly working hours for Norwegian hospital doctors since 1994 with special attention to postgraduate training, work–home balance and the European Working Time Directive: a panel study

    PubMed Central

    Rosta, Judith; Aasland, Olaf G

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors from 1994 to 2012 with special emphasis on the quality of postgraduate training and work–home balance, and in relation to the requirements of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). Design Panel study based on postal questionnaires. Setting Norway. Participants Unbalanced cohort of 1300–1600 doctors in 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012. Outcome measures Self-reported total weekly working hours and whether 45 weekly working hours are too short, sufficient, or too long to meet the quality requirements of obligatory postgraduate training for junior doctors. Results From 1994 to 2012, the number of weekly working hours was stable for senior (46–47 h) and junior (45–46 h) hospital doctors. In 2012, significantly more senior (27–35%) than junior (11–20%) doctors reported suboptimal work–home balance, defined as working more than 48 h a week. The majority perceived the present situation with an average of 45 h per week for juniors as sufficient for obligatory postgraduate specialist training, but doctors of higher age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08), senior doctors (1.07, 1.04 to 1.11) and doctors working in surgical specialties (OR 1 vs laboratory medicine 0.03, 0.01 to 0.25, internal medicine 0.31, 0.17 to 0.58, psychiatry 0.12, 0.04 to 0.36, paediatrics 0.36, 0.12 to 1.07, anaesthesiology 0.08, 0.02 to 0.39, gynaecology 0.07, 0.01 to 0.56 and others 0.39, 0.04 to 3.56) were more likely to want the work-week to be longer. Conclusions The weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors were always below the EWTD requirements. A significant growth of hospital doctor density over the past two decades, national regulations and cultural values might be important factors. Specialty differences in perception of sufficient training time may call for more flexibility in working time regulations. PMID:25311038

  2. Influenza vaccination: key facts for general practitioners in Europe-a synthesis by European experts based on national guidelines and best practices in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Kassianos, George; Blank, Patricia; Falup-Pecurariu, Oana; Kuchar, Ernest; Kyncl, Jan; De Lejarazu, Raul Ortiz; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; van Essen, Gerrit A

    2016-01-01

    Currently there is no influenza vaccination guidance for European general practitioners. Furthermore, although the European Council recommends a target seasonal influenza vaccination rate of 75% in the elderly (65 years and above) and in anyone aged >6 months with a chronic medical condition, there remain wide discrepancies throughout Europe. A harmonised guideline regarding not only vaccination strategy but also for the consistent diagnosis of influenza across Europe is essential to support a common approach for the implementation of seasonal influenza vaccination across Europe. This document is based on pre-existing guidelines available in the UK and Netherlands and has been approved by a group of European experts for use throughout Europe. As well as providing a standardised influenza diagnosis, it also reviews the current recommendations for influenza vaccination, the types of vaccine available, the contraindications, vaccine use in special populations (in pregnancy, children, and in those with egg allergy), and concomitant administration with other vaccines. The effectiveness, safety, and timing of the seasonal influenza vaccine are also reviewed. A second section provides practical guidance for general practitioners for the implementation of a seasonal influenza vaccination program, including the selection and notification of those eligible for vaccination, as well as suggestions for the organisation of a vaccination programme. Finally, suggested responses to common patient misconceptions and frequently asked questions are included. The aim of this article is to harmonise the diagnosis of seasonal influenza and the approach of European general practitioners to seasonal influenza vaccination in order to better identify influenza outbreaks and to move towards reaching the target vaccination rate of 75% throughout Europe.

  3. Influenza vaccination: key facts for general practitioners in Europe—a synthesis by European experts based on national guidelines and best practices in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Kassianos, George; Blank, Patricia; Falup-Pecurariu, Oana; Kuchar, Ernest; Kyncl, Jan; De Lejarazu, Raul Ortiz; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; van Essen, Gerrit A

    2016-01-01

    Currently there is no influenza vaccination guidance for European general practitioners. Furthermore, although the European Council recommends a target seasonal influenza vaccination rate of 75% in the elderly (65 years and above) and in anyone aged >6 months with a chronic medical condition, there remain wide discrepancies throughout Europe. A harmonised guideline regarding not only vaccination strategy but also for the consistent diagnosis of influenza across Europe is essential to support a common approach for the implementation of seasonal influenza vaccination across Europe. This document is based on pre-existing guidelines available in the UK and Netherlands and has been approved by a group of European experts for use throughout Europe. As well as providing a standardised influenza diagnosis, it also reviews the current recommendations for influenza vaccination, the types of vaccine available, the contraindications, vaccine use in special populations (in pregnancy, children, and in those with egg allergy), and concomitant administration with other vaccines. The effectiveness, safety, and timing of the seasonal influenza vaccine are also reviewed. A second section provides practical guidance for general practitioners for the implementation of a seasonal influenza vaccination program, including the selection and notification of those eligible for vaccination, as well as suggestions for the organisation of a vaccination programme. Finally, suggested responses to common patient misconceptions and frequently asked questions are included. The aim of this article is to harmonise the diagnosis of seasonal influenza and the approach of European general practitioners to seasonal influenza vaccination in order to better identify influenza outbreaks and to move towards reaching the target vaccination rate of 75% throughout Europe. PMID:27540408

  4. 40 CFR 766.28 - Expert review of protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .../or chemical wastes for HDDs/HDFs. The panel will recommend to the Director, EPA Office of Pollution... CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS Specific Chemical Testing/Reporting Requirements § 766.28 Expert review of protocols. EPA will gather a panel of experts in analysis of chemical matrices for...

  5. 40 CFR 766.28 - Expert review of protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .../or chemical wastes for HDDs/HDFs. The panel will recommend to the Director, EPA Office of Pollution... CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS Specific Chemical Testing/Reporting Requirements § 766.28 Expert review of protocols. EPA will gather a panel of experts in analysis of chemical matrices for...

  6. 40 CFR 766.28 - Expert review of protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .../or chemical wastes for HDDs/HDFs. The panel will recommend to the Director, EPA Office of Pollution... CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS Specific Chemical Testing/Reporting Requirements § 766.28 Expert review of protocols. EPA will gather a panel of experts in analysis of chemical matrices for...

  7. 40 CFR 766.28 - Expert review of protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .../or chemical wastes for HDDs/HDFs. The panel will recommend to the Director, EPA Office of Pollution... CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS Specific Chemical Testing/Reporting Requirements § 766.28 Expert review of protocols. EPA will gather a panel of experts in analysis of chemical matrices for...

  8. A European consensus report on blood cell identification: terminology utilized and morphological diagnosis concordance among 28 experts from 17 countries within the European LeukemiaNet network WP10, on behalf of the ELN Morphology Faculty.

    PubMed

    Zini, Gina; Bain, Barbara; Bettelheim, Peter; Cortez, José; d'Onofrio, Giuseppe; Faber, Edgar; Haferlach, Torsten; Kacirkova, Petra; Lewandowski, Krzysztof; Matutes, Estella; Maynadié, Marc; Meletis, John; Petersen, Bodil L; Porwit, Anna; Terpos, Evangelos; Tichelli, Andrée; Vallespí, Teresa; Woessner, Soledad; Bennett, John; Bene, Marie C

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes the methodology used to develop a consensual glossary for haematopoietic cells within Diagnostics-WP10 of European-LeukemiaNet EU-project. This highly interactive work was made possible through the use of the net, requiring only a single two-day meeting of actual confrontation and debate. It resulted in the production of a freely accessible tool that could be useful for training as well as harmonization of morphological reports in onco-haematology especially, without geographic limitation, not limited to European countries. Moreover, this collective work resulted in the production of a consensus statement, taking into account individual practices, collegial agreement and literature data.

  9. Training improves the interobserver agreement of the expert positron emission tomography review panel in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma: interim analysis in the ongoing International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group-37 study.

    PubMed

    Ceriani, Luca; Barrington, Sally; Biggi, Alberto; Malkowski, Bogdan; Metser, Ur; Versari, Annibale; Martelli, Maurizio; Davies, Andrew; Johnson, Peter W; Zucca, Emanuele; Chauvie, Stéphane

    2016-08-22

    The International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group (IELSG)-37 is a prospective randomized trial assessing the role of consolidation mediastinal radiotherapy after immunochemotherapy to patients with newly diagnosed primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL). It is a positron emission tomography (PET) response-guided study where patients obtaining a complete metabolic response on an end-of-therapy PET-computed tomography (CT) scan evaluated by a central review are randomized to receive radiotherapy or no further treatment. The aims of this study were to measure agreement between reviewers reporting PET-CT scans for this trial and to determine the effect of training upon concordance rates. The review panel comprised 6 experienced nuclear physicians who read PET-CT scans using the 5-point Deauville scale. Interobserver agreement (IOA) was measured at 4 time points: after a blinded review of a "training set" of 20 patients with PMBCL from the previous IELSG-26 study (phase 1); after the first 10 clinical cases enrolled in the IELSG-37 (phase 2); and after 2 further groups of 50 (phase 3) and 40 clinical cases (phase 4). After feedback from the training set and the first 10 cases, a meeting was held to discuss interpretation, and a detailed set of instructions for the review procedure was agreed and acted upon. Between 2012 and 2014, the first 100 patients were reviewed. Using Deauville score 3 as the cutoff for a complete metabolic response, the overall IOA among the reviewers was good (Krippendorff α = 0.72.) The binary concordance between pairs of reviewers (Cohen κ) ranged from 0.60 to 0.78. The IOA, initially moderate, improved progressively from phase 1 to 4 (Krippendorff α from 0.53 to 0.81; Cohen κ from 0.35-0.72 to 0.77-0.87). Our experience indicates that the agreement among "expert" nuclear physicians reporting PMBCL, even using standardized criteria, was only moderate when the study began. However, agreement improved using a harmonization process

  10. Expert judgment and expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mumpower, J.; Phillips, L.D.; Renn, O.; Uppuluri, V.R.R.

    1987-01-01

    This volume collects researchers from the fields of psychology, decision analysis, and artificial intelligence. The purposes were to assess similarities, differences, and complementarities among the three approaches to the study of expert judgment; to evaluate their relative strengths and weaknesses; and to propose profitable linkages between them. Each of the papers in the present volume is directed toward one or more of these goals.

  11. Expert consensus document: Cholangiocarcinoma: current knowledge and future perspectives consensus statement from the European Network for the Study of Cholangiocarcinoma (ENS-CCA).

    PubMed

    Banales, Jesus M; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Carpino, Guido; Marzioni, Marco; Andersen, Jesper B; Invernizzi, Pietro; Lind, Guro E; Folseraas, Trine; Forbes, Stuart J; Fouassier, Laura; Geier, Andreas; Calvisi, Diego F; Mertens, Joachim C; Trauner, Michael; Benedetti, Antonio; Maroni, Luca; Vaquero, Javier; Macias, Rocio I R; Raggi, Chiara; Perugorria, Maria J; Gaudio, Eugenio; Boberg, Kirsten M; Marin, Jose J G; Alvaro, Domenico

    2016-05-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a heterogeneous group of malignancies with features of biliary tract differentiation. CCA is the second most common primary liver tumour and the incidence is increasing worldwide. CCA has high mortality owing to its aggressiveness, late diagnosis and refractory nature. In May 2015, the "European Network for the Study of Cholangiocarcinoma" (ENS-CCA: www.enscca.org or www.cholangiocarcinoma.eu) was created to promote and boost international research collaboration on the study of CCA at basic, translational and clinical level. In this Consensus Statement, we aim to provide valuable information on classifications, pathological features, risk factors, cells of origin, genetic and epigenetic modifications and current therapies available for this cancer. Moreover, future directions on basic and clinical investigations and plans for the ENS-CCA are highlighted.

  12. Interdisciplinary European Guidelines on metabolic and bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Fried, Martin; Yumuk, Volkan; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Scopinaro, Nicola; Torres, Antonio J; Weiner, Rudolf; Yashkov, Yuri; Frühbeck, Gema

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, an outstanding expert panel derived from IFSO-EC (International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity-European Chapter) and EASO (European Association for the Study of Obesity), composed by key representatives of both Societies including past and present presidents together with EASO's OMTF (Obesity Management Task Force) chair, agreed to devote the joint Medico-Surgical Workshop of both institutions to the topic of metabolic surgery as a pre-satellite of the 2013 European Congress on Obesity (ECO) to be held in Liverpool given the extraordinarily advancement made specifically in this field during the past years. It was further agreed to revise and update the 2008 Interdisciplinary European Guidelines on Surgery of Severe Obesity produced in cooperation of both Societies by focusing in particular on the evidence gathered in relation to the effects on diabetes during this lustrum and the subsequent changes that have taken place in patient eligibility criteria. The expert panel composition allowed the coverage of key disciplines in the comprehensive management of obesity and obesity-associated diseases, aimed specifically at updating the clinical guidelines to reflect current knowledge, expertise and evidence-based data on metabolic and bariatric surgery.

  13. Interactive Panel Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernius, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Quo Vadis? Here is the opportunity to ask panel members your questions: seek a forecast of current trends, where are we going as a collection of physicists in a wide variety of employment settings? What is the likelihood of remaining cohesive as those schooled in the fundamentals of physics? How might we better foster collaboration, with the disparate agendas of academia, government and commerce? Come with your questions, and share in this unique opportunity to quiz the experts.

  14. European Gene Mapping Project (EUROGEM): breakpoint panels for human chromosomes based on the CEPH reference families. Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain.

    PubMed

    Cox, S A; Attwood, J; Bryant, S P; Bains, R; Povey, S; Rebello, M; Kapsetaki, M; Moschonas, N K; Grzeschik, K H; Otto, M; Dixon, M; Sudworth, H E; Kooy, R F; Wright, A; Teague, P; Terrenato, L; Vergnaud, G; Monfouilloux, S; Weissenbach, J; Alibert, O; Dib, C; Fauré, S; Bakker, E; Pearson, N M; Spurr, N K

    1996-11-01

    Meiotic breakpoint panels for human chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 20 and X were constructed from genotypes from the CEPH reference families. Each recombinant chromosome included has a breakpoint well-supported with reference to defined quantitative criteria. The panels were constructed at both a low-resolution, useful for a first-pass localization, and high-resolution, for a more precise placement. The availability of such panels will reduce the number of genotyping experiments necessary to order new polymorphisms with respect to existing genetic markers. This paper shows only a representative sample of the breakpoints detected. The complete data are available on the World Wide Web (URL http:/(/)www.icnet.uk/axp/hgr/eurogem++ +/HTML/data.html) or by anonymous ftp (ftp.gene.ucl.ac.uk in/pub/eurogem/maps/breakpoints).

  15. Panel 5: Microbiology and Immunology Panel

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Timothy F.; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Barenkamp, Stephen; Kyd, Jennelle; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Patel, Janak A.; Heikkinen, Terho; Yamanaka, Noboru; Ogra, Pearay; Swords, W. Edward; Sih, Tania; Pettigrew, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective is to perform a comprehensive review of the literature from January 2007 through June 2011 on the virology, bacteriology, and immunology related to otitis media. Data Sources PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine. Review Methods Three subpanels with co-chairs comprising experts in the virology, bacteriology, and immunology of otitis media were formed. Each of the panels reviewed the literature in their respective fields and wrote draft reviews. The reviews were shared with all panel members, and a second draft was created. The entire panel met at the 10th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media in June 2011 and discussed the review and refined the content further. A final draft was created, circulated, and approved by the panel. Conclusion Excellent progress has been made in the past 4 years in advancing an understanding of the microbiology and immunology of otitis media. Advances include laboratory-based basic studies, cell-based assays, work in animal models, and clinical studies. Implications for Practice The advances of the past 4 years formed the basis of a series of short-term and long-term research goals in an effort to guide the field. Accomplishing these goals will provide opportunities for the development of novel interventions, including new ways to better treat and prevent otitis media. PMID:23536533

  16. The role of calcium supplementation in healthy musculoskeletal ageing : An expert consensus meeting of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases (ESCEO) and the International Foundation for Osteoporosis (IOF).

    PubMed

    Harvey, N C; Biver, E; Kaufman, J-M; Bauer, J; Branco, J; Brandi, M L; Bruyère, O; Coxam, V; Cruz-Jentoft, A; Czerwinski, E; Dimai, H; Fardellone, P; Landi, F; Reginster, J-Y; Dawson-Hughes, B; Kanis, J A; Rizzoli, R; Cooper, C

    2017-02-01

    The place of calcium supplementation, with or without concomitant vitamin D supplementation, has been much debated in terms of both efficacy and safety. There have been numerous trials and meta-analyses of supplementation for fracture reduction, and associations with risk of myocardial infarction have been suggested in recent years. In this report, the product of an expert consensus meeting of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases (ESCEO) and the International Foundation for Osteoporosis (IOF), we review the evidence for the value of calcium supplementation, with or without vitamin D supplementation, for healthy musculoskeletal ageing. We conclude that (1) calcium and vitamin D supplementation leads to a modest reduction in fracture risk, although population-level intervention has not been shown to be an effective public health strategy; (2) supplementation with calcium alone for fracture reduction is not supported by the literature; (3) side effects of calcium supplementation include renal stones and gastrointestinal symptoms; (4) vitamin D supplementation, rather than calcium supplementation, may reduce falls risk; and (5) assertions of increased cardiovascular risk consequent to calcium supplementation are not convincingly supported by current evidence. In conclusion, we recommend, on the basis of the current evidence, that calcium supplementation, with concomitant vitamin D supplementation, is supported for patients at high risk of calcium and vitamin D insufficiency, and in those who are receiving treatment for osteoporosis.

  17. Panel flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowell, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Criteria are presented for the prediction of panel flutter, determination of its occurrence, design for its prevention, and evaluation of its severity. Theoretical analyses recommended for the prediction of flutter stability boundaries, vibration amplitudes, and frequencies for several types of panels are described. Vibration tests and wind tunnel tests are recommended for certain panels and environmental flow conditions to provide information for design of verification analysis. Appropriate design margins on flutter stability boundaries are given and general criteria are presented for evaluating the severity of possible short-duration, limited-amplitude panel flutter on nonreusable vehicles.

  18. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-06-17

    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here: http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/gtp_blue_ribbon_panel_report_addendum10-2011.pdf

  19. Joint USNRC/EC consequence uncertainty study: The ingestion pathway, dosimetry and health effects expert judgment elicitations and results

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, F.; Goossens, L.; Abbott, M.

    1996-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and the European Commission (EC) have conducted a formal expert judgment elicitation jointly to systematically collect the quantitative information needed to perform consequence uncertainty analyses on a broad set of commercial nuclear power plants. Information from three sets of joint US/European expert panels was collected and processed. Information from the three sets of panels was collected in the following areas: in the phenomenological areas of atmospheric dispersion and deposition, in the areas of ingestion pathways and external dosimetry, and in the areas of health effects and internal dosimetry. This exercise has demonstrated that the uncertainty for particular issues as measured by the ratio of the 95th percentile to the 5th percentile can be extremely large (orders of magnitude), or rather small (factor of two). This information has already been used by many of the experts that were involved in this process in areas other than the consequence uncertainty field. The benefit to the field of radiological consequences is just beginning as the results of this study are published and made available to the consequence community.

  20. Panel methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Ashok

    1993-10-01

    A comprehensive description of panel methods has been given to enable an understanding of the underlying theory and the basic structure of the panel codes for aerodynamic applications. Panel methods have seen peak activity in the industry and remain as yet the sole technique for efficient and practical computations on complex-aircraft configurations. The method of the linearized approach of solving flow problems is well proven and till the turn of the century panel methods will continue to remain as the workhorse for computing aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft shapes in the industry. The alternative Euler and Navier-Stokes solvers have yet to mature for applications to complex shapes, hence panel methods will be in the light for at least another decade.

  1. Opioids and the management of chronic severe pain in the elderly: consensus statement of an International Expert Panel with focus on the six clinically most often used World Health Organization Step III opioids (buprenorphine, fentanyl, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone).

    PubMed

    Pergolizzi, Joseph; Böger, Rainer H; Budd, Keith; Dahan, Albert; Erdine, Serdar; Hans, Guy; Kress, Hans-Georg; Langford, Richard; Likar, Rudolf; Raffa, Robert B; Sacerdote, Paola

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY OF CONSENSUS: 1. The use of opioids in cancer pain: The criteria for selecting analgesics for pain treatment in the elderly include, but are not limited to, overall efficacy, overall side-effect profile, onset of action, drug interactions, abuse potential, and practical issues, such as cost and availability of the drug, as well as the severity and type of pain (nociceptive, acute/chronic, etc.). At any given time, the order of choice in the decision-making process can change. This consensus is based on evidence-based literature (extended data are not included and chronic, extended-release opioids are not covered). There are various driving factors relating to prescribing medication, including availability of the compound and cost, which may, at times, be the main driving factor. The transdermal formulation of buprenorphine is available in most European countries, particularly those with high opioid usage, with the exception of France; however, the availability of the sublingual formulation of buprenorphine in Europe is limited, as it is marketed in only a few countries, including Germany and Belgium. The opioid patch is experimental at present in U.S.A. and the sublingual formulation has dispensing restrictions, therefore, its use is limited. It is evident that the population pyramid is upturned. Globally, there is going to be an older population that needs to be cared for in the future. This older population has expectations in life, in that a retiree is no longer an individual who decreases their lifestyle activities. The "baby-boomers" in their 60s and 70s are "baby zoomers"; they want to have a functional active lifestyle. They are willing to make trade-offs regarding treatment choices and understand that they may experience pain, providing that can have increased quality of life and functionality. Therefore, comorbidities--including cancer and noncancer pain, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and postherpetic neuralgia--and patient functional

  2. Solar panel

    SciTech Connect

    Bayles, B.R.

    1981-09-29

    A solar panel includes a base within which are mounted transversely extending conduits. A heat collector plate in the base is in heat conductive relationship with the conduits for the heating of a fluid medium. The base additionally supports a transparent cover outwardly spaced from the heat collector plate to provide a protective insulative air space over the plate. A manifold communicates one series of panels with those of an adjacent series. A modified base dispenses with a collector plate and is formed so as to define integral lengthwise extending passageways for the solar heated medium. Inserted nipples interconnect the passageways of adjacent panels.

  3. Expert credibility in climate change.

    PubMed

    Anderegg, William R L; Prall, James W; Harold, Jacob; Schneider, Stephen H

    2010-07-06

    Although preliminary estimates from published literature and expert surveys suggest striking agreement among climate scientists on the tenets of anthropogenic climate change (ACC), the American public expresses substantial doubt about both the anthropogenic cause and the level of scientific agreement underpinning ACC. A broad analysis of the climate scientist community itself, the distribution of credibility of dissenting researchers relative to agreeing researchers, and the level of agreement among top climate experts has not been conducted and would inform future ACC discussions. Here, we use an extensive dataset of 1,372 climate researchers and their publication and citation data to show that (i) 97-98% of the climate researchers most actively publishing in the field surveyed here support the tenets of ACC outlined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and (ii) the relative climate expertise and scientific prominence of the researchers unconvinced of ACC are substantially below that of the convinced researchers.

  4. Cardiovascular risk reduction in high-risk pediatric patients: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Expert Panel on Population and Prevention Science; the Councils on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, Epidemiology and Prevention, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism, High Blood Pressure Research, Cardiovascular Nursing, and the Kidney in Heart Disease; and the Interdisciplinary Working Group on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research.

    PubMed

    Kavey, Rae-Ellen W; Allada, Vivek; Daniels, Stephen R; Hayman, Laura L; McCrindle, Brian W; Newburger, Jane W; Parekh, Rulan S; Steinberger, Julia

    2007-01-01

    Although for most children the process of atherosclerosis is subclinical, dramatically accelerated atherosclerosis occurs in some pediatric disease states, with clinical coronary events occurring in childhood and very early adult life. As with most scientific statements about children and the future risk for cardiovascular disease, there are no randomized trials documenting the effects of risk reduction on hard clinical outcomes. A growing body of literature, however, identifies the importance of premature cardiovascular disease in the course of certain pediatric diagnoses and addresses the response to risk factor reduction. For this scientific statement, a panel of experts reviewed what is known about very premature cardiovascular disease in 8 high-risk pediatric diagnoses and, from the science base, developed practical recommendations for management of cardiovascular risk.

  5. Liver Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Liver Panel Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Liver Profile; Liver Function Tests; LFTs Formal name: Hepatic ...

  6. Curricula for Media Literacy Education According to International Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorov, Alexander; Levitskaya, Anastasia; Camarero, Emma

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the results of the international experts' survey regarding the curriculum of media literacy education, which was administrated by the authors in September-October 2015. The expert panel includes specialists actively involved in the real process of media literacy education in schools, universities and other educational…

  7. Some properties of probability inversion algorithms to elicit expert opinion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lark, Murray

    2015-04-01

    Probability inversion methods have been developed to infer underlying expert utility functions from rankings that experts offer of subsets of scenarios. The method assumes that the expert ranking reflects an underlying utility, which can be modelled as a function of predictive covariates. This is potentially useful as a method for the extraction of expert opinions for prediction in new scenarios. Two particular algorithms are considered here, the IPF algorithm and the PURE algorithm. The former always converges for consistent sets of rankings and finds a solution which minimizes the mutual information of the estimated utilities and an initial random sample of proposed utilities drawn in the algorithm. In this poster I report some empirical studies on the probability inversion procedure, investigating the effects of the size of the expert panel, the consistency and quality of the expert panel and the validity of the predictive covariates. These results have practical implications for the design of elicitation by probability inversion methods.

  8. Management of neutropenic patients in the intensive care unit (NEWBORNS EXCLUDED) recommendations from an expert panel from the French Intensive Care Society (SRLF) with the French Group for Pediatric Intensive Care Emergencies (GFRUP), the French Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care (SFAR), the French Society of Hematology (SFH), the French Society for Hospital Hygiene (SF2H), and the French Infectious Diseases Society (SPILF).

    PubMed

    Schnell, David; Azoulay, Elie; Benoit, Dominique; Clouzeau, Benjamin; Demaret, Pierre; Ducassou, Stéphane; Frange, Pierre; Lafaurie, Matthieu; Legrand, Matthieu; Meert, Anne-Pascale; Mokart, Djamel; Naudin, Jérôme; Pene, Frédéric; Rabbat, Antoine; Raffoux, Emmanuel; Ribaud, Patricia; Richard, Jean-Christophe; Vincent, François; Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Darmon, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Neutropenia is defined by either an absolute or functional defect (acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome) of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and is associated with high risk of specific complications that may require intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Specificities in the management of critically ill neutropenic patients prompted the establishment of guidelines dedicated to intensivists. These recommendations were drawn up by a panel of experts brought together by the French Intensive Care Society in collaboration with the French Group for Pediatric Intensive Care Emergencies, the French Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, the French Society of Hematology, the French Society for Hospital Hygiene, and the French Infectious Diseases Society. Literature review and formulation of recommendations were performed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Each recommendation was then evaluated and rated by each expert using a methodology derived from the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method. Six fields are covered by the provided recommendations: (1) ICU admission and prognosis, (2) protective isolation and prophylaxis, (3) management of acute respiratory failure, (4) organ failure and organ support, (5) antibiotic management and source control, and (6) hematological management. Most of the provided recommendations are obtained from low levels of evidence, however, suggesting a need for additional studies. Seven recommendations were, however, associated with high level of evidences and are related to protective isolation, diagnostic workup of acute respiratory failure, medical management, and timing surgery in patients with typhlitis.

  9. 75 FR 71702 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Request for Nominations of Experts for Review of EPA's Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... Board (SAB) Staff Office is requesting public nominations for technical experts to augment the SAB's... protection. ] The SAB Staff Office will form an expert panel by augmenting the RAC to review the EPA's...

  10. Panel Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Mid-Year Meeting, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Lists the speakers and summarizes the issues addressed for 12 panel sessions on topics related to networking, including libraries and national networks, federal national resources and energy programs, multimedia issues, telecommuting, remote image serving, accessing the Internet, library automation, scientific information, applications of Z39.50,…

  11. Media Panel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marklund, Inger, Ed.; Hanse, Mona-Britt, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    The Swedish Media Panel is a research program about children and young persons and their use of mass media. The aim of the ten-year (1975-1985) project is to explain how media habits originate, how they change as children grow older, what factors on the part of children themselves and in their surroundings may be connected with a certain use of…

  12. Approaches to the verification of rule-based expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, Chris; Riley, Gary; Savely, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    Expert systems are a highly useful spinoff of artificial intelligence research. One major stumbling block to extended use of expert systems is the lack of well-defined verification and validation (V and V) methodologies. Since expert systems are computer programs, the definitions of verification and validation from conventional software are applicable. The primary difficulty with expert systems is the use of development methodologies which do not support effective V and V. If proper techniques are used to document requirements, V and V of rule-based expert systems is possible, and may be easier than with conventional code. For NASA applications, the flight technique panels used in previous programs should provide an excellent way to verify the rules used in expert systems. There are, however, some inherent differences in expert systems that will affect V and V considerations.

  13. Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia: new insights and guidance for clinicians to improve detection and clinical management. A position paper from the Consensus Panel on Familial Hypercholesterolaemia of the European Atherosclerosis Society

    PubMed Central

    Cuchel, Marina; Bruckert, Eric; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Raal, Frederick J.; Santos, Raul D.; Hegele, Robert A.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Descamps, Olivier S.; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Watts, Gerald F.; Averna, Maurizio; Boileau, Catherine; Borén, Jan; Catapano, Alberico L.; Defesche, Joep C.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Humphries, Steve E.; Kovanen, Petri T.; Masana, Luis; Pajukanta, Päivi; Parhofer, Klaus G.; Ray, Kausik K.; Stalenhoef, Anton F. H.; Stroes, Erik; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Wiegman, Albert; Wiklund, Olov; Chapman, M. John; Cuchel, Marina; Bruckert, Eric; Chapman, M. John; Descamps, Olivier S.; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Hegele, Robert A.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Raal, Frederick J.; Santos, Raul D.; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Watts, Gerald F.; Chapman, M. John; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Averna, Maurizio; Boileau, Catherine; Borén, Jan; Catapano, Alberico L.; Defesche, Joep C.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Humphries, Steve E.; Kovanen, Petri T.; Masana, Luis; Pajukanta, Päivi; Parhofer, Klaus G.; Ray, Kausik K.; Stalenhoef, Anton F. H.; Stroes, Erik; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Wiegman, Albert; Wiklund, Olov

    2014-01-01

    Aims Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) is a rare life-threatening condition characterized by markedly elevated circulating levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and accelerated, premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD). Given recent insights into the heterogeneity of genetic defects and clinical phenotype of HoFH, and the availability of new therapeutic options, this Consensus Panel on Familial Hypercholesterolaemia of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) critically reviewed available data with the aim of providing clinical guidance for the recognition and management of HoFH. Methods and results Early diagnosis of HoFH and prompt initiation of diet and lipid-lowering therapy are critical. Genetic testing may provide a definitive diagnosis, but if unavailable, markedly elevated LDL-C levels together with cutaneous or tendon xanthomas before 10 years, or untreated elevated LDL-C levels consistent with heterozygous FH in both parents, are suggestive of HoFH. We recommend that patients with suspected HoFH are promptly referred to specialist centres for a comprehensive ACVD evaluation and clinical management. Lifestyle intervention and maximal statin therapy are the mainstays of treatment, ideally started in the first year of life or at an initial diagnosis, often with ezetimibe and other lipid-modifying therapy. As patients rarely achieve LDL-C targets, adjunctive lipoprotein apheresis is recommended where available, preferably started by age 5 and no later than 8 years. The number of therapeutic approaches has increased following approval of lomitapide and mipomersen for HoFH. Given the severity of ACVD, we recommend regular follow-up, including Doppler echocardiographic evaluation of the heart and aorta annually, stress testing and, if available, computed tomography coronary angiography every 5 years, or less if deemed necessary. Conclusion This EAS Consensus Panel highlights the need for early identification of Ho

  14. Robotics and expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at ROBEXS' 86, the Second Annual Workshop on Robotics and Expert Systems. Many diverse perspectives on automation problems, and on the merging of robotics and expert systems technology with conventional systems, are contained in this book. The contents include: Integrated Expert Systems Applications; Expert Systems Theory and Applications, Robotics, Intelligent Control, CAD/CAE/CAM, AI Tools, Human Factors, and intelligent Interfaces.

  15. The Expert Witness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    As consumers organize and industry begins to feel the economic pinch of pollution control laws, litigation may increase as will the need for the expert witness. Discussed are the functions and preparations of expert witnesses, their role and conduct in judicial proceedings, and the techniques of being an expert witness. (BT)

  16. 61. Upper panel in cornerpower panel lcpa lower panel in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. Upper panel in corner-power panel lcpa lower panel in corner-oxygen regeneration unit, at right-air conditioner control panel, on floor-bio-pack 45 for emergency breathing, looking northwest - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  17. Architectural Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Alliance Wall Corporation's Whyteboard, a porcelain enamel on steel panels wall board, owes its color stability to a KIAC engineering background study to identify potential technologies and manufacturers of equipment which could be used to detect surface flaws. One result of the data base search was the purchase of a spectrocolorimeter which enables the company to control some 250 standard colors, and match special colors.

  18. Expert study to select indicators of the occurrence of emerging mycotoxin hazards.

    PubMed

    Kandhai, M C; Booij, C J H; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a Delphi-based expert judgment study aimed at the selection of indicators to identify the occurrence of emerging mycotoxin hazards related to Fusarium spp. in wheat supply chains. A panel of 29 experts from 12 European countries followed a holistic approach to evaluate the most important indicators for different chain stages (growth, transport and storage, and processing) and their relative importance. After three e-mailing rounds, the experts reached consensus on the most important indicators for each of the three stages: wheat growth, transport and storage, and processing. For wheat growth, these indicators include: relative humidity/rainfall, crop rotation, temperature, tillage practice, water activity of the kernels, and crop variety/cultivar. For the transport and storage stage, they include water activity in the kernels, relative humidity, ventilation, temperature, storage capacity, and logistics. For wheat processing, indicators include quality data, fraction of the cereal used, water activity in the kernels, quality management and traceability systems, and carryover of contamination. The indicators selected in this study can be used in an identification system for the occurrence of emerging mycotoxin hazards in wheat supply chains. Such a system can be used by risk managers within governmental (related) organizations and/or the food and feed industry in order to react proactively to the occurrence of these emerging mycotoxins.

  19. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-12-01

    conducted where every aspect of this large project was scrutinised by an international panel of independent experts. The panel found that the E-ELT project is technically ready to enter the construction phase. The go-ahead for E-ELT construction is planned for 2011 and when operations start early in the next decade, European, Brazilian and Chilean astronomers will have access to this giant telescope. The president of ESO's governing body, the Council, Laurent Vigroux, concludes: "Astronomers in Brazil will benefit from collaborating with European colleagues, and naturally from having observing time at ESO's world-class observatories at La Silla and Paranal, as well as on ALMA, which ESO is constructing with its international partners." Notes [1] After ratification of Brazil's membership, the ESO Member States will be Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the

  20. Heat exchanger panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warburton, Robert E. (Inventor); Cuva, William J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a heat exchanger panel which has broad utility in high temperature environments. The heat exchanger panel has a first panel, a second panel, and at least one fluid containment device positioned intermediate the first and second panels. At least one of the first panel and the second panel have at least one feature on an interior surface to accommodate the at least one fluid containment device. In a preferred embodiment, each of the first and second panels is formed from a high conductivity, high temperature composite material. Also, in a preferred embodiment, the first and second panels are joined together by one or more composite fasteners.

  1. Expert Teacher Action Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Eva

    The expert teacher action program is to improve classroom teaching performance. The program has been tested in workshop sessions involving more than 1,200 educators representing 50 school districts. A set of standards, consisting of 25 variables, lead to the definition of expert teaching. Each variable deals with a major aspect of the duties of…

  2. Expert system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Mary Ellen

    1987-01-01

    The expert system is a computer program which attempts to reproduce the problem-solving behavior of an expert, who is able to view problems from a broad perspective and arrive at conclusions rapidly, using intuition, shortcuts, and analogies to previous situations. Expert systems are a departure from the usual artificial intelligence approach to problem solving. Researchers have traditionally tried to develop general modes of human intelligence that could be applied to many different situations. Expert systems, on the other hand, tend to rely on large quantities of domain specific knowledge, much of it heuristic. The reasoning component of the system is relatively simple and straightforward. For this reason, expert systems are often called knowledge based systems. The report expands on the foregoing. Section 1 discusses the architecture of a typical expert system. Section 2 deals with the characteristics that make a problem a suitable candidate for expert system solution. Section 3 surveys current technology, describing some of the software aids available for expert system development. Section 4 discusses the limitations of the latter. The concluding section makes predictions of future trends.

  3. Expert networks in CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruska, S. I.; Dalke, A.; Ferguson, J. J.; Lacher, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    Rule-based expert systems may be structurally and functionally mapped onto a special class of neural networks called expert networks. This mapping lends itself to adaptation of connectionist learning strategies for the expert networks. A parsing algorithm to translate C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) rules into a network of interconnected assertion and operation nodes has been developed. The translation of CLIPS rules to an expert network and back again is illustrated. Measures of uncertainty similar to those rules in MYCIN-like systems are introduced into the CLIPS system and techniques for combining and hiring nodes in the network based on rule-firing with these certainty factors in the expert system are presented. Several learning algorithms are under study which automate the process of attaching certainty factors to rules.

  4. World Health Organization Estimates of the Relative Contributions of Food to the Burden of Disease Due to Selected Foodborne Hazards: A Structured Expert Elicitation

    PubMed Central

    Hald, Tine; Aspinall, Willy; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Cooke, Roger; Corrigan, Tim; Havelaar, Arie H.; Gibb, Herman J.; Torgerson, Paul R.; Kirk, Martyn D.; Angulo, Fred J.; Lake, Robin J.; Speybroeck, Niko; Hoffmann, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    providing estimates for one or more subregions, depending on their experience in the region. The size of the 19 hazard-specific panels ranged from 6 to 15 persons with several experts serving on more than one panel. Pathogens with animal reservoirs (e.g. non-typhoidal Salmonella spp. and Toxoplasma gondii) were in general assessed by the experts to have a higher proportion of illnesses attributable to food than pathogens with mainly a human reservoir, where human-to-human transmission (e.g. Shigella spp. and Norovirus) or waterborne transmission (e.g. Salmonella Typhi and Vibrio cholerae) were judged to dominate. For many pathogens, the foodborne route was assessed relatively more important in developed subregions than in developing subregions. The main exposure routes for lead varied across subregions, with the foodborne route being assessed most important only in two subregions of the European region. Conclusions For the first time, we present worldwide estimates of the proportion of specific diseases attributable to food and other major transmission routes. These findings are essential for global burden of FBD estimates. While gaps exist, we believe the estimates presented here are the best current source of guidance to support decision makers when allocating resources for control and intervention, and for future research initiatives. PMID:26784029

  5. Future Challenges in Higher Education--Bologna Experts' Community Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yemini, Miri

    2012-01-01

    This work presents results from systematic analysis of the challenges for the future of higher education in European and neighboring countries as it was extracted from the Bologna experts and Higher Education Reform experts' opinions. Opinions of more than 100 experts from 35 countries were documented and analyzed. Significant differences in the…

  6. Welfare: Expert Panel’s Insights on Major Reform Proposals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-03

    call Mr. Franklin Frazier, Associate Director, on 275-619Z. Sincerely yours, Richard L. Fogel Assistant Coi troller General Enclosure Page 15 GAO/HRD...220m1katol Robert Agranoff. Professor School of Public and Environmental Affairs Indiana University Harold Beebout, Director of Research Mathematics Policy...Human Resources Division General Accounting Office Welt Cradle. Assistant Director Department of Social Services Virginia Reach. Virginia Robert

  7. Identifying Characteristics of Dissemination Success Using an Expert Panel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourrie, David M.; Cegielski, Casey G.; Jones-Farmer, L. Allison; Sankar, Chetan S.

    2014-01-01

    Although considerable work has been done to develop new educational innovations, few have found widespread acceptance in the classroom. To improve the likelihood of adoption of educational innovations, researchers need to understand why some innovations are adopted and routinely used, while others are not. An initial aspect of the diffusion of…

  8. Expert Panel Reviews of Research Centers: The Site Visit Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrenz, Frances; Thao, Mao; Johnson, Kelli

    2012-01-01

    Site visits are used extensively in a variety of settings within the evaluation community. They are especially common in making summative value decisions about the quality and worth of research programs/centers. However, there has been little empirical research and guidance about how to appropriately conduct evaluative site visits of research…

  9. Genotoxicity of radiofrequency radiation. DNA/Genetox Expert Panel.

    PubMed

    Brusick, D; Albertini, R; McRee, D; Peterson, D; Williams, G; Hanawalt, P; Preston, J

    1998-01-01

    During the past several years, concerns have been raised regarding the potential adverse effects of exposures to nonionizing radiation, particularly in the extremely low frequency (ELF) range (50 to 60 MHz) and radiofrequency radiation (RFR) with frequencies ranging from 30 KHz to 30,000 MHz. One focus of concern has been potential DNA interactions. Publications reviewing the genotoxicity of ELF radiation [McCann et al. (1993): Mutat Res 297(1):61-95; Murphy et al. (1993): Mutat Res 296:221-240; NAS (1997)], have been uniform in concluding that the weight of evidence does not indicate any genotoxic risk from exposure to this type of radiation. Concern that RFR may be associated with adverse biological effects [WHO, 1993], including recent allegations that they may be involved in the production of brain tumors in humans [Elmer-Dewit (1993): Time, February 8:42], has resulted in the production of a large number of publications describing the effects of RFR on the integrity of nucleic acids. Data from studies conducted in a frequency range from 800 to 3,000 MHz were reviewed and subjected to a weight-of-evidence evaluation. The evaluation focused on direct toxicological effects of RFR as well as on studies addressing basic biological responses to RFR at the cellular and molecular level. The data from over 100 studies suggest that RFR is not directly mutagenic and that adverse effects from exposure of organisms to high frequencies and high power intensities of RFR are predominantly the result of hyperthermia; however, there may be some subtle indirect effects on the replication and/or transcription of genes under relatively restricted exposure conditions.

  10. Verification issues for rule-based expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, Chris; Riley, Gary; Savely, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    Verification and validation of expert systems is very important for the future success of this technology. Software will never be used in non-trivial applications unless the program developers can assure both users and managers that the software is reliable and generally free from error. Therefore, verification and validation of expert systems must be done. The primary hindrance to effective verification and validation is the use of methodologies which do not produce testable requirements. An extension of the flight technique panels used in previous NASA programs should provide both documented requirements and very high levels of verification for expert systems.

  11. A European Sustainable Tourism Labels proposal using a composite indicator

    SciTech Connect

    Blancas, Francisco Javier; Lozano-Oyola, Macarena; González, Mercedes

    2015-09-15

    The tourism sector in Europe faces important challenges which it must deal with to promote its future development. In this context, the European Commission considers that two key issues must be addressed. On the one hand, a better base of socio-economic knowledge about tourism and its relationship with the environment is needed, and, on the other hand, it is necessary to improve the image of European areas as quality sustainable tourism destinations. In this paper we present analytical tools that cover these needs. Specifically, we define a system of sustainable tourism indicators and we obtain a composite indicator incorporating weights quantified using a panel of experts. Employing the values of this global indicator as a basis, we define a Sustainable Tourism Country-Brand Ranking which assesses the perception of each country-brand depending on its degree of sustainability, and a system of sustainable tourism labels which reward the management carried out. - Highlights: • We define a system of indicators to improve the knowledge about sustainable tourism. • We obtain composite indicators based on expert knowledge. • The Sustainable Tourism Country-Brand Ranking would improve the image of destinations. • We define a Sustainable Tourism Labels System to assess country-brands. • The conclusions of the empirical analysis can be extrapolated to other tourist areas.

  12. Panel Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, James

    1997-03-01

    Panelists: Arthur Bienenstock, Stanford University Cherry Ann Murray, Lucent Technologies Venkatesh Narayanamurti, University of California-Santa Barbara Paul Peercy, SEMI-SEMATECH Robert Richardson, Cornell University James Roberto, Oak Ridge National Laboratory The Board on Physics and Astronomy is undertaking a series of reassessments of all branches of physics as the foundation of a new physics survey. As part of this project, a Committee on Condensed Matter and Materials Physics has been established under the leadership of Venkatesh Narayanamurti of the University of California-Santa Barbara. The committee has been working since June on a study that will include an illustrative recounting of major recent achievements; identification of new opportunities and challenges facing the field; and articulation-for leaders in government, industry, universities, and the public at large-of the important roles played by the field in modern society. An especially urgent issue is how to maintain the intellectual vitality of condensed matter and materials physics, and its contributions to the well-being of the United States, in an era of limited resources. The forum will feature a panel of materials researchers who are members of the Committee on Condensed Matter and Materials Physics. They will give a brief report on the status of the study and engage in a dialogue with the audience about issues facing the condensed matter and materials physics community. Broad community input is vital to the success of the study. Please come and make your voice heard!

  13. Benchmarking expert system tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary

    1988-01-01

    As part of its evaluation of new technologies, the Artificial Intelligence Section of the Mission Planning and Analysis Div. at NASA-Johnson has made timing tests of several expert system building tools. Among the production systems tested were Automated Reasoning Tool, several versions of OPS5, and CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System), an expert system builder developed by the AI section. Also included in the test were a Zetalisp version of the benchmark along with four versions of the benchmark written in Knowledge Engineering Environment, an object oriented, frame based expert system tool. The benchmarks used for testing are studied.

  14. Safety organizations and experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, G.; Rubinstein, R. I.; Pinto, J. J.; Meschkow, S. Z.

    1977-01-01

    Handbook lists organizations and experts in specific, well defined areas of safety technology. Special emphasis is given to relevant safety information sources on aircraft fire hazards and aircraft interior flammability.

  15. Expert systems - 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, T.C.; Miller, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    This is the 1987 updated version of expert systems which includes diverse areas such as CAD/CAM, business management, robotics, welding, computer hardware and software support, electronic design, medicine, insurance, transportation, and maintenance. AI Language Compilers are also inventoried. This handbook is designed to give an overview of the entire field and to assist the reader in sorting through the hundreds of expert systems which are developed to identify cost-effective tools and applications for in-house implementation.

  16. Expert Consensus on Characteristics of Wisdom: A Delphi Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeste, Dilip V.; Ardelt, Monika; Blazer, Dan; Kraemer, Helena C.; Vaillant, George; Meeks, Thomas W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Wisdom has received increasing attention in empirical research in recent years, especially in gerontology and psychology, but consistent definitions of wisdom remain elusive. We sought to better characterize this concept via an expert consensus panel using a 2-phase Delphi method. Design and Methods: A survey questionnaire comprised 53…

  17. 40 CFR 766.28 - Expert review of protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Expert review of protocols. 766.28 Section 766.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES.../or chemical wastes for HDDs/HDFs. The panel will recommend to the Director, EPA Office of...

  18. Cardiovascular risk reduction in high-risk pediatric patients: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Expert Panel on Population and Prevention Science; the Councils on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, Epidemiology and Prevention, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism, High Blood Pressure Research, Cardiovascular Nursing, and the Kidney in Heart Disease; and the Interdisciplinary Working Group on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research: endorsed by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Kavey, Rae-Ellen W; Allada, Vivek; Daniels, Stephen R; Hayman, Laura L; McCrindle, Brian W; Newburger, Jane W; Parekh, Rulan S; Steinberger, Julia

    2006-12-12

    Although for most children the process of atherosclerosis is subclinical, dramatically accelerated atherosclerosis occurs in some pediatric disease states, with clinical coronary events occurring in childhood and very early adult life. As with most scientific statements about children and the future risk for cardiovascular disease, there are no randomized trials documenting the effects of risk reduction on hard clinical outcomes. A growing body of literature, however, identifies the importance of premature cardiovascular disease in the course of certain pediatric diagnoses and addresses the response to risk factor reduction. For this scientific statement, a panel of experts reviewed what is known about very premature cardiovascular disease in 8 high-risk pediatric diagnoses and, from the science base, developed practical recommendations for management of cardiovascular risk.

  19. Panel Session on the Future of Few-Body Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, Bernard L. G.; Carbonell, Jaume; Elster, Charlotte; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, Nasser; Richard, Jean-Marc

    2014-08-01

    During the 22nd European Few-Body Conference, a session was devoted to a panel discussion on the future of few-body physics. The panel members were Charlotte Elster, Jaume Carbonell, Evgeny Epelbaum, Nasser Kalantar-Nayestanaki, and Jean-Marc Richard. The session was chaired by Ben Bakker. After presentations by the panel members, several topics were discussed with the audience. The conclusions of this discussion are presented in this paper.

  20. Maintaining success, reducing treatment burden, focusing on survivorship: highlights from the third European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Beyer, J; Albers, P; Altena, R; Aparicio, J; Bokemeyer, C; Busch, J; Cathomas, R; Cavallin-Stahl, E; Clarke, N W; Claßen, J; Cohn-Cedermark, G; Dahl, A A; Daugaard, G; De Giorgi, U; De Santis, M; De Wit, M; De Wit, R; Dieckmann, K P; Fenner, M; Fizazi, K; Flechon, A; Fossa, S D; Germá Lluch, J R; Gietema, J A; Gillessen, S; Giwercman, A; Hartmann, J T; Heidenreich, A; Hentrich, M; Honecker, F; Horwich, A; Huddart, R A; Kliesch, S; Kollmannsberger, C; Krege, S; Laguna, M P; Looijenga, L H J; Lorch, A; Lotz, J P; Mayer, F; Necchi, A; Nicolai, N; Nuver, J; Oechsle, K; Oldenburg, J; Oosterhuis, J W; Powles, T; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Rick, O; Rosti, G; Salvioni, R; Schrader, M; Schweyer, S; Sedlmayer, F; Sohaib, A; Souchon, R; Tandstad, T; Winter, C; Wittekind, C

    2013-04-01

    In November 2011, the Third European Consensus Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of Germ-Cell Cancer (GCC) was held in Berlin, Germany. This third conference followed similar meetings in 2003 (Essen, Germany) and 2006 (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) [Schmoll H-J, Souchon R, Krege S et al. European consensus on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer: a report of the European Germ-Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG). Ann Oncol 2004; 15: 1377-1399; Krege S, Beyer J, Souchon R et al. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ-Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part I. Eur Urol 2008; 53: 478-496; Krege S, Beyer J, Souchon R et al. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ-Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part II. Eur Urol 2008; 53: 497-513]. A panel of 56 of 60 invited GCC experts from all across Europe discussed all aspects on diagnosis and treatment of GCC, with a particular focus on acute and late toxic effects as well as on survivorship issues. The panel consisted of oncologists, urologic surgeons, radiooncologists, pathologists and basic scientists, who are all actively involved in care of GCC patients. Panelists were chosen based on the publication activity in recent years. Before the meeting, panelists were asked to review the literature published since 2006 in 20 major areas concerning all aspects of diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of GCC patients, and to prepare an updated version of the previous recommendations to be discussed at the conference. In addition, ∼50 E-vote questions were drafted and presented at the conference to address the most controversial areas for a poll of expert opinions. Here, we present the main recommendations and controversies of this meeting. The votes of the panelists are added as online supplements.

  1. State-of-the-art fertility preservation in children and adolescents undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a report on the expert meeting of the Paediatric Diseases Working Party (PDWP) of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) in Baden, Austria, 29-30 September 2015.

    PubMed

    Dalle, J-H; Lucchini, G; Balduzzi, A; Ifversen, M; Jahnukainen, K; Macklon, K T; Ahler, A; Jarisch, A; Ansari, M; Beohou, E; Bresters, D; Corbacioglu, S; Dalissier, A; Diaz de Heredia Rubio, C; Diesch, T; Gibson, B; Klingebiel, T; Lankester, A; Lawitschka, A; Moffat, R; Peters, C; Poirot, C; Saenger, N; Sedlacek, P; Trigoso, E; Vettenranta, K; Wachowiak, J; Willasch, A; von Wolff, M; Yaniv, I; Yesilipek, A; Bader, P

    2017-03-13

    Nowadays, allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a well-established treatment procedure and often the only cure for many patients with malignant and non-malignant diseases. Decrease in short-term complications has substantially contributed to increased survival. Therefore long-term sequelae are reaching the focus of patient care. One of the most important risks of stem cell transplant survivors is infertility. As well as in the field of allo-HSCT also the field of reproductive medicine has achieved substantial advances to offer potential options for fertility preservation in both boys and girls. Access to these procedures as well as their financing differs significantly throughout Europe. As all European children and adolescents should have the same possibility, the Paediatric Diseases Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation organised an expert meeting in September 2015. This manuscript describes the recommendations for the diagnosis and pre-emptive procedures that should be offered to all children and adolescents in Europe who have to undergo an allo-HSCT.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 13 March 2017; doi:10.1038/bmt.2017.21.

  2. A European Humus Forms Reference Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanella, A.; Englisch, M.; Ponge, J.-F.; Jabiol, B.; Sartori, G.; Gardi, C.

    2012-04-01

    From 2003 on, a panel of experts in humus and humus dynamics (Humus group) has been working about a standardisation and improvement of existing national humus classifications. Some important goals have been reached, in order to share data and experiences: a) definition of specific terms; b) description of 15 types of diagnostic horizons; c) of 10 basic humus forms references; d) subdivision of each main reference in 2-4 sub-unities; e) elaboration of a general European Humus Form Reference Base (http://hal-agroparistech.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/56/17/95/PDF/Humus_Forms_ERB_31_01_2011.pdf); f) publication of the scientific significance of this base of classification as an article [A European morpho-functional classification of humus forms. Geoderma, 164 (3-4), 138-145]. The classification will be updated every 2 years and presently the Humus group is assessing biological (general: soil, vegetation, biome; specific: fungi, bacteria, pedofauna), physical (air temperature, rainfall) and chemical (pH, mineral elements, organic matter, quality and quantity of humic components…) factors which characterize basic humus forms and their varieties. The content of the new version of the classification is planned to be more "practical", like an ecological manual which lists associated humus forms and environmental data in the aim to contribute to a more precise environmental diagnosis of every analysed terrestrial and semiterrestrial European ecosystem. The Humus group is also involved in an endeavour to include humus forms in the World Reference Base for Soils (WRB-FAO) according to nomenclatural principles erected for soil profiles. Thirty basic references have been defined, complemented by a set of qualifiers (prefixes and suffixes), allowing to classify European humus forms and probably a large majority of humus forms known worldwide. The principles of the classification, the diagnostic horizons and humus forms main references are presented at the General Assembly of

  3. Evaluation of a Performance-Based Expert Elicitation: WHO Global Attribution of Foodborne Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Aspinall, W. P.; Cooke, R. M.; Havelaar, A. H.; Hoffmann, S.; Hald, T.

    2016-01-01

    For many societally important science-based decisions, data are inadequate, unreliable or non-existent, and expert advice is sought. In such cases, procedures for eliciting structured expert judgments (SEJ) are increasingly used. This raises questions regarding validity and reproducibility. This paper presents new findings from a large-scale international SEJ study intended to estimate the global burden of foodborne disease on behalf of WHO. The study involved 72 experts distributed over 134 expert panels, with panels comprising thirteen experts on average. Elicitations were conducted in five languages. Performance-based weighted solutions for target questions of interest were formed for each panel. These weights were based on individual expert’s statistical accuracy and informativeness, determined using between ten and fifteen calibration variables from the experts' field with known values. Equal weights combinations were also calculated. The main conclusions on expert performance are: (1) SEJ does provide a science-based method for attribution of the global burden of foodborne diseases; (2) equal weighting of experts per panel increased statistical accuracy to acceptable levels, but at the cost of informativeness; (3) performance-based weighting increased informativeness, while retaining accuracy; (4) due to study constraints individual experts’ accuracies were generally lower than in other SEJ studies, and (5) there was a negative correlation between experts' informativeness and statistical accuracy which attenuated as accuracy improved, revealing that the least accurate experts drive the negative correlation. It is shown, however, that performance-based weighting has the ability to yield statistically accurate and informative combinations of experts' judgments, thereby offsetting this contrary influence. The present findings suggest that application of SEJ on a large scale is feasible, and motivate the development of enhanced training and tools for remote

  4. Unsaturated Zone Flow Model Expert Elicitation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Coppersmith, K. J.

    1997-05-30

    This report presents results of the Unsaturated Zone Flow Model Expert Elicitation (UZFMEE) project at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Geomatrix Consultants, Inc. (Geomatrix), for TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc. The objective of this project was to identify and assess the uncertainties associated with certain key components of the unsaturated zone flow system at Yucca Mountain. This assessment reviewed the data inputs, modeling approaches, and results of the unsaturated zone flow model (termed the ''UZ site-scale model'') being developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the US Geological Survey (USGS). In addition to data input and modeling issues, the assessment focused on percolation flux (volumetric flow rate per unit cross-sectional area) at the potential repository horizon. An understanding of unsaturated zone processes is critical to evaluating the performance of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. A major goal of the project was to capture the uncertainties involved in assessing the unsaturated flow processes, including uncertainty in both the models used to represent physical controls on unsaturated zone flow and the parameter values used in the models. To ensure that the analysis included a wide range of perspectives, multiple individual judgments were elicited from members of an expert panel. The panel members, who were experts from within and outside the Yucca Mountain project, represented a range of experience and expertise. A deliberate process was followed in facilitating interactions among the experts, in training them to express their uncertainties, and in eliciting their interpretations. The resulting assessments and probability distributions, therefore, provide a reasonable aggregate representation of the knowledge and uncertainties about key issues regarding the unsaturated zone at the Yucca Mountain site.

  5. Pantex Falling Man - Independent Review Panel Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bertolini, Louis; Brannon, Nathan; Olson, Jared; Price, Bernard; Wardle, Robert; Steinzig, Mike; Winfield, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Consolidated Nuclear Security (CNS) Pantex took the initiative to organize a Review Panel of subject matter experts to independently assess the adequacy of the Pantex Tripping Man Analysis methodology. The purpose of this report is to capture the details of the assessment including the scope, approach, results, and detailed Appendices. Along with the assessment of the analysis methodology, the panel evaluated the adequacy with which the methodology was applied as well as congruence with Department of Energy (DOE) standards 3009 and 3016. The approach included the review of relevant documentation, interactive discussion with Pantex staff, and the iterative process of evaluating critical lines of inquiry.

  6. CSIR at TREC 2008 Expert Search Task: Modeling Expert Evidence in Expert Search

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    CSIR at TREC 2008 Expert Search Task: Modeling Expert Evidence in Expert Search Jiepu Jiang1, Wei Lu1, Haozhen Zhao2 1 Center for Studies of...AND SUBTITLE CSIR at TREC 2008 Expert Search Task: Modeling Expert Evidence in Expert Search 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...15. J. Jiang, W. Lu, D. Liu. CSIR at TREC 2007. In Proceedings of the 16th Text REtrieval Conference (TREC 2007), 2007. 16. J. Jiang, W. Lu. IR

  7. Avionic expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golshani, Forouzan

    1988-01-01

    At the heart of any intelligent flight control system, there is a knowledge based expert system. The efficiency of these knowledge bases is one of the major factors in the success of aviation and space control systems. In the future, the speed and the capabilities of the expert system and their underlying data base(s) will be the limiting factors in the ability to build more accurate real time space controllers. A methodology is proposed for design and construction of such expert systems. It is noted that existing expert systems are inefficient (slow) in dealing with nontrivial real world situations that involve a vast collection of data. However, current data bases, which are fast in handling large amounts of data, cannot carry out intelligent tasks normally expected from an expert system. The system presented provides the power of deduction (reasoning) along with the efficient mechanisms for management of large data bases. In the system, both straight forward evaluation procedures and sophisticated inference mechanisms coexist. The design methodology is based on mathematics and logic, which ensures the correctness of the final product.

  8. 76 FR 33765 - CHIPRA Pediatric Quality Measures Program: Request for Nominations for Expert Panelists

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... children, particularly children with special physical, mental, and developmental health care needs; dental... enhanced children's health care quality measures will be evaluated. The expected time commitment for expert panelists is up to 3 days. This includes travel to and from the expert panel meeting to be held on...

  9. Current and Emerging Ethical Issues in Counseling: A Delphi Study of Expert Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herlihy, Barbara; Dufrene, Roxane L.

    2011-01-01

    A Delphi study was conducted to ascertain the opinions of panel experts regarding the most important current and emerging ethical issues facing the counseling profession. Expert opinions on ethical issues in counselor preparation also were sought. Eighteen panelists responded to 3 rounds of data collection interspersed with feedback. Themes that…

  10. Diabetes mellitus in older people: position statement on behalf of the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics (IAGG), the European Diabetes Working Party for Older People (EDWPOP), and the International Task Force of Experts in Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Alan; Morley, John E; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leo; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Bayer, Tony; Zeyfang, Andrej; Bourdel-Marchasson, Isabelle; Vischer, Ulrich; Woo, Jean; Chapman, Ian; Dunning, Trisha; Meneilly, Graydon; Rodriguez-Saldana, Joel; Gutierrez Robledo, Luis Miguel; Cukierman-Yaffe, Tali; Gadsby, Roger; Schernthaner, Guntram; Lorig, Kate

    2012-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a highly prevalent metabolic condition in ageing societies associated with high levels of morbidity, multiple therapies, and functional deterioration that challenges even the best of health care systems to deliver high-quality, individualized care. Most international clinical guidelines have ignored the often-unique issues of frailty, functional limitation, changes in mental health, and increasing dependency that characterize many aged patients with diabetes. A collaborative Expert Group of the IAGG and EDWPOP and an International Task Force have explored the key issues that affect diabetes in older people using a robust method comprising a Delphi process and an evidence-based review of the literature. Eight domains of interest were initially agreed and discussed: hypoglycemia, therapy, care home diabetes, influence of comorbidities, glucose targets, family/carer perspectives, diabetes education, and patient safety. A set of "consensus" statements was produced in each domain of interest. These form a foundation for future policy development in this area and should influence the clinical behavior and approach of all health professionals engaged in delivering diabetes care to older people.

  11. Fracture mechanics expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, E.; Elfer, N.; Casadaban, C.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to fracture mechanics, an analytical method used extensively in the National Space Transportation System to conservatively predict the remaining service life of an article when a flaw or a material defect is detected. These analyses are performed on hardware containing material defects that have been detected by various nondestructive inspection techniques. An expert system being developed to streamline the process so that hardware dispositions may be obtained in a timely and consistent manner is discussed. The expert system reduces the potential for errors due to the manual transcription between the various software programs involved in completing a fracture mechanics analysis. NEXPERT Object, the expert system development shell selected for this purpose, allows the various software programs used in fracture mechanics analyses to be accessed and manipulated from the same platform.

  12. Validation of expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stachowitz, Rolf A.; Combs, Jacqueline B.

    1988-01-01

    The validation of expert systems (ESs) has only recently become an active AI research topic. Current approaches have concentrated mainly on the validation of rule properties of such systems. The efforts presented improves on current methods by also exploiting the structural and semantic information of such systems. To increase programmer productivity, more and more companies have begun exploiting the advent of AI technology by developing applications using ES shells or other AI-based high level program generators. The architecture, functionality, and future goals of Expert Systems Validation are described along with the features that have been implemented for and in Automated Reasoning Tool, the ES shell presented.

  13. JANNAF Liquid Rocket Combustion Instability Panel Research Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klem, Mark D.

    1990-01-01

    The Joint Army, Navy, NASA, Air Force (JANNAF) Liquid Rocket Combustion Instability Panel was formed in 1988, drawing its members from industry, academia, and government experts. The panel was chartered to address the needs of near-term engine development programs and to make recommendations whose implementation would provide not only sufficient data but also the analysis capabilities to design stable and efficient engines. The panel was also chartered to make long-term recommendations toward developing mechanistic analysis models that would not be limited by design geometry or operating regime. These models would accurately predict stability and thereby minimize the amount of subscale testing for anchoring. The panel has held workshops on acoustic absorbing devices and combustion instability computational methods. At these workshops, research projects that would meet the panel's charter were suggested. The panel's conclusions about the work that needs to be done and recommendations on how to approach it, based on evaluation of the suggested research projects, are presented.

  14. A new way to ask the experts: Rating radioactive waste risks

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1996-11-08

    The possible risks of a proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain include the dozen or more young volcanos near by. Now some earth scientists have a new approach to evaluating hazards accounting for uncertainty at every step - `expert elicitation.` This pulls together a panel of experts, carefully assesses the uncertainties of each of their views then mathematically combines their risk estimates along with the accompanying uncertainties. The article goes on to describe just such a panel which considered seismic hazards to Yucca Mountain, how they came to their conclusions, the arguments about the conclusions, and the future of expert elicitation in evaluating the risks of nuclear waste disposal.

  15. Robot environment expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Robot Environment Expert System uses a hexidecimal tree data structure to model a complex robot environment where not only the robot arm moves, but also the robot itself and other objects may move. The hextree model allows dynamic updating, collision avoidance and path planning over time, to avoid moving objects.

  16. Computers Simulate Human Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Steven K.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses recent progress in artificial intelligence in such narrowly defined areas as medical and electronic diagnosis. Also discusses use of expert systems, man-machine communication problems, novel programing environments (including comments on LISP and LISP machines), and types of knowledge used (factual, heuristic, and meta-knowledge). (JN)

  17. Capital Expert System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowell, Laurie; Gary, Jack; Illingworth, Bill; Sargent, Tom

    1987-05-01

    Gathering information, necessary forms, and financial calculations needed to generate a "capital investment proposal" is an extremely complex and difficult process. The intent of the capital investment proposal is to ensure management that the proposed investment has been thoroughly investigated and will have a positive impact on corporate goals. Meeting this requirement typically takes four or five experts a total of 12 hours to generate a "Capital Package." A Capital Expert System was therefore developed using "Personal Consultant." The completed system is hybrid and as such does not depend solely on rules but incorporates several different software packages that communicate through variables and functions passed from one to another. This paper describes the use of expert system techniques, methodology in building the knowledge base, contexts, LISP functions, data base, and special challenges that had to be overcome to create this system. The Capital Expert System is the successful result of a unique integration of artificial intelligence with business accounting, financial forms generation, and investment proposal expertise.

  18. Seismic hazard analysis. Volume 5. Review panel, Ground Motion Panel, and feedback results

    SciTech Connect

    Bernreuter, D. L.

    1981-08-01

    The Site Specific Spectra Project (SSSP) was a multi-year study funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide estimates of the seismic hazards at a number of nuclear power plant sites in the Eastern US. A key element of our approach was the Peer Review Panel, which we formed in order to ensure that our use of expert opinion was reasonable. We discuss the Peer Review Panel results and provide the complete text of each member's report. In order to improve the ground motion model, an Eastern US Ground Motion Model Panel was formed. In Section 4 we tabulate the responses from the panel members to our feedback questionnaire and discuss the implications of changes introduced by them. We conclude that the net difference in seismic hazard values from those presented in Volume 4 is small and does not warrant a reanalysis. 22 figs.

  19. Hepatitis virus panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  20. Comprehensive metabolic panel

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolic panel - comprehensive; Chem-20; SMA20; Sequential multi-channel analysis with computer-20; SMAC20; Metabolic panel 20 ... McPherson RA, Pincus MR. Disease/organ panels. McPherson RA, ... . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:appendix 7.

  1. Reinforced Honeycomb Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Balakrishna T.; Akutagawa, Wesley; Wang, Taylor G.; Barber, Dan

    1989-01-01

    New honeycomb panel structure has increased strength and stiffness with little increase in weight. Some or all of walls of honeycomb cells reinforced with honeycomb panels having smaller cells, lightweight foam, or other reinforcing material. Strong, lightweight reinforced panels used in aircraft, car and truck bodies, cabinets for equipment and appliances, and buildings.

  2. TRMM Solar Array Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This final report presents conclusions/recommendations concerning the TRMM Solar Array; deliverable list and schedule summary; waivers and deviations; as-shipped performance data, including flight panel verification matrix, panel output detail, shadow test summary, humidity test summary, reverse bias test panel; and finally, quality assurance summary.

  3. Bioethics for Technical Experts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Shigetaka

    Along with rapidly expanding applications of life science and technology, technical experts have been implicated more and more often with ethical, social, and legal problems than before. It should be noted that in this background there are scientific and social uncertainty elements which are inevitable during the progress of life science in addition to the historically-established social unreliability to scientists and engineers. In order to solve these problems, therefore, we should establish the social governance with ‘relief’ and ‘reliance’ which enables for both citizens and engineers to share the awareness of the issues, to design social orders and criterions based on hypothetical sense of values for bioethics, to carry out practical use management of each subject carefully, and to improve the sense of values from hypothetical to universal. Concerning these measures, the technical experts can learn many things from the present performance in the medical field.

  4. Make yourself an expert.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Dorothy; Barton, Gavin; Barton, Michelle

    2013-04-01

    Almost every organization has people it can't do without--specialists with "deep smarts," who are the go-to experts on critical issues. But because their knowledge is experienced-based, it's often instinctive and unarticulated, and never gets passed on. Capturing it is a challenge for both the organization and for colleagues who wish to become in-house authorities themselves. This article offers a methodical system for acquiring deep smarts from an expert. It involves observing that person extensively to understand what makes him successful, practicing the behaviors he exhibits on your own, partnering with him to solve problems, and ultimately taking responsibility for some of his tasks. Describing the experiences of one executive as she takes this journey with a mentor, the authors show how you too can gain the wisdom that will make you indispensable to your firm.

  5. Expert Systems Development Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-28

    two volumes. Volume 1 is the Development Metodology and Volume 2 is an Evaluation Methodology containing methods for evaluation, validation and...system are written in an English -like language which almost anyone can understand. Thus programming in rule based systems can become "programming for...computers and others have little understanding about how computers work. The knowledge engineer must therefore be willing and able to teach the expert

  6. The First European Conference on Infections in Leukaemia - ECIL1: a current perspective.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Françoise; Lukan, Colette

    2008-10-01

    The First European Conference on Infections in Leukaemia - ECIL1 - was organised under the auspices of the Infectious Diseases Group of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), the Infectious Diseases Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Bone Marrow Transplantation (EBMT), the Supportive Care Group of the European LeukaemiaNet (ELN) and the International Immunocompromised Host Society (ICHS). The objective of the meeting was to develop evidence-based guidelines for the management of bacterial and fungal infections in high-risk immunocompromised adult leukaemia patients and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. The conference was held on September 30th and October 1st, 2005 in Juan-les-Pins, France and brought together a panel of 59 expert haematologists, oncologists, microbiologists, infectious disease specialists and clinical trialists from across Europe, Israel and Australia. The ECIL1 Guidelines were formulated after lengthy discussion, debate and panel consensus on the findings from a relevant comprehensive literature search, results of a European current practice questionnaire and other international guidelines, specific to each of the six clinical areas examined. The final recommendations, published in the Supplements of this journal as a series of six manuscripts in 2007, were well received by the medical community. The ECIL1 organisers anticipated the need for regular review of these guidelines and the Second ECIL Conference was held in September 2007. Publication of the updated and expanded ECIL2 Guidelines is forthcoming. This paper provides a concise summary of the methodology and main recommendations of the ECIL1 Guidelines.

  7. Safety Panel Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Christine E.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore what resources are potentially available to safety panels and to provide some guidance on how to utilize those resources. While the examples used in this paper will concentrate on the Flight Equipment and Reliability Review Panel (FESRRP) and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) hardware that have come through that panel, as well as resources at Johnson Space Center, the paper will address how this applies to safety panels in general, and where possible cite examples for other safety panels.

  8. ICFA neutrino panel report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, K.

    2015-07-01

    In the summer of 2013 the International Committee on Future Accelerators (ICFA) established a Neutrino Panel with the mandate: "To promote international cooperation in the development of the accelerator-based neutrino-oscillation program and to promote international collaboration in the development of a neutrino factory as a future intense source of neutrinos for particle physics experiments." In its first year the Panel organised a series of regional Town Meetings to collect input from the community and to receive reports from the regional planning exercises. The Panel distilled its findings and presented them in a report to ICFA [1]. In this contribution the formation and composition of the Panel are presented together with a summary of the Panel's findings from the three Regional Town Meetings. The Panel's initial conclusions are then articulated and the steps that the Panel seeks to take are outlined.

  9. Interactive optical panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-10-03

    An interactive optical panel assembly includes an optical panel having a plurality of ribbon optical waveguides stacked together with opposite ends thereof defining panel first and second faces. A light source provides an image beam to the panel first face for being channeled through the waveguides and emitted from the panel second face in the form of a viewable light image. A remote device produces a response beam over a discrete selection area of the panel second face for being channeled through at least one of the waveguides toward the panel first face. A light sensor is disposed across a plurality of the waveguides for detecting the response beam therein for providing interactive capability. 10 figs.

  10. Interactive optical panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    1995-10-03

    An interactive optical panel assembly 34 includes an optical panel 10 having a plurality of ribbon optical waveguides 12 stacked together with opposite ends thereof defining panel first and second faces 16, 18. A light source 20 provides an image beam 22 to the panel first face 16 for being channeled through the waveguides 12 and emitted from the panel second face 18 in the form of a viewable light image 24a. A remote device 38 produces a response beam 40 over a discrete selection area 36 of the panel second face 18 for being channeled through at least one of the waveguides 12 toward the panel first face 16. A light sensor 42,50 is disposed across a plurality of the waveguides 12 for detecting the response beam 40 therein for providing interactive capability.

  11. Design of panel heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bohle, J.; Klan, H.

    2000-07-01

    Panel heating and cooling systems use controlled temperature surfaces in the floor, walls, or ceiling of a conditioned space. The temperature is maintained by a circulating fluid through a circuit embedded in the panel. Heat transfer occurs by radiation and convection to or from a room. The performance of these systems may be determined by design calculations or testing. Thermal testing and system analysis by experiments are costly and inefficient. For different closed panel systems, finite element-based models and programs were developed by which temperature distribution in the construction, interdependence between performance and mean carrier fluid temperature, panel surface temperature, and room temperature can be calculated. One single power function product of all relevant parameters has been derived as an algorithm for performance calculations of panel heating and cooling systems, which can be adapted for other systems. Findings have been verified by experiment for floor heating panels with best results. These basic equations provided the design standards for German Standard DIN 4725, ''Thermal Output of Floor Heating'', which has been adopted as European Standard EN 1264. Finite element method calculation results were also compared with results from design calculations based on the ASHRAE method.

  12. Empirical analysis for expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Politakis, P.

    1985-01-01

    This book describes an AI system designed to improve the development of expert systems for classification-type problems. A system referred to as ''seek'' that gives interactive advice about rule refinement in the design of an expert system is presented. The system develops techniques to integrate dual sources of expert knowledge efficiently. The techniques are used to develop a diagnostic consultant for rheumatology.

  13. Perspectives for food research and European collaboration in the European Research Area and the new Framework Programme.

    PubMed

    Breslin, L

    2001-08-01

    Since 1987, successive framework programmes have contributed to strengthen European food research through the establishment of networks between research institutions, universities and companies from various European countries. In the FAIR programme (1994-1998), 118 research projects comprising nearly 1,000 participants from the European Union and Associated States have been supported in the food area with a European funding of about [symbol: see text] 108 million. Within the Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources programme (1998-2002), food research is mostly supported within the key action 'food, nutrition and health' with a budget of [symbol: see text] 290 million. After the first four deadlines, 735 eligible research proposals have already been received. Further to their evaluation by a panel of independent experts, 108 proposals have been funded or selected for funding representing a total contribution of about [symbol: see text] 168 million. Among those, several clusters of projects are now running on important topics such as probiotics, coeliac diseases, mycotoxins, GMO, safety and food for the elderly. In addition, technology stimulation measures are largely benefiting SMEs to foster their innovation potential. In January 2000, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "Towards the European Research Area (ERA)" with the objective to contribute to developing better framework conditions for research in Europe. On 21 February 2001, the Commission adopted proposals to be submitted to the European Parliament and Council for the next framework programme for research and innovation (2002-2006). The new framework programme that is becoming one of the financial instruments of the ERA aims at catalysing the integration of European research by: strengthening of links between the Community research effort and national and regional research policies; concentrating on a limited number of priority fields or research to which activities at the

  14. The imported forensic expert.

    PubMed

    Larson, C P

    1980-09-01

    A review of the experiences of one of the pioneer forensic pathologists in the United States offers an interesting insight into the possibilities of private forensic pathology in America. The author's experience includes serving as President of the National Boxing Association and the International Boxing Association, during which time he made many improvements in ring safety. His research into several areas of cases of product liability offer an insight to the wide scope of the potential of the forensic expert. This presentation reviews his activities in realms widely afield from medicine.

  15. The expert Neandertal mind.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Thomas; Coolidge, Frederick L

    2004-04-01

    Cognitive neuropsychology, cognitive anthropology, and cognitive archaeology are combined to yield a picture of Neandertal cognition in which expert performance via long-term working memory is the centerpiece of problem solving. This component of Neandertal cognition appears to have been modern in scope. However, Neandertals' working memory capacity, which is the ability to hold a variety of information in active attention, may not have been as large as that of modern humans. This characteristic helps us understand features of the archaeological record, such as the rarity of innovation, and allows us to make empirically based speculations about Neandertal personality.

  16. The imported forensic expert

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, C.P.

    1980-09-01

    A review of the experiences of one of the pioneer forensic pathologists in the United States offers an interesting insight into the possibilities of private forensic pathology in America. The author's experience includes serving as President of the National Boxing Association and the International Boxing Association, during which time he made many improvements in ring safety. His research into several areas of cases of product liability offer an insight to the wide scope of the potential of the forensic expert. This presentation reviews his activities in realms widely afield from medicine.

  17. A European Roadmap for Research in Astrobiology - The AstRoMap Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, F.; Walter, N.; Horneck, G.; Muller, C.; Rettberg, P.; Capria, M.; Palomba, E.

    2015-10-01

    AstRoMap (Astrobiology Road Mapping activity-www.astromap-eu.org) is a collaborative project which will provide the European Planetary Science Community with a road map in astrobiology. The goals of the project have been: (i) to pose big questions related to astrobiology; and (ii) the identification of experiments, new technology and/or those space missions to be developed in future programs and which could answer those big questions. This collaborative infrastructure includes the organization of expert panels and international workshops in order to discuss about those big questions and the science objectives by the community to be addressed. The main deliverable will be a Roadmap document. The project is steered by a consortium of six European and national research institutes and associations: -­- Centro de Astrobiologica (INTACSIC), Spain -­- European Science Foundation, France -­- Association pour un Réseau Européen d'Exo/Astrobiology (EANA), France -­- B-USOC, Belgium -­- Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Germany -­- National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), ItalyOrigin and evolution of planetary systems -­- Origin of organic compounds in space -­- Rock-water-carbon interactions, organic synthesis, and steps to life -­- Life and habitability on Earth and in Space -­- -­- Biosignatures as facilitating life detection The key topics will focus on a limited number of strategic scientific objectives to be addressed in the next 20 years by European astrobiologists, and suggest research activities for future development.

  18. An expert consortium review of the EC-commissioned report "alternative (Non-Animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects - 2010".

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas; Blaauboer, Bas J; Bosgra, Sieto; Carney, Edward; Coenen, Joachim; Conolly, Rory B; Corsini, Emanuela; Green, Sidney; Faustman, Elaine M; Gaspari, Anthony; Hayashi, Makoto; Wallace Hayes, A; Hengstler, Jan G; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Knudsen, Thomas B; McKim, James M; Pfaller, Walter; Roggen, Erwin L

    2011-01-01

    The European cosmetics legislation foresees a review in 2011 and possible postponement of the 2013 marketing ban to enforce the testing ban for systemic and repeated-dose animal tests. For this purpose, a 119-page report commissioned by the European Commission was published recently. Here, a group of 17 independent experts from the US, Europe, and Japan was brought together to evaluate the report. The expert panel strongly endorsed the report and its conclusions. A number of important options not considered were identified; these do not, however, affect the overall conclusions regarding the current lack of availability of a full replacement, especially for the areas of repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity testing, and reproductive toxicity, though a roadmap for change is emerging. However, some of these options may provide adequate data for replacement of some animal studies in the near future pending validation. Various recommendations expand the original report. The reviewers agree with the report that there is greater promise in the short term for the areas of sensitization and toxicokinetics. Additional opportunities lie in more global collaborations and the inclusion of other industry sectors.

  19. Expert- Demonstrating Reentry Aerothermodinamics Phenomena From A System Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massobrio, F.; Passarelli, G.; Gavira-Izquierdo, J.; Ratti, F.

    2011-05-01

    EXPERT is developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) in order to provide the scientific community with quality data on critical aero-thermodynamic phenomena encountered during hypersonic flights as well as to provide industry with system experience of re-entry vehicle manufacturing and development of hypersonic instrumentation. EXPERT is equipped with 14 experiments provided by several scientific institutions all around Europe. The experiments address major aerothermodinamics phenomena: TPS material characterization, surface catalysis and oxidation, plasma spectroscopy, laminar to turbulent transition, flow separation and reattachment, shock-boundary layer interactions, base flow characteristic and aerodynamic characterization of flap control surfaces. The paper focus on the status of the EXPERT project: the design activities and the on going manufacturing, the main challenges and the expected flight data results. EXPERT will benefit future atmospheric re- entry activities ranging from cargo to human orbital transportation systems as well as re-usable launchers and scientific probes.

  20. How experts gain influence.

    PubMed

    Mikes, Anette; Hall, Matthew; Millo, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    In theory, the risk management groups of two British banks--Saxon and Anglo--had the same influence in their organizations. But in practice, they did not: Saxon's was engaged in critical work throughout the bank, while Anglo's had little visibility outside its areas of expertise. In their study of these two financial institutions, the authors identified four competencies--trailblazing, toolmaking, teamwork, and translation--that help functional leaders or groups compete for top management's limited attention and increase their impact. Anglo's risk managers were strong in only some of the competencies, but Saxon's were strong in all four. They consistently scanned the internal and external environment for important issues to which they could apply a risk management perspective (trailblazing) and then developed tools--such as quarterly risk reports--that spread their expertise (toolmaking). While controlling the tools' design and implementation, the risk managers incorporated business managers' insights (teamwork) and made sure everyone could understand the findings (translation). Ultimately, experts' roles must fit the organization's strategy and structural needs. In some situations, functional experts can raise their profile by cultivating just two of the competencies. But those who are strong in all four are likely to be the most influential.

  1. Titanium honeycomb panel testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, W. L.; Thompson, Randolph C.

    The paper describes the procedures of thermal mechanical tests carried out at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility on two tianium honeycomb wing panels bonded using liquid interface diffusion (LID) technique, and presents the results of these tests. The 58.4 cm square panels consisted of two 0.152-cm-thick Ti 6-2-4-2 face sheets LID-bonded to a 1.9-cm-thick honeycomb core, with bearing plates fastened to the perimeter of the upper and the lower panel surfaces. The panels were instrumented with sensors for measuring surface temperature, strain, and deflections to 315 C and 482 C. Thermal stress levels representative of those encountered during aerodynamic heating were produced by heating the upper panel surface and restraining all four edges. After more than 100 thermal cycles from room temperature to 315 C and 50 cycles from room temperature to 482 C, no significant structural degradation was detected in the panels.

  2. Sparks Fade, Knowledge Stays: The National Early Literacy Panel's Report Lacks Staying Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about "Developing Early Literacy," the report of the National Early Literacy Panel. The panel, which consisted of nine experts, was convened by the National Institute for Literacy to synthesize the research on the development of literacy from birth through age 5. Over the eight years of their work, only 190…

  3. The Age Shift: Priorities for Action. Ageing Population Panel. Foresight: Making the Future Work for You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Trade and Industry, London (England).

    The Foresight Ageing Population Panel, which included representatives of business, government, the science base, and other experts from the United Kingdom, was charged with examining trends in the United Kingdom's population and the other drivers of change that will operate in the next 20-30 years. The panel discussed the likely impacts of the…

  4. Titanium Honeycomb Panel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W. Lance; Thompson, Randolph C.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal-mechanical tests were performed on a titanium honeycomb sandwich panel to experimentally validate the hypersonic wing panel concept and compare test data with analysis. Details of the test article, test fixture development, instrumentation, and test results are presented. After extensive testing to 900 deg. F, non-destructive evaluation of the panel has not detected any significant structural degradation caused by the applied thermal-mechanical loads.

  5. Aerospace safety advisory panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report from the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) contains findings, recommendations, and supporting material concerning safety issues with the space station program, the space shuttle program, aeronautics research, and other NASA programs. Section two presents findings and recommendations, section three presents supporting information, and appendices contain data about the panel membership, the NASA response to the March 1993 ASAP report, and a chronology of the panel's activities during the past year.

  6. NCATE's Blue Ribbon Panel Report and NAPDS: Working Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Scoy, Irma J.

    2012-01-01

    An expert panel including representatives from schools/districts, teacher education, and professional education associations was convened by the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) to make recommendations regarding clinical preparation in teacher education. This article presents an analysis of how the ten design…

  7. PANEL LIBRARY AND EDITOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raible, E.

    1994-01-01

    The Panel Library and Editor is a graphical user interface (GUI) builder for the Silicon Graphics IRIS workstation family. The toolkit creates "widgets" which can be manipulated by the user. Its appearance is similar to that of the X-Windows System. The Panel Library is written in C and is used by programmers writing user-friendly mouse-driven applications for the IRIS. GUIs built using the Panel Library consist of "actuators" and "panels." Actuators are buttons, dials, sliders, or other mouse-driven symbols. Panels are groups of actuators that occupy separate windows on the IRIS workstation. The application user can alter variables in the graphics program, or fire off functions with a click on a button. The evolution of data values can be tracked with meters and strip charts, and dialog boxes with text processing can be built. Panels can be stored as icons when not in use. The Panel Editor is a program used to interactively create and test panel library interfaces in a simple and efficient way. The Panel Editor itself uses a panel library interface, so all actions are mouse driven. Extensive context-sensitive on-line help is provided. Programmers can graphically create and test the user interface without writing a single line of code. Once an interface is judged satisfactory, the Panel Editor will dump it out as a file of C code that can be used in an application. The Panel Library (v9.8) and Editor (v1.1) are written in C-Language (63%) and Scheme, a dialect of LISP, (37%) for Silicon Graphics 4D series workstations running IRIX 3.2 or higher. Approximately 10Mb of disk space is required once compiled. 1.5Mb of main memory is required to execute the panel editor. This program is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format for an IRIS, and includes a copy of XScheme, the public-domain Scheme interpreter used by the Panel Editor. The Panel Library Programmer's Manual is included on the distribution media. The Panel Library and

  8. Solar reflection panels

    DOEpatents

    Diver, Jr., Richard B.; Grossman, James W.; Reshetnik, Michael

    2006-07-18

    A solar collector comprising a glass mirror, and a composite panel, wherein the back of the mirror is affixed to a front surface of the composite panel. The composite panel comprises a front sheet affixed to a surface of a core material, preferably a core material comprising a honeycomb structure, and a back sheet affixed to an opposite surface of the core material. The invention may further comprise a sealing strip, preferably comprising EPDM, positioned between the glass mirror and the front surface of the composite panel. The invention also is of methods of making such solar collectors.

  9. 76 FR 30939 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Request for Nominations of Experts for SAB Libby Amphibole...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Asbestos Review Panel AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA... on an Asbestos expert panel under the auspices of the SAB to conduct a peer review of EPA's Draft Toxicological Review of Libby Amphibole Asbestos. DATES: Nominations should be submitted by June 17, 2011...

  10. 75 FR 6030 - EPA Science Advisory Board Staff Office Request for Nominations of Experts for the SAB Lead (Pb...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... AGENCY EPA Science Advisory Board Staff Office Request for Nominations of Experts for the SAB Lead (Pb) Review Panel AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice; Request for Nominations... an SAB Ad Hoc Panel to review EPA's draft technical analyses which will be used to support...

  11. Expert Recommended Strategies for Classroom Management for Beginning Teachers Placed in Hard-to-Staff Schools in Urban School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexis, Chelly C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to get the opinion of a panel of experts as to which classroom management strategies should be implemented in urban school district mentoring programs to help beginning teachers who are placed in hard-to-staff schools in Los Angeles County, California. Methodology: This Delphi study included 20 expert mentors…

  12. European risk assessment guidance for infectious diseases transmitted on aircraft--the RAGIDA project.

    PubMed

    Leitmeyer, K

    2011-04-21

    In order to assist national public health authorities in the European Union to assess the risks associated with the transmission of infectious agents on board aircrafts, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control initiated in 2007 the RAGIDA project (Risk Assessment Guidance for Infectious Diseases transmitted on Aircraft). RAGIDA consists of two parts: the production of a systematic review and a series of disease-specific guidance documents. The systematic review covered over 3,700 peer-reviewed articles and grey literature for the following diseases: tuberculosis, influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), invasive meningococcal disease, measles, rubella, diphtheria, Ebola and Marburg haemorrhagic fevers, Lassa fever, smallpox and anthrax. In addition, general guidelines on risk assessment and management from international aviation boards and national and international public health agencies were systematically searched. Experts were interviewed on case-based events by standardised questionnaires. Disease-specific guidance documents on tuberculosis, SARS, meningococcal infections, measles, rubella, Ebola and Marburg haemorrhagic fevers, Lassa fever, smallpox and anthrax were the result of consultations of disease-specific expert panels. Factors that influence the risk assessment of infectious disease transmission on board aircrafts and decision making for contact tracing are outlined.

  13. Robotics and expert systems. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers given at a workshop on robotics and expert systems. Topics considered at the conference include: symbolic computation expert systems for software productivity; expert systems, practices; expert systems, methods; and, technology needs and productivity.

  14. Expert Systems for the Analytical Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Monchy, Allan R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses two computer problem solving programs: rule-based expert systems and decision analysis expert systems. Explores the application of expert systems to automated chemical analyses. Presents six factors to consider before using expert systems. (MVL)

  15. SENLEX: Sensor layout expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.D.; Sena, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    An expert system is under development to carry out intrusion detection sensor placement for physical security systems. Expert systems are computer programs that use symbolic programming techniques to duplicate the reasoning processes of human experts. Because sensitive facilities often require complex, multi-sensor intrusion detection systems, the design rules for achieving high levels of detection performance are not easily transferred to novices. Since these design rules reside in the minds of the individual experts performing the tasks, the need to consolidate this knowledge in a form that is available to others was a driving force in this project. The first phase of this project is described in this paper. It consists of an expert system for sensor placement in a graded clear zone. The program has the capability of handling several different sensor types and of coordinating the placement of multiple sensor types. The designs produced by the program in comparison with the designs produced by human experts are discussed.

  16. Spacecraft environmental anomalies expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koons, H. C.; Gorney, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    A microcomputer-based expert system is being developed at the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory to assist in the diagnosis of satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to address anomalies caused by surface charging, bulk charging, single event effects and total radiation dose. These effects depend on the orbit of the satellite, the local environment (which is highly variable), the satellite exposure time and the hardness of the circuits and components of the satellite. The expert system is a rule-based system that uses the Texas Instruments Personal Consultant Plus expert system shell. The completed expert system knowledge base will include 150 to 200 rules, as well as a spacecraft attributes database, an historical spacecraft anomalies database, and a space environment database which is updated in near real-time. Currently, the expert system is undergoing development and testing within the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory.

  17. European Fiber Optics. USAF Laboratory Experts’ Visit,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    emitting at 480 ma. AE-Telefunken Telecomunications and Cable Systems Division Postfach 1120 7150 Backnang, Germany Principal Contact: Dr. K. D. 4chenkel...alignment purposes. Standard Telecomunication Laboratories, Inc. (STL) London Road Harlow, Essex 017 9NA, England Principal Contact: Dr. M. Chown - Manager

  18. Stereoscopic Flat Panel Display

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    the display of stereo imagery have been demonstrated. Stereoscopic displays typically require the user to wear special headgear. Autostereoscopic ...components and the resulting changes in the encoding algorithm. Keywords: Stereoscopic display, LCD, 3D , polarization encoding, flat panel 1...panel display when viewing non-stereoscopic imagery or data. Remotely operated vehicles do not represent the only potential application for 3D

  19. Flexible optical panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2001-01-01

    A flexible optical panel includes laminated optical waveguides, each including a ribbon core laminated between cladding, with the core being resilient in the plane of the core for elastically accommodating differential movement thereof to permit winding of the panel in a coil.

  20. SNP panels/Imputation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Participants from thirteen countries discussed services that Interbull can perform or recommendations that Interbull can make to promote harmonization and assist member countries in improving their genomic evaluations in regard to SNP panels and imputation. The panel recommended: A mechanism to shar...

  1. New mineral physics panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The AGU Committee on Mineral Physics has formed itself into six panels. The committee chairman is Orson L. Anderson of the Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles; foreign secretary is Robert Liebermann, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, State University of New York, Stony Brook. The six panels are as follows.

  2. Reinventing the solar panel

    SciTech Connect

    Scanlon, M.

    1995-08-01

    This article discusses new technology in solar panels. PowerSource is a solar collector which not only is less expensive than conventional panels to purchase and install, but also increases the electrical output by almost 20%. This article describes the results of testing this system.

  3. ICFA neutrino panel report

    SciTech Connect

    Long, K.

    2015-07-15

    In the summer of 2013 the International Committee on Future Accelerators (ICFA) established a Neutrino Panel with the mandate: <<>>In its first year the Panel organised a series of regional Town Meetings to collect input from the community and to receive reports from the regional planning exercises. The Panel distilled its findings and presented them in a report to ICFA [1]. In this contribution the formation and composition of the Panel are presented together with a summary of the Panel’s findings from the three Regional Town Meetings. The Panel’s initial conclusions are then articulated and the steps that the Panel seeks to take are outlined.

  4. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) provided oversight on the safety aspects of many NASA programs. In addition, ASAP undertook three special studies. At the request of the Administrator, the panel assessed the requirements for an assured crew return vehicle (ACRV) for the space station and reviewed the organization of the safety and mission quality function within NASA. At the behest of Congress, the panel formed an independent, ad hoc working group to examine the safety and reliability of the space shuttle main engine. Section 2 presents findings and recommendations. Section 3 consists of information in support of these findings and recommendations. Appendices A, B, C, and D, respectively, cover the panel membership, the NASA response to the findings and recommendations in the March 1992 report, a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period, and the entire ACRV study report.

  5. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) provided oversight on the safety aspects of many NASA programs. In addition, ASAP undertook three special studies. At the request of the Administrator, the panel assessed the requirements for an assured crew return vehicle (ACRV) for the space station and reviewed the organization of the safety and mission quality function within NASA. At the behest of Congress, the panel formed an independent, ad hoc working group to examine the safety and reliability of the space shuttle main engine. Section 2 presents findings and recommendations. Section 3 consists of information in support of these findings and recommendations. Appendices A, B, C, and D, respectively, cover the panel membership, the NASA response to the findings and recommendations in the March 1992 report, a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period, and the entire ACRV study report.

  6. Online-Expert: An Expert System for Online Database Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahir, Sajjad; Chang, Chew Lik

    1992-01-01

    Describes the design and development of a prototype expert system called ONLINE-EXPERT that helps users select online databases and vendors that meet users' needs. Search strategies are discussed; knowledge acquisition and knowledge bases are described; and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), a decision analysis technique that ranks databases,…

  7. System Experts and Decision Making Experts in Transdisciplinary Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mieg, Harald A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims at a better understanding of expert roles in transdisciplinary projects. Thus, the main purpose is the analysis of the roles of experts in transdisciplinary projects. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis of the ETH-UNS case studies from the point of view of the psychology of expertise and the sociology of professions…

  8. US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation and European Cystic Fibrosis Society consensus recommendations for the management of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in individuals with cystic fibrosis: executive summary.

    PubMed

    Floto, R Andres; Olivier, Kenneth N; Saiman, Lisa; Daley, Charles L; Herrmann, Jean-Louis; Nick, Jerry A; Noone, Peadar G; Bilton, Diana; Corris, Paul; Gibson, Ronald L; Hempstead, Sarah E; Koetz, Karsten; Sabadosa, Kathryn A; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Smyth, Alan R; van Ingen, Jakko; Wallace, Richard J; Winthrop, Kevin L; Marshall, Bruce C; Haworth, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous environmental organisms that can cause chronic pulmonary infection, particularly in individuals with pre-existing inflammatory lung disease, such as cystic fibrosis (CF). Pulmonary disease (PD) caused by NTM has emerged as a major threat to the health of individuals with CF, but remains difficult to diagnose and problematic to treat. In response to this challenge, the US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF) and the European Cystic Fibrosis Society (ECFS) convened a panel of 19 experts to develop consensus recommendations for the screening, investigation, diagnosis and management of NTM-PD in individuals with CF. PICO (population, intervention, comparison, outcome) methodology and systematic literature reviews were employed to inform draft recommendations, which were then modified to achieve consensus and subsequently circulated for public consultation within the USA and European CF communities. We have thus generated a series of pragmatic, evidence-based recommendations as an initial step in optimising management for this challenging condition.

  9. US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation and European Cystic Fibrosis Society consensus recommendations for the management of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in individuals with cystic fibrosis: executive summary

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, Kenneth N; Saiman, Lisa; Daley, Charles L; Herrmann, Jean-Louis; Nick, Jerry A; Noone, Peadar G; Bilton, Diana; Corris, Paul; Gibson, Ronald L; Hempstead, Sarah E; Koetz, Karsten; Sabadosa, Kathryn A; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Smyth, Alan R; van Ingen, Jakko; Wallace, Richard J; Winthrop, Kevin L; Marshall, Bruce C; Haworth, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous environmental organisms that can cause chronic pulmonary infection, particularly in individuals with pre-existing inflammatory lung disease, such as cystic fibrosis (CF). Pulmonary disease (PD) caused by NTM has emerged as a major threat to the health of individuals with CF, but remains difficult to diagnose and problematic to treat. In response to this challenge, the US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF) and the European Cystic Fibrosis Society (ECFS) convened a panel of 19 experts to develop consensus recommendations for the screening, investigation, diagnosis and management of NTM-PD in individuals with CF. PICO (population, intervention, comparison, outcome) methodology and systematic literature reviews were employed to inform draft recommendations, which were then modified to achieve consensus and subsequently circulated for public consultation within the USA and European CF communities. We have thus generated a series of pragmatic, evidence-based recommendations as an initial step in optimising management for this challenging condition. PMID:26678435

  10. MO-E-BRB-03: Panel Member.

    PubMed

    Salter, B

    2016-06-01

    In this interactive session, lung SBRT patient cases will be presented to highlight real-world considerations for ensuring safe and accurate treatment delivery. An expert panel of speakers will discuss challenges specific to lung SBRT including patient selection, patient immobilization techniques, 4D CT simulation and respiratory motion management, target delineation for treatment planning, online treatment alignment, and established prescription regimens and OAR dose limits. Practical examples of cases, including the patient flow thought the clinical process are presented and audience participation will be encouraged. This panel session is designed to provide case demonstration and review for lung SBRT in terms of (1) clinical appropriateness in patient selection, (2) strategies for simulation, including 4D and respiratory motion management, and (3) applying multi imaging modality (4D CT imaging, MRI, PET) for tumor volume delineation and motion extent, and (4) image guidance in treatment delivery.

  11. Make Your Own Solar Panel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, David

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students make a simulated solar panel to learn about the principles behind energy production using solar panels. Provides information about how solar panels function to produce energy. (MCO)

  12. Flutter Research on Skin Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kordes, Eldon E.; Tuovila, Weimer J.; Guy, Lawrence D.

    1960-01-01

    Representative experimental results are presented to show the current status of the panel flutter problem. Results are presented for unstiffened rectangular panels and for rectangular panels stiffened by corrugated backing. Flutter boundaries are established for all types of panels when considered on the basis of equivalent isotropic plates. The effects of Mach number, differential pressure, and aerodynamic heating on panel flutter are discussed. A flutter analysis of orthotropic panels is presented in the appendix.

  13. Estimating Burden and Disease Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Zoeller, R. Thomas; Hass, Ulla; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Grandjean, Philippe; Myers, John Peterson; DiGangi, Joseph; Bellanger, Martine; Hauser, Russ; Legler, Juliette; Skakkebaek, Niels E.; Heindel, Jerrold J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Rapidly increasing evidence has documented that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute substantially to disease and disability. Objective: The objective was to quantify a range of health and economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to EDC exposures in the European Union (EU). Design: A Steering Committee of scientists adapted the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization for probability of causation based upon levels of available epidemiological and toxicological evidence for one or more chemicals contributing to disease by an endocrine disruptor mechanism. To evaluate the epidemiological evidence, the Steering Committee adapted the World Health Organization Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group criteria, whereas the Steering Committee adapted definitions recently promulgated by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency for evaluating laboratory and animal evidence of endocrine disruption. Expert panels used the Delphi method to make decisions on the strength of the data. Results: Expert panels achieved consensus at least for probable (>20%) EDC causation for IQ loss and associated intellectual disability, autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, childhood obesity, adult obesity, adult diabetes, cryptorchidism, male infertility, and mortality associated with reduced testosterone. Accounting for probability of causation and using the midpoint of each range for probability of causation, Monte Carlo simulations produced a median cost of €157 billion (or $209 billion, corresponding to 1.23% of EU gross domestic product) annually across 1000 simulations. Notably, using the lowest end of the probability range for each relationship in the Monte Carlo simulations produced a median range of €109 billion that differed modestly from base case probability inputs. Conclusions: EDC exposures in the EU are likely to contribute substantially to disease and

  14. Artificial Intelligence: The Expert Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Gary G.

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of artificial intelligence (AI) and expert systems focuses on their use in education. Characteristics of good expert systems are explained; computer software programs that contain applications of AI are described, highlighting one used to help educators identify learning-disabled students; and the future of AI is discussed. (LRW)

  15. Expert Systems in Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roysdon, Christine, Ed.; White, Howard D., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Eleven articles introduce expert systems applications in library and information science, and present design and implementation issues of system development for reference services. Topics covered include knowledge based systems, prototype development, the use of artificial intelligence to remedy current system inadequacies, and an expert system to…

  16. Expert Systems and Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Alan M.; Ferrara, Joseph M.

    The application of artificial intelligence to the problems of education is examined. One of the most promising areas in artificial intelligence is expert systems technology which engages the user in a problem-solving diaglogue. Some of the characteristics that make expert systems "intelligent" are identified and exemplified. The rise of…

  17. Threat expert system technology advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurrasch, E. R.; Tripp, L. R.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype expert system was developed to determine the feasibility of using expert system technology to enhance the performance and survivability of helicopter pilots in a combat threat environment while flying NOE (Nap of the Earth) missions. The basis for the concept is the potential of using an Expert System Advisor to reduce the extreme overloading of the pilot who flies NOE mission below treetop level at approximately 40 knots while performing several other functions. The ultimate goal is to develop a Threat Expert System Advisor which provides threat information and advice that are better than even a highly experienced copilot. The results clearly show that the NOE pilot needs all the help in decision aiding and threat situation awareness that he can get. It clearly shows that heuristics are important and that an expert system for combat NOE helicopter missions can be of great help to the pilot in complex threat situations and in making decisions.

  18. Engineering monitoring expert system's developer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.

    1991-01-01

    This research project is designed to apply artificial intelligence technology including expert systems, dynamic interface of neural networks, and hypertext to construct an expert system developer. The developer environment is specifically suited to building expert systems which monitor the performance of ground support equipment for propulsion systems and testing facilities. The expert system developer, through the use of a graphics interface and a rule network, will be transparent to the user during rule constructing and data scanning of the knowledge base. The project will result in a software system that allows its user to build specific monitoring type expert systems which monitor various equipments used for propulsion systems or ground testing facilities and accrues system performance information in a dynamic knowledge base.

  19. Are moral philosophers moral experts?

    PubMed

    Gesang, Bernward

    2010-05-01

    In this paper I examine the question of whether ethicists are moral experts. I call people moral experts if their moral judgments are correct with high probability and for the right reasons. I defend three theses, while developing a version of the coherence theory of moral justification based on the differences between moral and nonmoral experience: The answer to the question of whether there are moral experts depends on the answer to the question of how to justify moral judgments. Deductivism and the coherence theory both provide some support for the opinion that moral experts exist in some way. I maintain - within the framework of a certain kind of coherence theory - that moral philosophers are 'semi-experts'.

  20. JTEC/WTEC panel report on rapid prototyping in Europe and Japan. Volume 2: Site reports

    SciTech Connect

    Prinz, F.B.; Atwood, C.L.; Aubin, R.F.

    1996-09-01

    This study reports the findings by a panel of experts on the state of the art in physical rapid prototyping technologies in Europe and Japan. The panel focused its investigation on a new class of rapid prototyping technologies called solid free form fabrication (SFF). The efforts observed overseas are compared to efforts in the US. The expert panel was selected by recommendations from the study chairman and representatives of the sponsoring agencies. The panel was formed of members from industry, academia, and government. Industry members represented primarily users rather than developers of SFF technology. The panel visited 34 sites in subgroups of typically three to five members. This Volume 2 of the final report from the JTEC/WTEC Panel on Rapid Prototyping in Europe and Japan. It consists of the site reports from the panel`s visits to rapid prototyping labs and development facilities in Europe and Japan. Volume 1, published separately, contains the panel`s analytical chapters and overall conclusions.

  1. Integrated thermal treatment systems study. Internal review panel report

    SciTech Connect

    Cudahy, J.; Escarda, T.; Gimpel, R.

    1995-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) commissioned two studies to evaluate nineteen thermal treatment technologies for treatment of DOE mixed low-level waste. These studies were called the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Phase I and Phase II. With the help of the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) Mixed Waste Focus Group, OTD formed an ITTS Internal Review Panel to review and comment on the ITTS studies. This Panel was composed of scientists and engineers from throughout the DOE complex, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the California EPA, and private experts. The Panel met from November 15-18, 1994 to review the ITTS studies and to make recommendations on the most promising thermal treatment systems for DOE mixed low-level wastes and on research and development necessary to prove the performance of the technologies. This report describes the findings and presents the recommendations of the Panel.

  2. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... related side effects. The hepatic function panel evaluates: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT). This enzyme, found in the liver, ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Mononucleosis Hepatitis Blood Test: Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT, or SGPT) Blood Test: Aspartate Aminotransferase ( ...

  3. Comprehensive Metabolic Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... page helpful? Also known as: CMP; Chem 12; Chemistry Panel; Chemistry Screen; SMA 12; SMA 20; SMAC (somewhat outdated ... Health Professionals ©2001 - by American Association for Clinical Chemistry • Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy We comply ...

  4. BMP (Basic Metabolic Panel)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Was this page helpful? Also known as: BMP; Chemistry Panel; Chemistry Screen; Chem 7; SMA 7; SMAC7 (somewhat outdated ... Health Professionals ©2001 - by American Association for Clinical Chemistry • Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy We comply ...

  5. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  6. Autoimmune liver disease panel

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis. This group of tests helps your health care provider ...

  7. Consumer preferences for fresh tomato at the European scale: a common segmentation on taste and firmness.

    PubMed

    Causse, Mathilde; Friguet, Chloé; Coiret, Clément; Lépicier, Mélanie; Navez, Brigitte; Lee, Monica; Holthuysen, Nancy; Sinesio, Fiorella; Moneta, Elisabetta; Grandillo, Silvana

    2010-01-01

    Although tomato flavor has not been a major goal for breeders, nowadays it becomes important as it is a subject of consumer complaint. A better knowledge of tomato consumer preferences, at the European level, should provide the basis for improvement of fruit quality and for market segmentation. In the framework of a large European project, 806 consumers from 3 countries, The Netherlands, France, and Italy, were presented with a set of 16 varieties representing the diversity of fresh tomato offer in order to evaluate their preferences. In parallel, sensory profiles were constructed by expert panels in each country. Preference maps were then constructed in each country revealing the structure of consumer preferences and allowing identification of the most important characteristics. Then a global analysis revealed that preferences were quite homogeneous across countries. This study identified the overall flavor and firmness as the most important traits for improving tomato fruit quality. It showed that consumer preferences from different European countries, with different cultures and food practices, are segmented following similar patterns when projected onto a common referential plan. Moreover, the results clearly showed that diversification of taste and texture is required to satisfy all consumers' expectations as some consumers preferred firm tomatoes, while others preferred melting ones and were more or less demanding in terms of sweetness and flavor intensity. Detailed comparisons also showed the importance of the fruit appearance in consumer preference.

  8. Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Expert Elicitation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Coppersmith, Kevin J.; Perman, Roseanne C.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents results of the Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Expert Elicitation (SZEE) project for Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Geomatrix Consultants, Inc. (Geomatrix), for TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc. The DOE's Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (referred to as the YMP) is intended to evaluate the suitability of the site for construction of a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The SZEE project is one of several that involve the elicitation of experts to characterize the knowledge and uncertainties regarding key inputs to the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The objective of the current project was to characterize the uncertainties associated with certain key issues related to the saturated zone system in the Yucca Mountain area and downgradient region. An understanding of saturated zone processes is critical to evaluating the performance of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. A major goal of the project was to capture the uncertainties involved in assessing the saturated flow processes, including uncertainty in both the models used to represent the physical processes controlling saturated zone flow and transport, and the parameter values used in the models. So that the analysis included a wide range of perspectives, multiple individual judgments were elicited from members of an expert panel. The panel members, who were experts from within and outside the Yucca Mountain project, represented a range of experience and expertise. A deliberate process was followed in facilitating interactions among the experts, in training them to express their uncertainties, and in eliciting their interpretations. The resulting assessments and probability distributions, therefore, provide a reasonable aggregate representation of the knowledge and

  9. Gas filled panel insulation

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, B.T.; Arasteh, D.K.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1993-12-14

    A structural or flexible highly insulative panel which may be translucent, is formed from multi-layer polymeric material in the form of an envelope surrounding a baffle. The baffle is designed so as to minimize heat transfer across the panel, by using material which forms substantially closed spaces to suppress convection of the low conductivity gas fill. At least a portion of the baffle carries a low emissivity surface for suppression of infrared radiation. 18 figures.

  10. Gas filled panel insulation

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, Brent T.; Arasteh, Dariush K.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    1993-01-01

    A structural or flexible highly insulative panel which may be translucent, is formed from multi-layer polymeric material in the form of an envelope surrounding a baffle. The baffle is designed so as to minimize heat transfer across the panel, by using material which forms substantially closed spaces to suppress convection of the low conductivity gas fill. At least a portion of the baffle carries a low emissivity surface for suppression of infrared radiation.

  11. Pop-Art Panels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    James Rosenquist's giant Pop-art panels included realistic renderings of well-known contemporary foods and objects, juxtaposed with famous people in the news--largely from the 1960s, '70s and '80s--and really serve as visual time capsules. In this article, eighth-graders focus on the style of James Rosenquist to create their own Pop-art panel that…

  12. Hexagon solar power panel

    DOEpatents

    Rubin, Irwin

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy panel comprises a support upon which silicon cells are arrayed. The cells are wafer thin and of two geometrical types, both of the same area and electrical rating, namely hexagon cells and hourglass cells. The hourglass cells are composites of half hexagons. A near perfect nesting relationship of the cells achieves a high density packing whereby optimum energy production per panel area is achieved.

  13. Photovoltaic panel support assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, J.M.; Underwood, J.C.; Shingleton, J.

    1993-07-20

    A solar energy electrical power source is described comprising in combination at least two flat photovoltaic panels disposed side-by-side in co-planar relation with one another, a pivot shaft extending transversely across the panels, at least two supports spaced apart lengthwise of the pivot shaft, means for connecting the pivot shaft to the at least two supports, attachment means for connecting the at least two panels to the pivot shaft so that the panels can pivot about the longitudinal axis of the shaft, coupling means mechanically coupling all of the panels together so as to form a unified flat array, and selectively operable drive means for mechanically pivoting the unified flat array about the axis; wherein each of the flat photovoltaic panels comprises at least two modules each comprising a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells, the at least two modules being aligned along a line extending at a right angle to the pivot shaft, and the coupling means comprises (a) an elongate member extending parallel to and spaced from the pivot shaft and (b) means for attaching the elongate member to the panels; and further wherein each flat photovoltaic panel comprises a unitary frame consisting of a pair of end frame members extending parallel to the pivot shaft, a pair of side frame members extending between and connected to the end frame members, and a pair of spaced apart cross frame members, with one of the two modules being embraced by and secured to the side frame members and a first one of each of the end and cross frame members, and the other of the two modules being embraced by and secured to the side frame members and the second one of each of the end and cross frame members, whereby the gap created by the spaced apart cross frame members allow air to pass between them in order to reduce the sail effect when the solar array is subjected to buffeting winds.

  14. Hexagon solar power panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, I. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy panel support is described upon which silicon cells are arrayed. The cells are wafer thin and of two geometrical types, both of the same area and electrical rating, namely hexagon cells and hourglass cells. The hourglass cells are composites of half hexagons. A near perfect nesting relationship of the cells achieves a high density packing whereby optimum energy production per panel area is achieved.

  15. Propulsion Systems Panel deliberations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianca, Carmelo J.; Miner, Robert; Johnston, Lawrence M.; Bruce, R.; Dennies, Daniel P.; Dickenson, W.; Dreshfield, Robert; Karakulko, Walt; Mcgaw, Mike; Munafo, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Panel was established because of the specialized nature of many of the materials and structures technology issues related to propulsion systems. This panel was co-chaired by Carmelo Bianca, MSFC, and Bob Miner, LeRC. Because of the diverse range of missions anticipated for the Space Transportation program, three distinct propulsion system types were identified in the workshop planning process: liquid propulsion systems, solid propulsion systems and nuclear electric/nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

  16. Expert operator's associate: A knowledge based system for spacecraft control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Grue, Klaus; Lecouat, Francois

    1991-01-01

    The Expert Operator's Associate (EOA) project is presented which studies the applicability of expert systems for day-to-day space operations. A prototype expert system is developed, which operates on-line with an existing spacecraft control system at the European Space Operations Centre, and functions as an 'operator's assistant' in controlling satellites. The prototype is demonstrated using an existing real-time simulation model of the MARECS-B2 telecommunication satellite. By developing a prototype system, the extent to which reliability and effectivens of operations can be enhanced by AI based support is examined. In addition the study examines the questions of acquisition and representation of the 'knowledge' for such systems, and the feasibility of 'migration' of some (currently) ground-based functions into future spaceborne autonomous systems.

  17. Expert witnesses in dentistry: a comparison between Italy and Croatia.

    PubMed

    Nuzzolese, Emilio; Čuković-Bagić, Ivana

    2012-11-30

    A dentist is frequently required to translate dental trauma into monetary value, for example after car accidents and/or work-related injuries. When called to act in this capacity a dentist should combine his/her biological and technical knowledge with a quality medico-legal knowledge. Calculation of economic (pecuniary) damages and non-economic (non-pecuniary) damages requires specific training in medico-legal matters and awareness of the inherent pitfalls. Expert Witnesses registered in Court are usually asked to perform this duty. Nevertheless, European countries have differences regarding dental damage evaluations as well as significant differences in the conditions required for registration as an Expert Witness in Court. A dental Expert Witness has precise responsibilities and is subject to civil or criminal proceedings (depending on the judicial system) if found wanting. In forensic/legal dentistry a medico-legal doctor should not work in isolation from a dentist in dental cases nor is it wise for a dentist to work in the courts without having had specific training regarding judicial disciplines relating to dental damages. In this preliminary work the authors investigate the principal differences in the judicial systems regarding the appointment of Expert Witnesses in both Italian and Croatian courts. The next step will expand this investigation through to European countries in order to marshal knowledge towards harmonization, best practice and a common ground for dental evaluation and claim compensations (in accordance with the Council of Europe Resolution 75 – 7 Compensation for physical injury or death).

  18. How lawyers view psychiatric experts.

    PubMed

    Reid, William H; Skip Simpson, J D

    2012-11-01

    Good lawyers look for integrity in their expert consultants and expert witnesses. They need truthful, accurate information to help them assess and frame cases, win or settle them favorably, and/or withdraw when the case has little merit. Experts should be well qualified to review, interpret, and eventually testify credibly about their portions of the case. They should be able to work with lawyers in the lawyers' own arenas (e.g., courts, hearings) and to convey their opinions to others, such as juries, clearly and without unnecessary distractions.

  19. Expert systems for personnel assignment

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, J.L.; Liepins, G.

    1986-01-01

    In order to reduce stress on assignment personnel (detailers) and ensure maximum fairness and consistency in the Navy's personnel assignment process, The Navy Military Personnel Command (NMPC) has begun to explore the potential use of expert systems to supplement current manual and computerized distribution methods. The Detailer's Assistant expert system is being developed to improve the detailers' ability to satisfy the needs of their constituents and Navy management. An initial prototype of the Detailer's Assistant is now being evaluated. Numerous upgrades and extensions should lead to an operational system in the near future. Further development to a production system will involve additional research in machine learning, intelligent database methods, and cooperating expert systems.

  20. Filtering information from human experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendel, Max B.; Sheridan, Thomas B.

    1989-01-01

    The authors propose a model, or filter, for debiasing opinions from multiple experts and combining them into a single consistent estimate of some variable of interest. A distinguishing feature of the approach consists of making the calibration of experts an integral part of filtering. This enables the filter to learn from previous experience with the experts. The theoretical development takes a Bayesian perspective, using de Finetti's (1964) notion of exchangeability. Experimental results with a preliminary computer implementation of the filter show that its estimates are better than those from comparable filters that do not involve calibration.

  1. 21. TILES OF THE NEW WORLD PANEL, NORTH WALL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. TILES OF THE NEW WORLD PANEL, NORTH WALL OF THE INDIAN HOUSE. THE RELIEF BROCADE TILES ILLUSTRATE SCENES OF NATIVE AMERICAN HISTORY AND CULTURE, AND THE EARLY EUROPEAN EXPLORATION OF THE NEW WORLD. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  2. 90. TILES OF THE NEW WORLD PANEL, NORTH WALL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. TILES OF THE NEW WORLD PANEL, NORTH WALL OF THE INDIAN HOUSE. THE RELIEF BROCADE TILES ILLUSTRATE SCENES OF NATIVE AMERICAN HISTORY AND CULTURE, AND THE EARLY EUROPEAN EXPLORATION OF THE NEW WORLD. SAME VIEW AS PA-107-21. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  3. Expert Witness: A system for developing expert medical testimony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Raymond; Perkins, David; Leasure, David

    1994-01-01

    Expert Witness in an expert system designed to assist attorneys and medical experts in determining the merit of medical malpractice claims in the area of obstetrics. It substitutes the time of the medical expert with the time of a paralegal assistant guided by the expert system during the initial investigation of the medical records and patient interviews. The product of the system is a narrative transcript containing important data, immediate conclusions from the data, and overall conclusions of the case that the attorney and medical expert use to make decisions about whether and how to proceed with the case. The transcript may also contain directives for gathering additional information needed for the case. The system is a modified heuristic classifier and is implemented using over 600 CLIPS rules together with a C-based user interface. The data abstraction and solution refinement are implemented directly using forward chaining production and matching. The use of CLIPS and C is essential to delivering a system that runs on a generic PC platform. The direct implementation in CLIPS together with locality of inference ensures that the system will scale gracefully. Two years of use has revealed no errors in the reasoning.

  4. Heat Pipe Thermal Conditioning Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.

    1973-01-01

    The development, fabrication, and evaluation of heat pipe thermal conditioning panels are discussed. The panels were designed and fabricated to be compatible with several planned NASA space vehicles, in terms of panel size, capacity, temperature gradients, and integration with various heat exchangers and electronic components. It was satisfactorily demonstrated that the heat pipe thermal conditioning panel meets the thermal efficiency and heat transport requirements.

  5. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    During 1997, the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) continued its safety reviews of NASA's human space flight and aeronautics programs. Efforts were focused on those areas that the Panel believed held the greatest potential to impact safety. Continuing safe Space Shuttle operations and progress in the manufacture and testing of primary components for the International Space Station (ISS) were noteworthy. The Panel has continued to monitor the safety implications of the transition of Space Shuttle operations to the United Space Alliance (USA). One area being watched closely relates to the staffing levels and skill mix in both NASA and USA. Therefore, a section of this report is devoted to personnel and other related issues that are a result of this change in NASA's way of doing business for the Space Shuttle. Attention will continue to be paid to this important topic in subsequent reports. Even though the Panel's activities for 1997 were extensive, fewer specific recommendations were formulated than has been the case in recent years. This is indicative of the current generally good state of safety of NASA programs. The Panel does, however, have several longer term concerns that have yet to develop to the level of a specific recommendation. These are covered in the introductory material for each topic area in Section 11. In another departure from past submissions, this report does not contain individual findings and recommendations for the aeronautics programs. While the Panel devoted its usual efforts to examining NASA's aeronautic centers and programs, no specific recommendations were identified for inclusion in this report. In lieu of recommendations, a summary of the Panel's observations of NASA's safety efforts in aeronautics and future Panel areas of emphasis is provided. With profound sadness the Panel notes the passing of our Chairman, Paul M. Johnstone, on December 17, 1997, and our Staff Assistant, Ms. Patricia M. Harman, on October 5, 1997. Other

  6. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops. PMID:24637724

  7. The nutrition advisor expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huse, Scott M.; Shyne, Scott S.

    1991-01-01

    The Nutrition Advisor Expert System (NAES) is an expert system written in the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS). NAES provides expert knowledge and guidance into the complex world of nutrition management by capturing the knowledge of an expert and placing it at the user's fingertips. Specifically, NAES enables the user to: (1) obtain precise nutrition information for food items; (2) perform nutritional analysis of meal(s), flagging deficiencies based upon the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances; (3) predict possible ailments based upon observed nutritional deficiency trends; (4) obtain a top ten listing of food items for a given nutrient; and (5) conveniently upgrade the data base. An explanation facility for the ailment prediction feature is also provided to document the reasoning process.

  8. Expert Systems in Clinical Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Winstanley, Trevor; Courvalin, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Summary: This review aims to discuss expert systems in general and how they may be used in medicine as a whole and clinical microbiology in particular (with the aid of interpretive reading). It considers rule-based systems, pattern-based systems, and data mining and introduces neural nets. A variety of noncommercial systems is described, and the central role played by the EUCAST is stressed. The need for expert rules in the environment of reset EUCAST breakpoints is also questioned. Commercial automated systems with on-board expert systems are considered, with emphasis being placed on the “big three”: Vitek 2, BD Phoenix, and MicroScan. By necessity and in places, the review becomes a general review of automated system performances for the detection of specific resistance mechanisms rather than focusing solely on expert systems. Published performance evaluations of each system are drawn together and commented on critically. PMID:21734247

  9. One of many lessons from the European Mental Health Integration Index.

    PubMed

    Murawiec, Sławomir; Krysta, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    The Mental Health Integration Index developed by the Economist Intelligence Unit describes and explores the challenges of European countries of integrating people with mental illness into society and employment, within the European Union's 28 Member States, plus Norway and Switzerland. Countries have been ranked according to estimation based on indicators of their degree of commitment to support those living with mental illness into society and employment. The Index is based on a list of indicators including the environment for those with mental illness, their access to medical help and services, their opportunities--specifically job-related--and the governance of the system, including human rights issues and efforts to combat stigma. The indicators were developed in consultation with a panel of independent experts on mental health. Key findings of the research are that Germany's strong healthcare system and generous social provision put it at the top of the Index, with the UK and Scandinavian states not far behind. However, examples of best practice "islands of excellence" in integration are not limited to the leading countries and exists in all European Countries. The Index reveals also the discrepancy between perfect legislation and poor implementation of it in practice in many European countries. It proposes that the investment figure is a proxy for seriousness in establishing good policy and practice. According to the Index some reform plans including entire national mental health programmes are largely aspirational and are grossly under-funded. Moreover various levels of government responsible for the implementation of its component parts are largely ignoring its implementation. When we consider the legislation as an promise to professionals and people with mental health problems, this promise is largely unfulfilled. The is a need for strong leadership in mental health changes process, policy capacity and real financial investments in the way of The European

  10. Expert consensus-building for developing guidelines: lessons learned from a dengue economics workshop.

    PubMed

    Constenla, Dagna; Lefcourt, Noah; Garcia, Cristina

    2013-09-01

    A workshop with 20 experts of diverse backgrounds from five countries in the Americas was convened for two-and-a-half days in March 2012 to discuss and develop a standardized methodology for assessing the economic cost of dengue. This article discusses a number of factors that contributed to the workshop's success, including: engaging the experts at various stages of the process; convening a multidisciplinary group to reduce expert bias and provide a more comprehensive and integrated approach; facilitating guided small- and large-group discussions; developing effective cross-cultural collectivism, trust, communication, and empathy across the expert panel; establishing clear lines of responsibilities within each group of experts; breaking down the complex issues into smaller and simpler ideas; providing ample background materials in multiple languages prior to the workshop. Challenges and areas for improvement are also covered.

  11. Optimization of aircraft interior panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Roper, Willard D.

    1986-01-01

    Eight different graphite composite panels were fabricated using four different resin matrices. The resin matrices included Hercules 71775, a blend of vinylpolystyrpyridine and bismaleimide, H795, a bismaleimide, Cycom 6162, a phenolic, and PSP 6022M, a polystyrylpyridine. Graphite panels were fabricated using fabric or unidirectional tape. This report describes the processes for preparing these panels and some of their mechanical, thermal and flammability properties. Panel properties are compared with state-of-the-art epoxy fiberglass composite panels.

  12. Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Yvette B.; Mccall, Kurt E.

    1992-01-01

    The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System-2, or 'NICBES-2', which was used by the NASA HST six-battery testbed, was subsequently converted into the Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System, or 'NICHES'. Accounts are presently given of this conversion process and future uses being contemplated for NICHES. NICHES will calculate orbital summary data at the end of each orbit, and store these files for trend analyses and rules-generation.

  13. SENLEX: sensor layout expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.D.; Sena, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    An expert system is under development to carry out intrusion detection sensor placement for physical security systems. Expert systems are computer programs that use symbolic programming techniques to duplicate the reasoning processes of human experts. Because sensitive facilities often require complex, multi-sensor intrusion detection systems, the design rules for achieving high levels of detection performance are not easily transferred to novices. Since these design rules reside in the minds of the individual experts performing the tasks, the need to consolidate this knowledge in a form that is available to others was a driving force in this project. The first phase of this project is described in this paper. It consists of an expert system for sensor placement in a graded clear zone. The program has the capability of handling several different sensor types and of coordinating the placement of multiple sensor types. The designs produced by the program in comparison with the designs produced by human experts are discussed. 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Parallel processing and expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Sonie; Yan, Jerry C.

    1991-01-01

    Whether it be monitoring the thermal subsystem of Space Station Freedom, or controlling the navigation of the autonomous rover on Mars, NASA missions in the 1990s cannot enjoy an increased level of autonomy without the efficient implementation of expert systems. Merely increasing the computational speed of uniprocessors may not be able to guarantee that real-time demands are met for larger systems. Speedup via parallel processing must be pursued alongside the optimization of sequential implementations. Prototypes of parallel expert systems have been built at universities and industrial laboratories in the U.S. and Japan. The state-of-the-art research in progress related to parallel execution of expert systems is surveyed. The survey discusses multiprocessors for expert systems, parallel languages for symbolic computations, and mapping expert systems to multiprocessors. Results to date indicate that the parallelism achieved for these systems is small. The main reasons are (1) the body of knowledge applicable in any given situation and the amount of computation executed by each rule firing are small, (2) dividing the problem solving process into relatively independent partitions is difficult, and (3) implementation decisions that enable expert systems to be incrementally refined hamper compile-time optimization. In order to obtain greater speedups, data parallelism and application parallelism must be exploited.

  15. Parallel processing and expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Jerry C.; Lau, Sonie

    1991-01-01

    Whether it be monitoring the thermal subsystem of Space Station Freedom, or controlling the navigation of the autonomous rover on Mars, NASA missions in the 90's cannot enjoy an increased level of autonomy without the efficient use of expert systems. Merely increasing the computational speed of uniprocessors may not be able to guarantee that real time demands are met for large expert systems. Speed-up via parallel processing must be pursued alongside the optimization of sequential implementations. Prototypes of parallel expert systems have been built at universities and industrial labs in the U.S. and Japan. The state-of-the-art research in progress related to parallel execution of expert systems was surveyed. The survey is divided into three major sections: (1) multiprocessors for parallel expert systems; (2) parallel languages for symbolic computations; and (3) measurements of parallelism of expert system. Results to date indicate that the parallelism achieved for these systems is small. In order to obtain greater speed-ups, data parallelism and application parallelism must be exploited.

  16. European Scientific Notes. Volume 38, Number 7.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    London. ESN 38-7 (1984) NATO Establishes Special Program Panel on Sensory Systems for Robotic Control ............................ J.F. Blackburn 365...technical information about sensing technology- and machine intelligence in robots . S Parallel Processing at the University of Amsterdam ....... J.F...Rozzell 407 Robot Census: Too Many Manufacturers .................. Larry E. Shaffer 408 Stage Set for European Standards for Biomaterials ..... Thomas

  17. Guideposts to Self-Directed Learning. Expert Commentary on Essential Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Confessore, Gary J., Ed.; Confessore, Sharon J., Ed.

    The 15 chapters in this book include commentaries on 12 seminal works on self-directed learning (SDL) by Houle, Knowles, Tough, Spear and Mocker, Brookfield, Caffarella and O'Donnell, and Long et al. These works were identified by a Delphi panel of 49 experts. Chapter titles and authors are as follows: "An Introduction to the Study of…

  18. Developing Literacy in Second-Language Learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    August, Diane, Ed.; Shanahan, Timothy, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This volume reports the findings of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth. The formal charge to the panel--a distinguished group of expert researchers in reading, language, bilingualism, research methods, and education--was to identify, assess, and synthesize research on the education of language-minority children and…

  19. Treatment for Addiction: Advancing the Common Good. Recommendations from a Join Together Policy Panel on Treatment and Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Join Together convened a panel of experts to review U.S. policies for addiction treatment and recovery. Although the panel reached an agreement on six recommendations for policy changes that can make help more accessible and expand treatment to more people. These recommendations are: (1) treatment for alcoholism and other drug addiction must be…

  20. Panel methods: An introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Larry L.

    1990-01-01

    Panel methods are numerical schemes for solving (the Prandtl-Glauert equation) for linear, inviscid, irrotational flow about aircraft flying at subsonic or supersonic speeds. The tools at the panel-method user's disposal are (1) surface panels of source-doublet-vorticity distributions that can represent nearly arbitrary geometry, and (2) extremely versatile boundary condition capabilities that can frequently be used for creative modeling. Panel-method capabilities and limitations, basic concepts common to all panel-method codes, different choices that were made in the implementation of these concepts into working computer programs, and various modeling techniques involving boundary conditions, jump properties, and trailing wakes are discussed. An approach for extending the method to nonlinear transonic flow is also presented. Three appendices supplement the main test. In appendix 1, additional detail is provided on how the basic concepts are implemented into a specific computer program (PANAIR). In appendix 2, it is shown how to evaluate analytically the fundamental surface integral that arises in the expressions for influence-coefficients, and evaluate its jump property. In appendix 3, a simple example is used to illustrate the so-called finite part of the improper integrals.

  1. Aerospace safety advisory panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) monitored NASA's activities and provided feedback to the NASA Administrator, other NASA officials and Congress throughout the year. Particular attention was paid to the Space Shuttle, its launch processing and planned and potential safety improvements. The Panel monitored Space Shuttle processing at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and will continue to follow it as personnel reductions are implemented. There is particular concern that upgrades in hardware, software, and operations with the potential for significant risk reduction not be overlooked due to the extraordinary budget pressures facing the agency. The authorization of all of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Block II components portends future Space Shuttle operations at lower risk levels and with greater margins for handling unplanned ascent events. Throughout the year, the Panel attempted to monitor the safety activities related to the Russian involvement in both space and aeronautics programs. This proved difficult as the working relationships between NASA and the Russians were still being defined as the year unfolded. NASA's concern for the unique safety problems inherent in a multi-national endeavor appears appropriate. Actions are underway or contemplated which should be capable of identifying and rectifying problem areas. The balance of this report presents 'Findings and Recommendations' (Section 2), 'Information in Support of Findings and Recommendations' (Section 3) and Appendices describing Panel membership, the NASA response to the March 1994 ASAP report, and a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period (Section 4).

  2. WHO Expert Consultation on Rabies. Second report.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Although there is debate about the estimated health burden of rabies, the estimates of direct mortality and the DALYs due to rabies are among the highest of the neglected tropical diseases. Poor surveillance, underreporting in many developing countries, frequent misdiagnosis of rabies, and an absence of coordination among all the sectors involved are likely to lead to underestimation of the scale of the disease It is clear, however, that rabies disproportionately affects poor rural communities, and particularly children. Most of the expenditure for postexposure prophylaxis is borne by those who can least afford it. As a result of growing dog and human populations, the burden of human deaths from rabies and the economic costs will continue to escalate in the absence of concerted efforts and investment for control. Since the first WHO Expert Consultation on Rabies in 2004, WHO and its network of collaborating centres on rabies, specialized national institutions, members of the WHO Expert Advisory Panel on Rabies and partners such as the Gates Foundation, the Global Alliance for Rabies Control and the Partnership for Rabies Prevention, have been advocating the feasibility of rabies elimination regionally and globally and promoting research into sustainable cost-effective strategies. Those joint efforts have begun to break the cycle of rabies neglect, and rabies is becoming recognized as a priority for investment. This Consultation concluded that human dog-transmitted rabies is readily amenable to control, regional elimination in the medium- term and even global elimination in the long-term. A resolution on major neglected tropical diseases, including rabies, prepared for submission to the World Health Assembly in May 2013 aims at securing Member States' commitment to the control, elimination or eradication of these diseases. Endorsement of the resolution would open the door for exciting advances in rabies prevention and control.

  3. Identifying key conservation threats to Alpine birds through expert knowledge.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Dan E; Pedrini, Paolo; Brambilla, Mattia; Rolando, Antonio; Girardello, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Alpine biodiversity is subject to a range of increasing threats, but the scarcity of data for many taxa means that it is difficult to assess the level and likely future impact of a given threat. Expert opinion can be a useful tool to address knowledge gaps in the absence of adequate data. Experts with experience in Alpine ecology were approached to rank threat levels for 69 Alpine bird species over the next 50 years for the whole European Alps in relation to ten categories: land abandonment, climate change, renewable energy, fire, forestry practices, grazing practices, hunting, leisure, mining and urbanization. There was a high degree of concordance in ranking of perceived threats among experts for most threat categories. The major overall perceived threats to Alpine birds identified through expert knowledge were land abandonment, urbanization, leisure and forestry, although other perceived threats were ranked highly for particular species groups (renewable energy and hunting for raptors, hunting for gamebirds). For groups of species defined according to their breeding habitat, open habitat species and treeline species were perceived as the most threatened. A spatial risk assessment tool based on summed scores for the whole community showed threat levels were highest for bird communities of the northern and western Alps. Development of the approaches given in this paper, including addressing biases in the selection of experts and adopting a more detailed ranking procedure, could prove useful in the future in identifying future threats, and in carrying out risk assessments based on levels of threat to the whole bird community.

  4. [Professional and ethical medical expert quality].

    PubMed

    Iveković, Renata

    2008-01-01

    The work of court experts, including those of medical profession, is ruled by Regulations on standing court experts. The Regulations determine requirements for performing the job of court expertise, rights and duties of court experts, awards and remuneration for their work. The ethical codex determines relation of experts to performance of expertise, to court and parties, to colleagues court experts and to the community. The expert must obey the rules on performance of the expertise, complete all his duties, protect respectability of all court experts, and justify trust of legal authorities. In relationship with the court, the expert must respond to court summons, give his finding and opinion, and come to hearing summons.

  5. Oven wall panel construction

    DOEpatents

    Ellison, Kenneth; Whike, Alan S.

    1980-04-22

    An oven roof or wall is formed from modular panels, each of which comprises an inner fabric and an outer fabric. Each such fabric is formed with an angle iron framework and somewhat resilient tie-bars or welded at their ends to flanges of the angle irons to maintain the inner and outer frameworks in spaced disposition while minimizing heat transfer by conduction and permitting some degree of relative movement on expansion and contraction of the module components. Suitable thermal insulation is provided within the module. Panels or skins are secured to the fabric frameworks and each such skin is secured to a framework and projects laterally so as slidingly to overlie the adjacent frame member of an adjacent panel in turn to permit relative movement during expansion and contraction.

  6. Vehicle Systems Panel deliberations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, Tom; Modlin, Tom; Suddreth, Jack; Wheeler, Tom; Tenney, Darrel R.; Bayless, Ernest O.; Lisagor, W. Barry; Bolstad, Donald A.; Croop, Harold; Dyer, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Vehicle Systems Panel addressed materials and structures technology issues related to launch and space vehicle systems not directly associated with the propulsion or entry systems. The Vehicle Systems Panel was comprised of two subpanels - Expendable Launch Vehicles & Cryotanks (ELVC) and Reusable Vehicles (RV). Tom Bales, LaRC, and Tom Modlin, JSC, chaired the expendable and reusable vehicles subpanels, respectively, and co-chaired the Vehicle Systems Panel. The following four papers are discussed in this section: (1) Net Section components for Weldalite Cryogenic Tanks, by Don Bolstad; (2) Build-up Structures for Cryogenic Tanks and Dry Bay Structural Applications, by Barry Lisagor; (3) Composite Materials Program, by Robert Van Siclen; (4) Shuttle Technology (and M&S Lessons Learned), by Stan Greenberg.

  7. Origami of thick panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Peng, Rui; You, Zhong

    2015-07-01

    Origami patterns, including the rigid origami patterns in which flat inflexible sheets are joined by creases, are primarily created for zero-thickness sheets. In order to apply them to fold structures such as roofs, solar panels, and space mirrors, for which thickness cannot be disregarded, various methods have been suggested. However, they generally involve adding materials to or offsetting panels away from the idealized sheet without altering the kinematic model used to simulate folding. We develop a comprehensive kinematic synthesis for rigid origami of thick panels that differs from the existing kinematic model but is capable of reproducing motions identical to that of zero-thickness origami. The approach, proven to be effective for typical origami, can be readily applied to fold real engineering structures.

  8. Advanced solar panel designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes solar cell panel designs that utilize new hgih efficiency solar cells along with lightweight rigid panel technology. The resulting designs push the W/kg and W/sq m parameters to new high levels. These new designs are well suited to meet the demand for higher performance small satellites. This paper reports on progress made on two SBIR Phase 1 contracts. One panel design involved the use of large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells of 19% efficiency combined with a lightweight rigid graphite fiber epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power level of 60 W/kg with a potential of reaching 80 W/kg. The second panel design involved the use of newly developed high efficiency (22%) dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with an advanced lightweight rigid substrate using aluminum honeycomb core with high strength graphite fiber mesh facesheets. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power of 105 W/kg and 230 W/sq m. This paper will address the construction details of the panels and an a analysis of the component weights. A strawman array design suitable for a typical small-sat mission is described for each of the two panel design technologies being studied. Benefits in respect to weight reduction, area reduction, and system cost reduction are analyzed and compared to conventional arrays.

  9. Maintaining success, reducing treatment burden, focusing on survivorship: highlights from the third European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, J.; Albers, P.; Altena, R.; Aparicio, J.; Bokemeyer, C.; Busch, J.; Cathomas, R.; Cavallin-Stahl, E.; Clarke, N. W.; Claßen, J.; Cohn-Cedermark, G.; Dahl, A. A.; Daugaard, G.; De Giorgi, U.; De Santis, M.; De Wit, M.; De Wit, R.; Dieckmann, K. P.; Fenner, M.; Fizazi, K.; Flechon, A.; Fossa, S. D.; Germá Lluch, J. R.; Gietema, J. A.; Gillessen, S.; Giwercman, A.; Hartmann, J. T.; Heidenreich, A.; Hentrich, M.; Honecker, F.; Horwich, A.; Huddart, R. A.; Kliesch, S.; Kollmannsberger, C.; Krege, S.; Laguna, M. P.; Looijenga, L. H. J.; Lorch, A.; Lotz, J. P.; Mayer, F.; Necchi, A.; Nicolai, N.; Nuver, J.; Oechsle, K.; Oldenburg, J.; Oosterhuis, J. W.; Powles, T.; Rajpert-De Meyts, E.; Rick, O.; Rosti, G.; Salvioni, R.; Schrader, M.; Schweyer, S.; Sedlmayer, F.; Sohaib, A.; Souchon, R.; Tandstad, T.; Winter, C.; Wittekind, C.

    2013-01-01

    In November 2011, the Third European Consensus Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of Germ-Cell Cancer (GCC) was held in Berlin, Germany. This third conference followed similar meetings in 2003 (Essen, Germany) and 2006 (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) [Schmoll H-J, Souchon R, Krege S et al. European consensus on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer: a report of the European Germ-Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG). Ann Oncol 2004; 15: 1377–1399; Krege S, Beyer J, Souchon R et al. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ-Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part I. Eur Urol 2008; 53: 478–496; Krege S, Beyer J, Souchon R et al. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ-Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part II. Eur Urol 2008; 53: 497–513]. A panel of 56 of 60 invited GCC experts from all across Europe discussed all aspects on diagnosis and treatment of GCC, with a particular focus on acute and late toxic effects as well as on survivorship issues. The panel consisted of oncologists, urologic surgeons, radiooncologists, pathologists and basic scientists, who are all actively involved in care of GCC patients. Panelists were chosen based on the publication activity in recent years. Before the meeting, panelists were asked to review the literature published since 2006 in 20 major areas concerning all aspects of diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of GCC patients, and to prepare an updated version of the previous recommendations to be discussed at the conference. In addition, ∼50 E-vote questions were drafted and presented at the conference to address the most controversial areas for a poll of expert opinions. Here, we present the main recommendations and controversies of this meeting. The votes of the panelists are added as online supplements. PMID:23152360

  10. Diagnosing battery behavior with an expert system in PROLOG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkwood, N.; Weeks, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    Power for the Hubble Space Telescope comes from a system of 20 solar panel assemblies (SPAs) and six nickel-cadmium batteries. The HST battery system is simulated by the HST Electrical Power System (EPS) testbed at Marshall Space Flight Center. The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System (NICBES) is being used to diagnose faults of the testbed system, evaluate battery status and provide decision support for the engineer. Extensive telemetry of system operating conditions is relayed through a DEC LSI-11. A BASIC program running on a PC monitors the flow of data, figures cell divergence and recharge ratio, and stores these values, along with other selected data, for use by the expert system.

  11. Requirements specification for nickel cadmium battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The requirements for performance, design, test, and qualification of a computer program identified as NICBES, Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System, is established. The specific spacecraft power system configuration selected was the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Electrical Power System (EPS) Testbed. Power for the HST comes from a system of 13 Solar Panel Arrays (SPAs) linked to 6 Nickel Cadmium Batteries which are connected to 3 Busses. An expert system, NICBES, will be developed at Martin Marietta Aerospace to recognize a testbed anomaly, identify the malfunctioning component and recommend a course of action. Besides fault diagnosis, NICBES will be able to evaluate battery status, give advice on battery status and provide decision support for the operator. These requirements are detailed.

  12. PRSEUS Acoustic Panel Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolette, Velicki; Yovanof, Nicolette P.; Baraja, Jaime; Mathur, Gopal; Thrash, Patrick; Pickell, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the development of a novel structural concept, Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS), that addresses the demanding fuselage loading requirements for the Hybrid Wing or Blended Wing Body (BWB) airplane configuration with regards to acoustic response. A PRSEUS panel was designed and fabricated and provided to NASA-LaRC for acoustic response testing in the Structural Acoustics Loads and Transmission (SALT) facility). Preliminary assessments of the sound transmission characteristics of a PRSEUS panel subjected to a representative Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) operating environment were completed for the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Program.

  13. Panel 3 - characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Erck, R.A.; Erdemir, A.; Janghsing Hsieh; Lee, R.H.; Xian Zheng Pan; Deming Shu; Feldman, A.; Glass, J.T.; Kleimer, R.; Lawton, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    The task of this panel was to identify and prioritize needs in the area of characterization of diamond and diamond-like-carbon (DLC) films for use in the transportation industry. Until recent advances in production of inexpensive films of diamonds and DLC, it was not feasible that these materials could be mass produced. The Characterization Panel is restricting itself to identifying needs in areas that would be most useful to manufacturers and users in producing and utilizing diamond and DLC coatings in industry. These characterization needs include in-situ monitoring during growth, relation of structure to performance, and standards and definitions.

  14. A gene mapping expert system.

    PubMed

    Galland, J; Skolnick, M H

    1990-08-01

    Expert systems are now commonly developed to solve practical problems. Nevertheless, genetics has just begun to benefit from this new technology, since genetic expert systems are extremely rare and often purely experimental. A prototype for risk calculation in pedigrees was developed at the University of Utah, using a commercial frames/rules developmental shell (Intelligence Compiler), which runs on an IBM PC. When small data sets were used, the implementation functioned well, but it could not handle larger data sets. Performance became a major issue, with two possible solutions. The first possibility would have been to port the system to a more powerful machine, and the second would have been to use several different shells or languages, each efficiently representing a specific type of knowledge. Neither of these solutions was applicable in this case. From this experience, we learned that performance, portability, and modifiability were three major requirements for genetic expert systems. To achieve these goals, we implemented the gene mapping expert system GMES: (GMES is unrelated to the gene mapping system, GMS in Lisp combined with a frame/object shell (FROBS). We were able to efficiently represent, control, and optimize a gene mapping experiment, achieving portability by building GMES on top of a C-based version of Common Lisp. Lisp combined with the FROBS expert system shell permitted a declarative representation of each of the components of the experiment, resulting in a transplant specification of the problem within a maintainable system.

  15. Expert system application education project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzelez, Avelino J.; Ragusa, James M.

    1988-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) technology, and in particular expert systems, has shown potential applicability in many areas of operation at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). In an era of limited resources, the early identification of good expert system applications, and their segregation from inappropriate ones can result in a more efficient use of available NASA resources. On the other hand, the education of students in a highly technical area such as AI requires an extensive hands-on effort. The nature of expert systems is such that proper sample applications for the educational process are difficult to find. A pilot project between NASA-KSC and the University of Central Florida which was designed to simultaneously address the needs of both institutions at a minimum cost. This project, referred to as Expert Systems Prototype Training Project (ESPTP), provided NASA with relatively inexpensive development of initial prototype versions of certain applications. University students likewise benefit by having expertise on a non-trivial problem accessible to them at no cost. Such expertise is indispensible in a hands-on training approach to developing expert systems.

  16. Expert Consensus Contouring Guidelines for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Esophageal and Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Abraham J.; Bosch, Walter R.; Chang, Daniel T.; Hong, Theodore S.; Jabbour, Salma K.; Kleinberg, Lawrence R.; Mamon, Harvey J.; Thomas, Charles R.; Goodman, Karyn A.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose/Objective(s): Current guidelines for esophageal cancer contouring are derived from traditional 2-dimensional fields based on bony landmarks, and they do not provide sufficient anatomic detail to ensure consistent contouring for more conformal radiation therapy techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Therefore, we convened an expert panel with the specific aim to derive contouring guidelines and generate an atlas for the clinical target volume (CTV) in esophageal or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. Methods and Materials: Eight expert academically based gastrointestinal radiation oncologists participated. Three sample cases were chosen: a GEJ cancer, a distal esophageal cancer, and a mid-upper esophageal cancer. Uniform computed tomographic (CT) simulation datasets and accompanying diagnostic positron emission tomographic/CT images were distributed to each expert, and the expert was instructed to generate gross tumor volume (GTV) and CTV contours for each case. All contours were aggregated and subjected to quantitative analysis to assess the degree of concordance between experts and to generate draft consensus contours. The panel then refined these contours to generate the contouring atlas. Results: The κ statistics indicated substantial agreement between panelists for each of the 3 test cases. A consensus CTV atlas was generated for the 3 test cases, each representing common anatomic presentations of esophageal cancer. The panel agreed on guidelines and principles to facilitate the generalizability of the atlas to individual cases. Conclusions: This expert panel successfully reached agreement on contouring guidelines for esophageal and GEJ IMRT and generated a reference CTV atlas. This atlas will serve as a reference for IMRT contours for clinical practice and prospective trial design. Subsequent patterns of failure analyses of clinical datasets using these guidelines may require modification in the future.

  17. Photovoltaic-Panel Laminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keenan, R.

    1985-01-01

    Two-piece unit heats and presses protective layers to form laminate. Rubber diaphragm between upper and lower vacuum chambers alternates between neutral position and one that presses against solar-cell array, supplying distributed force necessary to press layers of laminate together. Encapsulation helps to protect cells from environment and to ensure long panel life while allowing efficient generation of electricity from Sunlight.

  18. Stepped inlet optical panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2001-01-01

    An optical panel includes stacked optical waveguides having stepped inlet facets collectively defining an inlet face for receiving image light, and having beveled outlet faces collectively defining a display screen for displaying the image light channeled through the waveguides by internal reflection.

  19. Panels: Papers and Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besser, Howard; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Contains student papers and abstracts of panel discussions on the following topics: (1) social impact of networked communications; (2) text authenticity issues; (3) geographic information systems; (4) the dilemma of open networks versus information accuracy and personal rights; and (5) empowering medical applications via the network. (KRN)

  20. The Panel Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes the views of panel members at a symposium on the place of inorganic chemistry in the undergraduate curriculum. Suggests one semester of intermediate inorganic chemistry, followed by a year of physical chemistry and a semester of advanced inorganic chemistry as a reasonable prescription for the modern undergraduate curriculum. (Author/JN)

  1. Register of hydrogen technology experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludtke, P. R.

    1975-01-01

    This register presents the names of approximately 235 individuals who are considered experts, or very knowledgeable, in various fields of technology related to hydrogen. Approximately 90 organizations are represented. Each person is listed by organizational affiliation, address, and principal area of expertise. The criteria for selection of names for the register are extensive experience in a given field of work, participation in or supervision of relevant research programs, contributions to the literature, or being recognized as an expert in a particular field. The purpose of the register is to present, in easy form, sources of dependable information regarding highly technical areas of hydrogen technology, with particular emphasis on safety. The register includes two indexes: an alphabetical listing of the experts and an alphabetical listing of the organizations with which they are affiliated.

  2. Expert witness and Jungian archetypes.

    PubMed

    Lallave, Juan Antonio; Gutheil, Thomas Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Jung's theories of archetype, shadow, and the personal and collective unconscious provide a postmodern framework in which to consider the role of the expert witness in judicial proceedings. Archetypal themes, motifs, and influences help to illuminate the shadow of the judicial system and projections and behaviors among the cast of the court in pursuing justice. This article speaks to archetypal influences and dialectical tensions encountered by the expert witness in this judicial drama. The archetype of Justice is born from the human need for order and relational fairness in a world of chaos. The persona of justice is the promise of truth in the drama. The shadow of justice is untruth, the need to win by any means. The dynamics of the trickster archetype serve and promote injustice. These influences are examined by means of a case example. This approach will deepen understanding of court proceedings and the role of the expert witness in the heroic quest for justice.

  3. Weather forecasting expert system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Weather forecasting is critical to both the Space Transportation System (STS) ground operations and the launch/landing activities at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The current launch frequency places significant demands on the USAF weather forecasters at the Cape Canaveral Forecasting Facility (CCFF), who currently provide the weather forecasting for all STS operations. As launch frequency increases, KSC's weather forecasting problems will be great magnified. The single most important problem is the shortage of highly skilled forecasting personnel. The development of forecasting expertise is difficult and requires several years of experience. Frequent personnel changes within the forecasting staff jeopardize the accumulation and retention of experience-based weather forecasting expertise. The primary purpose of this project was to assess the feasibility of using Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to ameliorate this shortage of experts by capturing aria incorporating the forecasting knowledge of current expert forecasters into a Weather Forecasting Expert System (WFES) which would then be made available to less experienced duty forecasters.

  4. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) for calendar year 1998-a year of sharp contrasts and significant successes at NASA. The year opened with the announcement of large workforce cutbacks. The slip in the schedule for launching the International Space Station (ISS) created a five-month hiatus in Space Shuttle launches. This slack period ended with the successful and highly publicized launch of the STS-95 mission. As the year closed, ISS assembly began with the successful orbiting and joining of the Functional Cargo Block (FGB), Zarya, from Russia and the Unity Node from the United States. Throughout the year, the Panel maintained its scrutiny of NASA's safety processes. Of particular interest were the potential effects on safety of workforce reductions and the continued transition of functions to the Space Flight Operations Contractor. Attention was also given to the risk management plans of the Aero-Space Technology programs, including the X-33, X-34, and X-38. Overall, the Panel concluded that safety is well served for the present. The picture is not as clear for the future. Cutbacks have limited the depth of talent available. In many cases, technical specialties are 'one deep.' The extended hiring freeze has resulted in an older workforce that will inevitably suffer significant departures from retirements in the near future. The resulting 'brain drain' could represent a future safety risk unless appropriate succession planning is started expeditiously. This and other topics are covered in the section addressing workforce. The major NASA programs are also limited in their ability to plan property for the future. This is of particular concern for the Space Shuttle and ISS because these programs are scheduled to operate well into the next century. In the case of the Space Shuttle, beneficial and mandatory safety and operational upgrades are being delayed because of a lack of sufficient present funding. Likewise, the ISS has

  5. Introduction and Overview of the Industrial Interactive Panel Session

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, David

    2014-03-01

    A unique industrial panel covering the challenges and needs of various industries and how being innovative is important. The session involves two invited industry speakers (24 minutes each) who will set the stage for the interactive round table panel session. The Panel, led by moderator Mark Bernius (Morgan Advanced Materials), consists of the two invited speakers plus an additional five industry panelists. The first thirty minutes of the panel session has the five additional panelists introducing themselves and their work/company. These introductions could include what they or their company does, sharing one or two technical highlights, listing some challenges or needs for physicists, and what innovation breakthroughs are needed in their industries. The final hour of the session will be highly interactive with questions to the panel coming from the moderator, the audience, and the panelists themselves. Questions that might be addressed include: how physicists are or could be critical in advancing innovation; how can AIP/APS/FIAP help industry get the physics help they need to be innovative (knowledge, the right staff, etc.); what role can students and post docs play in advancing industry's mission; etc. We invite you to participate in this interactive session and ask our industry experts your own interesting and challenging questions. The invited speakers are George Thompson, Intel, and Rick Watkins, Nike. The panel members also include Jason Cleveland, Asylum Research; Robert Doering, Texas Instruments; William Gallagher, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center; James Hollenhorst, Agilent Technologies; and Martin Poitzsch, Schlumberger-Doll Research.

  6. JANNAF liquid rocket combustion instability panel research recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klem, Mark D.

    1990-01-01

    The Joint Army, Navy, NASA, Air Force (JANNAF) Liquid Rocket Combustion Instability Panel was formed in 1988, drawing its members from industry, academia, and government experts. The panel was charted to address the needs of near-term engine development programs and to make recommendations whose implementation would provide not only sufficient data but also the analysis capabilities to design stable and efficient engines. The panel was also chartered to make long-term recommendations toward developing mechanistic analysis models that would not be limited by design geometry or operating regime. These models would accurately predict stability and thereby minimize the amount of subscale testing for anchoring. The panel has held workshops on acoustic absorbing devices, combustion instability mechanisms, instability test hardware, and combustion instability computational methods. At these workshops, research projects that would meet the panel's charter were suggested. The JANNAF Liquid Rocket Combustion Instability Panel's conclusions about the work that needs to be done and recommendations on how to approach it, based on evaluation of the suggested research projects, are presented.

  7. Nickel cadmium battery expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-11-01

    The applicability of artificial intelligence methodologies for the automation of energy storage management, in this case, nickel cadmium batteries, is demonstrated. With the Hubble Space Telescope Electrical Power System (HST/EPS) testbed as the application domain, an expert system was developed which incorporates the physical characterization of the EPS, in particular, the nickel cadmium batteries, as well as the human's operational knowledge. The expert system returns not only fault diagnostics but also status and advice along with justifications and explanations in the form of decision support.

  8. Robotic planner expert system (RPLANES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grice, Ervin Oneal

    1987-01-01

    The Artificial Intelligence Section of the Mission Planning and Analysis of the Johnson Space Center has developed a prototype of an expert system for robotic planning. A robot is given a high level goal to perform an action (i.e., swap, adjust, or stow) on a component unit of an object such as a satellite and the Robotic Planner Expert System (RPLANES) generates the necessary goals for arm actions. RPLANES is designed using the Inference Corp. Automated Reasoning Tool (ART) development tool. It resides on a SYMBOLICS 3670. RPLANES and its evolution are described.

  9. Nickel cadmium battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The applicability of artificial intelligence methodologies for the automation of energy storage management, in this case, nickel cadmium batteries, is demonstrated. With the Hubble Space Telescope Electrical Power System (HST/EPS) testbed as the application domain, an expert system was developed which incorporates the physical characterization of the EPS, in particular, the nickel cadmium batteries, as well as the human's operational knowledge. The expert system returns not only fault diagnostics but also status and advice along with justifications and explanations in the form of decision support.

  10. User interfaces to expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, A.; Emrich, M.L.

    1988-10-01

    Expert Systems are becoming increasingly popular in environments where the user is not well versed in computers or the subject domain. They offer expert advice and can also explain their lines of reasoning. As these systems are applied to highly technical areas, they become complex and large. Therefore, User Systems Interfaces (USIs) become critical. This paper discusses recent technologies that can be applied to improved user communication. In particular, bar menus/graphics, mouse interfaces, touch screens, and voice links will be highlighted. Their applications in the context of SOFTMAN (The Software Manager Apprentice) a knowledge-based system are discussed. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  11. [Judicial institutions of medical experts].

    PubMed

    Godoy, Roberto Lm

    2016-05-01

    This article considers the evolutive process that judicial organisms of medical experts have experienced in Argentina since their creation and formulates a proposal for its adequacy and modernization. Due to multiple and various evolutive factors, judicial organisms managing medicolegal expert activities show, nowadays, signals that a structural and dynamic reform is needed. They remain as organizational units of Public Administration and their effectiveness and efficiency depends not only of a scientific criteria but a managing one. The present and future challenge will be their conceptual transformation, from "corporate scientific entities" to "public-service-providing units" within the justice administration system.

  12. LCD Panels: The Electronic Wonder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Glenn

    1994-01-01

    Describes Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) panels and their use in the classroom. Topics discussed include active versus passive matrix panels; the number of pixels; projectors, including transmissive or reflective overhead projectors; costs; and vendors that supply LCDs. (LRW)

  13. The Politics of the Economics of Education in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This article critically examines the work of the European Commission-sponsored network, the European Expert Network on Economics of Education (EENEE). The aim is to develop understanding of the context and significance of the mobilization of the economics of education research and policy paradigm within the European Union's Education and Training…

  14. Use of probabilistic expert judgment in uncertainty analysis of carcinogenic potency.

    PubMed

    Evans, J S; Gray, G M; Sielken, R L; Smith, A E; Valdez-Flores, C; Graham, J D

    1994-08-01

    A new approach to characterizing the state of knowledge about carcinogenic potency is described. In this approach, the carcinogenic risk posed by a specific dose is characterized by a probability distribution, indicating the relative likelihood of different risk estimates. The approach utilizes expert judgment and a probability tree and is illustrated in a case study of chloroform exposure. Experts in cancer biology/toxicology, pharmacokinetics, and dose-response modeling were identified by a panel of science-policy specialists. In a workshop, experts reviewed the chloroform data, received training in probability elicitation, and constructed a consensual probability tree based on biological theories of cancer causation. Distributions of carcinogenic risk were developed based on the probability tree, chloroform data, judgmental probabilities provided by the experts, and classical statistical techniques. Risk distributions varied considerably between experts, with some predicting essentially no risk from 100 ppb chloroform in drinking water while other have at least some probability on risks generally considered of regulatory significance. Estimated human risk was much lower when extrapolating from liver tumors in animals than from kidney tumors. Issues of scientific disagreement leading to different risk distributions between experts are discussed. The resulting risk distributions are compared to standard EPA risk calculations for the same exposure scenario as well as to the expert judgement of epidemiologists about cancer risks of chlorinated drinking water. Issues in combining expert judgments are discussed, and several alternative methods are presented. Strengths and weaknesses of the distributional approach are discussed.

  15. Panel Reviews Benefits and Harms of CT Scans for Lung Cancer Screening | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    A panel of experts has reviewed the evidence regarding the benefits and harms of screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography (CT) and concluded that the technology may benefit some individuals at high risk for lung cancer. But the panel cautioned that many questions remain about the potential harms of screening and how to translate screening into clinical practice. |

  16. Male Reproductive Disorders, Diseases, and Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Russ; Skakkebaek, Niels E.; Hass, Ulla; Toppari, Jorma; Juul, Anders; Andersson, Anna Maria; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Heindel, Jerrold J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Increasing evidence suggests that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to male reproductive diseases and disorders. Purpose: To estimate the incidence/prevalence of selected male reproductive disorders/diseases and associated economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to specific EDC exposures in the European Union (EU). Methods: An expert panel evaluated evidence for probability of causation using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization. Exposure-response relationships and reference levels were evaluated, and biomarker data were organized from carefully identified studies from the peer-reviewed literature to represent European exposure and approximate burden of disease as it occurred in 2010. The cost-of-illness estimation utilized multiple peer-reviewed sources. Results: The expert panel identified low epidemiological and strong toxicological evidence for male infertility attributable to phthalate exposure, with a 40–69% probability of causing 618 000 additional assisted reproductive technology procedures, costing €4.71 billion annually. Low epidemiological and strong toxicological evidence was also identified for cryptorchidism due to prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure, resulting in a 40–69% probability that 4615 cases result, at a cost of €130 million (sensitivity analysis, €117–130 million). A much more modest (0–19%) probability of causation in testicular cancer by polybrominated diphenyl ethers was identified due to very low epidemiological and weak toxicological evidence, with 6830 potential cases annually and costs of €848 million annually (sensitivity analysis, €313–848 million). The panel assigned 40–69% probability of lower T concentrations in 55- to 64-year-old men due to phthalate exposure, with 24 800 associated deaths annually and lost economic productivity of €7.96 billion. Conclusions: EDCs may contribute substantially to male

  17. Psychology of developing and designing expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; MacGregor, D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses psychological problems relevant to developing and designing expert systems. With respect to the former, the psychological literature suggests that several cognitive biases may affect the elicitation of a valid knowledge base from the expert. The literature also suggests that common expert system inference engines may be quite inconsistent with reasoning heuristics employed by experts. With respect to expert system user interfaces, care should be taken when eliciting uncertainty estimates from users, presenting system conclusions, and ordering questions.

  18. Towards a science of expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Developments in the field of AI are discussed. The components and applications of expert systems, which are computer systems designed to simulate the problem-solving behavior of a person expert in a narrow field, are examined. Two types of expert systems, shallow and deep, are described and examples are given. A logic programming system, rule-based system, and framed-based system are utilized as means of representing the expert system's data base. The limitations of expert systems are considered.

  19. Renal replacement therapy in adult and pediatric intensive care : Recommendations by an expert panel from the French Intensive Care Society (SRLF) with the French Society of Anesthesia Intensive Care (SFAR) French Group for Pediatric Intensive Care Emergencies (GFRUP) the French Dialysis Society (SFD).

    PubMed

    Vinsonneau, Christophe; Allain-Launay, Emma; Blayau, Clarisse; Darmon, Michael; Ducheyron, Damien; Gaillot, Theophile; Honore, Patrick M; Javouhey, Etienne; Krummel, Thierry; Lahoche, Annie; Letacon, Serge; Legrand, Matthieu; Monchi, Mehran; Ridel, Christophe; Robert, René; Schortgen, Frederique; Souweine, Bertrand; Vaillant, Patrick; Velly, Lionel; Osman, David; Van Vong, Ly

    2015-12-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) in critically ill patients is currently very frequent and requires renal replacement therapy (RRT) in many patients. During the last 15 years, several studies have considered important issues regarding the use of RRT in ARF, like the time to initiate the therapy, the dialysis dose, the types of catheter, the choice of technique, and anticoagulation. However, despite an abundant literature, conflicting results do not provide evidence on RRT implementation. We present herein recommendations for the use of RRT in adult and pediatric intensive care developed with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system by an expert group of French Intensive Care Society (SRLF), with the participation of the French Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care (SFAR), the French Group for Pediatric Intensive Care and Emergencies (GFRUP), and the French Dialysis Society (SFD). The recommendations cover 4 fields: criteria for RRT initiation, technical aspects (access routes, membranes, anticoagulation, reverse osmosis water), practical aspects (choice of the method, peritoneal dialysis, dialysis dose, adjustments), and safety (procedures and training, dialysis catheter management, extracorporeal circuit set-up). These recommendations have been designed on a practical point of view to provide guidance for intensivists in their daily practice.

  20. [Remarks about the position of the medico-legal expert in imperative regulations in the Penal and Civil Codes].

    PubMed

    Chowaniec, Czesław; Nowak, Agnieszka; Chowaniec, Małgorzata; Kobek, Mariusz

    2005-01-01

    In the monograph 'Medico-legal opinions--essays on theory', prof. K. Jaegermann wrote that 'the use of an expert requires theoretical or fairly clear knowledge about the mutual relationship between judge and expert'. In his opinion knowledge of this kind plays a significant role in estimating the usefulness of so-called expert evidence. Practical knowledge about the relationship between the judge and expert is necessary but not a decisive condition not only for a lawyer to be a judge but also for a physician to be a medico-legal expert. An expert can be not only a person appointed by the court but must also possess proper knowledge in a particular field, namely, the required professional and specialist qualifications and must also considered to be impartial. On the basis of the analysis of law in force and imperative regulations in Penal and Civil Codes, the authors have presented remarks relating to the expert's status as well as the lack of judicial control over the activity of experts appointed by court. Verification of professional qualifications in court experts and a reduction of those appointed 'ad hoc' are suggested. In the authors opinion co-operation between lawyers and experts should be improved. It is also essential to introduce statutory legal protection of court experts as well as to undertake activities leading to equaling the status of Polish court experts to that of other European countries.

  1. Expert systems for superalloy studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Kaukler, William F.

    1990-01-01

    There are many areas in science and engineering which require knowledge of an extremely complex foundation of experimental results in order to design methodologies for developing new materials or products. Superalloys are an area which fit well into this discussion in the sense that they are complex combinations of elements which exhibit certain characteristics. Obviously the use of superalloys in high performance, high temperature systems such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine is of interest to NASA. The superalloy manufacturing process is complex and the implementation of an expert system within the design process requires some thought as to how and where it should be implemented. A major motivation is to develop a methodology to assist metallurgists in the design of superalloy materials using current expert systems technology. Hydrogen embrittlement is disasterous to rocket engines and the heuristics can be very complex. Attacking this problem as one module in the overall design process represents a significant step forward. In order to describe the objectives of the first phase implementation, the expert system was designated Hydrogen Environment Embrittlement Expert System (HEEES).

  2. Expert systems in government symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Karna, K.N.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on various applications of expert systems. Topics considered at the symposium included knowledge-based reasoning, new directions in knowledge acquisition, software, programming languages, systems engineering, intelligent information retrieval, reactor safety assessment, medical applications, uncertainty management, algorithms, parallel processing, and artificial intelligence.

  3. Teen Experts Guide Makerspace Makeover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    A makerspace is a place where makers can envision a project, find an expert, and create something. Libraries have always held programming during which patrons were able to come in and create. The makerspace at the Lamar Middle School in Flower Mound, Texas, is available for students every day, so that they can daily create and play with innovative…

  4. Expert Systems for Reference Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrot, James R.

    1986-01-01

    Discussion of library reference work that may be suitable for use of expert systems focuses on (1) information and literature searches, and (2) requests to interpret bibliographic references and locate items listed. Systems and computer-assisted instruction modules designed for information retrieval at the University of Waterloo Library are…

  5. Expert System Development Methodology (ESDM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sary, Charisse; Gilstrap, Lewey; Hull, Larry G.

    1990-01-01

    The Expert System Development Methodology (ESDM) provides an approach to developing expert system software. Because of the uncertainty associated with this process, an element of risk is involved. ESDM is designed to address the issue of risk and to acquire the information needed for this purpose in an evolutionary manner. ESDM presents a life cycle in which a prototype evolves through five stages of development. Each stage consists of five steps, leading to a prototype for that stage. Development may proceed to a conventional development methodology (CDM) at any time if enough has been learned about the problem to write requirements. ESDM produces requirements so that a product may be built with a CDM. ESDM is considered preliminary because is has not yet been applied to actual projects. It has been retrospectively evaluated by comparing the methods used in two ongoing expert system development projects that did not explicitly choose to use this methodology but which provided useful insights into actual expert system development practices and problems.

  6. Computers that Think Like Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnucan, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of expert systems, including various techniques they use to represent knowledge (such as production rules, semantic networks, frames, first-order logic, and others), system interactions, and such problem domains as science, medicine, computer configuration, trouble-shooting/repair, and oil/mineral exploration. Also discusses…

  7. Coupling expert systems and simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawamura, K.; Beale, G.; Padalkar, S.; Rodriguez-Moscoso, J.; Hsieh, B. J.; Vinz, F.; Fernandez, K. R.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype coupled system called NESS (NASA Expert Simulation System) is described. NESS assists the user in running digital simulations of dynamic systems, interprets the output data to performance specifications, and recommends a suitable series compensator to be added to the simulation model.

  8. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Europe: a survey among national experts from 39 countries, February 2013.

    PubMed

    Glasner, C; Albiger, B; Buist, G; Tambić Andrasević, A; Canton, R; Carmeli, Y; Friedrich, A W; Giske, C G; Glupczynski, Y; Gniadkowski, M; Livermore, D M; Nordmann, P; Poirel, L; Rossolini, G M; Seifert, H; Vatopoulos, A; Walsh, T; Woodford, N; Donker, T; Monnet, D L; Grundmann, H

    2013-07-11

    The spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is a threat to healthcare delivery, although its extent differs substantially from country to country. In February 2013, national experts from 39 European countries were invited to self-assess the current epidemiological situation of CPE in their country. Information about national management of CPE was also reported. The results highlight the urgent need for a coordinated European effort on early diagnosis, active surveillance, and guidance on infection control measures.

  9. Identification, prevention and management of cardiovascular risk in chronic myeloid leukaemia patients candidate to ponatinib: an expert opinion.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; Pregno, Patrizia; Spallarossa, Paolo; Arboscello, Eleonora; Ciceri, Fabio; Giorgi, Mauro; Grossi, Alberto; Mallardo, Mario; Nodari, Savina; Ottolini, Stefano; Sala, Carla; Tortorella, Giovanni; Rosti, Gianantonio; Pane, Fabrizio; Minotti, Giorgio; Baccarani, Michele

    2017-04-01

    Ponatinib (Iclusig, ARIAD Pharmaceuticals-Incyte Co.) is a third-generation structure-guided tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is approved for treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukaemias resistant or intolerant to other inhibitors. The clinical use of ponatinib is complicated by the possible development of cardiovascular events, primarily hypertension and arterial or venous thrombotic events. The US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicine Agency recommend that the cardiovascular profile of patients candidate for ponatinib should be carefully evaluated. For patients deemed to carry a high risk of cardiovascular events, other life-saving therapeutic options should be considered. When alternative options are not available, treatment with ponatinib is indicated but requires that haematologists and cardiologists collaborate and identify modalities of surveillance and risk mitigation in the best interest of the patient. This article reports on the expert opinion provided by a panel of Italian haematologists, cardiologists and clinical pharmacologists. It summarises suggestions that may help to improve the therapeutic index of ponatinib, primarily in the settings of chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukaemia.

  10. WTEC panel report on European nuclear instrumentation and controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, James D.; Lanning, David D.; Beltracchi, Leo; Best, Fred R.; Easter, James R.; Oakes, Lester C.; Sudduth, A. L.

    1991-01-01

    Control and instrumentation systems might be called the 'brain' and 'senses' of a nuclear power plant. As such they become the key elements in the integrated operation of these plants. Recent developments in digital equipment have allowed a dramatic change in the design of these instrument and control (I&C) systems. New designs are evolving with cathode ray tube (CRT)-based control rooms, more automation, and better logical information for the human operators. As these new advanced systems are developed, various decisions must be made about the degree of automation and the human-to-machine interface. Different stages of the development of control automation and of advanced digital systems can be found in various countries. The purpose of this technology assessment is to make a comparative evaluation of the control and instrumentation systems that are being used for commercial nuclear power plants in Europe and the United States. This study is limited to pressurized water reactors (PWR's). Part of the evaluation includes comparisons with a previous similar study assessing Japanese technology.

  11. Expert Consensus on Characteristics of Wisdom: A Delphi Method Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeste, Dilip V.; Ardelt, Monika; Blazer, Dan; Kraemer, Helena C.; Vaillant, George; Meeks, Thomas W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Wisdom has received increasing attention in empirical research in recent years, especially in gerontology and psychology, but consistent definitions of wisdom remain elusive. We sought to better characterize this concept via an expert consensus panel using a 2-phase Delphi method. Design and Methods: A survey questionnaire comprised 53 Likert scale statements related to the concepts of wisdom, intelligence, and spirituality was developed to determine if and how wisdom was viewed as being distinct from the latter 2 concepts. Of the 57 international wisdom experts contacted by e-mail, 30 completed the Phase 1 survey and 27 also completed the Phase 2 survey. Results: In Phase 1, there were significant group differences among the concepts of wisdom, intelligence, and spirituality on 49 of the 53 items rated by the experts. Wisdom differed from intelligence on 46 of these 49 items, whereas wisdom differed from spirituality on 31 items. In Phase 2, we sought to define wisdom further by selecting 12 items based on Phase 1 results. Most experts agreed on many of the suggested characteristics of wisdom—that is, it is uniquely human; a form of advanced cognitive and emotional development that is experience driven; and a personal quality, albeit a rare one, which can be learned, increases with age, can be measured, and is not likely to be enhanced by taking medication. Implications: There was considerable agreement among the expert participants on wisdom being a distinct entity and a number of its characteristic qualities. These data should help in designing additional empirical research on wisdom. PMID:20233730

  12. Clinical Space Medicine Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baisden, Denise L.; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The practice of space medicine is diverse. It includes routine preventive medical care of astronauts and pilots, the development of inflight medical capability and training of flight crews as well as the preflight, inflight, and postflight medical assessment and monitoring. The Johnson Space Center Medical Operations Branch is a leader in the practice of space medicine. The papers presented in this panel will demonstrate some of the unique aspects of space medicine.

  13. Heat pipe thermal conditioning panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.; Loose, J. D.; Mccoy, K. E.

    1974-01-01

    Thermal control of electronic hardware and experiments on future space vehicles is critical to proper functioning and long life. Thermal conditioning panels (cold plates) are a baseline control technique in current conceptual studies. Heat generating components mounted on the panels are typically cooled by fluid flowing through integral channels within the panel. However, replacing the pumped fluid coolant loop within the panel with heat pipes offers attractive advantages in weight, reliability, and installation. This report describes the development and fabrication of two large 0.76 x 0.76 m heat pipe thermal conditioning panels to verify performance and establish the design concept.

  14. How Expert Pilots Think Cognitive Processes in Expert Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    over many years and thousands of hours of learning and exposure. As with other fields of expertise, the pilots decision making abilities continue to...elaborately structured set of associated concepts, procedures and events ., based upon many years of study, training and experience in a aviation. The use of...with training and experience to show that many characteristics of Expert Decision Making (EDM) were enhanced as pilots accumulate flight time. The

  15. Large thermal protection system panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Franklin K. (Inventor); Weinberg, David J. (Inventor); Tran, Tu T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A protective panel for a reusable launch vehicle provides enhanced moisture protection, simplified maintenance, and increased temperature resistance. The protective panel includes an outer ceramic matrix composite (CMC) panel, and an insulative bag assembly coupled to the outer CMC panel for isolating the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures and moisture. A standoff attachment system attaches the outer CMC panel and the bag assembly to the primary structure of the launch vehicle. The insulative bag assembly includes a foil bag having a first opening shrink fitted to the outer CMC panel such that the first opening and the outer CMC panel form a water tight seal at temperatures below a desired temperature threshold. Fibrous insulation is contained within the foil bag for protecting the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures. The insulative bag assembly further includes a back panel coupled to a second opening of the foil bag such that the fibrous insulation is encapsulated by the back panel, the foil bag, and the outer CMC panel. The use of a CMC material for the outer panel in conjunction with the insulative bag assembly eliminates the need for waterproofing processes, and ultimately allows for more efficient reentry profiles.

  16. 2011 panel on developing a biomaterials curriculum.

    PubMed

    Reichert, William M; Harris, Thomas R; Lemons, Jack; Mikos, Antonios G; Puleo, David A; Schoen, Frederick J; Temenoff, Johnna S

    2012-03-01

    This article provides the transcript for the Panel on Developing a Biomaterials Curriculum held at the 2011 annual meeting of the Society for Biomaterials in Orlando, FL. The panelists were Thomas R. Harris of Vanderbilt University, Jack Lemons of the University of Alabama, Birmingham, Antonios G. Mikos of Rice University, David A. Puleo on the University of Kentucky, Frederick J. Schoen of Harvard Medical School, and Johnna S. Temenoff of Georgia Tech/Emory. The panelists, each an expert in engineering education and textbook author, presented their perspectives on key issues of developing undergraduate and graduate curricula that contain a biomaterials focus. The presentations were followed by a lively and informative discussion with the audience. A redacted portion of this discussion is included.

  17. Development of Quiet Honeycomb Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.; Klos, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Sandwich honeycomb composite panels are lightweight and strong, and, therefore, provide a reasonable alternative to the aluminum ring framelstringer architecture currently used for most aircraft airframes. The drawback to honeycomb panels is that they radiate noise into the aircraft cabin very efficiently provoking the need for additional sound treatment which adds weight and reduces the material's cost advantage. A series of honeycomb panels were made which incorporated different design strategies aimed at reducing the honeycomb panels' radiation efficiency while at the same time maintaining its strength. The majority of the desi gns were centered around the concept of creatin g areas of reduced stiffness in the panel by adding voids and recesses to the core. The effort culminated with a reinforced./recessed panel which had 6 dB higher transmission loss than the baseline solid core panel while maintaining comparable strength.

  18. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) presents results of activities during calendar year 2001. The year was marked by significant achievements in the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) programs and encouraging accomplishments by the Aerospace Technology Enterprise. Unfortunately, there were also disquieting mishaps with the X-43, a LearJet, and a wind tunnel. Each mishap was analyzed in an orderly process to ascertain causes and derive lessons learned. Both these accomplishments and the responses to the mishaps led the Panel to conclude that safety and risk management is currently being well served within NASA. NASA's operations evidence high levels of safety consciousness and sincere efforts to place safety foremost. Nevertheless, the Panel's safety concerns have never been greater. This dichotomy has arisen because the focus of most NASA programs has been directed toward program survival rather than effective life cycle planning. Last year's Annual Report focused on the need for NASA to adopt a realistically long planning horizon for the aging Space Shuttle so that safety would not erode. NASA's response to the report concurred with this finding. Nevertheless, there has been a greater emphasis on current operations to the apparent detriment of long-term planning. Budget cutbacks and shifts in priorities have severely limited the resources available to the Space Shuttle and ISS for application to risk-reduction and life-extension efforts. As a result, funds originally intended for long-term safety-related activities have been used for operations. Thus, while safety continues to be well served at present, the basis for future safety has eroded. Section II of this report develops this theme in more detail and presents several important, overarching findings and recommendations that apply to many if not all of NASA's programs. Section III of the report presents other significant findings, recommendations and supporting

  19. Female Reproductive Disorders, Diseases, and Costs of Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Patricia A.; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Fowler, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Context: A growing body of evidence suggests that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to female reproductive disorders. Objective: To calculate the associated combined health care and economic costs attributable to specific EDC exposures within the European Union (EU). Design: An expert panel evaluated evidence for probability of causation using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization. Exposure-response relationships and reference levels were evaluated, and biomarker data were organized from carefully identified studies from the peer-reviewed literature to represent European exposure and approximate burden of disease as it occurred in 2010. Cost-of-illness estimation used multiple peer-reviewed sources. Setting, Patients and Participants and Intervention: Cost estimation was carried out from a societal perspective, ie, including direct costs (eg, treatment costs) and indirect costs such as productivity loss. Results: The most robust EDC-related data for female reproductive disorders exist for 1) diphenyldichloroethene-attributable fibroids and 2) phthalate-attributable endometriosis in Europe. In both cases, the strength of epidemiological evidence was rated as low and the toxicological evidence as moderate, with an assigned probability of causation of 20%–39%. Across the EU, attributable cases were estimated to be 56 700 and 145 000 women, respectively, with total combined economic and health care costs potentially reaching €163 million and €1.25 billion. Conclusions: EDCs (diphenyldichloroethene and phthalates) may contribute substantially to the most common reproductive disorders in women, endometriosis and fibroids, costing nearly €1.5 billion annually. These estimates represent only EDCs for which there were sufficient epidemiologic studies and those with the highest probability of causation. These public health costs should be considered as the EU contemplates regulatory action on EDCs. PMID

  20. Standardized MRD quantification in European ALL trials: proceedings of the Second International Symposium on MRD assessment in Kiel, Germany, 18-20 September 2008.

    PubMed

    Brüggemann, M; Schrauder, A; Raff, T; Pfeifer, H; Dworzak, M; Ottmann, O G; Asnafi, V; Baruchel, A; Bassan, R; Benoit, Y; Biondi, A; Cavé, H; Dombret, H; Fielding, A K; Foà, R; Gökbuget, N; Goldstone, A H; Goulden, N; Henze, G; Hoelzer, D; Janka-Schaub, G E; Macintyre, E A; Pieters, R; Rambaldi, A; Ribera, J-M; Schmiegelow, K; Spinelli, O; Stary, J; von Stackelberg, A; Kneba, M; Schrappe, M; van Dongen, J J M

    2010-03-01

    Assessment of minimal residual disease (MRD) has acquired a prominent position in European treatment protocols for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), on the basis of its high prognostic value for predicting outcome and the possibilities for implementation of MRD diagnostics in treatment stratification. Therefore, there is an increasing need for standardization of methodologies and harmonization of terminology. For this purpose, a panel of representatives of all major European study groups on childhood and adult ALL and of international experts on PCR- and flow cytometry-based MRD assessment was built in the context of the Second International Symposium on MRD assessment in Kiel, Germany, 18-20 September 2008. The panel summarized the current state of MRD diagnostics in ALL and developed recommendations on the minimal technical requirements that should be fulfilled before implementation of MRD diagnostics into clinical trials. Finally, a common terminology for a standard description of MRD response and monitoring was established defining the terms 'complete MRD response', 'MRD persistence' and 'MRD reappearance'. The proposed MRD terminology may allow a refined and standardized assessment of response to treatment in adult and childhood ALL, and provides a sound basis for the comparison of MRD results between different treatment protocols.

  1. Obesity, Diabetes, and Associated Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Legler, Juliette; Fletcher, Tony; Govarts, Eva; Porta, Miquel; Blumberg, Bruce; Heindel, Jerrold J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Obesity and diabetes are epidemic in the European Union (EU). Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is increasingly recognized as a contributor, independent of diet and physical activity. Objective: The objective was to estimate obesity, diabetes, and associated costs that can be reasonably attributed to EDC exposures in the EU. Design: An expert panel evaluated evidence for probability of causation using weight-of-evidence characterization adapted from that applied by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Exposure-response relationships and reference levels were evaluated for relevant EDCs, and biomarker data were organized from peer-reviewed studies to represent European exposure and burden of disease. Cost estimation as of 2010 utilized published cost estimates for childhood obesity, adult obesity, and adult diabetes. Setting, Patients and Participants, and Intervention: Cost estimation was performed from the societal perspective. Results: The panel identified a 40% to 69% probability of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene causing 1555 cases of overweight at age 10 (sensitivity analysis: 1555–5463) in 2010 with associated costs of €24.6 million (sensitivity analysis: €24.6–86.4 million). A 20% to 39% probability was identified for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene causing 28 200 cases of adult diabetes (sensitivity analysis: 28 200–56 400) with associated costs of €835 million (sensitivity analysis: €835 million–16.6 billion). The panel also identified a 40% to 69% probability of phthalate exposure causing 53 900 cases of obesity in older women and €15.6 billion in associated costs. Phthalate exposure was also found to have a 40% to 69% probability of causing 20 500 new-onset cases of diabetes in older women with €607 million in associated costs. Prenatal bisphenol A exposure was identified to have a 20% to 69% probability of causing 42 400 cases of childhood obesity, with associated lifetime costs of €1.54 billion

  2. Expert systems in agriculture and resource management

    SciTech Connect

    Plant, R.E.

    1993-05-01

    This paper gives a description of some representative examples of expert systems applied to problems in agriculture and biological resource management. The discussion of agricultural expert systems focuses on several decision support systems for crop management, describing the systems themselves and the implementation efforts surrounding them. The examples of the application of expert systems to biological resource management focus on the integration of expert systems with geographic information systems. A description of some of the more recent developments in agricultural expert systems, still in the prototype stage, is then given, followed by a summary discussion of possible environmental implications of the use of expert systems in agriculture and resource management. 63 refs.

  3. Heat exchanger expert system logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cormier, R.

    1988-01-01

    The reduction is described of the operation and fault diagnostics of a Deep Space Network heat exchanger to a rule base by the application of propositional calculus to a set of logic statements. The value of this approach lies in the ease of converting the logic and subsequently implementing it on a computer as an expert system. The rule base was written in Process Intelligent Control software.

  4. Uncertainty reasoning in expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    1993-01-01

    Intelligent control is a very successful way to transform the expert's knowledge of the type 'if the velocity is big and the distance from the object is small, hit the brakes and decelerate as fast as possible' into an actual control. To apply this transformation, one must choose appropriate methods for reasoning with uncertainty, i.e., one must: (1) choose the representation for words like 'small', 'big'; (2) choose operations corresponding to 'and' and 'or'; (3) choose a method that transforms the resulting uncertain control recommendations into a precise control strategy. The wrong choice can drastically affect the quality of the resulting control, so the problem of choosing the right procedure is very important. From a mathematical viewpoint these choice problems correspond to non-linear optimization and are therefore extremely difficult. In this project, a new mathematical formalism (based on group theory) is developed that allows us to solve the problem of optimal choice and thus: (1) explain why the existing choices are really the best (in some situations); (2) explain a rather mysterious fact that fuzzy control (i.e., control based on the experts' knowledge) is often better than the control by these same experts; and (3) give choice recommendations for the cases when traditional choices do not work.

  5. Intelligent interfaces for expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villarreal, James A.; Wang, Lui

    1988-01-01

    Vital to the success of an expert system is an interface to the user which performs intelligently. A generic intelligent interface is being developed for expert systems. This intelligent interface was developed around the in-house developed Expert System for the Flight Analysis System (ESFAS). The Flight Analysis System (FAS) is comprised of 84 configuration controlled FORTRAN subroutines that are used in the preflight analysis of the space shuttle. In order to use FAS proficiently, a person must be knowledgeable in the areas of flight mechanics, the procedures involved in deploying a certain payload, and an overall understanding of the FAS. ESFAS, still in its developmental stage, is taking into account much of this knowledge. The generic intelligent interface involves the integration of a speech recognizer and synthesizer, a preparser, and a natural language parser to ESFAS. The speech recognizer being used is capable of recognizing 1000 words of connected speech. The natural language parser is a commercial software package which uses caseframe instantiation in processing the streams of words from the speech recognizer or the keyboard. The systems configuration is described along with capabilities and drawbacks.

  6. Expert searching in public health

    PubMed Central

    Alpi, Kristine M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The article explores the characteristics of public health information needs and the resources available to address those needs that distinguish it as an area of searching requiring particular expertise. Methods: Public health searching activities from reference questions and literature search requests at a large, urban health department library were reviewed to identify the challenges in finding relevant public health information. Results: The terminology of the information request frequently differed from the vocabularies available in the databases. Searches required the use of multiple databases and/or Web resources with diverse interfaces. Issues of the scope and features of the databases relevant to the search questions were considered. Conclusion: Expert searching in public health differs from other types of expert searching in the subject breadth and technical demands of the databases to be searched, the fluidity and lack of standardization of the vocabulary, and the relative scarcity of high-quality investigations at the appropriate level of geographic specificity. Health sciences librarians require a broad exposure to databases, gray literature, and public health terminology to perform as expert searchers in public health. PMID:15685281

  7. Plate-fin panel heat exchanger and panel components thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Heronemus, W.E.

    1985-02-05

    A plate-fin panel for a heat exchanger may be either formed as an aluminum extrusion or fabricated from a corrugated metal sheet sandwiched between two flat metal sheets. The extruded aluminum version may be clad with protective sheet metal jackets made of, or coated with, a corrosion resistant Cu-Ni alloy. Individual panel sections can be joined together by tongue and groove engagement to obtain a total desired panel width if available extrusion press or rolling mill capacity is insufficient. The plate-fin panels are assembled into slotted headering plates, and a layer of synthetic plastics potting compound seals dissimilar metal joints against electrolytic corrosion as well as leakage and provides sufficient adhesive strength to reduce or eliminate the need for welding the panels to the headers. Mechanical brush or hydraulic jet apparatus is capable of continuously or intermittently cleaning slime or encrustations from all panel surfaces exposed to seawater.

  8. Asian Targeted Temperature Management Task Panel Report.

    PubMed

    Aibiki, Mayuki; Chiang, Ming-Chou; Muengtaweepongsa, Sombat; Pothiawala, Sohil; Huang, Chien-Hua

    2017-03-01

    In the fields of emergency and critical care, targeted temperature management has become a critical issue and particularly popular in clinical practices throughout Asia. As more research is carried out, evidence and concepts about targeted temperature management continue to evolve. Areas of interest include new 2015 resuscitation guidelines, temperature management in pediatrics, and integrated care and neurological monitoring for cardiac arrest patients. The Asian Targeted Temperature Management task panel includes colleagues from various Asian countries and allows them to exchange experiences in a professional environment. Some of the key issues include optimal therapeutic hypothermia temperature for postcardiac arrest syndrome pursuant to 2015 guidelines, an integral approach to postcardiac arrest syndrome with hemodynamic monitoring and stabilization, roles of percutaneous coronary intervention and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and temperature management for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Panel experts reviewed all of the aforementioned issues and discussed the feasibility and effectiveness of targeted temperature management based on the Asian population. These discussions can expand the perspectives with regard to applying targeted temperature management all over the world.

  9. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) for calendar year 1998-a year of sharp contrasts and significant successes at NASA. The year opened with the announcement of large workforce cutbacks. The slip in the schedule for launching the International Space Station (ISS) created a 5-month hiatus in Space Shuttle launches. This slack period ended with the successful and highly publicized launch of the STS-95 mission. As the year closed, ISS assembly began with the successful orbiting and joining of the Functional Cargo Block (FGB), Zarya, from Russia and the Unity Node from the United States. Throughout the year, the Panel maintained its scrutiny of NASAs safety processes. Of particular interest were the potential effects on safety of workforce reductions and the continued transition of functions to the Space Flight Operations Contractor. Attention was also given to the risk management plans of the Aero-Space Technology programs, including the X-33, X-34, and X-38. Overall, the Panel concluded that safety is well served for the present. The picture is not as clear for the future. Cutbacks have limited the depth of talent available. In many cases, technical specialties are "one deep." The extended hiring freeze has resulted in an older workforce that will inevitably suffer significant departures from retirements in the near future. The resulting "brain drain" could represent a future safety risk unless appropriate succession planning is started expeditiously. This and other topics are covered in the section addressing workforce. In the case of the Space Shuttle, beneficial and mandatory safety and operational upgrades are being delayed because of a lack of sufficient present funding. Likewise, the ISS has little flexibility to begin long lead-time items for upgrades or contingency planning.

  10. Can journalistic "false balance" distort public perception of consensus in expert opinion?

    PubMed

    Koehler, Derek J

    2016-03-01

    Media critics have expressed concern that journalistic "false balance" can distort the public's perceptions of what ought to be noncontroversial subjects (e.g., climate change). I report several experiments testing the influence of presenting conflicting comments from 2 experts who disagree on an issue (balance condition) in addition to a complete count of the number of experts on a panel who favor either side. Compared with a control condition, who received only the complete count, participants in the balance condition gave ratings of the perceived agreement among the experts that did not discriminate as clearly between issues with and without strong expert consensus. Participants in the balance condition also perceived less agreement among the experts in general, and were less likely to think that there was enough agreement among experts on the high-consensus issues to guide government policy. Evidently, "false balance" can distort perceptions of expert opinion even when participants would seem to have all the information needed to correct for its influence.

  11. Microsphere Insulation Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohling, R.; Allen, M.; Baumgartner, R.

    2006-01-01

    Microsphere insulation panels (MIPs) have been developed as lightweight, longlasting replacements for the foam and vacuum-jacketed systems heretofore used for thermally insulating cryogenic vessels and transfer ducts. The microsphere core material of a typical MIP consists of hollow glass bubbles, which have a combination of advantageous mechanical, chemical, and thermal-insulation properties heretofore available only separately in different materials. In particular, a core filling of glass microspheres has high crush strength and low density, is noncombustible, and performs well in soft vacuum.

  12. Photovoltaic panel clamp

    SciTech Connect

    Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Miros, Robert H. J.; Brown, Malcolm P; Stancel, Robert

    2012-06-05

    A photovoltaic panel clamp includes an upper and lower section. The interface between the assembled clamp halves and the module edge is filled by a flexible gasket material, such as EPDM rubber. The gasket preferably has small, finger like protrusions that allow for easy insertion onto the module edge while being reversed makes it more difficult to remove them from the module once installed. The clamp includes mounting posts or an integral axle to engage a bracket. The clamp also may include a locking tongue to secure the clamp to a bracket.

  13. Photovoltaic panel clamp

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Malcolm P.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Miros, Robert H. J.; Stancel, Robert

    2013-03-19

    A photovoltaic panel clamp includes an upper and lower section. The interface between the assembled clamp halves and the module edge is filled by a flexible gasket material, such as EPDM rubber. The gasket preferably has small, finger like protrusions that allow for easy insertion onto the module edge while being reversed makes it more difficult to remove them from the module once installed. The clamp includes mounting posts or an integral axle to engage a bracket. The clamp also may include a locking tongue to secure the clamp to a bracket.

  14. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    DOEpatents

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  15. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) activities during 2002. The format of the report has been modified to capture a long-term perspective. Section II is new and highlights the Panel's view of NASA's safety progress during the year. Section III contains the pivotal safety issues facing NASA in the coming year. Section IV includes the program area findings and recommendations. The Panel has been asked by the Administrator to perform several special studies this year, and the resulting white papers appear in Appendix C. The year has been filled with significant achievements for NASA in both successful Space Shuttle operations and International Space Station (ISS) construction. Throughout the year, safety has been first and foremost in spite of many changes throughout the Agency. The relocation of the Orbiter Major Modifications (OMMs) from California to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) appears very successful. The transition of responsibilities for program management of the Space Shuttle and ISS programs from Johnson Space Center (JSC) to NASA Headquarters went smoothly. The decision to extend the life of the Space Shuttle as the primary NASA vehicle for access to space is viewed by the Panel as a prudent one. With the appropriate investments in safety improvements, in maintenance, in preserving appropriate inventories of spare parts, and in infrastructure, the Space Shuttle can provide safe and reliable support for the ISS for the foreseeable future. Indications of an aging Space Shuttle fleet occurred on more than one occasion this year. Several flaws went undetected in the early prelaunch tests and inspections. In all but one case, the problems were found prior to launch. These incidents were all handled properly and with safety as the guiding principle. Indeed, launches were postponed until the problems were fully understood and mitigating action could be taken. These incidents do, however, indicate the need to analyze the

  16. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The results of the Panel's activities are presented in a set of findings and recommendations. Highlighted here are both improvements in NASA's safety and reliability activities and specific areas where additional gains might be realized. One area of particular concern involves the curtailment or elimination of Space Shuttle safety and reliability enhancements. Several findings and recommendations address this area of concern, reflecting the opinion that safety and reliability enhancements are essential to the continued successful operation of the Space Shuttle. It is recommended that a comprehensive and continuing program of safety and reliability improvements in all areas of Space Shuttle hardware/software be considered an inherent component of ongoing Space Shuttle operations.

  17. Cataloging Expert Systems: Optimism and Frustrated Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmstadt, William J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses artificial intelligence and attempts to catalog expert systems. Topics include the nature of expertise; examples of cataloging expert systems; barriers to implementation; and problems, including total automation, cataloging expertise, priorities, and system design. (LRW)

  18. Galaxy Classification: Citizen Scientists versus Experts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kautsch, Stefan J.; Vazquez, Richard; Phung, Chau; VanHilst, Michael; Castro, Victor H.; Bizyaev, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    We present the differences of morphological galaxy classification between non-experts and experts. The non-experts are represented by college students and a retired adult community, who use an online application to visually classify galaxies selected from a galaxy morphology catalog. We find that the non-expert group lags the expert classification by one Hubble type behind, for instance, the non-experts classify a set of galaxies with Sb, while the experts classify the same set as Sc. We believe the reason is because the Hubble sequence is increasing the asymmetric structures towards later types. Our results show that the experts have the ability to identify more detailed structures, which the laymen commonly do not recognize.

  19. Defining responses to therapy and study outcomes in clinical trials of invasive fungal diseases: Mycoses Study Group and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer consensus criteria.

    PubMed

    Segal, Brahm H; Herbrecht, Raoul; Stevens, David A; Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Sobel, Jack; Viscoli, Claudio; Walsh, Thomas J; Maertens, Johan; Patterson, Thomas F; Perfect, John R; Dupont, Bertrand; Wingard, John R; Calandra, Thierry; Kauffman, Carol A; Graybill, John R; Baden, Lindsey R; Pappas, Peter G; Bennett, John E; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Cordonnier, Catherine; Viviani, Maria Anna; Bille, Jacques; Almyroudis, Nikolaos G; Wheat, L Joseph; Graninger, Wolfgang; Bow, Eric J; Holland, Steven M; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Dismukes, William E; De Pauw, Ben E

    2008-09-01

    Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) have become major causes of morbidity and mortality among highly immunocompromised patients. Authoritative consensus criteria to diagnose IFD have been useful in establishing eligibility criteria for antifungal trials. There is an important need for generation of consensus definitions of outcomes of IFD that will form a standard for evaluating treatment success and failure in clinical trials. Therefore, an expert international panel consisting of the Mycoses Study Group and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer was convened to propose guidelines for assessing treatment responses in clinical trials of IFDs and for defining study outcomes. Major fungal diseases that are discussed include invasive disease due to Candida species, Aspergillus species and other molds, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Coccidioides immitis. We also discuss potential pitfalls in assessing outcome, such as conflicting clinical, radiological, and/or mycological data and gaps in knowledge.

  20. Expert systems applied to spacecraft fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Richard L.; Kashiwagi, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    Expert systems are problem-solving programs that combine a knowledge base and a reasoning mechanism to simulate a human expert. The development of an expert system to manage fire safety in spacecraft, in particular the NASA Space Station Freedom, is difficult but clearly advantageous in the long-term. Some needs in low-gravity flammability characteristics, ventilating-flow effects, fire detection, fire extinguishment, and decision models, all necessary to establish the knowledge base for an expert system, are discussed.

  1. Solar panel parallel mounting configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mutschler, Jr., Edward Charles (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A spacecraft includes a plurality of solar panels interconnected with a power coupler and an electrically operated device to provide power to the device when the solar cells are insolated. The solar panels are subject to bending distortion when entering or leaving eclipse. Spacecraft attitude disturbances are reduced by mounting each of the solar panels to an elongated boom made from a material with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, so that the bending of one panel is not communicated to the next. The boom may be insulated to reduce its bending during changes in insolation. A particularly advantageous embodiment mounts each panel to the boom with a single mounting, which may be a hinge. The single mounting prevents transfer of bending moments from the panel to the boom.

  2. Identifying key conservation threats to Alpine birds through expert knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Pedrini, Paolo; Brambilla, Mattia; Rolando, Antonio; Girardello, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Alpine biodiversity is subject to a range of increasing threats, but the scarcity of data for many taxa means that it is difficult to assess the level and likely future impact of a given threat. Expert opinion can be a useful tool to address knowledge gaps in the absence of adequate data. Experts with experience in Alpine ecology were approached to rank threat levels for 69 Alpine bird species over the next 50 years for the whole European Alps in relation to ten categories: land abandonment, climate change, renewable energy, fire, forestry practices, grazing practices, hunting, leisure, mining and urbanization. There was a high degree of concordance in ranking of perceived threats among experts for most threat categories. The major overall perceived threats to Alpine birds identified through expert knowledge were land abandonment, urbanization, leisure and forestry, although other perceived threats were ranked highly for particular species groups (renewable energy and hunting for raptors, hunting for gamebirds). For groups of species defined according to their breeding habitat, open habitat species and treeline species were perceived as the most threatened. A spatial risk assessment tool based on summed scores for the whole community showed threat levels were highest for bird communities of the northern and western Alps. Development of the approaches given in this paper, including addressing biases in the selection of experts and adopting a more detailed ranking procedure, could prove useful in the future in identifying future threats, and in carrying out risk assessments based on levels of threat to the whole bird community. PMID:26966659

  3. Solar panel mounting assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Eiden, G.E.

    1990-01-02

    This patent describes a mounting assembly for pivotally connecting a solar panel or collector to a base. The mounting assembly comprising: a frame whereupon the solar panel or collector can be mounted; a first plate connected to the frame, the plate having a pivot hole and a plurality of angle displacement holes each being equidistant from the pivot hole; a second plate connected to the base and situated substantially parallel to the first plate. The second plate having a pivot hole and an angle displacement hole being situated substantially the same distance apart from the second plate pivot hole as the distance between the pivot and displacement holes of the first plate; a pivot shaft received through the plate pivot hole and the second plate pivot hole whereby the frame and first plate can pivot with respect to the second plate and the base; an angle displacement shaft selectively received through the second plate angle displacement hole and any one of the first plate angle displacement holes whereby the frame and first plate can be selectively angularly fixed with respect to the second plate and the base; a U-member having two legs, the second plate being connected to the U-member; and, a selectively rotable shaft.

  4. Microgap flat panel display

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, Craig R.

    1998-01-01

    A microgap flat panel display which includes a thin gas-filled display tube that utilizes switched X-Y "pixel" strips to trigger electron avalanches and activate a phosphor at a given location on a display screen. The panel utilizes the principal of electron multiplication in a gas subjected to a high electric field to provide sufficient electron current to activate standard luminescent phosphors located on an anode. The X-Y conductive strips of a few micron widths may for example, be deposited on opposite sides of a thin insulating substrate, or on one side of the adjacent substrates and function as a cathode. The X-Y strips are separated from the anode by a gap filled with a suitable gas. Electrical bias is selectively switched onto X and Y strips to activate a "pixel" in the region where these strips overlap. A small amount of a long-lived radioisotope is used to initiate an electron avalanche in the overlap region when bias is applied. The avalanche travels through the gas filled gap and activates a luminescent phosphor of a selected color. The bias is adjusted to give a proportional electron multiplication to control brightness for given pixel.

  5. Microgap flat panel display

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, C.R.

    1998-12-08

    A microgap flat panel display is disclosed which includes a thin gas-filled display tube that utilizes switched X-Y ``pixel`` strips to trigger electron avalanches and activate a phosphor at a given location on a display screen. The panel utilizes the principal of electron multiplication in a gas subjected to a high electric field to provide sufficient electron current to activate standard luminescent phosphors located on an anode. The X-Y conductive strips of a few micron widths may for example, be deposited on opposite sides of a thin insulating substrate, or on one side of the adjacent substrates and function as a cathode. The X-Y strips are separated from the anode by a gap filled with a suitable gas. Electrical bias is selectively switched onto X and Y strips to activate a ``pixel`` in the region where these strips overlap. A small amount of a long-lived radioisotope is used to initiate an electron avalanche in the overlap region when bias is applied. The avalanche travels through the gas filled gap and activates a luminescent phosphor of a selected color. The bias is adjusted to give a proportional electron multiplication to control brightness for given pixel. 6 figs.

  6. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  7. The chiropractor as an expert witness

    PubMed Central

    Chapman-Smith, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines the professional status of the chiropractor as an expert witness in Canada. It commences with an outline of the relevant law then considers the circumstances which affect whether or not a chiropractor’s testimony in a particular instance will be admitted as expert and given weight against conflicting expert evidence. There is brief discussion of related insurance issues.

  8. Heat Pipe Thermal Conditioning Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.

    1973-01-01

    The technology involved in designing and fabricating a heat pipe thermal conditioning panel to satisfy a broad range of thermal control system requirements on NASA spacecraft is discussed. The design specifications were developed for a 30 by 30 inch heat pipe panel. The fundamental constraint was a maximum of 15 gradient from source to sink at 300 watts input and a flux density of 2 watts per square inch. The results of the performance tests conducted on the panel are analyzed.

  9. National Institute of Statistical Sciences Data Confidentiality Technical Panel: Final Report. NCES 2011-608

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karr, Alan

    2011-01-01

    NCES asked the National Institute of Statistical Sciences (NISS) to convene a technical panel of survey and policy experts to examine the NCES current and planned data dissemination strategies for confidential data with respect to: mandates and directives that NCES make data available; current and prospective technologies for protecting and…

  10. ISEA 2007 Panel: Integration of Better Exposure Characterizations into Disaster Preparedness for Responders and the Public

    EPA Science Inventory

    An expert panel was convened in October 2007 at the International Society for Exposure Analysis (ISEA) Annual Meeting in Durham, NC, entitled “The Path Forward in Disaster Preparedness Since WTC—Exposure Characterization and Mitigation: Substantial Unfinished Business!” The pane...

  11. Identification and Treatment of Patients with Homozygous Familial 
Hypercholesterolaemia: Information and Recommendations from a 
Middle East Advisory Panel

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ashwal, Abdullah; Alnouri, Fahad; Sabbour, Hani; Al-Mahfouz, Abdulraof; Al-Sayed, Nasreen; Razzaghy-Azar, Maryam; Al-Allaf, Faisal; Al-Waili, Khalid; Banerjee, Yajnavalka; Genest, Jacques; Santos, Raul D.; Al-Rasadi, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    We present clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) in the Middle East region. While guidelines are broadly applicable in Europe, in the Middle East we experience a range of confounding factors that complicate disease management to a point whereby the European guidance cannot be applied without significant modification. Specifically, for disease prevalence, the Middle East region has an established epidemic of diabetes and metabolic syndrome that can complicate treatment and mask a clinical diagnosis of HoFH. We have also a high incidence of consanguineous marriages, which increase the risk of transmission of recessive and homozygous genetic disorders. This risk is further augmented in autosomal dominant disorders such as familial 
hypercholesterolaemia (FH), in which a range of defective genes can be transmitted, all of which contribute to the phenotypic expression of the disease. In terms of treatment, we do not have access to lipoprotein apheresis on the same scale as in Europe, and there remains a significant reliance on statins, ezetimibe and the older plasma exchange methods. Additionally, we do not have widespread access to anti-apolipoprotein B therapies and microsomal transfer protein inhibitors. In order to adapt existing global guidance documents on HoFH to the Middle East region, we convened a panel of experts from Oman, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Iran and Bahrain to draft a regional guidance document for HoFH. We also included selected experts from outside the region. This panel statement will form the foundation of a detailed appraisal of the current FH management in the Middle Eastern population and thereby provide a suitable set of guidelines tailored for the region. PMID:26311574

  12. Explanation production by expert planners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, Susan; Jhannes, James D.

    1988-01-01

    Although the explanation capability of expert systems is usually listed as one of the distinguishing characteristics of these systems, the explanation facilities of most existing systems are quite primitive. Computer generated explanations are typically produced from canned text or by direct translation of the knowledge structures. Explanations produced in this manner bear little resemblance to those produced by humans for similar tasks. The focus of our research in explanation is the production of justifications for decisions by expert planning systems. An analysis of justifications written by people for planning tasks has been taken as the starting point. The purpose of this analysis is two-fold. First, analysis of the information content of the justifications will provide a basis for deciding what knowledge must be represented if human-like justifications are to be produced. Second, an analysis of the textual organization of the justifications will be used in the development of a mechanism for selecting and organizing the knowledge to be included in a computer-produced explanation. This paper describes a preliminary analysis done of justifications written by people for a planning task. It is clear that these justifications differ significantly from those that would be produced by an expert system by tracing the firing of production rules. The results from the text analysis have been used to develop an augmented phrase structured grammar (APSG) describing the organization of the justifications. The grammar was designed to provide a computationally feasible method for determining textual organization that will allow the necessary information to be communicated in a cohesive manner.

  13. 75 FR 35026 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office Request for Nominations of Experts for a Nutrient Criteria...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office Request for Nominations of Experts for a Nutrient Criteria... an SAB panel to review EPA's technical support document on development of numeric nutrient criteria... numeric nutrient criteria for Florida's estuarine and coastal waters, downstream protection values...

  14. 75 FR 27554 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Request for Nominations of Experts for the SAB Arsenic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Request for Nominations of Experts for the SAB Arsenic Review... SAB panel to review EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment for inorganic arsenic... INFORMATION: EPA is revising an assessment for arsenic in support of EPA's Integrated Risk Information...

  15. Diet expert subsystem for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yendler, Boris S.; Nguyen, Thoi K.; Waleh, Ahmad

    1991-01-01

    An account is given of the mathematical basis of a diet-controlling expert system, designated 'Ceres' for the human crews of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The Ceres methodology can furnish both steady-state and dynamic diet solutions; the differences between Ceres and a conventional nutritional-modeling method is illustrated by the case of a three-component, potato-wheat-soybean food system. Attention is given to the role of food processing in furnishing flexibility in diet-planning management. Crew diet solutions based on simple optimizations are not necessarily the most suitable for optimum CELSS operation.

  16. Fuzzy expert systems using CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Thach C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a CLIPS-based fuzzy expert system development environment called FCLIPS and illustrates its application to the simulated cart-pole balancing problem. FCLIPS is a straightforward extension of CLIPS without any alteration to the CLIPS internal structures. It makes use of the object-oriented and module features in CLIPS version 6.0 for the implementation of fuzzy logic concepts. Systems of varying degrees of mixed Boolean and fuzzy rules can be implemented in CLIPS. Design and implementation issues of FCLIPS will also be discussed.

  17. 137. POWER PANEL A (208 VOLTS) AND POWER PANEL B ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    137. POWER PANEL A (208 VOLTS) AND POWER PANEL B (480 VOLTS) ON EAST WALL OF TRANSFORMER ROOM (212), LSB (BLDG. 751) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. The role of the expert witness.

    PubMed

    Jerrold, Laurance

    2007-08-01

    The role of expert witnesses in medical malpractice litigation is often misunderstood. Much maligned, the expert has been the subject of castigation by a range of people, from his professional colleagues to the jurists who preside over his testimony. From an academic perspective, the expert witness is a necessary evil, and his denigration is his own doing; for the expert is a neutral character who creates his own professional persona. This purpose of this article is to serve as a primer for those interested in understanding the role that the expert is supposed to play in litigation, and the factors surrounding his activities.

  19. Expert consensus document: Semantics in active surveillance for men with localized prostate cancer - results of a modified Delphi consensus procedure.

    PubMed

    Bruinsma, Sophie M; Roobol, Monique J; Carroll, Peter R; Klotz, Laurence; Pickles, Tom; Moore, Caroline M; Gnanapragasam, Vincent J; Villers, Arnauld; Rannikko, Antti; Valdagni, Riccardo; Frydenberg, Mark; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Filson, Christopher P; Bangma, Chris H

    2017-03-14

    Active surveillance (AS) is broadly described as a management option for men with low-risk prostate cancer, but semantic heterogeneity exists in both the literature and in guidelines. To address this issue, a panel of leading prostate cancer specialists in the field of AS participated in a consensus-forming project using a modified Delphi method to reach international consensus on definitions of terms related to this management option. An iterative three-round sequence of online questionnaires designed to address 61 individual items was completed by each panel member. Consensus was considered to be reached if ≥70% of the experts agreed on a definition. To facilitate a common understanding among all experts involved and resolve potential ambiguities, a face-to-face consensus meeting was held between Delphi survey rounds two and three. Convenience sampling was used to construct the panel of experts. In total, 12 experts from Australia, France, Finland, Italy, the Netherlands, Japan, the UK, Canada and the USA participated. By the end of the Delphi process, formal consensus was achieved for 100% (n = 61) of the terms and a glossary was then developed. Agreement between international experts has been reached on relevant terms and subsequent definitions regarding AS for patients with localized prostate cancer. This standard terminology could support multidisciplinary communication, reduce the extent of variations in clinical practice and optimize clinical decision making.

  20. Combining experts' risk judgments on technology performance of phytoremediation: self-confidence ratings, averaging procedures, and formative consensus building.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Roland W; Hansmann, Ralf

    2007-02-01

    Expert panels and averaging procedures are common means for coping with the uncertainty of effects of technology application in complex environments. We investigate the connection between confidence and the validity of expert judgment. Moreover, a formative consensus building procedure (FCB) is introduced that generates probability statements on the performance of technologies, and we compare different algorithms for the statistical aggregation of individual judgments. The case study refers to an expert panel of 10 environmental scientists assessing the performance of a soil cleanup technology that uses the capability of certain plants to accumulate heavy metals from the soil in the plant body (phytoremediation). The panel members first provided individual statements on the effectiveness of a phytoremediation. Such statements can support policymakers, answering the questions concerning the expected performance of the new technology in contaminated areas. The present study reviews (1) the steps of the FCB, (2) the constraints of technology application (contaminants, soil structure, etc.), (3) the measurement of expert knowledge, (4) the statistical averaging and the discursive agreement procedures, and (5) the boundaries of application for the FCB method. The quantitative statement oriented part of FCB generates terms such as: "The probability that the concentration of soil contamination will be reduced by at least 50% is 0.8." The data suggest that taking the median of the individual expert estimates provides the most accurate aggregated estimate. The discursive agreement procedure of FCB appears suitable for deriving politically relevant singular statements rather than for obtaining comprehensive information about uncertainties as represented by probability distributions.

  1. Differentiating experts' anticipatory skills in beach volleyball.

    PubMed

    Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos of attack sequences that were occluded at three different times and to predict the outcome of these situations. Results showed that expert players and coaches (who were both perceptual-motor experts) outperformed the expert referees (who were watching experts but did not have the same motor expertise) and the control group in the latest occlusion condition (i.e., at spiker-ball contact). This finding suggests that perceptual-motor expertise may contribute to successful action anticipation in beach volleyball.

  2. System for empirical experimentation with expert knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Politakis, P.; Weiss, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    SEEK is a system which has been developed to give interactive advice about rule refinement during the design of an expert system. The advice takes the form of suggestions for possible experiments in generalizing or specializing rules in an expert model that has been specified based on reasoning rules cited by the expert. Case experience, in the form of stored cases with known conclusions, is used to interactively guide the expert in refining the rules of a model. The design framework of SEEK consists of a tabular model for expressing expert-modeled rules and a general consultation system for applying a model to specific cases. This approach has proven particularly valuable in assisting the expert in a domain where two diagnoses are difficult to distinguish. Examples are given from an expert consultation system being developed for rheumatology. 12 references.

  3. Species identification by experts and non-experts: comparing images from field guides

    PubMed Central

    Austen, G. E.; Bindemann, M.; Griffiths, R. A.; Roberts, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate species identification is fundamental when recording ecological data. However, the ability to correctly identify organisms visually is rarely questioned. We investigated how experts and non-experts compared in the identification of bumblebees, a group of insects of considerable conservation concern. Experts and non-experts were asked whether two concurrent bumblebee images depicted the same or two different species. Overall accuracy was below 60% and comparable for experts and non-experts. However, experts were more consistent in their answers when the same images were repeated, and more cautious in committing to a definitive answer. Our findings demonstrate the difficulty of correctly identifying bumblebees using images from field guides. Such error rates need to be accounted for when interpreting species data, whether or not they have been collected by experts. We suggest that investigation of how experts and non-experts make observations should be incorporated into study design, and could be used to improve training in species identification. PMID:27644140

  4. ALDS 1980 panel review

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D. L.

    1981-11-01

    The overall goal of PNL (Pacific Northwest Laboratory) Applied Mathematical Sciences Research is development of a DOE (Department of Energy) capability for Analysis of Large Data Sets (ALDS) and transfer of this capability to other DOE laboratories and contractors. This capability is needed to satisfy DOE's increasing requirements for handling and analyzing large volumes of diverse energy and environmental data. The integrated statistics and computer science research includes the development of improved methodologies in data definition, data management, data analysis, and visual display. The purpose of this document is three-fold. First, the document is the permanent record of the ALDS 1979 panel review. Second, the document provides the PNL staff with a benchmark of where we were at the end of the second year of ALDS. Third, the document is available to laboratories, universities, and DOE headquarters as detailed description of the ALDS project, as well as an example of the new direction of AMS-funded research.

  5. Nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1991-01-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed at MSFC uses the Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) Battery Expert System (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performance of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort is summarized which was used to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate Nickel Hydrogen (NiH2) battery environment now in MSFC testbed. The NICBES-2 is implemented on a Sun Microsystem and is written in SunOS C and Quintus Prolog. The system now operates in a multitasking environment. NICBES-2 spawns three processes: serial port process (SPP); data handler process (DHP); and the expert system process (ESP) in order to process the telemetry data and provide the status and action advice. NICBES-2 performs orbit data gathering, data evaluation, alarm diagnosis and action advice and status and history display functions. The adaptation of NICBES-2 to work with NiH2 battery environment required modification to all of the three component processes.

  6. Expert system validation in prolog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stock, Todd; Stachowitz, Rolf; Chang, Chin-Liang; Combs, Jacqueline

    1988-01-01

    An overview of the Expert System Validation Assistant (EVA) is being implemented in Prolog at the Lockheed AI Center. Prolog was chosen to facilitate rapid prototyping of the structure and logic checkers and since February 1987, we have implemented code to check for irrelevance, subsumption, duplication, deadends, unreachability, and cycles. The architecture chosen is extremely flexible and expansible, yet concise and complementary with the normal interactive style of Prolog. The foundation of the system is in the connection graph representation. Rules and facts are modeled as nodes in the graph and arcs indicate common patterns between rules. The basic activity of the validation system is then a traversal of the connection graph, searching for various patterns the system recognizes as erroneous. To aid in specifying these patterns, a metalanguage is developed, providing the user with the basic facilities required to reason about the expert system. Using the metalanguage, the user can, for example, give the Prolog inference engine the goal of finding inconsistent conclusions among the rules, and Prolog will search the graph intantiations which can match the definition of inconsistency. Examples of code for some of the checkers are provided and the algorithms explained. Technical highlights include automatic construction of a connection graph, demonstration of the use of metalanguage, the A* algorithm modified to detect all unique cycles, general-purpose stacks in Prolog, and a general-purpose database browser with pattern completion.

  7. Expert system for groundwater modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Venoge, T.P. de; Stauffer, T.B.; Medina, M.; Jacobs, T.

    1994-12-31

    Hazardous waste site remedial investigations and feasibility studies generally involve some degree of groundwater modeling. A plethora of models exist and most models are difficult to use. An expert system has been developed to lead the user to the appropriate model(s) based on responses to questions about site conditions and data availability. The system is menu driven, user friendly, and provides assistance in estimating input parameters where field measurements are lacking. The system contains twelve models, both analytical and numerical models, that are in the public domain. Some of the models included in the system are MOC, MODFLOW, BIOPLUME, RESSQ, TDAST and PLUME2D. Preprocessors and post processors have been written to permit easy data input and to provide understandable and interpretable data output. There are two versions of the expert system that are available. One version is a UNIX based system that works through the windows environment and provides excellent graphics capabilities. The other version is DOS based and will run on a 386 processor or higher system with 10 megabytes of available hard disk space.

  8. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual report is based on the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel in calendar year 2000. During this year, the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) moved into high gear. The launch of the Russian Service Module was followed by three Space Shuttle construction and logistics flights and the deployment of the Expedition One crew. Continuous habitation of the ISS has begun. To date, both the ISS and Space Shuttle programs have met or exceeded most of their flight objectives. In spite of the intensity of these efforts, it is clear that safety was always placed ahead of cost and schedule. This safety consciousness permitted the Panel to devote more of its efforts to examining the long-term picture. With ISS construction accelerating, demands on the Space Shuttle will increase. While Russian Soyuz and Progress spacecraft will make some flights, the Space Shuttle remains the primary vehicle to sustain the ISS and all other U.S. activities that require humans in space. Development of a next generation, human-rated vehicle has slowed due to a variety of technological problems and the absence of an approach that can accomplish the task significantly better than the Space Shuttle. Moreover, even if a viable design were currently available, the realities of funding and development cycles suggest that it would take many years to bring it to fruition. Thus, it is inescapable that for the foreseeable future the Space Shuttle will be the only human-rated vehicle available to the U.S. space program for support of the ISS and other missions requiring humans. Use of the Space Shuttle will extend well beyond current planning, and is likely to continue for the life of the ISS.

  9. Thermal-Diode Sandwich Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basiulis, A.

    1986-01-01

    Thermal diode sandwich panel transfers heat in one direction, but when heat load reversed, switches off and acts as thermal insulator. Proposed to control temperature in spacecraft and in supersonic missiles to protect internal electronics. In combination with conventional heat pipes, used in solar panels and other heat-sensitive systems.

  10. Aerothermodynamics of expert ballistic vehicle at hypersonic speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharitonov, A. M.; Adamov, N. P.; Chirkashenko, V. F.; Mazhul, I. I.; Shpak, S. I.; Shiplyuk, A. N.; Vasenyov, L. G.; Zvegintsev, V. I.; Muylaert, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The European EXPErimental Re-entry Test bed (EXPERT) vehicle is intended for studying various basic phenomena, such as the boundary-layer transition on blunted bodies, real gas effects during shock wave/boundary layer interaction, and effect of surface catalycity. Another task is to develop methods for recalculating the results of windtunnel experiments to flight conditions. The EXPERT program implies large-scale preflight research, in particular, various calculations with the use of advanced numerical methods, experimental studies of the models in various wind tunnels, and comparative analysis of data obtained for possible extrapolation of data to in-flight conditions. The experimental studies are performed in various aerodynamic centers of Europe and Russia under contracts with ESA-ESTEC. In particular, extensive experiments are performed at the Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics (VKI, Belgium) and also at the DLR aerospace center in Germany. At ITAM SB RAS, the experimental studies of the EXPERT model characteristic were performed under ISTC Projects 2109, 3151, and 3550, in the T-313 supersonic wind tunnel and AT-303 hypersonic wind tunnel.

  11. How experts are chosen to inform public policy: can the process be improved?

    PubMed

    Rowe, Sylvia; Alexander, Nick; Weaver, Connie M; Dwyer, Johanna T; Drew, Christa; Applebaum, Rhona S; Atkinson, Stephanie; Clydesdale, Fergus M; Hentges, Eric; Higley, Nancy A; Westring, M Elizabeth

    2013-10-01

    The ever-increasing complexity of the food supply has magnified the importance of ongoing research into nutrition and food safety issues that have significant impact on public health. At the same time, ethical questions have been raised regarding conflict of interest, making it more challenging to form the expert panels that advise government agencies and public health officials in formulating nutrition and food safety policy. Primarily due to the growing complexity of the interactions among government, industry, and academic research institutions, increasingly stringent conflict-of-interest policies may have the effect of barring the most experienced and knowledgeable nutrition and food scientists from contributing their expertise on the panels informing public policy. This paper explores the issue in some depth, proposing a set of principles for determining considerations for service on expert advisory committees. Although the issues around scientific policy counsel and the selection of advisory panels clearly have global applicability, the context for their development had a US and Canadian focus in this work. The authors also call for a broader discussion in all sectors of the research community as to whether and how the process of empaneling food science and nutrition experts might be improved.

  12. Mounting clips for panel installation

    DOEpatents

    Cavieres, Andres; Al-Haddad, Tristan; Goodman, Joseph; Valdes, Francisco

    2017-02-14

    An exemplary mounting clip for removably attaching panels to a supporting structure comprises a base, spring locking clips, a lateral flange, a lever flange, and a spring bonding pad. The spring locking clips extend upwardly from the base. The lateral flange extends upwardly from a first side of the base. The lateral flange comprises a slot having an opening configured to receive at least a portion of one of the one or more panels. The lever flange extends outwardly from the lateral flange. The spring bonding flange extends downwardly from the lever flange. At least a portion of the first spring bonding flange comprises a serrated edge for gouging at least a portion of the one or more panels when the one or more panels are attached to the mounting clip to electrically and mechanically couple the one or more panels to the mounting clip.

  13. Burden of disease and costs of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in the European Union: an updated analysis

    PubMed Central

    Trasande, L.; Zoeller, R. T.; Hass, U.; Kortenkamp, A.; Grandjean, P.; Myers, J. P.; DiGangi, J.; Hunt, P. M.; Rudel, R.; Sathyanarayana, S.; Bellanger, M.; Hauser, R.; Legler, J.; Skakkebaek, N. E.; Heindel, J. J.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY A previous report documented that endocrine disrupting chemicals contribute substantially to certain forms of disease and disability. In the present analysis, our main objective was to update a range of health and economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to endocrine disrupting chemical exposures in the European Union, leveraging new burden and disease cost estimates of female reproductive conditions from accompanying report. Expert panels evaluated the epidemiologic evidence, using adapted criteria from the WHO Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group, and evaluated laboratory and animal evidence of endocrine disruption using definitions recently promulgated by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. The Delphi method was used to make decisions on the strength of the data. Expert panels consensus was achieved for probable (>20%) endocrine disrupting chemical causation for IQ loss and associated intellectual disability; autism; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; endometriosis; fibroids; childhood obesity; adult obesity; adult diabetes; cryptorchidism; male infertility, and mortality associated with reduced testosterone. Accounting for probability of causation, and using the midpoint of each range for probability of causation, Monte Carlo simulations produced a median annual cost of €163 billion (1.28% of EU Gross Domestic Product) across 1000 simulations. We conclude that endocrine disrupting chemical exposures in the EU are likely to contribute substantially to disease and dysfunction across the life course with costs in the hundreds of billions of Euros per year. These estimates represent only those endocrine disrupting chemicals with the highest probability of causation; a broader analysis would have produced greater estimates of burden of disease and costs. PMID:27003928

  14. Evaluation of proposed panel closure modifications at WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Lawrence E.; Silva, Matthew K.; Channell, James K.; Abel, John F.; Morgan, Dudley R.

    2001-12-31

    A key component in the design of the WIPP repository is the installation of concrete structures as panel seals in the intake and exhaust drifts after a panel has been filled with waste containers. As noted in the EPA final rule, the panel seal closure system is intended to block brine flow between the waste panels at the WIPP. On April 17, 2001, the DOE proposed seven modifications to the EPA concerning the design of the panel closure system. EPA approval of these modifications is necessary since the details of the panel design are specified in EPA’s final rule as a condition for WIPP certification. However, the EPA has not determined whether a rulemaking would be required for these proposed design modifications. On September 4, 2001, the DOE withdrew the request, noting that it would be resubmitted on a future date. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) contracted with two engineers, Dr. John Abel and Dr. Rusty Morgan, to evaluate the proposed modifications. The EEG has accepted the conclusions and recommendations from these two experts: 1) replacement of Salado Mass Concrete with a generic salt-based concrete; 2) replacement of the explosion wall with a construction wall; 3) replacement of freshwater grouting with salt-based grouting; 4) option to allow surface or underground mixing; and 5) option to allow up to one year for completion of closure. The proposed modification to allow local carbonate river rock as aggregate is acceptable pending demonstration that no problems will exist in the resulting concrete. The proposed modification to give the contractor discretion in removal of steel forms is not supported. Instead, several recommendations are made to specifically reduce the number of forms left, thereby reducing potential migration pathways.

  15. Advances in the physics basis for the European DEMO design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenninger, R.; Arbeiter, F.; Aubert, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R.; Angioni, C.; Artaud, J.-F.; Bernert, M.; Fable, E.; Fasoli, A.; Federici, G.; Garcia, J.; Giruzzi, G.; Jenko, F.; Maget, P.; Mattei, M.; Maviglia, F.; Poli, E.; Ramogida, G.; Reux, C.; Schneider, M.; Sieglin, B.; Villone, F.; Wischmeier, M.; Zohm, H.

    2015-06-01

    In the European fusion roadmap, ITER is followed by a demonstration fusion power reactor (DEMO), for which a conceptual design is under development. This paper reports the first results of a coherent effort to develop the relevant physics knowledge for that (DEMO Physics Basis), carried out by European experts. The program currently includes investigations in the areas of scenario modeling, transport, MHD, heating & current drive, fast particles, plasma wall interaction and disruptions.

  16. European standards for protective apparel against UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Laperre, Jan; Foubert, Fred

    2002-01-01

    The first European standard which describes the test procedure to determine the UV-protection factor of clothing is about to be completed. A second part of the same standard, dealing with labelling and marking aspects, is ready to be submitted to public enquiry. In this effort a group of experts from most EU member states have cooperated with a high degree of consensus. In this chapter we explain this European standard together with the standard developed in the UK.

  17. New chairman takes helm at Climate Change Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    An Indian industrial engineer and economist who supports the Kyoto Protocol, and who has sharply criticized the administration of George W. Bush on the climate change issue for not doing enough to curb greenhouse gas emissions, won the first-ever contested election for chairman of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) during a meeting on 19 April.Rajendra Pachauri is the first representative from a developing country to chair the IPCC, a panel of about 2,500 experts on a wide range of areas related to climate change. The IPCC was established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme. In total, the IPCC currently includes 192 member states. Although the bulk of the IPCC's work is conducted by three technical working groups, the chairman plays a key role in facilitating the overall process of the IPCC, organizing the scientific debate within the IPCC, and serving as chief spokesman.

  18. Consumer panel study on elderly people's wishes concerning services.

    PubMed

    Valkila, Noora; Litja, Heli; Aalto, Leena; Saari, Arto

    2010-01-01

    This study informs on the wishes and needs of elderly people themselves regarding services for the elderly. The data for the study were gathered using a consumer panel method. Elderly people desire assistance in heavy cleaning chores, in outdoor activities and in carrying out their personal business. Elderly people felt that there should be more recreational services available. Elderly people link aging with feelings of insecurity and loneliness. Becoming a service user for the first time is felt to be a very difficult step to take, and so this decision is postponed as long as possible. The elderly people desire a service for assessing their individual service needs in an organized, expert and objective fashion. The study indicates that elderly people value the human contact gained through service provision. The consumer panel method for collecting data was successful.

  19. A formal expert judgment procedure for performance assessments of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Trauth, K.M.; Guzowski, R.V.; Hora, S.C.

    1994-09-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is an experimental facility located in southeastern New Mexico. It has been designed to determine the feasibility of the geologic disposal of defense-generated transuranic waste in a deep bedded-salt formation. The WIPP was also designed for disposal and will operate in that capacity if approved. The WIPP Performance Assessment Department at Sandia National Laboratories has been conducting analyses to assess the long-term performance of the WIPP. These analyses sometimes require the use of expert judgment. This Department has convened several expert-judgment panels and from that experience has developed an internal quality-assurance procedure to guide the formal elicitation of expert judgment. This protocol is based on the principles found in the decision-analysis literature.

  20. The diagnosis of microcytic anemia by a rule-based expert system using VP-Expert.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, M L; McKinney, T

    1989-09-01

    We describe our experience in creating a rule-based expert system for the interpretation of microcytic anemia using the expert system development tool, VP-Expert, running on an IBM personal computer. VP-Expert processes data (complete blood cell count results, age, and sex) according to a set of user-written logic rules (our program) to reach conclusions as to the following causes of microcytic anemia: alpha- and beta-thalassemia trait, iron deficiency, and anemia of chronic disease. Our expert system was tested using previously interpreted complete blood cell count data. In most instances, there was good agreement between the expert system and its pathologist-author, but many discrepancies were found in the interpretation of anemia of chronic disease. We conclude that VP-Expert has a useful level of power and flexibility, yet is simple enough that individuals with modest programming experience can create their own expert systems. Limitations of such expert systems are discussed.

  1. Building the Information Society in Candidate Countries? A Prospective Analysis on Potential Trajectories To Realise the Lisbon Goals. IPTS Experts Workshop Report, February 23-25, 2003, Sevilla.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdanowicz, Marc; Burgelman, Jean-Claude; Centeno, Clara; Gourova, Elisavetta; Carat, Gerard

    Potential policies and strategies for building the information society (IS) in countries that are candidates for admission to the European Union were explored at a workshop attended by 39 experts from the European Commission (EC), the EC's Institute for Prospective and Technological Studies, and outside the EC. The workshop focused on the specific…

  2. Glass/Epoxy Door Panel for Automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, J. L. JR.

    1985-01-01

    Lightweight panel cost-effective. Integrally-molded intrusion strap key feature of composite outer door panel. Strap replaces bulky and heavy steel instrusion beam of conventional door. Standard steel inner panel used for demonstration purposes. Door redesigned to exploit advantages of composite outer panel thinner. Outer panel for automobilie door, made of glass/epoxy composite material, lighter than conventional steel door panel, meets same strength requirements, and less expensive.

  3. Panelized wall system with foam core insulation

    DOEpatents

    Kosny, Jan; Gaskin, Sally

    2009-10-20

    A wall system includes a plurality of wall members, the wall members having a first metal panel, a second metal panel, and an insulating core between the first panel and the second panel. At least one of the first panel and the second panel include ridge portions. The insulating core can be a foam, such as a polyurethane foam. The foam can include at least one opacifier to improve the k-factor of the foam.

  4. Brain response to birdsongs in bird experts.

    PubMed

    Chartrand, Jean-Pierre; Filion-Bilodeau, Sarah; Belin, Pascal

    2007-03-05

    Auditory expertise has mostly been studied in relation to musical processing, but expert auditory processing can also involve nonmusical auditory stimuli, such as birdsongs in bird experts. In this study, the neural correlates of bird expertise were investigated by using electroencephalography to measure auditory-evoked potentials in bird experts and novices. Auditory stimuli in three categories (birdsongs, environmental sounds and voices) were presented in a pseudo-random order while participants performed a simple target detection task (pure tone). We observed similar amplitudes and distributions of the N100-component in bird experts and novices. In contrast, the amplitude of the P200 component was significantly smaller in bird experts at the Pz and Cz electrodes, reflecting a more frontal topography of this positivity. Notably, this group difference was observed not only for birdsongs, but also for voices and environmental sounds, suggesting a general processing difference in bird experts, not restricted to the category of expertise.

  5. SENLEX: a sensor layout expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.D.; Sena, K.J.

    1986-06-25

    An expert system is under development to carry out intrusion detection sensor placement for physical security systems. Expert systems are computer programs that use symbolic programming techniques to duplicate the reasoning processes of human experts. Because sensitive facilities often require complex, multi-sensor intrusion detection systems, the design rules for achieving high levels of detection performance are not easily transferred to novices. Since these design rules reside in the minds of the individual experts performing the tasks, the need to consolidate this knowledge in a form that is available to others was a driving force in this project. The first phase of this project is described in this paper. It consists of an expert system for sensor placement in a graded clear zone. The program has the capability of handling several different sensor types and of coordinating the placement of multiple sensor types. The designs produced by the program in comparison with the designs produced by human experts are discussed.

  6. Expert Meeting Report: Foundations Research Results

    SciTech Connect

    Ojczyk, C.; Huelman, P.; Carmody, J.

    2013-05-01

    In the Expert Meeting Plan, the NorthernSTAR Team proposed to host two Expert Meetings in calendar year 2011. Invitees to the meetings would include experts in the current field of study, other BA team members, and representatives from DOE and NREL. They will invite leading industry experts to present at these meetings. The Expert Meetings will focus on key systems areas that will be required to meet the Building America performance goals and shall be sufficiently narrow in scope that specific conclusions, action items, and delegation of future tasks can be identified and completed. The two expert meeting topics are 'Foundations' and 'Window Retrofit.' The first session is designed as a webinar only and the second will be a live meeting.

  7. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This report provides findings, conclusions and recommendations regarding the National Space Transportation System (NSTS), the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP), aeronautical projects and other areas of NASA activities. The main focus of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) during 1988 has been monitoring and advising NASA and its contractors on the Space Transportation System (STS) recovery program. NASA efforts have restored the flight program with a much better management organization, safety and quality assurance organizations, and management communication system. The NASA National Space Transportation System (NSTS) organization in conjunction with its prime contractors should be encouraged to continue development and incorporation of appropriate design and operational improvements which will further reduce risk. The data from each Shuttle flight should be used to determine if affordable design and/or operational improvements could further increase safety. The review of Critical Items (CILs), Failure Mode Effects and Analyses (FMEAs) and Hazard Analyses (HAs) after the Challenger accident has given the program a massive data base with which to establish a formal program with prioritized changes.

  8. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-03-01

    This report provides findings, conclusions and recommendations regarding the National Space Transportation System (NSTS), the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP), aeronautical projects and other areas of NASA activities. The main focus of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) during 1988 has been monitoring and advising NASA and its contractors on the Space Transportation System (STS) recovery program. NASA efforts have restored the flight program with a much better management organization, safety and quality assurance organizations, and management communication system. The NASA National Space Transportation System (NSTS) organization in conjunction with its prime contractors should be encouraged to continue development and incorporation of appropriate design and operational improvements which will further reduce risk. The data from each Shuttle flight should be used to determine if affordable design and/or operational improvements could further increase safety. The review of Critical Items (CILs), Failure Mode Effects and Analyses (FMEAs) and Hazard Analyses (HAs) after the Challenger accident has given the program a massive data base with which to establish a formal program with prioritized changes.

  9. Statistical Fault Detection & Diagnosis Expert System

    SciTech Connect

    Wegerich, Stephan

    1996-12-18

    STATMON is an expert system that performs real-time fault detection and diagnosis of redundant sensors in any industrial process requiring high reliability. After a training period performed during normal operation, the expert system monitors the statistical properties of the incoming signals using a pattern recognition test. If the test determines that statistical properties of the signals have changed, the expert system performs a sequence of logical steps to determine which sensor or machine component has degraded.

  10. Close up view of switchboard panel operator's station #1; panel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close up view of switchboard panel operator's station #1; panel contains 1200 push-pull button switches which control poer to red, green, and white indicating lights on the model board; white lights indicate that power is off; green lights indicate that equipment (switch breaker or transformer) is off; red lights indicate that equipment is on - Thirtieth Street Station, Power Director Center, Thirtieth & Market Streets in Amtrak Railroad Station, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. Liquid low level waste management expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J. ); Jackson, J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    An expert system has been developed as part of a new initiative for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) systems analysis program. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem, as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Research Synthesis Methods in an Age of Globalized Risks: Lessons from the Global Burden of Foodborne Disease Expert Elicitation.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    We live in an age that increasingly calls for national or regional management of global risks. This article discusses the contributions that expert elicitation can bring to efforts to manage global risks and identifies challenges faced in conducting expert elicitation at this scale. In doing so it draws on lessons learned from conducting an expert elicitation as part of the World Health Organizations (WHO) initiative to estimate the global burden of foodborne disease; a study commissioned by the Foodborne Disease Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG). Expert elicitation is designed to fill gaps in data and research using structured, transparent methods. Such gaps are a significant challenge for global risk modeling. Experience with the WHO FERG expert elicitation shows that it is feasible to conduct an expert elicitation at a global scale, but that challenges do arise, including: defining an informative, yet feasible geographical structure for the elicitation; defining what constitutes expertise in a global setting; structuring international, multidisciplinary expert panels; and managing demands on experts' time in the elicitation. This article was written as part of a workshop, "Methods for Research Synthesis: A Cross-Disciplinary Approach" held at the Harvard Center for Risk Analysis on October 13, 2013.

  13. Neurobehavioral Deficits, Diseases, and Associated Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Bellanger, Martine; Demeneix, Barbara; Grandjean, Philippe; Zoeller, R. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Context: Epidemiological studies and animal models demonstrate that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to cognitive deficits and neurodevelopmental disabilities. Objective: The objective was to estimate neurodevelopmental disability and associated costs that can be reasonably attributed to EDC exposure in the European Union. Design: An expert panel applied a weight-of-evidence characterization adapted from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Exposure-response relationships and reference levels were evaluated for relevant EDCs, and biomarker data were organized from peer-reviewed studies to represent European exposure and approximate burden of disease. Cost estimation as of 2010 utilized lifetime economic productivity estimates, lifetime cost estimates for autism spectrum disorder, and annual costs for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Setting, Patients and Participants, and Intervention: Cost estimation was carried out from a societal perspective, ie, including direct costs (eg, treatment costs) and indirect costs such as productivity loss. Results: The panel identified a 70–100% probability that polybrominated diphenyl ether and organophosphate exposures contribute to IQ loss in the European population. Polybrominated diphenyl ether exposures were associated with 873 000 (sensitivity analysis, 148 000 to 2.02 million) lost IQ points and 3290 (sensitivity analysis, 3290 to 8080) cases of intellectual disability, at costs of €9.59 billion (sensitivity analysis, €1.58 billion to €22.4 billion). Organophosphate exposures were associated with 13.0 million (sensitivity analysis, 4.24 million to 17.1 million) lost IQ points and 59 300 (sensitivity analysis, 16 500 to 84 400) cases of intellectual disability, at costs of €146 billion (sensitivity analysis, €46.8 billion to €194 billion). Autism spectrum disorder causation by multiple EDCs was assigned a 20–39% probability, with 316 (sensitivity analysis, 126–631

  14. PRSEUS Panel Fabrication Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linton, Kim A.; Velicki, Alexander; Hoffman, Krishna; Thrash, Patrick; Pickell, Robert; Turley, Robert

    2014-01-01

    NASA and the Boeing Company have been working together under the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project to develop stitched unitized structure for reduced weight, reduced fuel burn and reduced pollutants in the next generation of commercial aircraft. The structural concept being evaluated is PRSEUS (Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure). In the PRSEUS concept, dry carbon fabric, pultruded carbon rods, and foam are stitched together into large preforms. Then these preforms are infused with an epoxy resin into large panels in an out-of-autoclave process. These panels have stiffeners in the length-wise and width-wise directions but contain no fasteners because all stiffeners are stitched to the panel skin. This document contains a description of the fabrication of panels for use in the 30-foot-long Multi-Bay Box test article to be evaluated at NASA LaRC.

  15. Exascale Workshop Panel Report Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2010-07-01

    The Exascale Review Panel consists of 12 scientists and engineers with experience in various aspects of high-performance computing and its application, development, and management. The Panel hear presentations by several representatives of the workshops and town meetings convened over the past few years to examine the need for exascale computation capability and the justification for a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program to develop such capability. This report summarizes information provided by the presenters and substantial written reports to the Panel in advance of the meeting in Washington D.C. on January 19-20, 2010. The report also summarizes the Panel's conclusions with regard to the justification of a DOE-led exascale initiative.

  16. Thin film concentrator panel development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, D. K.

    1982-01-01

    The development and testing of a rigid panel concept that utilizes a thin film reflective surface for application to a low-cost point-focusing solar concentrator is discussed. It is shown that a thin film reflective surface is acceptable for use on solar concentrators, including 1500 F applications. Additionally, it is shown that a formed steel sheet substrate is a good choice for concentrator panels. The panel has good optical properties, acceptable forming tolerances, environmentally resistant substrate and stiffeners, and adaptability to low to mass production rates. Computer simulations of the concentrator optics were run using the selected reflector panel design. Experimentally determined values for reflector surface specularity and reflectivity along with dimensional data were used in the analysis. The simulations provided intercept factor and net energy into the aperture as a function of aperture size for different surface errors and pointing errors. Point source and Sun source optical tests were also performed.

  17. Uncertainty in geological linework: communicating the expert's tacit model to the data user(s) by expert elicitation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawley, Russell; Barron, Mark; Lark, Murray

    2015-04-01

    At BGS, expert elicitation has been used to evaluate uncertainty of surveyed boundaries in several, common, geological scenarios. As a result, a 'collective' understanding of the issues surrounding each scenario has emerged. The work has provoked wider debate in three key areas: a) what can we do to resolve those scenarios where a 'consensus' of understanding cannot be achieved b) what does it mean for survey practices and subsequent use of maps in 3D models c) how do we communicate the 'collective' understanding of geological mapping (with or without consensus for specific scenarios). Previous work elicited expert judgement for uncertainty in six contrasting mapping scenarios. In five cases it was possible to arrive at a consensus model; in a sixth case experts with different experience (length of service, academic background) took very different views of the nature of the mapping problem. The scenario concerned identification of the boundary between two contrasting tills (one derived from Triassic source materials being red in colour; the other, derived from Jurassic materials being grey in colour). Initial debate during the elicitation identified that the colour contrast should provide some degree of confidence in locating the boundary via traditional auger-traverse survey methods. However, as the elicitation progressed, it became clear that the complexities of the relationship between the two Tills were not uniformly understood across the experts and the panel could not agree a consensus regarding the spatial uncertainty of the boundary. The elicitation process allowed a significant degree of structured knowledge-exchange between experts of differing backgrounds and was successful in identifying a measure of uncertainty for what was considered a contentious scenario. However, the findings have significant implications for a boundary-scenario that is widely mapped across the central regions of Great Britain. We will discuss our experience of the use of

  18. Panel to review EOSDIS plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Formed in Jan. 1992, the Panel to Review EOSDIS Plans was charged with advising NASA on its plans for developing the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS). Specifically, the panel was asked to do the following: assess the validity of the engineering and technical underpinnings of the EOSDIS; assess its potential value to scientific users; suggest how technical risk can be minimized; and assess whether current plans are sufficiently resilient to be adaptable to changing technology and requirements such as budget environments, data volumes, new users, and new databases. The panel completed an interim report (Addendum A) and transmitted it to NASA and other interested parties in the government on 9 Apr. 1992. Because of a delay in NASA's plans to select the contractor for EOSDIS, the panel was not able to complete its review of the program according to the original government request. With the issuance of a letter report (Addendum B) on 28 Sep. 1992, the panel became inactive until such time as NASA could release the details of the contractor's proposed architecture, schedule, and costs for developing EOSDIS. In early 1993, NASA awarded the contract for the EOSDIS Core System (ECS). On 20 Apr. 1993, NASA asked the panel to reconvene to do the following: ( 1) complete its review of NASA's approach to the EOSDIS architecture and implementation; (2) appraise NASA's responses to the panel's previous recommendations; and (3) review the planning for EOSDIS in the context of NASA's role in the Global Change Data and Information System (GCDIS) implementation plan. To respond to the NASA charge, the panel met three times in 1993 including sessions with NASA officials and the EOSDIS contractor. In addition, several of the panel members visited individual Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC's) to obtain additional views of EOSDIS. The panel has now obtained substantial information on the EOSDIS budget, contractor work program, and current

  19. Explosion probability of unexploded ordnance: expert beliefs.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Jacqueline Anne; Small, Mitchell J; Morgan, M G

    2008-08-01

    This article reports on a study to quantify expert beliefs about the explosion probability of unexploded ordnance (UXO). Some 1,976 sites at closed military bases in the United States are contaminated with UXO and are slated for cleanup, at an estimated cost of $15-140 billion. Because no available technology can guarantee 100% removal of UXO, information about explosion probability is needed to assess the residual risks of civilian reuse of closed military bases and to make decisions about how much to invest in cleanup. This study elicited probability distributions for the chance of UXO explosion from 25 experts in explosive ordnance disposal, all of whom have had field experience in UXO identification and deactivation. The study considered six different scenarios: three different types of UXO handled in two different ways (one involving children and the other involving construction workers). We also asked the experts to rank by sensitivity to explosion 20 different kinds of UXO found at a case study site at Fort Ord, California. We found that the experts do not agree about the probability of UXO explosion, with significant differences among experts in their mean estimates of explosion probabilities and in the amount of uncertainty that they express in their estimates. In three of the six scenarios, the divergence was so great that the average of all the expert probability distributions was statistically indistinguishable from a uniform (0, 1) distribution-suggesting that the sum of expert opinion provides no information at all about the explosion risk. The experts' opinions on the relative sensitivity to explosion of the 20 UXO items also diverged. The average correlation between rankings of any pair of experts was 0.41, which, statistically, is barely significant (p= 0.049) at the 95% confidence level. Thus, one expert's rankings provide little predictive information about another's rankings. The lack of consensus among experts suggests that empirical studies

  20. Framing the future's expert panel report on the MPH degree: a step backward?

    PubMed

    Schlaff, Anthony L

    2014-01-01

    Framing the Future Task Force, a group assembled by the Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health to identify key issues facing public health education as it enters its second 100 years, has recently released a report, "A Master of Public Health Degree for the 21st Century." The report calls for a significant shift in emphasis for the MPH degree away from a generalist, core curriculum in favor of a greater emphasis on areas of specialty. This commentary argues that such a shift would reverse the progress made since the 1988 Institute of Medicine report called on academia to better meet practice needs. Rather, the MPH of the 21st century should continue to focus on methods to better teach core competencies in public health practice at an advanced level.